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Sample records for germicidal uv light

  1. Surface disinfection by exposure to germicidal UV light.

    PubMed

    Katara, G; Hemvani, N; Chitnis, S; Chitnis, V; Chitnis, D S

    2008-01-01

    The present study was aimed to design a simple model to check efficacy of germicidal UV tube, to standardise the position, distance and time for UV light and also to find out its efficacy against medically important bacteria, the bacterial spores and fungi. The microbial cultures tested included gram positive and gram negative bacteria, bacterial spores and fungal spores. The microbes streaked on solid media were exposed to UV light. The inactivation of the order of four logs was observed for bacteria. UV light can have efficient inactivation of bacteria up to a distance of eight feet on either side and exposure time of 30 minutes is adequate.

  2. Germicidal Efficacy and Mammalian Skin Safety of 222-nm UV Light

    PubMed Central

    Buonanno, Manuela; Ponnaiya, Brian; Welch, David; Stanislauskas, Milda; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Smilenov, Lubomir; Lowy, Franklin D.; Owens, David M.; Brenner, David J.

    2017-01-01

    We have previously shown that 207-nm ultraviolet (UV) light has similar antimicrobial properties as typical germicidal UV light (254 nm), but without inducing mammalian skin damage. The biophysical rationale is based on the limited penetration distance of 207-nm light in biological samples (e.g. stratum corneum) compared with that of 254-nm light. Here we extended our previous studies to 222-nm light and tested the hypothesis that there exists a narrow wavelength window in the far-UVC region, from around 200–222 nm, which is significantly harmful to bacteria, but without damaging cells in tissues. We used a krypton-chlorine (Kr-Cl) excimer lamp that produces 222-nm UV light with a bandpass filter to remove the lower- and higher-wavelength components. Relative to respective controls, we measured: 1. in vitro killing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as a function of UV fluence; 2. yields of the main UV-associated premutagenic DNA lesions (cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 6-4 photoproducts) in a 3D human skin tissue model in vitro; 3. eight cellular and molecular skin damage endpoints in exposed hairless mice in vivo. Comparisons were made with results from a conventional 254-nm UV germicidal lamp used as positive control. We found that 222-nm light kills MRSA efficiently but, unlike conventional germicidal UV lamps (254 nm), it produces almost no premutagenic UV-associated DNA lesions in a 3D human skin model and it is not cytotoxic to exposed mammalian skin. As predicted by biophysical considerations and in agreement with our previous findings, far-UVC light in the range of 200–222 nm kills bacteria efficiently regardless of their drug-resistant proficiency, but without the skin damaging effects associated with conventional germicidal UV exposure. PMID:28225654

  3. Germicidal Efficacy and Mammalian Skin Safety of 222-nm UV Light.

    PubMed

    Buonanno, Manuela; Ponnaiya, Brian; Welch, David; Stanislauskas, Milda; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Smilenov, Lubomir; Lowy, Franklin D; Owens, David M; Brenner, David J

    2017-04-01

    We have previously shown that 207-nm ultraviolet (UV) light has similar antimicrobial properties as typical germicidal UV light (254 nm), but without inducing mammalian skin damage. The biophysical rationale is based on the limited penetration distance of 207-nm light in biological samples (e.g. stratum corneum) compared with that of 254-nm light. Here we extended our previous studies to 222-nm light and tested the hypothesis that there exists a narrow wavelength window in the far-UVC region, from around 200-222 nm, which is significantly harmful to bacteria, but without damaging cells in tissues. We used a krypton-chlorine (Kr-Cl) excimer lamp that produces 222-nm UV light with a bandpass filter to remove the lower- and higher-wavelength components. Relative to respective controls, we measured: 1. in vitro killing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as a function of UV fluence; 2. yields of the main UV-associated premutagenic DNA lesions (cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 6-4 photoproducts) in a 3D human skin tissue model in vitro; 3. eight cellular and molecular skin damage endpoints in exposed hairless mice in vivo. Comparisons were made with results from a conventional 254-nm UV germicidal lamp used as positive control. We found that 222-nm light kills MRSA efficiently but, unlike conventional germicidal UV lamps (254 nm), it produces almost no premutagenic UV-associated DNA lesions in a 3D human skin model and it is not cytotoxic to exposed mammalian skin. As predicted by biophysical considerations and in agreement with our previous findings, far-UVC light in the range of 200-222 nm kills bacteria efficiently regardless of their drug-resistant proficiency, but without the skin damaging effects associated with conventional germicidal UV exposure.

  4. Understanding possible underlying mechanism in declining germicidal efficiency of UV-LED reactor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunkyung; Jin, Yongxun; Hong, Seungkwan

    2018-06-07

    Since ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) have emerged as an alternative light source for UV disinfection systems, enhancement of reactor performance is a demanding challenge to promote its practical application in water treatment process. This study explored the underlying mechanism of the inefficiency observed in flow-through mode UV disinfection tests to improve the light utilization of UV-LED applications. In particular, the disinfection performance of UV-LED reactors was evaluated using two different flow channel types, reservoir and pathway systems, in order to elucidate the impact of physical circumstances on germicidal efficiency as the light profile was adjusted. Overall, a significant reduction in germicidal efficiency was observed when exposure time was prolonged or a mixing chamber was integrated. Zeta analysis revealed that the repulsion rate between microorganisms decreased with UV fluence transfer, and that change might cause the shielding effect of UV delivery to target microorganisms. In line with the above findings, the reduction in efficiency intensified when opportunities for microbial collision increased. Thus, UV induced microbial aggregation was implicated as being a disinfection hindering factor, exerting its effect through uneven UV illumination. Ultimately, the results refuted the prevailing belief that UV has a cumulative effect. We found that the reservoir system achieved worse performance than the pathway system despite it providing 15 times higher UV fluence: the differences in germicidal efficiency were 1-log, 1.4-log and 1.7-log in the cases of P.aeruginosa, E.coli and S.aureus, respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. (E)-5-[2-(methoxycarbonyl)ethenyl]cytidine as a chemical actinometer for germicidal UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chengyue; Fang, Shiyue; Bergstrom, Donald E; Blatchley, Ernest R

    2005-05-15

    (E)-5-[2-(Methoxycarbonyl)ethenyl]cytidine (S) was examined for use as a chemical actinometer for germicidal UV radiation. Its photoproduct, 3-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-2,7-dioxopyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine (P), is strongly fluorescent with excitation and emission maxima at 330 and 385 nm, respectively. Experiments were conducted to characterize the dynamic behavior of aqueous solutions of S and P when subjected to UV radiation. UV sources used for these experiments included a low-pressure mercury lamp, a XeBr excimer lamp, and a KrCI excimer lamp; all three sources were mounted in collimating devices to provide incident beams that could be easily and accurately characterized by radiometry. These three sources each yielded essentially monochromatic outputwith characteristic wavelengths of 254, 282, and 222 nm, respectively. At practical concentrations, it was found that the absorbance of the actinometer solution was neither high enough to make the actinometer solutions optically opaque nor low enough to be optically transparent to UV. In addition, the photoproduct displayed a molar absorption coefficient that was similar in magnitude to that of the parent compound, thereby resulting in competitive absorption of UV energy between Sand Pduring irradiation. For purposes of evaluation of the results of irradiation, a mathematical model was developed to accountforthe nonideal optical characteristics of the system. The model is based on a description of local photochemical kinetics; predictions of overall reactor performance were developed by spatial and temporal integration of model results. The model was used to analyze the dynamic behavior of actinometer solutions during UV irradiation and to estimate the quantum yield for photoproduction of Pfrom S. This modeling approach is potentially applicable to other photochemical processes in which multiple compounds are present that absorb photoactive radiation; however, general application of this modeling approach to photochemical

  6. Ultraviolet (UV)-reflective paint with ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) improves decontamination of nosocomial bacteria on hospital room surfaces.

    PubMed

    Jelden, Katelyn C; Gibbs, Shawn G; Smith, Philip W; Hewlett, Angela L; Iwen, Peter C; Schmid, Kendra K; Lowe, John J

    2017-06-01

    An ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) generator (the TORCH, ClorDiSys Solutions, Inc.) was used to compare the disinfection of surface coupons (plastic from a bedrail, stainless steel, and chrome-plated light switch cover) in a hospital room with walls coated with ultraviolet (UV)-reflective paint (Lumacept) or standard paint. Each surface coupon was inoculated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE), placed at 6 different sites within a hospital room coated with UV-reflective paint or standard paint, and treated by 10 min UVC exposure (UVC dose of 0-688 mJ/cm 2 between sites with standard paint and 0-553 mJ/cm 2 with UV-reflective paint) in 8 total trials. Aggregated MRSA concentrations on plastic bedrail surface coupons were reduced on average by 3.0 log 10 (1.8 log 10 Geometric Standard Deviation [GSD]) with standard paint and 4.3 log 10 (1.3 log 10 GSD) with UV-reflective paint (p = 0.0005) with no significant reduction differences between paints on stainless steel and chrome. Average VRE concentrations were reduced by ≥4.9 log 10 (<1.2 log 10 GSD) on all surface types with UV-reflective paint and ≤4.1 log 10 (<1.7 log 10 GSD) with standard paint (p < 0.05). At 5 aggregated sites directly exposed to UVC light, MRSA concentrations on average were reduced by 5.2 log 10 (1.4 log 10 GSD) with standard paint and 5.1 log 10 (1.2 log 10 GSD) with UV-reflective paint (p = 0.017) and VRE by 4.4 log 10 (1.4 log 10 GSD) with standard paint and 5.3 log 10 (1.1 log 10 GSD) with UV-reflective paint (p < 0.0001). At one indirectly exposed site on the opposite side of the hospital bed from the UVGI generator, MRSA concentrations on average were reduced by 1.3 log 10 (1.7 log 10 GSD) with standard paint and 4.7 log 10 (1.3 log 10 GSD) with UV-reflective paint (p < 0.0001) and VRE by 1.2 log 10 (1.5 log 10 GSD) with standard paint and 4.6 log 10 (1.1 log 10 GSD) with UV-reflective paint (p < 0

  7. Occupant UV Exposure Measurements for Upper-Room Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Milonova, Sonya; Rudnick, Stephen; McDevitt, James; Nardell, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The threshold limit value (TLV) guideline for ultraviolet (UV) radiation specifies that irradiance measurements to ensure occupant safety be taken over an angle of 80° at the sensor. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an 80° field of view (FOV) tube on lower room UV-C irradiation measurements. Measurements were made in an experimental chamber at a height of 1.73 m with and without an FOV tube. The FOV tube reduced the lower room irradiance readings by 18-34%, a statistically significant reduction compared to the bare sensor. An 80° FOV tube should be used for lower room irradiance measurements to comply with the TLV guideline. The resulting lower readings would allow more UV-C radiation in the upper room without compromising occupant safety. More UV-C radiation in the upper room could increase efficacy of UVGI systems for reducing transmission of airborne infectious diseases. In addition, recommendations are made to standardize lower room irradiance measurement techniques. PMID:27038734

  8. PULSED UV: REALITIES OF ENHANCED DISINFECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitative measurements of the light output from low pressure (LP), medium pressure (MP) and the pulsed UV lamps were made using calibrated spectrometry, chemical actinometry and biodosimetry approaches to compare their relative efficiency in producing germicidal UV energy. Fur...

  9. 207-nm UV Light-A Promising Tool for Safe Low-Cost Reduction of Surgical Site Infections. II: In-Vivo Safety Studies.

    PubMed

    Buonanno, Manuela; Stanislauskas, Milda; Ponnaiya, Brian; Bigelow, Alan W; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Xu, Yanping; Shuryak, Igor; Smilenov, Lubomir; Owens, David M; Brenner, David J

    2016-01-01

    UVC light generated by conventional germicidal lamps is a well-established anti-microbial modality, effective against both bacteria and viruses. However, it is a human health hazard, being both carcinogenic and cataractogenic. Earlier studies showed that single-wavelength far-UVC light (207 nm) generated by excimer lamps kills bacteria without apparent harm to human skin tissue in vitro. The biophysical explanation is that, due to its extremely short range in biological material, 207 nm UV light cannot penetrate the human stratum corneum (the outer dead-cell skin layer, thickness 5-20 μm) nor even the cytoplasm of individual human cells. By contrast, 207 nm UV light can penetrate bacteria and viruses because these cells are physically much smaller. To test the biophysically-based hypothesis that 207 nm UV light is not cytotoxic to exposed mammalian skin in vivo. Hairless mice were exposed to a bactericidal UV fluence of 157 mJ/cm2 delivered by a filtered Kr-Br excimer lamp producing monoenergetic 207-nm UV light, or delivered by a conventional 254-nm UV germicidal lamp. Sham irradiations constituted the negative control. Eight relevant cellular and molecular damage endpoints including epidermal hyperplasia, pre-mutagenic UV-associated DNA lesions, skin inflammation, and normal cell proliferation and differentiation were evaluated in mice dorsal skin harvested 48 h after UV exposure. While conventional germicidal UV (254 nm) exposure produced significant effects for all the studied skin damage endpoints, the same fluence of 207 nm UV light produced results that were not statistically distinguishable from the zero exposure controls. As predicted by biophysical considerations and in agreement with earlier in vitro studies, 207-nm light does not appear to be significantly cytotoxic to mouse skin. These results suggest that excimer-based far-UVC light could potentially be used for its anti-microbial properties, but without the associated hazards to skin of conventional

  10. 207-nm UV light - a promising tool for safe low-cost reduction of surgical site infections. I: in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Buonanno, Manuela; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Bigelow, Alan W; Trivedi, Sheetal; Lowy, Franklin D; Spotnitz, Henry M; Hammer, Scott M; Brenner, David J

    2013-01-01

    0.5% to 10% of clean surgeries result in surgical-site infections, and attempts to reduce this rate have had limited success. Germicidal UV lamps, with a broad wavelength spectrum from 200 to 400 nm are an effective bactericidal option against drug-resistant and drug-sensitive bacteria, but represent a health hazard to patient and staff. By contrast, because of its limited penetration, ~200 nm far-UVC light is predicted to be effective in killing bacteria, but without the human health hazards to skin and eyes associated with conventional germicidal UV exposure. The aim of this work was to test the biophysically-based hypothesis that ~200 nm UV light is significantly cytotoxic to bacteria, but minimally cytotoxic or mutagenic to human cells either isolated or within tissues. A Kr-Br excimer lamp was used, which produces 207-nm UV light, with a filter to remove higher-wavelength components. Comparisons were made with results from a conventional broad spectrum 254-nm UV germicidal lamp. First, cell inactivation vs. UV fluence data were generated for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) bacteria and also for normal human fibroblasts. Second, yields of the main UV-associated pre-mutagenic DNA lesions (cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 6-4 photoproducts) were measured, for both UV radiations incident on 3-D human skin tissue. We found that 207-nm UV light kills MRSA efficiently but, unlike conventional germicidal UV lamps, produces little cell killing in human cells. In a 3-D human skin model, 207-nm UV light produced almost no pre-mutagenic UV-associated DNA lesions, in contrast to significant yields induced by a conventional germicidal UV lamp. As predicted based on biophysical considerations, 207-nm light kills bacteria efficiently but does not appear to be significantly cytotoxic or mutagenic to human cells. Used appropriately, 207-nm light may have the potential for safely and inexpensively reducing surgical-site infection rates, including those of drug

  11. 207-nm UV Light - A Promising Tool for Safe Low-Cost Reduction of Surgical Site Infections. I: In Vitro Studies

    PubMed Central

    Buonanno, Manuela; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Bigelow, Alan W.; Trivedi, Sheetal; Lowy, Franklin D.; Spotnitz, Henry M.; Hammer, Scott M.; Brenner, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Background 0.5% to 10% of clean surgeries result in surgical-site infections, and attempts to reduce this rate have had limited success. Germicidal UV lamps, with a broad wavelength spectrum from 200 to 400 nm are an effective bactericidal option against drug-resistant and drug-sensitive bacteria, but represent a health hazard to patient and staff. By contrast, because of its limited penetration, ∼200 nm far-UVC light is predicted to be effective in killing bacteria, but without the human health hazards to skin and eyes associated with conventional germicidal UV exposure. Aims The aim of this work was to test the biophysically-based hypothesis that ∼200 nm UV light is significantly cytotoxic to bacteria, but minimally cytotoxic or mutagenic to human cells either isolated or within tissues. Methods A Kr-Br excimer lamp was used, which produces 207-nm UV light, with a filter to remove higher-wavelength components. Comparisons were made with results from a conventional broad spectrum 254-nm UV germicidal lamp. First, cell inactivation vs. UV fluence data were generated for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) bacteria and also for normal human fibroblasts. Second, yields of the main UV-associated pre-mutagenic DNA lesions (cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 6-4 photoproducts) were measured, for both UV radiations incident on 3-D human skin tissue. Results We found that 207-nm UV light kills MRSA efficiently but, unlike conventional germicidal UV lamps, produces little cell killing in human cells. In a 3-D human skin model, 207-nm UV light produced almost no pre-mutagenic UV-associated DNA lesions, in contrast to significant yields induced by a conventional germicidal UV lamp. Conclusions As predicted based on biophysical considerations, 207-nm light kills bacteria efficiently but does not appear to be significantly cytotoxic or mutagenic to human cells. Used appropriately, 207-nm light may have the potential for safely and inexpensively reducing surgical

  12. The effect of UV light on the inactivation of Giardia lamblia and Giardia muris cysts as determined by animal infectivity assay (P-2951-01).

    PubMed

    Mofidi, Alexander A; Meyer, Ernest A; Wallis, Peter M; Chou, Connie I; Meyer, Barbara P; Ramalingam, Shivaji; Coffey, Bradley M

    2002-04-01

    This study measured the effect of germicidal ultraviolet (UV) light on Giardia lamblia and Giardia muris cysts, as determined by their infectivity in Mongolian gerbils and CD-1 mice, respectively. Reduction of cyst infectivity due to UV exposure was quantified by applying most probable number techniques. Controlled bench-scale, collimated-beam tests exposed cysts suspended in filtered natural water to light from a low-pressure UV lamp. Both G. lamblia and G. muris cysts showed similar sensitivity to UV light. At 3 mJ/cm2, a dose 10-fold lower than what large-scale UV reactors may be designed to provide, > 2-log10 (99 percent) inactivation was observed. These results, combined with previously published data showing other protozoa and bacteria have similar, high sensitivity to UV light, establish that UV disinfection of drinking water is controlled by viruses which may require over 10-fold more UV dose for the same level of control.

  13. Disinfection of Spacecraft Potable Water Systems by Photocatalytic Oxidation Using UV-A Light Emitting Diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birmele, Michele N.; O'Neal, Jeremy A.; Roberts, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light has long been used in terrestrial water treatment systems for photodisinfection and the removal of organic compounds by several processes including photoadsorption, photolysis, and photocatalytic oxidation/reduction. Despite its effectiveness for water treatment, UV has not been explored for spacecraft applications because of concerns about the safety and reliability of mercury-containing UV lamps. However, recent advances in ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) have enabled the utilization of nanomaterials that possess the appropriate optical properties for the manufacture of LEDs capable of producing monochromatic light at germicidal wavelengths. This report describes the testing of a commercial-off-the-shelf, high power Nichia UV-A LED (250mW A365nnJ for the excitation of titanium dioxide as a point-of-use (POD) disinfection device in a potable water system. The combination of an immobilized, high surface area photocatalyst with a UV-A LED is promising for potable water system disinfection since toxic chemicals and resupply requirements are reduced. No additional consumables like chemical biocides, absorption columns, or filters are required to disinfect and/or remove potentially toxic disinfectants from the potable water prior to use. Experiments were conducted in a static test stand consisting of a polypropylene microtiter plate containing 3mm glass balls coated with titanium dioxide. Wells filled with water were exposed to ultraviolet light from an actively-cooled UV-A LED positioned above each well and inoculated with six individual challenge microorganisms recovered from the International Space Station (ISS): Burkholderia cepacia, Cupriavidus metallidurans, Methylobacterium fujisawaense, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Wautersia basilensis. Exposure to the Nichia UV-A LED with photocatalytic oxidation resulted in a complete (>7-log) reduction of each challenge bacteria population in <180 minutes of contact

  14. UV filters for lighting of plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doehring, T.; Koefferlein, M.; Thiel, S.; Seidlitz, H. K.; Payer, H. D.

    1994-03-01

    The wavelength dependent interaction of biological systems with radiation is commonly described by appropriate action spectra. Particularly effective plant responses are obtained for ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Excess shortwave UV-B radiation will induce genetic defects and plant damage. Besides the ecological discussion of the deleterious effects of the excess UV radiation there is increasing interest in horticultural applications of this spectral region. Several metabolic pathways leading to valuable secondary plant products like colors, odors, taste, or resulting in mechanical strength and vitality are triggered by UV radiation. Thus, in ecologically as well as in economically oriented experiments the exact generation and knowledge of the spectral irradiance, particularly near the UV absorption edge, is essential. The ideal filter 'material' to control the UV absorption edge would be ozone itself. However, due to problems in controlling the toxic and chemically aggressive, instable gas, only rather 'small ozone filters' have been realized so far. In artificial plant lighting conventional solid filter materials such as glass sheets and plastic foils (celluloseacetate or cellulosetriacetate) which can be easily handled have been used to absorb the UV-C and the excess shortwave UV-B radiation of the lamp emissions. Different filter glasses are available which provide absorption properties suitable for gradual changes of the spectral UV-B illumination of artificial lighting. Using a distinct set of lamps and filter glasses an acceptable simulation of the UV-B part of natural global radiation can be achieved. The aging of these and other filter materials under the extreme UV radiation in the lamphouse of a solar simulator is presently unavoidable. This instability can be dealt with only by a precise spectral monitoring and by replacing the filters accordingly. For this reason attempts would be useful to develop real ozone filters which can replace glass filters. In

  15. UV filters for lighting of plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doehring, T.; Koefferlein, M.; Thiel, S.; Seidlitz, H. K.; Payer, H. D.

    1994-01-01

    The wavelength dependent interaction of biological systems with radiation is commonly described by appropriate action spectra. Particularly effective plant responses are obtained for ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Excess shortwave UV-B radiation will induce genetic defects and plant damage. Besides the ecological discussion of the deleterious effects of the excess UV radiation there is increasing interest in horticultural applications of this spectral region. Several metabolic pathways leading to valuable secondary plant products like colors, odors, taste, or resulting in mechanical strength and vitality are triggered by UV radiation. Thus, in ecologically as well as in economically oriented experiments the exact generation and knowledge of the spectral irradiance, particularly near the UV absorption edge, is essential. The ideal filter 'material' to control the UV absorption edge would be ozone itself. However, due to problems in controlling the toxic and chemically aggressive, instable gas, only rather 'small ozone filters' have been realized so far. In artificial plant lighting conventional solid filter materials such as glass sheets and plastic foils (celluloseacetate or cellulosetriacetate) which can be easily handled have been used to absorb the UV-C and the excess shortwave UV-B radiation of the lamp emissions. Different filter glasses are available which provide absorption properties suitable for gradual changes of the spectral UV-B illumination of artificial lighting. Using a distinct set of lamps and filter glasses an acceptable simulation of the UV-B part of natural global radiation can be achieved. The aging of these and other filter materials under the extreme UV radiation in the lamphouse of a solar simulator is presently unavoidable. This instability can be dealt with only by a precise spectral monitoring and by replacing the filters accordingly. For this reason attempts would be useful to develop real ozone filters which can replace glass filters. In

  16. UV LED lighting for automated crystal centring

    PubMed Central

    Chavas, Leonard M. G.; Yamada, Yusuke; Hiraki, Masahiko; Igarashi, Noriyuki; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Wakatsuki, Soichi

    2011-01-01

    A direct outcome of the exponential growth of macromolecular crystallography is the continuously increasing demand for synchrotron beam time, both from academic and industrial users. As more and more projects entail screening a profusion of sample crystals, fully automated procedures at every level of the experiments are being implemented at all synchrotron facilities. One of the major obstacles to achieving such automation lies in the sample recognition and centring in the X-ray beam. The capacity of UV light to specifically react with aromatic residues present in proteins or with DNA base pairs is at the basis of UV-assisted crystal centring. Although very efficient, a well known side effect of illuminating biological samples with strong UV sources is the damage induced on the irradiated samples. In the present study the effectiveness of a softer UV light for crystal centring by taking advantage of low-power light-emitting diode (LED) sources has been investigated. The use of UV LEDs represents a low-cost solution for crystal centring with high specificity. PMID:21169682

  17. UV filters for lighting of plants

    SciTech Connect

    Doehring, T.; Koefferlein, M.; Thiel, S.

    1994-12-31

    Different filter glasses are available which provide absorption properties suitable for gradual changes of the spectral UV-B illumination of artificial lighting. Using a distinct set of lamps and filter glasses an acceptable simulation of the UV-B part of natural global radiation can be achieved. The ageing of these and other filter materials under the extreme UV radiation in the lamphouse of a solar simulator is presently unavoidable. This instability can be dealt with only by a precise spectral monitoring and by replacing the filters accordingly. For this reason attempts would be useful to develop real ozone filters which can replacemore » glass filters. In any case chamber experiments require a careful selection of the filter material used and must be accompanied by a continuous UV-B monitoring.« less

  18. New bactericidal UV light sources: excilamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosnin, Edward A.; Lavrent'eva, Larisa V.; Erofeev, Mikhail V.; Masterova, Yana V.; Kuznetzova, Eugenia N.; Tarasenko, Victor F.

    2004-05-01

    A reliable bactericidal effect on Escherichia coli cells irradiation by excilamps has been established. Both on primary and secondary irradiation there exists the reciprocally proportional dependence between irradiation doze (or exposure time) and survived cells number. The microorganisms survived after primary irradiation are shown to have not changed sensitivity to excilamps irradiation. The best results have been obtained during XeBr-excilamp irradiation. Owing to their technical parameters, the excilamps are promising systems for UV-sterilization. Comparison of capacitive discharge excilamp characteristics with other conventional UV light sources in presented. A comparative study on UV doze effect of a barrier discharge KrCl-excilamp (λ = 222 nm) on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli inactivation was carried out. KrCl-excilamp emission power is 65 W, and emitting area is 0.1 m2. It has been demonstrated that Staphylococcus aureus cell sensitivity to UV radiation at this wavelength is higher than that of Escherichia coli.

  19. Effectiveness of UV-C light irradiation on disinfection of an eSOS(®) smart toilet evaluated in a temporary settlement in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Fiona; Harelimana, Bertin; Ćurko, Josip; van de Vossenberg, Jack; Garcia, Hector A; Hooijmans, Christine Maria; Brdjanovic, Damir

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet germicidal (short wavelength UV-C) light was studied as surface disinfectant in an Emergency Sanitation Operation System(®) smart toilet to aid to the work of manual cleaning. The UV-C light was installed and regulated as a self-cleaning feature of the toilet, which automatically irradiate after each toilet use. Two experimental phases were conducted i.e. preparatory phase consists of tests under laboratory conditions and field testing phase. The laboratory UV test indicated that irradiation for 10 min with medium-low intensity of 0.15-0.4 W/m(2) could achieve 6.5 log removal of Escherichia coli. Field testing of the toilet under real usage found that UV-C irradiation was capable to inactivate total coliform at toilet surfaces within 167-cm distance from the UV-C lamp (UV-C dose between 1.88 and 2.74 mW). UV-C irradiation is most effective with the support of effective manual cleaning. Application of UV-C for surface disinfection in emergency toilets could potentially reduce public health risks.

  20. Non-inferiority of pulsed xenon UV light versus bleach for reducing environmental Clostridium difficile contamination on high-touch surfaces in Clostridium difficile infection isolation rooms

    PubMed Central

    Ghantoji, Shashank S.; Stibich, Mark; Stachowiak, Julie; Cantu, Sherry; Adachi, Javier A.; Raad, Issam I.

    2015-01-01

    The standard for Clostridium difficile surface decontamination is bleach solution at a concentration of 10 % of sodium hypochlorite. Pulsed xenon UV light (PX-UV) is a means of quickly producing germicidal UV that has been shown to be effective in reducing environmental contamination by C. difficile spores. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether PX-UV was equivalent to bleach for decontamination of surfaces in C. difficile infection isolation rooms. High-touch surfaces in rooms previously occupied by C. difficile infected patients were sampled after discharge but before and after cleaning using either bleach or non-bleach cleaning followed by 15 min of PX-UV treatment. A total of 298 samples were collected by using a moistened wipe specifically designed for the removal of spores. Prior to disinfection, the mean contamination level was 2.39 c.f.u. for bleach rooms and 22.97 for UV rooms. After disinfection, the mean level of contamination for bleach was 0.71 c.f.u. (P = 0.1380), and 1.19 c.f.u. (P = 0.0017) for PX-UV disinfected rooms. The difference in final contamination levels between the two cleaning protocols was not significantly different (P = 0.9838). PX-UV disinfection appears to be at least equivalent to bleach in the ability to decrease environmental contamination with C. difficile spores. Larger studies are needed to validate this conclusion. PMID:25627208

  1. [Light protection: principles of UV protection].

    PubMed

    Stege, H; Mang, R

    2006-05-01

    UV radiation is responsible for the induction of epithelial and melanocytic skin cancer, photoaging, and photodermatoses. UV protection is necessary to prevent damage caused by non-physiologic exposure. UV protection includes not only reduction of sun exposure but also use of sun protective filters, UV protective clothes, DNA repair enzymes, and antioxidant supplementation. Consumers are uncertain about the possibilities and limitations of commercial sun protection measures. Dermatologists must explain protective measures to the general public which continues to believe that UV-tanned skin is healthy. The sunscreen market is a highly competitive but lucrative market. The range of products with different designations and promises makes difficult for both consumers and dermatologists to determine what is sensible UV protection.

  2. CRYPTOCHROME mediates behavioral executive choice in response to UV light

    PubMed Central

    Baik, Lisa S.; Fogle, Keri J.; Roberts, Logan; Galschiodt, Alexis M.; Chevez, Joshua A.; Recinos, Yocelyn; Nguy, Vinh; Holmes, Todd C.

    2017-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster CRYPTOCHROME (CRY) mediates behavioral and electrophysiological responses to blue light coded by circadian and arousal neurons. However, spectroscopic and biochemical assays of heterologously expressed CRY suggest that CRY may mediate functional responses to UV-A (ultraviolet A) light as well. To determine the relative contributions of distinct phototransduction systems, we tested mutants lacking CRY and mutants with disrupted opsin-based phototransduction for behavioral and electrophysiological responses to UV light. CRY and opsin-based external photoreceptor systems cooperate for UV light-evoked acute responses. CRY mediates behavioral avoidance responses related to executive choice, consistent with its expression in central brain neurons. PMID:28062690

  3. UV emissions from low energy artificial light sources.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Leona; Moseley, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Energy efficient light sources have been introduced across Europe and many other countries world wide. The most common of these is the Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL), which has been shown to emit ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are an alternative technology that has minimal UV emissions. This brief review summarises the different energy efficient light sources available on the market and compares the UV levels and the subsequent effects on the skin of normal individuals and those who suffer from photodermatoses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. UV Nano-Lights - Nonlinear Quantum Dot-Plasmon Coupling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-20

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0072 UV Nano-Lights - Nonlinear Quantum Dot- Plasmon Coupling Eric Waclawik QUEENSLAND UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Final Report 06...Final 3.  DATES COVERED (From - To)  03 Feb 2014 to 02 Feb 2016 4.  TITLE AND SUBTITLE UV Nano-Lights - Nonlinear Quantum Dot- Plasmon Coupling 5a...in the form of the localised surface plasmon resonance of the gold component of nanoparticle hybrids could enhance nonlinear emission by several

  5. UV Nano Lights - Nonlinear Quantum Dot-Plasmon Coupling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-20

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0072 UV Nano-Lights - Nonlinear Quantum Dot- Plasmon Coupling Eric Waclawik QUEENSLAND UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Final Report 06...Final 3.  DATES COVERED (From - To)  03 Feb 2014 to 02 Feb 2016 4.  TITLE AND SUBTITLE UV Nano-Lights - Nonlinear Quantum Dot- Plasmon Coupling 5a...in the form of the localised surface plasmon resonance of the gold component of nanoparticle hybrids could enhance nonlinear emission by several

  6. Application of ultraviolet-C light on oranges for the inactivation of postharvest wound pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Germicidal effects of ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light on the postharvest wound pathogens of citrus fruits namely Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum were investigated. P. digitatum and P. italicum spores were inoculated (4.00 – 4.50 log cfu/ orange) onto Washington navel oranges (Citrus sinens...

  7. UV-A/Blue-Light responses in algae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senger, Horst; Hermsmeier, Dieter

    1994-01-01

    All life on earth depends on light. A variety of photoreceptors capture the light for a wide range of reactions. Photosynthetic organisms absorb the light necessary for energy transformation and charge separation facilitating photosynthesis. In addition to the bulk pigments there is a great diversity of photoreceptors present in minute concentrations that control development, metabolism and orientation of plants and microorganisms. Based on its spectral absorbance, the well-studied phytochrome system acts in the RL (red light) region as well as in the UV-A/BL (blue light) region where the above mentioned reactions are mediated by a variety of photoreceptors whose natures are largely unknown. Phyllogenetically the UV-A/BL photoreceptors seem to be more ancient pigments that eventually were replaced by the phytochrome system. However, there are many reports that suggest a coaction between the UV-A/BL receptors and the phytochrome system. In several cases the UV-A/BL activation is the prerequisite for the phytochrome reaction. Historically it was the German botanist Julius Sachs who first discovered in 1864 that phototropism in plants was due to BL reactions. It took over 70 years until Bunning (1937) and Galston and Baker (1949) rediscovered the BL response. Since then, an ever-increasing attention has been paid to this effect. In this contribution, the general aspect of UV-A/BL responses and especially the responsiveness of algae will be covered.

  8. The effect of UV-C exposure on larval survival of the dreissenid quagga mussel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart-Malone, Alecia; Misamore, Michael; Wilmoth, Siri K.; Reyes, Alejandro; Wong, Wai Hing; Gross, Jackson

    2015-01-01

    The rapid spread of quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) has lead to their invasion of Lake Mead, Nevada, the largest reservoir in North America and partially responsible for providing water to millions of people in the southwest. Current strategies for mitigating the growth and spread of quagga mussels primarily include physical and chemical means of removing adults within water treatment, delivery, and hydropower facilities. In the present study, germicidal ultraviolet light (UV-C) was used to target the larval stage of wild-caught quagga mussel. The lethal effect of UV-C was evaluated at four different doses, 0.0, 13.1, 26.2, and 79.6 mJ/cm2. Tested doses were determined based on results from preliminary trials. The results demonstrate that germicidal UV-C is effective in controlling the free-swimming life history stages of larval quagga mussels.

  9. The Effect of UV-C Exposure on Larval Survival of the Dreissenid Quagga Mussel

    PubMed Central

    Stewart-Malone, Alecia; Misamore, Michael; Wilmoth, Siri; Reyes, Alejandro; Wong, Wai Hing; Gross, Jackson

    2015-01-01

    The rapid spread of quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) has lead to their invasion of Lake Mead, Nevada, the largest reservoir in North America and partially responsible for providing water to millions of people in the southwest. Current strategies for mitigating the growth and spread of quagga mussels primarily include physical and chemical means of removing adults within water treatment, delivery, and hydropower facilities. In the present study, germicidal ultraviolet light (UV-C) was used to target the larval stage of wild-caught quagga mussel. The lethal effect of UV-C was evaluated at four different doses, 0.0, 13.1, 26.2, and 79.6 mJ/cm2. Tested doses were determined based on results from preliminary trials. The results demonstrate that germicidal UV-C is effective in controlling the free-swimming life history stages of larval quagga mussels. PMID:26186734

  10. Skin β-endorphin mediates addiction to UV light.

    PubMed

    Fell, Gillian L; Robinson, Kathleen C; Mao, Jianren; Woolf, Clifford J; Fisher, David E

    2014-06-19

    UV light is an established carcinogen, yet evidence suggests that UV-seeking behavior has addictive features. Following UV exposure, epidermal keratinocytes synthesize proopiomelanocortin (POMC) that is processed to melanocyte-stimulating hormone, inducing tanning. We show that, in rodents, another POMC-derived peptide, β-endorphin, is coordinately synthesized in skin, elevating plasma levels after low-dose UV. Increases in pain-related thresholds are observed and reversed by pharmacologic opioid antagonism. Opioid blockade also elicits withdrawal signs after chronic UV exposure. This effect was sufficient to guide operant behavioral choices to avoidance of opioid withdrawal (conditioned place aversion). These UV-induced nociceptive and behavioral effects were absent in β-endorphin knockout mice and in mice lacking p53-mediated POMC induction in epidermal keratinocytes. Although primordial UV addiction, mediated by the hedonic action of β-endorphin and anhedonic effects of withdrawal, may theoretically have enhanced evolutionary vitamin D biosynthesis, it now may contribute to the relentless rise in skin cancer incidence in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Conformational Effects of UV Light on DNA Origami.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haorong; Li, Ruixin; Li, Shiming; Andréasson, Joakim; Choi, Jong Hyun

    2017-02-01

    The responses of DNA origami conformation to UV radiation of different wavelengths and doses are investigated. Short- and medium-wavelength UV light can cause photo-lesions in DNA origami. At moderate doses, the lesions do not cause any visible defects in the origami, nor do they significantly affect the hybridization capability. Instead, they help relieve the internal stress in the origami structure and restore it to the designed conformation. At high doses, staple dissociation increases which causes structural disintegration. Long-wavelength UV does not show any effect on origami conformation by itself. We show that this UV range can be used in conjunction with photoactive molecules for photo-reconfiguration, while avoiding any damage to the DNA structures.

  12. Novel antioxidant capability of titanium induced by UV light treatment.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Takeshi; Ikeda, Takayuki; Tsukimura, Naoki; Ishijima, Manabu; Minamikawa, Hajime; Sugita, Yoshihiko; Yamada, Masahiro; Wakabayashi, Noriyuki; Ogawa, Takahiro

    2016-11-01

    The intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a representative form of cellular oxidative stress and plays an important role in triggering adverse cellular events, such as the inflammatory reaction and delayed or compromised differentiation. Osteoblastic reaction to titanium with particular focus on ROS production remains unknown. Ultraviolet (UV) light treatment improves the physicochemical properties of titanium, specifically the induction of super hydrophilicity and removal of hydrocarbon, and eventually enhances its osteoconductivity. We hypothesized that there is a favorable regulatory change of ROS production within osteoblasts in contact with UV-treated titanium. Osteoblasts were cultured on titanium disks with or without UV-pretreatment. The intracellular production of ROS was higher on acid-etch-created rough titanium surfaces than on machine-prepared smooth ones. The ROS production was reduced by 40-50% by UV pretreatment of titanium regardless of the surface roughness. Oxidative DNA damage, as detected by 8-OHdG expression, was alleviated by 50% on UV-treated titanium surfaces. The expression of inflammatory cytokines was consistently lower in osteoblasts cultured on UV-treated titanium. ROS scavenger, glutathione, remained more without being depleted in osteoblasts on UV-treated titanium. Bio-burden test further showed that culturing osteoblasts on UV-treated titanium can significantly reduce the ROS production even with the presence of hydrogen peroxide, an oxidative stress inducer. These data suggest that the intracellular production of ROS and relevant inflammatory reaction, which unavoidably occurs in osteoblasts in contact with titanium, can be significantly reduced by UV pretreatment of titanium, implying a novel antioxidant capability of the particular titanium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. High Pressure Microwave Powered UV Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cekic, M.; Frank, J. D.; Popovic, S.; Wood, C. H.

    1997-10-01

    Industrial microwave powered (*electrodeless*) light sources have been limited to quiescent pressures of 300 Torr of buffer gas and metal- halide fills. Recently developed multi-atmospheric electronegative bu lb fills (noble gas-halide excimers, metal halide) require electric field s for ionization that are often large multiples of the breakdown voltage for air. For these fills an auxiliary ignition system is necessary. The most successful scheme utilizes a high voltage pulse power supply and a novel field emission source. Acting together they create localized condition of pressure reduction and high free electron density. This allows the normal microwave fields to drive this small region into avalanche, ignite the bulb, and heat the plasma to it's operating poin t Standard diagnostic techniques of high density discharges are inapplicable to the excimer bulbs, because of the ionic molecular exci ted state structure and absence of self-absorption. The method for temperature determination is based on the equilibrium population of certain vibrational levels of excimer ionic excited states. Electron d ensity was determined from the measurements of Stark profiles of H_β radiation from a small amount of hydrogen mixed with noble gas and halogens. At the present time, high pressure (Te 0.5eV, ne 3 x 10^17 cm-3) production bulbs produce over 900W of radiation in a 30nm band, centered at 30nm. Similarly, these prototypes when loaded with metal-halide bulb fills produce 1 kW of radiation in 30nm wide bands, centered about the wavelength of interest.

  14. UV-A/blue-light responses in algae

    SciTech Connect

    Senger, H.; Hermsmeier, D.

    1994-12-31

    All life on earth depends on light. A variety of photoreceptors capture the light for a wide range of reactions. Photosynthetic organisms absorb the light necessary for energy transformation and charge separation facilitating photosynthesis. In addition to the bulk pigments there are a great diversity of photoreceptors present in minute concentrations that control development, metabolism and orientation of plants and microorganisms. Based on its spectral absorbance, the well-studied phytochrome system acts in the RL region as well as in the UV-A/BL region where the above mentioned reactions are mediated by a variety of photoreceptors whose natures are largely unknown. Phyllogeneticallymore » the UV-A/BL photoreceptors seem to be more ancient pigments that eventually were replaced by the phytochrome system. However, there are many reports that suggest a coaction between the UV-A/BL receptors and the phytochrome system. In several cases the UV-A/BL activation is the prerequisite for the phytochrome reaction. Historically it was the German botanist Julius Sachs who first discovered in 1864 that phototropism in plants was due to BL reactions. It took over 70 years until Bunning (1937) and Galston and Baker (1949) rediscovered the BL response. Since then, an ever-increasing attention has been paid to this effect. Two international conferences in 1979 and 1983 have been entirely dedicated to the BL phenomenon. In this contribution, the general aspect of UV-A/BL responses and especially the responsiveness of algae will be covered. There are numerous review articles covering the various aspects of UV-A/BL action and the photoreceptors involved.« less

  15. THE GERMICIDAL AND HEMOLYTIC ACTION OF α-BROM SOAPS

    PubMed Central

    Eggerth, Arnold H.

    1929-01-01

    1. The soaps of the α-brom fatty acids are usually more germicidal than the unsubstituted soaps. Only when B. typhosus was the test organism was there no increase in germicidal action. 2. For any test organism, germicidal action of the brominated soaps increases rapidly with increasing molecular weight up to a certain point, then diminishes. This is likewise true of the hemolytic titer. The point of maximal germicidal action varies with the different species of tests organisms. In the series studied, brominated soaps of 12 and 14 carbon atoms were most germicidal for the Gram-negative organisms, while soaps of 16 and 18 carbon atoms were most germicidal for Gram-positive organisms. 3. The brominated soaps are, in general, more active in acid that in neutral or alkaline reactions. The reasons for this have been discussed in a previous paper, in which a similar phenomenon with unsubstituted soaps was observed. 4. For certain organisms, the brominated soaps are among the most rapid and potent germicides known. PMID:19869537

  16. UV light and urban pollution: bad cocktail for mosquitoes?

    PubMed

    Tetreau, Guillaume; Chandor-Proust, Alexia; Faucon, Frédéric; Stalinski, Renaud; Akhouayri, Idir; Prud'homme, Sophie M; Régent-Kloeckner, Myriam; Raveton, Muriel; Reynaud, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito breeding sites consist of water pools, which can either be large open areas or highly covered ponds with vegetation, thus with different light exposures combined with the presence in water of xenobiotics including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) generated by urban pollution. UV light and PAHs are abiotic factors known to both affect the mosquito insecticide resistance status. Nonetheless, their potential combined effects on the mosquito physiology have never been investigated. The present article aims at describing the effects of UV exposure alongside water contamination with two major PAH pollutants (fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene) on a laboratory population of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. To evaluate the effects of PAH exposure and low energetic UV (UV-A) irradiation on mosquitoes, different parameters were measured including: (1) The PAH localization and its impact on cell mortality by fluorescent microscopy; (2) The detoxification capacities (cytochrome P450, glutathione-S-transferase, esterase); (3) The responses to oxidative stress (Reactive Oxygen Species-ROS) and (4) The tolerance of mosquito larvae to a bioinsecticide (Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis-Bti) and to five chemical insecticides (DDT, imidacloprid, permethrin, propoxur and temephos). Contrasting effects regarding mosquito cell mortality, detoxification and oxidative stress were observed as being dependent on the pollutant considered, despite the fact that the two PAHs belong to the same family. Moreover, UV is able to modify pollutant effects on mosquitoes, including tolerance to three insecticides (imidacloprid, propoxur and temephos), cell damage and response to oxidative stress. Taken together, our results suggest that UV and pollution, individually or in combination, are abiotic parameters that can affect the physiology and insecticide tolerance of mosquitoes; but the complexity of their direct effect and of their interaction will require further

  17. UV-light-assisted functionalization for sensing of light molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funari, Riccardo; Della Ventura, Bartolomeo; Ambrosio, Antonio; Lettieri, Stefano; Maddalena, Pasqualino; Altucci, Carlo; Velotta, Raffaele

    2013-05-01

    An antibody immobilization technique based on the formation of thiol groups after UV irradiation of the proteins is shown to be able to orient upside antibodies on a gold electrode of a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM). This greatly affects the aptitude of antibodies in recognizing small antigens thereby increasing the sensitivity of the QCM. The capability of such a procedure to orient antibodies is confirmed by the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) of the surface that shows different statistical distributions for the height of the detected peaks, whether the irradiation is performed or not. In particular, the distributions are Gaussian with a standard deviation smaller when irradiated antibodies are used compared to that obtained with no treated antibodies. The standard deviation reduction is explained in terms of higher order induced on the host surface resulting from the trend of irradiated antibodies to be anchored upside on the surface with their antigen binding sites free to catch recognized analytes. As a result the sensitivity of the realized biosensor is increased by even more than one order of magnitude.

  18. Daily light integral and day light quality: Potentials and pitfalls of nighttime UV treatments on cucumber powdery mildew.

    PubMed

    Suthaparan, Aruppillai; Solhaug, Knut Asbjørn; Stensvand, Arne; Gislerød, Hans Ragnar

    2017-10-01

    Nighttime ultraviolet (UV) radiation, if applied properly, has a significant potential for management of powdery mildews in many crop species. In this study, the role of growth light duration, irradiance, a combination of both (daily light integral) and light spectral quality (blue or red) on the efficacy of UV treatments against powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii and the growth performance of cucumber plants was studied in growth chambers. Increasing daily light integral provided by high-pressure sodium lamps (HPS) decreased efficacy of nighttime UV treatments against P. xanthii, but it increased plant growth. Furthermore, the efficacy of nighttime UV decreased when day length was increased from 16 to 20h at a constant daily light integral. The efficacy of nighttime UV increased if red light was applied after UV treatment, showing the possibility of day length extension without reducing the effect of UV. Increasing the dose of blue light during daytime reduced the efficacy of nighttime UV in controlling the disease, whereas blue deficient growth light (<6% of blue) caused UV mediated curling of young leaves. Furthermore, application of blue light after nighttime UV reduced its disease control efficacy. This showed the importance of maintaining a minimum of blue light in the growth light before nighttime UV treatment. Findings from this study showed that optimization of nighttime UV for management of powdery mildew is dependent on the spectral composition of the photosynthetically active radiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Fluorescence image excited by a scanning UV-LED light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Yi-Ju; Huang, Kuo-Cheng

    2013-03-01

    An optical scanning system using UV-LED light to induced fluorescence technology can enhance a fluorescence image significantly in a short period. It has several advantages such as lower power consumption, no scattering effect in skins, and multilayer images can be obtained to analyze skin disease. From the experiment results, the light intensity increases with increase spot size and decrease scanning speed, but the image resolution is oppositely. Moreover, the system could be widely used in clinical diagnosis and photodynamic therapy for skin disease because even the irradiated time of fluorescence substance is short but it will provide accurately positioning of fluorescence object.

  20. The influence of an external cavity on the emission spectrum of a mercury germicidal lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomonov, V. I.; Surkov, Yu. S.; Gorbunkov, V. I.

    2016-09-01

    The spectrum of emission from the cylindrical duralumin cavity of a TUV 8wG8 T5 UV industrial germicidal mercury lamp is studied. It is shown that, due to reflection from the inner surface of the cavity and reabsorption in the gas discharge, the resonance line of a mercury atom is significantly weakened. The dependence of the resonance line intensity on the discharge current has a maximum, and the discharge current corresponding to the intensity maximum depends on the reflection coefficient of the inner surface of the cavity.

  1. Nontoxic fluorescent carbon nanodot serving as a light conversion material in plant for UV light utilization.

    PubMed

    Sai, Liman; Liu, Siqi; Qian, Xuexue; Yu, Yahui; Xu, Xiaofeng

    2018-05-21

    In this study, water-soluble fluorescent carbon nanodots (CNDs) were directly injected into the leaf of nicotiana tabacum. With the help of UV-to-blue light conversion nanomaterial, the photosynthetic rate of the leaf was improved 18% upon additional 6 W UV irradiation. The photostability and toxicity of different kinds of CNDs were discussed. The results showed that CNDs functionalized with NH 2 -groups on their surfaces could maintain good fluorescence in plant leaf, and CNDs with complex surface groups tended to have high toxicity to the plant. The NH 2 -functionalized CNDs with non-toxicity and good photostability were used as in vivo light conversion material for direct utilization of UV light in the solar energy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Fundamental Scaling of Microplasmas and Tunable UV Light Generation.

    SciTech Connect

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Sillerud, Colin Halliday; Hopkins, Matthew M.

    2016-11-01

    The temporal evolution of spectral lines from microplasma devices (MD) was studied, including impurity transitions. Long-wavelength emission diminishes more rapidly than deep UV with decreasing pulse width and RF operation. Thus, switching from DC to short pulsed or RF operation, UV emissions can be suppressed, allowing for real-time tuning of the ionization energy of a microplasma photo-ionization source, which is useful for chemical and atomic physics. Scaling allows MD to operate near atmospheric pressure where excimer states are efficiently created and emit down to 65 nm; laser emissions fall off below 200 nm, making MD light sources attractive for deepmore » UV use. A first fully-kinetic three-dimensional model was developed that explicitly calculates electron-energy distribution function. This, and non-continuum effects, were studied with the model and how they are impacted by geometry and transient or DC operation. Finally, a global non-dimensional model was developed to help explain general trends MD physics.« less

  3. 207-nm UV Light—A Promising Tool for Safe Low-Cost Reduction of Surgical Site Infections. II: In-Vivo Safety Studies

    PubMed Central

    Buonanno, Manuela; Stanislauskas, Milda; Ponnaiya, Brian; Bigelow, Alan W.; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Xu, Yanping; Shuryak, Igor; Smilenov, Lubomir; Owens, David M.; Brenner, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Background UVC light generated by conventional germicidal lamps is a well-established anti-microbial modality, effective against both bacteria and viruses. However, it is a human health hazard, being both carcinogenic and cataractogenic. Earlier studies showed that single-wavelength far-UVC light (207 nm) generated by excimer lamps kills bacteria without apparent harm to human skin tissue in vitro. The biophysical explanation is that, due to its extremely short range in biological material, 207 nm UV light cannot penetrate the human stratum corneum (the outer dead-cell skin layer, thickness 5–20 μm) nor even the cytoplasm of individual human cells. By contrast, 207 nm UV light can penetrate bacteria and viruses because these cells are physically much smaller. Aims To test the biophysically-based hypothesis that 207 nm UV light is not cytotoxic to exposed mammalian skin in vivo. Methods Hairless mice were exposed to a bactericidal UV fluence of 157 mJ/cm2 delivered by a filtered Kr-Br excimer lamp producing monoenergetic 207-nm UV light, or delivered by a conventional 254-nm UV germicidal lamp. Sham irradiations constituted the negative control. Eight relevant cellular and molecular damage endpoints including epidermal hyperplasia, pre-mutagenic UV-associated DNA lesions, skin inflammation, and normal cell proliferation and differentiation were evaluated in mice dorsal skin harvested 48 h after UV exposure. Results While conventional germicidal UV (254 nm) exposure produced significant effects for all the studied skin damage endpoints, the same fluence of 207 nm UV light produced results that were not statistically distinguishable from the zero exposure controls. Conclusions As predicted by biophysical considerations and in agreement with earlier in vitro studies, 207-nm light does not appear to be significantly cytotoxic to mouse skin. These results suggest that excimer-based far-UVC light could potentially be used for its anti-microbial properties, but without

  4. Development and future of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes: UV-LED will replace the UV lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramoto, Yoshihiko; Kimura, Masahiro; Nouda, Suguru

    2014-06-01

    Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) have started replacing UV lamps. The power per LED of high-power LED products has reached 12 W (14 A), which is 100 times the values observed ten years ago. In addition, the cost of these high-power LEDs has been decreasing. In this study, we attempt to understand the technologies and potential of UV-LEDs.

  5. Photochemistry of iron citrates initiated by UV-VIS light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corral Arroyo, Pablo; Dou, Jing; Alpert, Peter; Krieger, Ulrich; Ammann, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Aerosol aging refers to the multitude of physical and chemical transformation atmospheric particles undergo, which play an important role in the impact of aerosols on climate, air quality and health. Aging processes may be started by chromophores, which act as photocatalysts that induce the oxidation of non-absorbing molecules [1]. Iron (Fe(III)) carboxylate complexes absorb light below about 500 nm, which is followed by ligand to metal charge transfer (LMCT) resulting in the reduction of iron to Fe(II) and oxidation of the carboxylate ligands, a process that represents an important sink of organic acids in the troposphere [2]. Our goal is to investigate how these photochemical processes contribute to the change of chemical and physical properties of the aerosol particles. To achieve this scope, we carry out coated wall flow tube experiments, exposing films with iron citrate to UV light, which will give information about the radical and LVOC production (connecting the CWFT to a Chemiluminescent Detector or PTR-TOF-MS respectively). From extracting and analyzing the films after irradiation with UV light, we obtain a profile of low-volatility products evolving from the photochemistry of iron citrates. By Scanning Transmission X-Ray Microspectroscopy (STXM) we analyze changes in the C K-edge and Fe L-edge in particles loaded with iron citrate upon exposure to light and follow their chemical and structural evolution upon photochemical oxidation in situ to investigate the degradation kinetics under varying environmental conditions. [1] George G., Ammann M., D'Anna B., Donaldson D. J., Nizkorodov S. A., Heterogeneous photochemistry in the Atmosphere, Chem. Rev., 2015, 115 (10), pp 4218-4258 [2] Weller, C., Horn, S., and Herrmann, H.: Photolysis of Fe(III) carboxylate complexes: Fe(II) quantum yields and reaction mechanisms, Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, 268, 24-36, 2013.

  6. Ultraviolet light (UV) and UV-ozone interventions reduce shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) on contaminated fresh beef

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although numerous chemical interventions have been implemented and validated to decontaminate meat and meat products during the harvesting process, more novel technologies are under development. UV light ionizing irradiation has been used extensively in pharmaceutical and medical device companies to...

  7. Suppression of cucumber powdery mildew by UV-B is affected by background light quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brief (5-10 min) exposure to UV-B radiation (280-300 nm) suppressed powdery mildew (Podosphaera xanthii) on Cucumis sativus. The effect was enhanced by red light (600-660 nm), but offset by blue light (420-500 nm) and UV-A (300-420 nm). Compared to untreated controls, 2 h red light from specific lig...

  8. UV inactivation of pathogenic and indicator microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, J.C.; Ossoff, S.F.; Lobe, D.C.

    1985-06-01

    Survival was measured as a function of the dose of germicidal UV light for the bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigella sonnei, Streptococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis spores, the enteric viruses poliovirus type 1 and simian rotavirus SA11, the cysts of the protozoan Acanthamoeba castellanii, as well as for total coliforms and standard plate count microorganisms from secondary effluent. The doses of UV light necessary for a 99.9% inactivation of the cultured vegetative bacteria, total coliforms, and standard plate count microorganisms were comparable. However, the viruses, the bacterial spores, and the amoebic cysts required about 3 to 4more » times, 9 times, and 15 times, respectively, the dose required for E. coli. These ratios covered a narrower relative dose range than that previously reported for chlorine disinfection of E. coli, viruses, spores, and cysts.« less

  9. Decontamination System Utilizing Hydrogen Peroxide, UV Light and Catalytic Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    Min %DMO RecoveredDisk# Catalyst (relative to control) 1 Ag 2 0 5.4 2 Ag2 0 10.1 4 FeTiO3 56 5 FeTio3 48 7 None 558 None 56 Control None 100 Ag 2 0...Std. Ag2 0 44 FeTiO3 Std. FeTiO3 100 Reference 87 - 36 - Table 9g. Experiment U, 1-09-91, 50% H2 02 , No UV Light, Run Time - 40 Min % DMO...Ag 2 0 2 7.8 44 1-09 T FeTiO3 2 52 100 1-09 U MnO 2 59 921-09 U Mn304 2 62 89 1-21 Y Ag 2 S/CaCO3 2 36 103 1-21 Y Ag 2 S 2 39 100 1-21 Z FeS2 2 6.0

  10. Long-term effects of UV light on contractility of rat arteries in vivo.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yuji; Kohyama, Shinya; Nakai, Kanji; Matsuo, Hirotaka; Karasawa, Fujio; Kikuchi, Makoto

    2003-10-01

    Several studies have shown that UV irradiation may be effective for preventing vascular restenosis or vasopasm. However, the long-term effects of UV light on the physiological properties of vessels such as arterial tension have not been elucidated. We therefore studied the long-term effects of UV using rat carotid arteries treated with UV-B light (wavelength = 313 nm, total energy = 14 mJ/mm2). The animals were sacrificed at 1, 7 and 14 days after UV light exposure, and the carotid arteries were studied by light microscopy and the contractile responses of isolated arterial rings were recorded under isometric tension. UV treatment had induced a substantial loss of smooth muscle cells (SMC) along the entire circumference of the media on days 7 and 14, whereas loss of SMC on day 1 was negligible. Contractile responses of arteries that had been exposed to UV light were significantly reduced on days, 1, 7 and 14. The susceptibility of UV-treated arteries to phenylephrine and prostaglandin F2 alpha was significantly decreased on days 1 and 7, but decreased susceptibility was not seen on day 14. Acetylcholine-induced relaxations were not altered by UV treatment. These results suggest that the long-term effect of UV light is an attenuation of smooth muscle contractility without impairment of endothelial function.

  11. Luminescence- and nanoparticle-mediated increase of light absorption by photoreceptor cells: Converting UV light to visible light.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Sahi, Sunil K; Peng, Mingying; Lee, Eric B; Ma, Lun; Wojtowicz, Jennifer L; Malin, John H; Chen, Wei

    2016-02-10

    We developed new optic devices - singly-doped luminescence glasses and nanoparticle-coated lenses that convert UV light to visible light - for improvement of visual system functions. Tb(3+) or Eu(3+) singly-doped borate glasses or CdS-quantum dot (CdS-QD) coated lenses efficiently convert UV light to 542 nm or 613 nm wavelength narrow-band green or red light, or wide-spectrum white light, and thereby provide extra visible light to the eye. In zebrafish (wild-type larvae and adult control animals, retinal degeneration mutants, and light-induced photoreceptor cell degeneration models), the use of Tb(3+) or Eu(3+) doped luminescence glass or CdS-QD coated glass lenses provide additional visible light to the rod and cone photoreceptor cells, and thereby improve the visual system functions. The data provide proof-of-concept for the future development of optic devices for improvement of visual system functions in patients who suffer from photoreceptor cell degeneration or related retinal diseases.

  12. Intimate Coupling of Photocatalysis and Biodegradation for Degrading Phenol Using Different Light Types: Visible Light vs UV Light.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dandan; Xu, Zhengxue; Dong, Shanshan; Huo, Mingxin; Dong, Shuangshi; Tian, Xiadi; Cui, Bin; Xiong, Houfeng; Li, Tingting; Ma, Dongmei

    2015-07-07

    Intimate coupling of photocatalysis and biodegradation (ICPB) technology is attractive for phenolic wastewater treatment, but has only been investigated using UV light (called UPCB). We examined the intimate coupling of visible-light-induced photocatalysis and biodegradation (VPCB) for the first time. Our catalyst was prepared doping both of Er(3+) and YAlO3 into TiO2 which were supported on macroporous carriers. The macroporous carriers was used to support for the biofilms as well. 99.8% removal efficiency of phenol was achieved in the VPCB, and this was 32.6% higher than that in the UPCB. Mineralization capability of UPCB was even worse, due to less adsorbable intermediates and cell lysis induced soluble microbial products release. The lower phenol degradation in the UPCB was due to the serious detachment of the biofilms, and then the microbes responsible for phenol degradation were insufficient due to disinfection by UV irradiation. In contrast, microbial communities in the carriers were well protected under visible light irradiation and extracellular polymeric substances secretion was enhanced. Thus, we found that the photocatalytic reaction and biodegradation were intimately coupled in the VPCB, resulting in 64.0% removal of dissolved organic carbon. Therefore, we found visible light has some advantages over UV light in the ICPB technology.

  13. Comparison of UV-C and Pulsed UV Light Treatments for Reduction of Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, and Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli on Eggs.

    PubMed

    Holck, Askild L; Liland, Kristian H; Drømtorp, Signe M; Carlehög, Mats; McLEOD, Anette

    2018-01-01

    Ten percent of all strong-evidence foodborne outbreaks in the European Union are caused by Salmonella related to eggs and egg products. UV light may be used to decontaminate egg surfaces and reduce the risk of human salmonellosis infections. The efficiency of continuous UV-C (254 nm) and pulsed UV light for reducing the viability of Salmonella Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes, and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli on eggs was thoroughly compared. Bacterial cells were exposed to UV-C light at fluences from 0.05 to 3.0 J/cm 2 (10 mW/cm 2 , for 5 to 300 s) and pulsed UV light at fluences from 1.25 to 18.0 J/cm 2 , resulting in reductions ranging from 1.6 to 3.8 log, depending on conditions used. Using UV-C light, it was possible to achieve higher reductions at lower fluences compared with pulsed UV light. When Salmonella was stacked on a small area or shielded in feces, the pulsed UV light seemed to have a higher penetration capacity and gave higher bacterial reductions. Microscopy imaging and attempts to contaminate the interior of the eggs with Salmonella through the eggshell demonstrated that the integrity of the eggshell was maintained after UV light treatments. Only minor sensory changes were reported by panelists when the highest UV doses were used. UV-C and pulsed UV light treatments appear to be useful decontamination technologies that can be implemented in continuous processing.

  14. Impact of Room Location on UV-C Irradiance and UV-C Dosage and Antimicrobial Effect Delivered by a Mobile UV-C Light Device.

    PubMed

    Boyce, John M; Farrel, Patricia A; Towle, Dana; Fekieta, Renee; Aniskiewicz, Michael

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate ultraviolet C (UV-C) irradiance, UV-C dosage, and antimicrobial effect achieved by a mobile continuous UV-C device. DESIGN Prospective observational study. METHODS We used 6 UV light sensors to determine UV-C irradiance (W/cm2) and UV-C dosage (µWsec/cm2) at various distances from and orientations relative to the UV-C device during 5-minute and 15-minute cycles in an ICU room and a surgical ward room. In both rooms, stainless-steel disks inoculated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), and Clostridium difficile spores were placed next to sensors, and UV-C dosages and log10 reductions of target organisms achieved during 5-minute and 15-minute cycles were determined. Mean irradiance and dosage readings were compared using ANOVA. RESULTS Mean UV-C irradiance was nearly 1.0E-03 W/cm2 in direct sight at a distance of 1.3 m (4 ft) from the device but was 1.12E-05 W/cm2 on a horizontal surface in a shaded area 3.3 m (10 ft) from the device (P4 to 1-3 for MRSA, >4 to 1-2 for VRE and >4 to 0 log10 for C. difficile spores, depending on the distance from, and orientation relative to, the device with 5-minute and 15-minute cycles. CONCLUSION UV-C irradiance, dosage, and antimicrobial effect received from a mobile UV-C device varied substantially based on location in a room relative to the UV-C device. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:667-672.

  15. Protocol for Determining Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diode (UV-LED) Fluence for Microbial Inactivation Studies.

    PubMed

    Kheyrandish, Ataollah; Mohseni, Madjid; Taghipour, Fariborz

    2018-06-15

    Determining fluence is essential to derive the inactivation kinetics of microorganisms and to design ultraviolet (UV) reactors for water disinfection. UV light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) are emerging UV sources with various advantages compared to conventional UV lamps. Unlike conventional mercury lamps, no standard method is available to determine the average fluence of the UV-LEDs, and conventional methods used to determine the fluence for UV mercury lamps are not applicable to UV-LEDs due to the relatively low power output, polychromatic wavelength, and specific radiation profile of UV-LEDs. In this study, a method was developed to determine the average fluence inside a water suspension in a UV-LED experimental setup. In this method, the average fluence was estimated by measuring the irradiance at a few points for a collimated and uniform radiation on a Petri dish surface. New correction parameters were defined and proposed, and several of the existing parameters for determining the fluence of the UV mercury lamp apparatus were revised to measure and quantify the collimation and uniformity of the radiation. To study the effect of polychromatic output and radiation profile of the UV-LEDs, two UV-LEDs with peak wavelengths of 262 and 275 nm and different radiation profiles were selected as the representatives of typical UV-LEDs applied to microbial inactivation. The proper setup configuration for microorganism inactivation studies was also determined based on the defined correction factors.

  16. Penetration of UV-A, UV-B, blue, and red light into leaf tissues of pecan measured by a fiber optic microprobe system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yadong; Bai, Shuju; Vogelmann, Thomas C.; Heisler, Gordon M.

    2003-11-01

    The depth of light penetration from the adaxial surfaces of the mature leaves of pecan (Carya illinoensis) was measured using a fiber optic microprobe system at four wavelengths: UV-B (310nm), UV-A (360 nm), blue light (430nm), and red light (680nm). The average thickness of the leaf adaxial epidermal layer was 15um and the total leaf thickness was 219um. The patterns of the light attenuation by the leaf tissues exhibited strong wavelength dependence. The leaf adaxial epidermal layer was chiefly responsible for absorbing the UV-A UV-B radiation. About 98% of 310 nm light was steeply attenuated within the first 5 um of the adaxial epidermis; thus, very little UV-B radiation was transmitted to the mesophyll tissues where contain photosynthetically sensitive sites. The adaxial epidermis also attenuated 96% of the UV-A radiation. In contrast, the blue and red light penetrated much deeper and was gradually attenutated by the leaves. The mesophyll tissues attenuated 17% of the blue light and 42% of the red light, which were available for photosynthesis use. Since the epidermal layer absorbed nearly all UV-B light, it acted as an effective filter screening out the harmful radiation and protecting photosynthetically sensitive tissues from the UV-B damage. Therefore, the epidermal function of the UV-B screening effectiveness can be regarded as one of the UV-B protection mechanisms in pecan.

  17. Solar UV light regulates flavonoid metabolism in apple (Malus x domestica).

    PubMed

    Henry-Kirk, Rebecca A; Plunkett, Blue; Hall, Miriam; McGhie, Tony; Allan, Andrew C; Wargent, Jason J; Espley, Richard V

    2018-03-01

    Ultraviolet-B light (UV-B) is one environmental signal perceived by plants that affects the flavonoid pathway and influences the levels of anthocyanins, flavonols, and proanthocyanidins. To understand the mechanisms underlying UV exposure, apple trees were grown under spectral filters that altered transmission of solar UV light. Fruit analysis showed that UV induced changes in physiology, metabolism, and gene expression levels during development over a season. These changes were sustained after storage. Under low UV, ripening was delayed, fruit size decreased, and anthocyanin and flavonols were reduced. Expression analysis showed changes in response to UV light levels for genes in the regulation and biosynthesis of anthocyanin and flavonols. Transcription of flavonol synthase (FLS), ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5), MYB10, and MYB22 were down-regulated throughout fruit development under reduced UV. Functional testing showed that the FLS promoter was activated by HY5, and this response was enhanced by the presence of MYB22. The MYB22 promoter can also be activated by the anthocyanin regulator, MYB10. As ambient levels of UV light vary around the globe, this study has implications for future crop production, the quality of which can be determined by the response to UV. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Physiological limit of the daily endogenous cholecalciferol synthesis from UV light in cattle.

    PubMed

    Hymøller, L; Jensen, S K; Kaas, P; Jakobsen, J

    2017-04-01

    The link between UV light (sunlight) and endogenous cholecalciferol (vitamin D 3 ) synthesis in the skin of humans has been known for more than a 100 years, since doctors for the first time successfully used UV light to cure rickets in children. Years later, it was shown that UV light also had a significant effect on the cholecalciferol status in the body of cattle. The cholecalciferol status in the body is measured as the plasma concentration of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, which in cattle and humans is the major circulating metabolite of cholecalciferol. Very little is, however, known about the quantitative efficiency of UV light as a source of cholecalciferol in cattle nutrition and physiology. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the efficiency of using UV light for increasing the plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentration in cholecalciferol-deprived cattle. Twelve cows deprived of cholecalciferol for 6 months were divided into three treatment groups and exposed to UV light for 30, 90 or 120 min/day during 28 days. UV-light wavelengths ranged from 280 to 415 nm and 30-min exposure to the UV light was equivalent to 60-min average summer-sunlight exposure at 56 °N. Blood samples were collected every 3-4 days and analysed for 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and cholecalciferol. Results showed that increasing the exposure time from 90-120 min/day did not change the slope of the daily increase in plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol. Hence, it appears that cholecalciferol-deprived dairy cattle are able to increase their plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentration by a maximum of 1 ng/ml/day from UV-light exposure. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Characterization and optimization of an inkjet-printed smart textile UV-sensor cured with UV-LED light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seipel, S.; Yu, J.; Periyasamy, A. P.; Viková, M.; Vik, M.; Nierstrasz, V. A.

