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Sample records for german top taekwondo

  1. Acute injuries in Taekwondo.

    PubMed

    Schlüter-Brust, K; Leistenschneider, P; Dargel, J; Springorum, H P; Eysel, P; Michael, J W-P

    2011-08-01

    Although Taekwondo is becoming an increasingly popular sport, there is a lack of reliable epidemiologic data on Taekwondo injuries. To perform an epidemiologic study on the variety of types of injury in professional and amateur Taekwondo athletes and to find a relation between Taekwondo style, skill level, weight-class and warm-up routine and the occurrence of injuries, we analysed the injury data using a 7-page questionnaire from a total of 356 Taekwondo athletes who were randomly selected. Overall, we registered a total of 2,164 injuries in 356 athletes. Most traumas were contusions and sprains in the lower extremities. Professional Taekwondo athletes have an increased risk of injury in comparison to recreational athletes. Taekwondo style, weight class and tournament frequency have an influence on the athlete's injury profile. Warm-up routines were found to have a positive effect on injury rates. Overall, Taekwondo may be considered a rather benign activity, if injuries during Taekwondo tournaments can be avoided. If not, Taekwondo can result in serious musculoskeletal problems.

  2. Injuries in taekwondo.

    PubMed

    Siana, J E; Borum, P; Kryger, H

    1986-12-01

    During the 6th Taekwondo World Championship more than 4 per cent of the competitors were admitted to hospital. The majoirity of the severe injuries were to the head and neck. More padding and a change of rules are recommended.

  3. Predictors of fitness status on success in Taekwondo.

    PubMed

    Cular, Drazen; Krstulović, Sasa; Katić, Ratko; Primorac, Dragan; Vucić, Darko

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the order and importance of particular fitness status variables impact on success in taekwondo according to opinions of top taekwondo instructors (experts). Partial objectives included analysis of metric characteristics of the measuring instrument, and determining differences between two disciplines (sparring and technical discipline of patterns) and two competition systems (WTF and ITF). In accordance with the aims, the research was conducted on a subject sample which consisted of 730 taekwondo instructors from 6 continents and from 69 countries (from which we selected 242 instructors), who are at different success levels in both taekwondo competition systems (styles) and two taekwondo disciplines. The respondents were divided into 3 qualitative subsamples using a dependent variable of the instructor's accomplished results. In 6 languages, they electronically evaluated, in percentage value (%), the impact of 8 motor and functional abilities: specific strength (STR), flexibility (FLX), specific endurance (END), speed (SPE), balance (BAL), coordination (COO), agility (AGI) and accuracy (ACC). The analysis of metric characteristics of the constructed instrument showed a satisfactory degree of agreement (IIr) which is proportional to the level of respondent quality, i.e. it grows along with the increase in instructor quality in all analyzed disciplines of both systems. According to the obtained results, speed and specific endurance were ranked as the abilities which are most important for success in the sparring discipline in both competition systems (WTF and ITF), whose instructors also expressed a higher level of agreement in relation of speed and success in the technical disciplines.

  4. Anthropological analysis of taekwondo--new methodological approach.

    PubMed

    Cular, Drazen; Munivrana, Goran; Katić, Ratko

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the order and importance of impacts of particular anthropological characteristics and technical and tactical competence on success in taekwondo according to opinions of top taekwondo instructors (experts). Partial objectives include analysis of metric characteristics of the measuring instrument, and determining differences between two disciplines (sparring and technical discipline of patterns) and two competition systems (WTF and ITF). In accordance with the aims, the research was conducted on a sample of respondents which consisted of 730 taekwondo instructors from 6 continents and from 69 countries (from which we selected 242 instructors), who are at different success levels in both taekwondo competition systems (styles) and two taekwondo disciplines. The respondents were divided into 3 qualitative subsamples (OST-USP-VRH) using the dependant variable of accomplished results of the instructor. In 6 languages, they electronically evaluated the impact in percentage value (%) of motor and functional skills (MOTFS), morphological characteristics (MORF), psychological profile of an athlete (PSIH), athletic intelligence (INTE) and technical and tactical competence - (TE-TA) on success in taekwondo. The analysis of metric characteristics of the constructed instrument showed a satisfactory degree of agreement (IHr) which is proportional to the level of respondent quality, i.e. it grows along with the increase in instructor quality in all analysed disciplines of both systems. Top instructors assigned the highest portion of impact on success to the motor and functional skills (MOTFS) variable: WTF-SPB=29.1, ITF-SPB=29.2, WTF-THN=35.0, ITF-THN=32.0). Statistically significant differences in opinions of instructors of different styles and disciplines were not recorded in any of the analysed variables. The only exception is the psychological profile of an athlete variable, which WTF instructors of sparring (AM=23.7%), on a significance

  5. Energy Balance during Taekwondo Practice in Elite Male Taekwondo Players

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kang Ok; Garber, Carol Ewing; Lee, Sukho; Kim, Yeon Soo

    2013-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was to evaluate energy expenditure and dietary intake of nutrients during Taekwondo practice in elite Korean male Taekwondo players. Methods: Elite Korean male high school (high school player: HP; n = 59) and college players (college player: CP; n = 58) wore an accelerometer to measure energy expenditure and recorded their daily dietary intake for nutritional analysis over the course of five days. Results: Nutritional adequacy ratios for total energy (0.82), vitamin C (0.97), calcium (0.78), and folate (0.75) were below recommended levels for all players. When comparing daily nutrient intake and energy expenditure between HP and CP, the HP group had significantly higher total calorie intake (402.7 kcal, p < 0.001), calcium (126.3 mg, p = 0.018), phosphorus (198.0 mg, p = 0.002), iron (1.3 mg, p = 0.002), and vitamin B2 (0.4 mg, p < 0.001) than the CP group. Although there was no significant difference in the estimated energy requirement during Taekwondo practice, the total energy expenditure (151.2 kcal, p = 0.001), total activity counts (130,674 counts, p = 0.038) and energy expenditure during Taekwondo practice (257.7 kcal, p < 0.001) were significantly higher in the HP than in the CP. Conclusion: The results indicate that a sports nutrition program based on energy balance is necessary to achieve optimal health and performance in elite male Taekwondo players. PMID:26064838

  6. Analysis of injuries in taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Ji, MinJoon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study aims to provide fundamental information on injuries in taekwondo by investigating the categories of injuries that occur in taekwondo and determining the locations of these injuries. [Subjects and Methods] The data of 512 taekwondo athletes were collected. The sampling method was convenience sampling along with non-probability sampling extraction methods. Questionnaire forms were used to obtain the data. [Results] The foot, knee, ankle, thigh, and head were most frequently injured while practicing taekwondo, and contusions, strains, and sprains were the main injuries diagnosed. [Conclusion] It is desirable to decrease the possibility of injuries to the lower extremities for extending participation in taekwondo. Other than the lower extremities, injuries of other specific body parts including the head or neck could be important factors limiting the duration of participation. Therefore, it is necessary to cope with these problems before practicing taekwondo.

  7. Analysis of injuries in taekwondo athletes

    PubMed Central

    Ji, MinJoon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study aims to provide fundamental information on injuries in taekwondo by investigating the categories of injuries that occur in taekwondo and determining the locations of these injuries. [Subjects and Methods] The data of 512 taekwondo athletes were collected. The sampling method was convenience sampling along with non-probability sampling extraction methods. Questionnaire forms were used to obtain the data. [Results] The foot, knee, ankle, thigh, and head were most frequently injured while practicing taekwondo, and contusions, strains, and sprains were the main injuries diagnosed. [Conclusion] It is desirable to decrease the possibility of injuries to the lower extremities for extending participation in taekwondo. Other than the lower extremities, injuries of other specific body parts including the head or neck could be important factors limiting the duration of participation. Therefore, it is necessary to cope with these problems before practicing taekwondo. PMID:26957764

  8. Immunological impact of Taekwondo competitions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y W; Shin, K W; Paik, I-Y; Jung, W M; Cho, S-Y; Choi, S T; Kim, H D; Kim, J Y

    2012-01-01

    Immunological changes in elite adolescent female athletes during Taekwondo competitions were investigated on-field. 6 female athletes (16.7 ± 0.8 year-old) volunteered and performed 5 bouts of demonstration Taekwondo competitions simulating real tournaments in intensity, duration, and break-time intervals on the same day. Blood samples were taken before, after the competitions and during the recovery, respectively. Immunological changes and oxidative stress in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were evaluated by flow-cytometry. During the competitions, exercise intensity was 92.2 ± 3.8% (86.1~95.7) of the maximal heart rate. Blood lactate increased immediately after the competitions (p=0.0165) and decreased to baseline during recovery. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the peripheral blood increased continuously during recovery (p<0.05, respectively). Natural killer cells increased immediately after the competitions (p=0.0006), and decreased during recovery. B and T cells increased immediately after the competitions and remained elevated throughout recovery (p<0.05, respectively). CD4/CD8 ratio after the competitions was decreased (p=0.0091) and returned to baseline during recovery. These results suggest that the immunological function of the elite female adolescent athletes could be attenuated after Taekwondo competitions. Further large-scaled Taekwondo studies on immunologic and apoptotic changes related to oxidative stress should be performed for improving and protecting the health of adolescent athletes.

  9. Physical and physiological profiles of taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Bridge, Craig A; Ferreira da Silva Santos, Jonatas; Chaabène, Helmi; Pieter, Willy; Franchini, Emerson

    2014-06-01

    Taekwondo has evolved into a modern-day Olympic combat sport. The physical and physiological demands of modern-day taekwondo competition require athletes to be competent in several aspects of fitness. This review critically explores the physical and physiological characteristics of taekwondo athletes and presents implications for training and research. International taekwondo athletes possess low levels of body fat and a somatotype that characterises a blend of moderate musculoskeletal tissue and relative body linearity. While there is some variation in the maximum oxygen uptake of taekwondo athletes, moderate to high levels of cardio-respiratory fitness are necessary to support the metabolic demands of fighting and to facilitate recovery between consecutive matches. Taekwondo athletes demonstrate high peak anaerobic power characteristics of the lower limbs and this attribute appears to be conducive to achieving success in international competition. The ability to generate and sustain power output using both concentric and 'stretch-shortening cycle' muscle actions of the lower limbs may be important to support the technical and tactical actions in combat. Taekwondo competitors also display moderate to high maximum dynamic strength characteristics of the lower and upper extremities, and moderate endurance properties of the trunk and hip flexor musculature. The dynamic nature of the technical and tactical actions in the sport demand high flexibility of the lower limbs. More extensive research is required into the physical and physiological characteristics of taekwondo athletes to extend existing knowledge and to permit specialised conditioning for different populations within the sport.

  10. Taekwondo training and fitness in female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Bae; Stebbins, Charles L; Chai, Joo-Hee; Song, Jong-Kook

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we determined the specificity of a low frequency taekwondo training programme on physical fitness levels in adolescent females who receive limited physical education instruction (i.e. 2 days per week). Major components of physical fitness assessed were: skeletal muscle fitness (hand grip strength, bent arm hang, standing long jump, and isokinetic strength), flexibility (sit-and-reach test), speed and agility (10 × 5-m shuttle run), and cardiovascular fitness (VO(2max) and 20-m shuttle run). Changes in body composition were also assessed (dual X-ray absorptiometry, DXA). Participants were divided into two groups, a taekwondo training group (n = 21), which trained 50 min a day, 2 days per week for 12 weeks, and a control group (n = 10). Taekwondo training improved isokinetic strength, standing long jump, and sit-and-reach performance. Body fat mass and percent body fat were reduced. No changes in grip strength, bent arm hang time, speed and agility, or cardiorespiratory fitness were observed. Results indicate that low frequency taekwondo training in adolescent females produces beneficial changes in skeletal muscle fitness, flexibility, and body composition in a relatively short period of time. Consequently, this specific type of training can be useful to female adolescents in structured school environments where physical education classes are limited and there is little free time for physical activity.

  11. Iliopsoas haematoma in an adolescent Taekwondo player.

    PubMed

    Maffulli, N; So, W S; Ahuja, A; Chan, K M

    1996-01-01

    A 16-year-old male Taekwondo player was admitted with a 1-day history of right groin pain and a palpable mass in the right lower abdominal quadrant following a Taekwondo training session. No history of direct trauma was given, but the pain followed a high inward-to-outward kick. The patient was not on any medication, and tumour and infection were excluded. A high-resolution real-time ultrasound scan identified a well-defined, hyperechoic, heterogeneous mass in the substance of the right iliopsoas muscle, compatible with a collection of partially clotted blood, confirming the clinical diagnosis of iliopsoas haematoma. After conservative treatment the patient resumed training and is now fully asymptomatic.

  12. Personality characteristics and duration of ATA Taekwondo training.

    PubMed

    Kurian, M; Caterino, L C; Kulhavy, R W

    1993-04-01

    Students in ATA Taekwondo schools were administered the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire. The students were divided into two groups of 15 persons each based on 0-1.4 yr. vs 1.5 + yr. spent in formal Taekwondo training. From the 16 PF, scores on two second-order and one derived factor were calculated for Anxiety, Independence, and Leadership. The groups having longer Taekwondo training times scored significantly lower on Anxiety and higher on Independence. Although Leadership scores were higher for the longer trained group they were not statistically significant.

  13. A profile of the Youth Olympic Taekwondo Athlete.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Mohsen; De Ciantis, Marco G; Rahman, Alima

    2013-12-01

    Our study aims to identify trends in anthropomorphic attributes and competitive strategies of successful (medalists) versus non medalist young Olympic Taekwondo competitors by gender in terms of body mass, body-mass index (BMI) and fighting technique at the Youth Olympic Games 2010. Results were then compared to adult Taekwondo Olympic athletes in 2000, 2004 and 2008. Data on 96 Taekwondo athletes were obtained from the official Youth Olympic website. A LOGIT analysis was performed on the following six independent variables: height, body mass, body mass index, gender, techniques used to score, and warnings obtained during a match. The study did find some differences between winners and non-winners for males and female, although none of the differences were statistically significant. Consequently, training personnel may enhance winning potential of Taekwondo competitors by focusing on offensive versus defensive techniques and improving the quality of punching.

  14. Injuries in elite Taekwondo Poomsae athletes.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Ingar, Anas; Jaffery, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Poomsae is the only non-contact and no opponent form of Taekwondo. The purpose of this descriptive study was to determine the type and rate of injuries in elite Canadian Poomsae athletes. Strain and joint dysfunction were the most common types of injuries in Poomsae. Lower limb and back were the most common area of injury in females and males respectively. Females with a lower rank in experience level (DAN≤ 3) were more likely to suffer from chronic overuse injuries compared to their male counterparts, who reported more acute injuries. Athletes ≤40 years of age were more prone to acute injuries compared to athletes over 40. As result of reflection on this study a Poomsae Injury Report Form was developed.

  15. Injuries in elite Taekwondo Poomsae athletes

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Ingar, Anas; Jaffery, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Poomsae is the only non-contact and no opponent form of Taekwondo. The purpose of this descriptive study was to determine the type and rate of injuries in elite Canadian Poomsae athletes. Strain and joint dysfunction were the most common types of injuries in Poomsae. Lower limb and back were the most common area of injury in females and males respectively. Females with a lower rank in experience level (DAN≤ 3) were more likely to suffer from chronic overuse injuries compared to their male counterparts, who reported more acute injuries. Athletes ≤40 years of age were more prone to acute injuries compared to athletes over 40. As result of reflection on this study a Poomsae Injury Report Form was developed. PMID:28065994

  16. BIOMECHANICS OF HEAD INJURY IN OLYMPIC TAEKWONDO AND BOXING

    PubMed Central

    Fife, G.P.; Pieter, W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose was to examine differences between taekwondo kicks and boxing punches in resultant linear head acceleration (RLA), head injury criterion (HIC15), peak head velocity, and peak foot and fist velocities. Data from two existing publications on boxing punches and taekwondo kicks were compared. Methods For taekwondo head impacts a Hybrid II Crash Dummy (Hybrid II) head was instrumented with a tri-axial accelerometer mounted inside the Hybrid II head. The Hybrid II was fixed to a height-adjustable frame and fitted with a protective taekwondo helmet. For boxing testing, a Hybrid III Crash Dummy head was instrumented with an array of tri-axial accelerometers mounted at the head centre of gravity. Results Differences in RLA between the roundhouse kick (130.11±51.67 g) and hook punch (71.23±32.19 g, d = 1.39) and in HIC15 (clench axe kick: 162.63±104.10; uppercut: 24.10±12.54, d = 2.29) were observed. Conclusions Taekwondo kicks demonstrated significantly larger magnitudes than boxing punches for both RLA and HIC. PMID:24744497

  17. Effect of stance position on kick performance in taekwondo.

    PubMed

    Estevan, Isaac; Jandacka, Daniel; Falco, Coral

    2013-01-01

    In taekwondo, the stance position can potentially affect kick performance. The aim of this study was to analyse mechanical variables in the roundhouse kick in taekwondo according to three stance positions (0°, 45°, 90°). Nine experienced taekwondo athletes performed consecutive kicking trials in a random order according to these three relative positions of the feet on the ground. Measurements for the mechanical analysis were performed using two 3D force plates and an eight-camera motion capture system. The taekwondo athletes' reaction and execution times were shorter when starting from the 0° and 45° stance positions than from the 90° position (P < 0.05). Moreover, the ground reaction force was negatively correlated with execution time and positively with velocity of thigh and shank. Our results suggest that the stance position affects the execution technique of taekwondo athletes' kicks. It is suggested that athletes should not adopt the 90° stance position because it will not enable them to achieve the best performance in the roundhouse kick.

  18. Heart rate responses to Taekwondo training in experienced practitioners.

    PubMed

    Bridge, Craig A; Jones, Michelle A; Hitchen, Peter; Sanchez, Xavier

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the heart rate (HR) responses of specific Taekwondo training activities, practiced by experienced practitioners in a natural training environment. Eight male experienced Taekwondo practitioners, with 3- 13 years (5.4 +/- 3.2 years) experience took part in a 5-day Taekwondo training camp. Continuous HR measures were recorded at 5-second intervals during 6 training sessions; each session was observed and notated, and a diary of training activities was recorded. The HR responses were assimilated into 8 fundamental training activities for analysis: elastics, technical combinations, step sparring, pad work, forms, basic techniques and forms, sparring drills, and free sparring. Taekwondo training elicited HR into 64.7-81.4% of HR maximum (%HRmax). Moderate relative exercise intensities (64.7-69.4%HRmax) were elicited by elastics, technical combinations, and step sparring. The remaining 5 training activities elicited hard relative exercise intensities (74.7-81.4%HRmax). One-way repeated-measures analysis of variance with post hoc analysis revealed that elastics, technical combinations, and step sparring elicited significantly lower relative intensities than the remaining training activities (p < 0.05). Furthermore, forms, basic techniques and forms, sparring drills, and free sparring elicited significantly higher relative intensities than the remaining training activities (p < 0.05). In conclusion, all Taekwondo training activities in this study seemed suitable for cardiovascular conditioning, although different training activities stressed the cardiovascular system to different degrees. Practically, this suggests coaches need to structure Taekwondo training sessions based not only on the technical and tactical needs of practitioners but also in a manner that enables sufficient cardiovascular conditioning for competition.

  19. The Effect of Color on the Use of Electronic Body Protectors in Taekwondo Matches.

    PubMed

    Falcó, Coral; Conchado, Andrea; Estevan, Isaac

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the color protector and success in taekwondo combats in the qualification championships, when electronic body protectors were used. Moreover, it analyzed the confounding effect of a participant being a top-ranked athlete in the 2012 London Olympic Games, in a sample of 462 matches. Results from the entire sample showed a non-significant relationship between the combat outcome and the winner's color electronic protector. At the level of the tournament, the results showed a significant relationship between wearing a red electronic protector and winning the combat in the Asian and the European qualification tournaments. For gender and weight categories, there was no clear color effect. A significant association was, however, found between wearing red and winning the match in the female featherweight category. The inclusion of electronic body protectors and a counterbalanced seed-condition seem to be effective for controlling the effect of the protector's color on the outcomes of combats.

  20. Taekwondo Instructional and Assessment Strategies in Authentic Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Hyun-Ju

    2014-01-01

    Martial arts, including taekwondo, have become popular in the United States and are being taught in some physical education programs. Unfortunately, martial arts skills in physical education are likely to be taught in a traditional manner (mastering basic skills and performing routines as a large group) and assessed in a closed setting. The…

  1. Teaching Taekwondo in Physical Education: Incorporating the Color Belt System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Hyun-Ju; Hannon, James C.; Banks, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    Taekwondo is an excellent lifetime physical activity that provides both physical and mental benefits to its participants. The color belt system may be creatively used in physical education to encourage improvement in all learning domains. This article provides information on incorporating the color belt system into physical education, and provides…

  2. Education, reregistration, and recommendation effect of iPhone Poomsae education app in Taekwondo academy.

    PubMed

    Ha, In Sook; Lee, Seung Il; Cha, Eun Jong; Lee, Tae Soo

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzed the effect of a smartphone application in Taekwondo Academy. The iPhone app was self-developed to display Taekwondo education contents for Poomsae training. From the viewpoint of education, reregistration and recommendation effect, it showed statistically significant difference in 196 trainee sample survey. Therefore, the research suggest that the use of smartphone technology in Poomsae education would be a great help to the trainee for the acquisition of Taekwondo knowledge and make a great contribution to the growth of Taekwondo.

  3. The relationship between Taekwondo training habits and injury: a survey of a collegiate Taekwondo population

    PubMed Central

    Covarrubias, Natalia; Bhatia, Subir; Campos, Luis F; Nguyen, Dahn V; Chang, Eric Y

    2015-01-01

    Objective To correlate training habits of Taekwondo (TKD) athletes to risk for injury. Background TKD is a Korean marital art that has been growing in popularity, with nearly 2 million individuals practicing the sport in the United States. Because of the combative nature of the sport, injuries are an inherent risk. However, data on proper training habits, types of injuries sustained during training, and recommendations for athletes to avoid injury are lacking. Frequently, studies of TKD evaluate athletes’ injuries during tournaments, but most do not evaluate athletes in training. Hypothesis Increased training would potentially create more injuries secondary to increased exposure. Methods This is a cross-sectional observational survey of 72 collegiate TKD athletes from the Pacific West Sanctioned Taekwondo Tournaments in the 2008–2009 season. Variables analyzed during training and competitions were training sessions per week, workout habits, belt level, years of experience, and characteristics of injury (location, type, mechanism, situation, treatment, and days missed). Results TKD training habits of individuals who practiced four or more times per week (odds ratio [OR], 4.5; P=0.005) or sparred for more than 2 hours (OR, 8.7; P=0.003) were associated with significantly increased odds (risk) of sustaining an injury. Those who had more than 3 years of tournament experience were more likely to sustain an injury (OR, 0.198; P=0.020). Conclusion Increased risk for injury with more frequent practice and longer sparring should remind coaches and trainers that monitoring and adjusting the athletes’ training schedules and exposure time could decrease the chance of injury. An athlete that has spent more years in tournaments along with high-frequency and long-duration training was associated with greater risk for injuries. Prevention and education about the risk for exposure to injury may may help athletes and trainers promote prevention strategies and adjust an

  4. Effects of creatine supplementation in taekwondo practitioners.

    PubMed

    Manjarrez-Montes de Oca, Rafael; Farfán-González, Fernando; Camarillo-Romero, Socorro; Tlatempa-Sotelo, Patricia; Francisco-Argüelles, Carlos; Kormanowski, Alexander; González-Gallego, Javier; Alvear-Ordenes, Ildefonso

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: El Taekwondo (TKD) es un arte marcial, que ha sido propuesto también en programas de actividad física, con un fuerte componente anaeróbico. La suplementación con creatina (Cr), utilizada para mejorar el rendimiento deportivo y la composición corporal, puede ser beneficiosa en TKD. Objetivos: Determinar el efecto de la suplementación de Cr sobre la composición corporal, potencia anaeróbica y bioquímica sanguínea en practicantes jóvenes de TKD. Métodos: Diez practicantes varones de TKD (edad [20 ± 2 AÑOs], estatura [1,69 ± 0,06 m], peso [67,0 ± 9,8 kg]) participaron en un ensayo aleatorizado cruzado (grupo control + placebo). Se evaluaron (pre-post suplementación) la composición corporal (DEXA), la potencia anaeróbica (Test de Wingate), el lactato y la bioquímica sanguínea. Se calculó la diferencia entre los valores pre y post ingestión para ambos tratamientos (Cr y placebo) y se compararon las diferencias usando la prueba de signos y rangos de Wilcoxon. Resultados: La masa grasa (kg) disminuyó después del placebo (Mdn [IqR] = -0,75 [-1,44 a 0,03]) mientras que con Cr se elevó significativamente (0,17 [-0,77 a 1,13] kg) (Z = 2,191, p < 0,028, r = 0,49). La concentración sanguínea de triglicéridos (mg/mL) aumentó con Cr (45,00 [- 7,50 a 75,00]) y disminuyó con Placebo (-7,00 [-10,75 a 12,00]) (Z = 2,090, p < 0,037, r = 0,47). No hubo cambios significativos en otros parámetros. Conclusiones: La suplementación con creatina puede incrementar la masa grasa y la concentración sanguínea de triglicéridos en jóvenes practicantes de TKD, sin mejorar la potencia anaerobia. La suplementación parece ser segura, pero es necesario ser cuidadosos cuando se busca disminuir el peso corporal.

  5. Un Deux Trois--Speak English! Young Taekwondo-Fighters' Identity Construction through Linguistic Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Lian Malai

    2008-01-01

    From an ethnographic and interaction analytical approach this paper examines how polylingual languaging is used by a group of young male Taekwondo fighters to construct an integrated streetwise and "schoolwise" persona as well as negotiate regional identities. The data discussed were collected in a Taekwondo club in a multicultural area…

  6. Taekwondo Training Improves Balance in Volunteers Over 40

    PubMed Central

    Pons van Dijk, G.; Lenssen, A. F.; Leffers, P.; Kingma, H.; Lodder, J.

    2013-01-01

    Balance deteriorates with age, and may eventually lead to falling accidents which may threaten independent living. As Taekwondo contains various highly dynamic movement patterns, Taekwondo practice may sustain or improve balance. Therefore, in 24 middle-aged healthy volunteers (40–71 year) we investigated effects of age-adapted Taekwondo training of 1 h a week during 1 year on various balance parameters, such as: motor orientation ability (primary outcome measure), postural and static balance test, single leg stance, one leg hop test, and a questionnaire. Motor orientation ability significantly increased in favor of the antero-posterior direction with a difference of 0.62° toward anterior compared to pre-training measurement, when participants corrected the tilted platform rather toward the posterior direction; female gender being an independent outcome predictor. On postural balance measurements sway path improved in all 19 participants, with a median of 9.3 mm/s (range 0.71–45.86), and sway area in 15 participants with 4.2 mm2/s (range 17.39–1.22). Static balance improved with an average of 5.34 s for the right leg, and with almost 4 s for the left. Median single leg stance duration increased in 17 participants with 5 s (range 1–16), and in 13 participants with 8 s (range 1–18). The average one leg hop test distance increased (not statistically significant) with 9.5 cm. The questionnaire reported a better “ability to maintain balance” in 16. In conclusion, our data suggest that age-adapted Taekwondo training improves various aspects of balance control in healthy people over the age of 40. PMID:23494518

  7. Taekwondo training improves balance in volunteers over 40.

    PubMed

    Pons van Dijk, G; Lenssen, A F; Leffers, P; Kingma, H; Lodder, J

    2013-01-01

    Balance deteriorates with age, and may eventually lead to falling accidents which may threaten independent living. As Taekwondo contains various highly dynamic movement patterns, Taekwondo practice may sustain or improve balance. Therefore, in 24 middle-aged healthy volunteers (40-71 year) we investigated effects of age-adapted Taekwondo training of 1 h a week during 1 year on various balance parameters, such as: motor orientation ability (primary outcome measure), postural and static balance test, single leg stance, one leg hop test, and a questionnaire. Motor orientation ability significantly increased in favor of the antero-posterior direction with a difference of 0.62° toward anterior compared to pre-training measurement, when participants corrected the tilted platform rather toward the posterior direction; female gender being an independent outcome predictor. On postural balance measurements sway path improved in all 19 participants, with a median of 9.3 mm/s (range 0.71-45.86), and sway area in 15 participants with 4.2 mm(2)/s (range 17.39-1.22). Static balance improved with an average of 5.34 s for the right leg, and with almost 4 s for the left. Median single leg stance duration increased in 17 participants with 5 s (range 1-16), and in 13 participants with 8 s (range 1-18). The average one leg hop test distance increased (not statistically significant) with 9.5 cm. The questionnaire reported a better "ability to maintain balance" in 16. In conclusion, our data suggest that age-adapted Taekwondo training improves various aspects of balance control in healthy people over the age of 40.

  8. Relationships between injury and success in elite Taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the rate and type of injury in elite Canadian Taekwondo athletes, before and during competition and to investigate the relationship between past injuries, injuries during competition and success. This retrospective case-series study incorporated Taekwondo injuries sustained by 75 male and female elite Canadian Taekwondo athletes over 10 years and its relationship to athletes' success by means of gaining medals during competition. A logistic regression model (using the Generalised Estimating Equations (GEE) method) was used to investigate the relationship between injuries and success. Injury rate was associated with performance after holding variables constant (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.124, P = 0.039). Moreover, with each additional injury per match, competitors were 88% (1-0.124) less likely to win a medal. Although not statistically significant, additional injuries prior to competition were associated with a 30% increase in medal prevalence (OR = 1.299, P = 0.203). When comparing athletes (gender, tournament difficulty, injury variables), a competitor who is one year older is 10% less likely to medal (OR = 0.897, P = 0.068). When an additional injury occurred during competition, the athlete was 88% less likely to win a medal. Prevention, correct diagnosis, and immediate therapeutic intervention by qualified health care providers are important.

  9. Taekwondo coaches knowledge about prevention and management of dental trauma.

    PubMed

    Vidović, Dina; Gorseta, Kristina; Bursac, Danijel; Glavina, Domagoj; Skrinjarić, Tomislav

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess level of knowledge about prevention and dental trauma management among taekwondo coaches in Croatia. The questionnaire submitted to the taekwondo coaches contained 16 items about dental trauma prevention and management. The questionnaires were filled in by 131 taekwondo coaches; 28 females and 103 males. Descriptive statistics was used to describe and analyze the obtained data. The coaches were familiar with dental injuries in high percentage: 41 (31.3%) have observed dental injury and 36 (27.5%) have experienced a dental injury themselves. Eight of them had tooth avulsion, fourteen crown fracture, and eight had tooth luxation. About half of all interviewed coaches 68 (52.7%) were aware of the possibility of replanting avulsed teeth. Twenty six (19.8%) were familiar with the tooth rescue kit. Only 99 out of 131 coaches (75.6%) have used a mouthguard. The obtained results show low knowledge about possibilities for prevention of dental trauma. Insufficient use of mouthguards in this contact sport requires more attention of dentists and coaches education about dental trauma prevention.

  10. Changes in blood lactate concentrations during taekwondo combat simulation.

    PubMed

    Bürger-Mendonça, Marcos; de Oliveira, João Carlos; Cardoso, Jefferson Rosa; Bielavsky, Monica; Azevedo, Paulo

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze blood lactate response before, during and after simulated taekwondo fight in young male athletes. The experiment was composed of simulated official taekwondo fight. During the experiment a total of 7 blood samples (25 μL) were collected that following: at rest, after 1st, 2nd, and 3rd rounds, and 3, 5, and 10 min after the end of combat. The results showed that blood lactate concentrations [Lac]B increased significantly after 1st, 2nd, and 3rd rounds of the combat compared to the rested values. The [Lac]B after 3rd round was higher when compared to 3, 5, and 10 min of recovery. After 10 min of passive recovery, the [Lac]B was significantly lesser than 3 and 5 min of recovery, and 2nd round. These data showed that taekwondo requires high activation of anaerobic lactic metabolism, and improves the ability to rapidly remove the lactate from blood.

  11. Technical-tactical analysis of youth olympic taekwondo combat.

    PubMed

    Tornello, Francesco; Capranica, Laura; Minganti, Carlo; Chiodo, Salvatore; Condello, Giancarlo; Tessitore, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to define the technical and tactical profiles of official youth taekwondo competitions played under the most recent rules of the International Taekwondo Federation. Tactical actions (i.e., attack, defense, and block), technical executions (from 1- to 4-point scores), kicking legs (i.e., front/rear and right/left), and overall technical effectiveness were investigated in relation to match outcome of semifinal and final competitions (n = 50) of youth (aged 13-14 years) black belt athletes during the Italian Taekwondo Cadet Championship. Differences (p < 0.001) were found among all action typologies (Attack: 50.9 ± 2.2%; Defense: 27.7 ± 1.5%; Block: 21.3 ± 1.6%), with winners showing fewer (p = 0.005) offensive actions and more (p = 0.001) defensive actions with respect to non-winners. Independently from match outcome, technical exchanges showed differences (p < 0.001) for technical executions. Winners resulted more efficient (p < 0.001) for both technical and tactical variables. In general, these findings showed that Cadets tend to adopt an offensive strategy. In considering that the adoption of the new electronic system requires athletes to execute correct technical actions to have a score assigned, coaches should emphasize the effectiveness of scoring techniques and help athletes to effectively improve their defense and counterattack capabilities.

  12. Impact attenuation of protective boxing and taekwondo headgear.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, David M; Fife, Gabriel P

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to compare the impact attenuation performance of boxing and taekwondo headgear in terms of peak linear and rotational acceleration. To measure the impact attenuation of headgear, a standardized (American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) F-2397) martial arts headgear striker was used to impart impacts to a 50th Percentile Male Hybrid III Crash Test Dummy head and neck complex. Two boxing (Adidas and Greenhill) and two taekwondo (Adidas and Nike) headgear, approved by the Association Internationale de Boxe Amateur and the World Taekwondo Federation (WTF), were selected. Each of the selected headgear was fitted to the Hybrid III head and subsequently subjected to five impacts at the front and side with a maximum impact interim time of 60 seconds by the rotating striker at 8 ± 0.3 m/s. Linear and rotational acceleration were recorded at 10,000 Hz. There were significant interactions of the impact location and brand on the rotational acceleration, F(3,40) = 6.7, p < .05. There were significant main effects of both impact location F(1,40) = 9.07, p < .05 and headgear brand F(3,40) = 9.9, p < .05 on the linear acceleration. Pairwise comparisons show significant differences between the front and side for both linear and rotational acceleration. The headgear tested failed the ASTM high impact test requirement to reduce the linear acceleration to below a threshold of 150 g. Further development of headgear to reduce impact linear and rotational acceleration magnitudes should be called for by the relevant sport governing bodies and initiated by headgear manufactures.

  13. Fitness profile of elite Croatian female taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Marković, Goran; Misigoj-Duraković, Marjeta; Trninić, Slavko

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the study was to assess fitness profile of elite Croatian female taekwondo athletes and to determine which physical, physiological and motor characteristics differentiate mostly the successful from the less successful fighters. Thirteen national taekwondo champions were divided into two groups according to their senior international competitive achievements. Physiological characteristics, including maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), were assessed during a continuous progressive treadmill test. The measured motor abilities included explosive and elastic leg strength, maximal strength, muscular endurance, anaerobic alactic power, agility and flexibility. Differences between the successful and less successful athletes were determined using independent t-test. Even though the differences were not statistically significant, the successful athletes had somewhat less fat (2.3%) and were taller by 5.8 cm. The successful athletes achieved significantly higher maximum running speed (15.8 +/- 0.5 versus 14.9 +/- 0. 7 km h(-1); p < 0.05), their ventilatory anaerobic threshold was significantly higher (41.4 +/- 4.1 versus 37.6 +/- 2.0 ml kg(-1) min(-1); p < 0.05) at a significantly lower heart rate (166.8 +/- 6.8 versus 171.0 +/- 8.2 beats min(-1); p < 0.05) than in the less successful athletes. Significant differences were also found in three tests of explosive power (p < 0.05), anaerobic alactic power (p < 0.01), and lateral agility (p < 0.05). The performance of taekwondo female athletes primarily depends on the anaerobic alactic power, explosive power expressed in the stretch-shortening cycle movements, agility and aerobic power.

  14. Technical and tactical analysis of youth taekwondo performance.

    PubMed

    Casolino, Erika; Lupo, Corrado; Cortis, Cristina; Chiodo, Salvatore; Minganti, Carlo; Capranica, Laura; Tessitore, Antonio

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to analyze the technical and tactical aspects of young athletes during official taekwondo competitions. Fifty-nine youth taekwondo athletes (43 boys and 16 girls; age range: 10-12 years; weight category range: <24 to >59 kg) with at least 2 years of taekwondo training consisting of three 90-minute training sessions for 3 d·wk⁻¹ participated in this study. Thirty-seven matches (three 1-minute rounds, with 1-minute rest in between) were analyzed to verify the differences (p ≤ 0.05) in offensive and defensive actions in relation to gender (male, female), match outcome (winners, nonwinners), kicking leg (front, rear), and round (first, second, third). No difference emerged for gender and match outcome. With respect to defensive actions (8.4 ± 12.0%), youth athletes engaged more frequently (p < 0.0001) in offensive actions (91.6 ± 12.0%), which showed a significant decrease (p < 0.016) from the first round (42.3 ± 21.8%) to the second (33.1 ± 14.8%) and third (24.5 ± 16.0%) ones. Kicks performed with the rear leg (94.4 ± 7.8%) occurred more frequently (p < 0.0001) than those performed with the front leg (5.6 ± 7.8%). In considering that a high level of coordination is required to perform front-leg kicks and defensive actions necessitate a high level of tactical skills, these findings might indicate a not-yet complete attainment of fundamental coordinative capabilities in 10- to 12-year-old athletes, independently of match outcome. To enhance coordination capabilities in youth athletes, coaches are recommended to structure their training including skill-ability and sport-ability drills.

  15. [Deformation of the fist due to Taekwondo training].

    PubMed

    Pecht, Von S; Raschka, Ch

    2005-10-20

    Over a period of 25 years a 40-year-old taekwondo world champion had conditioned his hand for so-called "breaking championships", by repeatedly striking progressively harder materials (sand, dried peas, a mixture of dried peas and small stones, and such like). An MRI investigation revealed an augmentation of tissue between the heads of the metacarpals. The biomechanical effect resulting from this "smoothing" of the striking area of the fist is to reduce the peak load acting on the prominent bony elements on impact, and thus reduce the risk of injury. The build-up of tissue represents a response of connective tissue to repetitive microtrauma.

  16. Precompetition injury and subsequent tournament performance in full-contact taekwondo.

    PubMed Central

    Feehan, M; Waller, A E

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern of injuries sustained by taekwondo competitors, and how previous injury affects performance in sporting competition. METHODS: Competitors at a major New Zealand full-contact taekwondo tournament were given a comprehensive questionnaire immediately before competition. Self reports of injuries sustained through taekwondo in the previous 12 months were determined. RESULTS: No significant sex differences were found. The injury prevalence was high, but comparatively less than reported for other contact sports such as rugby football. However, one in 20 injuries was a closed head injury. No significant associations between prior injury and tournament outcome were found. CONCLUSIONS: Taekwondo can be a source of disabling injury. However, the fact that prior injury did not appear to be associated with impaired competition performance may militate against acceptance of control and regulation by competitors and coaches. PMID:8808541

  17. Varus instability of the hallux interphalangeal joint in a taekwondo athlete.

    PubMed

    Gong, Hyun Sik; Kim, Yeun Ho; Park, Moon Seok

    2007-12-01

    The hallux interphalangeal joint is stable in the transverse plane and there have been only a few reports of varus instability of this joint. A case is described of varus subluxation of the hallux interphalangeal joint in a taekwondo athlete and the surgical outcome after reconstruction of the collateral ligament. Taekwondo athletes, who require fast powerful kicks, should be warned about this type of forefoot injury.

  18. Varus instability of the hallux interphalangeal joint in a taekwondo athlete.

    PubMed

    Gong, Hyun Sik; Kim, Yeun Ho; Park, Moon Seok

    2009-01-01

    The hallux interphalangeal joint is stable in the transverse plane and there have been only a few reports of varus instability of this joint. A case is described of varus subluxation of the hallux interphalangeal joint in a taekwondo athlete and the surgical outcome after reconstruction of the collateral ligament. Taekwondo athletes, who require fast powerful kicks, should be warned about this type of forefoot injury.

  19. Taekwondo exercise protocols do not recreate the physiological responses of championship combat.

    PubMed

    Bridge, C A; McNaughton, L R; Close, G L; Drust, B

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the external validity of Taekwondo-specific exercise protocols. 10 male international Taekwondo competitors (age 18±2 years) took part in a championship combat and an exercise protocol that simulated the activity pattern of Taekwondo combat. Heart rate and venous blood samples were obtained in both settings. Despite similarity in the activity profiles, the championship Taekwondo combats elicited higher (p<0.05) heart rate (188±8 beats.min - 1), plasma lactate (12.2±4.6 mmol.L - 1), glucose (10.3±1.1 mmol.L - 1), -glycerol (143.4±49.4 µmol.L - 1), -adrena-line (2.7±1.7 nmol.L - 1) and noradrenaline (14.3±9.4 nmol.L - 1) responses than the -Taekwondo exercise protocol (heart rate: 172±4 beats.min - 1; plasma lactate: 3.6±2.7 mmol.L - 1; glucose: 5.9±0.8 mmol.L - 1; glycerol: 77.7±21.3 µmol.L - 1; adrenaline: 0.6±0.2 nmol.L - 1 and noradrenaline: 3.0±1.1 nmol.L - 1). This discrepancy in the physiological responses appeared to be mediated by a reduced stress response in the Taekwondo exercise protocol. These findings suggest that Taekwondo-specific exercise protocols are not appropriate to study the physiological demands of Taekwondo. -Strategies designed to increase the stress response in this setting may be necessary to improve the external validity of this experimental framework.

  20. Differences in respirogram phase between taekwondo poomsae athletes and nonathletes.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yong-Sub; Yang, Seung-Min; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Park, Byoung-Sun; Lee, Won-Deok; Noh, Ji-Woong; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Park, Jaehong; Kim, Junghwan

    2016-09-01

    [Purpose] Respiratory physiotherapy is an effective approach to improving lung function in patient, including athletes with respiratory dysfunction caused by sports injury. The purpose of this study was to analyze the differences in the respirograms between taekwondo poomsae athletes and nonathletes according to the respirogram phase. [Subjects and Methods] Respiratory measurements for 13 elite taekwondo poomsae athletes were obtained. Respiratory function was measured using spirometry while the participant was seated. [Results] In respirogram phasic analysis, the inspiratory area of forced vital capacity were significantly increased in the athletes than in the nonathletes. The slopes of the forced vital capacity for athletes at slopes 1, 2, and 3 of the A area were significantly higher than those for the nonathletes. In correlation analysis, chest circumference was significantly correlated with slope 1 of the A area of the forced vital capacity. [Conclusion] Results indicate that differences in respirogram phasic changes between athletes and nonathletes may contribute to better understanding of respiratory function, which is important to sports physiotherapy research.

  1. a Study on Impact Analysis of Side Kick in Taekwondo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Young-Shin; Han, Kyu-Hyun

    Taekwondo is a martial art form and sport that uses the hands and feet for attack and defense. Taekwondo basic motion is composed of the breaking, competition and poomsea motions. The side kick is one of the most important breaking motions. The side kick with the front foot can be made in two steps. In the first step, the front foot is extended forward from the back stance free-fighting position. For the second step, the rear foot is followed simultaneously. Then, the side kick is executed while the entire body weight rests on the rear foot. In this paper, the impact analysis on a human model for kicking posture was carried out. The ADAMS/LifeMOD used numerical modeling and simulation for the side kick. The numerical human models for assailant and opponent in competition motion were developed. The maximum impact force on the human body was obtained by experiment and was applied to impact simulation. As a result, the impact displacement and velocity of the numerical human model were investigated.

  2. Differences in respirogram phase between taekwondo poomsae athletes and nonathletes

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Yong-Sub; Yang, Seung-Min; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Park, Byoung-Sun; Lee, Won-Deok; Noh, Ji-Woong; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Park, Jaehong; Kim, Junghwan

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Respiratory physiotherapy is an effective approach to improving lung function in patient, including athletes with respiratory dysfunction caused by sports injury. The purpose of this study was to analyze the differences in the respirograms between taekwondo poomsae athletes and nonathletes according to the respirogram phase. [Subjects and Methods] Respiratory measurements for 13 elite taekwondo poomsae athletes were obtained. Respiratory function was measured using spirometry while the participant was seated. [Results] In respirogram phasic analysis, the inspiratory area of forced vital capacity were significantly increased in the athletes than in the nonathletes. The slopes of the forced vital capacity for athletes at slopes 1, 2, and 3 of the A area were significantly higher than those for the nonathletes. In correlation analysis, chest circumference was significantly correlated with slope 1 of the A area of the forced vital capacity. [Conclusion] Results indicate that differences in respirogram phasic changes between athletes and nonathletes may contribute to better understanding of respiratory function, which is important to sports physiotherapy research. PMID:27799678

  3. Effectiveness of roundhouse kick in elite Taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Thibordee, Sutima; Prasartwuth, Orawan

    2014-06-01

    The roundhouse kick is a powerful attack in Taekwondo. Most athletes intently perform this kick for scoring in competition. Therefore, kinematic and kinetic analyzes of this kick were the topics of interest; however, they were separately investigated and rarely recorded for impact force. Our objectives were to investigate knee and ankle joint kinematics and electromyographic (EMG) activity of leg muscle and compare them between high-impact (HI) and low-impact (LO) kicks. Sixteen male black-belt Taekwondo athletes performed five roundhouse kicks at their maximal effort. Electrogoniometer sensors measured angular motions of ankle and knee joints. Surface EMG activities were recorded for tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius medialis, rectus femoris, and biceps femoris muscles. Based on maximal impact forces, the athletes were classified into HI and LO groups. All athletes in both groups showed greater activation of rectus femoris than other muscles. The HI group only showed significantly less plantarflexion angles than the LO group during preimpact and impact phases (P<0.05). During the impact phase, the HI group demonstrated significantly greater biceps femoris activation than the LO group (P<0.05). In conclusion, rectus femoris activation could predominantly contribute to the powerful roundhouse kicks. Moreover, high biceps femoris co-activation and optimal angle of ankle plantarflexion of about 35° could help achieve the high impact force.

