Science.gov

Sample records for germany-a landscape laboratory

  1. The SLMTA programme: Transforming the laboratory landscape in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Katy; Maruta, Talkmore; Luman, Elizabeth T.; Nkengasong, John N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Efficient and reliable laboratory services are essential to effective and well-functioning health systems. Laboratory managers play a critical role in ensuring the quality and timeliness of these services. However, few laboratory management programmes focus on the competencies required for the daily operations of a laboratory in resource-limited settings. This report provides a detailed description of an innovative laboratory management training tool called Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA) and highlights some challenges, achievements and lessons learned during the first five years of implementation (2009–2013) in developing countries. Programme SLMTA is a competency-based programme that uses a series of short courses and work-based learning projects to effect immediate and measurable laboratory improvement, while empowering laboratory managers to implement practical quality management systems to ensure better patient care. A SLMTA training programme spans from 12 to 18 months; after each workshop, participants implement improvement projects supported by regular supervisory visits or on-site mentoring. In order to assess strengths, weaknesses and progress made by the laboratory, audits are conducted using the World Health Organization’s Regional Office for Africa (WHO AFRO) Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (SLIPTA) checklist, which is based on International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15189 requirements. These internal audits are conducted at the beginning and end of the SLMTA training programme. Conclusion Within five years, SLMTA had been implemented in 617 laboratories in 47 countries, transforming the laboratory landscape in developing countries. To our knowledge, SLMTA is the first programme that makes an explicit connection between the performance of specific management behaviours and routines and ISO 15189 requirements. Because of this close relationship, SLMTA is

  2. Oak Ridge National Laboratory: Sustainable Landscapes Initiative 2020

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, Leah; Rogers, Sam; Sipes, James L.

    2012-09-01

    The goal of the ORNL Sustainable Landscapes Initiative 2020 is to provide a framework that guides future environmental resources and sustainable landscape practices on the ORNL campus. This document builds on the 2003 ORNL Conceptual Landscape Plan and is presented in the context of embracing new opportunities.

  3. Virtual Cultural Landscape Laboratory Based on Internet GIS Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bill, R.

    2012-07-01

    In recent years the transfer of old documents (books, paintings, maps etc.) from analogue to digital form has gained enormous importance. Numerous interventions are concentrated in the digitalisation of library collections, but also commercial companies like Microsoft or Google try to convert large analogue stocks such as books, paintings, etc. in digital form. Data in digital form can be much easier made accessible to a large user community, especially to the interested scientific community. The aim of the described research project is to set up a virtual research environment for interdisciplinary research focusing on the landscape of the historical Mecklenburg in the north-east of Germany. Georeferenced old maps from 1786 and 1890 covering complete Mecklenburg should be combined with current geo-information, satellite and aerial imagery to support spatio-temporal research aspects in different scales in space (regional 1:200,000 to local 1:25.000) and time (nearly 250 years in three time steps, the last 30 years also in three time slices). The Virtual Laboratory for Cultural Landscape Research (VKLandLab) is designed and developed by the Chair of Geodesy and Geoinformatics, hosted at the Computing Centre (ITMZ) and linked to the Digital Library (UB) at Rostock University. VKLandLab includes new developments such as wikis, blogs, data tagging, etc. and proven components already integrated in various data-related infrastructures such as InternetGIS, data repositories and authentication structures. The focus is to build a data-related infrastructure and a work platform that supports students as well as researchers from different disciplines in their research in space and time.

  4. Archive and laboratory embedded in the landscape: Future of the Santa Rita Experimental Range

    Treesearch

    Thomas E. Sheridan

    2003-01-01

    The Santa Rita Experimental Range (SRER) is both an archive of past ecological research and a laboratory for continuing research embedded in the southern Arizona landscape. The scientific questions being asked there have changed over the last 100 years, but SRER with its monitoring stations and its legacy of repeat photography still offers a unique opportunity to study...

  5. Sprachlabors in der Bundesrepublik, Stand: August 1969 (Language Laboratories in the Federal Republic of Germany: A Status Report as of August 1969).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seebach, Barbara, Comp.

    This report lists all the language laboratories in West Germany as of 1969. The entries, arranged alphabetically by city, include the type of school, its name and address, the kind of laboratory, its manufacturer, and date of installation. Supplementary charts give a breakdown of the number of laboratories by state, type of school, and…

  6. Laboratory Identity: A Linguistic Landscape Analysis of Personalized Space within a Microbiology Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanauer, David I.

    2010-01-01

    This study provides insights into what constitutes a laboratory identity and the ways in which it is spatially constructed. This article explores students' professional identities as microbiologists as manifest in their usage of representational space in a laboratory and as such extends understandings of science identity and spatial identity. The…

  7. Laboratory Identity: A Linguistic Landscape Analysis of Personalized Space within a Microbiology Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanauer, David I.

    2010-01-01

    This study provides insights into what constitutes a laboratory identity and the ways in which it is spatially constructed. This article explores students' professional identities as microbiologists as manifest in their usage of representational space in a laboratory and as such extends understandings of science identity and spatial identity. The…

  8. The Desert Laboratory Repeat Photography Collection - An Invaluable Archive Documenting Landscape Change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, Robert H.; Boyer, Diane E.; Turner, Raymond M.; Bullock, Stephen H.

    2007-01-01

    The Desert Laboratory Repeat Photography Collection, the largest collection of its kind in the world, is housed at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Tucson, Arizona. The collection preserves thousands of photos taken precisely in the same places but at different times. This archive of 'repeat photographs' documents changes in the desert landscape and vegetation of the American Southwest, and also includes images from northwestern Mexico and Kenya. These images are an invaluable asset to help understand the effects of climate variation and land-use practices on arid and semiarid environments.

  9. The Landscape of Inappropriate Laboratory Testing: A 15-Year Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhi, Ming; Ding, Eric L.; Theisen-Toupal, Jesse; Whelan, Julia; Arnaout, Ramy

    2013-01-01

    Background Laboratory testing is the single highest-volume medical activity and drives clinical decision-making across medicine. However, the overall landscape of inappropriate testing, which is thought to be dominated by repeat testing, is unclear. Systematic differences in initial vs. repeat testing, measurement criteria, and other factors would suggest new priorities for improving laboratory testing. Methods A multi-database systematic review was performed on published studies from 1997–2012 using strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. Over- vs. underutilization, initial vs. repeat testing, low- vs. high-volume testing, subjective vs. objective appropriateness criteria, and restrictive vs. permissive appropriateness criteria, among other factors, were assessed. Results Overall mean rates of over- and underutilization were 20.6% (95% CI 16.2–24.9%) and 44.8% (95% CI 33.8–55.8%). Overutilization during initial testing (43.9%; 95% CI 35.4–52.5%) was six times higher than during repeat testing (7.4%; 95% CI 2.5–12.3%; P for stratum difference <0.001). Overutilization of low-volume tests (32.2%; 95% CI 25.0–39.4%) was three times that of high-volume tests (10.2%; 95% CI 2.6–17.7%; P<0.001). Overutilization measured according to restrictive criteria (44.2%; 95% CI 36.8–51.6%) was three times higher than for permissive criteria (12.0%; 95% CI 8.0–16.0%; P<0.001). Overutilization measured using subjective criteria (29.0%; 95% CI 21.9–36.1%) was nearly twice as high as for objective criteria (16.1%; 95% CI 11.0–21.2%; P = 0.004). Together, these factors explained over half (54%) of the overall variability in overutilization. There were no statistically significant differences between studies from the United States vs. elsewhere (P = 0.38) or among chemistry, hematology, microbiology, and molecular tests (P = 0.05–0.65) and no robust statistically significant trends over time. Conclusions The landscape of overutilization varies

  10. The laboratory diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidosis III (Sanfilippo syndrome): A changing landscape.

    PubMed

    Bodamer, Olaf A; Giugliani, Roberto; Wood, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III) is characterized by progressive neurological deterioration, behavioral abnormalities, a relatively mild somatic phenotype, and early mortality. Because of the paucity of somatic manifestations and the rarity of the disease, early diagnosis is often difficult. Therapy targeting the underlying disease pathophysiology may offer the greatest clinical benefit when started prior to the onset of significant neurologic sequelae. Here we review current practices in the laboratory diagnosis of MPS III in order to facilitate earlier patient identification and diagnosis. When clinical suspicion of MPS III arises, the first step is to order a quantitative assay that screens urine for the presence of glycosaminoglycan biomarkers using a spectrophotometric compound (e.g., dimethylmethylene blue). We recommend testing all patients with developmental delay and/or behavioral abnormalities as part of the diagnostic work-up because quantitative urine screening is inexpensive and non-invasive. Semi-quantitative urine screening assays using cationic dyes on filter paper (e.g., spot tests) have relatively high rates of false-positives and false-negatives and are obsolete. Of note, a negative urinary glycosaminoglycan assay does not necessarily rule out MPS because, in some patients, an overlap in excretion levels with healthy controls may occur. All urine samples that test positive for glycosaminoglycans with a quantitative assay should be confirmed by electrophoresis, thin layer chromatography, or tandem mass spectrometry, which further improves the sensitivity and specificity. The gold standard for diagnosis remains the enzyme activity assay in cultured skin fibroblasts, leukocytes, plasma, or serum, which can be used as a first-line diagnostic test in some regions. Molecular genetic analysis should be offered to all families of patients to allow genetic counseling for informed family planning. For a small number of variants, genotype

  11. Knowledge production and learning for sustainable landscapes: seven steps using social-ecological systems as laboratories.

    PubMed

    Angelstam, Per; Elbakidze, Marine; Axelsson, Robert; Dixelius, Malcolm; Törnblom, Johan

    2013-03-01

    There are multiple challenges regarding use and governance of landscapes' goods, functions and intangible values for ecosystem health and human well-being. One group of challenges is to measure and assess principal sustainability dimensions through performance targets, so stakeholders have transparent information about states and trends. Another group is to develop adaptive governance at multiple levels, and management of larger geographical areas across scales. Addressing these challenges, we present a framework for transdisciplinary research using multiple landscapes as place-based case studies that integrates multiple research disciplines and non-academic actors: (1) identify a suite of landscapes, and for each (2) review landscape history, (3) map stakeholders, use and non-use values, products and land use, (4) analyze institutions, policies and the system of governance, (5) measure ecological, economic, social and cultural sustainability, (6) assess sustainability dimensions and governance, and finally (7) make comparisons and synthesize. Collaboration, communication and dissemination are additional core features. We discuss barriers bridges and bridges for applying this approach.

  12. Pre-industrial charcoal production in southern Brandenburg - A landscape laboratory for studies on the fate of terrestrial organic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bönisch, Eberhard; Rösler, Horst; Schopper, Franz; Raab, Thomas; Raab, Alexandra

    2010-05-01

    . We intend to build up a research network of scientist interested to take advantage of the research opportunities offered by this unique "landscape laboratory" in Central Europe.

  13. Landscaping for energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This publication by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory addresses the use of landscaping for energy efficiency. The topics of the publication include minimizing energy expenses; landscaping for a cleaner environment; climate, site, and design considerations; planning landscape; and selecting and planting trees and shrubs. A source list for more information on landscaping for energy efficiency and a reading list are included.

  14. Historic American Landscapes Survey: Arco Naval Proving Ground (Idaho National Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Christina; Holmer, Marie; Gilbert, Hollie

    2015-07-01

    Based on historical evaluations in 1993 and 1997, historians determined that the then-remaining Arco NPG structures were significant to the nation’s history through their association with World War II . Through ensuing discussions with the SHPO, it was further determined that the infrastructure and associated landscape were also significant. According to provisions of INL’s Cultural Resource Management Plan (CRMP) as legitimized through a 2004 Programmatic Agreement between DOE-ID, the Idaho State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO), and Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP) historians identified the World War II structures as DOE “Signature Properties”. As defined by DOE-HQ, Signature Properties “denote its [DOE’s] most historically important properties across the complex…and/or those properties that are viewed as having tourism potential.” The INL is a secure site and the INL land and structures are not accessible to the public and, therefore have no “tourism potential”. Although DOE-ID actively sought other uses for the vacant, unused buildings, none were identified and the buildings present safety and health concerns. A condition assessment found lead based paint, asbestos, rodent infestation/droppings, small animal carcasses, mold, and, in CF-633, areas of radiological contamination. In early 2013, DOE-ID notified the Idaho SHPO, ACHP, and, as required by the INL CRMP and PA, DOE-Headquarters Federal Preservation Officer, of their intent to demolish the vacant buildings (CF-606, CF-607, CF-613, CF-632, and CF-633). The proposed “end-state” of the buildings will be either grass and/or gravel pads. Through the NHPA Section 106 consultation process, measures to mitigate the adverse impacts of demolition were determined and agreed to through a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) between DOE-ID, SHPO, and ACHP. The measures include the development and installation of interpretive signs to be placed at a publicly accessible location

  15. The changing landscape of genetic testing and its impact on clinical and laboratory services and research in Europe.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Ros; de Wert, Guido; Fowler, Brian; Krawczak, Michael; Vermeulen, Eric; Bakker, Egbert; Borry, Pascal; Dondorp, Wybo; Nijsingh, Niels; Barton, David; Schmidtke, Jörg; van El, Carla G; Vermeesch, Joris; Stol, Yrrah; Carmen Howard, Heidi; Cornel, Martina C

    2012-09-01

    The arrival of new genetic technologies that allow efficient examination of the whole human genome (microarray, next-generation sequencing) will impact upon both laboratories (cytogenetic and molecular genetics in the first instance) and clinical/medical genetic services. The interpretation of analytical results in terms of their clinical relevance and the predicted health status poses a challenge to both laboratory and clinical geneticists, due to the wealth and complexity of the information obtained. There is a need to discuss how to best restructure the genetic services logistically and to determine the clinical utility of genetic testing so that patients can receive appropriate advice and genetic testing. To weigh up the questions and challenges of the new genetic technologies, the European Society of Human Genetics (ESHG) held a series of workshops on 10 June 2010 in Gothenburg. This was part of an ESHG satellite symposium on the 'Changing landscape of genetic testing', co-organized by the ESHG Genetic Services Quality and Public and Professional Policy Committees. The audience consisted of a mix of geneticists, ethicists, social scientists and lawyers. In this paper, we summarize the discussions during the workshops and present some of the identified ways forward to improve and adapt the genetic services so that patients receive accurate and relevant information. This paper covers ethics, clinical utility, primary care, genetic services and the blurring boundaries between healthcare and research.

  16. The changing landscape of genetic testing and its impact on clinical and laboratory services and research in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, Ros; de Wert, Guido; Fowler, Brian; Krawczak, Michael; Vermeulen, Eric; Bakker, Egbert; Borry, Pascal; Dondorp, Wybo; Nijsingh, Niels; Barton, David; Schmidtke, Jörg; van El, Carla G; Vermeesch, Joris; Stol, Yrrah; Carmen Howard, Heidi; Cornel, Martina C

    2012-01-01

    The arrival of new genetic technologies that allow efficient examination of the whole human genome (microarray, next-generation sequencing) will impact upon both laboratories (cytogenetic and molecular genetics in the first instance) and clinical/medical genetic services. The interpretation of analytical results in terms of their clinical relevance and the predicted health status poses a challenge to both laboratory and clinical geneticists, due to the wealth and complexity of the information obtained. There is a need to discuss how to best restructure the genetic services logistically and to determine the clinical utility of genetic testing so that patients can receive appropriate advice and genetic testing. To weigh up the questions and challenges of the new genetic technologies, the European Society of Human Genetics (ESHG) held a series of workshops on 10 June 2010 in Gothenburg. This was part of an ESHG satellite symposium on the ‘Changing landscape of genetic testing', co-organized by the ESHG Genetic Services Quality and Public and Professional Policy Committees. The audience consisted of a mix of geneticists, ethicists, social scientists and lawyers. In this paper, we summarize the discussions during the workshops and present some of the identified ways forward to improve and adapt the genetic services so that patients receive accurate and relevant information. This paper covers ethics, clinical utility, primary care, genetic services and the blurring boundaries between healthcare and research. PMID:22453292

  17. A new multiscale approach for monitoring vegetation using remote sensing-based indicators in laboratory, field, and landscape.

    PubMed

    Lausch, Angela; Pause, Marion; Merbach, Ines; Zacharias, Steffen; Doktor, Daniel; Volk, Martin; Seppelt, Ralf

    2013-02-01

    Remote sensing is an important tool for studying patterns in surface processes on different spatiotemporal scales. However, differences in the spatiospectral and temporal resolution of remote sensing data as well as sensor-specific surveying characteristics very often hinder comparative analyses and effective up- and downscaling analyses. This paper presents a new methodical framework for combining hyperspectral remote sensing data on different spatial and temporal scales. We demonstrate the potential of using the "One Sensor at Different Scales" (OSADIS) approach for the laboratory (plot), field (local), and landscape (regional) scales. By implementing the OSADIS approach, we are able (1) to develop suitable stress-controlled vegetation indices for selected variables such as the Leaf Area Index (LAI), chlorophyll, photosynthesis, water content, nutrient content, etc. over a whole vegetation period. Focused laboratory monitoring can help to document additive and counteractive factors and processes of the vegetation and to correctly interpret their spectral response; (2) to transfer the models obtained to the landscape level; (3) to record imaging hyperspectral information on different spatial scales, achieving a true comparison of the structure and process results; (4) to minimize existing errors from geometrical, spectral, and temporal effects due to sensor- and time-specific differences; and (5) to carry out a realistic top- and downscaling by determining scale-dependent correction factors and transfer functions. The first results of OSADIS experiments are provided by controlled whole vegetation experiments on barley under water stress on the plot scale to model LAI using the vegetation indices Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and green NDVI (GNDVI). The regression model ascertained from imaging hyperspectral AISA-EAGLE/HAWK (DUAL) data was used to model LAI. This was done by using the vegetation index GNDVI with an R (2) of 0.83, which was

  18. Measurement, collaborative learning and research for sustainable use of ecosystem services: landscape concepts and Europe as laboratory.

    PubMed

    Angelstam, Per; Grodzynskyi, Michael; Andersson, Kjell; Axelsson, Robert; Elbakidze, Marine; Khoroshev, Alexander; Kruhlov, Ivan; Naumov, Vladimir

    2013-03-01

    Policies at multiple levels pronounce the need to encompass both social and ecological systems in governance and management of natural capital in terms of resources and ecosystems. One approach to knowledge production and learning about landscapes as social-ecological systems is to compare multiple case studies consisting of large spaces and places. We first review the landscape concepts' biophysical, anthropogenic, and intangible dimensions. Second, we exemplify how the different landscape concepts can be used to derive measurable variables for different sustainability indicators. Third, we review gradients in the three dimensions of the term landscape on the European continent, and propose to use them for the stratification of multiple case studies of social-ecological systems. We stress the benefits of the landscape concepts to measure sustainability, and how this can improve collaborative learning about development toward sustainability in social-ecological systems. Finally, analyses of multiple landscapes improve the understanding of context for governance and management.

  19. One Germany - A New Soviet Strategy?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-12

    Research and Analysis Establishment, 1984. 60. Remnick , David . "If Perestroika Collapses, Soviets Could Still Muddle Through." The Washington Post, 4...GERMANY - A NEW SOVIET STRATEGY ? AN INDIVIDUAL STUDY PROJECT by Lieutenant Colonel Robert B. Clarke, AD Colonel David T. Twining Project Advisor...I could make them. At the same time, the credibility of most well documented books and journal articles prepared as recently as two years ago by some

  20. Application of the SmartSampling Methodology to the Evaluation of Contaminated Landscape Soils at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    RAUTMAN,CHRISTOPHER A.

    2000-08-01

    Portions of the SmartSampling{trademark} analysis methodology have been applied to the evaluation of radioactive contaminated landscape soils at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Specifically, the spatial, volumetric distribution of cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) contamination within Area of Concern 16E-1 has been modeled probabilistically using a geostatistical methodology, with the purpose of identifying the likelihood of successfully reducing, with respect to a pre-existing, baseline remediation plan, the volume of soil that must be disposed of offsite during clean-up. The principal objective of the analysis was to evaluate the likelihood of successful deployment of the Segmented Gate System (SGS), a novel remediation approach that emphasizes real-time separation of clean from contaminated materials during remediation operations. One primary requirement for successful application of the segmented gate technology investigated is that a variety of contaminant levels exist at the deployment site, which would enable to the SGS to discriminate material above and below a specified remediation threshold value. The results of this analysis indicate that there is potential for significant volume reduction with respect to the baseline remediation plan at a threshold excavation level of 23 pCi/g {sup 137}Cs. A reduction of approximately 50%, from a baseline volume of approximately 1,064.7 yd{sup 3} to less than 550 yd{sup 3}, is possible with acceptance of only a very small level of engineering risk. The vast majority of this volume reduction is obtained by not excavating almost all of levels 3 and 4 (from 12 to 24 inches in depth), which appear to be virtually uncontaminated, based on the available data. Additional volume reductions related to soil materials on levels 1 (depths of 0--6 inches) and 2 (6--12 inches) may be possible, specifically through use of the SGS technology. Level-by-level evaluation of simulation results suggests that as much as 26 percent of level 1 and as

  1. Shared Solar: Current Landscape, Market Potential, and the Impact of Federal Securities Regulation; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-27

    This presentation provides a high-level overview of the current U.S. shared solar landscape, the impact that a given shared solar program's structure has on requiring federal securities oversight, as well as an estimate of market potential for U.S. shared solar deployment.

  2. Three-dimensional mapping of salt stores in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. 2. Calculating landscape salt loads from airborne electromagnetic and laboratory data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullen, I. C.; Wilkinson, K. E.; Cresswell, R. G.; Kellett, J.

    2007-05-01

    Salt is widespread in the Australian landscape - in soil, regolith and groundwater - leading to concerns that land management practices may be putting much agricultural land and important water resources at risk of salinisation. Defining the location and nature of salt stores is an important first step in understanding the processes leading to salinity of soils, streams and groundwater resources, and predicting areas that may be at risk. Airborne geophysics can define subsurface salt stores and mobilisation pathways. Airborne electromagnetics (AEM) can map the three-dimensional conductivity structure of the landscape but does not, intrinsically, quantify the amount of salt. Salinity, moisture content, porosity and mineralogy all contribute to the electromagnetic signal, and each can vary significantly throughout the landscape. In the Lower Balonne catchment, Queensland, the relationship between AEM and the amount of salt in the landscape was quantified using laboratory analyses of pore fluids from core samples. A general statistical relationship was established between AEM conductivity and salt load (defined as the product of pore fluid salinity, porosity and moisture content)—with a significant positive correlation although data were generally widely dispersed. Comparison of calculated salt load with borehole electromagnetic logs gives insight into the factors contributing to dispersion in the AEM data. The relationship transforms bulk conductivity to salt load in 5 m layers, allowing the generation of a three-dimensional map of the salt load. This is a powerful tool for identifying areas that may require monitoring and management interventions to reduce salinity risk. An example is given of salt loads beneath an established irrigation area in the Lower Balonne catchment, Queensland.

  3. Turning the tide: effects of river inflow and tidal amplitude on sandy estuaries in laboratory landscape experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinhans, Maarten; Braat, Lisanne; Leuven, Jasper; Baar, Anne; van der Vegt, Maarten; van Maarseveen, Marcel; Markies, Henk; Roosendaal, Chris; van Eijk, Arjan

    2016-04-01

    Many estuaries formed over the Holocene through a combination of fluvial and coastal influxes, but how estuary planform shape and size depend on tides, wave climate and river influxes remains unclear. Here we use a novel tidal flume setup of 20 m length by 3 m width, the Metronome (http://www.uu.nl/metronome), to create estuaries and explore a parameter space for the simple initial condition of a straight river in sandy substrate. Tidal currents capable of transporting sediment in both the ebb and flood phase because they are caused by periodic tilting of the flume rather than the classic method of water level fluctuation. Particle imaging velocimetry and a 1D shallow flow model demonstrate that this principle leads to similar sediment mobility as in nature. Ten landscape experiments recorded by timelapse overhead imaging and AGIsoft DEMs of the final bed elevation show that absence of river inflow leads to short tidal basins whereas even a minor discharge leads to long convergent estuaries. Estuary width and length as well as morphological time scale over thousands of tidal cycles strongly depend on tidal current amplitude. Paddle-generated waves subdue the ebb delta causing stronger tidal currents in the basin. Bar length-width ratios in estuaries are slightly larger to those in braided rivers in experiments and nature. Mutually evasive ebb- and flood-dominated channels are ubiquitous and appear to be formed by an instability mechanism with growing bar and bifurcation asymmetry. Future experiments will include mud flats and live vegetation.

  4. Federal Republic of Germany, A Country Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    disseminates information to interested police forces and coordinates exchanges of information between them. It also operates a forensic laboratory and makes the...court trial. The law prevents police from subjecting suspects to physical abuse, torture, drugs, deceit, or hypnosis . Only the minimum force necessary

  5. The impact of benthic fauna on fluvial bed load transport: Challenges of upscaling laboratory experiments to river and landscape scales.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, S. P.

    2012-04-01

    The impact on sediment transport processes and channel morphology of several relatively large, iconic animals including beaver and salmon is increasingly well understood. However, many other aquatic fauna are important zoogeomorphic agents and ecosystem engineers. These somewhat overlooked "Cinderella" species include benthic aquatic insect larvae, freshwater crustaceans and many species of fish. Despite relatively modest individual effects, the ubiquity, abundance and cumulative impact of these organisms makes them a potentially significant agency, with as yet undiscovered and unquantified impacts on channel morphology and sediment fluxes. Their actions (digging, foraging, moving, burrowing), constructions and secretions modify bed sediment characteristics (grain size distribution, interlock, imbrication, protrusion), alter bed topography (thence hydraulic roughness) and contribute to biogenic restraints on grain movement. In turn, they can affect the distribution of surface particle entrainment thresholds and bed shear stresses, with implications for bed load transport. Flume experiments have measured some of these impacts and provided direct observations of the mechanisms involved, but many of the most interesting research questions pertain to the impact of these animals at reach, catchment and even landscape scales: Not least, what is the impact of small aquatic animals on bed load flux and yield? This presentation will consider some of the challenges involved in answering this question; that is, of scaling up experimental understanding of how aquatic animals affect bed load transport processes to river scales. Pertinent themes include: (1) the potential impacts of experimental arrangements on the behaviours and activities that affect hydraulic or geomorphological processes; (2) field coincidence of the spatial and temporal distributions of (a) the animals and their behaviours with (b) the physical conditions (substrates, flows) under which those animals are

  6. Surveying the citizen science landscape: an exploration of the design, delivery and impact of citizen science through the lens of the Open Air Laboratories (OPAL) programme.

    PubMed

    Davies, Linda; Fradera, Roger; Riesch, Hauke; Lakeman-Fraser, Poppy

    2016-07-22

    This paper provides a short introduction to the topic of citizen science (CS) identifying the shift from the knowledge deficit model to more inclusive, participatory science. It acknowledges the benefits of new technology and the opportunities it brings for mass participation and data manipulation. It focuses on the increase in interest in CS in recent years and draws on experience gained from the Open Air Laboratories (OPAL) programme launched in England in 2007. The drivers and objectives for OPAL are presented together with background information on the partnership, methods and scales. The approaches used by researchers ranged from direct public participation in mass data collection through field surveys to research with minimal public engagement. The supporting services focused on education, particularly to support participants new to science, a media strategy and data services. Examples from OPAL are used to illustrate the different approaches to the design and delivery of CS that have emerged over recent years and the breadth of opportunities for public participation the current landscape provides. Qualitative and quantitative data from OPAL are used as evidence of the impact of CS. While OPAL was conceived ahead of the more recent formalisation of approaches to the design, delivery and analysis of CS projects and their impact, it nevertheless provides a range of examples against which to assess the various benefits and challenges emerging in this fast developing field.

  7. Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) transport and retention in tropical, rain forest streams draining a volcanic landscape in Costa Rica: In situ SRP amendment to streams and laboratory studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Triska, F.; Pringle, C.M.; Duff, J.H.; Avanzino, R.J.; Zellweger, G.

    2006-01-01

    Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) transport/retention was determined in two rain forest streams (Salto, Pantano) draining La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. There, SRP levels can be naturally high due to groundwater enriched by geothermal activity within the surfically dormant volcanic landscape, and subsequently discharged at ambient temperature. Combined field and laboratory approaches simulated high but natural geothermal SRP input with the objective of estimating the magnitude of amended SRP retention within high and low SRP settings and determining the underlying mechanisms of SRP retention. First, we examined short-term SRP retention/transport using combined SRP-conservative tracer additions at high natural in situ concentrations. Second, we attempted to observe a DIN response during SRP amendment as an indicator of biological uptake. Third, we determined SRP release/retention using laboratory sediment assays under control and biologically inhibited conditions. Short-term in situ tracer-SRP additions indicated retention in both naturally high and low SRP reaches. Retention of added SRP mass in Upper Salto (low SRP) was 17% (7.5 mg-P m-2 h-1), and 20% (10.9 mg-P m-2 h -1) in Lower Salto (high SRP). No DIN response in either nitrate or ammonium was observed. Laboratory assays using fresh Lower Salto sediments indicated SRP release (15.4 ?? 5.9 ??g-P g dry wt.-1 h -1), when incubated in filter sterilized Salto water at ambient P concentration, but retention when incubated in filter sterilized river water amended to 2.0 mg SRP l-1 (233.2 ?? 5.8 ??g-P g dry wt. -1 h-1). SRP uptake/release was similar in both control- and biocide-treated sediments indicating predominantly abiotic retention. High SRP retention even under biologically saturated conditions, absence of a DIN response to amendment, patterns of desorption following amendment, and similar patterns of retention and release under control and biologically inhibited conditions all indicated

  8. Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs Workshop Two: Agricultural Landscapes

    SciTech Connect

    Negri, M. Cristina; Ssegane, H.

    2015-08-01

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted two workshops on Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs with Oak Ridge and Argonne National Laboratories in 2014. The second workshop focused on agricultural landscapes and took place in Argonne, IL from June 24—26, 2014. The workshop brought together experts to discuss how landscape design can contribute to the deployment and assessment of sustainable bioenergy. This report summarizes the discussions that occurred at this particular workshop.

  9. Mars Landscapes

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Spacecraft have studied the Martian surface for decades, giving Earthlings insights into the history, climate and geology of our nearest neighbor, Mars. These images are from "Mars Landscapes," a v...

  10. Sequence landscapes.

    PubMed Central

    Clift, B; Haussler, D; McConnell, R; Schneider, T D; Stormo, G D

    1986-01-01

    We describe a method for representing the structure of repeating sequences in nucleic-acids, proteins and other texts. A portion of the sequence is presented at the bottom of a CRT screen. Above the sequence is its landscape, which looks like a mountain range. Each mountain corresponds to a subsequence of the sequence. At the peak of every mountain is written the number of times that the subsequence appears. A data structure called a DAWG, which can be built in time proportional to the length of the sequence, is used to construct the landscape. For the 40 thousand bases of bacteriophage T7, the DAWG can be built in 30 seconds. The time to display any portion of the landscape is less than a second. Using sequence landscapes, one can quickly locate significant repeats. PMID:3753762

  11. Population-based characterization of the genetic landscape of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients referred for cytogenetic testing in British Columbia, Canada: the role of provincial laboratory standardization.

    PubMed

    Gerrie, Alina S; Huang, Steven J T; Bruyere, Helene; Dalal, Chinmay; Hrynchak, Monica; Karsan, Aly; Ramadan, Khaled M; Smith, Adam C; Tyson, Christine; Toze, Cynthia L; Gillan, Tanya L

    2014-01-01

    Detection of recurrent chromosome abnormalities by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is an essential component of care in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients. In the province of British Columbia (BC), Canada, population 4.6 million, CLL patients receive uniform evaluation and therapy with FISH testing performed in three jurisdictions. The aims of this study were to (i) validate CLL-FISH testing among the BC cytogenetic laboratories to ensure standardization of results and (ii) characterize population-level CLL-FISH abnormalities by pooling provincial data. From 2004 to 2011, 585 consecutive patients underwent pretreatment CLL-FISH testing at laboratory A (50.1%), laboratory B (32.3%), or laboratory C (17.6%). For validation purposes, 26 CLL-FISH abnormalities were tested by each laboratory's protocol, with 91% result concordance. Discordant results involved percent abnormalities at or near cutoff values; therefore, a 10% universal cutoff was established when pooling results. Applying the universal cutoff to the provincial cohort, CLL-FISH abnormalities were detected in 74.9%: 54.9% 13q-, 18.8% +12, 8.5% 11q-, and 7.7% 17p-. In this large population-based cohort of patients referred for CLL-FISH testing, frequencies of abnormalities detected by FISH analysis were highly consistent with those reported in single-institution and clinical trial populations. Provinces or districts that work together to care for CLL patients can effectively pool data with appropriate laboratory validation to ensure standardization of results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Disposable Landscapes

    Treesearch

    Kevin T. Smith

    2008-01-01

    Whether we are a traditionalist or on the cutting edge of landscape care, we need to take a deep breath and think about what we are trying to achieve, before we select a specific treatment or practice for tree care. We should measure that treatment or practice against what we know about the tree system. I say "system" because the recent years of Modern...

  13. Bioenergy in a Multifunctional Landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, Chad; Negri, Cristina; Ssegane, Herbert

    2015-10-23

    How can our landscapes be managed most effectively to produce crops for food, feed, and bioenergy, while also protecting our water resources by preventing the loss of nutrients from the soil? Dr. Cristina Negri and her team at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Argonne National Laboratory are tackling this question at an agricultural research site located in Fairbury, Illinois.

  14. SAVANNAH RIVER BASIN LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scientists from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 4, Science and Ecosystem Support Division, enlisted the assistance of the landscape ecology group of U.S. EPA, Office of Research and Development (ORD), National Exposure Research Laboratory, Environmental Sci...

  15. Highlights from the 2016 HIV diagnostics conference: The new landscape of HIV testing in laboratories, public health programs and clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Wesolowski, Laura G; Parker, Monica M; Delaney, Kevin P; Owen, S Michele

    2017-02-07

    The 2016 HIV Diagnostics Conference, held in Atlanta, Georgia, was attended by public health officials, laboratorians, HIV testing program managers, surveillance coordinators and industry representatives. The conference addressed test performance data, the implementation of new testing algorithms, quality assurance, and the application of new tests in a variety of settings. With regard to the recommended Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Association of Public Health Laboratories HIV laboratory testing algorithm, the conference featured performance data, implementation challenges such as a lack of test options for the second and third steps, as well as data needs for new tests that may be used as part of the algorithm. There are delays when nucleic acid testing is needed with the algorithm. Novel tests such as point of care nucleic acid tests are needed on the U.S. market to readily identify acute infection. Multiplex tests are being developed which allow for the simultaneous detection of multiple pathogens. CDC staff highlighted new guidance for testing in non-clinical settings. Innovative approaches to linking testing and care in some settings have led to identification of early infections, improved receipt of test results and expedited initiation of therapy. Work continues to optimize testing so that infections are accurately identified as early as possible and time to treatment is minimized to improve health outcomes and prevent transmission.

  16. The Puzzles and Promise of Campus Landscape Preservation: Integrating Sustainability, Historic Landscapes, and Institutional Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Frank Edgerton

    2011-01-01

    Several of the campus heritage plans funded by the Getty Foundation served as laboratories for applying the relatively new field of cultural landscape preservation to campus planning. With a strong landscape component, the heritage plans of The University of Kansas, Cranbrook Academy, the University of California, Berkeley, and elsewhere remind…

  17. The Puzzles and Promise of Campus Landscape Preservation: Integrating Sustainability, Historic Landscapes, and Institutional Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Frank Edgerton

    2011-01-01

    Several of the campus heritage plans funded by the Getty Foundation served as laboratories for applying the relatively new field of cultural landscape preservation to campus planning. With a strong landscape component, the heritage plans of The University of Kansas, Cranbrook Academy, the University of California, Berkeley, and elsewhere remind…

  18. PESP Landscaping Initiative

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Landscaping practices can positively or negatively affect local environments and human health. The Landscaping Initiative seeks to enhance benefits of landscaping while reducing need for pesticides, fertilizers, etc., by working with partners.

  19. Bioenergy in a Multifunctional Landscape

    ScienceCinema

    Watts, Chad; Negri, Cristina; Ssegane, Herbert

    2016-11-02

    How can our landscapes be managed most effectively to produce crops for food, feed, and bioenergy, while also protecting our water resources by preventing the loss of nutrients from the soil? Dr. Cristina Negri and her team at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Argonne National Laboratory are tackling this question at an agricultural research site located in Fairbury, Illinois.

  20. Evolution, Energy Landscapes and the Paradoxes of Protein Folding

    PubMed Central

    Wolynes, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    Protein folding has been viewed as a difficult problem of molecular self-organization. The search problem involved in folding however has been simplified through the evolution of folding energy landscapes that are funneled. The funnel hypothesis can be quantified using energy landscape theory based on the minimal frustration principle. Strong quantitative predictions that follow from energy landscape theory have been widely confirmed both through laboratory folding experiments and from detailed simulations. Energy landscape ideas also have allowed successful protein structure prediction algorithms to be developed. The selection constraint of having funneled folding landscapes has left its imprint on the sequences of existing protein structural families. Quantitative analysis of co-evolution patterns allows us to infer the statistical characteristics of the folding landscape. These turn out to be consistent with what has been obtained from laboratory physicochemical folding experiments signalling a beautiful confluence of genomics and chemical physics. PMID:25530262

  1. Computers and the landscape

    Treesearch

    Gary H. Elsner

    1979-01-01

    Computers can analyze and help to plan the visual aspects of large wildland landscapes. This paper categorizes and explains current computer methods available. It also contains a futuristic dialogue between a landscape architect and a computer.

  2. Landscape Management: Field Supervisor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Deborah; Newton, Steve

    This module is the third volume in a series of instructional materials on landscape management. The materials are designed to help teachers train students in the job skills they will need in landscape occupations. The module contains six instructional units that cover the following topics: orientation; basic landscape design principles; irrigation…

  3. Cydonia Landscape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The Cydonia region on Mars straddles the boundary between the bright, dusty, cratered highlands to the southeast and the dark, relatively dust-free, lowland plains to the west. The countless mesas and buttes that cover the region are testament to the former presence of vast layers of material that have been stripped back over the eons leaving the isolated remnants seen in this THEMIS image. Evidence of larger masses of these remnants is visible to the south in the MOLA context image. Note the lobes of ejecta emanating from the large crater in the upper right of the THEMIS image. This style of ejecta is thought to arise when an impact occurs into water or ice-rich material, indicating that at least at the time of the impact such material was present.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  4. The Human Pressure Index: An Integrative Approach to Landscape Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvius, John E.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a laboratory study in which students evaluate, in ecological terms, different landscapes representing ecosystems under varying degrees of human domination. Also discusses the context within which the study is arranged. (JN)

  5. Landscape reorganization under changing climatic forcing: Results from an experimental landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Arvind; Reinhardt, Liam; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    2015-06-01

    Understanding how landscapes respond to climate dynamics in terms of macroscale (average topographic features) and microscale (landform reorganization) is of interest both for deciphering past climates from today's landscapes and for predicting future landscapes in view of recent climatic trends. Although several studies have addressed macro-scale response, only a few have focused on quantifying smaller-scale basin reorganization. To that goal, a series of controlled laboratory experiments were conducted where a self-organized complete drainage network emerged under constant precipitation and uplift dynamics. Once steady state was achieved, the landscape was subjected to a fivefold increase in precipitation (transient state). Throughout the evolution, high-resolution spatiotemporal topographic data in the form of digital elevation models were collected. The steady state landscape was shown to possess three distinct geomorphic regimes (unchannelized hillslopes, debris-dominated channels, and fluvially dominated channels). During transient state, landscape reorganization was observed to be driven by hillslopes via accelerated erosion, ridge lowering, channel widening, and reduction of basin relief as opposed to channel base-level reduction. Quantitative metrics on which these conclusions were based included slope-area curve, correlation analysis of spatial and temporal elevation increments, and wavelet spectral analysis of the evolving landscapes. Our results highlight that landscape reorganization in response to increased precipitation seems to follow "an arrow of scale": major elevation change initiates at the hillslope scale driving erosional regime change at intermediate scales and further cascading to geomorphic changes at the channel scale as time evolves.

  6. Landscape genetics of plants.

    PubMed

    Holderegger, Rolf; Buehler, Dominique; Gugerli, Felix; Manel, Stéphanie

    2010-12-01

    Landscape genetics is the amalgamation of landscape ecology and population genetics to help with understanding microevolutionary processes such as gene flow and adaptation. In this review, we examine why landscape genetics of plants lags behind that of animals, both in number of studies and consideration of landscape elements. The classical landscape distance/resistance approach to study gene flow is challenging in plants, whereas boundary detection and the assessment of contemporary gene flow are more feasible. By contrast, the new field of landscape genetics of adaptive genetic variation, establishing the relationship between adaptive genomic regions and environmental factors in natural populations, is prominent in plant studies. Landscape genetics is ideally suited to study processes such as migration and adaptation under global change.

  7. OVERVIEW OF EPA'S LANDSCAPE SCIENCE PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past 10 years, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development's National Exposure Research Laboratory has expanded it's ecological research program to include the development of landscape metrics and indicators to assess ecological risk and...

  8. OVERVIEW OF EPA'S LANDSCAPE SCIENCES PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past 10 years, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development's National Exposure Research Laboratory has expanded it's ecological research program to include the development of landscape metrics and indicators to assess ecological risk and...

  9. OVERVIEW OF EPA'S LANDSCAPE SCIENCES PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past 10 years, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development's National Exposure Research Laboratory has expanded it's ecological research program to include the development of landscape metrics and indicators to assess ecological risk and...

  10. OVERVIEW OF EPA'S LANDSCAPE SCIENCE PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past 10 years, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development's National Exposure Research Laboratory has expanded it's ecological research program to include the development of landscape metrics and indicators to assess ecological risk and...

  11. Martian Arctic Landscape Panorama Video

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    Typical view if you were standing on Mars and slowly turned around for a look. Starting at the north, SSI sees its shadow and turns its head viewing solar arrays, the lander deck and landscape. Note very few rocks on the hummocky terrain and network of troughs, typical of polar surfaces here on Earth.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Martian Arctic Landscape Panorama Video

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    Typical view if you were standing on Mars and slowly turned around for a look. Starting at the north, SSI sees its shadow and turns its head viewing solar arrays, the lander deck and landscape. Note very few rocks on the hummocky terrain and network of troughs, typical of polar surfaces here on Earth.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. Experimental evidence for hillslope control of landscape scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, K. E.; Roering, J. J.; Ellis, C.

    2015-07-01

    Landscape evolution theory suggests that climate sets the scale of landscape dissection by modulating the competition between diffusive processes that sculpt convex hillslopes and advective processes that carve concave valleys. However, the link between the relative dominance of hillslope and valley transport processes and landscape scale is difficult to demonstrate in natural landscapes due to the episodic nature of erosion. Here, we report results from laboratory experiments combining diffusive and advective processes in an eroding landscape. We demonstrate that rainsplash-driven disturbances in our experiments are a robust proxy for hillslope transport, such that increasing hillslope transport efficiency decreases drainage density. Our experimental results demonstrate how the coupling of climate-driven hillslope- and valley-forming processes, such as bioturbation and runoff, dictates the scale of eroding landscapes.

  14. GEOMORPHOLOGY. Experimental evidence for hillslope control of landscape scale.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, K E; Roering, J J; Ellis, C

    2015-07-03

    Landscape evolution theory suggests that climate sets the scale of landscape dissection by modulating the competition between diffusive processes that sculpt convex hillslopes and advective processes that carve concave valleys. However, the link between the relative dominance of hillslope and valley transport processes and landscape scale is difficult to demonstrate in natural landscapes due to the episodic nature of erosion. Here, we report results from laboratory experiments combining diffusive and advective processes in an eroding landscape. We demonstrate that rainsplash-driven disturbances in our experiments are a robust proxy for hillslope transport, such that increasing hillslope transport efficiency decreases drainage density. Our experimental results demonstrate how the coupling of climate-driven hillslope- and valley-forming processes, such as bioturbation and runoff, dictates the scale of eroding landscapes. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Another Paper Landscape?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radlak, Ted

    2001-01-01

    Describes the University of Toronto's extensive central campus revitalization plan to create lush landscapes that add to the school's image and attractiveness. Drawings and photographs are included. (GR)

  16. Multi-sensory landscape assessment: the contribution of acoustic perception to landscape evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gan, Yonghong; Luo, Tao; Breitung, Werner; Kang, Jian; Zhang, Tianhai

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, the contribution of visual and acoustic preference to multi-sensory landscape evaluation was quantitatively compared. The real landscapes were treated as dual-sensory ambiance and separated into visual landscape and soundscape. Both were evaluated by 63 respondents in laboratory conditions. The analysis of the relationship between respondent's visual and acoustic preference as well as their respective contribution to landscape preference showed that (1) some common attributes are universally identified in assessing visual, aural and audio-visual preference, such as naturalness or degree of human disturbance; (2) with acoustic and visual preferences as variables, a multi-variate linear regression model can satisfactorily predict landscape preference (R(2 )= 0.740), while the coefficients of determination for a unitary linear regression model were 0.345 and 0.720 for visual and acoustic preference as predicting factors, respectively; (3) acoustic preference played a much more important role in landscape evaluation than visual preference in this study (the former is about 4.5 times of the latter), which strongly suggests a rethinking of the role of soundscape in environment perception research and landscape planning practice.

  17. Isotope biogeochemical assessment of natural biodegradation processes in open cast pit mining landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeschke, Christina; Knöller, Kay; Koschorreck, Matthias; Ussath, Maria; Hoth, Nils

    2014-05-01

    In Germany, a major share of the energy production is based on the burning of lignite from open cast pit mines. The remediation and re-cultivation of the former mining areas in the Lusatian and Central German lignite mining district is an enormous technical and economical challenge. After mine closures, the surrounding landscapes are threatened by acid mine drainage (AMD), i.e. the acidification and mineralization of rising groundwater with metals and inorganic contaminants. The high content of sulfur (sulfuric acid, sulfate), nitrogen (ammonium) and iron compounds (iron-hydroxides) deteriorates the groundwater quality and decelerates sustainable development of tourism in (former) mining landscapes. Natural biodegradation or attenuation (NA) processes of inorganic contaminants are considered to be a technically low impact and an economically beneficial solution. The investigations of the stable isotope compositions of compounds involved in NA processes helps clarify the dynamics of natural degradation and provides specific informations on retention processes of sulfate and nitrogen-compounds in mine dump water, mine dump sediment, and residual pit lakes. In an active mine dump we investigated zones where the process of bacterial sulfate reduction, as one very important NA process, takes place and how NA can be enhanced by injecting reactive substrates. Stable isotopes signatures of sulfur and nitrogen components were examined and evaluated in concert with hydrogeochemical data. In addition, we delineated the sources of ammonium pollution in mine dump sediments and investigated nitrification by 15N-labeling techniques to calculate the limit of the conversion of harmful ammonium to nitrate in residual mining lakes. Ultimately, we provided an isotope biogeochemical assessment of natural attenuation of sulfate and ammonium at mine dump sites and mining lakes. Also, we estimated the risk potential for water in different compartments of the hydrological system. In

  18. Landscape assessment for tourism

    Treesearch

    Clare A. Gunn

    1979-01-01

    Increased development of landscapes for tourism now creates problems of integrating the many parts. Accomplishments at the site scale have not been matched with equal progress at the regional scale. This concept, and its example of application, shows promise of assisting regions in assessing their potential of landscapes before development. With such a concept, not...

  19. Planetary Landscape Geography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargitai, H.

    INTRODUCTION Landscape is one of the most often used category in physical ge- ography. The term "landshap" was introduced by Dutch painters in the 15-16th cen- tury. [1] The elements that build up a landscape (or environment) on Earth consists of natural (biogenic and abiogenic - lithologic, atmospheric, hydrologic) and artificial (antropogenic) factors. Landscape is a complex system of these different elements. The same lithology makes different landscapes under different climatic conditions. If the same conditions are present, the same landscape type will appear. Landscapes build up a hierarchic system and cover the whole surface. On Earth, landscapes can be classified and qualified according to their characteristics: relief forms (morphology), and its potential economic value. Aesthetic and subjective parameters can also be considered. Using the data from landers and data from orbiters we can now classify planetary landscapes (these can be used as geologic mapping units as well). By looking at a unknown landscape, we can determine the processes that created it and its development history. This was the case in the Pathfinder/Sojourner panoramas. [2]. DISCUSSION Planetary landscape evolution. We can draw a raw landscape develop- ment history by adding the different landscape building elements to each other. This has a strong connection with the planet's thermal evolution (age of the planet or the present surface materials) and with orbital parameters (distance from the central star, orbit excentricity etc). This way we can build a complex system in which we use differ- ent evolutional stages of lithologic, atmospheric, hydrologic and biogenic conditions which determine the given - Solar System or exoplanetary - landscape. Landscape elements. "Simple" landscapes can be found on asteroids: no linear horizon is present (not differentiated body, only impact structures), no atmosphere (therefore no atmospheric scattering - black sky as part of the landscape) and no

  20. Landscape Structure Shapes Habitat Finding Ability in a Butterfly

    PubMed Central

    Öckinger, Erik; Van Dyck, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Land-use intensification and habitat fragmentation is predicted to impact on the search strategies animals use to find habitat. We compared the habitat finding ability between populations of the speckled wood butterfly (Pararge aegeria L.) from landscapes that differ in degree of habitat fragmentation. Naïve butterflies reared under standardized laboratory conditions but originating from either fragmented agricultural landscapes or more continuous forested landscapes were released in the field, at fixed distances from a target habitat patch, and their flight paths were recorded. Butterflies originating from fragmented agricultural landscapes were better able to find a woodlot habitat from a distance compared to conspecifics from continuous forested landscapes. To manipulate the access to olfactory information, a subset of individuals from both landscape types were included in an antennae removal experiment. This confirmed the longer perceptual range for butterflies from agricultural landscapes and indicated the significance of both visual and olfactory information for orientation towards habitat. Our results are consistent with selection for increased perceptual range in fragmented landscapes to reduce dispersal costs. An increased perceptual range will alter the functional connectivity and thereby the chances for population persistence for the same level of structural connectivity in a fragmented landscape. PMID:22870227

  1. [Landscape and ecological genomics].