    2017-10-01

    For the development of niche products like smart textiles and other functional high-end products, resource-saving production processes are needed. Niche products only require small batches, which makes their production with traditional textile production techniques time-consuming and costly. To achieve a profitable production, as well as to further foster innovation, flexible and integrated production techniques are a requirement. Both digital inkjet printing and UV-light curing contribute to a flexible, resource-efficient, energy-saving and therewith economic production of smart textiles. In this article, a smart textile UV-sensor is printed using a piezoelectric drop-on-demand printhead and cured with a UV-LED lamp. The UVcurable ink system is based on free radical polymerization and the integrated UVsensing material is a photochromic dye, Reversacol Ruby Red. The combination of two photoactive compounds, for which UV-light is both the curer and the activator, challenges two processes: polymer crosslinking of the resin and color performance of the photochromic dye. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is used to characterize the curing efficiency of the prints. Color measurements are made to determine the influence of degree of polymer crosslinking on the developed color intensities, as well as coloration and decoloration rates of the photochromic prints. Optimized functionality of the textile UV-sensor is found using different belt speeds and lamp intensities during the curing process.

  20. Improving the color of bulgur: new industrial applications of tempering and UV/sun-light treatments.

    PubMed

    Balci, Fatih; Bayram, Mustafa

    2015-09-01

    Color (CIE b*; yellowness) is an important parameter for bulgur quality. Color of bulgur is mainly due to natural pigments (carotenoids) that are present at different levels in wheat. In order to increase the customer acceptability, the producers try to obtain yellowish color in bulgur. In this study, two different tempering methods (spray and steam) were used before sun and UV- light polishing applications. Sun and UV-light were applied to tempered bulgur for 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 h. Moisture content (%, d.b.), ash content (%, d.b.), protein content (%, d.b.), total carotenoid content in terms of lutein equivalent (TCC) and color values (CIE L*; lightness, CIE b*; yellowness, CIE a*; redness and CIE YI; yellowness index) were determined. It was found that UV-light was more effective (P < 0.05) on the CIE L* and CIE b* values compared to sunlight. Both tempering methods were significantly (P < 0.05) increased the CIE L*, CIE b* and CIE YI values. Steam tempering has a significant effect (P < 0.05) on the CIE b* values as well as UV and time of UV exposure. The highest value of TCC i.e. 6.31 μg/g was obtained by using spray tempering and UV-light exposure. As a conclusion, as proposed methods steam tempering and UV-light have an obvious positive effect on the color of bulgur.

  1. Epidermal UV-A absorbance and whole-leaf flavonoid composition in pea respond more to solar blue light than to solar UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Siipola, Sari M; Kotilainen, Titta; Sipari, Nina; Morales, Luis O; Lindfors, Anders V; Robson, T Matthew; Aphalo, Pedro J

    2015-05-01

    Plants synthesize phenolic compounds in response to certain environmental signals or stresses. One large group of phenolics, flavonoids, is considered particularly responsive to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. However, here we demonstrate that solar blue light stimulates flavonoid biosynthesis in the absence of UV-A and UV-B radiation. We grew pea plants (Pisum sativum cv. Meteor) outdoors, in Finland during the summer, under five types of filters differing in their spectral transmittance. These filters were used to (1) attenuate UV-B; (2) attenuate UV-B and UV-A < 370 nm; (3) attenuate UV-B and UV-A; (4) attenuate UV-B, UV-A and blue light; and (5) as a control not attenuating these wavebands. Attenuation of blue light significantly reduced the flavonoid content in leaf adaxial epidermis and reduced the whole-leaf concentrations of quercetin derivatives relative to kaempferol derivatives. In contrast, UV-B responses were not significant. These results show that pea plants regulate epidermal UV-A absorbance and accumulation of individual flavonoids by perceiving complex radiation signals that extend into the visible region of the solar spectrum. Furthermore, solar blue light instead of solar UV-B radiation can be the main regulator of phenolic compound accumulation in plants that germinate and develop outdoors. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Replication of adeno-associated virus in cells irradiated with UV light at 254 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Yakobson, B.; Hrynko, T.A.; Peak, M.J.

    1989-03-01

    Irradiation of simian virus 40 (ori mutant)-transformed Chinese hamster embryo cells (OD4 line) with UV light induced a cellular capacity which supported a full cycle of helper-independent adeno-associated virus replication. Monochromatic UV light at 254 nm was about 1,000-fold more effective than UV light at 313 nm, indicating that cellular nucleic acid is the primary chromophore in the UV-induced process leading to permissiveness for adeno-associated virus replication. The UV irradiation and the infection could be separated for up to 12 h without substantial loss of permissiveness. During this time interval, the induction process was partly sensitive to cycloheximide, suggesting amore » requirement for de novo protein synthesis.« less

  3. Inactivation of Salmonella enterica by UV-C Light Alone and in Combination with Mild Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Gayán, E.; Serrano, M. J.; Raso, J.; Álvarez, I.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the efficacy of the combined processes of UV light and mild temperatures for the inactivation of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica and to explore the mechanism of inactivation. The doses to inactivate the 99.99% (4D) of the initial population ranged from 18.03 (Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium STCC 878) to 12.75 J ml−1 (Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis ATCC 13076). The pH and water activity of the treatment medium did not change the UV tolerance, but it decreased exponentially by increasing the absorption coefficient. An inactivating synergistic effect was observed by applying simultaneous UV light and heat treatment (UV-H). A less synergistic effect was observed by applying UV light first and heat subsequently. UV did not damage cell envelopes, but the number of injured cells was higher after a UV-H treatment than after heating. The synergistic effect observed by combining simultaneous UV and heat treatment opens the possibility to design combined treatments for pasteurization of liquid food with high UV absorptivity, such as fruit juices. PMID:23001665

  4. Footprints of the sun: memory of UV and light stress in plants

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Xing, Ralf; Xing, Qian; Goodrich, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Sunlight provides the necessary energy for plant growth via photosynthesis but high light and particular its integral ultraviolet (UV) part causes stress potentially leading to serious damage to DNA, proteins, and other cellular components. Plants show adaptation to environmental stresses, sometimes referred to as “plant memory.” There is growing evidence that plants memorize exposure to biotic or abiotic stresses through epigenetic mechanisms at the cellular level. UV target genes such as CHALCONE SYNTHASE (CHS) respond immediately to UV treatment and studies of the recently identified UV-B receptor UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8) confirm the expedite nature of UV signaling. Considering these findings, an UV memory seems redundant. However, several lines of evidence suggest that plants may develop an epigenetic memory of UV and light stress, but in comparison to other abiotic stresses there has been relatively little investigation. Here we summarize the state of knowledge about acclimation and adaptation of plants to UV light and discuss the possibility of chromatin based epigenetic memory. PMID:25278950

  5. The EGFR family of receptors sensitizes cancer cells towards UV light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Steffen; Neves-Petersen, Maria Teresa; Olsen, Birgitte

    2008-02-01

    A combination of bioinformatics, biophysical, advanced laser studies and cell biology lead to the realization that laser-pulsed UV light stops cancer growth and induces apoptosis. We have previously shown that laser-pulsed UV (LP-UV) illumination of two different skin-derived cancer cell lines both over expressing the EGF receptor, lead to arrest of the EGFR signaling pathway. We have investigated the available sequence and experimental 3D structures available in the Protein Data Bank. The EGF receptor contains a Furin like cystein rich extracellular domain. The cystein content is highly unusual, 25 disulphide bridges supports the 621 amino acid extracellular protein domain scaffold (1mb6.pdb). In two cases a tryptophan is neighboring a cystein in the primary sequence, which in itself is a rare observation. Aromatic residues is observed to be spatially close to all observed 25 disulphide bridges. The EGF receptor is often overexpressed in cancers and other proliferative skin disorders, it might be possible to significantly reduce the proliferative potential of these cells making them good targets for laser-pulsed UV-light treatment. The discovery that UV light can be used to open disulphide bridges in proteins upon illumination of nearby aromatic amino acids was the first step that lead to the hypothesis that UV light could modulate the structure and therefore the function of these key receptor proteins. The observation that membrane receptors (EGFR) contained exactly the motifs that are sensitive to UV light lead to the prediction that UV light could modify these receptors permanently and stop cancer proliferation. We hereby show that the EGFR family of receptors has the necessary structural motifs that make this family of proteins highly sensitive to UV light.

  6. A solid oxide photoelectrochemical cell with UV light-driven oxygen storage in mixed conducting electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Walch, Gregor; Rotter, Bernhard; Brunauer, Georg Christoph; Esmaeili, Esmaeil; Opitz, Alexander Karl; Kubicek, Markus; Summhammer, Johann; Ponweiser, Karl

    2017-01-01

    A single crystalline SrTiO3 working electrode in a zirconia-based solid oxide electrochemical cell is illuminated by UV light at temperatures of 360–460 °C. In addition to photovoltaic effects, this leads to the build-up of a battery-type voltage up to more than 300 mV. After switching off UV light, this voltage only slowly decays. It is caused by UV-induced oxygen incorporation into the mixed conducting working electrode and thus by changes of the oxygen stoichiometry δ in SrTiO3–δ under UV illumination. These changes of the oxygen content could be followed in time-dependent voltage measurements and also manifest themselves in time-dependent resistance changes during and after UV illumination. Discharge currents measured after UV illumination reveal that a large fraction of the existing oxygen vacancies in SrTiO3 become filled under UV light. Additional measurements on cells with TiO2 thin film electrodes show the broader applicability of this novel approach for transforming light into chemical energy and thus the feasibility of solid oxide photoelectrochemical cells (SOPECs) in general and of a “light-charged oxygen battery” in particular. PMID:28261480

  7. Demonstration of UV LED versatility when paired with molded UV transmitting glass optics to produce unique irradiance patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasenak, Brian

    2017-02-01

    Ultraviolet light-emitting diode (UV LED) adoption is accelerating; they are being used in new applications such as UV curing, germicidal irradiation, nondestructive testing, and forensic analysis. In many of these applications, it is critically important to produce a uniform light distribution and consistent surface irradiance. Flat panes of fused quartz, silica, or glass are commonly used to cover and protect UV LED arrays. However, they don't offer the advantages of an optical lens design. An investigation was conducted to determine the effect of a secondary glass optic on the uniformity of the light distribution and irradiance. Glass optics capable of transmitting UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C wavelengths can improve light distribution, uniformity, and intensity. In this work, two simulation studies were created to illustrate distinct irradiance patterns desirable for potential real world applications. The first study investigates the use of a multi-UV LED array and optic to create a uniform irradiance pattern on the flat two dimensional (2D) target surface. The uniformity was improved by designing both the LED array and molded optic to produce a homogenous pattern. The second study investigated the use of an LED light source and molded optic to improve the light uniformity on the inside of a canister. The case study illustrates the requirements for careful selection of LED based on light distribution and subsequent design of optics. The optic utilizes total internal reflection to create optimized light distribution. The combination of the LED and molded optic showed significant improvement in uniformity on the inner surface of the canister. The simulations illustrate how the application of optics can significantly improve UV light distribution which can be critical in applications such as UV curing and sterilization.

  8. Skin protection against UV light by dietary antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Fernández-García, Elisabet

    2014-09-01

    There is considerable interest in the concept of additional endogenous photoprotection by dietary antioxidants. A number of efficient micronutrients are capable of contributing to the prevention of UV damage in humans. These compounds protect molecular targets by scavenging reactive oxygen species, including excited singlet oxygen and triplet state molecules, and also modulate stress-dependent signaling and/or suppress cellular and tissue responses like inflammation. Micronutrients present in the diet such as carotenoids, vitamins E and C, and polyphenols contribute to antioxidant defense and may also contribute to endogenous photoprotection. This review summarizes the literature concerning the use of dietary antioxidants as systemic photoprotective agents towards skin damage induced by UVA and UVB. Intervention studies in humans with carotenoid-rich diets have shown photoprotection. Interestingly, rather long treatment periods (a minimum of 10 weeks) were required to achieve this effect. Likewise, dietary carotenoids exert their protective antioxidant function in several in vitro and in vivo studies when present at sufficiently high concentration. A combination of vitamins E and C protects the skin against UV damage. It is suggested that daily consumption of dietary polyphenols may provide efficient protection against the harmful effects of solar UV radiation in humans. Furthermore, the use of these micronutrients in combination may provide an effective strategy for protecting human skin from damage by UV exposure.

  9. Responses of Crepis japonica induced by supplemental blue light and UV-A radiation.

    PubMed

    Constantino, L F da S; Nascimento, L B Dos S; Casanova, L M; Moreira, N Dos S; Menezes, E A; Esteves, R L; Costa, S S; Tavares, E S

    2017-02-15

    Crepis japonica (L.) D.C. (Asteraceae), a weed with antioxidant, antiallergenic, antiviral and antitumor properties displays both medicinal properties and nutritional value. This study aims to assess the effects of a supplementation of blue light and UV-A radiation on the growth, leaf anatomical structure and phenolic profile of the aerial parts of Crepis japonica. Plants were grown under two light treatments: W (control - white light), W + B (white light supplemented with blue light) and W + UV-A (white light supplemented with UV-A radiation). We recorded the length, width, and weight of fresh and dry leaves, the thickness of the epidermis and mesophyll, and stomata density. The phenolic profiles of the aqueous extracts of the aerial parts were analyzed by HPLC-DAD. There was an increase in the leaf size, stomatal density, and phenolic production, and a thickening of the mesophyll and epidermis. UV-A radiation increased the phenolic production more than blue light. Blue light and UV-A radiation both improved the production of caffeic acid by about 6 and 3 times, respectively, in comparison to control. This compound was first reported as a constituent of the extract from the aerial parts together with caftaric acid. UV-A also promoted the production of chlorogenic acid (about 1.5 times in comparison to the control). We observed that the morphological and chemical parameters of C. japonica are modified in response to blue light and UV-A radiation, which can be used as tools in the cultivation of this species in order to improve its medicinal properties and nutritional value.

  10. Efficacy of Nano Germicidal Light Therapy on Wound Related Infections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-12

    International journal of environmental research and public health. 2016;13(10). 51. Rodrigues-Silva C, Miranda SM, Lopes FV, et al. Bacteria and fungi...settlement in the Philippines. International journal of environmental health research . 2016;26(5-6):536- 553. 55. Weber DJ, Rutala WA, Anderson DJ, Chen LF... clinical investigation. Burns : journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries. 1996;22(5):353-358. Principal Investigator: Johnson, Arthur

  11. Optical fibre sensors for the monitoring of a microwave plasma UV lamp and ozone generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keeffe, S.; Ortoneda, M.; Cullen, J. D.; Shaw, A.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Lewis, E.; Phipps, D. A.; Al-Shamma'a, A. I.

    2008-09-01

    The food industry is keen to have new techniques that improve the safety and shelf life of food products without the use of preservatives. The use of UV light and ozone (O3) gas are becoming increasingly popular as methods to decontaminate food and thus extending its shelf life. A microwave radiation device that is a novel source of both germicidal UV and O3 suitable for the food industry has been developed, which offers speed, cost and energy benefits over existing sources. With this system comes the need to monitor a number of conditions, primarily UV intensity and ozone gas concentrations. An optical fibre sensor system is being developed to analyse these properties, in order to control and optimise the outputs of the microwave plasma UV lamp.

  12. UV-B light contributes directly to the synthesis of chiloglottone floral volatiles

    PubMed Central

    Amarasinghe, Ranamalie; Poldy, Jacqueline; Matsuba, Yuki; Barrow, Russell A.; Hemmi, Jan M.; Pichersky, Eran; Peakall, Rod

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Australian sexually deceptive Chiloglottis orchids attract their specific male wasp pollinators by means of 2,5-dialkylcyclohexane-1,3-diones or ‘chiloglottones’, representing a newly discovered class of volatiles with unique structures. This study investigated the hypothesis that UV-B light at low intensities is directly required for chiloglottone biosynthesis in Chiloglottis trapeziformis. Methods Chiloglottone production occurs only in specific tissue (the callus) of the labellum. Cut buds and flowers, and whole plants with buds and flowers, sourced from the field, were kept in a growth chamber and interactions between growth stage of the flowers and duration and intensity of UV-B exposure on chiloglottone production were studied. The effects of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide were also examined. Key Results Chiloglottone was not present in buds, but was detected in buds that were manually opened and then exposed to sunlight, or artificial UV-B light for ≥5 min. Spectrophotometry revealed that the sepals and petals blocked UV-B light from reaching the labellum inside the bud. Rates of chiloglottone production increased with developmental stage, increasing exposure time and increasing UV-B irradiance intensity. Cycloheximide did not inhibit the initial production of chiloglottone within 5 min of UV-B exposure. However, inhibition of chiloglottone production by cycloheximide occurred over 2 h of UV-B exposure, indicating a requirement for de novo protein synthesis to sustain chiloglottone production under UV-B. Conclusions The sepals and petals of Chiloglottis orchids strongly block UV-B wavelengths of light, preventing chiloglottone production inside the bud. While initiation of chiloglottone biosynthesis requires only UV-B light, sustained chiloglottone biosynthesis requires both UV-B and de novo protein biosynthesis. The internal amounts of chiloglottone in a flower reflect the interplay between developmental stage

  13. PR Notice 94-4 MOU on Regulation of Liquid Chemical Germicides Intended for Use on Medical Devices

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This MOU between EPA and FDA establishes roles for regulation of liquid chemical germicides intended for use on medical devices. An amendment revises the disclaimer statement for labels of all liquid chemical germicides, other than FDA-approved sterilants.

  14. Demonstrating the Influence of UV Rays on Living Things.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morimoto, Kouichi

    2002-01-01

    Describes an experiment that introduces students to the different types of UV rays and their effects on living things by using appropriate teaching materials and equipment. Demonstrates the effects of exposure to UV-B (fluorescent) and UV-C (germicidal) lamps by using bananas, duckweed, and the fruit fly. (Contains 14 references.) (Author/YDS)

  15. Perchlorates on Mars enhance the bacteriocidal effects of UV light.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, Jennifer; Cockell, Charles S

    2017-07-06

    Perchlorates have been identified on the surface of Mars. This has prompted speculation of what their influence would be on habitability. We show that when irradiated with a simulated Martian UV flux, perchlorates become bacteriocidal. At concentrations associated with Martian surface regolith, vegetative cells of Bacillus subtilis in Martian analogue environments lost viability within minutes. Two other components of the Martian surface, iron oxides and hydrogen peroxide, act in synergy with irradiated perchlorates to cause a 10.8-fold increase in cell death when compared to cells exposed to UV radiation after 60 seconds of exposure. These data show that the combined effects of at least three components of the Martian surface, activated by surface photochemistry, render the present-day surface more uninhabitable than previously thought, and demonstrate the low probability of survival of biological contaminants released from robotic and human exploration missions.

  16. Wastewater disinfection alternatives: chlorine, ozone, peracetic acid, and UV light.

    PubMed

    Mezzanotte, V; Antonelli, M; Citterio, S; Nurizzo, C

    2007-11-01

    Disinfection tests were carried out at pilot scale to compare the disinfection efficiency of ozone, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), peracetic acid (PAA), and UV irradiation. Total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and Escherichia coli were monitored as reference microorganisms. Total heterotrophic bacteria (THB) were also enumerated by cytometry. At similar doses, NaOCl was more effective than PAA, and its action was less affected by contact time. The results obtained by ozonation were comparable for total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and E. coli. On the contrary, some differences among the three indicators were observed for NaOCl, PAA, and UV. Differences increased with increasing values of the disinfectant concentration times contact time (C x t) and were probably the result of different initial counts, as total coliforms include fecal coliforms, which include E. coli. The UV irradiation lead to complete E. coli removals, even at low doses (10 to 20 mJ/cm2). Total heterotrophic bacteria appeared to be too wide a group to be a good disinfection indicator; no correlation was found among THB inactivation, dose, and contact time.

  17. Challenges of UV light processing of low UVT foods and beverages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutchma, Tatiana

    2010-08-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) technology holds promise as a low cost non-thermal alternative to heat pasteurization of liquid foods and beverages. However, its application for foods is still limited due to low UV transmittance (LUVT). LUVT foods have a diverse range of chemical (pH, Brix, Aw), physical (density and viscosity) and optical properties (absorbance and scattering) that are critical for systems and process designs. The commercially available UV sources tested for foods include low and medium pressure mercury lamps (LPM and MPM), excimer and pulsed lamps (PUV). The LPM and excimer lamps are monochromatic sources whereas emission of MPM and PUV is polychromatic. The optimized design of UV-systems and UV-sources with parameters that match to specific product spectra have a potential to make UV treatments of LUVT foods more effective and will serve its further commercialization. In order to select UV source for specific food application, processing effects on nutritional, quality, sensorial and safety markers have to be evaluated. This paper will review current status of UV technology for food processing along with regulatory requirements. Discussion of approaches and results of measurements of chemico-physical and optical properties of various foods (fresh juices, milk, liquid whey proteins and sweeteners) that are critical for UV process and systems design will follow. Available UV sources did not prove totally effective either resulting in low microbial reduction or UV over-dosing of the product thereby leading to sensory changes. Beam shaping of UV light presents new opportunities to improve dosage uniformity and delivery of UV photons in LUVT foods.

  18. Sunscreen for Fish: Co-Option of UV Light Protection for Camouflage

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Kaspar P.; Neuhauss, Stephan C. F.

    2014-01-01

    Many animals change their body pigmentation according to illumination of their environment. In aquatic vertebrates, this reaction is mediated through aggregation or dispersion of melanin-filled vesicles (melanosomes) in dermal pigment cells (melanophores). The adaptive value of this behavior is usually seen in camouflage by allowing the animal to visually blend into the background. When exposed to visible light from below, however, dark-adapted zebrafish embryos at the age of 2 days post fertilization (dpf) surprisingly display dispersal instead of aggregation of melanosomes, i.e. their body coloration becomes dark on a bright background. Melanosomes of older embryos and early larvae (3–5 dpf) on the other hand aggregate as expected under these conditions. Here we provide an explanation to this puzzling finding: Melanosome dispersion in larvae 3 dpf and older is efficiently triggered by ultraviolet (UV) light, irrespective of the visual background, suggesting that the extent of pigmentation is a trade-off between threats from predation and UV irradiation. The UV light-induced dispersion of melanosomes thereby is dependent on input from retinal short wavelength-sensitive (SWS) cone photoreceptors. In young embryos still lacking a functional retina, protection from UV light predominates, and light triggers a dispersal of melanosomes via photoreceptors intrinsic to the melanophores, regardless of the actual UV content. In older embryos and early larvae with functional retinal photoreceptors in contrast, this light-induced dispersion is counteracted by a delayed aggregation in the absence of UV light. These data suggest that the primary function of melanosome dispersal has evolved as a protective adaption to prevent UV damage, which was only later co-opted for camouflage. PMID:24489905

  19. [UV spectrum of natural light and tanning equipment. How can physical damage be prevented?].

    PubMed

    Stickl, H A

    1990-12-20

    Health-related problems of cosmetic tanning are presented and discussed on the basis of our own studies and the latest state of our knowledge in this field. Whenever tanning lamps are employed for cosmetic tanning with UV light, a controlled light spectrum ranging from 340 to 440 nm should be applied.

  20. Blue light and solar UV radiation accelerate spring and autumn phenology in temperate deciduous tree species.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brelsford, C.; Robson, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    Trees utilise multiple cues to time their bud-burst and leaf out in spring so that they can exploit favorable conditions for photosynthesis but minimize the risk of damage, and time their leaf senescence come autumn to extend the period of carbon assimilation and remobilize nutrients as efficiently as possible. Whilst the effects of temperature and photoperiod on phenology have been well studied, the effect of light quality is not often considered. The amount and proportion of blue light (BL 400-500nm), UV-A (325-400nm), and UV-B (290-320nm) reaching the ground changes with latitude, day length and the time of year, and yet little is known about how this affects the phenology of plants. We hypothesize that these compositional changes can be exploited by temperate deciduous tree species as cues for bud-burst and leaf senescence via blue and UV photoreceptors. To test this hypothesis, we measured the days until bud-burst of dormant branches from trees of Alnus glutinosa, Betula pendula, and Quercus robur when grown under a broad spectrum, either including or without BL, but of equivalent PAR. We also monitored the spring and autumn leaf phenology of Acer platanoides seedlings growing under forest canopies in southern Finland, under filter treatments attenuating UV-A radiation, UV-A + UV-B radiation or BL and UV-A and UV-B radiation, and a transparent control filter. In controlled conditions, BL advanced bud-burst by 3.3 days in branches of B.pendula, 6 days in A.glutinosa, and 6.3 days in Q.robur. In the field experiment, BL promoted bud burst of A.platanoides seedlings by 3 days. Leaf senescence was promoted by up to 16 days with BL, and by at least 3 days by UV-A and UV-B. The effect of BL in reducing the number of days until bud burst was greatest in later successional species. Furthermore, both blue light and UV advanced leaf senescence in autumn. Further research is needed to identify the photoreceptor mechanisms that underpin these physiological processes, and

  1. Innovative Approach to Validation of Ultraviolet (UV) Reactors ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Slide presentation at Conference: ASCE 7th Civil Engineering Conference in the Asian Region. USEPA in partnership with the Cadmus Group, Carollo Engineers, and other State & Industry collaborators, are evaluating new approaches for validating UV reactors to meet groundwater & surface water pathogen inactivation including viruses for low-pressure and medium-pressure UV systems. Evaluation objectives of the study: Practical approach for validating LP and MP UV reactors for virus & cryptosporidium inactivation using various test microbes, i.e., MS2, B. pumilus, AD2, T1; Apply UV dose algorithms based on theory vs empirical that predict log-I and RED as a function of the UV sensitivity of the microbe (combined variable criteria), flow, lamp-sensor output, DL-ASCFs, w/wo UVT; Assess capabilities of test microbe for predicting target pathogen, assess credibility with second test microbe vs bracketing; Evaluate UV lamp sensor technology that accounts for germicidal contributions of low-and high-wavelength UV light within MP reactors; Address approaches for propagating and assaying AD2, B. pumilus, MS2, and methods for determining low and high wavelength ASCFs using collimated beam LP & MP UV lamps; Determine & apply low and high wavelength ASCFs to predict cryptosporidium and adenovirus credit using MS2, or B. pumilus, T1 test data; Simplify Validation-Factor (VF) analysis of uncertainties/biases; Develop recommendations document from recent lessons learned applicabl

  2. UV-light assisted patterned metallization of textile fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahners, Thomas; Gebert, Beate; Prager, Andrea; Hartmann, Nils; Hagemann, Ulrich; Gutmann, Jochen S.

    2018-04-01

    A UV-assisted process allows full-faced or local deposition of silver domains on textiles made of natural as well as synthetic fibers, which act as nuclei for subsequent galvanic metallization. SEM and XPS analyses indicate that the process generates particulate depositions - particles, aggregates - of elementary silver. Masking the UV irradiation confines silver deposition strictly to the exposed areas thus allowing patterning. Adhesion of the deposited silver is high on the studied natural fiber cotton and polyamide fibers. Adhesion on smooth and chemically inert synthethic fibers such as, e.g., poly(ethylene terephthalate) or para- and meta-aramids could be enhanced by finishing with poly(vinylamine) thus providing complex-forming amino groups. Although the process does not deposit a closed, electrically conducting layer, all studied samples could be metallized by galvanization. The resulting metal coatings exhibit high conductivity and wash stability. Following a patterned silver deposition, the subsequent galvanic metallization produced conductive patterns of identical geometry thus opening an avenue towards printed circuits on textile fabrics.

  3. UV-vis light transmittance through tinted contact lenses and the effect of color on values.

    PubMed

    Osuagwu, Uchechukwu L; Ogbuehi, Kelechi C

    2014-06-01

    To assess the transmittance, in the 200-700nm electromagnetic radiation spectrum, by popularly used tinted soft contact lenses (CLs). The spectra transmittances of ultraviolet (UV)-blocking (I Day Acuvue Define, Freshlook ONE DAY) and non-UV-blocking (Durasoft 3, Tutti, and NeoCosmo) tinted soft CLs were tested. The transmittance of each lens, including nine different colors of Freshlook CL was recorded on spectrophotometer, and the data used to also calculate a UV protection factor (PF) for each lens brand tested, with a higher value indicating a higher level of protection. The UV-blocking CLs significantly reduced UVC, UVB & UVA transmission and thereby meet the American National Standards Institution standard for class 2 UV blockers: a maximum of 30% transmittance of UVA and 5% transmittance of UVB wavelengths. In contrast, the Durasoft 3, Tutti, and NeoCosmo CLs demonstrated negligible UV-blockage. The Acuvue Define CL offered the greatest protection from UVC (PF=69) and UVB (PF=55), but with only 35% luminous transmittance, while the Freshlook CL (especially gemstone green) offered the best protection from UVA (PF=24) and showed about 55% translucency. Overall, the UV-blocking CLs performed equally well across the UV spectrum. Different colors of Freshlook CL transmitted statistically and clinically significantly different amounts of visible light but similar amounts of UVR. Freshlook and Acuvue Define CLs which are designated as UV-blockers significantly reduced UVR transmission to safe levels whereas Tutti, NeoCosmo and Durasoft 3 did not. Transmission within the Freshlook CL family was more dependent on color in the visible light spectrum, but not in the UV-spectrum, where the gemstone green performing best among the tested colors. Copyright © 2013 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The role of coccoliths in protecting Emiliania huxleyi against stressful light and UV radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Juntian; Bach, Lennart T.; Schulz, Kai G.; Zhao, Wenyan; Gao, Kunshan; Riebesell, Ulf

    2016-08-01

    Coccolithophores are a group of phytoplankton species which cover themselves with small scales (coccoliths) made of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The reason why coccolithophores form these calcite platelets has been a matter of debate for decades but has remained elusive so far. One hypothesis is that they play a role in light or UV protection, especially in surface dwelling species like Emiliania huxleyi, which can tolerate exceptionally high levels of solar radiation. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by culturing a calcified and a naked strain under different light conditions with and without UV radiation. The coccoliths of E. huxleyi reduced the transmission of visible radiation (400-700 nm) by 7.5 %, that of UV-A (315-400 nm) by 14.1 % and that of UV-B (280-315 nm) by 18.4 %. Growth rates of the calcified strain (PML B92/11) were about 2 times higher than those of the naked strain (CCMP 2090) under indoor constant light levels in the absence of UV radiation. When exposed to outdoor conditions (fluctuating sunlight with UV radiation), growth rates of calcified cells were almost 3.5 times higher compared to naked cells. Furthermore, the relative electron transport rate was 114 % higher and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) was 281 % higher in the calcified compared to the naked strain, implying higher energy transfer associated with higher NPQ in the presence of calcification. When exposed to natural solar radiation including UV radiation, the maximal quantum yield of photosystem II was only slightly reduced in the calcified strain but strongly reduced in the naked strain. Our results reveal an important role of coccoliths in mitigating light and UV stress in E. huxleyi.

  5. Enhancement of SV40 transformation by treatment of C3H2K cells with uv light and caffeine. I. Combined effect of uv light and caffeine. [Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ide, T.; Anzai, K.; Andoh, T.

    1975-08-01

    Treatment of cultured mouse cells, C3H2K, with uv light and/or caffeine enhanced the frequency of SV40-induced transformation. This enhancement depends upon the doses of uv and caffeine and the mode of combination of these agents. Irradiation of cells with increasing doses of uv just before infection resulted in approximately 2-fold enhancement of the transformation frequency up to a dose of 90 ergs/mm/sup 2/ and 3.3-fold at 150 ergs/mm/sup 2/. Addition of 1 mM caffeine to the medium for 4 days subsequent to infection brought about a 2-fold enhancement. When cells were irradiated and treated with 1 mM caffeine, the enhancementmore » was approximately 4-fold up to a uv dose of 90 ergs/mm/sup 2/ and 5.9-fold at 150 ergs/mm/sup 2/. When 0.1 to 4 mM caffeine was added for 4 days postinfection, the absolute number of transformations increased, and an enhancement ratio of 1.3 to 6.8 resulted. After the addition of the same increasing doses of caffeine to uv-irradiated cells (75 ergs/mm/sup 2/), the enhancement of transformation frequency was even higher ranging 2.0 to 13.3. The transformation frequencies thus obtained by the double treatment were always higher than those predicted if uv and caffeine acted additively. The transformation frequency was little affected by the addition of dibutyrylcyclic AMP and theophylline.« less

  6. Eating chocolate can significantly protect the skin from UV light.

    PubMed

    Williams, Stefanie; Tamburic, Slobodanka; Lally, Carmel

    2009-09-01

    Cocoa beans fresh from the tree are exceptionally rich in flavanols. Unfortunately, during conventional chocolate making, this high antioxidant capacity is greatly reduced due to manufacturing processes. To evaluate the photoprotective potential of chocolate consumption, comparing a conventional dark chocolate to a specially produced chocolate with preserved high flavanol (HF) levels. A double-blind in vivo study in 30 healthy subjects was conducted. Fifteen subjects each were randomly assigned to either a HF or low flavanol (LF) chocolate group and consumed a 20 g portion of their allocated chocolate daily. The minimal erythema dose (MED) was assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks under standardized conditions. In the HF chocolate group the mean MED more than doubled after 12 weeks of chocolate consumption, while in the LF chocolate group, the MED remained without significant change. Our study demonstrated that regular consumption of a chocolate rich in flavanols confers significant photoprotection and can thus be effective at protecting human skin from harmful UV effects. Conventional chocolate has no such effect.

  7. Instense red phosphors for UV light emitting diode devices.

    PubMed

    Cao, Fa-Bin; Tian, Yan-Wen; Chen, Yong-Jie; Xiao, Lin-Jiu; Liu, Yun-Yi

    2010-03-01

    Ca(x)Sr1-x-1.5y-0.5zMoO4:yEu3+ zNa+ red phosphors were prepared by solid-state reaction using Na+ as charge supply for LEDs (light emitting diodes). The content of charge compensator, Ca2+ concentration, synthesis temperature, reaction time, and Eu3+ concentration were the keys to improving the properties of luminescence and crystal structure of red phosphors. The photoluminescence spectra shows the red phosphors are effectively excited at 616 nm by 311 nm, 395 nm, and 465 nm light. The wavelengths of 395 and 465 nm nicely match the widely applied emission wavelengths of ultraviolet or blue LED chips. Its chromaticity coordinates (CIE) are calculated to be x = 0.65, y = 0.32. Bright red light can be observed by the naked eye from the LED-based Ca0.60Sr0.25MoO4:0.08Eu3+ 0.06Na+.

  8. Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus have Evolved Different Adaptive Mechanisms to Cope with Light and UV Stress.

    PubMed

    Mella-Flores, Daniella; Six, Christophe; Ratin, Morgane; Partensky, Frédéric; Boutte, Christophe; Le Corguillé, Gildas; Marie, Dominique; Blot, Nicolas; Gourvil, Priscillia; Kolowrat, Christian; Garczarek, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus, which numerically dominate vast oceanic areas, are the two most abundant oxygenic phototrophs on Earth. Although they require solar energy for photosynthesis, excess light and associated high UV radiations can induce high levels of oxidative stress that may have deleterious effects on their growth and productivity. Here, we compared the photophysiologies of the model strains Prochlorococcus marinus PCC 9511 and Synechococcus sp. WH7803 grown under a bell-shaped light/dark cycle of high visible light supplemented or not with UV. Prochlorococcus exhibited a higher sensitivity to photoinactivation than Synechococcus under both conditions, as shown by a larger drop of photosystem II (PSII) quantum yield at noon and different diel patterns of the D1 protein pool. In the presence of UV, the PSII repair rate was significantly depressed at noon in Prochlorococcus compared to Synechococcus. Additionally, Prochlorococcus was more sensitive than Synechococcus to oxidative stress, as shown by the different degrees of PSII photoinactivation after addition of hydrogen peroxide. A transcriptional analysis also revealed dramatic discrepancies between the two organisms in the diel expression patterns of several genes involved notably in the biosynthesis and/or repair of photosystems, light-harvesting complexes, CO(2) fixation as well as protection mechanisms against light, UV, and oxidative stress, which likely translate profound differences in their light-controlled regulation. Altogether our results suggest that while Synechococcus has developed efficient ways to cope with light and UV stress, Prochlorococcus cells seemingly survive stressful hours of the day by launching a minimal set of protection mechanisms and by temporarily bringing down several key metabolic processes. This study provides unprecedented insights into understanding the distinct depth distributions and dynamics of these two picocyanobacteria in the field.

  9. Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus have Evolved Different Adaptive Mechanisms to Cope with Light and UV Stress

    PubMed Central

    Mella-Flores, Daniella; Six, Christophe; Ratin, Morgane; Partensky, Frédéric; Boutte, Christophe; Le Corguillé, Gildas; Marie, Dominique; Blot, Nicolas; Gourvil, Priscillia; Kolowrat, Christian; Garczarek, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus, which numerically dominate vast oceanic areas, are the two most abundant oxygenic phototrophs on Earth. Although they require solar energy for photosynthesis, excess light and associated high UV radiations can induce high levels of oxidative stress that may have deleterious effects on their growth and productivity. Here, we compared the photophysiologies of the model strains Prochlorococcus marinus PCC 9511 and Synechococcus sp. WH7803 grown under a bell-shaped light/dark cycle of high visible light supplemented or not with UV. Prochlorococcus exhibited a higher sensitivity to photoinactivation than Synechococcus under both conditions, as shown by a larger drop of photosystem II (PSII) quantum yield at noon and different diel patterns of the D1 protein pool. In the presence of UV, the PSII repair rate was significantly depressed at noon in Prochlorococcus compared to Synechococcus. Additionally, Prochlorococcus was more sensitive than Synechococcus to oxidative stress, as shown by the different degrees of PSII photoinactivation after addition of hydrogen peroxide. A transcriptional analysis also revealed dramatic discrepancies between the two organisms in the diel expression patterns of several genes involved notably in the biosynthesis and/or repair of photosystems, light-harvesting complexes, CO2 fixation as well as protection mechanisms against light, UV, and oxidative stress, which likely translate profound differences in their light-controlled regulation. Altogether our results suggest that while Synechococcus has developed efficient ways to cope with light and UV stress, Prochlorococcus cells seemingly survive stressful hours of the day by launching a minimal set of protection mechanisms and by temporarily bringing down several key metabolic processes. This study provides unprecedented insights into understanding the distinct depth distributions and dynamics of these two picocyanobacteria in the field. PMID:23024637

  10. UV Light Illumination Can Improve the Sensing Properties of LaFeO₃ to Acetone Vapor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Heng; Qin, Hongwei; Gao, Chengyong; Zhou, Guangjun; Chen, Yanping; Hu, Jifan

    2018-06-21

    The synthesized LaFeO₃ nanocrystalline sensor powders show positive response to sensing acetone vapor at 200 °C. The responses to acetone vapor (at 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10 ppm) are 1.18, 1.22, 1.89, 3.2 and 7.83. To make the sensor operate at a lower optimum temperature, UV light illumination 365 nm is performed. Response of the sensor has a larger improvement under 365 nm UV light illumination than without it. The responses to acetone vapor (at 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10 ppm) are 1.37, 1.85, 3.16, 8.32 and 14.1. Furthermore, the optimum operating temperature is reduced to 170 °C. As the relative humidity increases, the resistance and sensitivity of sensor are reduced. The sensor shows good selectivity toward acetone when compared with other gases. Since the detection of ultralow concentrations of acetone vapor is possible, the sensor can be used to preliminarily judge diabetes in the general public, as a high concentration of acetone is exhaled in breath of diabetic patients. The sensor shows a good stability, which is further enhanced under UV light illumination. The sensor shows better stability when under 365 nm UV light illumination. Whether under light illumination or not. The LaFeO₃ material shows good performance as a sensor when exposed to acetone vapor.

  11. The Effects of UV Light on the Chemical and Mechanical Properties of a Transparent Epoxy-Diamine System in the Presence of an Organic UV Absorber

    PubMed Central

    Nikafshar, Saeid; Zabihi, Omid; Ahmadi, Mojtaba; Mirmohseni, Abdolreza; Taseidifar, Mojtaba; Naebe, Minoo

    2017-01-01

    Despite several excellent properties including low shrinkage, good chemical resistance, curable at low temperatures and the absence of byproducts or volatiles, epoxy resins are susceptible to ultra violet (UV) damage and their durability is reduced substantially when exposed to outdoor environments. To overcome this drawback, UV absorbers have been usually used to decrease the rate of UV degradation. In this present study, the effects of UV light on the chemical, mechanical and physical properties of cured epoxy structure, as well as the effect of an organic UV absorber, Tinuvin 1130, on the epoxy properties were investigated. Chemical changes in a cured epoxy system as a result of the presence and absence of Tinuvin 1130 were determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analyses. The effect of Tinuvin 1130 on the surface morphology of the epoxy systems was also investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging. Additionally, the glass transition temperatures (Tg) before and during UV radiation were measured. After an 800 h UV radiation, mechanical test results revealed that the lack of the UV absorber can lead to a ~30% reduction in tensile strength. However, in the presence of Tinuvin 1130, the tensile strength was reduced only by ~11%. It was hypothesized that the use of Tinuvin 1130, as an organic UV absorber in the epoxy-amine system, could decrease the undesirable effects, arising from exposure to UV light. PMID:28772538

  12. Germicidal Activity against Carbapenem/Colistin-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Using a Quantitative Carrier Test Method.

    PubMed

    Kanamori, Hajime; Rutala, William A; Gergen, Maria F; Sickbert-Bennett, Emily E; Weber, David J

    2018-05-07

    Susceptibility to germicides for carbapenem/colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae is poorly described. We investigated the efficacy of multiple germicides against these emerging antibiotic-resistant pathogens using the disc-based quantitative carrier test method that can produce results more similar to those encountered in healthcare settings than a suspension test. Our study results demonstrated that germicides commonly used in healthcare facilities likely will be effective against carbapenem/colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae when used appropriately in healthcare facilities. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Conidia survival of Aspergillus section Nigri, Flavi and Circumdati under UV-A and UV-B radiation with cycling temperature/light regime.

    PubMed

    García-Cela, Maria Esther; Marín, Sonia; Reyes, Monica; Sanchis, Vicent; Ramos, Antonio J

    2016-04-01

    Bio-geographical differences in fungal infection distribution have been observed around the world, confirming that climatic conditions are decisive in colonization. This research is focused on the impact of ultraviolet radiation (UV) on Aspergillus species, based on the consideration that an increase in UV-B radiation may have large ecological effects. Conidia of six mycotoxigenic Aspergillus species isolated from vineyards located in the northeast and south of Spain were incubated for 15 days under light/dark cycles and temperatures between 20 and 30 °C per day. Additionally, 6 h of exposure to UV-A or UV-B radiation per day were included in the light exposure. UV irradiance used were 1.7 ± 0.2 mW cm(-2) of UV-A (peak 365 nm) and 0.10 ± 0.2 mW cm(-2) of UV-B (peak 312 nm). The intrinsic decrease in viability of conidia over time was accentuated when they were UV irradiated. UV-B radiation was more harmful. Conidial sensitivity to UV light was marked in Aspergillus section Circumdati. Conidia pigmentation could be related to UV sensitivity. Different resistance was observed within species belonging to sections Flavi and Nigri. An increase in UV radiation could lead to a reduction in the Aspergillus spp. inoculum present in the field (vineyards, nuts, cereal crops). In addition, it could unbalance the spore species present in the field, leading to a higher predominance of dark-pigmented conidia. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Enhanced light extraction in tunnel junction-enabled top emitting UV LEDs

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Yuewei; Allerman, Andrew A.; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; ...

    2016-04-11

    The efficiency of ultra violet LEDs has been critically limited by the absorption losses in p-type and metal layers. In this work, surface roughening based light extraction structures are combined with tunneling based p-contacts to realize highly efficient top-side light extraction efficiency in UV LEDs. Surface roughening of the top n-type AlGaN contact layer is demonstrated using self-assembled Ni nano-clusters as etch mask. The top surface roughened LEDs were found to enhance external quantum efficiency by over 40% for UV LEDs with a peak emission wavelength of 326 nm. The method described here can enable highly efficient UV LEDs withoutmore » the need for complex manufacturing methods such as flip chip bonding.« less

  15. Radiation-damage-induced phasing: a case study using UV irradiation with light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    de Sanctis, Daniele; Zubieta, Chloe; Felisaz, Franck; Caserotto, Hugo; Nanao, Max H

    2016-03-01

    Exposure to X-rays, high-intensity visible light or ultraviolet radiation results in alterations to protein structure such as the breakage of disulfide bonds, the loss of electron density at electron-rich centres and the movement of side chains. These specific changes can be exploited in order to obtain phase information. Here, a case study using insulin to illustrate each step of the radiation-damage-induced phasing (RIP) method is presented. Unlike a traditional X-ray-induced damage step, specific damage is introduced via ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs). In contrast to UV lasers, UV-LEDs have the advantages of small size, low cost and relative ease of use.

  16. Inactivation of bacteria via photosensitization of vitamin K3 by UV-A light.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fei; Vostal, Jaroslav G

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated inactivation of bacteria with ultraviolet light A irradiation in combination with vitamin K3 as a photosensitizer. Six bacteria including Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli suspended in vitamin K3 aqueous solution were exposed to ultraviolet light A. Five of six bacteria, with the exception of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were reduced by eight logs with 1600 μM of vitamin K3 and 5.8 J cm(-2) UV-A irradiation. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was reduced by four logs under these conditions. Reactive oxygen species including singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical were generated in vitamin K3 aqueous solution under UV-A irradiation. These results suggest that vitamin K3 and UV-A irradiation may be effective for bacterial inactivation in environmental and medical applications. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Ultrafast active control of UV light with plasmonic resonance on aluminum nanostripes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kuidong; Li, Runze; Hsiao, Hui-Hsin; Chen, Long; Zhang, Haijuan; Chen, Jie

    2018-05-01

    Ultrafast active control of UV light with aluminum may become an efficient way for high-speed active UV devices. However, the nonlinear optical response of aluminum in the UV region is extremely small, which impedes the realization of the promising modulation depth on ultrafast control. Here, by using the surface plasmon resonance effect, we have achieved a 55-times enhancement in the modulation depth, as well as a short switching time of several picoseconds. Further investigation showed that such an enhancement mainly resulted from a two-order-of-magnitude boost in the response of the signal light to the lattice thermal variation at the plasmonic resonance condition. This improvement in the probing sensitivity could serve as an effective approach to resolve the dynamics of lattice vibrations in metals.

  18. The characteristics of polyimide photoalignment layer with chalcone derivatives produced by linear polarized UV light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Kyoung Hoon; Hyun, Soon-Young; Song, Dong-Mee; Shin, Dong-Myung

    2003-01-01

    The photoalignment of liquid crystal (LC) molecules located onto polyimide films with chalcone derivatives using linearly polarized UV (LPUV) light is investigated. The LPUV light irradiation generated dimerization products of the chalcones followed by isomerization of the chalcone derivatives. The alignment directions of LC molecules were either homeotropic or planar with respect to plane of polyimide film, depending upon the alkyl chain length attached on the chalcones.

  19. Exposure of Metarhizium acridum mycelium to light induces tolerance to UV-B radiation.

    PubMed

    Brancini, Guilherme T P; Rangel, Drauzio E N; Braga, Gilberto Ú L

    2016-03-01

    Metarhizium acridum is an entomopathogenic fungus commonly used as a bioinsecticide. The conidium is the fungal stage normally employed as field inoculum in biological control programs and must survive under field conditions such as high ultraviolet-B (UV-B) exposure. Light, which is an important stimulus for many fungi, has been shown to induce the production of M. robertsii conidia with increased stress tolerance. Here we show that a two-hour exposure to white or blue/UV-A light of fast-growing mycelium induces tolerance to subsequent UV-B irradiation. Red light, however, does not have the same effect. In addition, we established that this induction can take place with as little as 1 min of white-light exposure. This brief illumination scheme could be relevant in future studies of M. acridum photobiology and for the production of UV-B resistant mycelium used in mycelium-based formulations for biological control. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Understanding Xeroderma Pigmentosum Complementation Groups Using Gene Expression Profiling after UV-Light Exposure.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Nikola A; Beveridge, Natalie J; Ashton, Katie A; Baines, Katherine J; Scott, Rodney J

    2015-07-14

    Children with the recessive genetic disorder Xeroderma Pigmentosum (XP) have extreme sensitivity to UV-light, a 10,000-fold increase in skin cancers from age 2 and rarely live beyond 30 years. There are seven genetic subgroups of XP, which are all resultant of pathogenic mutations in genes in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway and a XP variant resultant of a mutation in translesion synthesis, POLH. The clinical symptoms and severity of the disease is varied across the subgroups, which does not correlate with the functional position of the affected protein in the NER pathway. The aim of this study was to further understand the biology of XP subgroups, particularly those that manifest with neurological symptoms. Whole genome gene expression profiling of fibroblasts from each XP complementation group was assessed before and after UV-light exposure. The biological pathways with altered gene expression after UV-light exposure were distinct for each subtype and contained oncogenic related functions such as perturbation of cell cycle, apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation. Patients from the subgroups XP-B and XP-F were the only subgroups to have transcripts associated with neuronal activity altered after UV-light exposure. This study will assist in furthering our understanding of the different subtypes of XP which will lead to better diagnosis, treatment and management of the disease.

  1. Understanding Xeroderma Pigmentosum Complementation Groups Using Gene Expression Profiling after UV-Light Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Bowden, Nikola A.; Beveridge, Natalie J.; Ashton, Katie A.; Baines, Katherine J.; Scott, Rodney J.

    2015-01-01

    Children with the recessive genetic disorder Xeroderma Pigmentosum (XP) have extreme sensitivity to UV-light, a 10,000-fold increase in skin cancers from age 2 and rarely live beyond 30 years. There are seven genetic subgroups of XP, which are all resultant of pathogenic mutations in genes in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway and a XP variant resultant of a mutation in translesion synthesis, POLH. The clinical symptoms and severity of the disease is varied across the subgroups, which does not correlate with the functional position of the affected protein in the NER pathway. The aim of this study was to further understand the biology of XP subgroups, particularly those that manifest with neurological symptoms. Whole genome gene expression profiling of fibroblasts from each XP complementation group was assessed before and after UV-light exposure. The biological pathways with altered gene expression after UV-light exposure were distinct for each subtype and contained oncogenic related functions such as perturbation of cell cycle, apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation. Patients from the subgroups XP-B and XP-F were the only subgroups to have transcripts associated with neuronal activity altered after UV-light exposure. This study will assist in furthering our understanding of the different subtypes of XP which will lead to better diagnosis, treatment and management of the disease. PMID:26184184

  2. Marginal eyespots on butterfly wings deflect bird attacks under low light intensities with UV wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Olofsson, Martin; Vallin, Adrian; Jakobsson, Sven; Wiklund, Christer

    2010-05-24

    Predators preferentially attack vital body parts to avoid prey escape. Consequently, prey adaptations that make predators attack less crucial body parts are expected to evolve. Marginal eyespots on butterfly wings have long been thought to have this deflective, but hitherto undemonstrated function. Here we report that a butterfly, Lopinga achine, with broad-spectrum reflective white scales in its marginal eyespot pupils deceives a generalist avian predator, the blue tit, to attack the marginal eyespots, but only under particular conditions-in our experiments, low light intensities with a prominent UV component. Under high light intensity conditions with a similar UV component, and at low light intensities without UV, blue tits directed attacks towards the butterfly head. In nature, birds typically forage intensively at early dawn, when the light environment shifts to shorter wavelengths, and the contrast between the eyespot pupils and the background increases. Among butterflies, deflecting attacks is likely to be particularly important at dawn when low ambient temperatures make escape by flight impossible, and when insectivorous birds typically initiate another day's search for food. Our finding that the deflective function of eyespots is highly dependent on the ambient light environment helps explain why previous attempts have provided little support for the deflective role of marginal eyespots, and we hypothesize that the mechanism that we have discovered in our experiments in a laboratory setting may function also in nature when birds forage on resting butterflies under low light intensities.

  3. UV light selectively coinduces supply pathways from primary metabolism and flavonoid secondary product formation in parsley

    PubMed Central

    Logemann, Elke; Tavernaro, Annette; Schulz, Wolfgang; Somssich, Imre E.; Hahlbrock, Klaus

    2000-01-01

    The UV light-induced synthesis of UV-protective flavonoids diverts substantial amounts of substrates from primary metabolism into secondary product formation and thus causes major perturbations of the cellular homeostasis. Results from this study show that the mRNAs encoding representative enzymes from various supply pathways are coinduced in UV-irradiated parsley cells (Petroselinum crispum) with two mRNAs of flavonoid glycoside biosynthesis, encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase. Strong induction was observed for mRNAs encoding glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (carbohydrate metabolism, providing substrates for the shikimate pathway), 3-deoxyarabinoheptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (shikimate pathway, yielding phenylalanine), and acyl-CoA oxidase (fatty acid degradation, yielding acetyl-CoA), and moderate induction for an mRNA encoding S-adenosyl-homocysteine hydrolase (activated methyl cycle, yielding S-adenosyl-methionine for B-ring methylation). Ten arbitrarily selected mRNAs representing various unrelated metabolic activities remained unaffected. Comparative analysis of acyl-CoA oxidase and chalcone synthase with respect to mRNA expression modes and gene promoter structure and function revealed close similarities. These results indicate a fine-tuned regulatory network integrating those functionally related pathways of primary and secondary metabolism that are specifically required for protective adaptation to UV irradiation. Although the response of parsley cells to UV light is considerably broader than previously assumed, it contrasts greatly with the extensive metabolic reprogramming observed previously in elicitor-treated or fungus-infected cells. PMID:10677554

  4. Efficacy of UV light treatment for the microbiological decontamination of chicken, associated packaging, and contact surfaces.

    PubMed

    Haughton, P N; Lyng, J G; Cronin, D A; Morgan, D J; Fanning, S; Whyte, P

    2011-04-01

    UV light was investigated for the decontamination of raw chicken, associated packaging, and contact surfaces. The UV susceptibilities of a number of Campylobacter isolates (seven Campylobacter jejuni isolates and three Campylobacter coli isolates), Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis ATCC 10376 in liquid media were also investigated. From an initial level of 7 log CFU/ml, no viable Campylobacter cells were detected following exposure to the most intense UV dose (0.192 J/cm(2)) in liquid media (skim milk subjected to ultrahigh-temperature treatment and diluted 1:4 with maximum recovery diluent). Maximum reductions of 4.8 and 6.2 log CFU/ml were achieved for E. coli and serovar Enteritidis, respectively, in liquid media. Considerable differences in susceptibilities were found between the Campylobacter isolates examined, with variations of up to 4 log CFU/ml being observed. UV treatment of raw chicken fillet (0.192 J/cm(2)) reduced C. jejuni, E. coli, serovar Enteritidis, total viable counts, and Enterobacteriaceae by 0.76, 0.98, 1.34, 1.76, and 1.29 log CFU/g, respectively. Following UV treatment of packaging and surface materials, reductions of up to 3.97, 4.50, and 4.20 log CFU/cm(2) were obtained for C. jejuni, E. coli, and serovar Enteritidis, respectively (P < 0.05). Overall, the color of UV-treated chicken was not significantly affected (P ≥ 0.05). The findings of this study indicate that Campylobacter is susceptible to UV technology and that differences in sensitivities exist between investigated isolates. Overall, UV could be used for improving the microbiological quality of raw chicken and for decontaminating associated packaging and surface materials.

  5. Effect of UV light on different structural and transport parameters of cellophane membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Benavente, J.; Vazquez, M.I.; De Abajo, J.

    1996-01-01

    A comparative study of UV light influence on structural and transport parameters of cellophane membranes was made. Changes in the chemical structure and electrical behavior of cellophane membranes were considered by determining the hydraulic permeability, salt diffusion coefficient, and resistance values, as well as some geometrical parameters, for an untreated membrane and two differently UV-treated cellophane membranes. Differences in the characteristic parameters for the three samples showed that radiation mainly affected the membrane structure, while only small changes in membrane electrical behavior were determined.

  6. UV waveguides light fabricated in fluoropolymer CYTOP by femtosecond laser direct writing.

    PubMed

    Hanada, Yasutaka; Sugioka, Koji; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2010-01-18

    We have fabricated optical waveguides inside the UV-transparent polymer, CYTOP, by femtosecond laser direct writing for propagating UV light in biochip applications. Femtosecond laser irradiation is estimated to increase the refractive index of CYTOP by 1.7 x 10(-3) due to partial bond breaking in CYTOP. The waveguide in CYTOP has propagation losses of 0.49, 0.77, and 0.91 dB/cm at wavelengths of 632.8, 355, and 266 nm, respectively.

  7. Transition metal-modified zinc oxides for UV and visible light photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Bloh, J Z; Dillert, R; Bahnemann, D W

    2012-11-01

    In order to use photocatalysis with solar light, finding more active and especially visible light active photocatalysts is a very important challenge. Also, studies of these photocatalysts should employ a standardized test procedure so that their results can be accurately compared and evaluated with one another. A systematic study of transition metal-modified zinc oxide was conducted to determine whether they are suitable as visible light photocatalysts. The photocatalytic activity of ZnO modified with eight different transition metals (Cu, Co, Fe, Mn, Ni, Ru, Ti, Zr) in three different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, and 1 at.%) was investigated under irradiation with UV as well as with visible light. The employed activity test is the gas-phase degradation of acetaldehyde as described by the ISO standard 22197-2. The results suggest that the UV activity can be improved with almost any modification element and that there exists an optimal modification ratio at about 0.1 at.%. Additionally, Mn- and Ru-modified ZnO display visible light activity. Especially the Ru-modified ZnO is highly active and surpasses the visible light activity of all studied titania standards. These findings suggest that modified zinc oxides may be a viable alternative to titanium dioxide-based catalysts for visible light photocatalysis. Eventually, possible underlying mechanisms are proposed and discussed.

  8. Spatial and directional control of self-assembled wrinkle patterns by UV light absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortz, C.; Oesterschulze, E.

    2017-12-01

    Wrinkle formation on surfaces is a phenomenon that is observed in layered systems with a compressed elastic thin capping layer residing on a viscoelastic film. So far, the properties of the viscoelastic material could only be changed replacing it by another material. Here, we propose to use a photosensitive material whose viscoelastic properties, Young's modulus, and glass transition temperature can easily be adjusted by the absorption of UV light. Employing UV lithography masks during the exposure, we gain additionally spatial and directional control of the self-assembled wrinkle pattern formation that relies on a spinodal decomposition process. Inspired by the results on surface wrinkling and its dependence on the intrinsic stress, we also derive a method to avoid wrinkling locally by tailoring the mechanical stress distribution in the layered system choosing UV masks with convex patterns. This is of particular interest in technical applications where the buckling of surfaces is undesirable.

  9. Photocatalytic activity of Fe-doped CaTiO₃ under UV-visible light.

    PubMed

    Yang, He; Han, Chong; Xue, Xiangxin

    2014-07-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) over Fe-doped CaTiO₃ under UV-visible light was investigated. The as-prepared samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) system, Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The results show that the doping with Fe significantly promoted the light absorption ability of CaTiO₃ in the visible light region. The Fe-doped CaTiO₃ exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than CaTiO₃ for the degradation of MB. However, the photocatalytic activity of the Fe-doped CaTiO₃ was greatly influenced by the calcination temperature during the preparation process. The Fe-doped CaTiO₃ prepared at 500°C exhibited the best photocatalytic activity, with degradation of almost 100% MB (10ppm) under UV-visible light for 180 min. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. UV/vis and NIR light-responsive spiropyran self-assembled monolayers.

    PubMed

    Ivashenko, Oleksii; van Herpt, Jochem T; Feringa, Ben L; Rudolf, Petra; Browne, Wesley R

    2013-04-02

    Self-assembled monolayers of a 6-nitro BIPS spiropyran (SP) modified with a disulfide-terminated aliphatic chain were prepared on polycrystalline gold surfaces and characterized by UV/vis absorption, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies (XPS). The SAMs obtained are composed of the ring-closed form (i.e., spiropyran) only. Irradiation with UV light results in conversion of the monolayer to the merocyanine form (MC), manifested in the appearance of an N(+) contribution in the N 1s region of the XPS spectrum of the SAMs, the characteristic absorption band of the MC form in the visible region at 555 nm, and the C-O stretching band in the SERS spectrum. Recovery of the initial state of the monolayer was observed both thermally and after irradiation with visible light. Several switching cycles were performed and monitored by SERS spectroscopy, demonstrating the stability of the SAMs during repeated switching between SP and MC states. A key finding in the present study is that ring-opening of the surface-immobilized spiropyrans can be induced by irradiation with continuous wave NIR (785 nm) light as well as by irradiation with UV light. We demonstrate that ring-opening by irradiation at 785 nm proceeds by a two-photon absorption pathway both in the SAMs and in the solid state. Hence, spiropyran SAMs on gold can undergo reversible photochemical switching from the SP to the MC form with both UV and NIR and the reverse reaction induced by irradiation with visible light or heating. Furthermore, the observation of NIR-induced switching with a continuous wave source holds important consequences in the study of photochromic switches on surfaces using SERS and emphasizes the importance of the use of multiple complementary techniques in characterizing photoresponsive SAMs.

  11. Light and the circadian clock mediate time-specific changes in sensitivity to UV-B stress under light/dark cycles

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Tomomi; Newton, Linsey; Burkhardt, Alyssa; Mason, Saundra; Farré, Eva M.

    2014-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, the circadian clock regulates UV-B-mediated changes in gene expression. Here it is shown that circadian clock components are able to inhibit UV-B-induced gene expression in a gene-by-gene-specific manner and act downstream of the initial UV-B sensing by COP1 (CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1) and UVR8 (UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8). For example, the UV-B induction of ELIP1 (EARLY LIGHT INDUCIBLE PROTEIN 1) and PRR9 (PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR 9) is directly regulated by LUX (LUX ARRYTHMO), ELF4 (EARLY FLOWERING 4), and ELF3. Moreover, time-dependent changes in plant sensitivity to UV-B damage were observed. Wild-type Arabidopsis plants, but not circadian clock mutants, were more sensitive to UV-B treatment during the night periods than during the light periods under diel cycles. Experiments performed under short cycles of 6h light and 6h darkness showed that the increased stress sensitivity of plants to UV-B in the dark only occurred during the subjective night and not during the subjective day in wild-type seedlings. In contrast, the stress sensitivity of Arabidopsis mutants with a compromised circadian clock was still influenced by the light condition during the subjective day. Taken together, the results show that the clock and light modulate plant sensitivity to UV-B stress at different times of the day. PMID:25147271

  12. An enhancing effect of visible light and UV radiation on phenolic compounds and various antioxidants in broad bean seedlings.

    PubMed

    Younis, Mahmoud El-Baz; Hasaneen, Mohammed Naguib Abdel-Ghany; Abdel-Aziz, Heba Mahmoud Mohammed

    2010-10-01

    Exposure of dark- or ambient visible light-grown broad bean seedlings to low (LL) and high (HL) visible light intensities, UV-A or UV-C, either alone or in combination, induced significant increases in total phenolic compounds as well as in anthocyanins content, throughout the germination period, as compared with the respective levels in control seedlings. In general, as compared with control levels, exposure of both dark- or light-grown broad bean seedlings to LL, HL, UV-A or UV-C, induced significant increases in the contents of non-enzymatic antioxidants (total ascorbate; ASA-DASA and total glutathione; GSSG-GSH) and enzymatic antioxidant activities (superoxide dismutase; SOD, catalase; CAT, ascorbate peroxidase; APO and glutathione reductase; GR). The obtained results are discussed in relation to induced mechanisms of protection and repair from the inevitable exposure to damaging visible light and UV-radiation. © 2010 Landes Bioscience

  13. An enhancing effect of visible light and UV radiation on phenolic compounds and various antioxidants in broad bean seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Hasaneen, Mohammed Naguib Abdel-Ghany; Abdel-Aziz, Heba Mahmoud Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    Exposure of dark- or ambient visible light-grown broad bean seedlings to low (LL) and high (HL) visible light intensities, UV-A or UV-C, either alone or in combination, induced significant increases in total phenolic compounds as well as in anthocyanins content, throughout the germination period, as compared with the respective levels in control seedlings. In general, as compared with control levels, exposure of both dark- or light-grown broad bean seedlings to LL, HL, UV-A or UV-C, induced significant increases in the contents of non-enzymatic antioxidants (total ascorbate; ASA-DASA and total glutathione; GSSG-GSH) and enzymatic antioxidant activities (superoxide dismutase; SOD, catalase; CAT, ascorbate peroxidase; APO and glutathione reductase; GR). The obtained results are discussed in relation to induced mechanisms of protection and repair from the inevitable exposure to damaging visible light and UV radiation. PMID:20505357

  14. Properties of the Visible Light Phototaxis and UV Avoidance Behaviors in the Larval Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Guggiana-Nilo, Drago A; Engert, Florian

    2016-01-01

    For many organisms, color is an essential source of information from visual scenes. The larval zebrafish has the potential to be a model for the study of this topic, given its tetrachromatic retina and high dependence on vision. In this study we took a step toward understanding how the larval zebrafish might use color sensing. To this end, we used a projector-based paradigm to force a choice of a color stimulus at every turn of the larva. The stimuli used spanned most of the larval spectral range, including activation of its Ultraviolet (UV) cone, which has not been described behaviorally before. We found that zebrafish larvae swim toward visible wavelengths (>400 nm) when choosing between them and darkness, as has been reported with white light. However, when presented with UV light and darkness zebrafish show an intensity dependent avoidance behavior. This UV avoidance does not interact cooperatively with phototaxis toward longer wavelengths, but can compete against it in an intensity dependent manner. Finally, we show that the avoidance behavior depends on the presence of eyes with functional UV cones. These findings open future avenues for studying the neural circuits that underlie color sensing in the larval zebrafish.

  15. Properties of the Visible Light Phototaxis and UV Avoidance Behaviors in the Larval Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Guggiana-Nilo, Drago A.; Engert, Florian

    2016-01-01

    For many organisms, color is an essential source of information from visual scenes. The larval zebrafish has the potential to be a model for the study of this topic, given its tetrachromatic retina and high dependence on vision. In this study we took a step toward understanding how the larval zebrafish might use color sensing. To this end, we used a projector-based paradigm to force a choice of a color stimulus at every turn of the larva. The stimuli used spanned most of the larval spectral range, including activation of its Ultraviolet (UV) cone, which has not been described behaviorally before. We found that zebrafish larvae swim toward visible wavelengths (>400 nm) when choosing between them and darkness, as has been reported with white light. However, when presented with UV light and darkness zebrafish show an intensity dependent avoidance behavior. This UV avoidance does not interact cooperatively with phototaxis toward longer wavelengths, but can compete against it in an intensity dependent manner. Finally, we show that the avoidance behavior depends on the presence of eyes with functional UV cones. These findings open future avenues for studying the neural circuits that underlie color sensing in the larval zebrafish. PMID:27594828

  16. Highly Stretchable and UV Curable Elastomers for Digital Light Processing Based 3D Printing.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dinesh K; Sakhaei, Amir Hosein; Layani, Michael; Zhang, Biao; Ge, Qi; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2017-04-01

    Stretchable UV-curable (SUV) elastomers can be stretched by up to 1100% and are suitable for digital-light-processing (DLP)-based 3D-printing technology. DLP printing of these SUV elastomers enables the direct creation of highly deformable complex 3D hollow structures such as balloons, soft actuators, grippers, and buckyball electronical switches. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Fish freshness estimation using eye image processing under white and UV lightings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanamori, Katsuhiro; Shirataki, Yuri; Liao, Qiuhong; Ogawa, Yuichi; Suzuki, Tetsuhito; Kondo, Naoshi

    2017-05-01

    A non-destructive method of estimating the freshness of fish is required for appropriate price setting and food safety. In particular, for determining the possibility of eating raw fish (sashimi), freshness estimation is critical. We studied such an estimation method by capturing images of fish eyes and performing image processing using the temporal changes of the luminance of pupil and iris. To detect subtle non-visible changes of these features, we used UV (375 nm) light illumination in addition to visible white light illumination. Polarization and two-channel LED techniques were used to remove strong specular reflection from the cornea of the eye and from clear-plastic wrap used to cover the fish to maintain humidity. Pupil and iris regions were automatically detected separately by image processing after the specular reflection removal process, and two types of eye contrast were defined as the ratio of mean and median pixel values of each region. Experiments using 16 Japanese dace (Tribolodon hakonensis) at 23° and 85% humidity for 24 hours were performed. The eye contrast of raw fish increase non-linearly in the initial period and then decreased; however, that of frozen-thawed fish decreased linearly throughout 24 hours, regardless of the lighting. Interestingly, the eye contrast using UV light showed a higher correlation with time than that using white light only in the case of raw fish within the early 6- hour period postmortem. These results show the possibility of estimating fish freshness in the initial stage when fish are eaten raw using white and UV lightings.