  4. The Effects of an Exercise Program Consisting of Taekwondo Basic Movements on Posture Correction

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Sunghak; An, Changkyoo; Kim, Minho; Han, Dongwook

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to verify the effect of posture correctional programs using basic TaeKwonDo movements. [Subjects] The subjects were TaeKwonDo trainees attending an elementary school in B city. They were separated into experimental and control groups according to posture problems found during posture analysis. [Methods] The subjects of the training exercise program performed basic TaeKwonDo movements for 8 weeks, 3 times per week. The TaeKwonDo exercise program consisted of basic TaeKwonDo movements including Hwangso Makki, Meongye Chigi, Olgul Makki, Olgul Yop Makki, Batangson Arae Makki, Momtong An Makki and Apkubi. [Results] Hwangso Makki and Meongye Chigi movements had a significant positive effect on the correction of neck inclination. Olgul Makki, Olgul Yop Makki, Batangson Arae Makki and Momtong An Makki movements had beneficial effects on the correction of shoulder inclination. Apkubi movement had a significant beneficial effect on the correction of pelvis inclination. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that an exercise program consisting of basic TaeKwonDo movements is an effective means of posture correction. PMID:25364119

  5. The effects of an exercise program consisting of taekwondo basic movements on posture correction.

    PubMed

    Byun, Sunghak; An, Changkyoo; Kim, Minho; Han, Dongwook

    2014-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to verify the effect of posture correctional programs using basic TaeKwonDo movements. [Subjects] The subjects were TaeKwonDo trainees attending an elementary school in B city. They were separated into experimental and control groups according to posture problems found during posture analysis. [Methods] The subjects of the training exercise program performed basic TaeKwonDo movements for 8 weeks, 3 times per week. The TaeKwonDo exercise program consisted of basic TaeKwonDo movements including Hwangso Makki, Meongye Chigi, Olgul Makki, Olgul Yop Makki, Batangson Arae Makki, Momtong An Makki and Apkubi. [Results] Hwangso Makki and Meongye Chigi movements had a significant positive effect on the correction of neck inclination. Olgul Makki, Olgul Yop Makki, Batangson Arae Makki and Momtong An Makki movements had beneficial effects on the correction of shoulder inclination. Apkubi movement had a significant beneficial effect on the correction of pelvis inclination. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that an exercise program consisting of basic TaeKwonDo movements is an effective means of posture correction.

  6. The Healthy for Life Taekwondo Pilot Study: A Preliminary Evaluation of Effects on Executive Function and BMI, Feasibility, and Acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Lakes, Kimberley D.; Bryars, Tracy; Sirisinahal, Swetha; Salim, Nimrah; Arastoo, Sara; Emmerson, Natasha; Kang, Daniel; Shim, Lois; Wong, Doug; Kang, Chang Jin

    2013-01-01

    There is growing consensus that exercise improves cognitive functioning, but research is needed to identify exercise interventions that optimize effects on cognition. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate Taekwondo implemented in public middle school physical education (PE). Two classes were randomly assigned to either: five sessions per week of PE or three sessions of PE and two sessions of Taekwondo. In PE sessions, evidence-based curriculum to address the Presidential Core Fitness Guidelines and California Physical Fitness Tests was implemented. Taekwondo sessions included traditional techniques and forms taught in an environment emphasizing respect and self-control. Sixty students were evaluated at baseline and during the last week of the intervention (nine months later). Differences in mean residualized change scores for parent-rated inhibitory behavioral control yielded a significant, large effect size (d =.95, p =.00), reflecting greater improvement among Taekwondo students. Results from an executive function computer-administered task revealed greater accuracy on the congruent trial (d = 2.00, p = .02) for Taekwondo students. Differences in mean residualized change scores for BMI z scores yielded a moderate, non-significant effect size (d = − .51, p = .16). The majority of Taekwondo students reported positive perceptions of Taekwondo and perceived self-improvement in self-control and physical fitness. Results suggest that Taekwondo is an exercise program that improves cognitive functioning and is both feasible and acceptable to implement in a public school setting. PMID:24563664

  7. The Healthy for Life Taekwondo Pilot Study: A Preliminary Evaluation of Effects on Executive Function and BMI, Feasibility, and Acceptability.

    PubMed

    Lakes, Kimberley D; Bryars, Tracy; Sirisinahal, Swetha; Salim, Nimrah; Arastoo, Sara; Emmerson, Natasha; Kang, Daniel; Shim, Lois; Wong, Doug; Kang, Chang Jin

    2013-10-01

    There is growing consensus that exercise improves cognitive functioning, but research is needed to identify exercise interventions that optimize effects on cognition. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate Taekwondo implemented in public middle school physical education (PE). Two classes were randomly assigned to either: five sessions per week of PE or three sessions of PE and two sessions of Taekwondo. In PE sessions, evidence-based curriculum to address the Presidential Core Fitness Guidelines and California Physical Fitness Tests was implemented. Taekwondo sessions included traditional techniques and forms taught in an environment emphasizing respect and self-control. Sixty students were evaluated at baseline and during the last week of the intervention (nine months later). Differences in mean residualized change scores for parent-rated inhibitory behavioral control yielded a significant, large effect size (d =.95, p =.00), reflecting greater improvement among Taekwondo students. Results from an executive function computer-administered task revealed greater accuracy on the congruent trial (d = 2.00, p = .02) for Taekwondo students. Differences in mean residualized change scores for BMI z scores yielded a moderate, non-significant effect size (d = - .51, p = .16). The majority of Taekwondo students reported positive perceptions of Taekwondo and perceived self-improvement in self-control and physical fitness. Results suggest that Taekwondo is an exercise program that improves cognitive functioning and is both feasible and acceptable to implement in a public school setting.

  8. Incidence of reported cerebral concussion in adult taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Pieter, W; Zemper, E D

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the exact conditions under which cerebral concussions occur in full-contact taekwondo competition. Injury data were collected by project staff and tournament medical personnel with simple check-off forms that describe the athlete and nature, site, circumstances and severity of the injury. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to determine the difference in injury rate between men and women. The men (7.04/1,000 athlete-exposures) sustained more cerebral concussions than the women (2.42/1,000 athlete-exposures) (p < 0.001). The dominant injury mechanism in both the males and females was receiving a blow (6.46/1,000 athlete-exposures and 2.42/1,000 athlete-exposures for the men and women, respectively).

  9. Thoracic injury potential of basic competition taekwondo kicks.

    PubMed

    Serina, E R; Lieu, D K

    1991-01-01

    A major concern in competition taekwondo is the injury potential posed by many of the powerful kicks used. An investigation of the kinetics of four kicks frequently used in competition was performed with high speed video. Velocities were measured, and energy was calculated. Typical values for basic swing kicks were 15 ms-1 and 200 J. Basic thrust kicks possessed 45% less velocity but 28% more energy than swing kicks. Linkage models were developed to simulate the motion and kinetics of the kicking leg. Injury potential was evaluated through thoracic compression and viscous criterion models. These models predict a significant probability of serious injury with all kicks, with thoracic deflections from 3 to 5 cm and peak viscous tolerance values from 0.9-1.4 ms-1, when no protective body equipment is used.

  10. Nine year longitudinal retrospective study of Taekwondo injuries.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Chudolinski, Artur; Turgeon, Matt; Simon, Aaron; Ho, Eric; Coombe, Lianne

    2009-12-01

    This retrospective longitudinal study aims to describe reported Taekwondo injuries and to examine associations between competitor experience level, age and gender, and the type, location, and mechanism of injury sustained. Additionally, we examined whether recent rule changes concerning increased point value of head shots in adult Taekwondo competition had affected injury incidence.This study was a summation of 9 years of data of competition injury reports, which included 904 injury reports spanning 58 individual competitions. The data was collected on standardized injury reports at time of injury during competition. Care was provided to the athletes, but the type of care provided was not included in the study. Participants included athletes injured during competition who sought care by the health care team, and for whom an injury report was filled out. The data analysis was performed at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College.The three most common locations of presenting injury were the head (19%), foot (16%), and thigh (9%). The most common mechanism of presenting injury was found to be a defensive kick (44%), followed by an offensive kick (35%). The most commonly diagnosed injuries were contusions (36%), sprains (19%), and strains (15%). Coloured belts had a higher incidence of contusions, while black belts sustained more joint irritation injuries. Black belts were more likely to suffer multiple injuries. Colored belts suffered more injuries while receiving a kick, while black belts had a larger influence of past history of injury. We found no significant difference in location or type of injury when comparing pre versus post rule change. The most common locations of injury are head, foot, and thigh respectively, and are areas for concern when considering preventative measures. Colour belt competitors are more likely to sustain contusions, which the authors believe is due to more aggressive tactics and lack of control. Those more likely to be injured tend to

  11. Injury Rates in Iranian Taekwondo Athletes; a Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Ziaee, Vahid; Rahmani, Seyed-Hessam; Rostami, Mohsen

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Taekwondo, as the most popular martial art among Iranian sportsmen, might lead to injury for the athletes of this sport during competitions. We decided to report the incidence rate of injuries sustained by the athletes of this sport during national competitions. Methods All competitions of Iran national championship taekwondo league in 2006-2007 with 204 athletes were observed prospectively to detect the occurrence of injuries. The severity of injuries was classified into four groups (mild, moderate, severe, and critical) according to the involvement of medical care team in the contest, ability of the athletes to resume and duration of probable absence of injured athletes from future competitions and training sessions. Athlete-Exposure (A-E) was defined as the number of competitions multiplied by two. On this base, the rate of injury incidence per 1000 A-Es, the rate of injuries per time unit and the rate of injury occurred for each 100 athletes were considered as the major outcomes of this study. Results Of totally 1,338 A-Es, 93 injuries were recorded during the competitions. The rate of injury incidence was found to be 69.5 injuries per 1000 A-Es and the rate of injuries per minute of competitions was 0.023 which corresponded to 23.3 injuries per 1000 minutes of competitions. 45.6 injuries were occurred for each 100 athletes during the course of competitions. The most frequent injuries were mild (68.8%) and critical injuries (24.7%), followed by moderate and severe injuries; 4.3% and 2.1%, respectively. Conclusion The rate of injury we found was lower than that of western countries. In spite of finding the lower limbs as the most frequent place of injuries in other studies, we found the upper limbs as the most predisposed place of injuries which might be due to difference in the method of combat of Iranian athletes with other athletes. PMID:22375188

  12. Weight loss practices in Taekwondo athletes of different competitive levels.

    PubMed

    da Silva Santos, Jonatas Ferreira; Takito, Monica Yuri; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Franchini, Emerson

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the prevalence, magnitude, and methods of rap-id weight loss among male and female Taekwondo athletes from all competitive levels. A questionnaire was administered to 72 men (regional/state level, n=31; national/international level, n=41) and 44 women (regional/state level, n=9; national/international, n=35). Among the male athletes, 77.4% of the regional/state level and 75.6% of the national/international athletes declared to have reduced weight to compete in lighter weight categories. Among women, 88.9% of regional/state level and 88.6% of national/international level reported the use of rapid weight loss strategies. Athletes reported to usually lose ~3% of their body weight, with some athletes reaching ~7% of their body weight. The methods used to achieve weight loss are potentially dangerous to health and no difference between sexes was found. Four methods were more frequently used by men athletes in higher competitive levels as compared to lower levels, as follows: skipping meals (Z=2.28, P=0.023, η(2)=0.21), fasting (Z=2.337, P=0.019, η(2)=0.22), restricting fluids (Z=2.633, P=0.009, η(2)=0.24) and spitting (Z=2.363, P=0.018, η(2)=0.22). Taekwondo athletes lost ~3% of their body mass, using methods potentially dangerous for their health. Although no difference was found between sexes, lower level athletes more frequently used methods such as skipping meals, fasting, restricting fluids and spitting. Considering that these health-threating methods are more commonly used by lower level athletes, specific education programs should be directed to them.

  13. Weight loss practices in Taekwondo athletes of different competitive levels

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Santos, Jonatas Ferreira; Takito, Monica Yuri; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Franchini, Emerson

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence, magnitude, and methods of rap-id weight loss among male and female Taekwondo athletes from all competitive levels. A questionnaire was administered to 72 men (regional/state level, n=31; national/international level, n=41) and 44 women (regional/state level, n=9; national/international, n=35). Among the male athletes, 77.4% of the regional/state level and 75.6% of the national/international athletes declared to have reduced weight to compete in lighter weight categories. Among women, 88.9% of regional/state level and 88.6% of national/international level reported the use of rapid weight loss strategies. Athletes reported to usually lose ~3% of their body weight, with some athletes reaching ~7% of their body weight. The methods used to achieve weight loss are potentially dangerous to health and no difference between sexes was found. Four methods were more frequently used by men athletes in higher competitive levels as compared to lower levels, as follows: skipping meals (Z=2.28, P=0.023, η2=0.21), fasting (Z=2.337, P=0.019, η2=0.22), restricting fluids (Z=2.633, P=0.009, η2=0.24) and spitting (Z=2.363, P=0.018, η2=0.22). Taekwondo athletes lost ~3% of their body mass, using methods potentially dangerous for their health. Although no difference was found between sexes, lower level athletes more frequently used methods such as skipping meals, fasting, restricting fluids and spitting. Considering that these health-threating methods are more commonly used by lower level athletes, specific education programs should be directed to them. PMID:27419116

  14. The German Economy and U.S.-German Economic Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-30

    merchandise is also denoted by the term Exportweltmeister (world champion exporter ). At the same time, relatively weak consumer demand is a...world’s top exporter of merchandise or goods, surpassing the United States, Japan, and China.36 The title of Exportweltmeister ( export champion) is a... exporting than domestic investment and consumption. With few exceptions, German governments have generally been reluctant to advance what many economists

  15. An Addendum to Injury Rates in Iranian Taekwondo Athletes; a Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Pieter, Willy; Rostami, Mohsen; Ziaee, Vahid

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to compare the Iranian taekwondo-in statistically in terms of total injury rates to international counterparts as gleaned from the extant literature. Methods The Iranian sample consisted of 204 male taekwondo-in participating in the national championship. The international sample included the participants in national and international tournaments. Validated standard questionnaires were employed at all tournaments to collect injury data that were always diagnosed by the respective tournament physicians. An injury was defined as any circumstance for which assistance was sought from the medical personnel. In addition to injury rates, 95% confidence intervals (CIs) around the rates were computed. To assess which group was at higher risk, odds ratios were calculated, including the 95%CIs. Results Compared to Greek counterparts, the injury rate for the Iranian taekwondo-in was statistically significantly higher. The Iranians were also at a higher risk to incur an injury: OR = 11.2 (95%CI: 6.60–18.88, P<0.001, CLR = 2.86). When comparing the Iranian taekwondo-in to their colleagues competing at the 1999 World Championships, the former recorded a statistically significantly lower injury rate but the latter were not at a higher risk (OR = 0.61, 95%CI: 0.41–0.91, P=0.014, CLR = 2.20). Conclusion A statistical comparison of total injury rates in Iranian and international taekwondo-in revealed no difference between the two groups. However, what is of concern is that the total injury rate across taekwondo studies is significantly higher than those reported for American football. PMID:22374416

  16. Epidemiology of injuries in elite taekwondo athletes: two Olympic periods cross-sectional retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Altarriba-Bartes, Albert; Drobnic, Franchek; Til, Lluís; Malliaropoulos, Nikolaos; Montoro, José Bruno; Irurtia, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Objective Taekwondo injuries differ according to the characteristics of the athletes and the competition. This analytical cross-sectional retrospective cohort study aimed to describe reported taekwondo injuries and to determine the prevalence, characteristics and possible risk factors for injuries sustained by athletes of the Spanish national team. In addition, we compared each identified risk factor—age, weight category, annual quarter, injury timing and competition difficulty level—with its relation to injury location and type. Settings Injury occurrences in taekwondo athletes of the Spanish national team during two Olympic periods at the High Performance Centre in Barcelona were analysed. Participants 48 taekwondo athletes (22 male, 26 female; age range 15–31 years) were studied; 1678 injury episodes occurred. Inclusion criteria were: (1) having trained with the national taekwondo group for a minimum of one sports season; (2) being a member of the Spanish national team. Results Independently of sex or Olympic period, the anatomical sites with most injury episodes were knee (21.3%), foot (17.0%), ankle (12.2%), thigh (11.4%) and lower leg (8.8%). Contusions (29.3%) and cartilage (17.6%) and joint (15.7%) injuries were the prevalent types of injury. Chronological age, weight category and annual quarter can be considered risk factors for sustaining injuries in male and female elite taekwondists according to their location and type (p≤0.001). Conclusions This study provides epidemiological information that will help to inform future injury surveillance studies and the development of prevention strategies and recommendations to reduce the number of injuries in taekwondo competition. PMID:24531455

  17. Low-level Taekwondo practitioners have better somatosensory organisation in standing balance than sedentary people.

    PubMed

    Leong, Hio-Teng; Fu, Siu N; Ng, Gabriel Y F; Tsang, William W N

    2011-08-01

    Sports training, especially for those requiring fast and skilled movements have been reported to improve one's postural control, but the underlying sensory integration mechanism is unknown. The purpose is to explore the sensory organisation strategies for maintaining standing balance in Taekwondo practitioners, and to examine the quasi-static and dynamic balance performance in subjects with and without TKD training. Case-control study was used as a study design. Eleven subjects with low level of Taekwondo training for 1-3 years, and eleven sedentary healthy subjects were assessed with the sensory organisation tests (SOT) under six visual and somatosensory input conditions and their balance upon landing from self- or operator-triggered drop test with the eyes closed condition. The SOT measured the equilibrium scores, whereas the drop test assessed the time to stabilisation (TTS), normalised peak force and distance of antero-posterior and medial-lateral centre of pressure on landing. Results for the SOT test revealed that Taekwondo subjects performed better during stance with eyes closed on a fixed support than the untrained group (p = 0.011). For the drop tests, the untrained group was slower in postural correction as revealed by the longer TTS than the Taekwondo group after the operator-triggered drops (p = 0.018). All subjects had a larger normalised peak force in operator-triggered than self-triggered drops. In conclusion, we observed that people with low-level Taekwondo training have better balance performance than untrained subjects as shown in the SOT results and shorter TTS with the drop test. They may rely more on the somatosensory and vestibular inputs for maintaining balance. People with balance problems may benefit from Taekwondo training.

  18. Effect of Olympic Weight Category on Performance in the Roundhouse Kick to the Head in Taekwondo

    PubMed Central

    Estevan, Isaac; Falco, Coral; Álvarez, Octavio; Molina-García, Javier

    2012-01-01

    In taekwondo, kick performance is generally measured using impact force and time. This study aimed to analyse performance in the roundhouse kick to the head according to execution distance between and within Olympic weight categories. The participants were 36 male athletes divided into three categories: featherweight (n = 10), welterweight (n = 15) and heavyweight (n = 11). Our results show that taekwondo athletes in all weight categories generate a similar relative impact force. However, the results indicate that weight has a large impact on kick performance, particularly in relation to total response time. PMID:23486074

  19. Effect of olympic weight category on performance in the roundhouse kick to the head in taekwondo.

    PubMed

    Estevan, Isaac; Falco, Coral; Alvarez, Octavio; Molina-García, Javier

    2012-03-01

    In taekwondo, kick performance is generally measured using impact force and time. This study aimed to analyse performance in the roundhouse kick to the head according to execution distance between and within Olympic weight categories. The participants were 36 male athletes divided into three categories: featherweight (n = 10), welterweight (n = 15) and heavyweight (n = 11). Our results show that taekwondo athletes in all weight categories generate a similar relative impact force. However, the results indicate that weight has a large impact on kick performance, particularly in relation to total response time.

  20. Alterations in selected measures of mood with a single bout of dynamic Taekwondo exercise in college-age students.

    PubMed

    Toskovic, N N

    2001-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate and to compare the acute alterations in selected measures of mood profile in novice Taekwondo practitioners while evaluating whether dynamic Taekwondo practice was an appropriate exercise modality for enhancing six psychological state dimensions: Vigor, Anxiety, Depression, Anger, Fatigue, and Confusion. 20 male and female college-age students enrolled in Taekwondo activity class and an additional 20 students enrolled in the lecture-con trol class (ages 18 to 21 years) completed the Profile of Mood States (POMS) inven tory prior to and immediately following one 75-min. session of dynamic Taekwondo or lecture. To examine the exercise effect, a series of 2 x 2 analysis of covariance were performed on mean posttest scores, using pretest scores as the covariate. Analysis indicated that Taekwondo participants reported a significant improvement (p<.007) with respect to the control group in scores on Tension, Depression, Anger, Fatigue, Confusion, and Vigor. Also, Total Mood Disturbance significantly improved after the dynamic Taekwondo session. The selected affective benefits of an acute Taekwondo exercise in this study were independent of sex. Unlike the exercising subjects. the control subjects reported no such benefits and, indeed, increased their scores for negative mood states. These results suggest that a dynamic version of Taekwondo achieves the necessary activity parameters that begin to induce positive mood state changes and that extensive Taekwondo skill is not necessary to elicit some beneficial change in affect. This study also supports the findings of several earlier studies indicating that acute exercise may elicit positive changes in affective states and that prolonged exercise is not necessary to produce immediate beneficial alterations of mood.

  1. Injuries at a Canadian National Taekwondo Championships: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Pieter, Willy

    2004-01-01

    Background The purpose of this prospective study was to assess the injury rates in male and female adult Canadian Taekwondo athletes relative to total number of injuries, type and body part injured. Methods Subjects (219 males, 99 females) participated in the 1997 Canadian National Taekwondo Championships in Toronto, Canada. Injuries were recorded on an injury form to documents any injury seen and treatment provided by the health care team. These data were later used for this study. The injury form describes the athlete and nature, site, severity and mechanism of the injury. Results The overall rate of injuries was 62.9/1,000 athlete-exposures (A-E). The males (79.9/1,000 A-E) sustained significantly more injuries than the females (25.3/1,000 A-E). The lower extremities were the most commonly injured body region in the men (32.0 /1,000 A-E), followed by the head and neck (18.3/1,000 A-E). Injuries to the spine (neck, upper back, low back and coccyx) were the third most often injured body region in males (13.8/1,000 A-E). All injuries to the women were sustained to the lower extremities. The most common type of injury in women was the contusion (15.2/1,000 A-E). However, men's most common type of injury was the sprain (22.8/1,000 A-E) followed by joint dysfunction (13.7/1,000A-E). Concussions were only reported in males (6.9/1,000 A-E). Compared to international counterparts, the Canadian men and women recorded lower total injury rates. However, the males incurred more cerebral concussions than their American colleagues (4.7/1,000 A-E). Conclusions Similar to what was found in previous studies, the current investigation seems to suggest that areas of particular concern for preventive measures involve the head and neck as well as the lower extremities. This is the first paper to identify spinal joint dysfunction. PMID:15279679

  2. German Studies in America. German Studies Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Volkmar; Osterle, Heinz D.

    This volume contains two papers, "German Studies in America," by Volkmar Sander, and "Historicism, Marxism, Structuralism: Ideas for German Culture Courses," by Heinz D. Osterle. The first paper discusses the position of German studies in the United States today. The greatest challenge comes from low enrollments; therefore,…

  3. Case Study of Mental Skills Training for a Taekwondo Olympian

    PubMed Central

    Lim, TaeHee

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of systematic mental skills training (MST) for a taekwondo gold medallist. Based on MST of other sports, this programme was designed for a single subject who competed in the Olympics. The Korean test of performance strategies, Sport Attributional Style in Korean Athletes, and a few sessions of interviews were applied to investigate the effect of MST. The pre and post-test mean scores of both the Korean test of performance strategies and Sport Attributional Style in Korean Athletes were compared. Interviews recorded the athlete’s psychological characteristics. Excluding the ‘activation’ variable, all of the psychological skills, e.g. self-talk (4.25–5), emotional control (3.75–4.5), automaticity (3.75–4.25), goal setting (4.5–5), imagery (4.25–5), negative thinking (3.25–4.75), anxiety management (4.5–5), and physical and mental condition (4.5–5) improved. MST is believed to have helped the athlete succeed. PMID:28149361

  4. Mouthguard use in Korean Taekwondo athletes - awareness and attitude

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Woo; Heo, Chong-Kwan; Kim, Sea-Joong; Kim, Gyu-Tae

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE A survey was performed to identify the level of mouthguard use, awareness, wearability issues and attitude toward mouthguard among elite Korean Taewondo athletes. MATERIALS AND METHODS Survey questionnaires were given to 152 athletes participating in the Korea National Taekwondo team selection event for the 2010 Guangzhou Asian Games. Questionnaires consisted of three sections, mouthguard awareness, reasons for not wearing mouthguard and the last section to test the level of acceptance on current mouthguard and when the identified problems were resolved. For analyzing difference among response, χ2 test was used and significant level (α) was set up as 0.05. RESULTS Responses in each of items showed significant difference (P<.001). Majority of response regarding each question: Majority of respondents believed that mouthguard were effective in preventing injuries (36.4%) but the result suggested that the provision of information on mouthguard to athletes was inadequate (44.0%) and the result showed that respondents were not greatly interested or concerned in relation to the mandatory mouthguard rule (31.6%). Although the responses on the level of comfort and wearability of mouthguard were negative (34.8%), athletes were positively willing to wear mouthguard if the problems rectified (51.2%). CONCLUSION Considering the high level of willingness to wear mouthguard if the problems rectified, it is thought that together with efforts in providing more mouthguard information, the work of sports dentistry to research and improve mouthguard will be invaluable in promoting mouthguard to more athletes. PMID:23755340

  5. Case Study of Mental Skills Training for a Taekwondo Olympian.

    PubMed

    Lim, TaeHee; O'Sullivan, David Michael

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of systematic mental skills training (MST) for a taekwondo gold medallist. Based on MST of other sports, this programme was designed for a single subject who competed in the Olympics. The Korean test of performance strategies, Sport Attributional Style in Korean Athletes, and a few sessions of interviews were applied to investigate the effect of MST. The pre and post-test mean scores of both the Korean test of performance strategies and Sport Attributional Style in Korean Athletes were compared. Interviews recorded the athlete's psychological characteristics. Excluding the 'activation' variable, all of the psychological skills, e.g. self-talk (4.25-5), emotional control (3.75-4.5), automaticity (3.75-4.25), goal setting (4.5-5), imagery (4.25-5), negative thinking (3.25-4.75), anxiety management (4.5-5), and physical and mental condition (4.5-5) improved. MST is believed to have helped the athlete succeed.

  6. A Teacher's Notebook: German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Independent Schools, Boston, MA.

    This guide for teachers of German at independent schools is a result of a collective effort of a number of experienced German teachers during the year 1973. It is directed mainly toward the new teacher as a quick source of reference for all aspects of instruction of German at the secondary level. Contents include: (1) "Why Study German?," (2)…

  7. A Comparative Study of Mindfulness between Male and Female Intervarsity Taekwondo Players of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahaman, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness refers to being completely in touch with and aware of the present moment, as well as taking a non-evaluative and non-judgmental approach to one's inner experience. The present empirical investigation was conducted to compare the mindfulness of male and female intervarsity Taekwondo players of India. One hundred and four Taekwondo…

  8. Caffeine reduces reaction time and improves performance in simulated-contest of taekwondo.

    PubMed

    Santos, Victor G F; Santos, Vander R F; Felippe, Leandro J C; Almeida, Jose W; Bertuzzi, Rômulo; Kiss, Maria A P D M; Lima-Silva, Adriano E

    2014-02-10

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of caffeine on reaction time during a specific taekwondo task and athletic performance during a simulated taekwondo contest. Ten taekwondo athletes ingested either 5 mg·kg⁻¹ body mass caffeine or placebo and performed two combats (spaced apart by 20 min). The reaction-time test (five kicks "Bandal Tchagui") was performed immediately prior to the first combat and immediately after the first and second combats. Caffeine improved reaction time (from 0.42 ± 0.05 to 0.37 ± 0.07 s) only prior to the first combat (P = 0.004). During the first combat, break times during the first two rounds were shorter in caffeine ingestion, followed by higher plasma lactate concentrations compared with placebo (P = 0.029 and 0.014, respectively). During the second combat, skipping-time was reduced, and relative attack times and attack/skipping ratio was increased following ingestion of caffeine during the first two rounds (all P < 0.05). Caffeine resulted in no change in combat intensity parameters between the first and second combat (all P > 0.05), but combat intensity was decreased following placebo (all P < 0.05). In conclusion, caffeine reduced reaction time in non-fatigued conditions and delayed fatigue during successive taekwondo combats.

  9. Epidemiology of training injuries in amateur taekwondo athletes: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lystad, R P; Graham, P L; Poulos, R G

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the incidence and describe the pattern and severity of training injuries in taekwondo, and to compare pattern and severity of training injuries with competition injuries. One hundred and fifty-two active Australian amateur taekwondo athletes, aged 12 years or over, completed an online survey comprising questions on training exposure and injury history over the preceding 12 months. The main outcome measures were: overall injury incidence rate per athlete-year; training injury incidence rate per athlete-year, per 1000 athlete-training-sessions, and per 1000 athlete-hours of training; injury severity; and injury proportions by anatomical region and by type of injury. Injury incidence rates were calculated with 95% confidence intervals using standard methods, while injury proportions were compared using Fisher's exact test. The vast majority (81.5%) of taekwondo injuries in an average athlete-year occurred during training. The training injury incidence rate was estimated to be 1.6 (95% CI: 1.4, 1.9) per athlete-year, 11.8 (95% CI: 10.4, 13.4) per 1000 athlete-training-sessions, and 7.0 (95% CI: 6.1, 7.9) per 1000 athlete-hours of training. Among athletes with five or fewer injuries, the severity and injury pattern of training injuries were, by and large, the same as for competition injuries. Approximately sixty percent (60.3%) of training injuries required treatment by a health professional. Considering the burden of training injuries exceeds that of competition injuries, taekwondo governing bodies and stakeholders are encouraged to devote more efforts towards the identification of risk factors for, and prevention of, training injuries in the sport of taekwondo.

  10. Epidemiology of training injuries in amateur taekwondo athletes: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Graham, PL; Poulos, RG

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the incidence and describe the pattern and severity of training injuries in taekwondo, and to compare pattern and severity of training injuries with competition injuries. One hundred and fifty-two active Australian amateur taekwondo athletes, aged 12 years or over, completed an online survey comprising questions on training exposure and injury history over the preceding 12 months. The main outcome measures were: overall injury incidence rate per athlete-year; training injury incidence rate per athlete-year, per 1000 athlete-training-sessions, and per 1000 athlete-hours of training; injury severity; and injury proportions by anatomical region and by type of injury. Injury incidence rates were calculated with 95% confidence intervals using standard methods, while injury proportions were compared using Fisher's exact test. The vast majority (81.5%) of taekwondo injuries in an average athlete-year occurred during training. The training injury incidence rate was estimated to be 1.6 (95% CI: 1.4, 1.9) per athlete-year, 11.8 (95% CI: 10.4, 13.4) per 1000 athlete-training-sessions, and 7.0 (95% CI: 6.1, 7.9) per 1000 athlete-hours of training. Among athletes with five or fewer injuries, the severity and injury pattern of training injuries were, by and large, the same as for competition injuries. Approximately sixty percent (60.3%) of training injuries required treatment by a health professional. Considering the burden of training injuries exceeds that of competition injuries, taekwondo governing bodies and stakeholders are encouraged to devote more efforts towards the identification of risk factors for, and prevention of, training injuries in the sport of taekwondo. PMID:26424924

  11. Rubella (German Measles)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Rubella (German Measles) KidsHealth > For Parents > Rubella (German Measles) ... to Call the Doctor en español Rubéola About Rubella Rubella — commonly known as German measles or 3- ...

  12. Prevalence rate of chronic overuse pain among sport-poomsae-Taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Koh, Jae O

    2016-07-07

    BACKGROUNDː To estimate the prevalence of chronic overuse pain (COP) and to identify possible risk factors of COP in sport-poomsae-Taekwondo. METHODSː This is a cross-sectional survey. A total of 263 sport-poomsae competitors (112 females; 151 males; aged between 12-44 years), who competed at the 2014 sport-poomsae- Taekwondo competition, participated in this study. The prevalence rate of COP and possible risk factors associated with COP were analyzed by using Chi-square tests and independent t-tests. RESULTSː A total of 173 athletes reported that they experienced COP (65.8%; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 60.5-71.5). Female athletes showed a higher prevalence rate than their male counterparts (75.9% vs. 58.3%). Lower body (61.5%) and knee joints (26.4%) were the two primarily injured body part. A total of 101 athletes reported that they injured in the previous year. Among those, 81.2% were suffered from COP. The technique that caused pain most frequently was side-kick among females and front-kick among males. Prevalence rates of COP were significantly different by sex, education level, training hour, and a history of injury. CONCLUSIONː The prevalence of COP is high among sport-poomsae-Taekwondo athletes. Competitors who are female, have a history of injury, and train for extended hours were more likely to experience COP. To identify other potential risk factors of COP in sport- poomsae-Taekwondo, more research is needed to build upon the findings.

  13. Physiological profiles of male and female taekwon-do (ITF) black belts.

    PubMed

    Heller, J; Peric, T; Dlouhá, R; Kohlíková, E; Melichna, J; Nováková, H

    1998-04-01

    Baseline physiological and kinanthropometric data were collected for 11 male and 12 female elite taekwon-do athletes from the Czech national team for evaluation of anthropometry, aerobic and anaerobic capacities, strength, visual reaction time, pulmonary function, flexibility and explosive power of the lower limbs (vertical jump). Both male and female taekwon-do black belts demonstrated low adiposity (8.2 and 15.4% fat, BMI 21.9 and 22.0 kg m(-2), respectively), normal reactivity and pulmonary function, above average muscular strength, PWC-170 (3.4 vs 2.7 W kg(-1)) and aerobic power (54 vs 42 ml min(-1) kg(-1)), and a high flexibility (37 and 38 cm) and anaerobic performance (peak power output from a 30 s Wingate test=14.7 and 10.1 W kg(-1); anaerobic capacity=334 and 242 J kg(-1), in males and females, respectively). In male athletes, competitive performance was significantly related to maximum power output and upper limb reaction time only, whereas in females, performance was related to maximum power output and ventilatory threshold level. These variables accounted for 66 and 67% of the performance rank in males and females, respectively. Time-motion analysis of competition taekwon-do fighting (two times 2 min) revealed 3-5 s bouts of maximum exercise alternating with low-intensity periods. This elicits high heart rates (100% HRmax) and lactate responses (11.4 mmol l(-1) = 81% LAmax), which agrees well with the physiological characteristics of taekwon-do black belts measured in laboratory exercise tests.

  14. The effect of active core exercise on fitness and foot pressure in Taekwondo club students

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Seong-Deok; Sung, Dong-Hun; Park, Gi Duck

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The effects of core training using slings and Togus on the improvement of posture control in Taekwondo club students, that is, balance ability, were investigated. To that end, changes in the Taekwondo players’ balance ability resulting from active core training for eight weeks were examined through fitness and foot pressure. [Subjects] The present study was conducted with 13 male Taekwondo players of K University in Deagu, South Korea. Once the experiment process was explained, consent was obtained from those who participated voluntarily. [Methods] Air cushions (Germany), Jumpers (Germany), and Aero-Steps (Germany) were used as lumbar stabilization exercise tools. As a method of training proprioceptive senses by stimulating somatesthesia in standing postures, the subjects performed balance squats, supine pelvic lifts, and push-up plus exercise using slings while standing on an Aero-Step and performed hip extension parallel squats (Wall Gym Ball), and standing press-ups on a Togu using their own weight. The subjects performed four sets of these isometric exercises while maintaining an exercise time per set at 30 seconds in each session and repeated this session three times per week. [Result] Left grip strength significantly increased and number of sit-ups, which indicates muscle endurance, also significantly increased after the eight weeks exercise compared with before the exercise. The values measured during the sit and reach test, which indicate flexibility, also significantly increase after the eight weeks of exercise compared with before the exercise but only in the left foot. [Conclusion] The result of present study suggest that active core exercise using Slings and Togus can be applied as a very effective exercise program for enhancing balance, which is an important physical factor for Taekwondo club students. PMID:25729204

  15. Determination of Aerobic Power Through a Specific Test for Taekwondo - A Predictive Equation Model

    PubMed Central

    Louro, Hugo; Matias, Ricardo; Brito, João; Costa, Aldo M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Our aim was to verify the concurrent validity of a maximal taekwondo specific test (TST) to predict VO2max through an explanatory model. Seventeen elite male taekwondo athletes (age: 17.59 ± 4.34 years; body height: 1.72 ± 6.5 m; body mass: 61.3 ± 8.7 kg) performed two graded maximal exercise tests on different days: a 20 m multistage shuttle run test (SRT) and an incremental TST. We recorded test time, VO2max, ventilation, a heart rate and time to exhaustion. Significant differences were found between observed and estimated VO2max values [F (2, 16) = 5.77, p < 0.01]; post-hoc subgroup analysis revealed the existence of significant differences (p = 0.04) between the estimated VO2max value in the SRT and the observed value recorded in the TST (58.4 ± 6.4 ml/kg/min and 52.6 ± 5.2 ml/kg/min, respectively). Our analysis also revealed a moderate correlation between both testing protocols regarding VO2max (r = 0.70; p = 0.005), test time (r = 0.77; p = 0.02) and ventilation (r = 0.69; p = 0.03). There was no proportional bias in the mean difference (t = -1.04; p = 0.313), and there was a level of agreement between both tests. An equation/model was used to estimate VO2max during the TST based on the mean heart rate, test time, body height and mass, which explained 74.3% of the observed VO2max variability. A moderate correlation was found between the observed and predicted VO2max values in the taekwondo TST (r = 0.74, p = 0.001). Our results suggest that an incremental specific test estimates VO2max of elite taekwondo athletes with acceptable concurrent validity. PMID:28149417

  16. The effect of active core exercise on fitness and foot pressure in Taekwondo club students.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seong-Deok; Sung, Dong-Hun; Park, Gi Duck

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The effects of core training using slings and Togus on the improvement of posture control in Taekwondo club students, that is, balance ability, were investigated. To that end, changes in the Taekwondo players' balance ability resulting from active core training for eight weeks were examined through fitness and foot pressure. [Subjects] The present study was conducted with 13 male Taekwondo players of K University in Deagu, South Korea. Once the experiment process was explained, consent was obtained from those who participated voluntarily. [Methods] Air cushions (Germany), Jumpers (Germany), and Aero-Steps (Germany) were used as lumbar stabilization exercise tools. As a method of training proprioceptive senses by stimulating somatesthesia in standing postures, the subjects performed balance squats, supine pelvic lifts, and push-up plus exercise using slings while standing on an Aero-Step and performed hip extension parallel squats (Wall Gym Ball), and standing press-ups on a Togu using their own weight. The subjects performed four sets of these isometric exercises while maintaining an exercise time per set at 30 seconds in each session and repeated this session three times per week. [Result] Left grip strength significantly increased and number of sit-ups, which indicates muscle endurance, also significantly increased after the eight weeks exercise compared with before the exercise. The values measured during the sit and reach test, which indicate flexibility, also significantly increase after the eight weeks of exercise compared with before the exercise but only in the left foot. [Conclusion] The result of present study suggest that active core exercise using Slings and Togus can be applied as a very effective exercise program for enhancing balance, which is an important physical factor for Taekwondo club students.

  17. Determination of Aerobic Power Through a Specific Test for Taekwondo - A Predictive Equation Model.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Fernando P S; Louro, Hugo; Matias, Ricardo; Brito, João; Costa, Aldo M

    2016-12-01

    Our aim was to verify the concurrent validity of a maximal taekwondo specific test (TST) to predict VO2max through an explanatory model. Seventeen elite male taekwondo athletes (age: 17.59 ± 4.34 years; body height: 1.72 ± 6.5 m; body mass: 61.3 ± 8.7 kg) performed two graded maximal exercise tests on different days: a 20 m multistage shuttle run test (SRT) and an incremental TST. We recorded test time, VO2max, ventilation, a heart rate and time to exhaustion. Significant differences were found between observed and estimated VO2max values [F (2, 16) = 5.77, p < 0.01]; post-hoc subgroup analysis revealed the existence of significant differences (p = 0.04) between the estimated VO2max value in the SRT and the observed value recorded in the TST (58.4 ± 6.4 ml/kg/min and 52.6 ± 5.2 ml/kg/min, respectively). Our analysis also revealed a moderate correlation between both testing protocols regarding VO2max (r = 0.70; p = 0.005), test time (r = 0.77; p = 0.02) and ventilation (r = 0.69; p = 0.03). There was no proportional bias in the mean difference (t = -1.04; p = 0.313), and there was a level of agreement between both tests. An equation/model was used to estimate VO2max during the TST based on the mean heart rate, test time, body height and mass, which explained 74.3% of the observed VO2max variability. A moderate correlation was found between the observed and predicted VO2max values in the taekwondo TST (r = 0.74, p = 0.001). Our results suggest that an incremental specific test estimates VO2max of elite taekwondo athletes with acceptable concurrent validity.

  18. Epidemiology of injuries in competition taekwondo: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Lystad, Reidar P; Pollard, Henry; Graham, Petra L

    2009-11-01

    This paper aims to review and collate the epidemiological data of injuries in competition taekwondo as reported in the literature, make recommendations, and suggest further research. The electronic databases AMED, AusportMed, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed, and SPORTDiscus were searched from inception to March 2008. Fourteen prospective cohort studies reporting the incidence of injuries in taekwondo were included. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed trial quality using the STROBE statement. Homogenous studies were combined in a pooled analysis using a Poisson random effects regression model. Poisson regression showed an overall mean injury rate of 79.3 per 1000 athlete-exposures (95% confidence interval 22.8, 275.4). Neither age, gender nor level of play were significant in the analysis. The most common injury location and type were found to be the lower limb and contusion, respectively, and were invariably associated with contact. Although taekwondo players are exposed to a substantial risk of sustaining injuries, the majority of injuries appeared to be of minimal severity. Modifications to the competition rules and protective equipment may be warranted. Future studies should adhere to recommended operational definitions, utilise a standardised injury classification system, and report injury rates using multiple denominators in order to facilitate inter- and cross-sport comparisons.

  19. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A NOVEL TAEKWONDO CHEST PROTECTOR TO IMPROVE MOBILITY WHEN PERFORMING AXE KICKS

    PubMed Central

    Woo, J.H.; Ko, J.Y.; Choi, E.Y.; O'Sullivan, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    The axe kick, in Olympic style taekwondo, has been identified as the most popular scoring technique aimed to the head during full contact competition. The first purpose of this study was to identify and investigate design issues with the current World Taekwondo Federation approved chest protector. A secondary purpose was to develop a novel chest protector addressing the identified design issues and to conduct a biomechanical analysis. Fifteen male elite Taekwondo players were selected to perform three different styles of the axe kick, i.e., front, in-out, and out-in axe kick five times each for a total of 45 kicks. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA showed significant differences between the novel and existing chest protector conditions for vertical height of the toe, downward kicking foot speed, hip flexion angle and ipsilateral shoulder flexion extension range of motion (ROM) (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the control condition (no chest protector) and the novel chest protector condition for these variables (p > 0.05). These results indicate that the novel chest protector interferes less with both the lower and upper limbs during the performance of the axe kick and provides a more natural, free-moving alternative to the current equipment used. PMID:24744466

  20. Development and evaluation of a novel taekwondo chest protector to improve mobility when performing axe kicks.

    PubMed

    Woo, J H; Ko, J Y; Choi, E Y; Her, J G; O'Sullivan, D M

    2013-03-01

    The axe kick, in Olympic style taekwondo, has been identified as the most popular scoring technique aimed to the head during full contact competition. The first purpose of this study was to identify and investigate design issues with the current World Taekwondo Federation approved chest protector. A secondary purpose was to develop a novel chest protector addressing the identified design issues and to conduct a biomechanical analysis. Fifteen male elite Taekwondo players were selected to perform three different styles of the axe kick, i.e., front, in-out, and out-in axe kick five times each for a total of 45 kicks. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA showed significant differences between the novel and existing chest protector conditions for vertical height of the toe, downward kicking foot speed, hip flexion angle and ipsilateral shoulder flexion extension range of motion (ROM) (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the control condition (no chest protector) and the novel chest protector condition for these variables (p > 0.05). These results indicate that the novel chest protector interferes less with both the lower and upper limbs during the performance of the axe kick and provides a more natural, free-moving alternative to the current equipment used.

  1. Effects of target distance on select biomechanical parameters in taekwondo roundhouse kick.

    PubMed

    Falco, Coral; Molina-García, Javier; Alvarez, Octavio; Estevan, Isaac

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of target distance on temporal and impact force parameters that are important performance factors in taekwondo kicks. Forty-nine taekwondo athletes (age = 24.5 +/- 5.9 years; mass = 79.9 +/- 10.8 kg) were recruited: 13 male experts, 21 male novices, 8 female experts, and 6 female novices. Impact force, reaction time, and execution time were computed. Three-way repeated measure ANOVAs revealed significant 'distance' effect on impact force, reaction time, and execution time (p = 0.001). Comparisons between distance conditions revealed that taekwondo athletes kicked with higher impact force from short distance (17.6 +/- 7.5 N/kg) than from long distance (13.1 +/- 5.7 N/kg) (p < 0.001), had lower reaction time from short distance (498 +/- 90 ms) and normal distance (521 +/- 111 ms) than from long distance (602 +/- 121 ms) (p < 0.001), and had lower execution time from short distance (261 +/- 69 ms/m) than from normal distance (306 +/- 105 ms/m) or from long distance (350 +/- 106 ms/m) (p = 0.003 and p < 0.001, respectively). In conclusion, target distance affected the kick performance; as distance increases, impact force decreased and reaction time increased. Therefore, when reaction to a simple visual stimulus is needed, kicking from a long distance is not recommended, as longer time is required to respond.

  2. The effect of regular Taekwondo exercise on Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and Stroop test in undergraduate student

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngil

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Taekwondo exercise on Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and the Stroop test in undergraduate students. [Methods] Fourteen male subjects participated in this study. They were separated into a Control group (N = 7) and an Exercise group (N = 7). Subjects participated in Taekwondo exercise training for 8 weeks. They underwent to Taekwondo exercise training for 85 minutes per day, 5 times a week at RPE of 11~15. The taekwondo exercise training comprised an aerobic exercise (20min) mode and a dynamic exercise (65min) mode. All data were analyzed by repeated measures two-way ANOVA. [Results] There were no significant differences in the physical characteristics of the subjects. Although weight and BMI showed a tendency to decreased in the exercise group (EG). Also, neurotrophic factors (BDNF, NGF, IGF-1) were not significantly different after 8 weeks in the two groups. However, BDNF and IGF-1 showed a tendency to increase in the exercise group (EG). Finally, the Stroop test (word, color) results were significantly different(p < .05) in the exercise group (EG). [Conclusion] These finding suggest that 8 weeks of regular Taekwondo exercise training may increase cognitive functions (Stroop test). However the training did not statistically affect neurotrophic factors (BDNF, NGF, IGF-1) in undergraduate students. PMID:26244125

  3. Salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase reactivity to taekwondo competition in children.

    PubMed

    Capranica, Laura; Lupo, Corrado; Cortis, Cristina; Chiodo, Salvatore; Cibelli, Giuseppe; Tessitore, Antonio

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an official taekwondo competition (three 1-min rounds with a 1-min recovery in-between) on heart rate (HR), salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), and salivary-free cortisol (sC) in children. Parental consent was obtained for 12 young (10.4 ± 0.2 years) male taekwondo athletes. Saliva sample were collected 15 min before and 1 min after an official taekwondo competition, and at 30, 60, and 90 min of the recovery period. To evaluate the exercise intensity during the competition, HR was measured and expressed as a percentage of individuals HR(peak). Athletes spent 78% of the time working at HR > 90% HR(max), with significant increases from round 1 to round 2 and 3. Peak sAA observed at the end of the match (169.6 ± 47.0 U/mL) was different (P = 0.0001) from the other samplings (pre-competition 55.0 ± 14.0 U/mL, 30-min recovery 80.4 ± 17.7 U/mL, 60-min recovery 50.5 ± 7.6 U/ml; 90-min recovery 53.2 ± 9.6 U/mL). Peak sC values observed at 30-min recovery (17.9 ± 3.5 nmol/L) were different (P < 0.0001) from pre-competition (5.6 ± 0.9 nmol/L), post-competition (9.0 ± 2.0 nmol/L), 60-min recovery (10.3 ± 2.6 nmol/L) and 90-min recovery (4.2 ± 0.8 nmol/L) values. These findings confirm that taekwondo competitions pose a high stress on young athletes. The different sAA and sC reactions in response to the physical stressor mirror the faster reactivity of the sympathetic-adrenomedullary system relatively to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system, respectively. This experimental paradigm might represent a useful model for further research on the effects of various stressors (i.e., training and competition) in taekwondo athletes.