    PubMed

    Tetushkin, E Ia

    2013-10-01

    Landscape genomics is the modern version of landscape genetics, a discipline that arose approximately 10 years ago as a combination of population genetics, landscape ecology, and spatial statistics. It studies the effects of environmental variables on gene flow and other microevolutionary processes that determine genetic connectivity and variations in populations. In contrast to population genetics, it operates at the level of individual specimens rather than at the level of population samples. Another important difference between landscape genetics and genomics and population genetics is that, in the former, the analysis of gene flow and local adaptations takes quantitative account of landforms and features of the matrix, i.e., hostile spaces that separate species habitats. Landscape genomics is a part of population ecogenomics, which, along with community genomics, is a major part of ecological genomics. One of the principal purposes of landscape genomics is the identification and differentiation of various genome-wide and locus-specific effects. The approaches and computation tools developed for combined analysis of genomic and landscape variables make it possible to detect adaptation-related genome fragments, which facilitates the planning of conservation efforts and the prediction of species' fate in response to expected changes in the environment.

  2. Quasispecies on Fitness Landscapes.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Selection-mutation dynamics is studied as adaptation and neutral drift on abstract fitness landscapes. Various models of fitness landscapes are introduced and analyzed with respect to the stationary mutant distributions adopted by populations upon them. The concept of quasispecies is introduced, and the error threshold phenomenon is analyzed. Complex fitness landscapes with large scatter of fitness values are shown to sustain error thresholds. The phenomenological theory of the quasispecies introduced in 1971 by Eigen is compared to approximation-free numerical computations. The concept of strong quasispecies understood as mutant distributions, which are especially stable against changes in mutations rates, is presented. The role of fitness neutral genotypes in quasispecies is discussed.

  3. Landscape genetics and limiting factors

    Treesearch

    Samuel A. Cushman; Andrew J. Shirk; Erin L. Landguth

    2013-01-01

    Population connectivity is mediated by the movement of organisms or propagules through landscapes. However, little is known about how variation in the pattern of landscape mosaics affects the detectability of landscape genetic relationships. The goal of this paper is to explore the impacts of limiting factors on landscape genetic processes using simulation...

  4. Landscape metrics, scales of resolution

    Treesearch

    Samuel A. Cushman; Kevin McGarigal

    2008-01-01

    Effective implementation of the "multiple path" approach to managing green landscapes depends fundamentally on rigorous quantification of the composition and structure of the landscapes of concern at present, modelling landscape structure trajectories under alternative management paths, and monitoring landscape structure into the future to confirm...

  5. Populating the whole landscape.

    PubMed

    Brown, Adam R; Dahlen, Alex

    2011-10-21

    Every de Sitter vacuum can transition to every other de Sitter vacuum despite any obstacle, despite intervening anti-de Sitter sinks, despite not being connected by an instanton. Eternal inflation populates the whole landscape. © 2011 American Physical Society

  6. Landscape Water Budget Tool

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WaterSense created the Water Budget Tool as one option to help builders, landscape professionals, and irrigation professionals certified by a WaterSense labeled program meet the criteria specified in the WaterSense New Home Specification.

  7. Landscape evolution (A Review)

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Robert P.

    1982-01-01

    Landscapes are created by exogenic and endogenic processes acting along the interface between the lithosphere and the atmosphere and hydrosphere. Various landforms result from the attack of weathering and erosion upon the highly heterogeneous lithospheric surface. Landscapes are dynamic, acutely sensitive to natural and artificial perturbation. Undisturbed, they can evolve through a succession of stages to a plain of low relief. Often, the progression of an erosion cycle is interrupted by tectonic or environmental changes; thus, many landscapes preserve vestiges of earlier cycles useful in reconstructing the recent history of Earth's surface. Landforms are bounded by slopes, so their evolution is best understood through study of slopes and the complex of factors controlling slope character and development. The substrate, biosphere, climatic environment, and erosive processes are principal factors. Creep of the disintegrated substrate and surface wash by water are preeminent. Some slopes attain a quasisteady form and recede parallel to themselves (backwearing); others become ever gentler with time (downwearing). The lovely convex/rectilinear/concave profile of many debris-mantled slopes reflects an interplay between creep and surface wash. Landscapes of greatest scenic attraction are usually those in which one or two genetic factors have strongly dominated or those perturbed by special events. Nature has been perturbing landscapes for billions of years, so mankind can learn about landscape perturbation from natural examples. Images

  8. Geomorpho-Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farabollini, Piero; Lugeri, Francesca; Amadio, Vittorio

    2014-05-01

    Landscape is the object of human perceptions, being the image of spatial organization of elements and structures: mankind lives the first approach with the environment, viewing and feeling the landscape. Many definitions of landscape have been given over time: in this case we refer to the Landscape defined as the result of interaction among physical, biotic and anthropic phenomena acting in a different spatial-temporal scale (Foreman & Godron) Following an Aristotelic approach in studying nature, we can assert that " Shape is synthesis": so it is possible to read the land features as the expression of the endogenous and exogenous processes that mould earth surfaces; moreover, Landscape is the result of the interaction of natural and cultural components, and conditions the spatial-temporal development of a region. The study of the Landscape offers results useful in order to promote sustainable development, ecotourism, enhancement of natural and cultural heritage, popularization of the scientific knowledge. In Italy, a very important GIS-based tool to represent the territory is the "Carta della Natura" ("Map of Nature", presently coordinated by the ISPRA) that aims at assessing the state of the whole Italian territory, analyzing Landscape. The methodology follows a holistic approach, taking into consideration all the components of a landscape and then integrating the information. Each individual landscape, studied at different scales, shows distinctive elements: structural, which depend on physical form and specific spatial organization; functional, which depend on relationships created between biotic and abiotic elements, and dynamic, which depend on the successive evolution of the structure. The identification of the landscape units, recognized at different scales of analysis, allows an evaluation of the state of the land, referring to the dual risk/resource which characterizes the Italian country. An interesting opportunity is to discover those areas of unusual

  9. Disorder on the landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Podolsky, Dmitry; Jokela, Niko; Majumder, Jaydeep E-mail: majumder@mnnit.ac.in

    2008-05-15

    Disorder on the string theory landscape may significantly affect dynamics of eternal inflation leading to the possibility for some vacua on the landscape to become dynamically preferable over others. We systematically study effects of a generic disorder on the landscape, starting by identifying a sector with built-in disorder-a set of de Sitter vacua corresponding to compactifications of the type IIB string theory on Calabi-Yau manifolds with a number of warped Klebanov-Strassler throats attached randomly to the bulk part of the Calabi-Yau. Further, we derive a continuum limit of the vacuum dynamics equations on the landscape. Using methods of the dynamical renormalization group we determine the late-time behavior of the probability distribution for an observer to measure a given value of the cosmological constant. We find the diffusion of the probability distribution to significantly slow down in sectors of the landscape where the number of nearest-neighboring vacua for any given vacuum is small. We discuss the relation of this slowdown with the phenomenon of Anderson localization in disordered media.

  10. From landscape to domain: Soils role in landscape classifications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil landscape classifications are designed to divide landscapes into units with significance for the provisioning and regulating of ecosystem services and the development of conservation plans for natural resources. More specifically, such classifications serve as the basis for stratifying manageme...

  11. Landscapes and fragilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruocco, G.; Sciortino, F.; Zamponi, F.; De Michele, C.; Scopigno, T.

    2004-06-01

    The concept of fragility provides a possibility to rank different supercooled liquids on the basis of the temperature dependence of dynamic and/or thermodynamic quantities. We recall here the definitions of kinetic and thermodynamic fragility proposed in the last years and discuss their interrelations. At the same time we analyze some recently introduced models for the statistical properties of the potential energy landscape. Building on the Adam-Gibbs relation, which connects structural relaxation times to configurational entropy, we analyze the relation between statistical properties of the landscape and fragility. We call attention to the fact that the knowledge of number, energy depth, and shape of the basins of the potential energy landscape may not be sufficient for predicting fragility. Finally, we discuss two different possibilities for generating strong behavior.

  12. Landscapes, tourism, and conservation

    PubMed

    Burger

    2000-04-17

    One key aspect of global change is a decrease in ecological integrity as more and more landscapes are developed, leaving a mosaic of intact refuges and degraded patches that may not be sufficient for conserving biodiversity. While increases in human population and shifts in the distribution of people affect land use, the temporary movement of people can have major implications for conservation and biodiversity. Three examples are presented where recreation/tourism can enhance the conservation of land on a landscape scale, leading to habitat protection and biodiversity preservation: (1) Shorebirds often require a matrix of different habitat types during migratory stopovers, and ecotourism can serve as a catalyst for landscape scale protection of habitat. (2) Riparian habitats can serve as corridors to link diverse habitat patches, as well as serving as biodiversity hotspots. (3) Remediation and rehabilitation of contaminated lands, such as those of the US Department of Energy, aimed at developing recreational activities on the uncontaminated portions, can be the most economical form of re-development with no increase in human or ecological risk. Since large areas on many DOE sites have been undisturbed since the Second World War, when they were acquired, they contain unique or valuable ecosystems that serve an important role within their regional landscapes. In all three cases the judicious development of recreational/tourist interests can encourage both the conservation of habitats and the wise management of habitats on a landscape scale. While some species or habitats are too fragile for sustained tourism, many can be managed so that species, ecosystems and ecotourists flourish. By contributing to the economic base of regions, ecotourists/recreationists can influence the protection of land and biodiversity on a landscape scale, contributing to ecosystem management. The human dimensions of land preservation and biodiversity protection are key to long

  13. Landscape evolutionary genomics.

    PubMed

    Lowry, David B

    2010-08-23

    Tremendous advances in genetic and genomic techniques have resulted in the capacity to identify genes involved in adaptive evolution across numerous biological systems. One of the next major steps in evolutionary biology will be to determine how landscape-level geographical and environmental features are involved in the distribution of this functional adaptive genetic variation. Here, I outline how an emerging synthesis of multiple disciplines has and will continue to facilitate a deeper understanding of the ways in which heterogeneity of the natural landscapes mould the genomes of organisms.

  14. Labyrinthine granular landscapes.

    PubMed

    Caps, H; Vandewalle, N

    2001-11-01

    We have numerically studied a model of granular landscape eroded by wind. We show the appearance of labyrinthic patterns when the wind orientation turns by 90 degrees. The occurrence of such structures is discussed. Moreover, we introduce the density n(k) of "defects" as the dynamic parameter governing the landscape evolution. A power-law behavior of n(k) is found as a function of time. In the case of wind variations, the exponent (drastically) shifts from two to one. The presence of two asymptotic values of n(k) implies the irreversibility of the labyrinthic formation process.

  15. Descriptive approaches to landscape analysis

    Treesearch

    R. Burton Litton Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Descriptive landscape analyses include various procedures used to document visual/scenic resources. Historic and regional examples of landscape description represent desirable insight for contemporary professional inventory work. Routed and areal landscape inventories are discussed as basic tools. From them, qualitative and quantitative evaluations can be developed...

  16. A Forest Landscape Visualization System

    Treesearch

    Tim McDonald; Bryce Stokes

    1998-01-01

    A forest landscape visualization system was developed and used in creating realistic images depicting how an area might appear if harvested. The system uses a ray-tracing renderer to draw model trees on a virtual landscape. The system includes components to create landscape surfaces from digital elevation data, populate/cut trees within (polygonal) areas, and convert...

  17. Sharing a Disparate Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali-Khan, Carolyne

    2010-01-01

    Working across boundaries of power, identity, and political geography is fraught with difficulties and contradictions. In Tali Tal and Iris Alkaher's, "Collaborative environmental projects in a multicultural society: Working from within separate or mutual landscapes?" the authors describe their efforts to do this in the highly charged…

  18. Landscape analysis software tools

    Treesearch

    Don Vandendriesche

    2008-01-01

    Recently, several new computer programs have been developed to assist in landscape analysis. The “Sequential Processing Routine for Arraying Yields” (SPRAY) program was designed to run a group of stands with particular treatment activities to produce vegetation yield profiles for forest planning. SPRAY uses existing Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) software coupled...

  19. Landscapes. Artists' Workshop Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Penny; Roundhill, Clare

    This instructional resource, designed to be used by and with elementary level students, provides inspiration for landscape painting by presenting the work of six different artists. These include: "Fuji in Clear Weather" (Katsushika Hokusai, 1823-29); "The Tree of Life" (Gustav Klimt, c. 1905-1909); "The Waterlily…

  20. Litigation and landscape esthetics

    Treesearch

    Michael McCloskey

    1979-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the concerns of conservation groups have shifted in and out of the field of landscape esthetics. As the 1960's began, they tended to pursue their interests under the mantle of recreationists. By the mid-1960's, natural beauty became the watch-word, particularly with the national encouragement of Lady Bird Johnson. By the late 1970...

  1. Shaping the Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides background information on various agents that change the landscape. Includes teaching activities on weathering, water, wind and ice erosion, plate tectonics, sedimentation, deposition, mountain building, and determining contour lines. Contains reproducible handouts and worksheets for two of the activities. (TW)

  2. Landscape in Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Christopher L.; Lloyd, William J.

    One of a series of Resource Papers for College Geography, this thematic study guide focuses on literary setting and the personal space of fictional characters as an approach to comparative literary study, and concurrently uses fictional treatments of landscape and place as a means to encourage greater sensitivity to geographical and architectural…

  3. The New Postsecondary Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandeen, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    In this essay, Cathy Sandeen states that the new postsecondary landscape requires looking at higher education as a system that provides multiple pathways in and through the various parts of the system, all with the goal of helping students complete a postsecondary degree, credential, or certificate. Sandeen observes two strengths in professional…

  4. Landscape Assessment (LA)

    Treesearch

    Carl H. Key; Nathan C. Benson

    2006-01-01

    Landscape Assessment primarily addresses the need to identify and quantify fire effects over large areas, at times involving many burns. In contrast to individual case studies, the ability to compare results is emphasized along with the capacity to aggregate information across broad regions and over time. Results show the spatial heterogeneity of burns and how fire...

  5. Moving into Landscapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Cindy

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a lesson, designed for second graders, that begins with the teacher showing and talking about a few landscape fundamentals: horizon line, depth, and the mood or feeling that a work of art inspires. A class discussion ensues about how an artist's images can make one feel, how they can convey calmness, warmth, anxiety, or a…

  6. Shaping the Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides background information on various agents that change the landscape. Includes teaching activities on weathering, water, wind and ice erosion, plate tectonics, sedimentation, deposition, mountain building, and determining contour lines. Contains reproducible handouts and worksheets for two of the activities. (TW)

  7. Diversity in Riparian Landscapes

    Treesearch

    Thomas R. Crow; Matthew E. Baker; Burton V. Barnes

    2000-01-01

    Therefore, in this chapter we focus on ecosystem diversity, defined as the number, kind, and pattern of landscape and waterscape ecosystems in a specified area and the ecological processes that are associated with these patterns (Lapin and Barnes 1995). One can then characterize eeosysterns as to their composition, structure, and function -- the attributes Of...

  8. Landscape Management: Field Operator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carole A.

    These materials for a six-unit course were developed to prepare secondary and postsecondary students for entry-level positions in landscape management. The six units are on orientation, hand tools, light power equipment, water and watering techniques, planting and maintaining plant beds, and establishing and maintaining turf. The first section is…

  9. Landscape Designs for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Patricia

    This annotated bibliography includes summaries of 15 books and articles dealing with the topic of school landscape design, as well as a brief introduction that comments on recent trends in the field. Most of the publications cited are fairly recent; about two-thirds of them were published after 1970. Annotations range from approximately 125 to 250…

  10. Sharing a Disparate Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali-Khan, Carolyne

    2010-01-01

    Working across boundaries of power, identity, and political geography is fraught with difficulties and contradictions. In Tali Tal and Iris Alkaher's, "Collaborative environmental projects in a multicultural society: Working from within separate or mutual landscapes?" the authors describe their efforts to do this in the highly charged…

  11. A landscape analysis plan

    Treesearch

    Nancy E. Fleenor

    2002-01-01

    A Landscape Analysis Plan (LAP) sets out broad guidelines for project development within boundaries of the Kings River Sustainable Forest Ecosystems Project. The plan must be a dynamic, living document, subject to change as new information arises over the course of this very long-term project (several decades). Two watersheds, each of 32,000 acres, were dedicated to...

  12. Landscapes. Artists' Workshop Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Penny; Roundhill, Clare

    This instructional resource, designed to be used by and with elementary level students, provides inspiration for landscape painting by presenting the work of six different artists. These include: "Fuji in Clear Weather" (Katsushika Hokusai, 1823-29); "The Tree of Life" (Gustav Klimt, c. 1905-1909); "The Waterlily…

  13. Complexity and valued landscapes

    Treesearch

    Michael M. McCarthy

    1979-01-01

    The variable "complexity," or "diversity," has received a great deal of attention in recent research efforts concerned with visual resource management, including the identification of complexity as one of the primary evaluation measures. This paper describes research efforts that support the hypothesis that the landscapes we value are those with...

  14. Performance Technology Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addison, Roger M.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a performance technology landscape that has been developed for performance improvement institutes. Defines performance technology, including identification of value; definition of outcomes; performance analysis; valuation of effectiveness; focusing on results; systemic approach; adding value; aligning workers, activity, the organization,…

  15. Biofuels from urban landscapes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biomass from urban landscapes is an untapped resource. Lawn thatch and clippings, fallen leaves and tree limbs are all potential sources of biofuels. Most cities already collect and transport these materials to disposal sites; but, alternatively could collect and transport these materials to a loc...

  16. Landscape genetics [Chapter 17

    Treesearch

    Kevin S. McKelvey; Samuel A. Cushman; Michael K. Schwartz

    2009-01-01

    In reading this book, you have observed that the spatial data used in landscape ecology come from many sources and in many forms. For many organisms, these data take the form of presence or absence at a location, or numbers of individuals at that same location. For species such as trees, where huge size differences exist between individuals, indices such as basal area...

  17. Landscape-level changes

    Treesearch

    A. Joel Frandsen

    2008-01-01

    Since European settlement, Utah?s vegetative landscapes have changed. Like other arid states, these wildland systems were depleted and altered. Certain steps were taken through private, community, and finally public efforts, such as establishment of Forest Reserves (National Forests), to stop the slide. Conservation and management actions were taken to restore,...

  18. A Curious Landscape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 'postcard' from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the view of the martian landscape southwest of the rover. The image was taken in the late martian afternoon at Meridiani Planum on Mars, where Opportunity landed at approximately 9:05 p.m. PST on Saturday, Jan. 24.

  19. Landscape Management: Field Specialist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Deborah; Newton, Steve

    This module is the second volume in a series of three publications on landscape management. The module contains five instructional units that cover the following topics: orientation; equipment; irrigation systems and maintenance; plant material identification and pests; and turf identification and pests. Each instructional unit follows a standard…

  20. Landscapes of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Maxine

    The commitment of educators to human development goals is a major theme of the booklet's 17 essays. Compiled from lectures written by the author during 1974-77, the essays explore individual potential, the cultural significance of various life situations, and personal fulfillment within each individual's particular landscape of work, experience,…

  1. Landscape habitats [Chapter 2

    Treesearch

    C. L. Simmons

    1994-01-01

    This landscape habitat description is based on a ground reconnaissance of the Lost Lake, West Glacier Lake, and East Glacier Lake portions of GLEES conducted during 10 days in July-September 1986 and on subsequent photo interpretation of 1:6000 scale color-infrared photographs. A ground check was conducted in July-August 1987. The classification used is a physiognomic...

  2. Desert landscape irrigation

    SciTech Connect

    Quinones, R.

    1995-06-01

    Industrialization can take place in an arid environment if a long term, overall water management program is developed. The general rule to follow is that recharge must equal or exceed use. The main problem encountered in landscape projects is that everyone wants a lush jungle setting, tall shade trees, ferns, with a variety of floral arrangements mixed in. What we want, what we can afford, and what we get are not always the same. Vegetation that requires large quantities of water are not native to any desert. Surprisingly; there are various types of fruit trees, and vegetables that will thrive in the desert. Peaches, plums, nut trees, do well with drip irrigation as well as tomatoes. Shaded berry plans will also do well, the strawberry being one. In summary; if we match our landscape to our area, we can then design our irrigation system to maintain our landscape and grow a variety of vegetation in any arid or semiarid environment. The application of science and economics to landscaping has now come of age.

  3. LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    USDA Conservation Practices are applied at various scales ranging from a portion of a field or a specific farm operation to the watershed or landscape scale. The Conservation Effects Assessment Project is a joint effort of USDA Conservation and Research agencies to determine the...

  4. 23 CFR 752.4 - Landscape development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Landscape development. 752.4 Section 752.4 Highways... ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.4 Landscape development. (a) Landscape development, which includes landscaping... landscaping and environmental design. (b) Landscape development should have provisions for plant establishment...

  5. 23 CFR 752.4 - Landscape development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Landscape development. 752.4 Section 752.4 Highways... ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.4 Landscape development. (a) Landscape development, which includes landscaping... landscaping and environmental design. (b) Landscape development should have provisions for plant establishment...

  6. 23 CFR 752.4 - Landscape development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Landscape development. 752.4 Section 752.4 Highways... ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.4 Landscape development. (a) Landscape development, which includes landscaping... landscaping and environmental design. (b) Landscape development should have provisions for plant establishment...

  7. 23 CFR 752.4 - Landscape development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Landscape development. 752.4 Section 752.4 Highways... ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.4 Landscape development. (a) Landscape development, which includes landscaping... landscaping and environmental design. (b) Landscape development should have provisions for plant establishment...

  8. 23 CFR 752.4 - Landscape development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Landscape development. 752.4 Section 752.4 Highways... ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.4 Landscape development. (a) Landscape development, which includes landscaping... landscaping and environmental design. (b) Landscape development should have provisions for plant establishment...

  9. Geomorphology of anthropogenic landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofia, Giulia; Tarolli, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The construction of urban areas and the development of road networks leave a significant signature on the Earth surface, providing a geomorphological evidence to support the idea that humans are nowadays a geomorphic agent having deep effects on the morphological organization of the landscape. The reconstruction or identification of anthropogenic topographies, therefore, provides a mechanism for quantifying anthropogenic changes to the landscape systems in the Anthropocene. Following this research line, the present study tests the effectiveness of a recently published topographic index, the Slope Local Length of Autocorrelation (SLLAC, Sofia et al. 2014) to portrait anthropogenic geomorphology, focusing in particular on road network density, and urban complexity (UCI). At first, the research considers the increasing of anthropic structures and the resulting changes in the SLLAC and in two derived parameters (mean SLLAC per km2 and SLLAC roughness, or Surface Peak Curvature -Spc). As a second step, considering the SLLAC derived indices, the anthropogenic geomorphology is automatically depicted using a k-means clustering algorithm. In general, the increasing of road network density or of the UCI is positively correlated to the mean SLLAC per km2, while the Spc is negatively correlated to the increasing of the anthropic structures. Areas presenting different road network organization are effectively captured considering multiple combinations of the defined parameters. Landscapes with small scattered towns, and a network with long roads in a dendritic shape (with hierarchical branching) are characterized simultaneously by high mean SLLAC and low Spc. Large and complex urban areas served by rectilinear networks with numerous short straight lines and right angles, have either a maximized mean SLLAC or a minimized Spc or both. In all cases, the anthropogenic landscape identified by the procedure is comparable to the ones identified manually from orthophoto, with the

  10. Aging, memory, and nonhierarchical energy landscape of spin jam.

    PubMed

    Samarakoon, Anjana; Sato, Taku J; Chen, Tianran; Chern, Gai-Wei; Yang, Junjie; Klich, Israel; Sinclair, Ryan; Zhou, Haidong; Lee, Seung-Hun

    2016-10-18

    The notion of complex energy landscape underpins the intriguing dynamical behaviors in many complex systems ranging from polymers, to brain activity, to social networks and glass transitions. The spin glass state found in dilute magnetic alloys has been an exceptionally convenient laboratory frame for studying complex dynamics resulting from a hierarchical energy landscape with rugged funnels. Here, we show, by a bulk susceptibility and Monte Carlo simulation study, that densely populated frustrated magnets in a spin jam state exhibit much weaker memory effects than spin glasses, and the characteristic properties can be reproduced by a nonhierarchical landscape with a wide and nearly flat but rough bottom. Our results illustrate that the memory effects can be used to probe different slow dynamics of glassy materials, hence opening a window to explore their distinct energy landscapes.

  11. Aging, memory, and nonhierarchical energy landscape of spin jam

    PubMed Central

    Samarakoon, Anjana; Sato, Taku J.; Chen, Tianran; Chern, Gai-Wei; Yang, Junjie; Klich, Israel; Sinclair, Ryan; Zhou, Haidong; Lee, Seung-Hun

    2016-01-01

    The notion of complex energy landscape underpins the intriguing dynamical behaviors in many complex systems ranging from polymers, to brain activity, to social networks and glass transitions. The spin glass state found in dilute magnetic alloys has been an exceptionally convenient laboratory frame for studying complex dynamics resulting from a hierarchical energy landscape with rugged funnels. Here, we show, by a bulk susceptibility and Monte Carlo simulation study, that densely populated frustrated magnets in a spin jam state exhibit much weaker memory effects than spin glasses, and the characteristic properties can be reproduced by a nonhierarchical landscape with a wide and nearly flat but rough bottom. Our results illustrate that the memory effects can be used to probe different slow dynamics of glassy materials, hence opening a window to explore their distinct energy landscapes. PMID:27698141

  12. Aging, memory, and nonhierarchical energy landscape of spin jam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samarakoon, Anjana; Sato, Taku J.; Chen, Tianran; Chern, Gai-Wei; Yang, Junjie; Klich, Israel; Sinclair, Ryan; Zhou, Haidong; Lee, Seung-Hun

    2016-10-01

    The notion of complex energy landscape underpins the intriguing dynamical behaviors in many complex systems ranging from polymers, to brain activity, to social networks and glass transitions. The spin glass state found in dilute magnetic alloys has been an exceptionally convenient laboratory frame for studying complex dynamics resulting from a hierarchical energy landscape with rugged funnels. Here, we show, by a bulk susceptibility and Monte Carlo simulation study, that densely populated frustrated magnets in a spin jam state exhibit much weaker memory effects than spin glasses, and the characteristic properties can be reproduced by a nonhierarchical landscape with a wide and nearly flat but rough bottom. Our results illustrate that the memory effects can be used to probe different slow dynamics of glassy materials, hence opening a window to explore their distinct energy landscapes.

  13. Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and the Changing Tertiary Education Landscape in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author provides information about the Australian education landscape and discusses three articles that focus on innovative laboratory teaching programs. Each of the articles presents a novel laboratory teaching mechanism that has evolved to successfully address a perceived weakness or problem in the laboratory program. It…

  14. Laboratory Reagents

    SciTech Connect

    CARLSON, D.D.

    1999-10-08

    Replaced by WMH-310, Section 4.17. This document outlined the basic methodology for preparing laboratory reagents used in the 222-S Standards Laboratory. Included were general guidelines for drying, weighing, transferring, dissolving, and diluting techniques common when preparing laboratory reagents and standards. Appendix A contained some of the reagents prepared by the laboratory.

  15. Understanding forest ecology from the landscape to the project level

    Treesearch

    Ward McCaughey

    2007-01-01

    Several researchers in the Forestry Sciences Laboratory have been actively involved in BEMRP since its inception in the early 1990s. The recent research on the Trapper Bunkhouse Land Stewardship Project began in 2004. In ecosystem management, sometimes we need to look at the big picture, or the landscape scale, and sometimes we need to work on a more local, or project-...

  16. Sharing a disparate landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali-Khan, Carolyne

    2010-06-01

    Working across boundaries of power, identity, and political geography is fraught with difficulties and contradictions. In Tali Tal and Iris Alkaher's, " Collaborative environmental projects in a multicultural society: Working from within separate or mutual landscapes?" the authors describe their efforts to do this in the highly charged atmosphere of Israel. This forum article offers a response to their efforts. Writing from a framework of critical pedagogy, I use the concepts of space and time to anchor my analysis, as I examine the issue of power in this Jew/Arab collaborative environmental project. This response problematizes "sharing" in a landscape fraught with disparities. It also looks to further Tal and Alkaher's work by geographically and politically grounding it in the broader current conflict and by juxtaposing sustainability with equity.

  17. Wildfire and landscape change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Santi, P.; Cannon, S.; DeGraff, J.

    2013-01-01

    Wildfire is a worldwide phenomenon that is expected to increase in extent and severity in the future, due to fuel accumulations, shifting land management practices, and climate change. It immediately affects the landscape by removing vegetation, depositing ash, influencing water-repellent soil formation, and physically weathering boulders and bedrock. These changes typically lead to increased erosion through sheetwash, rilling, dry ravel, and increased mass movement in the form of floods, debris flow, rockfall, and landslides. These process changes bring about landform changes as hillslopes are lowered and stream channels aggrade or incise at increased rates. Furthermore, development of alluvial fans, debris fans, and talus cones are enhanced. The window of disturbance to the landscape caused by wildfire is typically on the order of three to four years, with some effects persisting up to 30 years.

  18. Simulations of Fluvial Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattan, D.; Birnir, B.

    2013-12-01

    The Smith-Bretherton-Birnir (SBB) model for fluvial landsurfaces consists of a pair of partial differential equations, one governing water flow and one governing the sediment flow. Numerical solutions of these equations have been shown to provide realistic models in the evolution of fluvial landscapes. Further analysis of these equations shows that they possess scaling laws (Hack's Law) that are known to exist in nature. However, the simulations are highly dependent on the numerical methods used; with implicit methods exhibiting the correct scaling laws, but the explicit methods fail to do so. These equations, and the resulting models, help to bridge the gap between the deterministic and the stochastic theories of landscape evolution. Slight modifications of the SBB equations make the results of the model more realistic. By modifying the sediment flow equation, the model obtains more pronounced meandering rivers. Typical landsurface with rivers.

  19. Driving the Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haff, P. K.

    2012-12-01

    Technological modification of the earth's surface (e.g., agriculture, urbanization) is an old story in human history, but what about the future? The future of landscape in an accelerating technological world, beyond a relatively short time horizon, lies hidden behind an impenetrable veil of complexity. Sufficiently complex dynamics generates not only the trajectory of a variable of interest (e.g., vegetation cover) but also the environment in which that variable evolves (e.g., background climate). There is no way to anticipate what variables will define that environment—the dynamics creates its own variables. We are always open to surprise by a change of conditions we thought or assumed were fixed or by the appearance of new phenomena of whose possible existence we had been unaware or thought unlikely. This is especially true under the influence of technology, where novelty is the rule. Lack of direct long-term predictability of landscape change does not, however, mean we cannot say anything about its future. The presence of persistence (finite time scales) in a system means that prediction by a calibrated numerical model should be good for a limited period of time barring bad luck or faulty implementation. Short-term prediction, despite its limitations, provides an option for dealing with the longer-term future. If a computer-controlled car tries to drive itself from New York to Los Angeles, no conceivable (or possible) stand-alone software can be constructed to predict a priori the space-time trajectory of the vehicle. Yet the drive is normally completed easily by most drivers. The trip is successfully completed because each in a series of very short (linear) steps can be "corrected" on the fly by the driver, who takes her cues from the environment to keep the car on the road and headed toward its destination. This metaphor differs in a fundamental way from the usual notion of predicting geomorphic change, because it involves a goal—to reach a desired

  20. Dynamic landscape management.

    Treesearch

    Valerie. Rapp

    2003-01-01

    Pacific Northwest forests and all their species evolved with fires, floods, windstorms, landslides, and other disturbances. The dynamics of disturbance were basic to how forests changed and renewed. Disturbance regimes, as scientists call the long-term patterns of these events—what kind of event, how often, how large, and how severe—created the landscape patterns seen...

  1. Astrobiological Landscape and Neocatastrophism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirkovic, M. M.; Vukotic, B.

    2009-09-01

    We review results of the simple 1-D models of the Galactic Habitable Zone constructed within neocatastrophic paradigm. The emerging astrobiological landscape demonstrates the capability of this theoretical framework to resolve the classical puzzles of Fermi's paradox and Carter's anthropic argument against extraterrestrial intelligence. Preliminary results show that astrobiology offers a clear rationale for the "Copernican" assumption of typicality of the age of the terrestrial biosphere.

  2. Dynamic landscape management

    Treesearch

    Valerie . Rapp

    2002-01-01

    Pacific Northwest forests and all their species evolved with fires, floods, windstorms, landslides, and other disturbances. The dynamics of disturbance were basic to how forests changed and renewed. Disturbance regimes, as scientists call the long-term patterns of these events—what kind of event, how often, how large, and how severe—created the landscape patterns seen...

  3. Enhanced passive bat rabies surveillance in indigenous bat species from Germany--a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Schatz, Juliane; Freuling, Conrad Martin; Auer, Ernst; Goharriz, Hooman; Harbusch, Christine; Johnson, Nicholas; Kaipf, Ingrid; Mettenleiter, Thomas Christoph; Mühldorfer, Kristin; Mühle, Ralf-Udo; Ohlendorf, Bernd; Pott-Dörfer, Bärbel; Prüger, Julia; Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Stiefel, Dagmar; Teubner, Jens; Ulrich, Rainer Günter; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Müller, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    In Germany, rabies in bats is a notifiable zoonotic disease, which is caused by European bat lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1 and 2), and the recently discovered new lyssavirus species Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV). As the understanding of bat rabies in insectivorous bat species is limited, in addition to routine bat rabies diagnosis, an enhanced passive surveillance study, i.e. the retrospective investigation of dead bats that had not been tested for rabies, was initiated in 1998 to study the distribution, abundance and epidemiology of lyssavirus infections in bats from Germany. A total number of 5478 individuals representing 21 bat species within two families were included in this study. The Noctule bat (Nyctalus noctula) and the Common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) represented the most specimens submitted. Of all investigated bats, 1.17% tested positive for lyssaviruses using the fluorescent antibody test (FAT). The vast majority of positive cases was identified as EBLV-1, predominately associated with the Serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus). However, rabies cases in other species, i.e. Nathusius' pipistrelle bat (Pipistrellus nathusii), P. pipistrellus and Brown long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus) were also characterized as EBLV-1. In contrast, EBLV-2 was isolated from three Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii). These three cases contribute significantly to the understanding of EBLV-2 infections in Germany as only one case had been reported prior to this study. This enhanced passive surveillance indicated that besides known reservoir species, further bat species are affected by lyssavirus infections. Given the increasing diversity of lyssaviruses and bats as reservoir host species worldwide, lyssavirus positive specimens, i.e. both bat and virus need to be confirmed by molecular techniques.

  4. Enhanced Passive Bat Rabies Surveillance in Indigenous Bat Species from Germany - A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Auer, Ernst; Goharriz, Hooman; Harbusch, Christine; Johnson, Nicholas; Kaipf, Ingrid; Mettenleiter, Thomas Christoph; Mühldorfer, Kristin; Mühle, Ralf-Udo; Ohlendorf, Bernd; Pott-Dörfer, Bärbel; Prüger, Julia; Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Stiefel, Dagmar; Teubner, Jens; Ulrich, Rainer Günter; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Müller, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In Germany, rabies in bats is a notifiable zoonotic disease, which is caused by European bat lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1 and 2), and the recently discovered new lyssavirus species Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV). As the understanding of bat rabies in insectivorous bat species is limited, in addition to routine bat rabies diagnosis, an enhanced passive surveillance study, i.e. the retrospective investigation of dead bats that had not been tested for rabies, was initiated in 1998 to study the distribution, abundance and epidemiology of lyssavirus infections in bats from Germany. A total number of 5478 individuals representing 21 bat species within two families were included in this study. The Noctule bat (Nyctalus noctula) and the Common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) represented the most specimens submitted. Of all investigated bats, 1.17% tested positive for lyssaviruses using the fluorescent antibody test (FAT). The vast majority of positive cases was identified as EBLV-1, predominately associated with the Serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus). However, rabies cases in other species, i.e. Nathusius' pipistrelle bat (Pipistrellus nathusii), P. pipistrellus and Brown long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus) were also characterized as EBLV-1. In contrast, EBLV-2 was isolated from three Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii). These three cases contribute significantly to the understanding of EBLV-2 infections in Germany as only one case had been reported prior to this study. This enhanced passive surveillance indicated that besides known reservoir species, further bat species are affected by lyssavirus infections. Given the increasing diversity of lyssaviruses and bats as reservoir host species worldwide, lyssavirus positive specimens, i.e. both bat and virus need to be confirmed by molecular techniques. PMID:24784117

  5. Understanding patchy landscape dynamics: towards a landscape language.

    PubMed

    Gaucherel, Cédric; Boudon, Frédéric; Houet, Thomas; Castets, Mathieu; Godin, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Patchy landscapes driven by human decisions and/or natural forces are still a challenge to be understood and modelled. No attempt has been made up to now to describe them by a coherent framework and to formalize landscape changing rules. Overcoming this lacuna was our first objective here, and this was largely based on the notion of Rewriting Systems, also called Formal Grammars. We used complicated scenarios of agricultural dynamics to model landscapes and to write their corresponding driving rule equations. Our second objective was to illustrate the relevance of this landscape language concept for landscape modelling through various grassland managements, with the final aim to assess their respective impacts on biological conservation. For this purpose, we made the assumptions that a higher grassland appearance frequency and higher land cover connectivity are favourable to species conservation. Ecological results revealed that dairy and beef livestock production systems are more favourable to wild species than is hog farming, although in different ways. Methodological results allowed us to efficiently model and formalize these landscape dynamics. This study demonstrates the applicability of the Rewriting System framework to the modelling of agricultural landscapes and, hopefully, to other patchy landscapes. The newly defined grammar is able to explain changes that are neither necessarily local nor Markovian, and opens a way to analytical modelling of landscape dynamics.

  6. Understanding Patchy Landscape Dynamics: Towards a Landscape Language

    PubMed Central

    Gaucherel, Cédric; Boudon, Frédéric; Houet, Thomas; Castets, Mathieu; Godin, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Patchy landscapes driven by human decisions and/or natural forces are still a challenge to be understood and modelled. No attempt has been made up to now to describe them by a coherent framework and to formalize landscape changing rules. Overcoming this lacuna was our first objective here, and this was largely based on the notion of Rewriting Systems, also called Formal Grammars. We used complicated scenarios of agricultural dynamics to model landscapes and to write their corresponding driving rule equations. Our second objective was to illustrate the relevance of this landscape language concept for landscape modelling through various grassland managements, with the final aim to assess their respective impacts on biological conservation. For this purpose, we made the assumptions that a higher grassland appearance frequency and higher land cover connectivity are favourable to species conservation. Ecological results revealed that dairy and beef livestock production systems are more favourable to wild species than is hog farming, although in different ways. Methodological results allowed us to efficiently model and formalize these landscape dynamics. This study demonstrates the applicability of the Rewriting System framework to the modelling of agricultural landscapes and, hopefully, to other patchy landscapes. The newly defined grammar is able to explain changes that are neither necessarily local nor Markovian, and opens a way to analytical modelling of landscape dynamics. PMID:23049935

  7. Palaeozoic landscapes shaped by plant evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibling, Martin R.; Davies, Neil S.

    2012-02-01

    Fluvial landscapes diversified markedly over the 250 million years between the Cambrian and Pennsylvanian periods. The diversification occurred in tandem with the evolution of vascular plants and expanding vegetation cover. In the absence of widespread vegetation, landscapes during the Cambrian and Ordovican periods were dominated by rivers with wide sand-beds and aeolian tracts. During the late Silurian and Devonian periods, the appearance of vascular plants with root systems was associated with the development of channelled sand-bed rivers, meandering rivers and muddy floodplains. The widespread expansion of trees by the Early Pennsylvanian marks the appearance of narrow fixed channels, some representing anabranching systems, and braided rivers with vegetated islands. We conclude that the development of roots stabilized the banks of rivers and streams. The subsequent appearance of woody debris led to log jams that promoted the rapid formation of new river channels. Our contention is supported by studies of modern fluvial systems and laboratory experiments. In turn, fluvial styles influenced plant evolution as new ecological settings developed along the fluvial systems. We suggest that terrestrial plant and landscape evolution allowed colonization by an increasingly diverse array of organisms.

  8. Economic linkages to changing landscapes.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Jeffrey M; Caldas, Marcellus M; Bergtold, Jason S; Sturm, Belinda S; Graves, Russell W; Earnhart, Dietrich; Hanley, Eric A; Brown, J Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Many economic processes are intertwined with landscape change. A large number of individual economic decisions shape the landscape, and in turn the changes in the landscape shape economic decisions. This article describes key research questions about the economics of landscape change and reviews the state of research knowledge. The rich and varied economic-landscape interactions are an active area of research by economists, geographers, and others. Because the interactions are numerous and complex, disentangling the causal relationships in any given landscape system is a formidable research challenge. Limited data with mismatched temporal and spatial scales present further obstacles. Nevertheless, the growing body of economic research on these topics is advancing and shares fundamental challenges, as well as data and methods, with work in other disciplines.

  9. Geodata-based probabilistic risk assessment and management of pesticides in Germany: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Ralf; Stehle, Sebastian; Elsaesser, David; Matezki, Steffen; Müller, Alexandra; Neumann, Michael; Ohliger, Renja; Wogram, Jörn; Zenker, Katharina

    2009-01-01

    The procedure for the risk assessment of pesticides in Germany is currently further developed from a deterministic to a geodata-based probabilistic risk assessment (GeoPRA) approach. As the initial step, the exposure assessment for spray drift in permanent crops, such as vineyards, fruit orchards, and hops, is considered. In our concept, geoinformation tools are used to predict distribution functions for exposure concentrations based mainly on spatial information regarding the neighbourhood of crops and surface waters. A total number of 23 factors affecting the drift into surface waters were assessed and suggestions for their inclusion into the approach developed. The main objectives are to base the exposure estimation on a realistic representation of local landscape characteristics and on empirical results for the impact of each feature on the drift deposition. A framework for the identification of high-risk sites (active management areas [AMAs]) based on protection goals and ecological considerations was developed in order to implement suitable risk mitigation measures. The inclusion of active mitigation measures at sites with identified and verified risk is considered a central and important part of the overall assessment strategy. The suggested GeoPRA procedure itself is comprised of the following 4 steps, including elements of the extensive preliminary work conducted so far: 1) nationwide risk assessment, preferably based only on geodata-based factors; 2) identification of AMAs, including the spatial extension of contamination, the level of contamination, and the tolerable effect levels; 3) refined exposure assessment, using aerial photographs and field surveys; and 4) mitigation measures, with a focus on landscape-level active mitigation measures leading to effective risk reductions. The suggested GeoPRA procedure offers the possibility to actively involve the farming community in the process of pesticide management. Overall, the new procedure will aim at

  10. Soil conservation service landscape resource management

    Treesearch

    Sally Schauman; Carolyn Adams

    1979-01-01

    SCS Landscape Resource Management (LRM) is the application of landscape architecture to SCS conservation activities. LRM includes but is not limited to visual resource management. LRM can be summarized in three principles: (1) SCS landscape architecture considers the landscape as a composite of ecological, social and visual resources; (2) SCS landscapes exist in the...

  11. Laboratory Tests

    MedlinePlus

    Laboratory tests check a sample of your blood, urine, or body tissues. A technician or your doctor ... compare your results to results from previous tests. Laboratory tests are often part of a routine checkup ...

  12. Landscape Construction in Dynamical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ying; Yuan, Ruoshi; Wang, Gaowei; Ao, Ping

    The idea of landscape has been recently applied to study various of biological problems. We demonstrate that a dynamical structure built into nonlinear dynamical systems allows us to construct such a global optimization landscape, which serves as the Lyapunov function for the ordinary differential equation. We find exact constructions on the landscape for a class of dynamical systems, including a van der Pol type oscillator, competitive Lotka-Volterra systems, and a chaotic system. The landscape constructed provides a new angle for understanding and modelling biological network dynamics.

  13. The concept of hydrologic landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, T.C.

    2001-01-01

    Hydrologic landscapes are multiples or variations of fundamental hydrologic landscape units. A fundamental hydrologic landscape unit is defined on the basis of land-surface form, geology, and climate. The basic land-surface form of a fundamental hydrologic landscape unit is an upland separated from a lowland by an intervening steeper slope. Fundamental hydrologic landscape units have a complete hydrologic system consisting of surface runoff, ground-water flow, and interaction with atmospheric water. By describing actual landscapes in terms of land-surface slope, hydraulic properties of soils and geologic framework, and the difference between precipitation and evapotranspiration, the hydrologic system of actual landscapes can be conceptualized in a uniform way. This conceptual framework can then be the foundation for design of studies and data networks, syntheses of information on local to national scales, and comparison of process research across small study units in a variety of settings. The Crow Wing River watershed in central Minnesota is used as an example of evaluating stream discharge in the context of hydrologic landscapes. Lake-research watersheds in Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota, and Nebraska are used as an example of using the hydrologic-landscapes concept to evaluate the effect of ground water on the degree of mineralization and major-ion chemistry of lakes that lie within ground-water flow systems.

  14. An improved neutral landscape model for recreating real landscapes and generating landscape series for spatial ecological simulations.

    PubMed

    van Strien, Maarten J; Slager, Cornelis T J; de Vries, Bauke; Grêt-Regamey, Adrienne

    2016-06-01

    Many studies have assessed the effect of landscape patterns on spatial ecological processes by simulating these processes in computer-generated landscapes with varying composition and configuration. To generate such landscapes, various neutral landscape models have been developed. However, the limited set of landscape-level pattern variables included in these models is often inadequate to generate landscapes that reflect real landscapes. In order to achieve more flexibility and variability in the generated landscapes patterns, a more complete set of class- and patch-level pattern variables should be implemented in these models. These enhancements have been implemented in Landscape Generator (LG), which is a software that uses optimization algorithms to generate landscapes that match user-defined target values. Developed for participatory spatial planning at small scale, we enhanced the usability of LG and demonstrated how it can be used for larger scale ecological studies. First, we used LG to recreate landscape patterns from a real landscape (i.e., a mountainous region in Switzerland). Second, we generated landscape series with incrementally changing pattern variables, which could be used in ecological simulation studies. We found that LG was able to recreate landscape patterns that approximate those of real landscapes. Furthermore, we successfully generated landscape series that would not have been possible with traditional neutral landscape models. LG is a promising novel approach for generating neutral landscapes and enables testing of new hypotheses regarding the influence of landscape patterns on ecological processes. LG is freely available online.

  15. [Consultation skills training as an element of general practice training in Germany - a qualitative survey].

    PubMed

    Nittritz, Christine; Schaffer, Susann; Kühlein, Thomas; Roos, Marco

    2016-11-01

    The consultation is at the heart of general practice. It is the central setting through which primary care is delivered. The competency requirements are laid down internationally by competency-based curricula for undergraduate and postgraduate education. So far, there is no competency-based vocational training to develop consultation skills in general practice in Germany. The study describes experiences with consultation skills training as an element of general practice training as reported by trainees and trainers in Germany. A qualitative and exploring approach was chosen because there is little experience with the German situation. We conducted structured focus group interviews with trainees and trainers, respectively. We recruited all participants by e-mail via the mail distributor "Junge Allgemeinmedizin Deutschland" (JADE, a trainee and junior GP organization) and the academic teachers of the Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg. Altogether, four focus group interviews with three to five participants were conducted, varying in length from 25 to 65minutes. All interviews were recorded digitally and transcribed verbatim. Then a qualitative content analysis was performed. The statements of the ten trainees and five trainers mapped a system of four main categories: (a) association with the term consultation, (b) parts of a consultation, (c) competencies required for professional practice, (d) consultation skills training as an element of vocational training. Overall, all participants regarded the consultation as the most important element in general practice. Important content of consultations is to build a relationship with the patient, gather information, conduct physical examinations and achieve informed consent on further proceedings. All participants agreed that physicians need different sets of competencies: medical expertise, communication skills, examination skills and professionalism. Finally, there was a broad consensus that a competency

  16. Probing the String Landscape

    ScienceCinema

    Keith Dienes

    2016-07-12

    We are currently in the throes of a potentially huge paradigm shift in physics. Motivated by recent developments in string theory and the discovery of the so-called "string landscape", physicists are beginning to question the uniqueness of fundamental theories of physics and the methods by which such theories might be understood and investigated. In this colloquium, I will give a non-technical introduction to the nature of this paradigm shift and how it developed. I will also discuss some of the questions to which it has led, and the nature of the controversies it has spawned.

  17. Stonehenge and its Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    In the 1960s and 1970s, Stonehenge polarized academic opinion between those (mainly astronomers) who claimed it demonstrated great astronomical sophistication and those (mainly archaeologists) who denied it had anything to do with astronomy apart from the solstitial alignment of its main axis. Now, several decades later, links to the annual passage of the sun are generally recognized as an essential part of the function and meaning not only of Stonehenge but also of several other nearby monuments, giving us important insights into beliefs and actions relating to the seasonal cycle by the prehistoric communities who populated this chalkland landscape in the third millennium BC Links to the moon remain more debatable.

  18. Probing the String Landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Keith Dienes

    2009-12-01

    We are currently in the throes of a potentially huge paradigm shift in physics. Motivated by recent developments in string theory and the discovery of the so-called "string landscape", physicists are beginning to question the uniqueness of fundamental theories of physics and the methods by which such theories might be understood and investigated. In this colloquium, I will give a non-technical introduction to the nature of this paradigm shift and how it developed. I will also discuss some of the questions to which it has led, and the nature of the controversies it has spawned.

  19. Wind-Eroded Landscape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    5 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a dust-mantled, wind-eroded landscape in the Medusae Sulci region of Mars. Wind eroded the bedrock in this region, and then, later, windblown dust covered much of the terrain.

    Location near: 5.7oS, 160.2oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Spring

  20. Climates, Landscapes, and Civilizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-10-01

    Humans are now the dominant driver of global climate change. From ocean acidification to sea level rise, changes in precipitation patterns, and rising temperatures, global warming is presenting us with an uncertain future. However, this is not the first time human civilizations have faced a changing world. In the AGU monograph Climates, Landscapes, and Civilizations, editors Liviu Giosan, Dorian Q. Fuller, Kathleen Nicoll, Rowan K. Flad, and Peter C. Clift explore how some ancient peoples weathered the shifting storms while some faded away. In this interview, Eos speaks with Liviu Giosan about the decay of civilizations, ancient adaptation, and the surprisingly long history of humanity's effect on the Earth.