  18. UV/blue light-induced fluorescence for assessing apple maturity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Hyun Kwon; Lu, Renfu

    2005-11-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence has been researched for assessing fruit post-harvest quality and condition. The objective of this preliminary research was to investigate the potential of fluorescence spectroscopy for measuring apple fruit quality. Ultraviolet (UV) and blue light was used as an excitation source for inducing fluorescence in apples. Fluorescence spectra were measured from 'Golden Delicious' (GD) and 'Red Delicious' (RD) apples by using a visible/near-infrared spectrometer after one, three, and five minutes of continuous UV/blue light illumination. Standard destructive tests were performed to measure fruit firmness, skin and flesh color, soluble solids and acid content from the apples. Calibration models for each of the three illumination time periods were developed to predict fruit quality indexes. The results showed that fluorescence emission decreased steadily during the first three minutes of UV/blue light illumination and was stable within five minutes. The differences were minimal in the model prediction results based on fluorescence data at one, three or five minutes of illumination. Overall, better predictions were obtained for apple skin chroma and hue and flesh hue with values for the correlation coefficient of validation between 0.80 and 0.90 for both GD and RD. Relatively poor predictions were obtained for fruit firmness, soluble solids content, titrational acid, and flesh chroma. This research demonstrated that fluorescence spectroscopy is potentially useful for assessing selected quality attributes of apple fruit and further research is needed to improve fluorescence measurements so that better predictions of fruit quality can be achieved.

  19. The study of temperature and UV light effect in anthocyanin extract from dragon fruit (Hylocereus costaricensis) rind using UV-Visible spectrophotometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purbaningtias, Tri Esti; Aprilia, Anisa Cahyani; Fauzi'ah, Lina

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the total of anthocyanin content in ethanol extract from super red dragon fruit rind. The extraction was affected by temperature and light conditions. The determination of anthocyanin's total content was performed with a variation of pH and analyzed by UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The results showed that the average contained total anthocyanins obtained at room temperature, 40 and 60 °C were 4.6757, 5.6108, 21.9757 mg/L, respectively. In higher temperatures, it was observed the more anthocyanin extracted. The concentration of anthocyanin extract without UV light was 2.5716 mg/L, it was less than UV light assisted extract, i.e. 5.3770 mg / L.

  20. CuS/RGO hybrid photocatalyst for full solar spectrum photoreduction from UV/Vis to near-infrared light.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; Liu, Baibai; Ren, Zhenxing; Ni, Mengying; Li, Can; Gong, Yinyan; Qin, Wei; Huang, Yongli; Sun, Chang Q; Liu, Xinjuan

    2018-05-01

    To make full use of the solar energy, it remains a great challenge for semiconductor photocatalysts to harvest the full solar light spectrum from ultraviolet (UV) to visible even the near infrared (NIR) wavelength. Here we show firstly the CuS/RGO (reduced graphene oxide) hybrid photocatalyst synthesized via a microwave assisted method with full solar light (UV-Vis-NIR) active for efficient Cr(VI) reduction. The CuS/RGO displays high absorption and catalytic activity in the UV, visible and even the NIR light regions. As co-catalyst, RGO can separate and inhibit the recombination of charge carriers, consequently improving the catalytic activity. Only 1wt% RGO emersions can reduce 90% of Cr(VI) under the radiation of light over the full spectrum. Findings may provide a new strategy and substance to expand the utilization range of solar light from UV to visible even the NIR energy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. The imprints of the high light and UV-B stresses in Oryza sativa L. 'Kanchana' seedlings are differentially modulated.

    PubMed

    Faseela, Parammal; Puthur, Jos T

    2018-01-01

    High light and ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) are generally considered to have negative impact on photosynthesis and plant growth. The present study evaluates the tolerance potential of three cultivars of Oryza sativa L. (Kanchana, Mattatriveni and Harsha) seedlings towards high light and UV-B stress on the basis of photosynthetic pigment degradation, chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters and rate of lipid peroxidation, expressed by malondialdehyde content. Surprisingly, it was revealed that Kanchana was the most sensitive cultivar towards high light and at the same time it was the most tolerant cultivar towards UV-B stress. This contrasting feature of Kanchana towards high light and UV-B tolerance was further studied by analyzing photosystem (PS) I and II activity, mitochondrial activity, chlorophyll a fluorescence transient, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense system. Due to the occurrence of more PS I and PSII damages, the inhibition of photochemical efficiency and emission of dissipated energy as heat or fluorescence per PSII reaction center was higher upon high light exposure than UV-B treatments in rice seedlings of Kanchana. The mitochondrial activity was also found to be drastically altered upon high light as compared to UV-B treatments. The UV-B induced accumulation of non-enzymatic antioxidants (proline, total phenolics, sugar and ascorbate) and enzymatic antioxidants (ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase) in rice seedlings than those subjected to high light exposure afforded more efficient protection against UV-B radiation in rice seedlings. Our results proved that high tolerance of Kanchana towards UV-B than high light treatments, correlated linearly with the protected photosynthetic and mitochondrial machinery which was provided by upregulation of antioxidants particularly by total phenolics, ascorbate and ascorbate peroxidase in rice seedlings. Data presented in this study conclusively

  2. Developmental effects of ambient UV-B light and landfill leachate in Rana blairi and Hyla chrysoscelis.

    PubMed

    Bruner, M A; Shipman, P A; Rao, M; Bantle, J A

    2002-09-01

    This study assessed the effects of ambient UV light on the development of two native species of anurans, Rana blairi and Hyla chrysoscelis, during their normal breeding season in Oklahoma. Additionally, the effects of ambient UV light and water contaminated with landfill leachate in Rana blairi were examined. Embryos were collected from the field and distributed equally among replicates of four filter treatments of ambient UV light in experimental tubs filled with either FETAX solution or landfill leachate diluted to 25, 10, and 5% concentrations. Three endpoints (mortality, teratogenesis, and growth) were compared between filter treatments. By itself, UV-B caused no significant effects. Leachate at 10 and 25% concentrations caused 100% mortality across all filter treatments. There was a significant interaction between filter treatment and water toxicity at leachate concentrations of 5% for both malformation and growth. Increased UV-B exposure decreased the malformation rate and increased growth in the leachate treatments.

  3. The effects of UV light on calcium metabolism in ball pythons (Python regius).

    PubMed

    Hedley, J; Eatwell, K

    2013-10-12

    Despite the popularity of keeping snakes in captivity, there has been limited investigation into the effects of UV radiation on vitamin D levels in snakes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of UV-b radiation on plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels and ionised calcium concentrations in ball pythons (Python regius). Blood samples were taken from 14 ball pythons, which had never been exposed to UV-b light, to obtain baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels and ionised calcium concentrations. Blood samples were then taken again from the same snakes 70 days later after one group (Group 1, n=6 females) were exposed to UV-b radiation daily, and the other group (Group 2, n=5 males and 3 females) were exposed to no UV-b radiation. Mean±sd 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels on day 0 in Group 1 were 197±35 nmol/l, and on day 70 were 203.5±13.8 nmol/l. Mean±sd 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels in Group 2 on day 0 were 77.7±41.5 nmol/l, and on day 70 were 83.0±41.9 nmol/l. Mean±sd ionised calcium levels at day 0 were 1.84±0.05 mmol/l for Group 1, and on day 70 were 1.78±0.07 mmol/l. Mean±sd ionised calcium levels at day 0 were 1.79±0.07 mmol/l for Group 2, and on day 70 were 1.81±0.05 mmol/l. No association was demonstrated between exposure to UV-b radiation and plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and ionised calcium concentrations. These results may provide baseline parameters for future studies in this and other snake species to determine ability to utilise UV-b light for vitamin D production.

  4. Growth and characterization of ammonium nickel-cobalt sulfate Tutton's salt for UV light applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Santunu; Oliveira, Michelle; Pacheco, Tiago S.; Perpétuo, Genivaldo J.; Franco, Carlos J.

    2018-04-01

    We have obtained a set of sample crystals of the family of Tutton's salt comprise in the isomorphic series with general chemical formula (NH4)2NixCo(1-x) (SO4)2·6H2O, by employing growth from solutions by slow evaporation technique. The samples crystals were characterized by ICP-AES, X-ray powder diffraction analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, UV-Vis-NIR, Raman and FTIR spectroscopy. This type of material has been studied because of its physical and chemical properties not yet understood and they have potential technological applications. Chemical analysis of the samples by ICP-AES method allowed us to investigate the efficiency of the method of growth used. Thermogravimetric analysis provides the information about the thermal stability of the obtained crystals for high temperature applications, and powder X-ray diffraction analysis at ambient and high temperature reveals the structural quality and structural change of the samples respectively. We have used Raman spectroscopy in the range 100-4000 cm-1 and FTIR spectroscopy in the range 400-4000 cm-1 to understand the internal vibrational mode of the octahedral complexes [Ni(H2O)6]2+ and [Co(H2O)6]2+, SO42- and NH4+ tetrahedra. The transmittance of our mixed ammonium nickel cobalt sulfate hexahydrate (ACNSH) crystals is 75% in the UV region, which indicates that they are ideal to use in UV light filters and UV sensors.

  5. Do UV-A radiation and blue light during growth prime leaves to cope with acute high-light in photoreceptor mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana?

    PubMed

    Brelsford, Craig C; Morales, Luis O; Nezval, Jakub; Kotilainen, Titta K; Hartikainen, Saara M; Aphalo, Pedro J; Robson, T Matthew

    2018-04-28

    We studied how plants acclimated to growing conditions that included combinations of blue light and ultraviolet-A (UV-A) radiation, and whether their growing environment affected their photosynthetic capacity during and after a brief period of acute high light (as might happen during an under-canopy sunfleck). Arabidopsis thaliana Landsberg erecta wild-type were compared with mutants lacking functional blue-light-and-UV photoreceptors: phototropin 1PHOT1, cryptochromes (CRY1 and CRY2) and UV RESISTANT LOCUS 8 (uvr8). This was achieved using LED lamps in a controlled environment to create treatments with or without blue light, in a split-plot design with or without UV-A radiation. We compared the accumulation of phenolic compounds under growth conditions and after exposure to 30 minutes of high light at the end of the experiment (46 days), and likewise measured the operational efficiency of photosystem II (φPSII a proxy for photosynthetic performance) and dark-adapted maximum quantum yield (F v /F m to assess PSII damage). Our results indicate that cryptochromes are the main photoreceptors regulating phenolic-compound accumulation in response to blue light and UV-A radiation, and a lack of functional cryptochromes impairs photosynthetic performance under high light. Our findings also reveal a role for UVR8 in accumulating flavonoids in response to a low UV-A dose. Interestingly, phototropin 1 partially-mediated constitutive accumulation of phenolic compounds in the absence of blue light. Low irradiance blue light and UV-A did not improve φPSII and F v /F m upon our acute high light treatment, however CRYs played an important role in ameliorating high-light stress. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Improved photoluminescence efficiency in UV nanopillar light emitting diode structures by recovery of dry etching damage.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Dae-Woo; Jang, Lee-Woon; Jeon, Ju-Won; Park, Jae-Woo; Song, Young Ho; Jeon, Seong-Ran; Ju, Jin-Woo; Baek, Jong Hyeob; Lee, In-Hwan

    2013-05-01

    In this study, we have fabricated 375-nm-wavelength InGaN/AlInGaN nanopillar light emitting diodes (LED) structures on c-plane sapphire. A uniform and highly vertical nanopillar structure was fabricated using self-organized Ni/SiO2 nano-size mask by dry etching method. To minimize the dry etching damage, the samples were subjected to high temperature annealing with subsequent chemical passivation in KOH solution. Prior to annealing and passivation the UV nanopillar LEDs showed the photoluminescence (PL) efficiency about 2.5 times higher than conventional UV LED structures which is attributed to better light extraction efficiency and possibly some improvement of internal quantum efficiency due to partially relieved strain. Annealing alone further increased the PL efficiency by about 4.5 times compared to the conventional UV LEDs, while KOH passivation led to the overall PL efficiency improvement by more than 7 times. Combined results of Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) suggest that annealing decreases the number of lattice defects and relieves the strain in the surface region of the nanopillars whereas KOH treatment removes the surface oxide from nanopillar surface.

  7. In-vivo data on the influence of tobacco smoke and UV light on murine skin.

    PubMed

    Pavlou, P; Rallis, M; Deliconstantinos, G; Papaioannou, G; Grando, S A

    2009-01-01

    Inhaled tobacco smoke comes in direct contact with few organs such as mouth, lungs, and stomach. Cigarette smoke (CS) in lungs has been extensively studied. However, limited data exist on its effect on skin, and there are no long-term experimental studies suggesting toxic effects on skin. Even though it is generally accepted that CS is among the main factors of skin aging, the number of experimental studies showing this aging effect is limited. We hereby studied the effect of long-term exposure to CS on the skin of hairless mice in combination with or without ultraviolet (UV) light. In addition, we investigated potential skin protection by a potent antioxidant namely procyanidine-rich French maritime pine bark extract (PBE) pycnogenol. Male and female hairless SKH-2 mice were exposed for 10 months to tobacco smoke and/or UV light in vivo, and their effects on skin were investigated. Some biophysical parameters such as development of erythema, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and skin elasticity were measured. The results show that UV and CS may be acting synergistically, as shown by the enhanced TEWL, erythema values, epitheliomas, and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) observed, whereas PBE seems to protect skin against SCC.

  8. Chlorophyll degradation in aqueous mediums induced by light and UV-B irradiation: An UHPLC-ESI-MS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrović, Sanja; Zvezdanović, Jelena; Marković, Dejan

    2017-12-01

    Irreversible chlorophyll degradation induced by continuous white light illumination and UV-B irradiation in the aqueous mediums (with 10%, 30% and 50% of methanol) was investigated using the ultrahigh liquid chromatography coupled with diode array and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry detectors (UHPLC-DAD-ESIMS). The degradation was governed by energy input of photons: higher energy of UV-B irradiation induced faster chlorophyll degradation and accordingly faster products formation in comparison to the white light treatment. Main light- or/and UV-B-induced products of chlorophyll in the aqueous mediums were hydroxy-pheophytin a, pheophytin a and hydroxy-lactone-pheophytin a, accompanied with the corresponding epimers. Chlorophylls aggregation dominant in the aqueous medium with the highest methanol content (50%) play a protective role against the UV-B radiation and white light illumination.

  9. Near-visible light and UV photoprotection in the treatment of melasma: a double-blind randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Castanedo-Cazares, Juan Pablo; Hernandez-Blanco, Diana; Carlos-Ortega, Blanca; Fuentes-Ahumada, Cornelia; Torres-Álvarez, Bertha

    2014-02-01

    Melasma is an acquired hyperpigmentation on sun-exposed areas. Multiple approaches are used to treat it, but all include broad ultraviolet (UV)-spectrum sunscreens. Visible light (VL) can induce pigmentary changes similar to those caused by UV radiation on darker-skinned patients. To assess the efficacy of sunscreen with broad-spectrum UV protection that contains iron oxide as a VL-absorbing pigment (UV-VL) compared with a regular UV-only broad-spectrum sunscreen for melasma patients exposed to intense solar conditions. Sixty-eight patients with melasma were randomized in two groups to receive either UV-VL sunscreen or UV-only sunscreen, both with sun protection factor ≥ 50, over 8 weeks. All patients received 4% hydroquinone as a depigmenting treatment. At onset and at conclusion of the study, they were assessed by the Melasma Activity and Severity Index (MASI; a subjective scale), colorimetry (L*) and histological analysis of melanin. Sixty-one patients concluded the study. At 8 weeks, the UV-VL group showed 15%, 28% and 4% greater improvements than the UV-only group in MASI scores, colorimetric values and melanin assessments, respectively. UV-VL sunscreen enhances the depigmenting efficacy of hydroquinone compared with UV-only sunscreen in treatment of melasma. These findings suggest a role for VL in melasma pathogenesis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. UV light induced surface modification of HDPE films with bioactive compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniloska, Vesna; Blazevska-Gilev, Jadranka; Dimova, Vesna; Fajgar, Radek; Tomovska, Radmila

    2010-01-01

    The development of different techniques for surface modification of polymers becomes popular in a last decade. These techniques preserve useful bulk polymer properties unchanged, while the activation of the polymer surface offers more possibilities for polymer applications. In this work, a new, one-step method for bio-activation of HDPE (high density polyethylene) surface by UV irradiation is presented. HDPE films coupled with selected active compound and a photoinitiator was treated by UV lamp, emitting light at 254 nm. For surface functionalization of HDPE films, the following compounds were employed: 2-aminopyridine (AP), N 1-(2-pyridylaminomethyl)-1,2,4-triazole (TA) and benzocaine (BC). The influence of irradiation time on the extent of surface changes was investigated. The modified polymer surfaces were investigated by Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle measurements, demonstrating successful functionalization of HDPE surface.

  11. UV light-emitting-diode photochemical mercury vapor generation for atomic fluorescence spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiaoling; Ai, Xi; Jiang, Xiaoming; Deng, Pengchi; Zheng, Chengbin; Lv, Yi

    2012-02-07

    A new, miniaturized and low power consumption photochemical vapor generation (PVG) technique utilizing an ultraviolet light-emitting diode (UV-LED) lamp is described, and further validated via the determination of trace mercury. In the presence of formic acid, the mercury cold vapor is favourably generated from Hg(2+) solutions by UV-LED irradiation, and then rapidly transported to an atomic fluorescence spectrometer for detection. Optimum conditions for PVG and interferences from concomitant elements were investigated in detail. Under optimum conditions, a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.01 μg L(-1) was obtained, and the precision was better than 3.2% (n = 11, RSD) at 1 μg L(-1) Hg(2+). No obvious interferences from any common ions were evident. The methodology was successfully applied to the determination of mercury in National Research Council Canada DORM-3 fish muscle tissue and several water samples.

  12. Epidermal Rac1 regulates the DNA damage response and protects from UV-light-induced keratinocyte apoptosis and skin carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Jayesh; Pofahl, Ruth; Haase, Ingo

    2017-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common type of cancer. Increased expression and activity of Rac1, a small Rho GTPase, has been shown previously in NMSC and other human cancers; suggesting that Rac1 may function as an oncogene in skin. DMBA/TPA skin carcinogenesis studies in mice have shown that Rac1 is required for chemically induced skin papilloma formation. However, UVB radiation by the sun, which causes DNA damage, is the most relevant cause for NMSC. A potential role of Rac1 in UV-light-induced skin carcinogenesis has not been investigated so far. To investigate this, we irradiated mice with epidermal Rac1 deficiency (Rac1-EKO) and their controls using a well-established protocol for long-term UV-irradiation. Most of the Rac1-EKO mice developed severe skin erosions upon long-term UV-irradiation, unlike their controls. These skin erosions in Rac1-EKO mice healed subsequently. Surprisingly, we observed development of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) within the UV-irradiation fields. This shows that the presence of Rac1 in the epidermis protects from UV-light-induced skin carcinogenesis. Short-term UV-irradiation experiments revealed increased UV-light-induced apoptosis of Rac1-deficient epidermal keratinocytes in vitro as well as in vivo. Further investigations using cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photolyase transgenic mice revealed that the observed increase in UV-light-induced keratinocyte apoptosis in Rac1-EKO mice is DNA damage dependent and correlates with caspase-8 activation. Furthermore, Rac1-deficient keratinocytes showed reduced levels of p53, γ-H2AX and p-Chk1 suggesting an attenuated DNA damage response upon UV-irradiation. Taken together, our data provide direct evidence for a protective role of Rac1 in UV-light-induced skin carcinogenesis and keratinocyte apoptosis probably through regulating mechanisms of the DNA damage response and repair pathways. PMID:28277539

  13. Epidermal Rac1 regulates the DNA damage response and protects from UV-light-induced keratinocyte apoptosis and skin carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Jayesh; Pofahl, Ruth; Haase, Ingo

    2017-03-09

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common type of cancer. Increased expression and activity of Rac1, a small Rho GTPase, has been shown previously in NMSC and other human cancers; suggesting that Rac1 may function as an oncogene in skin. DMBA/TPA skin carcinogenesis studies in mice have shown that Rac1 is required for chemically induced skin papilloma formation. However, UVB radiation by the sun, which causes DNA damage, is the most relevant cause for NMSC. A potential role of Rac1 in UV-light-induced skin carcinogenesis has not been investigated so far. To investigate this, we irradiated mice with epidermal Rac1 deficiency (Rac1-EKO) and their controls using a well-established protocol for long-term UV-irradiation. Most of the Rac1-EKO mice developed severe skin erosions upon long-term UV-irradiation, unlike their controls. These skin erosions in Rac1-EKO mice healed subsequently. Surprisingly, we observed development of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) within the UV-irradiation fields. This shows that the presence of Rac1 in the epidermis protects from UV-light-induced skin carcinogenesis. Short-term UV-irradiation experiments revealed increased UV-light-induced apoptosis of Rac1-deficient epidermal keratinocytes in vitro as well as in vivo. Further investigations using cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photolyase transgenic mice revealed that the observed increase in UV-light-induced keratinocyte apoptosis in Rac1-EKO mice is DNA damage dependent and correlates with caspase-8 activation. Furthermore, Rac1-deficient keratinocytes showed reduced levels of p53, γ-H2AX and p-Chk1 suggesting an attenuated DNA damage response upon UV-irradiation. Taken together, our data provide direct evidence for a protective role of Rac1 in UV-light-induced skin carcinogenesis and keratinocyte apoptosis probably through regulating mechanisms of the DNA damage response and repair pathways.

  14. Broadband infrared light emitting waveguides based on UV curable PbS quantum dot composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Kai; Baig, Sarfaraz; Jiang, Guomin; Paik, Young-hun; Kim, Sung Jin; Wang, Michael R.

    2018-02-01

    We present herein the active PbS-photopolymer waveguide fabricated by vacuum assisted microfluidic (VAM) soft lithography technique. The PbS Quantum Dots (QDs) were synthesized using colloidal chemistry methods with tunable sizes and emission wavelengths, resulting in efficient light emission around 1000 nm center wavelength. The PbS QDs have demonstrated much better solubility in our newly synthesized UV curable polymer than SU-8 photoresist, verified by Photoluminescence (PL) testing. Through refractive index control, the PbS QDs-polymer core material and polymer cladding material can efficiently confine the infrared emitting light with a broad spectral bandwidth of 180 nm. Both single-mode and multi-mode light emitting waveguides have been realized.

  15. Preillumination of lettuce seedlings with red light enhances the resistance of photosynthetic apparatus to UV-A.

    PubMed

    Kreslavski, Vladimir D; Lyubimov, Valery Yu; Shirshikova, Galina N; Shmarev, Alexander N; Kosobryukhov, Anatoly A; Schmitt, Franz-Josef; Friedrich, Thomas; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I

    2013-05-05

    Seedlings of 10-day-old lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., cultivar Berlin) were preilluminated by low intensity red light (λmax=660 nm, 10 min, 5 μmol quanta m(-2) s(-1)) and far-red light (λmax=730 nm, 10 min, 5 μmol quanta m(-2) s(-1)) to study the effect of pre-treatment on photosynthesis, photochemical activity of photosystem II (PSII), the contents of photosynthetic and UV-A-absorbing pigments (UAPs) and H2O2, as well as total and ascorbate peroxidase activities in cotyledonary leaves of seedlings exposed to UV-A. UV radiation reduced the photosynthetic rate (Pn), the activity of PSII, and the contents of Chl a and b, carotenoids and UAPs in the leaves, but increased the content of H2O2 and the total peroxidase activity. Preillumination with red light removed these effects of UV. In turn, the illumination with red light, then far-red light removed the effect of the red light. Illumination with red light alone increased the content of UAPs, as well as peroxidase activity. It is suggested that higher resistance of the lettuce photosynthetic apparatus to UV-A radiation is associated with involvement of the active form of phytochrome B, thereby increasing peroxidase activities as well as UAPs and saving preservation of photosynthetic pigment contents due to pre-illumination with red light. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Soaps and germicides as adjunct topical antimycotic agents on candida species implicated in vulvovaginal candidasis.

    PubMed

    Ogunshe, Adenike A O; Omotoso, Oluwatoyin A; Akindele, Titilayo M

    2011-06-01

    The study aims at evaluating the potentials of soaps and germicides/disinfectants as adjunct topical anti-vulvovaginal candidasis agents. In vitro inhibitory activities of the test agents, prepared according to the manufacturer's specification for toilet and midwifery purposes were determined using modified agar well-diffusion method. Varied susceptibility patterns were exhibited by Candida albicans (26.5%), C. glabrata (18.4%), C. pseudotropicalis (14.3%) and C. tropicalis (40.8%) implicated in vulvovaginal candidasis, indicating Crusader oil (100%), Meriko (95%), Tetmosol (84.7%) and Aloe (68.4%) as the most inhibitory soaps against the Candida strains. The in vitro inhibitory activities of the germicides and disinfectants ranged between (Dettol; 34.6% and Purit; 84.6%) for C. albicans; (Roberts; 33.3% and Purit; 83.3%) for C. glabrata; (Roberts; 21.4% and Purit; 92.9%) for C. pseudotropicalis; (Dettol; 35.0% and Purit; 87.5%) for C. tropicalis respectively. All the Candida strains were totally inhibited by the germicides and disinfectants at the second lower dilutions, except in Morigad towards C. albicans (69.2%]) C. glabrata (72.2%), C. pseudotropicalis (92.9%) and C. tropicalis (82.5%) but none of the vaginal Lactobacillus strains was inhibited by the soaps, germicides or disinfectant. About 90% of a control group indicated relief after pubic cleansing with soaps, germicides and disinfectants. Results indicatied the safety of soaps, germicides and disinfectants as potential adjunct topical cleansing-agents in cases of vaginal itching and candidasis, a common mucosal infection caused by opportunistic yeasts of the Candida genus.

  17. Photochemical Synthesis of Complex Carbazoles: Evaluation of Electronic Effects in Both UV- and Visible-Light Methods in Continuous Flow.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Perez, Augusto C; Caron, Antoine; Collins, Shawn K

    2015-11-09

    An evaluation of both a visible-light- and UV-light-mediated synthesis of carbazoles from various triarylamines with differing electronic properties under continuous-flow conditions has been conducted. In general, triarylamines bearing electron-rich groups tend to produce higher yields than triarylamines possessing electron-withdrawing groups. The incorporation of nitrogen-based heterocycles, as well as halogen-containing arenes in carbazole skeletons, was well tolerated, and often synthetically useful complementarity was observed between the UV-light and visible-light (photoredox) methods. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. EPR investigation of UV light effect on calcium carbonate powders with different grain sizes.

    PubMed

    Kabacińska, Zuzanna; Krzyminiewski, Ryszard; Dobosz, Bernadeta

    2014-06-01

    This study is based on investigation of calcium carbonate powders with different grain sizes exposed to UV light. Calcium carbonate is widely used in many branches of industry, e.g. as a filler for polymer materials; therefore, knowing its properties, among them also its reaction to UV light, is essential. Samples of powdered calcium carbonate with average grain sizes of 69 and 300 nm and 2.1, 6, 16, 25 µm were used in this investigation. Measurements were performed at room temperature using EPR X-band spectrometer, and they have shown the additional signals induced by the light from Hg lamp. The effect of annealing of the micro-grain samples was also studied. The spectra of four micro-grain samples after irradiation are similar, but there are differences between them and the other two powders, which could be related to the different sizes of their grains. Further studies based on these preliminary results may prove useful in research of photodegradation of CaCO3-filled materials, as well as helpful in increasing the accuracy of dating of archaeological and geological objects. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Non-melanoma skin cancer: occupational risk from UV light and arsenic exposure.

    PubMed

    Surdu, Simona

    2014-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) has a significant impact on public health and health care costs as a result of high morbidity and disfigurement due to the destruction of surrounding tissues. Although the mortality rates of these tumors are low, the high incidence rates determine a considerable number of deaths. NMSC is the most common type of skin cancer, representing about 1/3 of all malignancies diagnosed worldwide each year. The most common NMSC are basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Studies on humans and experimental animals indicate that ultraviolet (UV) light and arsenic play important roles in the development of these skin malignancies. Several epidemiological studies have investigated the risk of developing NMSC and the potential link between exposure to sunlight and arsenic in the agricultural and industrial occupational settings. To date, the published literature suggests that there is no apparent skin cancer risk as regards workplace exposure to artificial UV light or arsenic. Concerning UV light from sun exposure at the workplace, most published studies indicated an elevated risk for SCC, but are less conclusive for BCC. Many of these studies are limited by the methodology used in the evaluation of occupational exposure and the lack of adjustment for major confounders. Therefore, further epidemiological studies are required to focus on exposure assessment at the individual level as well as potential interactions with other occupational and non-occupational exposures and individual susceptibility. In doing so, we can better quantify the true risk of skin cancer in exposed workers and inform effective public health prevention programs.

  20. Fast, Large-Area, Wide-Bandgap UV Photodetector for Cherenkov Light Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.

    2013-01-01

    Due to limited resources available for power and space for payloads, miniaturizing and integrating instrumentation is a high priority for addressing the challenges of manned and unmanned deep space missions to high Earth orbit (HEO), near Earth objects (NEOs), Lunar and Martian orbits and surfaces, and outer planetary systems, as well as improvements to high-altitude aircraft safety. New, robust, and compact detectors allow future instrumentation packages more options in satisfying specific mission goals. A solid-state ultraviolet (UV) detector was developed with a theoretical fast response time and large detection area intended for application to Cherenkov detectors. The detector is based on the wide-bandgap semiconductor zinc oxide (ZnO), which in a bridge circuit can detect small, fast pulses of UV light like those required for Cherenkov detectors. The goal is to replace the role of photomultiplier tubes in Cherenkov detectors with these solid-state devices, saving on size, weight, and required power. For improving detection geometry, a spherical detector to measure high atomic number and energy (HZE) ions from any direction has been patented as part of a larger space radiation detector system. The detector will require the development of solid-state UV photodetectors fast enough (2 ns response time or better) to detect the shockwave of Cherenkov light emitted as the ions pass through a quartz, sapphire, or acrylic ball. The detector must be small enough to fit in the detector system structure, but have an active area large enough to capture enough Cherenkov light from the sphere. The detector is fabricated on bulk single-crystal undoped ZnO. Inter - digitated finger electrodes and contact pads are patterned via photolithography, and formed by sputtered metal of silver, platinum, or other high-conductivity metal.

  1. Impact of environmental factors on efficacy of upper-room air ultraviolet germicidal irradiation for inactivating airborne mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Kujundzic, Elmira; Peccia, Jordan; Schafer, Millie P; Moss, Gene; Hernandez, Mark; Miller, Shelly L

    2005-12-15

    This study evaluated the efficacy of an upper-room air ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) system for inactivating airborne bacteria, which irradiates the upper part of a room while minimizing radiation exposure to persons in the lower part of the room. A full-scale test room (87 m3), fitted with a UVGI system consisting of 9 louvered wall and ceiling fixtures (504 W all lamps operating) was operated at 24 and 34 degrees C, between 25 and 90% relative humidity, and at three ventilation rates. Mycobacterium parafortuitum cells were aerosolized into the room such that their numbers and physiologic state were comparable both with and without the UVGI system operating. Airborne bacteria were collected in duplicate using liquid impingers and quantified with direct epifluorescent microscopy and standard culturing assay. Performance of the UVGI system degraded significantly when the relative humidity was increased from 50% to 75-90% RH, the horizontal UV fluence rate distribution was skewed to one side compared to being evenly dispersed, and the room air temperature was stratified from hot at the ceiling to cold at the floor. The inactivation rate increased linearly with effective UV fluence rate up to 5 microW cm(-2); an increase in the fluence rate above this level did not yield a proportional increase in inactivation rate.

  2. Quantum dots/silica/polymer nanocomposite films with high visible light transmission and UV shielding properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumin, Md Abdul; Xu, William Z.; Charpentier, Paul A.

    2015-08-01

    The dispersion of light-absorbing inorganic nanomaterials in transparent plastics such as poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (PEVA) is of enormous current interest in emerging solar materials, including photovoltaic (PV) modules and commercial greenhouse films. Nanocrystalline semiconductor or quantum dots (QDs) have the potential to absorb UV light and selectively emit visible light, which can control plant growth in greenhouses or enhance PV panel efficiencies. This work provides a new and simple approach for loading mesoporous silica-encapsulated QDs into PEVA. Highly luminescent CdS and CdS-ZnS core-shell QDs with 5 nm size were synthesized using a modified facile approach based on pyrolysis of the single-molecule precursors and capping the CdS QDs with a thin layer of ZnS. To make both the bare and core-shell structure QDs more resistant against photochemical reactions, a mesoporous silica layer was grown on the QDs through a reverse microemulsion technique based on hydrophobic interactions. By careful experimental tuning, this encapsulation technique enhanced the quantum yield (˜65%) and photostability compared to the bare QDs. Both the encapsulated bare and core-shell QDs were then melt-mixed with EVA pellets using a mini twin-screw extruder and pressed into thin films with controlled thickness. The results demonstrated for the first time that mesoporous silica not only enhanced the quantum yield and photostability of the QDs but also improved the compatibility and dispersibility of QDs throughout the PEVA films. The novel light selective films show high visible light transmission (˜90%) and decreased UV transmission (˜75%).

  3. Quantum dots/silica/polymer nanocomposite films with high visible light transmission and UV shielding properties.

    PubMed

    Mumin, Md Abdul; Xu, William Z; Charpentier, Paul A

    2015-08-07

    The dispersion of light-absorbing inorganic nanomaterials in transparent plastics such as poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (PEVA) is of enormous current interest in emerging solar materials, including photovoltaic (PV) modules and commercial greenhouse films. Nanocrystalline semiconductor or quantum dots (QDs) have the potential to absorb UV light and selectively emit visible light, which can control plant growth in greenhouses or enhance PV panel efficiencies. This work provides a new and simple approach for loading mesoporous silica-encapsulated QDs into PEVA. Highly luminescent CdS and CdS-ZnS core-shell QDs with 5 nm size were synthesized using a modified facile approach based on pyrolysis of the single-molecule precursors and capping the CdS QDs with a thin layer of ZnS. To make both the bare and core-shell structure QDs more resistant against photochemical reactions, a mesoporous silica layer was grown on the QDs through a reverse microemulsion technique based on hydrophobic interactions. By careful experimental tuning, this encapsulation technique enhanced the quantum yield (∼65%) and photostability compared to the bare QDs. Both the encapsulated bare and core-shell QDs were then melt-mixed with EVA pellets using a mini twin-screw extruder and pressed into thin films with controlled thickness. The results demonstrated for the first time that mesoporous silica not only enhanced the quantum yield and photostability of the QDs but also improved the compatibility and dispersibility of QDs throughout the PEVA films. The novel light selective films show high visible light transmission (∼90%) and decreased UV transmission (∼75%).

  4. UV light-induced survival response in a highly radiation-resistant isolate of the Moraxella-acinetobacter group

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, L.C.; Thompson, T.L.; Maxcy, R.B.

    1982-02-01

    A highly radiation-resistant member of the Moraxella-Acinetobacter group, isolate 4, obtained from meat, was studied to determine the effect of preexposure to UV radiation on subsequent UV light resistance. Cultures that were preexposed to UV light and incubated for a short time in plate count broth exhibited increased survival of a UV light challenge dose. This response was inhibited in the presence of chloramphenicol. Frequencies of mutation to streptomycin, trimethoprim, and sulfanilamide resistance remained the same after the induction of this survival response and were not altered by treatment with mutagens, with the exception of mutation to streptomycin resistance aftermore » ..gamma..-irradiation or nitrosoguanidine or methyl methane sulfonate treatment. The results indicated that isolate 4 has a UV light-inducible UV light resistance mechanism which is not associated with increased mutagenesis. The characteristics of the radiation resistance response in this organism are similar to those of certain other common food contaminants. Therefore, considered as part of the total microflora of meat, isolate 4 and the other radiation-resistant Moraxella-Acinetobacter isolates should not pose unique problems in a proposed radappertizaton process.« less

  5. Tolerance of the eriophyid mite Aceria salsolae to UV-A light and implications for biological control of Russian thistle.

    PubMed

    Moran, Patrick J; Wibawa, M Irene; Smith, Lincoln

    2017-12-01

    Aceria salsolae (Acari: Eriophyidae) is being evaluated as a candidate biological control agent of Russian thistle (Salsola tragus, Chenopodiaceae), a major invasive weed of rangelands and dryland crops in the western USA. Prior laboratory host range testing under artificial lighting indicated reproduction on non-native Bassia hyssopifolia and on a native plant, Suaeda calceoliformis. However, in field tests in the native range, mite populations released on these 'nontarget' plants remained low. We hypothesized that UV-A light, which can affect behavior of tetranychid mites, would affect populations of the eriophyid A. salsolae differently on the target and nontarget plant species, decreasing the mite's realized host range. Plants were infested with A. salsolae under lamps that emitted UV-A, along with broad-spectrum lighting, and the size of mite populations and plant growth was compared to infested plants exposed only to broad-spectrum light. Russian thistle supported 3- to 55-fold larger mite populations than nontarget plants regardless of UV-A treatment. UV-A exposure did not affect mite populations on Russian thistle or S. calceoliformis, whereas it increased populations 7-fold on B. hyssopifolia. Main stems on nontarget plants grew 2- to 6-fold faster than did Russian thistle under either light treatment. The two nontarget plants attained greater volume under the control light regime than UV-A, but Russian thistle was unaffected. Although Russian thistle was always the superior host, addition of UV-A light to the artificial lighting regime did not reduce the ability of A. salsolae to reproduce on the two nontarget species, suggesting that UV-B or other environmental factors may be more important in limiting mite populations in the field.

  6. Interaction of sunscreen TiO2 nanoparticles with skin and UV light: penetration, protection, phototoxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Alexey; Lademann, Jürgen; Priezzhev, Alexander; Myllylä, Risto

    2009-07-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles are extensively used nowadays in sunscreens as protective compounds for human skin from UV radiation. In this paper, such particles are investigated from the viewpoint of penetration into living skin, UV protective properties (compared with silicon (Si) particles) and as sources of free radicals if UV-irradiated. We show that: a) even after multiple applications, the particles are located within the uppermost 3-μm-thick part of the skin; b) the optimal sizes are found to be 62 nm and 55 nm, respectively for TiO2 and Si particles for 310-nm light and, correspondingly, 122 and 70 nm - for 400-nm radiation; c) if applied onto glass, small particles of 25 nm in diameter produce an increased amount of free radicals compared to the larger ones of 400 nm in diameter and placebo itself; however, if applied onto porcine skin in vitro, there is no statistically distinct difference in the amount of radicals generated by the two kinds of particles on skin and by the skin itself. This proves that although particles as part of sunscreens produce free radicals, the effect is negligible in comparison to the production of radicals by skin in vitro.

  7. UV Light Inactivation of Human and Plant Pathogens in Unfiltered Surface Irrigation Water

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Lisa A.; Worobo, Randy W.

    2014-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable growers continually battle plant diseases and food safety concerns. Surface water is commonly used in the production of fruits and vegetables and can harbor both human- and plant-pathogenic microorganisms that can contaminate crops when used for irrigation or other agricultural purposes. Treatment methods for surface water are currently limited, and there is a need for suitable treatment options. A liquid-processing unit that uses UV light for the decontamination of turbid juices was analyzed for its efficacy in the treatment of surface waters contaminated with bacterial or oomycete pathogens, i.e., Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, and Phytophthora capsici. Five-strain cocktails of each pathogen, containing approximately 108 or 109 CFU/liter for bacteria or 104 or 105 zoospores/liter for Ph. capsici, were inoculated into aliquots of two turbid surface water irrigation sources and processed with the UV unit. Pathogens were enumerated before and after treatment. In general, as the turbidity of the water source increased, the effectiveness of the UV treatment decreased, but in all cases, 99.9% or higher inactivation was achieved. Log reductions ranged from 10.0 to 6.1 and from 5.0 to 4.2 for bacterial pathogens and Ph. capsici, respectively. PMID:24242253

  8. UV light inactivation of human and plant pathogens in unfiltered surface irrigation water.

    PubMed

    Jones, Lisa A; Worobo, Randy W; Smart, Christine D

    2014-02-01

    Fruit and vegetable growers continually battle plant diseases and food safety concerns. Surface water is commonly used in the production of fruits and vegetables and can harbor both human- and plant-pathogenic microorganisms that can contaminate crops when used for irrigation or other agricultural purposes. Treatment methods for surface water are currently limited, and there is a need for suitable treatment options. A liquid-processing unit that uses UV light for the decontamination of turbid juices was analyzed for its efficacy in the treatment of surface waters contaminated with bacterial or oomycete pathogens, i.e., Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, and Phytophthora capsici. Five-strain cocktails of each pathogen, containing approximately 10(8) or 10(9) CFU/liter for bacteria or 10(4) or 10(5) zoospores/liter for Ph. capsici, were inoculated into aliquots of two turbid surface water irrigation sources and processed with the UV unit. Pathogens were enumerated before and after treatment. In general, as the turbidity of the water source increased, the effectiveness of the UV treatment decreased, but in all cases, 99.9% or higher inactivation was achieved. Log reductions ranged from 10.0 to 6.1 and from 5.0 to 4.2 for bacterial pathogens and Ph. capsici, respectively.

  9. Super Water-Repellent Fractal Surfaces of a Photochromic Diarylethene Induced by UV Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumi, Norikazu; Minami, Takayuki; Mayama, Hiroyuki; Takata, Atsushi; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Yokojima, Satoshi; Tsujii, Kaoru; Uchida, Kingo

    2008-09-01

    Photochromic diarylethene forms super water-repellent surfaces upon irradiation with UV light. Microfibril-like crystals grow on the solid diarylethene surface after UV irradiation, and the contact angle of water on the surface becomes larger with increasing surface roughness with time. The fractal analysis was made by the box-counting method for the rough surfaces. There are three regions in the roughness size having the fractal dimension of ca. 2.4 (size of roughness smaller than 5 µm), of ca. 2.2 (size of roughness between 5-40 µm), and of ca. 2.0 (size of roughness larger than 40 µm). The fractal dimension of ca. 2.4 was due to the fibril-like structures generated gradually by UV irradiation on diarylethene surfaces accompanied with an increase in the contact angle. The surface structure with larger fractal dimension mainly contributes to realizing the super water-repellency of the diarylethene surfaces. This mechanism of spontaneous formation of fractal surfaces is similar to that for triglyceride and alkylketene dimer waxes.

  10. Encapsulation of ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, a light-sensitive UV filter, in lipid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Durand, L; Habran, N; Henschel, V; Amighi, K

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to encapsulate ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EMC), a commonly used UVB filter, in a solid lipid matrix in order to obtain microparticles and then nanoparticles to reduce its photo-instability under UV light exposure. Glyceryl behenate, rice bran wax and ozokerite were investigated for encapsulating EMC. The suspensions of nanoparticles contained 70% encapsulated EMC (relative to the lipid mass). The absorbance level at 310 nm of suspensions containing nanoparticles was more than twice that of those containing microparticles. So, decreasing the size of particles improved the efficiency of light protection, regardless of the lipid material used. Moreover, free EMC presented a 30% loss of its efficiency after 2 h of irradiation, whereas the three NLC formulations showed a loss of absorbency between 10% and 21%. The in vitro cutaneous penetration test did not show a higher potential penetration for EMC contained in nanosuspensions compared to free EMC.

  11. Photothermal Activation of Metal-Organic Frameworks Using a UV-Vis Light Source.

    PubMed

    Espín, Jordi; Garzón-Tovar, Luis; Carné-Sánchez, Arnau; Imaz, Inhar; Maspoch, Daniel

    2018-03-21

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) usually require meticulous removal of the solvent molecules to unlock their potential porosity. Herein, we report a novel one-step method for activating MOFs based on the photothermal effect induced by directly irradiating them with a UV-vis lamp. The localized light-to-heat conversion produced in the MOF crystals upon irradiation enables a very fast solvent removal, thereby significantly reducing the activation time to as low as 30 min and suppressing the need for time-consuming solvent-exchange procedures and vacuum conditions. This approach is successful for a broad range of MOFs, including HKUST-1, UiO-66-NH 2 , ZIF-67, CPO-27-M (M = Zn, Ni, and Mg), Fe-MIL-101-NH 2 , and IRMOF-3, all of which exhibit absorption bands in the light emission range. In addition, we anticipate that this photothermal activation can also be used to activate covalent organic frameworks (COFs).

  12. Plasmonic based light manipulation and applications in AIGaN deep-UV devices (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jun; Li, Jing; Kang, Junyong

    2016-09-01

    Recently, surface plasmon (SP)-exciton coupling has been wildly applied in nitride semiconductors in order to improve the spontaneous radiative recombination rate [1-3]. However, most works have been focused on the emission enhancement in InGaN-based blue or green light emitting diodes (LEDs). Practically, it is significantly important to improve the emission efficiency in deep-UV AlGaN-base quantum well (QW) structure due to its intrinsically low internal quantum efficiency (IQE) induced by the high defect density in its epitaxy layer [4]. But, the effective SP-exciton coupling with matched energy in deep-UV region is still a challenge issue due to the lack of appropriate metal structures and compatible fabrication techniques. In this work, the Al nanoparticles (NPs) were introduced by the nanosphere lithography (NSL) and deposition techniques into the AlGaN based MQWs with optimized size and structure. Due to the local surface plasmon (LSP) coupling with the excitons in QWs, emission enhancement in deep UV region has been achieved in the Al NPs decorated AlGaN MQWs structure with comparison to the bare MQWs. Theoretical calculations on the energy subbands of AlGaN QWs were further carried out to investigate the corresponding mechanisms, in which the hot carrier transition activated by SP-exciton coupling was believed to be mainly responsible for the enhancement. This work demonstrated a low cost, wafer scale fabrication process, which can be potentially employed to the practical SP-enhanced AlGaN-based deep UV LEDs with high IQEs.

  13. Hazards Caused by UV Rays of Xenon Light Based High Performance Solar Simulators.

    PubMed

    Dibowski, Gerd; Esser, Kai

    2017-09-01

    Solar furnaces are used worldwide to conduct experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of solar-chemical processes with the aid of concentrated sunlight, or to qualify high temperature-resistant components. In recent years, high-flux solar simulators (HFSSs) based on short-arc xenon lamps are more frequently used. The emitted spectrum is very similar to natural sunlight but with dangerous portions of ultraviolet light as well. Due to special benefits of solar simulators the increase of construction activity for HFSS can be observed worldwide. Hence, it is quite important to protect employees against serious injuries caused by ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in a range of 100 nm to 400 nm. The UV measurements were made at the German Aerospace Center (DLR), Cologne and Paul-Scherrer-Institute (PSI), Switzerland, during normal operations of the HFSS, with a high-precision UV-A/B radiometer using different experiment setups at different power levels. Thus, the measurement results represent UV emissions which are typical when operating a HFSS. Therefore, the biological effects on people exposed to UVR was investigated systematically to identify the existing hazard potential. It should be noted that the permissible workplace exposure limits for UV emissions significantly exceeded after a few seconds. One critical value was strongly exceeded by a factor of 770. The prevention of emissions must first and foremost be carried out by structural measures. Furthermore, unambiguous protocols have to be defined and compliance must be monitored. For short-term activities in the hazard area, measures for the protection of eyes and skin must be taken.

  14. Atmospheric fate of oil matter adsorbed on sea salt particles under UV light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaitilingom, M.; Avij, P.; Huang, H.; Valsaraj, K. T.

    2014-12-01

    The presence of liquid petroleum hydrocarbons at the sea water surface is an important source of marine pollution. An oil spill in sea-water will most likely occur due to an involuntary accident from tankers, offshore platforms, etc. However, a large amount of oil is also deliberately spilled in sea-water during the clean-out process of tank vessels (e.g. for the Mediterranean Sea, 490,000 tons/yr). Moreover, the pollution caused by an oil spill does not only affect the aquatic environment but also is of concern for the atmospheric environment. A portion of the oil matter present at the sea-water surface is transported into the atmosphere viaevaporation and adsorption at the surface of sea spray particles. Few studies are related to the presence of oil matter in airborne particles resulting from their adsorption on sea salt aerosols. We observed that the non-volatile oil matter was adsorbed at the surface of sea-salt crystals (av. size of 1.1 μm). Due to their small size, these particles can have a significant residence time in the atmosphere. The hydrocarbon matter adsorbed at the surface of these particles can also be transformed by catalyzers present in the atmosphere (i.e. UV, OH, O3, ...). In this work, we focused on the photo-oxidation rates of the C16 to C30alkanes present in these particles. We utilized a bubble column reactor, which produced an abundance of small sized bubbles. These bubbles generated droplets upon bursting at the air-salt water interface. These droplets were then further dried up and lifted to the top of the column where they were collected as particles. These particles were incubated in a controlled reactor in either dark conditions or under UV-visible light. The difference of alkane content analyzed by GC-MS between the particles exposed to UV or the particles not exposed to UV indicated that up to 20% in mass was lost after 20 min of light exposure. The degradation kinetics varied for each range of alkanes (C16-20, C21-25, C26

  15. Infectivity of Giardia duodenalis Cysts from UV Light-Disinfected Wastewater Effluent Using a Nude BALB/c Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Luciana Urbano; Alves, Delma Pegolo; Guaraldo, Ana Maria Aparecida; Cantusio Neto, Romeu; Durigan, Mauricio; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno

    2013-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a protozoan of public health interest that causes gastroenteritis in humans and other animals. In the city of Campinas in southeast Brazil, giardiasis is endemic, and this pathogen is detected at high concentrations in wastewater effluents, which are potential reservoirs for transmission. The Samambaia wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in the city of Campinas employs an activated sludge system for sewage treatment and ultraviolet (UV) light for disinfection of effluents. To evaluate this disinfection process with respect to inactivating G. duodenalis cysts, two sample types were investigated: (i) effluent without UV disinfection (EFL) and (ii) effluent with UV disinfection (EFL+UV). Nude immunodeficient BALB/c mice were intragastrically inoculated with a mean dose of 14 cysts of G. duodenalis recovered from effluent from this WWTP, EFL, or EFL+UV. All animals inoculated with G. duodenalis cysts developed the infection, but animals inoculated with UV-exposed cysts released a lower average concentration of cysts in their faeces than animals inoculated with cysts that were not UV disinfected. Trophozoites were also observed in both groups of animals. These findings suggest that G. duodenalis cysts exposed to UV light were damaged but were still able to cause infection. PMID:27335858

  16. From UV to Near-Infrared Light-Responsive Metal-Organic Framework Composites: Plasmon and Upconversion Enhanced Photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Dandan; Yu, Shu-Hong; Jiang, Hai-Long

    2018-05-15

    The exploitation of photocatalysts that harvest solar spectrum as broad as possible remains a high-priority target yet grand challenge. In this work, for the first time, metal-organic framework (MOF) composites are rationally fabricated to achieve broadband spectral response from UV to near-infrared (NIR) region. In the core-shell structured upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs)-Pt@MOF/Au composites, the MOF is responsive to UV and a bit visible light, the plasmonic Au nanoparticles (NPs) accept visible light, whereas the UCNPs absorb NIR light to emit UV and visible light that are harvested by the MOF and Au once again. Moreover, the MOF not only facilitates the generation of "bare and clean" Au NPs on its surface and realizes the spatial separation for the Au and Pt NPs, but also provides necessary access for catalytic substrates/products to Pt active sites. As a result, the optimized composite exhibits excellent photocatalytic hydrogen production activity (280 µmol g -1 h -1 ) under simulated solar light, and the involved mechanism of photocatalytic H 2 production under UV, visible, and NIR irradiation is elucidated. Reportedly, this is an extremely rare study on photocatalytic H 2 production by light harvesting in all UV, visible, and NIR regions. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. NIR-Vis-UV Light-Responsive Actuator Films of Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhangxiang; Wang, Tianjie; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Yihe; Yu, Haifeng

    2015-12-16

    To take full advantage of sunlight for photomechanical materials, NIR-vis-UV light-responsive actuator films of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC)/graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites were fabricated. The strategy is based on phase transition of LCs from nematic to isotropic phase induced by combination of photochemical and photothermal processes in the PDLC/GO nanocomposites. Upon mechanical stretching of the film, both topological shape change and mesogenic alignment occurred in the separated LC domains, enabling the film to respond to NIR-vis-UV light. The homodispersed GO flakes act as photoabsorbent and nanoscale heat source to transfer NIR or VIS light into thermal energy, heating the film and photothermally inducing phase transition of LC microdomains. By utilizing photochemical phase transition of LCs upon UV-light irradiation, one azobenzene dye was incorporated into the LC domains, endowing the nanocomposite films with UV-responsive property. Moreover, the light-responsive behaviors can be well-controlled by adjusting the elongation ratio upon mechanical treatment. The NIR-vis-UV light-responsive PDLC/GO nanocomposite films exhibit excellent properties of easy fabrication, low-cost, and good film-forming and mechanical features, promising their numerous applications in the field of soft actuators and optomechanical systems driven directly by sunlight.

  18. UV light assisted decolorization of dark brown colored coffee effluent by photo-Fenton reaction.

    PubMed

    Tokumura, Masahiro; Ohta, Ayano; Znad, Hussein T; Kawase, Yoshinori

    2006-12-01

    The photochemical decolorization of coffee effluent has been examined by photo-Fenton (UV/Fe2+/H2O2) process. Effects of UV light intensity, initial coffee concentration, iron dose and H2O2 dose on the color removal of model coffee effluent have been investigated. The rate of decolorization increased with decreasing initial coffee effluent concentration. It was found that the Fe ion dose and UV light intensity enhanced the decolorization rate. The decolorization process of coffee effluent could be divided into three established phases. At the beginning of the photo-Fenton process, the instantaneous and significant increase in color of the solution was found (Phase-I). In the subsequent phase (Phase-II), the decolorization rate was initially fast and subsequently decreased. In Phase-III, the rate was accelerated and then the complete decolorization of model coffee effluent was achieved. In order to elucidate the mechanisms of coffee effluent color removal process, the concentration changes in Fe3+ and Fe2+ besides H2O2 were measured during the course of the photo-Fenton process. The rate-determining step in Phase-II was the photo-Fenton reaction or photoreduction of Fe3+. On the other hand, the decolorization process in Phase-III was highly affected by Fenton reaction or decomposition of H2O2 with Fe2+. About 93% mineralization of 250 mg L(-1) model coffee effluent was achieved after 250 min. A comparative study for TiO2, ZnO and photo-Fenton oxidation processes has been also carried out and the photo-Fenton process was found to be the most effective for color removal of coffee effluent.

  19. Hydrogel nanocomposites: a potential UV/blue light filtering material for ophthalmic lenses.

    PubMed

    Bozukova, Dimitriya; Pagnoulle, Christophe; De Pauw-Gillet, Marie-Claire; Vertruyen, Bénédicte; Jérôme, Robert; Jérôme, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate) (poly(HEMA-co-MMA)) and ZnS hydrogel nanocomposites were prepared and characterized. The chemical composition of the inorganic nanoparticles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, and the homogeneity of their distribution within the hydrogel was assessed by transmission electron microscopy. The influence of the content of ZnS nanoparticles on the optical performances of the nanocomposites was investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The ability of the hydrogel nanocomposites to filter the hazardous UV light and part of the blue light was reported, which makes them valuable candidates for ophthalmic lens application. In contrast to the optical properties, the thermo-mechanical properties of neat poly(HEMA-co-MMA) hydrogels were found to be largely independent of filling by ZnS nanoparticles (≤2 mg/ml co-monomer mixture). Finally, in vitro cell adhesion test with lens epithelial cells (LECs), extracted from porcine lens crystalline capsule, showed that ZnS had no deleterious effect on the biocompatibility of neat hydrogels, at least at low content. © Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2011

  20. Comparison of hospital room surface disinfection using a novel ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) generator.

    PubMed

    Jelden, Katelyn C; Gibbs, Shawn G; Smith, Philip W; Hewlett, Angela L; Iwen, Peter C; Schmid, Kendra K; Lowe, John J

    2016-09-01

    The estimated 721,800 hospital acquired infections per year in the United States have necessitated development of novel environmental decontamination technologies such as ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI). This study evaluated the efficacy of a novel, portable UVGI generator (the TORCH, ChlorDiSys Solutions, Inc., Lebanon, NJ) to disinfect surface coupons composed of plastic from a bedrail, stainless steel, chrome-plated light switch cover, and a porcelain tile that were inoculated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE). Each surface type was placed at 6 different sites within a hospital room and treated by 10-min ultraviolet-C (UVC) exposures using the TORCH with doses ranging from 0-688 mJ/cm(2) between sites. Organism reductions were compared with untreated surface coupons as controls. Overall, UVGI significantly reduced MRSA by an average of 4.6 log10 (GSD: 1.7 log10, 77% inactivation, p < 0.0001) and VRE by an average of 3.9 log10 (GSD: 1.7 log10, 65% inactivation, p < 0.0001). MRSA on bedrail was reduced significantly (p < 0.0001) less than on other surfaces, while VRE was reduced significantly less on chrome (p = 0.0004) and stainless steel (p = 0.0012) than porcelain tile. Organisms out of direct line of sight of the UVC generator were reduced significantly less (p < 0.0001) than those directly in line of sight. UVGI was found an effective method to inactivate nosocomial pathogens on surfaces evaluated within the hospital environment in direct line of sight of UVGI treatment with variation between organism and surface types.

  1. Evaluation of anogenital injuries using white and UV-light among adult volunteers following consensual sexual intercourse.

    PubMed

    Joki-Erkkilä, Minna; Rainio, Juha; Huhtala, Heini; Salonen, Aki; Karhunen, Pekka J

    2014-09-01

    New clinical forensic examination techniques for sexual assaults have not been introduced over the last few decades. We evaluated the benefit of ultraviolet light compared to white light for detecting minor anogenital injuries and scars, following consensual sexual intercourse among adult volunteers. A prospective study comparing female genital findings utilising white and ultraviolet light. A colposcopy with photographic documentation was used. Personal invitation to healthcare students, hospital employees or acquaintances to volunteer for a gynecological examination, with a focus on clinical forensic aspects. Eighty-eight adult female volunteers were recruited for the study. The examination was performed after consensual intercourse. Age ranged from 20 to 52 years (median 26.5 years). Presence of acute findings and scars in the genital area using white and UV-light. Acute genital injury rate was 14.8% under white light colposcopy and 23.0% using UV light. Submucosal hemorrhages in the genital area were documented significantly better under UV-light than white light (14.9% vs. 6.8%; p=0.016), whereas petechiaes (4.5%) and abrasions (2.3%) were detected using either method. UV-light revealed significantly more often delivery-associated genital scars compared to white light (39.8% vs. 31.8%; p=0.016). Furthermore, 10 out of 31 (33.3%) women had no residual anogenital skin or mucosal surface findings, despite a prior episiotomy or rupture of the vaginal outlet wall during delivery, supporting its enormous ability to heal even after major trauma. UV-light may provide additional value for the evaluation of physical findings in clinical forensic examinations after sexual assault, and is especially useful in detecting otherwise invisible early submucosal hemorrhages and scars. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Acclimation to UV-B radiation and visible light in Lactuca sativa involves up-regulation of photosynthetic performance and orchestration of metabolome-wide responses.

    PubMed

    Wargent, J J; Nelson, B C W; McGhie, T K; Barnes, P W

    2015-05-01

    UV-B radiation is often viewed as a source of stress for higher plants. In particular, photosynthetic function has been described as a common target for UV-B impairment; yet as our understanding of UV-B photomorphogenesis increases, there are opportunities to expand the emerging paradigm of regulatory UV response. Lactuca sativa is an important dietary crop species and is often subjected to rapid sunlight exposure at field transfer. Acclimation to UV-B and visible light conditions in L. sativa was dissected using gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements, in addition to non-destructive assessments of UV epidermal shielding (SUV ). After UV-B treatment, seedlings were subjected to wide-range metabolomic analysis using liquid chromatography hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-HRMS). During the acclimation period, net photosynthetic rate increased in UV-treated plants, epidermal UV shielding increased in both subsets of plants transferred to the acclimatory conditions (UV+/UV- plants) and Fv /Fm declined slightly in UV+/UV- plants. Metabolomic analysis revealed that a key group of secondary compounds was up-regulated by higher light conditions, yet several of these compounds were elevated further by UV-B radiation. In conclusion, acclimation to UV-B radiation involves co-protection from the effects of visible light, and responses to UV-B radiation at a photosynthetic level may not be consistently viewed as damaging to plant development. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Preliminary evidence on photoreactivation of Frankia spores with visible light after exposure to UV-C radiation.

    PubMed

    Sayed, W F

    2011-06-01

    Spores of four Frankia strains, the nitrogen-fixing actinomycete, were exposed to short wavelength UV-C radiation of 254 nm at 1 lux cm(2) (0.24 mw cm2 of energy) for 10 min. The used strains were HFP020203, UGL020604, UGL020602q and ORS021001. Exposure to UV was followed by reactivation with visible white light at 327.4 lux cm(2) for the same period of time. Spore germination percentage, spore protein content, and cell growth were damaged by this treatment. The lower and higher percentages of reduction in spore germination were 32 and 63% and, for the same strains, the recovery by white light was 7.2 and 37%. The lower percentages of UV damage and subsequent low recovery were recorded for strain ORS021001 that is considered more resistant to UV than the other strains. The higher percentages were recorded for strain HFP020203 that is more sensitive to UV but having more efficient repairing mechanisms. All the tested strains showed repairing activity induced by white light as indicated from the increase in their spore germination, protein content and almost restoring the normal shape of Frankia hyphae, after being damaged, as revealed by scanning electron microscope. This is the first evidence that photo-repairing systems are present in Frankia strains although there are variations in their response to both UV-C and photoreactivation by white light.

  4. Intrinsic Klebsiella pneumoniae contamination of liquid germicidal hand soap containing chlorhexidine.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Steven E; Walczak, Mary A; Malcolm, Sharon; Hameed, Rizwanullah

    2004-10-01

    We describe intrinsic contamination with Klebsiella pneumoniae occurring during the manufacture of germicidal hand soap, labeled as containing 2% chlorhexidine, used throughout a 350-bed community medical center. A 3-year retrospective study failed to find evidence of increased incidence of clinical isolates of this strain.

  5. Modeling Ultraviolet (UV) Light Emitting Diode (LED) Energy Propagation in Reactor Vessels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    21 Table 4: UV Mercury Lamps , UV LED Bulbs, and Visible LED Bulb Advantages and Disadvantages...over low pressure mercury lamps include smaller size, minimal start up time, and no hazardous material. Projections show UV LEDs will follow similar

  6. Photocatalytic Properties of g-C₃N₄-TiO₂ Heterojunctions under UV and Visible Light Conditions.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Rachel; McCormack, Declan E; Hinder, Steven J; Pillai, Suresh C

    2016-04-14

    Graphitic carbon nitride ( g -C₃N₄) and titanium dioxide (TiO₂) were chosen as a model system to investigate photocatalytic abilities of heterojunction system under UV and visible light conditions. The use of g -C₃N₄ has been shown to be effective in the reduction in recombination through the interaction between the two interfaces of TiO₂ and g -C₃N₄. A simple method of preparing g -C₃N₄ through the pyrolysis of melamine was employed, which was then added to undoped TiO₂ material to form the g -C₃N₄-TiO₂ system. These materials were then fully characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET), and various spectroscopic techniques including Raman, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), diffuse absorbance, and photoluminescence analysis. Photocatalysis studies were conducted using the model dye, rhodamine 6G utilizing visible and UV light irradiation. Raman spectroscopy confirmed that a composite of the materials was formed as opposed to a mixture of the two. Using XPS analysis, a shift in the nitrogen peak to that indicative of substitutional nitrogen was detected for all doped samples. This is then mirrored in the diffuse absorbance results, which show a clear decrease in band gap values for these samples, showing the effective band gap alteration achieved through this preparation process. When g -C₃N₄-TiO₂ samples were analyzed under visible light irradiation, no significant improvement was observed compared that of pure TiO₂. However, under UV light irradiation conditions, the photocatalytic ability of the doped samples exhibited an increased reactivity when compared to the undoped TiO₂ (0.130 min -1 ), with 4% g -C₃N₄-TiO₂ (0.187 min -1 ), showing a 43.9% increase in reactivity. Further doping to 8% g -C₃N₄-TiO₂ lead to a decrease in reactivity against rhodamine 6G. BET analysis determined that the surface area of the 4% and 8% g -C

  7. Comparative effect of simulated solar light, UV, UV/H2O2 and photo-Fenton treatment (UV-Vis/H2O2/Fe2+,3+) in the Escherichia coli inactivation in artificial seawater.

    PubMed

    Rubio, D; Nebot, E; Casanueva, J F; Pulgarin, C

    2013-10-15

    Innovative disinfection technologies are being studied for seawater, seeking a viable alternative to chlorination. This study proposes the use of H2O2/UV254 and photo-Fenton as disinfection treatment in seawater. The irradiations were carried out using a sunlight simulator (Suntest) and a cylindrical UV reactor. The efficiency of the treatment was compared for Milli-Q water, Leman Lake water and artificial seawater. The presence of bicarbonates and organic matter was investigated in order to evaluate possible effects on the photo-Fenton disinfection treatment. The photo-Fenton treatment, employing 1 mg L(-1) Fe(2+) and 10 mg L(-1) of H2O2, led to the fastest bacterial inactivation kinetics. Using H2O2/UV254 high disinfection rates were obtained similar to those obtained with photo-Fenton under UV254 light. In Milli-Q water, the rate of inactivation for Escherichia coli was higher than in Leman Lake water and seawater due to the lack of inorganic ions affecting negatively bacteria inactivation. The presence of bicarbonate showed scavenging of the OH(•) radicals generated in the treatment of photo-Fenton and H2O2/UV254. Despite the negative effect of inorganic ions, especially HCO3(-), the disinfection treatments with AOPs in lake water and seawater improved significantly the disinfection compared to light alone (simulated sunlight and UV254). In the treatment of photo-Fenton with simulated sunlight, dissolved organic matter had a beneficial effect by increasing the rate of inactivation. This is associated with the formation of Fe(3+)-organo photosensitive complexes leading to the formation of ROS able to inactivate bacteria. This effect was not observed in the photo-Fenton with UV254. Growth of E. coli surviving in seawater was observed 24 and 48 h after treatment with UV light. However, growth of surviving bacteria was not detected after photo-Fenton with UV254 and H2O2/UV254 treatments. This study suggests H2O2/UV254 and photo-Fenton treatments for the

  8. Ultraviolet Light (UV) Inactivation of Porcine Parvovirus in Liquid Plasma and Effect of UV Irradiated Spray Dried Porcine Plasma on Performance of Weaned Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Polo, Javier; Rodríguez, Carmen; Ródenas, Jesús; Russell, Louis E.; Campbell, Joy M.; Crenshaw, Joe D.; Torrallardona, David; Pujols, Joan

    2015-01-01

    A novel ultraviolet light irradiation (UV-C, 254 nm) process was designed as an additional safety feature for manufacturing of spray dried porcine plasma (SDPP). In Exp. 1, three 10-L batches of bovine plasma were inoculated with 105.2±0.12 tissue culture infectious dose 50 (TCID50) of porcine parvovirus (PPV) per mL of plasma and subjected to UV-C ranging from 0 to 9180 J/L. No viable PPV was detected in bovine plasma by micro-titer assay in SK6 cell culture after UV-C at 2295 J/L. In Exp. 2, porcine plasma was subjected to UV-C (3672 J/L), then spray dried and mixed in complete mash diets. Diets were a control without SDPP (Control), UV-C SDPP either at 3% (UVSDPP3) or 6% (UVSDPP6) and non-UV-C SDPP at 3% (SDPP3) or 6% (SDPP6). Diets were fed ad libitum to 320 weaned pigs (26 d of age; 16 pens/diet; 4 pigs/pen) for 14 d after weaning and a common diet was fed d 15 to 28. During d 0 to 14, pigs fed UVSDPP3, UVSDPP6, or SDPP6 had higher (P < 0.05) weight gain and feed intake than control. During d 0 to 28, pigs fed UVSDPP3 and UVSDPP6 had higher (P < 0.05) weight gain and feed intake than control and SDPP3, and SDPP6 had higher (P < 0.05) feed intake than control. Also, pigs fed UVSDPP had higher (P < 0.05) weight gain than pigs fed SDPP. In conclusion, UV-C inactivated PPV in liquid plasma and UVSDPP used in pig feed had no detrimental effects on pig performance. PMID:26171968

  9. The response of mammalian cells to UV-light reveals Rad54-dependent and independent pathways of homologous recombination.

    PubMed

    Eppink, Berina; Tafel, Agnieszka A; Hanada, Katsuhiro; van Drunen, Ellen; Hickson, Ian D; Essers, Jeroen; Kanaar, Roland

    2011-11-10

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced DNA lesions can be efficiently repaired by nucleotide excision repair (NER). However, NER is less effective during replication of UV-damaged chromosomes. In contrast, translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) and homologous recombination (HR) are capable of dealing with lesions in replicating DNA. The core HR protein in mammalian cells is the strand exchange protein RAD51, which is aided by numerous proteins, including RAD54. We used RAD54 as a cellular marker for HR to study the response of mammalian embryonic stem (ES) cells to UV irradiation. In contrast to yeast, ES cells lacking RAD54 are not UV sensitive. Here we show that the requirement for mammalian RAD54 is masked by active NER. By genetically inactivating NER and HR through disruption of the Xpa and Rad54 genes, respectively, we demonstrate the contribution of HR to chromosomal integrity upon UV irradiation. We demonstrate using chromosome fiber analysis at the individual replication fork level, that HR activity is important for the restart of DNA replication after induction of DNA damage by UV-light in NER-deficient cells. Furthermore, our data reveal RAD54-dependent and -independent contributions of HR to the cellular sensitivity to UV-light, and they uncover that RAD54 can compensate for the loss of TLS polymerase η with regard to UV-light sensitivity. In conclusion, we show that HR is important for the progression of UV-stalled replication forks in ES cells, and that protection of the fork is an interplay between HR and TLS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. UV-Light Exposure of Insulin: Pharmaceutical Implications upon Covalent Insulin Dityrosine Dimerization and Disulphide Bond Photolysis

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Manuel; Neves-Petersen, Maria Teresa; Jeppesen, Per Bendix; Gregersen, Søren; Petersen, Steffen B.