  4. German Measles (Rubella)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Health Issues Conditions Injuries & Emergencies Vaccine Preventable Diseases Healthy Children > Health Issues > Vaccine Preventable Diseases > German Measles (Rubella) Health Issues ...

  5. Architectural Tops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    The development of the skyscraper is an American story that combines architectural history, economic power, and technological achievement. Each city in the United States can be identified by the profile of its buildings. The design of the tops of skyscrapers was the inspiration for the students in the author's high-school ceramic class to develop…

  6. [Sample German LAPS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Bianca

    Four learning activity packages (LAPS) for use in secondary school German programs contain instructional materials which enable students to improve their basic linguistic skills. The units include: (1) "Grusse," (2) "Ich Heisse...Namen," (3) "Tune into Your Career: Business Correspondence 'Auf Deutch'," and (4) "Understanding German Culture."…

  7. Taekwondo techniques and competition characteristics involved in time-loss injuries.

    PubMed

    Beis, Konstantinos; Pieter, Willy; Abatzides, George

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess time-loss injuries in young and adult taekwondo athletes. Participants were 2739 children (11-13 years), Junior (14-17 years) and adult males and females (18 years and older) competing in the national Greek championships. Injury data were collected by project staff with all diagnoses made by the tournament physician. Odds ratios were computed as well as 95% confidence intervals around the injury rates. The female Juniors had a higher time-loss injury rate (Fisher's Exact Test p = 0.033) than their adult counterparts. However, they were not at a higher risk of incurring a time-loss injury: OR = 0.143, 95% CI: 0.018-1.124. Collapsed over age, the females as a group recorded more time-loss injuries [11.36/1,000 A-E (95% CI: 6.25-16.47) versus 7.40/1,000 A-E (95% CI: 4.44-10.36)], but this was not significant (OR = 0.703, 95% CI: 0.383-1.293). In the Juniors, the boys only incurred time-loss injuries to the head and neck. There was no difference in the Junior girls in the distribution of time-loss injuries across body region, although they were at higher risk of sustaining an injury to the head and neck (OR = 1.510, 95% CI: 0.422-5.402) but this was not statistically significant. Although there were no statistical differences among age groups within gender, the Junior boys and girls (11-13 years) sustained more cerebral concussions. The Junior boys were at a higher risk of incurring a cerebral concussion than the boys (OR = 7.871, 95% CI: 0.917-67.583, Fisher's Exact Test p = 0.036). In the males, there was no difference between the men and Junior boys in injury rate for swing kicks compared to other techniques (OR = 2.000, 95% CI = 0.397-28.416). There also was no difference between the men and boys (OR = 4.800, 95% CI: 0.141-58.013). To help reduce the incidence of time-loss injuries in taekwondo, especially cerebral concussions, it is suggested for coaches to emphasize blocking skills. Educating referees, coaches and athletes

  8. Taekwondo Techniques and Competition Characteristics Involved in Time-Loss Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Beis, Konstantinos; Pieter, Willy; Abatzides, George

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess time-loss injuries in young and adult taekwondo athletes. Participants were 2739 children (11-13 years), Junior (14-17 years) and adult males and females (18 years and older) competing in the national Greek championships. Injury data were collected by project staff with all diagnoses made by the tournament physician. Odds ratios were computed as well as 95% confidence intervals around the injury rates. The female Juniors had a higher time-loss injury rate (Fisher’s Exact Test p = 0.033) than their adult counterparts. However, they were not at a higher risk of incurring a time-loss injury: OR = 0.143, 95% CI: 0.018-1.124. Collapsed over age, the females as a group recorded more time-loss injuries [11.36/1,000 A-E (95% CI: 6.25-16.47) versus 7.40/1,000 A-E (95% CI: 4.44-10.36)], but this was not significant (OR = 0.703, 95% CI: 0.383-1.293). In the Juniors, the boys only incurred time-loss injuries to the head and neck. There was no difference in the Junior girls in the distribution of time-loss injuries across body region, although they were at higher risk of sustaining an injury to the head and neck (OR = 1.510, 95% CI: 0.422-5.402) but this was not statistically significant. Although there were no statistical differences among age groups within gender, the Junior boys and girls (11-13 years) sustained more cerebral concussions. The Junior boys were at a higher risk of incurring a cerebral concussion than the boys (OR = 7.871, 95% CI: 0.917-67.583, Fisher’s Exact Test p = 0.036). In the males, there was no difference between the men and Junior boys in injury rate for swing kicks compared to other techniques (OR = 2.000, 95% CI = 0.397-28.416). There also was no difference between the men and boys (OR = 4.800, 95% CI: 0.141-58.013). To help reduce the incidence of time-loss injuries in taekwondo, especially cerebral concussions, it is suggested for coaches to emphasize blocking skills. Educating referees, coaches and

  9. Physiological responses and external validity of a new setting for taekwondo combat simulation

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Combat simulations have served as an alternative framework to study the cardiorespiratory demands of the activity in combat sports, but this setting imposes rule-restrictions that may compromise the competitiveness of the bouts. The aim of this study was to assess the cardiorespiratory responses to a full-contact taekwondo combat simulation using a safe and externally valid competitive setting. Twelve male national level taekwondo athletes visited the laboratory on two separate occasions. On the first visit, anthropometric and running cardiopulmonary exercise assessments were performed. In the following two to seven days, participants performed a full-contact combat simulation, using a specifically designed gas analyser protector. Oxygen uptake (V˙O2), heart rate (HR) and capillary blood lactate measurements ([La-]) were obtained. Time-motion analysis was performed to compare activity profile. The simulation yielded broadly comparable activity profiles to those performed in competition, a mean V˙O2 of 36.6 ± 3.9 ml.kg-1.min-1 (73 ± 6% V˙O2PEAK) and mean HR of 177 ± 10 beats.min-1 (93 ± 5% HRPEAK). A peak V˙O2 of 44.8 ± 5.0 ml.kg-1.min-1 (89 ± 5% V˙O2PEAK), a peak heart rate of 190 ± 13 beats.min-1 (98 ± 3% HRmax) and peak [La-] of 12.3 ± 2.9 mmol.L–1 was elicited by the bouts. Regarding time-motion analysis, combat simulation presented a similar exchange time, a shorter preparation time and a longer exchange-preparation ratio. Taekwondo combats capturing the full-contact competitive elements of a bout elicit moderate to high cardiorespiratory demands on the competitors. These data are valuable to assist preparatory strategies within the sport. PMID:28158252

  10. Influence of the distance in a roundhouse kick's execution time and impact force in Taekwondo.

    PubMed

    Falco, Coral; Alvarez, Octavio; Castillo, Isabel; Estevan, Isaac; Martos, Julio; Mugarra, Fernando; Iradi, Antonio

    2009-02-09

    Taekwondo, originally a Korean martial art, is well known for its kicks. One of the most frequently used kicks in competition is Bandal Chagui or roundhouse kick. Excellence in Taekwondo relies on the ability to make contact with the opponent's trunk or face with enough force in as little time as possible, while at the same time avoiding being hit. Thus, the distance between contestants is an important variable to be taken into consideration. Thirty-one Taekwondo athletes in two different groups (expert and novice, according to experience in competition) took part in this study. The purpose of this study was to examine both impact force and execution time in a Bandal Chagui or roundhouse kick, and to explore the effect of execution distance in these two variables. A new model was developed in order to measure the force exerted by the body on a load. A force platform and a contact platform were used to measure these variables. The results showed that there are no significant differences in terms of impact force in relation to execution distance in expert competitors. Significant and positive correlations between body mass and impact force (p<.01) seem to mean that novice competitors use their body mass to generate high impact forces. Significant differences were found in competitive experience and execution time for the three different distances of kicking considered in the study. Standing at a certain further distance from the opponent should be an advantage for competitors who are used to kick from a further distance in their training.

  11. Physiological responses and external validity of a new setting for taekwondo combat simulation.

    PubMed

    Hausen, Matheus; Soares, Pedro Paulo; Araújo, Marcus Paulo; Porto, Flávia; Franchini, Emerson; Bridge, Craig Alan; Gurgel, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    Combat simulations have served as an alternative framework to study the cardiorespiratory demands of the activity in combat sports, but this setting imposes rule-restrictions that may compromise the competitiveness of the bouts. The aim of this study was to assess the cardiorespiratory responses to a full-contact taekwondo combat simulation using a safe and externally valid competitive setting. Twelve male national level taekwondo athletes visited the laboratory on two separate occasions. On the first visit, anthropometric and running cardiopulmonary exercise assessments were performed. In the following two to seven days, participants performed a full-contact combat simulation, using a specifically designed gas analyser protector. Oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]), heart rate (HR) and capillary blood lactate measurements ([La-]) were obtained. Time-motion analysis was performed to compare activity profile. The simulation yielded broadly comparable activity profiles to those performed in competition, a mean [Formula: see text] of 36.6 ± 3.9 ml.kg-1.min-1 (73 ± 6% [Formula: see text]) and mean HR of 177 ± 10 beats.min-1 (93 ± 5% HRPEAK). A peak [Formula: see text] of 44.8 ± 5.0 ml.kg-1.min-1 (89 ± 5% [Formula: see text]), a peak heart rate of 190 ± 13 beats.min-1 (98 ± 3% HRmax) and peak [La-] of 12.3 ± 2.9 mmol.L-1 was elicited by the bouts. Regarding time-motion analysis, combat simulation presented a similar exchange time, a shorter preparation time and a longer exchange-preparation ratio. Taekwondo combats capturing the full-contact competitive elements of a bout elicit moderate to high cardiorespiratory demands on the competitors. These data are valuable to assist preparatory strategies within the sport.

  12. Inter-joint coordination in producing kicking velocity of taekwondo kicks.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Kwan; Kim, Yoon Hyuk; Im, Shin Ja

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate joint kinematics of the kicking leg in Taekwondo and to examine the role of inter-joint coordination of the leg in producing the kicking velocity. A new inter-joint coordination index that encompasses three- dimensional hip and knee motions, was defined and applied to the joint kinematic results. Twelve elite Taekwondo athletes participated in this study and performed the back kick, thrashing kick, turning-back kick and roundhouse kick. Our results indicate that the back kick utilized a combination of hip and knee extension to produce the kicking velocity, and was characterized by a pushlike movement. The thrashing kick and turning-back kick utilized a greater degree of hip abduction than the roundhouse kick and back kick, and included complicated knee motions. The new index successfully categorized the thrashing kick and turning-back kick into a push-throw continuum, indicating a change from negative index (opposite direction) to positive index (same direction) of hip and knee motions at the end of the movement. This strategy of push-throw continuum increases the kicking velocity at the moment of impact by applying a throwlike movement pattern. Key pointsA variety of Taekwondo kicks have unique inter-joint coordination of the kicking leg.The back kick used a combination of hip and knee extension to produce the kicking velocity, and was characterized by a pushlike movement.The new index explained well the inter-joint coordination of three DOF joint motions of two joints in producing kicking velocity (positive values for throwlike movements and negative values for pushlike movements).The index successfully categorized the thrashing kick and turning-back kick into a push-throw continuum.

  13. Proposal of a New Specific Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test for Taekwondo Athletes.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Marcus P; Nóbrega, Antônio C L; Espinosa, Gabriel; Hausen, Matheus; Castro, Renata R T; Soares, Pedro P; Gurgel, Jonas L

    2015-12-18

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the cardiorespiratory variables of Taekwondo athletes while performing incremental exercise test on ergometer using a ramp protocol and to propose a specific protocol for assessing these physiological variables during Taekwondo practice. Fourteen athletes participated in two incremental exercise tests: a treadmill exercise test (TREADtest) and a Taekwondo-specific exercise test (TKDtest). The TKDtest consists in one-minute stages of kicks with an incremental load between then. The subjects perform kicks each time a sound signal was heard. Heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2), and their reserve correspondents (V[Combining Dot Above]O2R and HRR) were divided into quartiles to verify their kinetics along the tests. Significant difference between two tests was found only for V[Combining Dot Above]O2R (p = 0.03). Regarding the quartiles, significant differences were found for HR in the 1 (p = 0.030) and 2 (p = 0.003). Analyzing the regression curves, significant differences were found for HR for intercept (p = 0.01) and slope (p = 0.05) and HRR for slope (p = 0.02). Analysis showed significant reliability, with intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), was found for the V[Combining Dot Above]O2PEAK (ICC = 0.855, p = 0.003), V[Combining Dot Above]O2 in ventilatory thresholds 1 (ICC = 0.709, p = 0.03) and 2 (ICC = 0.848, p = 0.003). Bland-Altman analyses reported a mean difference ± the 95% limits of agreement of 2.2 ± 8.4 ml.kg.min to V[Combining Dot Above]O2PEAK. TKDtest is reliable for measurement of cardiorespiratory variables, and the behavior of these variables differs mainly from TREADtest, probably due to the motor task performed.

  14. German influence in USSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chertok, B.

    2004-08-01

    In June 1945 this author was one of the organizers of the, first in the postwar history, Soviet-German institute RABE. The main task of its activity was to study the history of the German rocket technology developments and rebuild the technology of the long range ballistic missiles V-2. This work was supported by the Soviet military authorities and also by the Soviet government. In the Turingia region of Germany a big institute, "Nordhausen", was established, in which Soviet and German specialists jointly worked on the rocket technology problems. In November 1947 a big group of German specialists was transferred to the Soviet Union. All the works in Germany were cancelled. German specialists took part in the preparation and running of the flight test of rocket V-2 in October-November of 1947 on Kapustin Yar test range. Until the beginning of the 50s a big group of German specialists worked in the daughter institute of the leading Soviet research institute on rocket technique, NII-88, under the management of Helmut Grettrupe, one of the former von Braun employees. They worked out the design of ballistic missiles of range up to 800 km with principally new guidance system. Germans also took part in the development of the technology of fluid rocket engine production. In 1952-1953 German specialists returned to Germany and rocket technology in the USSR matured independently. The Soviet and German scientists cooperation resumed in 1960s after manned space flights were started. The author was one of the leading participants in those joint works.

  15. Taekwondo Training Improves Sensory Organization and Balance Control in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Shirley S. M.; Tsang, William W. N.; Ng, Gabriel Y. F.

    2012-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have poorer postural control and are more susceptible to falls and injuries than their healthy counterparts. Sports training may improve sensory organization and balance ability in this population. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of three months of Taekwondo (TKD) training on the…

  16. German mining equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The German mining equipment industry developed to supply machines and services to the local mining industry, i.e., coal, lignite, salt, potash, ore mining, industrial minerals, and quarrying. The sophistication and reliability of its technology also won it worldwide export markets -- which is just as well since former major domestic mining sectors such as coal and potash have declined precipitously, and others such as ore mining have all but disappeared. Today, German mining equipment suppliers focus strongly on export sales, and formerly unique German mining technologies such as continuous mining with bucket wheel excavators and conveyors for open pits, or plowing of underground coal longwalls are widely used abroad. The status of the German mining equipment industry is reviewed.

  17. Injury rates during the 1988 US Olympic Team Trials for taekwondo.

    PubMed

    Zemper, E D; Pieter, W

    1989-09-01

    Injury rates were recorded during the 1988 US Olympic Team Trials for taekwondo involving 48 men and 48 women. The injury rate for men (12.74/100 athlete-exposures) was about 40 per cent higher than the rate for women (9.01/100 athlete-exposures). The foot and the head were the most frequently injured body parts. Contusions were the predominant type of injury, and concussions were recorded for both men and women. A large proportion (41 per cent) of the men's injuries were the result of receiving a blow from an unblocked attack. For the women the most common injury situation (40 per cent) was while attacking with a kick. For both men and women, 15 per cent of the reported injuries were time-loss injuries. The head injuries found in this study are discussed with reference to the high impact velocities and momentum levels generated during taekwondo kicking. Recommendations are made with regard to protective equipment testing and rule changes to reduce the possibility of cerebral injury.

  18. Cognition Improvement in Taekwondo Novices Over 40. Results from the SEKWONDO Study

    PubMed Central

    Pons van Dijk, Gaby; Huijts, Marjolein; Lodder, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Age-related cognitive decline is associated with increased risk of disability, dementia, and death. Recent studies suggest improvement in cognitive speed, attention, and executive functioning with physical activity. However, whether such improvements are activity specific is unclear. Therefore, we aimed to study the effect of 1 year age-adapted Taekwondo training on several cognitive functions, including reaction/motor time, information processing speed, and working and executive memory, in 24 healthy volunteers over 40. Reaction and motor time decreased with 41.2 and 18.4 s (p = 0.004, p = 0.015), respectively. Digit symbol coding task improved with a mean of 3.7 digits (p = 0.017). Digit span, letter fluency, and trail making test task-completion-time all improved, but not statistically significant. The questionnaire reported “better” reaction time in 10 and “unchanged” in 9 of the 19 study compliers. In conclusion, our data suggest that age-adapted Taekwondo training improves various aspects of cognitive function in people over 40, which may, therefore, offer a cheap, safe, and enjoyable way to mitigate age-related cognitive decline. PMID:24273512

  19. Neuromuscular performance of Bandal Chagui: Comparison of subelite and elite taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Pedro Vieira Sarmet; Goethel, Márcio Fagundes; Gonçalves, Mauro

    2016-10-01

    With the aim of comparing kinematic and neuromuscular parameters of Bandal Chagui kicks between 7 elite and 7 subelite taekwondo athletes, nine Bandal Chaguis were performed at maximal effort in a selective reaction time design, simulating the frequency of kicks observed in taekwondo competitions. Linear and angular leg velocities were recorded through 3D motion capture system. Ground reaction forces (GRF) were evaluated by a force platform, and surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals were evaluated in the vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, rectus femoris, tensor fasciae lata, adductor magnus, gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, and gastrocnemius lateralis muscles of the kicking leg. sEMG data were processed to obtain the cocontraction indices (CI) of antagonist vs. overall (agonist and antagonist) muscle activity. CI was measured for the hip and knee, in flexion and extension, and for hip abduction. Premotor, reaction (kinetic and kinematic), and kicking times were evaluated. Timing parameters, except kinetic reaction time, were faster in elite athletes. Furthermore, CI and angular velocity during knee extension, foot and knee linear velocity, and horizontal GRF were significantly higher in elite than in subelite athletes. In conclusion, selected biomechanical parameters of Bandal Chagui appear to be useful in controlling the training status of the kick and in orienting the training goal of black belt competitors.

  20. The effects of ketogenic diet on oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity markers of Taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Rhyu, Hyun-Seung; Cho, Su-Youn; Roh, Hee-Tae

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the ketogenic diet through 3 weeks on oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity markers in Taekwondo athletes. The participants selected for this research were 18 high school taekwondo contestants aged 15-18 who had at least 5 yr of career as contestant. The subjects were randomly assigned to the ketogenic diet (KD) group and the Non ketogenic diet (NDK) group. Body composition and oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity markers (LDH, MDA, ROS, HDL, and SOD) were analysed before and after 3 weeks of ketogenic diet. No significant difference was found between the groups in body composition, ROS and SOD level. The KD group showed an elevated HDL level and NKD group showed an elevated LDH and MDA level after ketogenic diet by 3 weeks. This result suggests that weight loss by 3 weeks of calorie restriction and exercise can cause oxidative stress, and that ketogenic diet can be effective for preventing it. It could also be inferred that ketogenic diet can be effective for increasing blood antioxidative capacity.

  1. Mechanical analysis of the roundhouse kick according to height and distance in taekwondo.

    PubMed

    Estevan, I; Falco, C

    2013-12-01

    Competition regulation in taekwondo has experienced several changes during the last few years, for example, kicks to the head score more points than kicks to the chest. In addition, some external factors such as the height of target and execution distance seem to affect the kick performance. The aim of this study was to analyse selected biomechanical parameters (impact force, reaction time, and execution time) according to the height and execution distance in two different male groups (experts (n = 12) and novices (n = 21)). Athletes kicked twice from every execution distance (short, normal and long) and towards two different heights of target (chest and head) in a random order. Novices kicked to the head with a longer reaction time than to the chest (p < 0.05) but experts were able to kick with similar performance for both heights. From short and normal distances experts kicked with similar performance; whereas from the normal distance novices had longer reaction and execution time than from the short distance (p < 0.05). In conclusion, in counterattacking situations, experts should perform the roundhouse kick to the head instead of to the chest, because it produces better scores with similar performance; whereas novice athletes should avoid kicking to the head because they are not able to kick with similar performance. Moreover, it is recommended that during counterattacks higher-level taekwondo athletes should intend to kick from normal distances.

  2. Cognition Improvement in Taekwondo Novices Over 40. Results from the SEKWONDO Study.

    PubMed

    Pons van Dijk, Gaby; Huijts, Marjolein; Lodder, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Age-related cognitive decline is associated with increased risk of disability, dementia, and death. Recent studies suggest improvement in cognitive speed, attention, and executive functioning with physical activity. However, whether such improvements are activity specific is unclear. Therefore, we aimed to study the effect of 1 year age-adapted Taekwondo training on several cognitive functions, including reaction/motor time, information processing speed, and working and executive memory, in 24 healthy volunteers over 40. Reaction and motor time decreased with 41.2 and 18.4 s (p = 0.004, p = 0.015), respectively. Digit symbol coding task improved with a mean of 3.7 digits (p = 0.017). Digit span, letter fluency, and trail making test task-completion-time all improved, but not statistically significant. The questionnaire reported "better" reaction time in 10 and "unchanged" in 9 of the 19 study compliers. In conclusion, our data suggest that age-adapted Taekwondo training improves various aspects of cognitive function in people over 40, which may, therefore, offer a cheap, safe, and enjoyable way to mitigate age-related cognitive decline.

  3. Elements in sera of elite taekwondo athletes: effects of vitamin E supplementation.

    PubMed

    Patlar, Suleyman; Boyali, Ekrem; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Mogulkoc, Rasim; Gunay, Mehmet

    2011-02-01

    Many researchers have emphasized the relation between nutrition and development and sustaining performance. Two methods are commonly employed to identify the interaction between physical activity and nutrition. The first consists of administering food with a variety of contents to people engaged in physical activity and observing their performance responses, and the other is concerned with determining the effects of physical activity on nutrition. Therefore, it can be said that there has been a growing interest in the explorations into the relation between exercise and vitamins, minerals, and elements. The present study reports the effects of 6 weeks administration of 300 mg/day vitamin E on the distribution of serum elements in elite taekwondo athletes. Seven male athletes, mean ages 22.1 ± 0.5 years weighing on average 66.4 ± 2.4 kg were included in the study. The athletes had been practicing taekwondo for 10-12 years. Resting blood samples were collected in duplicate before and after supplementation for determination of serum levels of cobalt, boron, cadmium, chromium, nickel, manganese, sulfur, copper, iron, zinc, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, and calcium. Supplementation resulted in significant increases of all elements relative to values before supplementation (p < 0.001), with the exception of boron and sulfur, which remained without change. The results of the present study demonstrate that vitamin E supplementation crucially influences the element and mineral metabolism in elite athletes.

  4. German for physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Ben

    2009-04-01

    "German is the language of science" I remember my father telling me as a boy growing up in the Bronx in New York during the 1970s. As I watched astronomy programmes on TV with my father and older brothers, I imagined having to speak ceaselessly in fluent German if I was ever to become a scientist as a grown-up. But when I started my studies at university in New York in the 1980s, I realized my father's advice - sought from weekly trips to the neighbourhood public library - was way out of date. Not only did my physics professors present their research in English at conferences all around the world, but they also published in English-language journals - thus seemingly not needing a single word of German.

  5. Know Your Laws. German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joan Q.; Karch, Hannelore

    This German language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult student with laws she/he will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three…

  6. Teaching German Modal Particles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosler, Dietmar

    1982-01-01

    Believes modern linguistics has done little to explore German modal particles because by focusing on sentences as the basic category for linguistic thinking these words did not seem to matter. Describes model which gives students experience with these particles in meaningful communication. (Author/BK)

  7. Teaching German with TPRS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidheiser, James

    2002-01-01

    Outlines the research leading to Total Physical Response (TRP) and later Total Physical Response Storytelling (TPRS) methods. Discusses the day-to-day use in the German classroom of TPRS by an experienced practitioner and explains the reasons for its success. Presents student evaluations of the method and the material available for its use. (AS)

  8. Storytelling and German Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Connie S. Eigenmann

    The genre of fairytales, one structured form of storytelling, has been labeled "Marchen." German culture is orally transmitted in this generic form, and can be traced to a collection of 210 fairytales, the Grimm brothers'"Kinder-und Taus-Marchen," first published shortly after 1800. For this study, research questions were posed…

  9. Women in German Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederiksen, Elke

    This course description outlines the general and specific objectives for a course on "Women in German Literature," which investigates the changing literary and social roles of women from the beginning of the 19th Century to the present: women as seen by man, by another woman and in introspection. This course description was successfully used in a…

  10. Water Temperature, Voluntary Drinking and Fluid Balance in Dehydrated Taekwondo Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Khamnei, Saeed; Hosseinlou, Abdollah; Zamanlu, Masumeh

    2011-01-01

    Voluntary drinking is one of the major determiners of rehydration, especially as regards exercise or workout in the heat. The present study undertakes to search for the effect of voluntary intake of water with different temperatures on fluid balance in Taekwondo athletes. Six young healthy male Taekwondo athletes were dehydrated by moderate exercise in a chamber with ambient temperature at 38-40°C and relative humidity between 20-30%. On four separate days they were allowed to drink ad libitum plane water with the four temperatures of 5, 16, 26, and 58°C, after dehydration. The volume of voluntary drinking and weight change was measured; then the primary percentage of dehydration, sweat loss, fluid deficit and involuntary dehydration were calculated. Voluntary drinking of water proved to be statistically different in the presented temperatures. Water at 16°C involved the greatest intake, while fluid deficit and involuntary dehydration were the lowest. Intake of water in the 5°C trial significantly correlated with the subject’s plasma osmolality change after dehydration, yet it showed no significant correlation with weight loss. In conclusion, by way of achieving more voluntary intake of water and better fluid state, recommending cool water (~16°C) for athletes is in order. Unlike the publicly held view, drinking cold water (~5°C) does not improve voluntary drinking and hydration status. Key points For athletes dehydrated in hot environments, maximum voluntary drinking and best hydration state occurs with 16°C water. Provision of fluid needs and thermal needs could be balanced using 16°C water. Drinking 16°C water (nearly the temperature of cool tap water) could be recommended for exercise in the heat. PMID:24149564

  11. Water temperature, voluntary drinking and fluid balance in dehydrated taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Khamnei, Saeed; Hosseinlou, Abdollah; Zamanlu, Masumeh

    2011-01-01

    Voluntary drinking is one of the major determiners of rehydration, especially as regards exercise or workout in the heat. The present study undertakes to search for the effect of voluntary intake of water with different temperatures on fluid balance in Taekwondo athletes. Six young healthy male Taekwondo athletes were dehydrated by moderate exercise in a chamber with ambient temperature at 38-40°C and relative humidity between 20-30%. On four separate days they were allowed to drink ad libitum plane water with the four temperatures of 5, 16, 26, and 58°C, after dehydration. The volume of voluntary drinking and weight change was measured; then the primary percentage of dehydration, sweat loss, fluid deficit and involuntary dehydration were calculated. Voluntary drinking of water proved to be statistically different in the presented temperatures. Water at 16°C involved the greatest intake, while fluid deficit and involuntary dehydration were the lowest. Intake of water in the 5°C trial significantly correlated with the subject's plasma osmolality change after dehydration, yet it showed no significant correlation with weight loss. In conclusion, by way of achieving more voluntary intake of water and better fluid state, recommending cool water (~16°C) for athletes is in order. Unlike the publicly held view, drinking cold water (~5°C) does not improve voluntary drinking and hydration status. Key pointsFor athletes dehydrated in hot environments, maximum voluntary drinking and best hydration state occurs with 16°C water.Provision of fluid needs and thermal needs could be balanced using 16°C water.Drinking 16°C water (nearly the temperature of cool tap water) could be recommended for exercise in the heat.

  12. Can different conditioning activities and rest intervals affect the acute performance of taekwondo turning kick?

    PubMed

    Santos, Jonatas F da Silva; Valenzuela, Tomás H; Franchini, Emerson

    2015-06-01

    This study compared the acute effect of strength, plyometric, and complex exercises (combined strength and plyometric exercise) in the countermovement jump (CMJ) and frequency speed of kick test (FSKT) and attempted to establish the best rest interval to maximize performance in the CMJ, number of kicks, and impact generated during FSKT. Eleven taekwondo athletes (mean ± SD; age: 20.3 ± 5.2 years; body mass: 71.8 ± 15.3 kg; height: 177 ± 7.2 cm) participated. One control and 9 experimental conditions were randomly applied. Each condition was composed of warm-up, conditioning activity (half-squat: 3 × 1 at 95% 1RM; jumps: 3 × 10 vertical jumps above 40-cm barrier; or complex exercise: half-squat 3 × 2 at 95% 1RM + 4 vertical jumps above 40-cm barrier), followed by different rest intervals (5-, 10-minute, and self-selected) before CMJ and FSKT. The conditions were compared using an analysis of variance with repeated measures, followed by Bonferroni's post hoc test. The alpha level was set at 5%. Significant difference was found in the number of kicks (F9,90 = 1.32; p = 0.239; and η2 = 0.116 [small]). The complex method with a 10-minute rest interval (23 ± 5 repetitions) was superior (p = 0.026) to the control (19 ± 3 repetitions), maximum strength with a self-selected rest interval (328 ± 139 seconds; 18 ± 2 repetitions) (p = 0.015), and plyometric with a 5-minute rest interval (18 ± 3 repetitions) (p < 0.001). Our results indicate that taekwondo athletes increased the number of kicks in a specific test by using the complex method when 10-minute rest interval was used.

  13. Comparison of Lower Limb Segments Kinematics in a Taekwondo Kick. An Approach to the Proximal to Distal Motion

    PubMed Central

    Estevan, Isaac; Falco, Coral; Silvernail, Julia Freedman; Jandacka, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In taekwondo, there is a lack of consensus about how the kick sequence occurs. The aim of this study was to analyse the peak velocity (resultant and value in each plane) of lower limb segments (thigh, shank and foot), and the time to reach this peak velocity in the kicking lower limb during the execution of the roundhouse kick technique. Ten experienced taekwondo athletes (five males and five females; mean age of 25.3 ±5.1 years; mean experience of 12.9 ±5.3 years) participated voluntarily in this study performing consecutive kicking trials to a target located at their sternum height. Measurements for the kinematic analysis were performed using two 3D force plates and an eight camera motion capture system. The results showed that the proximal segment reached a lower peak velocity (resultant and in each plane) than distal segments (except the peak velocity in the frontal plane where the thigh and shank presented similar values), with the distal segment taking the longest to reach this peak velocity (p < 0.01). Also, at the instant every segment reached the peak velocity, the velocity of the distal segment was higher than the proximal one (p < 0.01). It provides evidence about the sequential movement of the kicking lower limb segments. In conclusion, during the roundhouse kick in taekwondo inter-segment motion seems to be based on a proximo-distal pattern. PMID:26557189

  14. Effect of Taekwondo Training on Physical Fitness and Growth Index According to IGF-1 Gene Polymorphism in Children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bonghan

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed the effect of regular Taekwondo training for 16 weeks on physical fitness and growth index depending on different IGF-1 gene polymorphisms. The subjects of the study were 44 male students who were 8 year years old. The IGF-1 gene showed the highest frequency of 18 CA repeat (190 bp) in 50% of subjects, and was found in the homozygote (n=11), heterozygote (n=22) and non-carriers (n=11). The results of the physical fitness and growth index among the gene polymorphism groups indicated no significant differences but the expected height of the non-carrier group was significantly high (p<0.05). After Taekwondo training, the homozygote group and the non-carrier groups demonstrated significant (p<0.05) increase in grip strength and in time in the standing with one leg while closing eyes test, respectively. Only the homozygote group had a significant (p< 0.05) increase in thigh circumference. IGF-1 concentration significantly (p<0.05) increased in the heterozygote group, while HOMA-IR significantly (p<0.05) decreased in the homozygote group. Furthermore, there was a significant (p<0.05) decrease in glucose in both the homozygote and the non-carriers groups. The difference between physical fitness and growth index depending on the IGF-1 gene polymorphism after Taekwondo training did not show consistent impact. PMID:26170738

  15. Effect of Choline Supplementation on Rapid Weight Loss and Biochemical Variables Among Female Taekwondo and Judo Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Elsawy, Gehan; Abdelrahman, Osama; Hamza, Amr

    2014-01-01

    Taekwondo and judo competitions are divided into weight categories. Many athletes reduce their body mass a few days before competition in order to obtain a competitive advantage over lighter opponents. To achieve fast body mass reduction, athletes use a number of nutritional strategies, including choline supplementation. The goal of this study was to identify the effects of choline supplementation on body mass reduction and leptin levels among female taekwondo and judo athletes. Twenty-two female athletes (15 taekwondo and 7 judo athletes) were selected from different weight categories and divided into two groups, according to weight. The players in the experimental group took choline tablets for one week before a competition. The results revealed significant differences between pre- and post-competition measurements of leptin, free plasma choline, urine choline and urine malondialdehyde levels; body mass was also reduced in the post-competition measurements. In conclusion, choline supplementation could rapidly reduce body mass without any side effects on biochemical levels or static strength. PMID:25031675

  16. Effect of Taekwondo Training on Physical Fitness and Growth Index According to IGF-1 Gene Polymorphism in Children.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bonghan; Kim, Kijin

    2015-07-01

    This study analyzed the effect of regular Taekwondo training for 16 weeks on physical fitness and growth index depending on different IGF-1 gene polymorphisms. The subjects of the study were 44 male students who were 8 year years old. The IGF-1 gene showed the highest frequency of 18 CA repeat (190 bp) in 50% of subjects, and was found in the homozygote (n=11), heterozygote (n=22) and non-carriers (n=11). The results of the physical fitness and growth index among the gene polymorphism groups indicated no significant differences but the expected height of the non-carrier group was significantly high (p<0.05). After Taekwondo training, the homozygote group and the non-carrier groups demonstrated significant (p<0.05) increase in grip strength and in time in the standing with one leg while closing eyes test, respectively. Only the homozygote group had a significant (p< 0.05) increase in thigh circumference. IGF-1 concentration significantly (p<0.05) increased in the heterozygote group, while HOMA-IR significantly (p<0.05) decreased in the homozygote group. Furthermore, there was a significant (p<0.05) decrease in glucose in both the homozygote and the non-carriers groups. The difference between physical fitness and growth index depending on the IGF-1 gene polymorphism after Taekwondo training did not show consistent impact.

  17. Comparison of Lower Limb Segments Kinematics in a Taekwondo Kick. An Approach to the Proximal to Distal Motion.

    PubMed

    Estevan, Isaac; Falco, Coral; Silvernail, Julia Freedman; Jandacka, Daniel

    2015-09-29

    In taekwondo, there is a lack of consensus about how the kick sequence occurs. The aim of this study was to analyse the peak velocity (resultant and value in each plane) of lower limb segments (thigh, shank and foot), and the time to reach this peak velocity in the kicking lower limb during the execution of the roundhouse kick technique. Ten experienced taekwondo athletes (five males and five females; mean age of 25.3 ±5.1 years; mean experience of 12.9 ±5.3 years) participated voluntarily in this study performing consecutive kicking trials to a target located at their sternum height. Measurements for the kinematic analysis were performed using two 3D force plates and an eight camera motion capture system. The results showed that the proximal segment reached a lower peak velocity (resultant and in each plane) than distal segments (except the peak velocity in the frontal plane where the thigh and shank presented similar values), with the distal segment taking the longest to reach this peak velocity (p < 0.01). Also, at the instant every segment reached the peak velocity, the velocity of the distal segment was higher than the proximal one (p < 0.01). It provides evidence about the sequential movement of the kicking lower limb segments. In conclusion, during the roundhouse kick in taekwondo inter-segment motion seems to be based on a proximo-distal pattern.

  18. Effect of choline supplementation on rapid weight loss and biochemical variables among female taekwondo and judo athletes.

    PubMed

    Elsawy, Gehan; Abdelrahman, Osama; Hamza, Amr

    2014-03-27

    Taekwondo and judo competitions are divided into weight categories. Many athletes reduce their body mass a few days before competition in order to obtain a competitive advantage over lighter opponents. To achieve fast body mass reduction, athletes use a number of nutritional strategies, including choline supplementation. The goal of this study was to identify the effects of choline supplementation on body mass reduction and leptin levels among female taekwondo and judo athletes. Twenty-two female athletes (15 taekwondo and 7 judo athletes) were selected from different weight categories and divided into two groups, according to weight. The players in the experimental group took choline tablets for one week before a competition. The results revealed significant differences between pre- and post-competition measurements of leptin, free plasma choline, urine choline and urine malondialdehyde levels; body mass was also reduced in the post-competition measurements. In conclusion, choline supplementation could rapidly reduce body mass without any side effects on biochemical levels or static strength.

  19. Top physics at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Julia Thom

    2004-06-24

    Precision studies of top quark properties are a primary goal of the Run II physics program at the Fermilab Tevatron. Marking the first stages of this program, the CDF collaboration presents recent results on top pair production cross section, single top physics and top mass, using between 109 and 200 pb{sup -1} of Run II data.

  20. A Kinematic Analysis of the Jumping Front-Leg Axe-Kick in Taekwondo

    PubMed Central

    Preuschl, Emanuel; Hassmann, Michaela; Baca, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    The jumping front-leg axe-kick is a valid attacking and counterattacking technique in Taekwondo competition (Streif, 1993). Yet, the existing literature on this technique is sparse (Kloiber et al., 2009). Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine parameters contributing significantly to maximum linear speed of the foot at impact. Parameters are timing of segment and joint angular velocity characteristics and segment lengths of the kicking leg. Moreover, we were interested in the prevalence of proximal-to-distal-sequencing. Three-dimensional kinematics of the kicks of 22 male Taekwondo-athletes (age: 23.3 ± 5.3 years) were recorded via a motion capturing system (Vicon Motion Systems Limited, Oxford, UK). The participants performed maximum effort kicks onto a rack-held kicking pad. Only the kick with the highest impact velocity was analysed, as it was assumed to represent the individual’s best performance. Significant Pearson correlations to impact velocity were found for pelvis tilt angular displacement (r = 0.468, p < 0.05) and for hip extension angular velocity (r = -0.446, p < 0.05) and for the timing of the minima of pelvis tilt velocity (r = -0.426, p < 0.05) and knee flexion velocity (r = -0.480, p < 0.05). Backward step linear regression analysis suggests a model consisting of three predictor variables: pelvis tilt angular displacement, hip flexion velocity at target contact and timing of pelvic tilt angular velocity minimum (adjusted R2 = 0.524). Results of Chi-Squared tests show that neither for the leg-raising period (χ2 = 2.909) of the technique, nor for the leg-lowering period a pattern of proximal-to-distal sequencing is prevalent (χ2 = 0.727). From the results we conclude that the jumping front-leg axe-kick does not follow a proximal-to-distal pattern. Raising the leg early in the technique and apprehending the upper body to be leant back during the leg-lowering period seems to be beneficial for high impact velocity. Furthermore, striking

  1. A Kinematic Analysis of the Jumping Front-Leg Axe-Kick in Taekwondo.

    PubMed

    Preuschl, Emanuel; Hassmann, Michaela; Baca, Arnold

    2016-03-01

    The jumping front-leg axe-kick is a valid attacking and counterattacking technique in Taekwondo competition (Streif, 1993). Yet, the existing literature on this technique is sparse (Kloiber et al., 2009). Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine parameters contributing significantly to maximum linear speed of the foot at impact. Parameters are timing of segment and joint angular velocity characteristics and segment lengths of the kicking leg. Moreover, we were interested in the prevalence of proximal-to-distal-sequencing. Three-dimensional kinematics of the kicks of 22 male Taekwondo-athletes (age: 23.3 ± 5.3 years) were recorded via a motion capturing system (Vicon Motion Systems Limited, Oxford, UK). The participants performed maximum effort kicks onto a rack-held kicking pad. Only the kick with the highest impact velocity was analysed, as it was assumed to represent the individual's best performance. Significant Pearson correlations to impact velocity were found for pelvis tilt angular displacement (r = 0.468, p < 0.05) and for hip extension angular velocity (r = -0.446, p < 0.05) and for the timing of the minima of pelvis tilt velocity (r = -0.426, p < 0.05) and knee flexion velocity (r = -0.480, p < 0.05). Backward step linear regression analysis suggests a model consisting of three predictor variables: pelvis tilt angular displacement, hip flexion velocity at target contact and timing of pelvic tilt angular velocity minimum (adjusted R(2) = 0.524). Results of Chi-Squared tests show that neither for the leg-raising period (χ(2) = 2.909) of the technique, nor for the leg-lowering period a pattern of proximal-to-distal sequencing is prevalent (χ(2) = 0.727). From the results we conclude that the jumping front-leg axe-kick does not follow a proximal-to-distal pattern. Raising the leg early in the technique and apprehending the upper body to be leant back during the leg-lowering period seems to be beneficial for high impact velocity. Furthermore

  2. Chronic subdural hematoma associated with an arachnoid cyst in a juvenile taekwondo athlete: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kertmen, Hayri; Gürer, Bora; Yilmaz, Erdal Resit; Sekerci, Zeki

    2012-01-01

    Both chronic subdural hematoma and arachnoid cysts are common lesions in neurosurgical practice. Arachnoid cysts are a well-known predisposing factor for chronic subdural hematoma. Here, we present a 12-year-old taekwondo athlete with chronic subdural hematoma associated with arachnoid cysts. The chronic subdural hematoma was evacuated through 2 burr holes and the patient was discharged in good condition. To our knowledge, this is the first case of chronic subdural hematoma with associated arachnoid cysts in a taekwondo athlete. We also review the literature on sports-related chronic subdural hematomas associated with arachnoid cysts in children.

  3. The German drought monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zink, Matthias; Samaniego, Luis; Kumar, Rohini; Thober, Stephan; Mai, Juliane; Schäfer, David; Marx, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    The 2003 drought event in Europe had major implications on many societal sectors, including energy production, health, forestry and agriculture. The reduced availability of water accompanied by high temperatures led to substantial economic losses on the order of 1.5 Billion Euros, in agriculture alone. Furthermore, soil droughts have considerable impacts on ecosystems, forest fires and water management. Monitoring soil water availability in near real-time and at high-resolution, i.e., 4 × 4 km2, enables water managers to mitigate the impact of these extreme events. The German drought monitor was established in 2014 as an online platform. It uses an operational modeling system that consists of four steps: (1) a daily update of observed meteorological data by the German Weather Service, with consistency checks and interpolation; (2) an estimation of current soil moisture using the mesoscale hydrological model; (3) calculation of a quantile-based soil moisture index (SMI) based on a 60 year data record; and (4) classification of the SMI into five drought classes ranging from abnormally dry to exceptional drought. Finally, an easy to understand map is produced and published on a daily basis on www.ufz.de/droughtmonitor. Analysis of the ongoing 2015 drought event, which garnered broad media attention, shows that 75% of the German territory underwent drought conditions in July 2015. Regions such as Northern Bavaria and Eastern Saxony, however, have been particularly prone to drought conditions since autumn 2014. Comparisons with historical droughts show that the 2015 event is amongst the ten most severe drought events observed in Germany since 1954 in terms of its spatial extent, magnitude and duration.

  4. Die Deutschen in Wisconsin (Germans in Wisconsin).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    The following curriculum units comprise this course book: (1) Germans in a New Home, (2) Contributions of the Germans in Wisconsin, (3) A Letter to Germany, (4) Germans Come to Kingston, (5) First a Soldier, Then a Man of the Church (about Heinrich von Rohr), (6) A Visiting German, and (7) Germans and Music. Each unit begins with a reading of…

  5. Relationship between attack and pause in world taekwondo championship contests: effects of gender and weight category

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Victor Gustavo Ferreira; de Oliveira Pires, Flavio; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Frachini, Emerson; da Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos David; Peduti Dal Molin Kiss, Maria Augusta; Lima-Silva, Adriano Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: the aim of this study was to compare between weight and gender categories the attack and pause times during the 2007 Taekwondo World Championship. Methods: a total of 88 rounds (47 male and 41 female contests) were analyzed. Results: there was no difference in attack/balancing times ratio between genders (0.13 ± 0.06 vs 0.13 ± 0.06, P > 0.05). The attack number was significantly higher in round 3 than in round 1 for all categories and genders. The balancing time was lower during the round 3 than round 1 for low-weight male and high-weight female categories. The delta of change from round 1 to 3 (round 3 - round 1) for attack time and attack/balancing times ratio were lower in male than female. Conclusions: female seems to intensify more the combat in the last round than male, and this seems be related to the weight division. PMID:25332922

  6. A parametric study of the thoracic injury potential of basic taekwondo kicks.

    PubMed

    Chuang, T Y; Lieu, D K

    1992-08-01

    A parametric investigation of the thoracic injury potential of basic taekwondo kicks was conducted through the use of computer simulations. Linkage-based models were employed to simulate the kinetics of the kicking leg and were used to drive a human thorax model. The results of the analysis according to the thoracic compression criterion indicated a minimal probability of severe injury (AIS4+) for swing kicks, nearly 0 percent and thrust kicks, less than three percent. The thoracic viscous criteria, on the other hand, predicted a severe injury probability of up to 100 percent for swing kicks and up to 80 percent for thrust kicks. Additional analysis showed that the injury potential was a strong function of the kick velocity and a weak function of the applied constant force. The injury potential was also found to be a weak function of the size and weight of the kicking leg, with variations in the peak compression and viscous response being typically below 5 percent for a 20 percent change in either the mass or the length.

  7. The effects of Juchumseogi and Juchumseo Jireugi motions of taekwondo on muscle activation of paraspinal muscles.

    PubMed

    Baek, Jongmyeng; Lee, Jaeseok; Kim, Jonghyun; Kim, Jeonghun; Han, Dongwook; Byun, Sunghak

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of Juchumseogi and Juchumseo Jireugi motions on muscle activation of the paraspinal muscles. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 20 healthy male students who listened to an explanation of the study methods and the purpose of the experiment, and agreed to participate in the study. [Methods] Muscle activation measurements of the paraspinal muscles at C3, T7, and L3 were taken while standing still and while performing Juchumseogi and Juchumseo Jireugi movements. The Juchumseogi and Juchumseo Jireugi motions were performed 3 times, and its mean value was used for analysis. [Results] The right and left muscle activation of paraspinal muscles induced by Juchumseogi and Juchumseo Jireugi motions in C3 and T7 were significantly higher than those induced by just standing. Muscle activation of paraspinal muscles induced by Juchumseo Jireugi motions in C3, T7, and L3 were significantly higher than those induced by Juchumseogi alone. The right and left muscle activation of paraspinal muscles induced by Juchumseo Jireugi motion in C3, T7, and L3 were significantly higher than those induced by standing and Juchumseogi alone. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that Juchumseogi and Juchumseo Jireugi motions of Taekwondo could increase muscle activation of paraspinal muscles, and Juchumseo Jireugi motions were more effective for enhancing muscle activation of paraspinal muscles.

