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Sample records for german student sample

  1. [Sample German LAPS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Bianca

    Four learning activity packages (LAPS) for use in secondary school German programs contain instructional materials which enable students to improve their basic linguistic skills. The units include: (1) "Grusse," (2) "Ich Heisse...Namen," (3) "Tune into Your Career: Business Correspondence 'Auf Deutch'," and (4) "Understanding German Culture."…

  2. [Symptoms of social phobia and their relationship to interpersonal characteristics in a sample of German medical students].

    PubMed

    Baldauf, Matthias; Thomas, Andrea; Strauß, Bernhard

    2014-02-01

    The study aimed to detect the frequency of social phobia symptoms in a sample of German medical students and to compare students with and without these symptoms related to interpersonal characteristics. 525 students filled out a battery of self-report questionnaires consisting of the LSAS (Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale), the SPAI (Social Phobia Anxiety Inventory), the IIP-32 (Inventar of interpersonal problems) and the IIM (Inventar of interpersonal motives). Relevant social phobia symptoms were found in 12.2%. Students with symptoms of social phobia differed significantly in subscales of the IIP and the IIM. Students with symptoms of social phobia also had higher scores for interpersonal problems especially related to the main issue of being too "socially avoidant".

  3. Why German? Motivation of Students Studying German at English Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busse, Vera; Williams, Marion

    2010-01-01

    What drives students to study German at university level? Although motivational research has been booming in recent years, students' motivation to pursue a modern foreign language beyond school level has not received much attention in the UK. This article sheds light on the various reasons that drive students in the UK to pursue a modern foreign…

  4. Mental health and patterns of work-related coping behaviour in a German sample of student teachers: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Linda; Unterbrink, Thomas; Pfeifer, Ruth; Wirsching, Michael; Rose, Uwe; Stößel, Ulrich; Nübling, Matthias; Buhl-Grießhaber, Veronika; Frommhold, Markus; Schaarschmidt, Uwe; Bauer, Joachim

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the mental health of student teachers, to analyse the extent to which they feel prepared for their profession by the university curriculum and to investigate patterns of coping with occupational stress. A sample of 481 German student teachers was investigated using two standardised instruments: GHQ-12 (General Health Questionnaire) and AVEM (Arbeitsbezogenes Verhaltens- und Erlebensmuster), an occupational stress and coping questionnaire describing four patterns of work-related coping behaviour. In addition, we asked how well the student teachers felt that the curriculum prepared them for their profession. Forty-four per cent of the student teachers report impaired mental health in the second teacher training period, indicated by a GHQ value equal to or over the cut-off of four. The AVEM responses revealed more than 40% showing risk patterns (A or B) compared to only 26.3% displaying a healthy coping style (G), while 32.8% demonstrate an unambitious style (S). These GHQ values are inversely correlated with the extent to which student teachers feel prepared for their work by the university curriculum. Our data indicate a problematic stress level for student teachers in the second training phase (high exposure to health risks and unfavourable coping styles). Since teaching is clearly an extremely demanding job, it is vital that teacher training systems contribute towards protecting the health of teachers by focusing on fostering healthy personal attitudes and equipping young teachers with coping styles and skills that will better prepare them for the challenges facing them in their daily work. Self-care health management should also be part of the teacher training curriculum.

  5. Attitudes of German Student Teachers on Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baar, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The contribution discusses attitudes of German Teacher Training Students on Inclusion based on an empirical analysis containing three elements: Evaluation of students' written exams, results of a survey with closed as open questions and the interpretation of group discussions among students about inclusion. One can see that, though the found-out…

  6. Attitudes of German Student Teachers on Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baar, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The contribution discusses attitudes of German Teacher Training Students on Inclusion based on an empirical analysis containing three elements: Evaluation of students' written exams, results of a survey with closed as open questions and the interpretation of group discussions among students about inclusion. One can see that, though the found-out…

  7. The German version of the Perceived Stress Scale - psychometric characteristics in a representative German community sample.

    PubMed

    Klein, Eva M; Brähler, Elmar; Dreier, Michael; Reinecke, Leonard; Müller, Kai W; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Wölfling, Klaus; Beutel, Manfred E

    2016-05-23

    The Perceived Stress Scale Cohen (J Health Soc Behav 24:385-96, 1983) is a widely and well-established self-report scale measuring perceived stress. However, the German version of the PSS-10 has not yet been validated. Thus, the purposes of this representative study were to psychometrically evaluate the PSS-10, and to provide norm values for the German population. The PSS-10 and standardized scales of depression, anxiety, fatigue, procrastination and life satisfaction were administered to a representative, randomly selected German community sample consisting of 1315 females and 1148 male participants in the age range from 14 to 90 years. The results demonstrated a good internal consistency and construct validity. Perceived stress was consistently associated with depression, anxiety, fatigue, procrastination and reduced life satisfaction. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a bi-dimensional structure with two related latent factors. Regarding demographic variables, women reported a higher level of stress than men. Perceived stress decreased with higher education, income and employment status. Older and married participants felt less stressed than younger and unmarried participants. The PSS-10 is a reliable, valid and economic instrument for assessing perceived stress. As psychological stress is associated with an increased risk of diseases, identifying subpopulations with higher levels of stress is essential. Due to the dependency of the perceived stress level on demographic variables, particularly age and sex, differentiated norm values are needed, which are provided in this paper.

  8. Prolonged grief disorder and depression in a German community sample.

    PubMed

    Schaal, Susanne; Richter, Anne; Elbert, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine rates and risk factors for prolonged grief and to investigate the association between prolonged grief and depression. The authors interviewed a heterogeneous bereaved sample of 61 Germans, 6 of whom had prolonged grief and depression, respectively. The 2 syndromes were strongly linked to one another. Risk factors for prolonged grief were being a woman and having high levels of religious beliefs and low levels of satisfaction with one's religious beliefs, emotional closeness to the deceased, and unanticipated loss. Symptoms of prolonged grief may endure years post-loss and often overlap with depression.

  9. Vocabulary Acquisition--First Year German Language Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gassner-Roberts, Sigrid

    An experiment was conducted using the suggestopedia method to learn German vocabulary words. Four students who had failed, or nearly failed, tests during the regular university term, took part in two tutoring sessions in which the following procedure was used. First, a pretest of 72 lexical items was given. The students cooperated with the teacher…

  10. PILOT-SPION: A Computer Game for German Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Ruth H.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a computer game designed for students of German, which uses techniques of artificial intelligence to create a model of language understanding by computer in an adventure game set in Berlin. In addition to providing a concrete means for testing students' language understanding, the game is a useful, highly motivating, learning mode. (SL)

  11. Critical Incidents of Student Satisfaction at German Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vianden, Jörg; Yakaboski, Tamara

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to advance a classification of satisfactory and unsatisfactory critical incidents of student-university relationships at German universities. Design/methodology/approach: Using the Critical Incident Technique (CIT), this paper reports the results of an exploratory study of 15 tertiary education students at…

  12. Nightmare frequency and nightmare topics in a representative German sample.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael

    2010-12-01

    Nightmares are defined as disturbing mental experiences that generally occur during REM sleep and often result in awakening. Whereas the number of publications addressing nightmare frequency and psychopathology, nightmare etiology and treatment is increasing rapidly in the last few years, nightmare content has been studied very rarely in a systematic way, especially in adults. The present study investigated nightmare frequency and the frequency of various nightmare topics in a representative German sample. The five most common themes were falling, being chased, paralyzed, being late, and the deaths of close persons. Even though several effects can be explained by the continuity hypothesis of dreaming, further research is needed to investigate the possible metaphoric relationship between nightmare topics like falling or being chased and waking-life stressors.

  13. Frequency of lucid dreaming in a representative German sample.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael; Erlacher, Daniel

    2011-02-01

    Lucid dreams occur when a person is aware that he is dreaming while he is dreaming. In a representative sample of German adults (N = 919), 51% of the participants reported that they had experienced a lucid dream at least once. Lucid dream recall was significantly higher in women and negatively correlated with age. However, these effects might be explained by the frequency of dream recall, as there was a correlation of .57 between frequency of dream recall and frequency of lucid dreams. Other sociodemographic variables like education, marital status, or monthly income were not related to lucid dream frequency. Given the relatively high prevalence of lucid dreaming reported in the present study, research on lucid dreams might be pursued in the sleep laboratory to expand the knowledge about sleep, dreaming, and consciousness processes in general.

  14. Student Drop-Out from German Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heublein, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    28% of students of any one year currently give up their studies in bachelor degree programmes at German higher education institutions. Drop-out is to be understood as the definite termination in the higher education system without obtaining an academic degree. The drop-out rate is thereby calculated with the help of statistical estimation…

  15. Student Drop-Out from German Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heublein, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    28% of students of any one year currently give up their studies in bachelor degree programmes at German higher education institutions. Drop-out is to be understood as the definite termination in the higher education system without obtaining an academic degree. The drop-out rate is thereby calculated with the help of statistical estimation…

  16. Prevalence and predictors of orthorexia nervosa among German students using the 21-item-DOS.

    PubMed

    Depa, Julia; Schweizer, Jenny; Bekers, Sandra-Kristin; Hilzendegen, Carolin; Stroebele-Benschop, Nanette

    2017-03-01

    Orthorexia nervosa (ON) describes the constant pathological preoccupation with "healthy" nutrition. The current results regarding the prevalence of ON differ widely possibly because of invalid measurement tools. This study aimed to investigate ON prevalence in a sample of German students and to examine age, gender, semester, and nutritional knowledge as potential predictors of ON by comparing nutrition science (NS) with economics (ES) students. A total of 446 university students participated in the survey (NS 188, ES 268). ON was determined using the 21-item-DOS, which is a well-constructed, validated, and reliability-tested questionnaire. Age, gender, and semester were also assessed. Of the total sample, 3.3 % were classified as having ON and 9.0 % were at risk of developing ON. Older students scored significantly higher on the subscale "avoidance of additives" compared with younger students and students of lower semester suffered significantly more often from ON than students of higher semester. In addition, comparing field of study showed no significant difference in the prevalence of ON or the risk of developing ON between female NS and ES students. However, mean values for the three DOS subscales were higher among female NS students, albeit far below values indicating pathological behavior. The prevalence of ON appears to be low in this sample of German university students. Female NS students do not seem to have higher prevalence of ON or risk of developing ON.

  17. Differential Growth Patterns in Emerging Reading Skills of Turkish-German Bilingual and German Monolingual Primary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limbird, Christina K.; Maluch, Jessica T.; Rjosk, Camilla; Stanat, Petra; Merkens, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Students from Turkish-speaking families are the largest minority language group in Germany. Yet, little is known about this group's literacy development. Using data from a 3-year longitudinal study, we examined whether the same base reading skills are involved in early reading comprehension of 100 Turkish-German bilingual and 69 German monolingual…

  18. Differential Growth Patterns in Emerging Reading Skills of Turkish-German Bilingual and German Monolingual Primary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limbird, Christina K.; Maluch, Jessica T.; Rjosk, Camilla; Stanat, Petra; Merkens, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Students from Turkish-speaking families are the largest minority language group in Germany. Yet, little is known about this group's literacy development. Using data from a 3-year longitudinal study, we examined whether the same base reading skills are involved in early reading comprehension of 100 Turkish-German bilingual and 69 German monolingual…

  19. Curriculum Suggestions for Grades Seven Through Twelve: Modern Languages (French, German, Russian, Spanish) with Sample Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Independent Schools, Boston, MA.

    Sample examinations in French, German, Spanish, and Russian for the elementary and intermediate levels are contained in this publication. The French examinations test: (1) speaking ability, (2) listening comprehension, (3) vocabulary, (4) grammar, and (5) reading. The tests on German measure vocabulary, grammar, listening, and reading…

  20. Acceptance of sexual aggression myths in a representative sample of German residents.

    PubMed

    Süssenbach, Philipp; Bohner, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    A representative sample of German residents (N = 5397) was surveyed with the aim of studying their acceptance of contemporary rape myths (RMA), using items from the Acceptance of Modern Myths About Sexual Aggression Scale [AMMSA; Gerger et al., 2007] in relation to demographic variables (e.g., gender, age), intolerant belief systems (e.g., sexism, islamophobia), the ideologies of rightwing authoritarianism (RWA), and social dominance orientation (SDO), as well as gender identification. Age showed a U-shaped relationship with RMA, whereas gender was unrelated to RMA. For men (women), greater identification with their gender was associated with higher (lower) RMA. Substantial correlations of RMA with intolerant belief systems support the idea of a schema of intolerance. Although RWA and SDO were both related to RMA, only RWA explained unique variance beyond the effects of intolerant belief systems. Results are discussed in comparison to prior studies using mainly student samples.

  1. A Study on Motivational Factors of Students in German Language Teaching Department at Trakya University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yucel, Mukadder Seyhan

    2009-01-01

    There are many definitions, views and theories for motivation. This study aims to state expressly what type of motivation factors according to the students' grades affects the students of German Language Teaching Departments (Turkey) negatively or positively. How the external and internal factors affect the students of German Language Teaching…

  2. Opinions of Students at Turkish and German Universities on Turkey in the EU Accession Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celebi, Nurhayat

    2009-01-01

    Turkey's candidacy for accession to the European Union (EU) dates back to many years and is still a current and highly disputed issue. This study was conducted to determine the opinions of students at Turkish and German universities on Turkey in relation to the European Union. Two hundred twenty six German students participated in the study from…

  3. The Seminar for Freshmen as a Platform for Raising Student Awareness of Austrian (and German) Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosellini, Jay Julian

    2012-01-01

    Small German programs need to reach out to first-year students in order to expand the pool of potential majors and minors and to increase program visibility on campus. This article demonstrates how an interdisciplinary Seminar for Freshmen on Vienna and Berlin can be used to introduce students to the study of the German-speaking world by comparing…

  4. Comparison of health-seeking characteristics of German and Belgian university students.

    PubMed

    Koop, R; Kartounian, H; Devroey, D

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of primary health care differs between students enrolled in Belgian and German government-funded universities. The secondary aim of the study was to determine the factors that might explain such a difference. Methods. Participants were recruited through all Belgian and German government-funded universities. Because not all the universities agreed to participate, recruiting was also done through social media groups of the universities. An anonymous online survey was used for data collection. Results. In total, 2238 completed surveys were evaluated, of which 544 from students in Belgium and 1694 from students in Germany. In Belgium, more students had a family physician (87%) as compared to the students in Germany (73%) (p < 0.001). During the two months prior to the study, 37% of the Belgian students and 35% of the German students attended a family physician (p = 0.37). More German students attended a specialist (40%) as compared to the Belgian students (24%) (p<0.001). The German students also attended the emergency department more frequently (6%) as compared to their Belgian counterparts (3%) (p = 0.004). Conclusion. Belgian university students were more likely to attend a primary care physician than the German students. The health care seemed to be better organized for Belgian students and they were more satisfied with the delivered care.

  5. Comparison of health-seeking characteristics of German and Belgian university students

    PubMed Central

    Koop, R; Kartounian, H; Devroey, D

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of primary health care differs between students enrolled in Belgian and German government-funded universities. The secondary aim of the study was to determine the factors that might explain such a difference. Methods. Participants were recruited through all Belgian and German government-funded universities. Because not all the universities agreed to participate, recruiting was also done through social media groups of the universities. An anonymous online survey was used for data collection. Results. In total, 2238 completed surveys were evaluated, of which 544 from students in Belgium and 1694 from students in Germany. In Belgium, more students had a family physician (87%) as compared to the students in Germany (73%) (p < 0.001). During the two months prior to the study, 37% of the Belgian students and 35% of the German students attended a family physician (p = 0.37). More German students attended a specialist (40%) as compared to the Belgian students (24%) (p<0.001). The German students also attended the emergency department more frequently (6%) as compared to their Belgian counterparts (3%) (p = 0.004). Conclusion. Belgian university students were more likely to attend a primary care physician than the German students. The health care seemed to be better organized for Belgian students and they were more satisfied with the delivered care. PMID:28255374

  6. Attitude towards organ donation in German medical students.

    PubMed

    Terbonssen, Tobias; Settmacher, Utz; Wurst, Christine; Dirsch, Olaf; Dahmen, Uta

    2016-12-01

    It is well known that personal decision making in respect to organ donation is highly dependent on the balance of knowledge, trust, and fear. We wanted to explore the attitude of German medical students towards organ donation and investigate the relationship between knowledge, trust, and fear in this special subgroup. We conducted an online survey utilizing (1) the snowball effect of using Facebook groups and advertisement as well as (2) mailing lists of medical faculties in Germany for distribution. We surveyed 1370 medical students. 75.8 % (N = 988) of the participants stated to carry an organ donor card and allowed their organs to be donated. 1.8 % (N = 23) refused donation. 22.5 % (N = 293) did not carry an organ donor card. Analysis of the "decided" versus the "undecided" group revealed substantial differences regarding transplantation knowledge (mean knowledge score of 4.23 vs. 3.81; P < 0.001), trust in (mean trust score 4.11 vs. 3.39; P < 0.001), and fear of (mean fear score 1.63 vs. 2.22; P < 0.001) organ donation. 45.9 % of the undecided group (N = 134) opted for accessing additional information material. After reading the info material, 22.7 % (N = 29) stated their willingness to sign a donor card, whereas 76.6 % (N = 98) still could not reach a decision. The willingness to potentially act as organ donor was related to the pre-existent knowledge, trust, and fear. Access to information material did promote the decision towards organ donation in a group of previously undecided medical students. This advocates initiating information campaigns even in population groups with strong medical background.

  7. Knowledge Transfer or Social Competence? A Comparison of German and Canadian Adolescent Students on Their Socio-Motivational Relationships in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoferichter, Frances; Raufelder, Diana; Eid, Michael; Bukowski, William M.

    2014-01-01

    This cross-national study investigates the perception of the impact of students' relationships towards teachers and peers on scholastic motivation in a total sample of 1477 seventh and eighth grade German (N?=?1088) and Canadian (N?=?389) secondary school students. By applying Multigroup Confirmatory Latent Class Analysis in Mplus we confirmed…

  8. Knowledge Transfer or Social Competence? A Comparison of German and Canadian Adolescent Students on Their Socio-Motivational Relationships in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoferichter, Frances; Raufelder, Diana; Eid, Michael; Bukowski, William M.

    2014-01-01

    This cross-national study investigates the perception of the impact of students' relationships towards teachers and peers on scholastic motivation in a total sample of 1477 seventh and eighth grade German (N?=?1088) and Canadian (N?=?389) secondary school students. By applying Multigroup Confirmatory Latent Class Analysis in Mplus we confirmed…

  9. Demographically Induced Variation in Students' Beliefs about Learning and Studying German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez, Monika

    1995-01-01

    Examines how the demographic values of foreign travel, previous foreign-language learning, major field of study, and other factors affect students' beliefs about the study of German. The article focuses on student-perceived improvement in the four skills and cultural knowledge, student motivation, and the expected contributions of teachers and…

  10. Comparison of Subjective Health Complaints between Chinese and German University Students: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Chu, Janet Junqing; Khan, Mobarak Hossain; Jahn, Heiko J; Kraemer, Alexander

    2015-12-10

    High rates of health complaints (HCs) with substantial variation are reported in different university populations, which can be linked to socio-demographic, lifestyle-related factors, and cultural differences. HCs can be categorized into distinct components. This study aimed to identify and compare underlying dimensions of HCs (HC components); to access and compare HC prevalence, and the associations between HC components, socio-demographic, lifestyle-related factors, and perceived stress in German and Chinese university students. Two health surveys were conducted among 5159 university students (1853 Chinese, 3306 German). Factor analysis and logistic regression were applied. The prevalence of HC ranged from 4.6% to 40.2% over the two countries. Germans reported at least three HCs more often (47.2% vs. 35.8%). Chinese students more often reported gastrointestinal complaints. Perceived stress was positively associated with all three HC components in both countries (OR = 1.03-1.50) with stronger associations among Germans. Women more often reported HCs (OR = 1.32-2.43) with stronger associations among the Germans. Having a father with a low educational level was associated with high psychological symptoms among the Chinese (OR = 1.51), but with low gastrointestinal complaints among the Germans (OR = 0.79). The high prevalence of HCs in students requires country-specific interventions.

  11. Comparison of Subjective Health Complaints between Chinese and German University Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Janet Junqing; Khan, Mobarak Hossain; Jahn, Heiko J.; Kraemer, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    High rates of health complaints (HCs) with substantial variation are reported in different university populations, which can be linked to socio-demographic, lifestyle-related factors, and cultural differences. HCs can be categorized into distinct components. This study aimed to identify and compare underlying dimensions of HCs (HC components); to access and compare HC prevalence, and the associations between HC components, socio-demographic, lifestyle-related factors, and perceived stress in German and Chinese university students. Two health surveys were conducted among 5159 university students (1853 Chinese, 3306 German). Factor analysis and logistic regression were applied. The prevalence of HC ranged from 4.6% to 40.2% over the two countries. Germans reported at least three HCs more often (47.2% vs. 35.8%). Chinese students more often reported gastrointestinal complaints. Perceived stress was positively associated with all three HC components in both countries (OR = 1.03–1.50) with stronger associations among Germans. Women more often reported HCs (OR = 1.32–2.43) with stronger associations among the Germans. Having a father with a low educational level was associated with high psychological symptoms among the Chinese (OR = 1.51), but with low gastrointestinal complaints among the Germans (OR = 0.79). The high prevalence of HCs in students requires country-specific interventions. PMID:26690463

  12. Word recognition deficits in German: more evidence from a representative sample.

    PubMed

    Landerl, K

    2001-01-01

    In a representative sample of German speaking dyslexic children, earlier findings on dyslexia in the highly consistent orthography of German were confirmed. In a sample of 78 dyslexic 3rd graders selected on the basis of their poor word recognition skills, reading accuracy for both words and non-words was deficient but high in absolute terms. This indicates that the highly consistent grapheme-phoneme correspondences of German orthography in combination with the straightforward phonics teaching approach, which is usually applied in Austrian primary schools, allows even dyslexic children to acquire the process of phonological decoding. The central reading problem was extremely slow speed. Poor performance on a reading comprehension test was at least partly due to slow reading speed as well. Dyslexic children's spelling development was also severely delayed. The number of phonologically incorrect spellings was low; however, dyslexic children quite often produced spellings that are orthographically incorrect, indicating that they have not yet been able to develop an extensive and easily accessible orthographic lexicon. The most prominent cognitive deficit was reduced rapid naming speed closely followed by deficits in phonological awareness. Deficits in phonological memory were also evident (but mild) showing that despite marked differences in findings on reading and spelling skills of English dyslexic children, the underlying causes are very similar. The present sample of dyslexic children showed deficits in visual processing speed in addition to their linguistic deficits. However, this deficit in visual processing speed did not seem causally related to the children's reading and spelling deficits.

  13. Empirical correlates for the minnesota multiphasic personality inventory-2-restructured form in a german inpatient sample.

    PubMed

    Moultrie, Josefine K; Engel, Rolf R

    2016-12-05

    We identified empirical correlates for the 42 substantive scales of the German language version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF): Higher Order, Restructured Clinical, Specific Problem, Interest, and revised Personality Psychopathology Five scales. We collected external validity data by means of a 177-item chart review form in a sample of 488 psychiatric inpatients of a German university hospital. We structured our findings along the interpretational guidelines for the MMPI-2-RF and compared them with the validity data published in the tables of the MMPI-2-RF Technical Manual. Our results show significant correlations between MMPI-2-RF scales and conceptually relevant criteria. Most of the results were in line with U.S. validation studies. Some of the differences could be attributed to sample compositions. For most of the scales, construct validity coefficients were acceptable. Taken together, this study amplifies the enlarging body of research on empirical correlates of the MMPI-2-RF scales in a new sample. The study suggests that the interpretations given in the MMPI-2-RF manual may be generalizable to the German language MMPI-2-RF. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Pornography Use and Sexual Behavior Among Polish and German University Students.

    PubMed

    Martyniuk, Urszula; Briken, Peer; Sehner, Susanne; Richter-Appelt, Hertha; Dekker, Arne

    2016-08-17

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between pornography use and sexual behavior in young adults from two culturally different countries. Data were collected in an online survey among German (n = 1,303; G) and Polish (n = 1,135; P) university students aged 18 to 26 years. Pornography use was associated with engaging in a greater variety of sexual activities (e.g., sexual role playing, using sex toys; G > P) rather than with a high number of sex partners or condom use consistency. The differences between the samples were found primarily for females (in anal sex experience and age at the first sexual intercourse; G > P).

  15. Why Do First-Year Students of German Lose Motivation during their First Year at University?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busse, Vera

    2013-01-01

    This article explores motivational changes of first-year students enrolled on German degree courses at two major UK universities. It reports on the qualitative data obtained by a longitudinal mixed-methods study, and focuses on the interplay between students' motivation and the higher education learning environment. In particular, the article aims…

  16. Bullying in German Adolescents: Attending Special School for Students with Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P.

    2011-01-01

    The present study analysed bullying in German adolescents with and without visual impairment. Ninety-eight adolescents with vision loss from schools for students with visual impairment, of whom 31 were blind and 67 had low vision, were compared with 98 sighted peers using a matched-pair design. Students with low vision reported higher levels of…

  17. Why Do First-Year Students of German Lose Motivation during their First Year at University?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busse, Vera

    2013-01-01

    This article explores motivational changes of first-year students enrolled on German degree courses at two major UK universities. It reports on the qualitative data obtained by a longitudinal mixed-methods study, and focuses on the interplay between students' motivation and the higher education learning environment. In particular, the article aims…

  18. Bullying in German Adolescents: Attending Special School for Students with Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P.

    2011-01-01

    The present study analysed bullying in German adolescents with and without visual impairment. Ninety-eight adolescents with vision loss from schools for students with visual impairment, of whom 31 were blind and 67 had low vision, were compared with 98 sighted peers using a matched-pair design. Students with low vision reported higher levels of…

  19. German Graduate Student Professional Development: Report on a Survey of Perceptions (1994-95).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonglewski, Margaret; Penningroth, Ann

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 188 graduate students in 28 German programs investigated students' perceptions of their own professional development for teaching or work in business or government. It examined career goals, the importance of and participation in professional development activities, relationship with advisor/mentor on professional development issues,…

  20. Differences in health determinants between international and domestic students at a German university.

    PubMed

    Krämer, Alexander; Prüfer-Krämer, Luise; Stock, Christiane; Tshiananga, Jacques Tshiang

    2004-01-01

    The authors used a standardized questionnaire to survey 201 international and 193 German students at the University of Bielefeld, Germany, to determine differences in health practices between the 2 groups and to identify targets for health-promoting interventions. Multivariate logistic regression models revealed that long-term female international students (those whose duration of residency in Germany was more than 2 years) had lower levels of physical activity and alcohol consumption than their German counterparts and higher rates of smoking independently associated with international citizenship. Short-term international female students were less likely than German students to receive social support. Among men, long-term international student status was associated with daily smoking and inconsistent seat belt use, whereas short-term student status was associated with a lower rate of seat belt use, a higher level of perceived stress, and a healthier diet, compared with domestic students. Findings from the study could give rise to health-promotion activities for international students at German universities; additional studies at other European universities are necessary before making further recommendations.

  1. Neuroenhancement among German university students: motives, expectations, and relationship with psychoactive lifestyle drugs.

    PubMed

    Eickenhorst, Patrick; Vitzthum, Karin; Klapp, Burghard F; Groneberg, David; Mache, Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that neuroenhancement (NE), the use of legal or illegal drugs by healthy individuals to improve their cognitive performance, is widely practiced among students in both the United States and Germany. The primary objective of this study was to identify the motives for and beliefs regarding the benefits and risks of practicing NE among a sample of German university students and graduates. The secondary objective was to determine the relationship between the use of neuroenhancers and the use of several common psychoactive lifestyle drugs. A web-based survey was used to interview students and postgraduates. Of the 1,324 participants, 93 reported having practiced NE for the primary motives of improving concentration (55%) and increasing vigilance (49%). Participants who reported having practiced NE were more likely to assess NE as more beneficial and less harmful compared to participants who reported not having practiced NE. The former also reported greater use of all lifestyle drugs except alcohol compared to the latter. The primary motives for practicing NE are associated with management of a high level of stress and a large academic workload. As such, decreasing the prevalence of NE among students requires implementation of strategies targeting stress reduction and workload management.

  2. Child sex tourism - prevalence of and risk factors for its use in a German community sample.

    PubMed

    Koops, Thula; Turner, Daniel; Neutze, Janina; Briken, Peer

    2017-04-20

    To investigate the prevalence of child sex tourism (CST) in a large German community sample, and to compare those who made use of CST with other child sexual abusers regarding established characteristics and risk factors for child sexual abuse. Adult German men were recruited through a German market research panel and questioned by means of an anonymous online survey. Group assignment was accomplished based on information on previous sexual contacts with children and previous use of CST. Characteristics and risk factors were compared between the groups using t- and Chi-square tests. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to predict CST. Data collection was conducted in 2013, data analysis in January 2015. Out of 8718 men, 36 (0.4%) reported CST use. The CST group differed from the nonCST group (n = 96; 1.1%) with regard to pedophilic sexual and antisocial behaviors as well as own experiences of sexual abuse. Social difficulties, pedophilic sexual interests, and hypersexuality were not distinct features in the CST group. Own experiences of sexual abuse, child prostitution use, and previous conviction for a violent offense predicted CST in a logistic regression model. This study is a first step to gain insight into the prevalence and characteristics of men using CST. Findings could help to augment prevention strategies against commercial forms of sexual abuse in developed as well as in developing countries by fostering the knowledge about the characteristics of perpetrators.

  3. The association between metacognitions and the impact of Fibromyalgia in a German sample.

    PubMed

    Kollmann, Josianne; Gollwitzer, Mario; Spada, Marcantonio M; Fernie, Bruce A

    2016-04-01

    Fibromyalgia is a chronic condition of unknown aetiology, characterised by widespread pain, sleep disturbances, and fatigue. In this paper we examined the relationship metacognitions and the impact of Fibromyalgia in a German sample, detailing the translation and validation of a self-report metacognitive instrument. The Metacognitions about Symptoms Control Scale (MaSCS) was translated into German using the back-forward translation process. A total of 348 patients (316 female and 26 male) with Fibromyalgia contributed data to the study to test the structure and psychometric properties of the MaSCS. Confirmatory factor analyses, informed by modification indices, resulted in a 16-item scale consisting of two factors pertaining to positive and negative metacognitions about symptoms control. Further analyses revealed that both factors had good internal consistency. Correlation analyses established convergent validity, indicating that both factors were significantly associated with: (1) established positive and negative metacognitions scales; and (2) with symptoms severity in Fibromyalgia. Regression analyses revealed that positive metacognitions about symptoms control significantly predicted impairment in physical functioning while negative metacognitions about symptoms control significantly predicted the overall Fibromyalgia impact value, when controlling for stress, anxiety, and depression and a general metacognitions. The findings support the potential relevance of metacognitions, and utility of the German version of MaSCS, in examining the role of metacognitions in Fibromyalgia and other chronic health conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Perception of the Relevance of Organic Chemistry in a German Pharmacy Students' Course.

    PubMed

    Wehle, Sarah; Decker, Michael

    2016-04-25

    Objective. To investigate German pharmacy students' attitudes toward the relevance of organic chemistry training in Julius Maximilian University (JMU) of Würzburg with regard to subsequent courses in the curricula and in later prospective career options. Methods. Surveys were conducted in the second-year organic chemistry course (50 participants) as well as during the third-year and fourth-year lecture cycle on medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry (66 participants) in 2014. Results. Students' attitudes were surprisingly consistent throughout the progress of the degree course. Students considered organic chemistry very relevant to the pharmacy study program (95% junior and 97% senior students), and of importance for their future pharmacy program (88% junior and 94% senior students). With regard to prospective career options, the perceived relevance was considerably lower and attitudes were less homogenous. Conclusions. German pharmacy students at JMU Würzburg consider organic chemistry of high relevance for medicinal chemistry and other courses in JMU's pharmacy program.

  5. The Student-Centered Classroom Made Real: Transforming Student Presentations in an Advanced Course on Technical German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rarick, Damon O.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how the author has successfully combined polling with more traditional instructional strategies to enhance student presentation skills in an advanced course teaching technical German. By helping students select and prepare topics, anticipate questions and engage the audience, instructors can eliminate some of the root causes…

  6. The structure and correlates of self-reported DSM-5 maladaptive personality traits: findings from two German-speaking samples.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Johannes; Altenstein, David; Krieger, Tobias; Holtforth, Martin Grosse; Pretsch, Johanna; Alexopoulos, Johanna; Spitzer, Carsten; Benecke, Cord; Krueger, Robert F; Markon, Kristian E; Leising, Daniel

    2014-08-01

    The authors investigated the structure and correlates of DSM-5 maladaptive personality traits in two samples of 577 students and 212 inpatients using the German self-report form of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5. They found that (a) the factor structure of DSM-5 trait facets is largely in line with the proposed trait domains of Negative Affectivity, Detachment, Antagonism, Disinhibition, and Psychoticism; (b) all DSM-5 trait domains except Psychoticism are highly related to the respective domains of the Five-Factor Model of personality; (c) the trait facets are positively associated with a self-report measure of general personality dysfunction; and (d) the DSM-5 trait facets show differential associations with a range of self-reported DSM-IV Axis I disorders. These findings give further support to the new DSM-5 trait model and suggest that it may generalize to other languages and cultures.

  7. Medicine and Physiotherapy students: are they physically active? Comparative research on Spanish and German population.

    PubMed

    Zeńczak-Praga, Krystyna; Pluto-Prondzinska, Joanna; Zgorzalewicz-Stachowiak, Małgorzata

    2017-05-23

    Despite the fact that regular physical activity is beneficial to human life, there are still more and more overweight and obese people throughout the world today. Healthy habits taken from home or socioeconomic situation are factors which might influence on regular physical activity. People who lead a healthy lifestyle in childhood are also active during adulthood. On the other hand academic life might promote less healthy lifestyle. The aim of the study was to assess and compare the level of physical activity of both German and Spanish students of Medicine and Physiotherapy. The study involved 100 Spanish and 100 German students aged from 19 to 24 years. Based on Eurobarometer 72.3, the respondents were asked a set of questions regarding physical activity. The chi-squared test (χ2) and Mann-Whitney U test were used for the statistical analysis. The vast majority of students presented a normal BMI value, but it was not related to high physical activity. More than one-third of all students seldom practised any sports. The Spanish students usually did some form of physical activity outdoors, whereas the German students exercised in a fitness centre. Lack of time was to the Medicine and Physiotherapy students the most significant factor that did not allow them to be more physically active. Medicine and Physiotherapy students should be more physically active in order to promote a good, healthy lifestyle model to society and there should be more physical activity education to encourage more students to practise sports.

  8. Patterns of Childhood Abuse and Neglect in a Representative German Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    Schilling, Christoph; Weidner, Kerstin; Brähler, Elmar; Glaesmer, Heide; Häuser, Winfried; Pöhlmann, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Background Different types of childhood maltreatment, like emotional abuse, emotional neglect, physical abuse, physical neglect and sexual abuse are interrelated because of their co-occurrence. Different patterns of childhood abuse and neglect are associated with the degree of severity of mental disorders in adulthood. The purpose of this study was (a) to identify different patterns of childhood maltreatment in a representative German community sample, (b) to replicate the patterns of childhood neglect and abuse recently found in a clinical German sample, (c) to examine whether participants reporting exposure to specific patterns of child maltreatment would report different levels of psychological distress, and (d) to compare the results of the typological approach and the results of a cumulative risk model based on our data set. Methods In a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2010, a representative random sample of 2504 German participants aged between 14 and 92 years completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). General anxiety and depression were assessed by standardized questionnaires (GAD-2, PHQ-2). Cluster analysis was conducted with the CTQ-subscales to identify different patterns of childhood maltreatment. Results Three different patterns of childhood abuse and neglect could be identified by cluster analysis. Cluster one showed low values on all CTQ-scales. Cluster two showed high values in emotional and physical neglect. Only cluster three showed high values in physical and sexual abuse. The three patterns of childhood maltreatment showed different degrees of depression (PHQ-2) and anxiety (GAD-2). Cluster one showed lowest levels of psychological distress, cluster three showed highest levels of mental distress. Conclusion The results show that different types of childhood maltreatment are interrelated and can be grouped into specific patterns of childhood abuse and neglect, which are associated with differing severity of psychological distress in

  9. Alcohol consumption among university students: a Sino-German comparison demonstrates a much lower consumption of alcohol in Chinese students.

    PubMed

    Chu, Janet Junqing; Jahn, Heiko J; Khan, Mobarak Hossain; Kraemer, Alexander

    2016-08-11

    Alcohol use is reported in university students with discrepancy between countries. The study objectives were to assess prevalence and associated factors of alcohol consumption among university students in Germany and China. Data used were from 1853 Chinese and 3306 German university students. Alcohol consumption frequency was measured by a question "How often did you drink alcohol in the last three months?" with six possible responses, which were later collapsed into three categories of "At least once a week", "Less than once a week" and "Never". Problem drinking was measured by the CAGE test and defined as a CAGE score of two or more (four as the maximum). Simple and multivariable logistic regressions were used for association analyses. German students reported more often "At least once a week" drinking (59.8 vs. 9.0 %). Among Germans, women drank less often "At least once a week" (OR = 0.40, 0.30-0.53). Among Chinese, a higher BMI was associated with drinking "At least once a week" (OR = 1.09, 1.02-1.18). Age revealed a positive association with "At least once a week" drinking in Chinese (1.33, 1.21-1.46) but a negative association in Germans (OR = 0.97, 0.94-0.99). Having a father with high educational level was positively related to "At least once a week" drinking in both countries (OR = 4.25, 2.67-6.78 for Chinese; OR = 1.32, 1.01-1.72 for Germans). Doing less than once a week physical exercise was negatively associated with "At least once a week" drinking in Chinese and German students (OR = 0.27, 0.15-0.48 for Chinese; OR = 0.69, 0.49-0.96 for Germans). Among the German students, 20.3 % reported problem drinking. Being a female (OR = 0.32, 0.26-0.40) and performing less than once a week physical activity (OR = 0.73, 0.56-0.95) were negatively associated with problem drinking, while having a father with high educational level (OR = 1.32, 1.09-1.60) and experiencing higher level of perceived stress (OR = 1.08, 1

  10. Multiple Intelligences Theory and Foreign Language Education: Perspectives of College Students in a German Immersion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber-Segler, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research study was to explore and comprehend the role of Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences (MI) in foreign language learning by analyzing the perspectives of college students in a German immersion program at a liberal arts college in the Midwest. Data collection included 10 in-depth student…

  11. Differences in Health Determinants between International and Domestic Students at a German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Alexander; Prufer-Kramer, Luise; Stock, Christiane; Tshiananga, Jacques Tshiang

    2004-01-01

    The authors used a standardized questionnaire to survey 201 international and 193 German students at the University of Bielefeld, Germany, to determine differences in health practices between the 2 groups and to identify targets for health-promoting interventions. Multivariate logistic regression models revealed that long-term female international…

  12. Using Virtual Reality for Task-Based Exercises in Teaching Non-Traditional Students of German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libbon, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    Using task-based exercises that required web searches and online activities, this course introduced non-traditional students to the sights and sounds of the German culture and language and simultaneously to computer technology. Through partner work that required negotiation of the net as well as of the language, these adult beginning German…

  13. Personal Growth as a Strong Element in the Motivation of Australian University Students to Learn German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    For the last ten years, language learning motivation research has focussed on how learners see knowledge of a language as part of their identity. This article presents the findings of a qualitative interview study that investigated whether personal growth is also a strong element in the motivation of Australian university students to learn German.…

  14. Multiple Intelligences Theory and Foreign Language Education: Perspectives of College Students in a German Immersion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber-Segler, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research study was to explore and comprehend the role of Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences (MI) in foreign language learning by analyzing the perspectives of college students in a German immersion program at a liberal arts college in the Midwest. Data collection included 10 in-depth student…

  15. A Controlled, Comparative and Evaluative Study of a Suggestopedic German Course for First Year University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gassner-Roberts, Sigrid; Brislan, Patrick

    The progress of three groups of university students enrolled in a first-year German course was evaluated after one completed academic year. The achievements of two control groups, a day and an evening class taught by conventional methods, were compared with those of an experimental group taught using suggestopedic methods. Additionally, for the…

  16. Desirability of Personality Dimensions: Auto- and Heteroperceptions by American and German College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crott, Helmut W.; Baltes, Paul B.

    1973-01-01

    The results of this study seem to support the usefulness of desirability judgments and personality items as vehicles for intercultural research. Findings lent support to the suggestion that the German student population has been subjected to marked cultural or generational change with regard to evaluative aspects of core personality dimensions.…

  17. Using Virtual Reality for Task-Based Exercises in Teaching Non-Traditional Students of German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libbon, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    Using task-based exercises that required web searches and online activities, this course introduced non-traditional students to the sights and sounds of the German culture and language and simultaneously to computer technology. Through partner work that required negotiation of the net as well as of the language, these adult beginning German…

  18. Frequency of child maltreatment in a representative sample of the German population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Representative data about the frequency of child maltreatment is needed in order to estimate the extent of the problem in the wider population as well as to provide the basis for interpretation of frequency rates in clinical samples. However, previous representative studies on the frequency of child maltreatment in Germany and other countries were limited as they focused on the assessment of physical and sexual abuse whilst emotional forms of maltreatment were ignored. In addition, previous studies applied scales that had not been validated against external criteria. Methods In a cross-sectional study, standardized questionnaires were administered to a representative sample of the German population. Maltreatment in childhood and adolescence was assessed using the German version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Empirically derived threshold values for the five different types of child maltreatment including emotional maltreatment were applied to determine presence of abuse and neglect. Results Complete data was available from N = 2,500 subjects. Prevalence rates were 13.9% for emotional neglect, 10.2% for emotional abuse, 12.0% for physical abuse, 48.4% for physical neglect, and 6.2% for sexual abuse. Differences between sexes were found for the frequency of sexual abuse. Conclusions Although our analysis has found lower rates of child maltreatment than previous reports that used less well validated criteria, the results of this study confirm that child abuse, with its many different facets, is a significant problem in Germany. PMID:24139055

  19. Parabens in 24 h urine samples of the German Environmental Specimen Bank from 1995 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Moos, Rebecca K; Koch, Holger M; Angerer, Jürgen; Apel, Petra; Schröter-Kermani, Christa; Brüning, Thomas; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike

    2015-10-01

    Parabens are widely used as antimicrobial preservatives in personal care and consumer products, food and pharmaceuticals. Due to their ubiquity, humans are constantly exposed to these chemicals. We assessed exposure to nine parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, n- and iso-propyl-, n- and iso-butyl-, benzyl-, pentyl- and heptyl paraben) in the German population from 1995 to 2012 based on 660 24h urine samples from the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) using on-line HPLC coupled to isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.5 μg/L for all parabens. We detected methyl-, ethyl- and n-propyl paraben in 79-99% of samples, followed by n-butyl paraben in 40% of samples. We infrequently detected iso-butyl-, iso-propyl- and benzyl paraben in 24%, 4% and 1.4% of samples, respectively. Urinary concentrations were highest for methyl paraben (median 39.8 μg/L; 95th percentile 319 μg/L) followed by n-propyl paraben (4.8 μg/L; 95th percentile 74.0 μg/L) and ethyl paraben (2.1 μg/L; 95th percentile 39.1 μg/L). Women had significantly higher urinary levels for all parabens than men, except for benzyl paraben. Samples from the ESB revealed that over the investigation period of nearly 20 years urinary paraben levels remained surprisingly constant; only methyl paraben had a significant increase, for both men and women. We found strong correlations between methyl- and n-propyl paraben and between n- and iso-butyl paraben. These results indicate that parabens are used in combination and arise from common sources of exposure. Urinary excretion factors are needed to extrapolate from individual urinary concentrations to actual doses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. German version of the Kuwait University Anxiety Scale: psychometric parameters.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M; Reschke, Konrad; Rudwan, Samer; Tanjour, Ismail

    2006-10-01

    A German translation of the Kuwait University Anxiety Scale, written originally in Arabic, was prepared. A sample of 207 men and women German college students was recruited. Coefficient alpha was .88, whereas the item-remainder correlations ranged from .21 to .63, denoting good internal consistency. The correlation of the scale with the German form of the Trait Anxiety Scale was .76, indicating high criterion-related validity. Three factors were identified: General, Somatic, and Cognitive/Affective Anxiety. German students scored lower (less anxious) than students from the U.S. and 18 Arab countries. The sex difference was not significant for the German sample.

  1. Blood culture sampling rates at a German pediatric university hospital and incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease.

    PubMed

    Rüggeberg, J U; Ketteler, K; MacKenzie, C R; Von Kries, R; Reinert, R R; Schroten, H

    2004-04-01

    Recent pediatric surveillance studies suggest the incidence of pneumococcal bacteremia, but not meningitis, is lower in Germany than in most developed countries. Suboptimal case assessment in routine clinical practice has been suspected of contributing to this apparent discrepancy. We aimed to assess the blood culture sampling rate at a German pediatric university hospital and the disease burden associated with pneumococcal bacteremia in children under 5 years of age. The study design was retrospective, based on data-linkage and chart review. Blood cultures were frequently obtained in sepsis (96%; CI 78-99%) and meningitis (95%; CI 77-99%), but less commonly in pneumonia (49%; CI 43-54%) and fever without focus (48%; CI 38-59%). Pneumococci were the most common source of clinically significant bacteremia in previously healthy children. These blood culture sampling rates may be insufficient for the sensitive detection of pneumococcal bacteremia. Epidemiological surveillance based on poorly standardized diagnostic practices is prone to under-assessment.