    2012-01-01

    In this work we report the effects of continuous UV-light (276 nm, ∼2.20 W.m−2) excitation of human insulin on its absorption and fluorescence properties, structure and functionality. Continuous UV-excitation of the peptide hormone in solution leads to the progressive formation of tyrosine photo-product dityrosine, formed upon tyrosine radical cross-linkage. Absorbance, fluorescence emission and excitation data confirm dityrosine formation, leading to covalent insulin dimerization. Furthermore, UV-excitation of insulin induces disulphide bridge breakage. Near- and far-UV-CD spectroscopy shows that UV-excitation of insulin induces secondary and tertiary structure losses. In native insulin, the A and B chains are held together by two disulphide bridges. Disruption of either of these bonds is likely to affect insulin’s structure. The UV-light induced structural changes impair its antibody binding capability and in vitro hormonal function. After 1.5 and 3.5 h of 276 nm excitation there is a 33.7% and 62.1% decrease in concentration of insulin recognized by guinea pig anti-insulin antibodies, respectively. Glucose uptake by human skeletal muscle cells decreases 61.7% when the cells are incubated with pre UV-illuminated insulin during 1.5 h. The observations presented in this work highlight the importance of protecting insulin and other drugs from UV-light exposure, which is of outmost relevance to the pharmaceutical industry. Several drug formulations containing insulin in hexameric, dimeric and monomeric forms can be exposed to natural and artificial UV-light during their production, packaging, storage or administration phases. We can estimate that direct long-term exposure of insulin to sunlight and common light sources for indoors lighting and UV-sterilization in industries can be sufficient to induce irreversible changes to human insulin structure. Routine fluorescence and absorption measurements in laboratory experiments may also induce changes in protein

  11. UV-light exposure of insulin: pharmaceutical implications upon covalent insulin dityrosine dimerization and disulphide bond photolysis.

    PubMed

    Correia, Manuel; Neves-Petersen, Maria Teresa; Jeppesen, Per Bendix; Gregersen, Søren; Petersen, Steffen B

    2012-01-01

    In this work we report the effects of continuous UV-light (276 nm, ~2.20 W.m(-2)) excitation of human insulin on its absorption and fluorescence properties, structure and functionality. Continuous UV-excitation of the peptide hormone in solution leads to the progressive formation of tyrosine photo-product dityrosine, formed upon tyrosine radical cross-linkage. Absorbance, fluorescence emission and excitation data confirm dityrosine formation, leading to covalent insulin dimerization. Furthermore, UV-excitation of insulin induces disulphide bridge breakage. Near- and far-UV-CD spectroscopy shows that UV-excitation of insulin induces secondary and tertiary structure losses. In native insulin, the A and B chains are held together by two disulphide bridges. Disruption of either of these bonds is likely to affect insulin's structure. The UV-light induced structural changes impair its antibody binding capability and in vitro hormonal function. After 1.5 and 3.5 h of 276 nm excitation there is a 33.7% and 62.1% decrease in concentration of insulin recognized by guinea pig anti-insulin antibodies, respectively. Glucose uptake by human skeletal muscle cells decreases 61.7% when the cells are incubated with pre UV-illuminated insulin during 1.5 h. The observations presented in this work highlight the importance of protecting insulin and other drugs from UV-light exposure, which is of outmost relevance to the pharmaceutical industry. Several drug formulations containing insulin in hexameric, dimeric and monomeric forms can be exposed to natural and artificial UV-light during their production, packaging, storage or administration phases. We can estimate that direct long-term exposure of insulin to sunlight and common light sources for indoors lighting and UV-sterilization in industries can be sufficient to induce irreversible changes to human insulin structure. Routine fluorescence and absorption measurements in laboratory experiments may also induce changes in protein

  12. Low-Dose, Long-Wave UV Light Does Not Affect Gene Expression of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Darice Y.; Ranganath, Thanmayi; Kasko, Andrea M.

    2015-01-01

    Light is a non-invasive tool that is widely used in a range of biomedical applications. Techniques such as photopolymerization, photodegradation, and photouncaging can be used to alter the chemical and physical properties of biomaterials in the presence of live cells. Long-wave UV light (315 nm–400 nm) is an easily accessible and commonly used energy source for triggering biomaterial changes. Although exposure to low doses of long-wave UV light is generally accepted as biocompatible, most studies employing this wavelength only establish cell viability, ignoring other possible (non-toxic) effects. Since light exposure of wavelengths longer than 315 nm may potentially induce changes in cell behavior, we examined changes in gene expression of human mesenchymal stem cells exposed to light under both 2D and 3D culture conditions, including two different hydrogel fabrication techniques, decoupling UV exposure and radical generation. While exposure to long-wave UV light did not induce significant changes in gene expression regardless of culture conditions, significant changes were observed due to scaffold fabrication chemistry and between cells plated in 2D versus encapsulated in 3D scaffolds. In order to facilitate others in searching for more specific changes between the many conditions, the full data set is available on Gene Expression Omnibus for querying. PMID:26418040

  13. Degradation of blue and red inks by Ag/AgCl photocatalyst under UV light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daupor, Hasan; Chenea, Asmat

    2017-08-01

    Objective of this research, cubic Ag/AgCl photocatalysts with an average particle size of 500 nm has been successfully synthesized via a modified precipitation reaction between ZrCl4 and AgNO3. Method for analysis, the crystal structure of the product was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The morphology and composition were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-vis diffuse-reflection spectra (DRS) and so on. The result showed that the optical absorption spectrum exhibited strong absorption in the visible region around 500-600 nm due to surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of metallic silver nanoparticles. SEM micrographs showed that the obtained Ag/AgCl had cubic morphology and appeared on the porous surface as the cubic cage morphology. As a result, this porous surface also positively affected the photocatalytic reaction. The photocatalytic activity of the obtained product was evaluated by the photodegradation of blue and red ink solutions under UV light irradiation, and it was interestingly, discovered that AgCl could degrade 0.25% and 0.10% in 7 hours for blue and red inks solution respectively, Which were higher than of commercial AgCl. The result suggested that the morphology of Ag/AgCl strongly affected their photocatalytic activities. O2-, OH- reaction. radicals and Cl° atom are main species during photocatalytic reaction.

  14. Analysis of oligonucleotide photoproducts produced by UV-A light and a riboflavin photosensitizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelhaus, Stacy L.; LaCourse, William R.

    2004-12-01

    DNA damage is caused by a variety of foreign and endogenous compounds. There are endogenous photosensitizers in cells, such as porphyrins and flavins, which may create damage in the presence of UV-A light. Typically, samples are analyzed by 32P-postlabelling and electrophoretic separation or by LC-MS separation and detection. Separation by HPLC is common; however, in all instances, the DNA sample is hydrolyzed down to nucleosides prior to analysis. It will be shown here that ion-pairing reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (IP-RPLC) has the ability to provide biophysical information concerning the sites of UV-A induced photosensitizer damage on an intact oligonucleotide concurrent with the separation. IP-RPLC is less labor intensive and faster than electrophoretic methods and it is less costly than LC-MS. IP-RPLC can also be used to purify modified oligonucleotides for further use and analysis. This technique is sensitive to the charge, conformation, and sequence characteristics of the nucleic acid sample and may be used to determine the damage or modifications made to DNA by a variety of compounds.

  15. TiO2/WO3 photoactive bilayers in the UV-Vis light region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilaki, E.; Vernardou, D.; Kenanakis, G.; Vamvakaki, M.; Katsarakis, N.

    2017-04-01

    In this work, photoactive bilayered films consisting of anatase TiO2 and monoclinic WO3 were synthesized by a sol-gel route. Titanium isopropoxide and tungsten hexachloride were used as metal precursors and deposition was achieved by spin-coating on Corning glass substrates. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, UV-Vis, and Raman spectroscopy, as well as field emission scanning electron microscopy. The prepared immobilized catalysts were tested for their photocatalytic performance by the decolorization of methylene blue in aqueous matrices, under UV-Vis light irradiation. The annealing process influenced the crystallinity of the bilayered films, while the concentration of the tungsten precursor solution and the position of the tungsten trioxide layer further affected their photocatalytic performance. In particular, the photocatalytic performance of the bilayered films was optimized at a concentration of 0.1 M of the WO3 precursor solution, when deposited as an overlying layer on TiO2 by two annealing steps ( 76% methylene blue decolorization in 300 min of irradiation versus 59% in the case of a bare TiO2 film). In general, the coupled layer catalysts exhibited superior photoactivity compared to that of bare TiO2 films with WO3 acting as an electron trap, resulting, therefore, in a more efficient electron-hole separation and inhibiting their recombination.

  16. Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue under UV Light Irradiation on Prepared Carbonaceous TiO2

    PubMed Central

    Che Ramli, Zatil Amali; Asim, Nilofar; Isahak, Wan N. R. W.; Emdadi, Zeynab; Ahmad-Ludin, Norasikin; Yarmo, M. Ambar; Sopian, K.

    2014-01-01

    This study involves the investigation of altering the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 using composite materials. Three different forms of modified TiO2, namely, TiO2/activated carbon (AC), TiO2/carbon (C), and TiO2/PANi, were compared. The TiO2/carbon composite was obtained by pyrolysis of TiO2/PANi prepared by in situ polymerization method, while the TiO2/activated carbon (TiO2/AC) was obtained after treating TiO2/carbon with 1.0 M KOH solution, followed by calcination at a temperature of 450°C. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TG-DTA), Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET), and UV-Vis spectroscopy were used to characterize and evaluate the prepared samples. The specific surface area was determined to be in the following order: TiO2/AC > TiO2/C > TiO2/PANi > TiO2 (179 > 134 > 54 > 9 m2 g−1). The evaluation of photocatalytic performance for the degradation of methylene blue under UV light irradiation was also of the same order, with 98 > 84.7 > 69% conversion rate, which is likely to be attributed to the porosity and synergistic effect in the prepared samples. PMID:25013855

  17. Preparation of pectin/silver nanoparticles composite films with UV-light barrier and properties.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Shiv; Tanomrod, Nattareya; Rawdkuen, Saroat; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2016-11-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was synthesized by a green method using an aqueous extract of Caesalpinia mimosoides Lamk (CMLE) as reducing and stabilizing agents, and they were used for the preparation of pectin-based antimicrobial composite films. The AgNPs were spherical in shape with the size in the range of 20-80nm and showed the absorption peak around 500nm. The pectin/AgNPs composite film exhibited characteristic absorption peak of AgNPs at 480nm. The surface color and light transmittance of the pectin films were greatly influenced by the addition of AgNPs. The lightness of the films decreased, however, redness and yellowness of the films increased after incorporation of AgNPs. UV-light barrier property of the pectin film increased significantly with a little decrease in the transparency. Though there were no structural changes in the pectin film by the incorporation of CMLE and AgNPs as indicated by the FTIR results, the film properties such as thermal stability, mechanical strength, and water vapor barrier properties of the pectin films increased. The pectin/AgNPs nanocomposite films exhibited strong antibacterial activity against food-borne pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of UV C light and chemicals for disinfection of surfaces in hospital isolation units.

    PubMed

    Andersen, B M; Bånrud, H; Bøe, E; Bjordal, O; Drangsholt, F

    2006-07-01

    To determine the bactericidal effect on surfaces of ceiling- and wall-mounted UV C (UVC) light (wavelength, 254 nm) in isolation units, compared with standard hospital environmental cleaning and chemical disinfection during final disinfection after patients are treated for infections. Microbial samples were obtained from surfaces in isolation units (patient room, anteroom, and bathroom) before and after irradiation with UVC, chloramine disinfection, and standard hospital environmental cleaning. Samples were tested using standard contact plates. Four identical, negative air-pressure isolation units (patient room, anteroom, and bathroom) with a defined number of ceiling- and wall-mounted UVC light units. The UVC distribution was monitored in one isolation unit after irradiation for approximately 40 minutes, corresponding to doses ranging from 160 J/m2 in a shadowed area to 19,230 J/m2 at the mostly highly exposed site (which is high enough to inactivate most bacterial organisms, including spores). UVC disinfection significantly reduced the number of bacteria on surfaces directly or indirectly exposed to UVC to a very low number, as did 5% chloramine disinfection alone (P<.001 for both). Completely shadowed areas in the isolation unit (eg, the bed rail, lockers, and mattresses) still required disinfection by chemicals. Disinfection with UVC light may significantly reduce environmental bacterial contamination and thereby protect the next patient housed in an isolation room. UVC disinfection may not be used alone but is a good addition to chemical disinfection.

  19. A reversible conductivity modulation of azobenzene-based ionic liquids in aqueous solutions using UV/vis light.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiyong; Yuan, Xiaoqing; Feng, Ying; Chen, Yongkui; Zhao, Yuling; Wang, Huiyong; Xu, Qingli; Wang, Jianji

    2018-05-09

    Photo-induced conductivity modulation of stimuli-responsive materials is of great importance from the viewpoint of fundamental research and technology. In this work, 5 new kinds of azobenzene-based photo-responsive ionic liquids were synthesized and characterized, and UV/vis light modulation of their conductivity was investigated in an aqueous solution. The factors affecting the conductivity modulation of the photo-responsive fluids, such as photo-isomerization efficiency, photo-regulation aggregation, concentration and chemical structure of the ionic liquids, were examined systematically. It was found that the conductivity of the ionic liquids in water exhibited a significant increase upon UV light irradiation and the ionic liquids with a shorter alkyl spacer in the cation showed a more remarkable photo-induced conductivity enhancement with a maximum increase of 150%. In addition, the solution conductivity was restored (or very close) to the initial value upon an alternative irradiation with visible light. Thus, the solution conductivity can be modulated using alternative irradiation with UV and visible light. Although the reversible photo-isomerization of the azobenzene group under UV/vis irradiation is the origin of the conductivity modulation, the photo-regulated aggregation of the ionic liquid in water is indispensable for the maximum degree of conductivity modulation because UV irradiation can weaken, even break the aggregated cis-isomers of the ionic liquids in an aqueous solution.

  20. Using the Transient Response of WO₃ Nanoneedles under Pulsed UV Light in the Detection of NH₃ and NO₂.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Oriol; Welearegay, Tesfalem G; Vilanova, Xavier; Llobet, Eduard

    2018-04-26

    Here we report on the use of pulsed UV light for activating the gas sensing response of metal oxides. Under pulsed UV light, the resistance of metal oxides presents a ripple due to light-induced transient adsorption and desorption phenomena. This methodology has been applied to tungsten oxide nanoneedle gas sensors operated either at room temperature or under mild heating (50 °C or 100 °C). It has been found that by analyzing the rate of resistance change caused by pulsed UV light, a fast determination of gas concentration is achieved (ten-fold improvement in response time). The technique is useful for detecting both oxidizing (NO₂) and reducing (NH₃) gases, even in the presence of different levels of ambient humidity. Room temperature operated sensors under pulsed UV light show good response towards ammonia and nitrogen dioxide at low power consumption levels. Increasing their operating temperature to 50 °C or 100 °C has the effect of further increasing sensitivity.

  1. [Effect of long-wave ultraviolet light (UV-A) and medium-wave ultraviolet rays (UV-B) on human skin. Critical comparison].

    PubMed

    Raab, W

    1980-04-15

    When discussing the effects of ultraviolet radiation on human skin, one should carefully distinguish between the long wave ultraviolet light (UV-A) and the short wave radiations (UV-B and UV-C). Ultraviolet A induces immediate pigmentation but, if high energies are applied, a permanent pigmentation is elicited. This type of ultraviolet A-induced pigmentation has been called "spontaneous" pigmentation as no erythematous reaction is necessary to induce or accelerate melanine formation. Ultraviolet B provokes erythema and consecutive pigmentation. Upon chronic exposure, ultraviolet B causes the wellknown actinic damage of the skin and even provokes carcinoma. With exposures to the sunlight (global radiation), one should be most careful. The public must be informed extensively about the dangers of excessive sunbaths. The use of artificial "suns" with spectra between 260 and 400 nm is limited as it may cause the same type of damage as the global radiation. An exact schedule for use of artificial lamps is strongly recommended. After one cycle of exposures, an interruption is necessary until the next cycle of irradiations may start. Upon continual use for tanning of the skin, artificial lamps may provoke irreversible damage of the skin. Radiation sources with emission spectra of wavelengths between 315 and 400 nm exclusively are well suited for the induction of skin pigmentation (cosmetic use). Potent radiation such as UVASUN systems provoke a "pleasant" permanent pigmentation after exposures for less than one hour. The use of ultraviolet A (UV-A) does not carry any risk for the human skin.

  2. Requirements of blue, UV-A, and UV-B light for normal growth of higher plants, as assessed by action spectra for growth and related phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashimoto, T.

    1994-01-01

    Artificial lighting is very important for experimental purposes, as well as for the practical use of plants when not enough sunlight is available. To grow green higher plants in their normal forms under artificial lighting constructing efficient and economically reasonable lighting systems is not an easy task. One possible approach would be to simulate sunlight in intensity and the radiation spectrum, but its high construction and running costs are not likely to allow its use in practice. Sunlight may be excessive in irradiance in some or all portions of the spectrum. Reducing irradiance and removing unnecessary wavebands might lead to an economically feasible light source. However, removing or reducing a particular waveband from sunlight for testing is not easy. Another approach might be to find the wavebands required for respective aspects of plant growth and to combine them in a proper ratio and intensity. The latter approach seems more practical and economical, and the aim of this Workshop lies in advancing this approach. I summarize our present knowledge on the waveband requirements of higher plants for the regions of blue, UV-A and UV-B.

  3. Use of coupled wavelength ultraviolet light-emitting diodes for inactivation of bacteria in subsea oil-field injection water.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yang; Chen, Daoyi; Wen, Diya

    2018-06-04

    The development of subsea injection water disinfection systems will enable the novel exploration of offshore oilfields. Ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) with peak wavelengths at 255 nm, 280 nm, 350 nm, and combinations of 255 nm and 350 nm, and 280 nm and 350 nm were investigated in this study to determine their efficiency at disinfecting saprophytic bacteria, iron bacteria, and sulfate reducing bacteria. Results show that UV-LEDs with peak wavelengths at 280 nm were the most practical in this domain because of their high performance in both energy-efficiency and reactivation suppression, although 255 nm UV-LEDs achieved an optimal germicidal effect in dose-based experiments. The use of combined 280 nm and 350 nm wavelengths also induced synergistic bactericidal effects on saprophytic bacteria. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. UV-visible light photocatalytic properties of NaYF4:(Gd, Si)/TiO2 composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavengere, Shielah; Kim, Jung-Sik

    2018-06-01

    In this study, a new novel composite photocatalyst of NaYF4:(Gd, Si)/TiO2 phosphor has been synthesized by two step method of solution combustion and sol-gel. The photocatalyst powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy confirmed the anatase TiO2 phase which remarkably increased with existence of yttrium silicate compounds between 800 cm-1 and 900 cm-1. Double-addition of Gd3+-Si4+ ions in NaYF4 host introduced sub-energy band levels with intense absorption in the ultraviolet (UV) light region. Photocatalytic activity was examined by exposing methylene blue (MB) solutions mixed with photocatalyst powders to 254 nm UV-C fluorescent lamp and 200 W visible lights. The UV and visible photocatalytic reactivity of the NaYF4:(Gd, 1% Si)/TiO2 phosphor composites showed enhanced MB degradation efficiency. The coating of NaYF4:(Gd, 1% Si) phosphor with TiO2 nanoparticles creates energy band bending at the phosphor/TiO2 interfaces. Thus, these composites exhibited enhanced absorption of UV/visible light and the separation of electron and hole pairs for efficient photocatalysis.

  5. UV-C light inactivation and modeling kinetics of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores in white grape and apple juices.

    PubMed

    Baysal, Ayse Handan; Molva, Celenk; Unluturk, Sevcan

    2013-09-16

    In the present study, the effect of short wave ultraviolet light (UV-C) on the inactivation of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris DSM 3922 spores in commercial pasteurized white grape and apple juices was investigated. The inactivation of A. acidoterrestris spores in juices was examined by evaluating the effects of UV light intensity (1.31, 0.71 and 0.38 mW/cm²) and exposure time (0, 3, 5, 7, 10, 12 and 15 min) at constant depth (0.15 cm). The best reduction (5.5-log) was achieved in grape juice when the UV intensity was 1.31 mW/cm². The maximum inactivation was approximately 2-log CFU/mL in apple juice under the same conditions. The results showed that first-order kinetics were not suitable for the estimation of spore inactivation in grape juice treated with UV-light. Since tailing was observed in the survival curves, the log-linear plus tail and Weibull models were compared. The results showed that the log-linear plus tail model was satisfactorily fitted to estimate the reductions. As a non-thermal technology, UV-C treatment could be an alternative to thermal treatment for grape juices or combined with other preservation methods for the pasteurization of apple juice. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of supplemental UV-A irradiation in solid-state lighting on the growth and phytochemical content of microgreens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazaitytė, A.; Viršilė, A.; Jankauskienė, J.; Sakalauskienė, S.; Samuolienė, G.; Sirtautas, R.; Novičkovas, A.; Dabašinskas, L.; Miliauskienė, J.; Vaštakaitė, V.; Bagdonavičienė, A.; Duchovskis, P.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we sought to find and employ positive effects of UV-A irradiation on cultivation and quality of microgreens. Therefore, the goal of our study was to investigate the influence of 366, 390, and 402 nm UV-A LED wavelengths, supplemental for the basal solid-state lighting system at two UV-A irradiation levels on the growth and phytochemical contents of different microgreen plants. Depending on the species, supplemental UV-A irradiation can improve antioxidant properties of microgreens. In many cases, a significant increase in the investigated phytochemicals was found under 366 and 390 nm UV-A wavelengths at the photon flux density (12.4 μmol m-2 s-1). The most pronounced effect of supplemental UV-A irradiation was detected in pak choi microgreens. Almost all supplemental UV-A irradiation treatments resulted in increased leaf area and fresh weight, in higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free-radical scavenging activity, total phenols, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid, and α-tocopherol.

  7. Optimized treatment conditions for textile wastewater reuse using photocatalytic processes under UV and visible light sources.

    PubMed

    Starling, Maria Clara V M; Castro, Luiz Augusto S; Marcelino, Rafaela B P; Leão, Mônica M D; Amorim, Camila C

    2017-03-01

    In this study, photo-Fenton systems using visible light sources with iron and ferrioxalate were tested for the DOC degradation and decolorization of textile wastewater. Textile wastewaters originated after the dyeing stage of dark-colored tissue in the textile industry, and the optimization of treatment processes was studied to produce water suitable for reuse. Dissolved organic carbon, absorbance, turbidity, anionic concentrations, carboxylic acids, and preliminary cost analysis were performed for the proposed treatments. Conventional photo-Fenton process achieved near 99 % DOC degradation rates and complete absorbance removal, and no carboxylic acids were found as products of degradation. Ferrioxalate photo-Fenton system achieved 82 % of DOC degradation and showed complete absorbance removal, and oxalic acid has been detected through HPLC analysis in the treated sample. In contrast, photo-peroxidation with UV light was proved effective only for absorbance removal, with DOC degradation efficiency near 50 %. Treated wastewater was compared with reclaimed water and had a similar quality, indicating that these processes can be effectively applied for textile wastewater reuse. The results of the preliminary cost analysis indicated costs of 0.91 to 1.07 US$ m -3 for the conventional and ferrioxalate photo-Fenton systems, respectively. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  8. The Rosetta UV imaging spectrometer ALICE: First light optical and radiometric performance results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, D. C.; Stern, S. A.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Bertaux, J. L.; Feldman, P. D.; Festou, M. C.

    2000-10-01

    We describe the design, scientific objectives, and "first-light" radiometric testing results of the Rosetta/ALICE instrument. ALICE is a lightweight (2.7 kg), low-power (4 W), and low-cost imaging spectrometer optimized for cometary ultraviolet spectroscopy. ALICE, which is funded by NASA (with hardware contributions from CNES, France), will fly on the ESA Rosetta Orbiter to characterize the cometary nucleus, coma, and nucleus/coma coupling of the target comet 46P/Wirtanen. It will obtain spatially-resolved, far-UV spectra of Wirtanen's nucleus and coma in the 700-2050 Å passband with a spectral resolution of 5-10 Å for extended sources that fill the entrance slit's field- of-view. ALICE is also the UV spectrometer model for the PERSI remote sensing suite proposed for the Pluto Kuiper Express (PKE) mission. ALICE uses modern technology to achieve its low mass and low power design specifications. It employs an off-axis telescope feeding a 0.15-m normal incidence Rowland circle spectrograph with a concave (toroidal) holographic reflection grating. The imaging microchannel plate (MCP) detector utilizes dual solar-blind opaque photocathodes of KBr and CsI deposited on a cylindrically-curved (7.5-cm radius) MCP Z-stack, and a matching 2-D cylindrically-curved double delay-line readout array with a 1024 x 32 pixel array format. This array format provides a point source response that is twice that originally proposed (Δ λ 3 Å). Three data taking modes are possible: (i) histogram image mode for 2-D images, (ii) pixel list mode with periodic time hacks for temporal studies, and (iii) count rate mode for broadband photometric studies. Optical and radiometric sensitivity performance results based on subsystem tests of the flight optics, detector, and preliminary integrated system level tests of the integrated ALICE flight model are presented and discussed.

  9. Effect of UV-B light on total soluble phenolic contents of various whole and fresh-cut specialty crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    BACKGROUND: The effect of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) light treatment on total soluble phenolic contents (TSP) of various whole and fresh-cut specialty crops was evaluated. Whole fruits (strawberries, blueberries, grapes), vegetables (cherry tomatoes, white sweet corn) and root crops (sweet potatoes, colo...

  10. HISTORY OF AMPHIBIAN DECLINE AND THE PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE RESEARCH WITH UV LIGHT AND OTHER STRESSORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This talk is an overview of the history of amphibian decline and the lab research and field monitoring results generated by MED and other agencies. Included are the general field observations leading up to our research initiation, UV-light exposures to the Northern Leopard Frog...

  11. Inactivation of surrogate coronaviruses on hard surfaces by health care germicides.

    PubMed

    Hulkower, Rachel L; Casanova, Lisa M; Rutala, William A; Weber, David J; Sobsey, Mark D

    2011-06-01

    In the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak, finding viral nucleic acids on hospital surfaces suggested surfaces could play a role in spread in health care environments. Surface disinfection may interrupt transmission, but few data exist on the effectiveness of health care germicides against coronaviruses on surfaces. The efficacy of health care germicides against 2 surrogate coronaviruses, mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), was tested using the quantitative carrier method on stainless steel surfaces. Germicides were o-phenylphenol/p-tertiary amylphenol) (a phenolic), 70% ethanol, 1:100 sodium hypochlorite, ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA), instant hand sanitizer (62% ethanol), and hand sanitizing spray (71% ethanol). After 1-minute contact time, for TGEV, there was a log(10) reduction factor of 3.2 for 70% ethanol, 2.0 for phenolic, 2.3 for OPA, 0.35 for 1:100 hypochlorite, 4.0 for 62% ethanol, and 3.5 for 71% ethanol. For MHV, log(10) reduction factors were 3.9 for 70% ethanol, 1.3 for phenolic, 1.7 for OPA, 0.62 for 1:100 hypochlorite, 2.7 for 62% ethanol, and 2.0 for 71% ethanol. Only ethanol reduced infectivity of the 2 coronaviruses by >3-log(10) after 1 minute. Germicides must be chosen carefully to ensure they are effective against viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Copyright © 2011 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Requirements of blue, UV-A, and UV-B light for normal growth of higher plants, as assessed by actions spectra for growth and related phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, T.

    1994-12-31

    It is very important for experimental purposes, as well as for the practical use of plants when not enough sunlight is available. To grow green higher plants in their normal forms under artificial lighting constructing efficient and economically reasonable lighting systems is not an easy task. One possible approach would be to simulate sunlight in intensity and the radiation spectrum, but its high construction and running costs are not likely to allow its use in practice. Sunlight may be excessive in irradiance in some or all portions of the spectrum. Reducing irradiance and removing unnecessary wavebands might lead to anmore » economically feasible light source. However, removing or reducing a particular waveband from sunlight for testing is not easy. Another approach might be to find the wavebands required for respective aspects of plant growth and to combine them in a proper ratio and intensity. The latter approach seems more practical and economical, and the aim of this Workshop lies in advancing this approach. I summarize our present knowledge on the waveband requirements of higher plants for the regions of blue, UV-A and UV-B.« less

  13. Light stabilizers added to the shell of co-extruded wood/high-density polyethylene composites to improve mechanical and anti-UV ageing properties

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Changtong; Xu, Bing; Chen, Weimin; Yong, Cheng; Wang, Ke; Wu, Qinglin

    2018-01-01

    Weathering of wood--plastic composites (WPCs) leads to discoloration and cracks, which greatly limits their outdoor application. In this study, light stabilizers (including UV-327, HS-944 and nano-SiO2) were added to the shell of a co-extruded high-density polyethylene-based WPC to improve its anti-ultraviolet (UV) ageing properties and simultaneously to maintain its good mechanical properties. The results showed that UV-327 was the most effective light stabilizer for improving the mechanical and anti-UV ageing properties of the composites among the three stabilizers used. WPC samples combined with 2% UV-327 had the highest retention rates in flexural strength and also had the smoothest surface after 2500 h of UV ageing. The samples with 2% UV-327 added had the best protection for discoloration, showing the lowest values of ΔE* (colour difference) and ΔL* (luminescence) in all samples after 2500 h of UV ageing. WPC samples with 2% UV-327 were also oxidized the least after 2500 h of UV ageing. The results reported herein serve to enhance our understanding of the efficiency of light stabilizers in preventing UV degradation of WPCs, with a view to developing co-extruded WPCs with low cost, high anti-UV ageing properties and good mechanical properties for outdoor applications. PMID:29892445

  14. A combined treatment of UV-light and radio frequency electric field for the inactivation of Escherichia coli K-12 in apple juice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Radio frequency electric fields (RFEF) and UV-light treatments have been reported to inactivate bacteria in liquid foods. However, information on the efficacy of bacterial inactivation by combined treatments of RFEF and UV-light technologies is limited. In this study, we investigated the relationshi...

  15. Design of p-type cladding layers for tunnel-injected UV-A light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yuewei; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Akyol, Fatih

    Here, we discuss the engineering of p-AlGaN cladding layers for achieving efficient tunnel-injected III-Nitride ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) in the UV-A spectral range. We show that the capacitance-voltage measurements can be used to estimate the compensation and doping in the p-AlGaN layers located between the multi-quantum well region and the tunnel junction layer. By increasing the p-type doping concentration to overcome the background compensation, on-wafer external quantum efficiency and wall-plug efficiency of 3.37% and 1.62%, respectively, were achieved for the tunnel-injected UV LEDs emitting at 325 nm. We also show that interband tunneling hole injection can be usedmore » to realize UV LEDs without any acceptor doping. The work discussed here provides new understanding of hole doping and transport in AlGaN-based UV LEDs and demonstrates the excellent performance of tunnel-injected LEDs for the UV-A wavelength range.« less

  16. Design of p-type cladding layers for tunnel-injected UV-A light emitting diodes

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Yuewei; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Akyol, Fatih; ...

    2016-11-09

    Here, we discuss the engineering of p-AlGaN cladding layers for achieving efficient tunnel-injected III-Nitride ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) in the UV-A spectral range. We show that the capacitance-voltage measurements can be used to estimate the compensation and doping in the p-AlGaN layers located between the multi-quantum well region and the tunnel junction layer. By increasing the p-type doping concentration to overcome the background compensation, on-wafer external quantum efficiency and wall-plug efficiency of 3.37% and 1.62%, respectively, were achieved for the tunnel-injected UV LEDs emitting at 325 nm. We also show that interband tunneling hole injection can be usedmore » to realize UV LEDs without any acceptor doping. The work discussed here provides new understanding of hole doping and transport in AlGaN-based UV LEDs and demonstrates the excellent performance of tunnel-injected LEDs for the UV-A wavelength range.« less

  17. EUCLIA—Exploring the UV/Optical Continuum Lag in Active Galactic Nuclei. I. A Model without Light Echoing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zhen-Yi; Wang, Jun-Xian; Zhu, Fei-Fan; Sun, Mou-Yuan; Gu, Wei-Min; Cao, Xin-Wu; Yuan, Feng

    2018-03-01

    The tight interband correlation and the lag–wavelength relation among UV/optical continua of active galactic nuclei have been firmly established. They are usually understood within the widespread reprocessing scenario; however, the implied interband lags are generally too small. Furthermore, it is challenged by new evidence, such as that the X-ray reprocessing yields too much high-frequency UV/optical variation and that it fails to reproduce the observed timescale-dependent color variations among the Swift light curves of NGC 5548. In a different manner, we demonstrate that an upgraded inhomogeneous accretion disk model, whose local independent temperature fluctuations are subject to a speculated common large-scale temperature fluctuation, can intrinsically generate the tight interband correlation and lag across the UV/optical and be in nice agreement with several observational properties of NGC 5548, including the timescale-dependent color variation. The emergent lag is a result of the differential regression capability of local temperature fluctuations when responding to the large-scale fluctuation. An average speed of propagations as large as ≳15% of the speed of light may be required by this common fluctuation. Several potential physical mechanisms for such propagations are discussed. Our interesting phenomenological scenario may shed new light on comprehending the UV/optical continuum variations of active galactic nuclei.

  18. Production of organic compounds in plasmas - A comparison among electric sparks, laser-induced plasmas, and UV light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scattergood, Thomas W.; Mckay, Christopher P.; Borucki, William J.; Giver, Lawrence P.; Van Ghyseghem, Hilde

    1989-01-01

    In order to ascertain the features of organic compound-production in planetary atmospheres under the effects of plasmas and shocks, various mixtures of N2, CH4, and H2 modeling the atmosphere of Titan were subjected to discrete sparks, laser-induced plasmas, and UV radiation. The experimental results obtained suggest that UV photolysis from the plasma is an important organic compound synthesis process, as confirmed by the photolysis of gas samples that were exposed to the light but not to the shock waves emitted by the sparks. The thermodynamic equilibrium theory is therefore incomplete in the absence of photolysis.

  19. UV-light-driven prebiotic synthesis of iron-sulfur clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonfio, Claudia; Valer, Luca; Scintilla, Simone; Shah, Sachin; Evans, David J.; Jin, Lin; Szostak, Jack W.; Sasselov, Dimitar D.; Sutherland, John D.; Mansy, Sheref S.

    2017-12-01

    Iron-sulfur clusters are ancient cofactors that play a fundamental role in metabolism and may have impacted the prebiotic chemistry that led to life. However, it is unclear whether iron-sulfur clusters could have been synthesized on prebiotic Earth. Dissolved iron on early Earth was predominantly in the reduced ferrous state, but ferrous ions alone cannot form polynuclear iron-sulfur clusters. Similarly, free sulfide may not have been readily available. Here we show that UV light drives the synthesis of [2Fe-2S] and [4Fe-4S] clusters through the photooxidation of ferrous ions and the photolysis of organic thiols. Iron-sulfur clusters coordinate to and are stabilized by a wide range of cysteine-containing peptides and the assembly of iron-sulfur cluster-peptide complexes can take place within model protocells in a process that parallels extant pathways. Our experiments suggest that iron-sulfur clusters may have formed easily on early Earth, facilitating the emergence of an iron-sulfur-cluster-dependent metabolism.

  20. Shining Light on Skin Pigmentation: The Darker and the Brighter Side of Effects of UV Radiation†

    PubMed Central

    Maddodi, Nityanand; Jayanthy, Ashika; Setaluri, Vijayasaradhi

    2012-01-01

    The term barrier function as applied to human skin often connotes the physical properties of this organ that provide protection from its surrounding environment. This term does not generally include skin pigmentation. However, skin pigmentation, which is the result of melanin produced in melanocytes residing the basal layer of the skin and exported to the keratinocytes in the upper layers, serves equally important protective function. Indeed, changes in skin pigmentation are often the most readily recognized indicators of exposure of skin to damaging agents, especially to natural and artificial radiation in the environment. Several recent studies have shed new light on a) the mechanisms of involved in selective effects of subcomponents of UV radiation on human skin pigmentation and b) the interactive influences between keratinocytes and melanocytes, acting as ‘epidermal melanin unit’, that manifest as changes in skin pigmentation in response to exposure to various forms of radiation. This article provides a concise review of our current understanding of the effects of the non-ionizing solar radiation, at cellular and molecular levels, on human skin pigmentation. PMID:22404235

  1. Photo-electrochemically synthesized light emtting nanoporous silicon based UV photodetector: influence of current density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thahe, Asad A.; Bidin, Noriah; Hassan, Z.; Bakhtiar, Hazri; Qaeed, M. A.; Bououdina, Mohamed; Ahmed, Naser M.; Talib, Zainal A.; Al-Azawi, Mohammed A.; Alqaraghuli, Hasan; Uday, M. B.; Hamad Ahmed, Omar

    2017-11-01

    Nanoporous silicon (n-PSi) with diverse morphologies was prepared on silicon (Si) substrate via photo-electrochemical etching technique. The role of changing current density (15, 30 and 45 mA cm-2) on the structure, morphology and optical properties was determined. As-prepared samples were systematically characterized using XRD, FESEM, AFM and photoluminescence measurements. Furthermore, the achieved n-PSi sample was used to make metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) UV photodetector. The performance of these photodetectors was evaluated upon exposing to visible light of wavelength 530 nm (power density 1.55 mW cm-2), which exhibited very high sensitivity of 150.26 with a low dark current. The achieved internal photoconductive gain was 2.50, the photoresponse peak was 1.23 A W-1 and the response time was 0.49 s and the recovery time was 0.47 s. Excellent attributes of the fabricated photodetectors suggest that the present approach may provide a cost effective and simple way to obtain n-PSi suitable for sundry applications.

  2. Photodegradation of methylene blue with PVA/PVP blend under UV light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zidan, H. M.; El-Ghamaz, N. A.; Abdelghany, A. M.; Waly, A. L.

    2018-06-01

    Homogenous films of PVA/PVP blend (1:1) doped with different levels of methylene blue dye (MB) were prepared using the casting technique. The absorption spectra of doped PVA/PVP blend showed two absorption peaks due to the chromophor groups of MB while the pure PVA/PVP blend does not. The UV irradiation causes photodegradation of MB dye. The recovery of photodegraded MB is observed after keeping the sample 3 h in atmospheric air. The value of the optical energy gap (Eg) decreases with increasing the doping levels with MB. The spectral distribution of absorption index (k) and refractive index (n) are determined from the reflection and transmission spectra in the spectral range 200-2500 nm. The dependence of both n and k on wavelength of the incident light and the wt% content of MB in PVA/PVP blend is discussed. A normal dispersion observed at wavelength λ > 370 nm for pure PVA/PVP blend and λ > 800 nm for MB doped samples. The obtained results suggest the possible use of the studied system in many applications.

  3. Shining light on skin pigmentation: the darker and the brighter side of effects of UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Maddodi, Nityanand; Jayanthy, Ashika; Setaluri, Vijayasaradhi

    2012-01-01

    The term barrier function as applied to human skin often connotes the physical properties of this organ that provides protection from its surrounding environment. This term does not generally include skin pigmentation. However, skin pigmentation, which is the result of melanin produced in melanocytes residing in the basal layer of the skin and exported to the keratinocytes in the upper layers, serves equally important protective function. Indeed, changes in skin pigmentation are often the most readily recognized indicators of exposure of skin to damaging agents, especially to natural and artificial radiation in the environment. Several recent studies have shed new light on (1) the mechanisms involved in selective effects of subcomponents of UV radiation on human skin pigmentation and (2) the interactive influences between keratinocytes and melanocytes, acting as "epidermal melanin unit," that manifest as changes in skin pigmentation in response to exposure to various forms of radiation. This article provides a concise review of our current understanding of the effects of the nonionizing solar radiation, at cellular and molecular levels, on human skin pigmentation. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

  4. Inactivation of Escherichia coli on anatase and rutile nanoparticles using UV and fluorescent light

    SciTech Connect

    Caratto, V.; CNR-SPIN, Corso Perrone 24, 16156 Genova; Aliakbarian, B.

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ► Photocatalytic deactivation of Escherichia coli in presence of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles ► The presence of catalyst is less important when the radiation is in the UV range ► Rutile has an higher efficiency respect to anatase under visible light. - Abstract: The photocatalytic deactivation of Escherichia coli HB101 by two different structures of TiO{sub 2}, rutile and anatase (used separately and in a 1:1 mixture), was examined. The microorganism was deposited on a filter membrane containing 520 mg/m{sup 2} of TiO{sub 2} and then irradiated by a neon lamp. In order to study the rate of deactivation ofmore » the microorganism we studied four different exposure times: 20, 40, 60 and 90 min. The results showed that rutile has an antimicrobial activity higher than anatase, while the mixture had values near to the average between them in every condition. The highest difference in the inactivation capacity of the two structures is observable at shorter times. The effect of the different crystal phases was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy.« less

  5. Characterizing Protein Complexes with UV absorption, Light Scattering, and Refractive Index Detection.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trainoff, Steven

    2009-03-01

    Many modern pharmaceuticals and naturally occurring biomolecules consist of complexes of proteins and polyethylene glycol or carbohydrates. In the case of vaccine development, these complexes are often used to induce or amplify immune responses. For protein therapeutics they are used to modify solubility and function, or to control the rate of degradation and elimination of a drug from the body. Characterizing the stoichiometry of these complexes is an important industrial problem that presents a formidable challenge to analytical instrument designers. Traditional analytical methods, such as using florescent tagging, chemical assays, and mass spectrometry perturb the system so dramatically that the complexes are often destroyed or uncontrollably modified by the measurement. A solution to this problem consists of fractionating the samples and then measuring the fractions using sequential non-invasive detectors that are sensitive to different components of the complex. We present results using UV absorption, which is primarily sensitive to the protein fraction, Light Scattering, which measures the total weight average molar mass, and Refractive Index detection, which measures the net concentration. We also present a solution of the problem inter-detector band-broadening problem that has heretofore made this approach impractical. Presented will be instrumentation and an analysis method that overcome these obstacles and make this technique a reliable and robust way of non-invasively characterizing these industrially important compounds.

  6. Photocatalytic degradation of p,p'-DDT under UV and visible light using interstitial N-doped TiO₂.

    PubMed

    Ananpattarachai, Jirapat; Kajitvichyanukul, Puangrat

    2015-01-01

    1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (or p,p'-DDT) is one of the most persistent pesticides. It is resistant to breakdown in nature and cause the water contamination problem. In this work, a major objective was to demonstrate the application of N-doped TiO2 in degradation and mineralization of the p,p'-DDT under UV and visible light in aqueous solution. The N-doped TiO2 nanopowders were prepared by a simple modified sol-gel procedure using diethanolamine (DEA) as a nitrogen source. The catalyst characteristics were investigated using XRD, SEM, TEM, and XPS. The adsorption and photocatalytic oxidation of p,p'-DDT using the synthesized N-doped TiO2 under UV and visible light were conducted in a batch photocatalytic experiment. The kinetics and p,p'-DDT degradation performance of the N-doped TiO2 were evaluated. Results show that the N-doped TiO2 can degrade p,p'-DDT effectively under both UV and visible lights. The rate constant of the p,p'-DDT degradation under UV light was only 0.0121 min(-1), whereas the rate constant of the p,p'-DDT degradation under visible light was 0.1282 min(-1). Under visible light, the 100% degradation of p,p'-DDT were obtained from N-doped TiO2 catalyst. The reaction rate of p,p'-DDT degradation using N-doped TiO2 under visible light was sixfold higher than that under UV light. According to Langmuir-Hinshelwood model, the adsorption equilibrium constant (K) for the N-doped TiO2 under visible light was 0.03078 L mg(-1), and the apparent reaction rate constant (k) was 1.3941 mg L(-1)-min. Major intermediates detected during the p,p'-DDT degradation were p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDD. Results from this work can be applied further for the breakdown of p,p'-DDT molecule in the real contaminated water using this technology.

  7. Al x Ga1‑ x N-based semipolar deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akaike, Ryota; Ichikawa, Shuhei; Funato, Mitsuru; Kawakami, Yoichi

    2018-06-01

    Deep ultraviolet (UV) emission from Al x Ga1‑ x N-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) fabricated on semipolar (1\\bar{1}02) (r-plane) AlN substrates is presented. The growth conditions are optimized. A high NH3 flow rate during metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy yields atomically flat Al y Ga1‑ y N (y > x) on which Al x Ga1‑ x N/Al y Ga1‑ y N multiple quantum wells with abrupt interfaces and good periodicity are fabricated. The fabricated r-Al x Ga1‑ x N-based LED emits at 270 nm, which is in the germicidal wavelength range. Additionally, the emission line width is narrow, and the peak wavelength is stable against the injection current, so the semipolar LED shows promise as a UV emitter.

  8. Arabidopsis FHY3 and HY5 Positively Mediate Induction of COP1 Transcription in Response to Photomorphogenic UV-B Light[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xi; Ouyang, Xinhao; Yang, Panyu; Lau, On Sun; Li, Gang; Li, Jigang; Chen, Haodong; Deng, Xing Wang

    2012-01-01

    As sessile organisms, higher plants have evolved the capacity to sense and interpret diverse light signals to modulate their development. In Arabidopsis thaliana, low-intensity and long-wavelength UV-B light is perceived as an informational signal to mediate UV-B–induced photomorphogenesis. Here, we report that the multifunctional E3 ubiquitin ligase, CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS1 (COP1), a known key player in UV-B photomorphogenic responses, is also a UV-B–inducible gene. Two transcription factors, FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL3 (FHY3) and ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5), directly bind to distinct regulatory elements within the COP1 promoter, which are essential for the induction of the COP1 gene mediated by photomorphogenic UV-B signaling. Absence of FHY3 results in impaired UV-B–induced hypocotyl growth and reduced tolerance against damaging UV-B. Thus, FHY3 positively regulates UV-B–induced photomorphogenesis by directly activating COP1 transcription, while HY5 promotes COP1 expression via a positive feedback loop. Furthermore, FHY3 and HY5 physically interact with each other, and this interaction is diminished by UV-B. Together, our findings reveal that COP1 gene expression in response to photomorphogenic UV-B is controlled by a combinatorial regulation of FHY3 and HY5, and this UV-B–specific working mode of FHY3 and HY5 is distinct from that in far-red light and circadian conditions. PMID:23150635

  9. Explaining Space-Weathering Effects on UV-Vis-NIR Spectra with Light-Scattering Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penttilä, Antti; Väisänen, Timo; Martikainen, Julia; Kohout, Tomas; Muinonen, Karri

    2015-11-01

    Space-weathering (SW) introduces changes to the asteroid reflectance spectra. In silicate minerals, SW is known to darken the spectra and reduce the silicate absorption band depths. In olivine, the neutral slope in Vis and NIR wavelengths is becoming positive [1]. In pyroxene, the positive slope over the 1 µm absorption band is decreasing, and the negative slope over the 2 µm band is increasing towards positive values with increasing SW [2].The SW process generates small nanophase iron (npFe0) inclusions in the surface layers of mineral grains. The inclusions are some tens of nm in size. This mechanism has been linked to the Moon and to a certain extent also to the silicate-rich S-complex asteroids.We offer two simple explanations from light-scattering theory to explain the SW effects on the spectral slope. First, the npFe0 will introduce a posititive general slope (reddening) to the spectra. The npFe0 inclusions (~10 nm) are in the Rayleigh domain with the wavelength λ in the UV-Vis-NIR range. Their absorption cross-section follows approximately the 1/λ-relation from the Rayleigh theory. Absorption is more efficient in the UV than in the NIR wavelengths, therefore the spectra are reddening.Second, the effect of npFe0 absorption is more efficient for originally brighter reflectance values. Explanation combines the effective medium theory and the exponential attenuation in the medium. When adding a small amount of highly absorbing npFe0, the effective absorption coefficient k will increase approximately the same Δk for the typical values of silicates. This change will increase more effectively the exponential attenuation if the original k was very small, and thus the reflectance high. Therefore, both positive and negative spectral slopes will approach zero with SW.We conclude that the SW will introduce a general reddening, and neutralize local slopes. This is verified using the SIRIS code [3], which combines geometric optics with small internal diffuse

  10. Lifetime Improvement of Organic Light Emitting Diodes using LiF Thin Film and UV Glue Encapsulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jian-Ji; Su, Yan-Kuin; Chang, Ming-Hua; Hsieh, Tsung-Eong; Huang, Bohr-Ran; Wang, Shun-Hsi; Chen, Wen-Ray; Tsai, Yu-Sheng; Hsieh, Huai-En; Liu, Mark O.; Juang, Fuh-Shyang

    2008-07-01

    This work demonstrates the use of lithium fluoride (LiF) as a passivation layer and a newly developed UV glue for encapsulation on the LiF passivation layer to enhance the stability of organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs). Devices with double protective layers showed a 25-fold increase in operational lifetime compared to those without any packaging layers. LiF has a low melting point and insulating characteristics and it can be adapted as both a protective layer and pre-encapsulation film. The newly developed UV glue has a fast curing time of only 6 s and can be directly spin-coated onto the surface of the LiF passivation layer. The LiF thin film plus spin-coated UV glue is a simple packaging method that reduces the fabrication costs of OLEDs.

  11. Colloidal silver nanoparticles prepared by UV-light induced citrate reduction technique for the quantitative detection of uric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maity, Anupam; Panda, Sovan Kumar

    2018-04-01

    Reddish-yellow color colloid consisting of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) has been synthesized by reducing aqueous AgNO3 solution by photo-induced citrate reduction technique under UV light. As prepared colloid exhibits single and intense plasmonic absorption peak in the violet region of the visible spectra with the peak centered at 405 nm. The NPs are fine and spherical with diameter ranging from 5 to 10 nm. These colloidal NPs have been used for the quantitative detection of uric acid by UV-VIS spectroscopy. A linear red shifting of the characteristics Plasmonic absorption peak of Ag NPs is observed with uric acid concentration. Uric acid can be detected by UV-VIS spectroscopy down to 5 nM limit using the prepared colloid.

  12. Theoretical and experimental luminous characteristics of white LEDs composed of multiphosphors and near-UV LED for lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Yuji; Taguchi, Tsunemasa

    2003-07-01

    We have performed theoretical studies on the luminous characeristics of white LED light source which composed of multi phosphors and near ultraviolet (UV) LED for general lighting. White LED source for general lighting applications requires the conditions that have high-flux, high luminous efficacy of radiation (> 100 lm/W) in addition to high color rendering index (Ra > 90) and variable color temperatures. Recently, we have proposed a novel type white LED based on multi phosphors and near UV LED system in order to high-Ra (>93). We will describe the excellent luminescence properties of white LED consisting of orange (O), yellow (Y), green (G) and blue (B) phosphor materials, and near UV LED. The color spectral contributions of individual phosphor-coated LED are theoretically analyzed using our multi LED lighting theory calculated the maximum luminous efficacy can be estimated to be approximately 300 lm/W having a high Ra of about 90 taking into account individual radiation spectrum. Illuminance distribution of white LED is in fairly good agreement with the experimental data.

  13. The effects of gamma radiation, UV and visible light on ATP levels in yeast cells depend on cellular melanization.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Ruth; Jiang, Zewei; Friedman, Matthew; Dadachova, Ekaterina

    2011-10-01

    Previously we have shown that growth of melanized fungi is stimulated by low levels of gamma radiation. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of visible light, UV light, and gamma radiation on the energy level (ATP concentration) in melanized Cryptococcus neoformans cells. Melanized C. neoformans cells as well as non-melanized controls were subjected to visible, UV or gamma radiation, and ATP was quantified by measuring the amount of light emitted by the ATP-dependent reaction of luciferase with luciferin. We found that all three forms of radiation led to a reduction in the ATP levels in melanized C. neoformans cells. This points to a universal melanin-related mechanism underlying observation of ATP decrease in irradiated melanized cells. In contrast, in non-melanized cells visible light led to increase in ATP levels; gamma radiation did not cause any changes while UV exposure resulted in some ATP decrease, however, much less pronounced than in melanized cells. Copyright © 2011 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fundamental Characteristics of Deep-UV Light-Emitting Diodes and Their Application To Control Foodborne Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Shin, Joo-Yeon; Kim, Soo-Ji; Kim, Do-Kyun; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Low-pressure mercury UV (LP-UV) lamps have long been used for bacterial inactivation, but due to certain disadvantages, such as the possibility of mercury leakage, deep-UV-C light-emitting diodes (DUV-LEDs) for disinfection have recently been of great interest as an alternative. Therefore, in this study, we examined the basic spectral properties of DUV-LEDs and the effects of UV-C irradiation for inactivating foodborne pathogens, including Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes, on solid media, as well as in water. As the temperature increased, DUV-LED light intensity decreased slightly, whereas LP-UV lamps showed increasing intensity until they reached a peak at around 30°C. As the irradiation dosage and temperature increased, E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium experienced 5- to 6-log-unit reductions. L. monocytogenes was reduced by over 5 log units at a dose of 1.67 mJ/cm(2). At 90% relative humidity (RH), only E. coli O157:H7 experienced inactivation significantly greater than at 30 and 60% RH. In a water treatment study involving a continuous system, 6.38-, 5.81-, and 3.47-log-unit reductions were achieved in E. coli O157:H7, S. Typhimurium, and L. monocytogenes, respectively, at 0.5 liter per minute (LPM) and 200 mW output power. The results of this study suggest that the use of DUV-LEDs may compensate for the drawbacks of using LP-UV lamps to inactivate foodborne pathogens. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Fundamental Characteristics of Deep-UV Light-Emitting Diodes and Their Application To Control Foodborne Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Joo-Yeon; Kim, Soo-Ji; Kim, Do-Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Low-pressure mercury UV (LP-UV) lamps have long been used for bacterial inactivation, but due to certain disadvantages, such as the possibility of mercury leakage, deep-UV-C light-emitting diodes (DUV-LEDs) for disinfection have recently been of great interest as an alternative. Therefore, in this study, we examined the basic spectral properties of DUV-LEDs and the effects of UV-C irradiation for inactivating foodborne pathogens, including Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes, on solid media, as well as in water. As the temperature increased, DUV-LED light intensity decreased slightly, whereas LP-UV lamps showed increasing intensity until they reached a peak at around 30°C. As the irradiation dosage and temperature increased, E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium experienced 5- to 6-log-unit reductions. L. monocytogenes was reduced by over 5 log units at a dose of 1.67 mJ/cm2. At 90% relative humidity (RH), only E. coli O157:H7 experienced inactivation significantly greater than at 30 and 60% RH. In a water treatment study involving a continuous system, 6.38-, 5.81-, and 3.47-log-unit reductions were achieved in E. coli O157:H7, S. Typhimurium, and L. monocytogenes, respectively, at 0.5 liter per minute (LPM) and 200 mW output power. The results of this study suggest that the use of DUV-LEDs may compensate for the drawbacks of using LP-UV lamps to inactivate foodborne pathogens. PMID:26162872

  16. Light scattering on PHA granules protects bacterial cells against the harmful effects of UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Slaninova, Eva; Sedlacek, Petr; Mravec, Filip; Mullerova, Lucie; Samek, Ota; Koller, Martin; Hesko, Ondrej; Kucera, Dan; Marova, Ivana; Obruca, Stanislav

    2018-02-01

    Numerous prokaryotes accumulate polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) in the form of intracellular granules. The primary function of PHA is the storage of carbon and energy. Nevertheless, there are numerous reports that the presence of PHA granules in microbial cells enhances their stress resistance and fitness when exposed to various stress factors. In this work, we studied the protective mechanism of PHA granules against UV irradiation employing Cupriavidus necator as a model bacterial strain. The PHA-accumulating wild type strain showed substantially higher UV radiation resistance than the PHA non-accumulating mutant. Furthermore, the differences in UV-Vis radiation interactions with both cell types were studied using various spectroscopic approaches (turbidimetry, absorption spectroscopy, and nephelometry). Our results clearly demonstrate that intracellular PHA granules efficiently scatter UV radiation, which provides a substantial UV-protective effect for bacterial cells and, moreover, decreases the intracellular level of reactive oxygen species in UV-challenged cells. The protective properties of the PHA granules are enhanced by the fact that granules specifically bind to DNA, which in turn provides shield-like protection of DNA as the most UV-sensitive molecule. To conclude, the UV-protective action of PHA granules adds considerable value to their primary storage function, which can be beneficial in numerous environments.

  17. UV ATTENUATION NEAR CORAL REEFS IN THE FLORIDA KEYS: LIGHT ABSORPTION BY CDOM AND PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have investigated the roles of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and suspended particles in the attenuation of UV radiation in the middle and lower regions of the Florida Keys. Extended exposure to UV radiation, along with elevated sea surface temperatures, impairs...

  18. Fluorescent minerals - A potential source of UV protection and visible light for the growth of green algae and cyanobacteria in extreme cosmic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omairi, Tareq; Wainwright, Milton

    2015-07-01

    We propose that green algae (Chlorella variabilis and Dunaliella tertiolecta) and cyanobacteria (Synechococcus elongatus and Nostoc commune) can grow inside fluorescent rock minerals which convert damaging UV light to visible light, thereby allowing these organisms to survive and thrive in UV-rich environments without (or with limited) visible light, which would otherwise be inimical to them. The four microorganisms were incubated inside fluorescent rocks composed of fluorite, calcite and pyrite. The resultant growth was then measured following exposure to UV radiation, with the use of optical density and measurement of chlorophyll concentration. Results show that the microorganisms were shielded from harmful UV in these semi-transparent rocks, while at the same time benefiting from the fact that the minerals converted UV to visible light; this have been shown by a statistically significant increase in their growth, which although lower than when the cells were incubated in sunlight, was significantly higher than in controls incubated in the dark.

  19. Efficacy of Ultraviolet (UV-C) Light in a Thin-Film Turbulent Flow for the Reduction of Milkborne Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Crook, Jennifer A; Rossitto, Paul V; Parko, Jared; Koutchma, Tatiana; Cullor, James S

    2015-06-01

    Nonthermal technologies are being investigated as viable alternatives to, or supplemental utilization, with thermal pasteurization in the food-processing industry. In this study, the effect of ultraviolet (UV)-C light on the inactivation of seven milkborne pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Serratia marcescens, Salmonella Senftenberg, Yersinia enterocolitica, Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus) was evaluated. The pathogens were suspended in ultra-high-temperature whole milk and treated at UV doses between 0 and 5000 J/L at a flow rate of 4300 L/h in a thin-film turbulent flow-through pilot system. Of the seven milkborne pathogens tested, L. monocytogenes was the most UV resistant, requiring 2000 J/L of UV-C exposure to reach a 5-log reduction. The most sensitive bacterium was S. aureus, requiring only 1450 J/L to reach a 5-log reduction. This study demonstrated that the survival curves were nonlinear. Sigmoidal inactivation curves were observed for all tested bacterial strains. Nonlinear modeling of the inactivation data was a better fit than the traditional log-linear approach. Results obtained from this study indicate that UV illumination has the potential to be used as a nonthermal method to reduce microorganism populations in milk.

  20. Prevention of the adverse photic effects of peripheral light-focusing using UV-blocking contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Kwok, L Stephen; Kuznetsov, Valerian A; Ho, Arthur; Coroneo, Minas T

    2003-04-01

    Peripheral light-focusing (PLF) is an occult form of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) hazardous to the human eye. In PLF, obliquely incident light is refracted from the peripheral cornea to concentrated sites inside the anterior segment. In the current study, the directionality of this phenomenon for UVR and whether PLF is established in outdoor settings exposed to sunlight were investigated. The protection provided by a UV-blocking contact lens was also evaluated. UVA and UVB sensors were placed on the nasal limbus of an anatomically based model eye. The temporal limbus was exposed to a UV light source placed at various angles behind the frontal plane. PLF was quantified with the sensor output. The ensemble was mounted in the orbit of a mannequin head and exposed to sunlight in three insolation environments within the region of Sydney, Australia. PLF for UVA and UVB was determined with no eyewear or with sunglasses and commercially available soft contact lenses, with and without UV-blocking capability. The intensity of UVA peaked at approximately 120 degrees incidence, the level at which the UVB response was also at its maximum. The intensification of UVA was up to x18.3. The intensity of PLF for UVA and UVB was reduced by an order of magnitude by a UV-blocking contact lens, whereas a clear contact lenses had a much lesser effect. Only the UV-blocking contact lens achieved a significant effect on UVA and UVB irradiance in the urban, beach, and mountain locales (P < 0.056). The results identify another type of sunlight hazard: the peripheral focusing of obliquely incident light. UVR from albedo (reflected ambient light) is capable of establishing PLF in the anterior segment, but this can be shielded by UV-blocking soft contact lenses. Sunglasses may be unable to shield oblique rays, unless side protection is incorporated. Contact lenses can offer UVR protection against all angles of incidence, including the peak-response angle. They can also protect the eye in settings

  1. Temperature and UV light affect the activity of marine cell-free enzymes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Blair; Hepburn, Christopher David; Lamare, Miles; Baltar, Federico

    2017-09-01

    Microbial extracellular enzymatic activity (EEA) is the rate-limiting step in the degradation of organic matter in the oceans. These extracellular enzymes exist in two forms: cell-bound, which are attached to the microbial cell wall, and cell-free, which are completely free of the cell. Contrary to previous understanding, cell-free extracellular enzymes make up a substantial proportion of the total marine EEA. Little is known about these abundant cell-free enzymes, including what factors control their activity once they are away from their sites (cells). Experiments were run to assess how cell-free enzymes (excluding microbes) respond to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and temperature manipulations, previously suggested as potential control factors for these enzymes. The experiments were done with New Zealand coastal waters and the enzymes studied were alkaline phosphatase (APase), β-glucosidase, (BGase), and leucine aminopeptidase (LAPase). Environmentally relevant UVR (i.e. in situ UVR levels measured at our site) reduced cell-free enzyme activities by up to 87 % when compared to controls, likely a consequence of photodegradation. This effect of UVR on cell-free enzymes differed depending on the UVR fraction. Ambient levels of UV radiation were shown to reduce the activity of cell-free enzymes for the first time. Elevated temperatures (15 °C) increased the activity of cell-free enzymes by up to 53 % when compared to controls (10 °C), likely by enhancing the catalytic activity of the enzymes. Our results suggest the importance of both UVR and temperature as control mechanisms for cell-free enzymes. Given the projected warming ocean environment and the variable UVR light regime, it is possible that there could be major changes in the cell-free EEA and in the enzymes contribution to organic matter remineralization in the future.

  2. Wind asymmetry imprint in the UV light curves of the symbiotic binary SY Mus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shagatova, N.; Skopal, A.

    2017-06-01

    Context. Light curves (LCs) of some symbiotic stars show a different slope of the ascending and descending branch of their minimum profile. The origin of this asymmetry is not well understood. Aims: We explain this effect in the ultraviolet LCs of the symbiotic binary SY Mus. Methods: We model the continuum fluxes in the spectra obtained by the International Ultraviolet Explorer at ten wavelengths, from 1280 to 3080 Å. We consider that the white dwarf radiation is attenuated by H0 atoms, H- ions, and free electrons in the red giant wind. Variation in the nebular component is approximated by a sine wave along the orbit as suggested by spectral energy distribution models. The model includes asymmetric wind velocity distribution and the corresponding ionization structure of the binary. Results: We determined distribution of the H0 and H+, as well as upper limits of H- and H0 column densities in the neutral and ionized region at the selected wavelengths as functions of the orbital phase. Corresponding models of the LCs match well the observed continuum fluxes. In this way, we suggested the main UV continuum absorbing (scattering) processes in the circumbinary environment of S-type symbiotic stars. Conclusions: The asymmetric profile of the ultraviolet LCs of SY Mus is caused by the asymmetric distribution of the circumstellar matter at the near-orbital-plane area. Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/602/A71

  3. Effects of UV light intensity on electrochemical wet etching of SiC for the fabrication of suspended graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O, Ryong-Sok; Takamura, Makoto; Furukawa, Kazuaki; Nagase, Masao; Hibino, Hiroki

    2015-03-01

    We report on the effects of UV light intensity on the photo assisted electrochemical wet etching of SiC(0001) underneath an epitaxially grown graphene for the fabrication of suspended structures. The maximum etching rate of SiC(0001) was 2.5 µm/h under UV light irradiation in 1 wt % KOH at a constant current of 0.5 mA/cm2. The successful formation of suspended structures depended on the etching rate of SiC. In the Raman spectra of the suspended structures, we did not observe a significant increase in the intensity of the D peak, which originates from defects in graphene sheets. This is most likely explained by the high quality of the single-crystalline graphene epitaxially grown on SiC.

  4. The production of a key floral volatile is dependent on UV light in a sexually deceptive orchid

    PubMed Central

    Falara, Vasiliki; Amarasinghe, Ranamalie; Poldy, Jacqueline; Pichersky, Eran; Barrow, Russell A.; Peakall, Rod

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Plants use a diverse range of visual and olfactory cues to advertize to pollinators. Australian Chiloglottis orchids employ one to three related chemical variants, all 2,5-dialkylcyclohexane-1,3-diones or ‘chiloglottones’ to sexually attract their specific male pollinators. Here an investigation was made of the physiological aspects of chiloglottone synthesis and storage that have not previously been examined. Methods The location of chiloglottone production was determined and developmental and diurnal changes by GC-MS analysis of floral tissue extracts was monitored in two distantly related Chiloglottis species. Light treatment experiments were also performed using depleted flowers to evaluate if sunlight is required for chiloglottone production; which specific wavelengths of light are required was also determined. Key Results Chiloglottone production only occurs in specific floral tissues (the labellum calli and sepals) of open flowers. Upon flower opening chiloglottone production is rapid and levels remain more or less stable both day and night, and over the 2- to 3-week lifetime of the flower. Furthermore, it was determined that chiloglottone production requires continuous sunlight, and determined the optimal wavelengths of sunlight in the UV-B range (with peak of 300 nm). Conclusions UV-B light is required for the synthesis of chiloglottones – the semiochemicals used by Chiloglottis orchids to sexually lure their male pollinators. This discovery appears to be the first case to our knowledge where plant floral odour production depends on UV-B radiation at normal levels of sunlight. In the future, identification of the genes and enzymes involved, will allow us to understand better the role of UV-B light in the biosynthesis of chiloglottones. PMID:23091095

  5. Synthesis of coronavirus mRNAs: kinetics of inactivation of infectious bronchitis virus RNA synthesis by UV light. [Chickens

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, D.F.; Sefton, B.M.

    Infection of cells with the avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus results in the synthesis of five major subgenomic RNAs. These RNAs and the viral genome form a 3' coterminal nested set. We found that the rates of inactivation of synthesis of the RNAs by UV light were different and increased with the length of the transcript. These results show that each RNA is transcribed from a unique promoter and that extensive processing of the primary transcripts probably does not occur.

  6. Comparative assessment of chlorine, heat, ozone, and UV light for killing Legionella pneumophila within a model plumbing system.

    PubMed Central

    Muraca, P; Stout, J E; Yu, V L

    1987-01-01

    Nosocomial Legionnaires disease can be acquired by exposure to the organism from the hospital water distribution system. As a result, many hospitals have instituted eradication procedures, including hypercholorination and thermal eradication. We compared the efficacy of ozonation, UV light, hyperchlorination, and heat eradication using a model plumbing system constructed of copper piping, brass spigots, Plexiglas reservoir, electric hot water tank, and a pump. Legionella pneumophila was added to the system at 10(7) CFU/ml. Each method was tested under three conditions; (i) nonturbid water at 25 degrees C, (ii) turbid water at 25 degrees C, and (iii) nonturbid water at 43 degrees C. UV light and heat killed L. pneumophila most rapidly and required minimal maintenance. Both UV light and heat (60 degrees C) produced a 5 log kill in less than 1 h. In contrast, both chlorine and ozone required 5 h of exposure to produce a 5 log decrease. Neither turbidity nor the higher temperature of 43 degrees C impaired the efficacy of any of the disinfectant methods. Surprisingly, higher temperature enhanced the disinfecting efficacy of chlorine. However, higher temperature accelerated the decomposition of the chlorine residual such that an additional 120% volume of chlorine was required. All four methods proved efficacious in eradicating L. pneumophila from a model plumbing system. Images PMID:3566272

  7. Enhanced efficiency of light emitting diodes with a nano-patterned gallium nitride surface realized by soft UV nanoimprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Weimin; Min, Guoquan; Song, Zhitang; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Yanbo; Zhang, Jianping

    2010-05-01

    This paper reports a significant enhancement in the extraction efficiency of nano-patterned GaN light emitting diodes (LED) realized by soft UV nanoimprint lithography. The 2 inch soft stamp was fabricated using a replication stamp of anodic alumina oxide (AAO) membrane. The light output power was enhanced by 10.9% compared to that of the LED sample without a nano-patterned surface. Up to 41% enhancement in photoluminescence intensity was obtained from the nano-patterned GaN LED sample. The method is simple, cheap and suitable for mass production.