  8. Hydration status in elite wrestlers, judokas, boxers, and taekwondo athletes on competition day.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Stefan; Berg, Christina M

    2014-06-01

    Weight category athletes are known for practicing rapid weight loss before competition weigh-in. After weigh-in, athletes strive to restore euhydration and body mass through food and fluid intake. The aim of the current study was to assess prevalence of hypohydration at competition time among elite athletes' in four different combat sports, and how water intake and timing of official weigh-in were related to hydration status. Participants were 31 taekwondo practitioners and wrestlers who performed evening weigh-in (EWI) the night before competition day and had thus time for rehydration, and 32 boxers and judokas conducting competition day morning weigh-in (MWI). In total, 32% were female. Urine specific gravity (USG) was measured by refractometry on the competition day's first morning urine sample. Hypohydration was defined as USG ≥ 1.020 and serious hypohydration as USG > 1.030. Water intake was measured by means of dietary records. The prevalence of hypohydration was 89% in the morning of competition day. Serious hypohydration was also prevalent. This was found in over 50% of MWI athletes and in 42% of the EWI group. A higher water intake, from both fluids and solid foods, in the evening before competition day was not associated with a more favorable hydration status the following morning. In conclusion, neither weigh-in close to competition nor evening weigh-in with more time for rehydration seems to prevent hypohydration before competition.

  9. The effects of Juchumseogi and Juchumseo Jireugi motions of taekwondo on muscle activation of paraspinal muscles

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Jongmyeng; Lee, Jaeseok; Kim, Jonghyun; Kim, Jeonghun; Han, Dongwook; Byun, Sunghak

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of Juchumseogi and Juchumseo Jireugi motions on muscle activation of the paraspinal muscles. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 20 healthy male students who listened to an explanation of the study methods and the purpose of the experiment, and agreed to participate in the study. [Methods] Muscle activation measurements of the paraspinal muscles at C3, T7, and L3 were taken while standing still and while performing Juchumseogi and Juchumseo Jireugi movements. The Juchumseogi and Juchumseo Jireugi motions were performed 3 times, and its mean value was used for analysis. [Results] The right and left muscle activation of paraspinal muscles induced by Juchumseogi and Juchumseo Jireugi motions in C3 and T7 were significantly higher than those induced by just standing. Muscle activation of paraspinal muscles induced by Juchumseo Jireugi motions in C3, T7, and L3 were significantly higher than those induced by Juchumseogi alone. The right and left muscle activation of paraspinal muscles induced by Juchumseo Jireugi motion in C3, T7, and L3 were significantly higher than those induced by standing and Juchumseogi alone. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that Juchumseogi and Juchumseo Jireugi motions of Taekwondo could increase muscle activation of paraspinal muscles, and Juchumseo Jireugi motions were more effective for enhancing muscle activation of paraspinal muscles. PMID:26504295

  10. Effect of fatigue on reaction time, response time, performance time, and kick impact in taekwondo roundhouse kick.

    PubMed

    Sant'Ana, Jader; Franchini, Emerson; da Silva, Vinicius; Diefenthaeler, Fernando

    2016-09-05

    Reaction time and response time are considered important abilities and can potentially affect combat performance. This study investigated the effect of a specific fatigue protocol on reaction time, response time, performance time, and kick impact. Seven male athletes reported to the laboratory on two different days. During day one, athletes performed a specific progressive taekwondo test, and on day two, a protocol for determining reaction time, response time, performance time, and kick impact before and after a time to exhaustion test at an intensity level corresponding to the maximal kick frequency obtained during the specific progressive taekwondo test. Muscle activation from rectus femoris and kick impact of the preferred limb were assessed. No differences were observed for response time and performance time. However, kick impact decreased (43 ± 27 to 13 ± 10 g, p < 0.01) while reaction time increased (145 ± 51 to 223 ± 133 ms, p < 0.05). Moderate correlation was observed between kick impact and response time (r = 0.565; p < 0.01), and kick impact and performance time (r = 0.494; p < 0.05). Results indicate that coaches and athletes may use taekwondo training programmes on coordination-based exercises leading to improve response time and to reduce fatigue effects in order to improve technique effectiveness and enhance the possibilities of scoring in a competitive situation.

  11. Captives of Their Fantasies: The German Atomic Bomb Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klotz, Irving M.

    1997-02-01

    When the Nazi government collapsed in May, 1945, an Allied intelligence mission took into custody nine of the German scientists who played key roles in the German atomic bomb project. Under great secrecy these men were confined in a large country house, Farm Hall, near Cambridge (England), and their conversations were recorded surreptitiously by hidden microphones in every room. The transcripts were kept TOP SECRET for 47 years and were finally released recently. They give fascinating insights into the personalities of the guests and invaluable information on what the Germans really understood about the physics and chemistry of a nuclear reactor and an atomic bomb. The Farm Hall transcripts clearly establish that (a) the Germans on August 6, 1945 did not believe that the Allies had exploded an atomic bomb over Hiroshima that day; (b) they never succeeded in constructing a self-sustaining nuclear reactor; (c) they were confused about the differences between an atomic bomb and a reactor; (d) they did not know how to correctly calculate the critical mass of a bomb; (e) they thought that "plutonium" was probably element 91. The Farm Hall transcripts contradict the self-serving and sensationalist writings about German efforts that have appeared during the past fifty years.

  12. Headstart German Program. Module 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This is the eighth module of 10 in the German Headstart program. Each of the 2 units in the module contains objectives, exercises, and a self-evaluation quiz. In addition, there are several supplementary exercises and self-evaluations. This module deals with a single situation, visiting a German family in their home. The exercises are intended to…

  13. Top quark physics

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmadov, A.; Azuelos, G.; Bauer, U.; Belyaev, A.; Berger, E. L.; Sullivan, Z.; Tait, T. M. P.

    2000-03-24

    The top quark, when it was finally discovered at Fermilab in 1995 completed the three-generation structure of the Standard Model (SM) and opened up the new field of top quark physics. Viewed as just another SM quark, the top quark appears to be a rather uninteresting species. Produced predominantly, in hadron-hadron collisions, through strong interactions, it decays rapidly without forming hadrons, and almost exclusively through the single mode t {r_arrow} Wb. The relevant CKM coupling V{sub tb} is already determined by the (three-generation) unitarity of the CKM matrix. Rare decays and CP violation are unmeasurable small in the SM. Yet the top quark is distinguished by its large mass, about 35 times larger than the mass of the next heavy quark, and intriguingly close to the scale of electroweak (EW) symmetry breaking. This unique property raises a number of interesting questions. Is the top quark mass generated by the Higgs mechanism as the SM predicts and is its mass related to the top-Higgs-Yukawa coupling? Or does it play an even more fundamental role in the EW symmetry breaking mechanism? If there are new particles lighter than the top quark, does the top quark decay into them? Could non-SM physics first manifest itself in non-standard couplings of the top quark which show up as anomalies in top quark production and decays? Top quark physics tries to answer these questions. Several properties of the top quark have already been examined at the Tevatron. These include studies of the kinematical properties of top production, the measurements of the top mass, of the top production cross-section, the reconstruction of t{bar t}pairs in the fully hadronic final states, the study of {tau} decays of the top quark, the reconstruction of hadronic decays of the W boson from top decays, the search for flavor changing neutral current decays, the measurement of the W helicity in top decays, and bounds on t{bar t} spin correlations. Most of these measurements are limited by

  14. Investigating the Relationship between the Perceptions of Taekwondo Athletes towards Coach-Athlete Relationship, Task and Ego Orientation in Sports, and Motivation in Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezci, Sakir

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to determine the effect of tasks and egos of taekwondo athletes on the coach-athlete relationship and the effect of coach-athlete relationship on motivation in sports. Thus, "Coach-Athlete Relationship", "Task and Ego Orientation in Sports" and "Motivation in Sports" scales have been applied to the…

  15. Spherical Tippe Tops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Rod

    2013-01-01

    A tippe top (see Fig. 1) is usually constructed as a truncated sphere with a cylindrical peg on top, as indicated in Fig. 2(a). When spun rapidly on a horizontal surface, a tippe top spins about a vertical axis while rotating slowly about a horizontal axis until the peg touches the surface. At that point, weight is transferred to the peg, the…

  16. Dare We Teach Tops?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Featonby, David

    2010-01-01

    "Tops" are mentioned in classical literature and references are even found in the ancient world. For many children a top is one of the first mechanical toys that they play with by themselves, yet a full appreciation of their motion is rare. My hope is that this article will stimulate the reader's interest in tops, will help with the first stages…

  17. CDF Top Physics

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Tartarelli, G. F.; CDF Collaboration

    1996-05-01

    The authors present the latest results about top physics obtained by the CDF experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. The data sample used for these analysis (about 110 pb{sup{minus}1}) represents almost the entire statistics collected by CDF during four years (1992--95) of data taking. This large data size has allowed detailed studies of top production and decay properties. The results discussed here include the determination of the top quark mass, the measurement of the production cross section, the study of the kinematics of the top events and a look at top decays.

  18. CDF top physics

    SciTech Connect

    Tartarelli, G.F.; CDF Collaboration

    1996-05-01

    The authors present the latest results about top physics obtained by the CDF experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. The data sample used for these analysis (about 110 pb{sup {minus}1}) represents almost the entire statistics collected by CDF during four years (1992--95) of data taking. This large data size has allowed detailed studies of top production and decay properties. The results discussed here include the determination of the top quark mass, the measurement of the production cross section, the study of the kinematics of the top events and a look at top decays.

  19. … but You Are Not German." -- Afro-German Culture and Literature in the German Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenker, Theresa; Munro, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Units and classes dedicated to multiculturalism in Germany have predominantly focused on Turkish-German literature and culture. Afro-Germans have been a minority whose culture and literature have only marginally been included in German classes, even though Afro-Germans have been a part of Germany for centuries and have undergone efforts at…

  20. Snapping knee caused by a popliteomeniscal fascicle tear of the lateral meniscus in a professional Taekwondo athlete.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Hoon; Ro, Kyung-Han; Lee, Dae-Hee

    2012-07-01

    A 19-year-old male professional Taekwondo athlete presented with a 2-year history of pain-free snapping of his right knee. He reported that his right knee joint gave way during games and training and that he could induce pain-free snapping between the proximal-to-fibular head and the lateral knee joint line. None of these physical findings suggested a meniscal pathology or ligamentous instability. Routine radiographs were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging of his right knee joint showed that the shape of the lateral meniscus was normal, and no lateral meniscus tears existed. On arthroscopic examination, popliteal hiatus view showed a posterosuperior popliteomeniscal fascicle tear between the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus and the posterior joint capsule just posteromedial to the popliteus tendon. With medial traction by probing, this popliteomeniscal tear made visible the significant subluxation of the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus to the center or anterior half of the tibial plateau. Based on the diagnosis of a posterosuperior popliteomeniscal tear of the right knee, Fast-Fix (Smith & Nephew, Andover, Massachusetts) was used for the direct repair of the peripheral portion of the lateral meniscus and joint capsule, targeting the popliteomeniscal junction. At 24 months postoperatively, the patient was performing athletic exercises relevant to his profession and was taking part in Taekwondo games, with no pain or recurrence of snapping. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of snapping of the lateral aspect of the knee due to a popliteomeniscal fascicle tear.

  1. Does one night of partial sleep deprivation affect the evening performance during intermittent exercise in Taekwondo players?

    PubMed Central

    Mejri, Mohamed Arbi; Yousfi, Narimen; Mhenni, Thouraya; Tayech, Amel; Hammouda, Omar; Driss, Tarak; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2016-01-01

    Athletes and coaches believe that adequate sleep is essential for peak performance. There is ample scientific evidence which support the conclusion that sleep loss seems to stress many physiological functions in humans. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of one night’s sleep deprivation on intermittent exercise performance in the evening of the following day. Ten male Taekwondo players performed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (YYIRT) in three sleep conditions (reference sleep night [RN], partial sleep deprivation at the beginning of night [PSDBN], partial sleep deprivation at the end of night [PSDEN]) in a counterbalanced order, allowing a recovery period ≥36 hr in between them. Heart rate peak (HRpeak), plasma lactate concentrations (Lac) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during the test. A significant effect of sleep restriction was observed on the total distance covered in YYIRT (P<0.0005) and Lac (P<0.01) in comparison with the RN. In addition, performance more decreased after PSDEN (P<0.0005) than PSDBN (P<0.05). Also, Lac decreased significantly only after PS-DEN (P<0.05) compared with RN. However, there were no significant changes in HRpeak and RPE after the two types of partial sleep deprivation compared to RN. The present study indicates that short-term sleep restriction affect the intermittent performance, as well as the Lac levels of the Taekwondo players in the evening of the following day, without alteration of HRpeak and RPE. PMID:26933660

  2. Does one night of partial sleep deprivation affect the evening performance during intermittent exercise in Taekwondo players?

    PubMed

    Mejri, Mohamed Arbi; Yousfi, Narimen; Mhenni, Thouraya; Tayech, Amel; Hammouda, Omar; Driss, Tarak; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2016-02-01

    Athletes and coaches believe that adequate sleep is essential for peak performance. There is ample scientific evidence which support the conclusion that sleep loss seems to stress many physiological functions in humans. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of one night's sleep deprivation on intermittent exercise performance in the evening of the following day. Ten male Taekwondo players performed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (YYIRT) in three sleep conditions (reference sleep night [RN], partial sleep deprivation at the beginning of night [PSDBN], partial sleep deprivation at the end of night [PSDEN]) in a counterbalanced order, allowing a recovery period ≥36 hr in between them. Heart rate peak (HRpeak), plasma lactate concentrations (Lac) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during the test. A significant effect of sleep restriction was observed on the total distance covered in YYIRT (P<0.0005) and Lac (P<0.01) in comparison with the RN. In addition, performance more decreased after PSDEN (P<0.0005) than PSDBN (P<0.05). Also, Lac decreased significantly only after PS-DEN (P<0.05) compared with RN. However, there were no significant changes in HRpeak and RPE after the two types of partial sleep deprivation compared to RN. The present study indicates that short-term sleep restriction affect the intermittent performance, as well as the Lac levels of the Taekwondo players in the evening of the following day, without alteration of HRpeak and RPE.

  3. The German Drought Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Andreas; Zink, Matthias; Pommerencke, Julia; Kumar, Rohini; Thober, Stephan; Samaniego, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Soil moisture droughts reduce the amount of water available to plant growth potentially leading e.g. to crop failure or increased forest fire risk. The threat of human livelihoods in developing countries and large economic losses in developed ones are severe consequences of these events. Monitoring the current state of soil water content allows to improve water management to mitigate the associated damages. Since summer 2014, the German Drought Monitor (GDM, available at: www.ufz.de/droughtmonitor) has been established using an operational hydrological modeling system, which consists of 3 steps: (1) the daily download of meteorological forcing data, consistency check and interpolation of this data, (2) running the mesoscale Hydrologic Model (mHM; Samaniego et al. 2010) and saving the state variables at the end of the model run as restart-file for the next days run, and (3) calculation of the soil moisture index (SMI, Samaniego et al. 2013, JHM) and visualization of the drought data. The hydrological model mHM was used to generate daily soil moisture fields for the period 1954-2013 over the entire area of Germany at a high spatial resolution of 4 x 4 km². The model requires daily precipitation, temperature, and potential evapotranspiration as forcing. A three-layer soil scheme was used to model the soil moisture dynamics over the entire root zone depth. Based on the 60 year simulation of soil moisture, the frequency distributions have been calculated for each grid cell to derive the soil moisture index. In this beta version, we do a monthly online update of the SMI. Furthermore, a trend analysis of drought events for 69 German subregions since 1954 was conducted. It showed that for most parts of Germany, the frequency of abnormally dry conditions increased while the stronger drought situations with SMI<0.2 decreased at the same time. For the coming year, a stakeholder consultation is planned. The aim is to clarify for whom a drought monitor would be useful, what

  4. Effects of Taekwondo intervention on balance in children with autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yumi; Todd, Teri; Fujii, Takuto; Lim, Jae-Chun; Vrongistinos, Konstantinos; Jung, Taeyou

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week Taekwondo (TKD) intervention on balance in children with autism spec-trum disorder (ASD). A total of 14 children with ASD participated in this study. Eight children (eight males; mean age, 10.25±2.38 yr) completed TKD intervention (50 min/2 times/8 week), and six children received no intervention serving as controls (five males, one female; mean age, 10.00±2.83 yr). A computed posturography system with a long forceplate (NeuroCom Balance Master) was used to evaluate static (double and single leg stance with various test conditions) and functional balance (step-quick-turn). Balance was measured before and after the intervention. A mixed-model analysis of variance showed a significant group by time interaction in single leg stance balance. After the intervention, the TKD group displayed a greater improvement in single leg stance balance with eyes closed condition than the control group (P=0.046). Within-group analysis showed that the TKD group significantly improved single leg stance balance with eyes open condition (P=0.014). In addition, TKD group displayed trends of improvements in double leg stance balance with unstable surface under eyes closed condition (ES=0.83) and step-quick-turn (Cohen d [ES]=0.70). The control group did not show any significant changes in balance outcomes. In conclusion, TKD training can help children with ASD improve their balance. Children with ASD also showed a high rate of adherence (92%) to the TKD training. Our findings suggest that TKD can be a fun, feasible, and effective therapeutic option for balance improvement of children with ASD. PMID:27656628

  5. [AUTONOMIC CONTROL OF HEART RATE, BLOOD LACTATE AND ACCELERATION DURING COMBAT SIMULATION IN TAEKWONDO ELITE ATHLETES].

    PubMed

    Cerda-Kohler, Hugo; Aguayo Fuentealba, Juan Carlos; Francino Barrera, Giovanni; Guajardo-Sandoval, Adrián; Jorquera Aguilera, Carlos; Báez-San Martín, Eduardo

    2015-09-01

    Propósito: el objetivo del estudio fue determinar la frecuencia cardiaca de recuperación (FCR), lactato sanguíneo y aceleración pico (ACCp) durante un combate simulado de atletas de taekwondo de elite. Métodos: doce (n = 12) sujetos varones, seleccionados nacionales y con más de cinco años de práctica en esta disciplina participaron en el estudio. Los atletas realizaron un combate simulado de tres asaltos de dos minutos con un minuto de pausa entre ellos, evaluando los siguientes parámetros: (¡) lactato sanguíneo al final de cada minuto de descanso entre asaltos; (¡¡) FCR a los treinta y sesenta segundos en cada minuto de descanso; (¡¡¡) ACCp en cada asalto disputado. El nivel de significancia se propuso a un valor de p < 0,05. Resultados: los resultados muestran que no hubo diferencias significativas entre ganadores y perdedores en la FCR (p > 0,05) a los treinta y sesenta segundos en ninguna de las pausas, en el delta de lactato sanguíneo al final de cada pausa (p > 0,05), en la aceleración pico por round (p > 0,05) y en la aceleración promedio del combate (p = 0,18). Tampoco se encontraron correlaciones entre delta de lactato y FCR (r = -0,23; p = 0,18), entre delta de lactato y ACCp (r = 0,01; p = 0,93), y entre ACCp y FCR (r = 0,003; p = 0,98). Conclusiones: los datos sugieren que las variables estudiadas no serían determinantes en el resultado final de un combate simulado. Otros factores, como variables técnico/tácticas o psicológicas, podrían influir de manera significativa en el rendimiento deportivo.

  6. Effects of Taekwondo intervention on balance in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yumi; Todd, Teri; Fujii, Takuto; Lim, Jae-Chun; Vrongistinos, Konstantinos; Jung, Taeyou

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week Taekwondo (TKD) intervention on balance in children with autism spec-trum disorder (ASD). A total of 14 children with ASD participated in this study. Eight children (eight males; mean age, 10.25±2.38 yr) completed TKD intervention (50 min/2 times/8 week), and six children received no intervention serving as controls (five males, one female; mean age, 10.00±2.83 yr). A computed posturography system with a long forceplate (NeuroCom Balance Master) was used to evaluate static (double and single leg stance with various test conditions) and functional balance (step-quick-turn). Balance was measured before and after the intervention. A mixed-model analysis of variance showed a significant group by time interaction in single leg stance balance. After the intervention, the TKD group displayed a greater improvement in single leg stance balance with eyes closed condition than the control group (P=0.046). Within-group analysis showed that the TKD group significantly improved single leg stance balance with eyes open condition (P=0.014). In addition, TKD group displayed trends of improvements in double leg stance balance with unstable surface under eyes closed condition (ES=0.83) and step-quick-turn (Cohen d [ES]=0.70). The control group did not show any significant changes in balance outcomes. In conclusion, TKD training can help children with ASD improve their balance. Children with ASD also showed a high rate of adherence (92%) to the TKD training. Our findings suggest that TKD can be a fun, feasible, and effective therapeutic option for balance improvement of children with ASD.

  7. Mark Twain and "The Awful German Language."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedderich, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes Mark Twain's 1869 essay "The Awful German Language" in terms of Twain's comments on morphological, syntactical, lexical, and phonological features of German. The topic is presented in the context of Twain's German language learning experience. Relevance of the article for German language instruction today is also described.…

  8. The Top Triangle Moose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chivukula, R. S.; Christensen, N. D.; Coleppa, B.; Simmons, E. H.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a deconstructed model that incorporates both Higgsless and top-color mechanisms. The model alleviates the typical tension in Higgsless models between obtaining the correct top quark mass and keeping Δρ small. It does so by singling out the top quark mass generation as arising from a Yukawa coupling to an effective top-Higgs which develops a small vacuum expectation value, while electroweak symmetry breaking results largely from a Higgsless mechanism. As a result, the heavy partners of the SM fermions can be light enough to be seen at the LHC.

  9. Top Physics at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Chang-Seong

    2011-06-01

    We present the recent results of top-quark physics using up to 6 fb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collisions at a center of mass energy of {radical}s = 1.96 TeV analyzed by the CDF collaboration. Thanks to this large data sample, precision top quark measurements are now a reality at the Tevatron. Further, several new physics signals could appear in this large dataset. We will present the latest measurements of top quark intrinsic properties as well as direct searches for new physics in the top sector.

  10. [The German Excellence Initiative : effects on the medical schools].

    PubMed

    Fleckenstein, B

    2009-09-01

    The Excellence Initiative of the German Federal Government in 2006 and 2007 was motivated by the political wish to have a limited number of excellent universities in Germany that could reach top positions in the international research ranking, comparable to the top universities of Great Britain and the United States. In two rounds, the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) and the National Research Council (Wissenschaftsrat) evaluated more than 300 project proposals. Out of those, 39 Graduate Schools, 37 Centers of Excellence and 9 proposals for University Strategies were selected for support with 1.9 EUR billion. University medicine made a substantial contribution to the successful strategy concepts, on average more than other university faculties. Seven medical schools were successful in obtaining a Cluster of Excellence as well as one or two Graduate Schools, providing the basis for a successful University Strategy Concept. With the example of the Georg August University Göttingen, it will be shown how success was reached by the cooperation with non-university research institutions and by recruiting original ideas for research support. All successful universities have proven excellent research networks; however, elite universities according to international standards will not be created by the German Excellence Initiative.

  11. Training Top 125

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Top companies realize how vital training is to their success and continue to invest in it, even in trying times. This article presents "Training" magazine's 11th annual ranking of the top companies with employee-sponsored workforce training and development. First-time No. 1 winner Farmers Insurance puts such a premium on learning that its new…

  12. The Driven Spinning Top

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosu, Ioan; Featonby, David

    2016-01-01

    This driven top is quite a novelty and can, with some trials, be made using the principles outlined here. This new top has many applications in developing both understanding and skills and these are detailed in the article. Depending on reader's available time and motivation they may feel an urge to make one themselves, or simply invest a few…

  13. Training Top 125

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The best learning and development organizations support business initiatives tactically "and" help drive strategic change. Verizon did just that, earning it the No. 1 spot for the first time on the Training Top 125. Verizon and the other 2012 Top 125 winners continued to invest in training, collectively dedicating a mean of 4.52 percent of their…

  14. Top search at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Contreras, M.; The CDF Collaboration

    1991-10-01

    We review top quark searches carried out at CDF with data collected during the 1988--1989 Collider Run. The latest analyses give a lower limit on the top quark mass of 91 GeV/c{sup 2} at the 95% confidence level, assuming Standard Model decays. 8 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Reliability and validity of a dual-task test for skill proficiency in roundhouse kicks in elite taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chung-Yu; Dai, Jing; Chen, I-Fan; Chou, Kuei-Ming; Chang, Chen-Kang

    2015-01-01

    The dual-task methodology, conducting two tasks simultaneously, may provide better validity than the traditional single-task tests in the environment that is closely related to real sport competitions. The purpose of this study is to determine the reliability and validity of a dual-task test that aims to measure the reaction time and skill proficiency in roundhouse kicks in elite and sub-elite taekwondo athletes. The dual-task results were compared to those in the single-task movements with various levels of complexity. The single-task movements A, B, and C were composed of one, three, and five roundhouse kicks, respectively. The dual-task movement D was composed of movement C and a push of a button in response to a light stimulus as the secondary task. The subjects were 12 elite and 12 sub-elite male taekwondo athletes. The test included four movements with five repeats of each movement in a randomized order. Each subject conducted the same test on two consecutive days. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) showed moderate-to-high correlation in the premotor time (ICC =0.439-0.634 in elite and ICC =0.681-0.824 in sub-elite), motor time (ICC =0.861-0.956 in elite and ICC =0.721-0.931 in sub-elite), and reaction time (ICC =0.692 in elite and ICC =0.676 in sub-elite) in the secondary task in both groups. The elite athletes had significantly faster premotor time than their sub-elite counterparts in all the four movements (all P<0.05). The largest difference lies in the reaction time in the secondary task, in which the elite group (0.248±0.026 seconds) was 33.0% faster than the sub-elite group (0.370±0.081 seconds) (P<0.001). This study shows that the test developed in this study has reasonable reliability and validity in both single- and dual-task methods. In addition, the dual-task method may be a more appropriate way to assess the reaction time and skill proficiency in taekwondo athletes.

  16. Top physics at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    We report on top physics results using a 100 pb{sup -1} data sample of p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV collected with the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). We have identified top signals in a variety of decay channels, and used these channels to extract a measurement of the top mass and production cross section. A subset of the data (67 pb{sup -1}) is used to determine M{sub top} = 176 {+-} 8(stat) {+-} 10(syst) and {sigma}(tt) = 7.6 {sub -2.0}{sup +2.4} pb. We present studies of the kinematics of t{bar t} events and extract the first direct measurement of V{sub tb}. Finally, we indicate prospects for future study of top physics at the Tevatron.

  17. Age- and sex-related differences in the anthropometry and neuromuscular fitness of competitive taekwondo athletes

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Buśko, Krzysztof; Clemente, Filipe Manuel; Tasiopoulos, Ioannis; Knechtle, Beat

    2016-01-01

    Anthropometry and neuromuscular fitness have been shown to relate with taekwondo (TKD) performance; however, little information is available on the variation of these fitness components by sex and age in athletes practicing this sport. The aim of the present study was to examine the anthropometry and neuromuscular fitness of TKD athletes by sex and age. A total of 393 athletes (7–48 years old), separated into six age groups (7–9, 10–11, 12–13, 14–17, 18–32, and 33+), were examined for anthropometry and performed a series of neuromuscular fitness tests (flexibility, agility, muscle power, and isometric strength). An age × sex interaction on body mass, body height, and body fat percentage (BF, p≤0.003, η2≥0.045), but not on body mass index (p=0.172, η2=0.020), was shown, where a larger increase in body mass and body height from 12–13 to 14–17 groups was observed in males than in females, and the sex difference in BF increased from 12–13 to 14–17 age group. An age × sex interaction on sit-and-reach (SAR) test, mean power output in the Bosco test, and Abalakov jump (p≤0.038, η2≥0.031) was observed with larger differences between 12–13 and 18–32 groups in males than in females. In SAR, it was remarkable that the male athletes achieved similar scores as female athletes in the 18–32 group. An age × sex group interaction on measures of isometric muscle strength (right and left handgrip, trunk, and legs) was also shown (p≤0.002, η2≥0.068), where larger differences in male than female athletes were observed between the 12–13 and 14–17 groups. From a practical perspective, coaches can use these findings as reference for the evaluation of their athletes. Because the anthropometric characteristics and neuromuscular fitness varied by sex (i.e., highest scores in males, except flexibility) and age (i.e., highest scores in the 18–32 age group) with unique sport-specific patterns in TKD athletes, these findings would be important

  18. Age- and sex-related differences in the anthropometry and neuromuscular fitness of competitive taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Buśko, Krzysztof; Clemente, Filipe Manuel; Tasiopoulos, Ioannis; Knechtle, Beat

    2016-01-01

    Anthropometry and neuromuscular fitness have been shown to relate with taekwondo (TKD) performance; however, little information is available on the variation of these fitness components by sex and age in athletes practicing this sport. The aim of the present study was to examine the anthropometry and neuromuscular fitness of TKD athletes by sex and age. A total of 393 athletes (7-48 years old), separated into six age groups (7-9, 10-11, 12-13, 14-17, 18-32, and 33+), were examined for anthropometry and performed a series of neuromuscular fitness tests (flexibility, agility, muscle power, and isometric strength). An age × sex interaction on body mass, body height, and body fat percentage (BF, p≤0.003, η(2)≥0.045), but not on body mass index (p=0.172, η(2)=0.020), was shown, where a larger increase in body mass and body height from 12-13 to 14-17 groups was observed in males than in females, and the sex difference in BF increased from 12-13 to 14-17 age group. An age × sex interaction on sit-and-reach (SAR) test, mean power output in the Bosco test, and Abalakov jump (p≤0.038, η(2)≥0.031) was observed with larger differences between 12-13 and 18-32 groups in males than in females. In SAR, it was remarkable that the male athletes achieved similar scores as female athletes in the 18-32 group. An age × sex group interaction on measures of isometric muscle strength (right and left handgrip, trunk, and legs) was also shown (p≤0.002, η(2)≥0.068), where larger differences in male than female athletes were observed between the 12-13 and 14-17 groups. From a practical perspective, coaches can use these findings as reference for the evaluation of their athletes. Because the anthropometric characteristics and neuromuscular fitness varied by sex (i.e., highest scores in males, except flexibility) and age (i.e., highest scores in the 18-32 age group) with unique sport-specific patterns in TKD athletes, these findings would be important for the development of

  19. [German demography: a taboo subject?].

    PubMed

    Soullie, J

    1995-06-14

    The author first notes that, though the population of Germany has increased significantly in size since the Second World War, fertility has been below replacement levels for some time. Furthermore, this strong rate of growth has been accompanied by major variations from one generation to the next, although these trends have received very little attention from German scholars. It is noted that, since the rate of natural increase has been negative since 1972, this growth must have been caused exclusively by immigration. The seriousness of the demographic situation in the former East German states is noted. Current projections indicate a decline in total population size of about 13 million over the next 50 years. Policy options faced by the German authorities are discussed. This article was previously published in the April 15, 1995 issue of Chroniques Economiques.

  20. Top quark mass measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Maki, Tuula

    2008-03-18

    The top quark is the heaviest elementary particle. Its mass is one of the fundamental parameters of the standard model of particle physics, and an important input to precision electroweak tests. This thesis describes three measurements of the top-quark mass in the dilepton decay channel. The dilepton events have two neutrinos in the final state; neutrinos are weakly interacting particles that cannot be detected with a multipurpose experiment. Therefore, the signal of dilepton events consists of a large amount of missing energy and momentum carried off by the neutrinos. The top-quark mass is reconstructed for each event by assuming an additional constraint from a top mass independent distribution. Template distributions are constructed from simulated samples of signal and background events, and parametrized to form continuous probability density functions. The final top-quark mass is derived using a likelihood fit to compare the reconstructed top mass distribution from data to the parametrized templates. One of the analyses uses a novel technique to add top mass information from the observed number of events by including a cross-section-constraint in the likelihood function. All measurements use data samples collected by the CDF II detector.

  1. Top physics at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Palencia, Enrique; /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.

    2006-06-01

    The top quark is the most massive fundamental particle observed so far, and the study of its properties is interesting for several reasons ranging from its possible special role in electroweak symmetry breaking to its sensitivity to physics beyond the Standard Model (SM). This article focuses on the latest top physics results from CDF based on 320-750 pb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collision data at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The t{bar t} cross section and the top mass have been measured in different decay channels and using different methods. They have also searched for massive t{bar t} resonances.

  2. Influence of taekwondo as security martial arts training on anaerobic threshold, cardiorespiratory fitness, and blood lactate recovery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Young; Seo, Byoung-Do; Choi, Pan-Am

    2014-04-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to determine the influence of Taekwondo as security martial arts training on anaerobic threshold, cardiorespiratory fitness, and blood lactate recovery. [Subjects and Methods] Fourteen healthy university students were recruited and divided into an exercise group and a control group (n = 7 in each group). The subjects who participated in the experiment were subjected to an exercise loading test in which anaerobic threshold, value of ventilation, oxygen uptake, maximal oxygen uptake, heart rate, and maximal values of ventilation / heart rate were measured during the exercise, immediately after maximum exercise loading, and at 1, 3, 5, 10, and 15 min of recovery. [Results] At the anaerobic threshold time point, the exercise group showed a significantly longer time to reach anaerobic threshold. The exercise group showed significantly higher values for the time to reach VO2max, maximal values of ventilation, maximal oxygen uptake and maximal values of ventilation / heart rate. Significant changes were observed in the value of ventilation volumes at the 1- and 5-min recovery time points within the exercise group; oxygen uptake and maximal oxygen uptake were significantly different at the 5- and 10-min time points; heart rate was significantly different at the 1- and 3-min time points; and maximal values of ventilation / heart rate was significantly different at the 5-min time point. The exercise group showed significant decreases in blood lactate levels at the 15- and 30-min recovery time points. [Conclusion] The study results revealed that Taekwondo as a security martial arts training increases the maximal oxygen uptake and anaerobic threshold and accelerates an individual's recovery to the normal state of cardiorespiratory fitness and blood lactate level. These results are expected to contribute to the execution of more effective security services in emergencies in which violence can occur.

  3. Segment coupling and coordination variability analyses of the roundhouse kick in taekwondo relative to the initial stance position.

    PubMed

    Estevan, Isaac; Freedman Silvernail, Julia; Jandacka, Daniel; Falco, Coral

    2016-09-01

    The initial stance position (ISP) has been observed as a factor affecting the execution technique during taekwondo kicks. In the present study, authors aimed to analyse a roundhouse kick to the chest by measuring movement coordination and the variability of coordination and comparing this across the different ISP (0°, 45° and 90°). Eight experienced taekwondo athletes performed consecutive kicking trials in random order from every of the three relative positions. The execution was divided into three phases (stance, first swing and second swing phase). A motion capture system was used to measure athletes' angular displacement of pelvis and thigh. A modified vector coding technique was used to quantify the coordination of the segments which contributed to the overall movement. The variability of this coordination (CV) for each ISP was also calculated. Comparative analysis showed that during the stance phase in the transverse plane, athletes coordinated movement of the trunk and thigh with a higher frequency of in-phase and lower frequency of exclusive thigh rotation in the 0° stance than the 90° stance position (P < 0.05). CV was also influenced by the different ISP. During the first swing and the majority of the second swing phase, predominant in-phase coordination of the pelvis and thigh was observed. Including exercises that require in-phase movement could not only help athletes to acquire coordination stability but also efficiency. The existence of a constraint such as ISP implies an increase of the variability when the athletes have to kick from ISP they are not used to adopt (i.e., 0° and 90° ISP) as an evidence of adaptability in the athletes' execution technique.

  4. Why German? Motivation of Students Studying German at English Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busse, Vera; Williams, Marion

    2010-01-01

    What drives students to study German at university level? Although motivational research has been booming in recent years, students' motivation to pursue a modern foreign language beyond school level has not received much attention in the UK. This article sheds light on the various reasons that drive students in the UK to pursue a modern foreign…

  5. Top quark mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Christopher S.; /UC, Santa Barbara

    2004-12-01

    The top quark, with its extraordinarily large mass (nearly that of a gold atom), plays a significant role in the phenomenology of EWSB in the Standard Model. In particular, the top quark mass when combined with the W mass constrains the mass of the as yet unobserved Higgs boson. Thus, a precise determination of the mass of the top quark is a principal goal of the CDF and D0 experiments. With the data collected thus far in Runs 1 and 2 of the Tevatron, CDF and D0 have measured the top quark mass in both the lepton+jets and dilepton decay channels using a variety of complementary experimental techniques. The author presents an overview of the most recent of the measurements.

  6. Top physics: CDF results

    SciTech Connect

    K. Bloom

    2004-06-23

    The top quark plays an important role in the grand scheme of particle physics, and is also interesting on its own merits. We present recent results from CDF on top-quark physics based on 100-200 pb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collision data. We have measured the t{bar t} cross section in different decay modes using several different techniques, and are beginning our studies of top-quark properties. New analyses for this conference include a measurement of {sigma}{sub t{bar t}} in the lepton-plus-jets channel using a neural net to distinguish signal and background events, and measurements of top-quark branching fractions.

  7. The effect of weight loss by ketogenic diet on the body composition, performance-related physical fitness factors and cytokines of Taekwondo athletes

    PubMed Central

    Rhyu, Hyun-seung; Cho, Su-Youn

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the weight loss through 3 weeks of ketogenic diet on performance-related physical fitness and inflammatory cytokines in Taekwondo athletes. The subjects selected for this research were 20 Taekwondo athletes of the high schools who participated in a summer camp training program. The subjects were randomly assigned to 2 groups, 10 subjects to each group: the ketogenic diet (KD) group and the non-ketogenic diet (NKD) group. Body composition, performance-related physical fitness factors (2,000 m sprint, Wingate test, grip force, back muscle strength, sit-up, 100 m sprint, standing broad jump, single leg standing) and cytokines (Iinterleukin-6, Interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α) were analyzed before and after 3weeks of ketogenic diet. No difference between the KD and NKD groups in weight, %body fat, BMI and fat free mass. However, the KD group, compared to the NKD group, finished 2,000 m sprint in less time after weight loss, and also felt less fatigue as measured by the Wingate test and showed less increase in tumor necrosis factor-α. This result suggests that KD diet can be helpful for weight category athletes, such as Taekwondo athletes, by improving aerobic capacity and fatigue resistance capacity, and also by exerting positive effect on inflammatory response. PMID:25426472

  8. Effect of expertise in shooting and Taekwondo on bipedal and unipedal postural control isolated or concurrent with a reaction-time task.

    PubMed

    Negahban, Hossein; Aryan, Najmolhoda; Mazaheri, Masood; Norasteh, Ali Asghar; Sanjari, Mohammad Ali

    2013-06-01

    It was hypothesized that training in 'static balance' or 'dynamic balance' sports has differential effects on postural control and its attention demands during quiet standing. In order to test this hypothesis, two groups of female athletes practicing shooting, as a 'static balance' sport, and Taekwondo, as a 'dynamic balance' sport, and a control group of non-physically active females voluntarily participated in this study. Postural control was assessed during bipedal and unipedal stance with and without performing a Go/No-go reaction time task. Visual and/or support surface conditions were manipulated in bipedal and unipedal stances in order to modify postural difficulty. Mixed model analysis of variance was used to determine the effects of dual tasking on postural and cognitive performance. Similar pattern of results were found in bipedal and unipedal stances, with Taekwondo practitioners displaying larger sway, shooters displaying lower sway and non-athletes displaying sway characteristics intermediate to Taekwondo and shooting athletes. Larger effect was found in bipedal stance. Single to dual-task comparison of postural control showed no significant effect of mental task on sway velocity in shooters, indicating less cognitive effort invested in balance control during bipedal stance. We suggest that expertise in shooting has a more pronounced effect on decreased sway in static balance conditions. Furthermore, shooters invest less attention in postures that are more specific to their training, i.e. bipedal stance.

  9. The effect of weight loss by ketogenic diet on the body composition, performance-related physical fitness factors and cytokines of Taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Rhyu, Hyun-Seung; Cho, Su-Youn

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the weight loss through 3 weeks of ketogenic diet on performance-related physical fitness and inflammatory cytokines in Taekwondo athletes. The subjects selected for this research were 20 Taekwondo athletes of the high schools who participated in a summer camp training program. The subjects were randomly assigned to 2 groups, 10 subjects to each group: the ketogenic diet (KD) group and the non-ketogenic diet (NKD) group. Body composition, performance-related physical fitness factors (2,000 m sprint, Wingate test, grip force, back muscle strength, sit-up, 100 m sprint, standing broad jump, single leg standing) and cytokines (Iinterleukin-6, Interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α) were analyzed before and after 3weeks of ketogenic diet. No difference between the KD and NKD groups in weight, %body fat, BMI and fat free mass. However, the KD group, compared to the NKD group, finished 2,000 m sprint in less time after weight loss, and also felt less fatigue as measured by the Wingate test and showed less increase in tumor necrosis factor-α. This result suggests that KD diet can be helpful for weight category athletes, such as Taekwondo athletes, by improving aerobic capacity and fatigue resistance capacity, and also by exerting positive effect on inflammatory response.

  10. Top quark properties

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Ziqing

    2014-10-31

    The top quark physics has entered the precision era. The CDF and D0 collaborations are finalizing their legacy results of the properties of the top quark after the shutdown of the Fermilab Tevatron three years ago. The ATLAS and CMS collaborations have been publishing results from the LHC Run I with 7 TeV and 8 TeV proton-proton collisions, with many more forthcoming. We present a selection of recent results produced by the Tevatron and LHC experiments.

  11. Das deutsche Adverbialsystem (The German Adverbial System)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Droescher, W. O.

    1974-01-01

    Describes the surface structure of German adverbs proceeding from the standpoint of dependence-valence grammar. On the basis of their meaning, adverbs are classified as modal, temporal and locational. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  12. Levelling in the German Verb Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, John

    1974-01-01

    Levelling processes in the history of the German verb paradigm from Old High German to the present are discussed. It is asserted that the theory of transformational generative grammar provides a proper framework for the study of linguistic change. (RM)

  13. From Business to Technological German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwood, H. M.

    Because many of the Georgia Institute of Technology students taking business German come from the sciences and engineering, the business language textbook used has been supplemented with more technologically oriented instructional materials. Highly technical texts are too advanced at the second year language learning stage, so one teacher selected…

  14. Saving German Studies, via Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, William Collins; Kagel, Martin

    2012-01-01

    By most accounts, the position of German studies in the American academy is no longer secure. To a large extent, that is due to reasons beyond the control of individual faculty or departments, including the general crisis faced by the humanities and the diminished importance in the eyes of the public of literary criticism, a vital part of the…

  15. Atlanta Public Schools German Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolen, Helen; And Others

    This guide for teachers of German emphasizes the primacy of listening and speaking skills at all levels of instruction. Contents include information on: (1) philosophy and ultimate goals, (2) student recruitment, (3) program sequence, (4) English in the classroom, (5) grammar, (6) articulation, (7) independent study, (8) grouping for…

  16. A Functional Syntax of German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fichtner, Edward G.

    Students in intermediate language courses, especially conversational courses, can benefit from a simple set of instructions for combining words and phrases into sentences. A description of the basic concepts determining word order in German--the fundamental sequence of clause elements, the "infrastructure," and the movement rules by which the…

  17. Instructional Methods in German (IMG).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School of Education, Malmo (Sweden). Dept. of Educational and Psychological Research.

    This project report outlines a continuing investigation (1965-73) into the teaching of German in Swedish public schools and steps taken toward the compilation and construction of teaching materials for use in introductory courses. The work is reviewed following four principal phases of completed project research and development: (1) analysis of…

  18. Metrical Phonology: German Sound System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tice, Bradley S.

    Metrical phonology, a linguistic process of phonological stress assessment and diagrammatic simplification of sentence and word stress, is discussed as it is found in the English and German languages. The objective is to promote use of metrical phonology as a tool for enhancing instruction in stress patterns in words and sentences, particularly in…

  19. German 1990: Intensive and Diverse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempf, Franz R.

    1990-01-01

    Suggests the following methods for improving university-level German language education curricula: reduce skill-development time through immersion programs, adopt Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache as the proficiency standard for advanced students, and include literature from a variety of liberal arts disciplines in the reading materials for…

  20. Enriching the Curriculum with Pennsylvania German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meindl, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    The German classroom should prepare students for the linguistic diversity of the target culture, including regional varieties and German spoken outside of the D-A-CH region. Because textbooks do not often include materials on regional varieties, this article presents a model to incorporate Pennsylvania German (PG) into the curriculum. The model…

  1. Verbal Aspects in Germanic, Slavic, and Baltic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Alfred

    1949-01-01

    This study examines the theory of Prokosch concerning the Germanic-Slavic-Baltic tense and aspect systems. The interrelatedness and influence of languages and dialects in Slavic (Russian and Old Church Slavic), Baltic (Lithuanian), and Germanic (Old High German and Gothic) are demonstrated. Examples illustrating the use of the perfective present…

  2. Dictionary of surfactants English/German and German/English

    SciTech Connect

    Siekmann, K.

    1987-01-01

    This dictionary is supplement to the monograph ''Surfactants in Consumer Products'' edited by Professor Dr. J. Falbe. It comprises approximately 3.200 keywords of the chemistry, technology and applications of surfactants in English/German and German/English. In the monograph the physical-chemical principles of action of the surfactants, their production and their application in laundry detergents, dishwashing detergents and cleaning agents as well as in cosmetics and toiletries are discussed. The technological aspects of application and formulation along with those of production and manufacturing processes are illustrated. Ecological and toxicological questions are probed in depth. Finally, important economic data concerning this branch of industry as well as an attempt to provide a perspective with regard to the future of the surfactant market round out the picture.

  3. [German Urological Associations under National Socialism].

    PubMed

    Krischel, M; Moll, F; Fangerau, H

    2011-09-01

    The Deutsche Gesellschaft für Urologie (German Urological Association), established in 1907, was a German-Austrian medical society in which Jewish physicians held important positions. When the Nazis seized power in 1933, the Austrian Hans Rubritius was president of the society. The non-German presidency and the exclusion of Jewish colleagues from the professional society and medical practice led to a halt of the society's activities. At the same time in the mid 1930s, German urologists founded the Gesellschaft Reichsdeutscher Urologen (Association of Reichs-German Urologists) whose members aligned themselves with Nazi health policies and in turn received professional and personal benefits.

  4. Kernel mucking in top

    SciTech Connect

    LeFebvre, W.

    1994-08-01

    For many years, the popular program top has aided system administrations in examination of process resource usage on their machines. Yet few are familiar with the techniques involved in obtaining this information. Most of what is displayed by top is available only in the dark recesses of kernel memory. Extracting this information requires familiarity not only with how bytes are read from the kernel, but also what data needs to be read. The wide variety of systems and variants of the Unix operating system in today`s marketplace makes writing such a program very challenging. This paper explores the tremendous diversity in kernel information across the many platforms and the solutions employed by top to achieve and maintain ease of portability in the presence of such divergent systems.

  5. Top-ophilia

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    Almost from the moment in June 1977 when the discovery of the Upsilon resonance revealed the existence of what we now call the bottom quark, physicists began searching for its partner. Through the years, as we established the electric charge and weak isospin of the b-quark, and detected the virtual influence of its mate, it became clear that the top quark must exist. Exactly at what mass, we couldn't say, but we knew just how top events would look. We also knew that top events would be rare--if the Tevatron could make them at all--and that picking out the events would pose a real challenge for the experimenters and their detectors.