  2. Zoonoses research in the German National Cohort : feasibility of parallel sampling of pets and owners.

    PubMed

    Hille, Katja; Möbius, Nadine; Akmatov, Manas K; Verspohl, Jutta; Rabold, Denise; Hartmann, Maria; Günther, Kathrin; Obi, Nadia; Kreienbrock, Lothar

    2014-11-01

    Cats and dogs live in more than 20 % of German households and the contact between these pets and their owners can be very close. Therefore, a transmission of zoonotic pathogens may occur. To investigate whether zoonotic research questions can be examined in the context of population-based studies like the German National Cohort (GNC), two studies on different study populations were conducted as part of the feasibility tests of the GNC. The aim of the first study was to quantify the actual exposure of participants of the GNC to cats and dogs. In the second study summarised here the feasibility of the sampling of cats and dogs by their owners was tested. To quantify the exposure of participants of the GNC to cats and dogs 744 study participants of the Pretests of the GNC were asked whether they had contact with animals. Currently 10 % have a dog and 14 % have a cat in their household. These figures confirm that a large proportion of the German population has contact with pets and that there is a need for further zoonoses research. To establish the collection of biological samples from cats and dogs in the context of large-scale population-based studies feasible methods are needed. Therefore, a study was conducted to test whether pet owners can take samples from their cats and dogs and whether the quality of these samples is comparable to samples taken by a qualified veterinarian. A total of 82 dog and 18 cat owners were recruited in two veterinary practices in Hannover and the Clinic for Small Animals at the University of Veterinary Medicine in Hannover. Sampling instructions and sample material for nasal and buccal swabs, faecal samples and, in the case of cat owners, a brush for fur samples, were given to the pet owners. The pet owners were asked to take the samples from their pets at home and to send the samples by surface mail. Swab samples were cultured and bacterial growth was quantified independent of bacterial species. The growth of Gram-positive and

  3. Do medical students like communication? Validation of the German CSAS (Communication Skills Attitude Scale)

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Anne-Kathrin; Rockenbauch, Katrin; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Brähler, Elmar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Attitudes towards communication skills of medical undergraduates can be gathered using the Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS). We aimed to develop a German version of the CSAS (CSAS-G) in order to explore attitudes towards communication skills in a German cohort. Additionally the potential influence of demographic factors was examined. Methods: We realized the CSAS-G and conducted a survey with 529 participants from 3 different years of study. We then carried out an explorative as well as confirmatory factor analysis and compared the attitudinal scores. Multiple regression analysis was performed. Results: The confirmatory analysis confirmed the two-subscale system revealed by the explorative factor analysis. Students indicate low levels of negative attitudes and moderate levels of positive attitudes. Attitudinal scores differ significantly in relation to gender. Conclusion: The CSAS-G can be used in German cohorts to evaluate attitudes towards communication skills. Medical students in our study show basically a positive approach. Further investigation is necessary to explore and understand attitudes towards communication skills of German medical students. PMID:25699103

  4. Psychometric Properties of the Sexual Excitation/Sexual Inhibition Inventory for Women in a German Sample.

    PubMed

    Velten, Julia; Scholten, Saskia; Graham, Cynthia A; Margraf, Jürgen

    2016-02-01

    The Sexual Excitation Sexual/Inhibition Inventory for Women (SESII-W) is a self-report questionnaire for assessing propensities of sexual excitation (SE) and sexual inhibition (SI) in women. According to the dual control model of sexual response, these two factors differ between individuals and influence the occurrence of sexual arousal in given situations. Extreme levels of SE and SI are postulated to be associated with sexual problems or risky sexual behaviors. Psychometric evaluation of the original scale yielded two higher order and eight lower order factors as well as satisfactory to good construct validity and reliability. The present study was designed to assess the psychometric properties of a German version of the SESII-W utilizing a large convenience sample of 2206 women. Confirmatory factor analysis showed a satisfactory overall model fit, with support for the five lower order factors of SE (Arousability, Sexual Power Dynamics, Smell, Partner Characteristics, Setting) and the three lower order factors of SI (Relationship Importance, Arousal Contingency, and Concerns about Sexual Function). Additionally, the scale demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity, internal consistency, and test-retest-reliability. The German SESII-W is a sufficiently reliable and valid measure for assessing SE and SI in women. Hence, its use can be recommended for future research in Germany that investigates women's sexual behaviors and experiences.

  5. British and German Education Students in a Shifting Scenario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Rosalind M. O.

    2006-01-01

    An empirical study was undertaken of students in the United Kingdom and Germany in order to investigate whether their attitudes were moving away from traditional patterns towards those that might be expected in more marketised higher education systems. The British students were found to be more instrumental and materialistic in relation to their…

  6. Innocents Abroad: American Students in German Universities, 1810-1870

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diehl, Carl

    1976-01-01

    Presented is a history of American students in Germany prior to 1870 and an assessment of the influence of these students who returned to the United States to fashion institutions of higher learning and to establish the criteria of higher learning in the humanities. (Author/DB)

  7. Attitudes of German undergraduate dental students towards the aged.

    PubMed

    Nitschke, Ina; Clarenbach-Tran, Thanh-Ha; Schlegel, Daphne; Reiber, Thomas; Sobotta, Bernhard A J

    2015-03-01

    To describe attitudes towards the aged and changes in attitudes of dental students during their participation in an undergraduate gerodontology programme. Attitudes of dentists have been shown to influence their willingness to provide dental services to the aged. A questionnaire was administered to 160 (50 men) dental students at Leipzig University aged 19.2-30.5 (mean, 21.7; SD, 2.3) years before entering (T1) and when completing (T2) a gerodontology course. A definition of being young and old and of hopes and fears associated with age was requested. The semantic ageing differential (SAD) was used to measure the students' attitudes towards the aged in three categories. Statistical analysis comprised mean age definitions by gender and mean scores of the SAD at T1 and T2. Old age was defined as beginning between 56 and 64 years. Female students at T1 regarded a woman as young up to 35.8 years, for male students a woman was young only up to 33.5 years. Male students consider men as old from 60.1 years and women 4.4 years earlier from 55.7 years. Old age fears related mainly to impairment of health and loss of relatives. Hopes for relaxation, rest and serenity were paramount. The SAD results were near neutral in all three dimensions. Minor changes between T1 and T2 occurred. Students' attitudes were well balanced. Specific barriers to the provision of dental care to the aged emanating from dental students' negative attitudes or fears were not identified. Changes in attitudes occurring during the course appeared small. © 2013 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. A Study on the Phenomenon of Collocations: Methodology of Teaching English and German Collocations to Russian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varlamova, Elena V.; Naciscione, Anita; Tulusina, Elena A.

    2016-01-01

    Relevance of the issue stated in the article is determined by the fact that there is a lack of research devoted to the methods of teaching English and German collocations. The aim of our work is to determine methods of teaching English and German collocations to Russian university students studying foreign languages through experimental testing.…

  9. Comparing sampling strategies to recruit migrants for an epidemiological study. Results from a German feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Katharina; Dragano, Nico; Ellert, Ute; Fricke, Julia; Greiser, Karin Halina; Keil, Thomas; Krist, Lilian; Moebus, Susanne; Pundt, Noreen; Schlaud, Martin; Yesil-Jürgens, Rahsan; Zeeb, Hajo; Zimmermann, Heiko; Razum, Oliver; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Becher, Heiko

    2014-10-01

    In 2011, almost 20.0% of the population of Germany had a migration background. Studies on their health tend to have low participation rates. The aim of our study was to compare different sampling strategies and to test different approaches to recruit migrants for an epidemiological study. Four recruitment centres of the German National Cohort recruited persons of Turkish origin and ethnic German immigrants from former Soviet Union countries. A register-based (random samples from residents' registration offices) and a community-orientated strategy were applied. Participants underwent a medical examination and self-completed a questionnaire. Used approaches: The community-orientated strategies comprised the acquisition of key persons from migrant networks to support the recruitment, invitation talks and distribution of study materials in migrant settings, etc. The identifying variables in the registry data were name, nationality or country of birth. All but one centres used bilingual study material and study staff. When comparing the two strategies, the register-based participation rates ranged from 10.1 to 21.0% (n = 668 participants) and the community-oriented recruitment resulted in 722 participants. Register-based recruitment should use a combination of name, nationality and country of birth in order not to be limited to identifying persons with a foreign nationality. However, according to the study staff, the community-oriented approach involving key persons of the same cultural background leads to a better acceptance by the participants. Also, it covers a more heterogeneous group. Yet, it is time-consuming and needs considerably more staff. Further research should establish the effectiveness of a combination of both strategies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  10. Perceptions of a good death among German medical students.

    PubMed

    Meffert, Cornelia; Stößel, Ulrich; Körner, Mirjam; Becker, Gerhild

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine the perceptions of a good death among medical students, who are future care providers. The authors identified 9 domains that contribute to a good death according to first- and fifth-year medical students (N=432). From their perspective, being free from pain and physical distress is only 1 important component of a good death, and other elements such as psychosocial issues should also be taken into account. A majority of medical students considers psychosocial well-being as a highly relevant aspect of patients' conditions. The results of this study could help to develop concepts for better care and more empathy, which are needed to ensure a good death for all patients.

  11. German medical students' exposure and attitudes toward pharmaceutical promotion: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Kristine; Kremer, Marcel Stephan; Schmidt, Carsten Oliver; Kochen, Michael M; Chenot, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Early contact of medical students with pharmaceutical promotion has been shown in many international studies. We assessed the frequency and places of contact of German medical students to pharmaceutical promotion and examined their attitudes toward pharmaceutical promotional activities. This cross-sectional survey was based on a self-developed questionnaire. It was distributed to all clinical students at the University of Goettingen Medical School in 2010. A 4-point rating scale was used to assess the attitudes toward different statements regarding pharmaceutical promotion. The overall response rate was 55% (702/1287). The proportion of students with direct contact to pharmaceutical sales representatives increased from 21% in the first clinical year up to 77% in the final year. 60% were contacted during their elective clerkship. 80% had accepted promotional gifts. 86% stated their prescribing behavior to be unsusceptible to the influence of accepting promotional gifts. However, 35% of the unsusceptible students assumed doctors to be susceptible. Almost all (90%) reported that dealing with pharmaceutical promotion was never addressed during lectures and 65% did not feel well prepared for interactions with the pharmaceutical industry. 19% agreed to prohibit contacts between medical students and the pharmaceutical industry. German medical students get in contact with pharmaceutical promotion early and frequently. There is limited awareness for associated conflicts of interests. Medical schools need to regulate contacts and incorporate the topic in their curriculum to prepare students for interactions with the pharmaceutical industry.

  12. German medical students´ exposure and attitudes toward pharmaceutical promotion: A cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Jahnke, Kristine; Kremer, Marcel Stephan; Schmidt, Carsten Oliver; Kochen, Michael M.; Chenot, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Early contact of medical students with pharmaceutical promotion has been shown in many international studies. We assessed the frequency and places of contact of German medical students to pharmaceutical promotion and examined their attitudes toward pharmaceutical promotional activities. Methods: This cross-sectional survey was based on a self-developed questionnaire. It was distributed to all clinical students at the University of Goettingen Medical School in 2010. A 4-point rating scale was used to assess the attitudes toward different statements regarding pharmaceutical promotion. Results: The overall response rate was 55% (702/1287). The proportion of students with direct contact to pharmaceutical sales representatives increased from 21% in the first clinical year up to 77% in the final year. 60% were contacted during their elective clerkship. 80% had accepted promotional gifts. 86% stated their prescribing behavior to be unsusceptible to the influence of accepting promotional gifts. However, 35% of the unsusceptible students assumed doctors to be susceptible. Almost all (90%) reported that dealing with pharmaceutical promotion was never addressed during lectures and 65% did not feel well prepared for interactions with the pharmaceutical industry. 19% agreed to prohibit contacts between medical students and the pharmaceutical industry. Conclusions: German medical students get in contact with pharmaceutical promotion early and frequently. There is limited awareness for associated conflicts of interests. Medical schools need to regulate contacts and incorporate the topic in their curriculum to prepare students for interactions with the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:25228934

  13. Anxiety about foreign language among students in French, Spanish, and German classes.

    PubMed

    Bailey, P; Onwuegbuzie, A J; Daley, C E

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether anxiety reported by students while studying foreign language courses in college was similar for 253 college students from a variety of disciplinary backgrounds, who were enrolled in either Spanish, French, or German classes. Analysis indicated no difference in anxiety about foreign languages among students in the three classes. In addition, a moderate negative relationship was found between anxiety about learning a foreign language and achievement for all three classes. Recommendations for research are made, including investigating anxiety about other foreign languages.

  14. German Grammar in the Students' Words: The "Essentialization" of German Grammar by American College-Level Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez, Monika

    2011-01-01

    This study of 134 college-level learners of German, enrolled in four years of instruction, showed them to "essentialize" German grammar when asked to describe it to a hypothetical friend. Kubota defined the term essentialization to capture learners' views of the target culture. Its main characteristic is the presupposition of "essential, stable,…

  15. German Grammar in the Students' Words: The "Essentialization" of German Grammar by American College-Level Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez, Monika

    2011-01-01

    This study of 134 college-level learners of German, enrolled in four years of instruction, showed them to "essentialize" German grammar when asked to describe it to a hypothetical friend. Kubota defined the term essentialization to capture learners' views of the target culture. Its main characteristic is the presupposition of "essential, stable,…

  16. Student Interests--The German and Austrian ROSE Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elster, Doris

    2007-01-01

    ROSE (the Relevance of Science Education) is an international comparative study on the factors which influence learning in science. For this study, the interests, opinions and attitudes of young people were polled by using a standardised questionnaire. Initial data, empirically gathered from 1247 students at the end of lower secondary level in…

  17. Personality Factors and Suicide Risk in a Representative Sample of the German General Population

    PubMed Central

    Blüml, Victor; Kapusta, Nestor D.; Doering, Stephan; Brähler, Elmar; Wagner, Birgit; Kersting, Anette

    2013-01-01

    Objective Previous research has shown an association between certain personality characteristics and suicidality. Methodological differences including small sample sizes and missing adjustment for possible confounding factors could explain the varying results. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the Big Five personality dimensions on suicidality in a representative population based sample of adults. Method Interviews were conducted in a representative German population-based sample (n=2555) in 2011. Personality characteristics were assessed using the Big Five Inventory-10 (BFI-10) and suicide risk was assessed with the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R). Multivariate logistic regression models were calculated adjusting for depression, anxiety, and various sociodemographic variables. Results Neuroticism and openness were significantly associated with suicide risk, while extraversion and conscientiousness were found to be protective. Significant sex differences were observed. For males, extraversion and conscientiousness were protective factors. Neuroticism and openness were found to be associated with suicide risk only in females. These associations remained significant after adjusting for covariates. Conclusion The results highlight the role of personality dimensions as risk factors for suicide-related behaviors. Different personality dimensions are significantly associated with suicide-related behaviors even when adjusting for other known risk factors of suicidality. PMID:24124582

  18. Conspiracy stereotyping and perceptions of group entitativity of Jews, Germans, Arabs and homosexuals by Polish students.

    PubMed

    Grzesiak-Feldman, Monika; Suszek, Hubert

    2008-06-01

    The relationship among conspiracy stereotypes and perceived entitativity (the degree to which a collection of persons are perceived as being bonded together in a homogeneous entity) of Jews, Germans, Arabs, and homosexuals was examined. 63 volunteer university students answered the Conspiracy Beliefs Scale and the Group Entitativity Scale. The conspiracy stereotypes of all the categories were positively correlated with scores for perceived entitativity. The perception of entitativity seems to be an important factor in conspiracy stereotyping and therefore in intergroup relations.

  19. Cytogenetic differences in breast cancer samples between German and Japanese patients

    PubMed Central

    Packeisen, J; Nakachi, K; Boecker, W; Brandt, B; Buerger, H

    2005-01-01

    Background: Japanese and German breast cancer cases differ substantially in the frequency of egfr amplification. Aims: To unravel further the cytogenetic differences between Japanese and German breast cancer cases. Methods: Forty one Japanese breast cancer cases were evaluated by means of comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH). The results were compared with the CGH results from 161 German breast cancer cases. Results: The mean number of genetic alterations/case was significantly higher in German premenopausal patients with breast cancer than in their Japanese counterparts. Japanese breast cancer cases revealed a higher number of chromosome 17p losses. Losses of 8p were associated with oestrogen receptor (ER) negativity in Japanese patients with breast cancer, whereas in the German patients gains of 3q and 6q were associated with the lack of ER expression. Conclusions: The interethnic differences of invasive breast cancer are reflected by cytogenetic aberrations, which are also associated with the differential expression of the ER. PMID:16189159

  20. Mitochondrial DNA Marker EST00083 Is Not Associated with High vs. Average IQ in a German Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moises, Hans W.; Yang, Liu; Kohnke, Michael; Vetter, Peter; Neppert, Jurgen; Petrill, Stephen A.; Plomin, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Tested the association of a mitochondrial DNA marker (EST00083) with high IQ in a sample of 47 German adults with high IQ scores and 77 adults with IQs estimated at lower than 110. Results do not support the hypothesis that high IQ is associated with this marker. (SLD)

  1. The Parent Version of the Preschool Social Skills Rating System: Psychometric Analysis and Adaptation with a German Preschool Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Markus; Scheithauer, Herbert; Kleiber, Dieter; Wille, Nora; Erhart, Michael; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    The Social Skills Rating System (SSRS) developed by Gresham and Elliott (1990) is a multirater, norm-referenced instrument measuring social skills and adaptive behavior in preschool children. The aims of the present study were (a) to test the factorial structure of the Parent Form of the SSRS for the first time with a German preschool sample (391…

  2. Mitochondrial DNA Marker EST00083 Is Not Associated with High vs. Average IQ in a German Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moises, Hans W.; Yang, Liu; Kohnke, Michael; Vetter, Peter; Neppert, Jurgen; Petrill, Stephen A.; Plomin, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Tested the association of a mitochondrial DNA marker (EST00083) with high IQ in a sample of 47 German adults with high IQ scores and 77 adults with IQs estimated at lower than 110. Results do not support the hypothesis that high IQ is associated with this marker. (SLD)

  3. The Parent Version of the Preschool Social Skills Rating System: Psychometric Analysis and Adaptation with a German Preschool Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Markus; Scheithauer, Herbert; Kleiber, Dieter; Wille, Nora; Erhart, Michael; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    The Social Skills Rating System (SSRS) developed by Gresham and Elliott (1990) is a multirater, norm-referenced instrument measuring social skills and adaptive behavior in preschool children. The aims of the present study were (a) to test the factorial structure of the Parent Form of the SSRS for the first time with a German preschool sample (391…

  4. The Relationship between Ethnic Classroom Composition and Turkish-Origin and German Students' Reading Performance and Sense of Belonging

    PubMed Central

    Mok, Sog Yee; Martiny, Sarah E.; Gleibs, Ilka H.; Keller, Melanie M.; Froehlich, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Past research on ethnic composition effects on migrant and ethnic majority students' performance has reported inconclusive results: Some studies have found no relationship between the proportion of migrant students in school and students' performance, some revealed positive effects, whereas others showed negative effects of the proportion of migrant students. Most of the studies did not consider whether an increase in the proportion of migrant students in the classroom has different effects on migrant and ethnic majority students' performance. For this reason, the present study (N = 9215) extends previous research by investigating the cross-level interaction effect of the proportion of Turkish-origin students in classrooms on Turkish-origin and German students' reading performance with data based on the German National Assessment Study 2008/2009 in the school subject German. In addition, we examined the cross-level interaction effect of Turkish-origin students' proportion on sense of belonging to school for Turkish-origin and German students, as sense of belonging has been shown to be an important predictor of well-being and integration. No cross-level interaction effect on performance emerged. Only a small negative main effect of the Turkish-origin students' proportion on all students' performance was found. As predicted, we showed a cross-level interaction on sense of belonging. Only Turkish-origin students' sense of belonging was positively related to the proportion of Turkish-origin students: The more Turkish-origin students there were in a classroom, the higher Turkish-origin students' sense of belonging. German students' sense of belonging was not related to the ethnic classroom composition. Implications of the results in the educational context are discussed. PMID:27471484

  5. The Relationship between Ethnic Classroom Composition and Turkish-Origin and German Students' Reading Performance and Sense of Belonging.

    PubMed

    Mok, Sog Yee; Martiny, Sarah E; Gleibs, Ilka H; Keller, Melanie M; Froehlich, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Past research on ethnic composition effects on migrant and ethnic majority students' performance has reported inconclusive results: Some studies have found no relationship between the proportion of migrant students in school and students' performance, some revealed positive effects, whereas others showed negative effects of the proportion of migrant students. Most of the studies did not consider whether an increase in the proportion of migrant students in the classroom has different effects on migrant and ethnic majority students' performance. For this reason, the present study (N = 9215) extends previous research by investigating the cross-level interaction effect of the proportion of Turkish-origin students in classrooms on Turkish-origin and German students' reading performance with data based on the German National Assessment Study 2008/2009 in the school subject German. In addition, we examined the cross-level interaction effect of Turkish-origin students' proportion on sense of belonging to school for Turkish-origin and German students, as sense of belonging has been shown to be an important predictor of well-being and integration. No cross-level interaction effect on performance emerged. Only a small negative main effect of the Turkish-origin students' proportion on all students' performance was found. As predicted, we showed a cross-level interaction on sense of belonging. Only Turkish-origin students' sense of belonging was positively related to the proportion of Turkish-origin students: The more Turkish-origin students there were in a classroom, the higher Turkish-origin students' sense of belonging. German students' sense of belonging was not related to the ethnic classroom composition. Implications of the results in the educational context are discussed.

  6. Validation of the Hypomania Checklist (HCL-32) in a Nonclinical Sample of German Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtmann, Martin; Portner, Franca; Duketis, Eftichia; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Angst, Jules; Lehmkuhl, Gerd

    2009-01-01

    We tested the psychometric properties of the Hypomania Checklist (HCL-32) in a sample of nonclinical adolescents, examined the association with current psychopathology, and tested if "hypomanic" adolescents differ from other participants regarding HCL-scores and psychopathology. A total of 294 students completed the HCL-32 and the SDQ, a…

  7. Providing Students with More than Just Another Class Project: A Journalism Writing Course at a German Summer School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Klaus

    Intensive summer language schools are designed to increase student exposure to the target language, both in quantity and type. One way to increase student interest in the input is for a journalism class to produce a daily student newspaper in the target language. Such a project has gained popularity at a Portland, Oregon intensive German summer…

  8. Differential effects of school experiences on active citizenship among German and Turkish-origin students.

    PubMed

    Jugert, Philipp; Eckstein, Katharina; Noack, Peter

    2016-12-14

    While research suggests that schools can foster active citizenship among youth, studies have not tested whether ethnic minority youth may benefit differently from school experiences than ethnic majority youth. In this study of 219 students (138 German majority and 81 Turkish-origin minority; Mage  = 18.26; 55% females), we examined the association between different experiences at school and 4 indicators of youth active citizenship, controlling for various socio-demographic characteristics. Although value of social studies was associated with three out of four active citizenship indicators among both ethnic groups, the effects of the other school-related variables on active citizenship were moderated by ethnicity. Specifically, indicators of classroom climate, such as open classroom climate and classroom community, were only associated with greater active citizenship among Turkish-minority youth, while participatory factors, such as engagement in school decisions, were only associated with active citizenship among native German youth.

  9. Among a German Sample of Forensic Patients, Previous Animal Abuse Mediates Between Psychopathy and Sadistic Actions.

    PubMed

    Stupperich, Alexandra; Strack, Micha

    2016-05-01

    In an attempt to explain the relationship between psychopathy and severe violent behavior, this study associates previous animal abuse, psychopathy, and sadistic acting in forensic patients. Two topics are addressed: (i) whether previous animal abuse can be identified by a patient's Psychopathy Checklist profile and (ii) whether animal abuse statistically mediates between psychopathy and sadistic acting. In a German forensic hospital, 60 patients were investigated. Animal abuse was assessed using face-to-face interviews and the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV), and sadistic acting was identified by file records.Discriminant analysis separated previous animal abuse (10/60) by high adolescent antisocial behavior, superficiality, lack of remorse, lack of empathy, and grandiosity. The mediation from psychopathy to sadistic acting (6/60) through animal abuse was found to be complete.The results, although sample size is limited and base rate of animal abuse and sadistic acting are low, fit with a model suggestive of animal abuse as a causal step toward sadistic crimes. Animal abuse correlates with callous, unemotional traits, and a development of sadistic crimes.

  10. Subjective Experiences in Activity Involvement and Perceptions of Growth in a Sample of First-Year Female University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busseri, Michael A.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda

    2008-01-01

    We examined subjective experiences in activities and perceptions of growth in a sample of first-year female university students (N = 196; age range = 17 to 19 years old, M = 18.48, SD = 0.53; the most common ethnic affiliations were British Isles, 51% of respondents, Canadian, 34%, French, 14%, and German, 8%). Students described 4 activities,…

  11. Subjective Experiences in Activity Involvement and Perceptions of Growth in a Sample of First-Year Female University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busseri, Michael A.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda

    2008-01-01

    We examined subjective experiences in activities and perceptions of growth in a sample of first-year female university students (N = 196; age range = 17 to 19 years old, M = 18.48, SD = 0.53; the most common ethnic affiliations were British Isles, 51% of respondents, Canadian, 34%, French, 14%, and German, 8%). Students described 4 activities,…

  12. Determinants and frequency of irritable bowel syndrome in a German sample.

    PubMed

    Althaus, A; Broicher, W; Wittkamp, P; Andresen, V; Lohse, A W; Löwe, B

    2016-03-01

    To date there is no study that has estimated the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in Germany according to the current Rome III criteria. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of IBS in a non-clinical German sample. Furthermore, we investigated the association of IBS with socio-demographic and psychological risk factors. Baseline data from a prospective cohort study were analysed, including the IBS Module of the Rome III Diagnostic Questionnaires and validated psychometric scales including the Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15), the Big Five Inventory (BFI), the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-5), and the Whiteley-Index (WI-7). The study population was compared to the German general population to appraise its representativeness. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify possible risk factors associated with IBS. Between January 2011 and September 2012, 2419 persons participated (female 54.0 %, mean age 37.4 ± 14.9 years). According to the Rome III criteria, 401 participants (16.6 %) suffered from IBS. Five predictors were independently associated with IBS: previous traveller's diarrhoea infection (OR = 1.76; 95 % CI = 1.34 to 2.31), higher somatic symptom burden (OR = 1.15; 95 % CI = 1.07 to 1.23), increased level of hypochondriasis (OR = 2.04; 95 % CI = 1.54 to 2.70), increased vulnerability to diarrhoea under stress (OR = 3.88; 95 % CI = 3.21 to 4.68) and perceived stress (OR = 1.43; 95 % CI = 1.04 to 1.99). Our analyses yielded a relatively high IBS prevalence estimate, compared to studies published more than ten years ago. This might partially be explained by the fact that the time criterion of the Rome III criteria (at least 3 days/month in last 3 months) is more inclusive compared to the time criterion of the Rome II criteria (at least 12 weeks, which need not be consecutive, in the preceding 12 months). © Georg Thieme Verlag

  13. Reading and spelling skills in German third graders: Examining the role of student and context characteristics.

    PubMed

    von Suchodoletz, Antje; Larsen, Ross A A; Gunzenhauser, Catherine; Fäsche, Anika

    2015-12-01

    Educational processes and outcomes are influenced by a multitude of factors, including individual and contextual characteristics. Recently, studies have demonstrated that student and context characteristics may produce unique and cumulative effects on educational outcomes. The study aimed to investigate (1) the relative contribution of student, classroom, and school characteristics to reading fluency and orthographic spelling, (2) the relative contribution of specific predictors to reading fluency and orthographic spelling within the sets of student, classroom, and school characteristics, and (3) whether the contribution of student, classroom, and school characteristics differs for reading fluency and orthographic spelling. Participants were 789 German third-grade students from 56 classrooms in 34 schools. Students completed an intelligence test and a questionnaire assessing self-control. Reading fluency and orthographic spelling performance were assessed using standardized achievement tests. Multilevel structural equation modelling was used to control for the hierarchical structure of educational data. Variances in students' reading and spelling skills were in large part explained by student characteristics (>90%). Classroom and school characteristics yielded little variance. Student-level intelligence and self-control were significantly related to reading fluency. For orthographic spelling, student-level intelligence and self-control, class-average intelligence, and, at the school level, the socio-economic status of the school's neighbourhood were significant predictors. Future research needs to investigate relevant classroom and school factors that may directly and indirectly relate to academic outcomes. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Examination performances of German and international medical students in the preclinical studying-term--a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Huhn, D; Resch, F; Duelli, R; Möltner, A; Huber, J; Karimian Jazi, K; Amr, A; Eckart, W; Herzog, W; Nikendei, C

    2014-01-01

    Medical students with a migration background face several specific problems during their studies. International surveys show first indications that this group of students performs worse in written, oral or practical exams. However, so far, nothing is known about the performance of international students in written pre-clinical tests as well as in pre-clinical State Examinations for German-speaking countries. A descriptive, retrospective analysis of the exam performances of medical students in the pre-clinical part of their studies was conducted at the Faculty of Medicine of Heidelberg in for the year 2012. Performance in written tests of the final exams in the second (N=276), third (N=292) and fourth semester (N=285) were compared between German students, students from EU countries and students from non-EU countries. Same comparison was drawn for the performance in the oral exam of the First State Examination in the period from 2009 - 2012 (N=1137). German students performed significantly better than students with a non-EU migration background both in all written exams and in the oral State Examination (all p<.05). The performance of students with an EU migration background was significantly better than that of students with a non-EU background in the written exam at the end of the third and fourth semester (p<.05). Furthermore, German students completed the oral exam of the First State Examination significantly earlier than students with a non-EU migration background (<.01). Due to its poorer performance in written and oral examinations and its simultaneously longer duration of study, the group of non-German medical students with a country of origin outside of the European Union has to be seen as a high-risk group among students with a migration background. For this group, there is an urgent need for early support to prepare for written and oral examinations.

  15. Examination performances of German and international medical students in the preclinical studying-term – A descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Huhn, D.; Resch, F.; Duelli, R.; Möltner, A.; Huber, J.; Karimian Jazi, K.; Amr, A.; Eckart, W.; Herzog, W.; Nikendei, C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Medical students with a migration background face several specific problems during their studies. International surveys show first indications that this group of students performs worse in written, oral or practical exams. However, so far, nothing is known about the performance of international students in written pre-clinical tests as well as in pre-clinical State Examinations for German-speaking countries. Method: A descriptive, retrospective analysis of the exam performances of medical students in the pre-clinical part of their studies was conducted at the Faculty of Medicine of Heidelberg in for the year 2012. Performance in written tests of the final exams in the second (N=276), third (N=292) and fourth semester (N=285) were compared between German students, students from EU countries and students from non-EU countries. Same comparison was drawn for the performance in the oral exam of the First State Examination in the period from 2009 - 2012 (N=1137). Results: German students performed significantly better than students with a non-EU migration background both in all written exams and in the oral State Examination (all p<.05). The performance of students with an EU migration background was significantly better than that of students with a non-EU background in the written exam at the end of the third and fourth semester (p<.05). Furthermore, German students completed the oral exam of the First State Examination significantly earlier than students with a non-EU migration background (<.01). Discussion: Due to its poorer performance in written and oral examinations and its simultaneously longer duration of study, the group of non-German medical students with a country of origin outside of the European Union has to be seen as a high-risk group among students with a migration background. For this group, there is an urgent need for early support to prepare for written and oral examinations. PMID:25228931

  16. Sauerbraten, Rotkappchen und Goethe: The Quiz Show as an Introduction to German Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Diane

    1980-01-01

    Proposes an adaptation of the quiz-show format for classroom use, discussing a set of rules and sample questions designed for beginning and intermediate German students. Presents questions based on German life and culture which are especially selected to encourage participation from students majoring in subjects other than German. (MES)

  17. Teaching child and adolescent psychiatry to undergraduate medical students - A survey in German-speaking countries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To conduct a survey about teaching child and adolescent psychiatry to undergraduate medical students in German-speaking countries. Methods A questionnaire was sent to the 33 academic departments of child and adolescent psychiatry in Germany, Austria, and the German-speaking part of Switzerland. Results All departments responded. For teaching knowledge, the methods most commonly reported were lectures and case presentations. The most important skills to be taught were thought to be how to assess psychopathology in children and how to assess families. For elective courses, the departments reported using a wide range of teaching methods, many with active involvement of the students. An average of 34 hours per semester is currently allocated by the departments for teaching child and adolescent psychiatry to medical students. Required courses are often taught in cooperation with adult psychiatry and pediatrics. Achievement of educational objectives is usually assessed with written exams or multiple-choice tests. Only a minority of the departments test the achievement of skills. Conclusions Two ways of improving education in child and adolescent psychiatry are the introduction of elective courses for students interested in the field and participation of child and adolescent psychiatrists in required courses and in longitudinal courses so as to reach all students. Cooperation within and across medical schools can enable departments of child and adolescent psychiatry, despite limited resources, to become more visible and this specialty to become more attractive to medical students. Compared to the findings in earlier surveys, this survey indicates a trend towards increased involvement of academic departments of child and adolescent psychiatry in training medical students. PMID:20653973

  18. The Europeanisation of German Ethnic Identities: The Case of German and Turkish Students in Two Stuttgart Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faas, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Germany's national (or ethnic) identity has become thoroughly European and there are even signs of Eurocentrism. This is particularly problematic for the Turkish Muslims who, arguably, are not European. This article explores how fifteen-year-old German and Turkish youth in two Stuttgart secondary schools, one in a predominantly working-class area…

  19. Attitudes toward active euthanasia among medical students at two German universities.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Katri Elina; Klein, Eva; Jaspers, Birgit; Klaschik, Eberhard

    2008-06-01

    There has been an ongoing debate about a legalisation of active euthanasia (AE) in Germany. Palliative care education in German medical schools seeks to foster and cultivate a negative attitude toward AE, but little is known about its effectiveness in this respect. The aim of this study was to assess attitudes toward AE among students with and without palliative medicine tuition (PMT). The link to an anonymised online questionnaire was sent out to 1,092 third, fifth and sixth year medical students (YMS) in August-November 2006 at two German universities: university one (U1) with compulsory and additional optional PMT and university two (U2) without any PMT. Thirteen questions addressed active, passive or indirect euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (statistic: mean +/- SD (range), Wilcoxon, Whitney U Test, significance p < 0.05). Response rate was 17.5%; 59.2% of the questionnaires were returned from U1 and 40.8% from U2; 28.3% of the students were male. Whereas 50% of third YMS at U1 and 36.7% at U2 favoured a legalisation of AE, this was true for 22.4% sixth YMS at U1 and 35.7% at U2. At U1, the number of students who would want to make use of AE for themselves decreased considerably (70%-44.9%) but less at U2; main reasons were 'unbearable suffering' and 'circumstances that lack dignity'. Of all students, 21.1% at U1 and 37.2% at U2 could imagine to perform AE in patients, even though 72.6% at U1 and 78.2% at U2 think its legalisation would promote misuse. The high proportion of pro-AE attitudes gives reason to reconsider both 'standard' and palliative medicine tuition for medical students.

  20. Comparison of Political Attitudes of German and American Twelfth Year Students: Perspectives on the Rights of Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepburn, Mary A.

    A broad survey of democratic political attitudes of United States and West German students was developed jointly by the Governmental Education Division of the Vinson Institute of Government at the University of Georgia and the Bundeszentrale fur politische Bildung in Bonn. This survey sought to probe twelfth-year students' attitudes toward…

  1. A Partial Replication of the Kohn-Gecas-Nye Thesis in a German Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Robert C.

    1984-01-01

    Interviewed 596 German adults to examine the effect of social class and other background factors on childhood socialization. Results generally supported other studies indicating that the middle class, compared with the lower class, attempts to develop internalized standards of responsibility in their children. (JAC)

  2. Medical students' attitudes to and contact with the pharmaceutical industry: a survey at eight German university hospitals.

    PubMed

    Lieb, Klaus; Koch, Cora

    2013-09-01

    Drug companies maintain close contact with physicians. We studied the extent to which medical students are already in contact with drug companies, and their attitudes toward them. An anonymous questionnaire containing 74 questions was distributed to 1151 medical students at eight German universities. 1038 (90.3%) of the questionnaires were filled out, returned, and evaluated. 12.1% of the students had never received any kind of gift from a drug company or participated in any drug company-sponsored event. 13.0% had received at least one sponsored lunch, and 24.6% had attended at least one sponsored lecture or CME event. 65.6% had received at least one non-informational gift, 50.8% an informational gift, 39.3% a reprint, and 8.6% a drug sample. 39.8% considered sponsored lectures informative and helpful, but simultaneously judged the presentation of content as biased. 45.6% and 49.7% of students, respectively, considered it all right to accept gifts because their influence was minimal in any case or because they considered themselves in a bad financial situation. 24.6% of the students thought gifts would influence their future prescribing behavior, while 45.1% thought gifts would influence their classmates' future prescribing behavior (p<0.001 for this difference). Medical students have extensive contact with the pharmaceutical industry even before they are out of medical school. Therefore, the medical school curriculum should include information about the strategies drug companies use to influence physicians' prescribing behavior, so that medical students can develop an appropriately critical attitude.

  3. Sleep characteristics, sleep problems, and associations of self-efficacy among German university students

    PubMed Central

    Schlarb, Angelika A; Kulessa, Dominika; Gulewitsch, Marco D

    2012-01-01

    Background Sleep problems, especially insomnia, are a common complaint among adults. International studies on university students have shown prevalence rates between 4.7% and 36.2% for sleep difficulties, and 13.1% and 28.1% for insomnia. Sleep problems are associated with lower social and academic performance and can have a severe impact on psychological and physical health. Objective The goal of this study was to outline sleep characteristics, prevalence of sleep problems, insomnia, and associations with self-efficacy among German university students. Methods A total of 2196 university students (70.9% women; mean age 24.16 years) participated in the study. Sleep characteristics, sleep problems, insomnia, and self-efficacy were assessed using a questionnaire. Results and conclusion Analyses revealed that more than 16% of surveyed students needed more than 30 minutes to fall asleep. About 7.7% of the students suffered from insomnia. Short sleep was significantly associated with a considerably increased rate of insomnia (20%). Insomniacs showed lower self-efficacy than students without sleep problems. PMID:23616724

  4. Assessing the Multi-faceted Nature of Test Anxiety Among Secondary School Students: An English Version of the German Test Anxiety Questionnaire: PAF-E.

    PubMed

    Hoferichter, Frances; Raufelder, Diana; Ringeisen, Tobias; Rohrmann, Sonja; Bukowski, William M

    2016-01-01

    The current study concerns the validation of an English version of the German Test Anxiety Inventory, namely the PAF-E. This questionnaire is a multi-faceted measure of test anxiety designed to detect normative test anxiety levels and in consequence meet the need of consultancy. Construct and criterion validity of (PAF-E) were examined with a sample of 96 secondary students (Mage = 12.8, SD = 0.67; 55% girls) from an international school in Berlin (Germany) and 399 secondary students (Mage = 13.4, SD = 0.80; 56% girls) from Montréal (Canada). Both samples completed the PAF-E and related constructs, such as school-related self-efficacy, inhibitory test anxiety, achievement motivation, and the Big Five. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the four-factor-structure (worry, emotionality, interfering thoughts, lack of confidence) of the original German Test Anxiety Inventory (PAF). Each subscale consists of five items with a total of 20 questions. Cronbach's alpha, ranging from.71 to.82 among Germans and.77 to.87 among Canadians as well as the re-test reliability (from.80 to.85 among Canadians) were sufficient. The differential patterns of correlations between other constructs and the indices of test anxiety indicate good construct validity.

  5. Conflicts of interest in medical school: Missing Policies and high need for student information at most German Universities

    PubMed Central

    Lieb, Klaus; Koch, Cora

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Medical students interact with pharmaceutical representatives already during medical school. The goal of this study was to find out: Do policies exist at German medical faculties that govern the interactions between medical students and pharmaceutical representatives, do schools offer courses on the subject and do students attend these courses? And What are the attitudes of medical students concerning the role of pharmaceutical companies in medical teaching? Methods: All 36 German medical faculty deans and 1,151 medical students at eight German universities were asked to complete a questionnaire of 4 and 7 questions, respectively, regarding the above mentioned topics. Results: 30 (83,3%) deans and 1,038 (90.3%) medical students filled in the questionnaire, respectively. According to the deans' answers, only one school had a policy concerning conflicts of interest and one had a policy governing the interactions between medical students and industry. 8 (26.7%) deans showed an interest in constructing a policy or educational an activity on this subject. 149 (14,4%) students had participated in an activity that focussed the subject of conflicts of interest and 779 (77,8%) wanted more education on the subject. 701 (73,4%) were opposed to an improvement of medical studies through financial support by pharmaceutical companies, whereas 216 (21,9%) were of the opinion that students should not meet with pharmaceutical representatives. Conclusions: Unlike in other countries, like the US, most German medical faculties do not have policies that govern the interactions between medical students and pharmaceutical companies. Since most students want to be taught more about these interactions, the implementation of respective policies and lectures would be desirable. PMID:24575152

  6. Validation of the Illness Perception Questionnaire for Schizophrenia in a German-speaking sample of outpatients with chronic schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Cavelti, Marialuisa; Contin, Giuliana; Beck, Eva-Marina; Kvrgic, Sara; Kossowsky, Joe; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter; Vauth, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Because the mere definition of insight from the therapist's viewpoint may not be sufficient to identify treatment targets for adherence enhancement, we need assessment strategies which are more sensitive to the patient's perspective. Illness perception (IP), defined as the beliefs a patient holds about his/her health problems, has been shown to affect coping in the context of a physical or mental illness, e.g. compliance behaviour. To assess IP in people diagnosed with schizophrenia, the Illness Perception Questionnaire for Schizophrenia (IPQS) was developed. The aim of the present study was to analyse the psychometric properties of the German version of the IPQS. The study sample consisted of 128 German-speaking outpatients suffering from chronic schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. To achieve comparability with the validation of the English scale version, the same constructs were assessed: psychopathology, depression, and beliefs about medication. Furthermore, insight into one's illness was assessed. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability and construct validity including convergent and discriminant validity were analysed. Five of eight IPQS subscales were found to be internally reliable and all subscales demonstrated high stability over time. Correlations with validity measures indicated that the subscales assess dimensions of a construct, which is distinct from psychopathology, depression, beliefs about medication and insight, except for the Identity subscale which substantially overlapped with measures of insight. The German version of the IPQS is an essentially reliable and valid measure of IP for German-speaking people with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. This may encourage its usage in further studies investigating the impact of subjective beliefs about mental health problems on outcome and recovery in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. A Case Study on German First Year Chemistry Student Teachers' Beliefs about Chemistry Teaching, and Their Comparison with Student Teachers from Other Science Teaching Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markic, Silvija; Eilks, Ingo

    2008-01-01

    This paper gives insights into the beliefs of 85 German first year chemistry student teachers about chemistry teaching and learning at the beginning of their teacher education. The study is based on student teachers' drawings of themselves in a typical classroom situation and four open questions. The approach evaluated: (I) Beliefs about Classroom…

  8. A Case Study on German First Year Chemistry Student Teachers' Beliefs about Chemistry Teaching, and Their Comparison with Student Teachers from Other Science Teaching Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markic, Silvija; Eilks, Ingo

    2008-01-01

    This paper gives insights into the beliefs of 85 German first year chemistry student teachers about chemistry teaching and learning at the beginning of their teacher education. The study is based on student teachers' drawings of themselves in a typical classroom situation and four open questions. The approach evaluated: (I) Beliefs about Classroom…

  9. American and German students' knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors with respect to over-the-counter pain relievers.

    PubMed

    Hanoch, Yaniv; Katsikopoulos, Konstantinos V; Gummerum, Michaela; Brass, Eric P

    2007-11-01

    To better understand the knowledge base and perceptions involved in the decision to buy and use over-the-counter pain relievers (OTCPRs) by taking into account the environment in which these decisions are made. The authors expected that the differences in access and marketing would affect knowledge and decision making related to OTCPRs in the United States and Germany. A survey was given to 108 undergraduate university students in the United States and Germany (58 and 50 participants, respectively). The authors found that significantly more Americans than Germans take OTCPRs and that they also take significantly more OTCPRs. Americans exhibited less knowledge about side effects than their German counterparts. When asked when they consulted package labels, Americans reported they were more likely to do so before buying a product, whereas Germans reported consulting labels before taking OTCPRs for the first time. Package labels affected more Americans' decisions to purchase OTCPRs; Americans were also less likely to consult a doctor when feeling pain but more likely to take OTCPRs. Finally, Americans viewed OTCPRs as riskier after their status changed from prescription only to over the counter, whereas Germans believed they posed less risk. This study analyzed health-related behavior by looking at how environmental factors shape decision processes related to over-the-counter drug use. The results indicate that looking at environmental factors does help to explain differences in knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors among German and American students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Cultivating Innovative Entrepreneurs for the Twenty-First Century: A Study of U.S. and German Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayhew, Matthew J.; Simonoff, Jeffrey S.; Baumol, William J.; Selznick, Benjamin S.; Vassallo, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the cultivation of innovative entrepreneurial intentions among students in three distinctive educational settings: a U.S. undergraduate four-year environment, a U.S. M.B.A. two-year environment, and a German five-year business and technology environment. Results suggested that innovative…

  11. Firm or Faculty? Evidence on Characteristics of German-Speaking Accounting PhD Students and Their Career Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grottke, Markus; Pelger, Christoph; Schmiedeberg, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we focus on the choice that accounting doctoral students from the German-speaking area make, between a future career either in academia or business practice. Based on the results of an online survey, we show that prospective scholars exhibit certain characteristics of passionate researchers more pronouncedly than do future…

  12. Firm or Faculty? Evidence on Characteristics of German-Speaking Accounting PhD Students and Their Career Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grottke, Markus; Pelger, Christoph; Schmiedeberg, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we focus on the choice that accounting doctoral students from the German-speaking area make, between a future career either in academia or business practice. Based on the results of an online survey, we show that prospective scholars exhibit certain characteristics of passionate researchers more pronouncedly than do future…

  13. Technical Education for Deaf Students around the World at College/University Level--The German Example.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulte, Ernst

    This paper outlines the current state of higher education for deaf students in Germany. While no special universities exist in Germany for the deaf, numerous special provisions such as note-takers and interpreters are made available at regular universities, subject to budgetary constraints. The fact that no single German sign language has yet been…

  14. Cultivating Innovative Entrepreneurs for the Twenty-First Century: A Study of U.S. and German Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayhew, Matthew J.; Simonoff, Jeffrey S.; Baumol, William J.; Selznick, Benjamin S.; Vassallo, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the cultivation of innovative entrepreneurial intentions among students in three distinctive educational settings: a U.S. undergraduate four-year environment, a U.S. M.B.A. two-year environment, and a German five-year business and technology environment. Results suggested that innovative…

  15. Effectiveness of attachment based STEEP™ intervention in a German high-risk sample.

    PubMed

    Suess, G J; Bohlen, U; Carlson, E A; Spangler, G; Frumentia Maier, M

    2016-10-01

    STEEP(TM) was one of the first attachment-based early intervention programs. The program applied findings from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study on Risk and Adaptation to the development of a supportive program for young high-risk mothers and their infants. STEEP's effectiveness was evaluated first in a randomized controlled study launched in 1987. The study showed effects of the one-year intervention on important individual and parenting variables, but not on quality of mother-infant attachment. In the current German study with young mothers at risk for abuse and neglect, a two-year adaptation of STEEP was evaluated within a quasi-experimental design. STEEP mother-infant pairs (N = 78) were compared with pairs who received standard services of the German Child Welfare System (GCWS, N = 29). Compared with GCWS pairs, significantly more mother-infant pairs in the intervention group showed secure attachment patterns in Ainsworth´s Strange Situation when the infants were 12 months of age. At the end of the intervention (infant age = 24 month), attachment security scores derived from Waters' Attachment Q-Sort were in the predicted direction and showed a medium effect size, but did not reach criteria of statistical significance. At both time points, the STEEP group showed significantly fewer signs of attachment disorganization than the comparison group.

  16. Effectiveness of attachment based STEEP™ intervention in a German high-risk sample

    PubMed Central

    Suess, G.J.; Bohlen, U.; Carlson, E.A.; Spangler, G.; Frumentia Maier, M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT STEEPTM was one of the first attachment-based early intervention programs. The program applied findings from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study on Risk and Adaptation to the development of a supportive program for young high-risk mothers and their infants. STEEP’s effectiveness was evaluated first in a randomized controlled study launched in 1987. The study showed effects of the one-year intervention on important individual and parenting variables, but not on quality of mother–infant attachment. In the current German study with young mothers at risk for abuse and neglect, a two-year adaptation of STEEP was evaluated within a quasi-experimental design. STEEP mother–infant pairs (N = 78) were compared with pairs who received standard services of the German Child Welfare System (GCWS, N = 29). Compared with GCWS pairs, significantly more mother–infant pairs in the intervention group showed secure attachment patterns in Ainsworth´s Strange Situation when the infants were 12 months of age. At the end of the intervention (infant age = 24 month), attachment security scores derived from Waters’ Attachment Q-Sort were in the predicted direction and showed a medium effect size, but did not reach criteria of statistical significance. At both time points, the STEEP group showed significantly fewer signs of attachment disorganization than the comparison group. PMID:27035267

  17. Marlene Dietrich in the German Classroom: A German Film Project--Humanities through the Golden Age of German Cinema.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flippo, Hyde

    1993-01-01

    Marlene Dietrich and other classic performers of German cinema can serve to open up a whole new realm for students of German, at secondary and postsecondary levels. By researching and viewing German and American film classics, students have opportunity to learn more about German language and an important element of German culture that has had…

  18. Costs of simultaneous coping with emotional dissonance and self-control demands at work: results from two German samples.