  8. Weathering of a carbon nanotube/epoxy nanocomposite under UV light and in water bath: impact on abraded particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlagenhauf, Lukas; Kianfar, Bahareh; Buerki-Thurnherr, Tina; Kuo, Yu-Ying; Wichser, Adrian; Nüesch, Frank; Wick, Peter; Wang, Jing

    2015-11-01

    Weathering processes can influence the surface properties of composites with incorporated nanoparticles. These changes may affect the release behavior of nanoparticles when an abrasion process is applied. Therefore, the influence of two different weathering processes, immersion in water and exposure to UV light, on the properties of abraded particles from a carbon nanotube (CNT)/epoxy nanocomposite was investigated. The investigation included the measurement of the weathering impact on the surface chemistry of the exposed samples, the particle size of abraded particles, the quantity of exposed CNTs in the respirable part of the abraded particles, and the toxicity of abraded particles, measured by in vitro toxicity tests using the THP-1 monocyte-derived macrophages. The results showed that weathering by immersion in water had no influence on the properties of abraded particles. The exposure to UV light caused a degradation of the epoxy on the surface, followed by delamination of an approx. 2.5 μm thick layer. An increased quantity of exposed CNTs in abraded particles was not found; on the contrary, longer UV exposure times decreased the released fraction of CNTs from 0.6% to 0.4%. The toxicity tests revealed that abraded particles from the nanocomposites did not induce additional acute cytotoxic effects compared to particles from the neat epoxy.Weathering processes can influence the surface properties of composites with incorporated nanoparticles. These changes may affect the release behavior of nanoparticles when an abrasion process is applied. Therefore, the influence of two different weathering processes, immersion in water and exposure to UV light, on the properties of abraded particles from a carbon nanotube (CNT)/epoxy nanocomposite was investigated. The investigation included the measurement of the weathering impact on the surface chemistry of the exposed samples, the particle size of abraded particles, the quantity of exposed CNTs in the respirable part of

  9. How UV Light Touches the Brain and Endocrine System Through Skin, and Why.

    PubMed

    Slominski, Andrzej T; Zmijewski, Michal A; Plonka, Przemyslaw M; Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Paus, Ralf

    2018-05-01

    The skin, a self-regulating protective barrier organ, is empowered with sensory and computing capabilities to counteract the environmental stressors to maintain and restore disrupted cutaneous homeostasis. These complex functions are coordinated by a cutaneous neuro-endocrine system that also communicates in a bidirectional fashion with the central nervous, endocrine, and immune systems, all acting in concert to control body homeostasis. Although UV energy has played an important role in the origin and evolution of life, UV absorption by the skin not only triggers mechanisms that defend skin integrity and regulate global homeostasis but also induces skin pathology (e.g., cancer, aging, autoimmune responses). These effects are secondary to the transduction of UV electromagnetic energy into chemical, hormonal, and neural signals, defined by the nature of the chromophores and tissue compartments receiving specific UV wavelength. UV radiation can upregulate local neuroendocrine axes, with UVB being markedly more efficient than UVA. The locally induced cytokines, corticotropin-releasing hormone, urocortins, proopiomelanocortin-peptides, enkephalins, or others can be released into circulation to exert systemic effects, including activation of the central hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, opioidogenic effects, and immunosuppression, independent of vitamin D synthesis. Similar effects are seen after exposure of the eyes and skin to UV, through which UVB activates hypothalamic paraventricular and arcuate nuclei and exerts very rapid stimulatory effects on the brain. Thus, UV touches the brain and central neuroendocrine system to reset body homeostasis. This invites multiple therapeutic applications of UV radiation, for example, in the management of autoimmune and mood disorders, addiction, and obesity.

  10. UV light tolerance and reactivation potential of tetracycline-resistant bacteria from secondary effluents of a wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing-Jing; Xi, Jinying; Hu, Hong-Ying; Li, Yi; Lu, Sun-Qin; Tang, Fang; Pang, Yu-Chen

    2016-03-01

    Tetracycline-resistant bacteria (TRB) are of concern as emerging microbial contaminants in reclaimed water. To understand the effects of UV disinfection on TRB, both inactivation and reactivation profiles of TRB, as well as 16 tetracycline-resistant isolates from secondary effluent, were characterized in this study. The inactivation ratio of TRB was significantly lower (3.0-log) than that of heterotrophic bacteria (>4.0-log) in the secondary effluent. Additionally, the proportion of TRB significantly increased from 1.65% to 15.51% under 20mJ/cm(2) ultraviolet (UV) exposure. The inactivation rates of tetracycline-resistant isolates ranged from 0.57/s to 1.04/s, of which tetracycline-resistant Enterobacter-1 was the most tolerant to UV light. The reactivation of TRB, tetracycline-resistant isolated strains, as well as heterotrophic bacteria commonly occurred in the secondary effluent even after 20mJ/cm(2) UV exposure. The colony forming ability of TRB and heterotrophic bacteria reached 3.2-log and 3.0-log under 20mJ/cm(2) UV exposure after 22hr incubation. The final inactivation ratio of tetracycline-resistant Enterobacter-1 was 1.18-log under 20mJ/cm(2) UV exposure after 22hr incubation, which is similar to those of TRB (1.18-log) and heterotrophic bacteria (1.19-log). The increased proportion of TRB and the reactivation of tetracycline-resistant enterobacteria in reclaimed water could induce a microbial health risk during wastewater reuse. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Uv-Light Stabilization Additive Package For Solar Cell Module And Laminated Glass Applications

    DOEpatents

    Hanoka, Jack I.; Klemchuk, Peter P.

    2002-03-05

    An ultraviolet light stabilization additive package is used in an encapsulant material that may be used in solar cell modules, laminated glass and a variety of other applications. The ultraviolet light stabilization additive package comprises a first hindered amine light stabilizer and a second hindered amine light stabilizer. The first hindered amine light stabilizer provides thermal oxidative stabilization, and the second hindered amine light stabilizer providing photo-oxidative stabilization.

  12. Fabrication of silver nanowires and metal oxide composite transparent electrodes and their application in UV light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xingzhen; Ma, Jiangang; Xu, Haiyang; Wang, Chunliang; Liu, Yichun

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we prepared the silver nanowires (AgNWs)/aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) composite transparent conducting electrodes for n-ZnO/p-GaN heterojunction light emitting-diodes (LEDs) by drop casting AgNW networks and subsequent atomic layer deposition (ALD) of AZO at 150 °C. The contact resistances between AgNWs were dramatically reduced by pre-annealing in the vacuum chamber before the ALD of AZO. In this case, AZO works not only as the conformal passivation layer that protects AgNWs from oxidation, but also as the binding material that improves AgNWs adhesion to substrates. Due to the localized surface plasmons (LSPs) of the AgNWs resonant coupling with the ultraviolet (UV) light emission from the LEDs, a higher UV light extracting efficiency is achieved from LEDs with the AgNWs/AZO composite electrodes in comparison with the conventional AZO electrodes. Additionally, the antireflective nature of random AgNW networks in the composite electrodes caused a broad output light angular distribution, which could be of benefit to certain optoelectronic devices like LEDs and solar cells.

  13. Fowlpox Virus Encodes a Novel DNA Repair Enzyme, CPD-Photolyase, That Restores Infectivity of UV Light-Damaged Virus

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Viswanathan; Schnitzlein, William M.; Tripathy, Deoki N.

    2001-01-01

    Fowlpox virus (FPV), a pathogen of poultry, can persist in desiccated scabs shed from infected hosts. Although the mechanisms which ensure virus survival are unknown, it is likely that some type of remedial action against environmentally induced damage is required. In this regard, we have identified an open reading frame (ORF) coding for a putative class II cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD)-photolyase in the genome of FPV. This enzyme repairs the UV light-induced formation of CPDs in DNA by using blue light as an energy source and thus could enhance the viability of FPV during its exposure to sunlight. Based on transcriptional analyses, the photolyase gene was found to be expressed late during the FPV replicative cycle. That the resultant protein retained DNA repair activity was demonstrated by the ability of the corresponding FPV ORF to complement functionally a photolyase-deficient Escherichia coli strain. Interestingly, insertional inactivation of the FPV photolyase gene did not impair the replication of such a genetically altered virus in cultured cells. However, greater sensitivity of this mutant than of the parental virus to UV light irradiation was evident when both were subsequently photoreactivated in the absence of host participation. Therefore, FPV appears to incorporate its photolyase into mature virions where the enzyme can promote their survival in the environment. Although expression of a homologous protein has been predicted for some chordopoxviruses, this report is the first to demonstrate that a poxvirus can utilize light to repair damage to its genome. PMID:11160666

  14. Weathering of a carbon nanotube/epoxy nanocomposite under UV light and in water bath: impact on abraded particles.

    PubMed

    Schlagenhauf, Lukas; Kianfar, Bahareh; Buerki-Thurnherr, Tina; Kuo, Yu-Ying; Wichser, Adrian; Nüesch, Frank; Wick, Peter; Wang, Jing

    2015-11-28

    Weathering processes can influence the surface properties of composites with incorporated nanoparticles. These changes may affect the release behavior of nanoparticles when an abrasion process is applied. Therefore, the influence of two different weathering processes, immersion in water and exposure to UV light, on the properties of abraded particles from a carbon nanotube (CNT)/epoxy nanocomposite was investigated. The investigation included the measurement of the weathering impact on the surface chemistry of the exposed samples, the particle size of abraded particles, the quantity of exposed CNTs in the respirable part of the abraded particles, and the toxicity of abraded particles, measured by in vitro toxicity tests using the THP-1 monocyte-derived macrophages. The results showed that weathering by immersion in water had no influence on the properties of abraded particles. The exposure to UV light caused a degradation of the epoxy on the surface, followed by delamination of an approx. 2.5 μm thick layer. An increased quantity of exposed CNTs in abraded particles was not found; on the contrary, longer UV exposure times decreased the released fraction of CNTs from 0.6% to 0.4%. The toxicity tests revealed that abraded particles from the nanocomposites did not induce additional acute cytotoxic effects compared to particles from the neat epoxy.

  15. Maturation and survival of Cronobacter biofilms on silicone, polycarbonate, and stainless steel after UV light and ethanol immersion treatments.

    PubMed

    Jo, Seo-Hee; Baek, Seung-Bum; Ha, Ji-Hyoung; Ha, Sang-Do

    2010-05-01

    Cronobacter sakazakii cells in biofilms formed on silicone, polycarbonate, and stainless steel coupons immersed in reconstituted powdered infant milk formula were treated with ethanol (10 to 70%) and UV light (12 to 2,160 mW.s/cm(2)) as antibacterial treatments. Biofilm maturation curves were determined after immersion at 25 degrees C for up to 144 h. Populations increased after subsequent immersion at 25 degrees C for 24 h in reconstituted powdered infant milk formula to the respective maximum levels of 7.96, 7.91, and 6.99 log CFU per coupon. Populations attached to silicone and polycarbonate surfaces to a greater extent than to stainless steel (P < 0.05). Treatment with 10% ethanol did not cause a significant decrease in the level of C. sakazakii, but treatment with 30, 40, and 50% ethanol reduced the levels to approximately 1.73, 3.02, and 4.17 log CFU per coupon, respectively. C. sakazakii was not detected on any coupon after treatment with 70% ethanol or 2,160 mW.s/cm(2) UV light. A synergistic effect of sequential ethanol and UV treatments was not observed.

  16. CR-39 (PADC) Reflection and Transmission of Light in the Ultraviolet-Near-Infrared (UV-NIR) Range.

    PubMed

    Traynor, Nathan B J; McLauchlin, Christopher; Dodge, Kenneth; McGarrah, James E; Padalino, Stephen J; McCluskey, Michelle; Sangster, T C; McLean, James G

    2018-04-01

    The spectral reflection (specular and diffuse) and transmission of Columbia Resin 39 (CR-39) were measured for incoherent light with wavelengths in the range of 200-2500 nm. These results will be of use for the optical characterization of CR-39, as well as in investigations of the chemical modifications of the polymer caused by ultraviolet (UV) exposure. A Varian Cary 5000 was used to perform spectroscopy on several different thicknesses of CR-39. With proper analysis for the interdependence of reflectance and transmittance, results are consistent across all samples. The reflectivity from each CR-39-air boundary reveals an increase in the index of refraction in the near-UV. Absorption observations are consistent with the Beer-Lambert law. Strong absorption of UV light of wavelength shorter than 350 nm suggests an optical band gap of 3.5 eV, although the standard analysis is not conclusive. Absorption features observed in the near infrared are assigned to molecular vibrations, including some that are new to the literature.

  17. Protective effects of platinum nanoparticles against UV-light-induced epidermal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Yoshihisa, Yoko; Honda, Ayumi; Zhao, Qing-Li; Makino, Teruhiko; Abe, Riichiro; Matsui, Kotaro; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Miyamoto, Yusei; Kondo, Takashi; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2010-11-01

    Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis play important roles in the ultraviolet (UV)-induced inflammatory responses in the skin. Metal nanoparticles have been developed to increase the catalytic activity of metals, which is because of the large surface area of smaller particles. Platinum nanoparticles (nano-Pt) protected by poly acrylic acid were manufactured by reduction with ethanol. A marked increase in ROS production was observed in UV-treated HaCaT keratinocytes cell lines, while a decrease in ROS production was observed in nano-Pt-treated cells. Pretreatment of the cells with nano-Pt also caused a significant inhibition of UVB- and UVC-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, we found that mice treated with nano-Pt gel prior to UV irradiation showed significant inhibition of UVB-induced inflammation and UVA-induced photoallergy compared to UV-irradiated control mice. These results suggest that nano-Pt effectively protects against UV-induced inflammation by decreasing ROS production and inhibiting apoptosis in keratinocytes. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Controlled UV-C light-induced fusion of thiol-passivated gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pocoví-Martínez, Salvador; Parreño-Romero, Miriam; Agouram, Said; Pérez-Prieto, Julia

    2011-05-03

    Thiol-passivated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) of a relatively small size, either decorated with chromophoric groups, such as a phthalimide (Au@PH) and benzophenone (Au@BP), or capped with octadecanethiol (Au@ODCN) have been synthesized and characterized by NMR and UV-vis spectroscopy as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These NPs were irradiated in chloroform at different UV-wavelengths using either a nanosecond laser (266 and 355 nm, ca. 12 mJ/pulse, 10 ns pulse) or conventional lamps (300 nm < λ < 400 nm and ca. 240 nm < λ < 280 nm) and the new AuNPs were characterized by X-ray and UV-vis spectroscopy, as well as by TEM. Laser irradiation at 355 nm led to NP aggregation and precipitation, while the NPs were photostable under UV-A lamp illumination. Remarkably, laser excitation at 266 nm induced a fast (minutes time-scale) increase in the size of the NPs, producing huge spherical nanocrystals, while lamp-irradiation at UV-C wavelengths brought about nanonetworks of partially fused NPs with a larger diameter than the native NPs.

  19. Role of UV light in photodamage, skin aging, and skin cancer: importance of photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Gonzaga, Evelyn R

    2009-01-01

    Solar, and particularly UV, radiation causes molecular and cellular damage with resultant histopathologic and clinical degenerative changes, leading in turn to photosensitivity, photo-aging, and skin cancer. While our bodies have some natural UV defenses, additional protection from the sun is essential, including sun avoidance, physical protection, and sunscreen use. Sun avoidance includes limiting exposure during peak UV times (10am-4pm), avoiding UV-reflective surfaces such as sand, snow and water, and eliminating photosensitizing drugs. Physical protection includes wearing photoprotective clothing such as a broad-brimmed hat and long sleeves and use of UV-blocking films on windows. Sunscreen containing avobenzone, titanium dioxide, zinc oxide or encamsule should be used daily and frequently reapplied. To guard against the UVB spectrum, zinc oxide and titanium dioxide are particularly recommended. Sunscreen is generally under-applied at only 25% of the recommended dose, seriously compromising photoprotection. Dosage guidelines recommend using more than half a teaspoon each on head and neck area and each arm, and more than a teaspoon each on anterior torso, posterior torso, and each leg (approximately 2 mg/cm(2)).

  20. Photocatalytic properties of Au-deposited mesoporous SiO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst under simultaneous irradiation of UV and visible light

    SciTech Connect

    Okuno, T., E-mail: t093507@edu.imc.tut.ac.jp; Kawamura, G., E-mail: gokawamura@ee.tut.ac.jp; Muto, H., E-mail: muto@ee.tut.ac.jp

    Mesoporous SiO{sub 2} templates deposited TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals are synthesized via a sol–gel route, and Au nanoparticles (NPs) are deposited in the tubular mesopores of the templates by a photodeposition method (Au/SiO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2}). The photocatalytic characteristics of Au/SiO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2} are discussed with the action spectra of photoreactions of 2-propanol and methylene blue. Photocatalytic activities of SiO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2} under individual ultraviolet (UV) and visible (Vis) light illumination are enhanced by deposition of Au NPs. Furthermore, Au/SiO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2} shows higher photocatalytic activities under simultaneous irradiation of UV and Vis light compared to the activity under individual UV andmore » Vis light irradiation. Since the photocatalytic activity under simultaneous irradiation is almost the same as the total activities under individual UV and Vis light irradiation, it is concluded that the electrons and the holes generated by lights of different wavelengths are efficiently used for photocatalysis without carrier recombination. - Graphical abstract: This graphic shows the possible charge behavior in Au/SiO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2} under independent light irradiation of ultraviolet and visible light irradiation. Both reactions under independent UV and Vis light irradiation occurred in parallel when Au/SiO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst was illuminated UV and Vis light simultaneously, and then photocatalytic activity is improved by simultaneous irradiation. - Highlights: • Au nanoparticles were deposited in mesoporous SiO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2} by a photodeposition method. • Photocatalytic activity under UV and Vis light was enhanced by deposition of Au. • Photocatalytic activity of Au/SiO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2} was improved by simultaneous irradiation.« less

  1. Pulsed UV laser light on Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae suspended in non-alcoholic beer

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, SM; Azar-Daryany, MK; Massudi, R; Elikaei, A

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pulsed ultra-violet (UV) irradiation on inactivation of beer spoilage microorganisms. UV irradiation is nowadays cost effective enough to compete with traditional biological, physical, and chemical treatment technologies and has become an alternative to such methods. Material and Methods Photoinactivation effects of pulsed UV laser with the wavelengths of 355 and 266 nm, which inactivate typical prokaryotic (Escherichia coli) and eukaryotic (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) microorganisms, were examined with different doses and exposure times. Results A dose of 100 J/cm2 of the 355 nm pulsed UV laser was able to reduce about 1 to 2 log (88.75%) of E.coli with the population of 1.6×108 colony-forming units (CFU/ml), and 97% of 3.2×107, 3×106, 5.5×105, and 9×104 CFU/ml. In the case of 266 nm, more than 99% reduction in E. coli serial dilutions was inactivated, using 10 J/cm2 with exception of 7×104 CFU/ml which was not detected any bacterial growth using 5 J/cm2. In addition, 50, 40, and 20 J/cm2 energy were used successfully to inactivate S. cerevisiae at the populations of 5.4×106, 7×105, 5×104 and 4×103 CFU/ml, respectively. As a result, pulsed UV Laser with 266 nm was strong enough to inactivate a high titer of bacterial and yeast indicator standards suspended in non-alcoholic beer in comparison with 355nm doses. Conclusion Results indicate that pulsed UV technology, in principle, is an attractive alternative to conventional methods for the inactivation of indicator microorganisms and has potential in irradiation of unpasteurized beer. PMID:22347580

  2. Transfer the multiscale texture of crystalline Si onto thin-film micromorph cell by UV nanoimprint for light trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Daiming; Wang, Qingkang; Wang, Qing

    2018-05-01

    Surface texturing is of great significance in light trapping for solar cells. Herein, the multiscale texture, consisting of microscale pyramids and nanoscale porous arrangement, was fabricated on crystalline Si by KOH etching and Ag-assisted HF etching processes and subsequently replicated onto glass with high fidelity by UV nanoimprint method. Light trapping of the multiscale texture was studied by spectral (reflectance, haze ratio) characterizations. Results reveal the multiscale texture provides the broadband reflection reducing, the highlighted light scattering and the additional self-cleaning behaviors. Compared with bare cell, the multiscale textured micromorph cell achieves a 4% relative increase in power conversion efficiency. This surface texturing route paves a promising way for developing low-cost, large-scale and high-efficiency solar applications.

  3. UV Radiation and Visible Light Induce hsp70 Gene Expression in the Antarctic Psychrophilic Ciliate Euplotes focardii.

    PubMed

    Fulgentini, Lorenzo; Passini, Valerio; Colombetti, Giuliano; Miceli, Cristina; La Terza, Antonietta; Marangoni, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    The psychrophilic ciliate Euplotes focardii inhabits the shallow marine coastal sediments of Antarctica, where, over millions of years of evolution, it has reached a strict molecular adaptation to such a constant-temperature environment (about -2 °C). This long evolution at sub-zero temperatures has made E. focardii unable to respond to heat stress with the activation of its heat shock protein (hsp) 70 genes. These genes can, however, be expressed in response to other stresses, like the oxidative one, thus indicating that the molecular adaptation has exclusively altered the heat stress signaling pathways, while it has preserved hsp70 gene activation in response to other environmental stressors. Since radiative stress has proved to be affine to oxidative stress in several organisms, we investigated the capability of UV radiation to induce hsp70 transcription. E. focardii cell cultures were exposed to several different irradiation regimes, ranging from visible only to a mixture of visible, UV-A and UV-B. The irradiation values of each spectral band have been set to be comparable with those recorded in a typical Antarctic spring. Using Northern blot analysis, we measured the expression level of hsp70 immediately after irradiation (0-h-labeled samples), 1 h, and 2 h from the end of the irradiation. Surprisingly, our results showed that besides UV radiation, the visible light was also able to induce hsp70 expression in E. focardii. Moreover, spectrophotometric measurements have revealed no detectable endogenous pigments in E. focardii, making it difficult to propose a possible explanation for the visible light induction of its hsp70 genes. Further research is needed to conclusively clarify this point.

  4. S179D prolactin diminishes the effects of UV light on epidermal gamma delta T cells

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán, Esther A.; Langowski, John L.; De Guzman, Ariel; Konrad Muller, H.; Walker, Ameae M.; Owen, Laurie B.

    2008-01-01

    Epidermal gamma delta T cells (γδ T) and Langerhans cells (LC) are immune cells altered by exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVB), a powerful stressor resulting in immune suppression. Prolactin (PRL) has been characterized as an immunomodulator, particularly during stress. In this study, we have asked whether separate administration of the two major forms of prolactin, unmodified and phosphorylated, to groups of 15 mice (3 experiments, each with 5 mice per treatment group) affected the number and morphology of these epidermal immune cells under control conditions, and following UV irradiation. Under control conditions, both PRLs reduced the number of γδ T, but a molecular mimic of phosphorylated PRL (S179D PRL) was more effective, resulting in a 30% reduction. In the irradiated group, however, S179D PRL was protective against a UV-induced reduction in γδ T number and change in morphology (halved the reduction and normalized the morphology). In addition, S179D PRL, but not unmodified (U-PRL), maintained a normal LC: γδ T ratio and sustained the dendritic morphology of LC after UV exposure. These findings suggest that S179D PRL may have an overall protective effect, countering UV-induced cellular alterations in the epidermis. PMID:17945411

  5. Shedding Light on the Role of UV Exposure in Melanoma | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    When a cell is exposed to UV radiation, the chemical makeup of its DNA is changed in a specific manner, resulting in a recognizable modification that can be measured by scientists. These changes are normally detected and fixed by cellular mechanisms for DNA repair. However, if the damage is extensive or if a cell has defective DNA repair machinery, permanent mutations can be

  6. Feasibility of Silver Doped TiO2/Glass Fiber Photocatalyst under Visible Irradiation as an Indoor Air Germicide

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Thanh-Dong; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using Ag-TiO2 photocatalyst supported on glass fiber (Ag-TiO2/GF) prepared by a sol-gel method as an indoor air germicide. An experimental model was designed to investigate the bacterial disinfection efficiency of Staphylococcus (Staph), the most popular bacterium in hospitals in Korea, by the Ag-TiO2/GF photocatalyst. The silver content in Ag/TiO2 was altered from 1 to 10% to investigate the optimal ratio of Ag doped on TiO2/glass fiber (TiO2/GF) for photocatalytic disinfection of Staph. This study confirmed that Ag in Ag-TiO2/GF could work as an electron sink or donor to increase photocatalytic activity and promote the charge separation of electron-hole pairs generated from TiO2 after photon absorption. Ag also acts as an intermediate agent for the transfer of photo-generated electrons from the valence band of TiO2 to an acceptor (O2 gas) to promote photo-oxidation processes. The photocatalytic disinfection activity of Ag-TiO2/GF under visible light increased with the increase in silver content up to 7.5% and then slightly decreased with further increasing silver content. The highest disinfection efficiency and disinfection capacity of Staph using 7.5% Ag-TiO2/GF were 75.23% and 20 (CFU∙s−1∙cm−2) respectively. The medium level of humidity of 60% ± 5% showed better photocatalytic disinfection than the lower (40% ± 5%) or higher (80% ± 5%) levels. PMID:24658408

  7. Inducible in vivo DNA footprints define sequences necessary for UV light activation of the parsley chalcone synthase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Schulze-Lefert, P; Dangl, J L; Becker-André, M; Hahlbrock, K; Schulz, W

    1989-01-01

    We began characterization of the protein--DNA interactions necessary for UV light induced transcriptional activation of the gene encoding chalcone synthase (CHS), a key plant defense enzyme. Three light dependent in vivo footprints appear on a 90 bp stretch of the CHS promoter with a time course correlated with the onset of CHS transcription. We define a minimal light responsive promoter by functional analysis of truncated CHS promoter fusions with a reporter gene in transient expression experiments in parsley protoplasts. Two of the three footprinted sequence 'boxes' reside within the minimal promoter. Replacement of 10 bp within either of these 'boxes' leads to complete loss of light responsiveness. We conclude that these sequences define the necessary cis elements of the minimal CHS promoter's light responsive element. One of the functionally defined 'boxes' is homologous to an element implicated in regulation of genes involved in photosynthesis. These data represent the first example in a plant defense gene of an induced change in protein--DNA contacts necessary for transcriptional activation. Also, our data argue strongly that divergent light induced biosynthetic pathways share common regulatory units. Images PMID:2566481

  8. Acne phototherapy using UV-free high-intensity narrow-band blue light: a three-center clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalita, Alan R.; Harth, Yoram; Elman, Monica; Slatkine, Michael; Talpalariu, Gerry; Rosenberg, Yitzhak; Korman, Avner; Klein, Arieh

    2001-05-01

    Propionibacterium. acnes is a Gram positive, microaerophilic bacterium which takes a part in the pathogenesis of inflammatory acne. P. acnes is capable to produce high amounts endogenic porphyrins with no need of any trigger molecules. Light in the violet-blue range (407-420 nm) has been shown to exhibit a phototoxic effect on Propionibacterium acnes when irradiated in vitro. The purpose of our study was to test the clinical effects of a high intensity narrowband blue light source on papulo pustular acne. A total of 35 patients in 3 centers were treated twice a week with a high intensity metal halide lamp illuminating the entire face (20x20 cm2) or the back with visible light in the 407-420 nm range at an intensity of 90 mW/cm2 (CureLight Ltd.) for a total of 4 weeks. UV is totally cut off. In each treatment the patient was exposed to light for 8-15 minutes. After 8 treatments, 80% of the patients with mild to moderate papulo-pustular acne showed significant improvement at reducing the numbers of non- inflammatory, inflammatory and total facial lesions. Inflammatory lesion count decrease by a mean of 68%. No side effects to the treatment were noticed. In conclusion, full face or back illumination with the high intensity pure blue light we used exhibits a rapid significant decrease in acne lesions counts in 8 biweekly treatments.

  9. Response of growth and photosynthesis of Emiliania huxleyi to visible and UV irradiances under different light regimes.

    PubMed

    Xing, Tao; Gao, Kunshan; Beardall, John

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae are capable of acclimating to changes in light and ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 280-400 nm). However, little is known about how the ecologically important coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi responds to UVR when acclimated to different light regimes. Here, we grew E. huxleyi under indoor constant light or fluctuating sunlight with or without UVR, and investigated its growth, photosynthetic performance and pigmentation. Under the indoor constant light regime, the specific growth rate (μ) was highest, while fluctuating outdoor solar radiation significantly decreased the growth rate. Addition of UVR further decreased the growth rate. The repair rate of photosystem II (PSII), as reflected in changes in PSII quantum yield, showed an inverse correlation with growth rate. Cells grown under the indoor constant light regime exhibited the lowest repair rate, while cells from the outdoor fluctuating light regimes significantly increased their repair rate. Addition of UVR increased both the repair rate and intracellular UV-absorbing compounds. This increased repair capability, at the cost of decreased growth rate, persisted after the cells were transferred back to the indoor again, suggesting an enhanced allocation of energy and resources for repair of photosynthetic machinery damage by solar UVR which persisted for a period after transfer from solar UVR. © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology.

  10. Light-emitting Ga-oxide nanocrystals in glass: a new paradigm for low-cost and robust UV-to-visible solar-blind converters and UV emitters.

    PubMed

    Sigaev, Vladimir N; Golubev, Nikita V; Ignat'eva, Elena S; Paleari, Alberto; Lorenzi, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Wide-bandgap nanocrystals are an inexhaustible source of tuneable functions potentially addressing most of the demand for new light emitting systems. However, the implementation of nanocrystal properties in real devices is not straightforward if a robust and stable optical component is required as a final result. The achievement of efficient light emission from dense dispersions of Ga-oxide nanocrystals in UV-grade glass can be a breakthrough in this regard. Such a result would permit the fabrication of low cost UV-to-visible converters for monitoring UV-emitting events on a large-scale - from invisible hydrogen flames to corona dispersions. From this perspective, γ-Ga₂O₃ nanocrystals are developed by phase separation in Ga-alkali-germanosilicate glasses, obtaining optical materials based on a UV transparent matrix. Band-to-band UV-excitation of light emission from donor-acceptor pair (DAP) recombination is investigated for the first time in embedded γ-Ga₂O₃. The analysis of the decay kinetics gives unprecedented evidence that nanosized confinement of DAP recombination can force a nanophase to the efficient response of exactly balanced DAPs. The results, including a proof of concept of UV-to-visible viewer, definitely demonstrate the feasibility of workable glass-based fully inorganic nanostructured materials with emission properties borrowed from Ga₂O₃ single-crystals and tailored by the nanocrystal size.

  11. Ultraviolet Light Enhances the Bovine Serum Albumin Fixation for Acid Fast Bacilli Stain

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Pei-Yin; Lee, Shih-Yi; Chou, Yu-Ching; Fu, Yung-Chieh; Wu, Chen-Cheng; Chiueh, Tzong-Shi

    2014-01-01

    The use of a liquid culture system such as MGIT broth has greatly improved the sensitivity of isolating mycobacteria in clinical laboratories. Microscopic visualization of acid fast bacilli (AFB) in the culture positive MGIT broth remains the first routine step for rapidly indicating the presence of mycobacteria. We modified an ultraviolet (UV) light fixation process to increase AFB cells adherence to the slide. The retained haze proportion of a 1-cm circle marked area on the smear slide was quantified after the staining procedure indicating the adherence degree of AFB cells. More AFB cells were preserved on the slide after exposure to UV light of either germicidal lamp or UV crosslinker in a time-dependent manner. We demonstrated both the bovine serum albumin (BSA) in MGIT media and UV light exposure were required for enhancing fixation of AFB cells. While applying to AFB stains for 302 AFB positive MGIT broths in clinics, more AFB cells were retained and observed on smear slides prepared by the modified fixation procedure rather than by the conventional method. The modified fixation procedure was thus recommended for improving the sensitivity of microscopic diagnosis of AFB cells in culture positive MGIT broth. PMID:24586725

  12. The repair of low dose UV light-induced damage to human skin DNA in condition of trace amount Mg 2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fang; Guo, Zhouyi; Zheng, Changchun; Wang, Rui; Liu, Zhiming; Meng, Pei; Zhai, Juan

    2008-12-01

    Ultraviolet light-induced damage to human skin DNA was widely investigated. The primary mechanism of this damage contributed to form cyclobutane pyrimidine dimmers (CPDs). Although the distribution of UV light-induced CPDs within a defined sequence is similar, the damage in cellular environment which shields the nuclear DNA was higher than that in organism in apparent dose. So we use low UVB light as main study agent. Low dose UV-irradiated HDF-a cells (Human Dermal Fibroblasts-adult cells) which is weaker than epidermic cells were cultured with DMEM at different trace amount of Mg2+ (0mmol/L , 0.1mmol/L , 0.2mmol/L, 0.4mmol/L, 0.8mmol/L, 1.2mmol/L) free-serum DMEM and the repair of DNA strands injured were observed. Treat these cells with DNA strand breaks detection, photoproducts detection and the repair of photoproducts detection. Then quantitate the role of trace amount Mg2+ in repair of UV light-induced damage to human skin. The experiment results indicated that epidermic cells have capability of resistance to UV-radiation at a certain extent. And Mg2+ can regulate the UV-induced damage repair and relative vitality. It can offer a rationale and experiment data to relieve UV light-induced skin disease.

  13. Growth under visible light increases conidia and mucilage production and tolerance to UV-B radiation in the plant pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum acutatum.

    PubMed

    de Menezes, Henrique D; Massola, Nelson S; Flint, Stephan D; Silva, Geraldo J; Bachmann, Luciano; Rangel, Drauzio E N; Braga, Gilberto U L

    2015-01-01

    Light conditions can influence fungal development. Some spectral wavebands can induce conidial production, whereas others can kill the conidia, reducing the population size and limiting dispersal. The plant pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum acutatum causes anthracnose in several crops. During the asexual stage on the host plant, Colletototrichum produces acervuli with abundant mucilage-embedded conidia. These conidia are responsible for fungal dispersal and host infection. This study examined the effect of visible light during C. acutatum growth on the production of conidia and mucilage and also on the UV tolerance of these conidia. Conidial tolerance to an environmentally realistic UV irradiance was determined both in conidia surrounded by mucilage on sporulating colonies and in conidial suspension. Exposures to visible light during fungal growth increased production of conidia and mucilage as well as conidial tolerance to UV. Colonies exposed to light produced 1.7 times more conidia than colonies grown in continuous darkness. The UV tolerances of conidia produced under light were at least two times higher than conidia produced in the dark. Conidia embedded in the mucilage on sporulating colonies were more tolerant of UV than conidia in suspension that were washed free of mucilage. Conidial tolerance to UV radiation varied among five selected isolates. © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology.

  14. Sacrificial hydrogen generation from aqueous triethanolamine with Eosin Y-sensitized Pt/TiO2 photocatalyst in UV, visible and solar light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Pankaj; Gomaa, Hassan; Ray, Ajay K

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we have studied Eosin Y-sensitized sacrificial hydrogen generation with triethanolamine as electron donor in UV, visible, and solar light irradiation. Aeroxide TiO2 was loaded with platinum metal via solar photo-deposition method to reduce the electron hole recombination process. Photocatalytic sacrificial hydrogen generation was influenced by several factors such as platinum loading (wt%) on TiO2, solution pH, Eosin Y to Pt/TiO2 mass ratio, triethanolamine concentration, and light (UV, visible and solar) intensities. Detailed reaction mechanisms in visible and solar light irradiation were established. Oxidation of triethanolamine and formaldehyde formation was correlated with hydrogen generation in both visible and solar lights. Hydrogen generation kinetics followed a Langmuir-type isotherm with reaction rate constant and adsorption constant of 6.77×10(-6) mol min(-1) and 14.45 M(-1), respectively. Sacrificial hydrogen generation and charge recombination processes were studied as a function of light intensities. Apparent quantum yields (QYs) were compared for UV, visible, and solar light at four different light intensities. Highest QYs were attained at lower light intensity because of trivial charge recombination. At 30 mW cm(-2) we achieved QYs of 10.82%, 12.23% and 11.33% in UV, visible and solar light respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Apparatus and method for treating pollutants in a gas using hydrogen peroxide and UV light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Charles David (Inventor); Clausen, Christian Anthony (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An apparatus for treating pollutants in a gas may include a source of hydrogen peroxide, and a treatment injector for creating and injecting dissociated hydrogen peroxide into the flow of gas. The treatment injector may further include an injector housing having an inlet, an outlet, and a hollow interior extending therebetween. The inlet may be connected in fluid communication with the source of hydrogen peroxide so that hydrogen peroxide flows through the hollow interior and toward the outlet. At least one ultraviolet (UV) lamp may be positioned within the hollow interior of the injector housing. The at least one UV lamp may dissociate the hydrogen peroxide flowing through the tube. The dissociated hydrogen peroxide may be injected into the flow of gas from the outlet for treating pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides.

  16. APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR TREATING POLLUTANTS IN A GAS USING HYDROGEN PEROXIDE AND UV LIGHT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Charles David (Inventor); Clauseu, christian Anthony (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An apparatus for treating pollutants in a gas may include a source of hydrogen peroxide, and a treatment injector for creating and injecting dissociated hydrogen peroxide into the flow of gas. The treatment injector may further include an injector housing having an inlet, an outlet, and a hollow interior extending there between. The inlet may be connected in fluid communication with the source of hydrogen peroxide so that hydrogen peroxide flows through the hollow interior and toward the outlet. At least one ultraviolet (UV) lamp may be positioned within the hollow interior of the injector housing. The at least one UV lamp may dissociate the hydrogen peroxide flowing through the tube. The dissociated hydrogen peroxide may be injected into the flow of gas from the outlet for treating pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides.

  17. New light for old eyes: comparing melanopsin-mediated non-visual benefits of blue-light and UV-blocking intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Schmoll, Conrad; Khan, Ashraf; Aspinall, Peter; Goudie, Colin; Koay, Peter; Tendo, Christelle; Cameron, James; Roe, Jenny; Deary, Ian; Dhillon, Bal

    2014-01-01

    Melanopsin-expressing photosensitive retinal ganglion cells form a blue-light-sensitive non-visual system mediating diverse physiological effects including circadian entrainment and cognitive alertness. Reduced blue wavelength retinal illumination through cataract formation is thought to blunt these responses while cataract surgery and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation have been shown to have beneficial effects on sleep and cognition. We aimed to use the reaction time (RT) task and the Epworth Sleepiness Score (ESS) as a validated objective platform to compare non-visual benefits of UV- and blue-blocking IOLs. Patients were prospectively randomised to receive either a UV- or blue-blocking IOL, performing an RT test and ESS questionnaire before and after surgery. Optical blurring at the second test controlled for visual improvement. Non-operative age-matched controls were recruited for comparison. 80 participants completed the study. Those undergoing first-eye phacoemulsification demonstrated significant improvements in RT over control (p=0.001) and second-eye surgery patients (p=0.03). Moreover, reduced daytime sleepiness was measured by ESS for the first-eye surgery group (p=0.008) but not for the second-eye group (p=0.09). Choice of UV- or blue-blocking IOL made no significant difference to magnitude of cognitive improvement (p=0.272). Phacoemulsification, particularly first-eye surgery, has a strong positive effect on cognition and daytime alertness, regardless of IOL type.

  18. Development of a ginkgo biloba fingerprint chromatogram with UV and evaporative light scattering detection and optimization of the evaporative light scattering detector operating conditions.

    PubMed

    van Nederkassel, A M; Vijverman, V; Massart, D L; Vander Heyden, Y

    2005-09-02

    A fingerprint chromatogram of a standardized Ginkgo biloba extract is developed on a monolithic silica column using a ternary gradient containing water, iso-propanol and tetrahydrofuran. For the detection, UV and evaporative light scattering (ELS) detectors are used, the latter allowing detection of the poor UV absorbing compounds as ginkgolides (A-C and J) and bilobalide in the extract. The complementary information between the UV and ELS fingerprint is evaluated. The ELS detector used in this study can operate in an impactor 'on' or 'off' mode. For each mode, the operating conditions such as the nebulizing gas flow rate, the drift tube temperature and the gain are optimized by use of three-level screening designs to obtain the best signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio in the final ELS fingerprint chromatogram. In both impactor modes, very similar S/N ratios are obtained for the nominal levels of the design. However, optimization of the operating conditions resulted, for both impactor modes, in a significant increase in S/N ratios compared to the initial evaluated conditions, obtained from the detector software.

  19. Light Scattering by Lunar Exospheric Dust: What could be Learned from LRO LAMP and LADEE UVS?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenar, D. A.; Stubbs, T. J.; Richard, D. T.; Stern, S. A.; Retherford, K. D.; Gladstone, R.; Feldman, P. D.; Colaprete, A.; Delory, G. T.

    2011-12-01

    Two complementary spectrometers, namely the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) and the planned Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Ultraviolet Explorer (UVS) will carry out sensitive searches for high altitude exospheric dust, via detection of scattered sunlight. The combined spectral coverage of these instruments extends from far-UV to near-IR wavelengths. Over this wavelength range, grain size parameter (X=2πr/λ, with r the grain radius and λ the wavelength) changes dramatically, which makes broad wavelength coverage a good diagnostic of grain size. Utilizing different pointing geometries, both LAMP and UVS are able to observe dust over a range of scattering angles, as well as measure the dust vertical profile via limb measurements at multiple tangent heights. We summarize several categories of information that can be inferred from the data sets, using broadband simulations of horizon glow as observed at the limb. Grain scattering properties used in these simulations were computed for multiple grain shapes using Discrete-Dipole theory. Some cautionary remarks are included regarding the use of Mie theory to interpret scattering measurements.

  20. Enhanced UV light detection using a p-terphenyl wavelength shifter

    SciTech Connect

    Joosten, Sylvester J.; Kaczanowicz, Ed; Ungaro, Maurizio

    Here, UV-glass photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) have poor photon detection efficiency for wavelengths belowmore » $$300\\,\\text{nm}$$ due to the opaqueness of the window material. Costly quartz PMTs could be used to enhance the efficiency below $$300\\,\\text{nm}$$. A less expensive solution that dramatically improves this efficiency is the application of a thin film of a p-terphenyl (PT) wavelength shifter on UV-glass PMTs. This improvement was quantified for Photonis XP4500B PMTs for wavelengths between $$200\\,\\text{nm}$$ and $$400\\,\\text{nm}$$. The gain factor ranges up to 5.4 $$\\pm$$ 0.5 at a wavelength of $$215\\,\\text{nm}$$, with a material load of $$110\\pm10\\,\\mu\\text{g}/\\text{cm}^2$$ ($$894\\,\\text{nm}$$). The wavelength shifter was found to be fully transparent for wavelengths greater than $$300\\,\\text{nm}$$. The resulting gain in detection efficiency, when used in a typical Cherenkov counter, was estimated to be of the order of 40%. Consistent coating quality was assured by a rapid gain testing procedure using narrow-band UV LEDs. Based on these results, 200 Photonis XP4500B PMTs were treated with PT for the upgraded low-threshold Cherenkov counter (LTCC) to be used in the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer upgraded detector (CLAS12) at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility.« less

  1. Enhanced UV light detection using a p-terphenyl wavelength shifter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joosten, S.; Kaczanowicz, E.; Ungaro, M.; Rehfuss, M.; Johnston, K.; Meziani, Z.-E.

    2017-10-01

    UV-glass photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) have poor photon detection efficiency for wavelengths below 300 nm due to the opaqueness of the window material. Costly quartz PMTs could be used to enhance the efficiency below 300 nm. A less expensive solution that dramatically improves this efficiency is the application of a thin film of a p-terphenyl (PT) wavelength shifter on UV-glass PMTs. This improvement was quantified for Photonis XP4500B PMTs for wavelengths between 200 nm and 400 nm. The gain factor ranges up to 5 . 4 ± 0 . 5 at a wavelength of 215 nm, with a material load of 110 ± 10 μg /cm2 (894 nm). The wavelength shifter was found to be fully transparent for wavelengths greater than 300 nm. The resulting gain in detection efficiency, when used in a typical C̆erenkov counter, was estimated to be of the order of 40%. Consistent coating quality was assured by a rapid gain testing procedure using narrow-band UV LEDs. Based on these results, 200 Photonis XP4500B PMTs were treated with PT for the upgraded low-threshold C̆erenkov counter (LTCC) to be used in the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer upgraded detector (CLAS12) at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility.

  2. Enhanced UV light detection using a p-terphenyl wavelength shifter

    DOE PAGES

    Joosten, Sylvester J.; Kaczanowicz, Ed; Ungaro, Maurizio; ...

    2017-07-25

    Here, UV-glass photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) have poor photon detection efficiency for wavelengths belowmore » $$300\\,\\text{nm}$$ due to the opaqueness of the window material. Costly quartz PMTs could be used to enhance the efficiency below $$300\\,\\text{nm}$$. A less expensive solution that dramatically improves this efficiency is the application of a thin film of a p-terphenyl (PT) wavelength shifter on UV-glass PMTs. This improvement was quantified for Photonis XP4500B PMTs for wavelengths between $$200\\,\\text{nm}$$ and $$400\\,\\text{nm}$$. The gain factor ranges up to 5.4 $$\\pm$$ 0.5 at a wavelength of $$215\\,\\text{nm}$$, with a material load of $$110\\pm10\\,\\mu\\text{g}/\\text{cm}^2$$ ($$894\\,\\text{nm}$$). The wavelength shifter was found to be fully transparent for wavelengths greater than $$300\\,\\text{nm}$$. The resulting gain in detection efficiency, when used in a typical Cherenkov counter, was estimated to be of the order of 40%. Consistent coating quality was assured by a rapid gain testing procedure using narrow-band UV LEDs. Based on these results, 200 Photonis XP4500B PMTs were treated with PT for the upgraded low-threshold Cherenkov counter (LTCC) to be used in the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer upgraded detector (CLAS12) at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility.« less

  3. Interactive Effects of UV-B Light with Abiotic Factors on Plant Growth and Chemistry, and Their Consequences for Defense against Arthropod Herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Escobar-Bravo, Rocio; Klinkhamer, Peter G. L.; Leiss, Kirsten A.

    2017-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) light plays a crucial role in plant–herbivorous arthropods interactions by inducing changes in constitutive and inducible plant defenses. In particular, constitutive defenses can be modulated by UV-B-induced photomorphogenic responses and changes in the plant metabolome. In accordance, the prospective use of UV-B light as a tool to increase plant protection in agricultural practice has gained increasing interest. Changes in the environmental conditions might, however, modulate the UV-B -induced plant responses. While in some cases plant responses to UV-B can increase adaptation to changes in certain abiotic factors, UV-B-induced responses might be also antagonized by the changing environment. The outcome of these interactions might have a great influence on how plants interact with their enemies, e.g., herbivorous arthropods. Here, we provide a review on the interactive effects of UV-B and light quantity and quality, increased temperature and drought stress on plant biochemistry, and we discuss the implications of the outcome of these interactions for plant resistance to arthropod pests. PMID:28303147

  4. Persistence of Vibrio vulnificus in tissues of Gulf Coast oysters, Crassostrea virginica, exposed to seawater disinfected with UV light.

    PubMed

    Tamplin, M L; Capers, G M

    1992-05-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is an estuarine bacterium which can cause opportunistic infections in humans consuming raw Gulf Coast oysters, Crassostrea virginica. Although V. vulnificus is known as a ubiquitous organism in the Gulf of Mexico, its ecological relationship with C. virginica has not been adequately defined. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that V. vulnificus is a persistent microbial flora of oysters and unamenable to traditional methods of controlled purification, such as UV light depuration. Experimental depuration systems consisted of aquaria containing temperature-controlled seawater treated with UV light and 0.2-microns-pore-size filtration. V. vulnificus was enumerated in seawater, oyster shell biofilms, homogenates of whole oyster meats, and tissues including the hemolymph, digestive region, gills, mantle, and adductor muscle. Results showed that depuration systems conducted at temperatures greater than 23 degrees C caused V. vulnificus counts to increase in oysters, especially in the hemolymph, adductor muscle, and mantle. Throughout the process, depuration water contained high concentrations of V. vulnificus, indicating that the disinfection properties of UV radiation and 0.2-microns-pore-size filtration were less than the rate at which V. vulnificus was released into seawater. Approximately 10(5) to 10(6) V. vulnificus organisms were released from each oyster per hour, with 0.05 to 35% originating from shell surfaces. These surfaces contained greater than 10(3) V. vulnificus organisms per cm2. In contrast, when depuration seawater was maintained at 15 degrees C, V. vulnificus was not detected in seawater and multiplication in oyster tissues was inhibited.

  5. Luminescence properties of Ca2 Ga2 SiO7 :RE phosphors for UV white-light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Mengmeng; Lv, Wenzhen; Lü, Wei; Zhao, Qi; Shao, Baiqi; You, Hongpeng

    2015-03-16

    A series of Eu(2+) -, Ce(3+) -, and Tb(3+) -doped Ca2 Ga2 SiO7 phosphors is synthesized by using a high-temperature solid-state reaction. The powder X-ray diffraction and structure refinement data indicate that our prepared phosphors are single phased and the phosphor crystalizes in a tetrahedral system with the ${P\\bar 42m}$ (113) space group. The Eu(2+) - and Ce(3+) -doped phosphors both have broad excitation bands, which match well with the UV light-emitting diodes chips. Under irradiation of λ=350 nm, Ca2 Ga2 SiO7 :Eu(2+) and Ca2 Ga2 SiO7 :Ce(3+) , Li(+) have green and blue emissions, respectively. Luminescence of Ca2 Ga2 SiO7 :Tb(3+) , Li(+) phosphor varies with the different Tb(3+) contents. The thermal stability and energy-migration mechanism of Ca2 Ga2 SiO7 :Eu(2+) are also studied. The investigation results indicate that the prepared Ca2 Ga2 SiO7 :Eu(2+) and Ca2 Ga2 SiO7 :Ce(3+) , Li(+) samples show potential as green and blue phosphors, respectively, for UV-excited white-light-emitting diodes. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Absorbance detector for high performance liquid chromatography based on a deep-UV light-emitting diode at 235nm.

    PubMed

    da Silveira Petruci, João Flavio; Liebetanz, Michael G; Cardoso, Arnaldo Alves; Hauser, Peter C

    2017-08-25

    In this communication, we describe a flow-through optical absorption detector for HPLC using for the first time a deep-UV light-emitting diode with an emission band at 235nm as light source. The detector is also comprised of a UV-sensitive photodiode positioned to enable measurement of radiation through a flow-through cuvette with round aperture of 1mm diameter and optical path length of 10mm, and a second one positioned as reference photodiode; a beam splitter and a power supply. The absorbance was measured and related to the analyte concentration by emulating the Lambert-Beer law with a log-ratio amplifier circuitry. This detector showed noise levels of 0.30mAU, which is comparable with our previous LED-based detectors employing LEDs at 280 and 255nm. The detector was coupled to a HPLC system and successfully evaluated for the determination of the anti-diabetic drugs pioglitazone and glimepiride in an isocratic separation and the benzodiazepines flurazepam, oxazepam and clobazam in a gradient elution. Good linearities (r>0.99), a precision better than 0.85% and limits of detection at sub-ppm levels were achieved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Structural and photocatalytic studies of hydrothermally synthesized Mn2+-TiO2 nanoparticles under UV and visible light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamble, Ravi; Sabale, Sandip; Chikode, Prashant; Puri, Vijaya; Mahajan, Smita

    2016-11-01

    Pure TiO2 and Mn2+-TiO2 nanoparticles have been prepared by simple hydrothermal method with different Mn2+ concentrations. Obtained samples were analysed to determine it’s structural, optical, morphological and compositional properties using x-ray diffraction, UV-DRS, Raman, photoluminescence, XPS, TEM and EDS analysis. The EDS micrograph confirms the existence of Mn2+ atoms in TiO2 matrix with 0.86, 1.60 and 1.90 wt%. The crystallite size as well as band gap decreases with increase in Mn2+ concentration. The average particle size obtained from TEM was found 8-11 nm which is in good agreement with XRD results. Raman bands at 640, 518 and 398 cm-1 further confirmed pure phase anatase in all samples. XPS shows the proper substitutions of few sites of Ti4+ ions by Mn2+ ions in the TiO2 host lattice. The intensity of PL spectra for Mn2+-TiO2 shows a gradual decrease in the peak intensity with increasing Mn2+ concentration in TiO2, it implies lower electron-hole recombination rate as Mn2+ ions increases. The obtained samples were further studied for its photocatalytic activities using malachite green dye under UV light and visible light.

  8. Using resonance light scattering and UV/vis absorption spectroscopy to study the interaction between gliclazide and bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiu-Ju; Liu, Bao-Sheng; Li, Gai-Xia; Han, Rong

    2016-08-01

    At different temperatures (298, 310 and 318 K), the interaction between gliclazide and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated using fluorescence quenching spectroscopy, resonance light scattering spectroscopy and UV/vis absorption spectroscopy. The first method studied changes in the fluorescence of BSA on addition of gliclazide, and the latter two methods studied the spectral change in gliclazide while BSA was being added. The results indicated that the quenching mechanism between BSA and gliclazide was static. The binding constant (Ka ), number of binding sites (n), thermodynamic parameters, binding forces and Hill's coefficient were calculated at three temperatures. Values for the binding constant obtained using resonance light scattering and UV/vis absorption spectroscopy were much greater than those obtained from fluorescence quenching spectroscopy, indicating that methods monitoring gliclazide were more accurate and reasonable. In addition, the results suggest that other residues are involved in the reaction and the mode 'point to surface' existed in the interaction between BSA and gliclazide. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Energy transfer and colour tunability in UV light induced Tm3+/Tb3+/Eu3+: ZnB glasses generating white light emission.

    PubMed

    Naresh, V; Gupta, Kiran; Parthasaradhi Reddy, C; Ham, Byoung S

    2017-03-15

    A promising energy transfer (Tm 3+ →Tb 3+ →Eu 3+ ) approach is brought forward to generate white light emission under ultraviolet (UV) light excitation for solid state lightening. Tm 3+ /Tb 3+ /Eu 3+ ions are combinedly doped in zinc borate glass system in view of understanding energy transfer process resulting in white light emission. Zinc borate (host) glass displayed optical and luminescence properties due to formation of Zn(II) x -[O(-II)] y centres in the ZnB glass matrix. At 360nm (UV) excitation, triply doped Tm 3+ /Tb 3+ /Eu 3+ : ZnB glasses simultaneously shown their characteristic emission bands in blue (454nm: 1 D 2 → 3 F 4 ), green (547nm: 5 D 4 → 7 F 5 ) and red (616nm: 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 ) regions. In triple ions doped glasses, energy transfer dynamics is discussed in terms of Forster-Dexter theory, excitation & emission profiles, lifetime curves and from partial energy level diagram of three ions. The role of Tb 3+ in ET from Tm 3+ →Eu 3+ was discussed using branch model. From emission decay analysis, energy transfer probability (P) and efficiency (η) were evaluated. Colour tunability from blue to white on varying (Tb 3+ , Eu 3+ ) content is demonstrated from Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates. Based on chromaticity coordinates, other colour related parameters like correlated colour temperature (CCT) and colour purity are also computed for the studied glass samples. An appropriate blending of such combination of rare earth ions could show better suitability as potential candidates in achieving multi-colour and warm/cold white light emission for white LEDs application in the field of solid state lightening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Energy transfer and colour tunability in UV light induced Tm3 +/Tb3 +/Eu3 +: ZnB glasses generating white light emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naresh, V.; Gupta, Kiran; Parthasaradhi Reddy, C.; Ham, Byoung S.

    2017-03-01

    A promising energy transfer (Tm3 + → Tb3 + → Eu3 +) approach is brought forward to generate white light emission under ultraviolet (UV) light excitation for solid state lightening. Tm3 +/Tb3 +/Eu3 + ions are combinedly doped in zinc borate glass system in view of understanding energy transfer process resulting in white light emission. Zinc borate (host) glass displayed optical and luminescence properties due to formation of Zn(II)x-[O(- II)]y centres in the ZnB glass matrix. At 360 nm (UV) excitation, triply doped Tm3 +/Tb3 +/Eu3 +: ZnB glasses simultaneously shown their characteristic emission bands in blue (454 nm: 1D2 → 3F4), green (547 nm: 5D4 → 7F5) and red (616 nm: 5D0 → 7F2) regions. In triple ions doped glasses, energy transfer dynamics is discussed in terms of Forster-Dexter theory, excitation & emission profiles, lifetime curves and from partial energy level diagram of three ions. The role of Tb3 + in ET from Tm3 + → Eu3 + was discussed using branch model. From emission decay analysis, energy transfer probability (P) and efficiency (η) were evaluated. Colour tunability from blue to white on varying (Tb3 +, Eu3 +) content is demonstrated from Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates. Based on chromaticity coordinates, other colour related parameters like correlated colour temperature (CCT) and colour purity are also computed for the studied glass samples. An appropriate blending of such combination of rare earth ions could show better suitability as potential candidates in achieving multi-colour and warm/cold white light emission for white LEDs application in the field of solid state lightening.

  11. Fabrication of white light-emitting diodes based on UV light-emitting diodes with conjugated polymers-(CdSe/ZnS) quantum dots as hybrid phosphors.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyunchul; Chung, Wonkeun; Lee, Chang Hun; Kim, Sung Hyun

    2012-07-01

    White light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were fabricated using GaN-based 380-nm UV LEDs precoated with the composite of blue-emitting polymer (poly[(9,9-dihexylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-alt-co-(2-methoxy-5-{2-ethylhexyloxy)-1 ,4-phenylene)]), yellow green-emitting polymer (poly[(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-co-(1,4-benzo-{2,1',3}-thiadiazole)]), and 605-nm red-emitting quantum dots (QDs). CdSe cores were obtained by solvothermal route using CdO, Se precursors and ZnS shells were synthesized by using diethylzinc, and hexamethyldisilathiane precursors. The optical properties of CdSe/ZnS QDs were characterized by UV-visible and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The structural data and composition of the QDs were transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and EDX technique. The quantum yield and size of the QDs were 58.7% and about 6.7 nm, respectively. Three-band white light was generated by hybridizing blue (430 nm), green (535 nm), and red (605 nm) emission. The color-rendering index (CRI) of the device was extremely improved by introducing the QDs. The CIE-1931 chromaticity coordinate, color temperature, and CRI of a white LED at 20 mA were (0.379, 0.368), 3969 K, and 90, respectively.

  12. All-photonic drying and sintering process via flash white light combined with deep-UV and near-infrared irradiation for highly conductive copper nano-ink

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Hyun-Jun; Oh, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2016-01-01

    We developed an ultra-high speed photonic sintering method involving flash white light (FWL) combined with near infrared (NIR) and deep UV light irradiation to produce highly conductive copper nano-ink film. Flash white light irradiation energy and the power of NIR/deep UV were optimized to obtain high conductivity Cu films. Several microscopic and spectroscopic characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), a x-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were employed to characterize the Cu nano-films. Optimally sintered Cu nano-ink films produced using a deep UV-assisted flash white light sintering technique had the lowest resistivity (7.62 μΩ·cm), which was only 4.5-fold higher than that of bulk Cu film (1.68 μΩ•cm). PMID:26806215

  13. All-photonic drying and sintering process via flash white light combined with deep-UV and near-infrared irradiation for highly conductive copper nano-ink.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyun-Jun; Oh, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2016-01-25

    We developed an ultra-high speed photonic sintering method involving flash white light (FWL) combined with near infrared (NIR) and deep UV light irradiation to produce highly conductive copper nano-ink film. Flash white light irradiation energy and the power of NIR/deep UV were optimized to obtain high conductivity Cu films. Several microscopic and spectroscopic characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), a x-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were employed to characterize the Cu nano-films. Optimally sintered Cu nano-ink films produced using a deep UV-assisted flash white light sintering technique had the lowest resistivity (7.62 μΩ·cm), which was only 4.5-fold higher than that of bulk Cu film (1.68 μΩ•cm).

  14. Shedding Light on the Role of UV Exposure in Melanoma | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    When a cell is exposed to UV radiation, the chemical makeup of its DNA is changed in a specific manner, resulting in a recognizable modification that can be measured by scientists. These changes are normally detected and fixed by cellular mechanisms for DNA repair. However, if the damage is extensive or if a cell has defective DNA repair machinery, permanent mutations can be produced with harmful consequences for the cell. If the mutation occurs within the gene for a protein that regulates cellular growth, the development of cancer is possible.

  15. Can narrow-bandwidth light from UV-A to green alter secondary plant metabolism and increase Brassica plant defenses against aphids?

    PubMed Central

    Neugart, Susanne; Schreiner, Monika; Wu, Sasa; Poehling, Hans-Michael

    2017-01-01

    Light of different wavelengths is essential for plant growth and development. Short-wavelength radiation such as UV can shift the composition of flavonoids, glucosinolates, and other plant metabolites responsible for enhanced defense against certain herbivorous insects. The intensity of light-induced, metabolite-based resistance is plant- and insect species-specific and depends on herbivore feeding guild and specialization. The increasing use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in horticultural plant production systems in protected environments enables the creation of tailor-made light scenarios for improved plant cultivation and induced defense against herbivorous insects. In this study, broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) plants were grown in a climate chamber under broad spectra photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) and were additionally treated with the following narrow-bandwidth light generated with LEDs: UV-A (365 nm), violet (420 nm), blue (470 nm), or green (515 nm). We determined the influence of narrow-bandwidth light on broccoli plant growth, secondary plant metabolism (flavonol glycosides and glucosinolates), and plant-mediated light effects on the performance and behavior of the specialized cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae. Green light increased plant height more than UV-A, violet, or blue LED treatments. Among flavonol glycosides, specific quercetin and kaempferol glycosides were increased under violet light. The concentration of 3-indolylmethyl glucosinolate in plants was increased by UV-A treatment. B. brassicae performance was not influenced by the different light qualities, but in host-choice tests, B. brassicae preferred previously blue-illuminated plants (but not UV-A-, violet-, or green-illuminated plants) over control plants. PMID:29190278

  16. Can narrow-bandwidth light from UV-A to green alter secondary plant metabolism and increase Brassica plant defenses against aphids?

    PubMed

    Rechner, Ole; Neugart, Susanne; Schreiner, Monika; Wu, Sasa; Poehling, Hans-Michael

    2017-01-01

    Light of different wavelengths is essential for plant growth and development. Short-wavelength radiation such as UV can shift the composition of flavonoids, glucosinolates, and other plant metabolites responsible for enhanced defense against certain herbivorous insects. The intensity of light-induced, metabolite-based resistance is plant- and insect species-specific and depends on herbivore feeding guild and specialization. The increasing use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in horticultural plant production systems in protected environments enables the creation of tailor-made light scenarios for improved plant cultivation and induced defense against herbivorous insects. In this study, broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) plants were grown in a climate chamber under broad spectra photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) and were additionally treated with the following narrow-bandwidth light generated with LEDs: UV-A (365 nm), violet (420 nm), blue (470 nm), or green (515 nm). We determined the influence of narrow-bandwidth light on broccoli plant growth, secondary plant metabolism (flavonol glycosides and glucosinolates), and plant-mediated light effects on the performance and behavior of the specialized cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae. Green light increased plant height more than UV-A, violet, or blue LED treatments. Among flavonol glycosides, specific quercetin and kaempferol glycosides were increased under violet light. The concentration of 3-indolylmethyl glucosinolate in plants was increased by UV-A treatment. B. brassicae performance was not influenced by the different light qualities, but in host-choice tests, B. brassicae preferred previously blue-illuminated plants (but not UV-A-, violet-, or green-illuminated plants) over control plants.

  17. Mono- and bimetallic nanoparticles decorated KTaO3 photocatalysts with improved Vis and UV-Vis light activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krukowska, Anna; Trykowski, Grzegorz; Winiarski, Michal Jerzy; Klimczuk, Tomasz; Lisowski, Wojciech; Mikolajczyk, Alicja; Pinto, Henry P.; Zaleska-Medynska, Adriana

    2018-05-01

    Novel mono- and bimetallic nanoparticles (MNPs and BNPs) decorated surface of perovskite-type KTaO3 photocatalysts were successfully synthesized by hydrothermal reaction of KTaO3 followed by photodeposition of MNPs/BNPs. The effect of noble metal type (MNPs = Au, Ag, Pt, Pd, Rh, Ru or BNPs = Au/Pt, Ag/Pd, Rh/Ru), amount of metal precursor (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 or 2.0 wt%) as well as photoreduction method (simultaneous (both) or subsequent (seq) deposition of two metals) on the physicochemical and photocatalytic properties of MNPs- and BNPs-KTaO3 have been investigated. All as-prepared photocatalysts were subsequently characterized by UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area and pore size distribution measurement, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and photoluminescence (PL) emission spectroscopy. The crystal structure was performed using visualization for electronic and structural analysis (VESTA). The photocatalytic activity under Vis light irradiation was estimated in phenol degradation in aqueous phase and toluene removal in gas phase, while under UV-Vis light irradiation was measured amount of H2 generation from formic acid solution. The absorption properties of O2 and H2O molecules on KTaO3(1 0 0) surface supported by Au or Au/Pt NPs was also investigated using density-functional theory (DFT). The experimental results show that, both MNPs-KTaO3 and BNPs-KTaO3 exhibit greatly enhanced pollutant decomposition efficiency under Vis light irradiation and highly improved H2 production under UV-Vis light irradiation compared with pristine KTaO3. MNPs deposition on KTaO3 surface effects by disperse metal particle size ranging from 11 nm (Ru NPs) to 112 nm (Au NPs). Simultaneous addition of Au/Pt precursors results in formation of agglomerated

  18. VUV/UV light inducing accelerated phenol degradation with a low electric input.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengkai; Wen, Dong; Qiang, Zhimin; Kiwi, John

    2017-01-23

    This study presents the first evidence for the accelerated degradation of phenol by Fenton's reagent in a mini-fluidic VUV/UV photoreaction system (MVPS). A low-pressure mercury lamp used in the MVPS led to a complete degradation of phenol within 4-6 min. The HO˙ and HO 2 ˙ originating from both Fenton's reagent and VUV photolysis of water were identified with suitable radical scavengers. The effects of initial concentrations of phenol, H 2 O 2 and Fe 3+ as well as solution pH on phenol degradation kinetics were examined. Increasing the initial phenol concentration slowed down the phenol degradation, whereas increasing the initial H 2 O 2 or Fe 3+ concentration accelerated the phenol degradation. The optimal solution pH was 3.7. At both 254 and 185 nm, increasing phenol concentration enhanced its absorption for the incident photons. The reaction mechanism for the degradation of phenol was suggested consistent with the results obtained. This study indicates that the VUV/UV photo-Fenton process has potential applications in the treatment of industrial wastewater containing phenol and related aromatic pollutants.

  19. Luminescence and conductivity studies on CVD diamond exposed to UV light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizzarri, A.; Bogani, F.; Bruzzi, M.; Sciortino, S.

    1999-04-01

    The photoluminescence (PL), thermoluminescence (TL) and thermally stimulated currents (TSC) of four high-quality CVD diamond films have been investigated in the range of temperatures between 300 and 700 K. The sample excitation has been carried out by means of an UV xenon lamp and UV laser lines. The features of the signals have been found equal to those obtained from particle excitation. The TL analysis shows the existence of several deep traps with activation energies between 0.6 and 1.0 eV. The contribution to the TL signal from different traps has been singled out by means of successive annealing processes. The TL results are in good agreement with those obtained from TSC measurements. The combined use of the two techniques allows a precise determination of the trap parameters. The spectral content of the TL response has also been compared with the PL signal in order to investigate the recombination process. This analysis shows that, in this temperature range, the TL signal is likely due to recombination from bound states rather than due to radiative free to bound transitions, as generally assumed in TL theory. The TSC signal is likely to arise from impurity band rather than from free carriers conduction.

  20. Titania nanotubes prepared by rapid breakdown anodization for photocatalytic decolorization of organic dyes under UV and natural solar light.

    PubMed

    Ali, Saima; Granbohm, Henrika; Lahtinen, Jouko; Hannula, Simo-Pekka

    2018-06-14

    Titania nanotube (TNT) powder was prepared by rapid breakdown anodization (RBA) in a perchloric acid electrolyte. The photocatalytic efficiency of the as-prepared and powders annealed at temperatures between 250 and 550 °C was tested under UV and natural sunlight irradiation by decolorization of both anionic and cationic organic dyes, i.e., methyl orange (MO) and rhodamine B (RhB), as model pollutants. The tubular structure of the nanotubes was retained up to 250 °C, while at 350 °C and above, the nanotubes transformed into nanorods and nanoparticles. Depending on the annealing temperature, the TNTs consist of anatase, mixed anatase/brookite, or anatase/rutile phases. The bandgap of the as-prepared nanotubes is 3.04 eV, and it shifts towards the visible light region upon annealing. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results show the presence of titania and impurities including chlorine on the surface of the TNTs. The atomic ratio of Ti/O remains unchanged for the annealed TNTs, but the concentration of chlorine decreases with temperature. The photoluminescence (PL) indicate high electron-hole recombination for the as-prepared TNTs, probably due to the residual impurities, low crystallinity, and vacancies in the structure, while the highest photocurrent was observed for the TNT sample annealed at 450 °C. The TNTs induce a small degradation of the dyes under UV light; however, contrary to previous reports, complete decolorization of dyes is observed under sunlight. All TNT samples showed higher decolorization rates under sunlight irradiation than under UV light. The highest reaction rate for the TNT samples was obtained for the as-prepared TNT powder sample under sunlight using RhB (κ 1  = 1.29 h -1 ). This is attributed to the bandgap, specific surface area and the crystal structure of the nanotubes. The as-prepared TNTs performed most efficiently for decolorization of RhB and outperformed the reference anatase powder under sunlight irradiation

  1. Tunable UV- and Visible-Light Photoresponse Based on p-ZnO Nanostructures/n-ZnO/Glass Peppered with Au Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Cheng-Liang; Lin, Yu-Hong; Wang, Liang-Kai; Hsueh, Ting-Jen; Chang, Sheng-Po; Chang, Shoou-Jinn

    2017-05-03

    UV- and visible-light photoresponse was achieved via p-type K-doped ZnO nanowires and nanosheets that were hydrothermally synthesized on an n-ZnO/glass substrate and peppered with Au nanoparticles. The K content of the p-ZnO nanostructures was 0.36 atom %. The UV- and visible-light photoresponse of the p-ZnO nanostructures/n-ZnO sample was roughly 2 times higher than that of the ZnO nanowires. The Au nanoparticles of various densities and diameter sizes were deposited on the p-ZnO nanostructures/n-ZnO samples by a simple UV photochemical reaction method yielding a tunable and enhanced UV- and visible-light photoresponse. The maximum UV and visible photoresponse of the Au nanoparticle sample was obtained when the diameter size of the Au nanoparticle was approximately 5-35 nm. On the basis of the localized surface plasmon resonance effect, the UV, blue, and green photocurrent/dark current ratios of Au nanoparticle/p-ZnO nanostructures/n-ZnO are ∼1165, ∼94.6, and ∼9.7, respectively.