  6. TOPS optical correlation program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindell, Scott D.

    1993-09-01

    Martin Marietta is conducting a TOPS optical correlation program in which several algorithms and four optical correlators involving two spatial light modulator technologies will be developed and tested. The program will culminate in 1994 with an automatic target recognition flight demonstration using a UH-1 helicopter flying a Fiber Optic Guide Missile (FOG-M) mission profile. The flight demonstration will be conducted by US Army Missile Command (MICOM) and Martin Marietta and will involve detecting, locating and tracking a M60A2 tank positioned among an array of five vehicle types. Current status of the TOPS program will be given.

  7. TOPping off meiosis.

    PubMed

    Haber, James E

    2015-02-19

    Double-strand breaks (DSBs) threaten chromosome integrity. The most accurate repair of DSBs is by homologous recombination (HR), catalyzed by recombination proteins such as Rad51. Three papers in this issue of Molecular Cell (Fasching et al., 2015; Kaur et al., 2015; Tang et al., 2015) now reveal the role of three of these proteins in budding yeast: Sgs1 (BLM homolog), Top3 (TOPIIIα homolog), and Rmi1. They demonstrate several steps where all three proteins act together, and find additional functions of the Top3-Rmi1 subcomplex that are critical for the completion of meiosis.

  8. Pressure induced metallization of Germane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Canales, M.; Bergara, A.; Feng, J.; Grochala, W.

    2006-09-01

    Recently reported superconductivity in lithium under pressure has renewed the interest on hydrogen and hydrogen-rich systems in the long standing quest for room temperature superconductivity. Although the required metallization of pure hydrogen cannot be achieved within correct experimental capabilities, chemical precompression exerted by heavier atoms in compounds with a large hydrogen content is expected to imply that lower pressures might be required to attain the metallic transition in these alloys. In this article, we present an ab initio analysis of pressure induced metallization of germane, as a particular case between group IVa hydrides. According to our calculations, metallization of germane is predicted to occur at an experimentally accessible pressure of around 70 GPa, which corresponds to a compression factor of 3.4.

  9. Facility management in German hospitals.

    PubMed

    Gudat, H

    2000-04-01

    Facility management and optimum building management offer for hospitals a chance to reduce costs and to increase quality, process sequences, employee motivation and customer satisfaction. Some years ago simple services such as cleaning, catering or laundry were outsourced. Now, German hospitals progress to more complex fields such as building and medical technology, clinical support processes such as pharmacy, central laboratory and sterilization, goods and logistics services.

  10. Current issues in German healthcare.

    PubMed

    Graf von der Schulenburg, J M; Uber, A

    1997-11-01

    Germany has developed a model of social health insurance for financing healthcare. The basic characteristics of this model are compulsory membership, income-dependent contributions paid by employers and employees, a comprehensive package of healthcare entitlements, stringent government regulation and implementation by not-for-profit health insurers--the sickness funds--which operate under public law. Since the mid-1970s, when health care cost containment gradually evolved as a new issue in German healthcare policy-making, a long series of reform programmes have been initiated. Two recent development can be noted: the introduction of market competition in health insurance and the introduction of fixed budgets. Market competition in health insurance is now an explicit policy tool in Germany. This article analyses the German healthcare system, the history of healthcare reforms and the current healthcare acts. Special emphasis is given to the German drug market and its regulation. The paper describes the present cost-containment policy for pharmaceutical products, especially the global budget concept which was introduced for medicines and patients' copayments.

  11. Top quark physics: Future measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, R.; Vejcik, S.; Berger, E.L.

    1997-04-04

    The authors discuss the study of the top quark at future experiments and machines. Top`s large mass makes it a unique probe of physics at the natural electroweak scale. They emphasize measurements of the top quark`s mass, width, and couplings, as well as searches for rare or nonstandard decays, and discuss the complementary roles played by hadron and lepton colliders.

  12. Ten Top Tech Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLester, Susan

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the major technical issues, products, and practices of the day. The top ten tech trends are listed and discussed. These include: (1) data mining; (2) cyberbullying; (3) 21st century skills; (4) digital content; (5) learning at leisure; (6) personal responders; (7) mobile tools; (8) bandwidth; (9) open-source…

  13. Choosing a Top Ten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IUCN Bulletin, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of 34 animals and 32 plants which are candidates for a list of the top 10 endangered species. Also presents the criteria used to formulate these lists. They include the conservation value (urgency prominance, biological value) and operational considerations (such as cost factors) for each species. (JN)

  14. Caffeine Ingestion Increases Estimated Glycolytic Metabolism during Taekwondo Combat Simulation but Does Not Improve Performance or Parasympathetic Reactivation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of caffeine ingestion on performance and estimated energy system contribution during simulated taekwondo combat and on post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation. Methods Ten taekwondo athletes completed two experimental sessions separated by at least 48 hours. Athletes consumed a capsule containing either caffeine (5 mg∙kg-1) or placebo (cellulose) one hour before the combat simulation (3 rounds of 2 min separated by 1 min passive recovery), in a double-blind, randomized, repeated-measures crossover design. All simulated combat was filmed to quantify the time spent fighting in each round. Lactate concentration and rating of perceived exertion were measured before and after each round, while heart rate (HR) and the estimated contribution of the oxidative (WAER), ATP-PCr (WPCR), and glycolytic (W[La-]) systems were calculated during the combat simulation. Furthermore, parasympathetic reactivation after the combat simulation was evaluated through 1) taking absolute difference between the final HR observed at the end of third round and the HR recorded 60-s after (HRR60s), 2) taking the time constant of HR decay obtained by fitting the 6-min post-exercise HRR into a first-order exponential decay curve (HRRτ), or by 3) analyzing the first 30-s via logarithmic regression analysis (T30). Results Caffeine ingestion increased estimated glycolytic energy contribution in relation to placebo (12.5 ± 1.7 kJ and 8.9 ± 1.2 kJ, P = 0.04). However, caffeine did not improve performance as measured by attack number (CAF: 26. 7 ± 1.9; PLA: 27.3 ± 2.1, P = 0.48) or attack time (CAF: 33.8 ± 1.9 s; PLA: 36.6 ± 4.5 s, P = 0.58). Similarly, RPE (CAF: 11.7 ± 0.4 a.u.; PLA: 11.5 ± 0.3 a.u., P = 0.62), HR (CAF: 170 ± 3.5 bpm; PLA: 174.2 bpm, P = 0.12), oxidative (CAF: 109.3 ± 4.5 kJ; PLA: 107.9 kJ, P = 0.61) and ATP-PCr energy contributions (CAF: 45.3 ± 3.4 kJ; PLA: 46.8 ± 3.6 kJ, P = 0.72) during the combat simulation

  15. Four tops for LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Ezequiel; Faroughy, Darius A.; Kamenik, Jernej F.; Morales, Roberto; Szynkman, Alejandro

    2017-02-01

    We design a search strategy for the Standard Model t t bar t t bar production at the LHC in the same-sign dilepton and trilepton channels. We study different signal features and, given the small expected number of signal events, we scrutinize in detail all reducible and irreducible backgrounds. Our analysis shows that by imposing a basic set of jet and lepton selection criteria, the SM pp → t t bar t t bar process could be evidenced in the near future, within Run-II, when combining both multi-lepton search channels. We argue that this search strategy should also be used as a guideline to test New Physics coupling predominantly to top-quarks. In particular, we show that a non-resonant New Physics enhancement in the four-top final state would be detectable through this search strategy. We study two top-philic simplified models of this kind, a neutral scalar boson and a Z‧, and present current and future exclusion limits on their mass and couplings.

  16. The effects of target distance on pivot hip, trunk, pelvis, and kicking leg kinematics in Taekwondo roundhouse kicks.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Woong; Kwon, Moon-Seok; Yenuga, Sree Sushma; Kwon, Young-Hoooo

    2010-06-01

    The study purpose was to investigate the effects of target distance on pivot hip, trunk, pelvis, and kicking leg movements in Taekwondo roundhouse kick. Twelve male black-belt holders executed roundhouse kicks for three target distances (Normal, Short, and Long). Linear displacements of the pivot hip and orientation angles of the pelvis, trunk, right thigh, and right shank were obtained through a three-dimensional video motion analysis. Select displacements, distances, peak orientation angles, and angle ranges were compared among the conditions using one-way repeated measure ANOVA (p < 0.05). Several orientation angle variables (posterior tilt range, peak right-tilted position, peak right-rotated position, peak left-rotated position, and left rotation range of the pelvis; peak hyperextended position and peak right-flexed position of the trunk; peak flexed position, flexion range and peak internal-rotated position of the hip) as well as the linear displacements of the pivot hip and the reach significantly changed in response to different target distances. It was concluded that the adjustment to different target distances was mainly accomplished through the pivot hip displacements, hip flexion, and pelvis left rotation. Target distance mainly affected the reach control function of the pelvis and the linear balance function of the trunk.

  17. A follow-up study on the physique, body composition, physical fitness, and isokinetic strength of female collegiate Taekwondo athletes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Bae; Jung, Hyun-Chul; Song, Jong-Kook; Chai, Joo-Hee; Lee, Eun-Jae

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze changes in physique, body composition, physical fitness, and isokinetic strength in female collegiate taekwondo athletes. The study included 14 subjects, of whom 8 were followed up throughout the study. Anthropometric characteristics included body weight, height, sitting height, circumferences, and bone width. Physical fitness parameters included flexibility, agility, muscle strength, muscular endurance, power, speed, and cardiorespiratory endurance. Peak torque, mean power, and H/Q ratio were analyzed by using Cybex 770. All data were analyzed by using the SAS statistical program. Paired t test was performed, with 0.05 as the significance level. The results indicated significant changes in body weight, and upper arm and flexed upper arm circumferences during the experimental period. Test scores for plate tapping, and sit and reach significantly increased, but that for power decreased. In addition, the peak power of right flexion at 180°/sec was significantly increased, as well as the mean power of right and left flexion, and the H/Q ratio at 180°/sec. PMID:25830145

  18. A follow-up study on the physique, body composition, physical fitness, and isokinetic strength of female collegiate Taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Bae; Jung, Hyun-Chul; Song, Jong-Kook; Chai, Joo-Hee; Lee, Eun-Jae

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze changes in physique, body composition, physical fitness, and isokinetic strength in female collegiate taekwondo athletes. The study included 14 subjects, of whom 8 were followed up throughout the study. Anthropometric characteristics included body weight, height, sitting height, circumferences, and bone width. Physical fitness parameters included flexibility, agility, muscle strength, muscular endurance, power, speed, and cardiorespiratory endurance. Peak torque, mean power, and H/Q ratio were analyzed by using Cybex 770. All data were analyzed by using the SAS statistical program. Paired t test was performed, with 0.05 as the significance level. The results indicated significant changes in body weight, and upper arm and flexed upper arm circumferences during the experimental period. Test scores for plate tapping, and sit and reach significantly increased, but that for power decreased. In addition, the peak power of right flexion at 180°/sec was significantly increased, as well as the mean power of right and left flexion, and the H/Q ratio at 180°/sec.

  19. 22. Top Lateral Bracing & Top Chord, Vertical Tension Member ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Top Lateral Bracing & Top Chord, Vertical Tension Member 6, end Vertical Compression Members 5 & 4; South Swing Span; looking N. - Pacific Shortline Bridge, U.S. Route 20,spanning Missouri River, Sioux City, Woodbury County, IA

  20. Cloud top entrainment instability and cloud top distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boers, Reinout; Spinhirne, James D.

    1990-01-01

    Classical cloud-top entrainment instability condition formulation is discussed. A saturation point diagram is used to investigate the details of mixing in cases where the cloud-top entrainment instability criterion is satisfied.

  1. 7. DETAIL VIEW OF TOP CHORD AND TOP CHORD CONNECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL VIEW OF TOP CHORD AND TOP CHORD CONNECTION - Springfield-Des Arc Bridge, Spanning North Branch of Cadron Creek at Old Springfield-Des Arc Road (County Road 222), Springfield, Conway County, AR

  2. [History of the German Spine Society].

    PubMed

    Wilke, H-J; Carstens, C

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this article is to summarize the history of the German Spine Society (DWG). This society resulted in the year 2006 after several attempts from the fusion of two established German societies, which were dealing with topics around the spine, der "German Society for Spine Research" founded in the year 1958 and the "German Society for Spine Surgery" founded in the year 1987. This fusion was the beginning of a success story, as from this time on the annual membership increased so much that the DWG became the largest spine society in Europe and one of all spine societies worldwide.

  3. German Unification and Its Ramifications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    national iden- tity. Yet the unification of Germany will do more than finally bring to an end the painful realities of German partition; it will also...the Unite Sn-w te4 esn omomic Polly Groi Meet- * irg in B"d we Ju 7-9 190. %9ý Gerniwu OECD £waomk 8wwpy 1990 M (OECD UVW- Seeavo Pao% 1980). i+ i I Ii...also force painful changes within Germany, as it will open or break up a variety of arrangements that have previously protected uncompetitive sectors of

  4. Top quark physics at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Jason

    2004-04-30

    The existence of the top quark, discovered by CDF and D0 in 1995, has been re-established in the burgeoning dataset being collected in Run 2 of the Tevatron at Fermilab. Results from CDF on the top quark production cross section and top quark mass are consistent with the Standard Model expectations. The well-characterized top data samples will make it possible in the future to probe further for new physics in the top quark sector. This report summarizes recent CDF top quark physics results.

  5. Effect of a four-week exercise program on the secretion of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2 and IL-6 cytokines in elite Taekwondo athletes

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Oktay

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine how a 4-week exercise program affects the serum levels of certain cytokines in Taekwondo athletes. The study involved 10 elite male Taekwondo athletes (mean age, 20.67±0.24 years; mean weight, 65.45±1.69 kg) who were studying at the Physical Education and Sports High School of Selçuk University (Konya, Turkey) in June 2014. The subjects were involved in a Taekwondo exercise program on every weekday for 4 weeks. The subjects were also engaged in an exercise to exhaustion session twice; once before starting the 4-week exercise program and once upon completion of the program. Blood samples were collected from the subjects in four rounds: During rest, upon fatigue, and before and after the 4-week exercise program. These samples were analyzed to establish the serum levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-6 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test kits. Pre- and post-exercise program, the IFN-γ and TNF-α levels did not show any significant difference. When compared with the pre-exercise levels, serum IL-2 levels of the subjects were found to be elevated after the 4-week exercise program. The highest serum IL-6 values were established after the subjects were exercised to fatigue before the exercise program was initiated (P<0.05). The 4-week exercise program resulted in a decrease in IL-6 levels (P<0.05). The findings of the study indicate that a 4-week exercise program did not result in significant changes in IFN-γ and TNF-α levels, but led to an increase in IL-2 levels. The notable finding of the present study is that a 4-week exercise program reduces cellular immune functions and, thus, the levels of IL-6, which negatively influences performance. PMID:27588179

  6. Effect of various kinds of beverages on stress oxidative, F2 isoprostane, serum lipid and blood glucose of elite taekwondo players

    PubMed Central

    Maghsoudi, Zahra; Shiranian, Ashfin; Askai, Gholamreza; Ghaisvand, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Athletes’ recovery is important in improving their performance. Nutritional strategies can be effective in enhancing recovery rate. Choosing the best food items in appropriate intervals can play effective roles in resynthesis of fuels and recovery of muscle injury. Beverage micro and macronutrient content are helpful in fuel restoration. In this study, we assess the effects of various kinds of beverages on oxidative stress, muscle injury, and metabolic risk factors in taekwondo players. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed on 21 taekwondo players of Isfahan. After collecting fasting blood, they performed runningbased anaerobic sprint test (RAST). Blood lactate was tested again and participants were divided into 3 intervention groups, that is, receiving 500 cc dough, non-alcoholic beer, and chocolate milk at 4 day intervals. After a 2-h recovery period, blood sampling was repeated. Elites consumed other beverages in later phases. Dietary intake and fasting triglyceride, cholesterol, blood sugar, lactate dehydrogenase, and F2-isoprostane concentrations were determined. Data were analyzed with a simple repeated-measures test and post-hoc tests using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. Results: Data showed that cholesterol levels non-significantly decreased after intervention. Triglyceride level was lower after taking dough and carbohydrate replacement drink. Blood glucose concentration increased after intervention periods, however, this increase was significant only after non-alcoholic beverage consumption. Lactate dehydrogenase levels reduced after all cycles, however, F2-isoprostane level showed no significant change. There was not significant change in lactate dehydrogenase and F2-isoprostane levels. Conclusions: Non-alcoholic beer consumption can reduce lactate dehydrogenase concentration; however, it leads to blood sugar increase. Moreover, dough consumption significantly reduced triglyceride level

  7. Effect of a four-week exercise program on the secretion of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2 and IL-6 cytokines in elite Taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Oktay

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine how a 4-week exercise program affects the serum levels of certain cytokines in Taekwondo athletes. The study involved 10 elite male Taekwondo athletes (mean age, 20.67±0.24 years; mean weight, 65.45±1.69 kg) who were studying at the Physical Education and Sports High School of Selçuk University (Konya, Turkey) in June 2014. The subjects were involved in a Taekwondo exercise program on every weekday for 4 weeks. The subjects were also engaged in an exercise to exhaustion session twice; once before starting the 4-week exercise program and once upon completion of the program. Blood samples were collected from the subjects in four rounds: During rest, upon fatigue, and before and after the 4-week exercise program. These samples were analyzed to establish the serum levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-6 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test kits. Pre- and post-exercise program, the IFN-γ and TNF-α levels did not show any significant difference. When compared with the pre-exercise levels, serum IL-2 levels of the subjects were found to be elevated after the 4-week exercise program. The highest serum IL-6 values were established after the subjects were exercised to fatigue before the exercise program was initiated (P<0.05). The 4-week exercise program resulted in a decrease in IL-6 levels (P<0.05). The findings of the study indicate that a 4-week exercise program did not result in significant changes in IFN-γ and TNF-α levels, but led to an increase in IL-2 levels. The notable finding of the present study is that a 4-week exercise program reduces cellular immune functions and, thus, the levels of IL-6, which negatively influences performance.

  8. 78 FR 62307 - German-American Day, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-16

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9035 of October 4, 2013 German-American Day, 2013 By the President of the... German-American Day, we celebrate the vibrant threads of German heritage woven into our national fabric..., as German-American Day. I encourage all Americans to learn more about the history of German...

  9. Creating Germans Abroad: White Education and the Colonial Condition in German Southwest Africa, 1894-1914

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walther, Daniel Joseph

    2013-01-01

    From the perspective of German colonial supporters and authorities, appropriate white education in the settler colony of Southwest Africa (SWA) was essential for maintaining German hegemony in the territory. In order to reach this objective, the German colonial administration in SWA, with assistance from pedagogues and institutions in Germany,…

  10. Business German: The Use of Simulations in a Total Immersion German Business Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Ellen

    At Concordia College's Institute of German Studies (Minnesota), an immersion program, a 1-month course entitled "German in the Business World" concentrates on development of written and oral communication skills needed in firms dealing with German-speakers. As part of its emphasis on banking, insurance, and business, the course includes…

  11. Ludolph Brauer, German aeromedical pioneer.

    PubMed

    Harsch, Viktor

    2004-08-01

    Ludolph Brauer (1865-1951) played an influential role in the history of aviation medicine in Germany. The Treaty of Versailles had put a stop to the development of German aviation and associated medical activities at the end of World War I. Brauer deserves credit for restarting civilian aviation medicine in Germany in the 1920s, paving the way for it to flourish in the 1930s. As Medical Director of the Hamburg-Eppendorf General Hospital, Brauer established the first German Institute of Aviation Medicine (GIAM) in 1927 in affiliation with the Tuberculosis Research Institute with its two large pneumatic chambers. The GIAM was active in altitude research and the selection of pilots, as well as educating medical students in aviation medicine, training Aviation Medical Examiners, and exploring clinical applications of hypobaric and climatic therapy. Brauer was forced to retire in 1934 for political reasons as the GIAM came under the influence of the military; in 1939 it was made part of the Aeromedical Research Institute of the "Reichsluftfahrt" Ministry. Brauer was a co-editor of the journal Luftfahrtmedizin in the 1930s and 1940s. He died in Munich on November 25th, 1951.

  12. Top quark physics: Future Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, Raymond; Gerdes, David; Jaros, John; Vejcik, Steve; Berger, Edmond L.; Chivukula, R. Sekhar; Cuypers, Frank; Drell, Persis S.; Fero, Michael; Hadley, Nicholas; Han, Tao; Heinson, Ann P.; Knuteson, Bruce; Larios, Francisco; Miettinen, Hannu; Orr, Lynne H.; Peskin, Michael E.; Rizzo, Thomas; Sarid, Uri; Schmidt, Carl; Stelzer, Tim; Sullivan, Zack

    1996-12-31

    We discuss the study of the top quark at future experiments and machines. Top's large mass makes it a unique probe of physics at the natural electroweak scale. We emphasize measurements of the top quark's mass, width, and couplings, as well as searches for rare or nonstandard decays, and discuss the complementary roles played by hadron and lepton colliders.

  13. Top physics results at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Vickey, Trevor; /Illinois U., Urbana

    2005-05-01

    The most recent results on top quark physics at CDF are reported. Measurements of cross-section and mass are presented, and the status of single top quark production searches are discussed. The results obtained from probing various top quark properties are also presented.

  14. Curly Top Disease of Tomato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Curly top disease, caused by viruses in the genus, Curtovirus, has impacted western US agriculture for over a century; and is a significant threat to tomato production. The two most abundant curtovirus species today are Beet severe curly top virus (BSCTV) and Beet mild curly top virus (BMCTV) but ot...

  15. 8. VIEW OF SOUTHWEST END OF GERMAN VILLAGE LOOKING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF SOUTHWEST END OF GERMAN VILLAGE LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Dugway Proving Ground, German-Japanese Village, German Village, South of Stark Road, in WWII Incendiary Test Area, Dugway, Tooele County, UT

  16. 9. DETAIL OF BRICKWORK ON SOUTHEAST SIDE OF GERMAN VILLAGE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL OF BRICKWORK ON SOUTHEAST SIDE OF GERMAN VILLAGE. - Dugway Proving Ground, German-Japanese Village, German Village, South of Stark Road, in WWII Incendiary Test Area, Dugway, Tooele County, UT

  17. 2. OVERALL VIEW OF GERMAN VILLAGE LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARD BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OVERALL VIEW OF GERMAN VILLAGE LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARD BUILDING T-8100. BUNKER, BUILDING T-8104, IN FOREGROUND. - Dugway Proving Ground, German-Japanese Village, German Village, South of Stark Road, in WWII Incendiary Test Area, Dugway, Tooele County, UT

  18. 4. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF GERMAN VILLAGE LOOKING SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF GERMAN VILLAGE LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Dugway Proving Ground, German-Japanese Village, German Village, South of Stark Road, in WWII Incendiary Test Area, Dugway, Tooele County, UT

  19. Health Information in German (Deutsch): MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → German (Deutsch) URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/german.html Health Information in German (Deutsch) To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  20. German Spelling Reform: Kangaroos, Emus, and Cockatoos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohlendorf, Harald

    1997-01-01

    The latest movement to reform German spelling is discussed, focusing on the need for greater consistency in spelling of words from other languages and the major changes proposed. Issues addressed include capitalization, specific idiosyncracies in German spelling, concerns related to computerization, public opinion, and the scope of the reform.…

  1. Teaching German for Musicians: A Practical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthias, Bettina

    2003-01-01

    Explores the opportunities for teaching German for musicians and offers it as an approach to teaching beginning German in general. A short theoretical discussion of the impact of music on foreign language learning precedes the presentation of various teaching tools and ideas that map the territory in which musical foreign language teaching can…

  2. The Role of German in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sang, Juergen

    This historical overview of German studies in Japan, dating from the birth of modern Japan in the 1870's to the present time, includes commentary on the nature and scope of existing language programs. The importance of German idealism--reflected in the philosophy of Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, and Marx--on Japanese culture is noted.…

  3. German Library Networks in the Web Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    Discusses German libraries' access to the Internet and World Wide Web, and reviews German library development and organization. Topics include state libraries; research library networks; national scientific service organizations that provide specialized information services; funding; standards; online catalog software; document delivery and…

  4. The First Suggestopedia German Course in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gassner-Roberts, Sigrid

    An account of personal experiences and experiments with a suggestopedic German course taught at the University of Adelaide in Australia is presented. Summaries of the students' background and of their continuous achievements in the German class are provided. The class was conducted primarily according to the "Manual of Classroom Procedures…

  5. German for Communication: A Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jens-Peter; Grittner, Frank M.

    This guide is designed to: (1) offer a rationale for German instruction and student enrollment; (2) give suggestions for proficiency-oriented lesson planning; and (3) provide classroom activities for students at various proficiency levels. A section on promoting the study of German discusses its role as a major world language, in tourism and world…

  6. German-Speaking People of Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This book attempts to provide cultural information which will enable an American to communicate effectively with German-speaking people of Europe. The book discusses differences between American and Germanic culture in such areas as food, laws, customs, religion, language, dress, and basic attitudes. Background information is given on Austria,…

  7. German Schools Abroad: Hotspots of Elite Multilingualism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Anne E; Admiraal, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    While multilingualism itself is a widely analyzed topic, a study about multilingualism at German schools abroad is so far unique. This quantitative study investigates the differences in the size of German expressive and receptive vocabulary between monolingual and multilingual students, aged between 5 and 11 years. A cohort of 65 multilingual…

  8. The Hypermetric Line in Germanic Alliterative Verse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Megan E.

    2011-01-01

    My dissertation undertakes a complete study of the stress patterns, syntactic construction, and rhetorical style of hypermetric verse in Germanic alliterative poetry. This project allows me to fill a gap in the study of Germanic meter while simultaneously investigating the connection between metrical and literary scholarship. Hypermetric meter…

  9. Leadership Practices in German and UK Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Grace

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this research was to determine whether leadership practices vary between German and UK organisations. Design/methodology/approach: The author used self-assessment documents submitted by German and UK organisations to the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM), to identify leadership practices in both countries. A…

  10. Language History for Teaching and Learning German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightfoot, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    This article presents information about the history of the German language and makes pertinent suggestions for teaching German as a Foreign Language. The reasoning for such an approach is presented, along with supportive new empirical data and a related professional directive. A selected survey of historical, explanatory points from the literature…

  11. Facebook Used in a German Film Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leier, Vera

    2011-01-01

    Looking for a way to make German language study more relevant and to step out of the conventional classroom setting, I introduced Facebook (FB) as a learning platform to my intermediate German students at the University of Canterbury, New Zealand. The students took part in a film competition. A FB group was created and the films were uploaded. The…

  12. German Rap Music in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Johannes

    2003-01-01

    Provides background information on German rap artists and bands and discusses how to implement the music in various classroom situations at all levels. Highlights some of the available material on German rap music and provides information on how to locate rap texts, information, and other material via the Internet and other sources. (Author/VWL)

  13. The Teaching of German Literature in Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rippley, LaVern J.

    The present-day status of language instruction at St. Olaf College is viewed in the perspective of past requirements at the college. Reasons for student interest in German, the most popular modern language, focus on the influence of family ties with speakers of Norwegian. A discussion of methods of teaching German literature in translation is…

  14. CDF results on top

    SciTech Connect

    Beretvas, A.; CDF Collaboration

    1995-08-01

    CDF has established the existence of the top quark. Results from p{anti p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV are presented. In the dilepton final state the authors found seven events with a background of 1.3 {+-} 0.3. In the e, {mu} + {nu} + jets channel with a b identified via a secondary vertex detector (SVX), they found twenty one events with a background of 5.5 {+-} 1.8. They measure the top quark mass to be 176 {+-} 8 (stat) {+-} 10 (syst) GeV/c{sup 2}, and the t{anti t} production cross section to be 7.6{sub {minus}2.0}{sup +2.4} pb. The integrated luminosity for the results presented in this talk is 67 pb{sup {minus}1}. The CDF detector needs to be upgraded for the next run. The integrated luminosity for the next run is expected to be more than 1,000 pb{sup {minus}1}.

  15. Top quark mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    L. Cerrito

    2004-07-16

    Preliminary results on the measurement of the top quark mass at the Tevatron Collider are presented. In the dilepton decay channel, the CDF Collaboration measures m{sub t} = 175.0{sub -16.9}{sup +17.4}(stat.){+-}8.4(syst.) GeV/c{sup 2}, using a sample of {approx} 126 pb{sup -1} of proton-antiproton collision data at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV (Run II). In the lepton plus jets channel, the CDF Collaboration measures 177.5{sub -9.4}{sup +12.7}(stat.) {+-} 7.1(syst.) GeV/c{sup 2}, using a sample of {approx} 102 pb{sup -1} at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The D0 Collaboration has newly applied a likelihood technique to improve the analysis of {approx} 125 pb{sup -1} of proton-antiproton collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV (Run I), with the result: m{sub t} = 180.1 {+-} 3.6(stat.) {+-}3.9(syst.) GeV/c{sup 2}. The latter is combined with all the measurements based on the data collected in Run I to yield the most recent and comprehensive experimental determination of the top quark mass: m{sub t} = 178.0 {+-} 2.7(stat.) {+-} 3.3(syst.) GeV/c{sup 2}.

  16. Top properties at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarelli, G.; The CDF Collaboration

    1997-05-01

    We present the latest results associated with top properties at the Tevatron. The large data set collected in four years of running has allowed, after top discovery, the study of various top properties. The results presented here include the measurement of the CKM matrix element {vert_bar}V{sub if}{vert_bar}, the search for top FCNC, the study of properties of W in t decays and the search for heavy states decaying to tt pairs. Future measurements in top physics at the Tevatron are briefly discussed.

  17. Top quark pair production and top quark properties at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Chang-Seong

    2016-06-02

    We present the most recent measurements of top quark pairs production and top quark properties in proton-antiproton collisions with center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV using CDF II detector at the Tevatron. The combination of top pair production cross section measurements and the direct measurement of top quark width are reported. The test of Standard Model predictions for top quark decaying into $b$-quarks, performed by measuring the ratio $R$ between the top quark branching fraction to $b$-quark and the branching fraction to any type of down quark is shown. The extraction of the CKM matrix element $|V_{tb}|$ from the ratio $R$ is discussed. We also present the latest measurements on the forward-backward asymmetry ($A_{FB}$) in top anti-top quark production. With the full CDF Run II data set, the measurements are performed in top anti-top decaying to final states that contain one or two charged leptons (electrons or muons). In addition, we combine the results of the leptonic forward-backward asymmetry in $t\\bar t$ system between the two final states. All the results show deviations from the next-to-leading order (NLO) standard model (SM) calculation.

  18. [The German Environmental Specimen Bank].

    PubMed

    Schröter-Kermani, Christa; Gies, Andreas; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike

    2016-03-01

    The main objective of the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) is the long-term storage of environmental and human samples under stable deep-freeze conditions for future research. The ESB is unique in providing a continuous historical record of environmental and human exposure to chemicals in Germany. ESB was started parallel to the development of the first German Chemicals Legislation in the late 1970s. In 1979, the ESB test operation began. After the Chemicals Law came into force in 1982, the ESB was established as a permanent facility in 1985. With the new European Chemicals Legislation, REACH, in 2007 responsibility for the safety of commercial chemicals and risk assessment was assigned to the industry. Since then, the ESB has become even more important in verifying the self-assessment of the industry, in evaluating the effectiveness of regulations, thus ensuring the protection of humans and the environment against adverse effects caused by exposure to chemicals. These objectives are pursued by the regular monitoring of contaminations and the assessment of temporal trends. Demonstrating the necessity of deriving exposure reduction measures, ESB results serve as key information for policy-makers. Information on preventing exposure to chemicals is available to the general public and to the public health services. The ESB is thus an important monitoring instrument of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety. The Federal Environment Agency operates the ESB based on its own concepts, heads the scientific data evaluation and transfers results into the environmental policy arena and to the general public.

  19. Effect of a Six-Week Preparation Period on Acute Physiological Responses to a Simulated Combat in Young National-Level Taekwondo Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis T.; Chtourou, Hamdi; Torres-Luque, Gema; Tasiopoulos, Ioannis G.; Heller, Jan; Padulo, Johnny

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine changes in physical attributes, physiological characteristics and responses that occurred in a simulated combat during a six-week preparatory period in young taekwondo athletes. Seven athletes (age 12.17 ± 1.11 years) were examined before (pre-intervention) and after (post-intervention) a preparatory period for physical fitness and physiological responses to a 2×90 s simulated bout with a 30 s rest period. The heart rate (HR) was monitored during the simulated combat, and handgrip muscle strength (HMS) along with the countermovement jump (CMJ) were recorded before and after the combat. When compared with pre-intervention values, in post-intervention we observed a decrease in body mass, body fat percentage, and the HR at rest and during recovery after a 3 min step test, and an increase in maximal velocity of the cycle ergometer force-velocity test, the CMJ and mean power during the 30 s continuous jumping test (p<0.05). Furthermore, HR responses to a simulated combat were lower in the post-intervention session (p<0.05). CMJ values increased after the bout in both pre and post-intervention, with higher absolute values in the latter case (p<0.05), whereas there was no difference in HMS. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that the acute physiological responses to a simulated taekwondo combat vary during a season, which might be explained by changes in physical fitness. PMID:26557196

  20. Effect of a Six-Week Preparation Period on Acute Physiological Responses to a Simulated Combat in Young National-Level Taekwondo Athletes.

    PubMed

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis T; Chtourou, Hamdi; Torres-Luque, Gema; Tasiopoulos, Ioannis G; Heller, Jan; Padulo, Johnny

    2015-09-29

    The aim of this study was to examine changes in physical attributes, physiological characteristics and responses that occurred in a simulated combat during a six-week preparatory period in young taekwondo athletes. Seven athletes (age 12.17 ± 1.11 years) were examined before (pre-intervention) and after (post-intervention) a preparatory period for physical fitness and physiological responses to a 2×90 s simulated bout with a 30 s rest period. The heart rate (HR) was monitored during the simulated combat, and handgrip muscle strength (HMS) along with the countermovement jump (CMJ) were recorded before and after the combat. When compared with pre-intervention values, in post-intervention we observed a decrease in body mass, body fat percentage, and the HR at rest and during recovery after a 3 min step test, and an increase in maximal velocity of the cycle ergometer force-velocity test, the CMJ and mean power during the 30 s continuous jumping test (p<0.05). Furthermore, HR responses to a simulated combat were lower in the post-intervention session (p<0.05). CMJ values increased after the bout in both pre and post-intervention, with higher absolute values in the latter case (p<0.05), whereas there was no difference in HMS. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that the acute physiological responses to a simulated taekwondo combat vary during a season, which might be explained by changes in physical fitness.

  1. Top quark physics

    SciTech Connect

    Menzione, A.

    1995-10-01

    Most of the material presented in this report, comes from contributions to the parallel session PL20 of this conference. We summarise the experimental results of direct production of Top quarks, coming from the CDF and C0 Collaborations at Fermilab, and compare these results to what one expects within current theoretical understanding. Particular attention is given to new results such as all hadronic modes of t{bar t} decay. As far as the mass is concerned, a comparison is made with precision measurements of related quantities, coming from LEP and other experiments. An attempt is made to look at the medium-term future and understand which variables and with what accuracy one can measure them with increased integrated luminosity.

  2. Top-Higgs and top-pion phenomenology in the top triangle moose model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chivukula, R. Sekhar; Simmons, Elizabeth H.; Coleppa, Baradhwaj; Logan, Heather E.; Martin, Adam

    2011-03-01

    We discuss the deconstructed version of a topcolor-assisted technicolor model wherein the mechanism of top quark mass generation is separated from the rest of electroweak symmetry breaking. The minimal deconstructed version of this scenario is a “triangle moose” model, where the top quark gets its mass from coupling to a top-Higgs field, while the gauge boson masses are generated from a Higgsless sector. The spectrum of the model includes scalar (top-Higgs) and pseudoscalar (top-pion) states. In this paper, we study the properties of these particles, discuss their production mechanisms and decay modes, and suggest how best to search for them at the LHC.

  3. Top-Higgs and top-pion phenomenology in the top triangle moose model

    SciTech Connect

    Chivukula, R. Sekhar; Simmons, Elizabeth H.; Coleppa, Baradhwaj; Logan, Heather E.; Martin, Adam

    2011-03-01

    We discuss the deconstructed version of a topcolor-assisted technicolor model wherein the mechanism of top quark mass generation is separated from the rest of electroweak symmetry breaking. The minimal deconstructed version of this scenario is a ''triangle moose'' model, where the top quark gets its mass from coupling to a top-Higgs field, while the gauge boson masses are generated from a Higgsless sector. The spectrum of the model includes scalar (top-Higgs) and pseudoscalar (top-pion) states. In this paper, we study the properties of these particles, discuss their production mechanisms and decay modes, and suggest how best to search for them at the LHC.

  4. Are the 'hard' martial arts, such as the Korean martial art, TaeKwon-Do, of benefit to senior citizens?

    PubMed

    Brudnak, M A; Dundero, D; Van Hecke, F M

    2002-10-01

    Falls are a leading cause of death in the elderly. Associated with aging is a loss of muscular strength, flexibility, and coordination. Regular exercise is widely believed to be of benefit for the elderly. To this end, various exercise regimes have been employed to battle the associated problems of aging. One such has been the Chinese martial art, Tai Chi Chuan (TC). TC as an exercise system uses slow smooth movements to train the body in balance, endurance, and strength. For this reason, it is known as a 'soft' martial art, in that it is very non-impact oriented. There have been a variety of studies in the West examining the beneficial effects of TC. However, to date, there have been no studies with senior citizens using other martial arts, of which, TC is but one. The present study was designed to examine the appropriateness and effects of a Korean martial art known as TaeKwon-Do (TKD), a 'hard' martial art, on an elderly population measuring similar parameters reported for TC. Of those participants that attended >85% of classes, an increase was observed in the average number of push-ups, trunk flexion, and balance time on each foot. TKD proved effective at increasing one-leg balance in the population examined. Additionally, the overall dropout rate was extremely low suggesting both that the elderly are capable of participating in a hard martial art and that they have an interest in it as a viable alternative to other forms of exercise. The present study suggests that TKD as a form of exercise for an elderly population is both viable and potentially popular and warrants further study.

  5. [The boycott against German scientists and the German language after World War I].

    PubMed

    Reinbothe, R

    2013-12-01

    After the First World War, the Allied academies of sciences staged a boycott against German scientists and the German language. The objective of the boycott was to prevent the re-establishment of the prewar dominance of German scientists, the German language and German publications in the area of international scientific cooperation. Therefore the Allies excluded German scientists and the German language from international associations, congresses and publications, while they created new international scientific organizations under their leadership. Medical associations and congresses were also affected, e. g. congresses on surgery, ophthalmology and tuberculosis. Allied physicians replaced the "International Anti-Tuberculosis Association" founded in Berlin in 1902 with the "Union Internationale contre la Tuberculose"/"International Union against Tuberculosis", founded in Paris in 1920. Only French and English were used as the official languages of the new scientific organizations, just as in the League of Nations. The boycott was based on the fact that the German scientists had denied German war guilt and war crimes and glorified German militarism in a manifesto "To The Civilized World!" in 1914. The boycott first started in 1919 and had to be abolished in 1926, when Germany became a member of the League of Nations. Many German and foreign physicians as well as other scientists protested against the boycott. Some German scientists and institutions even staged a counter-boycott impeding the resumption of international collaboration. The boycott entailed an enduring decline of German as an international scientific language. After the Second World War scientists of the victorious Western Powers implemented a complete reorganization of the international scientific arena, based on the same organizational structures and language restrictions they had built up in 1919/1920. At the same time scientists from the U.S.A. staged an active language and publication policy, in

  6. Top physics results from CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, Gervasio; /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.

    2005-05-01

    The top quark is by far the most massive fundamental particle observed so far, and the study of its properties is interesting for several reasons ranging from its possible special role in electroweak symmetry breaking to its sensitivity to physics beyond the Standard Model. They present recent top physics results from CDF based on 160-320 pb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collision data at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The t{bar t} cross section and the top mass have been measured in different decay channels and using different methods. they have searched for evidence of single top production, setting upper limits on its production rate. Other results shown in this conference include studies of the polarization of W bosons from top decays, a search for charged Higgs decaying from top, and a search for additional heavy t' quarks.

  7. Dark matter on top

    SciTech Connect

    Gómez, M.A.; Jackson, C.B.; Shaughnessy, G. E-mail: chris@uta.edu

    2014-12-01

    We consider a simplified model of fermionic dark matter which couples exclusively to the right-handed top quark via a renormalizable interaction with a color-charged scalar. We first compute the relic abundance of this type of dark matter and investigate constraints placed on the model parameter space by the latest direct detection data. We also perform a detailed analysis for the production of dark matter at the LHC for this model. We find several kinematic variables that allow for a clean signal extraction and we show that the parameter space of this model will be well probed during LHC Run-II. Finally, we investigate the possibility of detecting this type of dark matter via its annihilations into gamma rays. We compute the continuum and the line emission (which includes a possible ''Higgs in Space!'' line) and its possible discovery by future gamma-ray telescopes. We find that the annihilation spectrum has distinctive features which may distinguish it from other models.

  8. 4. DETAIL VIEW OF TOP CHORD AND TOP CHORD CONNECTIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW OF TOP CHORD AND TOP CHORD CONNECTIONS NEAR NORTH CORNER OF BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST - Springfield-Des Arc Bridge, Spanning North Branch of Cadron Creek at Old Springfield-Des Arc Road (County Road 222), Springfield, Conway County, AR

  9. Crossing the Lexicon: Anglicisms in the German Hip Hop Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garley, Matthew E.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of English on German has been an ongoing subject of intense popular and academic interest in the German sphere. In order to better understand this language contact situation, this research project investigates anglicisms--instances of English language material in a German language context--in the German hip hop community, where the…

  10. German Foreign and Security Policy: Trends and Transatlantic Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-20

    Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher is also said to have expressed concerns about German unification. See Bush speech at the German Embassy, Washington, DC...Members of Congress view Germany as a key U.S. ally, have welcomed German leadership in Europe, and voiced expectations for increased U.S.-German...8 European Security and Defense Policy (ESDP) .....................................................................9 European Leadership

  11. Selected List of German Reference Books for Secondary School Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnema, John R., Comp.

    Compiled with secondary school teachers of German in mind who are asked to recommend books for a school library, this 52-item annotated bibliography lists encyclopedias, dictionaries (German-English, English-German, all-German, and specialty dictionaries), the Duden series, grammars, histories, travel books, anthologies (poetry, prose, and drama),…

  12. USA: German in the Changing Landscape of Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatlock, Lynne

    2010-01-01

    This article identifies recent indicators of the state of German Studies in the United States with special attention to postsecondary enrollments in German. It additionally reviews challenges to the postsecondary teaching of German as they manifest themselves both locally and nationally, including the positioning of German Studies in the life of…

  13. Easy Games for the German Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Linda

    1977-01-01

    The following easy games for the German classroom are described: around Germany, map identifications, fast response, bingo, memory training, geography college bowl, find the object, descriptions, pronunciation perfection, acrostics, simple board games, art lesson, treasure hunt, and miscellaneous games. (SW)

  14. German physicists pleased as Excellence Initiative extended

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, Ned

    2016-08-01

    Germany's federal and state governments have agreed to fund a third round of the so-called Excellence Initiative programme, which was inaugurated 10 years ago to promote world-class research at German universities.

  15. First German Astronomy Ambassadors Fly On SOFIA

    NASA Video Gallery

    Two German educators, Wolfgang Vieser and Jörg Trebs, were the first to represent their country as SOFIA Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors. They flew aboard the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared...

  16. The German Physical Society Under National Socialism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Dieter; Walker, Mark

    2004-12-01

    The history of the German Physical Society from 1933 to 1945 is not the same as a comprehensive history of physics under Adolf Hitler, but it does reflect important aspects of physicists' work and life during the Third Reich.

  17. Genetic Control of the German Cockroach.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-04-17

    The authors investigated the possibility of controlling the German cockroach, Blattella germanica , by using chromosome translocations. The first...translocations for control in B. germanica . Such mechanisms are potentially capable of reducing field populations.

  18. Interdisciplinary German-Language Cultural-Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Meriam M.

    1974-01-01

    The suggested themes, activities and projects presented here evolved from the interdisciplinary advanced German-language-mini-courses at Ridgefield (Connecticut) High School. Many of the activities can be adapted for use at earlier levels. (PP)

  19. German innovation initiative for nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieke, Volker; Bachmann, Gerd

    2004-10-01

    In many areas of nanotechnology, Germany can count on a good knowledge basis due to its diverse activities in nanosciences. This knowledge basis, when paired with the production and sales structures needed for implementation and the internationally renowned German talent for system integration, should consequently lead to success in the marketplace. And this is exactly the field of application for the innovation initiative "Nanotechnologie erobert Märkte" (nanotechnology conquers markets) and for the new BMBF strategy in support of nanotechnology. Until now, aspects of nanotechnology have been advanced within the confines of their respective technical subject areas. However, the primary aim of incorporating them into an overall national strategy is to build on Germany's well-developed and internationally competitive research in science and technology to tap the potential of Germany's important industrial sectors for the application of nanotechnology through joint research projects (leading-edge innovations) that strategically target the value-added chain. This development is to be supported by government education policy to remedy a threatening shortage of skilled professionals. To realize that goal, forward-looking political policymaking must become oriented to a uniform concept of innovation, one that takes into consideration all facets of new technological advances that can contribute to a new culture of innovation in Germany. And that includes education and research policy as well as a climate that encourages and supports innovation in science, business and society.

  20. [Research funding in German ophthalmology].

    PubMed

    Ziemssen, F; Meltendorf, C

    2012-11-01

    Since 2004 applications for research funding in ophthalmology have been evaluated together with those from neurosurgery, neuropathology, psychiatry, psychotherapy, psychosomatics, otolaryngology and neurology by a joint review board of the German Research Council (DFG). Facing a decreasing number of applications--in contrast to the need and importance of widespread ocular diseases--the working group "young academics" of the Deutsche Ophthalmologische Gesellschaft (DOG) assessed the perception of funding programmes and grants available. Young ophthalmologists think that they have poor prospects to receive funding by a DFG proposal. In comparison, specialist funding quotas show a stable development within the neurosciences over the last years. The sum of requested funding has a strong correlation with the total amount actually paid. By clarifying the number of funded proposals, the better transparency and communication for the existing programmes should improve the cooperativeness, the funding rate and number of applications in future. This inventory explicitly includes a motivational guidance for young researchers to take the initiative to do more proposals.

  1. Excessive Profits of German Defense Contractors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    largest German supplier for the European Ariane 5 rocket that is frequently used to carry cargo to an orbit around the earth. For the German armed...0704-0188) Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE September 2014 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s...countries emphasize competition among defense contractors, but the perspectives on and uses of profit and fees differ for cost-based contracts. In the

  2. Germanate Glass Fiber Lasers for High Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-04

    germanate based glasses with a specific focus on glass stability during thermal- cycling which is representative of the steps required to fabricate a doped...evidence of crystallisation after thermal cycling , and is of a low enough loss to realize a fiber laser. The glass stability is demonstrated by...specific focus on glass stability during thermal- cycling which is representative of the steps required to fabricate a doped micro-structured germanate

  3. Accent, Intelligibility, and the Role of the Listener: Perceptions of English-Accented German by Native German Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Watzinger-Tharp, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    We explore the relationship between accentedness and intelligibility, and investigate how listeners' beliefs about nonnative speech interact with their accentedness and intelligibility judgments. Native German speakers and native English learners of German produced German sentences, which were presented to 12 native German speakers in accentedness…

  4. Properties of the Top Quark

    SciTech Connect

    Déliot, Frédéric; Hadley, Nicholas; Parke, Stephen; Schwarz, Tom

    2014-10-01

    The top quark is the heaviest known elementary particle, and it is often seen as a window to search for new physics processes in particle physics. A large program to study the top-quark properties has been performed both at the Tevatron and LHC colliders by the D0, CDF, ATLAS and CMS experiments. The most recent results are discussed in this article.