    PubMed

    Diestel, Stefan; Schmidt, Klaus-Helmut

    2011-05-01

    In the present study, we examine interactive effects of emotional dissonance (ED) and self-control demands (SCDs; impulse control, resisting distractions, and overcoming inner resistances) on emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, depressive symptoms, and absenteeism. We derived the prediction of interactive effects from the well-founded theoretical argument that both sources of work stress draw on and compete for a common limited regulatory resource. On the basis of 2 German samples (1 cross-sectional and 1 longitudinal sample; NTOTAL = 367), 7 of the 8 interactions tested were found to explain significant proportions of variance in all 4 outcomes considered over and beyond that accounted for by demographic characteristics, outcome stability (longitudinal sample), and main effects. Consistent with our hypotheses, the positive relations of 1 of both stressors (ED or SCDs) to psychological strain and absenteeism were amplified as a function of the other stressor. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  19. The prevalence of compulsive hoarding and its association with compulsive buying in a German population-based sample.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Astrid; Mitchell, James E; Crosby, Ross D; Glaesmer, Heide; de Zwaan, Martina

    2009-08-01

    The aims of the study were to estimate the prevalence rate of compulsive hoarding, and to determine the association between compulsive hoarding and compulsive buying in a nationally representative sample of the German population (N = 2307). Compulsive hoarding was assessed with the German version of the Saving Inventory-Revised (SI-R; Frost, R.O., Steketee, G., & Grisham, J. (2004). Measurement of compulsive hoarding: saving inventory-revised. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 42, 1163-1182.). The point prevalence of compulsive hoarding was estimated to be 4.6%. Individuals with compulsive hoarding did not differ significantly from those without compulsive hoarding regarding age, gender, and other sociodemographic characteristics. Significant correlations were found between the compulsive hoarding and the compulsive buying measures. Participants with compulsive hoarding reported a higher propensity to compulsive buying than respondents without hoarding. About two thirds of participants classified as having compulsive hoarding were also defined as suffering from compulsive buying. In summary, these results suggest that compulsive hoarding may be relatively prevalent in Germany and they confirm the close association between compulsive hoarding and compulsive buying through the investigation of a large scale representative sample.

  20. Age differences in alcohol drinking patterns among Norwegian and German hospital doctors--a study based on national samples.

    PubMed

    Rosta, Judith; Aasland, Olaf G

    2010-02-22

    To describe and discuss the alcohol drinking patterns of the younger generation of hospital doctors in Norway and Germany - respectively the abstainers, frequent drinkers, episodic heavy drinkers and hazardous drinkers. Data were collected in nationwide postal surveys among doctors in Norway (2000) and Germany (2006). A representative sample of 1898 German and 602 Norwegian hospital doctors aged 27-65 years were included in the analyses (N=2500). Alcohol drinking patterns were measured using the first three items of AUDIT in Norway and the AUDIT-C in Germany, scores of >or=5 (ranking from 0 to 12) indicating hazardous drinking. Episodic heavy drinking was defined by the intake of >or=60 g of ethanol, on one occasion, at least once a week. Frequent drinkers were who drank alcoholic beverages at least twice a week. Abstainers were persons who drank no alcohol. The analyses were performed separately for age groups (27-44 years versus 45-65 years) and genders. Compared to the age groups 45 to 65 years in the Norwegian and German samples, the younger age groups (27-44 years) tend to have higher rates of abstainers, higher rates of infrequent drinking of moderate amount of alcoholic drinks, lower rates of episodic heavy drinking and lower rates of hazardous drinking. The younger generation of hospital doctors in Norway and Germany showed tendencies to healthier drinking habits. Changes in professional life, and in the attitude towards alcohol consumption, may go some way towards explaining these findings.

  1. Age differences in alcohol drinking patterns among Norwegian and German hospital doctors – a study based on national samples

    PubMed Central

    Rosta, Judith; Aasland, Olaf G.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To describe and discuss the alcohol drinking patterns of the younger generation of hospital doctors in Norway and Germany – respectively the abstainers, frequent drinkers, episodic heavy drinkers and hazardous drinkers. Methods: Data were collected in nationwide postal surveys among doctors in Norway (2000) and Germany (2006). A representative sample of 1898 German and 602 Norwegian hospital doctors aged 27–65 years were included in the analyses (N=2500). Alcohol drinking patterns were measured using the first three items of AUDIT in Norway and the AUDIT-C in Germany, scores of ≥5 (ranking from 0 to 12) indicating hazardous drinking. Episodic heavy drinking was defined by the intake of ≥60g of ethanol, on one occasion, at least once a week. Frequent drinkers were who drank alcoholic beverages at least twice a week. Abstainers were persons who drank no alcohol. The analyses were performed separately for age groups (27–44 years versus 45–65 years) and genders. Results: Compared to the age groups 45 to 65 years in the Norwegian and German samples, the younger age groups (27–44 years) tend to have higher rates of abstainers, higher rates of infrequent drinking of moderate amount of alcoholic drinks, lower rates of episodic heavy drinking and lower rates of hazardous drinking. Conclusion: The younger generation of hospital doctors in Norway and Germany showed tendencies to healthier drinking habits. Changes in professional life, and in the attitude towards alcohol consumption, may go some way towards explaining these findings. PMID:20200658

  2. Values Education and Student Satisfaction: German Business Students' Perceptions of Universities' Value Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moosmayer, Dirk C.; Siems, Florian U.

    2012-01-01

    As a result of the past decade's financial crises, the focus on students' values as an output of higher management education has increased. Simultaneously, marketing theory has become prevalent in the management of higher education institutions, such that student satisfaction represents a key output variable for their service provision. This study…

  3. Misconceptions and biases in German students' perception of multiple energy sources: implications for science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Roh Pin

    2016-04-01

    Misconceptions and biases in energy perception could influence people's support for developments integral to the success of restructuring a nation's energy system. Science education, in equipping young adults with the cognitive skills and knowledge necessary to navigate in the confusing energy environment, could play a key role in paving the way for informed decision-making. This study examined German students' knowledge of the contribution of diverse energy sources to their nation's energy mix as well as their affective energy responses so as to identify implications for science education. Specifically, the study investigated whether and to what extent students hold mistaken beliefs about the role of multiple energy sources in their nation's energy mix, and assessed how misconceptions could act as self-generated reference points to underpin support/resistance of proposed developments. An in-depth analysis of spontaneous affective associations with five key energy sources also enabled the identification of underlying concerns driving people's energy responses and facilitated an examination of how affective perception, in acting as a heuristic, could lead to biases in energy judgment and decision-making. Finally, subgroup analysis differentiated by education and gender supported insights into a 'two culture' effect on energy perception and the challenge it poses to science education.

  4. [Factor structure of the German version of the BIS/BAS Scales in a population-based sample].

    PubMed

    Müller, A; Smits, D; Claes, L; de Zwaan, M

    2013-02-01

    The Behavioural Inhibition System/Behavioural Activation System Scale (BIS/BAS-Scales) developed by Carver and White 1 is a self-rating instrument to assess the dispositional sensitivity to punishment and reward. The present work aims to examine the factor structure of the German version of the BIS/BAS-Scales. In a large German population-based sample (n = 1881) the model fit of several factor models was tested by using confirmatory factor analyses. The best model fit was found for the 5-factor model with two BIS (anxiety, fear) and three BAS (drive, reward responsiveness, fun seeking) scales, whereas the BIS-fear, the BAS-reward responsiveness, and the BAS-fun seeking subscales showed low internal consistency. The BIS/BAS scales were negatively correlated with age, and women reported higher BIS subscale scores than men. Confirmatory factor analyses suggest a 5-factor model. However, due to the low internal reliability of some of the subscales the use of this model is questionable. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Social Capital of Non-Traditional Students at a German University. Do Traditional and Non-Traditional Students Access Different Social Resources?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brändle, Tobias; Häuberer, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Social capital is of particular value for the acquisition of education. Not only does it prevent scholars from dropping out but it improves the educational achievement. The paper focuses on access to social resources by traditional and non-traditional students at a German university and asks if there are group differences considering this…

  6. Obesity and Associated Lifestyle in a Large Sample of Multi-Morbid German Primary Care Attendees

    PubMed Central

    Sikorski, Claudia; Luppa, Melanie; Weyerer, Siegfried; König, Hans-Helmut; Maier, Wolfgang; Schön, Gerhard; Petersen, Juliana J.; Gensichen, Jochen; Fuchs, Angela; Bickel, Horst; Wiese, Birgitt; Hansen, Heike; van den Bussche, Hendrik; Scherer, Martin; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity and the accompanying increased morbidity and mortality risk is highly prevalent among older adults. As obese elderly might benefit from intentional weight reduction, it is necessary to determine associated and potentially modifiable factors on senior obesity. This cross-sectional study focuses on multi-morbid patients which make up the majority in primary care. It reports on the prevalence of senior obesity and its associations with lifestyle behaviors. Methods A total of 3,189 non-demented, multi-morbid participants aged 65–85 years were recruited in primary care within the German MultiCare-study. Physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and quantity and quality of nutritional intake were classified as relevant lifestyle factors. Body Mass Index (BMI, general obesity) and waist circumference (WC, abdominal obesity) were used as outcome measures and regression analyses were conducted. Results About one third of all patients were classified as obese according to BMI. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 73.5%. Adjusted for socio-demographic variables and objective and subjective disease burden, participants with low physical activity had a 1.6 kg/m2 higher BMI as well as a higher WC (4.9 cm, p<0.001). Current smoking and high alcohol consumption were associated with a lower BMI and WC. In multivariate logistic regression, using elevated WC and BMI as categorical outcomes, the same pattern in lifestyle factors was observed. Only for WC, not current but former smoking was associated with a higher probability for elevated WC. Dietary intake in quantity and quality was not associated with BMI or WC in either model. Conclusions Further research is needed to clarify if the huge prevalence discrepancy between BMI and WC also reflects a difference in obesity-related morbidity and mortality. Yet, age-specific thresholds for the BMI are needed likewise. Encouraging and promoting physical activity in older adults might a starting point for weight

  7. Dental anxiety in a representative sample of residents of a large German city.

    PubMed

    Enkling, Norbert; Marwinski, G; Jöhren, P

    2006-03-01

    In a demographic survey, 300 residents of a German city were questioned to determine the prevalence of dental anxiety. The correlation between the amount of dental anxiety and the age, sex, and education of the subjects was examined and the reasons for avoiding dentist's appointments, the duration of this avoidance, and what the subjects desire from future dental treatment. The Hierarchical Anxiety Questionnaire (HAQ) was used to measure the amount of dental anxiety. The average level of anxiety was 28.8+/-10.1 according to the HAQ. Young people were more afraid than older people (p=0.007), and women were more anxious than men (p=0.004). Of the women, 72% go to the dentist regularly, but only 60% of the men do (p=0.020). A painful experience while receiving dental treatment was given by 67% as the main reason for their dental anxiety, followed by a fear of needles (35%). The people wished for the most accurate information available about the dental treatment they receive (69%), followed by a compassionate dentist (62%), and treatment that is free of pain (62%). Of the people, 11% [95% CI: (7.5%; 14.5%)] suffer from dental phobia. All dental phobics were able to state the cause of their fear and more urgently wished for help from the dentist in overcoming their anxiety than the non-phobics (p=0.030). To satisfy the needs of the phobic patients, it appears necessary to screen the phobics out of the group of all patients and then offer them adequate therapy, or refer these patients to specialised treatment centres.

  8. Obesity and associated lifestyle in a large sample of multi-morbid German primary care attendees.

    PubMed

    Sikorski, Claudia; Luppa, Melanie; Weyerer, Siegfried; König, Hans-Helmut; Maier, Wolfgang; Schön, Gerhard; Petersen, Juliana J; Gensichen, Jochen; Fuchs, Angela; Bickel, Horst; Wiese, Birgitt; Hansen, Heike; van den Bussche, Hendrik; Scherer, Martin; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and the accompanying increased morbidity and mortality risk is highly prevalent among older adults. As obese elderly might benefit from intentional weight reduction, it is necessary to determine associated and potentially modifiable factors on senior obesity. This cross-sectional study focuses on multi-morbid patients which make up the majority in primary care. It reports on the prevalence of senior obesity and its associations with lifestyle behaviors. A total of 3,189 non-demented, multi-morbid participants aged 65-85 years were recruited in primary care within the German MultiCare-study. Physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and quantity and quality of nutritional intake were classified as relevant lifestyle factors. Body Mass Index (BMI, general obesity) and waist circumference (WC, abdominal obesity) were used as outcome measures and regression analyses were conducted. About one third of all patients were classified as obese according to BMI. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 73.5%. Adjusted for socio-demographic variables and objective and subjective disease burden, participants with low physical activity had a 1.6 kg/m2 higher BMI as well as a higher WC (4.9 cm, p<0.001). Current smoking and high alcohol consumption were associated with a lower BMI and WC. In multivariate logistic regression, using elevated WC and BMI as categorical outcomes, the same pattern in lifestyle factors was observed. Only for WC, not current but former smoking was associated with a higher probability for elevated WC. Dietary intake in quantity and quality was not associated with BMI or WC in either model. Further research is needed to clarify if the huge prevalence discrepancy between BMI and WC also reflects a difference in obesity-related morbidity and mortality. Yet, age-specific thresholds for the BMI are needed likewise. Encouraging and promoting physical activity in older adults might a starting point for weight reduction efforts.

  9. Understanding Students with Immigration Backgrounds: A German Case of Students' Language and Identity in Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouchereau Bauer, Eurydice; Guerrero, Beatriz; Hornberg, Sabine; Bos, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    In this article we propose that teaching/learning is a process that involves world knowledge, identity, and future construction of oneself. The goal of this qualitative research paper is to document the experiences of 2 fourth-grade students with immigration backgrounds in Germany. Using a poststructuralist approach to language and identity, we…

  10. Understanding Students with Immigration Backgrounds: A German Case of Students' Language and Identity in Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouchereau Bauer, Eurydice; Guerrero, Beatriz; Hornberg, Sabine; Bos, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    In this article we propose that teaching/learning is a process that involves world knowledge, identity, and future construction of oneself. The goal of this qualitative research paper is to document the experiences of 2 fourth-grade students with immigration backgrounds in Germany. Using a poststructuralist approach to language and identity, we…

  11. Research on Educational Standards in German Science Education--Towards a Model of Student Competences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulgemeyer, Christoph; Schecker, Horst

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of research on modelling science competence in German science education. Since the first national German educational standards for physics, chemistry and biology education were released in 2004 research projects dealing with competences have become prominent strands. Most of this research is about the structure of…

  12. The Working Status of Students and Time to Degree at German Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theune, Katja

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes time to first degree at German universities. The database is the "Absolventenpanel" 2001, a panel study conducted by the "Hochschul-Informations-System." The German university system is characterized by a long duration of study; the regular time is often exceeded. One potential reason might be the high…

  13. A Student's Guide to German American Genealogy. Oryx American Family Tree Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robl, Gregory

    This book is designed to help the novice in understanding how to conduct genealogical research for German ancestors. A brief introduction to each chapter offers ideas on topics for research and resources to consult. Chapters include: (1) "Why Trace Your Roots?"; (2) "The History of Germany and German Emigration"; (3)…

  14. A Comparative Study on Storytelling Perceptions of Chinese, Vietnamese, American, and German Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Kate; Stanley, Nile; Stanley, Laurel; Rank, Astrid; Wang, Yonghui

    2016-01-01

    The study compared the perceptions of adults from four countries about storytelling. Americans (N = 153), Germans (N = 163), Chinese (N = 324), and Vietnamese (N = 356) completed a survey. Americans' scores on measures of storytelling experiences were the highest overall. Americans and Germans reported having significantly more childhood…

  15. Research on Educational Standards in German Science Education--Towards a Model of Student Competences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulgemeyer, Christoph; Schecker, Horst

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of research on modelling science competence in German science education. Since the first national German educational standards for physics, chemistry and biology education were released in 2004 research projects dealing with competences have become prominent strands. Most of this research is about the structure of…

  16. A Comparative Study on Storytelling Perceptions of Chinese, Vietnamese, American, and German Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Kate; Stanley, Nile; Stanley, Laurel; Rank, Astrid; Wang, Yonghui

    2016-01-01

    The study compared the perceptions of adults from four countries about storytelling. Americans (N = 153), Germans (N = 163), Chinese (N = 324), and Vietnamese (N = 356) completed a survey. Americans' scores on measures of storytelling experiences were the highest overall. Americans and Germans reported having significantly more childhood…

  17. Making German-American Connections through Culture Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sheryl

    1998-01-01

    Describes 12 German-American projects designed for high school students of German, including a biography of a German-American; video presentation on German immigration; oral report on German ancestors; Amish, Pennsylvania Dutch, and Mennonites; German inscriptions on cemetery headstones; interview with a German-speaking immigrant; immigration…

  18. Further evidence for the influence of photoperiod at birth on chronotype in a sample of German adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Christian; Randler, Christoph; Di Milia, Lee

    2012-12-01

    Individuals differ in their circadian preferences (chronotype). There is evidence in the literature to support a season-of-birth effect on chronotype but the evidence is not convincing. In part, the relationship is obscured by a number of methodological differences between studies, including the measures used to define morningness, the way in which the seasons were categorized, and the sample size. This study adds to the literature in several ways. First, we adopt a new approach to categorizing the photoperiod rather than the calendar season; thus we prefer to use the term photoperiod at birth. Second, we used two measures of morningness. Third, we used a large and homogeneous German sample. The results show that adolescents (n = 2905) born during the increasing photoperiod (Feb-Apr) had a significantly later midpoint of sleep (MSFsc) than those born during the decreasing photoperiod (Aug-Oct). A similar pattern was found for the Composite Scale of Morningness (CSM). Furthermore, both measures of chronotype demonstrated a significant quadratic function over a 1-yr cycle. When looking at each of six consecutive years separately, the Composite Scale of Morningness suggests a cosine rhythm linked to increasing and decreasing photoperiods that becomes weaker in amplitude with increasing age. Despite the strengths in our study, the effect of photoperiod at birth on chronotype remains small. Future studies may require larger sample sizes, may need to explore how neonatal light exposure modulates chronotype, and may need to track how puberty and adolescent lifestyle habits mask the photoperiod effect.

  19. Psychometric properties of a short version of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-8) in a German representative sample.

    PubMed

    Richter, Felicitas; Strauss, Bernhard; Braehler, Elmar; Altmann, Uwe; Berger, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Disordered eating is common for all ages and sexes in the general population. However, only some individuals are known to develop clinically relevant eating disorders. There is a critical need of efficient, reliable and valid screening instruments to measure disordered eating for the general population. The Eating Attitudes Test was shortened into an 8-item-version to screen individuals at high risk of developing clinical eating disorders in a general population sample. Psychometric properties (Cronbach's α, construct and concurrent validity and factor structure), cutoff scores (with sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value) and norms were determined in a representative sample of the German population (N=2527). Factorial validity was investigated using item response modeling. Results confirmed reliability and validity of the questionnaire. Internal consistency and convergent validity were good. Analysis revealed different cutoff points for male and female participants. Values for sensitivity and specificity were satisfying and the positive predictive value was higher compared to other short screening instruments for disordered eating. Factorial analysis revealed a one-factor solution with an excellent model fit. The elimination of one item was discussed. Gender- and age-specific norms are reported. Overall results indicated that the EAT-8 is an efficient instrument suitable for screening purposes in large general population samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Detection of the ethanol consumption markers ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate in urine samples from inmates of two German prisons.

    PubMed

    Thierauf-Emberger, Annette; Franz, Anette; Auwärter, Volker; Huppertz, Laura M

    2016-03-01

    Abstinence from ethanol is necessary in various situations. Among these are jail terms. Nevertheless, it is a matter of fact that ethanol is illegally produced and ingested in prisons. So far, data regarding drug prevalence in jail have mainly been collected by questionnaires. To get an objective database for the prevalence of ethanol consumption in jail, a cross-sectional study was performed. Inmates of two German prisons (Offenburg and Freiburg) were asked to give a urine sample at an unknown and random point of time. Participation was voluntary and did lead to neither negative consequences nor benefits. All samples were anonymized. Using the consumption markers ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS), the urine samples were tested for previous ethanol consumption. Analyses were performed by a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. In total 676 male inmates participated in this study. The participation rate was 70-75% of all permanent inmates in Offenburg and 30.6% in Freiburg. Ten of the 555 (1.8%) samples from Offenburg and 1 of the 121 (0.8%) samples from Freiburg were positive for ethanol consumption markers with concentrations ranging from trace amounts to 1400 ng/mL for EtG and up to 510 ng/mL for EtS, respectively. The number of participants in this study was rather high, so that the results represent a good cross section, at least for Offenburg, the jail with the higher number of positive samples.

  1. Who Wants to Become a Child Psychiatrist? Lessons for Future Recruitment Strategies from a Student Survey at Seven German Medical Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lempp, Thomas; Neuhoff, Nina; Renner, Tobias; Vloet, Timo D.; Fischer, Helmut; Stegemann, Thomas; Zepf, Florian D.; Robner, Veit; Kolch, Michael; Haessler, Frank; Mattejat, Fritz; Lehr, Dirk; Bachmann, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this survey was to investigate undergraduate German medical students' attitudes toward child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) and to describe the characteristics of students considering CAP as a possible career choice. Methods: The authors conducted a cross-sectional, multicenter survey of medical students (at the time…

  2. Who Wants to Become a Child Psychiatrist? Lessons for Future Recruitment Strategies from a Student Survey at Seven German Medical Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lempp, Thomas; Neuhoff, Nina; Renner, Tobias; Vloet, Timo D.; Fischer, Helmut; Stegemann, Thomas; Zepf, Florian D.; Robner, Veit; Kolch, Michael; Haessler, Frank; Mattejat, Fritz; Lehr, Dirk; Bachmann, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this survey was to investigate undergraduate German medical students' attitudes toward child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) and to describe the characteristics of students considering CAP as a possible career choice. Methods: The authors conducted a cross-sectional, multicenter survey of medical students (at the time…

  3. High concentrations of furan fatty acids in organic butter samples from the German market.

    PubMed

    Wendlinger, Christine; Vetter, Walter

    2014-08-27

    Furan fatty acids (F-acids) are valuable antioxidants containing a furan moiety in the central part of the molecule. They occur in the lipids of different foodstuffs and plants, with grass being the main source for their presence in milk fat and butter. Because cows from organic farming receive higher portions of grass-based feed, it was tested whether organic butter samples (n = 26) contain more F-acids than conventional ones (n = 25) in Germany. For this purpose, samples were melted, and the lipid phase was separated and transesterified into methyl esters, which were enriched using silver ion chromatography and analyzed by GC-EI/MS in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Levels of F-acids in butter were higher in summer than in winter, and in both seasons, organic samples contained significantly higher levels of F-acids than conventional ones (one-way ANOVA: p < 0.001). Furthermore, the daily intake of F-acids via milk fat and other foodstuffs was calculated.

  4. Complementary and Alternative Medicine: Comparison of Current Knowledge, Attitudes and Interest among German Medical Students and Doctors

    PubMed Central

    Münstedt, Karsten; Harren, Hildegard; von Georgi, Richard; Hackethal, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Although it has been agreed that complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) should be included in the German medical curriculum, there is no consensus on which methods and how it should be taught. This study aimed to assess needs for CAM education by evaluating current knowledge, attitudes and interests of medical students, general physicians and gynecologists. Two instruments based on established and validated questionnaires were developed. One was given to seventh semester medical students and the other to office-based doctors. Data were analyzed by bivariate correlation and cross-tabulation. Altogether 550 questionnaires were distributed—280 to doctors and 270 to medical students. Completed questionnaires were returned by 80.4% of students and 78.2% of doctors. Although 73.8% (160/219) of doctors and 40% (87/217) of students had already informed themselves about CAM, neither group felt that they knew much about CAM. Doctors believed that CAM was most useful in general medicine, supportive oncology, pediatrics, dermatology and gynecology, while students believed that dermatology, general medicine, psychiatry and rheumatology offered opportunities; both recommended that CAM should be taught in these areas. Both groups believed that CAM should be included in medical education; however, they believed that CAM needed more investigation and should be taught “critically". German doctors and students would like to be better informed about CAM. An approach which teaches fundamental competences to students, chooses specific content based on evidence, demographics and medical conditions and provides students with the skills they need for future learning should be adopted. PMID:19098296

  5. Parents with mental health problems and their children in a German population based sample: Results of the BELLA study

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Christiane; Barkmann, Claus; Wiegand-Grefe, Silke; Hölling, Heike; Schulte-Markwort, Michael; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Klasen, Fionna

    2017-01-01

    Background Mental health problems (MHP) of parents are associated with an increased risk of psychological and developmental difficulties in their children. This study aims at analyzing population-based data of parents with MHP and their children and the effects of associated risk factors in order to further targeted preventive and therapeutic interventions. Methods The BELLA study is the mental health module of the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey among Children and Adolescents. MHP in parents and in their children as well as associated risk factors were examined in a sample of N = 1158 parents with children aged 11 to 17 years. Results Parental MHP were identified in 18.6% of the sample. Risk factors associated with parental MHP were low SES, parental unemployment, stressful life events, parental daily strain, parental chronic disease, and child MHP. A rate of 19.1% of the children of parents with MHP reported MHP themselves, the corresponding rate among children of parents without MHP was 7.7%. In multiple regression analyses the risk for children of parents with MHP to report MHP themselves was almost two times higher than the risk of children of parents without MHP. Other significant associations with child MHP included gender, the parents’ age, and stressful life events. Conclusions Parental MHP constitute a significant risk for the mental health of their children. Targeted screening methods and preventive interventions are needed. PMID:28671981

  6. Validation of the Internet Gaming Disorder Questionnaire in a Sample of Adult German-Speaking Internet Gamers.

    PubMed

    Jeromin, Franziska; Rief, Winfried; Barke, Antonia

    2016-07-01

    With the inclusion of Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders comes the need for a reliable and valid questionnaire to assess the diagnosis. The Internet Gaming Disorder Questionnaire (IGDQ) is a short tool that measures IGD. Our study aimed at investigating its psychometric properties in a sample of German gamers. Eight hundred ninety-four Internet game players (mean age: 26.5 ± 8.5 years, range: 18-75 years, 87.36% male) completed an online version of the IGDQ and the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS) and provided information on their Internet and gaming use. Item and reliability analyses were computed. To investigate the component structure, the sample was randomly divided into two subsamples. A maximum likelihood factor analysis was conducted for one subsample and a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) for the other subsample. The IGDQ had a Cronbach's alpha of 0.70. The IGDQ score correlated with the CIUS score (r = 0.59) and the time spent playing (r = 0.24). The maximum likelihood factor analysis extracted one component, explaining 30.26% of the variance, which was confirmed by the CFA. The correlation of the IGDQ score with the CIUS score is a first indicator that the IGDQ allows for valid interpretations. In all, 7.94% of the gamers met the criteria for IGD.

  7. Effects of Fertilization and Sampling Time on Composition and Diversity of Entire and Active Bacterial Communities in German Grassland Soils

    PubMed Central

    Herzog, Sarah; Wemheuer, Franziska; Wemheuer, Bernd; Daniel, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Soil bacteria are major players in driving and regulating ecosystem processes. Thus, the identification of factors shaping the diversity and structure of these communities is crucial for understanding bacterial-mediated processes such as nutrient transformation and cycling. As most studies only target the entire soil bacterial community, the response of active community members to environmental changes is still poorly understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of fertilizer application and sampling time on structure and diversity of potentially active (RNA-based) and the entire (DNA-based) bacterial communities in German grassland soils. Analysis of more than 2.3 million 16S rRNA transcripts and gene sequences derived from amplicon-based sequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed that fertilizer application and sampling time significantly altered the diversity and composition of entire and active bacterial communities. Although the composition of both the entire and the active bacterial community was correlated with environmental factors such as pH or C/N ratio, the active community showed a higher sensitivity to environmental changes than the entire community. In addition, functional analyses were performed based on predictions derived from 16S rRNA data. Genes encoding the uptake of nitrate/nitrite, nitrification, and denitrification were significantly more abundant in fertilized plots compared to non-fertilized plots. Hence, this study provided novel insights into changes in dynamics and functions of soil bacterial communities as response to season and fertilizer application. PMID:26694644

  8. Sampling distributions for introductory statistics students using internet polling software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagaman, John C.

    2013-04-01

    The topic of sampling distributions is the first source of considerable difficulty for introductory statistics students. In this article, an active learning idea for an introduction to sampling distributions is presented. The activity uses real data collected from the class, and the results are used to generate sampling distributions using electronic communication of sample statistics from student mobile telephones.

  9. Parameters influencing health variables in a sample of 949 German teachers.

    PubMed

    Unterbrink, Thomas; Zimmermann, Linda; Pfeifer, Ruth; Wirsching, Michael; Brähler, Elmar; Bauer, Joachim

    2008-10-01

    Studies including investigations by our group indicate a significantly strained health of school teachers. Only little is known about the influence of single parameters that may act as predictors of teachers' ill health. By using stepwise regression, in a sample of N = 949 school teachers, we analyzed the correlation between personal and professional parameters on the one side and measures such as GHQ, MBI, and ERI on the other. We found a significant correlation of work place-related factors with parameters of ill health. Compared to all other factors considered, verbal insults by pupils had the strongest impact. Positive feedback by parents and pupils or support by colleagues and school heads had a significant protective influence. Our data demonstrate that interpersonal factors appear to play a prominent role with respect to both strain and protection of teachers' health.

  10. Mercapturic acids as metabolites of alkylating substances in urine samples of German inhabitants.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Elisabeth; Schmid, Klaus; Schaller, Barbara; Hiddemann-Koca, Kerstin; Drexler, Hans; Göen, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Hydroxyalkyl mercapturic acids (HAMA) are the main urinary metabolites of several alkylating substances that possess a carcinogenic potential, like acrolein, 1,3-butadiene, ethylene oxide, propylene oxide and glycidol. These alkylating substances are used extensively in industrial processes, but they do also occur environmentally, e.g. in tobacco smoke. The aim of this study was the determination of six HAMA, as biomarkers of exposure, in human urine of smokers and non-smokers. We applied a sensitive analytical method, using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) for the determination of 2-hydroxyethyl mercapturic acid (HEMA, biomarker for ethylene oxide), 2-hydroxypropyl mercapturic acid (2-HPMA, biomarker for propylene oxide), 3-hydroxypropyl mercapturic acid (3-HPMA, biomarker for acrolein), 2,3-dihydroxypropyl mercapturic acid (DHPMA, biomarker for glycidol) as well as 3,4-dihydroxybutyl mercapturic acid and 3-monohydroxybutenyl mercapturic acids (DHBMA and MHBMA, biomarkers for 1,3-butadiene). Background concentrations of four HAMA were detected in each urine sample we analyzed. The mercapturic acids HEMA and MHBMA were detected in 55% and 10% of the samples, respectively. In the urine of non-smokers (n = 54) we observed median levels of 206, 1.6, 12.1, 146, 159, and <5.0 μg/g creatinine for DHPMA, HEMA, 2-HPMA, 3-HPMA, DHBMA and MHBMA, respectively. Among smokers (n = 40) median levels of DHPMA, HEMA, 2-HPMA, 3-HPMA, DHBMA and MHBMA were determined to be 217, 4.9, 46.2, 884, 211 and <5.0 μg/g creatinine, respectively. The excretion rate of the biomarkers HEMA, 2-HPMA and 3-HPMA was distinctly higher in smokers than in non-smokers. Furthermore, our study revealed a comparatively high background level of DHPMA in urine of smokers and non-smokers whose origin is still unknown. The presented data may contribute to the evaluation of reference values for urinary HAMA levels in the general population. Copyright

  11. Utilization of professional psychological care in a large German sample of cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Faller, Hermann; Weis, Joachim; Koch, Uwe; Brähler, Elmar; Härter, Martin; Keller, Monika; Schulz, Holger; Wegscheider, Karl; Boehncke, Anna; Hund, Bianca; Reuter, Katrin; Richard, Matthias; Sehner, Susanne; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Mehnert, Anja

    2017-04-01

    Although one-third of cancer patients are perceived to have a need for psychological support based on the percentage of mental disorders, little is known about the actual utilization of psychological care in cancer. We aimed to assess cancer patients' reported use of psychological care and its correlates in a large, representative sample. In a multicenter, cross-sectional study in Germany, 4020 cancer patients (mean age 58 years, 51% women) were evaluated. We obtained self-reports of use of psychotherapy and psychological counseling. We measured distress with the Distress Thermometer, symptoms of depression with the Patient Health Questionnaire, anxiety with the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale, and social support with the Illness-specific Social Support Scale. In a subsample of 2141, we evaluated the presence of a mental disorder using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. In total, 28.9% (95% confidence interval 27.4%-30.4%) reported having used psychotherapy or psychological counseling or both because of distress due to cancer. Independent correlates of utilization included age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.97 per year], sex (male, OR = 0.55), social support (OR = 0.96), symptoms of depression (OR = 1.04) and anxiety (OR = 1.08), the diagnosis of a mental disorder (OR = 1.68), and a positive attitude toward psychosocial support (OR = 1.27). Less than half of those currently diagnosed with a mental disorder reported having taken up psychological support offers. Special efforts should be made to reach populations that report low utilization of psychological care in spite of having a need for support. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Cultivation of vancomycin-resistant enterococci and methicillin-resistant staphylococci from input and output samples of German biogas plants.

    PubMed

    Glaeser, Stefanie P; Sowinsky, Olivia; Brunner, Jana S; Dott, Wolfgang; Kämpfer, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) were detected in two mesophilic German biogas plants (BGPs) using selective pre-enrichment methods combined with cultivation on CHROMagar media and antibiotic resistance gene screening. Genetic fingerprinting and 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed the presence of enterococci isolated by the VRE selective cultivation (67 isolates) in input and output samples of BGPs. In contrast, MRS (44 isolates) were detected in input, but in none of the output samples. Enterococcus isolates showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (>99.8%) to E. lemanii, E. casseliflavus/E. gallinarium or E. devriesei/E. pseudoavium/E. viikkiensis and carried vanA, vanB and/or vanC1 genes. Enterococcus faecium and E. faecalis VRE were not detected, but isolates closely related to those species (>99.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) were detected by the MRS selective cultivation methods. Staphylococcus isolates shared highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (>99.9%) with S. haemolyticus, S. lentus and S. sciuri and carried mecA genes. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were not detected. In summary, manure from livestock husbandry contained both, VRE and MRS. VRE were also detected in output samples, indicating that enterococci with vancomycin resistance genes could be release into the environment by the application of BGP output material as biofertilizers. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Dopamine D4 receptor exon III polymorphism, adverse life events and personality traits in a nonclinical German adult sample.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Iris; Spangler, Gottfried

    2011-01-01

    Personality and temperament embrace a wide area of both psychological and behavioral processes which are also based on disposition. A functional polymorphism in exon III of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) has been a highly suspect genetic marker for personality in spite of ambiguous results. The present study aimed to further elucidate the relationship between DRD4, negative life events and personality in a representative nonclinical sample. Hundred sixty-seven Germans completed the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire and the California Adult Q-Sort. A factor analysis revealed 3 factors: emotional stability, social orientation and impulsivity. DNA from buccal cells was genotyped for the DRD4 variable-number tandem-repeat exon III polymorphism with respect to presence versus absence of the DRD4 7-repeat allele. Adverse life events were assessed by means of the Adverse Life Events Scale. Men carrying the DRD4 7-repeat allele were more impulsive than those without. Male 7-repeat carriers were more emotionally instable than others, but only when they experienced a large amount of negative life events. No genotype-personality relationships were found for women. The results indicate gender-specific influences of the DRD4 gene on human behavior and invite researchers to further investigate gene-environment correlations on personality traits. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Humboldtian Values in a Changing World: Staff and Students in German Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Rosalind

    2004-01-01

    The globalisation of higher education implies the application of a neo-liberal market forces model based on competition and choice. This is happening in Germany by gradual stages, and is often, but not necessarily correctly, assumed to be antagonistic to the Humboldtian model that underlies the classical German university tradition. This paper…

  15. Humboldtian Values in a Changing World: Staff and Students in German Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Rosalind

    2004-01-01

    The globalisation of higher education implies the application of a neo-liberal market forces model based on competition and choice. This is happening in Germany by gradual stages, and is often, but not necessarily correctly, assumed to be antagonistic to the Humboldtian model that underlies the classical German university tradition. This paper…

  16. As Euro Crisis Heightens, Germans Resist Tapping Foreign Students for Revenue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2012-01-01

    As Europe has lurched from one economic crisis to another in recent months, one thing has become clear: Any long-term solution will depend on the willingness of Germany, Europe's largest economy, to shoulder much of the financial burden the debt crisis has created. German taxpayers, known for their thrift, have balked at underwriting what many see…

  17. The Stability of Student Attitudes toward German Language and Culture Over an Academic Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Manfred

    A research project is described which, using Gardner and Lambert's scales plus 10 other instruction-related items, sought: (1) to examine the stability of attitudes, as changes might occur from the beginning of a course to its end; (2) subsequently, to draw inferences as to the impact that a German language and/or culture course might have on…

  18. The Relationship of Intercultural Contact and Language Learning Motivation among Hungarian Students of English and German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csizer, Kata; Kormos, Judit

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we report the results of a questionnaire survey conducted with 1777 Hungarian primary school children aged between 13 and 14 studying English and German. In our research we investigated the differences in the motivational and intercultural contact measures as well as determinants of motivated behaviour between learners of English and…

  19. FACTORIAL VALIDITY OF THE SHORT FORM OF THE CHILDHOOD TRAUMA QUESTIONNAIRE (CTQ-SF) IN GERMAN PSYCHIATRIC PATIENTS, INMATES, AND UNIVERSITY STUDENTS.

    PubMed

    Dudeck, Manuela; Vasic, Nenad; Otte, Stefanie; Streb, Judith; Wingenfeld, Katja; Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Freyberger, Harald J; Schröder, Tina; Von Schönfeld, Carl-Ernst; Driessen, Martin; Barnow, Sven; Spitzer, Carsten

    2015-06-01

    For the purpose of retrospective assessment and characterization of childhood trauma in adults, the factorial validity of the short form of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-SF) in Germany was evaluated by conducting confirmatory factor analyses for three samples including 1,524 adult psychiatric patients, 224 inmates, and 295 university students. In addition, sex-specific confirmatory factor analyses were performed within each sample. Because several authors have suggested a different factor structure than that originally proposed in the manual, two competing models focusing on the Physical neglect subscale were examined. In psychiatric patients and inmates, the fit indices were reasonable to good. Among the students, factor loadings were markedly lower, and fit indices were poor. Sex-specific analyses did not indicate sex differences. Comparing the original and the alternative models revealed better fit indices of the original factor structure. The present findings indicate that the German version of the CTQ-SF has factorial validity in psychiatric patients and inmates, but not in students.

  20. Hydrological variables play a remarkable role in temporal dynamics of daily sampled diatom community in a German lowland river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiuming; Wu, Naicheng; Faber, Claas; Fohrer, Nicola

    2017-04-01

    Temporal dynamics of diatom community with relation to abiotic factors is an important part of water quality monitoring and water resource management. However, the contribution of hydrological variables to temporal diatom variation has been rarely reported, especially at a short-interval sampling scale. Based on daily riverine diatom samples over a 1-year period (25 April 2013 - 30 April 2014) at the outlet of a German lowland river, we aimed to examine the temporal variation patterns of diatom community and to compare the relative importance between chemical and hydrological variables of affecting the temporal diatom community variation. Among the 339 samples, a total of 113 diatom taxa from 45 genera were identified. Sampling dates with similar species composition and structure were classified into five clusters by a Kohonen Self-Organizing Map (SOM) method within Matlab software. These five groups were distinct with respect to species composition, density, richness, and indicator species, as well as environmental variables. Redundancy analysis (RDA) and variance partitioning techniques were used to explain the relationships between environmental variables and diatom community dynamics. For the whole dataset, chemical and hydrological variables could jointly explain 50.17% of the diatom community variation including chemical variables with 36.45% and hydrological variables with 12.89%. The most important chemical variables were Phosphate-Phosphorus (PO4-P) and Silicon (Si) concentrations, while the most significant hydrological variable was antecedent precipitation index (API), indicating the importance of nutrient and hydrological factor in shaping diatom structure. In general, the relative importance of chemical and hydrological factors to diatom communities varied among seasons (or SOM clusters). Partial RDAs revealed that 3.60%, 11.96%, 7.10%, 10.4% and 7.11% of diatom variation can be explained by hydrological variables from cluster 1 to 5, while 52.71%, 47

  1. Reliability, factor structure, and validity of the German version of the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children in a sample of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Matulis, Simone; Loos, Laura; Langguth, Nadine; Schreiber, Franziska; Gutermann, Jana; Gawrilow, Caterina; Steil, Regina

    2015-01-01

    The Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSC-C) is the most widely used self-report scale to assess trauma-related symptoms in children and adolescents on six clinical scales. The purpose of the present study was to develop a German version of the TSC-C and to investigate its psychometric properties, such as factor structure, reliability, and validity, in a sample of German adolescents. A normative sample of N=583 and a clinical sample of N=41 adolescents with a history of physical or sexual abuse aged between 13 and 21 years participated in the study. The Confirmatory Factor Analysis on the six-factor model (anger, anxiety, depression, dissociation, posttraumatic stress, and sexual concerns with the subdimensions preoccupation and distress) revealed acceptable to good fit statistics in the normative sample. One item had to be excluded from the German version of the TSC-C because the factor loading was too low. All clinical scales presented acceptable to good reliability, with Cronbach's α's ranging from .80 to .86 in the normative sample and from .72 to .87 in the clinical sample. Concurrent validity was also demonstrated by the high correlations between the TSC-C scales and instruments measuring similar psychopathology. TSC-C scores reliably differentiated between adolescents with trauma history and those without trauma history, indicating discriminative validity. In conclusion, the German version of the TSC-C is a reliable and valid instrument for assessing trauma-related symptoms on six different scales in adolescents aged between 13 and 21 years.

  2. Reliability, factor structure, and validity of the German version of the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children in a sample of adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Matulis, Simone; Loos, Laura; Langguth, Nadine; Schreiber, Franziska; Gutermann, Jana; Gawrilow, Caterina; Steil, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Background The Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSC-C) is the most widely used self-report scale to assess trauma-related symptoms in children and adolescents on six clinical scales. The purpose of the present study was to develop a German version of the TSC-C and to investigate its psychometric properties, such as factor structure, reliability, and validity, in a sample of German adolescents. Method A normative sample of N=583 and a clinical sample of N=41 adolescents with a history of physical or sexual abuse aged between 13 and 21 years participated in the study. Results The Confirmatory Factor Analysis on the six-factor model (anger, anxiety, depression, dissociation, posttraumatic stress, and sexual concerns with the subdimensions preoccupation and distress) revealed acceptable to good fit statistics in the normative sample. One item had to be excluded from the German version of the TSC-C because the factor loading was too low. All clinical scales presented acceptable to good reliability, with Cronbach's α's ranging from .80 to .86 in the normative sample and from .72 to .87 in the clinical sample. Concurrent validity was also demonstrated by the high correlations between the TSC-C scales and instruments measuring similar psychopathology. TSC-C scores reliably differentiated between adolescents with trauma history and those without trauma history, indicating discriminative validity. Conclusions In conclusion, the German version of the TSC-C is a reliable and valid instrument for assessing trauma-related symptoms on six different scales in adolescents aged between 13 and 21 years. PMID:26498182

  3. Psychometric evaluation of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Screener GAD-7, based on a large German general population sample.

    PubMed

    Hinz, Andreas; Klein, Annette M; Brähler, Elmar; Glaesmer, Heide; Luck, Tobias; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Wirkner, Kerstin; Hilbert, Anja

    2017-03-01

    The Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scales GAD-7 and GAD-2 are instruments for the assessment of anxiety. The aims of this study are to test psychometric properties of these questionnaires, to provide normative values, and to investigate associations with sociodemographic factors, quality of life, psychological variables, and behavioral factors. A German community sample (n=9721) with an age range of 18-80 years was surveyed using the GAD-7 and several other questionnaires. Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the unidimensionality and measurement invariance of the GAD-7 across age and gender. Females were more anxious than males (mean scores: M=4.07 vs. M=3.01; effect size: d=0.33). There was no linear age trend. A total of 5.9% fulfilled the cut-off criterion of 10 and above. Anxiety was correlated with low quality of life, fatigue, low habitual optimism, physical complaints, sleep problems, low life satisfaction, low social support, low education, unemployment, and low income. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption were also associated with heightened anxiety, especially in women. When comparing the GAD-7 (7 items) with the ultra-short GAD-2 (2 items), the GAD-7 instrument was superior to the GAD-2 regarding several psychometric criteria. The response rate (33%) was low. Because of the cross-sectional character of the study, causal conclusions cannot be drawn. A further limitation is the lack of a gold standard for diagnosing anxiety. The GAD-7 can be recommended for use in clinical research and routine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Rapid determination of nine parabens and seven other environmental phenols in urine samples of German children and adults.

    PubMed

    Moos, Rebecca K; Angerer, Jürgen; Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Wilhelm, Michael; Brüning, Thomas; Koch, Holger M

    2014-11-01

    We developed a fast, selective and sensitive on-line LC/LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of nine parabens and seven environmental phenols in urine. Parabens are widely used as antimicrobial preservatives. Bisphenol A, triclosan, triclocarban, 2-phenylphenol, and benzophenones are used inter alia in disinfectants, sunscreens and in polymers. Some of these substances are suspected endocrine disruptors. Limits of quantification and analytical quality criteria fully met the needs for determining exposure levels occurring in the general population. We analyzed 157 spot urine samples from the general German population (59 females, 39 males and 59 children). For the parabens, we found methyl, ethyl and n-propyl paraben with high detection rates (77-98%), followed by n-butyl (36%), iso-butyl (17%), iso-propyl (3%) and benzyl paraben (3%). We detected no pentyl and heptyl paraben. Urinary concentrations were highest for methyl paraben (median 24.5 μg/L; 95th percentile 379 μg/L) followed by ethyl (1.4 μg/L; 35.2 μg/L) and n-propyl paraben (1.2 μg/L; 68.1 μg/L). Other environmental phenols with high detection rates were BPA (95%), triclosan (45%) and benzophenone 1 and 3 (26%). For most of the parabens/environmental phenols we found higher urinary levels in females than in males or children, probably due to differences in (personal care) product use. However, high levels (in the mg/L range) were also observed in children. Exposure to the above substances is occurring worldwide. Differences between countries do seem to exist and might be caused by different product compositions or different use habits. Human metabolism data is urgently needed to extrapolate from urinary biomarker levels to doses actually taken up. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and bone turnover markers in a population based sample of German children

    PubMed Central

    Thiering, E.; Brüske, I.; Kratzsch, J.; Hofbauer, L. C.; Berdel, D.; von Berg, A.; Lehmann, I.; Hoffmann, B.; Bauer, C. P.; Koletzko, S.; Heinrich, J.