  2. Light - Instead of UV Protection: New Requirements for Skin Cancer Prevention.

    PubMed

    Zastrow, Leonhard; Lademann, Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    The requirements on sunscreens have essentially changed, since some years ago it was demonstrated that approximately 50% of free radicals, that are formed in the skin by solar radiation, originate from the visible and infrared regions of the solar spectrum. In addition, a critical radical concentration threshold could be found. If this concentration, the free radical threshold value (FRTV), is exceeded, sunburn, immunosuppression and skin cancer may develop. Application of sunscreens and lotions protects against sunburn in the UV region of the solar spectrum and therefore is frequently used to extend people's stay in the sun. However, this behaviour can enhance the concentration of free radicals formed in the visible and infrared regions of the solar spectrum, so that the critical radical threshold is exceeded and the skin may be damaged. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  3. Protection from UV light is an evolutionarily conserved feature of the haematopoietic niche

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kapp, Friedrich G.; Perlin, Julie R.; Hagedorn, Elliott J.; Gansner, John M.; Schwarz, Daniel E.; O'Connell, Lauren A.; Johnson, Nicholas; Amemiya, Chris; Fisher, David E.; Wolfle, Ute; Trompouki, Eirini; Niemeyer, Charlotte M.; Driever, Wolfgang; Zon, Leonard I.

    2018-01-01

    Haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) require a specific microenvironment, the haematopoietic niche, which regulates HSPC behaviour. The location of this niche varies across species, but the evolutionary pressures that drive HSPCs to different microenvironments remain unknown. The niche is located in the bone marrow in adult mammals, whereas it is found in other locations in non-mammalian vertebrates, for example, in the kidney marrow in teleost fish. Here we show that a melanocyte umbrella above the kidney marrow protects HSPCs against ultraviolet light in zebrafish. Because mutants that lack melanocytes have normal steady-state haematopoiesis under standard laboratory conditions, we hypothesized that melanocytes above the stem cell niche protect HSPCs against ultraviolet-light-induced DNA damage. Indeed, after ultraviolet-light irradiation, unpigmented larvae show higher levels of DNA damage in HSPCs, as indicated by staining of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and have reduced numbers of HSPCs, as shown by cmyb (also known as myb) expression. The umbrella of melanocytes associated with the haematopoietic niche is highly evolutionarily conserved in aquatic animals, including the sea lamprey, a basal vertebrate. During the transition from an aquatic to a terrestrial environment, HSPCs relocated into the bone marrow, which is protected from ultraviolet light by the cortical bone around the marrow. Our studies reveal that melanocytes above the haematopoietic niche protect HSPCs from ultraviolet-light-induced DNA damage in aquatic vertebrates and suggest that during the transition to terrestrial life, ultraviolet light was an evolutionary pressure affecting the location of the haematopoietic niche.

  4. Protection from UV light is an evolutionarily conserved feature of the haematopoietic niche.

    PubMed

    Kapp, Friedrich G; Perlin, Julie R; Hagedorn, Elliott J; Gansner, John M; Schwarz, Daniel E; O'Connell, Lauren A; Johnson, Nicholas S; Amemiya, Chris; Fisher, David E; Wölfle, Ute; Trompouki, Eirini; Niemeyer, Charlotte M; Driever, Wolfgang; Zon, Leonard I

    2018-06-01

    Haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) require a specific microenvironment, the haematopoietic niche, which regulates HSPC behaviour 1,2 . The location of this niche varies across species, but the evolutionary pressures that drive HSPCs to different microenvironments remain unknown. The niche is located in the bone marrow in adult mammals, whereas it is found in other locations in non-mammalian vertebrates, for example, in the kidney marrow in teleost fish. Here we show that a melanocyte umbrella above the kidney marrow protects HSPCs against ultraviolet light in zebrafish. Because mutants that lack melanocytes have normal steady-state haematopoiesis under standard laboratory conditions, we hypothesized that melanocytes above the stem cell niche protect HSPCs against ultraviolet-light-induced DNA damage. Indeed, after ultraviolet-light irradiation, unpigmented larvae show higher levels of DNA damage in HSPCs, as indicated by staining of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and have reduced numbers of HSPCs, as shown by cmyb (also known as myb) expression. The umbrella of melanocytes associated with the haematopoietic niche is highly evolutionarily conserved in aquatic animals, including the sea lamprey, a basal vertebrate. During the transition from an aquatic to a terrestrial environment, HSPCs relocated into the bone marrow, which is protected from ultraviolet light by the cortical bone around the marrow. Our studies reveal that melanocytes above the haematopoietic niche protect HSPCs from ultraviolet-light-induced DNA damage in aquatic vertebrates and suggest that during the transition to terrestrial life, ultraviolet light was an evolutionary pressure affecting the location of the haematopoietic niche.

  5. Treatment of blood with a pathogen reduction technology using UV light and riboflavin inactivates Ebola virus in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Cap, Andrew P.; Pidcoke, Heather F.; Keil, Shawn D.; Staples, Hilary M.; Anantpadma, Manu; Carrion, Ricardo; Davey, Robert A.; Frazer-Abel, Ashley; Taylor, Audra L.; Gonzales, Richard; Patterson, Jean L.; Goodrich, Raymond P.

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND Transfusion of plasma from recovered patients after Ebolavirus (EBOV) infection, typically called ‘convalescent plasma,’ is an effective treatment for active disease available in endemic areas, but carries the risk of introducing other pathogens, including other strains of EBOV. A pathogen reduction technology using ultraviolet light and riboflavin (UV + RB) is effective against multiple enveloped, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses that are similar in structure to EBOV. We hypothesized that UV + RB is effective against EBOV in blood products without activating complement or reducing protective immunoglobulin titers that are important for the treatment of ebolavirus disease (EVD). STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Four in vitro experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of UV + RB on green fluorescent protein EBOV (EBOV-GFP), wild-type EBOV in serum and whole blood, respectively, and on immunoglobulins and complement in plasma. Initial titers for Experiments 1–3 were: 4.21 log10 GFP units/mL, 4.96 log10 infectious units per mL, and 4.23 log10 plaque forming units per mL (PFU/mL). Conditions tested in the first three experiments included: 1. EBOV-GFP + UV + RB; 2. EBOV-GFP + RB only; 3 EBOV-GFP + UV only; 4. EBOV-GFP without RB or UV; 5. Virus-free control + UV only; and 6. Virus-free control without RB or UV. RESULTS UV + RB reduced EBOV titers to non-detectable levels in both non-human primate serum (≥ 2.8 to 3.2 log reduction) and human whole blood (≥ 3.0 log reduction) without decreasing protective antibody titers in human plasma. CONCLUSION Our in vitro results demonstrate that the UV + RB treatment efficiently reduces EBOV titers to below limits of detection in both serum and whole blood. In vivo testing to determine whether UV + RB can improve convalescent blood product safety is indicated. PMID:27001363

  6. Polar and semipolar GaN/Al0.5Ga0.5N nanostructures for UV light emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brault, J.; Rosales, D.; Damilano, B.; Leroux, M.; Courville, A.; Korytov, M.; Chenot, S.; Vennéguès, P.; Vinter, B.; De Mierry, P.; Kahouli, A.; Massies, J.; Bretagnon, T.; Gil, B.

    2014-06-01

    AlxGa1-xN-based ultra-violet (UV) light emitting diodes (LEDs) are seen as the best solution for the replacement of traditional mercury lamp technology. By adjusting the Al concentration, a large emission spectrum range from 360 nm (GaN) down to 200 nm (AlN) can be covered. Owing to the large density of defects typically present in AlxGa1-xN materials usually grown on sapphire substrates, LED efficiencies still need to be improved. Taking advantage of the 3D carrier confinement, quantum dots (QDs) are among the solutions currently under investigation to improve the performances of UV LEDs. The objectives of this work are to present and discuss the morphological and optical properties of GaN nanostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy on the (0 0 0 1) and the (11-22) orientations of Al0.5Ga0.5N. In particular, the dependence of the morphological properties of the nanostructures on the growth conditions and the surface orientation will be presented. The optical characteristics as a function of the nanostructure design (size, shape and dimensionality) will also be shown and discussed. The electroluminescence characteristics of a first series of QD-based GaN/Al0.5Ga0.5N LEDs grown on the polar (0 0 0 1) plane will be investigated.

  7. Monitoring light-induced structural changes of Channelrhodopsin-2 by UV-visible and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Eglof; Stehfest, Katja; Berndt, Andre; Hegemann, Peter; Bartl, Franz J

    2008-12-12

    Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) is a microbial type rhodopsin and a light-gated cation channel that controls phototaxis in Chlamydomonas. We expressed ChR2 in COS-cells, purified it, and subsequently investigated this unusual photoreceptor by flash photolysis and UV-visible and Fourier transform infrared difference spectroscopy. Several transient photoproducts of the wild type ChR2 were identified, and their kinetics and molecular properties were compared with those of the ChR2 mutant E90Q. Based on the spectroscopic data we developed a model of the photocycle comprising six distinguishable intermediates. This photocycle shows similarities to the photocycle of the ChR2-related Channelrhodopsin of Volvox but also displays significant differences. We show that molecular changes include retinal isomerization, changes in hydrogen bonding of carboxylic acids, and large alterations of the protein backbone structure. These alterations are stronger than those observed in the photocycle of other microbial rhodopsins like bacteriorhodopsin and are related to those occurring in animal rhodopsins. UV-visible and Fourier transform infrared difference spectroscopy revealed two late intermediates with different time constants of tau = 6 and 40 s that exist during the recovery of the dark state. The carboxylic side chain of Glu(90) is involved in the slow transition. The molecular changes during the ChR2 photocycle are discussed with respect to other members of the rhodopsin family.

  8. Monitoring Light-induced Structural Changes of Channelrhodopsin-2 by UV-visible and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy*

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, Eglof; Stehfest, Katja; Berndt, Andre; Hegemann, Peter; Bartl, Franz J.

    2008-01-01

    Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) is a microbial type rhodopsin and a light-gated cation channel that controls phototaxis in Chlamydomonas. We expressed ChR2 in COS-cells, purified it, and subsequently investigated this unusual photoreceptor by flash photolysis and UV-visible and Fourier transform infrared difference spectroscopy. Several transient photoproducts of the wild type ChR2 were identified, and their kinetics and molecular properties were compared with those of the ChR2 mutant E90Q. Based on the spectroscopic data we developed a model of the photocycle comprising six distinguishable intermediates. This photocycle shows similarities to the photocycle of the ChR2-related Channelrhodopsin of Volvox but also displays significant differences. We show that molecular changes include retinal isomerization, changes in hydrogen bonding of carboxylic acids, and large alterations of the protein backbone structure. These alterations are stronger than those observed in the photocycle of other microbial rhodopsins like bacteriorhodopsin and are related to those occurring in animal rhodopsins. UV-visible and Fourier transform infrared difference spectroscopy revealed two late intermediates with different time constants of τ = 6 and 40 s that exist during the recovery of the dark state. The carboxylic side chain of Glu90 is involved in the slow transition. The molecular changes during the ChR2 photocycle are discussed with respect to other members of the rhodopsin family. PMID:18927082

  9. Reduction of patulin in apple juice products by UV light of different wavelengths in the UVC range.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yan; Koutchma, Tatiana; Warriner, Keith; Zhou, Ting

    2014-06-01

    This study evaluated three UVC wavelengths (222, 254, and 282 nm) to degrade patulin introduced into apple juice or apple cider. The average UV fluences of 19.6, 84.3, 55.0, and 36.6 mJ·cm(-2) achieved through exposure to UV lamps at 222-, 254-, and 282-nm wavelengths and the combination of these wavelengths, respectively, resulted in 90% reduction of patulin in apple juice. Therefore, the order of efficiency of the three wavelength lamps was as follows: far UVC (222 nm) > far UVC plus (282 nm) > UVC (254 nm). In terms of color, treatment of apple juice with 222 nm resulted in an increase in the L* (lightness) value but decreases in a* (redness) and b* (yellowness) values, although the changes were insignificantly different from the values for nontreated controls based on a sensory evaluation. The ascorbic acid loss in juice treated at 222 nm to support 90% reduction of patulin was 36.5%, compared with ascorbic acid losses of 45.3 and 36.1% in samples treated at 254 and 282 nm, respectively. The current work demonstrated that the 222-nm wavelength possesses the highest efficiency for patulin reduction in apple juice when compared with the reductions by 254 and 282 nm, with no benefit gained from using a combination of wavelengths.

  10. Fluorescent minerals--A potential source of UV protection and visible light for the growth of green algae and cyanobacteria in extreme cosmic environments.

    PubMed

    Omairi, Tareq; Wainwright, Milton

    2015-07-01

    We propose that green algae (Chlorella variabilis and Dunaliella tertiolecta) and cyanobacteria (Synechococcus elongatus and Nostoc commune) can grow inside fluorescent rock minerals which convert damaging UV light to visible light, thereby allowing these organisms to survive and thrive in UV-rich environments without (or with limited) visible light, which would otherwise be inimical to them. The four microorganisms were incubated inside fluorescent rocks composed of fluorite, calcite and pyrite. The resultant growth was then measured following exposure to UV radiation, with the use of optical density and measurement of chlorophyll concentration. Results show that the microorganisms were shielded from harmful UV in these semi-transparent rocks, while at the same time benefiting from the fact that the minerals converted UV to visible light; this have been shown by a statistically significant increase in their growth, which although lower than when the cells were incubated in sunlight, was significantly higher than in controls incubated in the dark. Copyright © 2015 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dictating photoreactivity through restricted bond rotations: cross-photoaddition of atropisomeric acrylimide derivatives under UV/visible-light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Akila; Jockusch, Steffen; Sivaguru, J

    2014-11-13

    Nonbiaryl atropisomeric acrylimides underwent facile [2 + 2] photocycloaddition leading to cross-cyclobutane adducts with very high stereospecificity (enantiomeric excess (ee): 99% and diastereomeric excess (de): 99%). The photoreactions proceeded smoothly in isotropic media for both direct and triplet sensitized irradiations. The reactions were also found to be very efficient in the solid state where the same cross-cyclobutane adduct was observed. Photophysical studies enabled us to understand the excited-state photochemistry of acrylimides. The triplet energy was found to be ∼63 kcal/mol. The reactions proceeded predominantly via a singlet excited state upon direct irradiation with very poor intersystem crossing that was ascertained by quantification of the generated singlet oxygen. The reactions progressed smoothly with triplet sensitization with UV or visible-light irradiations. Laser flash photolysis experiments established the triplet transient of atropisomeric acrylimides with a triplet lifetime at room temperature of ∼40 ns.

  12. Assessment of a portable handheld UV light device for the disinfection of viruses and bacteria in water.

    PubMed

    Abd-Elmaksoud, Sherif; Naranjo, Jaime E; Gerba, Charles P

    2013-06-01

    Effective individual microbiological water purifiers are needed for consumption of untreated water sources by campers, emergency use, military, and in developing counties. A handheld UV light device was tested to assess if it could meet the virus reduction requirements established by the United State Environmental Protection Agency, National Science Foundation and the World Health Organization. The device was found capable of inactivating at least 4 log₁₀ of poliovirus type 1, rotavirus SA-11 and MS-2 virus in 500 mL volumes of general case test water. But in the presence of high turbidity and organic matter, filtration was necessary to achieve a 4 log₁₀ reduction of the test viruses.

  13. A study on heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation of various organic compounds using N-Tio2 under Uv-light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srujana, Dhegam; Sailu, Chinta

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the photocatalytic degradation of mixture of four selected organic compounds are Congo Red (CR), Methylene Blue (MB), Diclofenaec (DC), 4-Chlorophenol (4-CP) have been subjected to Photo catalytic degradation by Ultraviolet (λ=254nm) radiation in presence of Nitrogen-doped Titanium dioxide (N-TiO2) catalyst. This paper focused on the enhancement of photo catalysis by modification of TiO2 employing non-metal ion (Nitrogen) doping. Experiments are conducted with a mixture of equal proportions of organic compounds (CR, MB, DC, and 4-CP) with combined concentrations of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/l in water in a batch reactor in presence of N-TiO2catalyst with UV light (λ=254nm). The rate of degradation of each compound is determined by using spectrophotometer. The kinetics of degradation of the selected organic compounds is followed first order rate.

  14. Development of a new water sterilization device with a 365 nm UV-LED.

    PubMed

    Mori, Mirei; Hamamoto, Akiko; Takahashi, Akira; Nakano, Masayuki; Wakikawa, Noriko; Tachibana, Satoko; Ikehara, Toshitaka; Nakaya, Yutaka; Akutagawa, Masatake; Kinouchi, Yohsuke

    2007-12-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is an effective disinfection method. In sterilization equipment, a low-pressure mercury lamp emitting an effective germicidal UVC (254 nm) is used as the light source. However, the lamp, which contains mercury, must be disposed of at the end of its lifetime or following damage due to physical shock or vibration. We investigated the suitability of an ultraviolet light-emitting diode at an output wavelength of 365 nm (UVA-LED) as a sterilization device, comparing with the other wavelength irradiation such as 254 nm (a low-pressure mercury lam) and 405 nm (LED). We used a commercially available UVA-LED that emitted light at the shortest wavelength and at the highest output energy. The new sterilization system using the UVA-LED was able to inactivate bacteria, such as Escherichia coli DH5 alpha, Enteropathogenic E. coli, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. The inactivations of the bacteria were dependent on the accumulation of UVA irradiation. Taking advantage of the safety and compact size of LED devices, we expect that the UVA-LED sterilization device can be developed as a new type of water sterilization device.

  15. Impact on Vitamin D2, Vitamin D4 and Agaritine in Agaricus bisporus Mushrooms after Artificial and Natural Solar UV Light Exposure.

    PubMed

    Urbain, Paul; Valverde, Juan; Jakobsen, Jette

    2016-09-01

    Commercial mushroom production can expose mushrooms post-harvest to UV light for purposes of vitamin D2 enrichment by converting the naturally occurring provitamin D2 (ergosterol). The objectives of the present study were to artificially simulate solar UV-B doses occurring naturally in Central Europe and to investigate vitamin D2 and vitamin D4 production in sliced Agaricus bisporus (button mushrooms) and to analyse and compare the agaritine content of naturally and artificially UV-irradiated mushrooms. Agaritine was measured for safety aspects even though there is no rationale for a link between UV light exposure and agaritine content. The artificial UV-B dose of 0.53 J/cm(2) raised the vitamin D2 content to significantly (P < 0.001) higher levels of 67.1 ± 9.9 μg/g dry weight (DW) than sun exposure (3.9 ± 0.8 μg/g dry DW). We observed a positive correlation between vitamin D4 and vitamin D2 production (r(2) = 0.96, P < 0.001) after artificial UV irradiation, with vitamin D4 levels ranging from 0 to 20.9 μg/g DW. The agaritine content varied widely but remained within normal ranges in all samples. Irrespective of the irradiation source, agaritine dropped dramatically in conjunction with all UV-B doses both artificial and natural solar, probably due to its known instability. The biological action of vitamin D from UV-exposed mushrooms reflects the activity of these two major vitamin D analogues (D2, D4). Vitamin D4 should be analysed and agaritine disregarded in future studies of UV-exposed mushrooms.

  16. Mn2- x Y x (MoO4)3 Phosphor Excited by UV GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diode for White Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lung-Chien; Tseng, Zong-Liang; Hsu, Ting-Chun; Yang, Shengyi; Chen, Yuan-Bin

    2017-04-01

    One option for low-cost white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is the combination of a near-ultraviolet (UV) LED chip (382 nm) and a single phosphor. Such Mn2- x Y x (MoO4)3 single phosphors have been fabricated by a simple solid-state reaction route and their emission color tuned by controlling the Mn doping amount. The chromaticity coordinates of the white light emitted by the UV GaN LED with the MnY(MoO4)3 phosphor were x = 0.5204 and y = 0.4050 [correlated color temperature (CCT) = 7958 K].

  17. [Effect of UV Light Radiation on the Coagulation of Chlorella and Its Mechanism].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-dong; Zhang, Ke; Xu, Hong-bin; Liu, Guo-qi

    2016-01-15

    Considering algae were difficult to be effectively removed in conventional water treatment process, UV radiation was used to enhance the coagulation of algae in this study. The results showed that with the increase of radiation time, the removal rates of both algae and turbidity experienced a decrease after an increase, and reached their maximum values at 50 min. When the dosage of PAC was 5 mg x L(-1), the removal rates of algae and turbidity of the radiated sample were 20.1% and 18% higher than the blank sample, respectively. When pH ranged from 6 to 9, the coagulation efficiency varied little. At pH 8 and with a radiation time of 50 min, the removal rates of algae and turbidity reached 93.5% and 90.6%, respectively. Meanwhile, the Zeta potential reached the maximum, and the algae generated extracellular organic matter, which favored the subsequent coagulation. After radiated for 60 min, the algal cells was destroyed, leading to a release of intracellular organic matter into the solution. Accordingly, the Zeta potential decreased, which had a negative effect on the subsequent coagulation process.

  18. Degradation of photovoltaic backsheet materials under multi-factor accelerated UV light exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinke, Addison G.; Gok, Abdulkerim; Ifeanyi, Silas I.; French, Roger H.; Bruckman, Laura S.

    2017-08-01

    Long term outdoor durability of photovoltaic (PV) module backsheets is critical to a module's power output over its lifetime. The use of uoropolymer-based backsheets or the addition of stabilizers to polyethylene-terephthalate (PET) and polyamide (PA) type backsheets can help extend their lifetime. This study presents the performance of 21 backsheets made of 8 different material combinations under ASTM G154 Cycle 4 accelerated light exposures. The backsheets were subjected to 4000 hours of high irradiance UVA light at a peak intensity of 1.55 W=m2 at 340 nm at 70°C with and without a condensing humidity cycle at 50°C. Backsheets were evaluated, with repeated measurements, using various evaluation techniques to identify and assess potential signs of degradation. These evaluations included the yellowness index (YI), CIE color space coordinates, and gloss at 20, 60, and 85°. The temporal evolution of the relative color change ΔE was statistically analyzed to develop a stress-response model which used the UVA light dose to predict color change. It was found that the PVF/PET/E backsheet performed the best while PET/PET/E and THV/PET/EVA backsheets performed the worst. Additionally, substantial variation in color change response, attributable to key manufacturing differences, was observed within a given material type.

  19. Heuristic optimization of a continuous flow point-of-use UV-LED disinfection reactor using computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Jenny, Richard M; Jasper, Micah N; Simmons, Otto D; Shatalov, Max; Ducoste, Joel J

    2015-10-15

    Alternative disinfection sources such as ultraviolet light (UV) are being pursued to inactivate pathogenic microorganisms such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia, while simultaneously reducing the risk of exposure to carcinogenic disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water. UV-LEDs offer a UV disinfecting source that do not contain mercury, have the potential for long lifetimes, are robust, and have a high degree of design flexibility. However, the increased flexibility in design options will add a substantial level of complexity when developing a UV-LED reactor, particularly with regards to reactor shape, size, spatial orientation of light, and germicidal emission wavelength. Anticipating that LEDs are the future of UV disinfection, new methods are needed for designing such reactors. In this research study, the evaluation of a new design paradigm using a point-of-use UV-LED disinfection reactor has been performed. ModeFrontier, a numerical optimization platform, was coupled with COMSOL Multi-physics, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package, to generate an optimized UV-LED continuous flow reactor. Three optimality conditions were considered: 1) single objective analysis minimizing input supply power while achieving at least (2.0) log10 inactivation of Escherichia coli ATCC 11229; and 2) two multi-objective analyses (one of which maximized the log10 inactivation of E. coli ATCC 11229 and minimized the supply power). All tests were completed at a flow rate of 109 mL/min and 92% UVT (measured at 254 nm). The numerical solution for the first objective was validated experimentally using biodosimetry. The optimal design predictions displayed good agreement with the experimental data and contained several non-intuitive features, particularly with the UV-LED spatial arrangement, where the lights were unevenly populated throughout the reactor. The optimal designs may not have been developed from experienced designers due to the increased degrees of

  20. Influence of the dark/light rhythm on the effects of UV radiation in the eyestalk of the crab Neohelice granulata.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Marcelo Alves; Geish, Marcio Alberto; Maciel, Fabio Everton; Cruz, Bruno Pinto; Filgueira, Daza de Moraes Vaz Batista; Ferreira, Gabrielle de Jesus; Nery, Luiz Eduardo Maia; Allodi, Silvana

    2010-04-01

    Crustaceans are interesting models to study the effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and many species may be used as biomarkers for aquatic contamination of UV radiation reaching the surface of the Earth. Here, we investigated cell damage in the visual system of crabs Neohelice granulata that were acclimated to either 12L:12D, constant light, or constant dark, and were exposed to UVA or UVB at 12:00h (noon). The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP), lipid peroxidation (LPO) damage, catalase activity, and pigment dispersion in the eye were evaluated. No significant differences from the three groups of controls (animals acclimated to 12L:12D, or in constant light, or not exposed to UV radiation) were observed in animals acclimated to 12L:12D, however, crabs acclimated to constant light and exposed to UV radiation for 30min showed a significant increase in ROS concentration, catalase activity, and LPO damage, but a decrease in ACAP compared with the controls. Crabs acclimated to constant darkness and exposed to UV for 30min showed a significantly increased ROS concentration and LPO damage, but the ACAP and catalase activity did not differ from the controls (animals kept in the dark while the experimental group was being exposed to UV radiation). Pigment dispersion in the pigment cells of eyes of animals acclimated to constant light was also observed. The results indicate that UVA and UVB alter specific oxidative parameters; however, the cell damage is more evident in animals deviated from the normal dark/light rhythm.

  1. Enhanced Antimicrobial Activity Based on a Synergistic Combination of Sublethal Levels of Stresses Induced by UV-A Light and Organic Acids.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Erick F; Cossu, Andrea; Tikekar, Rohan V; Nitin, Nitin

    2017-06-01

    The reduction of microbial load in food and water systems is critical for their safety and shelf life. Conventionally, physical processes such as heat or light are used for the rapid inactivation of microbes, while natural compounds such as lactic acid may be used as preservatives after the initial physical process. This study demonstrates the enhanced and rapid inactivation of bacteria based on a synergistic combination of sublethal levels of stresses induced by UV-A light and two food-grade organic acids. A reduction of 4.7 ± 0.5 log CFU/ml in Escherichia coli O157:H7 was observed using a synergistic combination of UV-A light, gallic acid (GA), and lactic acid (LA), while the individual treatments and the combination of individual organic acids with UV-A light resulted in a reduction of less than 1 log CFU/ml. Enhanced inactivation of bacteria on the surfaces of lettuce and spinach leaves was also observed based on the synergistic combination. Mechanistic investigations suggested that the treatment with a synergistic combination of GA plus LA plus UV-A (GA+LA+UV-A) resulted in significant increases in membrane permeability and intracellular thiol oxidation and affected the metabolic machinery of E. coli In addition, the antimicrobial activity of the synergistic combination of GA+LA+UV-A was effective only against metabolically active E. coli O157:H7. In summary, this study illustrates the potential of simultaneously using a combination of sublethal concentrations of natural antimicrobials and a low level of physical stress in the form of UV-A light to inactivate bacteria in water and food systems. IMPORTANCE There is a critical unmet need to improve the microbial safety of the food supply, while retaining optimal nutritional and sensory properties of food. Furthermore, there is a need to develop novel technologies that can reduce the impact of food processing operations on energy and water resources. Conventionally, physical processes such as heat and light are

  2. Action of UV-A and blue light on enzymes activity and accumulation of lipid peroxidation products in attached and detached frog retinas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapina, Victoria A.; Doutsov, Alexander E.

    1994-07-01

    The effect of the UV-A and blue light on the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products and activities of succinate dehydrogenase and superoxide dismutase in the retina was examined in eye cup model of dark and light adapted frogs R. temporaria. Retinas were exposed to UV-A radiation (8 mW/cm2) and blue light (10 to 150 mW/cm2) for periods from 5 min to 1 hr. We have measured TBA-active products both in the retina homogenates and in the reaction media. Enzyme activities was measured in the retina homogenates only. The measurements revealed a significant increase in the endogenous and exogenous forms of lipid peroxidation products in the retina of dark adapted frog (1.6+/- 0.4; 1.4+/- 0.3 nmole TBA-active products per mg protein, respectively) compared to light adapted (0.85+/- 0.16; 0.32+/- 0.06 nmole TBA-active products per mg protein, respectively). In the same conditions succinate dehydrogenase activity was decline more than 50% but superoxide dismutase activity didn't decrease. Disorganized inner and outer segments were observed after 40 min exposures. No light microscopic changes were detected after 5 min exposures. Light damage was significantly higher in the retina of dark adapted frog. The results indicate that the retina from eye cup of dark adapted frog is more susceptible to UV-A and blue light damages.

  3. High UV light performance for the degradation of Rhodamine B dye by synthesized Bi2S3ZnO nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangareswari, M.; Meenakshi Sundaram, M.

    2017-05-01

    Heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation of organics in water and wastewater by large band gap semiconductors has offered an attractive alternative for environmental remediation. Zinc oxide is a very fast and efficient catalyst because of its wide band gap and large exciton binding energy. In this study, an efficient Bi2S3ZnO was synthesized by sonochemical method. The obtained product was further characterized by TEM, SEM, XRD, FT-IR and UV-DRS analysis. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that Bi2S3ZnO has flower-like structure. The synthesized flower-like Bi2S3ZnO nanocomposites were more efficient than commercial ZnO for the degradation of organic contaminants under UV light irradiation. The prepared material shows enhanced photocatalytic activity on Rhodamine B dye solution under UV light irradiation. The percentage removal of dye was calculated by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. In addition, Bi2S3ZnO showed tremendous photocatalytic stability after seven cycles under UV light irradiation. A possible mechanism for the photocatalytic oxidative degradation was also discussed. It is concluded that the Bi2S3ZnO nanocomposite acts as an excellent photocatalyst for the decomposition of RhB and it could be a potential material for essential wastewater treatment.

  4. Photocatalytic removal of doxycycline from aqueous solution using ZnO nano-particles: a comparison between UV-C and visible light.

    PubMed

    Pourmoslemi, Shabnam; Mohammadi, Ali; Kobarfard, Farzad; Amini, Mohsen

    2016-10-01

    Zinc oxide nano-particles were synthesized, characterized and used for photocatalytic degradation of doxycycline using UV-C and visible light. Effects of several operational factors including initial pH of antibiotic solution, initial antibiotic concentration and ZnO nano-particles loading amount were investigated. Comparing photocatalytic degradation and mineralization of doxycycline under UV-C and visible light showed successful application of the method under both light sources. However, reaction rate was higher under UV-C irradiation, which degraded doxycycline almost completely in 5 hours, and 68% mineralization was achieved. Synthesized ZnO nano-particles were successfully applied for photocatalytic degradation of doxycycline in a pharmaceutical wastewater sample. The process was fitted to the pseudo first order kinetic model with rate constants in the range of 6-22(×10 -3 ) mg L -1 min -1 with respect to initial concentration of doxycycline under UV-C irradiation. The Langmuir-Hinshelwood model was also employed for describing the photocatalytic reaction with surface reaction kinetic constant k c and equilibrium adsorption constant K LH values calculated as 0.12 mg L -1 min -1 and 2.2 L mg -1 , respectively. Degradation of doxycycline was followed by UV-visible spectroscopy and a validated stability indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method that was developed using stressed samples of doxycycline and could selectively determine doxycycline in the presence of its degradation products. Mass spectrometry was used for determining final degradation products.

  5. Recent advances in application of UV light-emitting diodes for degrading organic pollutants in water through advanced oxidation processes: A review.

    PubMed

    Matafonova, Galina; Batoev, Valeriy

    2018-04-01

    Over the last decade, ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV LEDs) have attracted considerable attention as alternative mercury-free UV sources for water treatment purposes. This review is a comprehensive analysis of data reported in recent years (mostly, post 2014) on the application of UV LED-induced advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) to degrade organic pollutants, primarily dyes, phenols, pharmaceuticals, insecticides, estrogens and cyanotoxins, in aqueous media. Heterogeneous TiO 2 -based photocatalysis in lab grade water using UVA LEDs is the most frequently applied method for treating organic contaminants. The effects of controlled periodic illumination, different TiO 2 -based nanostructures and reactor types on degradation kinetics and mineralization are discussed. UVB and UVC LEDs have been used for photo-Fenton, photo-Fenton-like and UV/H 2 O 2 treatment of pollutants, primarily, in model aqueous solutions. Notably, UV LED-activated persulfate/peroxymonosulfate processes were capable of providing degradation in DOC-containing waters. Wall-plug efficiency, energy-efficiency of UV LEDs and the energy requirements in terms of Electrical Energy per Order (E EO ) are discussed and compared. Despite the overall high degradation efficiency of the UV LED-based AOPs, practical implementation is still limited and at lab scale. More research on real water matrices at more environmentally relevant concentrations, as well as an estimation of energy requirements providing fluence-based kinetic data are required. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Protection against UV and X-ray cataracts using dynamic light scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giblin, Frank J.

    2005-01-01

    Static and dynamic light scattering (SLS and DLS) analysis was used to investigate the aggregation of lens proteins in a hyperbaric oxygen (HBO)/guinea pig in vivo model for nuclear cataract. Nuclear cataract, an opacity which occurs in the center of the lens, is a major type of human maturity-onset cataract for which the cause is not well-understood. HBO is commonly used in major hospitals for treating complications such as poor wound healing due to impaired blood circulation. It is known that treatment of human patients with HBO for extended periods of time can produce nuclear cataract. Guinea pigs, initially 18 months old, were treated with HBO (2.5 atm of 100% O2 for 2.5 hr) 3x per week for 7 months to increase tie level of lens nuclear light scattering. Age-matched animals were used for controls. The eyes of the animals were analyzed in vivo using an integrated static and DLS fiber optic probe in collaboration with the NASA group. DLS in vivo was used to measure the size of lens proteins at 50 different locations across the optical axis of the guinea pig lens.

  7. Influence of multiple light-scattering on TiO2 nanoparticles imbedded into stratum corneum on light transmittance in UV and visible wavelength regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Alexey P.; Priezzhev, Alexander V.; Lademann, Jürgen; Myllylä, Risto

    2007-05-01

    This paper focuses on the simulation of propagation of radiation in UV and visible wavelength regions within a superficial skin layer (stratum corneum, SC) partially filled with titanium dioxide (TiO II) nanoparticles. Volume concentrations of the particles (0.67% - 2.25%) correspond to the maximal concentrations of the considered particles in the frames of independent scattering. Transmittance of 307-, 400-, and 500-nm light through a 20-μm thick SC is calculated. The effect of the TiO II nanoparticles on the contribution of photons undergone different numbers of scattering acts into transmittance is considered. It is shown that administration of the nanoparticles results in the broadening of the distribution of transmitted photons over undergone scattering acts. It also results in the shift of the maximum location of this distribution to larger number of scattering acts for the wavelengths of 400 and 500 nm being the latter the most pronounced. The increase of undergone scattering acts leads to the elongation of photon trajectories within the medium and results in the increase of the diffuse reflected light and the transmittance decrease.

  8. Characterization and photocatalytic performance evaluation of various metal ion-doped microstructured TiO2 under UV and visible light.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Chittaranjan; Gupta, Ashok K

    2015-01-01

    Commercially available microcrystalline TiO2 was doped with silver, ferrous and ferric ion (1.0 mol %) using silver nitrate, ferrous sulfate and ferric nitrate solutions following the liquid impregnation technology. The catalysts prepared were characterised by FESEM, XRD, FTIR, DRS, particle size and micropore analysis. The photocatalytic activity of the prepared catalysts was tested on the degradation of two model dyes, methylene blue (3,7-bis (Dimethylamino)-phenothiazin-5-ium chloride, a cationic thiazine dye) and methyl blue (disodium;4-[4-[[4-(4-sulfonatoanilino)phenyl]-[4-(4-sulfonatophenyl)azaniumylidenecyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-ylidene]methyl]anilino]benzene sulfonate, an anionic triphenyl methane dye) under irradiation by UV and visible light in a batch reactor. The efficiency of the photocatalysts under UV and visible light was compared to ascertain the light range for effective utilization. The catalysts were found to have the anatase crystalline structure and their particle size is in a range of 140-250 nm. In the case of Fe(2+) doped TiO2 and Fe(3+) doped TiO2, there was a greater shift in the optical absorption towards the visible range. Under UV light, Ag(+) doped TiO2 was the most efficient catalyst and the corresponding decolorization was more than 99% for both the dyes. Under visible light, Fe(3+) doped TiO2 was the most efficient photocatalyst with more than 96% and 90% decolorization for methylene blue and methyl blue, respectively. The kinetics of the reaction under both UV and visible light was investigated using the Langmuir-Hinshelwood pseudo-first-order kinetic model. Kinetic measurements confirmed that, Ag(+) doped TiO2 was most efficient in the UV range, while Fe(3+) doped TiO2 was most efficient in the visible range.

  9. UV-visible light-activated Ag-decorated, monodisperse TiO2 aggregates for treatment of the pharmaceutical oxytetracycline.

    PubMed

    Han, Changseok; Likodimos, Vlassis; Khan, Javed Ali; Nadagouda, Mallikarjuna N; Andersen, Joel; Falaras, Polycarpos; Rosales-Lombardi, Pablo; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2014-10-01

    Noble metal Ag-decorated, monodisperse TiO2 aggregates were successfully synthesized by an ionic strength-assisted, simple sol-gel method and were used for the photocatalytic degradation of the antibiotic oxytetracycline (OTC) under both UV and visible light (UV-visible light) irradiation. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD); UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy; environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM); transmission electron microscopy (TEM); high-resolution TEM (HR-TEM); micro-Raman, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS); and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The results showed that the uniformity of TiO2 aggregates was finely tuned by the sol-gel method, and Ag was well decorated on the monodisperse TiO2 aggregates. The absorption of the samples in the visible light region increased with increasing Ag loading that was proportional to the amount of Ag precursor added in the solution over the tested concentration range. The Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (The BET) surface area slightly decreased with increasing Ag loading on the TiO2 aggregates. Ag-decorated TiO2 samples demonstrated enhanced photocatalytic activity for the degradation of OTC under UV-visible light illumination compared to that of pure TiO2. The sample containing 1.9 wt% Ag showed the highest photocatalytic activity for the degradation of OTC under both UV-visible light and visible light illumination. During the experiments, the detected Ag leaching for the best TiO2-Ag photocatalyst was much lower than the National Secondary Drinking Water Regulation for Ag limit (0.1 mg L(-1)) issued by the US Environmental Protection Agency.

  10. The application of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation to control transmission of airborne disease: bioterrorism countermeasure.

    PubMed

    Brickner, Philip W; Vincent, Richard L; First, Melvin; Nardell, Edward; Murray, Megan; Kaufman, Will

    2003-01-01

    Bioterrorism is an area of increasing public health concern. The intent of this article is to review the air cleansing technologies available to protect building occupants from the intentional release of bioterror agents into congregate spaces (such as offices, schools, auditoriums, and transportation centers), as well as through outside air intakes and by way of recirculation air ducts. Current available technologies include increased ventilation, filtration, and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) UVGI is a common tool in laboratories and health care facilities, but is not familiar to the public, or to some heating, ventilation, and air conditioning engineers. Interest in UVGI is increasing as concern about a possible malicious release of bioterror agents mounts. Recent applications of UVGI have focused on control of tuberculosis transmission, but a wide range of airborne respiratory pathogens are susceptible to deactivation by UVGI. In this article, the authors provide an overview of air disinfection technologies, and an in-depth analysis of UVGI-its history, applications, and effectiveness.

  11. Microbial destruction by low concentrations of hypochlorite and iodophor germicides in alkaline and acidified water.

    PubMed

    Hays, H; Elliker, P R; Sandine, W E

    1967-05-01

    Hypochlorite and iodophor germicides were evaluated for their ability to destroy a variety of organisms at levels approximating those used for final sanitizing rinse for dairy and food equipment and beverage bottles (3 to 50 ppm). Test organisms included Escherichia coli, Streptococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus cerevisiae, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The hypochlorites and iodophors demonstrated approximate rates of destruction at equivalent concentrations for the bacterial species tested, except where the hypochlorite contained excess alkalinity. The hypochlorite responded more readily to a downward shift to a pH of 5.0 than did the iodophor. Excess alkalinity of the hypochlorite significantly affected its bactericidal activity. The iodophor exhibited a consistently greater rate of destruction of yeast cells than the hypochlorite. Successive treatment with low levels of iodophor (6 ppm) followed by a hypochlorite (12 to 25 ppm) resulted in a high level of destruction of all test organisms. Possibilities for employing these measures in a sanitizing rinse of bottles for maximal destruction of organisms were discussed. Among the test organisms, S. lactis showed a comparatively high resistance and was a useful organism for comparing the halogen preparations.

  12. Formation of the center of ignition in a CH3Cl-Cl2 mixture under the action of UV light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begishev, I. R.; Belikov, A. K.; Komrakov, P. V.; Nikitin, I. S.

    2016-07-01

    The dependence of temperature on time is investigated using a microthermocouple at different distances from a UV light source in a mixture of chlorine and chloromethane. These relationships give an idea of the size and location of a center of photoignition. It is found that if the size of the reaction vessel in the direction of the luminous flux is much greater than the dimensions of the ignition center, the thermal expansion of a reacting gas mixture has a huge impact on such photoignition parameters as the critical concentration limits and the critical intensity of UV radiation. It is found that by increasing the length of the vessel, some chlorinated combustible mixtures lose the ability to ignite when exposed to UV light.

  13. [The Influence of UV-Light on the Sub-Populational Composition and Expression of Membrane Markers of Lymphocytes of Donor Blood].

    PubMed

    Artyukhov, V G; Basharina, O V; Zemchenkova, O V; Ryazantsev, S V

    2016-01-01

    The influence of UV-light (240-390 nm) at dozes of 151 and 755 J/m2 on the content of membrane markers of lymphocytes using the method of flow cytometry was investigated. It was demonstrated that during incubation of UV-irradiated lymphocytes the change of their populational and sub-populational composition occurs. Expression of complexes of CD3, CD 19,.CD8, CD 16, CD25 and CD95 increased. This increase was caused mainly by de novo synthesis. UV-light had immunostimulating effect on CD8+ T-lymphocyte population. Together with the increase of cytotoxic cells and NK-cells, activation of lymphocytes (increased amount of CD25+ and CD95+ cells) took place. Amount of cells undergone apoptosis or necrosis increased proportionally to the dosage. These changes were more expressed during incubation of lymphocytes in nutrition medium without autological blood serum, e.g. under deficiency of growth factors and antioxidants.

  14. Photocatalytic activity of attapulgite–BiOCl–TiO{sub 2} toward degradation of methyl orange under UV and visible light irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Lili, E-mail: zll@hytc.edu.cn; Zhang, Jiahui; Zhang, Weiguang

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Excellent photocatalyst was obtained by introducing BiOCl–TiO{sub 2} onto attapulgite. • 100 mg L{sup −1} methyl orange (MO) was totally decomposed under UV light within 70 min. • 92.6% of 10 mg L{sup −1} MO was decomposed within 120 min under visible light. • ATT–BiOCl–TiO{sub 2} show better activity than P{sub 25} especially under visible light. • Mechanism of photocatalytic activity enhancement was identified. - Abstract: An environmental friendly composite photocatalyst with efficient UV and visible light activity has been synthesized by introducing BiOCl–TiO{sub 2} hybrid oxide onto the surface of attapulgite (ATT) (denoted as ATT–BiOCl–TiO{sub 2}), usingmore » a simple in situ depositing technique. The obtained products were characterized by XRD, TEM, BET and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra measurements. Results showed that BiOCl–TiO{sub 2} composite particles were successfully loaded onto attapulgite fibers' surface without obvious aggregation. The photocatalytic activity of ATT–BiOCl–TiO{sub 2} was investigated by degradation of methyl orange under UV and visible light irradiation. It was found that 100 mg L{sup −1} methyl orange was totally decomposed under UV light within 70 min and 92.57% of 10 mg L{sup −1} methyl orange was decomposed under visible light within 120 min using ATT–BiOCl–TiO{sub 2} as photocatalyst. These results were quite better than that of P{sub 25}, especially under visible light irradiation. Possible mechanism for the enhancement was proposed.« less

  15. Exploring the Inner Acceleration Region of Solar Wind: A Study Based on Coronagraphic UV and Visible Light Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemporad, A.

    2017-09-01

    This work combined coronagraphic visible light (VL) and UV data to provide with an unprecedented view of the inner corona where the nascent solar wind is accelerated. The UV (H I Lyα) and VL (polarized brightness) images (reconstructed with SOHO/UVCS, LASCO, and Mauna Loa data) have been analyzed with the Doppler dimming technique to provide for the first time daily 2D images of the radial wind speed between 1 and 6 R ⊙ over 1 month of observations. Results show that both polar and equatorial regions are characterized at the base of the corona by plasma outflows at speeds > 100 km s-1. The plasma is then decelerated within ˜1.5 R ⊙ at the poles and ˜2.0 R ⊙ at the equator, where local minima of the expansion speeds are reached, and gently reaccelerated higher up, reaching speeds typical of fast and slow wind components. The mass flux is highly variable with latitude and time at the equator and more uniform and stable over the poles. The polar flow is asymmetric, with speeds above the south pole lower than those above the north pole. A correlation (anticorrelation) between the wind speed and its density is found below (above) ˜1.8 R ⊙. The 2D distribution of forces responsible for deceleration and reacceleration of solar wind is provided and interpreted in terms of Alfvén waves. These results provide a possible connection between small-scale outflows reported with other instruments at the base of the corona and bulk wind flows measured higher up.

  16. Lanthanum doped titania decorated with silver plasmonic nanoparticles with enhanced photocatalytic activity under UV-visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal'Toé, Adrieli T. O.; Colpani, Gustavo Lopes; Padoin, Natan; Fiori, Márcio Antônio; Soares, Cíntia

    2018-05-01

    Lanthanum doped titanium dioxide decorated with silver plasmonic nanoparticles (Ag-La/TiO2 NPs) materials were prepared using a simple ultrasound-assisted wet impregnation method followed by silver photodeposition. The obtained photocatalysts with different Ag contents were characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, EDX, TEM, BET, XPS, DRS and PL techniques. Moreover, the size distribution of the nanoparticles aggregates was assessed. The characterization analysis revealed that La doping slightly changed the crystalline phase of TiO2, increased the amount of surface hydroxyl groups and interacted with TiO2 nanoparticles via Ti-O-La bond, while Ag photodeposition enhanced the absorption of visible light due to the effects of localized surface plamon resonance and significantly decreased electronic recombination rate by the Schottky junction. Furthermore, the combination of Ag-La induced the formation of oxygen vacancies, which increased the amount of adsorbed surface hydroxyl groups in Ag-La/TiO2. In addition, Ag-La possibly decreased the semiconductor surface energy, which acted positively in the reduction of NPs aggregation. These features along with better textural properties (greater surface areas) played a fundamental role in the enhancement of the photocatalytic activity of Ag-La/TiO2 composites for the decolorization of methylene blue under UV-visible irradiation compared to the mono-metallic (La/TiO2 and Ag/TiO2) modified photocatalysts. Finally, a mechanism for the transfer of charge carriers in Ag-La/TiO2 photocatalyst under UV-visible irradiation was proposed.

  17. Enhanced selective photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to CH4 over plasmonic Au modified g-C3N4 photocatalyst under UV-vis light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hailong; Gao, Yan; Xiong, Zhuo; Liao, Chen; Shih, Kaimin

    2018-05-01

    A series of Au-g-C3N4 (Au-CN) catalysts were prepared through a NaBH4-reduction method using g-C3N4 (CN) from pyrolysis of urea as precursor. The catalysts' surface area, crystal structure, surface morphology, chemical state, functional group composition and optical properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet visible (UV-vis) diffuse reflectance spectra, fourier transform infrared, photoluminescence and transient photocurrent analysis. The carbon dioxide (CO2) photoreduction activities under ultraviolet visible (UV-vis) light irradiation were significantly enhanced when gold (Au) was loaded on the surface of CN. 2Au-CN catalyst with Au to CN mole ratio of 2% showed the best catalytic activity. After 2 h UV-vis light irradiation, the methane (CH4) yield over the 2Au-CN catalyst was 9.1 times higher than that over the pure CN. The CH4 selectivity also greatly improved for the 2Au-CN compared to the CN. The deposited Au nanoparticles facilitated the separation of electron-hole pairs on the CN surface. Moreover, the surface plasmon resonance effect of Au further promoted the generation of hot electrons and visible light absorption. Therefore, Au loading significantly improved CO2 photoreduction performance of CN under UV-vis light irradiation.

  18. Suppressing spontaneous polarization of p-GaN by graphene oxide passivation: Augmented light output of GaN UV-LED

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hyun; Jeong, Seung Yol; Park, Doo Jae; Jeong, Hyeon Jun; Jeong, Sooyeon; Han, Joong Tark; Jeong, Hee Jin; Yang, Sunhye; Kim, Ho Young; Baeg, Kang-Jun; Park, Sae June; Ahn, Yeong Hwan; Suh, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Geon-Woong; Lee, Young Hee; Jeong, Mun Seok

    2015-01-01

    GaN-based ultraviolet (UV) LEDs are widely used in numerous applications, including white light pump sources and high-density optical data storage. However, one notorious issue is low hole injection rate in p-type transport layer due to poorly activated holes and spontaneous polarization, giving rise to insufficient light emission efficiency. Therefore, improving hole injection rate is a key step towards high performance UV-LEDs. Here, we report a new method of suppressing spontaneous polarization in p-type region to augment light output of UV-LEDs. This was achieved by simply passivating graphene oxide (GO) on top of the fully fabricated LED. The dipole layer formed by the passivated GO enhanced hole injection rate by suppressing spontaneous polarization in p-type region. The homogeneity of electroluminescence intensity in active layers was improved due to band filling effect. As a consequence, the light output was enhanced by 60% in linear current region. Our simple approach of suppressing spontaneous polarization of p-GaN using GO passivation disrupts the current state of the art technology and will be useful for high-efficiency UV-LED technology. PMID:25586148

  19. CORONA-INDUCED PHOTOXIDATION OF ALCOHOLS AND HYDROCARBONS OVER TIO2 IN THE ABSENCE OF A UV LIGHT SOURCE - A NOVEL AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY METHOD FOR OXIDATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Corona-induced photooxidation is a novel oxidation methodology for the efficient oxidation of alcohols and hydrocarbons utilizing the advantage of both the high oxidizing power of ozone formed in the reactor as well as the photooxidation capability of the UV light generated durin...

  20. Suppressing spontaneous polarization of p-GaN by graphene oxide passivation: augmented light output of GaN UV-LED.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyun; Jeong, Seung Yol; Park, Doo Jae; Jeong, Hyeon Jun; Jeong, Sooyeon; Han, Joong Tark; Jeong, Hee Jin; Yang, Sunhye; Kim, Ho Young; Baeg, Kang-Jun; Park, Sae June; Ahn, Yeong Hwan; Suh, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Geon-Woong; Lee, Young Hee; Jeong, Mun Seok

    2015-01-14

    GaN-based ultraviolet (UV) LEDs are widely used in numerous applications, including white light pump sources and high-density optical data storage. However, one notorious issue is low hole injection rate in p-type transport layer due to poorly activated holes and spontaneous polarization, giving rise to insufficient light emission efficiency. Therefore, improving hole injection rate is a key step towards high performance UV-LEDs. Here, we report a new method of suppressing spontaneous polarization in p-type region to augment light output of UV-LEDs. This was achieved by simply passivating graphene oxide (GO) on top of the fully fabricated LED. The dipole layer formed by the passivated GO enhanced hole injection rate by suppressing spontaneous polarization in p-type region. The homogeneity of electroluminescence intensity in active layers was improved due to band filling effect. As a consequence, the light output was enhanced by 60% in linear current region. Our simple approach of suppressing spontaneous polarization of p-GaN using GO passivation disrupts the current state of the art technology and will be useful for high-efficiency UV-LED technology.

  1. Graphitic-C(3)N(4)-hybridized TiO(2) nanosheets with reactive {001} facets to enhance the UV- and visible-light photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Gu, Liuan; Wang, Jingyu; Zou, Zhijuan; Han, Xijiang

    2014-03-15

    AnataseTiO(2)nanosheets with dominant {001} facets were hybridized with graphitic carbon nitride (g-C(3)N(4)) using a facile solvent evaporation method. On top of the superior photocatalytic performance of highly reactive {001} facets, the hybridization with g-C(3)N(4) is confirmed to further improve the reactivity through degrading a series of organic molecules under both UV- and visible-light irradiation. It is proposed that an effective charge separation between g-C(3)N(4) and TiO2 exists in the photocatalytic process, i.e., the transferring of photogenerated holes from the valence band (VB) of TiO(2) to the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of g-C(3)N(4), and the injecting of electrons from the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of g-C(3)N(4) to the conduction band (CB) of TiO(2). Due to this synergistic effect, the enhancement of UV- and visible-light photoactivity over the hybrid is achieved. Furthermore, it has been revealed that holes were the main factor for the improved photoactivity under UV-light, while the OH radicals gained the predominance for degrading organic molecules under visible-light. Overall, this work would be significant for fabricating efficient UV-/visible-photocatalysts and providing deeper insight into the enhanced mechanisms of π-conjugated molecules hybridized semiconductors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Enhanced photocatalytic activity for H2 evolution under irradiation of UV-vis light by Au-modified nitrogen-doped TiO2.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Weirong; Ai, Zhuyu; Dai, Jiusong; Zhang, Meng

    2014-01-01

    Photocatalytic water splitting for hydrogen evolution is a potential way to solve many energy and environmental issues. Developing visible-light-active photocatalysts to efficiently utilize sunlight and finding proper ways to improve photocatalytic activity for H2 evolution have always been hot topics for research. This study attempts to expand the use of sunlight and to enhance the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 by N doping and Au loading. Au/N-doped TiO2 photocatalysts were synthesized and successfully used for photocatalytic water splitting for H2 evolution under irradiation of UV and UV-vis light, respectively. The samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), and photoelectrochemical characterizations. DRS displayed an extension of light absorption into the visible region by doping of N and depositing with Au, respectively. PL analysis indicated electron-hole recombination due to N doping and an efficient inhibition of electron-hole recombination due to the loaded Au particles. Under the irradiation of UV light, the photocatalytic hydrogen production rate of the as-synthesized samples followed the order Au/TiO2 > Au/N-doped TiO2 > TiO2 > N-doped TiO2. While under irradiation of UV-vis light, the N-TiO2 and Au/N-TiO2 samples show higher H2 evolution than their corresponding nitrogen-free samples (TiO2 and Au/TiO2). This inconsistent result could be attributed to the doping of N and the surface plasmonic resonance (SPR) effect of Au particles extending the visible light absorption. The photoelectrochemical characterizations further indicated the enhancement of the visible light response of Au/N-doped TiO2. Comparative studies have shown that a combination of nitrogen doping and Au loading enhanced the visible light response of TiO2 and increased the utilization of solar energy, greatly

  3. Understanding the superior photocatalytic activity of noble metals modified titania under UV and visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Bumajdad, Ali; Madkour, Metwally

    2014-04-28

    Although TiO2 is one of the most efficient photocatalysts, with the highest stability and the lowest cost, there are drawbacks that hinder its practical applications like its wide band gap and high recombination rate of the charge carriers. Consequently, many efforts were directed toward enhancing the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 and extending its response to the visible region. To head off these attempts, modification of TiO2 with noble metal nanoparticles (NMNPs) received considerable attention due to their role in accelerating the transfer of photoexcited electrons from TiO2 and also due to the surface plasmon resonance which induces the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 under visible light irradiation. This insightful perspective is devoted to the vital role of TiO2 photocatalysis and its drawbacks that urged researchers to find solutions such as modification with NMNPs. In a coherent context, we discussed here the characteristics which qualify NMNPs to possess a great enhancement effect for TiO2 photocatalysis. Also we tried to understand the reasons behind this effect by means of photoluminescence (PL) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra, and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. Then the mechanism of action of NMNPs upon deposition on TiO2 is presented. Finally we introduced a survey of the behaviour of these noble metal NPs on TiO2 based on the particle size and the loading amount.

  4. Generation of UV light by intense ultrashort laser pulses in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeev, Ilya; Ting, Antonio; Gordon, Daniel; Briscoe, Eldridge; Penano, Joe; Sprangle, Phillip

    2004-11-01

    The propagation of collimated high-peak-power ultrashort laser pulses in air has attracted considerable attention, which may have a variety of important applications including remote sensing and chemical-biological aerosols standoff detection. Sub-millimeter diameter laser filaments can develop without any focusing optics and instead solely from laser self-focusing and plasma formation in air. These filaments can produce ultraviolet radiations in the form of the 3rd harmonic of the fundamental frequency and also through spectral broadening due to self-phase modulation of the laser pulse. Using femtosecond laser pulses produced by a high power Ti:Sapphire laser (0.8 TW, 50 fs, 800 nm) we observed generation of the third harmonic radiation light in air (centered around 267 nm) by the laser filaments. Characterization of the 3rd harmonic generation with respect to the major gas components of the air will be reported. Supported by the ONR and RDECOM. I. Alexeev is NRC/NRL Post-Doc.

  5. UV-Vis Spectroscopy and Dynamic Light Scattering Study of Gold Nanorods Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Kanjanawarut, Roejarek; Yuan, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Gold nanorods (AuNRs) were used as spectroscopic sensing elements to detect specific DNA sequences with a single-base mismatch sensitivity. The assay was based on the observation that the stabilizing repulsive forces between CTA+-coated AuNRs can be removed by citrate ions, which causes aggregation among AuNRs; whereas nucleic acids of different structures[ i.e., peptide nucleic acid (PNA), single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), PNA-DNA complex, and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA)] can retard the aggregation. Moreover, the dsDNA PNA-DNA duplexes provide larger retardation than that by unhybridized ssDNA and PNA probe. This assay can differentiate single-base mismatched targets with base substitution at different locations (center and end) with AuNRs of a larger aspect ratio. Besides ultraviolet–visable spectroscopy measurement of particle assembly-induced plasmonic coupling that in turn provides a spectroscopic detection of the specific DNA, dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were used to measure smaller degree of aggregation that can reveal sodium citrate– and dsDNA–AuNRs interactions in fine detail. PMID:23902360

  6. UV-vis spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering study of gold nanorods aggregation.

    PubMed

    Kanjanawarut, Roejarek; Yuan, Bo; XiaoDi, Su

    2013-08-01

    Gold nanorods (AuNRs) were used as spectroscopic sensing elements to detect specific DNA sequences with a single-base mismatch sensitivity. The assay was based on the observation that the stabilizing repulsive forces between CTA(+)-coated AuNRs can be removed by citrate ions, which causes aggregation among AuNRs; whereas nucleic acids of different structures[ i.e., peptide nucleic acid (PNA), single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), PNA-DNA complex, and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA)] can retard the aggregation. Moreover, the dsDNA PNA-DNA duplexes provide larger retardation than that by unhybridized ssDNA and PNA probe. This assay can differentiate single-base mismatched targets with base substitution at different locations (center and end) with AuNRs of a larger aspect ratio. Besides ultraviolet-visable spectroscopy measurement of particle assembly-induced plasmonic coupling that in turn provides a spectroscopic detection of the specific DNA, dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were used to measure smaller degree of aggregation that can reveal sodium citrate- and dsDNA-AuNRs interactions in fine detail.

  7. Abundances of the light elements from UV (HST) and red (ESO) spectra in the very old star HD 84937

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spite, M.; Peterson, R. C.; Gallagher, A. J.; Barbuy, B.; Spite, F.

    2017-04-01

    Aims: In order to provide a better basis for the study of mechanisms of nucleosynthesis of the light elements beyond hydrogen and helium in the oldest stars, the abundances of C, O, Mg, Si, P, S, K, and Ca have been derived from UV-HST and visible-ESO high resolution spectra in the old, very metal-poor star HD 84937, at a metallicity that is 1/200 that of the Sun's. For this halo main-sequence turnoff star, the abundance determination of P and S are the first published determinations. Methods: The LTE profiles of the lines were computed and fitted to the observed spectra. Wherever possible, we compared the abundances derived from the UV spectrum to abundances derived from the visible or near-infrared spectra, and also corrected the derived abundances for non-LTE effects. Three-dimensional (3D) CO5BOLD model atmospheres have been used to determine the abundances of C and O from molecular CH and OH bands. Results: The abundances of these light elements relative to iron in HD 84937 are found to agree well with the abundances of these elements in classical metal-poor stars. Our HD 84937 carbon abundance determination points toward a solar (or mildly enhanced above solar) value of [C/Fe]. The modest overabundance of the α elements of even atomic number Z, typical of halo turnoff stars, is confirmed in this example. The odd-Z element P is found to be somewhat deficient in HD 84937, at [P/Fe] = -0.32, which is again consistent with the handful of existing determinations for turnoff stars of such low metallicity. We show that the abundance of oxygen, deduced from the OH band from 3D computations, is not compatible with the abundance deduced from the red oxygen triplet. This incompatibility is explained by the existence of a chromosphere heating the shallow layers of the atmosphere where the OH band, in 3D computations, is mainly formed. Conclusions: The abundance ratios are compared to the predictions of models of galactic nucleosynthesis and evolution. Based on

  8. An investigation into UV light exposure as an experimental model for artificial aging on tensile strength and force delivery of elastomeric chain.

    PubMed

    Wahab, Siti Waznah; Bister, Dirk; Sherriff, Martyn

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of ultraviolet type A light (UVA) exposure on the tensile properties of elastomeric chain. UVA light exposure was used as model for artificial aging, simulating prolonged storage of elastomeric chain. Tensile strength (n = 60) was measured after exposing Ormco, Forestadent and 3M chains to UVA light for 0, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. Force decay was measured (n = 60) using chain exposed for 5, 10, and 14 days. The chains were subsequently stretched at a constant distance and the resulting forces measured at 0, 1, 24 hours and 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. This test simulated a clinical scenario of pre-stretching and subsequent shortening of elastomeric chain. Tensile strength had statistically significant difference and was directly related to the duration of ultraviolet (UV) light exposure. Forestadent chain, which had the second highest value for the 'as received' product, showed the most consistent values over time with the lowest degradation. Ormco showed the lowest values for 'as received' as well as after UV exposure; 3M chain had the highest loss of tensile strength. Force decay was also significantly different. UV light exposure of 10 days or more appears to mark a 'watershed' between products: 3M had most survivors, Forestadent chain had some survivors, depending on the time the chain was stretched for. None of the Ormco product survived UV light exposure for more than 5 days. UVA light exposure may be used as a model for artificial aging as it reduces force delivery and tensile strength of exposed chains.

  9. UV Light-Assisted Synthesis of Highly Efficient Pd-Based Catalyst over NiO for Hydrogenation of o-Chloronitrobenzene

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Weidong; Xu, Bin; Fan, Guangyin; Zhang, Kaiming; Xiang, Zhen; Liu, Xiaoqiang

    2018-01-01

    Supported Pd-based catalyst over active nickel oxide (NiO) was repared using the impregnation method companying with UV-light irradiation. Moreover, the catalytic performance of the obtained Pd-based catalysts was evaluated towards the hydrogenation of o-chloronitrobenzene (o-CNB). Observations indicate that the as-prepared UV-irradiated Pd/NiO catalyst with a mole fraction 0.2% (0.2%Pd/NiO) has higher activity and selectivity in the o-CNB hydrogenation. Especially, UV-light irradiation played a positive role in the improvement of catalytic activity of 0.2%Pd/NiO catalyst, exhibiting an excess 11-fold activity superiority in contrast with non-UV-irradiated 0.2%Pd/NiO catalyst. In addition, it was investigated that effects of varied factors (i.e., reaction time, temperature, o-CNB/Pd ratio, Pd loading, hydrogen pressure) on the selective hydrogenation of ο-CNB catalyzed by UV-irradiated 0.2%Pd/NiO catalyst. Under the reaction conditions of 60 °C, 0.5 h, 1 MPa H2 pressure, 100% conversion of o-CNB, and 81.1% o-CAN selectivity were obtained, even at high molar ratio (8000:1) of o-CNB to Pd. PMID:29662004

  10. Deletion of epidermal Rac1 inhibits HPV-8 induced skin papilloma formation and facilitates HPV-8- and UV-light induced skin carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Jayesh; Pofahl, Ruth; Pfister, Herbert; Haase, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression and increased activity of the small Rho GTPase Rac1 has been linked to squamous cell carcinoma of the epidermis and mucosa in humans. Targeted deletion of Rac1 or inhibition of Rac1 activity in epidermal keratinocytes reduced papilloma formation in a chemical skin carcinogenesis mouse model. However, a potential role of Rac1 in HPV- and UV-light induced skin carcinogenesis has not been investigated so far, solar UV radiation being an important carcinogen to the skin. To investigate this, we deleted Rac1 or modulated its activity in mice with transgenic expression of Human papilloma virus type-8 (HPV-8) in epidermal keratinocytes. Our data show that inhibition or deletion of Rac1 results in reduced papilloma formation upon UV-irradiation with a single dose, whereas constitutive activation of Rac1 strongly increases papilloma frequency in these mice. Surprisingly, we observed that, upon chronic UV-irradiation, the majority of mice with transgenic expression of HPV-8 and epidermis specific Rac1 deletion developed squamous cell carcinomas. Taken together, our data show that Rac1 exerts a dual role in skin carcinogenesis: its activation is, on one hand, required for HPV-8- and UV-light induced papilloma formation but, on the other, suppresses the development of squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:27506937

  11. Deletion of epidermal Rac1 inhibits HPV-8 induced skin papilloma formation and facilitates HPV-8- and UV-light induced skin carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Jayesh; Pofahl, Ruth; Pfister, Herbert; Haase, Ingo

    2016-09-06

    Overexpression and increased activity of the small Rho GTPase Rac1 has been linked to squamous cell carcinoma of the epidermis and mucosa in humans. Targeted deletion of Rac1 or inhibition of Rac1 activity in epidermal keratinocytes reduced papilloma formation in a chemical skin carcinogenesis mouse model. However, a potential role of Rac1 in HPV- and UV-light induced skin carcinogenesis has not been investigated so far, solar UV radiation being an important carcinogen to the skin.To investigate this, we deleted Rac1 or modulated its activity in mice with transgenic expression of Human papilloma virus type-8 (HPV-8) in epidermal keratinocytes. Our data show that inhibition or deletion of Rac1 results in reduced papilloma formation upon UV-irradiation with a single dose, whereas constitutive activation of Rac1 strongly increases papilloma frequency in these mice. Surprisingly, we observed that, upon chronic UV-irradiation, the majority of mice with transgenic expression of HPV-8 and epidermis specific Rac1 deletion developed squamous cell carcinomas. Taken together, our data show that Rac1 exerts a dual role in skin carcinogenesis: its activation is, on one hand, required for HPV-8- and UV-light induced papilloma formation but, on the other, suppresses the development of squamous cell carcinomas.

  12. UV Light-Assisted Synthesis of Highly Efficient Pd-Based Catalyst over NiO for Hydrogenation of o-Chloronitrobenzene.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Weidong; Xu, Bin; Fan, Guangyin; Zhang, Kaiming; Xiang, Zhen; Liu, Xiaoqiang

    2018-04-14

    Supported Pd-based catalyst over active nickel oxide (NiO) was repared using the impregnation method companying with UV-light irradiation. Moreover, the catalytic performance of the obtained Pd-based catalysts was evaluated towards the hydrogenation of o -chloronitrobenzene ( o -CNB). Observations indicate that the as-prepared UV-irradiated Pd/NiO catalyst with a mole fraction 0.2% (0.2%Pd/NiO) has higher activity and selectivity in the o -CNB hydrogenation. Especially, UV-light irradiation played a positive role in the improvement of catalytic activity of 0.2%Pd/NiO catalyst, exhibiting an excess 11-fold activity superiority in contrast with non-UV-irradiated 0.2%Pd/NiO catalyst. In addition, it was investigated that effects of varied factors (i.e., reaction time, temperature, o -CNB/Pd ratio, Pd loading, hydrogen pressure) on the selective hydrogenation of ο -CNB catalyzed by UV-irradiated 0.2%Pd/NiO catalyst. Under the reaction conditions of 60 °C, 0.5 h, 1 MPa H₂ pressure, 100% conversion of o -CNB, and 81.1% o -CAN selectivity were obtained, even at high molar ratio (8000:1) of o -CNB to Pd.