  1. Editorial: Mapping the Intellectual Landscape of Landscape and Urban Planning

    Treesearch

    Paul H. Gobster; Wei-Ning. Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Maps are central to our understanding of landscapes. When this Editorship began to revise the journal's Aims and Scope for presentation in a forthcoming editorial, we sought ways in which we could identify the core knowledge base and boundaries, however permeable, of what the journal community considers to be Landscape and Urban Planning (LAND). Strategically, we...

  2. Sustainability, Smart Growth, and Landscape Architecture

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Sustainability, Smart Growth, and Landscape Architecture is an overview course for landscape architecture students interested in sustainability in landscape architecture and how it might apply to smart growth principles in urban, suburban, and rural areas

  3. Intrinsically Disordered Energy Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chebaro, Yassmine; Ballard, Andrew J.; Chakraborty, Debayan; Wales, David J.

    2015-05-01

    Analysis of an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) reveals an underlying multifunnel structure for the energy landscape. We suggest that such ‘intrinsically disordered’ landscapes, with a number of very different competing low-energy structures, are likely to characterise IDPs, and provide a useful way to address their properties. In particular, IDPs are present in many cellular protein interaction networks, and several questions arise regarding how they bind to partners. Are conformations resembling the bound structure selected for binding, or does further folding occur on binding the partner in a induced-fit fashion? We focus on the p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) protein, which adopts an -helical conformation when bound to its partner, and is involved in the activation of apoptosis. Recent experimental evidence shows that folding is not necessary for binding, and supports an induced-fit mechanism. Using a variety of computational approaches we deduce the molecular mechanism behind the instability of the PUMA peptide as a helix in isolation. We find significant barriers between partially folded states and the helix. Our results show that the favoured conformations are molten-globule like, stabilised by charged and hydrophobic contacts, with structures resembling the bound state relatively unpopulated in equilibrium.

  4. Landscapes Impacted by Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arellano, B.; Roca, J.

    2016-06-01

    The gradual spread of urbanization, the phenomenon known under the term urban sprawl, has become one of the paradigms that have characterized the urban development since the second half of the twentieth century and early twenty-first century. However, there is no unanimous consensus about what means "urbanization". The plurality of forms of human settlement on the planet difficult to identify the urbanization processes. The arrival of electrification to nearly every corner of the planet is certainly the first and more meaningful indicator of artificialization of land. In this sense, the paper proposes a new methodology based on the analysis of the satellite image of nighttime lights designed to identify the highly impacted landscapes worldwide and to build an index of Land Impacted by Light per capita (LILpc) as an indicator of the level of urbanization. The used methodology allows the identification of different typologies of urbanized areas (villages, cities or metropolitan areas), as well as "rural", "rurban", "periurban" and "central" landscapes. The study identifies 186,134 illuminated contours (urbanized areas). In one hand, 404 of these contours could be consider as real "metropolitan areas"; and in the other hand, there are 161,821 contours with less than 5,000 inhabitants, which could be identify as "villages". Finally, the paper shows that 44.5 % live in rural areas, 15.5 % in rurban spaces, 26.2 % in suburban areas and only 18.4 % in central areas.

  5. Landscape Evolution of Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Titan may have acquired its massive atmosphere relatively recently in solar system history. The warming sun may have been key to generating Titan's atmosphere over time, starting from a thin atmosphere with condensed surface volatiles like Triton, with increased luminosity releasing methane, and then large amounts of nitrogen (perhaps suddenly), into the atmosphere. This thick atmosphere, initially with much more methane than at present, resulted in global fluvial erosion that has over time retreated towards the poles with the removal of methane from the atmosphere. Basement rock, as manifested by bright, rough, ridges, scarps, crenulated blocks, or aligned massifs, mostly appears within 30 degrees of the equator. This landscape was intensely eroded by fluvial processes as evidenced by numerous valley systems, fan-like depositional features and regularly-spaced ridges (crenulated terrain). Much of this bedrock landscape, however, is mantled by dunes, suggesting that fluvial erosion no longer dominates in equatorial regions. High midlatitude regions on Titan exhibit dissected sedimentary plains at a number of localities, suggesting deposition (perhaps by sediment eroded from equatorial regions) followed by erosion. The polar regions are mainly dominated by deposits of fluvial and lacustrine sediment. Fluvial processes are active in polar areas as evidenced by alkane lakes and occasional cloud cover.

  6. Norwegian millstone quarry landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heldal, Tom; Meyer, Gurli; Grenne, Tor

    2013-04-01

    Rotary querns and millstones were used in Norway since just after the Roman Period until the last millstone was made in the 1930s. Throughout all this time millstone mining was fundamental for daily life: millstones were needed to grind grain, our most important food source. We can find millstone quarries in many places in the country from coast to mountain. Some of them cover many square kilometers and count hundreds of quarries as physical testimonies of a long and great production history. Other quarries are small and hardly visible. Some of this history is known through written and oral tradition, but most of it is hidden and must be reconstructed from the traces we can find in the landscape today. The Millstone project has put these quarry landscapes on the map, and conducted a range of case studies, including characterization of archaeological features connected to the quarrying, interpretation of quarrying techniques and evolution of such and establishing distribution and trade patterns by the aid of geological provenance. The project also turned out to be a successful cooperation between different disciplines, in particular geology and archaeology.

  7. The oxidation of landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rempe, D.; Hahm, W. J.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2015-12-01

    At the base of the critical zone, fresh rock is transformed through chemical alteration of minerals and fracturing. The resulting hydrologically dynamic weathered bedrock zone strongly influences how mass is routed throughout a landscape. Studies of weathering in a variety of lithologies and climates have documented the role of oxygen in driving the onset of weathering. Porosity is generated through processes such as the formation of sulfuric acid via oxidative pyrite dissolution and strain via iron oxidation in biotite. The transport of meteoric oxygen is therefore a mechanism that links the topographic surface to weathering processes at depth. Here, we present an alternative to the theory that the advance of an oxidation front is driven by downward advection and diffusion of meteoric fluid. We present field data and theory that suggest that the slow drainage of groundwater within fresh bedrock drives the displacement of unreactive pore fluid from low-porosity fresh bedrock. This drainage, and the subsequent introduction of meteoric fluid to fresh rock, is a hillslope scale process driven by channel incision. The resulting distribution of weathered rock across the landscape is thus controlled by the fresh bedrock porosity and permeability and the rate of channel incision.

  8. Intrinsically Disordered Energy Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Chebaro, Yassmine; Ballard, Andrew J.; Chakraborty, Debayan; Wales, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) reveals an underlying multifunnel structure for the energy landscape. We suggest that such ‘intrinsically disordered’ landscapes, with a number of very different competing low-energy structures, are likely to characterise IDPs, and provide a useful way to address their properties. In particular, IDPs are present in many cellular protein interaction networks, and several questions arise regarding how they bind to partners. Are conformations resembling the bound structure selected for binding, or does further folding occur on binding the partner in a induced-fit fashion? We focus on the p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) protein, which adopts an -helical conformation when bound to its partner, and is involved in the activation of apoptosis. Recent experimental evidence shows that folding is not necessary for binding, and supports an induced-fit mechanism. Using a variety of computational approaches we deduce the molecular mechanism behind the instability of the PUMA peptide as a helix in isolation. We find significant barriers between partially folded states and the helix. Our results show that the favoured conformations are molten-globule like, stabilised by charged and hydrophobic contacts, with structures resembling the bound state relatively unpopulated in equilibrium. PMID:25999294

  9. Cancer Genome Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Vogelstein, Bert; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Velculescu, Victor E.; Zhou, Shibin; Diaz, Luis A.; Kinzler, Kenneth W.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, comprehensive sequencing efforts have revealed the genomic landscapes of common forms of human cancer. For most cancer types, this landscape consists of a small number of “mountains” (genes altered in a high percentage of tumors) and a much larger number of “hills” (genes altered infrequently). To date, these studies have revealed ~140 genes that, when altered by intragenic mutations, can promote or “drive” tumorigenesis. A typical tumor contains two to eight of these “driver gene” mutations; the remaining mutations are passengers that confer no selective growth advantage. Driver genes can be classified into 12 signaling pathways that regulate three core cellular processes: cell fate, cell survival, and genome maintenance. A better understanding of these pathways is one of the most pressing needs in basic cancer research. Even now, however, our knowledge of cancer genomes is sufficient to guide the development of more effective approaches for reducing cancer morbidity and mortality. PMID:23539594

  10. Fantasy Landscapes with a Message

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Amico, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    The author of this article describes using a Fantasy Landscapes lesson to get students expressing environmental issues through art. The Fantasy Landscapes lesson is an exploration of art elements and design principles through visual problem solving that links ideas, language, and theory to art. To get students thinking specifically about…

  11. Landscape ecology and forest management

    Treesearch

    Thomas R. Crow

    1999-01-01

    Almost all forest management activities affect landscape pattern to some extent. Among the most obvious impacts are those associated with forest harvesting and road building. These activities profoundly affect the size, shape, and configuration of patches in the landscape matrix. Even-age management such as clearcutting has been applied in blocks of uniform size, shape...

  12. Landscaping With Maintenance in Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Randy

    2000-01-01

    Examines school ground landscape design that enhances attractive of the school and provides for easier maintenance. Landscape design issues discussed include choice of grass, trees, and shrubs; irrigation; and safety and access. Other considerations for lessening maintenance problems for facility managers are also highlighted. (GR)

  13. Messy world: managing dynamic landscape.

    Treesearch

    Sally. Duncan

    1999-01-01

    What lessons does historical disturbance hold for the management of future landscapes? Fred Swanson, a researcher at the Pacific Northwest Research Station and John Cissel, research liaison for the Willamette NF, are members of a team of scientists and land managers who are examining the way we think about and manage landscapes.The team found that past...

  14. Complex Landscape Terms in Seri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Meara, Carolyn; Bohnemeyer, Jurgen

    2008-01-01

    The nominal lexicon of Seri is characterized by a prevalence of analytical descriptive terms. We explore the consequences of this typological trait in the landscape domain. The complex landscape terms of Seri classify geographic entities in terms of their material make-up and spatial properties such as shape, orientation, and merological…

  15. The integrated landscape assessment project

    Treesearch

    Miles A. Hemstrom; Janine Salwasser; Joshua Halofsky; Jimmy Kagan; Cyndi Comfort

    2012-01-01

    The Integrated Landscape Assessment Project (ILAP) is a three-year effort that produces information, models, data, and tools to help land managers, policymakers, and others examine mid- to broad-scale (e.g., watersheds to states and larger areas) prioritization of land management actions, perform landscape assessments, and estimate potential effects of management...

  16. Landscape habitat suitability index software

    Treesearch

    William D. Dijak; Chadwick D. Rittenhouse; Michael A. Larson; Frank R. III Thompson; Joshua J. Millspaugh

    2007-01-01

    Habitat suitability index (HSI) models are traditionally used to evaluate habitat quality for wildlife at a local scale. Rarely have such models incorporated spatial relationships of habitat components. We introduce Landscape HSImodels, a new Microsoft Windowst (Microsoft, Redmond, WA)-based program that incorporates local habitat as well as landscape-scale attributes...

  17. Caribbean landscapes and their biodiversity

    Treesearch

    A. E. Lugo; E. H. Helmer; E. Santiago Valentín

    2012-01-01

    Both the biodiversity and the landscapes of the Caribbean have been greatly modified as a consequence of human activity. In this essay we provide an overview of the natural landscapes and biodiversity of the Caribbean and discuss how human activity has affected both. Our Caribbean geographic focus is on the insular Caribbean and the biodiversity focus is on the flora,...

  18. Ervin Zube and landscape architecture

    Treesearch

    Paul H. Gobster

    2002-01-01

    As he grew in his knowledge about the landscape through his involvemment in it as a person, student, practitioner, teacher, program director, and researcher, Ervin Zube's ideas about what landscape architecture is and should be continually evolved. He was a prolific writer whose publications span a broad range of audiences, and his contributions to ...

  19. Future landscapes: opportunities and challenges

    Treesearch

    John Stanturf

    2015-01-01

    The global magnitude of degraded and deforested areas is best approached by restoring landscapes. Heightened international perception of the importance of forests and trees outside forests (e.g., woodlands, on farms) demands new approaches to future landscapes. The current need for forest restoration is two billion ha; most opportunities are mosaic restoration in the...

  20. Landscape in a Lacquer Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Martha

    2010-01-01

    A symbolic dry landscape garden of Eastern origin holds a special fascination for the author's middle-school students, which is why the author chose to create a project exploring this view of nature. A dry landscape garden, or "karesansui," is an arrangement of rocks, worn by nature and surrounded by a "sea" of sand, raked into patterns…

  1. Landscape Solutions to School Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitz, Katherine

    2002-01-01

    Discusses key lessons in school landscape design. Landscapes should: (1) include trees and plants that themselves provide hands-on teaching opportunities; (2) enhance health and safety in a number of ways while performing their other functions; (3) be sensitively designed relative to location to cut energy costs; and (4) be aesthetic as well as…

  2. Complex Landscape Terms in Seri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Meara, Carolyn; Bohnemeyer, Jurgen

    2008-01-01

    The nominal lexicon of Seri is characterized by a prevalence of analytical descriptive terms. We explore the consequences of this typological trait in the landscape domain. The complex landscape terms of Seri classify geographic entities in terms of their material make-up and spatial properties such as shape, orientation, and merological…

  3. Landscaping With Maintenance in Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Randy

    2000-01-01

    Examines school ground landscape design that enhances attractive of the school and provides for easier maintenance. Landscape design issues discussed include choice of grass, trees, and shrubs; irrigation; and safety and access. Other considerations for lessening maintenance problems for facility managers are also highlighted. (GR)

  4. Landscape Solutions to School Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitz, Katherine

    2002-01-01

    Discusses key lessons in school landscape design. Landscapes should: (1) include trees and plants that themselves provide hands-on teaching opportunities; (2) enhance health and safety in a number of ways while performing their other functions; (3) be sensitively designed relative to location to cut energy costs; and (4) be aesthetic as well as…

  5. Fantasy Landscapes with a Message

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Amico, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    The author of this article describes using a Fantasy Landscapes lesson to get students expressing environmental issues through art. The Fantasy Landscapes lesson is an exploration of art elements and design principles through visual problem solving that links ideas, language, and theory to art. To get students thinking specifically about…

  6. Landscape in a Lacquer Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Martha

    2010-01-01

    A symbolic dry landscape garden of Eastern origin holds a special fascination for the author's middle-school students, which is why the author chose to create a project exploring this view of nature. A dry landscape garden, or "karesansui," is an arrangement of rocks, worn by nature and surrounded by a "sea" of sand, raked into patterns…

  7. Fitness Landscapes of Functional RNAs.

    PubMed

    Kun, Ádám; Szathmáry, Eörs

    2015-08-21

    The notion of fitness landscapes, a map between genotype and fitness, was proposed more than 80 years ago. For most of this time data was only available for a few alleles, and thus we had only a restricted view of the whole fitness landscape. Recently, advances in genetics and molecular biology allow a more detailed view of them. Here we review experimental and theoretical studies of fitness landscapes of functional RNAs, especially aptamers and ribozymes. We find that RNA structures can be divided into critical structures, connecting structures, neutral structures and forbidden structures. Such characterisation, coupled with theoretical sequence-to-structure predictions, allows us to construct the whole fitness landscape. Fitness landscapes then can be used to study evolution, and in our case the development of the RNA world.

  8. Fitness Landscapes of Functional RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Kun, Ádám; Szathmáry, Eörs

    2015-01-01

    The notion of fitness landscapes, a map between genotype and fitness, was proposed more than 80 years ago. For most of this time data was only available for a few alleles, and thus we had only a restricted view of the whole fitness landscape. Recently, advances in genetics and molecular biology allow a more detailed view of them. Here we review experimental and theoretical studies of fitness landscapes of functional RNAs, especially aptamers and ribozymes. We find that RNA structures can be divided into critical structures, connecting structures, neutral structures and forbidden structures. Such characterisation, coupled with theoretical sequence-to-structure predictions, allows us to construct the whole fitness landscape. Fitness landscapes then can be used to study evolution, and in our case the development of the RNA world. PMID:26308059

  9. Holocene pedogenesis in the Black soil area of southern Central Germany - a multiproxy approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Suchodoletz, Hans; Lauer, Tobias; Tinapp, Christian; Müller, Susann; Eckmeier, Eileen; Glaser, Bruno; Goldmann, Lisa; Zielhofer, Christoph

    2013-04-01

    Black soils (chernozems, phaeozems) cover some areas in the driest parts of Central Germany and are especially found on loessic material. However, time and causes of formation of these soils as well as their former distribution in the region have been a matter of debate for many decades: Accordingly, hypotheses about their age range from the Latest Pleistocene until the Neolithic period, and the assumed formation processes vary from natural (steppic vegetation, properties of parent material) to anthropogenic factors (forest-clearance, fire activity). In order to shed light on some of these open questions, several sites with black soil material (recent black soils, black soil colluvia, black soil material at archaeologic sites) in southern Central Germany were investigated. We applied a multi-proxy approach that combined intensive field work with the analysis of geochemical and environmental magnetic proxies with micromorphology as well as with OSL and archaeological dating. We tried to obtain information about the intensity of the development of black soils during different periods of the past and to look at their transformation during the Late Holocene. Finally, we tried to link this information with the known hypotheses about the formation of black soils as well as with landscape and palaeoclimatic development in Central Germany.

  10. Laboratory Microcomputing

    PubMed Central

    York, William B.

    1984-01-01

    Microcomputers will play a major role in the laboratory, not only in the calculation and interpretation of clinical test data, but also will have an increasing place of importance in the management of laboratory resources in the face of the transition from revenue generating to the cost center era. We will give you a glimpse of what can be accomplished with the management data already collected by many laboratories today when the data are processed into meaningful reports.

  11. Laboratory Building

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, Joshua M.

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  12. Modelling vegetated dune landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baas, A. C. W.; Nield, J. M.

    2007-03-01

    This letter presents a self-organising cellular automaton model capable of simulating the evolution of vegetated dunes with multiple types of plant response in the environment. It can successfully replicate hairpin, or long-walled, parabolic dunes with trailing ridges as well as nebkha dunes with distinctive deposition tails. Quantification of simulated landscapes with eco-geomorphic state variables and subsequent cluster analysis and PCA yields a phase diagram of different types of coastal dunes developing from blow-outs as a function of vegetation vitality. This diagram indicates the potential sensitivity of dormant dune fields to reactivation under declining vegetation vitality, e.g. due to climatic changes. Nebkha simulations with different grid resolutions demonstrate that the interaction between the (abiotic) geomorphic processes and the biological vegetation component (life) introduces a characteristic length scale on the resultant landforms that breaks the typical self-similar scaling of (un-vegetated) bare-sand dunes.

  13. [Landscape classification: research progress and development trend].

    PubMed

    Liang, Fa-Chao; Liu, Li-Ming

    2011-06-01

    Landscape classification is the basis of the researches on landscape structure, process, and function, and also, the prerequisite for landscape evaluation, planning, protection, and management, directly affecting the precision and practicability of landscape research. This paper reviewed the research progress on the landscape classification system, theory, and methodology, and summarized the key problems and deficiencies of current researches. Some major landscape classification systems, e. g. , LANMAP and MUFIC, were introduced and discussed. It was suggested that a qualitative and quantitative comprehensive classification based on the ideology of functional structure shape and on the integral consideration of landscape classification utility, landscape function, landscape structure, physiogeographical factors, and human disturbance intensity should be the major research directions in the future. The integration of mapping, 3S technology, quantitative mathematics modeling, computer artificial intelligence, and professional knowledge to enhance the precision of landscape classification would be the key issues and the development trend in the researches of landscape classification.

  14. Buildings Interoperability Landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, Dave; Stephan, Eric G.; Wang, Weimin; Corbin, Charles D.; Widergren, Steven E.

    2015-12-31

    Through its Building Technologies Office (BTO), the United States Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE-EERE) is sponsoring an effort to advance interoperability for the integration of intelligent buildings equipment and automation systems, understanding the importance of integration frameworks and product ecosystems to this cause. This is important to BTO’s mission to enhance energy efficiency and save energy for economic and environmental purposes. For connected buildings ecosystems of products and services from various manufacturers to flourish, the ICT aspects of the equipment need to integrate and operate simply and reliably. Within the concepts of interoperability lie the specification, development, and certification of equipment with standards-based interfaces that connect and work. Beyond this, a healthy community of stakeholders that contribute to and use interoperability work products must be developed. On May 1, 2014, the DOE convened a technical meeting to take stock of the current state of interoperability of connected equipment and systems in buildings. Several insights from that meeting helped facilitate a draft description of the landscape of interoperability for connected buildings, which focuses mainly on small and medium commercial buildings. This document revises the February 2015 landscape document to address reviewer comments, incorporate important insights from the Buildings Interoperability Vision technical meeting, and capture thoughts from that meeting about the topics to be addressed in a buildings interoperability vision. In particular, greater attention is paid to the state of information modeling in buildings and the great potential for near-term benefits in this area from progress and community alignment.

  15. General practice-based clinical trials in Germany - a problem analysis.

    PubMed

    Hummers-Pradier, Eva; Bleidorn, Jutta; Schmiemann, Guido; Joos, Stefanie; Becker, Annette; Altiner, Attila; Chenot, Jean-François; Scherer, Martin

    2012-11-08

    implementation of clinical research in German general practice. Some issues are deeply rooted in Germany's market-based healthcare and academic systems and traditions. However, new developments may facilitate change: recent developments in the German research landscape are encouraging.

  16. Landscape characterization and biodiversity research

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, V.H.; Offerman, H.; Frohn, R.; Gardner, R.H.

    1995-03-01

    Rapid deforestation often produces landscape-level changes in forest characteristics and structure, including area, distribution, and forest habitat types. Changes in landscape pattern through fragmentation or aggregation of natural habitats can alter patterns of abundance for single species and entire communities. Examples of single-species effects include increased predation along the forest edge, the decline in the number of species with poor dispersal mechanisms, and the spread of exotic species that have deleterious effects (e.g., gypsy moth). A decrease in the size and number of natural habitat patches increases the probability of local extirpation and loss of diversity of native species, whereas a decline in connectivity between habitat patches can negatively affect species persistence. Thus, there is empirical justification for managing entire landscapes, not just individual habitat types, in order to insure that native plant and animal diversity is maintained. A landscape is defined as an area composed of a mosaic of interacting ecosystems, or patches, with the heterogeneity among the patches significantly affecting biotic and abiotic processes in the landscape. Patches comprising a landscape are usually composed of discrete areas of relatively homogeneous environmental conditions and must be defined in terms of the organisms of interest. A large body of theoretical work in landscape ecology has provided a wealth of methods for quantifying spatial characteristics of landscapes. Recent advances in remote sensing and geographic information systems allow these methods to be applied over large areas. The objectives of this paper are to present a brief overview of common measures of landscape characteristics, to explore the new technology available for their calculation, to provide examples of their application, and to call attention to the need for collection of spatially-explicit field data.

  17. Decision making on fitness landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, R.; Sibani, P.

    2017-04-01

    We discuss fitness landscapes and how they can be modified to account for co-evolution. We are interested in using the landscape as a way to model rational decision making in a toy economic system. We develop a model very similar to the Tangled Nature Model of Christensen et al. that we call the Tangled Decision Model. This is a natural setting for our discussion of co-evolutionary fitness landscapes. We use a Monte Carlo step to simulate decision making and investigate two different decision making procedures.

  18. How soil shapes the landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minasny, Budiman; Finke, Peter; Vanwalleghem, Tom Tom; Stockmann, Uta; McBratney, Alex

    2014-05-01

    There has been an increase in interest in quantitative modelling of soil genesis, which can provide prediction of environmental changes through numerical models. Modelling soil formation is a difficult task because soil itself is highly complex with interactions between water, inorganic materials and organic matter. This paper will provide a review on the research efforts of modelling soil genesis, their connection with landscape models and the inexorable genesis of the IUSS soil landscape modelling working group. Quantitative modelling soil formation using mechanistic models have begun in the 1980s such as the 'soil deficit' model by Kirkby (1985), Hoosbeek & Bryant's pedodynamic model (1992), and recently the SoilGen model by Finke (2008). These profile models considered the chemical reactions and physical processes in the soil at the horizon and pedon scale. The SoilGen model is an integration of sub-models, such as water and solute movement, heat transport, soil organic matter decomposition, mineral dissolution, ion exchange, adsorption, speciation, complexation and precipitation. The model can calculate with detail the chemical changes and materials fluxes in a profile and has been successfully applied. While they can simulate soil profile development in detail, there is still a gap how the processes act in the landscape. Meanwhile research in landscape formation in geomorphology is progressing steadily over time, slope development models model have been developed since 1970s (Ahnert, 1977). Soil was also introduced in a landscape, however soil processes are mainly modelled through weathering and transport processes (Minasny & McBratney 1999, 2001). Recently, Vanwalleghem et al. (2013) are able to combine selected physical, chemical and biological processes to simulate a full 3-D soil genesis in the landscape. Now there are research gaps between the 2 approaches: the landscape modellers increasingly recognise the importance of soil and need more detailed soil

  19. Connecting Brabant's cover sand landscapes through landscape history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heskes, Erik; van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; Harthoorn, Jaap; Maes, Bert; Leenders, Karel; de Jongh, Piet; Kluiving, Sjoerd; van den Oetelaar, Ger

    2015-04-01

    Noord-Brabant has the largest variety of cover sand landscapes in The Netherlands, and probably in Western Europe. During the Last Ice Age the area was not covered by land ice and a polar desert developed in which sand dunes buried the existing river landscapes. Some of these polar dune landscapes experienced a geomorphological and soil development that remained virtually untouched up to the present day, such as the low parabolic dunes of the Strabrechtse Heide or the later and higher dunes of the Oisterwijkse Vennen. As Noord-Brabant lies on the fringe of a tectonic basin, the thickness of cover sand deposits in the Centrale Slenk, part of a rift through Europe, amounts up to 20 metres. Cover sand deposits along the fault lines cause the special phenomenon of 'wijst' to develop, in which the higher grounds are wetter than the boarding lower grounds. Since 4000 BC humans settled in these cover sand landscapes and made use of its small-scale variety. An example are the prehistoric finds on the flanks and the historic towns on top of the 'donken' in northwest Noord-Brabant, where the cover sand landscapes are buried by river and marine deposits and only the peaks of the dunes protrude as donken. Or the church of Handel that is built beside a 'wijst' source and a site of pilgrimage since living memory. Or the 'essen' and plaggen agriculture that developed along the stream valleys of Noord-Brabant from 1300 AD onwards, giving rise to geomorphological features as 'randwallen' and plaggen soils of more than a metre thickness. Each region of Brabant each has its own approach in attracting tourists and has not yet used this common landscape history to connect, manage and promote their territories. We propose a landscape-historical approach to develop a national or European Geopark Brabants' cover sand landscapes, in which each region focuses on a specific part of the landscape history of Brabant, that stretches from the Late Weichselian polar desert when the dune

  20. Identification of scenically preferred forest landscapes

    Treesearch

    Roberta C. Patey; Richard M. Evans

    1979-01-01

    This study identified manipulated forest landscapes with a low understory shrub density as being esthetic-ally preferred over non-manipulated, dense understory landscapes. This landscape pattern was identified both qualitatively, by preference ratings of respondents, and quantitatively, by measuring the physical components of each landscape. Forest sites were selected...

  1. Landscape genomics: A brief perspective [Chapter 9

    Treesearch

    Michael K. Schwartz; Gordon Luikart; Kevin S. McKelvey; Samuel A. Cushman

    2010-01-01

    Landscape genetics is the amalgamation of population genetics and landscape ecology (see Manel et al. 2003; Storfer et al. 2007). In Chapter 17, we discuss landscape genetics and provide two examples of applications in the area of modeling population connectivity and inferring fragmentation. These examples, like virtually all extant landscape genetic analyses, were...

  2. Simulating historical landscape dynamics using the landscape fire succession model LANDSUM version 4.0

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Keane; Lisa M. Holsinger; Sarah D. Pratt

    2006-01-01

    The range and variation of historical landscape dynamics could provide a useful reference for designing fuel treatments on today's landscapes. Simulation modeling is a vehicle that can be used to estimate the range of conditions experienced on historical landscapes. A landscape fire succession model called LANDSUMv4 (LANDscape SUccession Model version 4.0) is...

  3. Studying Landforms through Landscape Painting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, William H.

    1981-01-01

    Using three specific works of art, the author demonstrates how a study of selected landscape paintings can be integrated into units on landforms in secondary school earth science and general science courses. (Author/SJL)

  4. Economic Growth and Landscape Change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prato, Tony; Fagre, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Sustaining Rocky Mountain Landscapes provides a scientific basis for communities to develop policies for managing the growth and economic transformation of the CCE without sacrificing the quality of life and environment for which the land is renowned. This forthcoming edited volume focuses on five aspects of sustaining mountain landscapes in the CCE and similar regions in the Rocky Mountains. The five aspects are: 1) how social, economic, demographic and environmental forces are transforming ecosystem structure and function, 2) trends in use and conditions for human and environmental resources, 3) activating science, policy and education to enhance sustainable landscape management, 4) challenges to sustainable management of public and private lands, and 5) future prospects for achieving sustainable landscapes.

  5. Accidental inflation in the landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Gomez-Reino, Marta; Metallinos, Konstantinos

    2013-02-01

    We study some aspects of fine tuning in inflationary scenarios within string theory flux compactifications and, in particular, in models of accidental inflation. We investigate the possibility that the apparent fine-tuning of the low energy parameters of the theory needed to have inflation can be generically obtained by scanning the values of the fluxes over the landscape. Furthermore, we find that the existence of a landscape of eternal inflation in this model provides us with a natural theory of initial conditions for the inflationary period in our vacuum. We demonstrate how these two effects work in a small corner of the landscape associated with the complex structure of the Calabi-Yau manifold P4[1,1,1,6,9] by numerically investigating the flux vacua of a reduced moduli space. This allows us to obtain the distribution of observable parameters for inflation in this mini-landscape directly from the fluxes.

  6. LANDSCAPE CORRELATES TO ESTUARINE CONDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuaries are important transition zones between land and sea, yet little is known about how landscapes influence these systems. Using broad scale Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) data collected in small estuaries of the Virginian Biogeographic Province, w...

  7. Greenhouse warming and landscape care

    Treesearch

    Kevin T. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Climate change is one of the few truly planetary processes that influence the assessments and actions of governments and of everyday citizens. Principles and practices of ecological landscaping fit well with concern about hte effects of climate change.

  8. LANDSCAPE CORRELATES TO ESTUARINE CONDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuaries are important transition zones between land and sea, yet little is known about how landscapes influence these systems. Using broad scale Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) data collected in small estuaries of the Virginian Biogeographic Province, w...

  9. Energy landscapes for machine learning.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Andrew J; Das, Ritankar; Martiniani, Stefano; Mehta, Dhagash; Sagun, Levent; Stevenson, Jacob D; Wales, David J

    2017-04-03

    Machine learning techniques are being increasingly used as flexible non-linear fitting and prediction tools in the physical sciences. Fitting functions that exhibit multiple solutions as local minima can be analysed in terms of the corresponding machine learning landscape. Methods to explore and visualise molecular potential energy landscapes can be applied to these machine learning landscapes to gain new insight into the solution space involved in training and the nature of the corresponding predictions. In particular, we can define quantities analogous to molecular structure, thermodynamics, and kinetics, and relate these emergent properties to the structure of the underlying landscape. This Perspective aims to describe these analogies with examples from recent applications, and suggest avenues for new interdisciplinary research.

  10. Accidental inflation in the landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Metallinos, Konstantinos; Gomez-Reino, Marta E-mail: marta.gomez-reino.perez@cern.ch

    2013-02-01

    We study some aspects of fine tuning in inflationary scenarios within string theory flux compactifications and, in particular, in models of accidental inflation. We investigate the possibility that the apparent fine-tuning of the low energy parameters of the theory needed to have inflation can be generically obtained by scanning the values of the fluxes over the landscape. Furthermore, we find that the existence of a landscape of eternal inflation in this model provides us with a natural theory of initial conditions for the inflationary period in our vacuum. We demonstrate how these two effects work in a small corner of the landscape associated with the complex structure of the Calabi-Yau manifold P{sup 4}{sub [1,1,1,6,9]} by numerically investigating the flux vacua of a reduced moduli space. This allows us to obtain the distribution of observable parameters for inflation in this mini-landscape directly from the fluxes.

  11. Planetary landscape: a new synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargitai, H.

    The elements that build up a landscape on Earth consists of natural (biogenic and abiogenic - lithologic, atmospheric, hydrologic) and artificial (antropogenic) factors. Landscape is a complex system of these different elements, which interact with one another. For example the same lithology makes different landscapes under different climatic conditions. If the same conditions are present, the same landscape type will appear. The mosaic of ecotopes (topical) units, which are the system of homogenous caharacteristic areas of various geotopes makes up different level geochores (chorical unit). Geochores build up a hierarchic system and cover the whole surface.On Earth, landscapes can be qualified according to their characteristics: relief forms (morphology), and its potential economic value. Aesthetic and subjective parameters can also be considered especially when speaking of a residental area. We now propose the determination of "planetary landscape sets" which can potentially occur on the solid surface of a planetary body during its lifetime. This naturally includes landscapes of the present state of planetary bodies and also paleolandscapes from the past of planets, including Earth. Landscapes occur in the boundary of the planets solid and not solid sphere that is on the solid-vacuum, the solid - gas and on the solid - liquid boundary. Thinking this way a landscape can occurs on the ocean floor as well. We found that for the determination of a planetary landscape system, we can use the experiences from the making of the terminology and nomenclature system of Earth undersea topography. [1] The nomenclature system and the terminology used by astrogeologists could be revised. Common names of features should be defined (nova, tessera, volcano, tholus, lobate ejecta crater etc) with a type example for each. A well defined hierarchy for landscape types should be defined. The Moon is the best example, since it uses many names that originates from the 17th century, mixed

  12. Landscapes of the Digital Baroque.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Alvaro Ocampo traversed many landscapes to arrive at his current space in the digital art landscape. Eventually, the artist then made his way to the digital world, where he is no longer subjected to the tyranny of the one-off. He believes digital art is the new version of traditional etching in the way that it eliminates the idea of the one original piece of art.

  13. Protein evolution on rugged landscapes.

    PubMed Central

    Macken, C A; Perelson, A S

    1989-01-01

    We analyze a mathematical model of protein evolution in which the evolutionary process is viewed as hill-climbing on a random fitness landscape. In studying the structure of such landscapes, we note that a large number of local optima exist, and we calculate the time and number of mutational changes until a protein gets trapped at a local optimum. Such a hill-climbing process may underlie the evolution of antibody molecules by somatic hypermutation. PMID:2762321

  14. Landscape Evolution of the Oil Spill Mitigation Sand Berm in the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    ER D C TR -1 6- 15 Dredging Operations Technical Support and Engineering With Nature Landscape Evolution of the Oil Spill Mitigation...September 2016 Landscape Evolution of the Oil Spill Mitigation Sand Berm in the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana Glenn M. Suir Environmental Laboratory...susceptible to additional pressures, including anthropogenic activities. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to quantify the evolution of the oil

  15. Quality in laboratory medicine: 50years on.

    PubMed

    Plebani, Mario

    2017-02-01

    The last 50years have seen substantial changes in the landscape of laboratory medicine: its role in modern medicine is in evolution and the quality of laboratory services is changing. The need to control and improve quality in clinical laboratories has grown hand in hand with the growth in technological developments leading to an impressive reduction of analytical errors over time. An essential cause of this impressive improvement has been the introduction and monitoring of quality indicators (QIs) such as the analytical performance specifications (in particular bias and imprecision) based on well-established goals. The evolving landscape of quality and errors in clinical laboratories moved first from analytical errors to all errors performed within the laboratory walls, subsequently to errors in laboratory medicine (including errors in test requesting and result interpretation), and finally, to a focus on errors more frequently associated with adverse events (laboratory-associated errors). After decades in which clinical laboratories have focused on monitoring and improving internal indicators of analytical quality, efficiency and productivity, it is time to shift toward indicators of total quality, clinical effectiveness and patient outcomes. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. PNW Hydrologic Landscape Class

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Work has been done to expand the hydrologic landscapes (HLs) concept and to develop an approach for using it to address streamflow vulnerability from climate change. This work has included development of the HL classification framework and its application to Oregon, use of the HL classes to predict where a simple lumped hydrologic model accurately predicts daily streamflow, use of HL information to model the presence of cold-water patches at tributary confluences, and combining Oregon HL results with temperature and precipitation predictions to examine how HLs would vary as a result of climate change. As a part of the current work, the HL approach has been expanded to the Pacific Northwest (Oregon, Washington, and Idaho) based on a revision of the approach that makes it more broadly applicable. This revised approach has several advantages compared with the original approach: it is not limited to areas that have an aquifer permeability map; it uses a flexible approach to converting a nationally available geospatial dataset into assessment units; and it is more robust. These improvements should allow the revised HL approach to be applied more often in situations requiring hydrologic classification, and allow greater confidence in results. This effort paves the way for a climate change analysis for the Pacific Northwest that is currently underway, as well as expansion into the southwest (California, Arizona, and Nevada). This dataset contains a high resolutio

  17. Embryogenesis of Artificial Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashlock, Daniel; Gent, Stephen; Bryden, Kenneth

    This chapter examines the artificial embryogeny of landscapes intended for use with virtual reality which consist of collections of polygons encoded using L-systems. Artificial Embryogeny is the study of indirect representations. A recent survey that attempts to classify different types of artificial embryogeny appears in [18]. A representation is a way of encoding a model or a solution to a problem for use in computation. For example, an array of n real numbers is a representation of the value of a function in n variables. A representation is indirect if it gives a set of directions for constructing the thing it specifies rather than encoding the object directly. The process of following the directions given in the indirect representation to obtain the final object is called expression. Indirect representations require an interpreter to express them and, because of this, are more difficult to understand at the specification or genetic level. There are number of advantages to indirect representations that more than balance this genetic obscurity in many situations. The most general of these advantages is that the transformation from the indirect specification to the final model or solution can incorporate heuristics and domain knowledge. This permits a search of a genetic space that is far smaller than the space in which the expressed objects reside and has a much higher average quality. Another advantage, showcased in this chapter, is compactness of representation. The indirect representations we evolve in this chapter use a few hundred bytes to specify megabyte-sized collections of polygons.

  18. PSEUDO-CODEWORD LANDSCAPE

    SciTech Connect

    CHERTKOV, MICHAEL; STEPANOV, MIKHAIL

    2007-01-10

    The authors discuss performance of Low-Density-Parity-Check (LDPC) codes decoded by Linear Programming (LP) decoding at moderate and large Signal-to-Noise-Ratios (SNR). Frame-Error-Rate (FER) dependence on SNR and the noise space landscape of the coding/decoding scheme are analyzed by a combination of the previously introduced instanton/pseudo-codeword-search method and a new 'dendro' trick. To reduce complexity of the LP decoding for a code with high-degree checks, {ge} 5, they introduce its dendro-LDPC counterpart, that is the code performing identifically to the original one under Maximum-A-Posteriori (MAP) decoding but having reduced (down to three) check connectivity degree. Analyzing number of popular LDPC codes and their dendro versions performing over the Additive-White-Gaussian-Noise (AWGN) channel, they observed two qualitatively different regimes: (i) error-floor sets early, at relatively low SNR, and (ii) FER decays with SNR increase faster at moderate SNR than at the largest SNR. They explain these regimes in terms of the pseudo-codeword spectra of the codes.

  19. Titan Polar Landscape Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    With the ongoing Cassini-era observations and studies of Titan it is clear that the intensity and distribution of surface processes (particularly fluvial erosion by methane and Aeolian transport) has changed through time. Currently however, alternate hypotheses substantially differ among specific scenarios with respect to the effects of atmospheric evolution, seasonal changes, and endogenic processes. We have studied the evolution of Titan's polar region through a combination of analysis of imaging, elevation data, and geomorphic mapping, spatially explicit simulations of landform evolution, and quantitative comparison of the simulated landscapes with corresponding Titan morphology. We have quantitatively evaluated alternate scenarios for the landform evolution of Titan's polar terrain. The investigations have been guided by recent geomorphic mapping and topographic characterization of the polar regions that are used to frame hypotheses of process interactions, which have been evaluated using simulation modeling. Topographic information about Titan's polar region is be based on SAR-Topography and altimetry archived on PDS, SAR-based stereo radar-grammetry, radar-sounding lake depth measurements, and superposition relationships between geomorphologic map units, which we will use to create a generalized topographic map.

  20. Gene Expression Noise, Fitness Landscapes, and Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlebois, Daniel

    The stochastic (or noisy) process of gene expression can have fitness consequences for living organisms. For example, gene expression noise facilitates the development of drug resistance by increasing the time scale at which beneficial phenotypic states can be maintained. The present work investigates the relationship between gene expression noise and the fitness landscape. By incorporating the costs and benefits of gene expression, we track how the fluctuation magnitude and timescale of expression noise evolve in simulations of cell populations under stress. We find that properties of expression noise evolve to maximize fitness on the fitness landscape, and that low levels of expression noise emerge when the fitness benefits of gene expression exceed the fitness costs (and that high levels of noise emerge when the costs of expression exceed the benefits). The findings from our theoretical/computational work offer new hypotheses on the development of drug resistance, some of which are now being investigated in evolution experiments in our laboratory using well-characterized synthetic gene regulatory networks in budding yeast. Nserc Postdoctoral Fellowship (Grant No. PDF-453977-2014).

  1. Landscape Visualisation on the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imhof, M. P.; Cox, M. T.; Harvey, D. W.; Heemskerk, G. E.; Pettit, C. J.

    2012-07-01

    The Victorian Resources Online (VRO) website (http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/vro) is the principal means for accessing landscapebased information in Victoria. In this paper we introduce a range of online landscape visualisations that have been developed to enhance existing static web content around the nature and distribution of Victoria's landforms and soils as well as associated processes. Flash is used to develop online visualisations that include interactive landscape panoramas, animations of soil and landscape processes and videos of experts explaining features in the field as well as landscape "flyovers". The use of interactive visualisations adds rich information multimedia content to otherwise static pages and offers the potential to improve user's appreciation and understanding of soil and landscapes. Visualisation is becoming a key component of knowledge management activities associated with VRO - proving useful for both "knowledge capture" (from subject matter specialists) and "knowledge transfer" to a diverse user base. A range of useful visualisation products have been made available online, with varying degrees of interactivity and suited to a variety of users. The use of video files, animation and interactive visualisations is adding rich information content to otherwise static web pages. These information products offer new possibilities to enhance learning of landscapes and the effectiveness of these will be tested as the next phase of development.

  2. Hiking Over Quantum Control Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabitz, Herschel

    2008-03-01

    Seeking the best control over a posed quantum dynamic objective entails climbing over the associated control landscape, which is defined as the quantum mechanical observable as a function of the controls. The topology and general structure of quantum control landscapes as input output maps dictate the final attainable yield, the efficiency of the search for an effective control, the possible existence of multiple dynamically equivalent controls, and the robustness of any viable control solution. Normal optimization problems in virtually any area of engineering and science typically have landscape topologies that remain a mystery. Quantum mechanics appears out to be quite special in that the topology of quantum control landscapes can be established generically based on minimal physical assumptions. Various features of these landscapes will be discussed and illustrated for circumstances where the controls are either an external field or the time independent portions of the Hamiltonian; the latter circumstance corresponds to subjecting the material or molecules to systematic variation and hence viewed in the context of being controls. Both theoretical and experimental findings on control landscapes and their consequences will be discussed, including issues of robustness to noise, search algorithm efficiency, existence of multiple control solutions, prospects for identifying reduced sets of control variables, simultaneous control of multiple quantum systems (optimal dynamic discrimination (ODD)), and mechanism analysis.

  3. Laboratory accreditation.

    PubMed

    Bradway, D E; Siegelman, F L

    1994-09-01

    An investigation of alleged data fraud at a pesticide analytical laboratory led EPA to take a closer look at the Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) inspection program. There was special focus on changes which might be made in the program to enhance the chances of detecting fraud in regulated studies. To this end, the Assistant Administrator of the Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances (OPPTS) requested EPA's Office of Inspector General (OIG) to examine the GLP program. Several reports were issued by the OIG, including the recommendation that a laboratory accreditation program be adopted. EPA has been examining ways to implement the OIG's recommendations, including (1) laboratory accreditation consisting of three components: document submission and assessment, site visit and assessment, and proficiency assessment; and (2) mandatory registration of all facilities participating in GLP-regulated studies, based on document submission and assessment. These two alternatives are compared, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed.

  4. Aeolian Morphodynamics of Loess Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, J. A.; Hanson, P. R.; Sweeney, M.; Loope, H. M.; Miao, X.; Lu, H.

    2012-12-01

    Striking aeolian landforms characterize loess landscapes of the Great Plains and Upper Mississippi Valley, USA, shaped in Late Pleistocene environments with many characteristics of modern deserts including large active dunefields. Similar aeolian morphodynamics are evident in northern China and the Columbia Basin, USA, and are clearly important for interpreting the paleoenvironmental record of loess. Four zones spanning the upwind margin of thick loess can be defined from landforms and surficial deposits. From upwind to downwind, they are: A) A largely loess-free landscape, with patchy to continuous aeolian sand mantling bedrock. B) Patchy loess deposits, often streamlined and potentially wind-aligned, intermingled with dunes and sand sheets; interbedding of loess and sand may be common. C) Thick, coarse loess with an abrupt upwind edge, with troughs, yardang-like ridges, and/or wind-aligned scarps recording large-scale wind erosion. D) Thinner, finer loess with little evidence of post-depositional wind erosion. The degree of development and spatial scale of these zones varies among the loess regions we studied. To explain this zonation we emphasize controls on re-entrainment of loess by the wind after initial deposition, across gradients of climate and vegetation. The role of saltating sand in dust entrainment through abrasion of fine materials is well known. Using the Portable In situ Wind Erosion Laboratory (PI-SWERL), we recently demonstrated that unvegetated Great Plains loess can also be directly entrained under wind conditions common in the region today (Sweeney et al., 2011, GSA Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 43, No. 5, p. 251). Rainfall-induced crusts largely prevent direct entrainment in fine loess, but appear less effective in coarse loess. We propose that in zone A, any loess deposited was both abraded by saltating sand and directly re-entrained, so none accumulated. Sparse vegetation in this zone was primarily an effect of climate, but the resulting

  5. Incorporating landscape stochasticity into population viability analysis.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Ryan A; Wintle, Brendan A

    2007-03-01

    The importance of incorporating landscape dynamics into population viability analysis (PVA) has previously been acknowledged, but the need to repeat the landscape generation process to encapsulate landscape stochasticity in model outputs has largely been overlooked. Reasons for this are that (1) there is presently no means for quantifying the relative effects of landscape stochasticity and population stochasticity on model outputs, and therefore no means for determining how to allocate simulation time optimally between the two; and (2) the process of generating multiple landscapes to incorporate landscape stochasticity is tedious and user-intensive with current PVA software. Here we demonstrate that landscape stochasticity can be an important source of variance in model outputs. We solve the technical problems with incorporating landscape stochasticity by deriving a formula that gives the optimal ratio of population simulations to landscape simulations for a given model, and by providing a computer program that incorporates the formula and automates multiple landscape generation in a dynamic landscape metapopulation (DLMP) model. Using a case study of a bird population, we produce estimates of DLMP model output parameters that are up to four times more precise than those estimated from a single landscape in the same amount of total simulation time. We use the DLMP modeling software RAMAS Landscape to run the landscape and metapopulation models, though our method is general and could be applied to any PVA platform. The results of this study should motivate DLMP modelers to consider landscape stochasticity in their analyses.

  6. Spatiotemporal microbial evolution on antibiotic landscapes.

    PubMed

    Baym, Michael; Lieberman, Tami D; Kelsic, Eric D; Chait, Remy; Gross, Rotem; Yelin, Idan; Kishony, Roy

    2016-09-09

    A key aspect of bacterial survival is the ability to evolve while migrating across spatially varying environmental challenges. Laboratory experiments, however, often study evolution in well-mixed systems. Here, we introduce an experimental device, the microbial evolution and growth arena (MEGA)-plate, in which bacteria spread and evolved on a large antibiotic landscape (120 × 60 centimeters) that allowed visual observation of mutation and selection in a migrating bacterial front. While resistance increased consistently, multiple coexisting lineages diversified both phenotypically and genotypically. Analyzing mutants at and behind the propagating front, we found that evolution is not always led by the most resistant mutants; highly resistant mutants may be trapped behind more sensitive lineages. The MEGA-plate provides a versatile platform for studying microbial adaption and directly visualizing evolutionary dynamics.

  7. Overview of the microfluidic diagnostics commercial landscape.

    PubMed

    Kim, Lily

    2013-01-01

    Since its birth in the late 1980s, the field of microfluidics has continued to mature, with a growing number of companies pursuing diagnostic applications. In 2009 the worldwide in vitro diagnostics market was estimated at >$40 billion USD, and microfluidic diagnostics are poised to reap a significant part of this market across a range of areas including laboratory diagnostics, point-of-care diagnostics, cancer diagnostics, and others. The potential economic advantages of microfluidics are numerous and compelling: lower reagent and/or sample volumes, lower equipment costs, improved portability, increased automation, and increased measurement speed. All of these factors may help put more information in the hands of doctors and patients sooner, enabling earlier disease detection and more tailored, effective treatments. This chapter reviews the microfluidic diagnostics commercial landscape and discusses potential commercialization challenges and opportunities.