    2015-01-01

    Severe vitamin D deficiency is known to cause rickets, however epidemiological studies and RCTs did not reveal conclusive associations for other parameters of bone health. In our study, we aimed to investigate the association between serum levels of 25(OH) vitamin D and bone turnover markers in a population-based sample of children. 25(OH)D, calcium (Ca), osteocalcin (OC), and β-Crosslaps (β-CTx) were measured in 2798 ten-year-old children from the German birth cohorts GINIplus and LISAplus. Linear regression was used to determine the association between bone turnover markers and 25(OH)D levels. 25(OH)D, OC, and β-CTx showed a clear seasonal variation. A 10 nmol/l increase in 25(OH)D was significantly associated with a 10.5 ng/l decrease (p < 0.001) in β-CTx after adjustment for design, sex, fasting status, time of blood drawn, BMI, growth rate, and detectable testosterone/estradiol. For OC alone no significant association with 25(OH)D was observed, whereas the β-CTx-to-OC ratio was inversely associated with 25(OH)D (−1.7% change, p < 0.001). When stratifying the analyses by serum calcium levels, associations were stronger in children with Ca levels below the median. This study in school-aged children showed a seasonal variation of 25(OH)D and the bone turnover markers OC and β-CTx. Furthermore a negative association between 25(OH)D and the bone resorption marker β-CTx was observed. PMID:26667774

  6. Exploring the Role of Context in Students' Understanding of Sampling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wroughton, Jacqueline R.; McGowan, Herle M.; Weiss, Leigh V.; Cope, Tara M.

    2013-01-01

    Context provides meaning for data analysis and the evaluation of evidence but may be distracting to students. This research explores the role of context in students' reasoning about sampling: specifically, the relationship between the strength of students' opinions about a topic, which provides the context for a study, and their ability to judge…

  7. Exploring the Role of Context in Students' Understanding of Sampling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wroughton, Jacqueline R.; McGowan, Herle M.; Weiss, Leigh V.; Cope, Tara M.

    2013-01-01

    Context provides meaning for data analysis and the evaluation of evidence but may be distracting to students. This research explores the role of context in students' reasoning about sampling: specifically, the relationship between the strength of students' opinions about a topic, which provides the context for a study, and their ability to judge…

  8. German students' current choice of profession in the field of psychotherapy: Reasons for or against engaging in psychoanalytic training.

    PubMed

    Lebiger-Vogel, Judith

    2016-04-01

    The psychoanalytic societies in Germany as in many other countries are concerned by a decline in the number of candidates for full psychoanalytic training. While this situation is partly attributable to changes both in society and in educational and healthcare systems, it is questionable whether psychoanalytic training institutions have yet found adequate responses to it. Under the banner of 'evidence-based treatment', behaviour therapy has come to be widely disseminated, with major implications for the teaching of different psychotherapy paradigms at universities. To investigate the determinants of this trend in the specific German situation, a large-scale, multi-method exploratory study supported by IPA's DPPT programme was undertaken, focusing on the reasons given by a population (N = 679) of German psychology, medical, and education students for embarking on training in psychoanalysis or behaviour therapy. The results suggest that behaviour therapy is more compatible with the prevailing scientific understanding and with current societal and cultural trends, owing in part to inadequacies or bias in university teaching of the various paradigms of psychotherapy. While most of the psychology students expressed a preference for behavioural training, the psychotherapy option proved less attractive for their counterparts in the fields of medicine and education. Semi-standardized qualitative interviews were used to gain a deeper understanding of the students' decisions for or against training in a specific paradigm, and led to the identification of seven decision-making prototypes. Possible reasons for the students' decisions are discussed, and concrete proposals and recommendations are presented. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  9. The Vocational Interests of a Sample of Optometry Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emling, Robert C.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory, with a vocational title called Optometry, was used to profile a sample of second-year optometry students and to compare them with samples of practicing optometrists. One conclusion questions these students' compatibility with older practitioners. (MLW)

  10. Aspects of Students' Reasoning about Variation in Empirical Sampling Distributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Jennifer; Shaughnessy, J. Michael

    2012-01-01

    Sampling tasks and sampling distributions provide a fertile realm for investigating students' conceptions of variability. A project-designed teaching episode on samples and sampling distributions was team-taught in 6 research classrooms (2 middle school and 4 high school) by the investigators and regular classroom mathematics teachers. Data…

  11. The Importance of Introductory Statistics Students Understanding Appropriate Sampling Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menil, Violeta C.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the author discusses the meaning of sampling, the reasons for sampling, the Central Limit Theorem, and the different techniques of sampling. Practical and relevant examples are given to make the appropriate sampling techniques understandable to students of Introductory Statistics courses. With a thorough knowledge of sampling…

  12. Aspects of Students' Reasoning about Variation in Empirical Sampling Distributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Jennifer; Shaughnessy, J. Michael

    2012-01-01

    Sampling tasks and sampling distributions provide a fertile realm for investigating students' conceptions of variability. A project-designed teaching episode on samples and sampling distributions was team-taught in 6 research classrooms (2 middle school and 4 high school) by the investigators and regular classroom mathematics teachers. Data…

  13. Strengths and limitations of actuarial prediction of criminal reoffence in a German prison sample: a comparative study of LSI-R, HCR-20 and PCL-R.

    PubMed

    Dahle, Klaus-Peter

    2006-01-01

    Unlike many other countries, for many years, Germany disregarded structured instruments for assessing the risk of criminal reoffence. However, this negative attitude now seems to be gradually changing. An increasing number of contributions regarding structured instruments have been published in the German literature in the last years, and some instruments have already found their way into practice. However, studies that systematically examine the applicability of the mostly Anglo-American instruments to German criminals are still lacking. Therefore, the major objective of the current study was to test some internationally established procedures in a larger unselected sample from the German penal system. The following were included in the study: the Level of Service Inventory - Revised (LSI-R), the HCR-20 Scheme, and the Psychopathy Checklist - Revised (PCL-R). On the whole, the instruments proved to be applicable to German criminals with only a few adaptations to the German situation, and they achieved a predictive accuracy comparable to the values reported internationally. However, there were only minor differences in the predictive performance between the measures. Moreover, some basic limitations became apparent. Firstly, we found quite high percentages of criminals with medium scores and a correspondingly ambiguous prognosis. Furthermore, the predictive accuracy seemed to be dependent on demographic, criminological and psychopathological characteristics of the offenders. Finally, the instruments appeared to only partially utilize the empirical store of knowledge available regarding factors influencing the recidivism of criminals, since even a simple predictive model that only added a few further aspects besides the tested instruments (e. g. treatment yes or no) achieved systematically better predictions than the instruments alone. Altogether, the tested measures turned out to be useful instruments for risk assessments and may be conducive for a more systemized

  14. Do Research Findings Apply to My Students? Examining Study Samples and Sampling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Bryan G.; Cook, Lysandra

    2017-01-01

    Special educators are urged to use research findings to inform their instruction in order to improve student outcomes. However, it can be difficult to tell whether and how research findings apply to one's own students. In this article, we discuss how special educators can consider the samples and the sampling methods in studies to examine the…

  15. A FREQUENCY COUNT OF CONTEMPORARY GERMAN VOCABULARY BASED ON THREE CURRENT LEADING NEWSPAPERS. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SWENSON, RODNEY

    THIS FREQUENCY LISTING OF CONTEMPORARY GERMAN VOCABULARY BASED ON A TABULATION OF A 584,000 WORD SAMPLE TAKEN FROM THREE WIDELY READ, GEOGRAPHICALLY REPRESENTATIVE WEST GERMAN NEWSPAPERS WAS DESIGNED, PRIMARILY, TO BE USED AS A PEDAGOGICAL TOOL BY TEACHERS AND STUDENTS, TEXT AND TEST WRITERS, CURRICULUM PLANNERS, AND RESEARCH SCHOLARS IN UPDATING…

  16. Hey, you! The Germans! Using Literary Pragmatics to Teach Language as Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Chantelle

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the author outlines a sample lesson that has been developed for second- or third-year German students using the short satirical vignette "Hurra, ich lebe in Deutschland" from the Turkish-German author Sinasi Dikmen's book of the same name. The lesson draws heavily from literary pragmatics, an area of applied linguistics which studies…

  17. German as a Business Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Brian J.; Hahn, Martin

    1995-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the subject of Business German. Aspects covered include the rising general significance of business languages and concomitant increase in demand for Business German from employers, commerce-students and humanities students, the historical development of academic courses, integration of language skills with…

  18. Long-term effects on adult attachment in German occupation children born after World War II in comparison with a birth-cohort-matched representative sample of the German general population.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Marie; Kuwert, Philipp; Braehler, Elmar; Glaesmer, Heide

    2016-10-28

    Children born of war are a phenomenon of every conflict. At the end of World War II and thereafter, approximately 400,000 children were fathered by foreign soldiers and born to local women in Germany. Quantitative research on psychosocial consequences of growing up as German occupation child (GOC) has been missing so far. This study examines adult attachment and its association with current depression in GOC (N = 146) using self-report instruments: Adult Attachment Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire. Data were compared to a birth-cohort-matched representative sample of the German population (BCMS; N = 786). GOC differ in both attachment dimensions (less comfortable with closeness/intimacy, lowered ability to depend on others) and adult attachment (more dismissive and fearful) compared to BCMS. Insecure adult attachment is associated with current depression. GOC grew up under difficult circumstances (e.g. poverty, adverse events, and stigmatization). Even decades later they display more insecure attachment in current relationships. Findings underline the complex and long-term impact of their developmental conditions on attachment and current mental health.

  19. A Case Study on Student Satisfaction for Graduates of the German Language Teachers' Blended MA Program of the Hellenic Open University, Classes of 2012 and 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeppos, Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the lack of research into satisfaction assessment of post-graduate students of the Blended Distance Learning Master's Course for Teachers of German as a Foreign Language offered by the Hellenic Open University. Through the compilation of previous questionnaires implemented for other DL programs and newly defined research…

  20. From Foreigner Pedagogy to Intercultural Education: An Analysis of the German Responses to Diversity and Its Impact on Schools and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faas, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Germany has been reluctant to adapt its education systems to the growing number of minority ethnic students, and politicians and policy makers have only recently officially acknowledged that Germany is an immigration country despite decades of mass immigration. This article first provides a socio-historical analysis of the German responses to…

  1. A Survey of Teacher Attitudes of the German Democratic Republic to War and Peace and Their Perceptions and Misperceptions of Canadian Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Alan Z.

    Forty teachers attending a summer institute in East Germany in August of 1987 were given a questionnaire concerning their attitudes towards the German Democratic Republic and their opinions, perceptions, and misperceptions of Canadian students. The questionnaire was applied in Zwickau, East Germany at a small pedagogical college. Teachers were…

  2. Studying Critical Classroom Encounters: The Experiences of Students in German College Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voss, Roediger

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to explore satisfactory and unsatisfactory classroom (student-lecturer) encounters in higher education from a student's perspective. Design/methodology/approach: The critical incident technique (CIT) is used to categorise positive and negative student-lecturer interactions, to reveal quality dimensions of the lecturer,…

  3. Precision of Student Growth Percentiles with Small Sample Sizes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    States in the Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Central region serve a largely rural population with many states enrolling fewer than 350,000 students. A common challenge identified among REL Central educators is identifying appropriate methods for analyzing data with small samples of students. In particular, members of the REL Central…

  4. Teacher Work Samples & Struggling Readers: Impacting Student Performance & Candidate Dispositions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartwright, Dennis D.; Blacklock, Karen K.

    This study reports positive impacts of a modified version of the teacher work sample on performance of struggling K-12 readers and on the dispositions of interns who worked with them. The participants included 55 university students in a year-long, senior-level internship and 55 elementary students identified as struggling readers. The…

  5. [German Version of the Social Impact Scale (SIS-D)--Pilot Testing of an Instrument for Measuring Experienced Stigmatization in a Sample of Cancer Patients].

    PubMed

    Eichhorn, Svenja; Mehnert, Anja; Stephan, Marc

    2015-05-01

    PURPOSE of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the newly adapted German Version of the Social Impact Scale (SIS), a multidimensional questionnaire measuring perceived stigmatization. The SIS was translated into the German language following state-of-the-art criteria and completed in a sample of 139 outpatients with mixed tumor entities. In addition to the SIS-D, participants answered questions about their experience of discrimination and perceived visibility of their disease as well as about illness beliefs and perceptions of cancer control. Comparably to the original scale, exploratory factor analysis resulted in a 4-factor solution and the following dimensions: "social isolation" (Cronbachs α=0.89), "social rejection" (α=0.81), "internalized shame" (α=0.81) and "financial insecurity" (α=0.81). Considering the results of this pilot study, it can be concluded that the German version of the SIS is an instrument measuring perceived stigmatization in cancer patients with very good psychometric properties. However, further validation studies are considered necessary. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. [Rheumatology - Integration into student training (RISA) : Current structure of clinical rheumatology in German universities (RISA III)].

    PubMed

    Riemekasten, G; Aringer, M; Baerwald, C G O; Meyer-Bahlburg, A; Bergner, R; Feuchtenberger, M; Gebhardt, C; Hellmich, B; Keyßer, G; Lorenz, H-M; Kneitz, C; Witte, T; Müller-Ladner, U; Schneider, M; Braun, J; Rautenstrauch, J; Specker, C; Schulze-Koops, H

    2016-06-01

    The German Society of Rheumatology and the Committee for Student Training investigated what effects the structures in university medicine have on student teaching. In February 2014 a questionnaire was sent to the teaching staff and Deans of each of the 37 medical faculties. Of the locations seven were classified as being independent rheumatological university hospitals and nine universities had a W2/W3/C3 grade professor as head of a department of clinical rheumatology but answerable to superiors. In the 37 faculties in Germany the proportion of lecture hours, the proportion of obligatory lecture hours, the number of hours for practical exercises and the number of hours for bedside teaching were distributed very differently and as a rule higher in universities with academic freedom. Not all medical faculties have obligatory teaching in the field of clinical rheumatology. On average medical students see five patients with rheumatological symptoms during their studies. In summary, over the past years it has not been possible to successfully utilize the great importance of rheumatology for society and the innovation potential of this discipline in order to improve the integration of clinical rheumatology into universities.

  7. Measuring the Interest of German Students in Agriculture: the Role of Knowledge, Nature Experience, Disgust, and Gender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickel, Malte; Strack, Micha; Bögeholz, Susanne

    2015-06-01

    Modern knowledge-based societies, especially their younger members, have largely lost their bonds to farming. However, learning about agriculture and its interrelations with environmental issues may be facilitated by students' individual interests in agriculture. To date, an adequate instrument to investigate agricultural interests has been lacking. Research has infrequently considered students' interest in agricultural content areas as well as influencing factors on students' agricultural interests. In this study, a factorial design of agricultural interests was developed combining five agricultural content areas and four components of individual interest. The instrument was validated with German fifth and sixth graders ( N = 1,085) using a variance decomposition confirmatory factor analysis model. The results demonstrated a second-order factor of general agricultural interest, with animal husbandry, arable farming, vegetable and fruit cropping, primary food processing, and agricultural engineering as discrete content areas of agricultural interest. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that prior knowledge, garden experience, and disgust sensitivity are predictors of general agricultural interest. In addition, gender influenced interest in four of the five agricultural content areas. Implications are directed at researchers, teachers, and environmental educators concerning how to trigger and develop pupils' agricultural interests.

  8. Bilingual teaching for multilingual students? Innovative dual-medium models in Slovene-German schools in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purkarthofer, Judith; Mossakowski, Jan

    2011-12-01

    Traditional bilingual education programmes in regional linguistic minority contexts face major challenges within the recent paradigm of linguistic diversity against a background of increasing migration, mobility and trans-locality. Based on three case studies, the authors of this paper focus on how particular dual-medium models are applied in Slovene-German schools in Carinthia, Austria. They examine not only how these schools provide for a balanced bilingual teaching and learning environment, but also how they deal with their students' multilingual realities and support their identification with bi- and multilingualism. The authors regard schools as institutional sites where linguistic dispositions are subject to discursive power relations and where language policies and educational goals are negotiated by teachers, parents and students alike. Drawing on speaker-centred and ethnographic approaches in sociolinguistic research, the authors seek to document experiences of all actors involved as well as spatial and discursive practices. Through this the authors show how these dual-medium schools achieve particular profiles in multilingual education which are potentially regarded as innovative examples of best-practice and as being of interest for students and families with heterogeneous linguistic backgrounds.

  9. [The German academic degree "Dr. med." is better than its reputation. Results of a questionnaire of doctoral students].

    PubMed

    Pabst, R; Park, D-H; Paulmann, V

    2012-11-01

    Recently there were mostly emotional debates about the scientific background and relevance of the German academic title "Dr. med.", while objective data are scarce. When submitting their doctoral thesis at the Medical School of Hannover students were asked anonymously about the type, topic, duration, quality of supervision as well as frequency and type of publication of the results. 180 doctoral candidates (62% women) participated in the study. The supervision was graded as good by the majority of students. The duration working on the thesis was equivalent to 47 weeks of a full time employment. There was some negative influence in participating in lectures and courses. Nearly all participants (98%) would recommend younger students to work on a dissertation as they had done themselves in parallel to the curriculum. The ability of how to interprete scientific data was assumed to be positively influenced. About two thirds stated that the results had been published in original articles at the time of submitting the thesis. More data from other medical faculties are needed to document the relevance of the medical dissertation to replace the emotional by a more rational debate. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. German high school students' attitudes and interest in cancer and factors influencing proactive behaviour for cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Heuckmann, Benedikt; Asshoff, Roman

    2014-09-01

    Cancer diseases are pertinent topics to young people, who are confronted with the issue through media or family members that suffer from these diseases. Based on a paper-and-pencil questionnaire, we investigated German high school students' (N = 369, 16-18 years old) interest in and their attitudes towards cancer. Attitude was assessed measuring multiple dimensions that included scales to measure several components: the cognitive (beliefs about the controllability of cancer), the affective (emotional responses towards cancer) and the behavioural (intention for proactive behaviour towards cancer) components. A student assessment of carcinogenic risk factor was executed. Our results suggest that students' willingness to deal with the topic cancer (e.g. to communicate about cancer or to reconsider their lifestyle) is highly dependent on their interest, their emotional responses and their beliefs about the controllability of cancer. Their assessment of carcinogenic risk factors does not have a direct influence on their intentions to behave proactively against cancer but might have an indirect influence on their beliefs about the controllability of cancer. Based on these results, we have drawn teaching implications and discussed which factors should be included in teaching processes in order to stimulate proactive behaviour related to cancer prevention.

  11. German medical students' interest in and knowledge about human sexuality in 1972 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Turner, Daniel; Jopt, Konstantin; Nieder, Timo O; Briken, Peer

    2014-08-01

    During the 1970s, a growing number of medical schools began to recognize the importance of medical education concerning human sexuality. Currently, most medical schools provide at least some instruction in human sexuality. In light of this development, the present study aimed to compare the interest in and knowledge about human sexuality of medical students from two different time periods. The answers to a self-constructed questionnaire of 236 students in 1972 were compared with those of 259 students in 2012. Students were asked whether they were interested in education regarding human sexuality and which specific topics they felt should be included in the medical curriculum. The students' knowledge in the following domains was assessed: sexual development, sexual behavior, sexual physiology and psychology, and sexual medicine. The two cohorts were compared with regard to those specific sexuality-related topics in which the students were most and least interested in. Furthermore, the number of correct responses to the knowledge questions was compared. While in 1972, 99.2% of the students were interested in medical education about human sexuality, in 2012, 80.3% showed an interest. The connection of disorders from different medical disciplines with sexuality was rated as most interesting by both the students from 1972 and 2012. Medical students from 2012 gave 50.3% correct answers to the knowledge questions, whereas students from 1972 correctly answered 46.3% of the questions. Although interest in education concerning human sexuality has decreased, the majority of students view it as an important topic. Nevertheless, medical students still lack knowledge about important aspects of human sexuality (e.g., psychosexual development and relative safety of different contraceptives). Therefore, more time should be dedicated to education concerning human sexuality and its cultural, societal, and health aspects in particular. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  12. Elderhostels: Teaching and Learning with Americans of German Descent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichmann, Eberhard; Reichmann, Ruth M.

    1998-01-01

    Describes three workshops designed for an Elderhostel program whose audience is largely Americans of German descent and the grandparents of today's students. The workshop topics include an introduction to the German-American experience and German-American studies; German American customs, beliefs, and traditions; and German-American genealogy,…

  13. Selected Experiences of International Students Enrolled in English Taught Programs at German Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallum Beatty, Krista L.

    2010-01-01

    Higher education is becoming increasingly internationalized, and a significant aspect of the internationalization of higher education is student mobility. A relatively new feature in international student mobility is the offer of English taught programs. Wachter and Maiworm (2008) define English taught programs as "programmes taught in…

  14. APTI Course 450, Source Sampling for Particulate Pollutants. Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldina, G. J.; Jahnke, J. A.

    This student manual is designed to accompany a four and one half day course in isokinetic air pollution source sampling. Covered in the manual under chapter headings are: (1) basic definitions; (2) basic concepts of gases; (3) United States EPA methods sampling train; (4) calibration procedures; (5) source testing; (6) source sampling…

  15. APTI Course 450, Source Sampling for Particulate Pollutants. Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northrup Services, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC.

    This workbook is intended to provide practice problems and exercises for the technical student of particulate pollution sampling. Arranged to accompany each of 18 lectures, the chapters deal with aspects of isokinetic air pollution source sampling. Each chapter precedes the exercises by a list of lesson objectives. Three appendices supplement the…

  16. Psychometric evaluation of the Client-Centered Rehabilitation Questionnaire (CCRQ) in a large sample of German rehabilitation patients.

    PubMed

    Körner, Mirjam; Dangel, Hanna; Plewnia, Anne; Haller, Julia; Wirtz, Markus A

    2017-07-01

    Structural analysis of the German translation of the "Client-Centered Rehabilitation Questionnaire" (CCRQ). Cross-sectional multicenter study. Ten inpatient rehabilitation centers in Germany. The CCRQ was completed by patients in the ten rehabilitation centers. The psychometric analysis of the CCRQ was conducted using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. The CCRQ was completed by 496 patients (average age: 59 years; 59.7% women). The CCRQ's 7-factor structure could not be confirmed. Factor analysis showed that the three latent constructs "decision-making/communication", "self-management/empowerment", and "psychosocial well-being" (60.73% variance explained) adequately represent patient-centeredness in medical rehabilitation assessed by the CCRQ. The scales possess good reliability (Cronbach's α = .83 to .87) and convergent criterion validity (r = 0.48 to 0.68). The three-factorial model exhibited good local and global data fit (RMSEA: 0.063, CFI 0.962, TLI 0.954) and proved to have a better data fit than concurring models (e.g. a model assuming an underlying factor). A validated short form of the Client-Centered Rehabilitation Questionnaire, CCRQ-15, could be identified. Three scales based on 15 items allow assessing the key aspects of patient-centeredness in German medical rehabilitation.

  17. Substitution treatment and HCV/HIV-infection in a sample of 31 German prisons for sentenced inmates.

    PubMed

    Schulte, B; Stöver, H; Thane, K; Schreiter, C; Gansefort, D; Reimer, J

    2009-01-01

    Injection drug use (IDU) and IDU-related infectious diseases such as hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are highly prevalent among prisoners worldwide. However, little is known about the prevalence of IDUs, HCV/HIV and the availability of respective treatment options in German prisons. Data provided by prison physicians of 31 prisons, representing 14,537 inmates, were included in this analysis. The proportion of IDUs among all prisoners was 21.9%. Substitution treatment was available in three out of four prisons (74.2%). Overall, 1137 substitution treatments were provided annually with a wide range of treatment aims. The prevalence rate was 14.3% for HCV and 1.2% for HIV. Around 5.5% of all HCV-infected prisoners were in antiviral treatment annually, 86.5% of all HIV-positive inmates in antiretroviral HIV-treatment. Generally, substitution treatment, and HCV and HIV testing and treatment are available. However, due to abstinence-orientated treatment aims, substitution treatment is rarely available as maintenance treatment, and HCV/HIV-treatment is mainly provided for patients with an existing treatment before imprisonment. The inconsistent data quality necessitates changes in prison-related policy to improve surveillance and to generate aggregated data in German prisons. The selection process in this analysis might lead to overestimating the provision of substitution and antiviral HCV-treatment.

  18. Risk factors for mental disorders develop early in German students of dentistry.

    PubMed

    Scholz, M; Neumann, C; Ropohl, A; Paulsen, F; Burger, P H M

    2016-11-01

    We investigated mental risk factors such as symptoms of burnout and sense of coherence in students of dental medicine at the University of Erlangen in the context of a learning type survey. Our aim was to assess the presence of analogies to the results we had previously determined for students of human medicine. We surveyed a total of 163 dentistry students during the first 2.5 years, up to the first state examination. To ensure comparability, the data were collected from all students at the beginning of each semester. Standardized, validated questionnaires on burnout symptoms (Burnout Screening Scales; BOSS-II), sense of coherence (Sense of Coherence Scale; SOC-L9) and learning type according to Kolb were used in the survey. A total of about 90% of the students provided responses to the voluntary survey. The extent and manifest dynamics of the stress levels observed can be characterized as dramatic. Having started out at cognitive and emotional stress levels typical of the normal populace, a massive deterioration of these parameters was observed in the students by the time they were facing their first state examination in the 5th semester. At the same time, their sense of coherence also suffered a pronounced drop-off. No significant learning type-correlated differences were determined in a mean comparison of the measured parameters. Based on the results obtained, we see a need for preventive course offerings to students of dentistry to reduce the prevalence of mental disorders in this group. We discern additional potential for enhancement of mental health with courses more specifically geared to the different learning styles among the students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. The experience sampling method: Investigating students' affective experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissen, Jayson M.; Stetzer, MacKenzie R.; Shemwell, Jonathan T.

    2013-01-01

    Improving non-cognitive outcomes such as attitudes, efficacy, and persistence in physics courses is an important goal of physics education. This investigation implemented an in-the-moment surveying technique called the Experience Sampling Method (ESM) [1] to measure students' affective experience in physics. Measurements included: self-efficacy, cognitive efficiency, activation, intrinsic motivation, and affect. Data are presented that show contrasts in students' experiences (e.g., in physics vs. non-physics courses).

  20. Global Health Education: a cross-sectional study among German medical students to identify needs, deficits and potential benefits (Part 1 of 2: Mobility patterns & educational needs and demands).

    PubMed

    Bozorgmehr, Kayvan; Schubert, Kirsten; Menzel-Severing, Johannes; Tinnemann, Peter

    2010-10-08

    In recent years, education and training in global health has been the subject of recurring debate in many countries. However, in Germany, there has been no analysis of the educational needs or demands of medical students, or the educational deficits or potential benefits involved in global health education. Our purpose is to analyse international health elective patterns of medical students enrolled at German universities and assess whether or how they prepare for their electives abroad. We examine the exposure of medical students enrolled at German universities to training courses in tropical medicine or global health and assess students' perceived needs and demands for education in global health. Cross-sectional study among medical students in Germany including all 36 medical schools during the second half of the year 2007. All registered medical students were eligible to participate in the study. Recruitment occurred via electronic mailing-lists of students' unions. We developed a web-based, semi-structured questionnaire to capture students' international mobility patterns, preparation before electives, destination countries, exposure to and demand for global health learning opportunities. 1126 online-replies were received and analysed from all registered medical students in Germany (N = 78.067). 33.0% of all respondents (370/1126) declared at least one international health elective and of these, 36.0% (133/370) completed their electives in developing countries. 36.0% (131/363) did not prepare specifically at all, 59.0% (214/363) prepared either by self-study or declared a participation in specific preparation programmes. 87.8% of 5th and 6th year students had never participated in a global health course and 72.6% (209/288) had not completed a course in tropical medicine. 94.0% (861/916) endorsed the idea of introducing global health into medical education. Students in our sample are highly mobile during their studies. International health electives are common

  1. Global Health Education: a cross-sectional study among German medical students to identify needs, deficits and potential benefits (Part 1 of 2: Mobility patterns & educational needs and demands)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In recent years, education and training in global health has been the subject of recurring debate in many countries. However, in Germany, there has been no analysis of the educational needs or demands of medical students, or the educational deficits or potential benefits involved in global health education. Our purpose is to analyse international health elective patterns of medical students enrolled at German universities and assess whether or how they prepare for their electives abroad. We examine the exposure of medical students enrolled at German universities to training courses in tropical medicine or global health and assess students' perceived needs and demands for education in global health. Methods Cross-sectional study among medical students in Germany including all 36 medical schools during the second half of the year 2007. All registered medical students were eligible to participate in the study. Recruitment occurred via electronic mailing-lists of students' unions. We developed a web-based, semi-structured questionnaire to capture students' international mobility patterns, preparation before electives, destination countries, exposure to and demand for global health learning opportunities. Results 1126 online-replies were received and analysed from all registered medical students in Germany (N = 78.067). 33.0% of all respondents (370/1126) declared at least one international health elective and of these, 36.0% (133/370) completed their electives in developing countries. 36.0% (131/363) did not prepare specifically at all, 59.0% (214/363) prepared either by self-study or declared a participation in specific preparation programmes. 87.8% of 5th and 6th year students had never participated in a global health course and 72.6% (209/288) had not completed a course in tropical medicine. 94.0% (861/916) endorsed the idea of introducing global health into medical education. Conclusion Students in our sample are highly mobile during their studies

  2. [The first wave of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1): sample design, response, weighting and representativeness].

    PubMed

    Kamtsiuris, P; Lange, M; Hoffmann, R; Schaffrath Rosario, A; Dahm, S; Kuhnert, R; Kurth, B M

    2013-05-01

    The "German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults" (DEGS) is part of the health monitoring program of the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) and is designed as a combined cross-sectional and longitudinal survey. The first wave (DEGS1; 2008-2011) comprised interviews and physical examinations. The target population were 18- to 79-year olds living in Germany. The mixed design consisted of a new sample randomly chosen from local population registries which was supplemented by participants from the "German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998" (GNHIES98). In total, 8,152 persons took part, among them 4,193 newly invited (response 42%) and 3,959 who had previously taken part in GNHIES98 (response 62%). 7,238 participants visited one of the 180 local study centres, 914 took part in the interview-only programme. The comparison of the net sample with the group of non-participants and with the resident population of Germany suggests a high representativeness regarding various attributes. To account for certain aspects of the population structure cross-sectional, trend and longitudinal analyses are corrected by weighting factors. Furthermore, different participation probabilities of the former participants of GNHIES98 are compensated for. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental.

  3. Intercultural Communication Skills among Prospective Turkish Teachers of German in the Context of the Comparative Country Knowledge Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basbagi, R. Ragip

    2012-01-01

    This study develops and provides a sample implementation of a seminar for the "Comparative Country Knowledge" course taught in the German Language Teaching departments of Turkish universities. The study was conducted with the participation of forty-seven 1st year students attending a German Language Teaching department. As part of the…

  4. Awareness and knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases among secondary school students in two German cities.

    PubMed

    Samkange-Zeeb, Florence; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T; Zeeb, Hajo

    2013-04-01

    Several western countries have reported increases of sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhea, syphilis and chlamydia since the mid-1990s, especially among teenagers 16-19 years old. We conducted a school-based survey to assess awareness and knowledge of STDs among students attending the 8th grade and above in Bremen and Bremerhaven, two cities in northern Germany. Between October and December 2011 students completed an anonymous questionnaire on awareness and knowledge of STDs in 8 different schools. To assess awareness of STDs, the students were asked to indicate which STDs they had heard of. Knowledge of STDs was assessed based on 4 general questions. Furthermore, comprehensive awareness of HPV was assessed based on 3 items. We assessed differences in HPV awareness and knowledge of STDs by key demographic variables such as age, gender and migrant background. A total of 1,148 students aged 12-20 years (response 28 %) completed the questionnaire. 31 % had a migrant background and 55 % were girls. Almost all students had heard of HIV/AIDS, but only 23 % of chlamydia and 13 % of HPV. Significantly more girls than boys had heard of HPV (18 vs. 8 %) and chlamydia (31 vs. 16 %). Generally, low levels of STD knowledge and awareness of HPV were observed. In multivariable analyses, age, gender, and ever having had sex were associated with both STD knowledge and awareness of HPV. HIV/AIDS remains the only sexually transmitted disease most students have heard of. Sex education at school needs to be broadened to include STDs other than HIV/AIDS.

  5. Reading and Spelling Skills in German Third Graders: Examining the Role of Student and Context Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suchodoletz, Antje; Larsen, Ross A. A.; Gunzenhauser, Catherine; Fäsche, Anika

    2015-01-01

    Background: Educational processes and outcomes are influenced by a multitude of factors, including individual and contextual characteristics. Recently, studies have demonstrated that student and context characteristics may produce unique and cumulative effects on educational outcomes. Aims: The study aimed to investigate (1) the relative…

  6. Attitudes of German Teachers and Students towards Public Online Ratings of Teaching Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinz, Arnold

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Rating scales evaluating the quality of teaching are widely used by academic institutions and have become increasingly popular in the World Wide Web. This study examines teachers' and teacher-education students' knowledge and experience with public online ratings of teaching quality and their attitude towards them. Method: Based on…

  7. Reading and Spelling Skills in German Third Graders: Examining the Role of Student and Context Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suchodoletz, Antje; Larsen, Ross A. A.; Gunzenhauser, Catherine; Fäsche, Anika

    2015-01-01

    Background: Educational processes and outcomes are influenced by a multitude of factors, including individual and contextual characteristics. Recently, studies have demonstrated that student and context characteristics may produce unique and cumulative effects on educational outcomes. Aims: The study aimed to investigate (1) the relative…

  8. Teaching German Modal Particles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosler, Dietmar

    1982-01-01

    Believes modern linguistics has done little to explore German modal particles because by focusing on sentences as the basic category for linguistic thinking these words did not seem to matter. Describes model which gives students experience with these particles in meaningful communication. (Author/BK)

  9. Know Your Laws. German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joan Q.; Karch, Hannelore

    This German language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult student with laws she/he will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three…

  10. Teaching German with TPRS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidheiser, James

    2002-01-01

    Outlines the research leading to Total Physical Response (TRP) and later Total Physical Response Storytelling (TPRS) methods. Discusses the day-to-day use in the German classroom of TPRS by an experienced practitioner and explains the reasons for its success. Presents student evaluations of the method and the material available for its use. (AS)

  11. Teaching German with TPRS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidheiser, James

    2002-01-01

    Outlines the research leading to Total Physical Response (TRP) and later Total Physical Response Storytelling (TPRS) methods. Discusses the day-to-day use in the German classroom of TPRS by an experienced practitioner and explains the reasons for its success. Presents student evaluations of the method and the material available for its use. (AS)

  12. Teaching German Modal Particles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosler, Dietmar

    1982-01-01

    Believes modern linguistics has done little to explore German modal particles because by focusing on sentences as the basic category for linguistic thinking these words did not seem to matter. Describes model which gives students experience with these particles in meaningful communication. (Author/BK)

  13. Reaching a Representative Sample of College Students: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giovenco, Daniel P.; Gundersen, Daniel A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the feasibility of a random-digit dial (RDD) cellular phone survey in order to reach a national and representative sample of college students. Methods: Demographic distributions from the 2011 National Young Adult Health Survey (NYAHS) were benchmarked against enrollment numbers from the Integrated Postsecondary Education…

  14. Reaching a Representative Sample of College Students: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giovenco, Daniel P.; Gundersen, Daniel A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the feasibility of a random-digit dial (RDD) cellular phone survey in order to reach a national and representative sample of college students. Methods: Demographic distributions from the 2011 National Young Adult Health Survey (NYAHS) were benchmarked against enrollment numbers from the Integrated Postsecondary Education…

  15. Discourses of sexual relationships in a sample of German and British young people: a Q methodological study.

    PubMed

    Franz, Anke; Worrell, Marcia; Vögele, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Young people live in an environment that sexualises them, particularly women, along traditional gender roles. This, in parallel with a silence about positive sexuality in policy development, means that sexual double standards prevail in young people's lives. The aim of this study was to explore the discourses young women and men from two European countries, Germany and England, draw on when making sense of sexual relationships and how these are steeped in the local cultural climate and messages. The study used Q methodology and included 65 German and English young people between 16 and 19 years of age. Six accounts emerged: sex as responsible, intimate and shared experience; sex as joint fun; ideal versus reality; sex has to be responsible, consensual and shared; caring relationships offer the perfect context for fulfilling sex; and equality between partners. The importance of cultural context in the availability of specific dominant and alternative discourses is discussed with a focus on how this influences young people's sense-making with regard to sexuality and sexual relationships. Future directions for research are highlighted.

  16. German Teaching: The German Journal of the Association for Language Learning, 1994-1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brien, Alistair, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This journal focuses on teaching and learning German as a foreign language. Selected articles include the following: "Give Students Autonomy!" German in Great Britain"; "Open Access and Listening Skills"; "Communication with Computers"; "The Quest for Fluency and Accuracy"; "Binational Problem…

  17. Enriching the Curriculum with Pennsylvania German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meindl, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    The German classroom should prepare students for the linguistic diversity of the target culture, including regional varieties and German spoken outside of the D-A-CH region. Because textbooks do not often include materials on regional varieties, this article presents a model to incorporate Pennsylvania German (PG) into the curriculum. The model…

  18. Enriching the Curriculum with Pennsylvania German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meindl, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    The German classroom should prepare students for the linguistic diversity of the target culture, including regional varieties and German spoken outside of the D-A-CH region. Because textbooks do not often include materials on regional varieties, this article presents a model to incorporate Pennsylvania German (PG) into the curriculum. The model…

  19. Self-Perception of Medical Students' Knowledge and Interest in Disaster Medicine: Nine Years After the Approval of the Curriculum in German Universities.

    PubMed

    Wunderlich, Robert; Ragazzoni, Luca; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi; Corte, Francesco Della; Grundgeiger, Jan; Bickelmayer, Jens Werner; Domres, Bernd

    2017-08-01

    Following the recommendations of the World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine (WADEM; Madison, Wisconsin USA) to develop standards for training the undergraduates in disaster-relevant fields (2004), a German curriculum was approved in 2006. This paper aims to describe the level of training and interest of medical students nine years later. Problem The aim of this study was to assess the self-perception of medical students' knowledge and interest in disaster medicine nine years after the implementation of a standardized disaster medicine curriculum in German medical schools. This prospective, cross-sectional, observational study was conducted with medical students in Germany using a web-based, purpose-designed questionnaire consisting of 27 mandatory and 11 optional questions. Nine hundred ninety-two students from 36 of 37 medical schools in Germany participated. More than one-half of medical students were aware of the field of disaster medicine. One hundred twenty-one students undertook training internally within their university and 307 undertook training externally at other institutions. Only a small content of the curriculum was taught. A difference in self-perception of knowledge between trained and untrained participants was found, despite the level of training being low in both groups. Participants were generally highly motivated to learn disaster medicine in a variety of institutions. German students are still largely not well educated regarding disaster medicine, despite their high motivation. The curriculum of 2006 was not implemented as originally planned and the number of trained students still remains low as the self-perception of knowledge. Currently, there is no clear and standardized training concept in place. A renewal in the agreement of implementation of the curriculum at medical schools should be targeted in order to follow the recommendation of WADEM. Wunderlich R Ragazzoni L Ingrassia PL Della Corte F Grundgeiger J Bickelmayer JW

  20. Who wants to become a child psychiatrist? Lessons for future recruitment strategies from a student survey at seven German medical schools.

    PubMed

    Lempp, Thomas; Neuhoff, Nina; Renner, Tobias; Vloet, Timo D; Fischer, Helmut; Stegemann, Thomas; Zepf, Florian D; Rößner, Veit; Kölch, Michael; Haessler, Frank; Mattejat, Fritz; Lehr, Dirk; Bachmann, Christian

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this survey was to investigate undergraduate German medical students' attitudes toward child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) and to describe the characteristics of students considering CAP as a possible career choice. The authors conducted a cross-sectional, multicenter survey of medical students (at the time of their first CAP lecture) at seven German medical schools. The students completed an anonymous self-report questionnaire, asking about their attitude toward CAP and their view of CAP as a possible career choice. Of the 574 students, 42.9% had "high" or "very high" interest in CAP, and 59.4% rated CAP basic knowledge as "highly" or "very highly" relevant for their prospective work as physicians. CAP was a possible career choice for 25.4%. The most frequently mentioned reasons for choosing CAP were interesting clinical cases (65.8%), helping ill children (52.1%), and close patient-physician contact (50.7%). The most frequently mentioned reasons against this decision were a definite decision for another subspecialty (54.8%), expected difficulties in working with parents and family members (35.3%), and an expected high emotional burden (29.6%). In addition to the highly significant correlation with general interest in CAP, students with previous experience in general psychiatry and CAP clinical courses, as well as female students and students with relatives or acquaintances with CAP-related disorders, showed the highest interest in CAP as a possible career choice. The majority of the students surveyed showed a positive attitude toward CAP and considered CAP basic knowledge to be relevant for their future work. When designing recruitment strategies, it may be helpful to consider that CAP exposure early in the curriculum might be decisive and that students with previous clinical courses in this field, as well as female students, showed the highest interest in CAP as a possible career choice.

  1. Secondary School Students' Reasoning about Conditional Probability, Samples, and Sampling Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prodromou, Theodosia

    2016-01-01

    In the Australian mathematics curriculum, Year 12 students (aged 16-17) are asked to solve conditional probability problems that involve the representation of the problem situation with two-way tables or three-dimensional diagrams and consider sampling procedures that result in different correct answers. In a small exploratory study, we…

  2. Recidivism in female offenders: PCL-R lifestyle factor and VRAG show predictive validity in a German sample.

    PubMed

    Eisenbarth, Hedwig; Osterheider, Michael; Nedopil, Norbert; Stadtland, Cornelis

    2012-01-01

    A clear and structured approach to evidence-based and gender-specific risk assessment of violence in female offenders is high on political and mental health agendas. However, most data on the factors involved in risk-assessment instruments are based on data of male offenders. The aim of the present study was to validate the use of the Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R), the HCR-20 and the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG) for the prediction of recidivism in German female offenders. This study is part of the Munich Prognosis Project (MPP). It focuses on a subsample of female delinquents (n = 80) who had been referred for forensic-psychiatric evaluation prior to sentencing. The mean time at risk was 8 years (SD = 5 years; range: 1-18 years). During this time, 31% (n = 25) of the female offenders were reconvicted, 5% (n = 4) for violent and 26% (n = 21) for non-violent re-offenses. The predictive validity of the PCL-R for general recidivism was calculated. Analysis with receiver-operating characteristics revealed that the PCL-R total score, the PCL-R antisocial lifestyle factor, the PCL-R lifestyle factor and the PCL-R impulsive and irresponsible behavioral style factor had a moderate predictive validity for general recidivism (area under the curve, AUC = 0.66, p = 0.02). The VRAG has also demonstrated predictive validity (AUC = 0.72, p = 0.02), whereas the HCR-20 showed no predictive validity. These results appear to provide the first evidence that the PCL-R total score and the antisocial lifestyle factor are predictive for general female recidivism, as has been shown consistently for male recidivists. The implications of these findings for crime prevention, prognosis in women, and future research are discussed.

  3. Comparing Subjective With Objective Sleep Parameters Via Multisensory Actigraphy in German Physical Education Students.

    PubMed

    Kölling, Sarah; Endler, Stefan; Ferrauti, Alexander; Meyer, Tim; Kellmann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This study compared subjective with objective sleep parameters among 72 physical education students. Furthermore, the study determined whether 24-hr recording differs from nighttime recording only. Participants wore the SenseWear Armband™ for three consecutive nights and kept a sleep log. Agreement rates ranged from moderate to low for sleep onset latency (ICC = 0.39 to 0.70) and wake after sleep onset (ICC = 0.22 to 0.59), while time in bed (ICC = 0.93 to 0.95) and total sleep time (ICC = 0.90 to 0.92) revealed strong agreement during this period. Comparing deviations between 24-hr wearing time (n = 24) and night-only application (n = 20) revealed no statistical difference (p > 0.05). As athletic populations have yet to be investigated for these purposes, this study provides useful indicators and practical implications for future studies.

  4. [Vaccination among students in grades 6-10, 2011 - a comparison of German states: need for action for a targeted nationwide immunisation strategy].

    PubMed

    Ellsäßer, G; Trost-Brinkhues, G

    2013-11-01

    In Germany, surveillance of the population's immunisation is only mandatory for school beginners, not for adolescents. Therefore, no current data are available from the public health service related to the immunisation of adolescents. Also lacking are nationwide monitoring data regarding HPV vaccination among girls aged 12-18 years and the meningococcal C vaccination, both recently introduced by the German Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO) in 2009 and 2006, respectively. The present research and analysis therefore aims to determine which German states perform a monitoring of the vaccination status of adolescents, how immunisation rates differ across German states and what need for action, in terms of a nationwide immunisation strategy, can be derived. A systematic survey of vaccination coverage among students in grades 6-10 (age group 12-16 years) for the school year 2010/11 was undertaken. The defined documentation standard is based on the standard vaccinations for children and adolescents according to STIKO, requiring complete primary immunization (PI) and the number of booster vaccinations. In the analysis, 8 of 16 states were included, due to lack of data for the remaining states. In total, the public health service -examined 157,599 school children in 8 German states and checked 103,250 vaccination certificates (on average 68.1%, range 54.9-85.2%). The implementation of the booster vaccination among students in grades 6-10 proved to be insufficient. The 2-dose measles vaccination, required by the WHO for 95% of the population, was only nearly achieved by 2 of 8 German states -(Saxony-Anhalt, Brandenburg). The effects of insufficient immunisation coverage are shown by, for example, a higher measles incidence rate in children under 15 years and a persisting peak of pertussis incidence in 10- to 15-year-olds. The meningococcal C vaccination, introduced in 2006, was insufficiently taken up by students and very differently implemented among the 8 -German

  5. How Do Students Perceive the International Dimension in Social Work Education?: An Enquiry among Swedish and German Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trygged, Sven; Eriksson, Bodil

    2012-01-01

    Globalization, internationalization, and regionalization affect domestic social work. This paper explores how undergraduate students perceive international aspects of their social work education. A questionnaire was distributed to social work undergraduates in Stockholm, Sweden (n = 97), and Darmstadt, Germany (n = 43). Results showed that a…

  6. How Do Students Perceive the International Dimension in Social Work Education?: An Enquiry among Swedish and German Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trygged, Sven; Eriksson, Bodil

    2012-01-01

    Globalization, internationalization, and regionalization affect domestic social work. This paper explores how undergraduate students perceive international aspects of their social work education. A questionnaire was distributed to social work undergraduates in Stockholm, Sweden (n = 97), and Darmstadt, Germany (n = 43). Results showed that a…

  7. [A short version of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI-15): dimensionality and psychometric properties in a representative sample of the German population].

    PubMed

    Spangenberg, Lena; Romppel, Matthias; Bormann, Bianca; Hofmeister, Dirk; Brähler, Elmar; Strauß, Bernhard

    2013-08-01

    The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) is a commonly used measure of narcissism. This study administered a 15 item short version of the NPI (NPI-15). Central aims of the present study were to examine its dimensionality, and to provide data on its psychometric properties. NPI-15 and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D) were assessed in a representative sample of the German population (N=2,512). According to Scree-plot and model fit, a solution with 2 or 3 factors seemed feasible. Because of factor loadings and item-level associations to depression/anxiety we decided to favour a 2-factor-solution. 2 subscales reflecting different facets of narcissism were compiled (leadership ability/personality [LA/LP], grandiosity [G]). The psychometric properties of these scales were good (LA/LP) respectively unsatisfactory (G). The validity of the NPI-15 needs to be further studied.