  13. Evaluating the Effects of Riboflavin/UV-A and Rose-Bengal/Green Light Cross-Linking of the Rabbit Cornea by Noncontact Optical Coherence Elastography

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Manmohan; Li, Jiasong; Han, Zhaolong; Vantipalli, Srilatha; Liu, Chih-Hao; Wu, Chen; Raghunathan, Raksha; Aglyamov, Salavat R.; Twa, Michael D.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to use noncontact optical coherence elastography (OCE) to evaluate and compare changes in biomechanical properties that occurred in rabbit cornea in situ after corneal collagen cross-linking by either of two techniques: ultraviolet-A (UV-A)/riboflavin or rose-Bengal/green light. Methods Low-amplitude (≤10 μm) elastic waves were induced in mature rabbit corneas by a focused air pulse. Elastic wave propagation was imaged by a phase-stabilized swept source OCE (PhS-SSOCE) system. Corneas were then cross-linked by either of two methods: UV-A/riboflavin (UV-CXL) or rose-Bengal/green light (RGX). Phase velocities of the elastic waves were fitted to a previously developed modified Rayleigh-Lamb frequency equation to obtain the viscoelasticity of the corneas before and after the cross-linking treatments. Micro-scale depth-resolved phase velocity distribution revealed the depth-wise heterogeneity of both cross-linking techniques. Results Under standard treatment settings, UV-CXL significantly increased the stiffness of the corneas by ∼47% (P < 0.05), but RGX did not produce statistically significant increases. The shear viscosities were unaffected by either cross-linking technique. The depth-wise phase velocities showed that UV-CXL affected the anterior ∼34% of the corneas, whereas RGX affected only the anterior ∼16% of the corneas. Conclusions UV-CXL significantly strengthens the cornea, whereas RGX does not, and the effects of cross-linking by UV-CXL reach deeper into the cornea than cross-linking effects of RGX under similar conditions. PMID:27409461

  14. Welding of silver nanowire networks via flash white light and UV-C irradiation for highly conductive and reliable transparent electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Wan-Ho; Kim, Sang-Ho; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2016-01-01

    In this work, silver nanowire inks with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) binders were coated on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates and welded via flash white light and ultraviolet C (UV-C) irradiation to produce highly conductive transparent electrodes. The coated silver nanowire films were firmly welded and embedded into PET substrate successfully at room temperature and under ambient conditions using an in-house flash white light welding system and UV-C irradiation. The effects of light irradiation conditions (light energy, irradiation time, pulse duration, and pulse number) on the silver nanowire networks were studied and optimized. Bending fatigue tests were also conducted to characterize the reliability of the welded transparent conductive silver nanowire films. The surfaces of the welded silver nanowire films were analyzed via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while the transmittance of the structures was measured using a spectrophotometer. From the results, a highly conductive and transparent silver nanowire film with excellent reliability could be achieved at room temperature under ambient conditions via the combined flash white light and UV-C irradiation welding process. PMID:27553755

  15. Welding of silver nanowire networks via flash white light and UV-C irradiation for highly conductive and reliable transparent electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Wan-Ho; Kim, Sang-Ho; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2016-08-01

    In this work, silver nanowire inks with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) binders were coated on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates and welded via flash white light and ultraviolet C (UV-C) irradiation to produce highly conductive transparent electrodes. The coated silver nanowire films were firmly welded and embedded into PET substrate successfully at room temperature and under ambient conditions using an in-house flash white light welding system and UV-C irradiation. The effects of light irradiation conditions (light energy, irradiation time, pulse duration, and pulse number) on the silver nanowire networks were studied and optimized. Bending fatigue tests were also conducted to characterize the reliability of the welded transparent conductive silver nanowire films. The surfaces of the welded silver nanowire films were analyzed via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while the transmittance of the structures was measured using a spectrophotometer. From the results, a highly conductive and transparent silver nanowire film with excellent reliability could be achieved at room temperature under ambient conditions via the combined flash white light and UV-C irradiation welding process.

  16. Degradation of the UV-filter benzophenone-3 in aqueous solution using persulfate activated by heat, metal ions and light.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaoxue; Yan, Liqing; Qu, Ruijuan; Wang, Zunyao

    2018-04-01

    The goals of this study were to bring forward new data and insights into the effect of activation methods, operational variables and reaction pathways during sulfate radicals-based oxidation of benzophenone-3 (BP-3) in aqueous solution. Heat, transition metal ions (Fe 2+ , Cu 2+ , Co 2+ ), UV and visible light irradiation were used to activate persulfate (PS) to degrade BP-3. The results showed that these three activation methods can remarkably enhance BP-3 removal efficiency. Under the conditions of [BP-3] 0 : [PS] 0  = 1: 500, pH = 7.0, and 40 °C, complete removal of BP-3 (1.31 μM) was observed in 3 h. In the pH range of 3.0-9.0, the degradation of BP-3 decreased with increasing pH. Increasing the PS dosage accelerated the reaction, while the presence of humic acid (HA) significantly inhibited the efficiency of BP-3 removal. Based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and radical quenching studies, sulfate and hydroxyl radicals contributed to the oxidation process. According to the evolution of BP-3 and its 7 by-products, as well as frontier electron densities (FED) calculation, two routes were proposed involving hydroxylation, demethylation and direct oxidation. On the whole, this work is a unique contribution to the systematic elucidation of BP-3 removal by PS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dietary Carotenoids Regulate Astaxanthin Content of Copepods and Modulate Their Susceptibility to UV Light and Copper Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Caramujo, Maria-José; de Carvalho, Carla C. C. R.; Silva, Soraya J.; Carman, Kevin R.

    2012-01-01

    High irradiation and the presence of xenobiotics favor the formation of reactive oxygen species in marine environments. Organisms have developed antioxidant defenses, including the accumulation of carotenoids that must be obtained from the diet. Astaxanthin is the main carotenoid in marine crustaceans where, among other functions, it scavenges free radicals thus protecting cell compounds against oxidation. Four diets with different carotenoid composition were used to culture the meiobenthic copepod Amphiascoides atopus to assess how its astaxanthin content modulates the response to prooxidant stressors. A. atopus had the highest astaxanthin content when the carotenoid was supplied as astaxanthin esters (i.e., Haematococcus meal). Exposure to short wavelength UV light elicited a 77% to 92% decrease of the astaxanthin content of the copepod depending on the culture diet. The LC50 values of A. atopus exposed to copper were directly related to the initial astaxanthin content. The accumulation of carotenoids may ascribe competitive advantages to certain species in areas subjected to pollution events by attenuating the detrimental effects of metals on survival, and possibly development and fecundity. Conversely, the loss of certain dietary items rich in carotenoids may be responsible for the amplification of the effects of metal exposure in consumers. PMID:22822352

  18. UV Light Reveals the Diversity of Jurassic Shell Colour Patterns: Examples from the Cordebugle Lagerstätte (Calvados, France)

    PubMed Central

    Caze, Bruno; Merle, Didier; Schneider, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Viewed under UV light the diverse and exceptionally well-preserved molluscs from the Late Jurassic Cordebugle Konservat Lagerstätte (Calvados, Normandy, France) reveal fluorescent fossil shell colour patterns predating the oldest previously known instance of such patterns by 100 Myr. Evidently, residual colour patterns are observable in Mesozoic molluscs by application of this non-destructive method, provided the shells are not decalcified or recrystallized. Among 46 species which are assigned to twelve gastropod families and eight bivalve families, no less than 25 species yielded positive results. Out of nine colour pattern morphologies that have been distinguished six occur in gastropods and three in bivalves. The presence of these variant morphologies clearly indicates a significant pre-Cenozoic diversification of colour patterns, especially in gastropods. In addition, the occurrence of two distinct types of fluorescence highlights a major difference in the chemical composition of the pigments involved in colour pattern formation in gastropods. This discovery enables us to discriminate members of higher clades, i.e. the Vetigastropoda emitting red fluorescence from the Caenogastropoda and Heterobranchia emitting whitish-beige to yellow fluorescence. Consequently, fluorescent colour patterns may help to allocate part of the numerous enigmatic Mesozoic gastropod taxa to their correct systematic position. PMID:26039592

  19. UV light B-mediated inhibition of skin catalase activity promotes Gr-1+ CD11b+ myeloid cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Nicholas J; Tober, Kathleen L; Burns, Erin M; Schick, Jonathan S; Riggenbach, Judith A; Mace, Thomas A; Bill, Matthew A; Young, Gregory S; Oberyszyn, Tatiana M; Lesinski, Gregory B

    2012-03-01

    Skin cancer incidence and mortality are higher in men compared with women, but the causes of this sex discrepancy remain largely unknown. UV light exposure induces cutaneous inflammation and neutralizes cutaneous antioxidants. Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) myeloid cells are heterogeneous bone marrow-derived cells that promote inflammation-associated carcinogenesis. Reduced activity of catalase, an antioxidant present in the skin, has been associated with skin carcinogenesis. We used the outbred, immune-competent Skh-1 hairless mouse model of UVB-induced inflammation and non-melanoma skin cancer to further define sex discrepancies in UVB-induced inflammation. Our results demonstrated that male skin had relatively lower baseline catalase activity, which was inhibited following acute UVB exposure in both sexes. Further analysis revealed that skin catalase activity inversely correlated with splenic Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) myeloid cell percentage. Acute UVB exposure induced Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) myeloid cell skin infiltration, which was inhibited to a greater extent in male mice by topical catalase treatment. In chronic UVB studies, we demonstrated that the percentage of splenic Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) myeloid cells was 55% higher in male tumor-bearing mice compared with their female counterparts. Together, our findings indicate that lower skin catalase activity in male mice may at least in part contribute to increased UVB-induced generation of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) myeloid cells and subsequent skin carcinogenesis.

  20. The protective effect of some Thai plants and their bioactive compounds in UV light-induced skin carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    de Silva, Madhura B; Tencomnao, Tewin

    2018-05-02

    Skin cancer, represents a major public health concern. While the vast majority is non-melanoma skin cancers, melanomas are mostly responsible for mortality. Solar UVB radiation is mutagenic and carcinogenic. It is primarily responsible for both non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers via excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which mediate changes in inflammation and immunity, and have been implicated in all three stages of skin cancer development. Due to their regulatory role in numerous functions of cells, signaling pathways are targets for chemoprevention. The current standards in melanoma therapy are targeted and combination therapies, which, albeit prolong survival responses, are still prone to development of drug resistance. To this extent, drugs of natural origin continue to spark great interest. Thailand has a rich biodiversity of indigenous flora, which have traditionally been used to treat a variety of pathologies. The active components in plant extracts that have medicinal properties, termed 'bioactive compounds,' are efficient chemopreventive agents due to their antioxidant, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, and carcinogen detoxification properties. Thai plants and their bioactive compounds have shown protective effects on UV light-induced skin cancer in different experimental models. This warrants further in vivo investigations and translation to clinical studies to determine efficacy and safety, for use as lead compounds in targeted/combination therapy or adjuvant therapy with existing regimes. Coupled with a strategy for prevention, this offers a promising outlook for protection against photocarcinogenesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Self-organized TiO2 nanotube arrays in the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue under UV light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Eun Hyuk; Baek, Seong Rim; Yu, Seong Mi; Kim, Jong Pil; Hong, Tae Eun; Kim, Hyun Gyu; Bae, Jong-Seong; Jeong, Euh Duck; Khan, F. Nawaz; Jung, Ok-sang

    2015-04-01

    Nanostructured titanium dioxide (NTiO2) is known to possess efficient photocatalytic activity and to have diverse applications in many fields due to its chemical stability, high surface area/volume ratio, high transmittance, and high refractive index in the visible and the near-ultraviolet regions. These facts prompted us to develop TiO2 nanotube (TiO2 NT) arrays through electrochemical anodic oxidation involving different electrolytes comprised of phosphoric acid — hydrofluoric acid aqueous systems by varying the voltage and the time. The annealing temperature of the nanotubes, TiO2 NTs, were varied to modify the surface morphology and were characterized by using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction results showed that the samples had uniform morphologies and good crystalline structures of the anatase phase at lower annealing temperatures and of the rutile phase at higher annealing temperatures. A secondary-ion mass-spectrometry analysis was used to investigate the surface atoms and to conduct a depth profile analysis of the TiO2 NTs. The efficiency of the photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 NT arrays in degrading methylene blue (MB) was investigated under UV-Vis light irradiation. The maximum photocatalytic activity was achieved for the samples with lower annealing temperatures due to their being in the anatase phase and having a higher surface area and a smaller crystal size, which play important roles in the degradation of organic pollutants.

  2. BSA adsorption onto nanospheres: Influence of surface curvature as probed by electrophoretic light scattering and UV/vis spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Pérez, Julio A.; Gallardo-Moreno, Amparo M.; González-Martín, M. Luisa; Vadillo-Rodríguez, Virginia

    2015-10-01

    The influence of surface curvature on the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) was evaluated through the combination of two fairly simple techniques: electrophoretic light scattering and UV/vis spectroscopy. Measurements were carried out for a range of protein concentrations (0-320 μg/ml) at pH 3.5, 4.5 and 7 using hydrophobic polystyrene nanospheres of 38.8, 82 and 220 nm in diameter. The results obtained demonstrate that the charge of the BSA molecules in solution dictates the pH-dependent behavior of the protein-coated nanospheres, indicating in all cases a significant adsorption of BSA molecules. At a fixed pH, however, it is the zeta potential that characterizes the uncoated nanospheres normalized by their surface area that primarily controls protein adsorption. In particular, it is found that the rate at which BSA interact with the different nanospheres increases as their negative zeta potential per unit area (or diameter) increases (decreases) regardless of the pH. Moreover, provided that adsorption occurs away from the isoelectric point of the protein, highly curved surfaces are found to stabilize the native-like conformation of BSA upon adsorption by likely reducing lateral interactions between adsorbed molecules.

  3. Comparative study on toxicity of ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles on Artemia salina: effect of pre-UV-A and visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Bhuvaneshwari, M; Sagar, Bhawana; Doshi, Siddharth; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2017-02-01

    This study evaluated the toxicity potential of ZnO and TiO 2 nanoparticles under pre-UV-A irradiation and visible light condition on Artemia salina. The nanoparticle suspension was prepared in seawater medium and exposed under pre-UV-A (0.23 mW/cm 2 ) and visible light (0.18 mW/cm 2 ) conditions. The aggregation profiles of both nanoparticles (NPs) and dissolution of ZnO NPs under both irradiation conditions at various kinetic intervals (1, 24, 48 h) were studied. The 48-h LC 50 values were found to be 27.62 and 71.63 mg/L for ZnO NPs and 117 and 120.9 mg/L for TiO 2 NPs under pre-UV-A and visible light conditions. ZnO NPs were found to be more toxic to A. salina as compared to TiO 2 NPs. The enhanced toxicity was observed under pre-UV-A-irradiated ZnO NPs, signifying its phototoxicity. Accumulation of ZnO and TiO 2 NPs into A. salina depends on the concentration of particles and type irradiations. Elimination of accumulated nanoparticles was also evident under both irradiation conditions. Other than ZnO NPs, the dissolved Zn 2+ also had a significant effect on toxicity and accumulation in A. salina. Increased catalase (CAT) activity in A. salina indicates the generation of oxidative stress due to NP interaction. Thus, this study provides an understanding of the toxicity of photoreactive ZnO and TiO 2 NPs as related to the effects of pre-UV-A and visible light irradiation.

  4. Efficacy of UV-Pit-light traps for discerning micro-habitat-specific beetle and ant species related with different oil palm age stands and tropical annual seasons for accurate ecology and diversity interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad Bukhary, A. K.; Ruslan, M. Y.; Mohd. Fauzi, M. M.; Nicholas, S.; Muhamad Fahmi, M. H.; Izfa Riza, H.; Idris, A. B.

    2015-09-01

    A newly innovated and efficient UV-Pit-light Trap is described and the results of the experiments on its efficacy that were carried out within different oil palm age stands of the year 2013 were evaluated and compared with previous study year of 2010, with out the implementation of the UV-Pit-light Trap. In 2013 the UV-Pit-light Traps, the Malaise Traps, and the Pit-fall Traps were employed, while in 2010, the conventional canopy-height UV-Light Traps, Malaise Traps, and the Pit-fall Traps were employed. The UV-Pit-light traps caught more beetle and ant families, morpho-species, and individuals per species compared with the passive Pit-fall traps. The UV-Pit-light Trap targets different subsets of the oil palm beetles and ants' communities, specifying on epigaeic-related micro-habitats, with different oil palm age stands have different compositions of micro-habitats. The UV-Pit-light Traps have the dual quality for satisfying both the biological and statistical data requirements and evaluations. There were no significant difference between the UV-Pit-light Traps and the passive Pit-fall Traps, while the trapping difference with the Malaise traps for different seasons of the year 2013. The UV-Pit-light Traps and the Malaise Traps were complementary to each other, detecting the activities of beetles and ants around the epigaeic-related micro-habitats or having active flight activities respectively according to annual seasons. The UV-Pit-light Trap is an oil-palm specific type of passive trapping system, focusing on the insect species dwelling the upper-ground/epigaeic micro-habitats.

  5. Surface plasmon coupling for suppressing p-GaN absorption and TM-polarized emission in a deep-UV light-emitting diode.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yang; Su, Chia-Ying; Hsieh, Chieh; Chang, Wen-Yen; Huang, Chu-An; Kiang, Yean-Woei; Yang, C C

    2015-09-15

    The radiated power enhancement (suppression) of an in- (out-of-) plane-oriented radiating dipole at a desired emission wavelength in the deep-ultraviolet (UV) range when it is coupled with a surface plasmon (SP) resonance mode induced on a nearby Al nanoparticle (NP) is demonstrated. Also, it is found that the enhanced radiated power propagates mainly in the direction from the Al NP toward the dipole. Such SP coupling behaviors can be used for suppressing the transverse-magnetic (TM)-polarized emission, enhancing the transverse-electric-polarized emission, and reducing the UV absorption of the p-GaN layer in an AlGaN-based deep-UV light-emitting diode by embedding a sphere-like Al NP in its p-AlGaN layer.

  6. Photocatalytic fuel cell (PFC) and dye self-photosensitization photocatalytic fuel cell (DSPFC) with BiOCl/Ti photoanode under UV and visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Kan; Xu, Yunlan; He, Yi; Yang, Chen; Wang, Yalin; Jia, Jinping

    2013-04-02

    A fuel cell that functioned as a photo fuel cell (PFC) when irradiated with UV light and as a dye self-photosensitization photo fuel cell (DSPFC) when irradiated with visible light was proposed and investigated in this study. The system included a BiOCl/Ti plate photoanode and a Pt cathode, and dye solutions were employed as fuel. Electricity was generated at the same time as the dyes were degraded. 26.2% and 24.4% Coulombic efficiency were obtained when 20 mL of 10 mg · L(-1) Rhodamine B solution was treated with UV for 2 h and visible light for 3 h, respectively. Irradiation with natural and artificial sunlight was also evaluated. UV and visible light could be utilized at the same time and the photogenerated current was observed. The mechanism of electricity generation in BiOCl/Ti PFC and DSPFC was studied through degradation of the colorless salicylic acid solution. Factors that affect the electricity generation and dye degradation performance, such as solution pH and cathode material, were also investigated and optimized.

  7. Study of the UV Light Conversion of Feruloyl Amides from Portulaca oleracea and Their Inhibitory Effect on IL-6-Induced STAT3 Activation.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Joo Tae; Kim, Yesol; Jang, Hyun-Jae; Oh, Hyun-Mee; Lim, Chi-Hwan; Lee, Seung Woong; Rho, Mun-Chual

    2016-06-30

    Two new feruloyl amides, N-cis-hibiscusamide (5) and (7'S)-N-cis-feruloylnormetanephrine (9), and eight known feruloyl amides were isolated from Portulaca oleracea L. and the geometric conversion of the ten isolated feruloyl amides by UV light was verified. The structures of the feruloyl amides were determined based on spectroscopic data and comparison with literature data. The NMR data revealed that the structures of the isolated compounds showed cis/trans-isomerization under normal laboratory light conditions. Therefore, cis and trans-isomers of feruloyl amides were evaluated for their convertibility and stability by UV light of a wavelength of 254 nm. After 96 h of UV light exposure, 23.2%-35.0% of the cis and trans-isomers were converted to trans-isomers. Long-term stability tests did not show any significant changes. Among all compounds and conversion mixtures collected, compound 6 exhibited the strongest inhibition of IL-6-induced STAT3 activation in Hep3B cells, with an IC50 value of 0.2 μM. This study is the first verification of the conversion rates and an equilibrium ratio of feruloyl amides. These results indicate that this natural material might provide useful information for the treatment of various diseases involving IL-6 and STAT3.

  8. Photocatalytic degradation of cylindrospermopsin under UV-A, solar and visible light using TiO2. Mineralization and intermediate products.

    PubMed

    Fotiou, Theodora; Triantis, Theodoros; Kaloudis, Triantafyllos; Hiskia, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) are considered an important water quality problem, since several genera can produce toxins, called cyanotoxins that are harmful to human health. Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is an alkaloid-like potent cyanotoxin that has been reported in water reservoirs and lakes worldwide. In this paper the removal of CYN from water by UV-A, solar and visible light photocatalysis was investigated. Two different commercially available TiO2 photocatalysts were used, i.e., Degussa P25 and Kronos-vlp7000. Complete degradation of CYN was achieved with both photocatalysts in 15 and 40 min under UV-A and 40 and 120 min under solar light irradiation, for Degussa P25 and Kronos vlp-7000 respectively. Experiments in the absence of photocatalysts showed that direct photolysis was negligible. Under visible light irradiation only the Kronos vlp-7000 which is a visible light activated catalyst was able to degrade CYN. A number of intermediates were identified and a complete degradation pathway is proposed, leading to the conclusion that hydroxyl radical attack is the main mechanism followed. TOC and inorganic ions (NO2-, NO3-, SO4(2-) and NH4+) determinations suggested that complete mineralization of CYN was achieved under UV-A in the presence of Degussa P25. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pre-oxidation of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) by ultraviolet light (UV) promotes enhanced degradation of LDPE in soil.

    PubMed

    Tribedi, Prosun; Dey, Samrat

    2017-11-09

    Polyethylene represents nearly 64% of all the synthetic plastics produced and are mainly used for domestic and industrial applications. Their extensive use poses a serious environmental threat because of their non-biodegradable nature. Among all the polyethylene remediation strategies, in situ bioremediation happens to be the safest and efficient one. In the current study, efforts had been given to compare the extent of LDPE degradation under UV-treated and UV-untreated conditions by soil microcosm. Landfill soil was collected and UV-treated and UV-untreated LDPE were added separately to the soil following incubation under similar conditions. Electron microscopic images as well as the weight loss and the tensile strength results clearly revealed that UV-treated LDPE showed better degradation than the non-treated ones in soil. To elucidate the mechanism of this enhanced biodegradation, the bond spectra of differentially treated LDPE were analyzed by FTIR. The results obtained from bond spectra studies revealed that UV treatment increases both carbonyl and terminal double-bond index of the LDPE, thereby making it highly susceptible for microbial degradation. Moreover, incubation of UV-treated LDPE with soil favors better adherence of metabolically active and significantly higher number of microorganisms on it. Taken together, all these results demonstrate the higher microbial association and their better metabolic potential to the UV-treated LDPE that lead to enhanced degradation of the LDPE by the soil microorganisms.

  10. Skin hardening effect in patients with polymorphic light eruption: comparison of UVB hardening in hospital with a novel home UV-hardening device.

    PubMed

    Franken, S M; Genders, R E; de Gruijl, F R; Rustemeyer, T; Pavel, S

    2013-01-01

    An effective prophylactic treatment of patients with polymorphic light eruption (PLE) consists of repeated low, gradually increasing exposures to UVB radiation. This so-called UV(B) hardening induces better tolerance of the skin to sunlight. SunshowerMedical company (Amsterdam) has developed an UV (B) source that can be used during taking shower. The low UV fluence of this apparatus makes it an interesting device for UV hardening. In a group of PLE patients, we compared the effectiveness of the irradiation with SunshowerMedical at home with that of the UVB treatment in the hospital. The PLE patients were randomized for one of the treatments. The hospital treatment consisted of irradiations with broad-band UVB (Waldmann 85/UV21 lamps) twice a week during 6 weeks. The home UV-device was used each day with the maximal irradiation time of 6 min. The outcome assessment was based on the information obtained from patients' dermatological quality of life (DLQI) questionnaires, the ability of both phototherapies to reduce the provocation reaction and from the patients' evaluation of the long-term benefits of their phototherapies. Sixteen patients completed treatment with SunshowerMedical and thirteen completed treatment in hospital. Both types of phototherapy were effective. There was a highly significant improvement in DLQI with either treatment. In most cases, the hardening reduced or even completely suppressed clinical UV provocation of PLE. The patients using SunshowerMedical at home were, however, much more content with the treatment procedure than the patients visiting the dermatological units. Both treatments were equally effective in the induction of skin tolerance to sunlight in PLE patients. However, the home treatment was much better accepted than the treatment in the hospital. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  11. Development of colour and firmness in strawberry crops is UV light sensitive, but colour is not a good predictor of several quality parameters.

    PubMed

    Ordidge, Matthew; García-Macías, Paulina; Battey, Nicholas H; Gordon, Michael H; John, Philip; Lovegrove, Julie A; Vysini, Eleni; Wagstaffe, Alexandra; Hadley, Paul

    2012-06-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duchesne var. Elsanta) plants were grown in polytunnels covered with three polythene films that transmitted varying levels of ultraviolet (UV) light. Fruit were harvested under near-commercial conditions and quality and yield were measured. During ripening, changes in the colour parameters of individual fruit were monitored, and the accuracy of using surface colour to predict other quality parameters was determined by analysing the correlation between colour and quality parameters within UV treatments. Higher exposure to UV during growth resulted in the fruit becoming darker at harvest and developing surface colour more quickly; fruit were also firmer at harvest, but shelf life was not consistently affected by the UV regime. Surface colour measurements were poorly correlated to firmness, shelf life or total phenolics, anthocyanins and ellagic acid contents. Although surface colour of strawberry fruits was affected by the UV regime during growth, and this parameter is an important factor in consumer perception, we concluded that the surface colour at the time of harvest was, contrary to consumer expectations, a poor indicator of firmness, potential shelf life or anthocyanin content. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Preparation and characterization of a novel pH-sensitive hydrogel obtained from UV light-induced polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, R. Q.; Zhao, Y. G.; Cui, Y. Q.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, J.; Liang, X. Y.; Shang, Q.

    2015-05-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop a novel pH-sensitive hydrogel prepared via an UV light-induced polymerization. Single-factor experiments were performed to acquire the optimum formula of final poly(MAA-co-PEGMA) hydrogel. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra were employed to confirm the successful preparation of the designed copolymers. Inner morphologies of the polymeric hydrogels were observed via an S-4800 scanning electron microscope (SEM). Swelling and reversible swelling-shrinking studies were carried out in different phosphate buffer solution (PBS) with various pH values. Drug-loading tests were performed with bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model drug. The in vitro release profile was also investigated in PBS with the pH values of 1.2 and 7.4. FTIR spectra confirmed the preparation of the poly(MAA-co-PEGMA) copolymers without any residual monomers. The typical space grid structures were observed from the SEM photographs of hydrogels. The obtained hydrogel showed an excellent pH-sensibility and reversible swelling-shrinking property. The maximum drug-loading (40.9 %) was gained from the BSA concentration of 50.0 mg/mL. During the releasing process, only 5.8 ± 0.9 % of BSA was released at pH 1.2, but 82.1 ± 6.2 % was diffused at pH 7.4. These data suggested that such medicated hydrogel could deliver BSA to alkaline conditions (e.g., intestinal environments) site-specifically, which protected BSA from destroying by gastric acid or pepsase. Therefore, such hydrogel had a significant meaning in theoretical research and practical application.

  13. Role of cloned carotenoid genes expressed in Escherichia coli in protecting against inactivation by near-UV light and specific phototoxic molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Tuveson, R.W.; Larson, R.A.; Kagan, J.

    1988-10-01

    Genes controlling carotenoid synthesis were cloned from Erwinia herbicola and expressed in an Escherichia coli strain. Carotenoids protect against high fluences of near-UV (NUV; 320 to 400 nm) but not against far-UV (200-300 nm). Protection of E. coli cells was not observed following treatment with either psoralen or 8-methoxypsoralen plus NUV. However, significant protection of cells producing carotenoids was observed with three photosensitizing molecules activated by NUV (alpha-terthienyl, harmine, and phenylheptatriyne) which are thought to have the membrane as an important lethal target. Protection of carotenoid-producing cells against inactivation was not observed with acridine orange plus visible light but wasmore » seen with toluidine blue O plus visible light.« less

  14. Fabrication of ZnO Thin Films by Sol-Gel Spin Coating and Their UV and White-Light Emission Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mirgender; Dubey, Sarvesh; Rajendar, Vanga; Park, Si-Hyun

    2017-10-01

    ZnO thin films have been fabricated by the sol-gel spin-coating technique and annealed under different conditions, and their ultraviolet (UV) and white-light emission properties investigated. Different ambient conditions including oxygen, nitrogen, zinc-rich nitrogen, and vacuum were used to tune the main properties of the ZnO thin films. The resistivity varied from the conductive to semi-insulating regime, and the luminescence emission from fairly intense UV to polychromatic. The emission intensity was also found to be a function of the annealing conditions. Possible routes to compensate the loss of emission characteristics are discussed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis was carried out to detect the chemical states of the zinc/oxygen species. The changes in the electrical and emission properties are explained based on annihilation/formation of inherent donor/acceptor-type defects. Such ZnO thin films could have potential applications in solid-state lighting.

  15. Light, Molecules, Action: Using Ultrafast Uv-Visible and X-Ray Spectroscopy to Probe Excited State Dynamics in Photoactive Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sension, R. J.

    2017-06-01

    Light provides a versatile energy source capable of precise manipulation of material systems on size scales ranging from molecular to macroscopic. Photochemistry provides the means for transforming light energy from photon to process via movement of charge, a change in shape, a change in size, or the cleavage of a bond. Photochemistry produces action. In the work to be presented here ultrafast UV-Visible pump-probe, and pump-repump-probe methods have been used to probe the excited state dynamics of stilbene-based molecular motors, cyclohexadiene-based switches, and polyene-based photoacids. Both ultrafast UV-Visible and X-ray absorption spectroscopies have been applied to the study of cobalamin (vitamin B_{12}) based compounds. Optical measurements provide precise characterization of spectroscopic signatures of the intermediate species on the S_{1} surface, while time-resolved XANES spectra at the Co K-edge probe the structural changes that accompany these transformations.

  16. Role of cloned carotenoid genes expressed in Escherichia coli in protecting against inactivation by near-UV light and specific phototoxic molecules.

    PubMed Central

    Tuveson, R W; Larson, R A; Kagan, J

    1988-01-01

    Genes controlling carotenoid synthesis were cloned from Erwinia herbicola and expressed in an Escherichia coli strain. Carotenoids protect against high fluences of near-UV (NUV; 320 to 400 nm) but not against far-UV (200-300 nm). Protection of E. coli cells was not observed following treatment with either psoralen or 8-methoxypsoralen plus NUV. However, significant protection of cells producing carotenoids was observed with three photosensitizing molecules activated by NUV (alpha-terthienyl, harmine, and phenylheptatriyne) which are thought to have the membrane as an important lethal target. Protection of carotenoid-producing cells against inactivation was not observed with acridine orange plus visible light but was seen with toluidine blue O plus visible light. PMID:3049544

  17. Enhanced UV-Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity by Constructing Appropriate Heterostructures between Mesopore TiO₂ Nanospheres and Sn₃O₄ Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianling; Tu, Jianhai; Li, Xingyang; Wang, Ziya; Li, Yan; Li, Quanshui; Wang, Fengping

    2017-10-19

    Novel TiO₂/Sn₃O₄ heterostructure photocatalysts were ingeniously synthesized via a scalable two-step method. The impressive photocatalytic abilities of the TiO₂/Sn₃O₄ sphere nanocomposites were validated by the degradation test of methyl orange and •OH trapping photoluminescence experiments under ultraviolet (UV) and visible light irradiation, respectively. Especially under the visible light, the TiO₂/Sn₃O₄ nanocomposites demonstrated a superb photocatalytic activity, with 81.2% of methyl orange (MO) decomposed at 30 min after irradiation, which greatly exceeded that of the P25 (13.4%), TiO₂ (0.5%) and pure Sn₃O₄ (59.1%) nanostructures. This enhanced photocatalytic performance could be attributed to the mesopore induced by the monodispersed TiO₂ cores that supply sufficient surface areas and accessibility to reactant molecules. This exquisite hetero-architecture facilitates extended UV-visible absorption and efficient photoexcited charge carrier separation.

  18. Integrin αVβ5-mediated Removal of Apoptotic Cell Debris by the Eye Lens and Its Inhibition by UV Light Exposure*

    PubMed Central

    Chauss, Daniel; Brennan, Lisa A.; Bakina, Olga; Kantorow, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of apoptotic material is toxic and associated with cataract and other disease states. Identification of mechanisms that prevent accumulation of apoptotic debris is important for establishing the etiology of these diseases. The ocular lens is routinely assaulted by UV light that causes lens cell apoptosis and is associated with cataract formation. To date, no molecular mechanism for removal of toxic apoptotic debris has been identified in the lens. Vesicular debris within lens cells exposed to UV light has been observed raising speculation that lens cells themselves could act as phagocytes to remove toxic apoptotic debris. However, phagocytosis has not been confirmed as a function of the intact eye lens, and no mechanism for lens phagocytosis has been established. Here, we demonstrate that the eye lens is capable of phagocytizing extracellular lens cell debris. Using high throughput RNA sequencing and bioinformatics analysis, we establish that lens epithelial cells express members of the integrin αVβ5-mediated phagocytosis pathway and that internalized cell debris co-localizes with αVβ5 and with RAB7 and Rab-interacting lysosomal protein that are required for phagosome maturation and fusion with lysosomes. We demonstrate that the αVβ5 receptor is required for lens epithelial cell phagocytosis and that UV light treatment of lens epithelial cells results in damage to the αVβ5 receptor with concomitant loss of phagocytosis. These data suggest that loss of αVβ5-mediated phagocytosis by the eye lens could result in accumulation of toxic cell debris that could contribute to UV light-induced cataract formation. PMID:26527683

  19. Effect of UV-light on the uniaxial tensile properties and structure of uncoated and TiO2 coated Bombyx mori silk fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksakal, Baki; Koç, Kenan; Yargı, Önder; Tsobkallo, Katherina

    2016-01-01

    The effect of UV-light on the uniaxial tensile properties and the structure of uncoated and TiO2 coated silk fibers in the bave form by using sol-gel method was investigated with tensile testing and FT-IR/ATR spectroscopy methods after the silk filaments were exposed to UV-light with high intensity of 760 W/m2 for different times from 0.5 h to 1 day. It was clearly observed that TiO2 coating considerably increased the Young's modulus of the uncoated silk single filament by around 17% before the UV-irradiation. The yield point and the post yield region disappeared on the stress-strain curves of both uncoated and TiO2 coated silk filaments after UV-irradiation time higher than 1 h. Except for the Young's modulus, most of the tensile characteristics of both uncoated and TiO2 coated silk filaments decreased remarkably with increasing UV-irradiation time, e.g., after 1 h irradiation, although the Young's modulus slightly changed and ultimate tensile strength decreased by only around 18% and 23%, for the uncoated and TiO2 coated silk filaments, respectively; breaking extension decreased dramatically by 67% and 72%, respectively, for uncoated and TiO2 coated silk filaments. Only the Young's modulus of TiO2 coated silk filaments which can be considered as a more stable tensile characteristic became significantly higher than that of the uncoated silk filaments with increasing UV-irradiation time. After 1 day irradiation, even though the uncoated silk filaments could not be tested and completely lost of their fiber properties, the TiO2 coated silk filaments showed a stress-strain curve in initial elastic region with Young's modulus of ∼13 GPa which indicates considerable protective effect of TiO2 on the silk fiber structure, especially on the β-sheet microcrystals against UV-radiation. The FT-IR/ATR spectral results showed that significant photodegradation took place in not only crystalline but also amorphous regions which were deduced from the decrease in the absorbance

  20. Physicochemcial characteristic of CdS-anchored porous WS2 hybrid in the photocatalytic degradation of crystal violet under UV and visible light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vattikuti, S. V. Prabhakar; Ngo, Ich-Long; Byon, Chan

    2016-11-01

    In this work, we report the synthesis of CdS-incorporated porous WS2 by a simple hydrothermal method. The structural, morphological, and optical properties of the samples were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-visible spectrometry. The photocatalytic activities were established for degradation of crystal violet (CV) under UV and visible light irradiation. The CdS-incorporated porous WS2 hybrid demonstrated high photocatalytic activity for degradation of CV pollutant compared to pure CdS nanoparticles and porous WS2 sheets. This result implies that the CdS-incorporated porous WS2 promoted more electron-hole pair transformation under UV and visible light irradiation. This significant enhancement of photocatalytic efficiency of CdS-incorporated porous WS2 photocatalyst under visible light can be ascribed to the presence of CdS nanospheres on the meshed-like WS2 sheets which potentially improves absorption in the visible range enabled by surface plasmon resonance effect of CdS nanospheres. The photostability and reusability of the CdS-porous WS2 were examined through recycling experiments.

  1. Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation and its effects on elemental distributions in mouse embryonic fibroblast cells in x-ray fluorescence microanalysis

    DOE PAGES

    Jin, Qiaoling; Vogt, Stefan; Lai, Barry; ...

    2015-02-23

    Rapidly-frozen hydrated (cryopreserved) specimens combined with cryo-scanning x-ray fluorescence microscopy provide an ideal approach for investigating elemental distributions in biological cells and tissues. However, because cryopreservation does not deactivate potentially infectious agents associated with Risk Group 2 biological materials, one must be concerned with contamination of expensive and complicated cryogenic x-ray microscopes when working with such materials. We employed ultraviolet germicidal irradiation to decontaminate previously cryopreserved cells under liquid nitrogen, and then investigated its effects on elemental distributions under both frozen hydrated and freeze dried states with x-ray fluorescence microscopy. We show that the contents and distributions of most biologicallymore » important elements remain nearly unchanged when compared with non-ultraviolet-irradiated counterparts, even after multiple cycles of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation and cryogenic x-ray imaging. This provides a potential pathway for rendering Risk Group 2 biological materials safe for handling in multiuser cryogenic x-ray microscopes without affecting the fidelity of the results.« less

  2. Applications of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation disinfection in health care facilities: effective adjunct, but not stand-alone technology.

    PubMed

    Memarzadeh, Farhad; Olmsted, Russell N; Bartley, Judene M

    2010-06-01

    This review evaluates the applicability and relative contribution of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) to disinfection of air in health care facilities. A section addressing the use of UVGI for environmental surfaces is also included. The germicidal susceptibility of biologic agents is addressed, but with emphasis on application in health care facilities. The balance of scientific evidence indicates that UVGI should be considered as a disinfection application in a health care setting only in conjunction with other well-established elements, such as appropriate heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems; dynamic removal of contaminants from the air; and preventive maintenance in combination with through cleaning of the care environment. We conclude that although UVGI is microbiocidal, it is not "ready for prime time" as a primary intervention to kill or inactivate infectious microorganisms; rather, it should be considered an adjunct. Other factors, such as careful design of the built environment, installation and effective operation of the HVAC system, and a high level of attention to traditional cleaning and disinfection, must be assessed before a health care facility can decide to rely solely on UVGI to meet indoor air quality requirements for health care facilities. More targeted and multiparameter studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and incremental benefit of UVGI for mitigating reservoirs of microorganisms and ultimately preventing cross-transmission of pathogens that lead to health care-associated infections. (c) 2010 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation and its effects on elemental distributions in mouse embryonic fibroblast cells in x-ray fluorescence microanalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Qiaoling; Vogt, Stefan; Lai, Barry

    Rapidly-frozen hydrated (cryopreserved) specimens combined with cryo-scanning x-ray fluorescence microscopy provide an ideal approach for investigating elemental distributions in biological cells and tissues. However, because cryopreservation does not deactivate potentially infectious agents associated with Risk Group 2 biological materials, one must be concerned with contamination of expensive and complicated cryogenic x-ray microscopes when working with such materials. We employed ultraviolet germicidal irradiation to decontaminate previously cryopreserved cells under liquid nitrogen, and then investigated its effects on elemental distributions under both frozen hydrated and freeze dried states with x-ray fluorescence microscopy. We show that the contents and distributions of most biologicallymore » important elements remain nearly unchanged when compared with non-ultraviolet-irradiated counterparts, even after multiple cycles of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation and cryogenic x-ray imaging. This provides a potential pathway for rendering Risk Group 2 biological materials safe for handling in multiuser cryogenic x-ray microscopes without affecting the fidelity of the results.« less

  4. Can biowarfare agents be defeated with light?

    PubMed

    Vatansever, Fatma; Ferraresi, Cleber; de Sousa, Marcelo Victor Pires; Yin, Rui; Rineh, Ardeshir; Sharma, Sulbha K; Hamblin, Michael R

    2013-11-15

    Biological warfare and bioterrorism is an unpleasant fact of 21st century life. Highly infectious and profoundly virulent diseases may be caused in combat personnel or in civilian populations by the appropriate dissemination of viruses, bacteria, spores, fungi, or toxins. Dissemination may be airborne, waterborne, or by contamination of food or surfaces. Countermeasures may be directed toward destroying or neutralizing the agents outside the body before infection has taken place, by destroying the agents once they have entered the body before the disease has fully developed, or by immunizing susceptible populations against the effects. A range of light-based technologies may have a role to play in biodefense countermeasures. Germicidal UV (UVC) is exceptionally active in destroying a wide range of viruses and microbial cells, and recent data suggests that UVC has high selectivity over host mammalian cells and tissues. Two UVA mediated approaches may also have roles to play; one where UVA is combined with titanium dioxide nanoparticles in a process called photocatalysis, and a second where UVA is combined with psoralens (PUVA) to produce "killed but metabolically active" microbial cells that may be particularly suitable for vaccines. Many microbial cells are surprisingly sensitive to blue light alone, and blue light can effectively destroy bacteria, fungi, and Bacillus spores and can treat wound infections. The combination of photosensitizing dyes such as porphyrins or phenothiaziniums and red light is called photodynamic therapy (PDT) or photoinactivation, and this approach cannot only kill bacteria, spores, and fungi, but also inactivate viruses and toxins. Many reports have highlighted the ability of PDT to treat infections and stimulate the host immune system. Finally pulsed (femtosecond) high power lasers have been used to inactivate pathogens with some degree of selectivity. We have pointed to some of the ways light-based technology may be used to defeat

  5. Can biowarfare agents be defeated with light?

    PubMed Central

    Vatansever, Fatma; Ferraresi, Cleber; de Sousa, Marcelo Victor Pires; Yin, Rui; Rineh, Ardeshir; Sharma, Sulbha K; Hamblin, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Biological warfare and bioterrorism is an unpleasant fact of 21st century life. Highly infectious and profoundly virulent diseases may be caused in combat personnel or in civilian populations by the appropriate dissemination of viruses, bacteria, spores, fungi, or toxins. Dissemination may be airborne, waterborne, or by contamination of food or surfaces. Countermeasures may be directed toward destroying or neutralizing the agents outside the body before infection has taken place, by destroying the agents once they have entered the body before the disease has fully developed, or by immunizing susceptible populations against the effects. A range of light-based technologies may have a role to play in biodefense countermeasures. Germicidal UV (UVC) is exceptionally active in destroying a wide range of viruses and microbial cells, and recent data suggests that UVC has high selectivity over host mammalian cells and tissues. Two UVA mediated approaches may also have roles to play; one where UVA is combined with titanium dioxide nanoparticles in a process called photocatalysis, and a second where UVA is combined with psoralens (PUVA) to produce “killed but metabolically active” microbial cells that may be particularly suitable for vaccines. Many microbial cells are surprisingly sensitive to blue light alone, and blue light can effectively destroy bacteria, fungi, and Bacillus spores and can treat wound infections. The combination of photosensitizing dyes such as porphyrins or phenothiaziniums and red light is called photodynamic therapy (PDT) or photoinactivation, and this approach cannot only kill bacteria, spores, and fungi, but also inactivate viruses and toxins. Many reports have highlighted the ability of PDT to treat infections and stimulate the host immune system. Finally pulsed (femtosecond) high power lasers have been used to inactivate pathogens with some degree of selectivity. We have pointed to some of the ways light-based technology may be used to defeat

  6. Field-Grown Grapevine Berries Use Carotenoids and the Associated Xanthophyll Cycles to Acclimate to UV Exposure Differentially in High and Low Light (Shade) Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Joubert, Chandré; Young, Philip R.; Eyéghé-Bickong, Hans A.; Vivier, Melané A.

    2016-01-01

    Light quantity and quality modulate grapevine development and influence berry metabolic processes. Here we studied light as an information signal for developing and ripening grape berries. A Vitis vinifera Sauvignon Blanc field experiment was used to identify the impacts of UVB on core metabolic processes in the berries under both high light (HL) and low light (LL) microclimates. The primary objective was therefore to identify UVB-specific responses on berry processes and metabolites and distinguish them from those responses elicited by variations in light incidence. Canopy manipulation at the bunch zone via early leaf removal, combined with UVB-excluding acrylic sheets installed over the bunch zones resulted in four bunch microclimates: (1) HL (control); (2) LL (control); (3) HL with UVB attenuation and (4) LL with UVB attenuation. Metabolite profiles of three berry developmental stages showed predictable changes to known UV-responsive compound classes in a typical UV acclimation (versus UV damage) response. Interestingly, the berries employed carotenoids and the associated xanthophyll cycles to acclimate to UV exposure and the berry responses differed between HL and LL conditions, particularly in the developmental stages where berries are still photosynthetically active. The developmental stage of the berries was an important factor to consider in interpreting the data. The green berries responded to the different exposure and/or UVB attenuation signals with metabolites that indicate that the berries actively managed its metabolism in relation to the exposure levels, displaying metabolic plasticity in the photosynthesis-related metabolites. Core processes such as photosynthesis, photo-inhibition and acclimation were maintained by differentially modulating metabolites under the four treatments. Ripe berries also responded metabolically to the light quality and quantity, but mostly formed compounds (volatiles and polyphenols) that have direct antioxidant and/or

  7. Effect of uv light on formation and synthetic capacity of DNA-membrane complexes from T7-infected cells of E. coli

    SciTech Connect

    Wintermantel, G.

    1974-02-01

    The action of uv light on the attachment of T7-DNA to the bacterial cell membrane, and the RNA- and DNA-synthesizing activity of the DNA-membrane complex, were investigated. In E. coli H560 cells infected by uv-irradiated T7 phages, the amount of membrane-associated parental /sup 32/P-labeled T7-DNA was determined. To measure the RNA- and DNA-synthesizing activity, the isolated DNA- membrane complexes were incubated with an equimolar mixture of the corresponding four nucleoside triphosphates. The uv-sensitivities of the functions tested were calculated from the slopes of the dose-effect curves. In relation to the uv- sensitivity for plaque-forming ability of the T7bacteriophages they amountmore » to 0.07 ( plus or minus 0.01); 0.15 ( plus or minus 0.01); and 0.56 ( plus or minus 0.04), respectively. (auth)« less

  8. Photochemical quenching of aqueous methylene blue by N, Nb co-doped TiO2 nanomaterials under visible light: a confirmatory UV/LC-MS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Kamini; Pandey, Ashutosh; Singh, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    Nanodimensional un-doped, Nb doped, N doped and N,Nb co-doped TiO2 particles have been prepared by the sol-gel procedure. Phase identification of the anatase particles was done by X-ray powder diffraction and Deby-Scherrer calculations revealed their particle sizes to range from 20 to 30 nm. The band gap energies of the samples were measured by UV-Vis-diffuse reflectance (UV-DRS) spectra. While un-doped TiO2 showed wide optical absorption in the UV region. The co-doped TiO2 particles exhibited narrow band gaps of ~2.7 eV, which showed absorption in the visible region. A decline in charge carrier recombination rates in the prepared samples was confirmed through photoluminescence (PL). The morphological appearances of the particles have been examined by scanning electron microscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of the samples confirmed the incorporations of N and Nb into the TiO2 matrices. The photocatalytic efficiencies of the prepared particles have been determined by the degradation of the non-biodegradable dye methylene blue (MB) under electromagnetic radiation. The co-doped sample showed superior photocatalytic activity under the visible light (λ  >  400) over the other samples. Photochemical quenching of aqueous MB was further analysed by UV/LC-MS which confirmed the attenuation of methylene blue.

  9. Novel sanitization approach based on synergistic action of UV-A light and benzoic acid: Inactivation mechanism and a potential application in washing fresh produce.

    PubMed

    Ding, Qiao; Alborzi, Solmaz; Bastarrachea, Luis J; Tikekar, Rohan V

    2018-06-01

    Antimicrobial activity of the simultaneous UV-A light and benzoic acid (BA) treatment against stationary phase Escherichia coli O157:H7 was investigated. While 15 mM BA or UV-A light exposure for 30 min alone caused < 1 logarithmic reduction in the bacterial population, > 5 logarithmic reductions were induced by the simultaneous application of UV-A and 15 mM BA in 30 min, demonstrating a synergistic antimicrobial effect. Due to its ability to increase cell membrane permeability, addition of EDTA (1 mM) was able to decrease the required concentration of BA in the simultaneous treatment from 15 to 8 mM. Microbial inactivation was a result of simultaneous membrane damage, intracellular acidification, and intracellular oxidative stress. The simultaneous treatment was effective in the presence of organic load of up to 500 mg/L of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and was able to lower cross-contamination risk during simulated washing of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) without adversely affecting its color. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. UV-light-induced one-color and two-color photorefractive effects in congruent and near-stoichiometric LiNbO 3:Mg crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Haijun; Xu, Jingjun; Tomita, Yasuo; Zhu, Dengsong; Fu, Bo; Zhang, Guoquan; Zhang, Guangyin

    2007-03-01

    We describe the ultraviolet-light one-color photorefraction (UV-OPR) at 351 nm in LiNbO3 crystals with different Mg-doping concentrations and [Li]/[Nb] ratios. It is shown that as the Mg-doping concentration and/or the [Li]/[Nb] ratio increase, the refractive index change and the two-beam coupling gain increase but the response time decreases. It is also shown that the recording sensitivity as large as ∼27 cm/J is obtainable at a recording intensity of ∼1 W/cm2 in near-stoichiometric LiNbO3 doped with 2 mol% Mg. This sensitivity is approximately one order of magnitude higher than those for other LiNbO3 crystals. We also describe the ultraviolet-light-gating two-color photorefraction (UV-TPR) using 365 nm gating and 633 nm recording beams in LiNbO3 crystals with different Mg-doping concentrations and [Li]/[Nb] ratios. It is shown that UV-TPR is only observed in near-stoichiometric crystals and the grating-formation dynamics strongly depend on the Mg concentration.

  11. High photocatalytic activity of hierarchical SiO2@C-doped TiO2 hollow spheres in UV and visible light towards degradation of rhodamine B.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Chen, Juanrong; Hua, Li; Li, Songjun; Zhang, Xuanxuan; Sheng, Weichen; Cao, Shunsheng

    2017-10-15

    Ongoing research activities are targeted to explore high photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 -based photocatalysts for the degradation of environmental contaminants under UV and visible light irradiation. In this work, we devise a facile, cost-effective technique to in situ synthesize hierarchical SiO 2 @C-doped TiO 2 (SCT) hollow spheres for the first time. This strategy mainly contains the preparation of monodisperse cationic polystyrene spheres (CPS), sequential deposition of inner SiO 2 , the preparation of the sandwich-like CPS@SiO 2 @CPS particles, and formation of outer TiO 2 . After the one-step removal of CPS templates by calcination at 450°C, hierarchical SiO 2 @C-doped TiO 2 hollow spheres are in situ prepared. The morphology, hierarchical structure, and properties of SCT photocatalyst were characterized by TEM. SEM, STEM Mapping, BET, XRD, UV-vis spectroscopy, and XPS. Results strongly confirm the carbon doping in the outer TiO 2 lattice of SCT hollow spheres. When the as-synthesized SCT hollow spheres were employed as a photocatalyst for the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible-light and ultraviolet irradiation, the SCT photocatalyst exhibits a higher photocatalytic activity than commercial P25, effectively overcoming the limitations of poorer UV activity for many previous reported TiO 2 -based photocatalysts due to doping. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. UV light impact on ellagitannins and wood surface colour of European oak ( Quercus petraea and Quercus robur)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahri, S.; Belloncle, C.; Charrier, F.; Pardon, P.; Quideau, S.; Charrier, B.

    2007-03-01

    Two European oak species ( Q. petraea and Q. robur) have a high content of phenols which may participate in the alteration of colour upon UV irradiation. To study the photodegradation process of oak surfaces, the two oak species extractives, vescalagin, castalagin, ellagic acid and gallic acid were analysed quantitatively by HPLC before and after UV irradiation. Irradiation time was altered between 3, 24, 72, 96, 120, 144, 192 and 216 h. In parallel, any colour changes of Oak wood surface was followed after 120 h of UV-irradiation by measuring CIELAB parameters (DL*, Da*, Db* and DE*). We observed that 60% of total phenol content of extractives decreased after the maximal exposure time. Our findings also showed that castalagin and gallic acid were destroyed after 216 h and vescalagin and ellagic acid after 72 h. This study proves the photosenibility of oakwood extractives which, supplementary to lignin degradation, would strongly result in the discolouration of oak heartwood.

  13. Ultraviolet germicidal efficacy as a function of pulsed radiation parameters studied by spore film dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Stefan; Holtschmidt, Hans; Ott, Günter

    2018-01-01

    Disinfection by pulsed ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a commonly used method, e.g. in industry or medicine and can be carried out either with lasers or broadband UV radiation sources. Detrimental effects to biological materials depending on parameters such as pulse duration τ or pulse repetition frequency f p are well-understood for pulsed coherent UV radiation, however, relatively little is known for its incoherent variant. Therefore, within this work, it is the first time that disinfection rates of pulsed and continuous (cw) incoherent UV radiation studied by means of spore film dosimetry are presented, compared with each other, and in a second step further investigated regarding two pulse parameters. After analyzing the dynamic range of the Bacillus subtilis spore films with variable cw radiant exposures H=5-100Jm -2 a validation of the Bunsen-Roscoe law revealed its restricted applicability and a 28% enhanced detrimental effect of pulsed compared to cw incoherent UV radiation. A radiant exposure H=50Jm -2 and an irradiance E=0.5Wm -2 were found to be suitable parameters for an analysis of the disinfection rate as a function of τ=0.5-10ms and f p =25-500Hz unveiling that shorter pulses and lower frequencies inactivate more spores. Finally, the number of applied pulses as well as the experiment time were considered with regard to spore film disinfection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Disinfection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis in drinking tap water using ultraviolet germicidal irradiation.

    PubMed

    Schiavano, Giuditta Fiorella; De Santi, Mauro; Sisti, Maurizio; Amagliani, Giulia; Brandi, Giorgio

    2017-09-13

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria are resistant to conventional water treatments, and are opportunistic human pathogen, particularly in hospitalized patients. The aim of this investigation was to assess the effectiveness of an ultraviolet UV-C lamp treatment against Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis in drinking tap water. Ultraviolet treatments (0-192 mJ/cm 2 ) were performed using UV lamp immerged onto cylindrical glass tubes containing artificially contaminated water. The results showed that susceptibility to UV varied considerably according to the strains and the diameter of the tube. With a dose of 32 mJ/cm 2 , a significant inactivation (p < .05) of 3 log (99.9%) or more was obtained in only 5 of the 14 strains. To obtain a complete inactivation of all strains an irradiation of 192 mJ/cm 2 was needed, a dose that is much higher than the limits recommended by the international standards for UV disinfection of drinking water. In conclusion, it may be difficult to standardize a UV dose for the elimination of waterborne mycobacteria.

  15. A new on-axis micro-spectrophotometer for combining Raman, fluorescence and UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy with macromolecular crystallography at the Swiss Light Source.

    PubMed

    Pompidor, Guillaume; Dworkowski, Florian S N; Thominet, Vincent; Schulze-Briese, Clemens; Fuchs, Martin R

    2013-09-01

    The combination of X-ray diffraction experiments with optical methods such as Raman, UV/Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy greatly enhances and complements the specificity of the obtained information. The upgraded version of the in situ on-axis micro-spectrophotometer, MS2, at the macromolecular crystallography beamline X10SA of the Swiss Light Source is presented. The instrument newly supports Raman and resonance Raman spectroscopy, in addition to the previously available UV/Vis absorption and fluorescence modes. With the recent upgrades of the spectral bandwidth, instrument stability, detection efficiency and control software, the application range of the instrument and its ease of operation were greatly improved. Its on-axis geometry with collinear X-ray and optical axes to ensure optimal control of the overlap of sample volumes probed by each technique is still unique amongst comparable facilities worldwide and the instrument has now been in general user operation for over two years.

  16. A new on-axis micro-spectrophotometer for combining Raman, fluorescence and UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy with macromolecular crystallography at the Swiss Light Source

    PubMed Central

    Pompidor, Guillaume; Dworkowski, Florian S. N.; Thominet, Vincent; Schulze-Briese, Clemens; Fuchs, Martin R.

    2013-01-01

    The combination of X-ray diffraction experiments with optical methods such as Raman, UV/Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy greatly enhances and complements the specificity of the obtained information. The upgraded version of the in situ on-axis micro-spectrophotometer, MS2, at the macromolecular crystallography beamline X10SA of the Swiss Light Source is presented. The instrument newly supports Raman and resonance Raman spectroscopy, in addition to the previously available UV/Vis absorption and fluorescence modes. With the recent upgrades of the spectral bandwidth, instrument stability, detection efficiency and control software, the application range of the instrument and its ease of operation were greatly improved. Its on-axis geometry with collinear X-ray and optical axes to ensure optimal control of the overlap of sample volumes probed by each technique is still unique amongst comparable facilities worldwide and the instrument has now been in general user operation for over two years. PMID:23955041

  17. Visible light-induced photocatalytic degradation of Reactive Blue-19 over highly efficient polyaniline-TiO2 nanocomposite: a comparative study with solar and UV photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Kalikeri, Shankramma; Kamath, Nidhi; Gadgil, Dhanashri Jayant; Shetty Kodialbail, Vidya

    2018-02-01

    Polyaniline-TiO 2 (PANI-TiO 2 ) nanocomposite was prepared by in situ polymerisation method. X-ray diffractogram (XRD) showed the formation of PANI-TiO 2 nanocomposite with the average crystallite size of 46 nm containing anatase TiO 2 . The PANI-TiO 2 nanocomposite consisted of short-chained fibrous structure of PANI with spherical TiO 2 nanoparticles dispersed at the tips and edge of the fibres. The average hydrodynamic diameter of the nanocomposite was 99.5 nm. The band gap energy was 2.1 eV which showed its ability to absorb light in the visible range. The nanocomposite exhibited better visible light-mediated photocatalytic activity than TiO 2 (Degussa P25) in terms of degradation of Reactive Blue (RB-19) dye. The photocatalysis was favoured under initial acidic pH, and complete degradation of 50 mg/L dye could be achieved at optimum catalyst loading of 1 g/L. The kinetics of degradation followed the Langmuir-Hinshelhood model. PANI-TiO 2 nanocomposite showed almost similar photocatalytic activity under UV and visible light as well as in the solar light which comprises of radiation in both UV and visible light range. Chemical oxygen demand removal of 86% could also be achieved under visible light, confirming that simultaneous mineralization of the dye occurred during photocatalysis. PANI-TiO 2 nanocomposites are promising photocatalysts for the treatment of industrial wastewater containing RB-19 dye.

  18. Design and development of a new generation of UV-visible-light-driven nanosized codoped titanium dioxide photocatalysts and biocides/sporocides, and environmental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamal, Dambar B.

    For solar environmental remediation, a new generation of nanosized (< 10 nm) titanium dioxide photocatalysts codoped with metals and nonmetals, or metals only were prepared by the xero-gel and aero-gel methods. For silver or cobalt-based xero-gel titanium dioxide photocatalysts, photoactivities tests revealed that codoping of titanium dioxide with a metal (1% Ag or 2% Co) and nonmetals (carbon and sulfur) is necessary to achieve high-activities for acetaldehyde degradation under visible light (wavelength > 420 nm). It was concluded that high visible-light-activities for acetaldehyde degradation over codoped titanium dioxide were attributed to an interplay of anatase crystallinity, high-surface area, reduced band-gap (< 3.0 eV), uniform dispersion of doped metal ions, and suppressed recombination rate of photogenerated electronhole pairs. Moreover, the nature and amount of codoped metals play a significant role in visible-light-induced photocatalysis. Metals (Al, Ga, and In) doped/codoped titanium dioxide photocatalysts were prepared by the aero-gel method. The photocatalytic studies showed that activities of metal doped/codoped photocatalysts under UV light (wavelength < 400 nm) were found to be dependent on pollutants. Indium demonstrated beneficial effects in both textural and photocatalytic properties. Gallium and indium codoped titanium dioxide photocatalysts displayed even better performance in the CO oxidation reaction under UV light. Notably, titanium dioxide codoped with Ga, In, and Pt, exhibited unique photoactivities for the CO oxidation under both UV and visible light irradiation, indicating that this system could have promise for the water-gas shift reaction for hydrogen production. Silver-based nanostructured titanium dioxide samples were developed for killing human pathogens (Escherichia coli cells and Bacillus subtilis spores). Biocidal tests revealed that silver, carbon, and sulfur codoped titanium dioxide nanoparticles (< 10 nm) possess very strong

  19. UV-light promoted C-H bond activation of benzene and fluorobenzenes by an iridium(i) pincer complex.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Simone A; Emerson-King, Jack; Habershon, Scott; Chaplin, Adrian B

    2017-03-28

    Iridium(i) carbonyl complex [Ir(2,6-(P t Bu 2 CH 2 ) 2 C 6 H 3 )(CO)] undergoes reversible C-H bond activation of benzene and a series of fluorobenzenes on UV irradiation. Exclusive ortho-selectivity is observed in reactions of fluorobenzene and 1,2-difluorobenzene.

  20. Effect of UV-B light and different cutting styles on antioxidant enhancement of commercial fresh-cut carrot products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The results of the present study show that exposing five commercial fresh-cut carrot products (baby carrots, carrot sticks, shredded carrots, crinkle cut coins, and oblong chips) to UV-B radiation can significantly increase the antioxidant capacity of carrots. Optimization of the nutritional benefic...

  1. UV and visible light photocatalytic activity of Au/TiO2 nanoforests with Anatase/Rutile phase junctions and controlled Au locations.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Wen, Wei; Qian, Xin-Yue; Liu, Jia-Bin; Wu, Jin-Ming

    2017-01-24

    To magnify anatase/rutile phase junction effects through appropriate Au decorations, a facile solution-based approach was developed to synthesize Au/TiO 2 nanoforests with controlled Au locations. The nanoforests cons®isted of anatase nanowires surrounded by radially grown rutile branches, on which Au nanoparticles were deposited with preferred locations controlled by simply altering the order of the fabrication step. The Au-decoration increased the photocatalytic activity under the illumination of either UV or visible light, because of the beneficial effects of either electron trapping or localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). Gold nanoparticles located preferably at the interface of anatase/rutile led to a further enhanced photocatalytic activity. The appropriate distributions of Au nanoparticles magnify the beneficial effects arising from the anatase/rutile phase junctions when illuminated by UV light. Under the visible light illumination, the LSPR effect followed by the consecutive electron transfer explains the enhanced photocatalysis. This study provides a facile route to control locations of gold nanoparticles in one-dimensional nanostructured arrays of multiple-phases semiconductors for achieving a further increased photocatalytic activity.

  2. Probing the Effects of Templating on the UV and Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity of Porous Nitrogen-Modified Titania Monoliths for Dye Removal.

    PubMed

    Nursam, Natalita M; Wang, Xingdong; Tan, Jeannie Z Y; Caruso, Rachel A

    2016-07-13

    Porous nitrogen-modified titania (N-titania) monoliths with tailored morphologies were prepared using phase separation and agarose gel templating techniques. The doping and templating process were simultaneously carried out in a one-pot step using alcohol amine-assisted sol-gel chemistry. The amount of polymer used in the monoliths that were prepared using phase separation was shown to affect both the physical and optical properties: higher poly(ethylene glycol) content increased the specific surface area, porosity, and visible light absorption of the final materials. For the agarose-templated monoliths, the infiltration conditions affected the monolith morphology. A porous monolith with high surface area and the least shrinkage was obtained when the N containing alkoxide precursor was infiltrated into the agarose scaffolds at 60 °C. The effect of the diverse porous morphologies on the photocatalytic activity of N-titania was studied for the decomposition of methylene blue (MB) under visible and UV light irradiation. The highest visible light activity was achieved by the agarose-templated N-titania monolith, in part due to higher N incorporation. This sample also showed better UV activity, partly because of the higher specific surface area (up to 112 m(2) g(-1)) compared to the phase separation-induced monoliths (up to 103 m(2) g(-1)). Overall, agarose-templated, porous N-titania monoliths provided better features for effectively removing the MB contaminant.

  3. Assessment of vector/host contact: comparison of animal-baited traps and UV-light/suction trap for collecting Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), vectors of Orbiviruses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The emergence and massive spread of bluetongue in Western Europe during 2006-2008 had disastrous consequences for sheep and cattle production and confirmed the ability of Palaearctic Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to transmit the virus. Some aspects of Culicoides ecology, especially host-seeking and feeding behaviors, remain insufficiently described due to the difficulty of collecting them directly on a bait animal, the most reliable method to evaluate biting rates. Our aim was to compare typical animal-baited traps (drop trap and direct aspiration) to both a new sticky cover trap and a UV-light/suction trap (the most commonly used method to collect Culicoides). Methods/results Collections were made from 1.45 hours before sunset to 1.45 hours after sunset in June/July 2009 at an experimental sheep farm (INRA, Nouzilly, Western France), with 3 replicates of a 4 sites × 4 traps randomized Latin square using one sheep per site. Collected Culicoides individuals were sorted morphologically to species, sex and physiological stages for females. Sibling species were identified using a molecular assay. A total of 534 Culicoides belonging to 17 species was collected. Abundance was maximal in the drop trap (232 females and 4 males from 10 species) whereas the diversity was the highest in the UV-light/suction trap (136 females and 5 males from 15 species). Significant between-trap differences abundance and parity rates were observed. Conclusions Only the direct aspiration collected exclusively host-seeking females, despite a concern that human manipulation may influence estimation of the biting rate. The sticky cover trap assessed accurately the biting rate of abundant species even if it might act as an interception trap. The drop trap collected the highest abundance of Culicoides and may have caught individuals not attracted by sheep but by its structure. Finally, abundances obtained using the UV-light/suction trap did not estimate accurately Culicoides

  4. AFM and x-ray studies of buffing and uv light induced alignment of liquid crystals on SE610 polyimide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae-Hoon; Shi, Yushan; Ha, Kiryong; West, John L.; Kumar, Satyendra

    1997-03-01

    We have studied the competition between the effects of mechanical buffing of and photo-induced chemical reaction in Nissan SE610 polyimide film on the director orientation of liquid crystals using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and textural study under polarizing miscroscope. It was found that the uv light exposure after buffing significantly alters the degree and the direction of alignment achieved by buffing. Results of our study show that the two techniques can be used to control and fine-tune liquid crystal alignment. A description of the microscopic changes as inferred from AFM and x-ray studies will be presented.

  5. UV light induced insulator-metal transition in ultra-thin ZnO/TiOx stacked layer grown by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, D.; Misra, P.; Joshi, M. P.; Kukreja, L. M.

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, atomic layer deposition has been used to grow a series of Ti incorporated ZnO thin films by vertically stacking different numbers (n = 1-7) of ZnO/TiOx layers on (0001) sapphire substrates. The effects of defect states mediated chemisorption of O2 and/OH groups on the electrical properties of these films have been investigated by illuminating the samples under UV light inside a high vacuum optical cryostat. The ultra-thin film having one stacked layer (n = 1) did not show any change in its electrical resistance upon UV light exposure. On the contrary, marginal drop in the electrical resistivity was measured for the samples with n ≥ 3. Most surprisingly, the sample with n = 2 (thickness ˜ 12 nm) showed an insulator to metal transition upon UV light exposure. The temperature dependent electrical resistivity measurement on the as grown film (n = 2) showed insulating behaviour, i.e., diverging resistivity on extrapolation to T→ 0 K. However, upon UV light exposure, it transformed to a metallic state, i.e., finite resistivity at T → 0 K. Such an insulator-metal transition plausibly arises due to the de-trapping of conduction electrons from the surface defect sites which resulted in an upward shift of the Fermi level above the mobility edge. The low-temperature electron transport properties on the insulating film (n = 2) were investigated by a combined study of zero field electrical resistivity ρ(T) and magnetoresistance (MR) measurements. The observed negative MR was found to be in good agreement with the magnetic field induced suppression of quantum interference between forward-going paths of tunnelling electrons. Both ρ(T) and MR measurements provided strong evidence for the Efros-Shklovskii type variable range hopping conduction in the low-temperature (≤40 K) regime. Such studies on electron transport in ultra-thin n-type doped ZnO films are crucial to achieve optimum functionality with long term reliability of ZnO based transparent

  6. Synthesis and Luminescence Properties of Rare Earth Activated Phosphors for near UV-Emitting LEDs for Efficacious Generation of White Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jinkyu

    Solid state white-emitting lighting devices based on LEDs outperform conventional light sources in terms of lifetime, durability, and luminous efficiency. Near UV-LEDs in combination with blue-, green-, and red-emitting phosphors show superior luminescence properties over the commercialized blue-emitting LED with yellow-emitting phosphors. However, phosphor development for near UV LEDs is a challenging problem and a vibrant area of research. In addition, using the proper synthesis technique is an important consideration in the development of phosphors. In this research, efficient blue-, green-yellow, red-emitting, and color tunable phosphors for near UV LEDs based white light are identified and prepared by various synthetic methods such as solid state reaction, sol-gel/Pechini, co-precipitation, hydrothermal, combustion and spray-pyrolysis. Blue-emittingLiCaPO4:Eu2+, Green/yellow-emitting (Ba,Sr)2SiO4:Eu2+, color tunable solid solutions of KSrPO4-(Ba,Ca)2SiO4:Eu 2+, and red-emitting (Ba,Sr,Ca)3MgSi2O 8:Eu2+,Mn2+ show excellent excitation profile in the near UV region, high quantum efficiency, and good thermal stability for use in solid state lighting applications. In addition, different synthesis methods are analyzed and compared, with the goal of obtaining ideal phosphors, which should have not only have high luminous output but also optimal particle size (˜150--400 nm) and spherical morphology. For Sr2SiO 4:Eu2+, the sol-gel method appears to be the best method. For Ba2SiO4:Eu2+, the co-precipitation method is be the best. Lastly, the fabrication of core/SiO2 shell particles alleviate surface defects and improve luminescence output and moisture stability of nano and micron sized phosphors. For nano-sized Y2O 3:Eu3+, Y2SiO5:Ce3+,Tb 3+, and (Ba,Sr)2SiO4, the luminescence emission intensity of the core/shell particles were significantly higher than that of bare cores. Additionally, the moisture stability is also improved by SiO 2 shells, the luminescence output of

  7. [Results after planned extracapsular cataract extraction with the Klöti stripper and implantation of UV light-absorbent Simcoe lenses with a 10-degree loop tilt].