  8. Experimental exploration over a quantum control landscape through nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qiuyang; Pelczer, István; Riviello, Gregory; Wu, Re-Bing; Rabitz, Herschel

    2014-03-01

    The growing successes in performing quantum control experiments motivated the development of control landscape analysis as a basis to explain these findings. When a quantum system is controlled by an electromagnetic field, the observable as a functional of the control field forms a landscape. Theoretical analyses have revealed many properties of control landscapes, especially regarding their slopes, curvatures, and topologies. A full experimental assessment of the landscape predictions is important for future consideration of controlling quantum phenomena. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is exploited here as an ideal laboratory setting for quantitative testing of the landscape principles. The experiments are performed on a simple two-level proton system in a H2O-D2O sample. We report a variety of NMR experiments roving over the control landscape based on estimation of the gradient and Hessian, including ascent or descent of the landscape, level set exploration, and an assessment of the theoretical predictions on the structure of the Hessian. The experimental results are fully consistent with the theoretical predictions. The procedures employed in this study provide the basis for future multispin control landscape exploration where additional features are predicted to exist.

  9. Using landscape history to predict biodiversity patterns in fragmented landscapes.

    PubMed

    Ewers, Robert M; Didham, Raphael K; Pearse, William D; Lefebvre, Véronique; Rosa, Isabel M D; Carreiras, João M B; Lucas, Richard M; Reuman, Daniel C

    2013-10-01

    Landscape ecology plays a vital role in understanding the impacts of land-use change on biodiversity, but it is not a predictive discipline, lacking theoretical models that quantitatively predict biodiversity patterns from first principles. Here, we draw heavily on ideas from phylogenetics to fill this gap, basing our approach on the insight that habitat fragments have a shared history. We develop a landscape 'terrageny', which represents the historical spatial separation of habitat fragments in the same way that a phylogeny represents evolutionary divergence among species. Combining a random sampling model with a terrageny generates numerical predictions about the expected proportion of species shared between any two fragments, the locations of locally endemic species, and the number of species that have been driven locally extinct. The model predicts that community similarity declines with terragenetic distance, and that local endemics are more likely to be found in terragenetically distinctive fragments than in large fragments. We derive equations to quantify the variance around predictions, and show that ignoring the spatial structure of fragmented landscapes leads to over-estimates of local extinction rates at the landscape scale. We argue that ignoring the shared history of habitat fragments limits our ability to understand biodiversity changes in human-modified landscapes.

  10. Using landscape history to predict biodiversity patterns in fragmented landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Ewers, Robert M; Didham, Raphael K; Pearse, William D; Lefebvre, Véronique; Rosa, Isabel M D; Carreiras, João M B; Lucas, Richard M; Reuman, Daniel C

    2013-01-01

    Landscape ecology plays a vital role in understanding the impacts of land-use change on biodiversity, but it is not a predictive discipline, lacking theoretical models that quantitatively predict biodiversity patterns from first principles. Here, we draw heavily on ideas from phylogenetics to fill this gap, basing our approach on the insight that habitat fragments have a shared history. We develop a landscape ‘terrageny’, which represents the historical spatial separation of habitat fragments in the same way that a phylogeny represents evolutionary divergence among species. Combining a random sampling model with a terrageny generates numerical predictions about the expected proportion of species shared between any two fragments, the locations of locally endemic species, and the number of species that have been driven locally extinct. The model predicts that community similarity declines with terragenetic distance, and that local endemics are more likely to be found in terragenetically distinctive fragments than in large fragments. We derive equations to quantify the variance around predictions, and show that ignoring the spatial structure of fragmented landscapes leads to over-estimates of local extinction rates at the landscape scale. We argue that ignoring the shared history of habitat fragments limits our ability to understand biodiversity changes in human-modified landscapes. PMID:23931035

  11. The shifting beverage landscape.

    PubMed

    Storey, Maureen

    2010-04-26

    STOREY, M.L. The shifting beverage landscape. PHYSIOL BEHAV, 2010. - Simultaneous lifestyle changes have occurred in the last few decades, creating an imbalance in energy intake and energy expenditure that has led to overweight and obesity. Trends in the food supply show that total daily calories available per capita increased 28% since 1970. Total energy intake among men and women has also increased dramatically since that time. Some have suggested that intake of beverages has had a disproportional impact on obesity. Data collected by the Beverage Marketing Corporation between 1988-2008 demonstrate that, in reality, fewer calories per ounce are being produced by the beverage industry. Moreover, data from the National Cancer Institute show that soft drink intake represents 5.5% of daily calories. Data from NHANES 1999-2003 vs. 2003-06 may demonstrate a shift in beverage consumption for age/gender groups, ages 6 to>60years. The beverages provided in schools have significantly changed since 2006 when the beverage industry implemented School Beverage Guidelines. This voluntary action has removed full-calorie soft drinks from participating schools across the country. This shift to lower-calorie and smaller-portion beverages in school has led to a significant decrease in total beverage calories in schools. These data support the concept that to prevent and treat obesity, public health efforts should focus on energy balance and that a narrow focus on sweetened beverages is unlikely to have any meaningful impact on this complex problem. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Genomic landscape of liposarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Kanojia, Deepika; Nagata, Yasunobu; Garg, Manoj; Lee, Dhong Hyun; Sato, Aiko; Yoshida, Kenichi; Sato, Yusuke; Sanada, Masashi; Mayakonda, Anand; Bartenhagen, Christoph; Klein, Hans-Ulrich; Doan, Ngan B.; Said, Jonathan W.; Mohith, S.; Gunasekar, Swetha; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Chiba, Kenichi; Tanaka, Hiroko; Miyano, Satoru; Myklebost, Ola; Yang, Henry; Dugas, Martin; Meza-Zepeda, Leonardo A.; Silberman, Allan W.; Forscher, Charles; Tyner, Jeffrey W.; Ogawa, Seishi; Koeffler, H. Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Liposarcoma (LPS) is the most common type of soft tissue sarcoma accounting for 20% of all adult sarcomas. Due to absence of clinically effective treatment options in inoperable situations and resistance to chemotherapeutics, a critical need exists to identify novel therapeutic targets. We analyzed LPS genomic landscape using SNP arrays, whole exome sequencing and targeted exome sequencing to uncover the genomic information for development of specific anti-cancer targets. SNP array analysis indicated known amplified genes (MDM2, CDK4, HMGA2) and important novel genes (UAP1, MIR557, LAMA4, CPM, IGF2, ERBB3, IGF1R). Carboxypeptidase M (CPM), recurrently amplified gene in well-differentiated/de-differentiated LPS was noted as a putative oncogene involved in the EGFR pathway. Notable deletions were found at chromosome 1p (RUNX3, ARID1A), chromosome 11q (ATM, CHEK1) and chromosome 13q14.2 (MIR15A, MIR16-1). Significantly and recurrently mutated genes (false discovery rate < 0.05) included PLEC (27%), MXRA5 (21%), FAT3 (24%), NF1 (20%), MDC1 (10%), TP53 (7%) and CHEK2 (6%). Further, in vitro and in vivo functional studies provided evidence for the tumor suppressor role for Neurofibromin 1 (NF1) gene in different subtypes of LPS. Pathway analysis of recurrent mutations demonstrated signaling through MAPK, JAK-STAT, Wnt, ErbB, axon guidance, apoptosis, DNA damage repair and cell cycle pathways were involved in liposarcomagenesis. Interestingly, we also found mutational and copy number heterogeneity within a primary LPS tumor signifying the importance of multi-region sequencing for cancer-genome guided therapy. In summary, these findings provide insight into the genomic complexity of LPS and highlight potential druggable pathways for targeted therapeutic approach. PMID:26643872

  13. Exploring constrained quantum control landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Katharine W.; Rabitz, Herschel

    2012-10-01

    The broad success of optimally controlling quantum systems with external fields has been attributed to the favorable topology of the underlying control landscape, where the landscape is the physical observable as a function of the controls. The control landscape can be shown to contain no suboptimal trapping extrema upon satisfaction of reasonable physical assumptions, but this topological analysis does not hold when significant constraints are placed on the control resources. This work employs simulations to explore the topology and features of the control landscape for pure-state population transfer with a constrained class of control fields. The fields are parameterized in terms of a set of uniformly spaced spectral frequencies, with the associated phases acting as the controls. This restricted family of fields provides a simple illustration for assessing the impact of constraints upon seeking optimal control. Optimization results reveal that the minimum number of phase controls necessary to assure a high yield in the target state has a special dependence on the number of accessible energy levels in the quantum system, revealed from an analysis of the first- and second-order variation of the yield with respect to the controls. When an insufficient number of controls and/or a weak control fluence are employed, trapping extrema and saddle points are observed on the landscape. When the control resources are sufficiently flexible, solutions producing the globally maximal yield are found to form connected "level sets" of continuously variable control fields that preserve the yield. These optimal yield level sets are found to shrink to isolated points on the top of the landscape as the control field fluence is decreased, and further reduction of the fluence turns these points into suboptimal trapping extrema on the landscape. Although constrained control fields can come in many forms beyond the cases explored here, the behavior found in this paper is illustrative of

  14. Epigenetic Inheritance across the Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Whipple, Amy V.; Holeski, Liza M.

    2016-01-01

    The study of epigenomic variation at the landscape-level in plants may add important insight to studies of adaptive variation. A major goal of landscape genomic studies is to identify genomic regions contributing to adaptive variation across the landscape. Heritable variation in epigenetic marks, resulting in transgenerational plasticity, can influence fitness-related traits. Epigenetic marks are influenced by the genome, the environment, and their interaction, and can be inherited independently of the genome. Thus, epigenomic variation likely influences the heritability of many adaptive traits, but the extent of this influence remains largely unknown. Here, we summarize the relevance of epigenetic inheritance to ecological and evolutionary processes, and review the literature on landscape-level patterns of epigenetic variation. Landscape-level patterns of epigenomic variation in plants generally show greater levels of isolation by distance and isolation by environment then is found for the genome, but the causes of these patterns are not yet clear. Linkage between the environment and epigenomic variation has been clearly shown within a single generation, but demonstrating transgenerational inheritance requires more complex breeding and/or experimental designs. Transgenerational epigenetic variation may alter the interpretation of landscape genomic studies that rely upon phenotypic analyses, but should have less influence on landscape genomic approaches that rely upon outlier analyses or genome–environment associations. We suggest that multi-generation common garden experiments conducted across multiple environments will allow researchers to understand which parts of the epigenome are inherited, as well as to parse out the relative contribution of heritable epigenetic variation to the phenotype. PMID:27826318

  15. Transient Landscapes: Recorders of History and Engines of Discovery (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whipple, K. X.

    2010-12-01

    picture. Transients acting over timescales ranging from ~10 kyr to ~10 Myr have been studied in recent years. Field observations and theoretical analyses, however, reveal complications that produce sometimes significant deviations from the simple model of a discrete change in channel steepness at an abrupt knickpoint. Knickpoints can be “leaky”, with landscape response in fact zipping ahead of the main knickpoint in many if not most cases. Initially transport-limited conditions, stripping of alluvial armor upstream of knickpoints, and erosional response to flow acceleration over waterfalls all contribute to landscape response upstream of major knickpoints. Downstream of knickpoints steepening of channel profiles occurs ahead of commensurate increases in the sediment load carried by streams. Accordingly, channels can become tool-starved and may respond by over-steepening, narrowing, and develop discrete bedrock steps and waterfalls. In extreme cases (very rapid incision) tributary streams may not be able to keep pace with the trunk stream and fluvial hanging valleys can develop, delaying tributary response and extending the duration of transients. These characteristics, among others, make transient landscapes excellent natural laboratories for testing and refining landscape evolution models in addition to their capacity to inform us about past conditions.

  16. Prevalence of celiac disease in Germany: A prospective follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Kratzer, Wolfgang; Kibele, Monika; Akinli, Atilla; Porzner, Marc; Boehm, Bernhard O; Koenig, Wolfgang; Oeztuerk, Suemeyra; Mason, Richard A; Mao, Ren; Haenle, Mark H

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence of celiac disease in a randomly selected population sample. METHODS: A total of 2157 subjects (1036 males; 1121 females) participating in a population-based cross-sectional study underwent laboratory testing for tissue transglutaminase and antibodies to immunoglobulin A, endomysium and antigliadin. In a second step, all subjects who had been examined serologically were surveyed using a questionnaire that included questions specific to celiac disease. Subjects with positive antibody titers and those with histories positive for celiac disease then underwent biopsy. At the first follow up, antibody titers were again determined in these subjects and subjects were questioned regarding symptoms specific for celiac disease and disorders associated with celiac disease. The second follow up consisted of a telephone interview with subjects positive for celiac disease. RESULTS: Antibody tests consistent with celiac disease were reported in eight subjects, corresponding to an overall prevalence of 1:270 (8/2157). The prevalence among women was 1:224 and 1:518 in men. Classical symptoms were observed in 62.5% of subjects. Atypical celiac disease was present in 25.0%, and transient celiac disease in 12.5%. False-negative test results were returned in three subjects. This yields a sensitivity and specificity of 62.5% and 50.0%, respectively, for tissue transglutaminase immunoglobulin-A antibody; of 62.5% and 71.4% respectively, for endomysium antibody; and of 62.5% and 71.4%, respectively, for antigliadin antibody. CONCLUSION: The prevalence rate in our collective lies within the middle tertile of comparable studies in Europe. The use of a single antibody test for screening purposes must be called into question. PMID:23674868

  17. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Saarland, Germany: A Statewide Admission Prevalence Screening Study

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Mathias; Petit, Christine; Dawson, Alik; Biechele, Judith; Halfmann, Alexander; von Müller, Lutz; Gräber, Stefan; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Klein, Renate; Gärtner, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Background The screening of hospital admission patients for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is of undisputed value in controlling and reducing the overall MRSA burden; yet, a concerted parallel universal screening intervention throughout all hospitals of an entire German Federal State has not yet been performed. Methodology/Principal Findings During a four-week period, all 24 acute care hospitals of the State of Saarland participated in admission prevalence screening. Overall, 436/20,027 screened patients revealed MRSA carrier status (prevalence, 2.2/100 patients) with geriatrics and intensive care departments associated with highest prevalence (7.6/100 and 6.3/100, respectively). Risk factor analysis among 17,975 admission patients yielded MRSA history (OR, 4.3; CI95 2.7–6.8), a skin condition (OR, 3.2; CI95 2.1–5.0), and/or an indwelling catheter (OR, 2.2; CI95 1.4–3.5) among the leading risks. Hierarchical risk factor ascertainment of the six risk factors associated with highest odd’s ratios would require 31% of patients to be laboratory screened to allow for detection of 67% of all MRSA positive admission patients in the State. Conclusions/Significance State-wide admission prevalence screening in conjunction with risk factor ascertainment yields important information on the distribution of the MRSA burden for hospitals, and allows for data-based decisions on local or institutional MRSA screening policies considering risk factor prevalence and expected MRSA identification rates. PMID:24040103

  18. Landscape characterization for watershed management

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsaker, C.T.; Jackson, B.L.; Schwartz, P.M.

    1996-07-01

    Streams and rivers serve as integrators of terrestrial landscape characteristics and as recipients of pollutants from both the atmosphere and the land; thus, large rivers are especially good indicators of cumulative impacts. Landscape ecologists seek to better understand the relationships between landscape structure and ecosystem processes at various spatial scales. Understanding how scale, both data resolution and geographic extent, influences landscape characterization and how terrestrial processes affect water quality are critically important for model development and translation of research results from experimental watersheds to management of large drainage basins. Measures of landscape structure are useful to monitor change and assess the risks it poses to ecological resources. Many studies have shown that the proportion of different land uses within a watershed can account for some of the variability in surface water quality. Hunsaker and Levine showed that both proportion of land uses and the spatial pattern of land uses is important for characterizing and modeling water quality; however, proportion consistently accounted for the most variance (40% to 86%) across a range of watershed sizes (1000 to 1.35 million ha). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is performing a demonstration of its Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) for the Mid-Atlantic Region. One activity, the Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment, is designed as a collaborative initiative between EPA`s Office of Research and Development and EPA`s Region III.

  19. [Selection of landscape metrics for urban forest based on simulated landscapes].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang-Fu; Li, Jing-Ze; Li, Xiao-Ma; He, Xing-Yuan; Chen, Wei

    2009-05-01

    Based on the existing urban forest landscape of Shenyang, four landscape pattern gradients were simulated, and one existing landscape pattern gradient in accordance with the trend of these gradients was selected. By analyzing the responses of 28 landscape metrics for landscape fragmentation and patch shape complexity to various landscape pattern gradients, preference landscape metrics were selected for describing the degree of the two landscape pattern characteristics. The results showed that patch density (PD) and mean patch area (AREA_MN) regularly responded to the change of landscape fragmentation. The increase of landscape fragmentation resulted in an increase of PD value while a decrease of AREA_MN value. Patch shape complexity of area weighted mean perimeter area ratio (PARA_AM) coincided with the gradients of landscape pattern. PARA AM value increased with increasing patch shape complexity, which precisely characterized the degree of patch shape complexity.

  20. Laboratory diagnosis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One of the first major goals of the microbiology laboratory is to isolate or detect clinically significant microorganisms from an affected site and, if more than one type of microorganism is present, to isolate them in approximately the same ratio as occurs in vivo. Whether an isolate is “clinically...

  1. Language Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education and Science, London (England).

    An educational survey of British language teachers concerning the use of the language laboratory focuses primarily on function, facilities, and performance specifications. Read in conjunction with two other reports published by the Ministry of Technology, this study is meant to help teachers, architects, and administrators develop language…

  2. Machine learning landscapes and predictions for patient outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Ritankar; Wales, David J.

    2017-07-01

    The theory and computational tools developed to interpret and explore energy landscapes in molecular science are applied to the landscapes defined by local minima for neural networks. These machine learning landscapes correspond to fits of training data, where the inputs are vital signs and laboratory measurements for a database of patients, and the objective is to predict a clinical outcome. In this contribution, we test the predictions obtained by fitting to single measurements, and then to combinations of between 2 and 10 different patient medical data items. The effect of including measurements over different time intervals from the 48 h period in question is analysed, and the most recent values are found to be the most important. We also compare results obtained for neural networks as a function of the number of hidden nodes, and for different values of a regularization parameter. The predictions are compared with an alternative convex fitting function, and a strong correlation is observed. The dependence of these results on the patients randomly selected for training and testing decreases systematically with the size of the database available. The machine learning landscapes defined by neural network fits in this investigation have single-funnel character, which probably explains why it is relatively straightforward to obtain the global minimum solution, or a fit that behaves similarly to this optimal parameterization.

  3. Machine learning landscapes and predictions for patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Das, Ritankar; Wales, David J

    2017-07-01

    The theory and computational tools developed to interpret and explore energy landscapes in molecular science are applied to the landscapes defined by local minima for neural networks. These machine learning landscapes correspond to fits of training data, where the inputs are vital signs and laboratory measurements for a database of patients, and the objective is to predict a clinical outcome. In this contribution, we test the predictions obtained by fitting to single measurements, and then to combinations of between 2 and 10 different patient medical data items. The effect of including measurements over different time intervals from the 48 h period in question is analysed, and the most recent values are found to be the most important. We also compare results obtained for neural networks as a function of the number of hidden nodes, and for different values of a regularization parameter. The predictions are compared with an alternative convex fitting function, and a strong correlation is observed. The dependence of these results on the patients randomly selected for training and testing decreases systematically with the size of the database available. The machine learning landscapes defined by neural network fits in this investigation have single-funnel character, which probably explains why it is relatively straightforward to obtain the global minimum solution, or a fit that behaves similarly to this optimal parameterization.

  4. Why some fitness landscapes are fractal.

    PubMed

    Weinberger, E D; Stadler, P F

    1993-07-21

    Many biological and biochemical measurements, for example the "fitness" of a particular genome, or the binding affinity to a particular substrate, can be treated as a "fitness landscape", an assignment of numerical values to points in sequence space (or some other configuration space). As an alternative to the enormous amount of data required to completely describe such a landscape, we propose a statistical characterization, based on the properties of a random walk through the landscape and, more specifically, its autocorrelation function. Under assumptions roughly satisfied by two classes of simple model landscapes (the N-k model and the p-spin model) and by the landscape of estimated free energies of RNA secondary structures, this autocorrelation function, along with the mean and variance of individual points and the size of the landscape, completely characterize it. Having noted that these and other landscapes of estimated replication and degradation rates all have a well-defined correlation length, we propose a classification of landscapes depending on how the correlation length scales with the diameter of the landscape. The landscapes of some of the kinetic parameters of RNA molecules scale similarly to the model landscapes introduced into evolutionary studies from other fields, such as quadratic spin glasses and the traveling salesman problem, but the correlation length of RNA landscapes are considerably smaller. Nevertheless, both the model and some of the RNA landscapes satisfy a test of self-similarity proposed by Sorkin (1988).

  5. Energy landscape of social balance.

    PubMed

    Marvel, Seth A; Strogatz, Steven H; Kleinberg, Jon M

    2009-11-06

    We model a close-knit community of friends and enemies as a fully connected network with positive and negative signs on its edges. Theories from social psychology suggest that certain sign patterns are more stable than others. This notion of social "balance" allows us to define an energy landscape for such networks. Its structure is complex: numerical experiments reveal a landscape dimpled with local minima of widely varying energy levels. We derive rigorous bounds on the energies of these local minima and prove that they have a modular structure that can be used to classify them.

  6. Energy Landscape of Social Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvel, Seth A.; Strogatz, Steven H.; Kleinberg, Jon M.

    2009-11-01

    We model a close-knit community of friends and enemies as a fully connected network with positive and negative signs on its edges. Theories from social psychology suggest that certain sign patterns are more stable than others. This notion of social “balance” allows us to define an energy landscape for such networks. Its structure is complex: numerical experiments reveal a landscape dimpled with local minima of widely varying energy levels. We derive rigorous bounds on the energies of these local minima and prove that they have a modular structure that can be used to classify them.

  7. Landscape genetics: combining landscape ecology and population genetics

    Treesearch

    Stephanie Manel; Michael K. Schwartz; Gordon Luikart; Pierre Taberlet

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the processes and patterns of gene flow and local adaptation requires a detailed knowledge of how landscape characteristics structure populations. This understanding is crucial, not only for improving ecological knowledge, but also for managing properly the genetic diversity of threatened and endangered populations. For nearly 80 years, population...

  8. Landscape preference assessment of Louisiana river landscapes: a methodological study

    Treesearch

    Michael S. Lee

    1979-01-01

    The study pertains to the development of an assessment system for the analysis of visual preference attributed to Louisiana river landscapes. The assessment system was utilized in the evaluation of 20 Louisiana river scenes. Individuals were tested for their free choice preference for the same scenes. A statistical analysis was conducted to examine the relationship...

  9. Quantitative Microfluidic Dynamics Of Spheroidal Particles Within Periodic Optical Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conover, Brandon Lee

    2011-12-01

    neglected. We then report on our creation of pathways to a microfluidic optical manipulation testbed for interrogating spheroidal particle behavior within optical landscapes and microfluids. We have experimentally implemented a periodic optical landscape and microfluidic system that reasonably approximates the ideal periodic landscape assumed in our models. Furthermore, our apparatus is shown to effectively lock-in or organize microscale particles within an optical landscape and a stationary microfluid. Close approximations of microscale spheroidal particles have also been designed and fabricated via photolithographic means within SU-8 photoresist and then also controlled with the apparatus. Finally, we report on our creation of a hands-on teaching laboratory on organic electronics and liquid crystal displays that effectively teaches their operational principles, fundamentals, and practical aspects of fabrication, within a reasonable budget and broadly accessible way. Four modules have been developed: a liquid crystal display (LCD) pixel, an organic light-emitting diode (OLED), an organic photovoltaic (OPV) solar cell, and an organic thin-film transistor (OTFT). This effort has been achieved with budgetary restrictions and has been experienced by students from all manners of engineering, physics, chemistry, and materials. In the final portion of this dissertation, we evaluate the work, summarize the contributions, and make suggestions for how future researchers can take our work and contributions to new application spaces and new research areas.

  10. 40 CFR 247.15 - Landscaping products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Landscaping products. (a) Hydraulic mulch products containing recovered paper or recovered wood used for hydroseeding and as an over-spray for straw mulch in landscaping, erosion control, and soil reclamation. (b...

  11. 40 CFR 247.15 - Landscaping products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Landscaping products. (a) Hydraulic mulch products containing recovered paper or recovered wood used for hydroseeding and as an over-spray for straw mulch in landscaping, erosion control, and soil reclamation. (b...

  12. 40 CFR 247.15 - Landscaping products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Landscaping products. (a) Hydraulic mulch products containing recovered paper or recovered wood used for hydroseeding and as an over-spray for straw mulch in landscaping, erosion control, and soil reclamation. (b...

  13. Imaginative Landscapes: This World and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John Noell, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a variety of books that offer fictional and poetic landscapes--five historical novels set in disparate locales, a book set in medieval Denmark, another addressing the landscape of memory, and a novel about a poet-scientist. (SR)

  14. 40 CFR 247.15 - Landscaping products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Landscaping products. (a) Hydraulic mulch products containing recovered paper or recovered wood used for hydroseeding and as an over-spray for straw mulch in landscaping, erosion control, and soil reclamation....

  15. 40 CFR 247.15 - Landscaping products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Landscaping products. (a) Hydraulic mulch products containing recovered paper or recovered wood used for hydroseeding and as an over-spray for straw mulch in landscaping, erosion control, and soil reclamation....

  16. Benefits and Risks Associated with Landscapes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To fully reap the benefits that lawns and landscapes can provide our urban and suburban communities, these green spaces must be well-maintained. The landscaping initiative helps manage the benefits and risks associated with lawn care.

  17. Martian Landscapes in Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattson, Sarah; McEwen, Alfred; Kirk, Randolph; Howington-Kraus, Elpitha; Chojnacki, Matthew; Runyon, Kirby; Cremonese, Gabriele; Re, Cristina

    2014-05-01

    RISE orthorectified image sequences makes it possible to conduct accurate change detection studies of active processes on Mars. Some examples of studies of active landscapes on Mars using HiRISE DTMs and orthoimage sequences include: dune and ripple motion (Bridges et al., 2012, Nature), recurring slope lineae (RSL) (McEwen et al., 2011, Science; McEwen et al., 2013, Nature Geoscience), gully activity (Dundas et al., 2012, Icarus), and polar processes (Hansen et al., 2011, Science; Portyankina et al. 2013, Icarus,). These studies encompass images from multiple Mars years and seasons. Sequences of orthoimages make it possible to generate animated gifs or movies to visualize temporal changes (http://www.uahirise.org/sim/). They can also be brought into geospatial software to quantitatively map and record changes. The ability to monitor the surface of Mars at high spatial resolution with frequent repeat images has opened up our insight into seasonal and interannual changes, further increasing our understanding of Mars as an active planet.

  18. Isolation-by-distance in landscapes: considerations for landscape genetics

    PubMed Central

    van Strien, M J; Holderegger, R; Van Heck, H J

    2015-01-01

    In landscape genetics, isolation-by-distance (IBD) is regarded as a baseline pattern that is obtained without additional effects of landscape elements on gene flow. However, the configuration of suitable habitat patches determines deme topology, which in turn should affect rates of gene flow. IBD patterns can be characterized either by monotonically increasing pairwise genetic differentiation (for example, FST) with increasing interdeme geographic distance (case-I pattern) or by monotonically increasing pairwise genetic differentiation up to a certain geographical distance beyond which no correlation is detectable anymore (case-IV pattern). We investigated if landscape configuration influenced the rate at which a case-IV pattern changed to a case-I pattern. We also determined at what interdeme distance the highest correlation was measured between genetic differentiation and geographic distance and whether this distance corresponded to the maximum migration distance. We set up a population genetic simulation study and assessed the development of IBD patterns for several habitat configurations and maximum migration distances. We show that the rate and likelihood of the transition of case-IV to case-I FST–distance relationships was strongly influenced by habitat configuration and maximum migration distance. We also found that the maximum correlation between genetic differentiation and geographic distance was not related to the maximum migration distance and was measured across all deme pairs in a case-I pattern and, for a case-IV pattern, at the distance where the FST–distance curve flattens out. We argue that in landscape genetics, separate analyses should be performed to either assess IBD or the landscape effects on gene flow. PMID:25052412

  19. Lunar laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, P.W.; Duke, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    An international research laboratory can be established on the Moon in the early years of the 21st Century. It can be built using the transportation system now envisioned by NASA, which includes a space station for Earth orbital logistics and orbital transfer vehicles for Earth-Moon transportation. A scientific laboratory on the Moon would permit extended surface and subsurface geological exploration; long-duration experiments defining the lunar environment and its modification by surface activity; new classes of observations in astronomy; space plasma and fundamental physics experiments; and lunar resource development. The discovery of a lunar source for propellants may reduce the cost of constructing large permanent facilities in space and enhance other space programs such as Mars exploration. 29 refs.

  20. Landscape Builder: software for the creation of initial landscapes for LANDIS from FIA data

    Treesearch

    William. Dijak

    2013-01-01

    I developed Landscape Builder to create spatially explicit landscapes as starting conditions for LANDIS Pro 7.0 and LANDIS II landscape forest simulation models from classified satellite imagery and Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data collected over multiple years. LANDIS Pro and LANDIS II models project future landscapes by simulating tree growth, tree species...

  1. Vegetation responsees to landscape structure at multiple scales across a Northern Wisconsin, USA, pine barrens landscape

    Treesearch

    K.D. Brosofske; J. Chen; Thomas R. Crow; S.C. Saunders

    1999-01-01

    Increasing awareness of the importance of scale and landscape structure to landscape processes and concern about loss of biodiversity has resulted in efforts to understand patterns of biodiversity across multiple scales. We examined plant species distributions and their relationships to landscape structure at varying spatial scales across a pine barrens landscape in...

  2. Laboratory accreditation

    SciTech Connect

    Pettit, R.B.

    1998-08-01

    Accreditation can offer many benefits to a testing or calibration laboratory, including increased marketability of services, reduced number of outside assessments, and improved quality of services. Compared to ISO 9000 registration, the accreditation process includes a review of the entire quality system, but in addition a review of testing or calibration procedures by a technical expert and participation in proficiency testing in the areas of accreditation. Within the DOE, several facilities have recently become accredited in the area of calibration, including Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge, AlliedSignal FM and T; Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., and Pacific Northwest National Lab. At the national level, a new non-profit organization was recently formed called the National Cooperation for Laboratory Accreditation (NACLA). The goal of NACLA is to develop procedures, following national and international requirements, for the recognition of competent accreditation bodies in the US. NACLA is a voluntary partnership between the public and private sectors with the goal of a test or calibration performed once and accepted world wide. The NACLA accreditation body recognition process is based on the requirements of ISO Guide 25 and Guide 58. A membership drive will begin some time this fall to solicit organizational members and an election of a permanent NACLA Board of Directors will follow later this year or early 1999.

  3. Space Strategies for the New Learning Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugdale, Shirley

    2009-01-01

    The Learning Landscape is the total context for students' learning experiences and the diverse landscape of learning settings available today--from specialized to multipurpose, from formal to informal, and from physical to virtual. The goal of the Learning Landscape approach is to acknowledge this richness and maximize encounters among people,…

  4. Designing landscapes for northern Nevada's arid climate

    Treesearch

    Heidi Kratsch; JoAnne Skelly

    2011-01-01

    Landscape design is both art and organization. Anyone can plant trees or shrubs in a row, but that isn't a designed landscape. Landscape design is placing plants and structures in ways that organize and enrich an outdoor space to have agreeable and useful relationships with the natural environment. A good design makes the best use of the space available and the...

  5. The Changing Landscape of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staley, David J.; Trinkle, Dennis A.

    2011-01-01

    The landscape of higher education--the growing variety of higher education institutions, the cultural environment, the competitive ecosystem--is changing rapidly and disruptively. The higher education landscape is metaphorically crossed with fault lines, those fissures in the landscape creating potential areas of dramatic change, and is as…

  6. The social value of English landscapes

    Treesearch

    Edmund C. Penning-Rowsell

    1979-01-01

    Qualitative assessments of landscape resources can best be approached through direct measurement of landscape perceptions. Results from a survey of one District in Hertfordshire, England, show this approach not only to be viable but also to yield much information relevant to plans for landscape improvement and protection. Consensus was high and the socio-economic...

  7. An Analysis of the Landscaping Occupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stemple, Lynn L.; Dilley, John E.

    The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the landscape services occupation. Depending on the preparation and abilities of the individual student, he may enter the landscape area as (1) nursery worker, (2) landscape planter, (3) landscape…

  8. Research needs for our national landscapes

    Treesearch

    Elwood L. Shafer

    1979-01-01

    The prevailing research problem for our national landscapes is: How shall we organize, control, and coordinate public and private development so as to protect, maintain, improve, and manage those landscape features that we value most? Research questions discussed include: environmental/political conflicts, taxation and zoning, landscape classification, public...

  9. The Changing Landscape of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staley, David J.; Trinkle, Dennis A.

    2011-01-01

    The landscape of higher education--the growing variety of higher education institutions, the cultural environment, the competitive ecosystem--is changing rapidly and disruptively. The higher education landscape is metaphorically crossed with fault lines, those fissures in the landscape creating potential areas of dramatic change, and is as…

  10. Ecosystem services in changing landscapes: An introduction

    Treesearch

    Louis Iverson; Cristian Echeverria; Laura Nahuelhual; Sandra. Luque

    2014-01-01

    The concept of ecosystem services from landscapes is rapidly gaining momentum as a language to communicate values and benefits to scientists and lay alike. Landscape ecology has an enormous contribution to make to this field, and one could argue, uniquely so. Tools developed or adapted for landscape ecology are being increasingly used to assist with the quantification...

  11. Optimization of landscape pattern [Chapter 8

    Treesearch

    John Hof; Curtis Flather

    2007-01-01

    A fundamental assumption in landscape ecology is that spatial patterns have significant influences on the flows of materials, energy, and information while processes create, modify, and maintain spatial patterns. Thus, it is of paramount importance in both theory and practice to address the questions of landscape pattern optimization ... For example, can landscape...

  12. Axion landscape and natural inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higaki, Tetsutaro; Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2015-05-01

    Multiple axions form a landscape in the presence of various shift symmetry breaking terms. Eternal inflation populates the axion landscape, continuously creating new universes by bubble nucleation. Slow-roll inflation takes place after the tunneling event, if a very flat direction with a super-Planckian decay constant arises due to the alignment mechanism. We study the vacuum structure as well as possible inflationary dynamics in the axion landscape scenario, and find that the inflaton dynamics is given by either natural or multi-natural inflation. In the limit of large decay constant, it is approximated by the quadratic chaotic inflation, which however is disfavored if there is a pressure toward shorter duration of inflation. Therefore, if the spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio turn out to be different from the quadratic chaotic inflation, there might be observable traces of the bubble nucleation. Also, the existence of small modulations to the inflaton potential is a common feature in the axion landscape, which generates a sizable and almost constant running of the scalar spectral index over CMB scales. Non-Gaussianity of equilateral type can also be generated if some of the axions are coupled to massless gauge fields.

  13. Language's Landscape of the Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Janet

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the author's 6 middle school students living in a village in the Yukon, 100 miles off the road system just below the arctic circle, enthusiastically wrote stories or poems about their lives. The students shared their works via an online electronic conferencing system with students from the unimaginably different landscape of the…

  14. LANDSCAPING YOUR HOME, TEACHER'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HEDGES, LOWELL E.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO ASSIST THE VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHER TO DEVELOP A UNIT IN THE RELATIVELY SPECIALIZED FIELD OF HOME LANDSCAPING. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A TEACHER IN CONSULTATION WITH HORTICULTURISTS AND TESTED IN THE CLASSROOM BEFORE PUBLICATION. THE OBJECTIVES OF THE UNIT ARE TO DEVELOP STUDENT ABILITY TO (1) UNDERSTAND THE NEED…

  15. A heuristic for landscape management

    Treesearch

    Martín Alfonso B. Mendoza; Jesús S. Zepeta; Juan José A. Fajardo

    2006-01-01

    The development of landscape ecology has stressed out the importance of spatial and sequential relationships as explanations to forest stand dynamics, and for other natural ambiences. This presentation offers a specific design that introduces spatial considerations into forest planning with the idea of regulating fragmentation and connectivity in commercial forest...

  16. Assessing the New Competitive Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blustain, Harvey; Goldstein, Philip; Lozier, Gregory

    1998-01-01

    Argues that complex forces (new delivery technologies, changing demographics, emergence of corporate universities, global economy) have created a new, competitive landscape for higher education that forces institutions to think methodically about how to respond. A framework for college planning, incorporating three critical components, is…

  17. Selected Landscape Plants. Slide Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, Kevin

    This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with commercially important woody ornamental landscape plants. Included in the script are narrations for use with a total of 253 slides illustrating 92 different plants. Several slides are used to illustrate each plant: besides a view of…

  18. Ornamental Landscape Grasses. Slide Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Still, Steven M.; Adams, Denise W.

    This slide script to accompany the slide series, Ornamental Landscape Grasses, contains photographs of the 167 slides and accompanying narrative text intended for use in the study and identification of commercially important ornamental grasses and grasslike plants. Narrative text is provided for slides of 62 different perennial and annual species…

  19. Eucalyptus as a landscape tree

    Treesearch

    W. Douglas Hamilton

    1983-01-01

    Ninety-two species of Eucalyptus were evaluated at the University of California re- search station in San Jose. The purpose: to find acceptable new street and park trees. Growth rates and horticultural characteristics were noted. Forty-three species were studied in locations statewide to evaluate site adaptation and landscape usefulness; flooded, cold, dry, saline....

  20. Ornamental Landscape Grasses. Slide Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Still, Steven M.; Adams, Denise W.

    This slide script to accompany the slide series, Ornamental Landscape Grasses, contains photographs of the 167 slides and accompanying narrative text intended for use in the study and identification of commercially important ornamental grasses and grasslike plants. Narrative text is provided for slides of 62 different perennial and annual species…

  1. Linguistic Landscape and Minority Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cenoz, Jasone; Gorter, Durk

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the linguistic landscape of two streets in two multilingual cities in Friesland (Netherlands) and the Basque Country (Spain) where a minority language is spoken, Basque or Frisian. The paper analyses the use of the minority language (Basque or Frisian), the state language (Spanish or Dutch) and English as an international…

  2. Lessons from a flooded landscape.

    Treesearch

    Sally. Duncan

    1998-01-01

    In our first issue, we describe research that reflects our responsiveness to natural events and our ability to address issues over time. Floods can bring tragedy in the wake of their destruction. Floods also are a natural process that has shaped our landscapes. We hope that our scientific information helps people make wise choices that influence floods associated with...

  3. Flowers and Landscape by Serendipity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pippin, Sandi

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art lesson in which students sketch drawings of flowers and use watercolor paper and other materials to paint a landscape. Explains that the students also learn about impressionism in this lesson. Discusses how the students prepare the paper and create their artwork. (CMK)

  4. Renewable energy from urban landscapes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Utilizing biomass from urban landscapes could significantly contribute to the nation’s renewable energy needs. In 2007, an experiment was begun to evaluate the biomass potential from a bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon var. dactylon (L.) Pers., lawn in Woodward, OK and to estimate the potential biomas...

  5. Fisher population and landscape genetics

    Treesearch

    Michael Schwartz; Joel Saunder; Kristine L. Pilgrim; Ray Vinkey; Michael K. Lucid; Sean Parks; Nathan Albrecht

    2013-01-01

    This talk provides a population and landscape genetic overview of fishers in Idaho and Montana. We start by discussing some of our initial findings using mitochondrial DNA (Vinkey et al. 2006, Schwartz 2007, Knaus et al. 2011). On balance these results demonstrate the uniqueness of a native haplotype that persisted in the Bitterroot-Selway Ecosystem. They also show the...

  6. Discovery Learning in Landscape Archaeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Colm; Wheeler, Hazel

    1979-01-01

    A method of discovery learning in which students learn the technique of observing and formulating questions is applied to landscape archaeology. This method demands that the relationship between tutor and student be adjusted so that the tutor becomes a fellow researcher rather than a conveyor of information. (Author/CSS)

  7. Flowers and Landscape by Serendipity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pippin, Sandi

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art lesson in which students sketch drawings of flowers and use watercolor paper and other materials to paint a landscape. Explains that the students also learn about impressionism in this lesson. Discusses how the students prepare the paper and create their artwork. (CMK)

  8. Assessing the New Competitive Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blustain, Harvey; Goldstein, Philip; Lozier, Gregory

    1998-01-01

    Argues that complex forces (new delivery technologies, changing demographics, emergence of corporate universities, global economy) have created a new, competitive landscape for higher education that forces institutions to think methodically about how to respond. A framework for college planning, incorporating three critical components, is…

  9. Arctic Landscape Within Reach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image, one of the first captured by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander, shows flat ground strewn with tiny pebbles and marked by small-scale polygonal cracking, a pattern seen widely in Martian high latitudes and also observed in permafrost terrains on Earth. The polygonal cracking is believed to have resulted from seasonal contraction and expansion of surface ice.

    Phoenix touched down on the Red Planet at 4:53 p.m. Pacific Time (7:53 p.m. Eastern Time), May 25, 2008, in an arctic region called Vastitas Borealis, at 68 degrees north latitude, 234 degrees east longitude.

    This image was acquired at the Phoenix landing site by the Surface Stereo Imager on day 1 of the mission on the surface of Mars, or Sol 0, after the May 25, 2008, landing.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Landscaping plant epigenetics.

    PubMed

    McKeown, Peter C; Spillane, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of epigenetic mechanisms is necessary for assessing the potential impacts of epigenetics on plant growth, development and reproduction, and ultimately for the response of these factors to evolutionary pressures and crop breeding programs. This volume highlights the latest in laboratory and bioinformatic techniques used for the investigation of epigenetic phenomena in plants. Such techniques now allow genome-wide analyses of epigenetic regulation and help to advance our understanding of how epigenetic regulatory mechanisms affect cellular and genome function. To set the scene, we begin with a short background of how the field of epigenetics has evolved, with a particular focus on plant epigenetics. We consider what has historically been understood by the term "epigenetics" before turning to the advances in biochemistry, molecular biology, and genetics which have led to current-day definitions of the term. Following this, we pay attention to key discoveries in the field of epigenetics that have emerged from the study of unusual and enigmatic phenomena in plants. Many of these phenomena have involved cases of non-Mendelian inheritance and have often been dismissed as mere curiosities prior to the elucidation of their molecular mechanisms. In the penultimate section, consideration is given to how advances in molecular techniques are opening the doors to a more comprehensive understanding of epigenetic phenomena in plants. We conclude by assessing some opportunities, challenges, and techniques for epigenetic research in both model and non-model plants, in particular for advancing understanding of the regulation of genome function by epigenetic mechanisms.

  11. Weathering instability and landscape evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Jonathan D.

    2005-04-01

    The argument in this paper is that the fundamental control on landscape evolution in erosional landscapes is weathering. The possibility of and evidence for instability in weathering at four scales is examined. The four scales are concerned with weathering processes, allocation of weathered products, the interrelations of weathering and denudation, and the topographic and isostatic responses to weathering-limited denudation (the regolith, hillslope, landscape unit, and landscape scales, respectively). The stability conditions for each model, and the circumstances under which the models themselves are relevant, are used to identify scale-related domains of stability and instability. At the regolith scale, the interactions among weathering rates, resistance, and moisture are unstable, but there are circumstances—over long timescales and where weathering is well advanced—under which the instability is irrelevant. At the hillslope scale, the system is stable when denudation is transport rather than weathering limited and where no renewal of exposure via regolith stripping occurs. At the level of landscape units, the stability model is based entirely on the mutual reinforcements of weathering and erosion. While this should generally lead to instability, the model would be stable where other, external controls of both weathering and erosion rates are stronger than the weathering-erosion feedbacks. At the broadest landscape scale, the inclusion of isostatic responses destabilizes erosion-topography-uplift relationships. Thus, if the spatial or temporal scale is such that isostatic responses are not relevant, the system may be stable. Essentially, instability is prevalent at local spatial scales at all but the longest timescales. Stability at intermediate spatial scales is contingent on whether weathering-erosion feedbacks are strong or weak, with stability being more likely at shorter and less likely at longer timescales. At the broadest spatial scales, instability is

  12. Microfluidic Platform Generates Oxygen Landscapes for Localized Hypoxic Activation

    PubMed Central

    Rexius, Megan L.; Mauleon, Gerardo; Malik, Asrar B.; Rehman, Jalees; Eddington, David T.

    2014-01-01

    An open-well microfluidic platform generates an oxygen landscape using gas-perfused networks which diffuse across a membrane. The device enables real-time analysis of cellular and tissue responses to oxygen tension to define how cells adapt to heterogeneous oxygen conditions found in the physiological setting. We demonstrate that localized hypoxic activation of cells elicited specific metabolic and gene responses in human microvascular endothelial cells and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. A robust demonstration of the compatibility of the device with standard laboratory techniques demonstrates the wide utility of the method. This platform is ideally suited to study real-time cell responses and cell-cell interactions within physiologically relevant oxygen landscapes. PMID:25315003

  13. Microfluidic platform generates oxygen landscapes for localized hypoxic activation.

    PubMed

    Rexius-Hall, Megan L; Mauleon, Gerardo; Malik, Asrar B; Rehman, Jalees; Eddington, David T

    2014-12-21

    An open-well microfluidic platform generates an oxygen landscape using gas-perfused networks which diffuse across a membrane. The device enables real-time analysis of cellular and tissue responses to oxygen tension to define how cells adapt to heterogeneous oxygen conditions found in the physiological setting. We demonstrate that localized hypoxic activation of cells elicited specific metabolic and gene responses in human microvascular endothelial cells and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. A robust demonstration of the compatibility of the device with standard laboratory techniques demonstrates the wide utility of the method. This platform is ideally suited to study real-time cell responses and cell-cell interactions within physiologically relevant oxygen landscapes.

  14. Landscape Response to Magmatic Uplift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hara, D.; Karlstrom, L.

    2016-12-01

    The response of bedrock landscapes to localized perturbations that uplift the land surface remains an outstanding problem in geomorphology. Intrusive magmatism represents the majority of magma input to the crust in volcanic environments, thickening the lithosphere and uplifting the surface. Previous studies have analyzed the effects on channel network and basin geometries caused by long wavelength perturbations in the form of tectonic forcing and dynamic topography from mantle flow. However, the erosional response to small wavelength perturbations caused by magmatic intrusions remains relatively unconstrained. Shallow intrusions may initiate long-term adjustments to the erosional pattern of landscapes through the creation of high-relief landforms. Studying the erosional response to localized uplift may provide contextual clues within modern landscapes that can be used to probe transient incision histories and magmatic flux through time. Using a bedrock landscape evolution model, we analyze landscape response to perturbations similar in scale to laccoliths (shallow magmatic intrusions that uplift overlying bedrock). We study the effects of uplift rate variations, uplift geometry, and position in pre-existing basins on drainage network evolution in the uplifted area and surrounding region. A 1D model provides the template for understanding transient ridge migration induced by localized uplift, which we then extend to a 2D model to study the stability of steady state basin spatial configurations and patterns of transient response. We use a Monte Carlo scheme to sample the wide range of parameters, developing new topographic metrics specific to axisymmetric landforms to characterize intra-basin and channel network reconfigurations and erosion response. We explore the extent to which pre-intruded basin geometries and localized uplift rates can be constrained from modern basin geometry and intruded landform mass distribution.

  15. The farmer as a landscape steward: Comparing local understandings of landscape stewardship, landscape values, and land management actions.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Christopher M; Bieling, Claudia; Fagerholm, Nora; Martin-Lopez, Berta; Plieninger, Tobias

    2016-03-01

    We develop a landscape stewardship classification which distinguishes between farmers' understanding of landscape stewardship, their landscape values, and land management actions. Forty semi-structured interviews were conducted with small-holder (<5 acres), medium-holders (5-100 acres), and large-holders (>100 acres) in South-West Devon, UK. Thematic analysis revealed four types of stewardship understandings: (1) an environmental frame which emphasized the farmers' role in conserving or restoring wildlife; (2) a primary production frame which emphasized the farmers' role in taking care of primary production assets; (3) a holistic frame focusing on farmers' role as a conservationist, primary producer, and manager of a range of landscape values, and; (4) an instrumental frame focusing on the financial benefits associated with compliance with agri-environmental schemes. We compare the landscape values and land management actions that emerged across stewardship types, and discuss the global implications of the landscape stewardship classification for the engagement of farmers in landscape management.

  16. Localization on the landscape and eternal inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mersini-Houghton, Laura; Perry, Malcolm J.

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the validity of the assertion that eternal inflation populates the landscape of string theory. We verify that bubble solutions do not satisfy the Klein-Gordon equation for the landscape potential. Solutions to the landscape potential within the formalism of quantum cosmology are Anderson localized wavefunctions. These are inconsistent with inflating bubble solutions. The physical reasons behind the failure of a relation between eternal inflation and the landscape are rooted in quantum phenomena such as interference between wavefunction concentrated around the various vacua in the landscape.

  17. Informational landscapes in art, science, and evolution.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Irun R

    2006-07-01

    An informational landscape refers to an array of information related to a particular theme or function. The Internet is an example of an informational landscape designed by humans for purposes of communication. Once it exists, however, any informational landscape may be exploited to serve a new purpose. Listening Post is the name of a dynamic multimedia work of art that exploits the informational landscape of the Internet to produce a visual and auditory environment. Here, I use Listening Post as a prototypic example for considering the creative role of informational landscapes in the processes that beget evolution and science.

  18. The Role of Diffusive Hillslopes in Landscape Evolution: An Experimental Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, K. E.; Roering, J. J.; Ellis, C.; Singh, A.

    2014-12-01

    The competition between diffusive sediment transport on hillslopes and advective transport in valleys sets fundamental spatial and temporal landscape scales, including ridge-valley spacing and landscape response time. However, the interactions between hillslopes and channels are difficult to measure in natural landscapes, due to long timescales and confounding climatic and lithologic factors. Laboratory experiments allow us to observe complex sediment dynamics in a controlled setting, but past work on erosive landscapes does not include diffusive hillslopes and hence cannot provide insight into channel-hillslope interactions. Here, we present the first results from a novel laboratory experiment combining hillslope diffusion and valley advection. Our experimental apparatus, the eXperimental Landscape Modeling (XLM) facility at the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory, consists of a 0.5 m x 0.5 m test flume filled with crystalline silica (D50 = 30μ) mixed with water, a high-resolution laser scanner to measure topography, and a series of load cells to measure sediment flux. Baselevel lowering is simulated by dropping two motorized weirs. During each run, we alternated between: (1) advective transport induced by a series of misting nozzles, where drops are not large enough to disturb sediment on impact, and (2) diffusive rainsplash transport driven by a constant head drip tray. We report a series of experiments where the relative strength of advection and diffusion are varied systematically between runs, testing theoretical predictions that dominantly diffusive landscapes will have larger ridge-valley spacing and respond more slowly to perturbations in baselevel. Our work provides an invaluable dataset for both testing numerical models of landscape evolution and guiding field investigations of channel-hillslope interactions.