  8. Reading Competence Development of Poor Readers in a German Elementary School Sample: An Empirical Examination of the Matthew Effect Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfost, Maximilian; Dorfler, Tobias; Artelt, Cordula

    2012-01-01

    According to the Matthew effect model, interindividual differences in reading competence between poor and normal readers should become wider as students grow older. The second part of the model assumes that these differential pathways are mainly attributable to differential reading activities. The purpose of this study is to examine whether both…

  9. Reading Competence Development of Poor Readers in a German Elementary School Sample: An Empirical Examination of the Matthew Effect Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfost, Maximilian; Dorfler, Tobias; Artelt, Cordula

    2012-01-01

    According to the Matthew effect model, interindividual differences in reading competence between poor and normal readers should become wider as students grow older. The second part of the model assumes that these differential pathways are mainly attributable to differential reading activities. The purpose of this study is to examine whether both…

  10. Ethical media competence as a protective factor against cyberbullying and cybervictimization among german school students.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christin R; Pfetsch, Jan; Ittel, Angela

    2014-10-01

    The use of digital information and communication technologies is an integral part of adolescents' everyday life. Besides various opportunities for information, entertainment, and communication, media use is associated with risks such as cyberbullying. Cyberbullying refers to aggressive behavior in the context of computer-mediated communication, characterized by repetition, an intention to harm, and power imbalance. Previous studies have shown that increased media use is a major risk factor for cyberbullying and cybervictimization. Given that restricting media use is not a practical way to reduce the negative effects inherent in media use, the present study examines the relevance of ethical media competence. We expected ethical media competence to buffer the effect of increased media use on cyberbullying and cybervictimization. A survey was conducted with 934 students (53% female) aged 10-17 years (M=13.26, SD=1.63). As expected, hierarchical regression analyses showed a positive main effect of media use, a negative main effect of ethical media competence, and a negative interaction effect of media use and media competence on cyberbullying and cybervictimization. Simple slope analyses revealed that at high levels of ethical media competence, media use has almost no effect on cybervictimization and a significant negative effect on cyberbullying. Consequently, promoting ethical media competence constitutes a potential measure to prevent the risks of increased media use for cyberbullying and cybervictimization.

  11. Reaching a representative sample of college students: A comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Giovenco, Daniel P; Gundersen, Daniel A; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2016-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of a random-digit dial (RDD) cellular phone survey in order to reach a national and representative sample of college students. Demographic distributions from the 2011 National Young Adult Health Survey (NYAHS) were benchmarked against enrollment numbers from the Integrated Postsecondary Education System (IPEDS). The sample quality was compared with the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study (1993), National College Health Risk Behavior Survey (1995), and National College Health Assessment (2011). Overall, the NYAHS performed as well, if not better, than previous college health surveys at reaching important demographic subgroups. Cellular phone RDD is one feasible approach for studies of the general population of college students that can potentially generate national estimates of health behavior.

  12. Two Test Items to Explore High School Students' Beliefs of Sample Size When Sampling from Large Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bill, Anthony; Henderson, Sally; Penman, John

    2010-01-01

    Two test items that examined high school students' beliefs of sample size for large populations using the context of opinion polls conducted prior to national and state elections were developed. A trial of the two items with 21 male and 33 female Year 9 students examined their naive understanding of sample size: over half of students chose a…

  13. Genotyping of samples from German patients with ocular, cerebral and systemic toxoplasmosis reveals a predominance of Toxoplasma gondii type II.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Daland C; Maksimov, Pavlo; Hotop, Andrea; Groß, Uwe; Däubener, Walter; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Pleyer, Uwe; Conraths, Franz J; Schares, Gereon

    2014-10-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an important zoonosis transmitted from animals to humans world-wide. In order to determine Toxoplasma gondii genotypes in individuals living in Germany and to compare findings with those in animals, we analysed nine independent and unlinked genetic markers (nSAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico) by PCR-RFLP in 83 archived T. gondii-positive DNA samples from patients with ocular toxoplasmosis (n=35), toxoplasmic encephalitis (n=32), systemic toxoplasmosis after bone-marrow transplantation (n=15) and congenital toxoplasmosis (n=1). In 46 of these 83 samples the presence of T. gondii DNA was confirmed by conventional end-point PCR. Among these, 17 T. gondii-positive samples were typed at all nine loci. The majority (15/17, 88.2%) of these samples were of T. gondii type II (i.e., including both, the Apico type II and Apico type I variants). In addition, in one sample a T. gondii type II/type III allele combination and in another sample a T. gondii genotype displaying type III alleles at all markers was observed. In the remaining 11 samples, in which T. gondii could only be partially typed, exclusively type II (n=10) or type III (n=1) alleles were observed. Results of the present study suggest that the majority of patients in Germany are infected with type II T. gondii regardless of the clinical manifestation of toxoplasmosis. This finding is in accord with the predominance of type II T. gondii in oocysts isolated from cats and in tissues of other intermediate hosts in Germany. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Psychometric Properties of the German Narcissism Inventory 90 (NI-90) in a clinical and non-clinical sample of adolescents: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Koch, Tobias; Bondue, Rebecca; Daig, Isolde; Fliege, Herbert; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    The Narcissism Inventory (NI) is a frequently used German inventory for measuring narcissism in clinical settings; an additional short version (NI-90) also exists. Psychometric properties of the NI-90 scales were examined in clinical and non-clinical adolescent samples. Two adolescent samples were assessed with the NI-90: a non-clinical sample (n = 439, mean age ± SD = 15.05 ± 1.77 years) and a clinical sample (n = 235, 18.26 ± 0.77 years). Confirmatory factor analysis and principle component analysis were used to scrutinize the structure of the scales. Multiple regression analysis was used to predict the scores on two scales (helpless self; negative body self). This study revealed heterogeneity in the NI-90 scales, which in turn explains the wide range seen in Cronbach's α (from 0.53 to 0.93). The postulated 4-factor structure could not be replicated in both samples. Multiple regression analysis revealed that personality disorder did not significantly predict negative body self or helpless self scores, whereas eating, mood, as well as somatoform and conversion disorders did. One NI-90 scale (greedy for praise and reassurance) showed sufficient psychometric quality for the measurement of narcissism in both samples. Based on the results, the authors recommend revising the NI-90. Items that may be useful for measuring aspects related to affective and body image complaints are presented. The greedy for praise and reassurance scale may be valuable for measuring features of 'overt' narcissism. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes in the neuropeptide Y gene: no evidence for association with alcoholism in a German population sample.

    PubMed

    Zill, Peter; Preuss, Ulrich W; Koller, Gabrielle; Bondy, Brigitta; Soyka, Michael

    2008-03-01

    Several lines of evidence from animal and electrophysiological studies indicate that the neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene is involved in the pathophysiology of alcohol dependence. Recent studies have provided evidence for an association between a Leu7Pro polymorphism, as well as 2 promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the NPY gene (G-602T, T-399C) and alcohol dependence. The aim of the present study was to analyze these variants in a large sample of the Munich Gene Bank of Alcoholism. We performed single SNP and haplotype studies in 465 alcohol dependent patients and 448 healthy controls with 3 SNPs in the promoter region (-883ins/del, G-602T, T-399C) and the Leu7Pro polymorphism in exon 2 of the NPY gene. Neither single SNP-, nor haplotype analysis could detect significant associations with alcohol dependence. Additionally we could not detect any relation to Cloninger's Type 1/2 or Babor's Type A/B classification, to withdrawal symptoms, to the age of onset or to the amount of alcohol intake. In conclusion, our results suggest that the analyzed SNPs, as well as the corresponding haplotypes of the NPY gene are unlikely to play a major role in the pathophysiology of alcohol dependence in the investigated sample from the German population. Further analyses are needed to confirm the present results.

  16. Travelling home for treatment and EU patients' rights to care abroad: results of a survey among German students at Maastricht University.

    PubMed

    Glinos, Irene A; Doering, Nora; Maarse, Hans

    2012-04-01

    Empirical evidence on patient mobility in Europe is lacking despite widespread legal, policy and media attention which the phenomenon attracts. This paper presents quantitative data on the health care seeking behaviour of German students at Maastricht University in the Netherlands. A cross-sectional survey design was applied with a mixed-methods approach including open and closed questions. Questionnaire items were based on a theoretical model of patient mobility and input from focus group discussions with German students living in Maastricht. 235 valid surveys were completed, representing ca. 8% of the target population. Data collection took place in Oct-Dec 2010. Of respondents who received medical care over the last two years, 97% returned to Germany; of these, 76% travelled to their home city for medical treatment. 72% received care only in Germany, i.e. not even once in Maastricht. Distance partly influenced whether students travelled to Germany, returned home or stayed in Maastricht, and the type of care accessed. Key motivations were familiarity with home providers/system, and reimbursement issues. In the context of the new EU Directive on patients' rights, the findings call into question whether Europeans use entitlements to cross-border care and what the real potential of patient mobility is. The results demonstrate the existence and magnitude of return movements as a sub-group of patient mobility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Facebook Used in a German Film Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leier, Vera

    2011-01-01

    Looking for a way to make German language study more relevant and to step out of the conventional classroom setting, I introduced Facebook (FB) as a learning platform to my intermediate German students at the University of Canterbury, New Zealand. The students took part in a film competition. A FB group was created and the films were uploaded. The…

  18. German for Communication: A Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jens-Peter; Grittner, Frank M.

    This guide is designed to: (1) offer a rationale for German instruction and student enrollment; (2) give suggestions for proficiency-oriented lesson planning; and (3) provide classroom activities for students at various proficiency levels. A section on promoting the study of German discusses its role as a major world language, in tourism and world…

  19. Factor structure and psychometric properties of the trier inventory for chronic stress (TICS) in a representative German sample.

    PubMed

    Petrowski, Katja; Paul, Sören; Albani, Cornelia; Brähler, Elmar

    2012-04-01

    Chronic stress results from an imbalance of personal traits, resources and the demands placed upon an individual by social and occupational situations. This chronic stress can be measured using the Trier Inventory for Chronic Stress (TICS). Aims of the present study are to test the factorial structure of the TICS, report its psychometric properties, and evaluate the influence of gender and age on chronic stress. The TICS was answered by N = 2,339 healthy participants aged 14 to 99. The sample was selected by random-route sampling. Exploratory factor analyses with Oblimin-rotated Principal Axis extraction were calculated. Confirmatory factor analyses applying Robust Maximum Likelihood estimations (MLM) tested model fit and configural invariance as well as the measurement invariance for gender and age. Reliability estimations and effect sizes are reported. In the exploratory factor analyses, both a two-factor and a nine-factor model emerged. Confirmatory factor analyses resulted in acceptable model fit (RMSEA), with model comparison fit statistics corroborating the superiority of the nine-factor model. Most factors were moderately to highly intercorrelated. Reliabilities were good to very good. Measurement invariance tests gave evidence for differential effects of gender and age on the factor structure. Furthermore, women and younger individuals, especially those aged 35 to 44, tended to report more chronic stress than men and older individuals. The proposed nine-factor structure could be factorially validated, results in good scale reliability, and heuristically can be grouped by two higher-order factors: "High Demands" and "Lack of Satisfaction". Age and gender represent differentiable and meaningful contributors to the perception of chronic stress.

  20. Students' Accounts of Grammatical Forms of German That Are Difficult, Unattainable, and Irrelevant for Self-Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez, Monika

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the responses of 39 first-year, 63 second-year, 20 third-year, and 19 fourth-year US college learners of German when they were asked what forms of L2 grammar they, respectively, find particularly difficult; do not expect to ever acquire fully; and believe are not necessary for self-expression. Nominal morphology--particularly…

  1. Students' Accounts of Grammatical Forms of German That Are Difficult, Unattainable, and Irrelevant for Self-Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez, Monika

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the responses of 39 first-year, 63 second-year, 20 third-year, and 19 fourth-year US college learners of German when they were asked what forms of L2 grammar they, respectively, find particularly difficult; do not expect to ever acquire fully; and believe are not necessary for self-expression. Nominal morphology--particularly…

  2. Tic disorders: administrative prevalence and co-occurrence with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a German community sample.

    PubMed

    Schlander, M; Schwarz, O; Rothenberger, A; Roessner, V

    2011-09-01

    Coexistence of tics and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has important clinical and scientific implications. Existing data on the co-occurrence of tic disorders, Tourette Syndrome (TS), and ADHD are largely derived from small-scale studies in selected samples and therefore heterogeneous. The Nordbaden project captures the complete outpatient claims data of more than 2.2 million persons, representing 82% of the regional population in 2003. Based upon the number of diagnosed cases of tic disorders, TS, and ADHD, we determined 12-months administrative prevalence rates as well as rates of co-occurrence. Both tic disorders and ADHD were diagnosed most often in the age group 7-12 years (any tic disorder: 0.8%; ADHD: 5.0%). With increasing age, the administrative prevalence difference in favor of males disappeared, with tic disorders being somewhat more frequently reported in females than males in the age groups above 30 years. The highest rate of ADHD co-occurring with tic disorders was found in adolescents (age 13-18 years, 15.1%). Tic disorders were observed in 2.3% of patients with ADHD. Administrative prevalence rates of tic disorders and TS were substantially lower compared to rates found in community-based epidemiological studies, suggesting that a large number of cases remain undetected and untreated under present conditions of routine outpatient care.

  3. CHARACTERISTICS ASSOCIATED WITH SMOKING IN A HISPANIC COLLEGE STUDENT SAMPLE

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Theodore V.; de Ybarra, Denise Rodríguez; Charter, Joseph E.; Blow, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the smoking related behaviors of Hispanic young adult college students as part of a larger study that assessed characteristics of Hispanic smokers in a metropolitan area on the U.S./México border. One hundred seventy-four English-speaking Hispanic college students completed questionnaires that assessed tobacco use, drug/alcohol use, body mass index, weight concerns, acculturation, depressive symptoms, and expired carbon monoxide level. Of the 74 smoking participants (42.5% of the sample), 77% reported light or intermittent smoking. Univariate analyses and a backward elimination logistic regression model were used to compare smokers' and nonsmokers' characteristics. Significant univariate differences between smokers and nonsmokers were higher reported weekly alcohol use and ever use of marijuana. Logistic regression findings indicated smokers reported heightened odds of being younger, lower acculturation, ever use of drugs, and weekly drinking. These results suggest a drug and alcohol use component is important to cessation interventions targeted toward Hispanic college student smokers. PMID:21840646

  4. Fear of failure among a sample of Jordanian undergraduate students

    PubMed Central

    Alkhazaleh, Ziad M; Mahasneh, Ahmad M

    2016-01-01

    Background Fear of failure (FoF) is the motivation to avoid failure in achievement tests, and involves cognitive, behavioral, and emotional experiences. Aims The primary purpose of this study was to determine the level of FoF among students at The Hashemite University, Jordan. We were also interested in identifying the difference in the level of FoF between the sexes, the academic level, and grade-point average (GPA). Method A total of 548 students participated in the study by completing the Performance Failure Appraisal Inventory. Descriptive statistics (mean and SD), independent sample t-test, and one-way analysis of variance were used to analyze the data collected. Results The results indicated the overall mean FoF to be −0.34. There were also significant differences between male and female students’ level of fear in experiencing shame and embarrassment. Significant differences were found between the four academic level groups in the following fear categories: experiencing shame and embarrassment, important others losing interest, and fear of upsetting important others. The results also showed significant differences between the GPA level groups in the following fear categories: experiencing shame and embarrassment, diminishing of one’s self-esteem, having an uncertain future, fear of important others losing interest, and fear of upsetting important others. Conclusion FoF may be an important consideration when trying to understand student behavior in the university. Moreover, the level of FoF differs between sexes, academic levels, and GPA levels. PMID:27099537

  5. Validation of the Personal and Social Performance (PSP) Scale in a German sample of acutely ill patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Juckel, Georg; Schaub, Daniela; Fuchs, Nina; Naumann, Ute; Uhl, Idun; Witthaus, Henning; Hargarter, Ludger; Bierhoff, Hans-Werner; Brüne, Martin

    2008-09-01

    In trying to more broadly define outcome in the efficient long-term treatment of patients with schizophrenia it is necessary to consider not only a reduction in psychopathological symptoms but also a successful psychosocial reintegration. Thus, a more exact assessment of psychosocial functioning is needed. Since the GAF (Global Assessment of Functioning) scale and the SOFAS (Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale) are less operationalized and confuse psychosocial facts with psychopathological symptoms, the Personal and Social Performance (PSP) scale was developed [Morosini, P.L., Magliano, L., Brambilla, L., Ugolini, S., Pioli, R. (2000). Development, reliability and acceptability of a new version of the DSM-IV Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS) to assess routine social functioning. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 1001, 323-329.] containing the four main areas "socially useful activities, personal and social relationships, self-care, as well as disturbing and aggressive behaviour". Validation of the PSP scale was conducted in a sample of 62 patients with acute schizophrenia. Rating instruments were PSP, GAF, SOFAS, PANSS, CGI, and Mini-ICF-P (Mini-ICF-Rating for Mental Disorders). The results showed good reliability with alpha=.64-.84, high test-retest reliability as well as good inter-rater reliability for the PSP scale. Furthermore, PSP proved good validity with high correlations to GAF (r=.91), SOFAS (r=.91), and Mini-ICF-P (r=-.69). The hypothesis that more critically ill patients would show lower scores on PSP than lesser ill patients was only confirmed for PANSS negative symptoms. Thus, the findings prove the PSP scale to be a reliable and valid instrument for assessing social functioning of patients with schizophrenia during the course of treatment as well as in the acute state.

  6. Mitochondrial D-loop (CA)n repeat length heteroplasmy: frequency in a German population sample and inheritance studies in two pedigrees.

    PubMed

    Szibor, Reinhard; Plate, Ines; Heinrich, Marielle; Michael, Mathias; Schöning, Rüdiger; Wittig, Holger; Lutz-Bonengel, Sabine

    2007-05-01

    Sequence analysis of the human mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) has proven to be a valuable tool in forensic identity testing and the analysis of crime scene stains. In contrast to the very expensive sequencing technique, typing of different length variants can greatly facilitate screening of a large number of traces for their relevance during casework. Within the mitochondrial control region, a dinucleotide (CA)( n ) repeat locus is present. To assess the discrimination power of this marker, we have determined (CA)( n ) allele distribution and the frequency of heteroplasmy in a population sample of 2,458 Germans. The inclination to develop heteroplasmic mixtures (CA)( n )/(CA)( n-1) was positively correlated with the number of CA repeats in the mtDNA. In addition, we have studied the inheritance patterns of (CA)( n ) repeat sequence heteroplasmy in two pedigrees. In one pedigree, we also found a length heteroplasmy in the homopolymeric C-tract (nt 303-309). Our data show stable inheritance of heteroplasmy within the homopolymeric C-stretch, but rather unstable inheritance regarding the (CA)( n ) repeat locus.

  7. Daily intake and hazard index of parabens based upon 24 h urine samples of the German Environmental Specimen Bank from 1995 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Moos, Rebecca K; Apel, Petra; Schröter-Kermani, Christa; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Brüning, Thomas; Koch, Holger M

    2016-11-30

    In recent years, exposure to parabens has become more of a concern because of evidence of ubiquitous exposure in the general population, combined with evidence of their potency as endocrine disruptors. New human metabolism data from oral exposure experiments enable us to back calculate daily paraben intakes from urinary paraben levels. We report daily intakes (DIs) for six parabens based on 660 24 h urine samples from the German Environmental Specimen Bank collected between 1995 and 2012. Median DI values ranged between 1.1 μg/kg bw/day for iso-butyl paraben and 47.5 μg/kg bw/day for methyl paraben. The calculated DIs were compared with acceptable levels of exposure to evaluate the hazard quotients (HQs) that indicate that acceptable exposure is exceeded for values of >1. Approximately 5% of our study population exceeded this threshold for individual paraben exposure. The hazard index (HI) that takes into account the cumulative risk of adverse estrogenic effects was 1.3 at the 95th percentile and 4.4 at maximum intakes, mainly driven by n-propyl paraben exposure. HI values of >1 indicate some level of concern. However, we have to point out that we applied most conservative assumptions in the HQ/HI calculations. Also, major exposure reduction measures were enacted in the European Union after 2012.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 30 November 2016; doi:10.1038/jes.2016.65.

  8. Everything under control? The effects of age, gender, and education on trajectories of perceived control in a nationally representative German sample.

    PubMed

    Specht, Jule; Egloff, Boris; Schmukle, Stefan C

    2013-02-01

    Perceived control is an important variable for various demands involved in successful aging. However, perceived control is not set in stone but rather changes throughout the life course. The aim of this study was to identify cross-sectional age differences and longitudinal mean-level changes as well as rank-order changes in perceived control with respect to gender and education. Furthermore, changes in income and health were analyzed to explain trajectories of perceived control. In a large and representative sample of Germans across all of adulthood, 9,484 individuals gave information about their perceived control twice over a period of 6 years. Using locally weighted smoothing (LOESS) curves and latent structural equation modeling, four main findings were revealed: (a) Perceived control increased until ages 30-40, then decreased until about age 60, and increased slightly afterwards. (b) The rank order of individuals in perceived control was relatively unstable, especially in young adulthood, and reached a plateau at about age 40. (c) Men perceived that they had more control than did women, but there were no gender differences in the development of perceived control. (d) Individuals with more education perceived that they had more control than those with less education, and there were slight differences in the development of perceived control dependent on education. Taken together, these findings offer important insights into the development of perceived control across the life span.

  9. [Validation of the Physical Appearance Comparison Scale (PACS) in a German Sample: Psychometric Properties and Association with Eating Behavior, Body Image and Self-Esteem].

    PubMed

    Claire Mölbert, Simone; Hautzinger, Martin; Karnath, Hans-Otto; Zipfel, Stephan; Giel, Katrin

    2017-02-01

    The Physical Appearance Comparison Scale (PACS [14]) is the most commonly used validated measure of body-related social comparison habits. Here we investigate reliability and construct validity of the PACS in a German sample. Participants (n=75 men, n=75 women and n=25 women with a confirmed diagnosis of anorexia nervosa) completed the PACS along with measures of eating disorder pathology, body image and self-esteem. Results show an adequate internal consistency of the PACS for the female subgroups and medium to high correlations with eating disorder pathology, body image and self-esteem. PACS total score differed significantly between groups, with men scoring lowest and women with anorexia nervosa scoring highest. We conclude that the PACS is a sufficiently reliable and valid measure of body-related social comparison habits in women. In men, it should only be used with special care. The PACS is generally suitable to promote patient studies testing the role of social comparisons for the patho-mechanisms of eating disorders. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Identifying a subset of fear-evoking pictures from the IAPS on the basis of dimensional and categorical ratings for a German sample.

    PubMed

    Barke, Antonia; Stahl, Jutta; Kröner-Herwig, Birgit

    2012-03-01

    The International Affective Picture System (IAPS) is a set of colour photographs depicting a wide range of subject matters. The pictures, which are widely used in research on emotions, are commonly described in terms of the dimensions of valence, arousal and dominance. Little is known, however, about discrete emotions that the pictures evoke. Our aim was to collect dimensional and categorical ratings from a German sample for a subset of IAPS pictures and to identify a set of fear-evoking pictures. 191 participants (95 female, 96 male, mean age 23.6 years) rated 298 IAPS pictures regarding valence, arousal and the evoked emotion. 64 fear-evoking pictures were identified. Sex differences for categorical and dimensional ratings were found for a considerable number of pictures, as well as differences from the US norms. These differences underscore the necessity of using country-specific and sex-specific norms when selecting stimuli. A detailed table with categorical and dimensional ratings for each picture is provided. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Sample survey of smoking habits in the German, French and Romansch speaking parts of Switzerland in 1975].

    PubMed

    Abelin, T; Wüthrich, P

    1976-01-01

    In a survey of a representative sample of 900 persons in Switzerland (excluding the Italian speaking parts comprising some 4-5 percent of the population), the smoking habits of the adult population were studied. Smokers were defined as persons smoking at least one cigarette or an equivalent weight of pipe tobacco or cigars per day. 51.8% of men and 29.0% of women over age 15 are smokers. Among male smokers of cigarettes only (42% of all men), over three quarters (77.6%) smoke ten cigarettes or more per day, i.e., a quantity found harmful to health; over one half (55.8%) smoke twenty or more cigarettes per day. Half of all female smokers smoke ten or more cigarettes, more than one in every four female smokers (28.8%) smoke twenty or more cigarettes per day. It is calculated that almost two thirds of all cigarettes sold in Switzerland are smoked by smokers of twenty or more cigarettes per day, and that almost three quarters are smoked by smokers of ten or more cigarettes. Among men, smoking habits are independent of social status, whereas among women, those with higher family incomes show more frequent smoking, but also more widespread cessation of smoking than with lower incomes. Thirty percent of adults having been smokers have given up the habit, so that among men and women above age 15, theree are now some 20% and 14% respectively, of ex-smokers. This corresponds to at least 700,000 former smokers in all of Switzerland. The trend to give up starts already in the group aged 15-24 (over 20% of men and women having ever smoked have given up) and becomes more marked with increasing age. A large part of male and female smokers would like to free themselves of the habit. 30% of male and 34% of female smokers indicate that they had tried seriously to stop smoking during the twelve months preceding the interview. Trying to give up was not significantly associated with intensity of smoking or social status. According to this survey, a majority of the population (57.6%) is

  12. The Consumption of Energy Drinks Among a Sample of College Students and College Student Athletes.

    PubMed

    Gallucci, Andrew R; Martin, Ryan J; Morgan, Grant B

    2016-02-01

    To assess energy drink (ED) consumption, potential ED correlates, and ED-related motivations among a sample of college students to determine differences based on athlete status (student athlete vs. non-athlete). Six hundred and ninety-two college students completed surveys at a large private university in the United States. Participants completed a paper based questionnaire assessing ED and ED-related variables. Over thirty-six percent (197 non-athletes, 58 student athletes) of participants reported ED consumption in the preceding 30 days. Multivariately, there was no difference in ED consumption based on athlete status. Heavy episodic drinking and prescription stimulant misuse were both correlated with increased ED consumption. ED motivations differed based on the frequency of ED consumption. ED use was common among student athletes and non-athletes in our sample. It is important to be aware of the correlation between heavy episodic drinking, prescription stimulant misuse, and ED consumption among college student populations because of the adverse consequences associated with these behaviors.

  13. Language Production in Turkish-German-English Trilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konig, Wolf

    2005-01-01

    In the present study we investigate sentence production in the German interlanguage of Turkish students who have learned German as a first and English as a second foreign language. The students know both languages at an (advanced) intermediate level. Nevertheless, we observed some properties of the German interlanguage that seem to indicate an…

  14. German Round the Corner: Die Whyte Avenue in Edmonton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicke, Mariele; Wicke, Rainer E.

    This compilation of interviews and photographs is the result of a German class project entitled Whyte Avenue. The project was carried out by fifth and sixth grade students who were attending an after-school German course in Edmonton, Alberta. The course introduced students to the German language and culture by exposing them to native German…

  15. Teaching Business German Basics on the Second Year Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwood, Heidi M.

    Most college curricula in business German are oriented to third- and fourth-year German students. Development of a course in introductory business German designed for the second year of language instruction required careful selection of materials and activities. Texts were selected for their comprehensibility for students with no business…

  16. Character strengths and well-being across the life span: data from a representative sample of German-speaking adults living in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Martí, María L.; Ruch, Willibald

    2014-01-01

    Character strengths are positive, morally valued traits of personality. This study aims at assessing the relationship between character strengths and subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive and negative affect) in a representative sample of German-speaking adults living in Switzerland (N = 945). We further test whether this relationship is consistent at different stages in life. Results showed that hope, zest, love, social intelligence and perseverance yielded the highest positive correlations with life satisfaction. Hope, zest, humor, gratitude and love presented the highest positive correlations with positive affect. Hope, humor, zest, honesty, and open-mindedness had the highest negative correlations with negative affect. When examining the relationship between strengths and well-being across age groups, in general, hope, zest and humor consistently yielded the highest correlations with well-being. Additionally, in the 27–36 years group, strengths that promote commitment and affiliation (i.e., kindness and honesty) were among the first five positions in the ranking of the relationship between strengths and well-being. In the 37–46 years group, in addition to hope, zest and humor, strengths that promote the maintenance of areas such as family and work (i.e., love, leadership) were among the first five positions in the ranking. Finally, in the 47–57 years group, in addition to hope, zest and humor, strengths that facilitate integration and a vital involvement with the environment (i.e., gratitude, love of learning) were among the first five positions in the ranking. This study partially supports previous findings with less representative samples on the association between character strengths and well-being, and sheds light on the relative importance of some strengths over others for well-being across the life span. PMID:25408678

  17. Character strengths and well-being across the life span: data from a representative sample of German-speaking adults living in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Martí, María L; Ruch, Willibald

    2014-01-01

    Character strengths are positive, morally valued traits of personality. This study aims at assessing the relationship between character strengths and subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive and negative affect) in a representative sample of German-speaking adults living in Switzerland (N = 945). We further test whether this relationship is consistent at different stages in life. Results showed that hope, zest, love, social intelligence and perseverance yielded the highest positive correlations with life satisfaction. Hope, zest, humor, gratitude and love presented the highest positive correlations with positive affect. Hope, humor, zest, honesty, and open-mindedness had the highest negative correlations with negative affect. When examining the relationship between strengths and well-being across age groups, in general, hope, zest and humor consistently yielded the highest correlations with well-being. Additionally, in the 27-36 years group, strengths that promote commitment and affiliation (i.e., kindness and honesty) were among the first five positions in the ranking of the relationship between strengths and well-being. In the 37-46 years group, in addition to hope, zest and humor, strengths that promote the maintenance of areas such as family and work (i.e., love, leadership) were among the first five positions in the ranking. Finally, in the 47-57 years group, in addition to hope, zest and humor, strengths that facilitate integration and a vital involvement with the environment (i.e., gratitude, love of learning) were among the first five positions in the ranking. This study partially supports previous findings with less representative samples on the association between character strengths and well-being, and sheds light on the relative importance of some strengths over others for well-being across the life span.

  18. [Rheumatology: Integration into student training--the RISA- Study. Results of a survey exploring the scale of education and training in rheumatology at German universities].

    PubMed

    Keysser, G; Zacher, J; Zeidler, H

    2004-04-01

    During the Bone and Joint Decade 2000-2010, national and international rheumatological societies campaign for improvements of undergraduate training in the field of musculoskeletal diseases. In 2002, the Committee for Undergraduate Training of the German Society for Rheumatology (DGRh) performed a survey in order to estimate the extent of rheumatological undergraduate training at German universities. A questionnaire was sent to all university hospitals for internal medicine and for orthopaedics. The items of the survey covered the qualification of the teachers, the number and the time frame of lessons and courses, as well as the items of the curriculum in rheumatology. With 95% of the universities responding, a broad variation of the quality of rheumatological training became obvious, ranging from the absence of competent teaching to a comprehensive curriculum covering theory and practical training. Only a minority of universities fulfilled the recommendations of the DGRh for undergraduate education. The most substantial deficits are found in practical training, caused by insufficiently small numbers of patients seen by the medical students, and by the short duration of the practical courses. The insights described here should lead to the adaptation of the level of education in the field of rheumatology to the demands of a society with growing musculoskeletal problems.

  19. Sampling and Analysis for Lead in Water and Soil Samples on a University Campus: A Student Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butala, Steven J.; Zarrabi, Kaveh

    1995-01-01

    Describes a student research project that determined concentrations of lead in water drawn from selected drinking fountains and in selected soil samples on the campus of the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. (18 references) (DDR)

  20. German Schools Abroad: Hotspots of Elite Multilingualism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Anne E; Admiraal, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    While multilingualism itself is a widely analyzed topic, a study about multilingualism at German schools abroad is so far unique. This quantitative study investigates the differences in the size of German expressive and receptive vocabulary between monolingual and multilingual students, aged between 5 and 11 years. A cohort of 65 multilingual…

  1. The First Suggestopedia German Course in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gassner-Roberts, Sigrid

    An account of personal experiences and experiments with a suggestopedic German course taught at the University of Adelaide in Australia is presented. Summaries of the students' background and of their continuous achievements in the German class are provided. The class was conducted primarily according to the "Manual of Classroom Procedures…

  2. Distance Learners of German and Intercultural Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, Uwe; Shelley, Monica

    2006-01-01

    The article describes a research project undertaken with advanced adult learners of German at a distance at The Open University, United Kingdom. Their gains in intercultural competence were investigated by looking at how far the students met the prescribed learning outcomes, their knowledge items, language skills, attitudes towards Germans and…

  3. The Teaching of German Literature in Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rippley, LaVern J.

    The present-day status of language instruction at St. Olaf College is viewed in the perspective of past requirements at the college. Reasons for student interest in German, the most popular modern language, focus on the influence of family ties with speakers of Norwegian. A discussion of methods of teaching German literature in translation is…

  4. Samples of Students' Responses from the Grade 9 Science Performance-Based Assessment Tasks, June 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Student Evaluation Branch.

    The purpose of this document is to provide teachers, administrators, students, and parents with samples of students' performances that exemplify standards in relation to the 1993 Grade 9 Science Performance-Based Assessment Tasks for the province of Alberta, Canada. A sample of 698 randomly selected students from 31 schools did the…

  5. German Studies in America. German Studies Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Volkmar; Osterle, Heinz D.

    This volume contains two papers, "German Studies in America," by Volkmar Sander, and "Historicism, Marxism, Structuralism: Ideas for German Culture Courses," by Heinz D. Osterle. The first paper discusses the position of German studies in the United States today. The greatest challenge comes from low enrollments; therefore,…

  6. From Business to Technological German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwood, H. M.

    Because many of the Georgia Institute of Technology students taking business German come from the sciences and engineering, the business language textbook used has been supplemented with more technologically oriented instructional materials. Highly technical texts are too advanced at the second year language learning stage, so one teacher selected…

  7. German 1990: Intensive and Diverse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempf, Franz R.

    1990-01-01

    Suggests the following methods for improving university-level German language education curricula: reduce skill-development time through immersion programs, adopt Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache as the proficiency standard for advanced students, and include literature from a variety of liberal arts disciplines in the reading materials for…

  8. A Functional Syntax of German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fichtner, Edward G.

    Students in intermediate language courses, especially conversational courses, can benefit from a simple set of instructions for combining words and phrases into sentences. A description of the basic concepts determining word order in German--the fundamental sequence of clause elements, the "infrastructure," and the movement rules by which the…

  9. Atlanta Public Schools German Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolen, Helen; And Others

    This guide for teachers of German emphasizes the primacy of listening and speaking skills at all levels of instruction. Contents include information on: (1) philosophy and ultimate goals, (2) student recruitment, (3) program sequence, (4) English in the classroom, (5) grammar, (6) articulation, (7) independent study, (8) grouping for…

  10. Headstart German Program. Module 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This is the fifth module of 10 in the German Headstart program. Each of the 3 units in the module contains objectives, exercises, and a self-evaluation quiz. In addition, there are several supplementary exercises and self-evaluations. The objective of this module is to enable the student to use and understand: (1) courtesy expressions; (2) time…

  11. German 1990: Intensive and Diverse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempf, Franz R.

    1990-01-01

    Suggests the following methods for improving university-level German language education curricula: reduce skill-development time through immersion programs, adopt Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache as the proficiency standard for advanced students, and include literature from a variety of liberal arts disciplines in the reading materials for…

  12. Developing Students' Reasoning about Samples and Sampling Variability as a Path to Expert Statistical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garfield, Joan; Le, Laura; Zieffler, Andrew; Ben-Zvi, Dani

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the importance of developing students' reasoning about samples and sampling variability as a foundation for statistical thinking. Research on expert-novice thinking as well as statistical thinking is reviewed and compared. A case is made that statistical thinking is a type of expert thinking, and as such, research…

  13. Self-, Ingroup, and Outgroup Achievement Attributions of German and Turkish Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewstone, Miles; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigates intergroup bias in achievement attributions in a sample of 15-year-old German and Turkish pupils in the Federal Republic of Germany. Found that ingroup attribution bias was limited rather than ubiquitous. Discusses the inventive nature of student explanations for ability-linked performance and the motivational consequences of causal…

  14. Student Drug Use and Driving: A University Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valois, Robert F.

    A survey of 857 students at a large midwestern university provided information regarding the frequency and type of drugs used by students at any time and shortly before driving. The drugs most frequently used at least once in the prior year were alcohol, marijauna, caffeine, and nicotine. Significant association was found between alcohol use…

  15. Multidimensional Perfectionism in a Sample of Jordanian High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaradat, Abdul-Kareem M.

    2013-01-01

    Counsellors need to be able to understand perfectionism in students, and the different forms that this perfectionism may take, in order to provide their students with the appropriate counselling services. This study investigated gender differences in perfectionism, and examined the relationship of perfectionism to general self-efficacy,…

  16. Multidimensional Perfectionism in a Sample of Jordanian High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaradat, Abdul-Kareem M.

    2013-01-01

    Counsellors need to be able to understand perfectionism in students, and the different forms that this perfectionism may take, in order to provide their students with the appropriate counselling services. This study investigated gender differences in perfectionism, and examined the relationship of perfectionism to general self-efficacy,…

  17. Student Drug Use and Driving: A University Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valois, Robert F.

    A survey of 857 students at a large midwestern university provided information regarding the frequency and type of drugs used by students at any time and shortly before driving. The drugs most frequently used at least once in the prior year were alcohol, marijauna, caffeine, and nicotine. Significant association was found between alcohol use…

  18. [Burnout, work disruptions, interpersonal and psychosomatic problems--degree-specific comparison of students at a German university].

    PubMed

    Gumz, A; Brähler, E; Heilmann, V K; Erices, R

    2014-03-01

    In the context of the public debate on psychological strain among students, the prevalence of burnout, procrastination, test anxiety, other work disruptions, interpersonal problems and psychic symptoms were analyzed depending on academic degree. The data of 358 college students (of Leipzig University) were examined. The academic degree had only a marginal effect on burnout- and work disruptions-related variables. In terms of interpersonal problems and psychic symptoms, differences between students were identified, depending on the academic degree. Diploma students reported many complaints, whereas undergraduates aspiring for a State Examination, were comparatively less affected. Knowledge of the population-specific psychological load is useful in order to develop preventive and therapeutic measures.

  19. A Teacher's Notebook: German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Independent Schools, Boston, MA.

    This guide for teachers of German at independent schools is a result of a collective effort of a number of experienced German teachers during the year 1973. It is directed mainly toward the new teacher as a quick source of reference for all aspects of instruction of German at the secondary level. Contents include: (1) "Why Study German?," (2)…

  20. "Show Me Where You Study!"--An Interactive Project between German Language Students in Nottingham and St Andrews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartung, Insa; Reisenleutner, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Interactive projects among students of a Common European Framework of Reference for languages (CEFR) A1+/A2 level seem difficult to set up due to the limited language repertoire of the students. Thus, our aim was to take up the challenge and start a project with the objective of applying their language skills. We chose a collaborative approach to…

  1. The Role of Second Language in Higher Education: A Case Study of German Students at a Dutch University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zijlmans, Lidy; Neijt, Anneke; van Hout, Roeland

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of the challenges and benefits of university students taking a degree course in a language other than their mother tongue. Our study was conducted from the point of view of the non-native students themselves, and our primary concern was the role of language. We investigated the academic achievement of…

  2. Using RISE to Promote German: Making the Case for Practical Work Experience Abroad to Engineering Students and Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condray, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    The benefits of Language for Specific Purposes programs in engineering are well-known, but such programs are impractical for smaller universities and colleges. RISE (Research Internships in Science and Engineering) is a new opportunity for undergraduate students that allows smaller programs to appeal to engineering students and their professors to…

  3. Our Policies, Their Text: German Language Students' Strategies with and Beliefs about Web-Based Machine Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Kelsey D.; Heidrich, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Most educators are aware that some students utilize web-based machine translators for foreign language assignments, however, little research has been done to determine how and why students utilize these programs, or what the implications are for language learning and teaching. In this mixed-methods study we utilized surveys, a translation task,…

  4. Does the Timing of Transition Matter? Comparison of German Students' Self-Perceptions before and after Transition to Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arens, A. Katrin; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Craven, Rhonda G.; Watermann, Rainer; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    The often observed decline in students' self-perceptions across transition to secondary school after grade 6 is often attributed to students' entry to puberty. This study aims to examine whether lowered self-perceptions can be observed after transition in Germany which occurs after grade 4 and thus takes place before puberty. Fifth graders (N =…

  5. Instruction and Students' Declining Interest in Science: An Analysis of German Fourth- and Sixth-Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tröbst, Steffen; Kleickmann, Thilo; Lange-Schubert, Kim; Rothkopf, Anne; Möller, Kornelia

    2016-01-01

    Students' interest in science declines substantially in the transition from elementary to secondary education. Using students' ratings of their instruction on the topic of evaporation and condensation, we examined if changes in instructional practices accounted for differences in situational interest in science instruction and enduring individual…

  6. Instruction and Students' Declining Interest in Science: An Analysis of German Fourth- and Sixth-Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tröbst, Steffen; Kleickmann, Thilo; Lange-Schubert, Kim; Rothkopf, Anne; Möller, Kornelia

    2016-01-01

    Students' interest in science declines substantially in the transition from elementary to secondary education. Using students' ratings of their instruction on the topic of evaporation and condensation, we examined if changes in instructional practices accounted for differences in situational interest in science instruction and enduring individual…

  7. The Role of Second Language in Higher Education: A Case Study of German Students at a Dutch University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zijlmans, Lidy; Neijt, Anneke; van Hout, Roeland

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of the challenges and benefits of university students taking a degree course in a language other than their mother tongue. Our study was conducted from the point of view of the non-native students themselves, and our primary concern was the role of language. We investigated the academic achievement of…

  8. Models of "The Heavens and the Earth": An Investigation of German and Taiwanese Students' Alternative Conceptions of the Universe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Shu-Chiu

    2005-01-01

    The paper reports a cross-cultural investigation conducted in 2001-2002 that seeks to reveal students' alternative ideas in two countries, Taiwan and Germany. It was carried out by means of semi-structured interviews in a story form. The targeted students were arbitrarily selected from grades 3 to 6 in both countries and amounted to 64. The…

  9. The Mediating Effects of Germane Cognitive Load on the Relationship between Instructional Design and Students' Future Behavioral Intention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costley, Jamie; Lange, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Instructional design is an important aspect of the learning experience within formal online courses. One way in which online instructional design may benefit students is by increasing their future behavioral intention to use educational materials. This is important because research has revealed that students' use of educational resources is…

  10. Does the Timing of Transition Matter? Comparison of German Students' Self-Perceptions before and after Transition to Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arens, A. Katrin; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Craven, Rhonda G.; Watermann, Rainer; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    The often observed decline in students' self-perceptions across transition to secondary school after grade 6 is often attributed to students' entry to puberty. This study aims to examine whether lowered self-perceptions can be observed after transition in Germany which occurs after grade 4 and thus takes place before puberty. Fifth graders (N =…

  11. Models of "The Heavens and the Earth": An Investigation of German and Taiwanese Students' Alternative Conceptions of the Universe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Shu-Chiu

    2005-01-01

    The paper reports a cross-cultural investigation conducted in 2001-2002 that seeks to reveal students' alternative ideas in two countries, Taiwan and Germany. It was carried out by means of semi-structured interviews in a story form. The targeted students were arbitrarily selected from grades 3 to 6 in both countries and amounted to 64. The…

  12. Our Policies, Their Text: German Language Students' Strategies with and Beliefs about Web-Based Machine Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Kelsey D.; Heidrich, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Most educators are aware that some students utilize web-based machine translators for foreign language assignments, however, little research has been done to determine how and why students utilize these programs, or what the implications are for language learning and teaching. In this mixed-methods study we utilized surveys, a translation task,…

  13. Prevalence of myopia in a sample of Greek students.

    PubMed

    Mavrakanas, T A; Mandalos, A; Peios, D; Golias, V; Megalou, K; Gregoriadou, A; Delidou, K; Katsougiannopoulos, B

    2000-12-01

    An epidemiological study, concerning the prevalence of myopia among the student population (15-18 years old) of Northern Greece, was carried out. Specific questionnaires were used in order to collect data on the refractive condition of students. Myopia prevalence was 36.8% and was found to be more common in females (46.0%) than in males (29.7%). The prevalence increased in students with myopic parents and myopic siblings. It was also found that myopia correlates strongly with nearwork and school performance. The study results suggest that myopia is a rather common refractive error in Greek students. Findings also indicate that myopia is probably hereditary and correlates with educational level, intelligence and excessive nearwork.

  14. What are the important decisions in the lives of german and Indian university students? The structure of real-life decision-making processes.

    PubMed

    Tipandjan, Arun; Schäfer, Thomas; Sundaram, Suresh; Sedlmeier, Peter

    2012-06-01

    In intercultural research, bias is sometimes introduced when a methodological approach that was mostly developed within one of the cultures (usually the Western one) is chosen. Instead of identifying and controlling such bias after data collection and during analysis, eliminating and minimizing bias during planning and while conducting the research is much more advisable. Particularly cross-cultural decision-making research has been hindered by the lack of instruments that are equally applicable in different cultures, resulting in biased findings. We have proposed a methodology for comparing cultures that uses qualitative methods and have used it in a comparison of German and Indian students' most important decision-making situations. In the first study, we identified common and different decision-making situations and recommended major areas for further cross-cultural research on decision making. In the second study, we made an attempt to explore the factors underlying important decision-making areas in the two cultures. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to look for strong similarities and differences between cultures. Transcribed interview data were analyzed qualitatively using thematic analysis. Several themes were identified and descriptions of factors influencing decision making were derived inductively from interviews with students. Similarities and differences are explained in detail and a further, quantitative survey in different cultures is recommended.

  15. HPV infection awareness and self-reported HPV vaccination coverage in female adolescent students in two German cities.

    PubMed

    Samkange-Zeeb, F; Spallek, L; Klug, S J; Zeeb, H

    2012-12-01

    Low levels of human papillomavirus (HPV) awareness and knowledge have been observed in the few studies conducted among school-going adolescents. Such data are lacking in Germany. To assess awareness of HPV and of vaccination status among girls attending grades 8-13 in Bremen and Bremerhaven, two German cities. Participants completed a questionnaire in school including questions on demographic characteristics, about HPV awareness and on vaccination status. We analysed the relationship between awareness of HPV, of vaccination status and vaccine uptake and several variables including age and migrant background using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Six hundred and thirty-two girls aged 12-20 years completed the questionnaire. 50 % had no awareness of HPV, 12 % reported being vaccinated against HPV and 57 % did not know whether or not they were vaccinated against HPV. In multivariate analyses, ever had sex was associated with awareness of HPV, and ever been to a gynaecologist with awareness of vaccination status. Our results may be an indication that female adolescents in Germany are not adequately informed and counselled about HPV and associated issues.

  16. Sociodemographic Differences in Empathic Tendency: A Sample of Religious High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Ertugrul; Ersanli, Ercümend; Kumcagiz, Hatice; Barut, Yasar; Ak, Emre

    2014-01-01

    Previous empathy studies in Turkey mostly focused on specific samples, such as preschool, secondary school students, or medical staff, but less is known about religious high school students. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the empathic tendency levels of Imam and Preacher Training High School students with respect to gender,…

  17. Prevalence of At-Risk Drinking among a National Sample of Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Ameet Arvind; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Lindstrom, Richard W.; Wolf, Kenneth E.

    2009-01-01

    As limited research exists on medical students' substance use patterns, including over-consumption of alcohol, the objective of this study was to determine prevalence and correlates of at-risk drinking among a national sample of medical students, using a cross-sectional, anonymous, Web-based survey. A total of 2710 medical students from 36 U.S.…

  18. Change in Academic Distress: Examining Differences between a Clinical and Nonclinical Sample of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockard, Allison J.; Hayes, Jeffrey A.; McAleavey, Andrew A.; Locke, Benjamin D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine academic distress over the course of a semester for both a clinical and nonclinical sample of college students by administering the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms (CCAPS-62 and CCAPS-34) to students at a single university. Results revealed that students who were in counseling showed…

  19. Predicting Academic Success and Psychological Wellness in a Sample of Canadian Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Henry P. H.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: University students need to cope with a complex new life role and to achieve academic success. This article explores the academic performance and psychological well-being among university students in a western Canadian city. Method: Using a convenience sample, a total of 501 undergraduate students in Regina, Saskatchewan took part in…

  20. Prevalence of At-Risk Drinking among a National Sample of Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Ameet Arvind; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Lindstrom, Richard W.; Wolf, Kenneth E.