  5. Naturalness from a composite top?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Aaron; Zhao, Yue

    2017-01-01

    We consider a theory with composite top quarks but an elementary Higgs boson. The hierarchy problem can be solved by supplementing TeV scale top compositeness with either supersymmetry or Higgs compositeness appearing at the multi-TeV scale. The Higgs boson couples to uncolored partons within the top quark. We study how this approach can give rise to a novel screening effect that suppresses production of the colored top partners at the LHC. Strong constraints arise from Z to overline{b}b , as well potentially from flavor physics. Independent of flavor considerations, current constraints imply a compositeness scale ≳ TeV; this implies that the model is likely tuned at the percent level. Four top quark production at the LHC is a smoking-gun probe of this scenario. New CP violation in D meson mixing is also possible.

  6. Anthropometrical, physiological, and tracked power profiles of elite taekwondo athletes 9 weeks before the Olympic competition phase.

    PubMed

    Ball, Nick; Nolan, Emily; Wheeler, Keane

    2011-10-01

    Physiological, anthropometric, and power profiling data were retrospectively analyzed from 4 elite taekwondo athletes from the Australian National Olympic team 9 weeks from Olympic departure. Power profiling data were collected weekly throughout the 9-week period. Anthropometric skinfolds generated a lean mass index (LMI). Physiological tests included a squat jump and bench throw power profile, bleep test, 20-m sprint test, running VO2max test, and bench press and squat 3 repetition maximum (3RM) strength tests. After this, the athletes power, velocity, and acceleration profile during unweighted squat jumps and single-leg jumps were tracked using a linear position transducer. Increases in power, velocity, and acceleration between weeks and bilateral comparisons were analyzed. Athletes had an LMI of 37.1 ± 0.4 and were 173.9 ± 0.2 m and 67 ± 1.1 kg. Relatively weaker upper body (56 ± 11.97 kg 3RM bench press) compared to lower body strength (88 ± 2.89 kg 3RM squat) was shown alongside a VO2max of 53.29 ml(-1)·min(-1)·kg, and a 20-m sprint time of 3.37 seconds. Increases in all power variables for single-leg squat and squat jumps were found from the first session to the last. Absolute peak power in single-leg squat jumps increased by 13.4-16% for the left and right legs with a 12.9% increase in squat jump peak power. Allometrically scaled peak power showed greater increases for single-leg (right leg: 18.55%; left: 23.49%) and squat jump (14.49%). The athlete's weight did not change significantly throughout the 9-week mesocycle. Progressions in power increases throughout the weeks were undulating and can be related to the intensity of the prior week's training and athlete injury. This analysis has shown that a 9-week mesocycle before Olympic departure that focuses on core lifts has the ability to improve power considerably.

  7. Wave Engine Topping Cycle Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Gerard E.

    1996-01-01

    The performance benefits derived by topping a gas turbine engine with a wave engine are assessed. The wave engine is a wave rotor that produces shaft power by exploiting gas dynamic energy exchange and flow turning. The wave engine is added to the baseline turboshaft engine while keeping high-pressure-turbine inlet conditions, compressor pressure ratio, engine mass flow rate, and cooling flow fractions fixed. Related work has focused on topping with pressure-exchangers (i.e., wave rotors that provide pressure gain with zero net shaft power output); however, more energy can be added to a wave-engine-topped cycle leading to greater engine specific-power-enhancement The energy addition occurs at a lower pressure in the wave-engine-topped cycle; thus the specific-fuel-consumption-enhancement effected by ideal wave engine topping is slightly lower than that effected by ideal pressure-exchanger topping. At a component level, however, flow turning affords the wave engine a degree-of-freedom relative to the pressure-exchanger that enables a more efficient match with the baseline engine. In some cases, therefore, the SFC-enhancement by wave engine topping is greater than that by pressure-exchanger topping. An ideal wave-rotor-characteristic is used to identify key wave engine design parameters and to contrast the wave engine and pressure-exchanger topping approaches. An aerodynamic design procedure is described in which wave engine design-point performance levels are computed using a one-dimensional wave rotor model. Wave engines using various wave cycles are considered including two-port cycles with on-rotor combustion (valved-combustors) and reverse-flow and through-flow four-port cycles with heat addition in conventional burners. A through-flow wave cycle design with symmetric blading is used to assess engine performance benefits. The wave-engine-topped turboshaft engine produces 16% more power than does a pressure-exchanger-topped engine under the specified topping

  8. Status of the top quark: Top production cross section and top properties

    SciTech Connect

    Boisvert, V.; /Rochester U.

    2006-08-01

    This report describes the latest cross section and property measurements associated with the top quark at the Tevatron Run II. The largest data sample used is 760 pb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity. Due to its large mass, the top quark might be involved in the process of electroweak symmetry breaking, making it a useful probe for signs of new physics.

  9. Do Lemmas Speak German? A Verb Position Effect in German Structural Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Franklin; Baumann, Michael; Pappert, Sandra; Fitz, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Lexicalized theories of syntax often assume that verb-structure regularities are mediated by lemmas, which abstract over variation in verb tense and aspect. German syntax seems to challenge this assumption, because verb position depends on tense and aspect. To examine how German speakers link these elements, a structural priming study was…

  10. Swiss-German versus Standard German: Switzerland's Language Policy and the European Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdmann, Ursula M.

    A survey investigated the increasing preference for Alemannic Swiss German over standard German in public functions in Switzerland, particularly in light of Switzerland's decision in 1996 not to join the European Union, which suggests an emphasis on national independence. The history of Alemannic Swiss usage and language policy are briefly…

  11. Properties of the top quark

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, A. W.

    2014-09-24

    Recent measurements of top-quark properties at the LHC and the Tevatron are presented. Most recent measurements of the top quark mass have been carried out by CMS using $19.7/$fb of $\\sqrt{s} = 8$ TeV data including the study of the dependence on event kinematics. ATLAS uses the full Run I data at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV for a "3D" measurement that significantly reduces systematic uncertainties. D0 employs the full Run II data using the matrix element method to measure the top quark mass with significantly reduced systematic uncertainties. Many different measurements of the top quark exist to date and the most precise ones per decay channel per experiment have been combined into the first world combination with a relative precision of 0.44%. Latest updates of measurements of production asymmetries include the measurement of the \\ttbar production asymmetry by D0 employing the full Run II data set, by CMS and ATLAS (including the polarization of the top quark) employing both the full data set at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV. CMS uses the full $\\sqrt{s} = 8$ TeV data to measure the top quark polarization in single top production, the ratio ${\\cal R}$ of the branching fractions ${\\cal B}(t \\rightarrow Wb) / {\\cal B}(t \\rightarrow Wq)$ and to search for flavor changing neutral currents. The results from all these measurements agree well with their respective Standard Model expectation.

  12. Target effect on the kinematics of Taekwondo Roundhouse Kick - is the presence of a physical target a stimulus, influencing muscle-power generation?

    PubMed

    Wąsik, Jacek; Shan, Gongbing

    2015-01-01

    Taekwondo is famous for its powerful kicking techniques and the roundhouse kick is the most frequently used one. In earlier literature, the influence of a physical target (exiting or not) on kicking power generation has not been given much attention. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the kinematics of roundhouse kick execution and its factors related to power generation. 6 ITF taekwondo practitioners voluntarily participated in this study. They were asked to perform kicks with and without a physical target. The first kick aimed at breaking a board while the second one was a kick into the air. A Smart-D motion capture system (BTS S.p.A., Italy) was used to quantitatively determine their kinematic characteristics during each kick. The main findings showed that kicks aiming at a breaking board were significantly slower than kicks without a physical target (maximal kick-foot velocities were 10.61 ± 0.86 m/s and 14.61 ± 0.67 m/s, respectively, p < 0.01), but the kicking time of the former was shorter (0.58 ± 0.01 s and 0.67 ± 0.01, respectively, p < 0.01). The results suggest that a physical target will negatively influence the kick-foot velocity, which is not necessarily a disadvantage for creating a high quality kick. Possible motor control mechanisms are discussed for the phenomenon. The study made it clear: trainings with and without physical targets would develop different motor control patterns. More studies are needed for identifying the effectiveness of different controls and efficiencies of their training.

  13. Australia's Next Top Fraction Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Peter Gould suggests Australia's next top fraction model should be a linear model rather than an area model. He provides a convincing argument and gives examples of ways to introduce a linear model in primary classrooms.

  14. Trajectory correction propulsion for TOPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, H. R.; Bjorklund, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    A blowdown-pressurized hydrazine propulsion system was selected to provide trajectory correction impulse for outer planet flyby spacecraft as the result of cost/mass/reliability tradeoff analyses. Present hydrazine component and system technology and component designs were evaluated for application to the Thermoelectric Outer Planet Spacecraft (TOPS); while general hydrazine technology was adequate, component design changes were deemed necessary for TOPS-type missions. A prototype hydrazine propulsion system was fabricated and fired nine times for a total of 1600 s to demonstrate the operation and performance of the TOPS propulsion configuration. A flight-weight trajectory correction propulsion subsystem (TCPS) was designed for the TOPS based on actual and estimated advanced components.

  15. Forum outlines top emerging technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Extance, Andy

    2015-04-01

    Additive manufacturing, next-generation robotics, "sense and avoid" drones that fly themselves, artificial intelligence and "neuromorphic" computing have all made it into the World Economic Forum's top 10 emerging technologies for 2015.

  16. Top 10 Products of 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School & University, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In 2011, American School & University (AS&U) showcased some of the hottest products in the industry. This article presents the top ten most requested products as determined by readers. The top one on the list is the Bulb crusher which can cut recycling costs by 50%, can hold 1,350 4-foot lamps in a single 55-gallon drum, can crush a 4-foot lamp in…

  17. Uncovering the single top: observation of electroweak top quark production

    SciTech Connect

    Benitez, Jorge Armando

    2009-01-01

    The top quark is generally produced in quark and anti-quark pairs. However, the Standard Model also predicts the production of only one top quark which is mediated by the electroweak interaction, known as 'Single Top'. Single Top quark production is important because it provides a unique and direct way to measure the CKM matrix element Vtb, and can be used to explore physics possibilities beyond the Standard Model predictions. This dissertation presents the results of the observation of Single Top using 2.3 fb-1 of Data collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. The analysis includes the Single Top muon+jets and electron+jets final states and employs Boosted Decision Tress as a method to separate the signal from the background. The resulting Single Top cross section measurement is: (1) σ(p$\\bar{p}$→ tb + X, tqb + X) = 3.74-0.74+0.95 pb, where the errors include both statistical and systematic uncertainties. The probability to measure a cross section at this value or higher in the absence of signal is p = 1.9 x 10-6. This corresponds to a standard deviation Gaussian equivalence of 4.6. When combining this result with two other analysis methods, the resulting cross section measurement is: (2) σ(p$\\bar{p}$ → tb + X, tqb + X) = 3.94 ± 0.88 pb, and the corresponding measurement significance is 5.0 standard deviations.

  18. [The new German decree on drinking water].

    PubMed

    Hennighausen, R H

    2001-11-01

    The Second European Guideline of Drinking Water was published on 3rd November 1998. Notwithstanding good German drinking water standards, as a member country of the European Union, Germany had to transfer this guideline to German law. Therefore the new German decree on drinking water (Trinkwasserverordnung - TrinkwV 2001) was published on 21st May 2001. Basing on recent toxicological findings some of the borderline values have been lowered compared to the previous version. There are problems to realize the new low borderline value for lead; therefore full realization will be ordered not till 2013. The main responsibilities as to the hygienic inspection of water-supplying installations are assigned to the Public Health Office. The owners of water supply installations are notifiable to the Public Health Office. The District with the District Community Physician is the responsible administrative authority to take measures for good and healthy drinking water quality.

  19. War, suffering and modern German history.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Randall

    2011-01-01

    This introduction proceeds in five steps. First, it briefly considers the etymology of the term "suffering," as well as the way in which scholars from different disciplines have approached it conceptually and empirically. Second, drawing on the contributions to this issue, it raises general themes emerging from the study of the Thirty Years, Franco-Prussian and First World Wars, with particular attention to gender, the disabled, and Jewish-German veterans. Finally, it considers the most politically contested field of German suffering - the Second World War - and reflects on how that suffering can be narrated and understood without running into the intellectual dead ends of either self-pity or collective guilt.

  20. Darwin: German mystic or French rationalist?

    PubMed

    Ghiselin, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    The notion that Charles Darwin embraced the German Romantic tradition seems plausible, given the early influence of Alexander von Humboldt. But this view fails to do justice to other scientific traditions. Darwin was a protégé of the Englishman John Stevens Henslow and was a follower of the Scott Charles Lyell. He had important debts to French scientists, notably Henri Milne-Edwards, Etienne and Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, and Alphonse de Candolle. Many Germans were quite supportive of Darwin, but not all of these were encumbered by idealistic metaphysical baggage. Both Darwin and Anton Dohrn treated science as very much a cosmopolitan enterprise.

  1. Status of German European exhaust emission legislation

    SciTech Connect

    Seiffert, U.

    1985-01-01

    Recent legislative initiatives in West Germany and other European countries are leading to more stringent automobile exhaust emission standards. A review of the emission inventory on a global and West German basis and other factors, such as acid rain and forest damage, indicate that the contribution of automobile exhaust to the emission problem may be less than the European public assumes. As an interim step while new standards are being considered, the West German government is promoting the purchase of low-pollution vehicles through a vehicle tax reduction program.

  2. German and Ukrainian Phonological Isomorphs. Typology: Germanic and Slavic Languages. German-Ukraine-Slavic Contrasting Correspondence Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petryshyn, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    The works of many scholars on Germanic and Slavic Languages do not really try to contrast the two biggest Indo-European language families, but analyse them seperately, as any close comparison seem to be unconvincible. In many works, we find some parts that usually would deal with loan words/borrowings/barbarisms. And, yet, we noticed that there…

  3. SW New Mexico Oil Well Formation Tops

    SciTech Connect

    Shari Kelley

    2015-10-21

    Rock formation top picks from oil wells from southwestern New Mexico from scout cards and other sources. There are differing formation tops interpretations for some wells, so for those wells duplicate formation top data are presented in this file.

  4. Effectiveness of the Interactive Videodisc-Enhanced German Gateway Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    Field Test group. The primary measure used to assess end-of-course group differences In learning German was an Oral Proficiency Examination (OPE...IVD groups do not differ In Initial German language ability. Attitude toward learning German . On the Pre-course Questionnaire subjects responded to a...series of statements about the possible relevance of and reasons for learning German . Table 3 shows these data. The two groups showed no significant

  5. German Folk Dances: An Innovative Teaching Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedekind, Almute

    1993-01-01

    This paper proposes the incorporation of folk dances into the German curriculum on all instructional levels, from kindergarten to college. Learning and performing folk dances provides students not only with cultural information about foreign countries but also with specific structural features of the foreign language. The teacher can select…

  6. The German Toyshop: An Interdisciplinary Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemczura, Mary Ann; Clayton, Joe A.

    1991-01-01

    Outlines a project combining the disciplines of German and technology education by giving students an opportunity to learn technical vocabulary and design and create wooden toys to increase students' awareness of international business and global economy and the necessity of communicating ideas with people in other countries. (Author/CB)

  7. Vygotsky, Consciousness, and the German Psycholinguistic Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitch, David G.

    2011-01-01

    This article argues that Vygotsky's choice of word meaning as the basic unit of analysis for cultural psychology connects him to a German psycholinguistic tradition--exemplified in the work of G. W. F. Hegel and J. G. Herder--distinct from the Marxist tradition. While later commentators criticize Vygotsky's reliance on word meaning, arguing that…

  8. Content, Joseph Schwab and German "Didaktik"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Zongyi

    2015-01-01

    This article attempts to extend and deepen the conversation concerning the knowledge-based approach to curriculum espoused by Michael Young in his 2013 "JCS" paper through revisiting the structure of the disciplines thinking of Joseph Schwab and German "Didaktik." It argues that curriculum making requires a theory of knowledge…

  9. Friendship Preferences among German and Turkish Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jugert, Philipp; Noack, Peter; Rutland, Adam

    2011-01-01

    This study examined changes in and predictors of preference for same-ethnic friendships among German (N = 106) and Turkish (N = 45) preadolescents (M age = 10.4 years) during their 1st year in an ethnically heterogeneous school. Drawing on the contact hypothesis, it examined the relation between children's attitudes and their preference for…

  10. The German Interlinguistics Society Gesellschaft fur Interlinguistik.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O Riain, Sean

    2003-01-01

    Describes the German interlinguistics society Gesellschaft fur Interlinguistik (GIL), which was founded to bring together interlinguistics and esperantology scholars. Highlights GIL's principal fields of activity and discusses its role in the fields of international linguistic communication, language planning, esperantolgy, and the teaching of…

  11. Pragmatics in Interlanguage: German Modal Particles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mollering, Martina; Nunan, David

    1995-01-01

    Argues that mastery of modal particles is important for interpersonal aspects of language development. The article outlines the difficulty of learning and teaching German modal particles with regard to the theoretical explication. The study shows how a teaching program improved initially poor comprehension and production skills in the area of…

  12. Attitudes of German Student Teachers on Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baar, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The contribution discusses attitudes of German Teacher Training Students on Inclusion based on an empirical analysis containing three elements: Evaluation of students' written exams, results of a survey with closed as open questions and the interpretation of group discussions among students about inclusion. One can see that, though the found-out…

  13. Medical ethics in the German Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Luther, E

    1989-06-01

    Medical ethics has been developing in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) since the 1970's on the basis of the traditional ethics of physicians and the socio-economic fundamentals of our socialist state. Medical care provided in the framework of Marxist-Leninist medical ethics is based on rationality and humanity.

  14. 'Oblique' Modals in English and German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Richard

    1996-01-01

    Compares the English modals "could,""might,""should,""ought to" and others with German "konnte,""durfte,""sollte,""mubte," referring to the diachronic perspective and using Reichenbach's (1947) grid of times and worlds. The article suggests that the variety of use of…

  15. Deutschunterricht Durch Handeln (Teaching German through Action).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Bertha

    A teaching guide containing 102 elementary to intermediate level German lessons is presented. The lessons are based on the Total Physical Response technique of second language teaching. They follow the stages of first language acquisition: listening, speaking, and reading. Each of the ten units contains a list of new vocabulary words, instructions…

  16. Recent Trends in German Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellert, Claudius

    1996-01-01

    Discusses trends in German higher education over the last decade, focusing on the expansion and differentiation of postsecondary education, societal changes in the student population, and the relationship between education and social class in light of the "individualization thesis" of sociologist Ulrich Beck. (MDM)

  17. Gifted Education in German-Speaking Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Albert; Stoeger, Heidrun; Harder, Bettina; Balestrini, Daniel Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The authors first briefly describe how the concepts of talents and giftedness found in German-speaking Europe have evolved in the school system and in general over the past two centuries, and how the variety of gifted-education efforts found within and beyond schools as well as counseling efforts attest to these changes. They then discuss four…

  18. German Cultural Packets 13 and 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atlanta Public Schools, GA.

    These German culture packets are designed to accompany A-LM Level II and include a statement of the rationale behind the unit, the objectives of the packet, the activities themselves, and a brief evaluation by the student. The activities involve the use of the basic text, the student workbook, corresponding tapes, and fellow students as partners…

  19. "Jaja" in Spoken German: Managing Knowledge Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taleghani-Nikazm, Carmen; Golato, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In line with the other contributions to this issue on teaching pragmatics, this paper provides teachers of German with a two-day lesson plan for integrating authentic spoken language and its associated cultural background into their teaching. Specifically, the paper discusses how "jaja" and its phonetic variants are systematically used…

  20. German Universities Bursting at the Seams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Don

    1989-01-01

    Reports that record enrollments have prompted a rethinking of the nation's higher education policies. Cites several explanations for overcrowding: an increase in the number of students continuing their studies, German students take longer to complete studies, and older students are reentering the university. (RT)

  1. Gifted Education in German-Speaking Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Anna; Nevo, Baruch

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide the reader with a comprehensive yet detailed account of the current giftedness and gifted education situation in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. It is concerned with four main research questions: (1) How is "giftedness" defined in German-speaking countries? (2) How are gifted children…

  2. Right Face: Understanding German Political Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-16

    Myth. New York: Oxford University Press, 1917. Lehman, Hartmut , and Ledford, Kenneth F., ed., Elections, Mass Politics, and Social Change in Modern...Newspapers: Chronological by Newspaper. London Times "Germans Reject New Europe." London imes. 3 March 1992, p. 10a. " Becker Love Match Inflames Na:i Desire

  3. Disseminated blastomycosis in a German shepherd dog

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, Beverley S.

    2002-01-01

    A 5-year-old German shepherd was evaluated after collapsing at home following a week of lethargy and anorexia. Systemic blastomycosis was diagnosed histologically at necropsy. Diagnosis and treatment were difficult due to unusual neurological symptoms, the absence of abnormalities on diagnostic tests, and the advanced stage of the disease at presentation. PMID:12125188

  4. Learning German: A CAI Program Catalogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs, Virginia M.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a catalogue of microcomputer courseware specifically designed for use in learning German. Covers four types of software: (1) authoring systems for drill and practice, (2) drill and practice programs that are self-contained, (3) authoring systems that create game-like materials, and (4) game programs. Includes a listing of publishers and…

  5. An Analysis of the German Perfekt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Wolfgang

    2000-01-01

    Shows that the German "perfekt" has a uniform temporal meaning that results systematically from the interaction of its three components--finiteness marking, auxiliary, and past participle--and that the two readings are the consequence of a structural ambiguity. This analysis also predicts the properties of other participle constructions, in…

  6. Predicting Stuttering from Phonetic Complexity in German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworzynski, Katharina; Howell, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated how phonetic complexity affects stuttering rate in German and how this changes developmentally. Phonetic difficulty was assessed using Jakielski's index [Motor Organization in the Acquisition of Consonant Clusters, Dissertation/Ph.D. Thesis, University of Texas Austin, 1998] of phonetic complexity (IPC) in which words are…

  7. The Medieval German University: Transformation and Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwinges, Rainer Christoph

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the development of the university system within the Holy Roman Empire, especially in Germany, explaining that the University of Prague in 1348 was the Empire's first university. Reports that after the University of Prague, the new university type, or the "German type," developed by combining types of universities in Bologna and…

  8. On the German Language in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Brian A.

    Sociolinguistic patterns among German immigrants to the United States of America are examined in this paper. Earlier studies in this area, including Wolfgang Viereck's work published in "Orbis" in 1967 and 1968, are examined. Through an analysis of the immigration patterns of the citizens of Glarus, Switzerland, in 1845 to New Glarus,…

  9. "Gastarbeiterdeutsch" and Its Significance for German Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlewood, William T.

    1976-01-01

    "Gastarbeiterdeutsch" includes varieties of German spoken by the many foreign workers employed in low-paid, less desirable jobs in Germany. It is characterized by reduction and simplification of syntactic and semantic forms. Study of this dialect reveals patterns of natural language acquisition necessary for communication, useful in classroom…

  10. Voice Modulations in German Ironic Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharrer, Lisa; Christmann, Ursula; Knoll, Monja

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown that in different languages ironic speech is acoustically modulated compared to literal speech, and these modulations are assumed to aid the listener in the comprehension process by acting as cues that mark utterances as ironic. The present study was conducted to identify paraverbal features of German "ironic…

  11. How to Find Out in: German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flower, Clara K.

    This library handbook is an informal guide for the student studying the German language and literature. It lists reference materials basic to general research and gives their locations in the Fogler Library at the University of Maine. Reference works for study of the language include (1) dictionaries and encyclopedias, (2) histories of the…

  12. Culture Curriculum for German, Level I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Larry M.; Loew, Helene Z.

    This teacher's guide to cultural instruction in a level-1 German course is designed to be used with the text "Deutsch, Erstes Buch, Erster Teil." Instructional observations pertain to the first eight lessons of the text and comprise the major portion of this text including: (1) die Post, (2) Munchen, (3) Sport in Deutschland, (4) die deutschen…

  13. Culture Curriculum for German, Level II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oetiker, Rosemary

    This teacher's guide to cultural instruction in a level-2 German course is designed to be used with the text "Deutsch, Erstes Buch, Erster Teil." Instructional observations pertain to the seventh through the 12th lessons and comprise the major portion of this text including: )1) die Eisenbahn, (2) Reisen und Essen in Deutschland, (3) die Familie,…

  14. Education in Colonial Africa: The German Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    vanderPloeg, Arie J.

    1977-01-01

    Examines the introduction and growth of state-supported schools in two German colonies in Africa, Kamerun and Deutsch Ostafrika, describes African reaction to and utilization of them, assesses, from the colonial perspective, why such schools were introduced and what they were intended to accomplish, and examines the reasons for their differential…

  15. Lernen Wir Deutsch: Part I, German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Instructional objectives of the Dade County Public Schools Quinmester Program in German for use with "Lernen Wir Deutsch: Part 1" focus on the development of basic skills through the use of short dialogues and structured exercises. The contents of this guide focus on: (1) course description, (2) broad goals and performance objectives,…

  16. Lernen Wir Deutsch!: Part 2, German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Instructional objectives of the Dade County Public Schools Quinmester Program in German for use with "Lernen Wir Deutsch: Part 2" focus on development of basic skills through the use of short dialogues and structured exercises. The grammar of the course includes the study of nouns, pronouns, and verbs. Possessive determiners are…

  17. Germans, History, and the Nazi Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Anne P.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses opposite findings of researchers concerning the amount of time given to the study of Hitler and the Third Reich in German Secondary Schools. Considers the relationship among scholarly work on the Nazi era, influences of the work on secondary school teachers, impact of curriculum reform, and effects of government educational…

  18. Language Production in Turkish-German-English Trilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konig, Wolf

    2005-01-01

    In the present study we investigate sentence production in the German interlanguage of Turkish students who have learned German as a first and English as a second foreign language. The students know both languages at an (advanced) intermediate level. Nevertheless, we observed some properties of the German interlanguage that seem to indicate an…

  19. Reference Resources in German Literature: An Annotated Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feder, Helga

    This guide is a selection of important reference sources for research in German literature. All major bibliographies and other German reference works, covering the earliest to the most recent literature are included. Important German reference works listing international materials are also included. With the exception of translation sources, the…

  20. 75 FR 62453 - German-American Day, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8580 of October 6, 2010 German-American Day, 2010 By the President of the... ancestry who have been an integral part of our national life. On German-American Day, we pay tribute to the... October 6, 2010, as German-American Day. I encourage all Americans to learn more about the history...

  1. A Heritage Fulfilled: German Americans = Die Erfullte Herkunft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasrud, Clarence A., Ed.

    Different aspects of German-American heritage in Minnesota are highlighted in this collection of conference papers and photographs. The articles included are: "The German Contribution to the Discovery, Exploration and Early Settlement of the Americas" (H. Galinsky); "Three Literary Aspects of the German in America: Immigrant,…

  2. Teachable Texts: Integrating German-Americana in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickle, Linda Schelbitzki

    1998-01-01

    A three-part college-level German instructional unit using nineteenth-century German-American texts concerning women's experience of immigration illustrates ways in which such material can be incorporated into the second year of instruction. Ways in which using German-American texts and topics promote language learning across the curriculum are…

  3. Teaching German-Americana with Assistance from the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Robert J.; Hoyt, Giles R.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that the World Wide Web can assist in teaching about German-Americana in German-language instruction, and discusses some basic Web page uses to find and organize literary texts, syllabi, course outlines, images and realia, and information about people, organizations, events, and places. Some of the most useful German-American resources are…

  4. German Foreign and Security Policy: Determinants of German Military Engagement in Africa Since 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    militaereinsaetze-gaucks-leitfaden-12778867.html; Christian Nünlist, “Mehr Verantwortung?: Deutsche Außenpolitik 2014 [More responsibility?: German foreign...and Strategy 55, no. 6 (2013): 63–90, http://www.tandfonline.com.libproxy.nps.edu/doi/pdf/ 10.1080/ 00396338.2013.862937; Joschka Fischer, “ Deutsche ...libyen- einsatz- deutsche -aussenpolitik-eine-farce-1.1075362; “German Foreign Policy: The Unadventurous Eagle,” Economist, May 12, 2011, http

  5. The Discrimination, Perception, and Production of German /r/ Allophones by German Speakers and Two Groups of American English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tepeli, Dilara

    2011-01-01

    The German /r/ sound is one of the most difficult sounds for American English (AE) speakers who are learning German as a foreign language to produce. The standard German /r/ variant [/R/] and dialectal variant [R] are achieved by varying the tongue constriction degree, while keeping the place of articulation constant [Schiller and Mooshammer…

  6. Training Top 10 Hall of Fame

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Microsoft Corporation and SCC Soft Computer are the newest inductees into the Training Top 10 Hall of Fame, joining the ranks of the 11 companies named to the hall since its inception in 2008 (Wyeth Pharmaceuticals subsequently was acquired by Pfizer Inc. in 2009). These 11 companies held Top 10 spots in the Training Top 50, Top 100, and now Top…

  7. Top Mass Measurements at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.H.L.S.; /Fermilab

    2009-04-01

    We present the latest measurements of the top quark mass from the Tevatron. The different top decay channels and measurement techniques used for these results are also described. The world average of the top quark mass based on some of these new results combined with previous results is m{sub top} = 172.6 {+-} 1.4 GeV.

  8. Kowalevski top in quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuyama, A.

    2013-09-15

    The quantum mechanical Kowalevski top is studied by the direct diagonalization of the Hamiltonian. The spectra show different behaviors depending on the region divided by the bifurcation sets of the classical invariant tori. Some of these spectra are nearly degenerate due to the multiplicity of the invariant tori. The Kowalevski top has several symmetries and symmetry quantum numbers can be assigned to the eigenstates. We have also carried out the semiclassical quantization of the Kowalevski top by the EBK formulation. It is found that the semiclassical spectra are close to the exact values, thus the eigenstates can be also labeled by the integer quantum numbers. The symmetries of the system are shown to have close relations with the semiclassical quantum numbers and the near-degeneracy of the spectra. -- Highlights: •Quantum spectra of the Kowalevski top are calculated. •Semiclassical quantization is carried out by the EBK formulation. •Quantum states are labeled by the semiclassical integer quantum numbers. •Multiplicity of the classical torus makes the spectra nearly degenerate. •Symmetries, quantum numbers and near-degenerate spectra are closely related.

  9. The Top Theological Degree Producers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Each year, "Diverse: Issues in Higher Education" publishes a list of the Top 100 producers of associate, bachelor's and graduate degrees awarded to minority students based on research conducted by Dr. Victor M. H. Borden, professor of educational leadership and policy studies at Indiana University Bloomington. This year, for the first…

  10. "Top School Problems" Are Myths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Males, Mike

    1992-01-01

    A well-known "study" comparing the top school problems of 1940 (talking and gum chewing) with those of 1987 (drug abuse, pregnancy, and violence) is nonexistent. In 1940, 49 percent of all youth did not finish high school, 37,000 teenagers died from violence or disease, and 335,000 teens gave birth. Educators should discount pastoral…

  11. China offshore has top priority

    SciTech Connect

    Cornitius, T.A.

    1983-11-01

    Joint venture development of offshore petroleum reserves has top priority in the mammoth effort to modernize the People's Republic of China. While the country works to overcome a critical shortage of skilled personnel, export of oil, coal, consumer goods, and metals will finance technological imports.

  12. Observation of the Top Quark

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Kim, S. B.

    1995-08-01

    Top quark production is observed in{bar p}p collisions at{radical}s= 1.8 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron. The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) and D{O} observe signals consistent with t{bar t} to WWb{bar b}, but inconsistent with the background prediction by 4.8{sigma} (CDF), 4.6a (D{O}). Additional evidence for the top quark Is provided by a peak in the reconstructed mass distribution. The kinematic properties of the excess events are consistent with the top quark decay. They measure the top quark mass to be 176{plus_minus}8(stat.){plus_minus}10(sys.) GeV/c{sup 2} (CDF), 199{sub -21}{sup+19}(stat.){plus_minus}22(sys.) GeV/c{sup 2} (D{O}), and the t{bar t} production cross section to be 6.8{sub -2.4}{sup+3.6}pb (CDF), 6.4{plus_minus}2.2 pb (D{O}).

  13. Kinematic top analyses at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Cobal-Grassman, M.; CDF Collaboration

    1996-01-01

    We present an update of the top quark analysis using kinematic techniques in {rho}{ovr string {rho}} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV with the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). We reported before on a study which used 19.3 pb{sup -1} of data from the 1992-93 collider run, but now we use a larger data sample of 67 pb{sup -1}. First, we analyze the total transverse energy of the hard collision in W+{ge}3 jet events, showing the likely presence of a t{ovr string t} component in the event sample. Next, we compare in more detail the kinematic structure of W+{ge}3 jet events with expectations for top pair production and with background processes, predominantly direct W+ jet production. We again find W+{ge}3 jet events which cannot be explained in terms of background, but show kinematic features as expected from top. These events also show evidence for beauty quarks. The findings confirm the observation of top events made earlier in the data of the 1992-93 collider run.

  14. The Top STEM Degree Producers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a list of the top Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) degree producers in the U.S. This list is broken down into seven categories: (1) Total Minority Research/Scholarship and Other Doctoral: Mathematics and Statistics; (2) Total Minority Bachelors: Biological and Biomedical Sciences; (3) Total Minority…

  15. Explanatory models of addictive behaviour among native German, Russian-German, and Turkish youth.

    PubMed

    Penka, S; Heimann, H; Heinz, A; Schouler-Ocak, M

    2008-01-01

    In Germany, the public system of addiction treatment is used less by migrants with addictive disorders than by their non-migrant counterparts. To date, the literature has focused primarily on language, sociocultural factors, and residence status when discussing access barriers to this part of the health care system. However, little attention has been paid to cultural differences in explanatory models of addictive behaviour. This is surprising when we consider the important role played by popular knowledge in a population's perceptions of and responses to illnesses, including their causes, symptoms, and treatment. In the present study, we examined explanatory models of addictive behaviour and of mental disorders in 124 native German und Russian-German youth and compared these models to those observed in an earlier study of 144 German and Turkish youth. We employed the free listing technique German and to compile the terms that participating subjects used to describe addictive behaviour. Subsequently, we examined how a subset of our study population assigned these terms to the respective disorders by means of the pile sort method. Although the explanatory models used by the German and Russian-German youth in our study were surprisingly similar, those employed by Turkish youth did not make any fundamental distinction between illegal and legal drugs (e.g. alcohol and nicotine). German and Russian-German youth regarded eating disorders as "embarrassing" or "disgraceful", but Turkish youth did not. Unlike our German and Russian-German subjects, the Turkish youth did not classify eating disorders as being addictive in nature. Moreover, medical concepts crucial to a proper understanding of dependence disorders (e.g. the term "physical dependence") were characterised by almost half of our Turkish subjects as useless in describing addictions. These findings show that it is impossible to translate medical or everyday concepts of disease and treatment properly into a different

  16. German version of the Kuwait University Anxiety Scale: psychometric parameters.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M; Reschke, Konrad; Rudwan, Samer; Tanjour, Ismail

    2006-10-01

    A German translation of the Kuwait University Anxiety Scale, written originally in Arabic, was prepared. A sample of 207 men and women German college students was recruited. Coefficient alpha was .88, whereas the item-remainder correlations ranged from .21 to .63, denoting good internal consistency. The correlation of the scale with the German form of the Trait Anxiety Scale was .76, indicating high criterion-related validity. Three factors were identified: General, Somatic, and Cognitive/Affective Anxiety. German students scored lower (less anxious) than students from the U.S. and 18 Arab countries. The sex difference was not significant for the German sample.

  17. Top Jets at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, L.G.; Lee, S.J.; Perez, G.; Sung, I.; Virzi, J.

    2008-10-06

    We investigatethe reconstruction of high pT hadronically-decaying top quarksat the Large Hadron Collider. One of the main challenges in identifying energetictop quarks is that the decay products become increasingly collimated. This reducesthe efficacy of conventional reconstruction methods that exploit the topology of thetop quark decay chain. We focus on the cases where the decay products of the topquark are reconstructed as a single jet, a"top-jet." The most basic"top-tag" methodbased on jet mass measurement is considered in detail. To analyze the feasibility ofthe top-tagging method, both theoretical and experimental aspects of the large QCDjet background contribution are examined. Based on a factorization approach, wederive a simple analytic approximation for the shape of the QCD jet mass spectrum.We observe very good agreement with the Monte Carlo simulation. We consider high pT tt bar production in the Standard Model as an example, and show that our theoretical QCD jet mass distributions can efficiently characterize the background via sideband analyses. We show that with 25 fb-1 of data, our approach allows us to resolve top-jets with pT _> 1 TeV, from the QCD background, and about 1.5 TeV top-jets with 100 fb-1, without relying on b-tagging. To further improve the significancewe consider jet shapes (recently analyzed in 0807.0234 [hep-ph]), which resolve thesubstructure of energy flow inside cone jets. A method of measuring the top quarkpolarization by using the transverse momentum of the bottom quark is also presented.The main advantages of our approach are: (i) the mass distributions are driven byfirst principle calculations, instead of relying solely on Monte Carlo simulation; (ii) for high pT jets (pT _> 1 TeV), IR-safe jet shape variables are robust against detectorresolution effects. Our analysis can be applied to other boosted massive particlessuch as the electroweak gauge bosons and the Higgs.

  18. [Ethnic Germans from East bloc countries and Germans from the German Democratic Republic--quantitative development and structure].

    PubMed

    Fleischer, H; Proebsting, H

    1989-09-01

    This article focuses on two types of migration to West Germany: the migration of ethnic Germans from Eastern Europe and migration from East Germany. Information is included on the volume of this migration between 1950 and 1988, countries of origin, family characteristics, age and sex structure, religion, labor force participation, and occupational structure. Comparisons are also made with data for the native population of West Germany.

  19. Properties of the Top Quark

    SciTech Connect

    Wicke, Daniel; /Wuppertal U., Dept. Math.

    2009-08-01

    The aim of particle physics is the understanding of elementary particles and their interactions. The current theory of elementary particle physics, the Standard Model, contains twelve different types of fermions which (neglecting gravity) interact through the gauge bosons of three forces. In addition a scalar particle, the Higgs boson, is needed for theoretical consistency. These few building blocks explain all experimental results found in the context of particle physics, so far. Nevertheless, it is believed that the Standard Model is only an approximation to a more complete theory. First of all the fourth known force, gravity, has withstood all attempts to be included until now. Furthermore, the Standard Model describes several features of the elementary particles like the existence of three families of fermions or the quantisation of charges, but does not explain these properties from underlying principles. Finally, the lightness of the Higgs boson needed to explain the symmetry breaking is difficult to maintain in the presence of expected corrections from gravity at high scales. This is the so called hierarchy problem. In addition astrophysical results indicate that the universe consists only to a very small fraction of matter described by the Standard Model. Large fractions of dark energy and dark matter are needed to describe the observations. Both do not have any correspondence in the Standard Model. Also the very small asymmetry between matter and anti-matter that results in the observed universe built of matter (and not of anti-matter) cannot be explained until now. It is thus an important task of experimental particle physics to test the predictions of the Standard Model to the best possible accuracy and to search for deviations pointing to necessary extensions or modifications of our current theoretical understanding. The top quark was predicted to exist by the Standard Model as the partner of the bottom quark. It was first observed in 1995 by the

  20. [The German Medical eLibrary].

    PubMed

    Rütters, Dana; Schwencke, Silja; Bunk, Thomas; Nothacker, Monika

    2010-01-01

    The internet offers doctors plenty of high-value information for medical questions. However, several barriers impair the preoccupation with this information, most notably lack of time, far too much offered information and missing confidence in the reliability of the offers. The following article points out how the Agency for Quality in Medicine developed the Internet portal "German Medical eLibrary" (Arztbibliothek) in which information is transparently pre-selected and grouped in a structured way as well as easy to find with the help of a simple, user-friendly search function. Evidence-based high-quality information is available in an easy, quick and well-directed manner. Thus the "German Medical eLibrary" facilitates knowledge management as a cornerstone of high-quality medical care.

  1. Psychological training of German science astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzey, Dietrich; Schiewe, Albrecht

    Although the significance of psychosocial issues of manned space flights has been discussed very often in recent literature, up to now, very few attempts have been made in North-America or Europe to provide astronaut candidates or spacecrew members with some kind of psychological training. As a first attempt in this field, a psychological training program for science astronauts is described, which has been developed by the German Aerospace Research Establishment and performed as part of the mission-independent biomedical training of the German astronauts' team. In contrast to other training concepts, this training program focused not only on skills needed to cope with psychosocial issues regarding long-term stays in space, but also on skills needed to cope with the different demands during the long pre-mission phase. Topics covered in the training were "Communication and Cooperation", "Stress-Management", "Coping with Operational Demands", "Effective Problem Solving in Groups", and "Problem-Oriented Team Supervision".

  2. Biotope map of the German Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Schiele, Kerstin S; Darr, Alexander; Zettler, Michael L; Friedland, René; Tauber, Franz; von Weber, Mario; Voss, Joachim

    2015-07-15

    Full-coverage maps on the distribution of marine biotopes are a necessary basis for Nature Conservation and Marine Spatial Planning. Yet biotope maps do not exist in many regions. We are generating the first full-coverage biotope map for the German Baltic Sea according to the HELCOM Underwater biotope and habitat classification system (HUB). Species distribution modelling is applied to create full-coverage spatial information of biological features. The results of biomass modelling of twelve target taxa and presence/absence modelling of three target taxa enabled the identification of biological levels up to HUB level 6. Environmental data on bathymetry, light penetration depth and substrate are used to identify habitat levels. HUB biotope levels were combined with HUB habitat levels to create a biotope map. Altogether, 68 HUB biotopes are identified in the German Baltic Sea. The new biotope map combining substrate characteristics and biological communities will facilitate marine management in the area.

  3. The German Army and NATO Strategy,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    results were expected was not stated. Units available for the offensive oper- ations were 11 air groups . Use of the Middle East for staging, planned...defense plans to NATO, a point of importance that would complicate development of the West German armament program. The NATO planning groups , primarily...the Western Europe Planning Group (with the participation of the United States, Canada, Denmark, and Italy), took over the WEU de- fense planning

  4. Analysis of Stresses in German Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoff, Wilhelm

    1923-01-01

    This report contains an account of the origin of the views and fundamental principles underlying the construction of German airplanes during the war. The report contains a detailed discussion of the aerodynamic principles and their use in determining the strength of airplanes, the analysis of the strength qualities of materials and in the construction, the calculated strength of air flows and a description of tests made in determining the strength of airplanes.

  5. German Strategic Deception in the 1930s.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    passed 1 customs in coffins labeled machine parts. The German Defense Ministry established the national airline, Lufthansa, in January 1926. Felmy ...night, strike fear in the hearts of the enemy population." At the same time, Felmy submitted a 1Schliephake, op. cit., p, 27. 2Ibid. 3Suchenwirth, op...cit., p. 38. 4Homze, op. cit., p. 32. 5Ibid., p. 33. us 47 rearmament plan that echoed Wimmer’s Douhetian sentiments. Felmy proposed an 80 squadron air

  6. Tidal wave transformations in the German Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanev, Emil V.; Al-Nadhairi, Rahma; Staneva, Joanna; Schulz-Stellenfleth, Johannes; Valle-Levinson, Arnoldo

    2014-07-01

    Mesoscale and submesoscale dynamics associated with tidal wave transformations were addressed in the German Bight using numerical simulations. Tidal gauge and velocity observations in several locations were used to validate the numerical model. A downscaling approach included analysis of simulations with horizontal resolutions of 1, 0.4, and 0.2 km. It was shown that the modified tidal wave lost most of its energy after reflection or refraction over the eastern part of the German Bight. Energy loss resulted in a pronounced change of the wave's spectral composition and generation of overtides. Tidal oscillations were modified by mesoscale processes associated with bathymetric channels. Semidiurnal and quarterdiurnal tides revealed very different spatial patterns. The former were aligned with the bathymetric channels, while the latter were rather "patchy" and had about half the spatial scales. In numerous areas around the bathymetric channels, the major axis of the M4 ellipses was normal or at some angle with the major axis of the M2 ellipses. Thus, higher harmonics developed "orthogonal" patterns that drove secondary circulations. Moreover, the ratio between spring and neap tidal amplitudes was relatively low in the Wadden Sea, showing reduced sensitivity of this very shallow area to fortnightly tidal variations. It was demonstrated that simulated hydrodynamics patterns help explain the physical mechanism shaping the median grain size distribution in the German Bight.

  7. High temperature behavior of zirconium germanates

    SciTech Connect

    Utkin, A.V.; Baklanova, N.I.; Vasilyeva, I.G.

    2013-05-01

    The high temperature behavior of zirconium germanates ZrGeO₄ and Zr₃GeO₈ up to 2300 °C has been studied using the original photoemission thermal analysis technique with the comprehensive physicochemical study of solid and gaseous intermediate and final products. The two-stage process of incongruent sublimation of GeO₂ was established and the phase boundary of the homogeneity range for ZrGeO₄ and Zr₃GeO₈ were deduced from the thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy studies. A high tendency to sintering of the final ZrO₂ product is discussed. - Graphical abstract: The decomposition of zirconium germanates leads to the formation of gaseous GeO₂ and solid sintered ZrO₂ and occurs via two stages with the formation of intermediate ZrO₂-rich solid solution. Highlights: •Thermal behavior of ZrGeO₄ and Zr₃GeO₈ was studied using the original thermal analysis technique in wide temperature range. •The decomposition occurs via two stages with the formation of intermediate ZrO₂-rich solid solution. •The decomposition of zirconium germanates leads to the formation of gaseous GeO₂ and solid sintered ZrO₂. •The temperature of decomposition is strongly depended on the total gas pressure.

  8. Attitude propulsion technology for TOPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moynihan, P. I.

    1972-01-01

    The thermoelectric outer planet spacecraft (TOPS) attitude propulsion subsystem (APS) effort is discussed. It includes the tradeoff rationale that went into the selection of an anhydrous hydrazine baseline system, followed by a discussion of the 0.22 N thruster and its integration into a portable, self-contained propulsion module that was designed, developed, and man rated to support the TOPS single-axis attitude control tests. The results of a cold-start feasibility demonstration with a modified thruster are presented. A description of three types of 0.44 thrusters that were procured for in-house evaluation is included along with the results of the test program. This is followed by a description of the APS feed system components, their evaluations, and a discussion of an evaluation of elastomeric material for valve seat seals. A list of new technology items which will be of value for application to future systems of this type is included.

  9. Top decays in extended models

    SciTech Connect

    Gaitan, R.; Miranda, O. G.; Cabral-Rosetti, L. G.

    2009-04-20

    Top quark decays are interesting as a mean to test the Standard Model (SM) predictions. The Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM)-suppressed process t{yields}cWW, and the rare decays t{yields}cZ, t{yields}H{sup 0}+c, and t{yields}c{gamma} an excellent window to probe the predictions of theories beyond the SM. We evaluate the flavor changing neutral currents (FCNC) decay t{yields}H{sup 0}+c in the context of Alternative Left-Right symmetric Models (ALRM) with extra isosinglet heavy fermions; the FCNC decays may place at tree level and are only supressed by the mixing between ordinary top and charm quarks. We also comment on the decay process t{yields}c+{gamma}, which involves radiative corrections.