  19. Virtual Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hut, P.

    At the frontier of most areas in science, computer simulations playa central role. The traditional division of natural science into experimental and theoretical investigations is now completely outdated. Instead, theory, simulation, and experimentation form three equally essential aspects, each with its own unique flavor and challenges. Yet, education in computational science is still lagging far behind, and the number of text books in this area is minuscule compared to the many text books on theoretical and experimental science. As a result, many researchers still carry out simulations in a haphazard way, without properly setting up the computational equivalent of a well equipped laboratory. The art of creating such a virtual laboratory, while providing proper extensibility and documentation, is still in its infancy. A new approach is described here, Open Knowledge, as an extension of the notion of Open Source software. Besides open source code, manuals, and primers, an open knowledge project provides simulated dialogues between code developers, thus sharing not only the code, but also the motivations behind the code.

  20. Assessment of landscape diversity and determination of landscape hotspots - a case of Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perko, Drago; Ciglič, Rok; Hrvatin, Mauro

    2017-04-01

    Areas with high landscape diversity can be regarded as landscape hotspots, and vice versa areas with low landscape diversity can be marked as landscape coldspots. The main purpose of this paper is to use quantitative geoinformatical approach and identify parts of our test area (the country of Slovenia) that can be described as very diverse according to natural landscapes and natural elements. We used different digital raster data of natural elements and landscape classifications and defined landscape diversity and landscape hotspots. We defined diversity for each raster pixel by counting the number of different unique types of landscape elements and types of landscapes in its neighborhood. Namely, the method was used separately to define diversity according to natural elements (types of relief forms, rocks, and vegetation) and diversity according to existing geographical landscape classifications of Slovenia (types of landscapes). In both cases one-tenth of Slovenia's surface with the highest landscape diversity was defined as landscape hotspots. The same applies to the coldspots. Additionally we tested the same method of counting different types of landscapes in certain radius also for the area of Europe in order to find areas that are more diverse at continental level. By doing so we were able to find areas that have similar level of diversity as Slovenia according to different European landscape classifications. Areas with landscape diversity may have an advantage in economic development, especially in tourism. Such areas are also important for biodiversity, habitat, and species diversity. On the other hand, localities where various natural influences mix can also be areas where it is hard to transfer best practices from one place to another because of the varying responses of the landscapes to human intervention. Thus it is important to know where areas with high landscape diversity are.

  1. Landscape Comparisons - Galilean Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    picture to its right shows enormous cracks in Europa's icy shell. Blue represents ice and reddish areas probably represent a thin coating of darker material ejected by ice volcanoes along the cracks.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  2. [Vertical zonation of mountain landscape: a review].

    PubMed

    Sun, Ran-Hao; Chen, Li-Ding; Zhang, Bai-Ping; Fu, Bo-Jie

    2009-07-01

    Vertical gradient of mountain landscape is about 1000 times of its horizontal gradient, and hence, only using landscape pattern index is quite difficult to reflect the landscape regularity along vertical gradient. Mountain altitudinal belt is a kind of classic geographic models representing the vertical differentiation of landscape, being of significance in geographic and ecological researches. However, the discrete expression pattern and the inaccuracy of the borderlines of mountain vertical belts limit the roles of mountain vertical belt in accurately describing landscape pattern in regional scale and in explaining ecological processes. This paper reviewed the research progress and existing problems on mountain altitudinal belt, put forward a suggestion of using modern information technology to establish a comprehensive and continuous mountain landscape information chart, and discussed the framework and prospect of the establishment of the chart, which would have reference value for accurately describing mountain landscape pattern and explaining specific ecological processes, and promote the further improvement of the methodology for mountain ecological research.

  3. Quantifying the scale- and process- dependent reorganization of landscape under climatic change: inferences from an experimental landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A.; Tejedor, A.; Grimaud, J. L.; Zaliapin, I. V.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of the dynamics of evolving landscapes in terms of their geomorphic and topologic re-organization in response to changing climatic or tectonic forcing is of scientific and practical interest. Although several studies have addressed the large-scale response (e.g., change in mean relief), studies on the smaller-scale drainage pattern re-organization and quantification of landscape vulnerability to the timing, magnitude, and frequency of changing forcing are lacking. The reason is the absence of data for such an analysis. To that goal, a series of controlled laboratory experiments were conducted at the St. Anthony Falls laboratory of the University of Minnesota to study the effect of changing precipitation patterns on landscape evolution at the short and long-time scales. High resolution digital elevation (DEM) both in space and time were measured for a range of rainfall patterns and uplift rates. Results from our study show a distinct signature of the precipitation increase on the probabilistic and geometrical structure of landscape features, evident in widening and deepening of channels and valleys, change in drainage patterns within sub-basins and change in the space-time structure of erosional and depositional events. A spatially explicit analysis of the locus of these erosional and depositional events suggests a regime shift, during the onset of the transient state, from supply-limited to transport-limited fluvial channels. We document a characteristic scale-dependent signature of erosion at steady state (which we term the "E50-area curve") and show that during reorganization, its evolving shape reflects process and scales of geomorphic change. Finally, we document changes in the longitudinal river profiles, in response to increased precipitation rate, with the formation of abrupt gradient (knickpoints) that migrate upstream as time proceeds.

  4. Evolution of a Lowland Karst Landscape; A Mass-Balance Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlin, C.; Heffernan, J. B.; Cohen, M. J.; Quintero, C.; Pain, A.

    2016-12-01

    Karst landscapes are highly soluble, and are vulnerable to biological acid production as a major driving factor in their evolution. Big Cypress National Park (BICY) is a low-lying karst landscape in southern Florida displaying a distinctive morphology of isolated depressions likely influenced by biology. The goal of this study is to constrain timescales of landform development in BICY. This question was addressed through the construction of landscape-scale elemental budgets for both calcium and phosphorus. Precipitation and export fluxes were calculated using available chemistry and hydrology data, and stocks were calculated from a combination of existing data, field measurements, and laboratory chemical analysis. Estimates of expected mass export given no biological acid production and given an equivalent production of 100% of GPP were compared with observed rates. Current standing stocks of phosphorus are dominated by a large soil pool, and contain 500 Gg P. Inputs are largely dominated by precipitation, and 8000 years are necessary to accumulate standing stocks of phosphorus given modern fluxes. Calcium flux is vastly dominated by dissolution of the limestone bedrock, and though some calcium is retained in the soil, most is exported. Using LiDAR generated estimates of volume loss across the landscape and current export rates, an estimated 15,000 years would be necessary to create the modern landscape. Both of these estimates indicate that the BICY landscape is geologically very young. The different behaviors of these elements (calcium is largely exported, while phosphorus is largely retained) lend additional confidence to estimates of denudation rates of the landscape. These estimates can be even closer reconciled if calcium redistribution over the landscape is allowed for. This estimate is compared to the two bounding conditions for biological weathering to indicate a likely level of biological importance to landscape development in this system.

  5. Laboratory investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Ray W.

    1988-01-01

    Laboratory studies related to cometary grains and the nuclei of comets can be broken down into three areas which relate to understanding the spectral properties, the formation mechanisms, and the evolution of grains and nuclei: (1) Spectral studies to be used in the interpretation of cometary spectra; (2) Sample preparation experiments which may shed light on the physical nature and history of cometary grains and nuclei by exploring the effects on grain emissivities resulting from the ways in which the samples are created; and (3) Grain processing experiments which should provide insight on the interaction of cometary grains with the environment in the immediate vicinity of the cometary nucleus as the comet travels from the Oort cloud through perihelion, and perhaps even suggestions regarding the relationship between interstellar grains and cometary matter. A summary is presented with a different view of lab experiments than is found in the literature, concentrating on measurement techniques and sample preparations especially relevant to cometary dust.

  6. Landscape dynamics of northeastern forests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canham, Charles D.; Silander, John A., Jr.; Civco, Daniel L.

    1994-01-01

    This project involves collaborative research with Stephen W. Pacala and Simon A. Levin of Princeton University to calibrate, test, and analyze models of heterogeneous forested landscapes containing a diverse array of habitats. The project is an extension of previous, NASA-supported research to develop a spatially-explicit model of forest dynamics at the scale of an individual forest stand (hectares to square kilometer spatial scales). That model (SORTIE) has been thoroughly parameterized from field studies in the modal upland environment of western Connecticut. Under our current funding, we are scaling-up the model and parameterizing it for the broad range of upland environments in the region. Our most basic goal is to understand the linkages between stand-level dynamics (as revealed in our previous research) and landscape-level dynamics of forest composition and structure.

  7. Reserves, resilience and dynamic landscapes.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Janne; Angelstam, Per; Elmqvist, Thomas; Emanuelsson, Urban; Folke, Carl; Ihse, Margareta; Moberg, Fredrik; Nyström, Magnus

    2003-09-01

    In a world increasingly modified by human activities, the conservation of biodiversity is essential as insurance to maintain resilient ecosystems and ensure a sustainable flow of ecosystem goods and services to society. However, existing reserves and national parks are unlikely to incorporate the long-term and large-scale dynamics of ecosystems. Hence, conservation strategies have to actively incorporate the large areas of land that are managed for human use. For ecosystems to reorganize after large-scale natural and human-induced disturbances, spatial resilience in the form of ecological memory is a prerequisite. The ecological memory is composed of the species, interactions and structures that make ecosystem reorganization possible, and its components may be found within disturbed patches as well in the surrounding landscape. Present static reserves should be complemented with dynamic reserves, such as ecological fallows and dynamic successional reserves, that are part of ecosystem management mimicking natural disturbance regimes at the landscape level.

  8. A landscape of field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxfield, Travis; Robbins, Daniel; Sethi, Savdeep

    2016-11-01

    Studying a quantum field theory involves a choice of space-time manifold and a choice of background for any global symmetries of the theory. We argue that many more choices are possible when specifying the background. In the context of branes in string theory, the additional data corresponds to a choice of supergravity tensor fluxes. We propose the existence of a landscape of field theory backgrounds, characterized by the space-time metric, global symmetry background and a choice of tensor fluxes. As evidence for this landscape, we study the supersymmetric six-dimensional (2, 0) theory compactified to two dimensions. Different choices of metric and flux give rise to distinct two-dimensional theories, which can preserve differing amounts of supersymmetry.

  9. Designer landscapes for sustainable biofuels.

    PubMed

    Koh, Lian Pin; Levang, Patrice; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2009-08-01

    Oil palm is one of the most extensively cultivated biodiesel feedstocks worldwide, and expansion of its cultivation poses a significant threat to ecosystems, biodiversity and potentially the global climate. We evaluate the prospects of land sparing and wildlife-friendly farming, two contrasting approaches for reducing the impacts of oil palm agriculture. We draw on concepts from both approaches to suggest more sustainable production systems and argue that landscapes under threat from oil palm expansion need to be designed in recognition of biodiversity, economic and livelihood needs. Specifically, we advocate agroforestry zones between high conservation value areas and intensive oil palm plantations to create a more heterogeneous landscape benefiting both biodiversity and rural communities. Similar principles could apply to biofuel systems elsewhere.

  10. Sneutrino chaotic inflation and landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murayama, Hitoshi; Nakayama, Kazunori; Takahashi, Fuminobu; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2014-11-01

    The most naive interpretation of the BICEP2 data is the chaotic inflation by an inflaton with a quadratic potential. When combined with supersymmetry, we argue that the inflaton plays the role of right-handed scalar neutrino based on rather general considerations. The framework suggests that the right-handed sneutrino tunneled from a false vacuum in a landscape to our vacuum with a small negative curvature and suppressed scalar perturbations at large scales.

  11. String cosmology and the landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bena, Iosif; Graña, Mariana

    2017-03-01

    String Theory is believed to have a landscape of 10500 vacua with properties that resemble those of our Universe. The existence of these vacua can be combined with anthropic reasoning to explain some of the hardest problems in cosmology and high-energy physics: the cosmological constant problem, the hierarchy problem, and the un-natural almost-flatness of the inflationary potential. We will explain the construction of these vacua, focusing on the challenges of obtaining vacua with a positive cosmological constant.

  12. Geodesic measures of the landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Vanchurin, Vitaly

    2007-01-15

    We study the landscape models of eternal inflation with an arbitrary number of different vacua states, both recyclable and terminal. We calculate the abundances of bubbles following different geodesics. We show that the results obtained from generic timelike geodesics have dependence on initial conditions. In contrast, the predictions extracted from 'eternal' geodesics, which never enter terminal vacua, do not suffer from this problem. We derive measure equations for ensembles of geodesics and discuss possible interpretations of initial conditions in eternal inflation.

  13. Genomic Landscapes of Pancreatic Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Laura D.; Hruban, Ralph H.

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a deadly disease with a dismal prognosis. However, recent advances in sequencing and bioinformatic technology have led to the systematic characterization of the genomes of all major tumor types in the pancreas. This characterization has revealed the unique genomic landscape of each tumor type. This knowledge will pave the way for improved diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to pancreatic tumors that take advantage of the genetic alterations in these neoplasms. PMID:25812653

  14. Energy landscapes and persistent minima

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, Joanne M.; Wales, David J.; Mazauric, Dorian; Cazals, Frédéric

    2016-02-07

    We consider a coarse-graining of high-dimensional potential energy landscapes based upon persistences, which correspond to lowest barrier heights to lower-energy minima. Persistences can be calculated efficiently for local minima in kinetic transition networks that are based on stationary points of the prevailing energy landscape. The networks studied here represent peptides, proteins, nucleic acids, an atomic cluster, and a glassy system. Minima with high persistence values are likely to represent some form of alternative structural morphology, which, if appreciably populated at the prevailing temperature, could compete with the global minimum (defined as infinitely persistent). Threshold values on persistences (and in some cases equilibrium occupation probabilities) have therefore been used in this work to select subsets of minima, which were then analysed to see how well they can represent features of the full network. Simplified disconnectivity graphs showing only the selected minima can convey the funnelling (including any multiple-funnel) characteristics of the corresponding full graphs. The effect of the choice of persistence threshold on the reduced disconnectivity graphs was considered for a system with a hierarchical, glassy landscape. Sets of persistent minima were also found to be useful in comparing networks for the same system sampled under different conditions, using minimum oriented spanning forests.

  15. Vacuum selection on axionic landscapes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Gaoyuan; Battefeld, Thorsten E-mail: tbattefe@astro.physik.uni-goettingen.de

    2016-04-01

    We compute the distribution of minima that are reached dynamically on multi-field axionic landscapes, both numerically and analytically. Such landscapes are well suited for inflationary model building due to the presence of shift symmetries and possible alignment effects (the KNP mechanism). The resulting distribution of dynamically reached minima differs considerably from the naive expectation based on counting all vacua. These differences are more pronounced in the presence of many fields due to dynamical selection effects: while low lying minima are preferred as fields roll down the potential, trajectories are also more likely to get trapped by one of the many nearby minima. We show that common analytic arguments based on random matrix theory in the large D-limit to estimate the distribution of minima are insufficient for quantitative arguments pertaining to the dynamically reached ones. This discrepancy is not restricted to axionic potentials. We provide an empirical expression for the expectation value of such dynamically reached minimas' height and argue that the cosmological constant problem is not alleviated in the absence of anthropic arguments. We further comment on the likelihood of inflation on axionic landscapes in the large D-limit.

  16. Applying landscape genetics to the microbial world.

    PubMed

    Dudaniec, Rachael Y; Tesson, Sylvie V M

    2016-07-01

    Landscape genetics, which explicitly quantifies landscape effects on gene flow and adaptation, has largely focused on macroorganisms, with little attention given to microorganisms. This is despite overwhelming evidence that microorganisms exhibit spatial genetic structuring in relation to environmental variables. The increasing accessibility of genomic data has opened up the opportunity for landscape genetics to embrace the world of microorganisms, which may be thought of as 'the invisible regulators' of the macroecological world. Recent developments in bioinformatics and increased data accessibility have accelerated our ability to identify microbial taxa and characterize their genetic diversity. However, the influence of the landscape matrix and dynamic environmental factors on microorganism genetic dispersal and adaptation has been little explored. Also, because many microorganisms coinhabit or codisperse with macroorganisms, landscape genomic approaches may improve insights into how micro- and macroorganisms reciprocally interact to create spatial genetic structure. Conducting landscape genetic analyses on microorganisms requires that we accommodate shifts in spatial and temporal scales, presenting new conceptual and methodological challenges not yet explored in 'macro'-landscape genetics. We argue that there is much value to be gained for microbial ecologists from embracing landscape genetic approaches. We provide a case for integrating landscape genetic methods into microecological studies and discuss specific considerations associated with the novel challenges this brings. We anticipate that microorganism landscape genetic studies will provide new insights into both micro- and macroecological processes and expand our knowledge of species' distributions, adaptive mechanisms and species' interactions in changing environments.

  17. Risk of second primary cancers after testicular cancer in East and West Germany: a focus on contralateral testicular cancers.

    PubMed

    Rusner, Carsten; Streller, Brigitte; Stegmaier, Christa; Trocchi, Pietro; Kuss, Oliver; McGlynn, Katherine A; Trabert, Britton; Stang, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Testicular cancer survival rates improved dramatically after cisplatin-based therapy was introduced in the 1970s. However, chemotherapy and radiation therapy are potentially carcinogenic. The purpose of this study was to estimate the risk of developing second primary cancers including the risk associated with primary histologic type (seminoma and non-seminoma) among testicular cancer survivors in Germany. We identified 16 990 and 1401 cases of testicular cancer in population-based cancer registries of East Germany (1961-1989 and 1996-2008) and Saarland (a federal state in West Germany; 1970-2008), respectively. We estimated the risk of a second primary cancer using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). To determine trends, we plotted model-based estimated annual SIRs. In East Germany, a total of 301 second primary cancers of any location were observed between 1961 and 1989 (SIR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.7-2.1), and 159 cancers (any location) were observed between 1996 and 2008 (SIR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.4-2.0). The SIRs for contralateral testicular cancer were increased in the registries with a range from 6.0 in Saarland to 13.9 in East Germany. The SIR for seminoma, in particular, was higher in East Germany compared to the other registries. We observed constant trends in the model-based SIRs for contralateral testicular cancers. The majority of reported SIRs of other cancer sites including histology-specific risks showed low precisions of estimated effects, likely due to small sample sizes. Testicular cancer patients are at increased risk especially for cancers of the contralateral testis and should receive intensive follow-ups.

  18. Conserving tigers in working landscapes.

    PubMed

    Chanchani, Pranav; Noon, Barry R; Bailey, Larissa L; Warrier, Rekha A

    2016-06-01

    Tiger (Panthera tigris) conservation efforts in Asia are focused on protected areas embedded in human-dominated landscapes. A system of protected areas is an effective conservation strategy for many endangered species if the network is large enough to support stable metapopulations. The long-term conservation of tigers requires that the species be able to meet some of its life-history needs beyond the boundaries of small protected areas and within the working landscape, including multiple-use forests with logging and high human use. However, understanding of factors that promote or limit the occurrence of tigers in working landscapes is incomplete. We assessed the relative influence of protection status, prey occurrence, extent of grasslands, intensity of human use, and patch connectivity on tiger occurrence in the 5400 km(2) Central Terai Landscape of India, adjacent to Nepal. Two observer teams independently surveyed 1009 km of forest trails and water courses distributed across 60 166-km(2) cells. In each cell, the teams recorded detection of tiger signs along evenly spaced trail segments. We used occupancy models that permitted multiscale analysis of spatially correlated data to estimate cell-scale occupancy and segment-scale habitat use by tigers as a function of management and environmental covariates. Prey availability and habitat quality, rather than protected-area designation, influenced tiger occupancy. Tiger occupancy was low in some protected areas in India that were connected to extensive areas of tiger habitat in Nepal, which brings into question the efficacy of current protection and management strategies in both India and Nepal. At a finer spatial scale, tiger habitat use was high in trail segments associated with abundant prey and large grasslands, but it declined as human and livestock use increased. We speculate that riparian grasslands may provide tigers with critical refugia from human activity in the daytime and thereby promote tiger occurrence

  19. A Holistic Landscape Description Reveals That Landscape Configuration Changes More over Time than Composition: Implications for Landscape Ecology Studies.

    PubMed

    Mimet, Anne; Pellissier, Vincent; Houet, Thomas; Julliard, Romain; Simon, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Space-for-time substitution-that is, the assumption that spatial variations of a system can explain and predict the effect of temporal variations-is widely used in ecology. However, it is questionable whether it can validly be used to explain changes in biodiversity over time in response to land-cover changes. Here, we hypothesize that different temporal vs spatial trajectories of landscape composition and configuration may limit space-for-time substitution in landscape ecology. Land-cover conversion changes not just the surface areas given over to particular types of land cover, but also affects isolation, patch size and heterogeneity. This means that a small change in land cover over time may have only minor repercussions on landscape composition but potentially major consequences for landscape configuration. Using land-cover maps of the Paris region for 1982 and 2003, we made a holistic description of the landscape disentangling landscape composition from configuration. After controlling for spatial variations, we analyzed and compared the amplitudes of changes in landscape composition and configuration over time. For comparable spatial variations, landscape configuration varied more than twice as much as composition over time. Temporal changes in composition and configuration were not always spatially matched. The fact that landscape composition and configuration do not vary equally in space and time calls into question the use of space-for-time substitution in landscape ecology studies. The instability of landscapes over time appears to be attributable to configurational changes in the main. This may go some way to explaining why the landscape variables that account for changes over time in biodiversity are not the same ones that account for the spatial distribution of biodiversity.

  20. A Holistic Landscape Description Reveals That Landscape Configuration Changes More over Time than Composition: Implications for Landscape Ecology Studies

    PubMed Central

    Mimet, Anne; Pellissier, Vincent; Houet, Thomas; Julliard, Romain; Simon, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Background Space-for-time substitution—that is, the assumption that spatial variations of a system can explain and predict the effect of temporal variations—is widely used in ecology. However, it is questionable whether it can validly be used to explain changes in biodiversity over time in response to land-cover changes. Hypothesis Here, we hypothesize that different temporal vs spatial trajectories of landscape composition and configuration may limit space-for-time substitution in landscape ecology. Land-cover conversion changes not just the surface areas given over to particular types of land cover, but also affects isolation, patch size and heterogeneity. This means that a small change in land cover over time may have only minor repercussions on landscape composition but potentially major consequences for landscape configuration. Methods Using land-cover maps of the Paris region for 1982 and 2003, we made a holistic description of the landscape disentangling landscape composition from configuration. After controlling for spatial variations, we analyzed and compared the amplitudes of changes in landscape composition and configuration over time. Results For comparable spatial variations, landscape configuration varied more than twice as much as composition over time. Temporal changes in composition and configuration were not always spatially matched. Significance The fact that landscape composition and configuration do not vary equally in space and time calls into question the use of space-for-time substitution in landscape ecology studies. The instability of landscapes over time appears to be attributable to configurational changes in the main. This may go some way to explaining why the landscape variables that account for changes over time in biodiversity are not the same ones that account for the spatial distribution of biodiversity. PMID:26959363

  1. The limits of the nuclear landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarewicz, Witold; Erler, J.; Birge, N.; Kortelainen, E. M.; Olsen, E.; Perhac, A.; Stoitsov, M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, 100 new nuclides were discovered1. They joined the approximately 3,000 stable and radioactive nuclides that either occur naturally on Earth or are synthesized in the laboratory2,3. Every atomic nucleus, characterized by a specific number of protons and neutrons, occupies a spot on the chart of nuclides, which is bounded by drip lines indicating the values of neutron and proton number at which nuclear binding ends. The placement of the neutron drip line for the heavier elements is based on theoretical predictions using extreme extrapolations, and so is uncertain. However, it is not known how uncertain it is or how many protons and neutrons can be bound in a nucleus. Here we estimate these limits of the nuclear landscape and provide statistical and systematic uncertainties for our predictions. We use nuclear density functional theory, several Skyrme interactions and high-performance computing, and find that the number of bound nuclides with between 2 and 120 protons is around 7,000. We find that extrapolations for drip-line positions and selected nuclear properties, including neutron separation energies relevant to astrophysical processes, are very consistent between the models used.

  2. The limits of the nuclear landscape.

    PubMed

    Erler, Jochen; Birge, Noah; Kortelainen, Markus; Nazarewicz, Witold; Olsen, Erik; Perhac, Alexander M; Stoitsov, Mario

    2012-06-27

    In 2011, 100 new nuclides were discovered. They joined the approximately 3,000 stable and radioactive nuclides that either occur naturally on Earth or are synthesized in the laboratory. Every atomic nucleus, characterized by a specific number of protons and neutrons, occupies a spot on the chart of nuclides, which is bounded by 'drip lines' indicating the values of neutron and proton number at which nuclear binding ends. The placement of the neutron drip line for the heavier elements is based on theoretical predictions using extreme extrapolations, and so is uncertain. However, it is not known how uncertain it is or how many protons and neutrons can be bound in a nucleus. Here we estimate these limits of the nuclear 'landscape' and provide statistical and systematic uncertainties for our predictions. We use nuclear density functional theory, several Skyrme interactions and high-performance computing, and find that the number of bound nuclides with between 2 and 120 protons is around 7,000. We find that extrapolations for drip-line positions and selected nuclear properties, including neutron separation energies relevant to astrophysical processes, are very consistent between the models used.

  3. Landscape context alters cost of living in honeybee metabolism and feeding.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Sean; Dixon, Kingsley W; Didham, Raphael K; Bradshaw, S Donald

    2017-02-08

    Field metabolic rate (FMR) links the energy budget of an animal with the constraints of its ecosystem, but is particularly difficult to measure for small organisms. Landscape degradation exacerbates environmental adversity and reduces resource availability, imposing higher costs of living for many organisms. Here, we report a significant effect of landscape degradation on the FMR of free-flying Apis mellifera, estimated using (86)Rb radio-isotopic turnover. We validated the relationship between (86)Rb kb and metabolic rate for worker bees in the laboratory using flow-through respirometry. We then released radioisotopically enriched individuals into a natural woodland and a heavily degraded and deforested plantation. FMRs of worker bees in natural woodland vegetation were significantly higher than in a deforested landscape. Nectar consumption, estimated using (22)Na radio-isotopic turnover, also differed significantly between natural and degraded landscapes. In the deforested landscape, we infer that the costs of foraging exceeded energetic availability, and honeybees instead foraged less and depended more on stored resources in the hive. If this is generally the case with increasing landscape degradation, this will have important implications for the provision of pollination services and the effectiveness and resilience of ecological restoration practice.

  4. Experimental beetle metapopulations respond positively to dynamic landscapes and reduced connectivity.

    PubMed

    Govindan, Byju N; Swihart, Robert K

    2012-01-01

    Interactive effects of multiple environmental factors on metapopulation dynamics have received scant attention. We designed a laboratory study to test hypotheses regarding interactive effects of factors affecting the metapopulation dynamics of red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Within a four-patch landscape we modified resource level (constant and diminishing), patch connectivity (high and low) and patch configuration (static and dynamic) to conduct a 2(3) factorial experiment, consisting of 8 metapopulations, each with 3 replicates. For comparison, two control populations consisting of isolated and static subpopulations were provided with resources at constant or diminishing levels. Longitudinal data from 22 tri-weekly counts of beetle abundance were analyzed using bayesian Poisson generalized linear mixed models to estimate additive and interactive effects of factors affecting abundance. Constant resource levels, low connectivity and dynamic patches yielded greater levels of adult beetle abundance. For a given resource level, frequency of colonization exceeded extinction in landscapes with dynamic patches when connectivity was low, thereby promoting greater patch occupancy. Negative density dependence of pupae on adults occurred and was stronger in landscapes with low connectivity and constant resources; these metapopulations also demonstrated greatest stability. Metapopulations in control landscapes went extinct quickly, denoting lower persistence than comparable landscapes with low connectivity. When landscape carrying capacity was constant, habitat destruction coupled with low connectivity created asynchronous local dynamics and refugia within which cannibalism of pupae was reduced. Increasing connectivity may be counter-productive and habitat destruction/recreation may be beneficial to species in some contexts.

  5. [Wetland landscape ecological classification: research progress].

    PubMed

    Cao, Yu; Mo, Li-jiang; Li, Yan; Zhang, Wen-mei

    2009-12-01

    Wetland landscape ecological classification, as a basis for the studies of wetland landscape ecology, directly affects the precision and effectiveness of wetland-related research. Based on the history, current status, and latest progress in the studies on the theories, indicators, and methods of wetland landscape classification, some scientific wetland classification systems, e.g., NWI, Ramsar, and HGM, were introduced and discussed in this paper. It was suggested that a comprehensive classification method based on HGM and on the integral consideration of wetlands spatial structure, ecological function, ecological process, topography, soil, vegetation, hydrology, and human disturbance intensity should be the major future direction in this research field. Furthermore, the integration of 3S technologies, quantitative mathematics, landscape modeling, knowledge engineering, and artificial intelligence to enhance the automatization and precision of wetland landscape ecological classification would be the key issues and difficult topics in the studies of wetland landscape ecological classification.

  6. LANDSCAPE INFLUENCES ON LAKE CHEMISTRY OF SMALL DIMICTIC LAKES IN THE HUMAN DOMINATED SOUTHERN WISCONSIN LANDSCAPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in landscape heterogeneity, historic landcover change, and human disturbance regimes are governed by complex interrelated landscape processes that modify lake water quality through the addition of nutrients, sediment, anthropogenic chemicals, and changes in major ion conc...

  7. LANDSCAPE INFLUENCES ON LAKE CHEMISTRY OF SMALL DIMICTIC LAKES IN THE HUMAN DOMINATED SOUTHERN WISCONSIN LANDSCAPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in landscape heterogeneity, historic landcover change, and human disturbance regimes are governed by complex interrelated landscape processes that modify lake water quality through the addition of nutrients, sediment, anthropogenic chemicals, and changes in major ion conc...

  8. LanDPro: Landscape Dynamics Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-18

    making. These same types of sites were rarely found on landscapes formed on deposits derived from coarse-grained igneous rock sources, such as granite...grained igneous rocks . Our premise is that if our conceptual model were applied at the U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) it would indicate a dominance...of sites on the most stable landscape units developed on deposits derived from fine-grained igneous rocks . At YPG, these landscape units would be

  9. Incorporating bioenergy into sustainable landscape designs

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Virginia H.; Kline, Keith L.; Buford, Marilyn A.; Volk, Timothy A.; Smith, C. Tattersall; Stupak, Inge

    2015-12-30

    In this paper, we describe an approach to landscape design that focuses on integrating bioenergy production with other components of environmental, social and economic systems. Landscape design as used here refers to a spatially explicit, collaborative plan for management of landscapes and supply chains. Landscape design can involve multiple scales and build on existing practices to reduce costs or enhance services. Appropriately applied to a specific context, landscape design can help people assess trade-offs when making choices about locations, types of feedstock, transport, refining and distribution of bioenergy products and services. The approach includes performance monitoring and reporting along the bioenergy supply chain. Examples of landscape design applied to bioenergy production systems are presented. Barriers to implementation of landscape design include high costs, the need to consider diverse land-management objectives from a wide array of stakeholders, up-front planning requirements, and the complexity and level of effort needed for successful stakeholder involvement. A landscape design process may be stymied by insufficient data or participation. An impetus for coordination is critical, and incentives may be required to engage landowners and the private sector. In conclusion, devising and implementing landscape designs for more sustainable outcomes require clear communication of environmental, social, and economic opportunities and concerns.

  10. Incorporating bioenergy into sustainable landscape designs

    DOE PAGES

    Dale, Virginia H.; Kline, Keith L.; Buford, Marilyn A.; ...

    2015-12-30

    In this paper, we describe an approach to landscape design that focuses on integrating bioenergy production with other components of environmental, social and economic systems. Landscape design as used here refers to a spatially explicit, collaborative plan for management of landscapes and supply chains. Landscape design can involve multiple scales and build on existing practices to reduce costs or enhance services. Appropriately applied to a specific context, landscape design can help people assess trade-offs when making choices about locations, types of feedstock, transport, refining and distribution of bioenergy products and services. The approach includes performance monitoring and reporting along themore » bioenergy supply chain. Examples of landscape design applied to bioenergy production systems are presented. Barriers to implementation of landscape design include high costs, the need to consider diverse land-management objectives from a wide array of stakeholders, up-front planning requirements, and the complexity and level of effort needed for successful stakeholder involvement. A landscape design process may be stymied by insufficient data or participation. An impetus for coordination is critical, and incentives may be required to engage landowners and the private sector. In conclusion, devising and implementing landscape designs for more sustainable outcomes require clear communication of environmental, social, and economic opportunities and concerns.« less

  11. Planning Construction Research of Modern Urban Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Z. Q.; Chen, W.

    With the development and expansion of the city's traditional urban landscape planning methods have been difficult to adapt to the requirements of modern urban development, in the new urban construction, planning what kind of urban landscape is a new research topic. The article discusses the principles of modern urban landscape planning and development, promote the adoption of new concepts and theories, building more regional characteristics, more humane, more perfect, more emphasis on urban landscape pattern natural ecological protection and construction can sustainable development of urban living environment, and promote the development and construction of the city.

  12. Multi-scale forest landscape pattern characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jialing

    The purpose of this dissertation is to examine several important issues in landscape pattern analysis, including the identification of important landscape metrics, the impact of the modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP) in landscape pattern analysis, the linkage between pattern and process, and the application of landscape pattern analysis. A theoretical framework of hierarchical patch dynamics paradigm and a technical framework of GIS and remote sensing integration are employed to address these questions. The Red Hills region of southwestern Georgia and northern Florida is chosen as the study area. Land use/cover (LULC) and longleaf pine distribution maps were generated through satellite image classification. Sub-watersheds were used as the main analysis units. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted on 43 sub-watersheds at three hierarchical LULC levels to identify important landscape metrics. At both landscape- and class-levels, the measurement of fragmentation was identified as the most important landscape dimension. Other dimensions and important metrics varied with different scales. Hexagons were used as an alternative zoning system to examine the MAUP impact in landscape pattern analysis. The results indicated that landscape pattern analyses at class level and at broader scales were more sensitive to MAUP than at landscape level and at finer scales. Local-scale pattern analysis based on moving window analysis greatly reduced the impact of MAUP at class level, but had little effects at landscape level. An examination of the relationship between landscape pattern variables and biophysical/socio-economic variables was undertaken by using statistical analysis. The biophysical variables of soil drainage and mean slope and the socio-economic variables of road density, population density, distance to Tallahassee, Florida, and plantation amount were found to be closely correlated to the landscape patterns in this region. However, a large amount of variation

  13. Multidisciplinary modeling and GIS for landscape management

    SciTech Connect

    Flamm, R.O.; Turner, M.G.

    1993-12-31

    Ecological dynamics in human-influenced landscapes are strongly affected by the socioeconomic factors that influence land-use decisions. Incorporating these factors into a spatially-explicit landscape-change model requires the integration of multidisciplinary data. We developed a model that simulates the effects of land use on landscape structure in the Little Tennessee River Basin in western North Carolina. This model uses a variety of data, including interpreted remotely-sensed imagery, census and ownership maps, topography, and results from econometric models. Data are integrated by using a geographic information system and translated into a common format, maps. Simulations generate new maps of land cover representing the amount of land-cover change that occurs. With spatially-explicit projections of landscape change, issues such as biodiversity conservation, the importance of specific landscape elements to conservation goals, and long-term landscape integrity can be addressed. In order for management to use the model to address these issues, a computer-based landscape-management decision aid is being developed. This tool integrates the models, associated data bases, and a geographic information system to facilitate the evaluation of land-use decisions and management plans. This system will estimate landscape-level consequences of alternative actions and will serve to focus coordination among different land-owners and land-use interests in managing the regional landscape.

  14. Modeling Landscape Evolution and Climate: How Erosion and Precipitation are Linked in Active Orogens (Preliminary Results)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, B.; Yanites, B.; Shen, H.; Poulsen, C. J.

    2016-12-01

    The tectonic history and the climate driven erosional processes acting in a region are the primary controls on the evolution of a landscape. Quantifying these controls is essential to our understanding of uplift and erosion histories in mountain ranges. Our understanding of how landscapes respond to tectonic forcings is generally well constrained but the influence of climate on landscape evolution remains unclear. This uncertainty is especially apparent when comparing field experiments; some studies have demonstrated a positive feedback between climate and erosion, while others have not. To complement the field experiments and gain important quantitative insight into what climatic properties influence landscape evolution, we implement a numerical modeling approach. We investigate climate-landscape interactions by coupling a high-resolution climate model, Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF), and a landscape evolution model, Landlab. The Andes act as the climatic setting for this study, due to the variation in climate along the length of the orogen, and serve as a natural laboratory to test controls on erosion. Discharge is quantified across the landscape with the WRF Hydro model. Discharge and topography are passed between the models, allowing for a feedback relationship to form between topography and precipitation. We will present our preliminary model runs that result from an asynchronous model coupling approach. These results will allow us to run further experiments to test feedbacks between topography and climate by monitoring topographic metrics and erosion histories. This work provides a necessary next step in landscape evolution modeling by using an actively evolving climate to model real precipitation dynamics. This next step allows for modeling more accurate representations of precipitation through the development of an orogen. This will result in an improved understanding of the co-evolution of climate and topography in these settings.

  15. Comparing landscape evolution models: framework and invitation to the modelling community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temme, Arnaud; Coulthard, Tom; Hobley, Daniel; Hancock, Greg

    2014-05-01

    In the last few decades, a wide range of landscape evolution models has been developed. These models have been used as geomorphology's virtual laboratory, to explore possibilities and answer science questions on spatial and temporal scales that cannot be observed directly. This ability to simulate what cannot be observed is also the models' weakness, because calibration and validation are difficult. Pertinent questions have been asked and will be asked regarding the level of trust that can be put into simulation results. Two basic avenues lead to increased understanding of model validity. First, the comparison of simulation results from different models with each other, possibly based on idealised catchments. Differences between model outputs in such exercises can be pointers to model mistakes, or at the very least lead to interesting discussions about models' validity as a function of procedural (programming-code) decisions. Second, the comparison of model results to the few available records of landscape change. Although this set of options is the more promising, it has not often been attempted - because of a perceived mismatch between features that are observed in real landscapes, and the types of outputs that models produce. We propose to provide a number of datasets with varying spatial and temporal resolution and extent, and from varying geomorphic regimes, that landscape evolution models can be compared against. Each dataset must contain information about boundary conditions (including a starting landscape), driving factors (such as climate) and the actual evolution of the landscape over time. As such, they will constitute a range of natural experiments in the sense of Tucker (ESPL, 2009). The datasets will be made available to the general public if possible. We are planning to use four leading landscape evolution models with widely varying approaches and strengths to simulate the landscape evolution of the datasets, after which outputs will be compared with

  16. Pseudoknots in RNA folding landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Kucharík, Marcel; Hofacker, Ivo L.; Stadler, Peter F.; Qin, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: The function of an RNA molecule is not only linked to its native structure, which is usually taken to be the ground state of its folding landscape, but also in many cases crucially depends on the details of the folding pathways such as stable folding intermediates or the timing of the folding process itself. To model and understand these processes, it is necessary to go beyond ground state structures. The study of rugged RNA folding landscapes holds the key to answer these questions. Efficient coarse-graining methods are required to reduce the intractably vast energy landscapes into condensed representations such as barrier trees or basin hopping graphs (BHG) that convey an approximate but comprehensive picture of the folding kinetics. So far, exact and heuristic coarse-graining methods have been mostly restricted to the pseudoknot-free secondary structures. Pseudoknots, which are common motifs and have been repeatedly hypothesized to play an important role in guiding folding trajectories, were usually excluded. Results: We generalize the BHG framework to include pseudoknotted RNA structures and systematically study the differences in predicted folding behavior depending on whether pseudoknotted structures are allowed to occur as folding intermediates or not. We observe that RNAs with pseudoknotted ground state structures tend to have more pseudoknotted folding intermediates than RNAs with pseudoknot-free ground state structures. The occurrence and influence of pseudoknotted intermediates on the folding pathway, however, appear to depend very strongly on the individual RNAs so that no general rule can be inferred. Availability and implementation: The algorithms described here are implemented in C++ as standalone programs. Its source code and Supplemental material can be freely downloaded from http://www.tbi.univie.ac.at/bhg.html. Contact: qin@bioinf.uni-leipzig.de Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID

  17. River Capture in Disequilibrium Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, S. W.; Perron, J.; Willett, S.; Goren, L.

    2013-12-01

    The process of river piracy or river capture has long drawn interest as a potential mechanism by which drainage basins large and small evolve towards an equilibrium state. River capture transfers both drainage area and drainage lines from one river basin to another, which can cause large, abrupt shifts in network topology, drainage divide positions, and river incision rates. Despite numerous case studies in which river capture has been proposed to have occurred, there is no general, mechanistic framework for understanding the controls on river capture, nor are there quantitative criteria for determining if capture has occurred. Here we use new metrics of landscape disequilibrium to first identify landscapes in which drainage reorganization is occurring. These metrics are based on a balance between an integral of the contributing drainage area and elevation. In an analysis of rivers in the Eastern United States we find that many rivers are in a state of disequilibrium and are experiencing recent or ongoing area exchange between basins. In these disequilibrium basins we find widespread evidence for network rearrangement via river capture at multiple scales. We then conduct numerical experiments with a 2-D landscape evolution model to explore the conditions in which area exchange among drainage basins is likely to occur as discrete capture events as opposed to continuous divide migration. These experiments indicate that: (1) capture activity increases with the degree of disequilibrium induced by persistent spatial gradients in tectonic forcing or by temporal changes in climate or tectonic forcing; (2) capture activity is strongly controlled by the initial planform drainage network geometry; and (3) capture activity scales with the fluvial incision rate constant in the river power erosion law.

  18. Determination of fire-initiated landscape patterns: Restoring fire mosaics on the landscape

    Treesearch

    Michael Hartwell; Paul Alaback

    1996-01-01

    One of the key limitations in implementing ecosystem management is a lack of accurate information on how forest landscapes have developed over time, reflecting both pre-Euroamerican landscapes and those resulting from more recent disturbance regimes. Landscape patterns are of great importance to the maintenance of biodiversity in general, and particularly in relation...

  19. Agroforestry landscapes and global change: landscape ecology tools for management and conservation

    Treesearch

    Guillermo Martinez Pastur; Emilie Andrieu; Louis R. Iverson; Pablo Luis. Peri

    2012-01-01

    Forest ecosystems are impacted by multiple uses under the influence of global drivers, and where landscape ecology tools may substantially facilitate the management and conservation of the agroforestry ecosystems. The use of landscape ecology tools was described in the eight papers of the present special issue, including changes in forested landscapes due to...

  20. Relationships between avian richness and landscape structure at multiple scales using multiple landscapes

    Treesearch

    Michael S. Mitchell; Scott H. Rutzmoser; T. Bently Wigley; Craig Loehle; John A. Gerwin; Patrick D. Keyser; Richard A. Lancia; Roger W. Perry; Christopher L. Reynolds; Ronald E. Thill; Robert Weih; Don White; Petra Bohall Wood

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about factors that structure biodiversity on landscape scales, yet current land management protocols, such as forest certification programs, place an increasing emphasis on managing for sustainable biodiversity at landscape scales. We used a replicated landscape study to evaluate relationships between forest structure and avian diversity at both stand...

  1. Good laboratory practice and laboratory accreditation.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, J; McQuaker, N

    1993-12-01

    Principles of good laboratory practice (GLP) and laboratory accreditation programs, particularly as they pertain to the environmental sector, are reviewed. The multitude of programs is proving costly for many laboratories and there is mounting pressure to develop reciprocity agreements between programs and to consolidate nationally and internationally. Inclusion of GLP and laboratory accreditation requirements in government regulations is resulting in a significantly increased number of laboratories participating in these programs.

  2. Individual dispersal, landscape connectivity and ecological networks.

    PubMed

    Baguette, Michel; Blanchet, Simon; Legrand, Delphine; Stevens, Virginie M; Turlure, Camille

    2013-05-01

    Connectivity is classically considered an emergent property of landscapes encapsulating individuals' flows across space. However, its operational use requires a precise understanding of why and how organisms disperse. Such movements, and hence landscape connectivity, will obviously vary according to both organism properties and landscape features. We review whether landscape connectivity estimates could gain in both precision and generality by incorporating three fundamental outcomes of dispersal theory. Firstly, dispersal is a multi-causal process; its restriction to an 'escape reaction' to environmental unsuitability is an oversimplification, as dispersing individuals can leave excellent quality habitat patches or stay in poor-quality habitats according to the relative costs and benefits of dispersal and philopatry. Secondly, species, populations and individuals do not always react similarly to those cues that trigger dispersal, which sometimes results in contrasting dispersal strategies. Finally, dispersal is a major component of fitness and is thus under strong selective pressures, which could generate rapid adaptations of dispersal strategies. Such evolutionary responses will entail spatiotemporal variation in landscape connectivity. We thus strongly recommend the use of genetic tools to: (i) assess gene flow intensity and direction among populations in a given landscape; and (ii) accurately estimate landscape features impacting gene flow, and hence landscape connectivity. Such approaches will provide the basic data for planning corridors or stepping stones aiming at (re)connecting local populations of a given species in a given landscape. This strategy is clearly species- and landscape-specific. But we suggest that the ecological network in a given landscape could be designed by stacking up such linkages designed for several species living in different ecosystems. This procedure relies on the use of umbrella species that are representative of other species

  3. Honeybee foraging in differentially structured landscapes.

    PubMed Central

    Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Kuhn, Arno

    2003-01-01

    Honeybees communicate the distance and location of resource patches by bee dances, but this spatial information has rarely been used to study their foraging ecology. We analysed, for the first time to the best of the authors' knowledge, foraging distances and dance activities of honeybees in relation to landscape structure, season and colony using a replicated experimental approach on a landscape scale. We compared three structurally simple landscapes characterized by a high proportion of arable land and large patches, with three complex landscapes with a high proportion of semi-natural perennial habitats and low mean patch size. Four observation hives were placed in the centre of the landscapes and switched at regular intervals between the six landscapes from the beginning of May to the end of July. A total of 1137 bee dances were observed and decoded. Overall mean foraging distance was 1526.1 +/- 37.2 m, the median 1181.5 m and range 62.1-10037.1 m. Mean foraging distances of all bees and foraging distances of nectar-collecting bees did not significantly differ between simple and complex landscapes, but varied between month and colonies. Foraging distances of pollen-collecting bees were significantly larger in simple (1743 +/- 95.6 m) than in complex landscapes (1543.4 +/- 71 m) and highest in June when resources were scarce. Dancing activity, i.e. the number of observed bee dances per unit time, was significantly higher in complex than in simple landscapes, presumably because of larger spatial and temporal variability of resource patches in complex landscapes. The results facilitate an understanding of how human landscape modification may change the evolutionary significance of bee dances and ecological interactions, such as pollination and competition between honeybees and other bee species. PMID:12769455

  4. Landscape Indicators for Detection of Temporal Change in Fragmentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Patch-based landscape metrics dominate the conceptualization and practice of landscape ecology, but they have not been evaluated for detection of temporal change. Our evaluation, complemented by existing literature, indicates that patch-based landscape metrics have four shortcomi...

  5. The Landscape of the Gibbet

    PubMed Central

    Tarlow, Sarah; Dyndor, Zoe

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT From the Murder Act of 1752 until the Anatomy Act of 1832 it was forbidden to bury the bodies of executed murderers unless they had first been anatomised or ‘hung in chains’ (gibbeted). This paper considers some of the observations of the Wellcome-funded project ‘Harnessing the Power of the Criminal Corpse’ as they relate to the practice of gibbeting. The nature of hanging in chains is briefly described before an extensive discussion of the criteria by which gibbets, which often remained standing for many decades, were selected. These are: proximity to the scene of crime, visibility, and practicality. Exceptions, in the forms of those sentenced by the Admiralty Courts, and those sentenced in and around London, are briefly considered. Hanging in chains was an infrequent punishment (anatomical dissection was far more frequently practised) but it was the subject of huge public interest and attracted thousands of people. There was no specified time for which a body should remain hanging, and the gibbet often became a known landmark and a significant place in the landscape. There is a remarkable contrast between anatomical dissection, which obliterates and anonymises the body of the individual malefactor, and hanging in chains, which leaves a highly personalised and enduring imprint on the actual and imaginative landscape. PMID:27335506

  6. Spurious correlations and inference in landscape genetics

    Treesearch

    Samuel A. Cushman; Erin L. Landguth

    2010-01-01

    Reliable interpretation of landscape genetic analyses depends on statistical methods that have high power to identify the correct process driving gene flow while rejecting incorrect alternative hypotheses. Little is known about statistical power and inference in individual-based landscape genetics. Our objective was to evaluate the power of causalmodelling with partial...

  7. Effective Exercises in Teaching Landscape Ecology

    Treesearch

    Scott M. Pearson; Monica G. Turner; Dean L. Urban

    1999-01-01

    The development of landscape ecology and its many applications to land management created a need for courses that address both the conceptual and practical sides of the discipline. Graduate seminars and full-fledged courses in landscape ecology are now featured at many colleges and universities; undergraduate ecology courses may include an introduction to principles...

  8. Assessing Landscapes to Support Watershed Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    As we change the face of the landscape in the United States with urban development and agriculture practices, the alterations can cause stormwater runoff, soil erosion and water pollution. Therefore, evaluating or assessing natural landscapes and providing the tools to do the...

  9. DYNAMIC LANDSCAPES, STABILITY AND ECOLOGICAL MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The image of a ball rolling along a series of hills and valleys is an effective heuristic by which to communicate stability concepts in ecology. However, the dynamics of this landscape model have little to do with ecological systems. Other landscape representations, however, are ...

  10. Oregon Hydrologic Landscapes: A Classification Framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a growing need for hydrologic classification systems that can provide a basis for broad-scale assessments of the hydrologic functions of landscapes and watersheds and their responses to stressors such as climate change. We developed a hydrologic landscape (HL) classifica...