    2009-01-01

    As limited research exists on medical students' substance use patterns, including over-consumption of alcohol, the objective of this study was to determine prevalence and correlates of at-risk drinking among a national sample of medical students, using a cross-sectional, anonymous, Web-based survey. A total of 2710 medical students from 36 U.S.…

  1. Predicting Academic Success and Psychological Wellness in a Sample of Canadian Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Henry P. H.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: University students need to cope with a complex new life role and to achieve academic success. This article explores the academic performance and psychological well-being among university students in a western Canadian city. Method: Using a convenience sample, a total of 501 undergraduate students in Regina, Saskatchewan took part in…

  2. German Universities Bursting at the Seams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Don

    1989-01-01

    Reports that record enrollments have prompted a rethinking of the nation's higher education policies. Cites several explanations for overcrowding: an increase in the number of students continuing their studies, German students take longer to complete studies, and older students are reentering the university. (RT)

  3. German Cultural Packets 13 and 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atlanta Public Schools, GA.

    These German culture packets are designed to accompany A-LM Level II and include a statement of the rationale behind the unit, the objectives of the packet, the activities themselves, and a brief evaluation by the student. The activities involve the use of the basic text, the student workbook, corresponding tapes, and fellow students as partners…

  4. Quality of Life and Emotional Intelligence in a Sample of Kuwait University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Huwailah, Amthal

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to describe of the nature of the relationship between quality of Life and Emotional Intelligence in a sample of Kuwait University students, as well as to identify the differences between males and females in the variables of the study, The study sample consists of 400 students from the University of Kuwait, (200) males…

  5. Nonmedical Prescription Stimulant Use among a Sample of College Students: Relationship with Psychological Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weyandt, Lisa L.; Janusis, Grace; Wilson, Kimberly G.; Verdi, Genevieve; Paquin, Gregory; Lopes, Justin; Varejao, Michael; Dussault, Crystal

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To further investigate use and potential misuse of prescription stimulants (e.g., Ritalin, Adderall, Concerta) among a sample of college students and to explore the relationship between psychological variables and nonmedical stimulant use. Method: The sample consisted of 390 college students (71.6% female, 28.4% male). Participants were…

  6. Nonmedical Prescription Stimulant Use among a Sample of College Students: Relationship with Psychological Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weyandt, Lisa L.; Janusis, Grace; Wilson, Kimberly G.; Verdi, Genevieve; Paquin, Gregory; Lopes, Justin; Varejao, Michael; Dussault, Crystal

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To further investigate use and potential misuse of prescription stimulants (e.g., Ritalin, Adderall, Concerta) among a sample of college students and to explore the relationship between psychological variables and nonmedical stimulant use. Method: The sample consisted of 390 college students (71.6% female, 28.4% male). Participants were…

  7. Social Bond Theory and Drunk Driving in a Sample of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durkin, Keith F.; Wolfe, Scott E.; May, Ross W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the finding from a study that examined the relationship between social bond variables and drunk driving in a sample of university students. A questionnaire containing indicators representing social bond variables, as well as a measure of drunk driving was administered to a sample of 1459 college students. The results of this…

  8. Test Anxiety Prevalence and Gender Differences in a Sample of English Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putwain, Dave; Daly, Anthony L.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of students who report themselves as highly test anxious in a sample of English secondary schools and whether this proportion differed by gender. Self-report test anxiety data were collected from 2435 secondary school students in 11 schools. Results showed that 16.4% of the sample reported…

  9. Test Anxiety Prevalence and Gender Differences in a Sample of English Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putwain, Dave; Daly, Anthony L.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of students who report themselves as highly test anxious in a sample of English secondary schools and whether this proportion differed by gender. Self-report test anxiety data were collected from 2435 secondary school students in 11 schools. Results showed that 16.4% of the sample reported…

  10. Proper and Paradigmatic Metonymy as a Lens for Characterizing Student Conceptions of Distributions and Sampling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Jennifer; Hancock, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    This research investigates what students' use of statistical language can tell us about their conceptions of distribution and sampling in relation to informal inference. Prior research documents students' challenges in understanding ideas of distribution and sampling as tools for making informal statistical inferences. We know that these…

  11. Social Bond Theory and Drunk Driving in a Sample of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durkin, Keith F.; Wolfe, Scott E.; May, Ross W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the finding from a study that examined the relationship between social bond variables and drunk driving in a sample of university students. A questionnaire containing indicators representing social bond variables, as well as a measure of drunk driving was administered to a sample of 1459 college students. The results of this…

  12. Proper and Paradigmatic Metonymy as a Lens for Characterizing Student Conceptions of Distributions and Sampling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Jennifer; Hancock, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    This research investigates what students' use of statistical language can tell us about their conceptions of distribution and sampling in relation to informal inference. Prior research documents students' challenges in understanding ideas of distribution and sampling as tools for making informal statistical inferences. We know that these…

  13. Exploring the ideas and expectations of German medical students towards career choices and the speciality of psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Baller, Frauke A E; Ludwig, Karin V; Kinas-Gnadt Olivares, Clara L; Graef-Calliess, Iris-Tatjana

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the ideas and expectations of medical students toward their career choices and the speciality of psychiatry. A total of 323 students of the Hannover Medical School filled in a questionnaire about their career choices, preferred medical specialization, factors of influence on career choices and attitude towards psychiatry. The three most important factors of influence appeared to be: (1) work-life balance, (2) flexible working hours, (3) career prospects. Although expectations towards the professional life of psychiatrists were quite positive among the students, there was only a small number of students (n = 53 of 318 respondents, 17%) interested in specializing in psychiatry. Important reasons for choosing psychiatry included personal experience with somatic or mental health issues and practical experience in psychiatry. Most of the students experienced clinical exposure to psychiatry but at a much later period in the curriculum. For a career choice of psychiatry as a speciality it seems to be important to start psychiatric education in medical school early. The positive aspects of the professional life in psychiatry, such as flexible working hours, career prospects and good work-life balance should be more emphasized.

  14. Stress Manifestation in High School Students: An Australian Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulds, John D.

    2003-01-01

    Assesses stress symptoms associated with main daily hassles among grades 7, 9 and 11 students in all-female, all-male, and coeducational Catholic high schools in Western Sydney, Australia. Factor analysis identified the stress manifestation domains of anxiety, anger, and physiological arousal. Differences in these are examined and a conceptual…

  15. Students' Misbehaviors in Physical Education Lessons: A Sample from Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoncalik, Oguzhan

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: When preparing a lesson plan, one can design the subject to be taught, the teaching method and all related activities, and configure all this around the most appropriate available setting. Student misbehaviors during lessons seem to be the most significant factor that hinders instruction in spite of the teacher's efforts in effective…

  16. The Aggression Questionnaire: a validation study in student samples.

    PubMed

    García-León, Ana; Reyes, Gustavo A; Vila, Jaime; Pérez, Nieves; Robles, Humbelina; Ramos, Manuel M

    2002-05-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ) in Spain. The AQ is a 29-item instrument designed to measure the different dimensions of the hostility/anger/aggression construct. It consists of 4 subscales that assess: (a) anger, (b) hostility, (c) verbal aggression, and (d) physical aggression. In Study 1, reliability, construct validity, and convergent validity were evaluated in a group of 384 male and female university students. Test-retest reliability was evaluated using a group of 154 male and female university students. The results of the factor analysis were similar to the scale structure claimed for this instrument. The subscales also showed internal consistency and stability over time. The AQ and its subscales were also compared with the scales and subscales of the Spielberger State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI), the Cook-Medley Hostility Scale (Ho), the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI), and the Jenkins Activity Survey-Form H (JASE-H). The results show that the AQ evaluates some aspects of anger, such as Anger-Trait and Anger-Out, rather than other elements, such as Anger-In or Anger-State. In Study 2, two new male groups were used to evaluate the criterion validity of the AQ: 57 prison inmates and 93 university students, finding that this instrument discriminated between the scores obtained by common offenders and university students.

  17. Using the Sampling Margin of Error to Assess the Interpretative Validity of Student Evaluations of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, David E.; Schraw, Gregory; Kuch, Fred

    2015-01-01

    We present an equation, derived from standard statistical theory, that can be used to estimate sampling margin of error for student evaluations of teaching (SETs). We use the equation to examine the effect of sample size, response rates and sample variability on the estimated sampling margin of error, and present results in four tables that allow…

  18. Using the Sampling Margin of Error to Assess the Interpretative Validity of Student Evaluations of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, David E.; Schraw, Gregory; Kuch, Fred

    2015-01-01

    We present an equation, derived from standard statistical theory, that can be used to estimate sampling margin of error for student evaluations of teaching (SETs). We use the equation to examine the effect of sample size, response rates and sample variability on the estimated sampling margin of error, and present results in four tables that allow…

  19. Conscientiousness, Achievement Striving, and Intelligence as Performance Predictors in a Sample of German Psychology Students: Always a Linear Relationship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Matthias; Knogler, Maximilian; Buhner, Markus

    2009-01-01

    Studies on the interface between cognitive ability (intelligence) and personality in the prediction of academic performance have yielded mixed results so far. Especially an interaction between conscientiousness (and its facet achievement striving) and intelligence has been investigated. The hypothesis is that conscientiousness enhances the impact…

  20. Development of depression and deterioration in quality of life in German dental medical students in preclinical semesters.

    PubMed

    Burger, P H M; Neumann, C; Ropohl, A; Paulsen, F; Scholz, M

    2016-11-01

    Early intervention to counter mental disorders during the course of studies in dentistry is indicated in view of the pronounced prevalence of burnout in this student collective. To assess the proportion of students in whom these risk states can be quantified in measurable parameters for concrete mental disorders, we conducted surveys among students of dental medicine during the first 2.5 years of their studies. We surveyed a total of 163 students of dental medicine in their first 5 semesters of study. Standardized, validated psychological questionnaires on depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory; BDI-II) and mental and physical quality of life (Short Form Survey; SF-12) were used in the survey, with per-semester participant quotas of around 90%. Regarding depression, the students were within the range of the normal populace at the beginning of the 1st semester. Symptoms of depression then became more pronounced with every succeeding semester. In the fifth semester, the average levels determined were equivalent to a depression with a clinical treatment indication. Hardly any change was registered for physical wellbeing in the quality of life questionnaire. The mental sum scores, however, reflected dramatic downturns in quality of life. Highly significant correlations between the parameters described here - depressivity and mental quality of life - were observed in all semesters. The participating students begin their course of studies at the level of the average populace for the symptoms surveyed, then develop, on average, a clinically manifest depression after 2.5 years. The personal experience of a deterioration of mental quality of life appears to be crucial in the phenomena observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Validation of the German version of the insomnia severity index in adolescents, young adults and adult workers: results from three cross-sectional studies.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Markus; Lang, Christin; Lemola, Sakari; Colledge, Flora; Kalak, Nadeem; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe; Brand, Serge

    2016-05-31

    A variety of objective and subjective methods exist to assess insomnia. The Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) was developed to provide a brief self-report instrument useful to assess people's perception of sleep complaints. The ISI was developed in English, and has been translated into several languages including German. Surprisingly, the psychometric properties of the German version have not been evaluated, although the ISI is often used with German-speaking populations. The psychometric properties of the ISI are tested in three independent samples: 1475 adolescents, 862 university students, and 533 police and emergency response service officers. In all three studies, participants provide information about insomnia (ISI), sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), and psychological functioning (diverse instruments). Descriptive statistics, gender differences, homogeneity and internal consistency, convergent validity, and factorial validity (including measurement invariance across genders) are examined in each sample. The findings show that the German version of the ISI has generally acceptable psychometric properties and sufficient concurrent validity. Confirmatory factor analyses show that a 1-factor solution achieves good model fit. Furthermore, measurement invariance across gender is supported in all three samples. While the ISI has been widely used in German-speaking countries, this study is the first to provide empirical evidence that the German version of this instrument has good psychometric properties and satisfactory convergent and factorial validity across various age groups and both men and women. Thus, the German version of the ISI can be recommended as a brief screening measure in German-speaking populations.

  2. Acceleration, Enrichment, or Internal Differentiation--Consequences of Measures to Promote Gifted Students Anticipated by German Secondary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endepohls-Ulpe, Martina

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: In the last decades numerous measures and programs to promote gifted students have been developed worldwide. But in spite of these enhanced scientific and public efforts to improve gifted education, there are still a lot of difficulties to implement some of these measures in the daily routine of schools. The presented study examines…

  3. Measuring the Interest of German Students in Agriculture: The Role of Knowledge, Nature Experience, Disgust, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickel, Malte; Strack, Micha; Bögeholz, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Modern knowledge-based societies, especially their younger members, have largely lost their bonds to farming. However, learning about agriculture and its interrelations with environmental issues may be facilitated by students' individual interests in agriculture. To date, an adequate instrument to investigate agricultural interests has been…

  4. German-Algerian University Exchange from the Perspective of Students and Teachers: Results of an Intercultural Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doring, Nicola; Lahmar, Kamel; Bouabdallah, Mohamed; Bouafia, Mohamed; Bouzid, Djamel; Gobsch, Gerhard; Runge, Erich

    2010-01-01

    Academic exchange programs provide students and teachers with the opportunity to study or work temporarily at educational institutions abroad. For exchange programs to be successful in promoting intercultural education, they must be designed with their participants in mind. The present study constitutes an investigation of attitudes and…

  5. German-Algerian University Exchange from the Perspective of Students and Teachers: Results of an Intercultural Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doring, Nicola; Lahmar, Kamel; Bouabdallah, Mohamed; Bouafia, Mohamed; Bouzid, Djamel; Gobsch, Gerhard; Runge, Erich

    2010-01-01

    Academic exchange programs provide students and teachers with the opportunity to study or work temporarily at educational institutions abroad. For exchange programs to be successful in promoting intercultural education, they must be designed with their participants in mind. The present study constitutes an investigation of attitudes and…

  6. Measuring the Interest of German Students in Agriculture: The Role of Knowledge, Nature Experience, Disgust, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickel, Malte; Strack, Micha; Bögeholz, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Modern knowledge-based societies, especially their younger members, have largely lost their bonds to farming. However, learning about agriculture and its interrelations with environmental issues may be facilitated by students' individual interests in agriculture. To date, an adequate instrument to investigate agricultural interests has been…

  7. [The Quality of the Family Physician-Patient Relationship. Patient-Related Predictors in a Sample Representative for the German Population].

    PubMed

    Dinkel, Andreas; Schneider, Antonius; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Brähler, Elmar; Henningsen, Peter; Häuser, Winfried

    2016-03-01

    Patient-centeredness and a strong working alliance are core elements of family medicine. Surveys in Germany showed that most people are satisfied with the quality of the family physician-patient relationship. However, factors that are responsible for the quality of the family physician-patient relationship remain unclear. This study aimed at identifying patient-related predictors of the quality of this relationship. Participants of a cross-sectional survey representative for the general German population were assessed using standardized questionnaires. The perceived quality of the family physician-patient relationship was measured with the German version of the Patient-Doctor Relationship Questionnaire (PDRQ-9). Associations of demographic and clinical variables (comorbidity, somatic symptom burden, psychological distress) with the quality of the family physician-patient relationship were assessed by applying hierarchical linear regression. 2278 participants (91,9%) reported having a family physician. The mean total score of the PDRQ-9 was high (M=4,12, SD=0,70). The final regression model showed that higher age, being female, and most notably less somatic and less depressive symptoms predicted a higher quality of the family physician-patient relationship. Comorbidity lost significance when somatic symptom burden was added to the regression model. The final model explained 11% of the variance, indicating a small effect. Experiencing somatic and depressive symptoms emerged as most relevant patient-related predictors of the quality of the family physician-patient relationship. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Predictors of body dissatisfaction in a Hispanic college student sample.

    PubMed

    Blow, Julie; Cooper, Theodore V

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of demographic, mood, acculturation, weight, and accurate weight feedback on body dissatisfaction and satisfaction. One hundred and sixty Hispanic college students completed measures assessing depressive symptoms, acculturation, affect, and body image. Participants were randomized to receive immediate or delayed weight feedback. Three multiple regression analyses assessed predictors of body dissatisfaction, body weight and fitness happiness, and perceived attractiveness. A hierarchical regression model assessed body dissatisfaction after receiving feedback. Results indicate that greater body dissatisfaction was associated with females, greater depressive symptomatology, and higher weight. Body weight and fitness happiness was associated with males and greater positive affect. Perceived attractiveness was related to smoking, greater positive affect, and greater importance placed on weight. Body dissatisfaction was not impacted by accurate weight feedback. Studies assessing the impact of these predictors in weight loss and/or body acceptance interventions are warranted, particularly in Hispanic college students. © 2013.

  9. Improved Detection of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)-Producing Escherichia coli in Input and Output Samples of German Biogas Plants by a Selective Pre-Enrichment Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Schauss, Thorsten; Glaeser, Stefanie P.; Gütschow, Alexandra; Dott, Wolfgang; Kämpfer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli was investigated in input (manure from livestock husbandry) and output samples of six German biogas plants in 2012 (one sampling per biogas plant) and two German biogas plants investigated in an annual cycle four times in 2013/2014. ESBL-producing Escherichia coli were cultured by direct plating on CHROMagar ESBL from input samples in the range of 100 to 104 colony forming units (CFU) per g dry weight but not from output sample. This initially indicated a complete elimination of ESBL-producing E. coli by the biogas plant process. Detected non target bacteria were assigned to the genera Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Bordetella, Achromobacter, Castellaniella, and Ochrobactrum. A selective pre-enrichment procedure increased the detection efficiency of ESBL-producing E. coli in input samples and enabled the detection in five of eight analyzed output samples. In total 119 ESBL-producing E. coli were isolated from input and 46 from output samples. Most of the E. coli isolates carried CTX-M-type and/or TEM-type beta lactamases (94%), few SHV-type beta lactamase (6%). Sixty-four blaCTX-M genes were characterized more detailed and assigned mainly to CTX-M-groups 1 (85%) and 9 (13%), and one to group 2. Phylogenetic grouping of 80 E. coli isolates showed that most were assigned to group A (71%) and B1 (27%), only one to group D (2%). Genomic fingerprinting and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) showed a high clonal diversity with 41 BOX-types and 19 ST-types. The two most common ST-types were ST410 and ST1210. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 46 selected ESBL-producing E. coli revealed that several isolates were additionally resistant to other veterinary relevant antibiotics and some grew on CHROMagar STEC but shiga-like toxine (SLT) genes were not detected. Resistance to carbapenems was not detected. In summary the study showed for the first time the presence of ESBL-producing E. coli in

  10. Improved detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli in input and output samples of German biogas plants by a selective pre-enrichment procedure.

    PubMed

    Schauss, Thorsten; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Gütschow, Alexandra; Dott, Wolfgang; Kämpfer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli was investigated in input (manure from livestock husbandry) and output samples of six German biogas plants in 2012 (one sampling per biogas plant) and two German biogas plants investigated in an annual cycle four times in 2013/2014. ESBL-producing Escherichia coli were cultured by direct plating on CHROMagar ESBL from input samples in the range of 100 to 104 colony forming units (CFU) per g dry weight but not from output sample. This initially indicated a complete elimination of ESBL-producing E. coli by the biogas plant process. Detected non target bacteria were assigned to the genera Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Bordetella, Achromobacter, Castellaniella, and Ochrobactrum. A selective pre-enrichment procedure increased the detection efficiency of ESBL-producing E. coli in input samples and enabled the detection in five of eight analyzed output samples. In total 119 ESBL-producing E. coli were isolated from input and 46 from output samples. Most of the E. coli isolates carried CTX-M-type and/or TEM-type beta lactamases (94%), few SHV-type beta lactamase (6%). Sixty-four blaCTX-M genes were characterized more detailed and assigned mainly to CTX-M-groups 1 (85%) and 9 (13%), and one to group 2. Phylogenetic grouping of 80 E. coli isolates showed that most were assigned to group A (71%) and B1 (27%), only one to group D (2%). Genomic fingerprinting and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) showed a high clonal diversity with 41 BOX-types and 19 ST-types. The two most common ST-types were ST410 and ST1210. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 46 selected ESBL-producing E. coli revealed that several isolates were additionally resistant to other veterinary relevant antibiotics and some grew on CHROMagar STEC but shiga-like toxine (SLT) genes were not detected. Resistance to carbapenems was not detected. In summary the study showed for the first time the presence of ESBL-producing E. coli in

  11. Developing Students' Reasoning about Samples and Sampling in the Context of Informal Inferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meletiou-Mavrotheris, Maria; Paparistodemou, Efi

    2015-01-01

    The expanding use of data in modern society for prediction and decision-making makes it a priority for mathematics instruction to help students build sound foundations of inferential reasoning at a young age. This study contributes to the emerging research literature on the early development of informal inferential reasoning through the conduct of…

  12. Relationship between Web-Based Learning Time outside the Classroom and Academic Achievement in German as a Tertiary Language by the Students on Vocational High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanbay, Orhan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this empirical research is to investigate the relationship between web-based learning time and academic achievement in German. 36 learners of L3 German with L1 Turkish and L2 English from Vocational High School of Kahta at Adiyaman University were the participants of this study. The empirical process of the study continued 6 weeks…

  13. Rubella (German Measles)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Rubella (German Measles) KidsHealth > For Parents > Rubella (German Measles) ... to Call the Doctor en español Rubéola About Rubella Rubella — commonly known as German measles or 3- ...

  14. Measuring Student Achievement in Travel and Tourism. Sample Test Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Business Education.

    The sample test items included in this document are intended as a resource for teachers of Marketing and Distributive Education programs with emphasis on hospitality and recreation marketing, and tourism and travel services marketing. The related curriculum material has been published in the Travel and Tourism syllabus, an advanced-level module in…

  15. Lernen Wir Deutsch! Part 5, German: 7534.01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This course in German prescribes broad goals and performance objectives for the development of cultural awareness, student attitudes, and listening, speaking, writing, and reading skills. Students plan an imaginary shopping trip and visit to the city. Practice in asking directions and discussion of such German customs as a skiing trip and the…

  16. A Study of Language Laboratory Teaching in German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiven, L. M.

    This report contains experiment results obtained from a comparative study of two groups of seventh grade students learning German in Sweden. The main objectives of the investigation, which lasted one school year, are: (1) to investigate possible achievement differences in German between similar groups of students when one group is instructed…

  17. Statistical Sampling Handbook for Student Aid Programs: A Reference for Non-Statisticians. Winter 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Student Financial Assistance (ED), Washington, DC.

    A manual on sampling is presented to assist audit and program reviewers, project officers, managers, and program specialists of the U.S. Office of Student Financial Assistance (OSFA). For each of the following types of samples, definitions and examples are provided, along with information on advantages and disadvantages: simple random sampling,…

  18. Prevalence and Severity of College Student Bereavement Examined in a Randomly Selected Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balk, David E.; Walker, Andrea C.; Baker, Ardith

    2010-01-01

    The authors used stratified random sampling to assess the prevalence and severity of bereavement in college undergraduates, providing an advance over findings that emerge from convenience sampling methods or from anecdotal observations. Prior research using convenience sampling indicated that 22% to 30% of college students are within 12 months of…

  19. Evening types among german university students score higher on sense of humor after controlling for big five personality factors.

    PubMed

    Randler, Christoph

    2008-10-01

    Humor research has focused on relationships between humor and various personality traits. As personality and morningness-eveningness, as well as personality and humor, are related based on genetics and neurobehavioral function, one might also expect a relationship between humor and chronotype. 197 students responded to the Composite Scale of Morningness as a measure of chronotype, the Sense of Humor Questionnaire and a 10-item version of the Big Five Inventory. Individuals scoring as evening types reported a greater sense of humor than morning individuals, with higher morningness scores. In a stepwise linear regression, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Openness, and Chronotype each accounted for a significant amount of variance in sense of Humor scores. That is, the relationship between scores on Sense of Humor and evening orientation was significant after controlling for personality dimensions. Eveningness was related to sense of Humor scores in women but not in men. Social but not cognitive humor was predicted by eveningness.

  20. Student Participation in Mars Sample Return Rover Field Tests, Silver Lake, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. C.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bowman, J. D.; Dunham, C. D.; Backes, P.; Baumgartner, E. T.; Bell, J.; Dworetzky, S. C.; Klug, S.; Peck, N.

    2000-01-01

    An integrated team of students and teachers from four high schools across the country developed and implemented their own mission of exploration and discovery using the Mars Sample Return prototype rover, FIDO, at Silver Lake in the Mojave Desert.

  1. Student Participation in Mars Sample Return Rover Field Tests, Silver Lake, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. C.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bowman, J. D.; Dunham, C. D.; Backes, P.; Baumgartner, E. T.; Bell, J.; Dworetzky, S. C.; Klug, S.; Peck, N.

    2000-01-01

    An integrated team of students and teachers from four high schools across the country developed and implemented their own mission of exploration and discovery using the Mars Sample Return prototype rover, FIDO, at Silver Lake in the Mojave Desert.

  2. Persistence with VKA treatment in newly treated atrial fibrillation patients: an analysis based on a large sample of 38,076 German patients.

    PubMed

    Wilke, Thomas; Groth, Antje; Fuchs, Andreas; Pfannkuche, Matthias; Maywald, Ulf

    2017-08-05

    The aim of this study was to describe persistence with vitamin K antagonist (VKA) treatment in German atrial fibrillation (AF) patients and to identify factors which may be associated with early discontinuation of VKA therapy. We did a retrospective cohort study based on an anonymized German claims dataset with VKA treatment-naïve AF patients, who received at least one VKA prescription. VKA therapy discontinuation was defined as a gap >180 days. We identified 38,076 VKA patients who started a VKA therapy (mean age 76.13 years; 56.08% female; mean CHA2DS2-VASc-Score 4.49; mean Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) 3.91). After four quarters since start of VKA treatment, 14,889 (39.10%) of observed patients had discontinued their VKA treatment (after eight quarters: 54.61%). Mean time until treatment discontinuation was 390.55 days. Risk of VKA discontinuation increased with the diagnosis of dementia within the first two quarters of VKA treatment [HR 1.35 (95% CI 1.29-1.40)], diagnosed alcohol or drug abuse in the baseline period [HR 1.25; 95% CI 1.18-1.33)], female gender [HR 1.08; 95% CI 1.05-1.10)], higher age (HR 1.03; 95% CI 1.03-1.03), higher CCI (HR 1.05; 95% CI 1.04-1.05), any prescription of NSAID (HR 1.07; 95% CI 1.04-1.10), and number of surgeries in the first two quarters of VKA treatment (HR 1.05; 95% CI 1.04-1.05). At least one yearly visit to a cardiologist since start of VKA treatment decreased the risk of non-persistence [HR 0.90; 95% CI 0.88-0.93] and a cancer diagnosis in the baseline period (HR 0.92; 95% CI 0.89-0.96). Non-persistence related to VKA therapy is common in AF patients. Older more comorbid female patients as well as patients who face surgeries and who do not visit a cardiologist regularly face a higher therapy discontinuation risk.

  3. Do Student Samples Provide an Accurate Estimate of the General Public?

    PubMed Central

    Hanel, Paul H. P.; Vione, Katia C.

    2016-01-01

    Most psychological studies rely on student samples. Students are usually considered as more homogenous than representative samples both within and across countries. However, little is known about the nature of the differences between student and representative samples. This is an important gap, also because knowledge about the degree of difference between student and representative samples may allow to infer from the former to the latter group. Across 59 countries and 12 personality (Big-5) and attitudinal variables we found that differences between students and general public were partly substantial, incoherent, and contradicted previous findings. Two often used cultural variables, embeddedness and intellectual autonomy, failed to explain the differences between both groups across countries. We further found that students vary as much as the general population both between and within countries. In summary, our results indicate that generalizing from students to the general public can be problematic when personal and attitudinal variables are used, as students vary mostly randomly from the general public. Findings are also discussed in terms of the replication crisis within psychology. PMID:28002494

  4. Do Student Samples Provide an Accurate Estimate of the General Public?

    PubMed

    Hanel, Paul H P; Vione, Katia C

    2016-01-01

    Most psychological studies rely on student samples. Students are usually considered as more homogenous than representative samples both within and across countries. However, little is known about the nature of the differences between student and representative samples. This is an important gap, also because knowledge about the degree of difference between student and representative samples may allow to infer from the former to the latter group. Across 59 countries and 12 personality (Big-5) and attitudinal variables we found that differences between students and general public were partly substantial, incoherent, and contradicted previous findings. Two often used cultural variables, embeddedness and intellectual autonomy, failed to explain the differences between both groups across countries. We further found that students vary as much as the general population both between and within countries. In summary, our results indicate that generalizing from students to the general public can be problematic when personal and attitudinal variables are used, as students vary mostly randomly from the general public. Findings are also discussed in terms of the replication crisis within psychology.

  5. Drug Use and Mental Well Being among a Sample of Undergraduate and Graduate College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanier, Cynthia A.; Nicholson, Thomas; Duncan, David

    2001-01-01

    Study proposes to describe the association between stress and alcohol drug use among a sample of undergraduate students. Results reveal health behaviors such as recreational drug use and drinking played an associative role with general well being. A significant relationship was also found between student participation in intramural or club sports…

  6. A Study on Primary and Secondary School Students' Misconceptions about Greenhouse Effect (Erzurum Sampling)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gul, Seyda; Yesilyurt, Selami

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine what level of primary and secondary school students' misconceptions related to greenhouse effect is. Study group consists of totally 280 students attended to totally 8 primary and secondary schools (4 primary school, 4 secondary school) which were determined with convenient sampling method from center of…

  7. The German Toyshop: An Interdisciplinary Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemczura, Mary Ann; Clayton, Joe A.

    1991-01-01

    Outlines a project combining the disciplines of German and technology education by giving students an opportunity to learn technical vocabulary and design and create wooden toys to increase students' awareness of international business and global economy and the necessity of communicating ideas with people in other countries. (Author/CB)

  8. The German version of the Material Values Scale

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Astrid; Smits, Dirk J. M.; Claes, Laurence; Gefeller, Olaf; Hinz, Andreas; de Zwaan, Martina

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The Material Values Scale is an instrument to assess beliefs about the importance to own material things. This instrument originally consists of the three subscales: ‘centrality’, ‘success’, and ‘happiness’. The present study investigated the psychometric properties of the German version of the MVS (G-MVS). Method: A population-based sample of 2,295 adult Germans completed the questionnaire in order to investigate the factorial structure. To test construct validity, additional samples were gathered among patients with compulsive buying (N=52) and medical students (N=347) who also answered the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS) and the Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-8). Results: In the German population-based sample we could not confirm the 3-factor model but rather suggest a 2-factor solution with a first collapsed factor ‘centrality/success’, and the second factor ’happiness’. Patients with compulsive buying showed the highest scores on the G-MVS. While G-MVS scores among compulsive buyers and medical students were significantly related to compulsive buying scores, the correlation between the G-MVS and the depression measure appeared substantially lower. We did not find any gender differences regarding materialism, neither in the population-based sample nor in the students’ or compulsive buyers’ samples. However, age was negatively related to G-MVS scores. Conclusion: Confirmatory factor analyses suggest a 2-factor model of the G-MVS. Overall, the results indicate the use of the G-MVS as a brief, psychometrically sound, and potentially valid measure for the assessment of material values. PMID:23802017

  9. Assessment of learning style in a sample of saudi medical students.

    PubMed

    Buali, Waleed Hamad Al; Balaha, Magdy Hassan; Muhaidab, Nouria Saab Al

    2013-01-01

    NONE DECLARED. By knowing the different students' learning styles, teachers can plan their instruction carefully in ways that are capitalized on student preferences. The current research is done to determine specific learning styles of students. This cross sectional study was conducted in Al Ahsa College of Medicine from 2011 to 2012. A sample of 518 students completed a questionnaire based on Kolb inventory (LSI 2) to determine their learning style. A spreadsheet was prepared to compute all the information to get the cumulative scores of learning abilities and identify the learning styles. The mean values of the learning abilities; active experimentation (AE), reflective observation (RO), abstract conceptualizing (AC) or concrete experience (CE) for male students were 35, 28, 30 and 26 respectively while they were 31, 30, 31 and 29 respectively for female students. There were significant difference between male and female students regarding the mean values of AE-RO (6.7 vs 1.5) and AC-CE (4.1 vs 2.1). This indicated that the style of male students were more convergent and accommodating than those of female students. The female had more assimilating and divergent styles. Learning style in Saudi medical students showed difference between males and females in the early college years. Most male students had convergent and accommodating learning styles, while the female dominant learning styles were divergent and assimilating. Planning and implementation of instruction need to consider these findings.

  10. A Multilevel Modelling Approach to Investigating Factors Impacting Science Achievement for Secondary School Students: PISA Hong Kong Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Letao; Bradley, Kelly D.; Akers, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This study utilized data from the 2006 Programme for International Student Assessment Hong Kong sample to investigate the factors that impact the science achievement of 15-year-old students. A multilevel model was used to examine the factors from both student and school perspectives. At the student level, the results indicated that male students,…

  11. Social Dating Goals in Female College Students: Failure to Replicate in a Diverse Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killeya-Jones, Ley A.

    2004-01-01

    This article reports a failure to replicate aspects of the Social Dating Goals Scale (SDGS; Sanderson & Cantor, 1995) with an ethnically diverse group of female college students. The SDGS was developed and validated with predominantly White samples. In the present study, a diverse sample of 82 Asian, Black, Hispanic and White female college…

  12. Assessing the Alcohol-BMI Relationship in a US National Sample of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Adam E.; Piazza-Gardner, Anna K.; Holton, M. Kim

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study sought to assess the body mass index (BMI)-alcohol relationship among a US national sample of college students. Design: Secondary data analysis using the Fall 2011 National College Health Assessment (NCHA). Setting: A total of 44 US higher education institutions. Methods: Participants included a national sample of college…

  13. Assessing the Alcohol-BMI Relationship in a US National Sample of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Adam E.; Piazza-Gardner, Anna K.; Holton, M. Kim

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study sought to assess the body mass index (BMI)-alcohol relationship among a US national sample of college students. Design: Secondary data analysis using the Fall 2011 National College Health Assessment (NCHA). Setting: A total of 44 US higher education institutions. Methods: Participants included a national sample of college…

  14. German Measles (Rubella)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Health Issues Conditions Injuries & Emergencies Vaccine Preventable Diseases Healthy Children > Health Issues > Vaccine Preventable Diseases > German Measles (Rubella) Health Issues ...

  15. Socio-motivational moderators-two sides of the same coin? Testing the potential buffering role of socio-motivational relationships on achievement drive and test anxiety among German and Canadian secondary school students.

    PubMed

    Hoferichter, Frances; Raufelder, Diana; Eid, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The current cross-national study investigates the potential buffering role of socio-motivational relationships for the association of achievement drive (AD) and test anxiety (TX) in secondary school students from Canada and Germany. One thousand and eighty-eight students (54% girls, M age = 13.71, SD = 0.53, age span 12-15 years) from the state of Brandenburg and 389 students from Quebéc (55.9% girls, M age = 13.43, SD = 0.82, age span 12-16 years) were asked about their socio-motivational relationships with their teachers and peers, their drive for achievement, and TX. Multigroup latent moderated structural equations were conducted to test for the moderator role of socio-motivational relationships that would buffer feelings of TX related to the drive for achievement. The analyses revealed the two-sided role socio-motivational relationships can have for students with different levels of AD; intensifying or mitigating feelings of TX. Thereby, the results of this study extend the buffering hypothesis by Cohen and Wills (1985). Cross-national differences between Canada and Germany were found concerning the studied moderators on the association of AD and TX: While for German students teacher-student relationships acted as moderator, for Canadian students student-student relationships and teachers acting as positive motivators displayed a moderator role.

  16. Identifying student profiles and their impact on academic performance in a Brazilian undergraduate student sample.

    PubMed

    da Silva, E T; de Fátima Nunes, M; Santos, L B; Queiroz, M G; Leles, C R

    2012-02-01

    The recognition of the student profile provides strategic information for planning educational policies in the university environment. The aims of this study were to identify natural segmentation of freshman undergraduate dental students based on demographic, socioeconomic and educational variables, and to subsequently investigate their impact on academic performance of Brazilian undergraduate students. Cluster analysis (two-step algorithm) was used to segment students who entered dental school in the time period from 1999 to 2001 (n=158) into groups based on responses to a questionnaire completed by students at the time of the admission examination. Clustering analysis revealed three natural groups. Age, the parents' level of education, and performance on the first admission test were the most important variables for cluster segmentation. Cluster 1 (n=42; 26.6%) was characterized by female students with higher socioeconomic status and better previous educational indicators. Cluster 2 (n=62; 39.2%) represented disadvantaged socioeconomic profiles, with a predominance of females and older students. Cluster 3 (n=54; 34.2%) showed similar socioeconomic characteristics to cluster 1, except for male prevalence, higher age, and experiencing difficulty in the admission test. Clusters' academic performance was satisfactory in both overall course and course groups (grade point average of at least 7.0), with average ranging from 7.89 (SD=0.44) to 8.13 (SD=0.31) and 7.37 (SD=0.75) to 8.31(SD=0.26), respectively. Our findings provide encouraging evidence for the current context of equality of access to education and reveal the importance of financial support to maximize successful educational experiences of socioeconomically disadvantaged dental students.

  17. Psychometric analysis of the BASC-2 Behavioral and Emotional Screening System (BESS) student form: Results from high school student samples.

    PubMed

    Harrell-Williams, Leigh M; Raines, Tara C; Kamphaus, Randy W; Dever, Bridget V

    2015-06-01

    The Behavioral and Emotional Screening System (BESS) is a relatively new method for identifying behavior and emotional risk (BER) in children and adolescents. Psychometric evidence regarding this instrument is important for researchers and practitioners considering the use of the BESS for identifying BER in students. Previous psychometric research specifically regarding the BESS Student Form involved the use of samples of elementary and middle school-age children. This study adds to the psychometric evidence for scores on the BESS Student Form by using samples of high school aged students to assess both the factor structure reported by Dowdy, Twyford et al. (2011) and the measurement invariance of the BESS items with regard to ethnicity, English language proficiency, and socioeconomic status. The results indicate that while the proposed 4-factor structure of the BESS Student Form is appropriate, lower than preferred reliabilities for some of the factors indicates that reporting the overall risk T score is more appropriate than reporting factor scores for risk classification purposes. Additionally, the BESS Student Form items did not exhibit measurement bias when comparing across ethnicities, language proficiency classification, or socioeconomic status (via free/reduced lunch classification). (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Global Health Education: a cross-sectional study among German medical students to identify needs, deficits and potential benefits (Part 2 of 2: Knowledge gaps and potential benefits)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In Germany, educational deficits or potential benefits involved in global health education have not been analysed till now. Objective We assess the importance medical students place on learning about social determinants of health (SDH) and assess their knowledge of global health topics in relation to (i) mobility patterns, their education in (ii) tropical medicine or (iii) global health. Methods Cross-sectional study among medical students from all 36 medical schools in Germany using a web-based, semi-structured questionnaire. Participants were recruited via mailing-lists of students' unions, all medical students registered in 2007 were eligible to participate in the study. We captured international mobility patterns, exposure to global health learning opportunities and attitudes to learning about SDH. Both an objective and subjective knowledge assessment were performed. Results 1126 online-replies were received and analysed. International health electives in developing countries correlated significantly with a higher importance placed on all provided SDH (p ≤ 0.006). Participation in tropical medicine (p < 0.03) and global health courses (p < 0.02) were significantly associated with a higher rating of 'culture, language and religion' and the 'economic system'. Global health trainings correlated with significantly higher ratings of the 'educational system' (p = 0.007) and the 'health system structure' (p = 0.007), while the item 'politics' was marginally significant (p = 0.053). In the knowledge assessment students achieved an average score of 3.6 (SD 1.5; Mdn 4.0), 75% achieved a score of 4.0 or less (Q25 = 3.0; Q75 = 4.0) from a maximum achievable score of 8.0. A better performance was associated with international health electives (p = 0.032), participation in tropical medicine (p = 0.038) and global health (p = 0.258) courses. Conclusion The importance medical students in our sample placed on learning about SDH strongly interacts with students

  19. Global Health Education: a cross-sectional study among German medical students to identify needs, deficits and potential benefits (Part 2 of 2: Knowledge gaps and potential benefits).

    PubMed

    Bozorgmehr, Kayvan; Menzel-Severing, Johannes; Schubert, Kirsten; Tinnemann, Peter

    2010-10-08

    In Germany, educational deficits or potential benefits involved in global health education have not been analysed till now. We assess the importance medical students place on learning about social determinants of health (SDH) and assess their knowledge of global health topics in relation to (i) mobility patterns, their education in (ii) tropical medicine or (iii) global health. Cross-sectional study among medical students from all 36 medical schools in Germany using a web-based, semi-structured questionnaire. Participants were recruited via mailing-lists of students' unions, all medical students registered in 2007 were eligible to participate in the study. We captured international mobility patterns, exposure to global health learning opportunities and attitudes to learning about SDH. Both an objective and subjective knowledge assessment were performed. 1126 online-replies were received and analysed. International health electives in developing countries correlated significantly with a higher importance placed on all provided SDH (p ≤ 0.006). Participation in tropical medicine (p < 0.03) and global health courses (p < 0.02) were significantly associated with a higher rating of 'culture, language and religion' and the 'economic system'. Global health trainings correlated with significantly higher ratings of the 'educational system' (p = 0.007) and the 'health system structure' (p = 0.007), while the item 'politics' was marginally significant (p = 0.053).In the knowledge assessment students achieved an average score of 3.6 (SD 1.5; Mdn 4.0), 75% achieved a score of 4.0 or less (Q25 = 3.0; Q75 = 4.0) from a maximum achievable score of 8.0. A better performance was associated with international health electives (p = 0.032), participation in tropical medicine (p = 0.038) and global health (p = 0.258) courses. The importance medical students in our sample placed on learning about SDH strongly interacts with students' mobility, and participation in tropical medicine and

  20. Prevalence of Internet gaming disorder in German adolescents: diagnostic contribution of the nine DSM-5 criteria in a state-wide representative sample.

    PubMed

    Rehbein, Florian; Kliem, Sören; Baier, Dirk; Mößle, Thomas; Petry, Nancy M

    2015-05-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is included as a condition for further study in Section 3 of the DSM-5. Nine criteria were proposed with a threshold of five or more criteria recommended for diagnosis. The aims of this study were to assess how the specific criteria contribute to diagnosis and to estimate prevalence rates of IGD based on DSM-5 recommendations. Large-scale, state-representative school survey using a standardized questionnaire. Germany (Lower Saxony). A total of 11 003 ninth-graders aged 13-18 years (mean = 14.88, 51.09% male). IGD was assessed with a DSM-5 adapted version of the Video Game Dependency Scale that covered all nine criteria of IGD. In total, 1.16% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.96, 1.36] of respondents were classified with IGD according to DSM-5 recommendations. IGD students played games for longer periods, skipped school more often, had lower grades in school, reported more sleep problems and more often endorsed feeling 'addicted to gaming' than their non-IGD counterparts. The most frequently reported DSM-5 criteria overall were 'escape adverse moods' (5.30%) and 'preoccupation' (3.91%), but endorsement of these criteria rarely related to IGD diagnosis. Conditional inference trees showed that the criteria 'give up other activities', 'tolerance' and 'withdrawal' were of key importance for identifying IGD as defined by DSM-5. Based on a state-wide representative school survey in Germany, endorsement of five or more criteria of DSM-5 internet gaming disorder (IGD) occurred in 1.16% of the students, and these students evidence greater impairment compared with non-IGD students. Symptoms related to 'give up other activities', 'tolerance' and 'withdrawal' are most relevant for IGD diagnosis in this age group. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Validation of a German short version of the Attitudes towards Patient Safety Questionnaire (G-APSQshort) for the measurement of undergraduate medical students' attitudes to and needs for patient safety.

    PubMed

    Kiesewetter, Jan; Kager, Moritz; Fischer, Martin R; Kiesewetter, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Topics of patient safety are being taught increasingly within medical eudcation. To date, however, there is no suitable means of measuring the status quo of medical students' attitudes towards patient safety in German-speaking Europe. The German validation of a short version of the Attitude towards Patient Safety Questionnaire (G-APSQshort) is meant to fill this gap with the aid of two validation studies. Methods: In Study 1, item and reliability analyses were used to examine internal consistency as well as factorial structure. In Study 2, the measurement sensitivity of the G-APSQshort in detecting changes in attitudes was assessed. Results: Study 1 comprised N=83 participants (M=23.16 years; 21 female). Adequate internal consistency (Cronbach's α=.722-.903) was reached in 6 of the seven subscales. The factor analysis showed that the six extracted factors matched the theoretically conceived subscales. Study 2 comprised N=21 participants (M=26 years; 11 female). A multivariate analysis of variance showed that the differences before and after a short-term intervention were significant with medium effect size (F(1;16)=6.675; p<.05; η(2)=.29). Discussion: In six subscales, the G-APSQshort can be considered valid in respect to measuring point and change. It is hoped that regular and concerted implementation of measuring instruments such as the G-APSQshort will help to develop a common ground for data comparison among many different German-speaking medical faculties.

  2. German as a Second Language: Annotated Bibliography of Learning Resources, Grades 1-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Language Services Branch.

    The annotated bibliography of print and non-print materials for students and teachers of German includes standard student texts, audiovisual materials, student and teacher references, and other media. It is intended to guide teachers in the selection of student and instructional materials for the teaching and learning of German at the elementary…

  3. Socio-motivational moderators—two sides of the same coin? Testing the potential buffering role of socio-motivational relationships on achievement drive and test anxiety among German and Canadian secondary school students

    PubMed Central

    Hoferichter, Frances; Raufelder, Diana; Eid, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The current cross-national study investigates the potential buffering role of socio-motivational relationships for the association of achievement drive (AD) and test anxiety (TX) in secondary school students from Canada and Germany. One thousand and eighty-eight students (54% girls, Mage = 13.71, SD = 0.53, age span 12–15 years) from the state of Brandenburg and 389 students from Quebéc (55.9% girls, Mage = 13.43, SD = 0.82, age span 12–16 years) were asked about their socio-motivational relationships with their teachers and peers, their drive for achievement, and TX. Multigroup latent moderated structural equations were conducted to test for the moderator role of socio-motivational relationships that would buffer feelings of TX related to the drive for achievement. The analyses revealed the two-sided role socio-motivational relationships can have for students with different levels of AD; intensifying or mitigating feelings of TX. Thereby, the results of this study extend the buffering hypothesis by Cohen and Wills (1985). Cross-national differences between Canada and Germany were found concerning the studied moderators on the association of AD and TX: While for German students teacher–student relationships acted as moderator, for Canadian students student–student relationships and teachers acting as positive motivators displayed a moderator role. PMID:26583000

  4. Internet addiction among elementary and middle school students in China: a nationally representative sample study.

    PubMed

    Li, Yajun; Zhang, Xinghui; Lu, Furong; Zhang, Qin; Wang, Yun

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of Internet addiction in a nationally representative sample of Chinese elementary and middle school students and to investigate Internet addiction among Internet users with different usages. The data were from the National Children's Study of China (NCSC) in which 24,013 fourth- to ninth-grade students were recruited from 100 counties in 31 provinces in China. Only 54.2% of the students had accessed the Internet. According to the criteria of Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ), an eight-item instrument, the prevalence of Internet addiction in the total sample was 6.3%, and among Internet users was 11.7%. Among the Internet users, males (14.8%) and rural students (12.1%) reported Internet addiction more than females (7.0%) and urban students (10.6%). The percentage of Internet addicts in elementary school students (11.5%) was not significantly lower than the percentage of middle school students (11.9%). There was no statistically significant difference between the four geographical regions (9.6%, 11.5%, 12.3%, 11.1%) characterized by different levels of economy, health, education, and social environment. As the frequency of Internet use and time spent online per week increased, the percentage of Internet addicts increased. When considering the location and purpose of Internet use, the percentage of Internet addicts was highest in adolescents typically surfing in Internet cafes (18.1%) and playing Internet games (22.5%).