  10. Thermoelectric Outer Planets Spacecraft (TOPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The research and advanced development work is reported on a ballistic-mode, outer planet spacecraft using radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) power. The Thermoelectric Outer Planet Spacecraft (TOPS) project was established to provide the advanced systems technology that would allow the realistic estimates of performance, cost, reliability, and scheduling that are required for an actual flight mission. A system design of the complete RTG-powered outer planet spacecraft was made; major technical innovations of certain hardware elements were designed, developed, and tested; and reliability and quality assurance concepts were developed for long-life requirements. At the conclusion of its active phase, the TOPS Project reached its principal objectives: a development and experience base was established for project definition, and for estimating cost, performance, and reliability; an understanding of system and subsystem capabilities for successful outer planets missions was achieved. The system design answered long-life requirements with massive redundancy, controlled by on-board analysis of spacecraft performance data.

  11. Top quark results at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Leone, S.; CDF Collaboration

    1996-08-01

    We present the latest results on the top quark obtained by the CDF experiment using a data sample of about 110 {ital pb}{sup -1} collected at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. We briefly describe the candidate events selection and then discuss the production cross section determination and the mass measurement. The study of two new decay channels (all hadronic and ``tau dilepton``) is also reported.

  12. Observation of the Top Quark

    SciTech Connect

    Abachi, S.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adam, I.; Adams, D.L.; Adams, M.; Ahn, S.; Aihara, H.; Aihara, H.; Alitti, J.; Alvarez, G.; Alves, G.A.; Amidi, E.; Amos, N.; Anderson, E.W.; Aronson, S.H.; Astur, R.; Avery, R.E.; Balamurali, V.; Balderston, J.; Baldin, B.; Bantly, J.; Bartlett, J.F.; Bazizi, K.; Bendich, J.; Beri, S.B.; Bertram, I.; Bezzubov, V.A.; Bhat, P.C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Bischoff, A.; Biswas, N.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Boehnlein, A.; Bojko, N.I.; Borcherding, F.; Borders, J.; Boswell, C.; Brandt, A.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Buchholz, D.; Burtovoi, V.S.; Butler, J.M.; Casey, D.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakraborty, D.; Chang, S.; Chekulaev, S.V.; Chen, L.; Chen, W.; Chevalier, L.; Chopra, S.; Choudhary, B.C.; Christenson, J.H.; Chung, M.; Claes, D.; Clark, A.R.; Cobau, W.G.; Cochran, J.; Cooper, W.E.; Cretsinger, C.; Cullen-Vidal, D.; Cummings, M.; Cutts, D.; Dahl, O.I.; De, K.; Demarteau, M.; Demina, R.; Denisenko, K.; Denisenko, N.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S.P.; Dharmaratna, W.; Diehl, H.T.; Diesburg, M.; Di Loreto, G.; Dixon, R.; Draper, P.; Drinkard, J.; Ducros, Y.; Dugad, S.R.; Durston-Johnson, S.; Edmunds, D.; Efimov, A.O.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V.D.; Engelmann, R.; Eno, S.; Eppley, G.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O.V.; Evdokimov, V.N.; Fahey, S.; Fahland, T.; Fatyga, M.; Fatyga, M.K.; Featherly, J.; Feher, S.; Fein, D.; Ferbel, T.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fisk, H.E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flattum, E.; Forden, G.E.; Fortner, M.; Frame, K.C.; Franzini, P.; Fredriksen, S.; Fuess, S.; Galjaev, A.N.; Gallas, E.; Gao, C.S.; Gao, S.; Geld, T.L.; Genik, R.J. II; Genser, K.; Gerber, C.E.; Gibbard, B.; Glaubman, M.; Glebov, V.; Glenn, S.; Glicenstein, J.F.; Gobbi, B.; Goforth, M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gomez, B.; Goncharov, P.I.; Gordon, H.; Goss, L.T.; Graf, N.; Grannis, P.D.; Green, D.R.; Green, J.; Greenlee, H.; Griffin, G.; Grossman, N.; Grudberg, P.; Gruenendahl, S.; Guida, J.A.; Guida, J.M.; Guryn, W.; Gurzhiev, S.N.; Gutnikov, Y.E.

    1995-04-03

    The D0 Collaboration reports on a search for the standard model top quark in {ital p{bar p}} collisions at {radical}{ital s}=1.8TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron with an integrated luminosity of approximately 50pb{sup {minus}1}. We have searched for {ital t{bar t}} production in the dilepton and single-lepton decay channels with and without tagging of {ital b}-quark jets. We observed 17 events with an expected background of 3.8{plus_minus}0.6 events. The probability for an upward fluctuation of the background to produce the observed signal is 2{times}10{sup {minus}6} (equivalent to 4.6 standard deviations). The kinematic properties of the excess events are consistent with top quark decay. We conclude that we have observed the top quark and measured its mass to be 199{sub {minus}21}{sup +19} (stat) {plus_minus}22 (syst) GeV/{ital c}{sup 2} and its production cross section to be 6.4{plus_minus}2.2pb.

  13. Top quark studies at hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Sinervo, P.K.

    1997-01-01

    The techniques used to study top quarks at hadron colliders are presented. The analyses that discovered the top quark are described, with emphasis on the techniques used to tag b quark jets in candidate events. The most recent measurements of top quark properties by the CDF and DO Collaborations are reviewed, including the top quark cross section, mass, branching fractions, and production properties. Future top quark studies at hadron colliders are discussed, and predictions for event yields and uncertainties in the measurements of top quark properties are presented.

  14. Recent Top Properties Measurements at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarelli, Giorgio

    2014-11-26

    We present the most recent CDF results on the measurements of the decay and production vertex of the top-quark. New results on forward-backward asymmetry in top-antitop events are presented. Also, recent measurements of the branching fractions of top-quark are discussed. Finally, measurements in single top events, where top-quark is produced through electroweak processes, are presented. Despite the much larger number of top events collected at the LHC, due to the symmetric initial state and the better signal-to-background ratio in specific channels, some results will be lasting heritage of the Tevatron.

  15. The German-Jewish soldier: from participant to victim.

    PubMed

    Penslar, Derek

    2011-01-01

    The story of German-Jewish soldiers and veterans of World War I illustrates how, under circumstances of inclusion (even if incomplete) rather than vicious persecution, Jewish suffering in wartime, and with it the forms of collective memory and strategies for commemoration of the dead, could closely parallel, even intersect with, the suffering of Germans as a whole. To be sure, the points of intersection were accompanied by points of deflection. Even when Jews served, fought, suffered and died as German soldiers, their interpretations of the war experience, and their communities’ postwar memory and commemorative practices, differed from those of other Germans. In many ways, however, German-Jewish veterans suffered the aftermath of the war as did other Germans; they shared the prevailing fury over war guilt and reparations, and they retained a strong pride in their military service, a pride through which they interpreted the events of 1933–1945.

  16. [Recommendations on classification of German pain treatment services].

    PubMed

    Sabatowski, R; Maier, C; Willweber-Strumpf, A; Thomm, M; Nilges, P; Kayser, H; Casser, R

    2011-08-01

    On behalf of the German chapter of the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) recommendations for German pain treatment services have been developed for the first time. The criteria were based on the IASP recommendations but adapted to the specific German situation. According to the structure and process criteria four different levels of pain treatment services can be distinguished. The aim of the recommendations is to serve as a guide for future development and implementation of pain therapy and quality assurance.

  17. Contrastive intonation of German and English. Problems and some results.

    PubMed

    Esser, J

    1978-01-01

    For the purpose of a contrastive analysis only distinctive formal elements and functions are to be considered. The latter are "lexical or syntactic disambiguation", "syntactic characterization" and "communicative differentiation". In German, modal particles and intonation render expressive functions which are conveyed in English by intonation only. The differing punctuation systems of English and German have to be considered as a source of interference besides limited differences between the English and the German intonation systems.

  18. Optical Properties of Tm(3+) Ions in Alkali Germanate Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Brian M.; Barnes, Norman P.; Reichle, Donald J.; Jiang, Shibin

    2006-01-01

    Tm-doped alkali germanate glass is investigated for use as a laser material. Spectroscopic investigations of bulk Tm-doped germanate glass are reported for the absorption, emission and luminescence decay. Tm:germanate shows promise as a fiber laser when pumped with 0.792 m diodes because of low phonon energies. Spectroscopic analysis indicates low nonradiative quenching and pulsed laser performance studies confirm this prediction by showing a quantum efficiency of 1.69.

  19. Heavy flavour physics from top to bottom

    SciTech Connect

    Paulini, M.; CDF and D0 Collaboration

    1998-02-01

    We review the status of heavy flavour physics at the Fermilab Tevatron collider by summarizing recent top quark and B physics results from CDF and D0. In particular we discuss the measurement of the top quark mass and top production cross section as well as B meson lifetimes and time dependent B{anti B} mixing results. An outlook of perspectives for top and B physics in Run II starting in 1999 is also given.

  20. Cloud-top parameters - A hail indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearl, E. W.; Shenk, W. E.; Skillman, W.

    1975-01-01

    Airborne photographic observations of four hail-producing storms are discussed. With the exception of one storm producing a tornadic event, the overshooting tops were nearly steady-state. The tops were consistently high and wide, reaching maximum heights within about 5 minutes of the initiation of hail. Measured updraft velocities in the turrets composing the overshooting top were 25 m/sec. The dimensions of the overshooting tops were sufficiently large to permit satellite observation.

  1. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This eighteenth quarterly technical progress report of the MHD Integrated Topping cycle Project presents the accomplishments during the period November 1, 1991 to January 31, 1992. The precombustor is fully assembled. Manufacturing of all slagging stage components has been completed. All cooling panels were welded in place and the panel/shell gap was filled with RTV. Final combustor assembly is in progress. The low pressure cooling subsystem (LPCS) was delivered to the CDIF. Second stage brazing issues were resolved. The construction of the two anode power cabinets was completed.

  2. Table-top job analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this Handbook is to establish general training program guidelines for training personnel in developing training for operation, maintenance, and technical support personnel at Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities. TTJA is not the only method of job analysis; however, when conducted properly TTJA can be cost effective, efficient, and self-validating, and represents an effective method of defining job requirements. The table-top job analysis is suggested in the DOE Training Accreditation Program manuals as an acceptable alternative to traditional methods of analyzing job requirements. DOE 5480-20A strongly endorses and recommends it as the preferred method for analyzing jobs for positions addressed by the Order.

  3. HUBBLE'S TOP TEN GRAVITATIONAL LENSES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Hubble Space Telescope serendipitous survey of the sky has uncovered exotic patterns, rings, arcs and crosses that are all optical mirages produced by a gravitational lens, nature's equivalent of having giant magnifying glass in space. Shown are the top 10 lens candidates uncovered in the deepest 100 Hubble fields. Hubble's sensitivity and high resolution allow it to see faint and distant lenses that cannot be detected with ground-based telescopes whose images are blurred by Earth's atmosphere. [Top Left] - HST 01248+0351 is a lensed pair on either side of the edge-on disk lensing galaxy. [Top Center] - HST 01247+0352 is another pair of bluer lensed source images around the red spherical elliptical lensing galaxy. Two much fainter images can be seen near the detection limit which might make this a quadruple system. [Top Right] - HST 15433+5352 is a very good lens candidate with a bluer lensed source in the form of an extended arc about the redder elliptical lensing galaxy. [Middle Far Left] - HST 16302+8230 could be an 'Einstein ring' and the most intriguing lens candidate. It has been nicknamed the 'the London Underground' since it resembles that logo. [Middle Near Left] - HST 14176+5226 is the first, and brightest lens system discovered in 1995 with the Hubble telescope. This lens candidate has now been confirmed spectroscopically using large ground-based telescopes. The elliptical lensing galaxy is located 7 billion light-years away, and the lensed quasar is about 11 billion light-years distant. [Middle Near Right] - HST 12531-2914 is the second quadruple lens candidate discovered with Hubble. It is similar to the first, but appears smaller and fainter. [Middle Far Right] - HST 14164+5215 is a pair of bluish lensed images symmetrically placed around a brighter, redder galaxy. [Bottom Left] - HST 16309+8230 is an edge-on disk-like galaxy (blue arc) which has been significantly distorted by the redder lensing elliptical galaxy. [Bottom Center] - HST 12368

  4. A simple route to synthesize manganese germanate nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, L.Z. Yang, Y.; Yuan, C.Z.; Duan Taike; Zhang Qianfeng

    2011-06-15

    Manganese germanate nanorods have been synthesized by a simple route using germanium dioxide and manganese acetate as the source materials. X-ray diffraction observation shows that the nanorods are composed of orthorhombic and monoclinic manganese germanate phases. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy observations display that the manganese germanate nanorods have flat tips with the length of longer than 10 micrometers and diameter of 60-350 nm, respectively. The role of the growth conditions on the formation of the manganese germanate nanorods shows that the proper selection and combination of the growth conditions are the key factor for controlling the formation of the manganese germanate nanorods. The photoluminescence spectrum of the manganese germanate nanorods exhibits four fluorescence emission peaks centered at 422 nm, 472 nm, 487 nm and 530 nm showing the application potential for the optical devices. - Research Highlights: {yields} Manganese germanate nanorods have been synthesized by simple hydrothermal process. {yields} The formation of manganese germanate nanorods can be controlled by growth conditions. {yields} Manganese germanate nanorods exhibit good PL emission ability for optical device.

  5. Medullary trichomalacia in 6 German shepherd dogs.

    PubMed

    Tieghi, Chiara; Miller, William H; Scott, Danny W; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea

    2003-02-01

    Medullary trichomalacia is the name proposed for a hair shaft abnormality that was recognized in 6 German shepherd dogs. Affected dogs had multifocal areas of broken hairs, especially on the dorsolateral trunk. Microscopic examination of hair shafts revealed focal areas of loss of architecture, swelling, and apparent softening of the medulla, followed by longitudinal (length-wise) splitting and breakage of the hair shaft. No cause could be found. Affected dogs were otherwise healthy, and apparent spontaneous recovery was the usual outcome. Relapses may occur.

  6. [Poet-physicians in German literature].

    PubMed

    Perels, C

    1991-12-17

    Starting with standards arising from the relationship between medicine and art in classical antiquity, biblical tradition and teutonic-pagan antiquity, this article roams through german literature from the Middle Ages up to the 20th century, from Hildegard of Bingen to Gottfried Benn and Alfred Döblin, guided by the question, how strongly medical knowledge and medical practise are reflected in the poetry of writing physicians. Individual dispositions and epoque-specific features are discussed. Special attention is given to Paul Fleming and Angelus Silesius, Albrecht von Haller and Friedrich Schiller, romanticism and Georg Büchner.

  7. [German resuscitation registry : science and resuscitation research].

    PubMed

    Gräsner, J-T; Seewald, S; Bohn, A; Fischer, M; Messelken, M; Jantzen, T; Wnent, J

    2014-06-01

    Sudden death due to cardiac arrest represents one of the greatest challenges facing modern medicine, not only because of the massive number of cases involved but also because of its tremendous social and economic impact. For many years, the magic figure of 1 per 1000 inhabitants per year was generally accepted as an estimate of the annual incidence of sudden death in the industrialized world, with a survival rate of 6 %. This estimate was based on large numbers of published reports of local, regional, national and multinational experience in the management of cardiac arrest. Measuring the global incidence of cardiac arrest is challenging as many different definitions of patient populations are used. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) provide insights into the value of specific treatments or treatment strategies in a well-defined section of a population. Registries do not compete with clinical studies, but represent a useful supplement to them. Surveys and registries provide insights into the ways in which scientific findings and guidelines are being implemented in clinical practice. However, as with clinical studies, comprehensive preparations are needed in order to establish a registry. This is all the more decisive because not all of the questions that may arise are known at the time when the registry is established. The German resuscitation registry started in May 2007 and currently more than 230 paramedic services and hospitals take part. More than 45,000 cases of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and in-hospital cardiac arrest are included. With this background the German resuscitation registry is one of the largest databases in emergency medicine in Germany. After 5 years of running the preclinical care dataset was revised in 2012. Data variables that reflect current or new treatment were added to the registry. The postresuscitation basic care and telephone cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) datasets were developed in 2012 and 2013 as well. The German

  8. Sexual maturation in East German girls.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, L; Willers, B; Pelz, L

    1995-12-01

    According to the internationally accepted classification (Tanner, 1962; van Wieringen, 1971), sexual maturation was investigated in 8703 healthy East German girls by means of the status quo method and probit regression analysis. The third, 50th and 97th centiles were calculated for the development of breasts, axillary and pubic hair, and the shape of the hips. The findings were compared with those of recent studies from different European countries. Special attention was paid to the stages at the beginning and at the end of sexual maturation, e.g. B2/B5, AH2/AH3, etc.

  9. Sexual maturation in East German boys.

    PubMed

    Willers, B; Engelhardt, L; Pelz, L

    1996-07-01

    According to the internationally accepted classification, sexual maturation was investigated in 8685 healthy East German boys by means of the status quo method and the probit regression analysis. The 3rd, 50th and 97th centiles were calculated for the development of both the male external genitalia and pubic and axillary hairs. The findings are in line with those of recent studies from different European countries. Special attention was paid to the stages at the beginning and at the end of sexual maturation, e.g. B 2, B 5; AH2, AH3; PH 2, PH5/6, etc.

  10. German Foreign Minister Visits Paranal Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-03-01

    During his current tour of countries in South America, the Honourable Foreign Minister of Germany, Mr. Joschka Fischer, stopped over at the ESO Paranal Observatory Wednesday night (March 6 - 7, 2002). Arriving in Antofagasta, capital of the II Chilean region, the Foreign Minister and his suite was met by local Chilean officials, headed by Mr. Jorge Molina, Intendente of the Region, as well as His Excellency, the German Ambassador to Chile, Mr. Georg CS Dick and others. In the afternoon of March 6, the Foreign Minister, accompanied by a distinguished delegation from the German Federal Parliament as well as by businessmen from Germany, travelled to Paranal, site of the world's largest optical/infrared astronomical facility, the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). The delegation was welcomed by the Observatory Director, Dr. Roberto Gilmozzi, the VLT Programme Manager, Professor Massimo Tarenghi, the ESO Representative in Chile, Mr. Daniel Hofstadt and ESO staff members, and also by Mr. Reinhard Junker, Deputy Director General (European Co-operation) at the German Ministry for Education and Research. The visitors were shown the various high-tech installations at this remote desert site, some of which have been constructed by German firms. Moreover, most of the large, front-line VLT astronomical instruments have been built in collaboration between ESO and European research institutes, several of these in Germany. One of the latest arrivals to Paranal, the CONICA camera (cf. ESO PR 25/01 ), was built under an ESO contract by the Max-Planck-Institutes for Astronomy (MPIA, in Heidelberg) and Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE, in Garching). The guests had the opportunity to enjoy the spectacular sunset over the Pacific Ocean from the terrace of the new Residencia building ( Photos 05/02 ). At the beginning of the night, the Minister was invited to the Control Room for the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) from where this unique new facility ( ESO PR 23/01 ) is now being thoroughly tested

  11. Calibration Tests of a German Log Rodmeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mottard, Elmo J.; Stillman, Everette R.

    1949-01-01

    A German log rodmeter of the pitot static type was calibrated in Langley tank no. 1 at speeds up to 34 knots and angles of yaw from 0 deg to plus or minus 10 3/4 degrees. The dynamic head approximated the theoretical head at 0 degrees yaw but decreased as the yaw was increased. The static head was negative and in general became more negative with increasing speed and yaw. Cavitation occurred at speeds above 31 knots at 0 deg yaw and 21 knots at 10 3/4 deg yaw.

  12. Top quark physics expectations at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    ATLAS Collaboration; CMS Collaboration; Gaponenko, Andrei

    2008-09-30

    The top quark will be produced copiously at the LHC. This will make possible detailed physics studies, and also the use of top quark decays for detector calibration. This talk reviews plans and prospects for top physics activities in ATLAS and CMS experiments.

  13. Aspects of Authentic Spoken German: Awareness and Recognition of Elision in the German Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightfoot, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    This work discusses the importance of spoken German in classroom instruction. The paper examines the nature of natural spoken language as opposed to written language. We find a general consensus that the prevailing language measure (whether pertaining to written or spoken language) in instructional settings more often typifies the rules associated…

  14. "No-Business-As-Usual German": A Critical Pedagogy of Business German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Benjamin

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author describes his "Business German" course. His course sought to narrate a dialectic of agency and institution. He started by asserting a distinction between the intending subject--with its plural desires, interests, and identifications--and the world it acts in, through and upon. This distinction between acting subject and…

  15. Umweltverschmutzung. German Ecology Packet: Resource Units and Materials for German Classes at All Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Julie; And Others

    Supplementary resource materials for use in upper level secondary school German classes are presented in this text. Teachers who are seeking new content and are willing to adapt these instructional materials on ecology in Germany will find three self-contained units on: The Plight of the Polar Bear, Polluted Swimming Pools in Germany, and Dead…

  16. The Identity of the German City As a Symbol of German Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hajdu, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the pattern formed by Germany's towns and cities, with some remarks on the changes in that pattern since 1945, and the major influences that have shaped the appearance and structure of the German city. The role of the motor car and the new low-density suburb are noted. (EJS)

  17. A Study in West German Stabilization Policy, 1956-1974. German Studies Notes. First Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Manfred J. M.

    The dominant driving force of past movements in West German output and prices is investigated and a review of government policy undertaken to stabilize these movements is presented. Three alternative impulse hypotheses are tested: the monetary, the fiscal, and the foreign impulse hypothesis. The major results of the tests are that: (1) monetary…

  18. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The overall objective of the project is to design and construct prototypical hardware for an integrated MHD topping cycle, and conduct long duration proof-of-concept tests of integrated system at the US DOE Component Development and Integration Facility in Butte, Montana. The results of the long duration tests will augment the existing engineering design data base on MHD power train reliability, availability, maintainability, and performance, and will serve as a basis for scaling up the topping cycle design to the next level of development, an early commercial scale power plant retrofit. The components of the MHD power train to be designed, fabricated, and tested include: A slagging coal combustor with a rated capacity of 50 MW thermal input, capable of operation with an Eastern (Illinois {number sign}6) or Western (Montana Rosebud) coal, a segmented supersonic nozzle, a supersonic MHD channel capable of generating at least 1.5 MW of electrical power, a segmented supersonic diffuser section to interface the channel with existing facility quench and exhaust systems, a complete set of current control circuits for local diagonal current control along the channel, and a set of current consolidation circuits to interface the channel with the existing facility inverter.

  19. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Integrated Topping Cycle (ITC) Project represents the culmination of the proof-of-concept (POC) development stage in the US Department of Energy (DOE) program to advance MHD technology to early commercial development stage utility power applications. The project is a joint effort, combining the skills of three topping cycle component developers: TRW, Avco/TDS, and Westinghouse. TRW, the prime contractor and system integrator, is responsible for the 50 thermal megawatt (50 MW{sub t}) slagging coal combustion subsystem. Avco/TDS is responsible for the MHD channel subsystem (nozzle, channel, diffuser, and power conditioning circuits), and Westinghouse is responsible for the current consolidation subsystem. The ITC Project will advance the state-of-the-art in MHD power systems with the design, construction, and integrated testing of 50 MW{sub t} power train components which are prototypical of the equipment that will be used in an early commercial scale MHD utility retrofit. Long duration testing of the integrated power train at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) in Butte, Montana will be performed, so that by the early 1990's, an engineering data base on the reliability, availability, maintainability and performance of the system will be available to allow scaleup of the prototypical designs to the next development level. This Sixteenth Quarterly Technical Progress Report covers the period May 1, 1991 to July 31, 1991.

  20. Top quark physics at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Caner, A.; CDF Collaboration

    1996-08-01

    We present preliminary results on top quark physics recently obtained by the CDF collaboration. The data sample consists of 110 {ital pb}{sup -1} of {ital p{anti p}} collisions at {radical}{ital s} = 1.8 TeV, collected with the Collider Detector at Fermilab during the period 1992 - 1995. We report on the {ital t{anti t}} production cross section and on the top quark mass. The measurements are made in three topologies, corresponding to the decay modes of the {ital Wb} pairs in the final state: lepton + multi-jets, dilepton and all hadronic final state. The analysis performed on the single lepton sample yields the most accurate measurements, due to the good acceptance and the favorable signal to noise ratio obtained after applying some b-tagging techniques. In this channel we measure: {sigma}{sub {ital t{anti t}}} = 6.8{sup +2.3}{sub -1.8} pb M{sub {ital t}} = 175.6 {+-} 5.7 ({ital stat}) {+-} 7.1 ({ital syst.}) {ital GeV/c{sup 2}} Combining the cross sections measured with the lepton + multi-jet and dilepton data we obtain: {sigma}{sub {ital t{anti t}}} = 7.5{sup +1.9}{sub -1.6} {ital pb} A preliminary investigation of the production mechanism of the {ital t{anti t}} system is shown and compared to Standard Model expectations.

  1. CP Violation in Single Top Quark Production

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, Weigang

    2012-01-01

    We present a search for CP violation in single top quark production with the DØ experiment at the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. CP violation in the top electroweak interaction results in different single top quark production cross sections for top and antitop quarks. We perform the search in the single top quark final state using 5.4 fb-1 of data, in the s-channel, t-channel, and for both combined. At this time, we do not see an observable CP asymmetry.

  2. Top Quark Studies at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Reinhild Yvonne

    2014-11-26

    Years after its discovery in 1995 by CDF and D0, the top quark still undergoes intense investigations at the Tevatron. Using up to the full Run II data sample, new measurements of top quark production and properties by the D0 Collaboration are presented. In particular, the first observation of single top quark s-channel production, the measurement of differential tbar t distributions, forward-backward tbar t asymmetry, a new measurement of the top quark mass, and a measurement of the top quark charge are discussed.

  3. Measurements of top quark properties at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Kraan, Aafke C.; /Pennsylvania U.

    2006-11-01

    The top quark with its mass of about 172 GeV/c{sup 2} is the most massive fundamental particle observed by experiment. In this talk they highlight the most recent measurements of several top quark properties performed with the CDF detector based on data samples corresponding to integrated luminosities up to 1 fb{sup -1}. These results include a search for top quark pair production via new massive resonances, measurements of the helicity of the W boson from top-quark decay, and a direct limit on the lifetime of the top quark.

  4. Clinician-scientist trainee: a German perspective.

    PubMed

    Bossé, Dominick; Milger, Katrin; Morty, Rory E

    2011-12-01

    Clinician-scientists are particularly well positioned to bring basic science findings to the patient's bedside; the ultimate objective of basic research in the health sciences. Concerns have recently been raised about the decreasing workforce of clinician-scientists in both the United States of America and in Canada; however, little is known about clinician-scientists elsewhere around the globe. The purpose of this article is two-fold: 1) to feature clinician-scientist training in Germany; and 2) to provide a comparison with the Canadian system. In a question/answer interview, Rory E. Morty, director of a leading clinician-scientist training program in Germany, and Katrin Milger, a physician and graduate from that program, draw a picture of clinician-scientist training and career opportunities in Germany, outlining the place of clinician-scientists in the German medical system, the advantages and drawbacks of this training, and government initiatives to promote training and career development of clinician-scientists. The interview is followed by a discussion comparing the German and Canadian clinician-scientist development programs, focusing on barriers to trainee recruitment and career progress, and efforts to eliminate the barriers encountered along this very demanding but also very rewarding career path.

  5. Commuting accidents in the German chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Zepf, Kirsten Isabel; Letzel, Stephan; Voelter-Mahlknecht, Susanne; Wriede, Ulrich; Husemann, Britta; Escobar Pinzón, Luis Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Due to accident severity and the extent of claim payments commuting accidents are a significant expense factor in the German industry. Therefore the aim of the present study was the identification of risk factors for commuting accidents in a German chemical company. A retrospective analysis of commuting accidents recorded between 1990 and 2003 was conducted in a major chemical company in Germany. A logistic regression-model was calculated in order to determine factors influencing the duration of work inability as a result of commuting accidents. The analysed data included 5,484 employees with commuting accidents. Cars (33.1%) and bicycles (30.5%) were the most common types of vehicles used by commuters who had an accident. The highest number of commuting accidents was observed in the age group under 26 yr. Accidents on the route from the work site to the worker's residence were less frequently observed, but they caused longer periods of work inability than accidents on the way to the work site. The longest periods of work inability were found in the groups of motorcyclists and older employees. The present study identifies specific groups at risk for commuting accidents. The data of the present investigation also underline the need for developing group specific prevention strategies.

  6. Apitherapy: Usage And Experience In German Beekeepers

    PubMed Central

    Hellner, Markus; Winter, Daniel; von Georgi, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the practice of apitherapy - using bee products such as honey, pollen, propolis, royal jelly and bee venom to prevent or treat illness and promote healing - among German beekeepers and to evaluate their experiences with these therapies. A questionnaire incorporating two instruments on beekeepers’ physical and mental health and working practice was included in three German beekeeping journals and readers were asked to complete it. The instrument included questions on the use of apitherapy. Simple descriptive methods, bivariate correlation, cross-tabulation and one-way ANOVA were used to analyze the data. Altogether 1059 completed questionnaires were received. The beekeepers reported the most effective and favorable therapeutic effects with honey, followed by propolis, pollen and royal jelly. The factors associated with successful experiences were: age, number of hives tended, health consciousness, positive experiences with one product and self-administration of treatment. Beekeepers were asked for which condition they would employ propolis and pollen. They reported that they used propolis most frequently to treat colds, wounds and burns, sore throats, gum disorders and also as a general prophylactic, while pollen was most commonly used as a general prophylactic and, less frequently, in treating prostate diseases. No adverse experiences were reported. The potential benefit of bee products is supported by the positive experiences of a large group of beekeepers who use some of these products to treat a wide range of conditions. The indications and treatments given here may be important in selecting bee products and designing future trials. PMID:18955222

  7. Indoxacarb biotransformation in the German cockroach.

    PubMed

    Gondhalekar, Ameya D; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Silva, Isabel; Cooper, Bruce; Scharf, Michael E

    2016-11-01

    Insecticides that are used for pest control undergo physical and biological (enzymatic) degradation. Indoxacarb is an oxadiazine class sodium channel blocker insecticide used for German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.) control. At present, no information is available on enzymatic biotransformation or metabolism of indoxacarb in this important urban pest. We studied the biotransformation pathways of indoxacarb in one susceptible and three field strains with varying susceptibility levels using liquid chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry. As shown in other insect species we found evidence for hydrolase-based bioactivation of indoxacarb to a toxic decarbomethoxylated metabolite, DCJW. In addition, both indoxacarb and DCJW were further metabolized to hydroxy, oxadiazine ring-opened and hydroxylated ring-opened metabolites. In general, higher indoxacarb disappearance, increased formation of DCJW and the above-mentioned metabolites were observed in the three field strains. In vitro biotransformation studies showed that hydroxylated and oxadiazine ring-opened metabolite formation is NADPH/cytochrome P450-dependent. Bioassays and in vivo metabolism experiments using the enzyme-inhibiting insecticide synergists, piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S,-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF), provided insights into potential indoxacarb resistance mechanisms that may proliferate in German cockroach field strains following unchecked selection pressures. The information presented here is an essential step toward developing indoxacarb resistance management programs and also reveals mechanisms of secondary/tertiary indoxacarb toxicity.

  8. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This seventeenth quarterly technical progress report of the MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project presents the accomplishments during the period August 1, 1991 to October 31, 1991. Manufacturing of the prototypical combustor pressure shell has been completed including leak, proof, and assembly fit checking. Manufacturing of forty-five cooling panels was also completed including leak, proof, and flow testing. All precombustor internal components (combustion can baffle and swirl box) were received and checked, and integration of the components was initiated. A decision was made regarding the primary and backup designs for the 1A4 channel. The assembly of the channel related prototypical hardware continued. The cathode wall electrical wiring is now complete. The mechanical design of the diffuser has been completed.

  9. Effect of 8 weeks of pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength in male and female collegiate taekwondo athletes

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Myong-Won; Jung, Hyun-Chul; Song, Jong-Kook; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of 8 weeks pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength in collegiate taekwondo athletes. Thirty-four collegiate athletes (male: 22, female: 12) participated. Body composition, bone mineral density, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength were tested. After statistical analysis was performed the results indicated that there were significant decreases in body weight, percent body fat, and fat tissue after 8 weeks of pre-season training. Bone mineral density increased significantly only in males. There were significant improvements in the 50 m shuttle run and 20 m multistage endurance run in both males and females. The sit & reach test and standing long jump were not significantly changed after 8 weeks. Relative peak power and anaerobic capacity were significantly improved in males. Significant increases in angular velocity were observed for knee extension at both % BW 60°/sec and 180°/sec in both males and females. A significant increase in angular velocity was seen for right knee flexion at % BW 60°/sec for males, but it decreased at % BW 180°/sec for both males and females. In conclusion, this study suggests that 8 weeks of pre-season training has a positive effect on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, isokinetic muscular strength, and endurance. Nevertheless, an exercise approach with the goal of increasing lean tissue, and improving power in knee flexors and flexibility of athletes, should be included in the training program. PMID:25960983

  10. Effect of 8 weeks of pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength in male and female collegiate taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Seo, Myong-Won; Jung, Hyun-Chul; Song, Jong-Kook; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of 8 weeks pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength in collegiate taekwondo athletes. Thirty-four collegiate athletes (male: 22, female: 12) participated. Body composition, bone mineral density, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength were tested. After statistical analysis was performed the results indicated that there were significant decreases in body weight, percent body fat, and fat tissue after 8 weeks of pre-season training. Bone mineral density increased significantly only in males. There were significant improvements in the 50 m shuttle run and 20 m multistage endurance run in both males and females. The sit & reach test and standing long jump were not significantly changed after 8 weeks. Relative peak power and anaerobic capacity were significantly improved in males. Significant increases in angular velocity were observed for knee extension at both % BW 60°/sec and 180°/sec in both males and females. A significant increase in angular velocity was seen for right knee flexion at % BW 60°/sec for males, but it decreased at % BW 180°/sec for both males and females. In conclusion, this study suggests that 8 weeks of pre-season training has a positive effect on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, isokinetic muscular strength, and endurance. Nevertheless, an exercise approach with the goal of increasing lean tissue, and improving power in knee flexors and flexibility of athletes, should be included in the training program.

  11. Normabweichungen im Zeitungsdeutsch Ostbelgiens (Deviations from the Standard in the Newspaper German of East Belgium)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelde, Peter H.

    1974-01-01

    Concludes that the German used in the east Belgium newspaper differs fr om standard High German. Proceeds to list these differences in the areas of lexicology, semantics and stylistics, morphology and syntax, orthography e tc. (Text is in German.) (DS)

  12. Growing Together, Coming Apart: German Society since Unification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torpey, John

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the impact of German unification on German society, politics, and culture. Contends that four decades of separation created political and cultural differences that are difficult to overcome. Expresses concern about the growth of intolerant attitudes and nationalism among citizens of the former East Germany. (CFR)

  13. The Issue of Grammaticalization in Early German Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfaff, Carol W.

    1992-01-01

    The development of the expression of grammatical categories in German in Turkish and German children attending a bilingual day care center in a multilingual speech community in Berlin is examined. Results indicate no evidence that pragmatic categories precede syntactic ones, but some evidence shows that grammatical markers develop first as…

  14. German Libraries and Scientific and Technical Information in Nazi Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Pamela Spence

    1985-01-01

    Review of development of German scientific and technical information network highlights scientific and technical libraries before World War I, the 1920s, effects of National Socialist rise to power, restriction of foreign acquisitions, technological university and wartime activities at Berlin-Charlottenburg, documentation movement, German Society…

  15. Identity Development in German Emerging Adults: Not an Easy Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Haid, Marja-Lena

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we review identity development in German youth as well as the impact of German cultural history on difficulties in developing a sense of national identity. Current socioeconomic and political contexts, such as instability of labor markets and prolonged transitions to work and partnership, are likely to affect identity development.…

  16. Foreign Language Experience in the Elementary School: German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Annapolis, MD.

    Guidelines for teaching German in the elementary school are presented. The program is designed to develop the skills of careful listening and accurate pronunciation and to provide pleasurable learning experiences through dialogues, songs, and games. German is contrasted with English to relate the language experience to other aspects of the…

  17. Teaching German Modal Particles: A Corpus-based Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mollering, Martina

    2001-01-01

    Presents an analysis of German modal particles based on corpora representing Spoken German. The concept of spoken language is discussed with regard to the corpora analyzed and narrowed down in relation to the use of modal particles. In addition, a collection of telephone conversations was scanned into a computer readable file and analyzed using…

  18. On the Relevance of Bernstein for German-Speaking Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolander, Brook

    2009-01-01

    This article assesses the relevance of Basil Bernstein for German-speaking Switzerland. It argues that Bernstein is potentially relevant for German-speaking Switzerland in light of contemporary studies which highlight a connection between social background and differential school achievement. After contextualising Bernstein's theoretical outlook…

  19. Overwhelming Force, Indecisive Victory: The German Invasion of Yugoslavia, 1941

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-13

    from the 10 vicinity of Trieste along the Adriatic to relieve their base at Zadar and secure the coastal plain. The German High Command provided the...southeastern direction down the Vardar Valley toward 29 Salonika. It anticipated a German invasion and included an attack on the Italian base at Zadar and

  20. The Social Stratification of the German VET System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protsch, Paula; Solga, Heike

    2016-01-01

    Germany is widely known for its vocational education and training (VET) system and its dual apprenticeship system in particular. What is often overlooked, however, is the vertical stratification within the German VET system. This is the focus of this study. Our analysis shows that the VET system, like the German school system, is highly…

  1. The Role of Gene DCDC2 in German Dyslexics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcke, A.; Weissfuss, J.; Kirsten, H.; Wolfram, G.; Boltze, J.; Ahnert, P.

    2009-01-01

    Dyslexia is a complex reading and writing disorder with a strong genetic component. In a German case-control cohort, we studied the influence of the suspected dyslexia-associated gene DCDC2. For the first time in a German cohort, we describe association of a 2445 basepair deletion, first identified in an American study. Evidence of association for…

  2. German-English-Speaking Children's Mixed NPs with "Correct" Agreement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorschick, Liane; Quick, Antje Endesfelder; Glasser, Dana; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has reported that bilingual children sometimes produce mixed noun phrases with "correct" gender agreement--as in "der dog" ("der" being a masculine determiner in German and the German word for "dog", "hund", being masculine as well). However, these could obviously be due to chance or to the indiscriminate use of a default…

  3. Markers of Ethnic Identify in Immigrant Worker German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennel, Barbara A.

    1992-01-01

    The role of ethnically marked, nonstandard varieties of German in the Federal Republic of Germany is examined. It is shown that there is a "generic" variety of Immigrant Worker German that unites all immigrant laborers and their families into one group with perceived "ethnic" characteristics. Subdivisions within the group are…

  4. Christ as a pharmacist: medical symbols in German devotion.

    PubMed

    van der Geest, S

    1994-09-01

    The author reports on two German publications [1,2] about the metaphoric use of medicines in Christian devotional literature and art in German society (16th to 19th century). Christ is depicted as a pharmacist dispensing 'medicines' which contain Christian virtues and symbols.

  5. Latest German-English Terminology in CADCAM & Robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, S. M.

    2014-07-01

    As a technical translator who speaks German fluently, the author would like to study and display the latest bilingual technical terminology in German being used in hardware, software and process technology involved in CADCAM & ROBOTICS. This will greatly help technical translators to correctly translate difficult texts from this area of technology.

  6. Word Stress in German Single-Word Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyermann, Sandra; Penke, Martina

    2014-01-01

    This article reports a lexical-decision experiment that was conducted to investigate the impact of word stress on visual word recognition in German. Reaction-time latencies and error rates of German readers on different levels of reading proficiency (i.e., third graders and fifth graders from primary school and university students) were compared…

  7. World Foods. Good Food, Gift of German Cooking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Betty F.; And Others

    This teacher's guide contains materials to be used in a study of Germany and its cuisine. Unit 1 provides an overview of German geographic, political, economic, social, and cultural characteristics. Unit 2 studies German food habits, nutrition, food preparation, and meal patterns. Each unit contains a list of objectives (e.g., identify the type of…

  8. German Television in the U.S. and Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecke, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I review the options that teachers and students have to obtain German TV in the U.S.: through satellite and cable networks and by streaming, downloading, or recording TV programs through the internet. I also address how one can access TV programs over the air in the German-speaking countries by using a notebook PC and TV card.

  9. German Television in the United States and Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecke, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I review the options that teachers and students have to obtain German TV in the U.S.: through satellite and cable networks and by streaming, downloading, or recording TV programs through the internet. I also address how one can access TV programs over the air in the German-speaking countries by using a notebook PC and TV card.

  10. Orientations to Learning German: Heritage Language Background and Motivational Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noels, Kimberly A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined how two motivational substrates may be differentially important depending upon the learner's language background. Students registered in German classes (N = 99) completed a questionnaire that assessed (a) their intrinsic, extrinsic, integrative, and instrumental reasons for learning German; (b) their feelings of autonomy,…

  11. The German and English Auxiliary Systems and Complex Predicates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Terrence C.

    1976-01-01

    This paper explores the auxiliary systems of English and German and the use of the auxiliary verbs in various complex predicate structures in the two languages. It aims at alleviating two types of problems in learning German involving governing patterns and ordering problems in clauses. (CHK)

  12. A Study of Language Laboratory Teaching in German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiven, L. M.

    This report contains experiment results obtained from a comparative study of two groups of seventh grade students learning German in Sweden. The main objectives of the investigation, which lasted one school year, are: (1) to investigate possible achievement differences in German between similar groups of students when one group is instructed…

  13. Techniques for Teaching German: A Series of Demonstration Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Klaus A.

    This manual, to be used in conjunction with 10 demonstration films on the teaching of German in introductory college courses, serves as a guide to the objectives and teaching techniques illustrated in each of the films. The films demonstrate to future teachers of German workable teaching techniques designed to produce specific competencies and…

  14. Stuttering Characteristics of German-English Bilingual Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Martina; Robb, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine stuttering behavior in German-English bilingual people who stutter (PWS), with particular reference to the frequency of stuttering on content and function words. Fifteen bilingual PWS were sampled who spoke German as the first language (L1) and English as a second language (L2). Conversational speech was…

  15. Integrative Teaching Techniques and Improvement of German Speaking Learning Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litualy, Samuel Jusuf

    2016-01-01

    This research ist a Quasi-Experimental research which only applied to one group without comparison group. It aims to prove whether the implementation of integrative teaching technique has influenced the speaking skill of the students in German Education Study Program of FKIP, Pattimura University. The research was held in the German Education…

  16. Avoiding Pitfalls in Rendering into German Formulaic English Linking Phrases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohm, Arnd

    2003-01-01

    Fixed prepositional phrases of the type in this way and on the other hand are used in written and spoken English to connect sentences into larger units (text, dialogues). German prefers simple adverbials like so. Appended is a check-list of the most common such phrases in English and possible German equivalents.

  17. Experiencing German in the Elementary School: Tapping a Natural Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesola, Carol Ann

    1988-01-01

    Elementary school German programs can demonstrate both the value and the accessibility of the German language. Cultural experiences make both the language and the countries in which it is spoken inviting and attractive, and successful elementary programs can overcome old prejudices. (Author/MSE)

  18. Analysis of High School German Textbooks through Rasch Measurement Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batdi, Veli; Elaldi, Senel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to analyze German teacher trainers' views on high school German textbooks through the Rasch measurement model. A survey research design was employed and study group consisted of a total of 21 teacher trainers, three from each region and selected randomly from provinces which are located in seven regions and…

  19. African-German Cooperation in Educational Research and Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachsenmeier, Peter

    The report presents background information and proceedings from a conference held in Bonn, Germany, in September 1977 to encourage exchange of ideas between African and German educators and government officials. Specifically, the conference served to document the increasing interest of German educators to interact with educators from the third…

  20. A Heritage Deferred: The German-Americans in Minnesota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasrud, Clarence A., Ed.

    This collection of conference papers explores aspects of the lives of German-American immigrants in Minnesota. Part 1, "The Ethnic Experience," consists of the following papers: "Was There a Single German-American Experience?" (Bonney); "The Most Diversified Ethnic Group" (Johnson); "Unraveling the Mystery of…

  1. Artificial Intelligence in a German Adventure Game: Spion in PROLOG.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molla, Steven R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Spion, an adventure game for intermediate and advanced college German students, requires players to communicate with a fictitious agent in complete, correct German sentences. The spy game was written in PROLOG, runs on an IBM-PC, and is available at no cost for noncommercial purposes. (Author/CB)

  2. Generational Aspects of German National Socialism, 1919-33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Paul

    1982-01-01

    Examines the theory that pre-Hitler Nazism was part of a generational revolt. Research shows that, among new recruits to the National Socialist German Workers Party in that period, there were more than twice as many who were under 30 years old. Socioeconomic and historical factors which made Nazism attractive to German youth are discussed. (AM)

  3. The rise and fall of spinning tops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2013-04-01

    The motion of four different spinning tops was filmed with a high-speed video camera. Unlike pointed tops, tops with a rounded peg precess initially about a vertical axis that lies well outside the top, and then spiral inward until the precession axis passes through a point close to the center-of-mass. The center-of-mass of a top with a rounded peg can rise as a result of rolling rather than sliding friction, contrary to the explanation normally given for the rise of spinning tops. A tippe top was also filmed and was observed to jump vertically off a horizontal surface several times while the center-of-mass was rising, contrary to the usual assumption that the normal reaction force on a tippe top remains approximately equal to its weight. It was found that the center-of-mass of a tippe top rises as a result of rolling friction at low spin frequencies and as a result of sliding friction at high spin frequencies. It was also found that, at low spin frequencies, a tippe top can precess at two different frequencies simultaneously.

  4. German Women Today: What Some German Newspapers Say. Inter Nationes Basis-Info 4-2000/Society. In Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Born, Sigrid, Ed.

    This document contains eight articles from German newspapers that feature women who have achieved career success in very diverse economic sectors, while simultaneously highlighting the discrimination and other problems (including lower income, fewer promotions to executive positions, and smaller pensions) that many other German women continue to…

  5. German Grammar in the Students' Words: The "Essentialization" of German Grammar by American College-Level Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez, Monika

    2011-01-01

    This study of 134 college-level learners of German, enrolled in four years of instruction, showed them to "essentialize" German grammar when asked to describe it to a hypothetical friend. Kubota defined the term essentialization to capture learners' views of the target culture. Its main characteristic is the presupposition of "essential, stable,…

  6. Differential Growth Patterns in Emerging Reading Skills of Turkish-German Bilingual and German Monolingual Primary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limbird, Christina K.; Maluch, Jessica T.; Rjosk, Camilla; Stanat, Petra; Merkens, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Students from Turkish-speaking families are the largest minority language group in Germany. Yet, little is known about this group's literacy development. Using data from a 3-year longitudinal study, we examined whether the same base reading skills are involved in early reading comprehension of 100 Turkish-German bilingual and 69 German monolingual…

  7. "There Is No Space for Being German": Portraits of Willing and Reluctant Heritage Language Learners of German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dressler, Roswita

    2010-01-01

    Some heritage language learners (HLLs) are comfortable identifying themselves as such, while others are decidedly reluctant to adopt this term (Pino & Pino, 2000). HLLs in this paper are defined as those students having a parent or grandparent who speaks German or those who have spent a significant part of their childhood in a German-speaking…

  8. East German children's and adolescents' friendship and moral reasoning before and after German reunification.

    PubMed

    Gummerum, Michaela; Keller, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Few studies so far have investigated whether abrupt social changes in a society affect the development of friendship and moral reasoning. In this study, 2 cohorts of 188 East German children and adolescents (aged 7, 9, 12, and 15 years) were interviewed in 1990 and 2005. Participants were asked about the importance of close friendship (friendship concept) as well as their moral decisions and reasoning in a friendship dilemma. Overall, results show that in 2005, East German participants referred to normative and interpersonal-altruistic-empathic concerns significantly more often than participants interviewed in 1990. Reference to relationship concerns decreased from 1990 to 2005. With few exceptions, these cohort effects were equally found in younger (children) and older (adolescents) age groups.