  11. Dimensions of landscape preferences from pairwise comparisons

    Treesearch

    F. González Bernaldez; F. Parra

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of landscape preferences allows the detection of major dimensions as:(1) the opposition between "natural and humanized", (comprising features like vegetation cover, cultivation, pattern of landscape elements, artifacts, excavations, etc.); (2) polarity "precision/ambiguity" (involving opposition between: predominance of straight, vertical...

  12. Landscapes Both Invite and Defy Definition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Nick

    2016-01-01

    This article examines various meanings of the term landscape. It advocates a deep engagement with the concept to enable high school students to carry out a range of thought-provoking geographical inquiries. Each aspect of the Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority's definition of landscape, shown below, is examined by reference…

  13. Landscape pattern metrics and regional assessment

    Treesearch

    Robert V. O' Neill; Kurt H. Riitters; J.D. Wickham; Bruce K. Jones

    1999-01-01

    The combination of remote imagery data, geographic information systems software, and landscape ecology theory provides a unique basis for monitoring and assessing large-scale ecological systems. The unique feature of the work has been the need to develop interpret quantitative measures of spatial patter-the landscape indices. This article reviews what is known about...

  14. Landscape dynamics of mountain pine beetles

    Treesearch

    John E. Lundquist; Robin M. Reich

    2014-01-01

    The magnitude and urgency of current mountain pine beetle outbreaks in the western United States and Canada have resulted in numerous studies of the dynamics and impacts of these insects in forested ecosystems. This paper reviews some of the aspects of the spatial dynamics and landscape ecology of this bark beetle. Landscape heterogeneity influences dispersal patterns...

  15. Experiencing Landscape: Orkney Hill Land and Farming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jo

    2007-01-01

    This paper is about how rural landscape is experienced according to combinations of practical engagements with land and the ways meaning is made in relation to it. It presents the case of the ambiguous position of the Orkney Islands within categorisations of Highland and Lowland landscapes in Scotland. Through a discussion of the physical and…

  16. Oregon Hydrologic Landscapes: A Classification Framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a growing need for hydrologic classification systems that can provide a basis for broad-scale assessments of the hydrologic functions of landscapes and watersheds and their responses to stressors such as climate change. We developed a hydrologic landscape (HL) classifica...

  17. Experiencing Landscape: Orkney Hill Land and Farming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jo

    2007-01-01

    This paper is about how rural landscape is experienced according to combinations of practical engagements with land and the ways meaning is made in relation to it. It presents the case of the ambiguous position of the Orkney Islands within categorisations of Highland and Lowland landscapes in Scotland. Through a discussion of the physical and…

  18. Simulating natural selection in landscape genetics

    Treesearch

    E. L. Landguth; S. A. Cushman; N. Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Linking landscape effects to key evolutionary processes through individual organism movement and natural selection is essential to provide a foundation for evolutionary landscape genetics. Of particular importance is determining how spatially- explicit, individual-based models differ from classic population genetics and evolutionary ecology models based on ideal...

  19. Comparative Rural Landscapes: A Conceptual Geographic Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinbrink, John E.

    The geography unit is designed for use in upper elementary grades. The unit objective is to help the student learn facts about the landscapes of the United States, the Netherlands, Australia, Russia, and Central Africa, and acquire generic ideas which he can apply to the analysis and comparison of other landscapes. The unit is an attempt to apply…

  20. Community identities as visions for landscape change

    Treesearch

    William P. Stewart; Derek Liebert; Kevin W. Larkin

    2004-01-01

    Residents' felt senses of their community can play substantial roles in determining visions for landscape change. Community identities are often anchored in tangible environments and events of a community, and have the potential to serve as visions for landscape planning processes. Photo-elicitation is applied in this study to connect community-based meanings to...

  1. Thinking big: linking rivers to landscapes

    Treesearch

    Joan O’Callaghan; Ashley E. Steel; Kelly M. Burnett

    2012-01-01

    Exploring relationships between landscape characteristics and rivers is an emerging field, enabled by the proliferation of satellite date, advances in statistical analysis, and increased emphasis on large-scale monitoring. Landscapes features such as road networks, underlying geology, and human developments, determine the characteristics of the rivers flowing through...

  2. Chapter 6. Landscape Analysis for Habitat Monitoring

    Treesearch

    Samuel A. Cushman; Kevin McGarigal; Kevin S. McKelvey; Christina D. Vojta; Claudia M. Regan

    2013-01-01

    The primary objective of this chapter is to describe standardized methods for measur¬ing and monitoring attributes of landscape pattern in support of habitat monitoring. This chapter describes the process of monitoring categorical landscape maps in which either selected habitat attributes or different classes of habitat quality are represented as different patch types...

  3. Anticipating future landscape conditions: A case study

    Treesearch

    Bill McDonald

    2000-01-01

    Anticipating landscape conditions in the 21st century is a difficult, if not impossible task. Different people have different perceptions of what future landscapes should look like. One group of people, a group of ranchers in the Malpai Borderland Region of the southwestern United States, have come together to work with government agencies, universities, and...

  4. Use and misuse of landscape indices

    Treesearch

    Harbin Li; Jianguo Wu

    2004-01-01

    Landscape ecology has generated much excitement in the past two decades. One reason was that it brought spatial analysis and modeling to the forefront of ecological research. However, high expectations for landscape analysis to improve our understanding and prediction of ecological processes have largely been unfulfilled. We identified three kinds of critical issues:...

  5. People's perceptions of managed and natural landscapes

    Treesearch

    Arthur W. Magill

    1995-01-01

    Research was undertaken to identify the opinions of what people saw in slides of managed and unmanaged landscapes. Most people were attracted by natural landscape features. Clearcuts were reported less frequently than roads, but dislike of them was more than 30 percent greater. Natural openings, bare areas, and sparse tree cover also were disliked.

  6. How to Cut Landscape Maintenance Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickman, Dick

    1982-01-01

    A landscape architect explains how maintenance requirements and costs are affected by landscape design, the physical demands of the site, and the relative use of grass, ground cover, shrubs, and trees. The relationship of these factors to initial and ongoing maintenance costs, including staff requirements, is discussed. (MLF)

  7. Assessing Landscapes to Support Watershed Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    As we change the face of the landscape in the United States with urban development and agriculture practices, the alterations can cause stormwater runoff, soil erosion and water pollution. Therefore, evaluating or assessing natural landscapes and providing the tools to do the...

  8. Editorial: What do we mean by "landscape"?

    Treesearch

    Paul H. Gobster; Wei-Ning. Xiang

    2012-01-01

    As a prelude to revising the Aims and Scope of Landscape and Urban Planning (LAND), our last editorial discussed the journal’s "intellectual landscape" as revealed by an analysis of conceptual and proximal relationships between articles published in LAND and 50 other research journals. The six conceptual themes we identified--ecology, planning and management...

  9. DYNAMIC LANDSCAPES, STABILITY AND ECOLOGICAL MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The image of a ball rolling along a series of hills and valleys is an effective heuristic by which to communicate stability concepts in ecology. However, the dynamics of this landscape model have little to do with ecological systems. Other landscape representations, however, are ...

  10. Dynamic landscape models of coevolutionary games.

    PubMed

    Richter, Hendrik

    2017-02-24

    Players of coevolutionary games may update not only their strategies but also their networks of interaction. Based on interpreting the payoff of players as fitness, dynamic landscape models are proposed. The modeling procedure is carried out for Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) and Snowdrift (SD) games that both use either birth-death (BD) or death-birth (DB) strategy updating. The main focus is on using dynamic fitness landscapes as a mathematical model of coevolutionary game dynamics. Hence, an alternative tool for analyzing coevolutionary games becomes available, and landscape measures such as modality, ruggedness and information content can be computed and analyzed. In addition, fixation properties of the games and quantifiers characterizing the interaction networks are calculated numerically. Relations are established between landscape properties expressed by landscape measures and quantifiers of coevolutionary game dynamics such as fixation probabilities, fixation times and network properties.

  11. Topology of cyclo-octane energy landscape.

    PubMed

    Martin, Shawn; Thompson, Aidan; Coutsias, Evangelos A; Watson, Jean-Paul

    2010-06-21

    Understanding energy landscapes is a major challenge in chemistry and biology. Although a wide variety of methods have been invented and applied to this problem, very little is understood about the actual mathematical structures underlying such landscapes. Perhaps the most general assumption is the idea that energy landscapes are low-dimensional manifolds embedded in high-dimensional Euclidean space. While this is a very mild assumption, we have discovered an example of an energy landscape which is nonmanifold, demonstrating previously unknown mathematical complexity. The example occurs in the energy landscape of cyclo-octane, which was found to have the structure of a reducible algebraic variety, composed of the union of a sphere and a Klein bottle, intersecting in two rings.

  12. Topology of cyclo-octane energy landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Shawn; Thompson, Aidan; Coutsias, Evangelos A.; Watson, Jean-Paul

    2010-06-01

    Understanding energy landscapes is a major challenge in chemistry and biology. Although a wide variety of methods have been invented and applied to this problem, very little is understood about the actual mathematical structures underlying such landscapes. Perhaps the most general assumption is the idea that energy landscapes are low-dimensional manifolds embedded in high-dimensional Euclidean space. While this is a very mild assumption, we have discovered an example of an energy landscape which is nonmanifold, demonstrating previously unknown mathematical complexity. The example occurs in the energy landscape of cyclo-octane, which was found to have the structure of a reducible algebraic variety, composed of the union of a sphere and a Klein bottle, intersecting in two rings.

  13. Degree landscapes in scale-free networks.

    PubMed

    Axelsen, Jacob Bock; Bernhardsson, Sebastian; Rosvall, Martin; Sneppen, Kim; Trusina, Ala

    2006-09-01

    We generalize the degree-organizational view of real-world networks with broad degree distributions in a landscape analog with mountains (high-degree nodes) and valleys (low-degree nodes). For example, correlated degrees between adjacent nodes correspond to smooth landscapes (social networks), hierarchical networks to one-mountain landscapes (the Internet), and degree-disassortative networks without hierarchical features to rough landscapes with several mountains. To quantify the topology, we here measure the widths of the mountains and the separation between different mountains. We also generate ridge landscapes to model networks organized under constraints imposed by the space the networks are embedded in, associated to spatial or in molecular networks to functional localization.

  14. statement of significance, location map, site plan, landscape plan, site ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    statement of significance, location map, site plan, landscape plan, site sections, evolution of cemetery landscape. - San Francisco National Cemetery, 1 Lincoln Boulevard, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  15. Pesticide risk assessment in free-ranging bees is weather and landscape dependent.

    PubMed

    Henry, Mickaël; Bertrand, Colette; Le Féon, Violette; Requier, Fabrice; Odoux, Jean-François; Aupinel, Pierrick; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Decourtye, Axel

    2014-07-10

    The risk assessment of plant protection products on pollinators is currently based on the evaluation of lethal doses through repeatable lethal toxicity laboratory trials. Recent advances in honeybee toxicology have, however, raised interest on assessing sublethal effects in free-ranging individuals. Here, we show that the sublethal effects of a neonicotinoid pesticide are modified in magnitude by environmental interactions specific to the landscape and time of exposure events. Field sublethal assessment is therefore context dependent and should be addressed in a temporally and spatially explicit way, especially regarding weather and landscape physiognomy. We further develop an analytical Effective Dose (ED) framework to help disentangle context-induced from treatment-induced effects and thus to alleviate uncertainty in field studies. Although the ED framework involves trials at concentrations above the expected field exposure levels, it allows to explicitly delineating the climatic and landscape contexts that should be targeted for in-depth higher tier risk assessment.

  16. Exploring the complex free-energy landscape of the simplest glass by rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yuliang; Yoshino, Hajime

    2017-04-01

    For amorphous solids, it has been intensely debated whether the traditional view on solids, in terms of the ground state and harmonic low energy excitations on top of it, such as phonons, is still valid. Recent theoretical developments of amorphous solids revealed the possibility of unexpectedly complex free-energy landscapes where the simple harmonic picture breaks down. Here we demonstrate that standard rheological techniques can be used as powerful tools to examine nontrivial consequences of such complex free-energy landscapes. By extensive numerical simulations on a hard sphere glass under quasistatic shear at finite temperatures, we show that above the so-called Gardner transition density, the elasticity breaks down, the stress relaxation exhibits slow, and ageing dynamics and the apparent shear modulus becomes protocol-dependent. Being designed to be reproducible in laboratories, our approach may trigger explorations of the complex free-energy landscapes of a large variety of amorphous materials.

  17. Modeling long-term changes in forested landscapes and their relation to the Earth's energy balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shugart, H. H.; Emanuel, W. R.; Solomon, A. M.

    1984-01-01

    The dynamics of the forested parts of the Earth's surface on time scales from decades to centuries are discussed. A set of computer models developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and elsewhere are applied as tools. These models simulate a landscape by duplicating the dynamics of growth, death and birth of each tree living on a 0.10 ha element of the landscape. This spatial unit is generally referred to as a gap in the case of the forest models. The models were tested against and applied to a diverse array of forests and appear to provide a reasonable representation for investigating forest-cover dynamics. Because of the climate linkage, one important test is the reconstruction of paleo-landscapes. Detailed reconstructions of changes in vegetation in response to changes in climate are crucial to understanding the association of the Earth's vegetation and climate and the response of the vegetation to climate change.

  18. Holocene soil erosion and sediment storage in a meso-scale catchment in Germany: A quantitative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Markus; Will, Mathias

    2010-05-01

    Landscape perturbations by climate change and/or human impact are the major triggers for Holocene soil erosion, especially since the introduction of farming and pastoralism in the Neolithic period. Since then there has been a shift from naturally induced towards man induced soil erosion. However, to get insight into the long-term process of sediment reworking and to better understand the causes of past soil erosion, quantitative temporal and spatial investigations are necessary. For the reconstruction of past soil erosion, colluvial and alluvial sediments, as well as truncated soil profiles represent important natural archives. These archives can be used to spatially quantify sediment redistribution, while the dating of the sediments shed light on the timing of past soil erosion, as well as on the intensity of the process of sediment redistribution, by calculating sedimentation rates. In this study we present colluvial and alluvial archives from a meso-scale catchment (97 km2) in Northern Bavaria, Germany. In order to reconstruct the erosion and sedimentation history of the catchment in time and space, colluvial and alluvial sediment records were intensively investigated. A detailed chronostratigraphy of the sediments was established by optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating, which helps to reconstruct past sediment fluxes. Based on these data, we present a sediment budget and discuss the problematic interpretation of the temporal variation of sediment fluxes and its causes.

  19. The evolution of movements and behaviour at boundaries in different landscapes: a common arena experiment with butterflies.

    PubMed Central

    Merckx, Thomas; Van Dyck, Hans; Karlsson, Bengt; Leimar, Olof

    2003-01-01

    As landscapes change, mobility patterns of species may alter. Different mechanistic scenarios may, however, lead to particular patterns. Here, we tested conflicting predictions from two hypotheses on butterfly movements in relation to habitat fragmentation. According to the resource distribution hypothesis, butterflies in more fragmented landscapes would have higher levels of mobility as resources are more scattered. However, these butterflies could have lower levels of mobility as they experience 'hard' habitat boundaries more frequently (i.e. higher crossing costs) compared with butterflies in landscapes with continuous habitat; i.e. the behaviour-at-boundaries hypothesis. We studied movements, habitat boundary crossing and habitat preference of laboratory-reared individuals of Pararge aegeria that originated from woodland and agricultural landscapes, by using an experimental landscape as a common environment (outdoor cages) to test the predictions, taking into account sexual differences and weather. Woodland butterflies covered longer distances, were more prone to cross open-shade boundaries, travelled more frequently between woodland parts of the cages and were more at flight than agricultural butterflies. Our results support the behaviour-at-boundaries hypothesis, with 'softer' boundaries for woodland landscapes. Because the butterflies were reared in a common environment, the observed behavioural differences rely on heritable variation between populations from woodland and agricultural landscapes. PMID:12964984

  20. The evolution of movements and behaviour at boundaries in different landscapes: a common arena experiment with butterflies.

    PubMed

    Merckx, Thomas; Van Dyck, Hans; Karlsson, Bengt; Leimar, Olof

    2003-09-07

    As landscapes change, mobility patterns of species may alter. Different mechanistic scenarios may, however, lead to particular patterns. Here, we tested conflicting predictions from two hypotheses on butterfly movements in relation to habitat fragmentation. According to the resource distribution hypothesis, butterflies in more fragmented landscapes would have higher levels of mobility as resources are more scattered. However, these butterflies could have lower levels of mobility as they experience 'hard' habitat boundaries more frequently (i.e. higher crossing costs) compared with butterflies in landscapes with continuous habitat; i.e. the behaviour-at-boundaries hypothesis. We studied movements, habitat boundary crossing and habitat preference of laboratory-reared individuals of Pararge aegeria that originated from woodland and agricultural landscapes, by using an experimental landscape as a common environment (outdoor cages) to test the predictions, taking into account sexual differences and weather. Woodland butterflies covered longer distances, were more prone to cross open-shade boundaries, travelled more frequently between woodland parts of the cages and were more at flight than agricultural butterflies. Our results support the behaviour-at-boundaries hypothesis, with 'softer' boundaries for woodland landscapes. Because the butterflies were reared in a common environment, the observed behavioural differences rely on heritable variation between populations from woodland and agricultural landscapes.

  1. Emergent reorganization of an evolving experimental landscape under changing climatic forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A.; Tejedor, A.; Zaliapin, I. V.; Reinhardt, L.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding landscape re-organization under changing climatic forcing is fundamental to advancing our understanding of geomorphic transport laws under transient conditions, developing predictive models of landscape response to external perturbations, and interpreting the stratigraphic record for past climates by incorporating possible regime shifts. Real landscape observations for long-term analysis are limited and to this end a high resolution controlled laboratory experiment was conducted at the St. Anthony Falls laboratory at the University of Minnesota. Elevation data were collected at temporal resolution of 5 mins and spatial resolution of 0.5 mm as the landscape approached steady state (for a constant uplift and precipitation rate) and in the transient state (under the same uplift and 5x precipitation). The results reveal rapid topographic re-organization under a five-fold precipitation increase with the fluvial regime expanding into previously debris dominated regime, accelerated erosion happening at hillslope scales, and rivers shifting from an erosion-limited to a transport-limited regime. By studying the space-time structure of the individual erosional and depositional events in terms of their size, location, clustering, and total volume we report complex space-time patterns of change which are scale-dependent and bounded by the river network topology. At the same time, the river network topology itself adjusts at smaller scales, with new channels added to accommodate increased hillslope erosional transport, further adjusting the landscape. Some new ideas related to landscape variability and entropy evolution at different scales during steady and transient states and the possibility of analyzing the self-organization with Optimal Mass Transport (OMT) metrics to infer possible underlying "optimality" principles governing the re-organization will also be presented.

  2. Genetic landscape of uveal melanoma.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, M J; Stern, M-H

    2015-06-01

    Uveal melanoma is genetically one of the simplest malignant tumors in adults. Initiation of these tumors is dependent of an oncogenic mutation in the GNAQ or GNA11 genes present in almost all cases. The nature of second mutational events is of major interest as it monosomy 3, gain of 8q and BAP1 inactivation are associated with unfavorable prognosis while SF3BI or EIF1AX are of good prognosis. Despite their common lineage, cutaneous and uveal melanomas are distinct diseases, implicating different oncogenic pathways and contrasting mutational landscapes. Even if uveal melanoma is a simple tumor, it is also one of the deadliest tumors in adults. There is a major clinical need for drugs targeting either the downstream pathways of Gαq and Gα11 or the biological cell functions dysregulated by BAP1 loss of function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Precision cosmology and the landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Bousso, Raphael; Bousso, Raphael

    2006-10-01

    After reviewing the cosmological constant problem -- why is Lambda not huge? -- I outline the two basic approaches that had emerged by the late 1980s, and note that each made a clear prediction. Precision cosmological experiments now indicate that the cosmological constant is nonzero. This result strongly favors the environmental approach, in which vacuum energy can vary discretely among widely separated regions in the universe. The need to explain this variation from first principles constitutes an observational constraint on fundamental theory. I review arguments that string theory satisfies this constraint, as it contains a dense discretuum of metastable vacua. The enormous landscape of vacua calls for novel, statistical methods of deriving predictions, and it prompts us to reexamine our description of spacetime on the largest scales. I discuss the effects of cosmological dynamics, and I speculate that weighting vacua by their entropy production may allow for prior-free predictions that do not resort to explicitly anthropic arguments.

  4. Dark matter in axion landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daido, Ryuji; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2017-02-01

    If there are a plethora of axions in nature, they may have a complicated potential and create an axion landscape. We study a possibility that one of the axions is so light that it is cosmologically stable, explaining the observed dark matter density. In particular we focus on a case in which two (or more) shift-symmetry breaking terms conspire to make the axion sufficiently light at the potential minimum. In this case the axion has a flat-bottomed potential. In contrast to the case in which a single cosine term dominates the potential, the axion abundance as well as its isocurvature perturbations are significantly suppressed. This allows an axion with a rather large mass to serve as dark matter without fine-tuning of the initial misalignment, and further makes higher-scale inflation to be consistent with the scenario.

  5. Solution landscapes in nematic microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo, M.; Majumdar, A.; Ramos, A. M.; Griffiths, I. M.

    2017-08-01

    We study the static equilibria of a simplified Leslie-Ericksen model for a unidirectional uniaxial nematic flow in a prototype microfluidic channel, as a function of the pressure gradient G and inverse anchoring strength, B. We numerically find multiple static equilibria for admissible pairs (G , B) and classify them according to their winding numbers and stability. The case G = 0 is analytically tractable and we numerically study how the solution landscape is transformed as G increases. We study the one-dimensional dynamical model, the sensitivity of the dynamic solutions to initial conditions and the rate of change of G and B. We provide a physically interesting example of how the time delay between the applications of G and B can determine the selection of the final steady state.

  6. Water and the martian landscape.

    PubMed

    Baker, V R

    2001-07-12

    Over the past 30 years, the water-generated landforms and landscapes of Mars have been revealed in increasing detail by a succession of spacecraft missions. Recent data from the Mars Global Surveyor mission confirm the view that brief episodes of water-related activity, including glaciation, punctuated the geological history of Mars. The most recent of these episodes seems to have occurred within the past 10 million years. These new results are anomalous in regard to the prevailing view that the martian surface has been continuously extremely cold and dry, much as it is today, for the past 3.9 billion years. Interpretations of the new data are controversial, but explaining the anomalies in a consistent manner leads to potentially fruitful hypotheses for understanding the evolution of Mars in relation to Earth.

  7. Searching the clinical fitness landscape.

    PubMed

    Eppstein, Margaret J; Horbar, Jeffrey D; Buzas, Jeffrey S; Kauffman, Stuart A

    2012-01-01

    Widespread unexplained variations in clinical practices and patient outcomes suggest major opportunities for improving the quality and safety of medical care. However, there is little consensus regarding how to best identify and disseminate healthcare improvements and a dearth of theory to guide the debate. Many consider multicenter randomized controlled trials to be the gold standard of evidence-based medicine, although results are often inconclusive or may not be generally applicable due to differences in the contexts within which care is provided. Increasingly, others advocate the use "quality improvement collaboratives", in which multi-institutional teams share information to identify potentially better practices that are subsequently evaluated in the local contexts of specific institutions, but there is concern that such collaborative learning approaches lack the statistical rigor of randomized trials. Using an agent-based model, we show how and why a collaborative learning approach almost invariably leads to greater improvements in expected patient outcomes than more traditional approaches in searching simulated clinical fitness landscapes. This is due to a combination of greater statistical power and more context-dependent evaluation of treatments, especially in complex terrains where some combinations of practices may interact in affecting outcomes. The results of our simulations are consistent with observed limitations of randomized controlled trials and provide important insights into probable reasons for effectiveness of quality improvement collaboratives in the complex socio-technical environments of healthcare institutions. Our approach illustrates how modeling the evolution of medical practice as search on a clinical fitness landscape can aid in identifying and understanding strategies for improving the quality and safety of medical care.

  8. Miniaturization and globalization of clinical laboratory activities.

    PubMed

    Melo, Murilo R; Clark, Samantha; Barrio, Daniel

    2011-04-01

    Clinical laboratories provide an invaluable service to millions of people around the world in the form of quality diagnostic care. Within the clinical laboratory industry the impetus for change has come from technological development (miniaturization, nanotechnology, and their collective effect on point-of-care testing; POCT) and the increasingly global nature of laboratory services. Potential technological gains in POCT include: the development of bio-sensors, microarrays, genetics and proteomics testing, and enhanced web connectivity. In globalization, prospective opportunities lie in: medical tourism, the migration of healthcare workers, cross-border delivery of testing, and the establishment of accredited laboratories in previously unexplored markets. Accompanying these impressive opportunities are equally imposing challenges. Difficulty transitioning from research to clinical use, poor infrastructure in developing countries, cultural differences and national barriers to global trade are only a few examples. Dealing with the issues presented by globalization and the impact of developing technology on POCT, and on the clinical laboratory services industry in general, will be a daunting task. Despite such concerns, with appropriate countermeasures it will be possible to address the challenges posed. Future laboratory success will be largely dependent on one's ability to adapt in this perpetually shifting landscape.

  9. Effects of habitat and landscape fragmentation on humans and biodiversity in densely populated landscapes.

    PubMed

    Di Giulio, Manuela; Holderegger, Rolf; Tobias, Silvia

    2009-07-01

    Landscape fragmentation has often been seen as an only ecological problem. However, fragmentation also has a societal perspective, namely, in how humans perceive landscape fragmentation and in how landscape fragmentation potentially influences human well-being. These latter aspects have rarely been addressed so far. The inter-relationship of ecological and human dimensions of landscape fragmentation becomes especially evident when looking at the landscape where most people in industrial countries live, namely in suburban and urban areas. In these areas, landscape planners and environmental managers are confronted with the problem that landscapes should fulfill various functions, often with conflicting goals, e.g. nature reserves to enhance species richness vs. recreational areas for city-dwellers. We reviewed the ecological and sociological literature relevant for fragmentation in suburban and urban landscapes. In an interdisciplinary approach, we evaluated whether there are similarities and dissimilarities between the ecological and the human aspects of landscape fragmentation. We found important similarities. An example is that for both, humans and biodiversity, the loss of semi-natural areas has more drastic effects than the fragmentation of these areas per se. However, there are also relevant differences. We concluded that in densely populated landscapes a shift from responsive planning to an intentional design of environments is therefore needed.

  10. Do top-down or bottom-up forces determine Stephanitis pyrioides abundance in urban landscapes?

    PubMed

    Shrewsbury, Paula M; Raupp, Michael J

    2006-02-01

    This study examined the influence of habitat structural complexity on the collective effects of top-down and bottom-up forces on herbivore abundance in urban landscapes. The persistence and varying complexity of urban landscapes set them apart from ephemeral agroecosystems and natural habitats where the majority of studies have been conducted. Using surveys and manipulative experiments. We explicitly tested the effect of natural enemies (enemies hypothesis), host plant quality, and herbivore movement on the abundance of the specialist insect herbivore, Stephanitis pyrioides, in landscapes of varying structural complexity. This herbivore was extremely abundant in simple landscapes and rare in complex ones. Natural enemies were the major force influencing abundance of S. pyrioides across habitat types. Generalist predators, particularly the spider Anyphaena celer, were more abundant in complex landscapes. Predator abundance was related to greater abundance of alternative prey in those landscapes. Stephanitis pyrioides survival was lower in complex habitats when exposed to endemic natural enemy populations. Laboratory feeding trials confirmed the more abundant predators consumed S. pyrioides. Host plant quality was not a strong force influencing patterns of S. pyrioides abundance. When predators were excluded, adult S. pyrioides survival was greater on azaleas grown in complex habitats, in opposition to the observed pattern of abundance. Similarly, complexity did not affect S. pyrioides immigration and emigration rates. The complexity of urban landscapes affects the strength of top-down forces on herbivorous insect populations by influencing alternative prey and generalist predator abundance. It is possible that habitats can be manipulated to promote the suppressive effects of generalist predators.

  11. Landscape Evolution in Response to Laccolith Inflation on the Colorado Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hara, D.; Karlstrom, L.; Black, B. A.; Murray, K. E.

    2014-12-01

    Laccoliths are shallow plutonic structures that develop by uplifting and deforming overlying horizontal and near-horizontal strata. Radial drainage patterns resulting from this uplift coupled with proposed short timescales of emplacement through several episodes of rapid magmatic intrusion (<100 yr) provide a natural laboratory for the interaction between magmatically induced uplift and bedrock erosion. To investigate the coupling between the two, we compare results from numerical models of landscape evolution with analysis of natural laccolith-influenced landscapes on the Colorado Plateau. In particular, we focus on the Mount Hillers (Henry Mountains, UT), Shay Mountains (UT), and Navajo Mountains (AZ) laccoliths. Reconstructions of the original inflated surfaces of Hillers and Navajo Mtn. are available, from which we can estimate total volume and patterns of denudation since emplacement. We generate synthetic laccoliths to quantify landscape response through time in a simplified modeling framework. Surface deformation is modeled using the classical elastic flexure solution for laccolith emplacement (Pollard & Johnson, 1972), also exploring more recent treatments that include role of gravity. We analyze different growth curves by exploring pressure distribution and influx rates during emplacement. Landscape response to this surface uplift is then modeled numerically using the landscape evolution code of Perron et al. (2008). We quantify the dominant spectra of erosion and vary laccolith inflation rate and background erosion rates to construct a regime diagram of model landscape response to laccolith emplacement. We then asses the ability of these models to explain real laccolith topographic data, with the ultimate aim of providing constraints on the timing of laccolith dissection on the Colorado Plateau and more generally quantify the influence of intrusive magmatism on landscape evolution.

  12. Do geographically isolated wetlands influence landscape functions?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohen, Matthew J.; Creed, Irena F.; Alexander, Laurie C.; Basu, Nandita; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Craft, Christopher; D’Amico, Ellen; DeKeyser, Edward S.; Fowler, Laurie; Golden, Heather E.; Jawitz, James W.; Kalla, Peter; Kirkman, L. Katherine; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan; Leibowitz, Scott G.; Lewis, David Bruce; Marton, John; McLaughlin, Daniel L.; Mushet, David M.; Raanan-Kiperwas, Hadas; Rains, Mark C.; Smith, Lora; Walls, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs), those surrounded by uplands, exchange materials, energy, and organisms with other elements in hydrological and habitat networks, contributing to landscape functions, such as flow generation, nutrient and sediment retention, and biodiversity support. GIWs constitute most of the wetlands in many North American landscapes, provide a disproportionately large fraction of wetland edges where many functions are enhanced, and form complexes with other water bodies to create spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the timing, flow paths, and magnitude of network connectivity. These attributes signal a critical role for GIWs in sustaining a portfolio of landscape functions, but legal protections remain weak despite preferential loss from many landscapes. GIWs lack persistent surface water connections, but this condition does not imply the absence of hydrological, biogeochemical, and biological exchanges with nearby and downstream waters. Although hydrological and biogeochemical connectivity is often episodic or slow (e.g., via groundwater), hydrologic continuity and limited evaporative solute enrichment suggest both flow generation and solute and sediment retention. Similarly, whereas biological connectivity usually requires overland dispersal, numerous organisms, including many rare or threatened species, use both GIWs and downstream waters at different times or life stages, suggesting that GIWs are critical elements of landscape habitat mosaics. Indeed, weaker hydrologic connectivity with downstream waters and constrained biological connectivity with other landscape elements are precisely what enhances some GIW functions and enables others. Based on analysis of wetland geography and synthesis of wetland functions, we argue that sustaining landscape functions requires conserving the entire continuum of wetland connectivity, including GIWs.

  13. Landscape co-evolution and river discharge.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Velde, Ype; Temme, Arnaud

    2015-04-01

    Fresh water is crucial for society and ecosystems. However, our ability to secure fresh water resources under climatic and anthropogenic change is impaired by the complexity of interactions between human society, ecosystems, soils, and topography. These interactions cause landscape properties to co-evolve, continuously changing the flow paths of water through the landscape. These co-evolution driven flow path changes and their effect on river runoff are, to-date, poorly understood. In this presentation we introduce a spatially distributed landscape evolution model that incorporates growing vegetation and its effect on evapotranspiration, interception, infiltration, soil permeability, groundwater-surface water exchange and erosion. This landscape scale (10km2) model is calibrated to evolve towards well known empirical organising principles such as the Budyko curve and Hacks law under different climate conditions. To understand how positive and negative feedbacks within the model structure form complex landscape patterns of forests and peat bogs that resemble observed landscapes under humid and boreal climates, we analysed the effects of individual processes on the spatial distribution of vegetation and river peak and mean flows. Our results show that especially river peak flows and droughts decrease with increasing evolution of the landscape, which is a result that has direct implications for flood management.

  14. Metapopulation capacity of evolving fluvial landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertuzzo, Enrico; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    The form of fluvial landscapes is known to attain stationary network configurations that settle in dynamically accessible minima of total energy dissipation by landscape-forming discharges. Recent studies have highlighted the role of the dendritic structure of river networks in controlling population dynamics of the species they host and large-scale biodiversity patterns. Here, we systematically investigate the relation between energy dissipation, the physical driver for the evolution of river networks, and the ecological dynamics of their embedded biota. To that end, we use the concept of metapopulation capacity, a measure to link landscape structures with the population dynamics they host. Technically, metapopulation capacity is the leading eigenvalue λM of an appropriate "landscape" matrix subsuming whether a given species is predicted to persist in the long run. λM can conveniently be used to rank different landscapes in terms of their capacity to support viable metapopulations. We study how λM changes in response to the evolving network configurations of spanning trees. Such sequence of configurations is theoretically known to relate network selection to general landscape evolution equations through imperfect searches for dynamically accessible states frustrated by the vagaries of Nature. Results show that the process shaping the metric and the topological properties of river networks, prescribed by physical constraints, leads to a progressive increase in the corresponding metapopulation capacity and therefore on the landscape capacity to support metapopulations—with implications on biodiversity in fluvial ecosystems.

  15. Virtual Museums for Landscape Valorization and Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietroni, E.

    2017-08-01

    Research in the domain of landscape virtual reconstructions has been mainly focused on digitization and recording inside GIS systems, or real time visualization, paying a minor attention to the development of a methodological approach for the landscape narration, combing different registers, conceptual, emotional incitements and, thus, able to arouse in the public a feeling of emotional "sensing" and self- identification. The landscape reflects also the human activities in the territory and the communities' cultural patterns, their sense of "belonging". In a virtual museum of landscapes, the multidisciplinary approach, the multiplication of perspectives and voices, storytelling, acquire primary importance. A Virtual Museum of landscapes should integrate both holistic and delimited visions. The holistic vision requires a diachronic approach, including both present and past phases of life. On the other side, delimited, or "monographic", representations are useful to go deeper into specific and exemplar stories, regarding specific groups of people. Beside, the emergence of new social media enhancing cultural interactions among people induce the creation of specific social platforms for Cultural Heritage for the active participation of a large number of stakeholders. Co-creation scenarios and tools can be particularly promising. Aton is an example of front-end VR social platform in the web end, for the efficient streaming of medium/large landscape, their exploration and characterization. The Tiber Valley Virtual Museum is an example of sensorial cultural landscape. Starting from the acquisition of topographical data through integrated technologies, several multi-sensory scenarios have been created, inside which visitors can feel embodied and involved.

  16. Do geographically isolated wetlands influence landscape functions?

    PubMed

    Cohen, Matthew J; Creed, Irena F; Alexander, Laurie; Basu, Nandita B; Calhoun, Aram J K; Craft, Christopher; D'Amico, Ellen; DeKeyser, Edward; Fowler, Laurie; Golden, Heather E; Jawitz, James W; Kalla, Peter; Kirkman, L Katherine; Lane, Charles R; Lang, Megan; Leibowitz, Scott G; Lewis, David Bruce; Marton, John; McLaughlin, Daniel L; Mushet, David M; Raanan-Kiperwas, Hadas; Rains, Mark C; Smith, Lora; Walls, Susan C

    2016-02-23

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs), those surrounded by uplands, exchange materials, energy, and organisms with other elements in hydrological and habitat networks, contributing to landscape functions, such as flow generation, nutrient and sediment retention, and biodiversity support. GIWs constitute most of the wetlands in many North American landscapes, provide a disproportionately large fraction of wetland edges where many functions are enhanced, and form complexes with other water bodies to create spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the timing, flow paths, and magnitude of network connectivity. These attributes signal a critical role for GIWs in sustaining a portfolio of landscape functions, but legal protections remain weak despite preferential loss from many landscapes. GIWs lack persistent surface water connections, but this condition does not imply the absence of hydrological, biogeochemical, and biological exchanges with nearby and downstream waters. Although hydrological and biogeochemical connectivity is often episodic or slow (e.g., via groundwater), hydrologic continuity and limited evaporative solute enrichment suggest both flow generation and solute and sediment retention. Similarly, whereas biological connectivity usually requires overland dispersal, numerous organisms, including many rare or threatened species, use both GIWs and downstream waters at different times or life stages, suggesting that GIWs are critical elements of landscape habitat mosaics. Indeed, weaker hydrologic connectivity with downstream waters and constrained biological connectivity with other landscape elements are precisely what enhances some GIW functions and enables others. Based on analysis of wetland geography and synthesis of wetland functions, we argue that sustaining landscape functions requires conserving the entire continuum of wetland connectivity, including GIWs.

  17. Human arsenic exposure and risk assessment at the landscape level: a review.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nasreen Islam; Owens, Gary; Bruce, David; Naidu, Ravi

    2009-04-01

    Groundwater contaminated with arsenic (As), when extensively used for irrigation, causes potentially long term detrimental effects to the landscape. Such contamination can also directly affect human health when irrigated crops are primarily used for human consumption. Therefore, a large number of humans are potentially at risk worldwide due to daily As exposure. Numerous previous studies have been severely limited by small sample sizes which are not reliably extrapolated to large populations or landscapes. Human As exposure and risk assessment are no longer simple assessments limited to a few food samples from a small area. The focus of more recent studies has been to perform risk assessment at the landscape level involving the use of biomarkers to identify and quantify appropriate health problems and large surveys of human dietary patterns, supported by analytical testing of food, to quantify exposure. This approach generates large amounts of data from a wide variety of sources and geographic information system (GIS) techniques have been used widely to integrate the various spatial, demographic, social, field, and laboratory measured datasets. With the current worldwide shift in emphasis from qualitative to quantitative risk assessment, it is likely that future research efforts will be directed towards the integration of GIS, statistics, chemistry, and other dynamic models within a common platform to quantify human health risk at the landscape level. In this paper we review the present and likely future trends of human As exposure and GIS application in risk assessment at the landscape level.

  18. Chemistry Laboratory Safety Check

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patnoe, Richard L.

    1976-01-01

    An accident prevention/safety check list for chemistry laboratories is printed. Included are checks of equipment, facilities, storage and handling of chemicals, laboratory procedures, instruction procedures, and items to be excluded from chemical laboratories. (SL)

  19. Landscape genetics of high mountain frog metapopulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, M.A.; Dezzani, R.; Pilliod, D.S.; Storfer, A.

    2010-01-01

    Explaining functional connectivity among occupied habitats is crucial for understanding metapopulation dynamics and species ecology. Landscape genetics has primarily focused on elucidating how ecological features between observations influence gene flow. Functional connectivity, however, may be the result of both these between-site (landscape resistance) landscape characteristics and at-site (patch quality) landscape processes that can be captured using network based models. We test hypotheses of functional connectivity that include both between-site and at-site landscape processes in metapopulations of Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) by employing a novel justification of gravity models for landscape genetics (eight microsatellite loci, 37 sites, n = 441). Primarily used in transportation and economic geography, gravity models are a unique approach as flow (e.g. gene flow) is explained as a function of three basic components: distance between sites, production/attraction (e.g. at-site landscape process) and resistance (e.g. between-site landscape process). The study system contains a network of nutrient poor high mountain lakes where we hypothesized a short growing season and complex topography between sites limit R. luteiventris gene flow. In addition, we hypothesized production of offspring is limited by breeding site characteristics such as the introduction of predatory fish and inherent site productivity. We found that R. luteiventris connectivity was negatively correlated with distance between sites, presence of predatory fish (at-site) and topographic complexity (between-site). Conversely, site productivity (as measured by heat load index, at-site) and growing season (as measured by frost-free period between-sites) were positively correlated with gene flow. The negative effect of predation and positive effect of site productivity, in concert with bottleneck tests, support the presence of source-sink dynamics. In conclusion, gravity models provide a

  20. Feedbacks in human-landscape systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Anne

    2015-04-01

    As human interactions with Earth systems intensify in the "Anthropocene", understanding the complex relationships among human activity, landscape change, and societal responses to those changes is increasingly important. Interdisciplinary research centered on the theme of "feedbacks" in human-landscape systems serves as a promising focus for unraveling these interactions. Deciphering interacting human-landscape feedbacks extends our traditional approach of considering humans as unidirectional drivers of change. Enormous challenges exist, however, in quantifying impact-feedback loops in landscapes with significant human alterations. This paper illustrates an example of human-landscape interactions following a wildfire in Colorado (USA) that elicited feedback responses. After the 2012 Waldo Canyon Fire, concerns for heightened flood potential and debris flows associated with post-fire hydrologic changes prompted local landowners to construct tall fences at the base of a burned watershed. These actions changed the sediment transport regime and promoted further landscape change and human responses in a positive feedback cycle. The interactions ultimately increase flood and sediment hazards, rather than dampening the effects of fire. A simple agent-based model, capable of integrating social and hydro-geomorphological data, demonstrates how such interacting impacts and feedbacks could be simulated. Challenges for fully capturing human-landscape feedback interactions include the identification of diffuse and subtle feedbacks at a range of scales, the availability of data linking impact with response, the identification of multiple thresholds that trigger feedback mechanisms, and the varied metrics and data needed to represent both the physical and human systems. By collaborating with social scientists with expertise in the human causes of landscape change, as well as the human responses to those changes, geoscientists could more fully recognize and anticipate the coupled

  1. Landscape genetics of high mountain frog metapopulations.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Melanie A; Dezzani, R; Pilliod, D S; Storfer, A

    2010-09-01

    Explaining functional connectivity among occupied habitats is crucial for understanding metapopulation dynamics and species ecology. Landscape genetics has primarily focused on elucidating how ecological features between observations influence gene flow. Functional connectivity, however, may be the result of both these between-site (landscape resistance) landscape characteristics and at-site (patch quality) landscape processes that can be captured using network based models. We test hypotheses of functional connectivity that include both between-site and at-site landscape processes in metapopulations of Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) by employing a novel justification of gravity models for landscape genetics (eight microsatellite loci, 37 sites, n = 441). Primarily used in transportation and economic geography, gravity models are a unique approach as flow (e.g. gene flow) is explained as a function of three basic components: distance between sites, production/attraction (e.g. at-site landscape process) and resistance (e.g. between-site landscape process). The study system contains a network of nutrient poor high mountain lakes where we hypothesized a short growing season and complex topography between sites limit R. luteiventris gene flow. In addition, we hypothesized production of offspring is limited by breeding site characteristics such as the introduction of predatory fish and inherent site productivity. We found that R. luteiventris connectivity was negatively correlated with distance between sites, presence of predatory fish (at-site) and topographic complexity (between-site). Conversely, site productivity (as measured by heat load index, at-site) and growing season (as measured by frost-free period between-sites) were positively correlated with gene flow. The negative effect of predation and positive effect of site productivity, in concert with bottleneck tests, support the presence of source-sink dynamics. In conclusion, gravity models provide a

  2. Landscape predictions from cosmological vacuum selection

    SciTech Connect

    Bousso, Raphael; Bousso, Raphael; Yang, Sheng

    2007-04-23

    In Bousso-Polchinski models with hundreds of fluxes, we compute the effects of cosmological dynamics on the probability distribution of landscape vacua. Starting from generic initial conditions, we find that most fluxes are dynamically driven into a different and much narrower range of values than expected from landscape statistics alone. Hence, cosmological evolution will access only a tiny fraction of the vacua with small cosmological constant. This leads to a host of sharp predictions. Unlike other approaches to eternal inflation, the holographic measure employed here does not lead to staggering, an excessive spread of probabilities that would doom the string landscape as a solution to the cosmological constant problem.

  3. Energy landscape and fluctuations in proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frauenfelder, H.; McMahon, B. H.

    2000-10-01

    Complex systems such as biomolecules or glasses do not exist in a unique structure, but can assume a very large number of somewhat different conformations. The organization of the conformations can be described in the energy (or conformation) landscape, where individual valleys are called conformational substates. Proteins are systems where the energy landscape has been studied in some detail. Their landscape is organized in a hierarchy that contains three types of substates, taxonomic, statistical, and few-level. Conformational substates are found in a wide variety of proteins. Some of their characteristics are described and the open experimental and theoretical problems are listed.

  4. Are there Traps in Quantum Control Landscapes?

    SciTech Connect

    Pechen, Alexander N.; Tannor, David J.

    2011-03-25

    There has been great interest in recent years in quantum control landscapes. Given an objective J that depends on a control field {epsilon} the dynamical landscape is defined by the properties of the Hessian {delta}{sup 2}J/{delta}{epsilon}{sup 2} at the critical points {delta}J/{delta}{epsilon}=0. We show that contrary to recent claims in the literature the dynamical control landscape can exhibit trapping behavior due to the existence of special critical points and illustrate this finding with an example of a 3-level {Lambda} system. This observation can have profound implications for both theoretical and experimental quantum control studies.

  5. Landscape predictions from cosmological vacuum selection

    SciTech Connect

    Bousso, Raphael; Yang, I-S.

    2007-06-15

    In Bousso-Polchinski models with hundreds of fluxes, we compute the effects of cosmological dynamics on the probability distribution of landscape vacua. Starting from generic initial conditions, we find that most fluxes are dynamically driven into a different and much narrower range of values than expected from landscape statistics alone. Hence, cosmological evolution will access only a tiny fraction of the vacua with small cosmological constant. This leads to a host of sharp predictions. Unlike other approaches to eternal inflation, the holographic measure employed here does not lead to staggering, an excessive spread of probabilities that would doom the string landscape as a solution to the cosmological constant problem.

  6. [Theme: Using Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Jack; Braker, Clifton

    1982-01-01

    Pritchard discusses the opportunities for applied learning afforded by laboratories. Braker describes the evaluation of cognitive, affective, and psychomotor skills in the agricultural mechanics laboratory. (SK)

  7. Simulating forest management and its effect on landscape pattern

    Treesearch

    Eric J. Gustafson

    2017-01-01

    Landscapes are characterized by their structure (the spatial arrangement of landscape elements), their ecological function (how ecological processes operate within that structure), and the dynamics of change (disturbance and recovery). Thus, understanding the dynamic nature of landscapes and predicting their future dynamics are of particular emphasis. Landscape change...

  8. Analysis of landscape character for visual resource management

    Treesearch

    Paul F. Anderson

    1979-01-01

    Description, classification and delineation of visual landscape character are initial steps in developing visual resource management plans. Landscape characteristics identified as key factors in visual landscape analysis include land cover/land use and landform. Landscape types, which are combinations of landform and surface features, were delineated for management...

  9. Determining landscape extent for succession and disturbance simulation modeling

    Treesearch

    Eva C. Karau; Robert E. Keane

    2007-01-01

    Dividing regions into manageable landscape units presents special problems in landscape ecology and land management. Ideally, a landscape should be large enough to capture a broad range of vegetation, environmental and disturbance dynamics, but small enough to be useful for focused management objectives. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal landscape...

  10. Parsimony in landscape metrics: Strength, universality, and consistency

    Treesearch

    Samuel A. Cushman; Kevin McGarigal; Maile C. Neel

    2008-01-01

    Ecologists can be overwhelmed by the number of metrics available to quantify landscape structure. Clarification of interrelationships and redundancy is needed to guide metric selection and interpretation for the purpose of landscape monitoring. In this study we identified independent components of class- and landscape-level structure in multiple landscapes in each of...

  11. Open inflation in the landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Daisuke; Linde, Andrei; Naruko, Atsushi; Sasaki, Misao; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2011-08-01

    The open inflation scenario is attracting a renewed interest in the context of the string landscape. Since there are a large number of metastable de Sitter vacua in the string landscape, tunneling transitions to lower metastable vacua through the bubble nucleation occur quite naturally, which leads to a natural realization of open inflation. Although the deviation of Ω0 from unity is small by the observational bound, we argue that the effect of this small deviation on the large-angle CMB anisotropies can be significant for tensor-type perturbation in the open inflation scenario. We consider the situation in which there is a large hierarchy between the energy scale of the quantum tunneling and that of the slow-roll inflation in the nucleated bubble. If the potential just after tunneling is steep enough, a rapid-roll phase appears before the slow-roll inflation. In this case the power spectrum is basically determined by the Hubble rate during the slow-roll inflation. On the other hand, if such a rapid-roll phase is absent, the power spectrum keeps the memory of the high energy density there in the large angular components. Furthermore, the amplitude of large angular components can be enhanced due to the effects of the wall fluctuation mode if the bubble wall tension is small. Therefore, although even the dominant quadrupole component is suppressed by the factor (1-Ω0)2, one can construct some models in which the deviation of Ω0 from unity is large enough to produce measurable effects. We also consider a more general class of models, where the false vacuum decay may occur due to Hawking-Moss tunneling, as well as the models involving more than one scalar field. We discuss scalar perturbations in these models and point out that a large set of such models is already ruled out by observational data, unless there was a very long stage of slow-roll inflation after the tunneling. These results show that observational data allow us to test various assumptions concerning

  12. Epistasis and the Structure of Fitness Landscapes: Are Experimental Fitness Landscapes Compatible with Fisher's Geometric Model?