  5. A Xhosa language translation of the CORE-OM using South African university student samples.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Megan M; Young, Charles

    2016-10-01

    The translation of well established psychometric tools from English into Xhosa may assist in improving access to psychological services for Xhosa speakers. The aim of this study was to translate the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation - Outcome Measure (CORE-OM), a measure of general distress and dysfunction developed in the UK, into Xhosa for use at South African university student counselling centres. The CORE-OM and embedded CORE-10 were translated into Xhosa using a five-stage translation design. This design included (a) forward-translation, (b) back-translation, (c) committee approach, (d) qualitative piloting, and (e) quantitative piloting on South African university students. Clinical and general samples were drawn from English-medium South African universities. Clinical samples were generated from university student counselling centres. General student samples were generated through random stratified cluster sampling of full-time university students. Qualitative feedback from the translation process and results from quantitative piloting of the 34-item CORE-OM English and Xhosa versions supported the reduction of the scale to 10 items. This reduced scale is referred to as the South African CORE-10 (SA CORE-10). A measurement and structural model of the SA CORE-10 English version was developed and cross-validated using an English-speaking university student sample. Equivalence of this model with the SA CORE-10 Xhosa version was investigated using a first-language Xhosa-speaking university sample. Partial measurement equivalence was achieved at the metric level. The resultant SA CORE-10 Xhosa and English versions provide core measures of distress and dysfunction. Additional, culture- and language-specific domains could be added to increase sensitivity and specificity.

  6. Quantitative Determination of Spermidine in 50 German Cheese Samples on a Core-Shell Column by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with a Photodiode Array Detector Using a Fully Validated Method.

    PubMed

    Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Ehmer, Andreas; Chaize, Delphine; Rimbach, Gerald

    2016-03-16

    In the current study, the spermidine (8) contents of 51 German and 9 international cheese samples (from France, Ireland, Italy, The Netherlands, and Switzerland) were analyzed by a modified and fully validated method using high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. After precolumn derivatization of biogenic amines with dansyl chloride (11), the compounds were separated on a Kinetex C18 column and detected at λ = 254 nm. This method for compound 8 analysis in cheese was validated for the first time according to U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines for bioanalytical method validation with regard to selectivity, precision, accuracy, recovery, linearity, lower limit of detection (LOD), lower limit of quantitation (LOQ), standard solution stability, short- and long-term stability, freeze-thaw stability, and benchtop stability. The detector response was linear from 0.002 to 8 mg/L 8 (R(2) > 0.999). Low LOD and LOQ values of 1 and 2 μg/L, respectively, reflected the high sensitivity of the method. The intra- and interday recoveries of the 8-spiked cheese samples ranged between 87.7 and 102.6%. This validated method was selective, accurate, and precise and was successfully applied for the quantitative analysis of compound 8 in 60 cheese samples. Furthermore, the simultaneous detection of eight additional biogenic amines is possible but not validated.

  7. Word Stress in German Single-Word Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyermann, Sandra; Penke, Martina

    2014-01-01

    This article reports a lexical-decision experiment that was conducted to investigate the impact of word stress on visual word recognition in German. Reaction-time latencies and error rates of German readers on different levels of reading proficiency (i.e., third graders and fifth graders from primary school and university students) were compared…

  8. Cultural Simulation: Adaptation of Films for Business German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algin, Barbara

    Script theory suggests that human memory is organized around personal experiences or episodes rather than around semantic categories, and that a particular event is remembered as it relates to other events occurring simultaneously. According to the experience of one teacher of business German on the college level, students of business German need…

  9. Artificial Intelligence in a German Adventure Game: Spion in PROLOG.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molla, Steven R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Spion, an adventure game for intermediate and advanced college German students, requires players to communicate with a fictitious agent in complete, correct German sentences. The spy game was written in PROLOG, runs on an IBM-PC, and is available at no cost for noncommercial purposes. (Author/CB)

  10. Word Stress in German Single-Word Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyermann, Sandra; Penke, Martina

    2014-01-01

    This article reports a lexical-decision experiment that was conducted to investigate the impact of word stress on visual word recognition in German. Reaction-time latencies and error rates of German readers on different levels of reading proficiency (i.e., third graders and fifth graders from primary school and university students) were compared…

  11. Lernen Wir Deutsch! Part 10, German: 7535.02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This course in German prescribes broad goals and performance objectives for the development of cultural awareness, student attitudes, and listening, speaking, writing, and reading skills. The content of the course, based on Units 21 and 22 of "A-LM German: Level 2" and "Reading for Meaning," requires mastery of selected…

  12. Orientations to Learning German: Heritage Language Background and Motivational Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noels, Kimberly A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined how two motivational substrates may be differentially important depending upon the learner's language background. Students registered in German classes (N = 99) completed a questionnaire that assessed (a) their intrinsic, extrinsic, integrative, and instrumental reasons for learning German; (b) their feelings of autonomy,…

  13. Integrative Teaching Techniques and Improvement of German Speaking Learning Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litualy, Samuel Jusuf

    2016-01-01

    This research ist a Quasi-Experimental research which only applied to one group without comparison group. It aims to prove whether the implementation of integrative teaching technique has influenced the speaking skill of the students in German Education Study Program of FKIP, Pattimura University. The research was held in the German Education…

  14. German Television in the U.S. and Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecke, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I review the options that teachers and students have to obtain German TV in the U.S.: through satellite and cable networks and by streaming, downloading, or recording TV programs through the internet. I also address how one can access TV programs over the air in the German-speaking countries by using a notebook PC and TV card.

  15. German Television in the United States and Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecke, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I review the options that teachers and students have to obtain German TV in the U.S.: through satellite and cable networks and by streaming, downloading, or recording TV programs through the internet. I also address how one can access TV programs over the air in the German-speaking countries by using a notebook PC and TV card.

  16. German Television in the United States and Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecke, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I review the options that teachers and students have to obtain German TV in the U.S.: through satellite and cable networks and by streaming, downloading, or recording TV programs through the internet. I also address how one can access TV programs over the air in the German-speaking countries by using a notebook PC and TV card.

  17. German Television in the U.S. and Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecke, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I review the options that teachers and students have to obtain German TV in the U.S.: through satellite and cable networks and by streaming, downloading, or recording TV programs through the internet. I also address how one can access TV programs over the air in the German-speaking countries by using a notebook PC and TV card.

  18. The Effects of Lecture Diversity on Germane Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costley, Jamie; Lange, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    An important aspect of MOOCs is the way students interact with video lectures. Instruction provided through video lectures should focus on ways to increase germane cognitive load, which directly contributes to learning. One approach that may lead to an increase of germane load may be to use video lectures with diverse forms of media, including…

  19. "Lieder machen Leute": Teaching Postwar German Identity through Song

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickham, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The negotiation of a West German identity in the decades that followed World War II can be traced in the issues and movements that preoccupied the populace. These in turn are documented in the work of socially and politically motivated "Liedermacher". Songs thus serve as a point of entry for students into how Germans saw themselves in…

  20. Artificial Intelligence in a German Adventure Game: Spion in PROLOG.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molla, Steven R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Spion, an adventure game for intermediate and advanced college German students, requires players to communicate with a fictitious agent in complete, correct German sentences. The spy game was written in PROLOG, runs on an IBM-PC, and is available at no cost for noncommercial purposes. (Author/CB)

  1. On the Reliability and Validity of Human and LSA-Based Evaluations of Complex Student-Authored Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seifried, Eva; Lenhard, Wolfgang; Baier, Herbert; Spinath, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the potential of a software tool based on Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA; Landauer, McNamara, Dennis, & Kintsch, 2007) to automatically evaluate complex German texts. A sample of N = 94 German university students provided written answers to questions that involved a high amount of analytical reasoning and evaluation.…

  2. Implicit and Explicit Weight Bias in a National Sample of 4732 Medical Students: The Medical Student CHANGES Study

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, Sean M.; Dovidio, John F.; Puhl, Rebecca M.; Burgess, Diana J.; Nelson, David B.; Yeazel, Mark W.; Hardeman, Rachel; Perry, Sylvia; van Ryn, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the magnitude of explicit and implicit weight biases compared to biases against other groups; and identify student factors predicting bias in a large national sample of medical students. Design and Methods A web-based survey was completed by 4732 1st year medical students from 49 medical schools as part of a longitudinal study of medical education. The survey included a validated measure of implicit weight bias, the implicit association test, and 2 measures of explicit bias: a feeling thermometer and the anti-fat attitudes test. Results A majority of students exhibited implicit (74%) and explicit (67%) weight bias. Implicit weight bias scores were comparable to reported bias against racial minorities. Explicit attitudes were more negative toward obese people than toward racial minorities, gays, lesbians, and poor people. In multivariate regression models, implicit and explicit weight bias was predicted by lower BMI, male sex, and non-Black race. Either implicit or explicit bias was also predicted by age, SES, country of birth, and specialty choice. Conclusions Implicit and explicit weight bias is common among 1st year medical students, and varies across student factors. Future research should assess implications of biases and test interventions to reduce their impact. PMID:24375989

  3. Implicit and explicit weight bias in a national sample of 4,732 medical students: the medical student CHANGES study.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Sean M; Dovidio, John F; Puhl, Rebecca M; Burgess, Diana J; Nelson, David B; Yeazel, Mark W; Hardeman, Rachel; Perry, Sylvia; van Ryn, Michelle

    2014-04-01

    To examine the magnitude of explicit and implicit weight biases compared to biases against other groups; and identify student factors predicting bias in a large national sample of medical students. A web-based survey was completed by 4,732 1st year medical students from 49 medical schools as part of a longitudinal study of medical education. The survey included a validated measure of implicit weight bias, the implicit association test, and 2 measures of explicit bias: a feeling thermometer and the anti-fat attitudes test. A majority of students exhibited implicit (74%) and explicit (67%) weight bias. Implicit weight bias scores were comparable to reported bias against racial minorities. Explicit attitudes were more negative toward obese people than toward racial minorities, gays, lesbians, and poor people. In multivariate regression models, implicit and explicit weight bias was predicted by lower BMI, male sex, and non-Black race. Either implicit or explicit bias was also predicted by age, SES, country of birth, and specialty choice. Implicit and explicit weight bias is common among 1st year medical students, and varies across student factors. Future research should assess implications of biases and test interventions to reduce their impact. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  4. Re-Examining Bernstein: From Peer-Group Ways of Speaking to "Schriftsprache"--A Study of Turkish-German "Hauptschule" Students in Mannheim

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keim, Inken

    2009-01-01

    This paper begins by looking at responses to Bernstein in Germany in the 1970s that criticized his notions of class difference in sociolinguistic codes. As part of a re-examination of Bernstein's ideas, the paper goes on to look at the current communicative situation in German education where urban schools have many second-generation immigrant…

  5. Re-Examining Bernstein: From Peer-Group Ways of Speaking to "Schriftsprache"--A Study of Turkish-German "Hauptschule" Students in Mannheim

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keim, Inken

    2009-01-01

    This paper begins by looking at responses to Bernstein in Germany in the 1970s that criticized his notions of class difference in sociolinguistic codes. As part of a re-examination of Bernstein's ideas, the paper goes on to look at the current communicative situation in German education where urban schools have many second-generation immigrant…

  6. Military Service and Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors in a National Sample of College Students.

    PubMed

    Pease, James L; Monteith, Lindsey L; Hostetter, Trisha A; Forster, Jeri E; Bahraini, Nazanin H

    2015-01-12

    Background: As a result of the post-9/11 GI Bill, increasing numbers of veterans are enrolling in college. However, little is known regarding suicidal outcomes among this group. In prior research, college student veterans reported high rates of suicidal ideation and attempt. Nonetheless, no research has examined whether military service is associated with increased suicide risk among college students. Aims: Our primary aims were to examine whether a history of military service was related to past-year suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt among college students. On the basis of previous research with college students, we hypothesized that students with a history of military service (i.e., current or prior) would report a higher percentage of past-year suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt. Our secondary aims were to examine the associations between military service and major depression and nonsuicidal self-injury. Method: Our sample included 3,290 college students with and without a history of military service who participated in the Healthy Minds Study in 2011 and 2012. Results: Military service was not significantly associated with past-year suicidal ideation, plan, or attempt. Students without a history of military service were more likely to report nonsuicidal self-injury. There was no significant difference in screening positive for major depression. Conclusions: These findings conflict with previous research that identified student veterans as being at elevated risk.

  7. "There Is No Space for Being German": Portraits of Willing and Reluctant Heritage Language Learners of German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dressler, Roswita

    2010-01-01

    Some heritage language learners (HLLs) are comfortable identifying themselves as such, while others are decidedly reluctant to adopt this term (Pino & Pino, 2000). HLLs in this paper are defined as those students having a parent or grandparent who speaks German or those who have spent a significant part of their childhood in a German-speaking…

  8. Deutsch im Louvre (oder: Deutsch als tote Sprache) (German in the Louvre [or, German as a Dead Language])

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markwald, Sabine

    1976-01-01

    Describes a German course for archeologists and art historians, given in the Louvre by the Paris Goethe Institute. Reliance is placed on the students' visual memory, with schematic presentation of pronoun and article declension. This approach sometimes fosters errors and misunderstandings. The verb system is emphasized. (Text is in German.)…

  9. "There Is No Space for Being German": Portraits of Willing and Reluctant Heritage Language Learners of German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dressler, Roswita

    2010-01-01

    Some heritage language learners (HLLs) are comfortable identifying themselves as such, while others are decidedly reluctant to adopt this term (Pino & Pino, 2000). HLLs in this paper are defined as those students having a parent or grandparent who speaks German or those who have spent a significant part of their childhood in a German-speaking…

  10. Beliefs about the causes of obesity in a national sample of 4th year medical students.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Sean M; Burgess, Diana J; Burke, Sara E; Przedworski, Julia M; Dovidio, John F; Hardeman, Rachel; Morris, Megan; van Ryn, Michelle

    2015-11-01

    Physician knowledge of the complex contributors to obesity varies. We do not know whether today's medical students are graduating with deep understanding of the causes of obesity. Our objective was to assess beliefs about causes of obesity in a national sample of 4th year medical students. We randomly selected 2000 4th year students from a random sample of 50 U.S. medical schools and asked them to rate the importance of several factors as causes of obesity. Of those invited, 1244 (62%) responded. We conducted latent class analysis to identify groups with similar response patterns. Most students demonstrated knowledge that obesity has multiple contributors. Students fell into 1 of 4 classes: (1) more likely to endorse all contributors (28%), (2) more likely to endorse physiological contributors (27%), (3) more likely to endorse behavioral or social contributors (24%), and (4) unlikely to endorse contributors outside of overeating and physical activity (22%). Though students were generally aware of multiple causes, there were 4 distinct patterns of beliefs, with implications for patient care. Targeted interventions may help to improve depth of knowledge about the causes of obesity and lead to more effective care for obese patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The prevalence and correlates of depression, anxiety, and stress in a sample of college students.

    PubMed

    Beiter, R; Nash, R; McCrady, M; Rhoades, D; Linscomb, M; Clarahan, M; Sammut, S

    2015-03-01

    Over the past four years, the Franciscan University Counseling Center has reported a 231% increase in yearly visits, as well as a 173% increase in total yearly clients. This trend has been observed at many universities as mental health issues pose significant problems for many college students. The objective of this study was to investigate potential correlates of depression, anxiety, and stress in a sample of college students. The final analyzed sample consisted of 374 undergraduate students between the ages of 18 and 24 attending Franciscan University, Steubenville, Ohio. Subjects completed a survey consisting of demographic questions, a section instructing participants to rate the level of concern associated with challenges pertinent to daily life (e.g. academics, family, sleep), and the 21 question version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS21). The results indicated that the top three concerns were academic performance, pressure to succeed, and post-graduation plans. Demographically, the most stressed, anxious, and depressed students were transfers, upperclassmen, and those living off-campus. With the propensity for mental health issues to hinder the success of college students, it is vital that colleges continually evaluate the mental health of their students and tailor treatment programs to specifically target their needs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. German influence in USSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chertok, B.

    2004-08-01

    In June 1945 this author was one of the organizers of the, first in the postwar history, Soviet-German institute RABE. The main task of its activity was to study the history of the German rocket technology developments and rebuild the technology of the long range ballistic missiles V-2. This work was supported by the Soviet military authorities and also by the Soviet government. In the Turingia region of Germany a big institute, "Nordhausen", was established, in which Soviet and German specialists jointly worked on the rocket technology problems. In November 1947 a big group of German specialists was transferred to the Soviet Union. All the works in Germany were cancelled. German specialists took part in the preparation and running of the flight test of rocket V-2 in October-November of 1947 on Kapustin Yar test range. Until the beginning of the 50s a big group of German specialists worked in the daughter institute of the leading Soviet research institute on rocket technique, NII-88, under the management of Helmut Grettrupe, one of the former von Braun employees. They worked out the design of ballistic missiles of range up to 800 km with principally new guidance system. Germans also took part in the development of the technology of fluid rocket engine production. In 1952-1953 German specialists returned to Germany and rocket technology in the USSR matured independently. The Soviet and German scientists cooperation resumed in 1960s after manned space flights were started. The author was one of the leading participants in those joint works.

  13. Acquisition, development, and maintenance of online poker playing in a student sample.

    PubMed

    Wood, Richard T A; Griffiths, Mark D; Parke, Jonathan

    2007-06-01

    To date there has been very little empirical research into Internet gambling and none relating to the recent rise in popularity of online poker. Given that recent reports have claimed that students may be a vulnerable group, the aim of the current study was to establish basic information regarding Internet poker playing behavior among the student population, including various motivators for participation and predictors of problematic play. The study examined a self-selected sample of student online poker players using an online survey (n=422). Results showed that online poker playing was undertaken at least twice per week by a third of the participants. Almost one in five of the sample (18%) was defined as a problem gambler using the DSM-IV criteria. Findings demonstrated that problem gambling in this population was best predicted by negative mood states after playing, gender swapping whilst playing, and playing to escape from problems.

  14. A sampling strategy for promoting and assessing medical student retention of physical examination skills.

    PubMed

    Williams, Reed G; Klamen, Debra L; Mayer, David; Valaski, Maureen; Roberts, Nicole K

    2007-10-01

    Skill acquisition and maintenance requires spaced deliberate practice. Assessing medical students' physical examination performance ability is resource intensive. The authors assessed the nature and size of physical examination performance samples necessary to accurately estimate total physical examination skill. Physical examination assessment data were analyzed from second year students at the University of Illinois College of Medicine at Chicago in 2002, 2003, and 2004 (N = 548). Scores on subgroups of physical exam maneuvers were compared with scores on the total physical exam, to identify sound predictors of total test performance. Five exam subcomponents were sufficiently correlated to overall test performance and provided adequate sensitivity and specificity to serve as a means to prompt continued student review and rehearsal of physical examination technical skills. Selection and administration of samples of the total physical exam provide a resource-saving approach for promoting and estimating overall physical examination skills retention.

  15. Academic Outcomes among a Sample of Learning Support Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Amy D.

    2014-01-01

    This research examined the relationship between placement in a learning support college program and subsequent academic outcomes. The sample consisted of 275 entering freshmen students who were enrolled in the Learning Support reading courses in the fall of 2005. Data were collected from the Gordon College Office of Institutional Research. The…

  16. Perceptions of Rape and Attitudes toward Women in a Sample of Lebanese Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebeiz, Maria J.; Harb, Charles

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated values, ambivalent sexism, religiosity, religious differences, gender, and attitudes toward rape victims as predictors of rape myths in a sample of Lebanese students (N = 300). Values of self-transcendence and conservation, gender, hostile sexism, and attitudes toward rape victims emerged as significant predictors of rape…

  17. Academic Outcomes among a Sample of Learning Support Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Amy D.

    2014-01-01

    This research examined the relationship between placement in a learning support college program and subsequent academic outcomes. The sample consisted of 275 entering freshmen students who were enrolled in the Learning Support reading courses in the fall of 2005. Data were collected from the Gordon College Office of Institutional Research. The…

  18. Holland's Hexagonal Personality Model for a Sample of Greek University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidiropoulou-Dimakakou, Despina; Mylonas, Kostas; Argyropoulou, Katerina

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the hexagonal person-environment fit for the Holland personality types for a Greek sample of 156 university students. The statistical analysis followed both exploratory--such as multidimensional scaling--and confirmatory methods--such as covariance structure models. These methods were employed in an…

  19. The State of the Union: Sexual Health Disparities in a National Sample of US College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buhi, Eric R.; Marhefka, Stephanie L.; Hoban, Mary T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine sexual health disparities between blacks and whites in a national sample of US college students. Participants and Method Summary: Analyses utilized secondary data from 44,165 nonmarried undergraduates (aged 18-24; M = 20.1) responding to the Spring 2007 American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment;…

  20. Technophobia and Personality Subtypes in a Sample of South African University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthony, L. M.; Clarke, M. C.; Anderson, S. J.

    2000-01-01

    This study examined levels of techophobia, described as negative psychological reactions toward technology, in a sample of South African university students. Describes use of the NEO-Five Factor Inventory and reports results that show techophobia was inversely correlated with computer experience, weakly correlated with age, but not associated with…

  1. Factors, Correlates, Problem Areas Affecting Career Decision Making of a Cross-Sectional Sample of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, James M.; And Others

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of the correlates and problem areas affecting career decision making and specifically to test the validity of the O'Neil, Meeker & Borgers' (1978) model. A cross-sectional sample of high school, undergraduate, and graduate students (N=1,436) responded to the Career Factor Checklist (CFC) and…

  2. A Sweet Way to Teach Students about the Sampling Distribution of the Mean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyck, Jennifer L.; Gee, Nancy R.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a hands-on demonstration of the concept of the sampling distribution of the mean using M&M's candy. Compares the effectiveness of the candy demonstration with that of a comparable demonstration using a textbook example. Reports that students exposed to the candy example performed better on a subsequent examination. (DSK)

  3. Achievement Goal Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties and Gender Invariance in a Sample of Chinese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Jing; Bai, Yu; He, Yini; McWhinnie, Chad M.; Ling, Yu; Smith, Hannah; Huebner, E. Scott

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the gender invariance of the Chinese version of the Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ-C) utilizing a sample of 1,115 Chinese university students. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis supported the configural, metric, and scalar invariance of the AGQ-C across genders. Analyses also revealed that the latent…

  4. Academic Dishonesty in the Canadian Classroom: Behaviours of a Sample of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurdi, Rozzet; Hage, H. Sam; Chow, Henry P. H.

    2011-01-01

    Academic dishonesty is a persistent problem in institutions of higher education, with numerous short- and long-term implications. This study examines undergraduate students' self-reported engagement in acts of academic dishonesty using data from a sample of 321 participants attending a public university in a western Canadian city during the fall…

  5. Using Compositional Writing Samples to Explore Student Usage Patterns in a Learning Management System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokensparger, Brian Jay

    2013-01-01

    This study explored relationships between writing sample features and LMS usage patterns for 366 college students who enrolled in Theology courses, junior-level courses cross-listed with theology courses, or Senior Perspective Program courses in the fall semester of 2012. These hybrid courses were managed inside the Canvas(TM) learning management…

  6. The State of the Union: Sexual Health Disparities in a National Sample of US College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buhi, Eric R.; Marhefka, Stephanie L.; Hoban, Mary T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine sexual health disparities between blacks and whites in a national sample of US college students. Participants and Method Summary: Analyses utilized secondary data from 44,165 nonmarried undergraduates (aged 18-24; M = 20.1) responding to the Spring 2007 American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment;…

  7. Associations between Physical Activity and Health-Related Factors in a National Sample of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinger, Mary K.; Brittain, Danielle R.; Hutchinson, Susan R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between meeting the current moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) recommendation and health-related factors in a national sample of college students. Participants: Participants (N = 67,861) completed the National College Health Assessment II during the Fall 2008/Spring 2009 academic year. Methods:…

  8. Depressive Symptoms and Mental Health Treatment in an Ethnoracially Diverse College Student Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Steve; Archambeau, Olga G.; Deliramich, Aimee N.; Kim, Bryan S. K.; Chiu, Pearl H.; Frueh, B. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To study (a) the prevalence of depressive symptoms and (b) the utilization of mental health treatment in an ethnoracially diverse sample consisting primarily of Asian Americans, European Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders. Participants: Five hundred eighty-nine college students. Method: A questionnaire packet that…

  9. The Three Dimensions of the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale: CFA Validation in a Preschool Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solheim, Elisabet; Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne; Wichstrom, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The validity of the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale (STRS) was examined in a preschool community sample (N = 925) using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Factorial invariance across genders was also investigated as was concurrent and discriminant validity. Indicators of validity were teacher-rated social competence, problem behavior, and…

  10. The Structure of the Career Beliefs Inventory on a Sample of Italian High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Timothy R.; Tracey, Terence J. G.; Nota, Laura; Ferrari, Lea; Soresi, Salvatore

    2009-01-01

    This study was an examination of the validity of Krumboltz's Career Beliefs Inventory in a sample of Italian high school students (N = 256). The factor structure was examined at the item level using exploratory factor analysis. A five-factor structure emerged during analysis highlighting beliefs about Career Confidence, Career Activity, Career…

  11. Alcohol, Drugs, and Links to Sexual Risk Behaviors among a Sample of Virginia College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enyeart Smith, Theresa M.; Wessel, Maria T.

    2011-01-01

    This project was significant in that it administered the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey (NCHRBS), a health risk assessment, to a sample of students at three public universities in Virginia. Virginia was never included in the original or subsequent nationwide assessments using this instrument. This health risk assessment is…

  12. Associations between Physical Activity and Health-Related Factors in a National Sample of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinger, Mary K.; Brittain, Danielle R.; Hutchinson, Susan R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between meeting the current moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) recommendation and health-related factors in a national sample of college students. Participants: Participants (N = 67,861) completed the National College Health Assessment II during the Fall 2008/Spring 2009 academic year. Methods:…

  13. Prevalence of Childhood Physical Abuse in a Representative Sample of College Students in Samsun, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turla, Ahmet; Dundar, Cihad; Ozkanli, Caglar

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to obtain the prevalence of childhood physical abuse experiences in college students. This cross-sectional study was performed on a gender-stratified random sample of 988 participants studying at Ondokuz Mayis University, with self-reported anonymous questionnaires. It included questions on physical abuse in…

  14. Alcohol, Drugs, and Links to Sexual Risk Behaviors among a Sample of Virginia College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enyeart Smith, Theresa M.; Wessel, Maria T.

    2011-01-01

    This project was significant in that it administered the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey (NCHRBS), a health risk assessment, to a sample of students at three public universities in Virginia. Virginia was never included in the original or subsequent nationwide assessments using this instrument. This health risk assessment is…

  15. Using Compositional Writing Samples to Explore Student Usage Patterns in a Learning Management System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokensparger, Brian Jay

    2013-01-01

    This study explored relationships between writing sample features and LMS usage patterns for 366 college students who enrolled in Theology courses, junior-level courses cross-listed with theology courses, or Senior Perspective Program courses in the fall semester of 2012. These hybrid courses were managed inside the Canvas(TM) learning management…

  16. Factor Structure of the New Imaginary Audience Scale in a Sample of Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuterbach, James M.

    2007-01-01

    The New Imaginary Audience Scale (NIAS; Lapsley, FitzGerald, Rice, & Jackson, 1989) has been used as a research tool with both high school and college aged samples, yet there is no structural validity evidence for its use with college students. This study examined the structural validity of the NIAS via an exploratory factor analysis, using a…

  17. Achievement Goal Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties and Gender Invariance in a Sample of Chinese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Jing; Bai, Yu; He, Yini; McWhinnie, Chad M.; Ling, Yu; Smith, Hannah; Huebner, E. Scott

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the gender invariance of the Chinese version of the Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ-C) utilizing a sample of 1,115 Chinese university students. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis supported the configural, metric, and scalar invariance of the AGQ-C across genders. Analyses also revealed that the latent…

  18. Factor Structure of the New Imaginary Audience Scale in a Sample of Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuterbach, James M.

    2007-01-01

    The New Imaginary Audience Scale (NIAS; Lapsley, FitzGerald, Rice, & Jackson, 1989) has been used as a research tool with both high school and college aged samples, yet there is no structural validity evidence for its use with college students. This study examined the structural validity of the NIAS via an exploratory factor analysis, using a…

  19. The Three Dimensions of the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale: CFA Validation in a Preschool Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solheim, Elisabet; Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne; Wichstrom, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The validity of the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale (STRS) was examined in a preschool community sample (N = 925) using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Factorial invariance across genders was also investigated as was concurrent and discriminant validity. Indicators of validity were teacher-rated social competence, problem behavior, and…

  20. Prevalence of Childhood Physical Abuse in a Representative Sample of College Students in Samsun, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turla, Ahmet; Dundar, Cihad; Ozkanli, Caglar

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to obtain the prevalence of childhood physical abuse experiences in college students. This cross-sectional study was performed on a gender-stratified random sample of 988 participants studying at Ondokuz Mayis University, with self-reported anonymous questionnaires. It included questions on physical abuse in…

  1. Perceptions of Rape and Attitudes toward Women in a Sample of Lebanese Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebeiz, Maria J.; Harb, Charles

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated values, ambivalent sexism, religiosity, religious differences, gender, and attitudes toward rape victims as predictors of rape myths in a sample of Lebanese students (N = 300). Values of self-transcendence and conservation, gender, hostile sexism, and attitudes toward rape victims emerged as significant predictors of rape…

  2. Factors, Correlates, Problem Areas Affecting Career Decision Making of a Cross-Sectional Sample of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, James M.; And Others

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of the correlates and problem areas affecting career decision making and specifically to test the validity of the O'Neil, Meeker & Borgers' (1978) model. A cross-sectional sample of high school, undergraduate, and graduate students (N=1,436) responded to the Career Factor Checklist (CFC) and…

  3. The IB from a German Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckheit, James E.

    1995-01-01

    Although the IB (international baccalaureate) diploma has almost universal acceptance as a college-preparation standard for students studying in foreign countries, Germany and France are reluctant to accept this diploma for nationals studying in their own countries. The German state governments are particularly concerned about quality control and…

  4. Recent Trends in German Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellert, Claudius

    1996-01-01

    Discusses trends in German higher education over the last decade, focusing on the expansion and differentiation of postsecondary education, societal changes in the student population, and the relationship between education and social class in light of the "individualization thesis" of sociologist Ulrich Beck. (MDM)

  5. Recent Trends in German Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellert, Claudius

    1996-01-01

    Discusses trends in German higher education over the last decade, focusing on the expansion and differentiation of postsecondary education, societal changes in the student population, and the relationship between education and social class in light of the "individualization thesis" of sociologist Ulrich Beck. (MDM)

  6. German Folk Dances: An Innovative Teaching Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedekind, Almute

    1993-01-01

    This paper proposes the incorporation of folk dances into the German curriculum on all instructional levels, from kindergarten to college. Learning and performing folk dances provides students not only with cultural information about foreign countries but also with specific structural features of the foreign language. The teacher can select…

  7. German Higher Education: Some Facts and Impressions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, John L.; Huff, Betty J.

    1996-01-01

    A discussion of the current status of the German system of higher education looks at its relationship to federal and state governments, its administrative organization, problems (particularly in the eastern states) and areas where reform is needed, availability of student services, and the significance for the system as a whole of social and…

  8. How to Find Out in: German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flower, Clara K.

    This library handbook is an informal guide for the student studying the German language and literature. It lists reference materials basic to general research and gives their locations in the Fogler Library at the University of Maine. Reference works for study of the language include (1) dictionaries and encyclopedias, (2) histories of the…

  9. How to Find Out in: German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flower, Clara K.

    This library handbook is an informal guide for the student studying the German language and literature. It lists reference materials basic to general research and gives their locations in the Fogler Library at the University of Maine. Reference works for study of the language include (1) dictionaries and encyclopedias, (2) histories of the…

  10. Drug use and mental well being among a sample of undergraduate and graduate college students.

    PubMed

    Lanier, C A; Nicholson, T; Duncan, D

    2001-01-01

    Stress related disorders in college students are widespread and largely preventable. Students do not have the preventative skills necessary to manage stress in their lives and, because of the inability to cope, students may turn to alcohol and drugs to alleviate the pressures they are experiencing. The purpose of this study was to describe the association between stress and alcohol and drug use. A total of 772 undergraduate and graduate students from a small, elite, private university were randomly selected from 4000 students to complete two anonymous questionnaires. The Core Alcohol and Drug Survey identified the frequency and consequences of alcohol and drug use, and the General-Well Being Schedule was used to assess subjective well being and mental health status. The results of this study revealed that, for this sample of students, health behaviors such as using drugs recreationally and drinking alcohol played an associative role with general well being. A significant relationship was also found between student participation in intramural or club sports and positive mental well being.

  11. Promoting reflection by using contextual activity sampling: a study on students' interprofessional learning.

    PubMed

    Lachmann, Hanna; Fossum, Bjöörn; Johansson, Unn-Britt; Karlgren, Klas; Ponzer, Sari

    2014-09-01

    Students' engagement and reflection on learning activities are important during interprofessional clinical practice. The contextual activity sampling system (CASS) is a methodology designed for collecting data on experiences of ongoing activities by frequent distribution of questionnaires via mobile phones. The aim of this study was to investigate if the use of the CASS methodology affected students' experiences of their learning activities, readiness for interprofessional learning, academic emotions and experiences of interprofessional team collaboration. Student teams, consisting of 33 students in total from four different healthcare programs, were randomized into an intervention group that used CASS or into a control group that did not use CASS. Both quantitative (questionnaires) and qualitative (interviews) data were collected. The results showed that students in the intervention group rated teamwork and collaboration significantly higher after than before the course, which was not the case in the control group. On the other hand, the control group reported experiencing more stress than the intervention group. The qualitative data showed that CASS seemed to support reflection and also have a positive impact on students' experiences of ongoing learning activities and interprofessional collaboration. In conclusion, the CASS methodology provides support for students in their understanding of interprofessional teamwork.

  12. Internet use and attitudes towards illicit internet use behavior in a sample of Russian college students.

    PubMed

    Palesh, Oxana; Saltzman, Kasey; Koopman, Cheryl

    2004-10-01

    This study assessed Internet use and attitudes toward illicit use of the Internet in a sample of Russian college students. A sample comprised of 198 students was recruited from a university in Moscow. Each participant completed a survey assessing demographic characteristics, Internet use, and attitudes towards engaging in illicit behaviors over the Internet. About half of the students reported that they used the Internet at least several times a year, with 8% reporting daily use of the Internet. Among Internet users, most reported having Internet access either at home or at a friends' home, and 16 % reported having Internet access from work, school, or a computer center. Among Internet users, the main purpose was for school-related activities (60%), followed by e-mail (55%), entertainment (50%), chatting (24%), and searching for pornography (6%). Although most students thought it was inappropriate to read someone else's e-mail, use someone else's password or credit card information without their permission, or break into someone's computer, many students did endorse those illicit behaviors. Over a fifth of the students reported that they knew hackers. Forty three percent of students agreed that people make too much fuss about watching videos, movies or downloading music on the Internet without paying. Males were more likely than females to report using the Internet for entertainment purposes (p = 0.006) and were more likely to agree that it was okay to break into someone's computer (p = 0.04). The results of this study suggest that these Russian college students predominately use the Internet to help with their schoolwork, to communicate with others, and for entertainment. These results also suggest that interventions may be useful to change attitudes endorsing illicit uses of the Internet.

  13. Patterns and correlates of new psychoactive substance use in a sample of Australian high school students.

    PubMed

    Champion, Katrina E; Teesson, Maree; Newton, Nicola C

    2016-05-01

    In recent years there has been growing concern about new psychoactive substances (NPS) designed to mimic the effects of established illicit drugs. This paper explores the patterns and correlates of NPS use in a sample of Australian students. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Australia in 2014. Data were collected from 1126 students (mean age: 14.9 years) from 11 secondary schools. Students completed a self-report questionnaire assessing NPS use and knowledge, beliefs and intentions to use these substances. NPS users were compared with non-users and illicit drug users, who had not used NPS, in terms of gender, binge drinking, tobacco use, psychological distress and self-efficacy to resist peer pressure. Of the 1126 students, 3% reported having ever tried NPS, 2.4% had used synthetic cannabis and 0.4% had used a synthetic stimulant. Analyses revealed that NPS users were more likely to have had an episode of binge drinking in the past 6 months, tried tobacco and had higher levels of psychological distress and lower perceived self-efficacy to resist peer pressure than non-users, but did not significantly differ from users of other illicit drugs. NPS use appears to be uncommon among Australian school students. Although adolescents that do use these substances did not differ from students that had used traditional illicit drugs, both appear to be higher-risk groups of students than non-users. Our findings suggest that universal education about NPS be incorporated into existing drug prevention programmes, and that targeted NPS prevention may also be warranted among high-risk adolescents. [Champion KE, Teesson M, Newton NC. Patterns and correlates of new psychoactive substance use in a sample of Australian high school students. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:338-344]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  14. Reliability and validity of the Student Perceptions of School Cohesion Scale in a sample of Salvadoran secondary school students

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite a growing body of research from the United States and other industrialized countries on the inverse association between supportive social relationships in the school and youth risk behavior engagement, research on the measurement of supportive school social relationships in Central America is limited. We examined the psychometric properties of the Student Perceptions of School Cohesion (SPSC) scale, a 10-item scale that asks students to rate with a 5-point Likert-type response scale their perceptions of the school social environment, in a sample of public secondary school students (mean age = 15 years) living in central El Salvador. Methods Students (n = 982) completed a self-administered questionnaire that included the SPSC scale along with measures of youth health risk behaviors based on the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Exploratory factor analysis was used to assess the factor structure of the scale, and two internal consistency estimates of reliability were computed. Construct validity was assessed by examining whether students who reported low school cohesion were significantly more likely to report physical fighting and illicit drug use. Results Results indicated that the SPSC scale has three latent factors, which explained 61.6% of the variance: supportive school relationships, student-school connectedness, and student-teacher connectedness. The full scale and three subscales had good internal consistency (rs = .87 and α = .84 for the full scale; rs and α between .71 and .75 for the three subscales). Significant associations were found between the full scale and all three subscales with physical fighting (p ≤ .001) and illicit drug use (p < .05). Conclusion Findings provide evidence of reliability and validity of the SPSC for the measurement of supportive school relationships in Latino adolescents living in El Salvador. These findings provide a foundation for further research on school cohesion

  15. Basic Verbs of Conveyance: "Bring" and "Take" in German and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Sarah M.B.

    2004-01-01

    The correct use of German "bringen" and "nehmen" can pose problems for native speakers of English learning German. Students often use "nehmen" to express meanings rendered by English "take," which can result in sentences that are ungrammatical. This paper investigates the basic verbs of conveyance in German and English--"bringen," "nehmen,"…

  16. The Past Perfect Tense in English and German: Using One to Teach the Other.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christianson, Kiel

    This paper illustrates the functional similarities between the English and German past perfect tense which are extremely difficult for native Japanese-speaking learners of the two languages. By the time that Japanese university students begin study of the German language, most have had at least 6 years of English language study. Yet, German is…

  17. Deutsch als Fremdsprachenphilologie: Das Heidelberger Modell (German as a Foreign Language Philology: The Heidelberg Model)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Rainer; Heuer, Fritz

    1975-01-01

    German as a Foreign Language Philology is a new subject developed at the New Philology Faculty of the University of Heidelberg. Students whose native language is not German can earn a Master of Arts in this field. The study plan, educational goals, and the content and organization of the curriculum are described. (Text is in German.) (TL)

  18. Multicultural Education: Israeli and German Adolescents' Knowledge and Views Regarding the Holocaust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamai, Shmuel; Yardeni, Eran; Klages, Benjamin

    2004-01-01

    This study probes a unique case of multicultural education of Israeli and German students regarding the Holocaust. Their knowledge level of German history leading to the rise of Hitler and the Nazi party to power, knowledge about the Holocaust, the relation between their knowledge of attitudes toward the "other" (German/Israeli) group, and their…

  19. Multicultural Education: Israeli and German Adolescents' Knowledge and Views Regarding the Holocaust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamai, Shmuel; Yardeni, Eran; Klages, Benjamin

    2004-01-01

    This study probes a unique case of multicultural education of Israeli and German students regarding the Holocaust. Their knowledge level of German history leading to the rise of Hitler and the Nazi party to power, knowledge about the Holocaust, the relation between their knowledge of attitudes toward the "other" (German/Israeli) group, and their…

  20. Why do psychotherapists participate in psychotherapy research and why not? Results of the Attitudes to Psychotherapy Research Questionnaire with a sample of experienced German psychotherapists.

    PubMed

    Taubner, Svenja; Klasen, Jennifer; Munder, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Psychotherapy research needs to convince psychotherapists to contribute their time and effort to participate. The present paper describes the development and first results of the Attitudes to Psychotherapy Research Questionnaire (APRQ). The APRQ and additional qualitative questions about exclusion criteria for participation were filled out by a sample of 365 therapists (psychoanalytic, psychodynamic, and cognitive-behavioral) during an Internet-based research survey. A principle component analysis yielded six factors: Benefits, Damage, Legitimation, Self-doubt, Effectiveness Doubt and External Reasons. Age, external reasons and benefits predicted willingness to participate independent of therapeutic school. Results show a changing trend to more positive attitudes to psychotherapy research. To be willing to participate in future research, therapists expected high quality designs, financial compensation, and personal gains.

  1. German for Business and Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gramberg, Anne-Katrin

    2001-01-01

    Argues that units on regular subjects should be taught in the German language classroom. Outlines a three-week thematic unit for a high school German class on German for business and economics. Notes resources for German language teaching materials, and ideas for interdisciplinary collaboration among high school teachers. (SR)

  2. German mining equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The German mining equipment industry developed to supply machines and services to the local mining industry, i.e., coal, lignite, salt, potash, ore mining, industrial minerals, and quarrying. The sophistication and reliability of its technology also won it worldwide export markets -- which is just as well since former major domestic mining sectors such as coal and potash have declined precipitously, and others such as ore mining have all but disappeared. Today, German mining equipment suppliers focus strongly on export sales, and formerly unique German mining technologies such as continuous mining with bucket wheel excavators and conveyors for open pits, or plowing of underground coal longwalls are widely used abroad. The status of the German mining equipment industry is reviewed.

  3. Violent obsessions are associated with suicidality in an OCD analog sample of college students.

    PubMed

    Ching, Terence H W; Williams, Monnica; Siev, Jedidiah

    2017-03-01

    The picture of suicide in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is unclear because previous research did not uniformly control for depressive symptoms when examining the relationship between OCD and suicidality. Specific links between OC symptom dimensions and suicidality were also not adequately studied. As such, we investigated specific associations between OC symptom dimensions and suicidality, beyond the contribution of depressive symptoms, in an OCD analog sample of college students, a group traditionally at risk for suicide. One hundred and forty-six college students (103 females; 43 males) who exceeded the clinical cut-off for OC symptoms on the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory, Revised (OCI-R) were recruited. Participants completed an online questionnaire containing measures that assessed suicidality and OC and depressive symptom severity. Total OC symptom severity, unacceptable thoughts, and especially violent obsessions exhibited significant positive zero-order correlations with suicidality. However, analyses of part correlations indicated that only violent obsessions had a significant unique association with suicidality after controlling for depressive symptoms. Our findings support the hypothesis that violent obsessions have a specific role in suicidality beyond the influence of depressive symptoms in an OCD analog sample of college students. A strong clinical focus on suicide risk assessment and safety planning in college students reporting violent obsessions is therefore warranted. Future related research should employ longitudinal or prospective designs and control for other possible comorbid symptoms in larger and more representative samples of participants formally diagnosed with OCD in order to verify the generalizability of our findings to these groups.

  4. Internet Addiction Among Elementary and Middle School Students in China: A Nationally Representative Sample Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yajun; Zhang, Xinghui; Lu, Furong; Zhang, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of Internet addiction in a nationally representative sample of Chinese elementary and middle school students and to investigate Internet addiction among Internet users with different usages. The data were from the National Children's Study of China (NCSC) in which 24,013 fourth- to ninth-grade students were recruited from 100 counties in 31 provinces in China. Only 54.2% of the students had accessed the Internet. According to the criteria of Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ), an eight-item instrument, the prevalence of Internet addiction in the total sample was 6.3%, and among Internet users was 11.7%. Among the Internet users, males (14.8%) and rural students (12.1%) reported Internet addiction more than females (7.0%) and urban students (10.6%). The percentage of Internet addicts in elementary school students (11.5%) was not significantly lower than the percentage of middle school students (11.9%). There was no statistically significant difference between the four geographical regions (9.6%, 11.5%, 12.3%, 11.1%) characterized by different levels of economy, health, education, and social environment. As the frequency of Internet use and time spent online per week increased, the percentage of Internet addicts increased. When considering the location and purpose of Internet use, the percentage of Internet addicts was highest in adolescents typically surfing in Internet cafes (18.1%) and playing Internet games (22.5%). PMID:23971432

  5. Personality, lifestyles, alcohol and drug consumption in a sample of British medical students.

    PubMed

    Ashton, C H; Kamali, F

    1995-05-01

    Personality characteristics and lifestyle variables were assessed in two cohorts of second-year medical students at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK as part of a psychopharmacology 'teach-in' in 1993 and 1994. The pooled sample included 186 students: 77 men, 109 women, mean age 20.4 +/- 1.8 years. Measures included the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, and a questionnaire concerning consumption of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and other illicit drugs, and physical exercise. The results were compared, where possible, with a similar survey in Newcastle upon Tyne medical students in 1983 and 1984. Personality variables, prevalence of cigarette smoking, levels of caffeine consumption and participation in sports had not changed significantly over the decade. There appeared to be a modest overall increase in alcohol consumption and in the 1993 and 1994 cohorts of students, 25.5% of those who drank alcohol exceeded recommended low risk levels (comparable data not available for 1983 and 1984). Reported use of cannabis and other illicit drugs had more than doubled, and in the present survey 49.2% of students recorded using cannabis and 22% had tried other illicit drugs. Corresponding figures for 1983 and 1984 were 20.9% for cannabis and 3.3% for other illicit drugs. Anxiety levels were not measured in 1983 and 1984 but in the present survey 39.3% of the students had anxiety ratings within the clinically significant range. The high levels of alcohol consumption and illicit drug use, and the high anxiety ratings, in this sample of medical students are a cause for concern.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. How could lay perspectives on successful aging complement scientific theory? Findings from a u.s. And a German life-span sample.