  9. Cost analysis of German waste repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, H.P.; Debski, H.J.

    1993-12-31

    In forecasting costs of final disposal for radioactive waste, the determined disposal concept and operational aspects such as the necessary amount for personnel to operate the repository are important. Even for the German deep geological concept, there are large differences resulting from the assessment to select an already existing mine or a completely new formation as a disposal site. Based on actual planning, the expected total costs of the running waste repository projects in the Federal Republic of Germany are presented including their distribution to single aspects like project management, underground investigation, licensing work and construction. Moreover, the actual expenditures for the different waste repositories are given and as far as possible the prices per m{sup 3}.

  10. Resistance to diazinon in the German cockroach.

    PubMed

    GRAYSON, J M

    1961-01-01

    Specimens of German cockroaches (Blattella germanica) from two different locations near Owensboro, Ky., USA, were tested in the laboratory for resistance to diazinon and malathion. Those from one location were reared for three generations, and those from the other for four generations, before testing was completed. The results showed that both strains possessed resistance to diazinon, but neither strain was resistant to malathion. The males and females of one strain were, respectively, 2.5 and 2.6 times resistant to diazinon at LC(50) and 3.0 and 3.8 times resistant at LC(90): while those of the other strain were 5.8 and 8.0 times resistant to diazinon at LC(50) and 9.3 and 15.3 times resistant at LC(90).

  11. [Quality of German medical services: a review].

    PubMed

    Braun, J; Robbers, J; Lakomek, H-J

    2016-02-01

    In the current draft of the law on the reform of the support structures of hospital provision (German Hospital Structure Law) the future quality of provision is highly significant. Quality assurance measures are mandatory for hospitals. The Federal General Committee was legally charged with developing the relevant quality indicators for structural, procedural and outcome quality that are designed to form the criteria and the basis for planning decisions in the federal states. This involves a paradigm shift in quality assurance measures in hospitals. In the future, subject to the verified quality, this should have an influence on hospital planning, and the funding or regulation of hospital departments should also adhere to this prescribed quality. This review reveals the course of quality or quality assurance measures in medical services in Germany. The status of the institutions responsible for the quality of care in hospitals and the significance of quality indicators are explained.

  12. German national femtosecond technology project (FST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dausinger, Friedrich

    2002-06-01

    The German federal government started the funding of a national project intended to exploit the potential of femtosecond technology. In a forgoing competition five research consortia had been successful and have started now together with an adjoin research consortium their investigations in the following fields: (i) micro-machining of technical materials for microstructuring and drilling, (ii) medical therapy in: ophthalmology, dentistry, neurology and ear surgery, (iii) metrology, (iv) laser safety, (v) x- ray generation. Lasers, systems and technologies required in these potential fields of applications will be investigated. The program aims at industrial success and is dominated by industrial partners, therefore. The more fundamental research is done in university institutes and research centers.

  13. Abortion checks at German-Dutch border.

    PubMed

    Von Baross, J

    1991-05-01

    The commentary on West German abortion law, particularly in illegal abortion in the Netherlands, finds the law restrictive and in violation of the dignity and rights of women. The Max-Planck Institute in 1990 published a study that found that a main point of prosecution between 1976 and 1986, as reported by Der Spiegal, was in border crossings from the Netherlands. It is estimated that 10,000 annually have abortions abroad, and 6,000 to 7,000 in the Netherlands. The procedure was for an official to stop a young person and query about drugs; later the woman would admit to an abortion, and be forced into a medical examination. The German Penal Code Section 218 stipulates abortion only for certain reasons testified to by a doctor other than the one performing the abortion. Counseling on available social assistance must be completed 3 days prior to the abortion. Many counseling offices are church related and opposed to abortions. Many doctors refuse legally to certify, and access to abortion is limited. The required hospital stay is 3-4 nights with no day care facilities. Penal Code Section 5 No. 9 allows prosecution for uncounseled illegal abortion. Abortion law reform is anticipated by the end of 1992 in the Bundestag due to the Treaty or the Unification of Germany. The Treaty states that the rights of the unborn child must be protected and that pregnant women relieve their distress in a way compatible with the Constitution, but improved over legal regulations from either West or East Germany, which permits abortion on request within 12 weeks of conception without counseling. It is hoped that the law will be liberalized and Penal Code Section 5 No. 9 will be abolished.

  14. German suffering in the Franco–German War, 1870/71.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Christine G

    2011-01-01

    Suffering during the Franco–Prussian War of 1870/71 has to be interpreted in the context of three developments: the willingness to alleviate wartime suffering, which had led to the foundation of the International Red Cross and the Geneva Convention a few years earlier, the industrialization of war, which had enormously increased the efficiency of the weaponry, and the nationalization of war. For many Germans, the outcome of the war justified the wartime suffering, which was often trivialized in the media. The small number of authors who saw the high casualty numbers and the pain of the victims as a warning about the consequences of modern warfare usually belonged to the anti-Prussian opposition. Nationalist euphoria in the face of victory and German unification drowned out such critics, whose patriotism was in doubt. Finally, the remembrance of the war during the Kaiserreich aimed largely at celebrating the triumph of the German army and the foundation of the national state. The glorification of the military was hardly compatible with a detailed description of the misery of the battlefield and the pain of war victims. In 1870/71 and in the subsequent decades, nationalism overwhelmed and eventually excluded a humanitarian narrative.

  15. Do lemmas speak German? A verb position effect in German structural priming.

    PubMed

    Chang, Franklin; Baumann, Michael; Pappert, Sandra; Fitz, Hartmut

    2015-07-01

    Lexicalized theories of syntax often assume that verb-structure regularities are mediated by lemmas, which abstract over variation in verb tense and aspect. German syntax seems to challenge this assumption, because verb position depends on tense and aspect. To examine how German speakers link these elements, a structural priming study was performed which varied syntactic structure, verb position (encoded by tense and aspect), and verb overlap. Abstract structural priming was found, both within and across verb position, but priming was larger when the verb position was the same between prime and target. Priming was boosted by verb overlap, but there was no interaction with verb position. The results can be explained by a lemma model where tense and aspect are linked to structural choices in German. Since the architecture of this lemma model is not consistent with results from English, a connectionist model was developed which could explain the cross-linguistic variation in the production system. Together, these findings support the view that language learning plays an important role in determining the nature of structural priming in different languages.

  16. Top quark mass: past, present and future

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, Gaston; /Fermilab

    2007-07-01

    The top quark is the most massive elementary particle discovered thus far. Its large mass may help explain the mechanism by which fundamental particles gain mass - the Standard Model's greatest standing mystery. Today the top quark mass, together with the W boson mass, plays an important role in constraining the Higgs boson mass. The current status of the top quark mass measurement and a brief outline of the expectation at the Large Hadron Collider and the International Linear Collider will be covered.

  17. TOP500 Supercomputers for June 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Strohmaier, Erich; Meuer, Hans W.; Dongarra, Jack; Simon, Horst D.

    2005-06-22

    25th Edition of TOP500 List of World's Fastest Supercomputers Released: DOE/L LNL BlueGene/L and IBM gain Top Positions MANNHEIM, Germany; KNOXVILLE, Tenn.; BERKELEY, Calif. In what has become a closely watched event in the world of high-performance computing, the 25th edition of the TOP500 list of the world's fastest supercomputers was released today (June 22, 2005) at the 20th International Supercomputing Conference (ISC2005) in Heidelberg Germany.

  18. TOP500 Supercomputers for November 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Strohmaier, Erich; Meuer, Hans W.; Dongarra, Jack; Simon, Horst D.

    2004-11-08

    24th Edition of TOP500 List of World's Fastest Supercomputers Released: DOE/IBM BlueGene/L and NASA/SGI's Columbia gain Top Positions MANNHEIM, Germany; KNOXVILLE, Tenn.; BERKELEY, Calif. In what has become a closely watched event in the world of high-performance computing, the 24th edition of the TOP500 list of the worlds fastest supercomputers was released today (November 8, 2004) at the SC2004 Conference in Pittsburgh, Pa.

  19. Top quark mass measurements at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Maki, Tuula; /Helsinki U. /Helsinki Inst. of Phys.

    2007-10-01

    The top quark mass is interesting both as a fundamental parameter of the standard model as well as an important input to precision electroweak tests. The CDF Collaboration has measured the top quark mass with high precision in all decay channels with complementary methods. A combination of the results from CDF gives a top quark mass of 170.5{+-}1.3(stat.){+-}1.8(syst.) GeV/c{sup 2}.

  20. TOP500 Supercomputers for June 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Strohmaier, Erich; Meuer, Hans W.; Dongarra, Jack; Simon, Horst D.

    2004-06-23

    23rd Edition of TOP500 List of World's Fastest Supercomputers Released: Japan's Earth Simulator Enters Third Year in Top Position MANNHEIM, Germany; KNOXVILLE, Tenn.;&BERKELEY, Calif. In what has become a closely watched event in the world of high-performance computing, the 23rd edition of the TOP500 list of the world's fastest supercomputers was released today (June 23, 2004) at the International Supercomputer Conference in Heidelberg, Germany.

  1. Top quark physics at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    D. Gerdes

    2004-01-28

    Precision studies of the top quark are a prime goal of the Run II physics program at the Fermilab Tevatron. Since the start of Run II in early 2002, the CDF and D0 experiments have analyzed approximately 100 pb{sup -1} of data and have re-established the top quark signal. In this article the author summarizes recent measurements of the top production cross section and mass.

  2. Innovations in phenotyping of mouse models in the German Mouse Clinic.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Neschen, Susanne; Adler, Thure; Afonso, Luciana Caminha; Aguilar-Pimentel, Juan Antonio; Becker, Lore; Bohla, Alexander; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Cohrs, Christian; Dewert, Anna; Fridrich, Barbara; Garrett, Lillian; Glasl, Lisa; Götz, Alexander; Hans, Wolfgang; Hölter, Sabine M; Horsch, Marion; Hurt, Anja; Janas, Eva; Janik, Dirk; Kahle, Melanie; Kistler, Martin; Klein-Rodewald, Tanja; Lengger, Christoph; Ludwig, Tonia; Maier, Holger; Marschall, Susan; Micklich, Kateryna; Möller, Gabriele; Naton, Beatrix; Prehn, Cornelia; Puk, Oliver; Rácz, Ildikó; Räss, Michael; Rathkolb, Birgit; Rozman, Jan; Scheerer, Markus; Schiller, Evelyn; Schrewe, Anja; Steinkamp, Ralph; Stöger, Claudia; Sun, Minxuan; Szymczak, Wilfried; Treise, Irina; Vargas Panesso, Ingrid Liliana; Vernaleken, Alexandra M; Willershäuser, Monja; Wolff-Muscate, Annemarie; Zeh, Ramona; Adamski, Jerzy; Beckers, Johannes; Bekeredjian, Raffi; Busch, Dirk H; Eickelberg, Oliver; Favor, Jack; Graw, Jochen; Höfler, Heinz; Höschen, Christoph; Katus, Hugo; Klingenspor, Martin; Klopstock, Thomas; Neff, Frauke; Ollert, Markus; Schulz, Holger; Stöger, Tobias; Wolf, Eckhard; Wurst, Wolfgang; Yildirim, Ali Önder; Zimmer, Andreas; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin

    2012-10-01

    Under the label of the German Mouse Clinic (GMC), a concept has been developed and implemented that allows the better understanding of human diseases on the pathophysiological and molecular level. This includes better understanding of the crosstalk between different organs, pleiotropy of genes, and the systemic impact of envirotypes and drugs. In the GMC, experts from various fields of mouse genetics and physiology, in close collaboration with clinicians, work side by side under one roof. The GMC is an open-access platform for the scientific community by providing phenotypic analysis in bilateral collaborations ("bottom-up projects") and as a partner and driver in international large-scale biology projects ("top-down projects"). Furthermore, technology development is a major topic in the GMC. Innovative techniques for primary and secondary screens are developed and implemented into the phenotyping pipelines (e.g., detection of volatile organic compounds, VOCs).

  3. Match Running Performance and Success Across a Season in German Bundesliga Soccer Teams.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, M W; Slomka, M; Baumgart, C; Weber, H; Freiwald, J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify the association between match running performance and success across a season in soccer teams competing within a European top league. We analyzed the match running performance data of all soccer teams from the German Bundesliga across the season 2012/13 (306 matches). The following match running performance data were used: total distance covered as well as number of running activities>18.0 km/h and > 22.7 km/h. Depending on the team's ball possession status, all match running performance data were also analyzed as those with and without ball possession. The success across the season was defined as the final competition points accumulated. The match running performance alone was not significantly correlated with the final points accumulated (best r=0.24; p=0.34). In contrast, positive-significant correlations were observed for the match running performance with ball possession (best r=0.77; p<0.01). However, of these latter correlations, only the total distance covered with ball possession was a significant predictor (p<0.01) and accounted for 60% of the variance (R(2)=0.60) in the final points accumulated. It is concluded that it is not the match running performance alone that is important for achieving success in German Bundesliga soccer teams, but rather its relation to technical/tactical skills with respect to ball possession.

  4. Boat Deck, Cabin Deck, Bridge Deck, Flat House Top, Stage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Boat Deck, Cabin Deck, Bridge Deck, Flat House Top, Stage Top, Mast House Top, Upper Deck, Flat House Tops, Forecastle Deck, Main Deck - American Racer, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  5. Top Quark Mass Measurements at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Reinhild Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of the top quark in 1995 by the CDF and D0 collaborations at the Fermilab Tevatron proton antiproton collider, precise measurements of its mass are ongoing. Using data recorded by the D0 and CDF experiment, corresponding to up to the full Tevatron data sample, top quark mass measurements performed in different final states using various extraction techniques are presented in this article. The recent Tevatron top quark mass combination yields m_t=173.20 +-0.87 GeV. Furthermore, measurements of the top antitop quark mass difference from the Tevatron are discussed.

  6. Top Quark Production Asymmetries AFBt and AFBl

    DOE PAGES

    Berger, Edmond L.; Cao, Qing-Hong; Chen, Chuan-Ren; ...

    2012-02-14

    A large forward-backward asymmetry is seen in both the top quark rapidity distribution AFBt and in the rapidity distribution of charged leptons AFBl from top quarks produced at the Tevatron. We study the kinematic and dynamic aspects of the relationship of the two observables arising from the spin correlation between the charged lepton and the top quark with different polarization states. We emphasize the value of both measurements, and we conclude that a new physics model which produces more right-handed than left-handed top quarks is favored by the present data.

  7. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    This fourteenth quarterly technical progress report of the MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project presents the accomplishments during the period November 1, 1990 to January 31, 1991. Testing of the High Pressure Cooling Subsystem electrical isolator was completed. The PEEK material successfully passed the high temperature, high pressure duration tests (50 hours). The Combustion Subsystem drawings were CADAM released. The procurement process is in progress. An equipment specification and RFP were prepared for the new Low Pressure Cooling System (LPCS) and released for quotation. Work has been conducted on confirmation tests leading to final gas-side designs and studies to assist in channel fabrication.The final cathode gas-side design and the proposed gas-side designs of the anode and sidewall are presented. Anode confirmation tests and related analyses of anode wear mechanisms used in the selection of the proposed anode design are presented. Sidewall confirmation tests, which were used to select the proposed gas-side design, were conducted. The design for the full scale CDIF system was completed. A test program was initiated to investigate the practicality of using Avco current controls for current consolidation in the power takeoff (PTO) regions and to determine the cause of past current consolidation failures. Another important activity was the installation of 1A4-style coupons in the 1A1 channel. A description of the coupons and their location with 1A1 channel is presented herein.

  8. Top-of-Rail lubricant

    SciTech Connect

    Alzoubi, M. F.; Fenske, G. R.; Erck, R. A.; Boparai, A. S.

    2000-07-14

    Analysis of the volatile and semivolatile fractions collected after use of the TOR lubricant indicated that other than contaminants in the collection laboratory, no compounds on the EPA's Target Compound Lists (Tables 2 and 5) were detected in these fractions. The data of these qualitative analyses, given in the various tables in the text, indicate only the relative amounts of the tentatively identified compounds. The authors recommend that quantitative analysis be performed on the volatile and semivolatile fractions to allow confirmation of the tentatively identified compounds and to obtain absolute amounts of the detected compounds. Additionally, the semivolatile fraction should be analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry to identify compounds that are not chromatographable under the temperature program used for determination of semivolatile compounds. Introducing the top-of-rail (TOR) lubricant into the wheel/rail interface results in a reduction of almost 60% of lateral friction force over the forces encountered under dry conditions. This reveals good potential for energy savings, as well as wear reduction, for railroad companies. In TOR lubrication, an increase in the angle of attack and axle load results in increased lateral friction and rate of lubricant consumption. The most efficient TOR lubricant quantity to be used in the wheel/rail interface must be calculated precisely according to the number of cars, axle loads, train speed, and angle of attack.

  9. Stop and Fricative Devoicing in European Portuguese, Italian and German.

    PubMed

    Pape, Daniel; Jesus, Luis M T

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a cross-linguistic production study of devoicing for European Portuguese (EP), Italian, and German. We recorded all stops and fricatives in four vowel contexts and two word positions. We computed the devoicing of the time-varying patterns throughout the stop and fricative duration. Our results show that regarding devoicing behaviour, EP is more similar to German than Italian. While Italian shows almost no devoicing of all phonologically voiced consonants, both EP and German show strong and consistent devoicing through the entire consonant. Differences in consonant position showed no effect for EP and Italian, but were significantly different for German. The height of the vowel context had an effect for German and EP. For EP, we showed that a more posterior place of articulation and low vowel context lead to significantly more devoicing. However, in contrast to German, we could not find an influence of consonant position on devoicing. The high devoicing for all phonologically voiced stops and fricatives and the vowel context influence are a surprising new result. With respect to voicing maintenance, EP is more like German than other Romance languages.

  10. Toxicity of fatty acid salts to German and American cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, R W; Koehler, P G; Pereira, R M

    2008-08-01

    The toxicity of fatty acid salts to German, Blattella germanica (L.), and American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana (L.), was evaluated. Potassium and sodium laurate caused up to 95% mortality of German cockroaches and 100% mortality of American cockroaches. Even-numbered potassium fatty acid salts, C8-C18 were assessed for toxicity at 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2% concentrations by a 30-s immersion of cockroaches. The more soluble of the fatty acid salts at 2% concentration caused 65-95% mortality of German cockroaches and 100% mortality of American cockroaches. Potassium oleate, C18, was most toxic to both German (LC50 = 0.36%) and American (LC50 = 0.17%) cockroaches. Fatty acid salt solutions on a substrate were tested by placing cockroaches in contact with treated floor tiles immediately after application (wet) or after the solutions had dried. Sodium laurate and potassium caprate caused mortality of German (62 +/- 17.4 and 58 +/- 12.6%, respectively) and American cockroaches (52 +/- 18.5 and 28 +/- 4.9%, respectively) on wet tiles, whereas potassium oleate caused mortality of German cockroaches (67 +/- 14.1%) only. Dry fatty acids caused no mortality among exposed cockroaches. Fatty acid salt solutions can be effective in killing German and American cockroaches but only when insects are thoroughly wetted with 1-2% fatty acid salt solutions.

  11. 'Combating' tropical diseases in the German colonial press.

    PubMed

    Correa, Sílvio Marcus de Souza

    2013-03-01

    This article shows how much certain German language newspapers were a vehicule for reporting to the lay public on 'combating' tropical diseases. Through the press, immigrants and their descendents in Brazil were informed not only about the diseases which afflicted German colonists in Africa, but also about measures concerning sanitation, prophylaxis and experiments with tropical medicine, etc. Based on hemerographic sources, it shows how successful the overseas German communities were in sharing their experiences regarding health in tropical and/or sub-tropical regions.

  12. Spanish experience with German psychology prior to World War I.

    PubMed

    Mülberger, Annette

    2008-01-01

    An increase in interest for German scientific psychology followed the rise of liberalism in late nineteenth-century Spain. This paper deals with Spanish scholars' endeavors to participate in German psychology: It outlines the intellectual and institutional background of Spanish preoccupation with German philosophy and psychology, and deals with the personal experience and testimony of two Spanish philosophers, Eloy Luis André and Juan Vicente Viqueira López, who traveled to Leipzig, Berlin, and Göttingen between 1909 and 1914 to gain firsthand experience in the nascent science of psychology in Germany at that time.

  13. Tm:germanate Fiber Laser: Tuning And Q-switching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P.; Walsh, Brian M.; Reichle, Donald J.; DeYoung, R. J.; Jiang, Shibin

    2007-01-01

    A Tm:germanate fiber laser produced >0.25 mJ/pulse in a 45 ns pulse. It is capable of producing multiple Q-switched pulses from a single p ump pulse. With the addition of a diffraction grating, Tm:germanate f iber lasers produced a wide, but length dependent, tuning range. By s electing the fiber length, the tuning range extends from 1.88 to 2.04 ?m. These traits make Tm:germanate lasers suitable for remote sensin g of water vapor.

  14. Measuring top-quark polarization in top-pair + missing-energy events.

    PubMed

    Berger, Edmond L; Cao, Qing-Hong; Yu, Jiang-Hao; Zhang, Hao

    2012-10-12

    The polarization of a top quark can be sensitive to new physics beyond the standard model. Since the charged lepton from top-quark decay is maximally correlated with the top-quark spin, it is common to measure the polarization from the distribution in the angle between the charged lepton and the top-quark directions. We propose a novel method based on the charged lepton energy fraction and illustrate the method with a detailed simulation of top-quark pairs produced in supersymmetric top squark pair production. We show that the lepton energy ratio distribution that we define is very sensitive to the top-quark polarization but insensitive to the precise measurement of the top-quark energy.

  15. Review of Top Quark Physics Results

    SciTech Connect

    Kehoe, R.; Narain, M.; Kumar, A.

    2007-12-01

    As the heaviest known fundamental particle, the top quark has taken a central role in the study of fundamental interactions. Production of top quarks in pairs provides an important probe of strong interactions. The top quark mass is a key fundamental parameter which places a valuable constraint on the Higgs boson mass and electroweak symmetry breaking. Observations of the relative rates and kinematics of top quark final states constrain potential new physics. In many cases, the tests available with study of the top quark are both critical and unique. Large increases in data samples from the Fermilab Tevatron have been coupled with major improvements in experimental techniques to produce many new precision measurements of the top quark. The first direct evidence for electroweak production of top quarks has been obtained, with a resulting direct determination of V{sub tb}. Several of the properties of the top quark have been measured. Progress has also been made in obtaining improved limits on potential anomalous production and decay mechanisms. This review presents an overview of recent theoretical and experimental developments in this field. We also provide a brief discussion of the implications for further efforts.

  16. The Sakai Spinner: A Paperclip Top

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrao, Christian T.

    2014-01-01

    A challenge: Can you create a stable top from a single paper clip? Several interesting solutions to this problem were provided by Takao Sakai from Japan, the requirement of each being that the center of gravity be located on the vertical y-axis at the center of the top. In the simplest configuration, we see that there exists a single angle ?…

  17. Top-Ten IT Issues, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Debra H.; DeBlois, Peter B.

    2008-01-01

    EDUCAUSE presents the top-ten IT-related issues in terms of strategic importance to the higher education institution, as revealed by the ninth annual EDUCAUSE Current Issues Survey. This year, "Security" moves back to the top of the list. (Contains 20 notes.)

  18. 49 CFR 236.779 - Plate, top.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plate, top. 236.779 Section 236.779 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.779 Plate, top....

  19. 49 CFR 236.779 - Plate, top.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Plate, top. 236.779 Section 236.779 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.779 Plate, top....

  20. Race to Top Draws out New Suitors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2012-01-01

    The list of 61 finalists for the latest Race to the Top competition shows that the U.S. Department of Education was successful in enticing high-scoring applications from districts in rural America and in states that had not shared in the Race to the Top bounty before. But whether the ultimate winners, which will be announced this month, will be…

  1. Top 12 Web Resources for 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Lisa; Vodicka, Devin

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe some of the top websites recommended by colleagues for the Association of California School Administrators. The Top 12 for 2012 are: (1) Facebook (facebook.com); (2) Twitter (twitter.com); (3) Tungle (tungle.me); (4) FCMAT (fcmat.org); (5) YouSendIt (yousendit.com); (6) Slideshare (slideshare.net); (7) QR…

  2. Controlling Severe Curly Top in Sugarbeets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlling curly top in sugarbeet has been industry priority in the western United States since the 1920s. Curly top is a virus disease that is vectored by the beet leafhopper. If the beet leafhopper moves into commercial fields early in the season, virus is more likely to be transmitted to sugar...

  3. Pinch Experiments in a Table Top Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Pavez, Cristian; Moreno, Jose; Soto, Leopoldo; Tarifeno, Ariel

    2009-01-21

    The design and construction of a table top multipurpose capacitor bank of hundred of Joules and hundred of kiloAmperes conceived to be used in small scale Z-pinch experiments is reported. A recent result on a Z-pinch gas embedded discharge using hollow conical electrodes done in a similar table top generator is also presented.

  4. Search for top quark at Fermilab Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Sliwa, K.; The CDF Collaboration

    1991-10-01

    The status of a search for the top quark with Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF), based on a data sample recorded during the 1988--1989 run is presented. The plans for the next Fermilab Collider run in 1992--1993 and the prospects of discovering the top quark are discussed. 19 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. World average top-quark mass

    SciTech Connect

    Glenzinski, D.; /Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes a talk given at the Top2008 Workshop at La Biodola, Isola d Elba, Italy. The status of the world average top-quark mass is discussed. Some comments about the challanges facing the experiments in order to further improve the precision are offered.

  6. Physics of the top quark at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Vejcik, S.; CDF Collaboration

    1997-07-01

    Measurements of Top quark properties with the CDF detector are reported. The production cross section and mass provide a consistent picture of the Top quark as described by the Standard Model. Initial studies of other properties such as estimates of branching ratios are also reported.

  7. Tools for top physics at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Harel, Amnon

    2008-07-01

    Top quark measurements rely on the jet energy calibration and often on b-quark identification. We discuss these and other tools and how they apply to top quark analyses at D0. In particular some of the nuances that result from D0's data driven approach to these issues are presented.

  8. Top Quark Pair Production at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Jason

    2005-05-17

    The measurement of the top quark pair production crosssection inproton-antiproton collisions at 1.96 TeV is a test ofquantumchromodynamics and could potentially be sensitive to newphysics beyondthe standard model. I report on the latest t-tbarcross section resultsfrom the CDF and DZero experiments in various finalstate topologies whicharise from decays of top quark pairs.

  9. TOP500 Supercomputers for June 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Strohmaier, Erich; Meuer, Hans W.; Dongarra, Jack; Simon, Horst D.

    2002-06-20

    19th Edition of TOP500 List of World's Fastest Supercomputers Released MANNHEIM, Germany; KNOXVILLE, Tenn.;&BERKELEY, Calif. In what has become a much-anticipated event in the world of high-performance computing, the 19th edition of the TOP500 list of the worlds fastest supercomputers was released today (June 20, 2002). The recently installed Earth Simulator supercomputer at the Earth Simulator Center in Yokohama, Japan, is as expected the clear new number 1. Its performance of 35.86 Tflop/s (trillions of calculations per second) running the Linpack benchmark is almost five times higher than the performance of the now No.2 IBM ASCI White system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (7.2 Tflop/s). This powerful leap frogging to the top by a system so much faster than the previous top system is unparalleled in the history of the TOP500.

  10. Thermionic topping of electric power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, E. J.; Fitzpatrick, G. O.; Rasor, N. S.

    1975-01-01

    The most likely use of thermionic conversion is in the form of a topping cycle combined with a steam-turbogenerator plant. A specific reference system is chosen in which the thermionic topping cycle occurs in thermionic heat exchangers referred to as large, modular thermionic units to which heat is transferred from a separate heat source and which reject their heat to a conventional steam turboelectric system. Results of analysis show that the performance and cost criteria for practical thermionic topping of large electric power plants are well within the reach of demonstrated and foreseeable converter capabilities. Thermionic topping has many significant advantages over unconventional cycles proposed for topping applications, including level of demonstrated and projected performance and lifetime, development time, and design simplicity.

  11. Protein Identification Using Top-Down

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiaowen; Sirotkin, Yakov; Shen, Yufeng; Anderson, Gordon A.; Tsai, Yi-Hsuan S.; Ting, Ying S.; Goodlett, David R.; Smith, Richard D.; Bafna, Vineet; Pevzner, Pavel A.

    2012-06-01

    In the last two years, due to advances in protein separation and mass spectrometry, top-down mass spectrometry moved from analyzing single proteins to analyzing complex samples and identifying hundreds and even thousands of proteins. However, computational tools for database search of top-down spectra against protein databases are still in infancy. We describe MS-Align+, a fast algorithm for top-down protein identification based on spectral alignment that enables searches for unexpected post-translational modifications (PTMs). We also propose a method for evaluating statistical significance of top-down protein identifications and further benchmark MS-Align+ along with PIITA, ProSightPTM and SEQUEST, which were previously used for top-down MS/MS database searches. We demonstrate that MS-Align+ and PIITA significantly increase the number of identified proteins as compared to ProSightPTM and SEQUEST.

  12. Eight-Week Training Cessation Suppresses Physiological Stress but Rapidly Impairs Health Metabolic Profiles and Aerobic Capacity in Elite Taekwondo Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yi-Hung; Sung, Yu-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Changes in an athlete’s physiological and health metabolic profiles after detraining have not been studied in elite Taekwondo (TKD) athletes. To enable a better understanding of these physiological changes to training cessation, this study examined the effects of 8-weeks detraining on the aerobic capacity, body composition, inflammatory status and health metabolic profile in elite TKD athletes. Sixteen elite TKD athletes (age: 21.0 ± 0.8 yrs, BMI: 22.4 ± 3.9 kg/m2; Mean ± SD; 11 males and 5 females) participated in this study. Physical activity level assessment using computerized physical activity logs was performed during the competitive preparation season (i.e. one-week before national competition) and at two week intervals throughout the detraining period. Participant aerobic capacity, body fat, and blood biomarkers were measured before and after detraining, and the blood biomarker analyses included leukocyte subpopulations, blood glucose, insulin, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S), and cortisol. Eight-week detraining increased DHEA-S/cortisol ratio (+57.3%, p = 0.004), increased insulin/cortisol ratio (+59.9%, p = 0.004), reduced aerobic power (–2.43%, p = 0.043), increased body fat accumulation (body fat%: +21.3%, p < 0.001), decreased muscle mass (muscle mass%: –4.04%, p < 0.001), and elevated HOMA-IR (the biomarker of systemic insulin resistance; +34.2%, p = 0.006). The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), a systemic inflammatory index, increased by 48.2% (p = 0.005). The change in aerobic capacity was correlated with the increased fat mass (r = –0.429, p = 0.049) but not with muscle loss. An increase in the NLR was correlated to the changes in HOMA-IR (r = 0.44, p = 0.044) and aerobic capacity (r = –0.439, p = 0.045). We demonstrate that 8-week detraining suppresses physiological stress but rapidly results in declines in athletic performance and health metabolic profiles, including reduced aerobic capacity, increased body fat, muscle

  13. Measurements and searches with top quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Reinhild Yvonne

    2008-08-01

    In 1995 the last missing member of the known families of quarks, the top quark, was discovered by the CDF and D0 experiments at the Tevatron, a proton-antiproton collider at Fermilab near Chicago. Until today, the Tevatron is the only place where top quarks can be produced. The determination of top quark production and properties is crucial to understand the Standard Model of particle physics and beyond. The most striking property of the top quark is its mass--of the order of the mass of a gold atom and close to the electroweak scale--making the top quark not only interesting in itself but also as a window to new physics. Due to the high mass, much higher than of any other known fermion, it is expected that the top quark plays an important role in electroweak symmetry breaking, which is the most prominent candidate to explain the mass of particles. In the Standard Model, electroweak symmetry breaking is induced by one Higgs field, producing one additional physical particle, the Higgs boson. Although various searches have been performed, for example at the Large Electron Positron Collider (LEP), no evidence for the Higgs boson could yet be found in any experiment. At the Tevatron, multiple searches for the last missing particle of the Standard Model are ongoing with ever higher statistics and improved analysis techniques. The exclusion or verification of the Higgs boson can only be achieved by combining many techniques and many final states and production mechanisms. As part of this thesis, the search for Higgs bosons produced in association with a top quark pair (t$\\bar{t}$H) has been performed. This channel is especially interesting for the understanding of the coupling between Higgs and the top quark. Even though the Standard Model Higgs boson is an attractive candidate, there is no reason to believe that the electroweak symmetry breaking is induced by only one Higgs field. In many models more than one Higgs boson are expected to exist, opening even more

  14. Losing the Battle for Balanced Bilingualism: The German-American Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiffman, Harold

    1987-01-01

    Studies the case of a religious group of German immigrants, whose German-American descendants attended German-language parochial schools but received secular instruction in English. Although the situation resulted in English-dominant children rather than the intended German-dominant bilinguals, recent sociolinguistic, psycholinguistic, and…

  15. Cross-Linguistic Differences in Prosodic Cues to Syntactic Disambiguation in German and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Mary Grantham; Jackson, Carrie N.; Gardner, Christine E.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether late-learning English-German second language (L2) learners and late-learning German-English L2 learners use prosodic cues to disambiguate temporarily ambiguous first language and L2 sentences during speech production. Experiments 1a and 1b showed that English-German L2 learners and German-English L2 learners used a…

  16. Miniriforma dell'ortografia tedesca (Mini-Reform of German Spelling).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavanini, Pietro

    1995-01-01

    This article reports that, after years of debate, representatives of German-speaking countries meeting in Vienna reached an agreement on measures to reform the spelling of the German language. Many linguists were disappointed that it was not decided to change the most unique characteristic of German spelling--the capitalization of German nouns.…

  17. Teaching Games for Understanding Conference Supplement from the German Sport University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 2016

    2016-01-01

    By bringing together the national German sports game community and an international scientific community in a joint conference, the 6th International Teaching Games for Understanding Conference (TGfU) Meets the 10th German Sports Games Symposium of the German Association of Sport Science (DVS), held July 25-27, 2016, at the German Sport University…

  18. Aspects of the Romance-Germanic Language Border: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treffers-Daller, Jeanine; Willemyns, Roland

    2002-01-01

    Introduces this special issue of the journal. Articles cover the geographical length of of the Romance-Germanic border, from French Flanders in the northwest to South Tyrol in the Southeast. (Author/VWL)

  19. 1. Photocopy of illustration (from William G. Bek's The German ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of illustration (from William G. Bek's The German Settlement Society of Philadelphia and its Colony Hermann, Missouri) Photographer unknown, ca. 1906 EXTERIOR IN 1906 - Market House, Market Street, Hermann, Gasconade County, MO

  20. German Antarctic Receiving Station (GARS) O'Higgins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neidhardt, Alexander; Ploetz, Christian; Kluegel, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the German Antarctic Receiving Station (GARS) O'Higgins contributed to the IVS observing program with four observation sessions. Maintenance and upgrades were made, and a new replacement dewar is under construction in the observatory at Yebes, Spain.

  1. Landeskunde durch Weinkunde: A Taste of German Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peacock, Dennis E.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a cultural unit centered on German wines. After a series of preparatory lessons showing how the topic touches on geography, history, and social customs, the unit culminated in a wine tasting. (EJS)

  2. Fifth German-American Frontiers of Engineering Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    2002-05-01

    The agenda book for the Fifth German-American Frontiers of Engineering Symposium contains abstracts of the 16 presentations as well as information on the program, bios of the speakers, contact information for all attendees, and background on the activity.

  3. Gut bacteria mediate aggregation in the German cockroach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aggregation of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, is regulated by fecal aggregation agents (pheromones), including volatile carboxylic acids (VCAs). We hypothesized that the gut microbial community contributes to production of these semiochemicals. Chemical analysis of the fecal extract of B...

  4. German Higher Education in the Framework of the Bologna Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Roland

    In 1997/98, the 16 German Länder tentatively agreed on the establishment of a new degree structure for German higher education in the form of Bachelors and Masters programmes. Moreover, the German government passed federal legislation that officially adopted accreditation as a new steering instrument to approve these newly established Bachelors and Masters programmes. Thus, since 1998 almost all universities, Fachhochschulen (FH), faculties, and especially the engineering departments have been busy designing new Bachelors and Masters degree programmes. On the other hand, accreditation of programmes as a means of quality assurance has become the new pre-requisite for state recognition, which is operated by an overarching national Accreditation Board that on it turn recognises agencies that accredit particular degree programmes. All these changes will be a challenge and are likely to change the overall structure of the traditional German higher education system severely.

  5. About Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles)

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Q&A References & Resources Related Link Global Health – Measles, Rubella, and Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) About Rubella ...

  6. 34. HISTORIC VIEW OF GROUP PHOTO OF THE GERMAN ROCKET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. HISTORIC VIEW OF GROUP PHOTO OF THE GERMAN ROCKET DESIGN TEAM SHORTLY AFTER THEIR ARRIVAL AT THE REDSTONE ARSENAL IN 1950. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  7. 32. HISTORIC VIEW OF GERMAN ROCKET SOCIETY VETERAN KURT HEINISCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. HISTORIC VIEW OF GERMAN ROCKET SOCIETY VETERAN KURT HEINISCH IN CONTROL ROOM AT TEST STAND NO. 1, PEENEMUENDE. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  8. German Newsreels: A New Approach to FL Relevancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimler, G. Richard

    1973-01-01

    Describes the instructional use of a German Government produced newsreel, Deutschlandspiegel,'' at Fordham University, New York City. For information on availability of this newsreel, contact the AATG Service Center, 339 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19106. (RS)

  9. German Experts' Views and Ideas about Information on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voigt, Kristina; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reflects ideas about the Internet presented by four German experts: possibilities and applications of chemistry; environmental informatics and documentation on the World Wide Web; views of a research-oriented pharmaceutical company; and the commercialization of the Internet. (LRW)

  10. Fritz Reiche and German Refugee Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bederson, Benjamin

    2003-04-01

    Fritz Reiche (1883-1969) was a distinguished theoretical physicist, a student and colleague of Wilhelm Roentgen, Max Planck, Fritz Haber, Rudolf Ladenburg, James Franck, Max Born, Max von Laue and other early luminaries. He was coauthor of the famous Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule, and author of the seminal book The Quantum Theory, first published in 1920. He was one of the last Jewish physicists to leave Germany during the Nazi period, in 1941. In his book "Heisenberg's War" Thomas Powers relates that Reiche bore news of German work on nuclear fission, in a message from Friedrich Houtermans to Wigner and others in Princeton, where Reiche lived in Einstein's home during the summer of 1941. Reiche's son Hans later claimed that this incident played a significant role in convincing Einstein to write that letter to President Roosevelt. In this talk I will relate the difficulties Reiche experienced, first in leaving Germany and then in reestablishing his physics career in the US. He finally obtained an adjunct position at NYU where he served until his retirement. The role played by the renowned Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars will be discussed. The particular role played by Ladenburg, who was instrumental in obtaining a small grant for Reiche permitting him to obtain a US visa, in helping many physicists leave Nazi Germany and occupied countries, will also be described.

  11. Subsurface urban heat islands in German cities.

    PubMed

    Menberg, Kathrin; Bayer, Peter; Zosseder, Kai; Rumohr, Sven; Blum, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the intensity and extension of subsurface urban heat islands (UHI), and the individual role of the driving factors has not been revealed either. In this study, we compare groundwater temperatures in shallow aquifers beneath six German cities of different size (Berlin, Munich, Cologne, Frankfurt, Karlsruhe and Darmstadt). It is revealed that hotspots of up to +20K often exist, which stem from very local heat sources, such as insufficiently insulated power plants, landfills or open geothermal systems. When visualizing the regional conditions in isotherm maps, mostly a concentric picture is found with the highest temperatures in the city centers. This reflects the long-term accumulation of thermal energy over several centuries and the interplay of various factors, particularly in heat loss from basements, elevated ground surface temperatures (GST) and subsurface infrastructure. As a primary indicator to quantify and compare large-scale UHI intensity the 10-90%-quantile range UHII(10-90) of the temperature distribution is introduced. The latter reveals, in comparison to annual atmospheric UHI intensities, an even more pronounced heating of the shallow subsurface.

  12. Fault reactivation and ground uplift assessment at a prospective German CO2 storage site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röhmann, Lina; Tillner, Elena; Kempka, Thomas; Magri, Fabien; Kühn, Michael

    2013-04-01

    pressure elevation during CO2 injection [4-5]. In the present modelling study 1.7 Mt CO2/year were injected into the top of an anticline structure of the 23 m thick sandstone formation of the Middle Bunter for 20 years of simulation time. A one-way coupling between both simulators was undertaken by transferring the pore pressure distribution from the dynamic flow simulations into the geomechanical simulator for selected time steps. The results show that detailed knowledge on geomechanical processes during CO2 injection is of uttermost importance for the assessment of fault reactivation and ground uplift and associated risks. References [1] Schulz R, Agemar T, Alten AJ, Kühne K, Maul AA, Pester S et al. Implementation of a Geothermal Information System for Germany. - Erdöl Erdgas Kohle 2007, 123(2): 76-81 (in German). [2] Beer H, Stackebrandt W. Geological Map of the State of Brandenburg 1:300.000. Contour Map of the Zechstein Formation Top, 2000. Cottbus: Landesamtes für Bergbau, Geologie und Rohstoffe Brandenburg (in German). [3] Schlumberger. Petrel Seismic-to-Evaluation Software, Version 2010.2.2., 2012. [4] Zhang K, Wu YS, Pruess K. User's Guide for TOUGH2-MP - A Massively Parallel Version of the TOUGH2 Code. Report LBNL-315E, 2008, Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California. [5] Itasca. FLAC3D Software Version 5.0, Advanced Three Dimensional Continuum Modelling for Geotechnical Analysis of Rock, Soil and Structural Support, 2012.

  13. Discovery of single top quark production

    SciTech Connect

    Gillberg, Dag

    2009-04-01

    The top quark is by far the heaviest known fundamental particle with a mass nearing that of a gold atom. Because of this strikingly high mass, the top quark has several unique properties and might play an important role in electroweak symmetry breaking - the mechanism that gives all elementary particles mass. Creating top quarks requires access to very high energy collisions, and at present only the Tevatron collider at Fermilab is capable of reaching these energies. Until now, top quarks have only been observed produced in pairs via the strong interaction. At hadron colliders, it should also be possible to produce single top quarks via the electroweak interaction. Studies of single top quark production provide opportunities to measure the top quark spin, how top quarks mix with other quarks, and to look for new physics beyond the standard model. Because of these interesting properties, scientists have been looking for single top quarks for more than 15 years. This thesis presents the first discovery of single top quark production. An analysis is performed using 2.3 fb-1 of data recorded by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at centre-of-mass energy √s = 1.96 TeV. Boosted decision trees are used to isolate the single top signal from background, and the single top cross section is measured to be σ(p$\\bar{p}$ → tb + X, tqb + X) = 3.74-0.74+0.95 pb. Using the same analysis, a measurement of the amplitude of the CKM matrix element Vtb, governing how top and b quarks mix, is also performed. The measurement yields: |V{sub tb}|f1L| = 1.05 -0.12+0.13, where f1L is the left-handed Wtb coupling. The separation of signal from background is improved by combining the boosted decision trees with two other multivariate techniques. A new cross section measurement is performed, and the significance for the excess over the predicted background exceeds 5

  14. The German Military Mission to Romania, 1940-1941

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    its own problems upon itself by its prior pro-Allied policy. Hitler also Finnish Volunteer Battalion of German Waffen- SS return home from front in...youth of 19, while Antonescu assumed dictatorial powers and the title of “Leader,” much in keeping with his Nazi and Fascist colleagues.5 With...connections to the Nazi Party, and the Nazis had newspapers and political organizations in Romania. Not surprisingly, German language newspapers ran

  15. D-1 report: The first German spacelab mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Introduction of a new popular magazine on the DI mission, the first West German Space mission. The DI project office publishes the magazine. The German sponsored astronauts are to study the gravitational effects of reduced gravity on the human generated processes of the environment. Other areas of concern are boundary surface and transport phenomena, physical chemisty and process engineering, metals and composite materials, and single crystals.

  16. German General Staff Officer Education and Current Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-25

    MONOGRAPH 25-05-2006 SEPT 2005-MAR 2006 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE German General Staff Officer Education abd Current...Competencies and Skills ...................................................................... 27 CHAPTER 4 THE GERMAN PRT IN KUNDUZ/AFGHANISTAN AND THE...of Defense, Defense Science Board 2004 Summer Study on Transition to and from Hostilities, Washington D.C., September 2, 2004 3 Ibid. 4 Note: The

  17. Operational art in the Defense: The German Abwehrschlachten in 1918

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    WWI ). Just a few months prior, in the spring of 1918, German forces achieved limited success over the conduct of multiple offensive operations and...September to November 1918 in the Meuse-Argonne sector of France. The tendency of viewing WWI from the perspective of the offense characterizes the...offensive operations from the perspective of the AEF. German WWI literature focuses predominately on political circumstances and social implications of

  18. [Stress in German schools: frequencies, causes and international comparison].

    PubMed

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge

    2008-01-01

    An overview about studies on academic stress is given, including anxiety before examinations, decrease in achievement, bad grades as well as aggression and rivalry among pupils. Finding on several studies are reported, including German adolescents (N=1393) and adolescents from 18 countries (N=9778), who have been investigated with respect to school-related problems. German pupils exhibited a mean level in academic stress. However, clinically disturbed adolescents (N=77) reported the highest levels in academic stress, compared to non-conspicuous adolescents.

  19. "Deutsch ist doch keine Fremdsprache!" - Ausbildungsgaenge fuer Lehrer auslaendischer Kinder an deutschen Schulen ("But German is not a Foreign Language!" Training for German Teachers of Foreign Children in German Schools)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Hans H.

    1976-01-01

    Children of foreign workers in Germany have a language problem differing from that of German children studying (e.g.) English. With the goal of integrating the foreign children into German life, teachers with certain qualities and skills are needed. An appropriate teachers' training course is described. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  20. Do listeners recover “deleted” final /t/ in German?

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerer, Frank; Reetz, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Reduction and deletion processes occur regularly in conversational speech. A segment that is affected by such reduction and deletion processes in many Germanic languages (e.g., Dutch, English, German) is /t/. There are similarities concerning the factors that influence the likelihood of final /t/ to get deleted, such as segmental context. However, speakers of different languages differ with respect to the acoustic cues they leave in the speech signal when they delete final /t/. German speakers usually lengthen a preceding /s/ when they delete final /t/. This article investigates to what extent German listeners are able to reconstruct /t/ when they are presented with fragments of words where final /t/ has been deleted. It aims also at investigating whether the strategies that are used by German depend on the length of /s/, and therefore whether listeners are using language-specific cues. Results of a forced-choice segment detection task suggest that listeners are able to reconstruct deleted final /t/ in about 45% of the times. The length of /s/ plays some role in the reconstruction, however, it does not explain the behavior of German listeners completely. PMID:25101016