    PubMed

    Blanquart, François; Bataillon, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    The fitness landscape defines the relationship between genotypes and fitness in a given environment and underlies fundamental quantities such as the distribution of selection coefficient and the magnitude and type of epistasis. A better understanding of variation in landscape structure across species and environments is thus necessary to understand and predict how populations will adapt. An increasing number of experiments investigate the properties of fitness landscapes by identifying mutations, constructing genotypes with combinations of these mutations, and measuring the fitness of these genotypes. Yet these empirical landscapes represent a very small sample of the vast space of all possible genotypes, and this sample is often biased by the protocol used to identify mutations. Here we develop a rigorous statistical framework based on Approximate Bayesian Computation to address these concerns and use this flexible framework to fit a broad class of phenotypic fitness models (including Fisher's model) to 26 empirical landscapes representing nine diverse biological systems. Despite uncertainty owing to the small size of most published empirical landscapes, the inferred landscapes have similar structure in similar biological systems. Surprisingly, goodness-of-fit tests reveal that this class of phenotypic models, which has been successful so far in interpreting experimental data, is a plausible in only three of nine biological systems. More precisely, although Fisher's model was able to explain several statistical properties of the landscapes-including the mean and SD of selection and epistasis coefficients-it was often unable to explain the full structure of fitness landscapes.

  13. Energy landscapes and functions of supramolecular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tantakitti, Faifan; Boekhoven, Job; Wang, Xin; Kazantsev, Roman V.; Yu, Tao; Li, Jiahe; Zhuang, Ellen; Zandi, Roya; Ortony, Julia H.; Newcomb, Christina J.; Palmer, Liam C.; Shekhawat, Gajendra S.; de La Cruz, Monica Olvera; Schatz, George C.; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2016-04-01

    By means of two supramolecular systems--peptide amphiphiles engaged in hydrogen-bonded β-sheets, and chromophore amphiphiles driven to assemble by π-orbital overlaps--we show that the minima in the energy landscapes of supramolecular systems are defined by electrostatic repulsion and the ability of the dominant attractive forces to trap molecules in thermodynamically unfavourable configurations. These competing interactions can be selectively switched on and off, with the order of doing so determining the position of the final product in the energy landscape. Within the same energy landscape, the peptide-amphiphile system forms a thermodynamically favoured product characterized by long bundled fibres that promote biological cell adhesion and survival, and a metastable product characterized by short monodisperse fibres that interfere with adhesion and can lead to cell death. Our findings suggest that, in supramolecular systems, functions and energy landscapes are linked, superseding the more traditional connection between molecular design and function.

  14. Managing landscape disturbances to increase watershed infiltration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Agricultural land undergoing conversion to conventional urban development can drastically increase runoff and degrade water quality. A study of landscape management for improving watershed infiltration was conducted using readily available runoff data from experimental watersheds. This article focus...

  15. Tensor modes on the string theory landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    We attempt an estimate for the distribution of the tensor mode fraction r over the landscape of vacua in string theory. The dynamics of eternal inflation and quantum tunneling lead to a kind of democracy on the landscape, providing no bias towards large-field or small-field inflation regardless of the class of measure. The tensor mode fraction then follows the number frequency distributions of inflationary mechanisms of string theory over the landscape. We show that an estimate of the relative number frequencies for small-field vs large-field inflation, while unattainable on the whole landscape, may be within reach as a regional answer for warped Calabi-Yau flux compactifications of type IIB string theory.

  16. The Coolest Landscape on Mars or Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-07

    Many Martian landscapes contain features that are familiar to ones we find on Earth, like river valleys, cliffs, glaciers and volcanos. However, Mars has an exotic side too, with landscapes that are alien to Earthlings. This image shows one of these exotic locales at the South Pole. The polar cap is made from carbon dioxide (dry ice), which does not occur naturally on the Earth. The circular pits are holes in this dry ice layer that expand by a few meters each Martian year. New dry ice is constantly being added to this landscape by freezing directly out of the carbon dioxide atmosphere or falling as snow. Freezing out the atmosphere like this limits how cold the surface can get to the frost point at -130 degrees Celsius (-200 F). Nowhere on Mars can ever get any colder this, making this this coolest landscape on Earth and Mars combined. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21216

  17. Free enthalpy landscape of SrO.

    PubMed

    Schön, J C; Cancarević, Z P; Hannemann, A; Jansen, M

    2008-05-21

    Trying to predict thermodynamically stable and metastable solid compounds as function of pressure and temperature requires the global exploration of the enthalpy landscapes of chemical systems and the subsequent construction of their free enthalpy landscapes. In this work, we present a general approach to the determination of a free energy landscape. As an example, we construct the free enthalpy landscape of SrO for two different pressures on the empirical potential level and also compute various thermodynamic and elastic properties of SrO in the NaCl-, CsCl-, NiAs-, NbS-, TiP-, beta-BeO, sphalerite-, and wurtzite-structure type on an ab initio level. We employ density functional theory within the hybrid B3LYP approximation. The results show good agreement with experimental and theoretical data.

  18. Do Geographically Isolated Wetlands Influence Landscape Functions?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landscape functions such as flow generation, nutrient and sediment retention, and biodiversity support depend on the exchange of solutes, particles, energy, and organisms between elements in hydrological and habitat networks. Wetlands are important network elements, providing hyd...

  19. Behind the Bushes: Landscaped Offices Take Root

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1972

    1972-01-01

    The concept of office landscaping creates an open, flexible layout by grouping office workers, supervisors, and their stations in patterns that depend on group communication and interdepartmental work flow relationships. (Author)

  20. Energy landscapes and functions of supramolecular systems.

    PubMed

    Tantakitti, Faifan; Boekhoven, Job; Wang, Xin; Kazantsev, Roman V; Yu, Tao; Li, Jiahe; Zhuang, Ellen; Zandi, Roya; Ortony, Julia H; Newcomb, Christina J; Palmer, Liam C; Shekhawat, Gajendra S; de la Cruz, Monica Olvera; Schatz, George C; Stupp, Samuel I

    2016-04-01

    By means of two supramolecular systems--peptide amphiphiles engaged in hydrogen-bonded β-sheets, and chromophore amphiphiles driven to assemble by π-orbital overlaps--we show that the minima in the energy landscapes of supramolecular systems are defined by electrostatic repulsion and the ability of the dominant attractive forces to trap molecules in thermodynamically unfavourable configurations. These competing interactions can be selectively switched on and off, with the order of doing so determining the position of the final product in the energy landscape. Within the same energy landscape, the peptide-amphiphile system forms a thermodynamically favoured product characterized by long bundled fibres that promote biological cell adhesion and survival, and a metastable product characterized by short monodisperse fibres that interfere with adhesion and can lead to cell death. Our findings suggest that, in supramolecular systems, functions and energy landscapes are linked, superseding the more traditional connection between molecular design and function.

  1. Often Overlooked Obstacles of Office Landscaping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, William A.; Shoaf, Lawrence G.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses nine of the most serious limitations of the office landscape concept: status screens, noise level, privacy problem, hazard control, security, unjustifiable changes, thermal environment, storage, and future planning. (Author/MF)

  2. The geometry of the Waddington Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Ling-Nan; Doyle, Adele; Jang, Sumin; Ramanathan, Sharad

    2014-03-01

    We study the ``landscape'' of cell states that emerge during in vitro differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. Profiling the gene expression of cell populations captured at specific locations along different developmental trajectories, we uncover a low-dimensional landscape with an ultrametric distance structure between states; this provide a natural basis (and limit) for reconstructing cell lineages from gene expression profiles. From the correlation spectrum of this landscape, we infer ``directions'' in gene expression along which cells transition from one state to another, as well as signaling pathways that control these transitions. Finally, we study the dynamics of cell movement on this landscape using an ES cell line where yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) has been fused to Otx2, a transcription factor that plays an important role during early development.

  3. Partnering with the PESP Landscaping Initiative

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Landscaping Initiative works with its partners to educate do-it-yourself homeowners, lawn care customers, retailers and consumers at point-of-sale, and schools and school districts about pest management alternatives and proper pesticide use.

  4. Approaches to Contemporary Campus Landscape Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carol

    1994-01-01

    A discussion of college campus landscaping looks at some principles and considerations in planning for hard vs. soft surfaces, campus furniture needs and design, security, and ornamental vegetation. Some examples of good planning are noted. (MSE)

  5. Toronto: The Evolution of an Urban Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spelt, Jacob

    1984-01-01

    In the course of history, the Toronto, Canada, landscape has acquired many interesting and attractive features. The history of its urban renewal projects, suburban expansion, inner city change, residential preservation and stabilization, and central city development is examined. (RM)

  6. LANDSCAPE SCALE INDICATORS OF MINING ACTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological indicators of stress are used by the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) to quantify the status, trends and changes of ecological goods and services. The purpose of developing landscape indicators of stress is to identify environmental and ecological...

  7. Do Geographically Isolated Wetlands Influence Landscape Functions?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landscape functions such as flow generation, nutrient and sediment retention, and biodiversity support depend on the exchange of solutes, particles, energy, and organisms between elements in hydrological and habitat networks. Wetlands are important network elements, providing hyd...

  8. Toronto: The Evolution of an Urban Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spelt, Jacob

    1984-01-01

    In the course of history, the Toronto, Canada, landscape has acquired many interesting and attractive features. The history of its urban renewal projects, suburban expansion, inner city change, residential preservation and stabilization, and central city development is examined. (RM)

  9. The Early Years: Looking at Landscapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2017-01-01

    This column discusses resources and science topics related to students in grades preK to 2. In this month's issue students study landscape surfaces to recognize changes due to human impacts or natural phenomena.

  10. Vacuum selection on the string landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Tetteh-Lartey, Edward

    2007-05-15

    I examine some nonanthropic approaches to the string landscape. These approaches are based on finding the initial conditions of the universe using the wave function of the multiverse to select the most probable vacuum out of this landscape. All approaches tackled so far seem to have their own problems and there is no clear-cut alternative to anthropic reasoning. I suggest that finding the initial conditions may be irrelevant since all possible vacua on the landscape are possible initial state conditions and eternal inflation could generate all the other vacua. We are now left to reason out why we are observing the small value of the cosmological constant. I address this issue in the context of noncritical string theory in which all values of the cosmological constant on the landscape are departures from the critical equilibrium state.

  11. Implementing forest landscape restoration, a practitioner's guide

    Treesearch

    John Stanturf; Stephanie Mansourian; Michael (eds.). Kleine

    2017-01-01

    Forest landscape restoration (FLR) in a nutshell FLR was defined in 2000 by a group of 30 specialists as “a planned process that aims to regain ecological integrity and enhance human wellbeing in deforested or degraded landscapes”. It does not seek to recreate past ecosystems given the uncertainty concerning the “past”, the significantly altered conditions of the...

  12. Landscape genetics: where are we now?

    PubMed

    Storfer, Andrew; Murphy, Melanie A; Spear, Stephen F; Holderegger, Rolf; Waits, Lisette P

    2010-09-01

    Landscape genetics has seen rapid growth in number of publications since the term was coined in 2003. An extensive literature search from 1998 to 2008 using keywords associated with landscape genetics yielded 655 articles encompassing a vast array of study organisms, study designs and methodology. These publications were screened to identify 174 studies that explicitly incorporated at least one landscape variable with genetic data. We systematically reviewed this set of papers to assess taxonomic and temporal trends in: (i) geographic regions studied; (ii) types of questions addressed; (iii) molecular markers used; (iv) statistical analyses used; and (v) types and nature of spatial data used. Overall, studies have occurred in geographic regions proximal to developed countries and more commonly in terrestrial vs. aquatic habitats. Questions most often focused on effects of barriers and/or landscape variables on gene flow. The most commonly used molecular markers were microsatellites and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLPs), with AFLPs used more frequently in plants than animals. Analysis methods were dominated by Mantel and assignment tests. We also assessed differences among journals to evaluate the uniformity of reporting and publication standards. Few studies presented an explicit study design or explicit descriptions of spatial extent. While some landscape variables such as topographic relief affected most species studied, effects were not universal, and some species appeared unaffected by the landscape. Effects of habitat fragmentation were mixed, with some species altering movement paths and others unaffected. Taken together, although some generalities emerged regarding effects of specific landscape variables, results varied, thereby reinforcing the need for species-specific work. We conclude by: highlighting gaps in knowledge and methodology, providing guidelines to authors and reviewers of landscape genetics studies, and suggesting promising future

  13. The current landscape for direct-to-consumer genetic testing: legal, ethical, and policy issues.

    PubMed

    Hogarth, Stuart; Javitt, Gail; Melzer, David

    2008-01-01

    This review surveys the developing market for direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic tests and examines the range of companies and tests available, the regulatory landscape, the concerns raised about DTC testing, and the calls for enhanced oversight. We provide a comparative overview of the situation, particularly in the United States and Europe, by exploring the regulatory frameworks for medical devices and clinical laboratories. We also discuss a variety of other mechanisms such as general controls on advertising and consumer law mechanisms.

  14. Living Landscapes: Present and Past Interactions Between Coastal Sediments and Biota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariotti, G.

    2014-12-01

    Since the dawn of life, sedimentary landscapes have been interacting with biota. This is particularly evident in coastal environments, where sediment transport and production are strongly influenced by microbes, plants and animals. Here I will discuss examples ranging from erosion of modern coastal wetlands to evidence of early life in sedimentary rocks. Using mathematical models and laboratory experiments I will investigate processes and present new perspectives at the border between geomorphology, ecology and paleontology.

  15. Environmental change in moorland landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, J.; Shotbolt, L.; Bonn, A.; Burt, T. P.; Chapman, P. J.; Dougill, A. J.; Fraser, E. D. G.; Hubacek, K.; Irvine, B.; Kirkby, M. J.; Reed, M. S.; Prell, C.; Stagl, S.; Stringer, L. C.; Turner, A.; Worrall, F.

    2007-05-01

    Moorlands are unique environments found in uplands of the temperate zone including in the UK, New Zealand and Ireland, and in some high altitude tropical zones such as the Andean páramos. Many have been managed through grazing, burning or drainage practices. However, there are a number of other environmental and social factors that are likely to drive changes in management practice over the next few decades. Some moorlands have been severely degraded and in some countries conservation and restoration schemes are being attempted, particularly to revegetate bare soils. Native or non-native woodland planting may increase in some moorland environments while atmospheric deposition of many pollutants may also vary. Moorland environments are very sensitive to changes in management, climate or pollution. This paper reviews how environmental management change, such as changes in grazing or burning practices, may impact upon moorland processes based on existing scientific understanding. It also reviews the impacts of changes in climate and atmospheric deposition chemistry. The paper focuses on the UK moorlands as a case study of moorland landscapes that are in different states of degradation. Future research that is required to improve our understanding of moorland processes is outlined. The paper shows that there is a need for more holistic and spatial approaches to understanding moorland processes and management. There is also a need to develop approaches that combine understanding of interlinked social and natural processes.

  16. Landscape resistance to frog movements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazerolle, M.J.; Desrochers, A.

    2005-01-01

    An animal's capacity to recolonize a patch depends on at least two components: its ability to detect the patch and its ability to reach it. However, the disruption of such processes by anthropic disturbances could explain low animal abundance patterns observed by many investigators in certain landscapes. Through field experiments, we compared the orientation and homing success of northern green frogs (Rana clamitans melanota Rafinesque, 1820) and northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens Schreber, 1782) translocated across disturbed or undisturbed surfaces. We also monitored the path selected by individuals when presented with a choice between a short distance over a disturbed surface and a longer, undisturbed route. Finally, we measured the water loss and behaviour of frogs on substrates resulting from anthropogenic disturbances and a control. When presented with a choice, 72% of the frogs avoided disturbed surfaces. Although able to orient towards the pond of capture when translocated on disturbed surfaces, frogs had a lower probability of homing successfully to the pond than when translocated at a similar distance on an undisturbed surface. Frogs lost the most water on substrates associated with disturbance and in the absence of cover. Our data illustrate that anthropically disturbed areas devoid of cover, such as mined peatlands and agricultural fields, disrupt the ability of frogs to reach habitat patches and are likely explanations to their reduced abundance patterns in such environments. ?? 2005 NRC Canada.

  17. Astrobiology and the Risk Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirkovic, M. M.

    2013-09-01

    We live in the epoch of explosive development of astrobiology, a novel interdisciplinary field dealing with the origin, evolution, and the future of life. While at first glance its relevance for risk analysis is small, there is an increasing number of crossover problems and thematic areas which stem from considerations of observation selection effects and the cosmic future of humanity, as well as better understanding of our astrophysical environment and the open nature of the Earth system. In considering the totality of risks facing any intelligent species in the most general cosmic context (a natural generalization of the concept of global catastrophic risks or GCRs), there is a complex dynamical hierarchy of natural and anthropogenic risks, often tightly interrelated. I shall argue that this landscape-like structure can be defined in the space of astrobiological/SETI parameters and that it is a concept capable of unifying different strands of thought and research, a working concept and not only a metaphor. Fermi's Paradox or the "Great Silence" problem represents the crucial boundary condition on generic evolutionary trajectories of individual intelligent species; I briefly consider the conditions of its applicability as far as quantification of GCRs is concerned. Overall, such a perspective would strengthen foundations upon which various numerical models of the future of humanity can be built; the lack of such quantitative models has often been cited as the chief weakness of the entire GCR enterprise.

  18. Thermal Characteristics of Urban Landscapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Quattrochi, Dale A.

    1998-01-01

    Although satellite data are very useful for analysis of the urban heat island effect at a coarse scale, they do not lend themselves to developing a better understanding of which surfaces across the city contribute or drive the development of the urban heat island effect. Analysis of thermal energy responses for specific or discrete surfaces typical of the urban landscape (e.g., asphalt, building rooftops, vegetation) requires measurements at a very fine spatial scale (i.e., less than 15 m) to adequately resolve these surfaces and their attendant thermal energy regimes. Additionally, very fine scale spatial resolution thermal infrared data, such as that obtained from aircraft, are very useful for demonstrating to planning officials, policy makers, and the general populace the benefits of the urban forest. These benefits include mitigating the urban heat island effect, making cities more aesthetically pleasing and more habitable environments, and aid in overall cooling of the community. High spatial resolution thermal data are required to quantify how artificial surfaces within the city contribute to an increase in urban heating and the benefit of cool surfaces (e.g., surface coatings that reflect much of the incoming solar radiation as opposed to absorbing it thereby lowering urban temperatures). The TRN (thermal response number) is a technique using aircraft remotely sensed surface temperatures to quantify the thermal response of urban surfaces. The TRN was used to quantify the thermal response of various urban surface types ranging from completely vegetated surfaces to asphalt and concrete parking lots for Huntsville, AL.

  19. A non-Gaussian landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Nurmi, Sami; Byrnes, Christian T.; Tasinato, Gianmassimo E-mail: ctb22@sussex.ac.uk

    2013-06-01

    Primordial perturbations with wavelengths greater than the observable universe shift the effective background fields in our observable patch from their global averages over the inflating space. This leads to a landscape picture where the properties of our observable patch depend on its location and may significantly differ from the expectation values predicted by the underlying fundamental inflationary model. We show that if multiple fields are present during inflation, this may happen even if our horizon exit would be preceded by only a few e-foldings of inflation. Non-Gaussian statistics are especially affected: for example models of local non-Gaussianity predicting |f{sub NL}{sup 0}| >> 10 over the entire inflating volume can have a probability up to a few tens of percent to generate a non-detectable bispectrum in our observable patch |f{sub NL}{sup obs.}|∼<10. In this work we establish systematic connections between the observable local properties of primordial perturbations and the global properties of the inflating space which reflect the underlying high energy physics. We study in detail the implications of both a detection and non-detection of primordial non-Gaussianity by Planck, and discover novel ways of characterising the naturalness of different observational configurations.

  20. Geoheritage, geotourism and cultural landscapes in Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, John E.

    2015-04-01

    Geoheritage is closely linked with many aspects of cultural heritage and the development of tourism in Scotland. Historically, aesthetic appreciation of the physical landscape and links with literature and art formed the foundation for tourism during the 18th and 19th centuries. Today, exploration of the cultural links between geodiversity and landscape is providing new opportunities for raising awareness of geoheritage through literature, poetry, art and the built heritage. Interpreting the cultural dimension of geodiversity can enable people to connect with geodiversity through different experiences and a renewed sense of wonder about the physical landscape and the creative inspiration provided by geodiversity. It can also link geodiversity to cultural roots and sense of place, allowing exploration of different connections between people and the natural world. Such experiential engagement is promoted through the development of Geoparks. It requires thinking about how interpretation can add value to people's experiences and provide involvement that evokes a sense of wonder about the physical landscape. This means encouraging new and memorable experiential ways of interpreting the landscape and communicating its geological stories, not simply presenting information. Rediscovering a sense of wonder about the physical landscape through cultural links can enable wider public appreciation of geoheritage and help to develop greater support for geoconservation.

  1. Guidelines for Estimating Unmetered Landscaping Water Use

    SciTech Connect

    McMordie Stoughton, Kate

    2010-07-28

    The document lays-out step by step instructions to estimate landscaping water using two alternative approaches: evapotranspiration method and irrigation audit method. The evapotranspiration method option calculates the amount of water needed to maintain a healthy turf or landscaped area for a given location based on the amount of water transpired and evaporated from the plants. The evapotranspiration method offers a relatively easy “one-stop-shop” for Federal agencies to develop an initial estimate of annual landscape water use. The document presents annual irrigation factors for 36 cities across the U.S. that represents the gallons of irrigation required per square foot for distinct landscape types. By following the steps outlined in the document, the reader can choose a location that is a close match their location and landscape type to provide a rough estimate of annual irrigation needs without the need to research specific data on their site. The second option presented in the document is the irrigation audit method, which is the physical measurement of water applied to landscaped areas through irrigation equipment. Steps to perform an irrigation audit are outlined in the document, which follow the Recommended Audit Guidelines produced by the Irrigation Association.[5] An irrigation audit requires some knowledge on the specific procedures to accurately estimate how much water is being consumed by the irrigation equipment.

  2. THE PEAKS AND GEOMETRY OF FITNESS LANDSCAPES

    PubMed Central

    CRONA, KRISTINA; GREENE, DEVIN; BARLOW, MIRIAM

    2012-01-01

    Fitness landscapes are central in the theory of adaptation. Recent work compares global and local properties of fitness landscapes. It has been shown that multi-peaked fitness landscapes have a local property called reciprocal sign epistasis interactions. The converse is not true. We show that no condition phrased in terms of reciprocal sign epistasis interactions only, implies multiple peaks. We give a sufficient condition for multiple peaks phrased in terms of two-way interactions. This result is surprising since it has been claimed that no sufficient local condition for multiple peaks exist. We show that our result cannot be generalized to sufficient conditions for three or more peaks. Our proof depends on fitness graphs, where nodes represent genotypes and where arrows point toward more fit genotypes. We also use fitness graphs in order to give a new brief proof of the equivalent characterizations of fitness landscapes lacking genetic constraints on accessible mutational trajectories. We compare a recent geometric classification of fitness landscape based on triangulations of polytopes with qualitative aspects of gene interactions. One observation is that fitness graphs provide information not contained in the geometric classification. We argue that a qualitative perspective may help relating theory of fitness landscapes and empirical observations. PMID:23036916

  3. Restoring Forest Landscapes: Important Lessons Learnt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansourian, Stephanie; Vallauri, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Forest restoration at large scales, or landscapes, is an approach that is increasingly relevant to the practice of environmental conservation. However, implementation remains a challenge; poor monitoring and lesson learning lead to similar mistakes being repeated. The World Wildlife Fund (WWF), the global conservation organization, recently took stock of its 10 years of implementation of forest landscape restoration. A significant body of knowledge has emerged from the work of the WWF and its partners in the different countries, which can be of use to the wider conservation community, but for this to happen, lessons need to be systematically collected and disseminated in a coherent manner to the broader conservation and development communities and, importantly, to policy makers. We use this review of the WWF's experiences and compare and contrast it with other relevant and recent literature to highlight 11 important lessons for future large-scale forest restoration interventions. These lessons are presented using a stepwise approach to the restoration of forested landscapes. We identify the need for long-term commitment and funding, and a concerted and collaborative effort for successful forest landscape restoration. Our review highlights that monitoring impact within landscape-scale forest restoration remains inadequate. We conclude that forest restoration within landscapes is a challenging yet important proposition that has a real but undervalued place in environmental conservation in the twenty-first century.

  4. A Multispecies Framework for Landscape Conservation Planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwenk, W.S.; Donovan, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Rapidly changing landscapes have spurred the need for quantitative methods for conservation assessment and planning that encompass large spatial extents. We devised and tested a multispecies framework for conservation planning to complement single-species assessments and ecosystem-level approaches. Our framework consisted of 4 elements: sampling to effectively estimate population parameters, measuring how human activity affects landscapes at multiple scales, analyzing the relation between landscape characteristics and individual species occurrences, and evaluating and comparing the responses of multiple species to landscape modification. We applied the approach to a community of terrestrial birds across 25,000 km2 with a range of intensities of human development. Human modification of land cover, road density, and other elements of the landscape, measured at multiple spatial extents, had large effects on occupancy of the 67 species studied. Forest composition within 1 km of points had a strong effect on occupancy of many species and a range of negative, intermediate, and positive associations. Road density within 1 km of points, percent evergreen forest within 300 m, and distance from patch edge were also strongly associated with occupancy for many species. We used the occupancy results to group species into 11 guilds that shared patterns of association with landscape characteristics. Our multispecies approach to conservation planning allowed us to quantify the trade-offs of different scenarios of land-cover change in terms of species occupancy. ?? 2011 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. Soil erosion dynamics response to landscape pattern.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Wei; Skidmore, Andrew K; Hao, Fanghua; Wang, Tiejun

    2010-02-15

    Simulating soil erosion variation with a temporal land use database reveals long-term fluctuations in landscape patterns, as well as priority needs for soil erosion conservation. The application of a multi-year land use database in support of a Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) led to an accurate assessment, from 1977 to 2006, of erosion in the upper watershed of the Yellow River. At same time, the impacts of land use and landscape service features on soil erosion load were assessed. A series of supervised land use classifications of Landsat images characterized variations in land use and landscape patterns over three decades. The SWAT database was constructed with soil properties, climate and elevation data. Using water flow and sand density data as parameters, regional soil erosion load was simulated. A numerical statistical model was used to relate soil erosion to land use and landscape. The results indicated that decadal decrease of grassland areas did not pose a significant threat to soil erosion, while the continual increase of bare land, water area and farmland increased soil erosion. Regional landscape variation also had a strong relationship with erosion. Patch level landscape analyses demonstrated that larger water area led to more soil erosion. The patch correlation indicated that contagious grassland patches reduced soil erosion yield. The increased grassland patches led to more patch edges, in turn increasing the sediment transportation from the patch edges. The findings increase understanding of the temporal variation in soil erosion processes, which is the basis for preventing local pollution.

  6. Nonequilibrium landscape theory of neural networks.

    PubMed

    Yan, Han; Zhao, Lei; Hu, Liang; Wang, Xidi; Wang, Erkang; Wang, Jin

    2013-11-05

    The brain map project aims to map out the neuron connections of the human brain. Even with all of the wirings mapped out, the global and physical understandings of the function and behavior are still challenging. Hopfield quantified the learning and memory process of symmetrically connected neural networks globally through equilibrium energy. The energy basins of attractions represent memories, and the memory retrieval dynamics is determined by the energy gradient. However, the realistic neural networks are asymmetrically connected, and oscillations cannot emerge from symmetric neural networks. Here, we developed a nonequilibrium landscape-flux theory for realistic asymmetrically connected neural networks. We uncovered the underlying potential landscape and the associated Lyapunov function for quantifying the global stability and function. We found the dynamics and oscillations in human brains responsible for cognitive processes and physiological rhythm regulations are determined not only by the landscape gradient but also by the flux. We found that the flux is closely related to the degrees of the asymmetric connections in neural networks and is the origin of the neural oscillations. The neural oscillation landscape shows a closed-ring attractor topology. The landscape gradient attracts the network down to the ring. The flux is responsible for coherent oscillations on the ring. We suggest the flux may provide the driving force for associations among memories. We applied our theory to rapid-eye movement sleep cycle. We identified the key regulation factors for function through global sensitivity analysis of landscape topography against wirings, which are in good agreements with experiments.

  7. Simulating natural selection in landscape genetics.

    PubMed

    Landguth, E L; Cushman, S A; Johnson, N A

    2012-03-01

    Linking landscape effects to key evolutionary processes through individual organism movement and natural selection is essential to provide a foundation for evolutionary landscape genetics. Of particular importance is determining how spatially-explicit, individual-based models differ from classic population genetics and evolutionary ecology models based on ideal panmictic populations in an allopatric setting in their predictions of population structure and frequency of fixation of adaptive alleles. We explore initial applications of a spatially-explicit, individual-based evolutionary landscape genetics program that incorporates all factors--mutation, gene flow, genetic drift and selection--that affect the frequency of an allele in a population. We incorporate natural selection by imposing differential survival rates defined by local relative fitness values on a landscape. Selection coefficients thus can vary not only for genotypes, but also in space as functions of local environmental variability. This simulator enables coupling of gene flow (governed by resistance surfaces), with natural selection (governed by selection surfaces). We validate the individual-based simulations under Wright-Fisher assumptions. We show that under isolation-by-distance processes, there are deviations in the rate of change and equilibrium values of allele frequency. The program provides a valuable tool (cdpop v1.0; http://cel.dbs.umt.edu/software/CDPOP/) for the study of evolutionary landscape genetics that allows explicit evaluation of the interactions between gene flow and selection in complex landscapes.

  8. Laboratory Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Henricks, Walter H

    2015-06-01

    Laboratory information systems (LISs) supply mission-critical capabilities for the vast array of information-processing needs of modern laboratories. LIS architectures include mainframe, client-server, and thin client configurations. The LIS database software manages a laboratory's data. LIS dictionaries are database tables that a laboratory uses to tailor an LIS to the unique needs of that laboratory. Anatomic pathology LIS (APLIS) functions play key roles throughout the pathology workflow, and laboratories rely on LIS management reports to monitor operations. This article describes the structure and functions of APLISs, with emphasis on their roles in laboratory operations and their relevance to pathologists.

  9. Assessing the habitat suitability of agricultural landscapes for characteristic breeding bird guilds using landscape metrics.

    PubMed

    Borges, Friederike; Glemnitz, Michael; Schultz, Alfred; Stachow, Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    Many of the processes behind the decline of farmland birds can be related to modifications in landscape structure (composition and configuration), which can partly be expressed quantitatively with measurable or computable indices, i.e. landscape metrics. This paper aims to identify statistical relationships between the occurrence of birds and the landscape structure. We present a method that combines two comprehensive procedures: the "landscape-centred approach" and "guild classification". Our study is based on more than 20,000 individual bird observations based on a 4-year bird monitoring approach in a typical agricultural area in the north-eastern German lowlands. Five characteristic bird guilds, each with three characteristic species, are defined for the typical habitat types of that area: farmland, grassland, hedgerow, forest and settlement. The suitability of each sample plot for each guild is indicated by the level of persistence (LOP) of occurrence of three respective species. Thus, the sample plots can be classified as "preferred" or "less preferred" depending on the lower and upper quartiles of the LOP values. The landscape structure is characterized by 16 different landscape metrics expressing various aspects of landscape composition and configuration. For each guild, the three landscape metrics with the strongest rank correlation with the LOP values and that are not mutually dependent were identified. For four of the bird guilds, the classification success was better than 80%, compared with only 66% for the grassland bird guild. A subset of six landscape metrics proved to be the most meaningful and sufficiently classified the sample areas with respect to bird guild suitability. In addition, derived logistic functions allowed the production of guild-specific habitat suitability maps for the whole landscape. The analytical results show that the proposed approach is appropriate to assess the habitat suitability of agricultural landscapes for characteristic

  10. Sustainable pest regulation in agricultural landscapes: a review on landscape composition, biodiversity and natural pest control.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, F J J A; Booij, C J H; Tscharntke, T

    2006-07-22

    Agricultural intensification has resulted in a simplification of agricultural landscapes by the expansion of agricultural land, enlargement of field size and removal of non-crop habitat. These changes are considered to be an important cause of the rapid decline in farmland biodiversity, with the remaining biodiversity concentrated in field edges and non-crop habitats. The simplification of landscape composition and the decline of biodiversity may affect the functioning of natural pest control because non-crop habitats provide requisites for a broad spectrum of natural enemies, and the exchange of natural enemies between crop and non-crop habitats is likely to be diminished in landscapes dominated by arable cropland. In this review, we test the hypothesis that natural pest control is enhanced in complex patchy landscapes with a high proportion of non-crop habitats as compared to simple large-scale landscapes with little associated non-crop habitat. In 74% and 45% of the studies reviewed, respectively, natural enemy populations were higher and pest pressure lower in complex landscapes versus simple landscapes. Landscape-driven pest suppression may result in lower crop injury, although this has rarely been documented. Enhanced natural enemy activity was associated with herbaceous habitats in 80% of the cases (e.g. fallows, field margins), and somewhat less often with wooded habitats (71%) and landscape patchiness (70%). The similar contributions of these landscape factors suggest that all are equally important in enhancing natural enemy populations. We conclude that diversified landscapes hold most potential for the conservation of biodiversity and sustaining the pest control function.

  11. Sustainable pest regulation in agricultural landscapes: a review on landscape composition, biodiversity and natural pest control

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, F.J.J.A; Booij, C.J.H; Tscharntke, T

    2006-01-01

    Agricultural intensification has resulted in a simplification of agricultural landscapes by the expansion of agricultural land, enlargement of field size and removal of non-crop habitat. These changes are considered to be an important cause of the rapid decline in farmland biodiversity, with the remaining biodiversity concentrated in field edges and non-crop habitats. The simplification of landscape composition and the decline of biodiversity may affect the functioning of natural pest control because non-crop habitats provide requisites for a broad spectrum of natural enemies, and the exchange of natural enemies between crop and non-crop habitats is likely to be diminished in landscapes dominated by arable cropland. In this review, we test the hypothesis that natural pest control is enhanced in complex patchy landscapes with a high proportion of non-crop habitats as compared to simple large-scale landscapes with little associated non-crop habitat. In 74% and 45% of the studies reviewed, respectively, natural enemy populations were higher and pest pressure lower in complex landscapes versus simple landscapes. Landscape-driven pest suppression may result in lower crop injury, although this has rarely been documented. Enhanced natural enemy activity was associated with herbaceous habitats in 80% of the cases (e.g. fallows, field margins), and somewhat less often with wooded habitats (71%) and landscape patchiness (70%). The similar contributions of these landscape factors suggest that all are equally important in enhancing natural enemy populations. We conclude that diversified landscapes hold most potential for the conservation of biodiversity and sustaining the pest control function. PMID:16790403

  12. Laboratory Animal Facilities. Laboratory Design Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonas, Albert M.

    1965-01-01

    Design of laboratory animal facilities must be functional. Accordingly, the designer should be aware of the complex nature of animal research and specifically the type of animal research which will be conducted in a new facility. The building of animal-care facilities in research institutions requires special knowledge in laboratory animal…

  13. Landscape moderation of biodiversity patterns and processes - eight hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Tscharntke, Teja; Tylianakis, Jason M; Rand, Tatyana A; Didham, Raphael K; Fahrig, Lenore; Batáry, Péter; Bengtsson, Janne; Clough, Yann; Crist, Thomas O; Dormann, Carsten F; Ewers, Robert M; Fründ, Jochen; Holt, Robert D; Holzschuh, Andrea; Klein, Alexandra M; Kleijn, David; Kremen, Claire; Landis, Doug A; Laurance, William; Lindenmayer, David; Scherber, Christoph; Sodhi, Navjot; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Thies, Carsten; van der Putten, Wim H; Westphal, Catrin

    2012-08-01

    Understanding how landscape characteristics affect biodiversity patterns and ecological processes at local and landscape scales is critical for mitigating effects of global environmental change. In this review, we use knowledge gained from human-modified landscapes to suggest eight hypotheses, which we hope will encourage more systematic research on the role of landscape composition and configuration in determining the structure of ecological communities, ecosystem functioning and services. We organize the eight hypotheses under four overarching themes. Section A: 'landscape moderation of biodiversity patterns' includes (1) the landscape species pool hypothesis-the size of the landscape-wide species pool moderates local (alpha) biodiversity, and (2) the dominance of beta diversity hypothesis-landscape-moderated dissimilarity of local communities determines landscape-wide biodiversity and overrides negative local effects of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity. Section B: 'landscape moderation of population dynamics' includes (3) the cross-habitat spillover hypothesis-landscape-moderated spillover of energy, resources and organisms across habitats, including between managed and natural ecosystems, influences landscape-wide community structure and associated processes and (4) the landscape-moderated concentration and dilution hypothesis-spatial and temporal changes in landscape composition can cause transient concentration or dilution of populations with functional consequences. Section C: 'landscape moderation of functional trait selection' includes (5) the landscape-moderated functional trait selection hypothesis-landscape moderation of species trait selection shapes the functional role and trajectory of community assembly, and (6) the landscape-moderated insurance hypothesis-landscape complexity provides spatial and temporal insurance, i.e. high resilience and stability of ecological processes in changing environments. Section D: 'landscape constraints on

  14. IML-CZO: Critical Zone Observatory for Intensively Managed Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Praveen; Papanicolaou, Thanos

    2014-05-01

    Intensively managed landscapes, regions of significant land use change, serve as a cradle for economic prosperity. However, the intensity of change is responsible for unintended deterioration of our land and water environments. By understanding present day dynamics in the context of long-term co-evolution of the Critical Zone comprising of the landscape, soil and biota, IML-CZO aims to support the assessment of short- and long-term resilience of the crucial ecological, hydrological and climatic services provided by the Critical Zone. An observational network of three sites in Illinois, Iowa, and Minnesota that capture the geological diversity of the low relief, glaciated, and tile-drained landscape will drive novel scientific and technological advances. IML-CZO will provide leadership in developing the next generation of scientists and practitioners, and informing management strategies aimed at reducing the vulnerability of the system to present and emerging trends in human activities. IML-CZO, one of the nine observatories funded by the United States National Science Foundation (NSF), consists of two core sites: the 3,690- sq. km. Upper Sangamon River Basin in Illinois and 270-sq. km. Clear Creek Watershed in Iowa, along with the 44,000- sq. km. Minnesota River Basin as third participating site. These sites together are characterized by low-relief landscapes with poorly drained soils and represent a broad range of physiographic variations found throughout the glaciated Midwest, and thereby provide an opportunity to advance understanding of the CZO in this important region. Through novel measurements, analysis and modeling, IML-CZO aims to address the following questions: • How do different time scales of geologic evolution and anthropogenic influence interact to determine the trajectory of CZ structure and function? • How is the co-evolution of biota, consisting of both vegetation and microbes, and soil affected due to intensive management? • How have

  15. Context dependence in complex adaptive landscapes: frequency and trait-dependent selection surfaces within an adaptive radiation of Caribbean pupfishes.

    PubMed

    Martin, Christopher H

    2016-06-01

    The adaptive landscape provides the foundational bridge between micro- and macroevolution. One well-known caveat to this perspective is that fitness surfaces depend on ecological context, including competitor frequency, traits measured, and resource abundance. However, this view is based largely on intraspecific studies. It is still unknown how context-dependence affects the larger features of peaks and valleys on the landscape which ultimately drive speciation and adaptive radiation. Here, I explore this question using one of the most complex fitness landscapes measured in the wild in a sympatric pupfish radiation endemic to San Salvador Island, Bahamas by tracking survival and growth of laboratory-reared F2 hybrids. I present new analyses of the effects of competitor frequency, dietary isotopes, and trait subsets on this fitness landscape. Contrary to expectations, decreasing competitor frequency increased survival only among very common phenotypes, whereas less common phenotypes rarely survived despite few competitors, suggesting that performance, not competitor frequency, shapes large-scale features of the fitness landscape. Dietary isotopes were weakly correlated with phenotype and growth, but did not explain additional survival variation. Nonlinear fitness surfaces varied substantially among trait subsets, revealing one-, two-, and three-peak landscapes, demonstrating the complexity of selection in the wild, even among similar functional traits. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. Landscape evolution by subglacial quarrying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugelvig, Sofie V.; Egholm, David L.; Iverson, Neal R.

    2014-05-01

    In glacial landscape evolution models, subglacial erosion rates are often related to basal sliding or ice discharge by a power-law. This relation can be justified for bedrock abrasion because rock debris transported in the basal ice drives the erosion. However, a simple relation between rates of sliding and erosion is not well supported when considering models for quarrying of rock blocks from the bed. Iverson (2012) introduced a new subglacial quarrying model that operates from the theory of adhesive wear. The model is based on the fact that cavities, with a high level of bedrock differential stress, form along the lee side of bed obstacles when the sliding velocity is to high to allow for the ice to creep around the obstacles. The erosion rate is quantified by considering the likelihood of rock fracturing on topographic bumps. The model includes a statistical treatment of the bedrock weakness: larger rock bodies have lower strengths since they have greater possibility of containing a large flaw [Jaeger and Cook, 1979]. Inclusion of this effect strongly influences the erosion rates and questions the dominant role of sliding rate in standard models for subglacial erosion. Effective pressure, average bedslope, and bedrock fracture density are primary factors that, in addition to sliding rate, influence the erosion rate of this new quarrying model [Iverson, 2012]. We have implemented the quarrying model in a depth-integrated higher-order ice-sheet model [Egholm et al. 2011], coupled to a model for glacial hydrology. In order to also include the effects of cavitation on the subglacial sliding rate, we use a sliding law proposed by Schoof (2005), which includes an upper limit for the stress that can be supported at the bed. Computational experiments show that the combined influence of pressure, sliding rate and bed slope leads to realistically looking landforms such as U-shaped valleys, cirques, hanging valleys and overdeepenings. Compared to model results using a

  17. Mechanical changes in thawing permafrost rocks and their influence on rock stability at the Zugspitze summit, Germany - a research concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamot, Philipp; Scandroglio, Riccardo; Krautblatter, Michael

    2015-04-01

    During the last century, alpine permafrost warmed up by 0.5 to 0.8 °C in the upper decameters. Its degradation can influence the stability of rock slopes in alpine environments. An increasing number of rockfalls and rockslides of all magnitudes are reported to originate from permafrost-affected rock faces which reveal massive ice at their detachment scarps after failure. Discontinuity patterns and their mechanical properties present a key control of rock slope stability. These fractures are considered to experience considerable mechanical changes during transition from frozen to unfrozen state: the shear resistance of rocks is reduced in terms of decreased critical fracture toughness of intact rock bridges and shear strength; compressive strength and tensile strength of the intact rock are reduced in the same way. The impact of rising rock temperature on rock-mechanical properties which control early stages of destabilization remains poorly understood. In this study we combine rock-mechanical testing in the laboratory with geotechnical, kinematic and geophysical monitoring at the Zugspitze summit, Germany, to investigate the influence of thawing rock on its rock-mechanical properties focusing on mechanisms of destabilization along discontinuities. Our investigations will contribute to a better rock-ice-mechanical process understanding of degrading permafrost rocks. To assess stability conditions at the Zugspitze summit we conduct field work at an unstable area of about 104 m3 of rock at the crest at 2885 m a.s.l. that is affected by degrading permafrost. This is indicated by a persistent ice filled cave with direct contact to the area of instability. Our preliminary work consists of i) continuous and discontinuous fracture displacement measurements since 2009 which reveal deformation rates of 0.06 to 1.7 cm/year, ii) electrical resistivity (ERT) and seismic refraction tomography (SRT) in the August of 2014 and iii) uniaxial compressive strength and tensile

  18. Analytical Tools Interface for Landscape Assessments (ATtILA) for landscape metrics

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATtILA is easy to use ArcView extension that calculates many commonly used landscape metrics. By providing an intuitive interface, the extension provides the ability to generate landscape metrics to a wide audience regardless of their GIS knowledge level.

  19. The Q-Sort method: use in landscape assessment research and landscape planning

    Treesearch

    David G. Pitt; Ervin H. Zube

    1979-01-01

    The assessment of visual quality inherently involves the measurement of perceptual response to landscape. The Q-Sort Method is a psychometric technique which produces reliable and valid interval measurements of people's perceptions of landscape visual quality as depicted in photographs. It is readily understood by participants across a wide range of age groups and...

  20. Multiple ecosystem services landscape index: a tool for multifunctional landscapes conservation.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Loinaz, Gloria; Alday, Josu G; Onaindia, Miren

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of ecosystems to human well-being has been widely recognised. Taking into account existing trade-offs between ecosystem services (ES) at the farm scale and the dependence of multiple ES on processes that take place at the landscape scale, long-term preservation of multifunctional landscapes must be a priority. Studies carried out from such perspective, and those that develop appropriate indicators, could provide useful tools for integrating ES in landscape planning. In this study we propose a new integrative environmental indicator based on the ES provided by the landscape and named "multiple ecosystem services landscape index" (MESLI). Because synergies and trade-offs between ES are produced at regional or local levels, being different from those perceived at larger scales, MESLI was developed at municipality level. Furthermore, in order to identify main drivers of change in ES provision at the landscape scale an analysis of the relationship between the environmental and the socioeconomic characteristics of the municipalities was carried out. The study was located in the Basque Country and the results demonstrated that the MESLI index is a good tool to measure landscape multifunctionality at local scales. It is effective evaluating landscapes, distinguishing between municipalities based on ES provision, and identifying the drivers of change and their effects. This information about ES provisioning at the local level is usually lacking; therefore, MESLI would be very useful for policy-makers and land managers because it provides relevant information to local scale decision-making.

  1. Beyond the conventional: meeting the challenges of landscape governance within the European Landscape Convention?

    PubMed

    Scott, Alister

    2011-10-01

    Academics and policy makers seeking to deconstruct landscape face major challenges conceptually, methodologically and institutionally. The meaning(s), identity(ies) and management of landscape are controversial and contested. The European Landscape Convention provides an opportunity for action and change set within new governance agendas addressing interdisciplinarity and spatial planning. This paper critically reviews the complex web of conceptual and methodological frameworks that characterise landscape planning and management and then focuses on emerging landscape governance in Scotland within a mixed method approach involving policy analyses, semi-structured interviews and best practice case studies. Using Dower's (2008) criteria from the Articles of the European Landscape Convention, the results show that whilst some progress has been made in landscape policy and practice, largely through the actions of key individuals and champions, there are significant institutional hurdles and resource limitations to overcome. The need to mainstream positive landscape outcomes requires a significant culture change where a one-size-fits-all approach does not work. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Relationships between avian richness and landscape structure at multiple scales using multiple landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitchell, M.S.; Rutzmoser, S.H.; Wigley, T.B.; Loehle, C.; Gerwin, J.A.; Keyser, P.D.; Lancia, R.A.; Perry, R.W.; Reynolds, C.J.; Thill, R.E.; Weih, R.; White, D.; Wood, P.B.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about factors that structure biodiversity on landscape scales, yet current land management protocols, such as forest certification programs, place an increasing emphasis on managing for sustainable biodiversity at landscape scales. We used a replicated landscape study to evaluate relationships between forest structure and avian diversity at both stand and landscape-levels. We used data on bird communities collected under comparable sampling protocols on four managed forests located across the Southeastern US to develop logistic regression models describing relationships between habitat factors and the distribution of overall richness and richness of selected guilds. Landscape models generated for eight of nine guilds showed a strong relationship between richness and both availability and configuration of landscape features. Diversity of topographic features and heterogeneity of forest structure were primary determinants of avian species richness. Forest heterogeneity, in both age and forest type, were strongly and positively associated with overall avian richness and richness for most guilds. Road density was associated positively but weakly with avian richness. Landscape variables dominated all models generated, but no consistent patterns in metrics or scale were evident. Model fit was strong for neotropical migrants and relatively weak for short-distance migrants and resident species. Our models provide a tool that will allow managers to evaluate and demonstrate quantitatively how management practices affect avian diversity on landscapes.

  3. Dynamic-landscape metapopulation models predict complex response of wildlife populations to climate and landscape change

    Treesearch

    Thomas W. Bonnot; Frank R. Thompson; Joshua J. Millspaugh

    2017-01-01

    The increasing need to predict how climate change will impact wildlife species has exposed limitations in how well current approaches model important biological processes at scales at which those processes interact with climate. We used a comprehensive approach that combined recent advances in landscape and population modeling into dynamic-landscape metapopulation...

  4. Functional decay in tree community within tropical fragmented landscapes: Effects of landscape-scale forest cover.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Santos, Larissa; Benchimol, Maíra; Mayfield, Margaret M; Faria, Deborah; Pessoa, Michaele S; Talora, Daniela C; Mariano-Neto, Eduardo; Cazetta, Eliana

    2017-01-01

    As tropical rainforests are cleared, forest remnants are increasingly isolated within agricultural landscapes. Understanding how forest loss impacts on species diversity can, therefore, contribute to identifying the minimum amount of habitat required for biodiversity maintenance in human-modified landscapes. Here, we evaluate how the amount of forest cover, at the landscape scale, affects patterns of species richness, abundance, key functional traits and common taxonomic families of adult trees in twenty Brazilian Atlantic rainforest landscapes. We found that as forest cover decreases, both tree community richness and abundance decline, without exhibiting a threshold. At the family-level, species richness and abundance of the Myrtaceae and Sapotaceae were also negatively impacted by the percent forest remaining at the landscape scale. For functional traits, we found a reduction in shade-tolerant, animal-dispersed and small-seeded species following a decrease in the amount of forest retained in landscapes. These results suggest that the amount of forest in a landscape is driving non-random losses in phylogenetic and functional tree diversity in Brazil's remaining Atlantic rainforests. Our study highlights potential restraints on the conservation value of Atlantic rainforest remnants in deforested landscapes in the future.

  5. Comparing the landscape level perceptual abilities of forest sciurids in fragmented agricultural landscapes*

    Treesearch

    Patrick A. Zollner

    2000-01-01

    Perceptual range is the maximum distance from which an animal can perceive the presence of remote landscape elements such as patches of habitat. Such perceptual abilities are of interest because they influence the probability that an animal will successfully disperse to a new patch in a landscape. Furthermore, understanding how perceptual range differs between species...

  6. Methods for integrated modeling of landscape change: Interior Northwest Landscape Analysis System.

    Treesearch

    Jane L. Hayes; Alan. A. Ager; R. James Barbour

    2004-01-01

    The Interior Northwest Landscape Analysis System (INLAS) links a number of resource, disturbance, and landscape simulations models to examine the interactions of vegetative succession, management, and disturbance with policy goals. The effects of natural disturbance like wildfire, herbivory, forest insects and diseases, as well as specific management actions are...