    PubMed

    Jopp, Daniela S; Wozniak, Dagmara; Damarin, Amanda K; De Feo, Melissa; Jung, Seojung; Jeswani, Sheena

    2015-02-01

    This article investigates lay perspectives of the concept of successful aging in young, middle-aged, and older adults from 2 cultures, the United States and Germany, to potentially guide the development of scientific theories of successful aging. The empirical findings are embedded in a comprehensive overview of theories of successful aging and life-span development and offer implications for theory development. Two samples of young, middle-aged, and older adults from the United States (N = 151) and Germany (N = 155) were asked about definitions and determinants of successful aging. Codes were developed to capture common themes among the answers, resulting in 16 categories. Themes mentioned included resources (health, social), behaviors (activities), and psychological factors (strategies, attitudes/beliefs, well-being, meaning). There were striking similarities across countries, age, and gender. Health and Social Resources were mentioned most frequently, followed by Activities/Interests, Virtues/Attitudes/Beliefs, Well-being, and Life management/Coping. Age differences were limited to Growth/Maturation and Respect/Success, and gender differences were limited to Social Resources and Well-being. Educational and cultural effects were limited to psychological factors and Education/Knowledge, which were more often mentioned by U.S. participants and individuals with more education. Young, middle-aged, and older lay persons from the United States and Germany have quite similar concepts of successful aging, which they view in far more multidimensional terms than do established scientific theories (Rowe & Kahn, 1998). Given evidence that factors mentioned by laypeople do promote successful aging, considering them in more comprehensive theoretical models may enhance our understanding. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. An ultra-short screening version of the Recalled Parental Rearing Behavior questionnaire (FEE-US) and its factor structure in a representative German sample

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Recalled Parental Rearing Behavior questionnaire (FEE, [1,2]) assesses perceived parental rearing behavior separately for each parent. An ultra-short screening version (FEE-US) with the same three scales each for the mother and the father is reported and factor-analytically validated. Methods N = 4,640 subjects aged 14 to 92 (M = 48.4 years) were selected by the random-route sampling method. The ultra-short questionnaire version was derived from the long version through item and factor analyses. In a confirmatory factor analysis framework, the hypothesized three-factorial structure was fitted to the empirical data and tested for measurement invariance, differential item functioning, item discriminability, and convergent and discriminant factorial validity. Effects of gender or age were assessed using MANOVAs. Results The a-priori hypothesized model resulted in mostly adequate overall fit. Neither gender nor age group yielded considerable effects on the factor structure, but had small effects on means of raw score sums. Factorial validities could be confirmed. Scale sums are well-suited to rank respondents along the respective latent dimension. Conclusion The structure of the long version with the factors Rejection & Punishment, Emotional Warmth, and Control & Overprotection could be replicated for both father and mother items in the ultra-short screening version using confirmatory factor analyses. These results indicate that the ultra-short screening version is a time-saving and promising screening instrument for research settings and in individual counseling. However, the shortened scales do not necessarily represent the full spectrum covered by the full-scale dimensions. PMID:23134704

  8. Relation of religiosity with academic dishonesty in a sample of college students.

    PubMed

    Huelsman, Melissa A; Piroch, Joan; Wasieleski, David

    2006-12-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the relationship between academic dishonesty and religiosity in a convenient sample of college students. Scores on the Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire and the Academic Practices Survey were correlated for 70 undergraduate students. Overall, religiosity and academic dishonesty were not significantly related. However, follow-up analyses by sex indicated that this association was significant for women but not men. Research should be conducted to investigate whether this pattern is robust and indicates a differing role for religiosity as a standard for appropriate or inappropriate behavior.

  9. German Eagle vs. Russian Bear: A World War II Russian Front Boardgame Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coatney, Louis R.

    This board game encourages junior and senior high school student analysis of the German campaign against the USSR and gauges student decision-making skills. The World War II Russo-German Front is simulated in a standard board game format. A key element of the game is its analysis and results form. Using this form compels students to analyze and…

  10. Orientations to Learning German: The Effects of Language Heritage on Second-Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noels, Kimberly A.; Clement, Richard

    1989-01-01

    A study of college students' motivation for learning, and other social-psychological aspects of second language learning, found students learn German for instrumental, friendship, travel, identification/influence, and knowledge reasons. Fluency was related to motivation, and students of German heritage had higher self-confidence in the German…

  11. Psychopathology, personality and theory of mind in a sample of university students.

    PubMed

    Zeppegno, Patrizia; Gramaglia, Carla; Antona, Maria; Gili, Sabrina; Marchisio, Sara; Gogliani, Andrea; Ponzetti, Daniela; Torre, Eugenio

    2014-01-01

    To assess psychopathology, personality and theory of mind in a sample of university students, and to analyse their correlation with socio-demographic and academic factors. Socio-demographic and academic data were collected from 228 students. They completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-R, Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-L) and Theory of Mind (ToM) test. Elevated psychological distress was found in 38.6% of students; 30.3% had an abnormal ToM score. Students with an abnormal ToM score had a significantly lower probability than those with normal ToM test to repeat an exam three times or more. Not being married and receiving psychiatric care significantly influenced the probability of repeating an exam. Abnormal ToM students had specific features as far as major and SCL-90-R scores are concerned. A correlation was found among ToM performance and some indicators of academic performance. Students with ToM scores under the cut-off reported more psychopathological symptoms and distress. Implications are discussed

  12. The relationship between parents' and children's automatic thoughts in a college student sample.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Reesa; Renk, Kimberly; Sims, Valerie K; McGuire, Jack

    2011-04-01

    Research demonstrates the importance of early social interactions in the development of schemas and automatic thoughts. It does not appear, however, that the existing research examines intergenerational correlations in automatic thoughts. As a result, this study explores the relationship between the automatic thoughts of parents and those of their college-age children in a sample of 252 college students and their mothers and fathers. Results of this study suggest that there are significant relationships between parents' and college students' positive automatic thoughts. Different trends by gender also are noted in the relationships among variables for male and female college students with their mothers and fathers. Further, mothers' positive ATs predicted the positive ATs of their college students, with mothers' ratings of their own communication with their college students mediating partially this relationship. Finally, college students' anxiety and self-esteem is predicted significantly by their mothers' anxiety and self-esteem (respectively) as well as their own positive and negative ATs. These findings suggest the possibility that ATs play a role in the intergenerational transmission of certain domains of psychological functioning.

  13. Fluid-deposited graphitic inclusions in quartz: Comparison between KTB (German Continental Deep-Drilling) core samples and artificially reequilibrated natural inclusions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pasteris, J.D.; Chou, I.-Ming

    1998-01-01

    We used Raman microsampling spectroscopy (RMS) to determine the degree of crystallinity of minute (2-15 ??m) graphite inclusions in quartz in two sets of samples: experimentally reequilibrated fluid inclusions in a natural quartz grain and biotite-bearing paragneisses from the KTB deep drillhole in SE Germany. Our sequential reequilibration experiments at 725??C on initially pure CO2 inclusions in a quartz wafer and the J. Krautheim (1993) experiments at 900-1100??C on organic compounds heated in gold or platinum capsules suggest that, at a given temperature, (1) fluid-deposited graphite will have a lower crystallinity than metamorphosed organic matter and (2) that the crystallinity of fluid-deposited graphite is affected by the composition of the fluid from which it was deposited. We determined that the precipitation of more-crystalline graphite is favored by lower fH2 (higher fO2), and that the crystallinity of graphite is established by the conditions (including gas fugacities) that pertain as the fluid first reaches graphite saturation. Graphite inclusions within quartz grains in the KTB rocks show a wide range in crystallinity index, reflecting three episodes of carbon entrapment under different metamorphic conditions. Isolated graphite inclusions have the spectral properties of totally ordered, completely crystalline graphite. Such crystallinity suggests that the graphite was incorporated from the surrounding metasedimentary rocks, which underwent metamorphism at upper amphibolite-facies conditions. Much of the fluid-deposited graphite in fluid inclusions, however, shows some spectral disorder. The properties of that graphite resemble those of experimental precipitates at temperatures in excess of 700??C and at elevated pressures, suggesting that the inclusions represent precipitates from C-O-H fluids trapped under conditions near those of peak metamorphism at the KTB site. In contrast, graphite that is intimately associated with chlorite and other

  14. Prevalence of 'Food Addiction' as Measured with the Yale Food Addiction Scale 2.0 in a Representative German Sample and Its Association with Sex, Age and Weight Categories.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Carolin; Weiß, Annegret; Schulte, Erica Marla; Meule, Adrian; Ellrott, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    To assess the prevalence and correlates of addictive-like eating behavior in Germany. The German version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) 2.0 was used to investigate, for the first time, the prevalence of 'food addiction' in a representative sample aged 18-65 years (N = 1,034). The prevalence of 'food addiction' measured by the YFAS 2.0 was 7.9%. Individuals meeting criteria for 'food addiction' had higher BMI and were younger than individuals not meeting the threshold. Underweight (15.0%) and obese (17.2%) individuals exhibited the highest prevalence rate of 'food addiction'. Addictive-like eating was not associated with sex, education level, or place of residence. YFAS 2.0 'food addiction' was met by nearly 8% of the population. There is a non-linear relationship between addictive-like eating and BMI, with the highest prevalence among underweight and obese persons. These findings suggest that 'food addiction' may be a contributor to overeating but may also reflect a distinct phenotype of problematic eating behavior not synonymous with obesity. Further, the elevated prevalence of YFAS 2.0 'food addiction' among underweight individuals may reflect an overlap with eating disorders and warrants attention in future research. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  15. Cultural differences in parental feeding practices and children's eating behaviours and their relationships with child BMI: a comparison of Black Afro-Caribbean, White British and White German samples.

    PubMed

    Blissett, J; Bennett, C

    2013-02-01

    Childhood obesity rates differ between cultural groups in Europe. Parents influence their children's weight status and eating behaviours through feeding practices. We investigated cultural differences in feeding practices and eating behaviours and their relation to child weight in three groups that differed in cultural background and geographical location. Fifty-two White German (WG) families, in Germany (44 mothers, mean age 33.8 years), 79 White British (WB) families, in the UK (74 mothers, mean age 37.8) and 40 Black Afro-Caribbean (BAC) families, in the UK (34 mothers, mean age 31.8) participated in this study of 2-12-year-old children. Parents completed questionnaires assessing feeding practices and eating behaviours; children were measured and weighed by experimenters. MANCOVAs indicated that BAC parents used the highest levels of restrictive feeding practices and the lowest levels of monitoring, and their children showed the highest levels of food-approach behaviours. WG parents used the lowest levels of pressure to eat. Partial correlations showed that food-approach behaviours were correlated with child BMI in BAC and WG families but not in WB families. Parental restriction was associated with child Body Mass Index (BMI) in BAC families only. There are both similarities and differences in feeding practices and eating behaviours and their relationships with child weight in different cultural groups. Findings highlight the importance of being aware of cultural differences when carrying out research with multi-cultural samples in Europe.

  16. Association between the insulin-induced gene 2 (INSIG2) and weight gain in a German sample of antipsychotic-treated schizophrenic patients: perturbation of SREBP-controlled lipogenesis in drug-related metabolic adverse effects?

    PubMed

    Le Hellard, S; Theisen, F M; Haberhausen, M; Raeder, M B; Fernø, J; Gebhardt, S; Hinney, A; Remschmidt, H; Krieg, J C; Mehler-Wex, C; Nöthen, M M; Hebebrand, J; Steen, V M

    2009-03-01

    Atypical antipsychotics are nowadays the most widely used drugs to treat schizophrenia and other psychosis. Unfortunately, some of them can cause major metabolic adverse effects, such as weight gain, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes. The underlying lipogenic mechanisms of the antipsychotic drugs are not known, but several studies have focused on a central effect in the hypothalamic control of appetite regulation and energy expenditure. In a functional convergent genomic approach we recently used a cellular model and demonstrated that orexigenic antipsychotics that induce weight gain activate the expression of lipid biosynthesis genes controlled by the sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) transcription factors. We therefore hypothesized that the major genes involved in the SREBP activation of fatty acids and cholesterol production (SREBF1, SREBF2, SCAP, INSIG1 and INSIG2) would be strong candidate genes for interindividual variation in drug-induced weight gain. We genotyped a total of 44 HapMap-selected tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms in a sample of 160 German patients with schizophrenia that had been monitored with respect to changes in body mass index during antipsychotic drug treatment. We found a strong association (P=0.0003-0.00007) between three markers localized within or near the INSIG2 gene (rs17587100, rs10490624 and rs17047764) and antipsychotic-related weight gain. Our finding is supported by the recent involvement of the INSIG2 gene in obesity in the general population and implicates SREBP-controlled lipogenesis in drug-induced metabolic adverse effects.

  17. Physical activity and screen-based media use: cross-sectional associations with health-related quality of life and the role of body satisfaction in a representative sample of German adolescents.

    PubMed

    Finne, Emily; Bucksch, Jens; Lampert, Thomas; Kolip, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Although it is widely accepted that physical activity (PA) positively, and screen-based media use (SBM) negatively, affects well-being, there is a lack of studies relating PA and SBM to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adolescents. We examined these associations in German adolescents for different HRQoL subdomains and explored the role of body satisfaction as a possible mediator. Methods: The 11-17-year-old subsample of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (2003-2006) was analysed (N = 6813; 51.3% male). Cross-sectional associations of self-reported PA frequency and amount of daily SBM with HRQoL subscale scores (according to KINDL-R) were examined by hierarchical linear regression models, adjusting for the clustering of the sample and for a variety of possible confounders. The size and significance of indirect effects via body (dis)satisfaction (BDS) were examined by mediation analyses. Results: Higher PA frequency was significantly associated with higher HRQoL on nearly all subscales and dose-response-relationships were observable. Variations were greatest in terms of social well-being in boys (effect size d = 0.59) and physical well-being in girls (d = 0.43). Higher SBM was related to lower HRQoL on all subscales in girls and on some subscales in boys, with the largest effects for school functioning in both genders (d = 0.31 and 0.37, respectively). The mediated effects for PA and SBM were significant in both genders, but the sizes and the proportions of total effects mediated by body satisfaction were rather small. Conclusions: Higher PA frequency was associated with higher self-reported HRQoL, and higher SBM was associated with lower self-reported HRQoL in both genders, even after adjusting for relevant covariates. The results support the assumption of independent health impacts of both behaviours, although no causal relationship can be confirmed with these cross-sectional data. Mechanisms other than body satisfaction must

  18. Phthalate metabolites in 24-h urine samples of the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) from 1988 to 2015 and a comparison with US NHANES data from 1999 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Koch, Holger M; Rüther, Maria; Schütze, André; Conrad, André; Pälmke, Claudia; Apel, Petra; Brüning, Thomas; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike

    2017-03-01

    The German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) continuously collects 24-h urine samples since the early 1980s in Germany. In this study we analyzed 300 urine samples from the years 2007 to 2015 for 21 phthalate metabolites (representing exposure to 11 parent phthalates) and combined the data with two previous retrospective measurement campaigns (1988 to 2003 and 2002 to 2008). The combined dataset comprised 1162 24-h urine samples spanning the years 1988 to 2015. With this detailed set of human biomonitoring data we describe the time course of phthalate exposure in Germany over a time frame of 27 years. For the metabolites of the endocrine disrupting phthalates di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP) we observed a roughly ten-fold decline in median metabolite levels from their peak levels in the late 1980s/early 1990s compared to most recent levels from 2015. Probably, bans (first enacted in 1999) and classifications/labelings (enacted in 2001 and 2004) in the European Union lead to this drop. A decline in di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP) metabolite levels set in only quite recently, possibly due to its later classification as a reproductive toxicant in the EU in 2009. In a considerable number of samples collected before 2002 health based guidance values (BE, HBM I) have been exceeded for DnBP (27.2%) and DEHP (2.3%) but also in recent samples some individual exceedances can still be observed (DEHP 1.0%). A decrease in concentration for all low molecular weight phthalates, labelled or not, was seen in the most recent years of sampling. For the high molecular weight phthalates, DEHP seems to have been substituted in part by di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP), but DiNP metabolite levels have also been declining in the last years. Probably, non-phthalate alternatives increasingly take over for the phthalates in Germany. A comparison with NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) data from the United States

  19. Energy drink use, problem drinking and drinking motives in a diverse sample of Alaskan college students.

    PubMed

    Skewes, Monica C; Decou, Christopher R; Gonzalez, Vivian M

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has identified the use of caffeinated energy drinks as a common, potentially risky behavior among college students that is linked to alcohol misuse and consequences. Research also suggests that energy drink consumption is related to other risky behaviors such as tobacco use, marijuana use and risky sexual activity. This research sought to examine the associations between frequency of energy drink consumption and problematic alcohol use, alcohol-related consequences, symptoms of alcohol dependence and drinking motives in an ethnically diverse sample of college students in Alaska. We also sought to examine whether ethnic group moderated these associations in the present sample of White, Alaska Native/American Indian and other ethnic minority college students. A paper-and-pencil self-report questionnaire was completed by a sample of 298 college students. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to examine the effects of energy drink use, ethnic group and energy drink by ethnic group interactions on alcohol outcomes after controlling for variance attributed to gender, age and frequency of binge drinking. Greater energy drink consumption was significantly associated with greater hazardous drinking, alcohol consequences, alcohol dependence symptoms, drinking for enhancement motives and drinking to cope. There were no main effects of ethnic group, and there were no significant energy drink by ethnic group interactions. These findings replicate those of other studies examining the associations between energy drink use and alcohol problems, but contrary to previous research we did not find ethnic minority status to be protective. It is possible that energy drink consumption may serve as a marker for other health risk behaviors among students of various ethnic groups.

  20. The distribution of Student's t-statistic for small samples from lognormal exposure distributions.

    PubMed

    Evans, J S; Hawkins, N C

    1988-10-01

    To assess compliance with industrial hygiene exposure criteria (e.g., TLVs), it may be necessary to perform statistical tests of hypotheses based on relatively small samples. For pollutants with long biological half-lives, the parameter most relevant for determining the risk faced by workers is the long-term arithmetic average concentration of the pollutant. In industrial environments it is common for pollutant concentrations to be approximately lognormal. Unfortunately, when based on small samples from lognormal distributions, the ordinary Student's t-statistic has some undesirable characteristics which are not recognized widely by practicing industrial hygienists. The difficulties in using the ordinary Student's t-statistic to evaluate the average exposure have been demonstrated. The properties of alternative test statistics have been explored. Some general observations on the implications of these findings have been made.

  1. Students' Value Orientations, Intuitive Decision Making, and Motivational Interference, and Their Relations to Regret

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhnle, Claudia; Sinclair, Marta; Hofer, Manfred; Kilian, Britta

    2014-01-01

    Students' learning activities frequently compete with their leisure options, leading to regret after decisions to study. Using a sample of 233 German and 194 Australian undergraduate students, the authors explored possible determinants of the personality construct regret. They investigated whether the level to which students rely on intuition in…

  2. College Student Samples Are Not Always Equivalent: The Magnitude of Personality Differences Across Colleges and Universities.

    PubMed

    Corker, Katherine S; Donnellan, M Brent; Kim, Su Yeong; Schwartz, Seth J; Zamboanga, Byron L

    2017-04-01

    This research examined the magnitude of personality differences across different colleges and universities to understand (a) how much students at different colleges vary from one another and (b) whether there are site-level variables that can explain observed differences. Nearly 8,600 students at 30 colleges and universities completed a Big Five personality trait measure. Site-level information was obtained from the Integrated Postsecondary Education System database (U.S. Department of Education). Multilevel models revealed that each of the Big Five traits showed significant between-site variability, even after accounting for individual-level demographic differences. Some site-level variables (e.g., enrollment size, requiring letters of recommendation) explained between-site differences in traits, but many tests were not statistically significant. Student samples at different universities differed in terms of average levels of Big Five personality domains. This raises the possibility that personality differences may explain differences in research results obtained when studying students at different colleges and universities. Furthermore, results suggest that research that compares findings for only a few sites (e.g., much cross-cultural research) runs the risk of overgeneralizing differences between specific samples to broader group differences. These results underscore the value of multisite collaborative research efforts to enhance psychological research.

  3. Measuring attitudes towards interprofessional learning. Testing two German versions of the tool "Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale" on interprofessional students of health and nursing sciences and of human medicine

    PubMed Central

    Luderer, Christiane; Donat, Matthias; Baum, Ute; Kirsten, Angelika; Jahn, Patrick; Stoevesandt, Dietrich

    2017-01-01

    Objective: In order to verify the methodological quality of two versions of a tool for measuring attitudes towards interprofessional learning, we adapted – in terms of translation and scale form – the Heidelberg Version [1] of Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale - RIPLS [2], a methodologically controversial tool that had been translated into German, and compared both the original and new versions. Method: Three items were reworded and the scale form altered (from five to four levels), leading to the Halle Version that was validated by means of a cognitive pretest (n=6). Both questionnaires were completed by students taking the interprofessional degree program in Health and Nursing Sciences (HNS) and by students of Human Medicine. The test quality of both tools was examined by analyzing the main components and reliability using the scales allocation of the items as according to Parsell and Bligh [2]. Results: The questionnaires were randomly assembled and distributed to 331 students. The response was n=320 (HNS n=109; Medicine n=211). The Halle Version “RIPLS-HAL” of the questionnaire was completed by n=166 and the Heidelberg Version “RIPLS-HDB” by n=154. In the main component analysis the data could not depict the scale patterns of the original Australian tool. The reliability values of both the Heidelberg and Halle versions were only satisfactory for the “Teamwork and Collaboration” and “Professional Identity” scales. Conclusions: The German version of the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale has only limited suitability for recording the attitude towards interprofessional learning. The present versions can be regarded as an approach towards developing a more suitable tool. PMID:28890924

  4. Construct Validity of the WISC-III for White and Black Students from the WISC-III Standardization Sample and for Black Students Referred for Psychological Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kush, Joseph C.; Watkins, Marley W.; Ward, Thomas J.; Ward, Sandra B.; Canivez, Gary L.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2001-01-01

    Uses both exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) to examine the factor structure of the WISC-III among White and Black students from the WISC-III standardization sample and a sample of 348 Black students referred for psychological evaluation. Results of the EFA provided evidence of a large first principal factor as well as the…

  5. Investigation of Problem Solving Ability of Students in School of Physical Education and Sports (Kafkas University Sample)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmutlu, Ilker

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine the problem solving abilities of School of Physical Education and Sports students. To achieve this aim, in the academic year 2013-2014, a research group did a study of 433 students of the School of Physical Education and Sports, Kafkas University. This sample consisted of 184 female and 249 male students.…

  6. Characteristics of Internet Gamblers among a Sample of Students at a Large, Public University in Southwestern United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shead, N. Will; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Fong, Timothy W.; Gupta, Rina

    2012-01-01

    There is a current lack of descriptive information on college students who gamble on the Internet. With the increasing popularity of Internet gambling, this study aimed to better understand the profile of Internet gamblers among a sample of college students. Of 909 students at the University of California-Los Angeles who completed an online…

  7. Characteristics of Internet Gamblers among a Sample of Students at a Large, Public University in Southwestern United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shead, N. Will; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Fong, Timothy W.; Gupta, Rina

    2012-01-01

    There is a current lack of descriptive information on college students who gamble on the Internet. With the increasing popularity of Internet gambling, this study aimed to better understand the profile of Internet gamblers among a sample of college students. Of 909 students at the University of California-Los Angeles who completed an online…

  8. Investigation of Problem Solving Ability of Students in School of Physical Education and Sports (Kafkas University Sample)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmutlu, Ilker

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine the problem solving abilities of School of Physical Education and Sports students. To achieve this aim, in the academic year 2013-2014, a research group did a study of 433 students of the School of Physical Education and Sports, Kafkas University. This sample consisted of 184 female and 249 male students.…

  9. The Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C: normative data of a Dutch student sample.

    PubMed

    Näring, G W; Roelofs, K; Hoogduin, K A

    2001-04-01

    Norms for the Dutch language version of the Standford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (SHSS:C; Weitzenhoffer & Hilgard, 1962) are presented. These norms are based upon a sample of 135 students at a Dutch university. Generally, the psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the SHSS:C are similar to other language versions. However, the mean score was somewhat lower than that found in the original norming studies at Stanford University.

  10. Different HIV risk profiles in samples of college students and homeless persons.

    PubMed

    Rickert, E J; Rickert, D L

    1995-06-01

    A cross-sectional survey examined demographic characteristics, self-reported sexual behaviors, and knowledge of AIDS in samples of 106 homeless persons and 260 college students. As expected, the two samples differed with respect to age, gender, race, and education. Respondents in both samples possessed moderate knowledge of HIV infection and AIDS and reported they considered their personal risk of HIV infection low. Both samples acknowledged frequent use of alcohol with sexual activity, active and passive oral sex, and lax use of condoms. A discriminant analysis indicated that a greater percentage of college students were sexually active than of the homeless sample and that the homeless group had a higher proportion of individuals who were either homosexual or bisexual, who had sexual contact with multiple partners or who had visited a prostitute, who had sexually transmitted diseases, and who had injected drugs. Although the risk profiles differed, each group reported high-risk behaviors and perceptions of low personal risk of HIV infection.

  11. Stuttering Characteristics of German-English Bilingual Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Martina; Robb, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine stuttering behavior in German-English bilingual people who stutter (PWS), with particular reference to the frequency of stuttering on content and function words. Fifteen bilingual PWS were sampled who spoke German as the first language (L1) and English as a second language (L2). Conversational speech was…

  12. Acquisition of German Pluralization Rules in Monolingual and Multilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaretsky, Eugen; Lange, Benjamin P.; Euler, Harald A.; Neumann, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Existing studies on plural acquisition in German have relied on small samples and thus hardly deliver generalizable and differentiated results. Here, overgeneralizations of certain plural allomorphs and other tendencies in the acquisition of German plural markers are described on the basis of test data from 7,394 3- to 5-year-old monolingual…

  13. Stuttering Characteristics of German-English Bilingual Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Martina; Robb, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine stuttering behavior in German-English bilingual people who stutter (PWS), with particular reference to the frequency of stuttering on content and function words. Fifteen bilingual PWS were sampled who spoke German as the first language (L1) and English as a second language (L2). Conversational speech was…

  14. Sind Sie fit (Are You in Shape)?: Calisthenics in German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolter, Don

    This packet of instructional materials, intended for intermediate and advanced German students, contains a student's section and a teacher's guide focusing on calisthenics. The student section contains three illustrated transcriptions of radio programs on calisthenics for early morning listeners of "Der bayrische Rundfunk" in West Germany.…

  15. Sedative Drug Use among King Saud University Medical Students: A Cross-Sectional Sampling Study.

    PubMed

    Al-Sayed, Ahmed A; Al-Rashoudi, Abdualltef H; Al-Eisa, Abdulrhman A; Addar, Abdullah M; Al-Hargan, Abdullah H; Al-Jerian, Albaraa A; Al-Omair, Abdullah A; Al-Sheddi, Ahmed I; Al-Nowaiser, Hussam I; Al-Kathiri, Omar A; Al-Hassan, Abdullah H

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Medical students experience significant psychological stress and are therefore at higher risk of using sedatives. There are currently no studies describing the prevalence of sedative drug use among medical students in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with sedative drug use among medical students in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional convenience sampling study gathered data by anonymous questionnaire from students enrolled at the King Saud University College of Medicine in 2011. The questionnaires collected data regarding social and demographic variables, sleep patterns, and the use of stimulant and sedative drugs since enrollment. Sedatives were defined as any pharmaceutical preparations that induce sleep. Results and Discussion. Of the 729 students who returned questionnaires, 17.0% reported sedative drug use at some time since enrollment. Higher academic year, lower grade point average, regular exercise, fewer hours of sleep per day, poorer quality of sleep, and the presence of sleeping disorders were found to be significantly associated with sedative drug use. Conclusions. Further study is required to increase our understanding of sedative drug use patterns in this relatively high-risk group, as such understanding will help in the development of early intervention programs.

  16. What I See Is Not Quite the Way It Really Is: Students' Emergent Reasoning about Sampling Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfannkuch, Maxine; Arnold, Pip; Wild, Chris J.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, instruction pays little attention to the development of students' sampling variability reasoning in relation to statistical inference. In this paper, we briefly discuss the especially designed sampling variability learning experiences students aged about 15 engaged in as part of a research project. We examine assessment and…

  17. What I See Is Not Quite the Way It Really Is: Students' Emergent Reasoning about Sampling Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfannkuch, Maxine; Arnold, Pip; Wild, Chris J.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, instruction pays little attention to the development of students' sampling variability reasoning in relation to statistical inference. In this paper, we briefly discuss the especially designed sampling variability learning experiences students aged about 15 engaged in as part of a research project. We examine assessment and…

  18. Multicultural Counselor Training Experiences: Training Effects and Perceptions of Training among a Sample of Predominately Hispanic Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Ginger L.; Argus-Calvo, Beverley; Tafoya, Nancy Garcia

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of multicultural training among a sample of predominately Hispanic counseling students was examined. The results of a series of 2-factor repeated measures analysis of variance and follow-up paired-samples t tests suggest that multicultural training was effective in increasing students' multicultural competencies and in improving…

  19. German for physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Ben

    2009-04-01

    "German is the language of science" I remember my father telling me as a boy growing up in the Bronx in New York during the 1970s. As I watched astronomy programmes on TV with my father and older brothers, I imagined having to speak ceaselessly in fluent German if I was ever to become a scientist as a grown-up. But when I started my studies at university in New York in the 1980s, I realized my father's advice - sought from weekly trips to the neighbourhood public library - was way out of date. Not only did my physics professors present their research in English at conferences all around the world, but they also published in English-language journals - thus seemingly not needing a single word of German.

  20. Ludolph Brauer, German aeromedical pioneer.

    PubMed

    Harsch, Viktor

    2004-08-01

    Ludolph Brauer (1865-1951) played an influential role in the history of aviation medicine in Germany. The Treaty of Versailles had put a stop to the development of German aviation and associated medical activities at the end of World War I. Brauer deserves credit for restarting civilian aviation medicine in Germany in the 1920s, paving the way for it to flourish in the 1930s. As Medical Director of the Hamburg-Eppendorf General Hospital, Brauer established the first German Institute of Aviation Medicine (GIAM) in 1927 in affiliation with the Tuberculosis Research Institute with its two large pneumatic chambers. The GIAM was active in altitude research and the selection of pilots, as well as educating medical students in aviation medicine, training Aviation Medical Examiners, and exploring clinical applications of hypobaric and climatic therapy. Brauer was forced to retire in 1934 for political reasons as the GIAM came under the influence of the military; in 1939 it was made part of the Aeromedical Research Institute of the "Reichsluftfahrt" Ministry. Brauer was a co-editor of the journal Luftfahrtmedizin in the 1930s and 1940s. He died in Munich on November 25th, 1951.

  1. Psychometric Properties of the Procrastination Assessment Scale-Student (PASS) in a Student Sample of Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, Forough; Mortazavi, Saideh S; Khosrorad, Razieh

    2015-09-01

    Procrastination is a common behavior which affects different aspects of life. The procrastination assessment scale-student (PASS) evaluates academic procrastination apropos its frequency and reasons. The aims of the present study were to translate, culturally adapt, and validate the Farsi version of the PASS in a sample of Iranian medical students. In this cross-sectional study, the PASS was translated into Farsi through the forward-backward method, and its content validity was thereafter assessed by a panel of 10 experts. The Farsi version of the PASS was subsequently distributed among 423 medical students. The internal reliability of the PASS was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted on 18 items and then 28 items of the scale to find new models. The construct validity of the scale was assessed using both EFA and confirmatory factor analysis. The predictive validity of the scale was evaluated by calculating the correlation between the academic procrastination scores and the students' average scores in the previous semester. The corresponding reliability of the first and second parts of the scale was 0.781 and 0.861. An EFA on 18 items of the scale found 4 factors which jointly explained 53.2% of variances: The model was marginally acceptable (root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] =0.098, standardized root mean square residual [SRMR] =0.076, χ(2) /df =4.8, comparative fit index [CFI] =0.83). An EFA on 28 items of the scale found 4 factors which altogether explained 42.62% of variances: The model was acceptable (RMSEA =0.07, SRMR =0.07, χ(2)/df =2.8, incremental fit index =0.90, CFI =0.90). There was a negative correlation between the procrastination scores and the students' average scores (r = -0.131, P =0.02). The Farsi version of the PASS is a valid and reliable tool to measure academic procrastination in Iranian undergraduate medical students.

  2. Examining the Role of Social Relationships in the Association between Neuroticism and Test Anxiety--Results from a Study with German Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoferichter, Frances; Raufelder, Diana

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigates the mediating role of student-student relationships (SSRs) and teacher-student relationships (TSRs) in the association between neuroticism and test anxiety. Gender differences in these associations were examined. A total of 513 adolescent girls and boys from secondary schools in Berlin, Germany completed…

  3. Tobacco smoking status and perception of health among a sample of Jordanian students.

    PubMed

    Alzyoud, Sukaina; Kheirallah, Khalid A; Weglicki, Linda S; Ward, Kenneth D; Al-Khawaldeh, Abdallah; Shotar, Ali

    2014-07-11

    Limited data are available from Jordan examining patterns of tobacco use among adolescents, or how use is related to health perceptions. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use and to assess the relationship between use and health-related perceptions. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a sample of 11-18 year old school students from a major governorate in Jordan. Using a multistage random sampling 1050 students were selected. Students were categorized as non-smokers, cigarette-only smokers, waterpipe-only smokers, or dual smokers. Rates of waterpipe-only and cigarette-only smoking were 7% and 3%, respectively, and were similar for boys and girls. In contrast, the rate of dual use was much higher than for single product use and was double in girls compared to boys (34% vs. 17%). Dual-smokers were significantly more likely to think that it is safe to smoke as long as the person intends to quit within two years compared to non-smokers, and had lower self-rated health status than other groups. This is the first study among Arab adolescents to document high rates of dual tobacco use, especially pronounced among girls. The study findings have significant implications for designing tobacco smoking prevention programs for school health settings.

  4. Nonmedical prescription stimulant use among a sample of college students: relationship with psychological variables.

    PubMed

    Weyandt, Lisa L; Janusis, Grace; Wilson, Kimberly G; Verdi, Genevieve; Paquin, Gregory; Lopes, Justin; Varejao, Michael; Dussault, Crystal

    2009-11-01

    To further investigate use and potential misuse of prescription stimulants (e.g., Ritalin, Adderall, Concerta) among a sample of college students and to explore the relationship between psychological variables and nonmedical stimulant use. The sample consisted of 390 college students (71.6% female, 28.4% male). Participants were asked to complete five questionnaires concerning demographic information, prescription stimulant use, internal restlessness, sensation seeking, and psychological distress. The study findings revealed that, regarding nonprescribed stimulants, 7.5% reported use within the past 30 days; 60% reported knowing students who misused stimulants; and 50% agreed or strongly agreed that prescription stimulants were "easy to get on this campus." Findings further revealed a relationship between stimulant use and degree of psychological distress and internal restlessness. Continued research regarding psychological variables, specific group membership (e.g., fraternity, sorority, athletics), and stimulant acquisition is suggested. Effective prevention and education efforts are needed to help address the nonmedical use of prescription stimulants on college campuses.

  5. Cognitive factors related to drug abuse among a sample of Iranian male medical college students.

    PubMed

    Jalilian, Farzad; Ataee, Mari; Matin, Behzad Karami; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Jouybari, Touraj Ahmadi; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Mahboubi, Mohammad; Alavijeh, Mehdi Mirzaei

    2015-02-24

    Drug abuse is one of the most serious social problems in many countries. College students, particularly at their first year of education, are considered as one of the at risk groups for drug abuse. The present study aimed to determine cognitive factors related to drug abuse among a sample of Iranian male medical college students based on the social cognitive theory (SCT). This cross-sectional study was carried out on 425 Iranian male medical college students who were randomly selected to participate voluntarily in the study. The participants filled out a self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed by the SPSS software (ver. 21.0) using bivariate correlations, logistic and linear regression at 95% significant level. Attitude, outcome expectation, outcome expectancies, subjective norms, and self-control were cognitive factors that accounted for 49% of the variation in the outcome measure of the intention to abuse drugs.  Logistic regression showed that attitude (OR=1.062), outcome expectancies (OR=1.115), and subjective norms (OR=1.269) were the most influential predictors for drug abuse. The findings suggest that designing and implementation of educational programs may be useful to increase negative attitude, outcome expectancies, and subjective norms towards drug abuse for college students in order to prevent drug abuse.

  6. Light smoking in a predominantly Hispanic college student sample: a 7 day diary assessment.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Thom; Cooper, Theodore V

    2010-12-01

    Both Hispanic and college student populations smoke at non trivial rates but less frequently than other smoking groups. Limited information exists about the at risk times for smoking among those who smoke fewer than 10 cigarettes per day, particularly college students. Participants (n=116 young adults) completed a 7 day Tobacco Consumption Diary by recording for each cigarette smoked: time and day, location, number of people present, number of smokers present, mood, and whether alcohol was consumed. Descriptive analyses suggest a variety of psycho-social contexts within which light smoking may occur for a predominantly Hispanic sample of college students. Inferential analyses reveal a somewhat heterogeneous pattern of light smoking. Nevertheless, Thursday, Friday, and Saturday, as well as later hours of each day in particular are associated with an increased likelihood of smoking. Further study of intra-individual patterns of both Hispanic and college student light smoking is needed to identify the ideographic triggers that can be intervened upon to aid light smokers in cessation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cognitive Factors Related to Drug Abuse Among a Sample of Iranian Male Medical College Students

    PubMed Central

    Jalilian, Farzad; Ataee, Mari; Matin, Behzad Karami; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Jouybari, Touraj Ahmadi; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Mahboubi, Mohammad; Alavijeh, Mehdi Mirzaei

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds: Drug abuse is one of the most serious social problems in many countries. College students, particularly at their first year of education, are considered as one of the at risk groups for drug abuse. The present study aimed to determine cognitive factors related to drug abuse among a sample of Iranian male medical college students based on the social cognitive theory (SCT). Method: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 425 Iranian male medical college students who were randomly selected to participate voluntarily in the study. The participants filled out a self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed by the SPSS software (ver. 21.0) using bivariate correlations, logistic and linear regression at 95% significant level. Results: Attitude, outcome expectation, outcome expectancies, subjective norms, and self-control were cognitive factors that accounted for 49% of the variation in the outcome measure of the intention to abuse drugs. Logistic regression showed that attitude (OR=1.062), outcome expectancies (OR=1.115), and subjective norms (OR=1.269) were the most influential predictors for drug abuse. Conclusions: The findings suggest that designing and implementation of educational programs may be useful to increase negative attitude, outcome expectancies, and subjective norms towards drug abuse for college students in order to prevent drug abuse. PMID:26156919

  8. Acculturation and substance use in a Mexican American college student sample.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Alfonso; Ramirez, Maria; Sharma, Rachita; Popan, Jason; Avalos Latorre, Maria Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Although the association between acculturation and substance use among Latino groups is important, it is often understudied, especially within specific Latino groups living in geographically distinct communities, such as the Mexican American population in South Texas. The researchers of this study aimed to better understand the effect of acculturation on substance use and alcohol dependence in a Mexican American college student population. This survey study investigated the correlation between acculturation and substance use and dependence by using the Vancouver Index of Acculturation (VIA), items related to substance use (nicotine, marijuana, and cocaine) in a Mexican American college student sample (N = 1,494), and the Short Alcohol Dependence Data Questionnaire (SADD; N = 715). The study was conducted in the Texas-Mexico border region. The results suggest that higher levels of acculturation do not predict increased drug use or alcohol dependence in the Mexican American college students. However, acculturation was found to be associated with lower use of cocaine and marijuana. The discussion examines commonalities and differences in drug use and dependence. Specifically, acculturation seems to have an inverse relationship to substance use and may serve as a protective factor to licit and illicit drug use among Mexican American college students.

  9. The relationship between compulsive buying, eating disorder symptoms, and temperament in a sample of female students.

    PubMed

    Claes, Laurence; Bijttebier, Patricia; Mitchell, James E; de Zwaan, Martina; Mueller, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between compulsive buying (CB), eating disorder symptoms, and temperament (controlling for depression) in a sample of female students. We assessed 211 female undergraduate students using the Compulsive Buying Scale, the Eating Disorder Inventory, the Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System scales, the Adult Temperament Questionnaire, and the Physical Health Questionnaire-Depression. The results show a positive association between CB and the Eating Disorder Inventory-II drive for thinness and bulimia subscales. Both CB and eating disorder symptoms were related to low levels of effortful control. Finally, CB was also related to high levels of Behavioral Activation Scale reactivity (impulsivity), whereas eating disorder symptoms (especially drive for thinness) were more strongly related to high levels of Behavioral Inhibition Scale reactivity (anxiety). The implications of these findings for the treatment of CB and eating disorder symptoms will be discussed. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Experiences of sleep paralysis in a sample of Irish university students.

    PubMed

    O'Hanlon, J; Murphy, M; Di Blasi, Z

    2011-12-01

    Sleep paralysis (SP) is characterised by an inability to move voluntarily for a period on going to sleep or on waking. It is also associated with hallucinations, and often with fear. This study seeks to explore the experience of SP in an Irish university sample. A cross-sectional survey design was employed, with a validated scale for the assessment of SP being distributed to 2,500 students. A total of 418 responded, of whom 83 reported having experienced SP. The most commonly reported and most intense hallucinations were falling, sensed presence, visual hallucination, pressure on the body and belief might be dying. Fear was also commonly experienced. Bivariate analyses showed an association between fear and several hallucination types. SP in university students often includes experience of hallucinations. These, in turn, are associated with frequent and intense fear.

  11. Validation of the Pornography Consumption Inventory in a Sample of Male Brazilian University Students.

    PubMed

    Baltieri, Danilo Antonio; Aguiar, Ana Saito Junqueira; de Oliveira, Vitor Henrique; de Souza Gatti, Ana Luisa; de Souza Aranha E Silva, Renata Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Few measures are available to examine pornography use constructs, and this can compromise the reliability of statements regarding harmful use of pornography. This study aimed to confirm the factorial validity and internal consistency of the Pornography Consumption Inventory in a sample of male Brazilian university students. The inventory consists of a 4-factor, 15-item, 5-point Likert-type scale. After translation and back-translation of the inventory, it was administered to 100 male medical students. An initial model that included all 15 items of the inventory showed some substandard fit indices. Therefore, another model was tested, excluding an item that had loaded onto two different factors. Goodness-of-fit indices were better for the new model. Overall, findings from this study support using the inventory on Portuguese-speaking individuals. With additional replication across populations, other settings, and treatment-seeking patients, the Pornography Consumption Inventory could also potentially be shortened to 14 items.

  12. Storytelling and German Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Connie S. Eigenmann

    The genre of fairytales, one structured form of storytelling, has been labeled "Marchen." German culture is orally transmitted in this generic form, and can be traced to a collection of 210 fairytales, the Grimm brothers'"Kinder-und Taus-Marchen," first published shortly after 1800. For this study, research questions were posed…

  13. Women in German Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederiksen, Elke

    This course description outlines the general and specific objectives for a course on "Women in German Literature," which investigates the changing literary and social roles of women from the beginning of the 19th Century to the present: women as seen by man, by another woman and in introspection. This course description was successfully used in a…

  14. The Legacy of Nazism and the History Curriculum in the East German Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegner, Gregory P.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the Marxist-Leninist curriculum assumptions about history instruction in East German schools on the legacy of Nazism. Suggests that questions raised to legitimize history instruction for East German students are relevant for students in capitalist countries. Discusses Hitler's rise to power, Soviet contributions to defeat fascism,…

  15. How Well Can a Computer Program Teach German Culture? Some Preliminary Findings from EthnoDeutsch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Wendy; Ostertag, Veronica

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the effectiveness of an interactive, computer-mediated instructional segment designed to educate students about ethnicity in German-speaking countries. Fifty-two intermediate German students worked with computer-mediated segments and rated the segments' effectiveness on a Likert-scale questionnaire. (AS)

  16. The Legacy of Nazism and the History Curriculum in the East German Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegner, Gregory P.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the Marxist-Leninist curriculum assumptions about history instruction in East German schools on the legacy of Nazism. Suggests that questions raised to legitimize history instruction for East German students are relevant for students in capitalist countries. Discusses Hitler's rise to power, Soviet contributions to defeat fascism,…

  17. A Multilevel Modelling Approach to Investigating Factors Impacting Science Achievement for Secondary School Students: PISA Hong Kong Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Letao; Bradley, Kelly D.; Akers, Kathryn

    2012-09-01

    This study utilized data from the 2006 Programme for International Student Assessment Hong Kong sample to investigate the factors that impact the science achievement of 15-year-old students. A multilevel model was used to examine the factors from both student and school perspectives. At the student level, the results indicated that male students, students from high socioeconomic status (SES) families, students with higher motivation and higher self-efficacy, and students whose parents highly value science are more likely to demonstrate achievement in science. At the school level, the results showed school science achievement differences can be explained by school enrolment size, school SES composition, and instruction time per week. Contrary to the negative influence of school size that was reported in previous studies, our findings suggested a positive relationship between school enrolment size and science achievement. This finding leads to an international discussion of school size.

  18. Validation of Collett-Lester's Fear of Death Scale in a sample of nursing students.

    PubMed

    Venegas, Maritza Espinoza; Alvarado, Olivia Sanhueza; Barriga, Omar

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the psychometric properties of Collett-Lester's Fear of Death Scale. A sample of 349 nursing students answered Fear of Death and Attitude toward death scales. Content validity was checked by expert review; reliability was proven using Cronbach's alpha; statistical analysis of the items, correlation between items and construct validity were checked by the correlation of the Scale with the Attitude toward death Scale. The multidimensionality of the scale was reviewed through factor analysis with varimax rotation. The Fear of Death Scale possesses good internal consistency and construct validity, confirmed by the significant correlation with the Attitude toward death Scale. Factor analysis partially supports content validity of the subscale items, but presented a modified multidimensional structure that points towards the reconceptualization of the subscales in this sample.

  19. Prevalence of at-risk drinking among a national sample of medical students.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ameet Arvind; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Lindstrom, Richard W; Wolf, Kenneth E

    2009-01-01

    As limited research exists on medical students' substance use patterns, including over-consumption of alcohol, the objective of this study was to determine prevalence and correlates of at-risk drinking among a national sample of medical students, using a cross-sectional, anonymous, Web-based survey. A total of 2710 medical students from 36 U.S. medical schools (1st to 4th year) completed the survey. Included in the instruments was a 10-item scale (AUDIT) to assess at-risk drinking behaviors within the last 12 months. Over 15% of the subjects (n = 412) scored positive for at-risk drinking (>/= 8). Multivariate analysis of the data revealed the following independent predictors were statistically significant (P

  20. Assessment of nutrient adequacy with supplement use in a sample of healthy college students.

    PubMed

    Ouellette, Catherine Davis; Yang, Meng; Wang, Ying; Yu, Caroline; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Rodriguez, Nancy R; Chun, Ock K

    2012-10-01

    Limited information is available on the nutritional status and the impact of supplements on nutrient adequacy in college students. This study aimed to assess nutritional status and evaluate the contribution of supplement use to overall nutrient adequacy in a sample of healthy college students. Sixty subjects (40 women and 20 men) were randomly recruited from those attending the University of Connecticut. Food records were collected over 30 consecutive days for each subject. In addition, health and lifestyle information was collected at the beginning and end of the study period. After excluding misreporting, only 44 subjects were eligible for assessing nutritional status. More than 40% of female students had intakes below the estimated average requirements for vitamins D and E, calcium, and magnesium. Supplement users had significantly higher average intakes than nonusers from dietary sources for protein, folate, niacin, vitamin E, magnesium, and zinc (p < 0.05). With the addition of supplements, supplement users consumed significantly more for all nutrient intakes except vitamin A than nonusers (p < 0.05). Nutritional adequacy of supplement users was significantly higher for vitamins D and E and magnesium compared with nonusers (p < 0.05). Overall, men and women were consuming intakes below adequacy for most nutrients, and supplement usage increased nutrient intake and adequacy levels in this young adult population.