  7. Functional decay in tree community within tropical fragmented landscapes: Effects of landscape-scale forest cover

    PubMed Central

    Benchimol, Maíra; Mayfield, Margaret M.; Faria, Deborah; Pessoa, Michaele S.; Talora, Daniela C.; Mariano-Neto, Eduardo; Cazetta, Eliana

    2017-01-01

    As tropical rainforests are cleared, forest remnants are increasingly isolated within agricultural landscapes. Understanding how forest loss impacts on species diversity can, therefore, contribute to identifying the minimum amount of habitat required for biodiversity maintenance in human-modified landscapes. Here, we evaluate how the amount of forest cover, at the landscape scale, affects patterns of species richness, abundance, key functional traits and common taxonomic families of adult trees in twenty Brazilian Atlantic rainforest landscapes. We found that as forest cover decreases, both tree community richness and abundance decline, without exhibiting a threshold. At the family-level, species richness and abundance of the Myrtaceae and Sapotaceae were also negatively impacted by the percent forest remaining at the landscape scale. For functional traits, we found a reduction in shade-tolerant, animal-dispersed and small-seeded species following a decrease in the amount of forest retained in landscapes. These results suggest that the amount of forest in a landscape is driving non-random losses in phylogenetic and functional tree diversity in Brazil’s remaining Atlantic rainforests. Our study highlights potential restraints on the conservation value of Atlantic rainforest remnants in deforested landscapes in the future. PMID:28403166

  8. Integrating landscape ecology and geoinformatics to decipher landscape dynamics for regional planning.

    PubMed

    Dikou, Angela; Papapanagiotou, Evangelos; Troumbis, Andreas

    2011-09-01

    We used remote sensing and GIS in conjunction with multivariate statistical methods to: (i) quantify landscape composition (land cover types) and configuration (patch density, diversity, fractal dimension, contagion) for five coastal watersheds of Kalloni gulf, Lesvos Island, Greece, in 1945, 1960, 1971, 1990 and 2002/2003, (ii) evaluate the relative importance of physical (slope, geologic substrate, stream order) and human (road network, population density) variables on landscape composition and configuration, and (iii) characterize processes that led to land cover changes through land cover transitions between these five successive periods in time. Distributions of land cover types did not differ among the five time periods at the five watersheds studied because the largest cumulative changes between 1945 and 2002/2003 did not take place at dominant land cover types. Landscape composition related primarily to the physical attributes of the landscape. Nevertheless, increase in population density and the road network were found to increase heterogeneity of the landscape mosaic (patchiness), complexity of patch shape (fractal dimension), and patch disaggregation (contagion). Increase in road network was also found to increase landscape diversity due to the creation of new patches. The main processes involved in land cover changes were plough-land abandonment and ecological succession. Landscape dynamics during the last 50 years corroborate the ecotouristic-agrotouristic model for regional development to reverse trends in agricultural land abandonment and human population decline and when combined with hypothetical regulatory approaches could predict how this landscape could develop in the future, thus, providing a valuable tool to regional planning.

  9. When do glaciated landscapes form?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppes, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Glacial erosion is a fundamental link between climate and the tectonic and surface processes that create topography. Mountain ranges worldwide have undergone large-scale modification due the erosive action of ice masses, yet the mechanisms that control the timing of this modification and the rate by which ice erodes remain poorly understood. Available data report a wide range of erosion rates from individual ice masses over varying timescales, from the modern to orogenic. Recent numerical modeling efforts have focused on replicating the processes that produce the geomorphic signatures of glacial landscapes. Central to these models is a simple index that relates erosion rate to ice dynamics. To provide a quantitative test of the links between glacial erosion, sliding and ice discharge, we examined explicitly the factors controlling modern glacier erosion rates across climatic regimes, from Patagonia to the Antarctic Peninsula. We find that modern, basin-averaged erosion rates vary by three orders of magnitude, from 1->10 mm yr-1 in Patagonia to 0.01-<0.1 mm yr-1 in the AP, largely as a function of temperature and basal thermal regime. Erosion rates also increase non-linearly with both the sliding speed and the ice flux through the ELA, in accord with theories of glacial erosion. Notably, erosion rates decrease by over two orders of magnitude between temperate and polar glaciers with similar discharge rates. The difference in erosion rates between temperate and colder glaciers of similar shape and size is primarily related to the abundance of meltwater accessing the bed. Since all glaciers worldwide have experienced colder than current climatic conditions, the 100-fold decrease in long-term relative to modern erosion rates may in part reflect the temporal averaging of temperate and polar conditions over the lifecycle of these glaciers. Hence, climatic variation, more than the extent of ice cover or tectonic changes, controls the pace at which glaciers shape mountains.

  10. Landscape response to climate change: quantifying a regime shift in transport processes at the onset of re-organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Arvind; Tejedor, Alejandro; Densmore, Alexander; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    2016-04-01

    Quantifying the ways in which landscapes are reorganized under changing allogenic forcing, including changes in the patterns, rates, and processes of erosion and deposition, is still an open question. Data at the time scales and resolutions required to undertake such a question are typically not available for real landscapes, making physical experiments attractive and powerful means for studying the dynamics of landscape evolution. To this aim, we capitalize on a series of controlled laboratory experiments conducted at the St. Anthony Falls laboratory at the University of Minnesota. The eXperimental Landscape Evolution (XLE) facility consists of an erosion box (0.5 x 0.5 x 0.3 m3) wherein two main variables can be controlled: uplift rate and rainfall intensity. Topographic data were collected at a temporal resolution of 5 mins and spatial resolution of 0.5 mm as the landscape approached steady state (under constant uplift and precipitation rate), and during the transient state following an increase in the precipitation rate by a factor of 5. In order to quantify the changes observed during the onset of reorganization in the transient state, we perform a connectivity and clustering analysis of the erosional and depositional events, showing strikingly different spatial patterns on landscape evolution under steady-state (SS) and transient-state (TS) conditions, even when the time under SS is renormalized to match the total volume of eroded and deposited sediment in TS. Our results suggest a regime shift in the behavior of transport processes within the fluvial regime of the landscape, from supply-limited to transport-limited, during the onset of the TS. Results on the evolution of the spatial patterns of erosional and depositional events when the time advances within the TS are also discussed.

  11. Observations of an aeolian landscape: From surface to orbit in Gale Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Mackenzie; Kocurek, Gary

    2016-12-01

    Landscapes derived solely from aeolian processes are rare on Earth because of the dominance of subaqueous processes. In contrast, aeolian-derived landscapes should typify Mars because of the absence of liquid water, the long exposure times of surfaces, and the presence of wind as the default geomorphic agent. Using the full range of available orbital and Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity images, wind-formed features in Gale Crater were cataloged and analyzed in order to characterize the aeolian landscape and to derive the evolution of the crater wind regime over time. Inferred wind directions show a dominance of regional northerly winds over geologic time-scales, but a dominance of topography-driven katabatic winds in modern times. Landscapes in Gale Crater show a preponderance of aeolian features at all spatial scales. Interpreted processes forming these features include first-cycle aeolian abrasion of bedrock, pervasive deflation, organization of available sand into bedforms, abundant cratering, and gravity-driven wasting, all of which occur over a background of slow physical weathering. The observed landscapes are proposed to represent a spectrum of progressive surface denudation from fractured bedrock, to retreating bedrock-capped mesas, to remnant hills capped by bedrock rubble, to desert pavement plains. This model of landscape evolution provides the mechanism by which northerly winds acting over ∼3 Ga excavated tens of thousands of cubic kilometers of material from the once sediment-filled crater, thus carving the intra-crater moat and exhuming Mount Sharp (Aeolis Mons). The current crater surface is relatively sand-starved, indicating that potential sediment deflation from the crater is greater than sediment production, and that most exhumation of Mount Sharp occurred in the ancient geologic past.

  12. Do geographically isolated wetlands influence landscape functions?

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Matthew J.; Creed, Irena F.; Alexander, Laurie; Basu, Nandita B.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Craft, Christopher; D’Amico, Ellen; DeKeyser, Edward; Fowler, Laurie; Golden, Heather E.; Jawitz, James W.; Kalla, Peter; Kirkman, L. Katherine; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan; Leibowitz, Scott G.; Lewis, David Bruce; Marton, John; McLaughlin, Daniel L.; Mushet, David M.; Raanan-Kiperwas, Hadas; Rains, Mark C.; Smith, Lora; Walls, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs), those surrounded by uplands, exchange materials, energy, and organisms with other elements in hydrological and habitat networks, contributing to landscape functions, such as flow generation, nutrient and sediment retention, and biodiversity support. GIWs constitute most of the wetlands in many North American landscapes, provide a disproportionately large fraction of wetland edges where many functions are enhanced, and form complexes with other water bodies to create spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the timing, flow paths, and magnitude of network connectivity. These attributes signal a critical role for GIWs in sustaining a portfolio of landscape functions, but legal protections remain weak despite preferential loss from many landscapes. GIWs lack persistent surface water connections, but this condition does not imply the absence of hydrological, biogeochemical, and biological exchanges with nearby and downstream waters. Although hydrological and biogeochemical connectivity is often episodic or slow (e.g., via groundwater), hydrologic continuity and limited evaporative solute enrichment suggest both flow generation and solute and sediment retention. Similarly, whereas biological connectivity usually requires overland dispersal, numerous organisms, including many rare or threatened species, use both GIWs and downstream waters at different times or life stages, suggesting that GIWs are critical elements of landscape habitat mosaics. Indeed, weaker hydrologic connectivity with downstream waters and constrained biological connectivity with other landscape elements are precisely what enhances some GIW functions and enables others. Based on analysis of wetland geography and synthesis of wetland functions, we argue that sustaining landscape functions requires conserving the entire continuum of wetland connectivity, including GIWs. PMID:26858425

  13. Effect of Landscape Structure on Species Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Paulo R. A.; Rosas, Alexandre; de Oliveira, Viviane M.; Gomes, Marcelo A. F.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of habitat fragmentation and their implications for biodiversity is a central issue in conservation biology which still lacks an overall comprehension. There is not yet a clear consensus on how to quantify fragmentation even though it is quite common to couple the effects of habitat loss with habitat fragmentation on biodiversity. Here we address the spatial patterns of species distribution in fragmented landscapes, assuming a neutral community model. To build up the fragmented landscapes, we employ the fractional Brownian motion approach, which in turn permits us to tune the amount of habitat loss and degree of clumping of the landscape independently. The coupling between the neutral community model, here simulated by means of the coalescent method, and fractal neutral landscape models enables us to address how the species–area relationship changes as the spatial patterns of a landscape is varied. The species–area relationship is one of the most fundamental laws in ecology, considered as a central tool in conservation biology, and is used to predict species loss following habitat disturbances. Our simulation results indicate that the level of clumping has a major role in shaping the species–area relationship. For instance, more compact landscapes are more sensitive to the effects of habitat loss and speciation rate. Besides, the level of clumping determines the existence and extension of the power-law regime which is expected to hold at intermediate scales. The distributions of species abundance are strongly influenced by the degree of fragmentation. We also show that the first and second commonest species have approximately self-similar spatial distributions across scales, with the fractal dimensions of the support of the first and second commonest species being very robust to changes in the spatial patterns of the landscape. PMID:23840490

  14. Fractal Landscape Algorithms for Environmental Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, H.; Moran, S.

    2014-12-01

    Natural science and geographical research are now able to take advantage of environmental simulations that more accurately test experimental hypotheses, resulting in deeper understanding. Experiments affected by the natural environment can benefit from 3D landscape simulations capable of simulating a variety of terrains and environmental phenomena. Such simulations can employ random terrain generation algorithms that dynamically simulate environments to test specific models against a variety of factors. Through the use of noise functions such as Perlin noise, Simplex noise, and diamond square algorithms, computers can generate simulations that model a variety of landscapes and ecosystems. This study shows how these algorithms work together to create realistic landscapes. By seeding values into the diamond square algorithm, one can control the shape of landscape. Perlin noise and Simplex noise are also used to simulate moisture and temperature. The smooth gradient created by coherent noise allows more realistic landscapes to be simulated. Terrain generation algorithms can be used in environmental studies and physics simulations. Potential studies that would benefit from simulations include the geophysical impact of flash floods or drought on a particular region and regional impacts on low lying area due to global warming and rising sea levels. Furthermore, terrain generation algorithms also serve as aesthetic tools to display landscapes (Google Earth), and simulate planetary landscapes. Hence, it can be used as a tool to assist science education. Algorithms used to generate these natural phenomena provide scientists a different approach in analyzing our world. The random algorithms used in terrain generation not only contribute to the generating the terrains themselves, but are also capable of simulating weather patterns.

  15. Species mobility and landscape context determine the importance of local and landscape-level attributes.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Montemayor, Elisa; Watts, Kevin; Macgregor, Nicholas A; Lopez-Gallego, Zeltia; J Park, Kirsty

    2017-07-01

    Conservation strategies to tackle habitat loss and fragmentation require actions at the local (e.g., improving/expanding existing habitat patches) and landscape level (e.g., creating new habitat in the matrix). However, the relative importance of these actions for biodiversity is still poorly understood, leading to debate on how to prioritize conservation activities. Here, we assess the relative importance of local vs. landscape-level attributes in determining the use of woodlands by bats in fragmented landscapes; we also compare the role of habitat amount in the surrounding landscape per se vs. a combination of both habitat amount and configuration and explore whether the relative importance of these attributes varies with species mobility and landscape context. We conducted acoustic surveys in 102 woodland patches in the UK that form part of the WrEN project (www.wren-project.com), a large-scale natural experiment designed to study the effects of 160 yr of woodland creation on biodiversity and inform landscape-scale conservation. We used multivariate analysis and a model-selection approach to assess the relative importance of local (e.g., vegetation structure) and landscape-level (e.g., amount/configuration of surrounding land types) attributes on bat occurrence and activity levels. Species mobility was an important trait determining the relative importance of local vs. landscape-level attributes for different bat species. Lower mobility species were most strongly influenced by local habitat quality; the landscape became increasingly important for higher mobility species. At the landscape-scale, a combination of habitat amount and configuration appeared more important than habitat amount alone for lower mobility species, while the opposite was observed for higher mobility species. Regardless of species mobility, landscape-level attributes appeared more important for bats in a more homogeneous and intensively farmed landscape. Conservation strategies involving

  16. Landscape heterogeneity as an ecological filter of species traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duflot, Rémi; Georges, Romain; Ernoult, Aude; Aviron, Stéphanie; Burel, Françoise

    2014-04-01

    Landscape heterogeneity is a major driver of biodiversity in agricultural areas and represents an important parameter in conservation strategies. However, most landscape ecology studies measure gamma diversity of a single habitat type, despite the assessment of multiple habitats at a landscape scale being more appropriate. This study aimed to determine the effects of landscape composition and spatial configuration on life-history trait distribution in carabid beetle and herbaceous plant communities. Here, we assessed the gamma diversity of carabid beetles and plants by sampling three dominant habitats (woody habitats, grasslands and crops) across 20 landscapes in western France. RLQ and Fourth Corner three-table analyses were used to assess the association of dispersal, phenology, reproduction and trophic level traits with landscape characteristics. Landscape composition and configuration were both significant in explaining functional composition. Carabid beetles and plants showed similar response regarding phenology, i.e. open landscapes were associated with earlier breeding species. Carabid beetle dispersal traits exhibited the strongest relationship with landscape structure; for instance, large and apterous species preferentially inhabited woody landscapes, whereas small and macropterous species preferentially inhabited open landscapes. Heavy seeded plant species dominated in intensified agricultural landscapes (high % crops), possibly due to the removal of weeds (which are usually lightweight seeded species). The results of this study emphasise the roles of landscape composition and configuration as ecological filters and the importance of preserving a range of landscape types to maintain functional biodiversity at regional scales.

  17. Environmental laboratory design

    SciTech Connect

    Newill, R.F.

    1996-11-01

    An effective, efficient laboratory building, operating at a reasonable cost within performance parameters set by the owner, determines quality control, employee morale and retention, operating costs, maintenance costs and renovation costs for the next thirty years. For better or worse, a new laboratory is managerial policy cast in stone. This paper, based on the author`s environmental laboratory design experience, offers an understanding of the relationship between costs, flexibility, function and quality in environmental laboratory design and construction. The comments are generally structured around publicly owned laboratories, with notes regarding private laboratories where appropriate.

  18. Graph representation of protein free energy landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Minghai; Duan, Mojie; Fan, Jue; Huo, Shuanghong; Han, Li

    2013-11-14

    The thermodynamics and kinetics of protein folding and protein conformational changes are governed by the underlying free energy landscape. However, the multidimensional nature of the free energy landscape makes it difficult to describe. We propose to use a weighted-graph approach to depict the free energy landscape with the nodes on the graph representing the conformational states and the edge weights reflecting the free energy barriers between the states. Our graph is constructed from a molecular dynamics trajectory and does not involve projecting the multi-dimensional free energy landscape onto a low-dimensional space defined by a few order parameters. The calculation of free energy barriers was based on transition-path theory using the MSMBuilder2 package. We compare our graph with the widely used transition disconnectivity graph (TRDG) which is constructed from the same trajectory and show that our approach gives more accurate description of the free energy landscape than the TRDG approach even though the latter can be organized into a simple tree representation. The weighted-graph is a general approach and can be used on any complex system.

  19. Policy Interactions in Human-Landscape Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlak, Andrea K.

    2014-01-01

    Given the heightened pace and extent of human interactions with landscapes, there is increasing recognition of the interdependence of hydrogeomorphological, ecological, and human systems in understanding human-landscape interactions. There is also widespread agreement for greater integration across disciplinary boundaries to generate new knowledge urgently needed for theory building to understand, predict, and respond to rapidly changing human-landscape systems. The development of new conceptual frameworks, methods, tools, and collaborations linking across the natural and social sciences are key elements to such integration. In an effort to contribute to a broader conceptual framework for human-landscape systems, this paper describes how environmental policy research has contributed to four integrative themes—thresholds and tipping points; spatial scales and boundaries; feedback loops; and time scales and lags—developed by participants in an NSF-sponsored interdisciplinary workshop. As a broad and heterogeneous body of literature, environmental policy research reflects a diversity of methodological and theoretical approaches around institutions, actors, processes, and ideas. We integrate across multiple subfields and research programs to help identify complementarities in research that may support future interdisciplinary collaborative work. We conclude with a discussion of future research questions to help advance greater interdisciplinary research around human-landscape systems.

  20. Union of phylogeography and landscape genetics

    PubMed Central

    Rissler, Leslie J.

    2016-01-01

    Phylogeography and landscape genetics have arisen within the past 30 y. Phylogeography is said to be the bridge between population genetics and systematics, and landscape genetics the bridge between landscape ecology and population genetics. Both fields can be considered as simply the amalgamation of classic biogeography with genetics and genomics; however, they differ in the temporal, spatial, and organismal scales addressed and the methodology used. I begin by briefly summarizing the history and purview of each field and suggest that, even though landscape genetics is a younger field (coined in 2003) than phylogeography (coined in 1987), early studies by Dobzhansky on the “microgeographic races” of Linanthus parryae in the Mojave Desert of California and Drosophila pseudoobscura across the western United States presaged the fields by over 40 y. Recent advances in theory, models, and methods have allowed researchers to better synthesize ecological and evolutionary processes in their quest to answer some of the most basic questions in biology. I highlight a few of these novel studies and emphasize three major areas ripe for investigation using spatially explicit genomic-scale data: the biogeography of speciation, lineage divergence and species delimitation, and understanding adaptation through time and space. Examples of areas in need of study are highlighted, and I end by advocating a union of phylogeography and landscape genetics under the more general field: biogeography. PMID:27432989

  1. [Landscape ecological planning of Jiaozuo city].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Fang, Chuanglin; Li, Hongwei

    2005-09-01

    With the application of the principles of landscape ecology and the techniques of geographic information systems, the landscape of Jiaozuo city was divided into six types, i. e., farmland, garden plot, woodland, residential and industrial area, waters, and others. The landscape diversity, dominance, fragmentation, and isolation indexes were calculated by models and GIS to analyze the spatial patterns of these landscape types. Based on the optimization of landscape spatial patterns, a pattern for developing a rational and natural ecosystem in Jiaozuo city was proposed, i. e., keeping four or five large natural patches, planning small artificial green patches, linking the large and small patches by various corridors to ensure the ecosystem inside the city to circulate well, combining residential areas properly to form a urban troop with Jiaozuo town as the center and with seven surrounding towns joined through highways to form a network city pattern. After doing these, urban built-up areas could be linked each other, and inlayed in a natural ecological matrix. This pattern could strengthen the ecological connection, raise the stability of the ecosystem, and maintain the balance of urban ecological system.

  2. Metapopulation persistence in random fragmented landscapes.

    PubMed

    Grilli, Jacopo; Barabás, György; Allesina, Stefano

    2015-05-01

    Habitat destruction and land use change are making the world in which natural populations live increasingly fragmented, often leading to local extinctions. Although local populations might undergo extinction, a metapopulation may still be viable as long as patches of suitable habitat are connected by dispersal, so that empty patches can be recolonized. Thus far, metapopulations models have either taken a mean-field approach, or have modeled empirically-based, realistic landscapes. Here we show that an intermediate level of complexity between these two extremes is to consider random landscapes, in which the patches of suitable habitat are randomly arranged in an area (or volume). Using methods borrowed from the mathematics of Random Geometric Graphs and Euclidean Random Matrices, we derive a simple, analytic criterion for the persistence of the metapopulation in random fragmented landscapes. Our results show how the density of patches, the variability in their value, the shape of the dispersal kernel, and the dimensionality of the landscape all contribute to determining the fate of the metapopulation. Using this framework, we derive sufficient conditions for the population to be spatially localized, such that spatially confined clusters of patches act as a source of dispersal for the whole landscape. Finally, we show that a regular arrangement of the patches is always detrimental for persistence, compared to the random arrangement of the patches. Given the strong parallel between metapopulation models and contact processes, our results are also applicable to models of disease spread on spatial networks.

  3. Tourism and landscape in South Tyrol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreisel, Werner; Reeh, Tobias

    2011-12-01

    An increasing number of the people responsible for promoting tourism understand the necessity of landscape conservation and sustainable development. Sustainability and the maintenance of regional identity depend on the kind of tourism that takes account of the landscape and stops short of a blind modification of it, for instance through the installation of inappropriate large-scale tourist infrastructure. Since the 1970s South Tyrol, Italy's most northern province (Autonome Provinz Bozen/Südtirol; Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano/Alto Adige), has engaged in tourism of outstanding quality, centreed on the existing landscape potential. Until today this has been the basis for successful tourism development. In the meantime however, there have been calls in South Tyrol for a quantitative expansion, founded on the implementation of an artificial touristic infrastructure and products. As is the case in many other alpine regions, this could be detrimental to the quality of the landscape. Supported by tourism research and based on the authors' own long-standing experience, this article analyzes the development and trends of tourism in South Tyrol from a geographical perspective and takes a critical look at the various planning prospects and the problems which might evolve for the landscape and for tourism marketing.

  4. Managing riverine landscapes as meta-ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tockner, K.

    2014-12-01

    Aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are tightly linked through energy, material, information, and organism flows. At the landscape scale, these reciprocal flows are controlled by the composition, configuration, boundary conditions and linkage of individual ecosystem types, thereby forming so-called meta-ecosystems. The relative importance of individual ecosystem types depends on the intrinsic properties (so-called "ecosystem traits"), the setting within the landscape, and the characteristics of interfaces that control cross-system fluxes. For example, the juxtaposition of particular ecosystem types (i.e. their composition and configuration) may alter the magnitude of landscape processes as well as the directions of flow among ecosystem types. Therefore, the meta-ecosystem concept provides a framework to quantify ecosystem diversity, a neglected component of biodiversity, and to test its effects on genetic and species diversity as well as the functional performance in coupled ecosystems. Given their topographic position at the lowest point in the landscape, aquatic ecosystems are particularly susceptible to influences exerted by their surrounding terrestrial environment, both the immediately adjacent riparian zones and the entire catchment that they drain. Questions that need to be tackled may include: What are the consequences of exchange pulses between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems on the functional performance of individual ecosystems? What are the mechanisms and processes underlying structural and functional biodiversity at aquatic-terrestrial interfaces? In this respect, the meta-ecosystem concept might be very helpful in landscape management and in ecosystem design and engineering.

  5. Hydroecological Interfaces between Landscapes and Riverscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetzlaff, D.; Soulsby, C.

    2015-12-01

    Investigating the links between in-stream flow, its variability and the consequences for stream biota has a long history. However, understanding of the importance of landscape scale hydrology in controlling the structure and function of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems is much less developed. Such fundamental scientific understanding is required for integrated and sustainable management of landscapes and riverscapes that maintains both their ecosystem services and biological integrity at multiple scales. This talk will show how the spatial and temporal dynamics of hydro-ecological interfaces between riverscapes and landscapes can be quantitatively assessed through a number of novel, integrated approaches. Environmental tracers are useful tools to understand the functioning of ecohydrological systems at the landscape scale in terms of understand flow paths, sources of water and associated biogeochemical interactions. The use of a suite of novel approaches, such as high resolution LIDAR and GIS; multiple tracers; novel sensor technologies and their integration into tracer-aided models allows us to understand the complex connections and interlinkages between landscapes and riverscapes across scales. Finally, applying such approaches along hydroclimatic gradients in inter-site comparisons provides the opportunity to conceptualise findings from individual research sites within a global context and a large scale basis for understanding the effects of environmental change.

  6. Graph representation of protein free energy landscape.

    PubMed

    Li, Minghai; Duan, Mojie; Fan, Jue; Han, Li; Huo, Shuanghong

    2013-11-14

    The thermodynamics and kinetics of protein folding and protein conformational changes are governed by the underlying free energy landscape. However, the multidimensional nature of the free energy landscape makes it difficult to describe. We propose to use a weighted-graph approach to depict the free energy landscape with the nodes on the graph representing the conformational states and the edge weights reflecting the free energy barriers between the states. Our graph is constructed from a molecular dynamics trajectory and does not involve projecting the multi-dimensional free energy landscape onto a low-dimensional space defined by a few order parameters. The calculation of free energy barriers was based on transition-path theory using the MSMBuilder2 package. We compare our graph with the widely used transition disconnectivity graph (TRDG) which is constructed from the same trajectory and show that our approach gives more accurate description of the free energy landscape than the TRDG approach even though the latter can be organized into a simple tree representation. The weighted-graph is a general approach and can be used on any complex system.

  7. Nonequilibrium landscape theory of neural networks

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Han; Zhao, Lei; Hu, Liang; Wang, Xidi; Wang, Erkang; Wang, Jin

    2013-01-01

    The brain map project aims to map out the neuron connections of the human brain. Even with all of the wirings mapped out, the global and physical understandings of the function and behavior are still challenging. Hopfield quantified the learning and memory process of symmetrically connected neural networks globally through equilibrium energy. The energy basins of attractions represent memories, and the memory retrieval dynamics is determined by the energy gradient. However, the realistic neural networks are asymmetrically connected, and oscillations cannot emerge from symmetric neural networks. Here, we developed a nonequilibrium landscape–flux theory for realistic asymmetrically connected neural networks. We uncovered the underlying potential landscape and the associated Lyapunov function for quantifying the global stability and function. We found the dynamics and oscillations in human brains responsible for cognitive processes and physiological rhythm regulations are determined not only by the landscape gradient but also by the flux. We found that the flux is closely related to the degrees of the asymmetric connections in neural networks and is the origin of the neural oscillations. The neural oscillation landscape shows a closed-ring attractor topology. The landscape gradient attracts the network down to the ring. The flux is responsible for coherent oscillations on the ring. We suggest the flux may provide the driving force for associations among memories. We applied our theory to rapid-eye movement sleep cycle. We identified the key regulation factors for function through global sensitivity analysis of landscape topography against wirings, which are in good agreements with experiments. PMID:24145451

  8. Constructing and exploring wells of energy landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre; Lesne, Annick

    2005-04-01

    Landscape paradigm is ubiquitous in physics and other natural sciences, but it has to be supplemented with both quantitative and qualitatively meaningful tools for analyzing the topography of a given landscape. We here consider dynamic explorations of the relief and introduce as basic topographic features "wells of duration T and altitude y." We determine an intrinsic exploration mechanism governing the evolutions from an initial state in the well up to its rim in a prescribed time, whose finite-difference approximations on finite grids yield a constructive algorithm for determining the wells. Our main results are thus (i) a quantitative characterization of landscape topography rooted in a dynamic exploration of the landscape, (ii) an alternative to stochastic gradient dynamics for performing such an exploration, (iii) a constructive access to the wells, and (iv) the determination of some bare dynamic features inherent to the landscape. The mathematical tools used here are not familiar in physics: They come from set-valued analysis (differential calculus of set-valued maps and differential inclusions) and viability theory (capture basins of targets under evolutionary systems) that have been developed during the last two decades; we therefore propose a minimal Appendix exposing them at the end of this paper to bridge the possible gap.

  9. Odor Landscapes in Turbulent Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celani, Antonio; Villermaux, Emmanuel; Vergassola, Massimo

    2014-10-01

    The olfactory system of male moths is exquisitely sensitive to pheromones emitted by females and transported in the environment by atmospheric turbulence. Moths respond to minute amounts of pheromones, and their behavior is sensitive to the fine-scale structure of turbulent plumes where pheromone concentration is detectible. The signal of pheromone whiffs is qualitatively known to be intermittent, yet quantitative characterization of its statistical properties is lacking. This challenging fluid dynamics problem is also relevant for entomology, neurobiology, and the technological design of olfactory stimulators aimed at reproducing physiological odor signals in well-controlled laboratory conditions. Here, we develop a Lagrangian approach to the transport of pheromones by turbulent flows and exploit it to predict the statistics of odor detection during olfactory searches. The theory yields explicit probability distributions for the intensity and the duration of pheromone detections, as well as their spacing in time. Predictions are favorably tested by using numerical simulations, laboratory experiments, and field data for the atmospheric surface layer. The resulting signal of odor detections lends itself to implementation with state-of-the-art technologies and quantifies the amount and the type of information that male moths can exploit during olfactory searches.

  10. The genomic landscape of phaeochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Aidan; Benn, Diana; Clifton-Bligh, Roderick; Robinson, Bruce; Trainer, Alison H; James, Paul; Hogg, Annette; Waldeck, Kelly; George, Joshy; Li, Jason; Fox, Stephen B; Gill, Anthony J; McArthur, Grant; Hicks, Rodney J; Tothill, Richard W

    2015-05-01

    Phaeochromocytomas (PCCs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) are rare neural crest-derived tumours originating from adrenal chromaffin cells or extra-adrenal sympathetic and parasympathetic tissues. More than a third of PCC/PGL cases are associated with heritable syndromes involving 13 or more known genes. These genes have been broadly partitioned into two groups based on pseudo-hypoxic and receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signalling pathways. Many of these genes can also become somatically mutated, although up to one third of sporadic cases have no known genetic driver. Furthermore, little is known of the genes that co-operate with known driver genes to initiate and drive tumourigenesis. To explore the genomic landscape of PCC/PGL, we applied exome sequencing, high-density SNP-array analysis, and RNA sequencing to 36 PCCs and four functional PGL tumours. All tumours displayed low mutation frequency, in contrast to frequent large segmental copy-number alterations, aneuploidy, and evidence for chromothripsis in one case. Multi-region sampling of one benign familial PCC tumour provided evidence for the timing of mutations during tumourigenesis and ongoing clonal evolution. Thirty-one of 40 (77.5%) cases could be explained by germline or somatic mutations or structural alterations affecting known PCC/PGL genes. Deleterious somatic mutations were also identified in known tumour-suppressor genes associated with genome maintenance and epigenetic modulation. A multitude of other genes were also found mutated that are likely important for normal neuroendocrine cell function. We revisited the gene-expression subtyping of PCC/PGL by integrating published microarray data with our RNA-seq data, enabling the identification of six robust gene-expression subtypes. The majority of cases in our cohort with no identifiable driver mutation were classified into a gene-expression subtype bearing similarity to MAX mutant PCC/PGL. Our data suggest there are yet unknown PCC/PGL cancer genes that can

  11. Superfund Contract Laboratory Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Contract Laboratory Program (CLP) is a national network of EPA personnel, commercial laboratories, and support contractors whose primary mission is to provide data of known and documented quality to the Superfund program.

  12. The Microscale Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zipp, Arden P.

    1990-01-01

    The materials needed and the procedures used in three microscale chemical laboratory experiments are detailed. Included are a microscale organic synthesis, a two-step synthetic sequence for the microscale organic laboratory, and a small-scale equilibrium experiment. (CW)

  13. [Laboratory of Biopolymer Compounds].

    PubMed

    Ostapchuk, A M

    2008-01-01

    General information is presented concerning the Laboratory of Biological Polymeric Compounds at the Institute of Microbiology and Virology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine; equipment, analytical and biophysical methods applied in the laboratory are listed.

  14. An Electronics "Unit Laboratory"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, E. R.; Penton, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a laboratory teaching technique in which a single topic (in this case, bipolar junction transistors) is studied over a period of weeks under the supervision of one staff member, who also designs the laboratory work. (MLH)

  15. Tethered gravity laboratories study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchetti, F.

    1989-01-01

    Tethered gravity laboratories study is presented. The following subject areas are covered: variable gravity laboratory; attitude tether stabilizer; configuration analysis (AIT); dynamic analysis (SAO); and work planned for the next reporting period.

  16. The Microscale Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zipp, Arden P.

    1990-01-01

    The materials needed and the procedures used in three microscale chemical laboratory experiments are detailed. Included are a microscale organic synthesis, a two-step synthetic sequence for the microscale organic laboratory, and a small-scale equilibrium experiment. (CW)

  17. An Electronics "Unit Laboratory"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, E. R.; Penton, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a laboratory teaching technique in which a single topic (in this case, bipolar junction transistors) is studied over a period of weeks under the supervision of one staff member, who also designs the laboratory work. (MLH)

  18. The need for standardization in laboratory networks.

    PubMed

    Peter, Trevor F; Shimada, Yoko; Freeman, Richard R; Ncube, Bekezela N; Khine, Aye-Aye; Murtagh, Maurine M

    2009-06-01

    Expanding health care services for HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria has increased the demand for affordable and reliable laboratory diagnostics in resource-limited countries. Many countries are responding by upgrading their public laboratories and introducing new technology to provide expanded testing services into more regions. This expansion carries the risk of increasing the diversity of an already highly diverse technology and testing platform landscape, making it more difficult to manage laboratory networks across different levels of the health care system. To prevent this trend, countries are recommended to implement policies and guidelines that standardize test menus, technology, platforms, and commodities across multiple laboratories. The benefits of standardization include rational prioritization of resources for capacity development and more efficient supply chain management through volume-based price discounts for reagents and instrument service. Procurement procedures, including specification, prequalification, and contract negotiation, need to align with the standardization policies for maximum benefit. Standardization should be adhered to irrespective of whether procurement is centralized or decentralized or whether carried out by national bodies or development partners.

  19. Environmental Response Laboratory Network (ERLN) Laboratory Requirements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Environmental Response Laboratory Network requires its member labs follow specified quality systems, sample management, data reporting, and general, in order to ensure consistent analytical data of known and documented quality.

  20. [Applications of 2D and 3D landscape pattern indices in landscape pattern analysis of mountainous area at county level].

    PubMed

    Lu, Chao; Qi, Wei; Li, Le; Sun, Yao; Qin, Tian-Tian; Wang, Na-Na

    2012-05-01

    Landscape pattern indices are the commonly used tools for the quantitative analysis of landscape pattern. However, the traditional 2D landscape pattern indices neglect the effects of terrain on landscape, existing definite limitations in quantitatively describing the landscape patterns in mountains areas. Taking the Qixia City, a typical mountainous and hilly region in Shandong Province of East China, as a case, this paper compared the differences between 2D and 3D landscape pattern indices in quantitatively describing the landscape patterns and their dynamic changes in mountainous areas. On the basis of terrain structure analysis, a set of landscape pattern indices were selected, including area and density (class area and mean patch size), edge and shape (edge density, landscape shape index, and fractal dimension of mean patch), diversity (Shannon's diversity index and evenness index) , and gathering and spread (contagion index). There existed obvious differences between the 3D class area, mean patch area, and edge density and the corresponding 2D indices, but no significant differences between the 3D landscape shape index, fractal dimension of mean patch, and Shannon' s diversity index and evenness index and the corresponding 2D indices. The 3D contagion index and 2D contagion index had no difference. Because the 3D landscape pattern indices were calculated by using patch surface area and surface perimeter whereas the 2D landscape pattern indices were calculated by adopting patch projective area and projective perimeter, the 3D landscape pattern indices could be relative accurate and efficient in describing the landscape area, density and borderline, in mountainous areas. However, there were no distinct differences in describing landscape shape, diversity, and gathering and spread between the 3D and 2D landscape pattern indices. Generally, by introducing 3D landscape pattern indices to topographic pattern, the description of landscape pattern and its dynamic

  1. EPA Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Chemistry Laboratory (ECL) is a national program laboratory specializing in residue chemistry analysis under the jurisdiction of the EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs in Washington, D.C. At Stennis Space Center, the laboratory's work supports many federal anti-pollution laws. The laboratory analyzes environmental and human samples to determine the presence and amount of agricultural chemicals and related substances. Pictured, ECL chemists analyze environmental and human samples for the presence of pesticides and other pollutants.

  2. Employment at National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    E. S. Peterson; C. A. Allen

    2007-04-01

    Scientists enter the National Laboratory System for many different reasons. For some, faculty positions are scarce, so they take staff-scientist position at national laboratories (i.e. Pacific Northwest, Idaho, Los Alamos, and Brookhaven). Many plan to work at the National Laboratory for 5 to 7 years and then seek an academic post. For many (these authors included), before they know it it’s 15 or 20 years later and they never seriously considered leaving the laboratory system.

  3. EPA Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Chemistry Laboratory (ECL) is a national program laboratory specializing in residue chemistry analysis under the jurisdiction of the EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs in Washington, D.C. At Stennis Space Center, the laboratory's work supports many federal anti-pollution laws. The laboratory analyzes environmental and human samples to determine the presence and amount of agricultural chemicals and related substances. Pictured, ECL chemists analyze environmental and human samples for the presence of pesticides and other pollutants.

  4. Experimental evidence of landscape reorganization under changing external forcing: implications to climate-driven knickpoints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Arvind; Tejedor, Alejandro; Grimaud, Jean-Louis; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    2017-04-01

    Understanding and quantifying geomorphic and topologic re-organization of landscape in response to changing climatic or tectonic forcing is of scientific and practical interest. Although several studies have addressed the large-scale response (e.g., change in mean relief), studies on the smaller-scale drainage pattern re-organization and quantification of landscape vulnerability to the timing, magnitude, and frequency of changing forcing are lacking. To that goal, a series of controlled laboratory experiments were conducted to study the effect of changing precipitation patterns on landscape evolution at the short and long-time scales. High resolution digital elevation (DEM) both in space and time were measured for a range of rainfall patterns and uplift rates. Results from our study show a distinct signature of the precipitation increase on the probabilistic and geometrical structure of landscape features, evident in widening and deepening of channels and valleys, change in drainage patterns within sub-basins and change in the space-time structure of erosional and depositional events. A spatially explicit analysis of the locus of these erosional and depositional events show an acceleration of erosion in the hillslopes when the rainfall intensity is increased, while the incision in fluvial channels is slowed down exhibiting a sediment-flux dependent behavior. Finally, we document the changes in the longitudinal river profiles with increasing precipitation intensity, revealing the formation of knickpoints at certain confluences where large discontinuities in the ratio Qs/Qw are observed.

  5. Landscape diversity influences dispersal and establishment of pest with complex nutritional ecology.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Claudia P; Esteva, Lourdes; Godoy, Wesley A C; Cônsoli, Fernando L

    2014-07-01

    We studied the effects of landscape structure on species with resource nutritional partition between the immature and adult stages by investigating how food quality and spatial structure of a landscape may affect the invasion and colonization of the insect pest, Diabrotica speciosa. To this end, we formulated two bidimensional stochastic cellular automata, one for the insect immature stage and the other for the adult stage. The automata are coupled by adult oviposition and emergence. Further, each automata site has a specific culture type, which can affect differently the fitness attributes of immatures and adults, such as mortality, development and oviposition rates. We derived the mean-field approximation for these automata model, from which we obtained conditions for insect invasion. We ran numerical simulations using entomological parameters obtained from laboratory experiments (using bean, soybean, potato, and corn crops), and we compared the results of the automata with the ones given by the mean-field approximation. Finally, using artificially generated landscapes, we discussed how the structured heterogeneous landscape can affect dispersal and establishment of insect populations.

  6. A laboratory perspective on environmental laboratory certification

    SciTech Connect

    Herdlick, M.J.

    1996-11-01

    With the approach of the end of the millennium, one issue stands at the forefront in the minds of politicians, scholars, and the world in general: The constant need and desire to protect, to beautify, and to heal the environment and the earth`s resources. A crucial and integral part of this plan is the environmental testing laboratory which, for the most part, bursted into existence with the formation of the United States Environmental Protection Agency in the 1970`s. The need for good quality labs is an on-going concern since the federal and state regulations are constantly in a state of flux. Just like any other business sector, the laboratory is monitored by its peer groups including its respective clients, state authorities, and regional EPA personnel through the process of accreditation and certification. Unfortunately, the laboratory certification program for environmental laboratories is a complicated process since no true national program exists that blankets the entire regulatory dilemma. It is the purpose of my poster session to discuss the current state of the formal laboratory certification process for a typical testing laboratory that operates in many states for a wide variety of clients.

  7. Measure Landscape Diversity with Logical Scout Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, E.; Szabó, G.; Czinkóczky, A.

    2016-06-01

    The Common Agricultural Policy reform of the EU focuses on three long-term objectives: viable food production, sustainable management of natural resources and climate action with balanced territorial development. To achieve these goals, the EU farming and subsidizing policies (EEA, 2014) support landscape heterogeneity and diversity. Current paper introduces an agent-based method to calculate the potential of landscape diversity. The method tries to catch the nature of heterogeneity using logic and modelling as opposed to the traditional statistical reasoning. The outlined Random Walk Scouting algorithm registers the land cover crossings of the scout agents to a Monte Carlo integral. The potential is proportional with the composition and the configuration (spatial character) of the landscape. Based on the measured points a potential map is derived to give an objective and quantitative basis to the stakeholders (policy makers, farmers).

  8. Vocal development in a Waddington landscape

    PubMed Central

    Teramoto, Yayoi; Takahashi, Daniel Y; Holmes, Philip; Ghazanfar, Asif A

    2017-01-01

    Vocal development is the adaptive coordination of the vocal apparatus, muscles, the nervous system, and social interaction. Here, we use a quantitative framework based on optimal control theory and Waddington’s landscape metaphor to provide an integrated view of this process. With a biomechanical model of the marmoset monkey vocal apparatus and behavioral developmental data, we show that only the combination of the developing vocal tract, vocal apparatus muscles and nervous system can fully account for the patterns of vocal development. Together, these elements influence the shape of the monkeys’ vocal developmental landscape, tilting, rotating or shifting it in different ways. We can thus use this framework to make quantitative predictions regarding how interfering factors or experimental perturbations can change the landscape within a species, or to explain comparative differences in vocal development across species DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20782.001 PMID:28092262

  9. Brownian motion on random dynamical landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suñé Simon, Marc; Sancho, José María; Lindenberg, Katja

    2016-03-01

    We present a study of overdamped Brownian particles moving on a random landscape of dynamic and deformable obstacles (spatio-temporal disorder). The obstacles move randomly, assemble, and dissociate following their own dynamics. This landscape may account for a soft matter or liquid environment in which large obstacles, such as macromolecules and organelles in the cytoplasm of a living cell, or colloids or polymers in a liquid, move slowly leading to crowding effects. This representation also constitutes a novel approach to the macroscopic dynamics exhibited by active matter media. We present numerical results on the transport and diffusion properties of Brownian particles under this disorder biased by a constant external force. The landscape dynamics are characterized by a Gaussian spatio-temporal correlation, with fixed time and spatial scales, and controlled obstacle concentrations.

  10. Exploring the fitness landscape of poliovirus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, Simone; Acevedo, Ashely; Andino, Raul; Tang, Chao

    2012-02-01

    RNA viruses are known to display extraordinary adaptation capabilities to different environments, due to high mutation rates. Their very dynamical evolution is captured by the quasispecies concept, according to which the viral population forms a swarm of genetic variants linked through mutation, which cooperatively interact at a functional level and collectively contribute to the characteristics of the population. The description of the viral fitness landscape becomes paramount towards a more thorough understanding of the virus evolution and spread. The high mutation rate, together with the cooperative nature of the quasispecies, makes it particularly challenging to explore its fitness landscape. I will present an investigation of the dynamical properties of poliovirus fitness landscape, through both the adoption of new experimental techniques and theoretical models.

  11. Landscape habitat diversity: An information theoretic measure

    SciTech Connect

    Loehle, C.; Wein, G.

    1994-06-01

    Biotic diversity is a topic of increasing concern, but current tools for quantifying diversity at the landscape level are inadequate. A new index is proposed. Beginning with a classified raster image of a landscape, each habitat type is assigned a value based on an ordination axis distance. The change in value from one patch to the next depends on how similar the two patches are. An information measure d{sub I} is used to evaluate deviation from uniformity of the ordination values at different scales. Different areas can be compared if habitat values are based on the same ordination scale. This new method provides a powerful tool for both displaying and calculating landscape habitat diversity.

  12. Dispersal and extinction in fragmented landscapes.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, C D

    2000-01-01

    Evolutionary and population dynamics models suggest that the migration rate will affect the probability of survival in fragmented landscapes. Using data for butterfly species in the fragmented British landscape and in immediately adjoining areas of the European continent, this paper shows that species of intermediate mobility have declined most, followed by those of low mobility, whereas high-mobility species are generally surviving well. Compared to the more sedentary species, species of intermediate mobility require relatively large areas where they breed at slightly lower local densities. Intermediate mobility species have probably fared badly through a combination of metapopulation (extinction and colonization) dynamics and the mortality of migrating individuals which fail to find new habitats in fragmented landscapes. Habitat fragmentation is likely to result in the non-random extinction of populations and species characterized by different levels of dispersal, although the details are likely to depend on the taxa, habitats and regions considered. PMID:10687818

  13. Hydrologic landscape regions of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolock, David M.

    2003-01-01

    Hydrologic landscape regions (HLRs) in the United States were delineated by using geographic information system (GIS) tools and statistical methods including principal components and cluster analyses. The GIS and statistical analyses were applied to land-surface form, geologic texture (permeability of the soil and bedrock), and climate variables that describe the physical and climatic setting of 43,931 small (roughly 200 square kilometers) watersheds in the United States. The analyses then grouped the watersheds into 20 noncontiguous regions (the HLRs) on the basis of similarities in land-surface form, geologic texture, and climate characteristics. This hydrologic landscape regions dataset contains for each of the 49,931 watersheds the (1) watershed identification number, (2) land-surface form, geologic texture, and climate characteristics for each watershed, and (3) hydrologic landscape region number for each watershed.

  14. Eternal inflation and localization on the landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Podolsky, Dmitry; Enqvist, Kari E-mail: kari.enqvist@helsinki.fi

    2009-02-15

    We model essential features of eternal inflation on the landscape of a dense discretuum of vacua by the potential V({phi}) = V{sub 0}+{delta}V({phi}), where |{delta}V({phi})| << V{sub 0} is random. We find that the diffusion of the distribution function {rho}({phi},t) of the inflaton expectation value in different Hubble patches may be suppressed due to the effect analogous to the Anderson localization in disordered quantum systems. At late times only the localized part of the distribution function {rho}({phi},t) survives which leads to dynamical selection principle on the landscape. As a result, there exist such islands on the landscape that the probability to measure any but a small value of the cosmological constant in a given Hubble patch is exponentially suppressed.

  15. Reframing landscape fragmentation's effects on ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Matthew G E; Suarez-Castro, Andrés F; Martinez-Harms, Maria; Maron, Martine; McAlpine, Clive; Gaston, Kevin J; Johansen, Kasper; Rhodes, Jonathan R

    2015-04-01

    Landscape structure and fragmentation have important effects on ecosystem services, with a common assumption being that fragmentation reduces service provision. This is based on fragmentation's expected effects on ecosystem service supply, but ignores how fragmentation influences the flow of services to people. Here we develop a new conceptual framework that explicitly considers the links between landscape fragmentation, the supply of services, and the flow of services to people. We argue that fragmentation's effects on ecosystem service flow can be positive or negative, and use our framework to construct testable hypotheses about the effects of fragmentation on final ecosystem service provision. Empirical efforts to apply and test this framework are critical to improving landscape management for multiple ecosystem services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Theme: Laboratory Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruening, Thomas H.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A series of theme articles discuss setting up laboratory hydroponics units, the school farm at the Zuni Pueblo in New Mexico, laboratory experiences in natural resources management and urban horticulture, the development of teaching labs at Derry (PA) High School, management of instructional laboratories, and industry involvement in agricultural…

  17. LABORATORY-ACQUIRED MYCOSES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    laboratory- acquired mycoses . Insofar as possible, the etiological fungus, type of laboratory, classification of personnel, type of work conducted, and other...pertinent data have been listed in this study. More than 288 laboratory- acquired mycoses are described here, including 108 cases of

  18. Echocardiography laboratory accreditation.

    PubMed

    Katanick, S L

    1998-01-01

    In response to the need for standardization and improvement in the quality of echocardiographic laboratories an intersocietal commission has been created. The intent of the accreditation process is designed to recognize laboratories that provide quality services and to be used as an educational tool to improve the overall quality of the laboratory.

  19. The Language Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claudel, Calvin Andre

    A general review of the development of the language laboratory is given in this article in the light of claims made by early theorists favoring the use of the laboratory in foreign language instruction. Comments are directed to the nature of language, language teaching methodology, and use and criticism of the laboratory. The author concludes that…

  20. Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Fay, Michael; Bruck, Laura B.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2013-01-01

    Forty chemistry faculty from American Chemical Society-approved departments were interviewed to determine their goals for undergraduate chemistry laboratory. Faculty were stratified by type of institution, departmental success with regard to National Science Foundation funding for laboratory reform, and level of laboratory course. Interview…