    PubMed

    Gnad, H D; Skorpik, C; Paroussis, P

    1985-08-09

    Planned ECCE remains a valuable alternative to phacoemulsification due to its protection of the endothelial cells of the cornea. In contrast to the most commonly used infusion-aspiration systems, Kloeti's vitreous stripper provides, in addition, an excellent cutting mechanism enabling the removal of hard parts of the parenchyma or capsular remnants. The aspheric shaped UV light absorbing Simcoe lenses with a 10 grade loop angle used as lens replacement over the past 2 years in 300 cases did not cause any noteworthy complications. In 94% of cases a visual acuity of at least 0.5 was achieved; no case of cystoid macular edema has been observed so far.

  8. Adverse Phototoxic Effect of Essential Plant Oils on NIH 3T3 Cell Line after UV Light Exposure.

    PubMed

    Binder, Svatopluk; Hanáková, Adéla; Tománková, Kateřina; Pížová, Klára; Bajgar, Robert; Manišová, Barbora; Kejlová, Kristina; Bendová, Hana; Jírová, Dagmar; Kolářová, Hana

    2016-09-01

    Natural or artificial substances have become an inseparable part of our lives. It is questionable whether adequate testing has been performed in order to ensure these substances do not pose a serious health risk. The principal aim of our research was to clarify the potential risk of adding essential oils to food, beverages and cosmetic products. The toxicity of substances frequently employed in cosmetics, aromatherapy and food industry (bergamot oil, Litsea cubeba oil, orange oil, citral) were investigated using cell line NIH3T3 (mouse fibroblasts) with/without UV irradiation. The MTT assay was used to estimate the cell viability. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) which are products of a number of natural cellular processes such as oxygen metabolism and inflammation were measured to determine the extent of cellular stress. DNA damage caused by strand breaks was examined by comet assay. MTT test determined EC50 values for all tested substances, varying from 0.0023% v/v for bergamot oil to 0.018% v/v for citral. ROS production measurement showed that UV radiation induces oxidative stress to the cell resulting in higher ROS production compared to the control and non-irradiated samples. Comet assay revealed that both groups (UV, without UV) exert irreversible DNA damage resulting in a cell death. Our findings suggest that even low concentrations (lower than 0.0464% v/v) of orange oil can be considered as phototoxic (PIF value 8.2) and probably phototoxic for bergamot oil (PIF value 4.6). We also found significant changes in the cell viability, the ROS production and the DNA after the cells were exposed to the tested chemicals. Even though these substances are widely used as antioxidants it should be noted that they present a risk factor and their use in cosmetic and food products should be minimized. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2016

  9. Effect of UV-light on the uniaxial tensile properties and structure of uncoated and TiO2 coated Bombyx mori silk fibers.

    PubMed

    Aksakal, Baki; Koç, Kenan; Yargı, Önder; Tsobkallo, Katherina

    2016-01-05

    The effect of UV-light on the uniaxial tensile properties and the structure of uncoated and TiO2 coated silk fibers in the bave form by using sol-gel method was investigated with tensile testing and FT-IR/ATR spectroscopy methods after the silk filaments were exposed to UV-light with high intensity of 760W/m(2) for different times from 0.5h to 1day. It was clearly observed that TiO2 coating considerably increased the Young's modulus of the uncoated silk single filament by around 17% before the UV-irradiation. The yield point and the post yield region disappeared on the stress-strain curves of both uncoated and TiO2 coated silk filaments after UV-irradiation time higher than 1h. Except for the Young's modulus, most of the tensile characteristics of both uncoated and TiO2 coated silk filaments decreased remarkably with increasing UV-irradiation time, e.g., after 1h irradiation, although the Young's modulus slightly changed and ultimate tensile strength decreased by only around 18% and 23%, for the uncoated and TiO2 coated silk filaments, respectively; breaking extension decreased dramatically by 67% and 72%, respectively, for uncoated and TiO2 coated silk filaments. Only the Young's modulus of TiO2 coated silk filaments which can be considered as a more stable tensile characteristic became significantly higher than that of the uncoated silk filaments with increasing UV-irradiation time. After 1day irradiation, even though the uncoated silk filaments could not be tested and completely lost of their fiber properties, the TiO2 coated silk filaments showed a stress-strain curve in initial elastic region with Young's modulus of ∼13GPa which indicates considerable protective effect of TiO2 on the silk fiber structure, especially on the β-sheet microcrystals against UV-radiation. The FT-IR/ATR spectral results showed that significant photodegradation took place in not only crystalline but also amorphous regions which were deduced from the decrease in the absorbance

  10. Reductive and oxidative degradation of iopamidol, iodinated X-ray contrast media, by Fe(III)-oxalate under UV and visible light treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Cen; Arroyo-Mora, Luis E; DeCaprio, Anthony P; Sharma, Virender K; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; O'Shea, Kevin E

    2014-12-15

    Iopamidol, widely employed as iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM), is readily degraded in a Fe(III)-oxalate photochemical system under UV (350 nm) and visible light (450 nm) irradiation. The degradation is nicely modeled by pseudo first order kinetics. The rates of hydroxyl radical (OH) production for Fe(III)-oxalate/H2O2/UV (350 nm) and Fe(III)-oxalate/H2O2/visible (450 nm) systems were 1.19 ± 0.12 and 0.30 ± 0.01 μM/min, respectively. The steady-state concentration of hydroxyl radical (OH) for the Fe(III)-oxalate/H2O2/UV (350 nm) conditions was 10.88 ± 1.13 × 10(-14) M and 2.7 ± 0.1 × 10(-14) M for the Fe(III)-oxalate/H2O2/visible (450 nm). The rate of superoxide anion radical (O2(-)) production under Fe(III)-oxalate/H2O2/UV (350 nm) was 0.19 ± 0.02 μM/min with a steady-state concentration of 5.43 ± 0.473 × 10(-10) M. Detailed product studies using liquid chromatography coupled to Q-TOF/MS demonstrate both reduction (multiple dehalogenations) and oxidation (aromatic ring and side chains) contribute to the degradation pathways. The reduction processes appear to be initiated by the carbon dioxide anion radical (CO2(-)) while oxidation processes are consistent with OH initiated reaction pathways. Unlike most advanced oxidation processes the Fe(III)-oxalate/H2O2/photochemical system can initiate to both reductive and oxidative degradation processes. The observed reductive dehalogenation is an attractive remediation strategy for halogenated organic compounds as the process can dramatically reduce the formation of the problematic disinfection by-products often associated with oxidative treatment processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ease synthesis of mesoporous WO3-TiO2 nanocomposites with enhanced photocatalytic performance for photodegradation of herbicide imazapyr under visible light and UV illumination.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Adel A; Abdelfattah, Ibrahim; Helal, Ahmed; Al-Sayari, S A; Robben, L; Bahnemann, D W

    2016-04-15

    Herein, we report the ease synthesis of mesoporous WO3-TiO2 nanocomposites at different WO3 contents (0-5wt%) together with their photocatalytic performance for the degradation of the imazapyr herbicide under visible light and UV illumination. XRD and Raman spectra indicated that the highly crystalline anatase TiO2 phase and monoclinic and triclinic of WO3 were formed. The mesoporous TiO2 exhibits large pore volumes of 0.267cm(3)g-1 and high surface areas of 180m(2)g(-1) but they become reduced to 0.221cm(3)g(-1) and 113m(2)g(-1), respectively upon WO3 incorporation, with tunable mesopore diameter in the range of 5-6.5nm. TEM images show WO3-TiO2 nanocomposites are quite uniform with 10-15nm of TiO2 and 5-10nm of WO3 sizes. Under UV illumination, the overall photocatalytic efficiency of the 3% WO3-TiO2 nanocomposite is 3.5 and 6.6 times higher than that of mesoporous TiO2 and commercial UV-100 photocatalyst, respectively. The 3% WO3-TiO2 nanocomposite is considered to be the optimum photocatalyst which is able to degrade completely (100% conversion) of imazapyr herbicide along 120min with high photonic efficiency ∼8%. While under visible light illumination, the 0.5% WO3-TiO2 nanocomposite is the optimum photocatalyst which achieves 46% photocatalytic efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. UV-light-assisted ethanol sensing characteristics of g-C3N4/ZnO composites at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Jiali; Wang, Tao; Wang, Chuang; Liu, Dechen

    2018-05-01

    A highly efficient UV-light-assisted room temperature sensor based on g-C3N4/ZnO composites were prepared by an in situ precipitation method. The thermostability, composition, structure, and morphology properties of the as-prepared g-C3N4/ZnO composites were characterized by TGA, XRD, FT-IR, TEM, and XPS, respectively. And then, we studied the ethanol (C2H5OH) sensing performance of the g-C3N4/ZnO composites at the room temperature. Compared with pure ZnO and g-C3N4, the gas sensing activity of g-C3N4/ZnO composites was greatly improved at room temperature, for example, the g-C3N4/ZnO-8% composites showed an obvious response of 121-40 ppm C2H5OH at room temperature, which was 60 times higher than the pure ZnO based on the sensors under the same condition. The great enhancement of the C2H5OH sensing properties of composites can be understood by the efficient separation of photogenerated charge carriers of g-C3N4/ZnO heterogeneous and the UV-light catalytic effect. Finally, a possible mechanism for the gas sensing activity was proposed.

  13. Synthesis and photocatalytic performance of reduced graphene oxide-TiO2 nanocomposites for orange II degradation under UV light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Tengfei; Wang, Tiecheng; Qu, Guangzhou; Liang, Dongli; Hu, Shibin

    2017-05-01

    To enhance the photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 , reduced graphene oxide-TiO 2 (RGO-TiO 2 ) composites with sandwich-like structure were synthesized using a simple solvothermal method. The morphology, crystalline information, and structural property of the photocatalyst were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy. The photocatalytic performances of the RGO-TiO 2 composites were evaluated by the degradation of orange II (AO7) in water under UV light irradiation. The results showed that the RGO-TiO 2 composites exhibited much higher photocatalytic activity than TiO 2 and that the removal efficiency of AO7 could reach above 95% only after 20 min of UV light irradiation under the optimum condition. The improved photocatalytic activity might be attributed to the improved charge transfer and significant separation of the photoinduced electrons and holes in the presence of a two-dimensional graphene network. The results of recycling experiments show that RGO-TiO 2 composites have a high photostability, which is expected in the practical application. Radical trapping experiments indicated that ·OH plays a crucial role in the process of AO7 degradation.

  14. Multi-angle ZnO microstructures grown on Ag nanorods array for plasmon-enhanced near-UV-blue light emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Anil Kumar; Bharathi Mohan, D.

    2017-10-01

    Metal enhanced ultraviolet light emission has been explored in ZnO/Ag hybrid structures prepared by hydrothermal growth of multi-angled ZnO nanorods on slanted Ag nanorods array fabricated by the thermal evaporation technique. Slanted Ag nanorods are realized to be the stacking of non-spherical Ag nanoparticles, resulting in asymmetric surface plasmon resonance spectra. The surface roughness of Ag nanorod array films significantly influences the growth mechanism of ZnO nanorods, leading to the formation of multi-angled ZnO microflowers. ZnO/Ag hybrid structures facilitate the interfacial charge transfer from Ag to ZnO with the realization of negative shift in binding energy of Ag 3d orbitals by ˜0.8 eV. These high quality ZnO nanorods in ZnO/Ag hybrid nanostructures exhibit strong ultraviolet emission in the 383-396 nm region without broad deep level emission, which can be explained by a suitable band diagram. The metal enhanced photoluminescence is witnessed mainly due to interfacial charge transfer with its dependence on surface roughness of bottom layer Ag nanorods, number density of ZnO nanorods and diversity in the interfacial area between Ag and ZnO nanorods. The existence of strong ultraviolet light with minor blue light emission and appearance of CIE shade in strong violet-blue region by ZnO/Ag hybrid structures depict exciting possibilities towards near UV-blue light emitting devices.

  15. Multi-angle ZnO microstructures grown on Ag nanorods array for plasmon-enhanced near-UV-blue light emitter.

    PubMed

    Pal, Anil Kumar; Mohan, D Bharathi

    2017-10-13

    Metal enhanced ultraviolet light emission has been explored in ZnO/Ag hybrid structures prepared by hydrothermal growth of multi-angled ZnO nanorods on slanted Ag nanorods array fabricated by the thermal evaporation technique. Slanted Ag nanorods are realized to be the stacking of non-spherical Ag nanoparticles, resulting in asymmetric surface plasmon resonance spectra. The surface roughness of Ag nanorod array films significantly influences the growth mechanism of ZnO nanorods, leading to the formation of multi-angled ZnO microflowers. ZnO/Ag hybrid structures facilitate the interfacial charge transfer from Ag to ZnO with the realization of negative shift in binding energy of Ag 3d orbitals by ∼0.8 eV. These high quality ZnO nanorods in ZnO/Ag hybrid nanostructures exhibit strong ultraviolet emission in the 383-396 nm region without broad deep level emission, which can be explained by a suitable band diagram. The metal enhanced photoluminescence is witnessed mainly due to interfacial charge transfer with its dependence on surface roughness of bottom layer Ag nanorods, number density of ZnO nanorods and diversity in the interfacial area between Ag and ZnO nanorods. The existence of strong ultraviolet light with minor blue light emission and appearance of CIE shade in strong violet-blue region by ZnO/Ag hybrid structures depict exciting possibilities towards near UV-blue light emitting devices.

  16. ZnCr2S4: Highly effective photocatalyst converting nitrate into N2 without over-reduction under both UV and pure visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Mufei; Wang, Rong; Cheng, Nana; Cong, Rihong; Gao, Wenliang; Yang, Tao

    2016-08-01

    We propose several superiorities of applying some particular metal sulfides to the photocatalytic nitrate reduction in aqueous solution, including the high density of photogenerated excitons, high N2 selectivity (without over-reduction to ammonia). Indeed, ZnCr2S4 behaved as a highly efficient photocatalyst, and with the assistance of 1 wt% cocatalysts (RuOx, Ag, Au, Pd, or Pt), the efficiency was greatly improved. The simultaneous loading of Pt and Pd led to a synergistic effect. It offered the highest nitrate conversion rate of ~45 mg N/h together with the N2 selectivity of ~89%. Such a high activity remained steady after 5 cycles. The optimal apparent quantum yield at 380 nm was 15.46%. More importantly, with the assistance of the surface plasma resonance effect of Au, the visible light activity achieved 1.352 mg N/h under full arc Xe-lamp, and 0.452 mg N/h under pure visible light (λ > 400 nm). Comparing to the previous achievements in photocatalytic nitrate removal, our work on ZnCr2S4 eliminates the over-reduction problem, and possesses an extremely high and steady activity under UV-light, as well as a decent conversion rate under pure visible light.

  17. ZnCr2S4: Highly effective photocatalyst converting nitrate into N2 without over-reduction under both UV and pure visible light.

    PubMed

    Yue, Mufei; Wang, Rong; Cheng, Nana; Cong, Rihong; Gao, Wenliang; Yang, Tao

    2016-08-03

    We propose several superiorities of applying some particular metal sulfides to the photocatalytic nitrate reduction in aqueous solution, including the high density of photogenerated excitons, high N2 selectivity (without over-reduction to ammonia). Indeed, ZnCr2S4 behaved as a highly efficient photocatalyst, and with the assistance of 1 wt% cocatalysts (RuOx, Ag, Au, Pd, or Pt), the efficiency was greatly improved. The simultaneous loading of Pt and Pd led to a synergistic effect. It offered the highest nitrate conversion rate of ~45 mg N/h together with the N2 selectivity of ~89%. Such a high activity remained steady after 5 cycles. The optimal apparent quantum yield at 380 nm was 15.46%. More importantly, with the assistance of the surface plasma resonance effect of Au, the visible light activity achieved 1.352 mg N/h under full arc Xe-lamp, and 0.452 mg N/h under pure visible light (λ > 400 nm). Comparing to the previous achievements in photocatalytic nitrate removal, our work on ZnCr2S4 eliminates the over-reduction problem, and possesses an extremely high and steady activity under UV-light, as well as a decent conversion rate under pure visible light.

  18. Bio-inspired metal-coordinate hydrogels with programmable viscoelastic material functions controlled by longwave UV light.

    PubMed

    Grindy, Scott C; Holten-Andersen, Niels

    2017-06-07

    Control over the viscoelastic mechanical properties of hydrogels intended for use as biomedical materials has long been a goal of soft matter scientists. Recent research has shown that materials made from polymers with reversibly associating transient crosslinks are a promising strategy for controlling viscoelasticity in hydrogels, for example leading to systems with precisely tunable mechanical energy-dissipation. We and others have shown that bio-inspired histidine:transition metal ion complexes allow highly precise and tunable control over the viscoelastic properties of transient network hydrogels. In this paper, we extend the design of these hydrogels such that their viscoelastic properties respond to longwave UV radiation. We show that careful selection of the histidine:transition metal ion crosslink mixtures allows unique control over pre- and post-UV viscoelastic properties. We anticipate that our strategy for controlling stimuli-responsive viscoelastic properties will aid biomedical materials scientists in the development of soft materials with specific stress-relaxing or energy-dissipating properties.

  19. White organic light-emitting diodes utilized by near UV-deep blue emitter and exciplex emission.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Wook; Kim, Young Min; Choi, Jin Hwan; Park, Tae Hyun; Choi, Hyun Ju; Yu, Hong Jung; Cho, Min Ju; Choi, Dong Hoon; Kim, Sung Hyun; Ju, Byeong Kwon

    2011-02-01

    Numerous investigations have been made into the development of wide color gamut displays for deep-blue OLEDs, including the RGB sub pixels, and white OLEDs (WOLEDs). One of the well known deep-blue emissive dopants, tris(phenyl-methyl-benzimidazolyl)iridium(III) [Ir(pmb)3], successfully introduced its fascinating color coordinate of Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) 1931 (0.17, 0.06), however there have been no reports utilizing its accomplishments as WOLEDs. In this report, using only one phosphorescent dopant, the near UV-deep blue emissive Ir(pmb)3, the WOLEDs having the CIE 1931 coordinate of (0.33, 0.38) at 100 cd/m2 with a color rendering index of 85 are demonstrated. The white emission of the fabricated OLEDs are oriented from the near UV-deep blue emission of Ir(pmb)3 and the successfully controlled exciplex emission, between the Ir(pmb)3-host, and the Ir(pmb)3-interfaced material.

  20. DFT and TD-DFT insights, photolysis and photocatalysis investigation of three dyes with similar structure under UV irradiation with and without TiO2 as a catalyst: Effect of adsorption, pH and light intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendjabeur, Seyfeddine; Zouaghi, Razika; Zouchoune, Bachir; Sehili, Tahar

    2018-02-01

    TiO2-mediated photocatalytic degradation of three triphenylmethane dyes (basic fuchsin, acid fuchsin and Gentian violet), was investigated in aqueous suspensions in the presence and the absence of titanium dioxide P25 Degussa as photocatalyst. The photodegradation process was investigated using UV-A (365 nm) and UV-C (254 nm) light alone and UV-A in the presence of TiO2·The effects of various operational parameters were investigated such as: the effect of adsorption in the dark, the influence of pH, the influence of irradiation wavelength and the effect of light intensity. The study of the effect of various parameters reveals that the photolysis of dyes increases with the increase of light intensity, the degradation rate under UV-C (254 nm) was found better than under UV-A 365 nm. The photocatalytic degradation was found to follow the same order of adsorption. The decolorization and the degradation kinetics were found to follow the pseudo-first-order kinetics. The mineralization of dye was found to follow the same order of disappearance as the photocatalytic degradation and depended directly to its functional groups and its number of carbons. Additionally, density functional theory (DFT) was applied for calculations of both electronic structure and spectroscopic properties of the studied compounds, where the obtained results of the three dyes show that the theoretical electronic spectra and the experimental UV-visible ones are similar in shapes, positions and intensities.

  1. Photodegradation of the UV filter ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate under ultraviolet light: Identification and in silico assessment of photo-transformation products in the context of grey water reuse.

    PubMed

    Jentzsch, F; Olsson, O; Westphal, J; Reich, M; Leder, C; Kümmerer, K

    2016-12-01

    To prevent water shortages in the future and to reduce domestic water consumption, decentralized grey water (GW) reuse has become increasingly important. This water has, however, to be free of pollutants. Conventional treatment of GW does not fully eliminate micropollutants such as the UV filter substance ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC). EHMC, which is commonly used in sunscreens and personal care products, is an endocrine disruptor and shows potential to bioaccumulation, which is also reflected in its low water solubility. Photolysis has been proposed as an alternative treatment method for other micropollutants, but it is not clear yet whether it can also be used to eliminate EHMC. One goal of this study was to better understand the basic pathways involved in this process. It aimed to identify photo-transformation products (photo-TPs) by using, in the test conditions, an initial concentration of EHMC higher than those expected in the environment. Acetonitrile (ACN) was added in low concentrations to the aqueous solution to overcome the low aquatic solubility of EHMC. The influence of this co-solvent on the degradation kinetics was studied. The photolysis experiments were carried out using a medium pressure mercury lamp, which emits UV light in the range of 200-400nm. The quantum yield of the photolysis of EHMC was 0.0042 and 0.0023mol·Einstein -1 (for 0.2 and 0.5% ACN (v/v), respectively), and the relative and absolute UV photon fluxes were determined. HPLC was used to monitor the elimination kinetics of EHMC, which followed first-order kinetics. The results of LC-MS n analyses revealed that beside others, several oxidized and hydroxylized EHMC isomers were formed as photo-TPs in aqueous solution. Using a set of in silico quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models, this study also offered new insights concerning the environmental fate and toxicity of the TPs of EHMC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Tolerance of the eriophyid mite Aceria salsola to UV-A light and implications for biological control of Russian thistle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aceria salsolae (Acari: Eriophyidae) is being evaluated as a candidate biological control agent of Russian thistle (Salsola spp., Chenopodiaceae), a major invasive weed of rangelands and dryland crops in the western U.S. Prior laboratory host range testing under artificial lighting indicated reprodu...

  3. UV-vis light activated Ag decorated monodisperse TiO2 for treatment of pharmaceuticals in water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, many researchers have made a lot of effort to utilize the visible light portion of the solar spectrum to activate TiO2 photocatalyst for environmental applications, such as water, air, and soil remediation. The deposition of noble metals on photocatalysts is of great in...

  4. MAT1, cdk7 and cyclin H form a kinase complex which is UV light-sensitive upon association with TFIIH.

    PubMed

    Adamczewski, J P; Rossignol, M; Tassan, J P; Nigg, E A; Moncollin, V; Egly, J M

    1996-04-15

    MAT1, cyclin H and cdk7 are part of TFIIH, a class II transcription factor which possesses numerous subunits of which several have been shown to be involved in processes other than transcription. Two of them, XPD (ERCC2) and XPB (ERCC3), are helicases involved in nucleotide excision repair (NER), whereas cdk7, cyclin H and MAT1 are thought to participate in cell cycle regulation. MAT1, cyclin H and cdk7 exist as a ternary complex either free or associated with TFIIH from which the latter can be dissociated at high salt concentration. MAT1 is strongly associated with cdk7 and cyclin H. Although not strictly required for the formation and activity of the complex, it stimulates its kinase activity. The kinase activity of TFIIH, which is constant during the cell cycle, is reduced after UV light irradiation.

  5. MAT1, cdk7 and cyclin H form a kinase complex which is UV light-sensitive upon association with TFIIH.

    PubMed Central

    Adamczewski, J P; Rossignol, M; Tassan, J P; Nigg, E A; Moncollin, V; Egly, J M

    1996-01-01

    MAT1, cyclin H and cdk7 are part of TFIIH, a class II transcription factor which possesses numerous subunits of which several have been shown to be involved in processes other than transcription. Two of them, XPD (ERCC2) and XPB (ERCC3), are helicases involved in nucleotide excision repair (NER), whereas cdk7, cyclin H and MAT1 are thought to participate in cell cycle regulation. MAT1, cyclin H and cdk7 exist as a ternary complex either free or associated with TFIIH from which the latter can be dissociated at high salt concentration. MAT1 is strongly associated with cdk7 and cyclin H. Although not strictly required for the formation and activity of the complex, it stimulates its kinase activity. The kinase activity of TFIIH, which is constant during the cell cycle, is reduced after UV light irradiation. Images PMID:8617234

  6. Two-dimensional molybdenum disulphide nanoflakes synthesized by liquid-solid phase reaction method: regenerative photocatalytic performance under UV-visible light irradiation by advance oxidation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afsar, M. F.; Rafiq, M. A.; Siddique, Fizza; Saira, F.; Chaudhary, M. M.; Hasan, M. M.; Tok, A. I. Y.

    2018-05-01

    Molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) nanoflakes were prepared through liquid-solid phase reaction technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed the formation of pure, polycrystalline, hexagonal phase of MoS2 nanoflakes. The texture coefficient (T{c}hkl) analysis showed that (100) plane was preferentially oriented. The specific surface area of the nanoflakes was 21 m2 g‑1 as determined using Brunaure-Emmett-Teller (BET) technique. A band gap of ∼2.05 eV for MoS2 nanoflakes was estimated from UV-visible spectrum. Regenerative photocatalytic activity of MoS2 nanoflakes was assessed by degrading methylene blue (MB) and safranin-o (SO) dyes under UV-visible light irradiation. Under light irradiation, degradation efficiency for MB was ∼99.58% in 100 min while for SO it was ∼99.89% in 70 min. The MoS2 nanoflakes exhibited excellent photocatalytic performance and good stability in a wide pH range (3–11). MoS2 nanoflakes showed a high reaction rate constant (k app ) for SO ∼ 0.104 49 min‑1 and MB ∼ 0.092 18 min‑1 as compared to other MoS2 nanostructures. The obtained exceptional photocatalytic performance of MoS2 nanoflakes offers potential applications for the treatment of polluted water as well as in other correlated fields.

  7. Toxicity of TiO2, in nanoparticle or bulk form to freshwater and marine microalgae under visible light and UV-A radiation.

    PubMed

    Sendra, M; Moreno-Garrido, I; Yeste, M P; Gatica, J M; Blasco, J

    2017-08-01

    Use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 NPs) has become a part of our daily life and the high environmental concentrations predicted to accumulate in aquatic ecosystems are cause for concern. Although TiO 2 has only limited reactivity, at the nanoscale level its physico-chemical properties and toxicity are different compared with bulk material. Phytoplankton is a key trophic level in fresh and marine ecosystems, and the toxicity provoked by these nanoparticles can affect the structure and functioning of ecosystems. Two microalgae species, one freshwater (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) and the other marine (Phaeodactylum tricornutum), have been selected for testing the toxicity of TiO 2 in NP and conventional bulk form and, given its photo-catalytic properties, the effect of UV-A was also checked. Growth inhibition, quantum yield reduction, increase of intracellular ROS production, membrane cell damage and production of exo-polymeric substances (EPS) were selected as variables to measure. TiO 2 NPs and bulk TiO 2 show a relationship between the size of agglomerates and time in freshwater and saltwater, but not in ultrapure water. Under two treatments, UV-A (6 h per day) and no UV-A exposure, NPs triggered stronger cytotoxic responses than bulk material. TiO 2 NPs were also associated with greater production of reactive oxygen species and damage to membrane. However, microalgae exposed to TiO 2 NPs and bulk TiO 2 under UV-A were found to be more sensitive than in the visible light condition. The marine species (P. tricornutum) was more sensitive than the freshwater species, and higher Ti internalization was measured. Exopolymeric substances (EPS) were released from microalgae in the culture media, in the presence of TiO 2 in both forms. This may be a possible defense mechanism by these cells, which would enhance processes of homoagglomeration and settling, and thus reduce bioavailability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. UV light absorption parameters of the pathobiologically implicated bilirubin oxidation products, MVM, BOX A, and BOX B.

    PubMed

    Harris, Nathaniel A; Rapoport, Robert M; Zuccarello, Mario; Maggio, John E

    2018-06-01

    The formation of the bilirubin oxidation products (BOXes), BOX A ([4-methyl-5-oxo-3-vinyl-(1,5-dihydropyrrol-2-ylidene)acetamide]) and BOX B (3-methyl-5-oxo-4-vinyl-(1,5-dihydropyrrol-2-ylidene)acetamide), as well as MVM (4-methyl-3-vinylmaleimide) were synthesized by oxidation of bilirubin with H 2 O 2 without and with FeCl 3 , respectively. Compound identity was confirmed with NMR and mass spectrometry (MS; less than 1 ppm, tandem MS up to MS 4 ). UV absorption profiles, including λ max , and extinction coefficient (ε; estimated using NMR) for BOX A, BOX B, and MVM in H 2 O, 15% CH 3 CN plus 10 mM CF 3 CO 2 H, CH 3 CN, CHCl 3 , CH 2 Cl 2 , and 0.9% NaCl were determined. At longer wavelengths, λ max 's for 1) BOX A were little affected by the solvent, ranging from 295-297 nm; 2) BOX B, less polar solvent yielded λ max 's of lower wavelength, with values ranging from 308-313 nm, and 3) MVM, less polar solvent yielded λ max 's of higher wavelength, with values ranging from 318-327 nm. Estimated ε's for BOX A and BOX B were approximately 5- to 10-fold greater than for MVM.

  9. A Correlation Between Intrinsic Brightness and Average Decay Rate of Swift UVOT GRB Optical/UV Light Curves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oates, S. R.; Page, M. J.; De Pasquale, M.; Schady, P.; Breeveld, A. A.; Holland, S. T.; Kuin, N. P. M.; Marshall, F. E.

    2012-01-01

    We examine a sample of 48 Swift/UVOT long Gamma-ray Burst light curves and find a correlation between the logarithmic luminosity at 200s and average decay rate determined from 200s onwards, with a Spearman rank coefficient of -0.58 at a significance of 99.998% (4.2 sigma ). We discuss the causes of the log L200s - alpha (greater than) 200s correlation, finding it to be an intrinsic property of long GRBs, and not resulting from the selection criteria. We find two ways to produce the correlation. One possibility is that there is some property of the central engine, outflow or external medium that affects the rate of energy release so that the bright afterglows release their energy more quickly and decay faster than the fainter afterglows. Alternatively, the correlation may be produced by variation of the observers viewing angle, with observers at large viewing angles observing fainter and slower decaying light curves.

  10. Production of organic compounds in plasmas: A comparison among electric sparks, laser-induced plasmas and UV light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scattergood, T. W.; Mckay, C. P.; Borucki, W. J.; Giver, L. P.; Vanghyseghem, H.; Parris, J. E.; Miller, S. L.

    1991-01-01

    In order to study the production of organic compounds in plasmas (and shocks), various mixtures of N2, CH4, and H2, modeling the atmosphere of Titan, were exposed to discrete sparks, laser-induced plasmas (LIP) and ultraviolet light. The yields of HCN and simple hydrocarbons were measured and compared to those calculated from a simple quenched thermodynamic equilibrium model. The agreement between experiment and theory was fair for HCN and C2H2. However, the yields of C2H6 and other hydrocarbons were much higher than those predicted by the model. Our experiments suggest that photolysis by ultraviolet light from the plasma is an important process in the synthesis. This was confirmed by the photolysis of gas samples exposed to the light, but not to the plasma or shock waves. The results of these experiments demonstrate that, in addition to the well-known efficient synthesis of organic compounds in plasmas, the yields of saturated species, e.g., ethane, may be higher than predicted by theory and that LIP provide a convenient and clean way of simulating planetary lightning and impact plasmas in the laboratory.

  11. Reduction of patulin in apple cider by UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qingfang; Manns, David C; Feng, Guoping; Yue, Tianli; Churey, John J; Worobo, Randy W

    2010-01-01

    The presence of the mycotoxin patulin in processed apple juice and cider presents a continual challenge to the food industry as both consumer health and product quality issues. Although several methods for control and/or elimination of patulin have been proposed, no unifying method has been commercially successful for reducing patulin burdens while maintaining product quality. In the present study, exposure to germicidal UV radiation was evaluated as a possible commercially viable alternative for the reduction and possible elimination of the patulin mycotoxin in fresh apple cider. UV exposure of 14.2 to 99.4 mJ/cm(2) resulted in a significant and nearly linear decrease in patulin levels while producing no quantifiable changes in the chemical composition (i.e., pH, Brix, and total acids) or organoleptic properties of the cider. For the range of UV doses tested, patulin levels decreased by 9.4 to 43.4%; the greatest reduction was achieved after less than 15 s of UV exposure. The method of UV radiation (the CiderSure 3500 system) is an easily implemented, high-throughput, and cost-effective method that offers simultaneous UV pasteurization of cider and juice products and reduction and/or elimination of patulin without unwanted alterations in the final product.

  12. Light, Molecules, Action: Broadband UV-visible transient absorption studies of excited state dynamics in photoactive molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sension, Roseanne

    2015-03-01

    Broadband UV-visible transient absorption spectroscopy provides a powerful tool for the investigation of the dynamics of electronically excited molecules in the condensed phase. It is now possible to obtain transient spectra on a routine basis spanning the range from <300 nm to >800 nm with femtosecond time resolution. We have used this method to study the excited state dynamics and internal conversion of a range of molecular systems with potential application as optically powered molecular devices. The cyclohexadiene ring-opening reaction is the basis of a class of important optical switches and of the biological synthesis of previtamin D3. The ring-opening reaction is ultrafast, occurring on a picosecond to subpicosecond times scale depending on the substituents around the ring. These have a significant influence on the dynamics and electronic structure of the electronically excited molecule. The results of a series of transient absorption studies as a function of chromophore substitution and environment will be presented. The cis-trans isomerization of polyene molecules, especially substituted stilbenes, provides another important class of functional molecular transformations. Again the excited state dynamics can be ultrafast with photochemistry controlled by details of the curve crossings and conical intersections. Finally the photochemistry of the even more complex set of cobalamin chromophores with a photoalabile C-Co bond has been proposed as a tool for spatio-temporal control of molecule delivery including drug delivery. Broadband transient absorption spectroscopy has been used to investigate the ultrafast electronic dynamics of a range of cobalamin compounds with comparison to detailed theoretical calculations. The results of these studies will be presented.

  13. Detection of melanomas by digital imaging of spectrally resolved UV light-induced autofluorescence of human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chwirot, B. W.; Chwirot, S.; Jedrzejczyk, W.; Redzinski, J.; Raczynska, A. M.; Telega, K.

    2001-07-01

    We studied spectral and spatial distributions of the intensity of the ultraviolet light-excited fluorescence of human skin. Our studied performed in situ in 162 patients with malignant and non-malignant skin lesions resulted in a new method of detecting melanomas in situ using digital imaging of the spectrally resolved fluorescence. With our diagnostic algorithm we could successfully detect 88.5% of the cases of melanoma in the group of patients subject to examinations with the fluorescence method. A patent application for the method has been submitted to the Patent Office in Warsaw.

  14. Efficacy of UV, acidified sodium hypochlorite, and mild heat for decontamination of surface and infiltrated Escherichia coli O157:H7 on green onions and baby spinach.

    PubMed

    Durak, M Zeki; Churey, John J; Worobo, Randy W

    2012-07-01

    Produce-associated foodborne illnesses outbreaks have highlighted the need for more effective decontamination methods to ensure the safety of fresh produce. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the individual and combined efficacies of germicidal UV light (12.5 to 500 mJ/cm(2)), acidified sodium hypochlorite (ASC 10 to 200 ppm), and mild heat (40 to 50°C) for decontaminating green onions and baby spinach infected with Escherichia coli O157:H7. Samples were inoculated by spot and dip inoculation methods to mimic surface and infiltrated E. coli O157:H7 contamination, respectively. In green onions and baby spinach, the individual efficacies of UV, ASC, and mild-heat treatments varied based on the produce type and contamination method. Following analysis of the efficacies of the single treatments, a combined treatment with 125 mJ/cm(2) UV and 200 ppm of ASC at 50°C was selected for spot-inoculated green onions, and a combined treatment with 125 mJ/cm(2) UV and 200 ppm of ASC at 20°C was selected for spot- and dip-inoculated baby spinach. While a >5-log reduction was achieved with the combination treatment for spot-inoculated green onions with an initial contamination level of 7.2 log CFU per spot, the same treatment reduced E. coli O157:H7 populations below the detection limit (<1 log) on green onions spot inoculated at a lower contamination level (4.3 log CFU per spot). On spot- and dip-inoculated baby spinach, the combined treatment reduced E. coli O157:H7 populations by 2.8 log CFU per spot and 2.6 log CFU/g, respectively. The combined treatment of 500 mJ/cm(2) UV and 200 ppm of ASC at 50°C selected for the decontamination of dip-inoculated green onions resulted in a 2.2-log CFU/g reduction. These findings suggest that when foodborne pathogens contaminate produce and subsequently infiltrate, attach to, or become localized into protected areas, the individual or combined applications of UV, ASC, and mild-heat treatments have limited decontamination

  15. Photocatalytic Properties of g-C3N4–TiO2 Heterojunctions under UV and Visible Light Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Rachel; McCormack, Declan E.; Hinder, Steven J.; Pillai, Suresh C.

    2016-01-01

    Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) were chosen as a model system to investigate photocatalytic abilities of heterojunction system under UV and visible light conditions. The use of g-C3N4 has been shown to be effective in the reduction in recombination through the interaction between the two interfaces of TiO2 and g-C3N4. A simple method of preparing g-C3N4 through the pyrolysis of melamine was employed, which was then added to undoped TiO2 material to form the g-C3N4–TiO2 system. These materials were then fully characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET), and various spectroscopic techniques including Raman, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), diffuse absorbance, and photoluminescence analysis. Photocatalysis studies were conducted using the model dye, rhodamine 6G utilizing visible and UV light irradiation. Raman spectroscopy confirmed that a composite of the materials was formed as opposed to a mixture of the two. Using XPS analysis, a shift in the nitrogen peak to that indicative of substitutional nitrogen was detected for all doped samples. This is then mirrored in the diffuse absorbance results, which show a clear decrease in band gap values for these samples, showing the effective band gap alteration achieved through this preparation process. When g-C3N4–TiO2 samples were analyzed under visible light irradiation, no significant improvement was observed compared that of pure TiO2. However, under UV light irradiation conditions, the photocatalytic ability of the doped samples exhibited an increased reactivity when compared to the undoped TiO2 (0.130 min−1), with 4% g-C3N4–TiO2 (0.187 min−1), showing a 43.9% increase in reactivity. Further doping to 8% g-C3N4–TiO2 lead to a decrease in reactivity against rhodamine 6G. BET analysis determined that the surface area of the 4% and 8% g-C3N4–TiO2 samples were very similar, with values of 29.4 and

  16. Molecular Engineering of UV/Vis Light-Emitting Diode (LED)-Sensitive Donor-π-Acceptor-Type Sulfonium Salt Photoacid Generators: Design, Synthesis, and Study of Photochemical and Photophysical Properties.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xingyu; Jin, Ming; Xie, Jianchao; Malval, Jean-Pierre; Wan, Decheng

    2017-11-07

    A series of donor-π-acceptor-type sulfonium salt photoacid generators (PAGs) were designed and synthesized by systematically changing electron-donating groups, π-conjugated systems, electron-withdrawing groups, and the number of branches through molecular engineering. These PAGs can effectively decompose under UV/Vis irradiation from a light-emitting diode (LED) light source because of the matching absorption and emitting spectra of the LEDs. The absorption and acid-generation properties of these sulfonium salts were elucidated by UV/Vis spectroscopy and so forth. Results indicated that the PAG performance benefited from the introduction of strong electron-donating groups, specific π-conjugated structures, certain electron-withdrawing groups, or two-branched structures. Most sulfonium salts showed potential as photoinitiators under irradiation by a wide variety of UV and visible LEDs. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. A moderately low phosphate intake may provide health benefits analogous to those conferred by UV light - a further advantage of vegan diets.

    PubMed

    McCarty, M F

    2003-01-01

    Although exposure to ultraviolet light is often viewed as pathogenic owing to its role in the genesis of skin cancer and skin aging, there is growing epidemiological evidence that such exposure may decrease risk for a number of more serious cancers, may have a favorable impact on blood pressure and vascular health, and may help to prevent certain autoimmune disorders - in addition to its well-known influence on bone density. Most likely, these health benefits are reflective of improved vitamin D status. Increased synthesis or intake of vitamin D can be expected to down-regulate parathyroid hormone (PTH), and to increase autocrine synthesis of its active metabolite calcitriol in certain tissues; these effects, in turn, may impact cancer risk, vascular health, immune regulation, and bone density through a variety of mechanisms. Presumably, a truly adequate supplemental intake of vitamin D - manyfold higher than the grossly inadequate current RDA - could replicate the benefits of optimal UV exposure, without however damaging the skin. Diets moderately low in bioavailable phosphate - like many vegan diets - might be expected to have a complementary impact on disease risks, inasmuch as serum phosphate suppresses renal calcitriol synthesis while up-regulating that of PTH. A proviso is that the impact of dietary phosphorus on bone health is more equivocal than that of vitamin D. Increased intakes of calcium, on the other hand, down-regulate the production of both PTH and calcitriol - the latter effect may explain why the impact of dietary calcium on cancer risk (excepting colon cancer), hypertension, and autoimmunity is not clearly positive. An overview suggests that a vegan diet supplemented with high-dose vitamin D should increase both systemic and autocrine calcitriol production while suppressing PTH secretion, and thus should represent a highly effective way to achieve the wide-ranging health protection conferred by optimal UV exposure.

  18. Mixed Metal Oxides of the Type CoxZn1-xFe2O4 as Photocatalysts for Malachite Green Degradation Under UV Light Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Tzvetkov, Martin; Milanova, Maria; Cherkezova-Zheleva, Zara; Spassova, Ivanka; Valcheva, Evgenia; Zaharieva, Joana; Ivan, Mitov

    2017-06-01

    A combination of thermal and mechanical (high energy ball milling) treatment was applied in an attempt to obtain polycrystalline mixed metal binary and ternary oxides of the type CoxZn1-xFe2O4 (x = 0; 0.25; 0.5; 0.75; 1). The synthetic procedure used successfully produced single-phased, homogeneous ZnFe2O4, CoFe2O4, and Co0.75Zn0.25Fe2O4, as well as mixed oxides, whose composition depended both on the duration of the high energy ball milling and the ratio Zn(II)/Co(II). The formation of spinel-like structures was proved by XRD, Mössbauer spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. For the characterization of the samples low-temperature N2 adsorption, UV/Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy were applied. The energy band gap of the samples was calculated, suggesting they are promising photocatalysts. The decomposition of the Malachite Green in model water solutions under UV-light irradiation was successfully achieved in the presence of the samples as photocatalysts. The highest rate constant was obtained for the sample synthesized at longer milling time in combination with higher Zn(II)/Co(II) ratio. The photocatalytic activity of the ternary mixed oxides was compared with the pure hematite, α-Fe2O3, and the binary ZnFe2O4 and CoFe2O4 ferrites with spinel structure that were treated in the same way. A synergetic effect of α-Fe2O3 and the spinel-like structure on the photocatalytic properties of ternary mixed metal oxides was detected.

  19. UV exposure in cars.

    PubMed

    Moehrle, Matthias; Soballa, Martin; Korn, Manfred

    2003-08-01

    There is increasing knowledge about the hazards of solar and ultraviolet (UV) radiation to humans. Although people spend a significant time in cars, data on UV exposure during traveling are lacking. The aim of this study was to obtain basic information on personal UV exposure in cars. UV transmission of car glass samples, windscreen, side and back windows and sunroof, was determined. UV exposure of passengers was evaluated in seven German middle-class cars, fitted with three different types of car windows. UV doses were measured with open or closed windows/sunroof of Mercedes-Benz E 220 T, E 320, and S 500, and in an open convertible car (Mercedes-Benz CLK). Bacillus subtilis spore film dosimeters (Viospor) were attached to the front, vertex, cheeks, upper arms, forearms and thighs of 'adult' and 'child' dummies. UV wavelengths longer than >335 nm were transmitted through car windows, and UV irradiation >380 nm was transmitted through compound glass windscreens. There was some variation in the spectral transmission of side windows according to the type of glass. On the arms, UV exposure was 3-4% of ambient radiation when the car windows were shut, and 25-31% of ambient radiation when the windows were open. In the open convertible car, the relative personal doses reached 62% of ambient radiation. The car glass types examined offer substantial protection against short-wave UV radiation. Professional drivers should keep car windows closed on sunny days to reduce occupational UV exposure. In individuals with polymorphic light eruption, produced by long-wave UVA, additional protection by plastic films, clothes or sunscreens appears necessary.

  20. Gd, I-doped TiO2 thin films coated on solid waste material: synthesis, characterization, and photocatalytic activity under UV or visible light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Siwei; Yu, Jiang; Yang, Chun; Chang, Jiahua; Wang, Yizheng; Wang, Ping; Xie, Shiqian

    2017-10-01

    In this work, titanium dioxide thin films doped with different concentrations of gadolinium (Gd) and iodine (I) were synthesized using the sol-gel method and successfully coated on solid waste material (made in our lab) by dipping, resulting in the titanium dioxide thin-film-coated material (TiO2M). Then, the doped titanium dioxide thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM, and UV-Vis spectroscopy; the optimum coating cycle was evaluated by removal rates of COD and ammonia nitrogen in raw wastewater and secondary effluent. Moreover, the photocatalytic activity was determined by degradation efficiency of methyl orange. The results showed that TiO2M had desirable reusability and the photocatalytic activity was attractive under ultraviolet light irradiation. Furthermore, it is found that the amount of dopant in TiO2 was a key parameter in increasing the photoactivity. 1% Gd-doped TiO2M exhibited the best photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange with the removal rate reaching 85.55%. The result was in good agreement with the observed smaller crystallite size and profitable crystal structure (anatase phase). Besides, the TiO2M (0.8% Gd-doped TiO2M, 1% Gd-doped TiO2M, 10% I-doped TiO2M, and 5% I-1% Gd-doped TiO2M) with desirable photocatalytic activity at ultraviolet light irradiation was selected for the visible light photocatalytic experiments with taking methyl orange as the target pollutants. The results showed that all of them exhibited the similar photocatalytic activity after 7 h of sunlight irradiation (around 90% removal effect). In general, this research developed a very effective and environmentally friendly photocatalyst for pollutant degradation.

  1. Is it a biological response or chemical process? Chemical and transcriptional regulation experiments probe the cause for the increased accumulation of chlorogenic acid (CGA) in carrot root slices exposed to UV-B light

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We recently demonstrated that wounded carrot roots subjected to a brief UV-B light treatment accumulate large quantities of chlorogenic acid (CGA) in the treated tissues. Chlorogenic acid is an intermediate in the phenylpropanoid pathway and a potent anti-oxidant. Chemical analysis and real-time P...

  2. ZnO nanowire-based light-emitting diodes with tunable emission from near-UV to blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauporté, Thierry; Lupan, Oleg; Viana, Bruno; le Bahers, T.

    2013-03-01

    Nanowires (NWs)-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) have drawn large interest due to many advantages compared to thin film based devices. We have successfully prepared epitaxial n-ZnO(NW)/p-GaN heterojunctions using low temperature soft electrochemical techniques. The structures have been used in LED devices and exhibited highly interesting performances. Moreover, the bandgap of ZnO has been tuned by Cu or Cd doping at controlled atomic concentration. A result was the controlled shift of the LED emission in the visible spectral wavelength region. Using DFT computing calculations, we have also shown that the bandgap narrowing has two different origins for Zn1-xCdxO (ZnO:Cd) and ZnO:Cu. In the first case, it is due to the crystal lattice expansion, whereas in the second case Cu-3d donor and Cu-3d combined to O-2p acceptor bands appear in the bandgap which broadnesses increase with the dopant concentration. This leads to the bandgap reduction.

  3. Absolute spectral response measurements of different photodiodes useful for applications in the UV spectral region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelizzo, Maria G.; Ceccherini, Paolo; Garoli, Denis; Masut, Pietro; Nicolosi, Piergiorgio

    2004-09-01

    Long UV radiation exposure can result in damages of biological tissues, as burns, skin aging, erythema and even melanoma cancer. In the past years an increase of melanoma cancer has been observed and associated to the atmospheric ozone deployment. Attendance of sun tanning unit centers has become a huge social phenomena, and the maximum UV radiation dose that a human being can receive is regulated by law. On the other side, UV radiation is largely used for therapeutic and germicidal purposes. In all these areas, spectroradiometer and radiomenter are needed for monitoring UVA (315-400 nm), UVB (280-315 nm) and UVC (100-280 nm) irradiance. We have selected some commercial photodiodes which can be used as solid state detectors in these instruments. We have characterized them by measuring their absolute spectral response in the 200 - 400 nm spectral range.

  4. Evaluation of erythemal UV effective irradiance from UV lamp exposure and the application in shield metal arc welding processing.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cheng-Ping; Liu, Hung-Hsin; Peng, Chiung-Yu; Fang, Hsin-Yu; Tsao, Ta-Ho; Lan, Cheng-Hang

    2008-04-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure is known to cause potential effects such as erythema in skin. For UV-induced erythema (sunburn), the action spectrum from the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage, International Commission on Illumination (CIE) was adopted. Erythemal UV effects from UVR lamp exposure were investigated with commercial spectroradiometry devices in this research. Three kinds of portable UV germicidal lamps with broadband UVA (BB UVA, 350-400 nm), broadband UVB (BB UVB, 280-350 nm), and narrowband UVC (NB UVC, 254 nm) wavelengths served as the UVR emission sources. An action spectrum expresses the effectiveness of radiation for assessing the hazard of UVR in the erythemal action spectrum from 250-400 nm. The UV Index (UVI) is an irradiance scale computed by multiplying the CIE erythemal irradiance integral in milliwatts per square meter by 0.04 m mW. A comprehensive approach to detecting erythemal UVR magnitude was developed to monitor the effective exposure from UV lamps. The erythemal UVR measurement was established and the exposure assessment was applied to monitor erythemal UVR magnitude from shield metal arc welding (SMAW) processing. From this study, the erythemal UVR exposures were assessed and evaluated with environmental solar simulation of the UVI exposure.

  5. DFT and TD-DFT insights, photolysis and photocatalysis investigation of three dyes with similar structure under UV irradiation with and without TiO2 as a catalyst: Effect of adsorption, pH and light intensity.

    PubMed

    Bendjabeur, Seyfeddine; Zouaghi, Razika; Zouchoune, Bachir; Sehili, Tahar

    2018-02-05

    TiO 2 -mediated photocatalytic degradation of three triphenylmethane dyes (basic fuchsin, acid fuchsin and Gentian violet), was investigated in aqueous suspensions in the presence and the absence of titanium dioxide P25 Degussa as photocatalyst. The photodegradation process was investigated using UV-A (365nm) and UV-C (254nm) light alone and UV-A in the presence of TiO 2 ·The effects of various operational parameters were investigated such as: the effect of adsorption in the dark, the influence of pH, the influence of irradiation wavelength and the effect of light intensity. The study of the effect of various parameters reveals that the photolysis of dyes increases with the increase of light intensity, the degradation rate under UV-C (254nm) was found better than under UV-A 365nm. The photocatalytic degradation was found to follow the same order of adsorption. The decolorization and the degradation kinetics were found to follow the pseudo-first-order kinetics. The mineralization of dye was found to follow the same order of disappearance as the photocatalytic degradation and depended directly to its functional groups and its number of carbons. Additionally, density functional theory (DFT) was applied for calculations of both electronic structure and spectroscopic properties of the studied compounds, where the obtained results of the three dyes show that the theoretical electronic spectra and the experimental UV-visible ones are similar in shapes, positions and intensities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Synthesis of scaly Sn3O4/TiO2 nanobelt heterostructures for enhanced UV-visible light photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guohui; Ji, Shaozheng; Sang, Yuanhua; Chang, Sujie; Wang, Yana; Hao, Pin; Claverie, Jerome; Liu, Hong; Yu, Guangwei

    2015-02-01

    A novel scaly Sn3O4/TiO2 nanobelt heterostructured photocatalyst was fabricated via a facile hydrothermal route. The scaly Sn3O4 nanoflakes can be synthesized in situ and assembled on surface coarsened TiO2 nanobelts through a hydrothermal process. The morphology and distribution of Sn3O4 nanoflakes can be well-controlled by simply tuning the Sn/Ti molar ratio of the reactants. Compared with single phase nanostructures of Sn3O4 and TiO2, the scaly hybrid nanobelts exhibited markedly enhanced photoelectrochemical (PEC) response, which caused higher photocatalytic hydrogen evolution even without the assistance of Pt as a co-catalyst, and enhanced the degradation ability of organic pollutants under both UV and visible light irradiation. In addition to the increased exposure of active facets and broad light absorption, the outstanding performance is ascribed to the matching energy band structure between Sn3O4 and TiO2 at the two sides of the heterostructure, which efficiently reduces the recombination of photo-excited electron-hole pairs and prolongs the lifetime of charge carriers. Both photocatalytic assessment and PEC tests revealed that Sn3O4/TiO2 heterostructures with a molar ratio of Sn/Ti of 2/1 exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity. This study provides a facile and low-cost method for the large scale production of Sn3O4 based materials in various applications.A novel scaly Sn3O4/TiO2 nanobelt heterostructured photocatalyst was fabricated via a facile hydrothermal route. The scaly Sn3O4 nanoflakes can be synthesized in situ and assembled on surface coarsened TiO2 nanobelts through a hydrothermal process. The morphology and distribution of Sn3O4 nanoflakes can be well-controlled by simply tuning the Sn/Ti molar ratio of the reactants. Compared with single phase nanostructures of Sn3O4 and TiO2, the scaly hybrid nanobelts exhibited markedly enhanced photoelectrochemical (PEC) response, which caused higher photocatalytic hydrogen evolution even without the

  7. Generic delimitation between Fragariocoptes and Sierraphytoptus (Acari: Eriophyoidea: Phytoptidae) and a supplementary description of Fragariocoptes gansuensis with remarks on searching for mummified eriophyoid mites in herbaria under UV light.

    PubMed

    Chetverikov, Philipp E

    2016-01-15

    Generic concepts of Fragariocoptes Roivainen, 1951 and Sierraphytoptus Keifer, 1939 are discussed and the correct delimitation between these two genera is given. A supplementary description of Fragariocoptes gansuensis Wei, Chen & Luo, 2005 is included based on fresh specimens from Astrakhan, Russia and dried mummies found in old herbaria collected in 1919 from southern European Russia of the cinquefoil, Potentilla bifurca L. (Rosaceae) with pathological stem proliferation. The male of this species is described for the first time. The cuticle of eriophyoid mummies emitted a faint glow under UV light wavelength equal to 365 nm of a common UV Light-Emitting diode (LED) lamp showing that this characteristic could be useful for quickly detecting eriophyoids in old herbaria which would otherwise be almost indistinguishable against the background under the regular white light source of a stereomicroscope. This was only possible for plant material stored in appropriate conditions enabling the autofluorescent signal of the dried mite cuticle to remain strong enough for observation.

  8. Can dual chlorophyll fluorescence excitation be used to assess the variation in the content of UV-absorbing phenolic compounds in leaves of temperate tree species along a light gradient?

    PubMed

    Barthod, Sandrine; Cerovic, Zoran; Epron, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The present study assesses light-induced variations in phenolic compounds in leaves of saplings of two co-occurring temperate species (Acer platanoides L., and Fraxinus excelsior L.) along a light gradient using a new non-invasive optical method (Dualex). The Dualex-derived UV absorbance of leaf epidermis (the sum of the adaxial and abaxial faces, AUV) increased significantly with increasing light in both species. AUV values were correlated with absorbance of the leaf extract at 305 nm and 375 nm (A305 and A375) in both species with similar slopes for both species. However, a large difference in intercept was observed between the two species when A305 was regressed against AUV. Similarly, AUV values were well correlated with the amount of phenolics in the leaf extracts assessed by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, but slopes were significantly different for the two species. Thus, the UV-A epidermal transmittance, despite being a reliable indicator of the UV-screening capacity of the leaf epidermis, cannot be used for any quantitative estimate of UV-B screening capacity or of energetic requirement for leaf construction without a species-specific calibration.

  9. Short communication: Salt tolerance of Lactococcus lactis R-604 as influenced by mild stresses from ethanol, heat, hydrogen peroxide, and UV light.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Ernesto E; Olson, Douglas; Aryana, Kayanush

    2017-06-01

    Lactococcus lactis is a culture widely used in salt-containing dairy products. Salt hinders bacterial growth, but exposure to environmental stress may protect cells against subsequent stress, including salt. The objective of this study was to evaluate the salt tolerance of L. lactis R-604 after exposure to various stresses. The culture was subjected to 10% (vol/vol) ethanol for 30 min, mild heat at 52°C for 30 min, 15 mM hydrogen peroxide for 30 min, or UV light (254 nm) for 5 min and compared with a control. Starting with 5 log cfu/mL for all treatments, growth was determined in M17 broth with 5 NaCl concentrations (0, 1, 3, 5, and 7% wt/vol). Plating was conducted daily for 5 d. Salt tolerance was enhanced with mild heat exposure before growth in M17 broth with 5% (wt/vol) NaCl on d 3, 4, and 5, and with exposure to hydrogen peroxide and ethanol stresses before growth in M17 broth with 5% (wt/vol) NaCl on d 4 and 5. Exposure of this culture to mild heat, hydrogen peroxide, or ethanol before growth in M17 broth containing 5% (wt/vol) salt can enhance its survival, which could be beneficial when using it in salt-containing dairy products. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. CO2 splitting by H2O to CO and O2 under UV light in TiMCM-41silicate sieve

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Wenyong; Han, Hongxian; Frei, Heinz

    2004-04-06

    The 266 nm light-induced reaction of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O gas mixtures (including isotopic modifications {sup 13}CO{sub 2}, C{sup 18}O{sub 2}, and D{sub 2}O) in framework TiMCM-41 silicate sieve was monitored by in-situ FT-IR spectroscopy at room temperature. Carbon monoxide gas was observed as the sole product by infrared, and the growth was found to depend linearly on the photolysis laser power. H{sub 2}O was confirmed as stoichiometric electron donor. The work establishes CO as the single photon, 2-electron transfer product of CO{sub 2} photoreduction by H{sub 2}O at framework Ti centers for the first time. O{sub 2} wasmore » detected as co-product by mass spectrometric analysis of the photolysis gas mixture. These results are explained by single UV photon-induced splitting of CO{sub 2} by H{sub 2}O to CO and surface OH radical.« less

  11. Simulation and experiment on the catalytic degradation of high-concentration SF6 on TiO2 surface under UV light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Yalong; Cui, Zhaolun; Chen, Dachang; Zhang, Xiaoxing

    2018-05-01

    The high-temperature effect gas SF6 is used in the power industry, and its emissions are increasing daily. Therefore, the degradation of SF6 is particularly important. In this work, SF6 with a high concentration of 2% was degraded using the catalytic principle of TiO2 under UV light at normal temperature and pressure. Experimental results proved that this method can effectively degrade SF6. Moreover, the addition of TiO2 can effectively increase the degradation rate of SF6. The degradation of eight pieces of TiO2 with a unit area of 3 cm2 was 8.98% after 3 h of catalysis. FTIR spectral analysis showed that the main degradation products were SO2F2, SiF4, SF4, and SO2. Adding H2O can further increase the degradation rate, which can reach 27.22% in 3 h. The main degradation products were SO2F2, SiF4, SF4, SiH4, HF, and SO2. Finally, simulations verified the catalytic decomposition of SF6 on the surface of TiO2.

  12. Are You UV Safe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capobianco, Brenda; Thiel, Elizabeth Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Students may be slathered with SPF 30 sunscreen all summer at the beach or pool, but what do they know about ultraviolet (UV) light radiation and absorption? The authors of this article found the perfect opportunity to help students find out the science behind this important health precaution, when they developed a series of practical strategies…

  13. Reduction of Microbial Contaminants in Drinking Water by Ultraviolet Light Technology: ETS UV MODEL UVL-200-4 (Report and Statement)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Final technical report provides test methods used and verification results to be published on ETV web sites. The ETS UV System Model UVL-200-4 was tested to validate the UV dose delivered by the system using biodosimetry and a set line approach. The set line for 40 mJ/cm2 Red...

  14. Effectiveness of UV-C light assisted by mild heat on Saccharomyces cerevisiae KE 162 inactivation in carrot-orange juice blend studied by flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    García Carrillo, Mercedes; Ferrario, Mariana; Guerrero, Sandra

    2018-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of UV-C light (0-10.6 kJ/m 2 ) assisted by mild heat treatment (50 °C) on the inactivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae KE 162 in peptone water and fresh carrot-orange juice blend (pH: 3.8; 9.8°Brix; 707 NTU; absorption coefficient: 0.17 cm -1 ). Yeast induced damage by single UV-C and mild heat (H) and the combined treatment UV-C/H, was investigated by flow cytometry (FC) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). When studying induced damage by FC, cells were labeled with fluorescein diacetate (FDA) and propidium iodide (PI) to monitor membrane integrity and esterase activity. UV-C/H provoked up to 4.7 log-reductions of S. cerevisiae; whereas, only 2.6-3.3 log-reductions were achieved by single UV-C and H treatments. FC revealed a shift with treatment time from cells with esterase activity and intact membrane to cells with permeabilized membrane. This shift was more noticeable in peptone water and UV-C/H treated juice. In the UV-C treated juice, double stained cells were detected, suggesting the possibility of being sub-lethally damaged, with compromised membrane but still metabolically active. TEM images of treated cells revealed severe damage, encompassing coagulated inner content, disorganized lumen and cell debris. FC and TEM provided additional information regarding degree and type of damage, complementing information revealed by the traditional plate count technique. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. UV-light induced fabrication of CdCl2 nanotubes through CdSe/Te nanocrystals based on dimension and configuration control.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jie; Liu, Chi; Huang, Jianliu; Wang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Shuyuan; Li, Gongpu; Hou, Jianguo

    2008-05-01

    Since the discovery of WS2 nanotubes in 1992 ( Nature 1992, 360, 444), there have been significant research efforts to synthesize nanotubes and fullerene-like hollow nanoparticles (HNPs) of inorganic materials ( Nat. Nanotechnol. 2006, 1, 103) due to their potential applications as solid lubrications ( J. Mater. Chem. 2005, 15, 1782), chemical sensing ( Adv. Funct. Mater. 2006, 16, 371), drug delivering ( J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 7316), catalysis ( Adv. Mater. 2006, 18, 2561), or quantum harvesting ( Acc. Chem. Res. 2006, 39, 239). Nanotubes can be produced either by rolling up directly from layer compounds ( Nature 2001, 410, 168) or through other mechanisms ( Adv. Mater. 2004, 16, 1497) such as template growth ( Nature 2003, 422, 599) and decomposition ( J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 4841). The Kirkendall effect, a classical phenomenon in metallurgy ( Trans. AIME 1947, 171, 130), was recently exploited to fabricate hollow 0-D nanocrystals ( Science 2004, 304, 711) as well as 1-D nanotubes ( Nat. Mater. 2006, 5, 627). Although the dimension of resulting hollow nanostructures depends on precursors, the hollow nanomaterials can also be organized into various dimensional nanostructures spontaneously or induced by an external field. In this letter, we report, for the first time, the UV-light induced fabrication of the ends-closed 1-D CdCl2 nanotubes from 0-D CdSe solid nanocrystals through the Kirkendall effect and the head-to-end assembled process. Our results demonstrate the possibility to control the dimension (0-D to 1-D) and the configuration (solid to hollow) of nanostructures simultaneously and have implications in fabricating hollow nano-objects from zero-dimensional to multidimensional.

  16. Facile synthesis of heterostructured cerium oxide/yttrium oxide nanocomposite in UV light induced photocatalytic degradation and catalytic reduction: Synergistic effect of antimicrobial studies.

    PubMed

    Maria Magdalane, C; Kaviyarasu, K; Judith Vijaya, J; Siddhardha, B; Jeyaraj, B

    2017-08-01

    Ceria (CeO 2 ) is an exciting alternative noble metal catalyst, because it has ability to release and absorb oxygen in the redox system, and function as an oxygen buffer. In this study, heterostructured catalysts consisting of CeO 2 /Y 2 O 3 nanocomposites were successfully synthesized by hydrothermal method in the presence of sodium hydroxide as a reducing agent from cerium nitrate and yttrium nitrate as a precursor which was then evaluated for its photocatalytic activity in the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) synthetic dye. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imparts the surface morphology and size of the prepared sample. Elemental compositions and the purity of the nanoparticles are proved by energy dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX). CeO 2 /Y 2 O 3 nanoparticles were made up of CeO and YO bonds which are confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Synthesis temperature and pressure, during hydrothermal reactions, plays a critical role in controlling the shape, size, oxygen vacancy concentration, and low temperature reducibility in CeO 2 based nanocomposites. The lattice constants and oxygen vacancy concentrations of ceria nanoparticles also depend upon the concentration of hydroxide ion which leads to better morphology at low temperature and pressure. Hydrogenation of p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol with a reducing agent is conveniently carried out in aqueous medium by using this binary metal oxide catalyst. Further, the photocatalytic performance of the synthesized nanoparticles was monitored by photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B synthetic dye under UV light irradiation. To get maximum photocatalytic degradation (PCD) efficiency, we have used H 2 O 2 for the generation of excess reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, the antibacterial activity of nanoparticles against bacteria was also examined. The observed antibacterial activity results are comparable with the results obtained using the standard antibiotic. Copyright © 2017

  17. Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, H.N.

    The lighting section of ASHRAE standard 90.1 is discussed. It applies to all new buildings except low-rise residential, while excluding specialty lighting applications such as signage, art exhibits, theatrical productions, medical and dental tasks, and others. In addition, lighting for indoor plant growth is excluded if designed to operate only between 10 p.m. and 6 a.m. Lighting allowances for the interior of a building are determined by the use of the system performance path unless the space functions are not fully known, such as during the initial stages of design or for speculative buildings. In such cases, the prescriptive pathmore » is available. Lighting allowances for the exterior of all buildings are determined by a table of unit power allowances. A new addition the exterior lighting procedure is the inclusion of facade lighting. However, it is no longer possible to trade-off power allotted for the exterior with the interior of a building or vice versa. A significant change is the new emphasis on lighting controls.« less

  18. UV actinometer film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coulbert, C. D.; Gupta, A.; Pitts, J.

    1980-01-01

    Cumulative UV radiation can be measured by low-cost polymer film that is unaffacted by visible light. Useful for virtually any surface, film can help paint and plastics manufacturers determine how well their products stand up against UV radiation. Actinometer film uses photochemically sensitive compound that changes its chemical composition in response to solar radiation. Extent of chemical conversion depends on length exposure and can be measured by examining film sample with spectrophotometer. Film can be exposed from several seconds up to month.

  19. Photocrosslinking and Photodamage in Protein-Nucleic Acid Systems Resulting from UV and IR Radiation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozub, John Andrew

    1995-01-01

    Photocrosslinking of protein-nucleic acid complexes with low intensity UV has frequently been used to study biological systems. We have investigated the photochemistry of protein-nucleic acid systems using nanosecond UV pulses from a Nd:YAG-pumped dye laser system, low-intensity continuous UV from a typical germicidal lamp, and high-intensity mid -IR pulses from the Vanderbilt Free Electron Laser. Quantum yields for UV-induced nucleic acid damage from laser pulses and the germicidal lamp were found to be nearly equivalent. We have demonstrated the general applicability of the laser to this technique by successfully crosslinking hnRNP protein to RNA, yeast TATA-binding protein to dsDNA, and gene 32 protein to ssDNA with UV laser pulses. Our results indicate that UV-crosslinking has an intrinsic specificity for nucleic acid sites containing thymidine (or uridine), forcing a distinction between preferred binding sites and favorable crosslinking sites. We have found in each system that protein and nucleic acid photodamage competes with crosslinking, limits the yield, and may interfere with subsequent analysis. The distribution of photoproducts in the gene 32 protein-ssDNA system was investigated as a function of the total dose of UV radiation and the intensity of UV laser pulses. It was found that laser pulses providing up to 50 photons per nucleic acid base induce a linear response from the system; the absolute and relative yields of photoproducts depend only on the total dose of UV and not on the rate of delivery. At higher intensities, the yield of crosslinks per incident photon was reduced. A single pulse at the optimum intensity (about 100-200 photons per nucleic acid base) induced roughly 80% of the maximum attainable yield of crosslinks in this system. The early results of our search for photochemistry induced by Free Electron Laser pulses indicate the potential to induce a unique photoreaction in the gene 32 protein -ssDNA system. The yield is apparently

  20. Opsin expression in Limulus eyes: a UV opsin is expressed in each eye type and co-expressed with a visible light-sensitive opsin in ventral larval eyes.

    PubMed

    Battelle, Barbara-Anne; Kempler, Karen E; Harrison, Alexandra; Dugger, Donald R; Payne, Richard

    2014-09-01

    The eyes of the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, are a model for studies of visual function and the visual systems of euarthropods. Much is known about the structure and function of L. polyphemus photoreceptors, much less about their photopigments. Three visible-light-sensitive L. polyphemus opsins were characterized previously (LpOps1, 2 and 5). Here we characterize a UV opsin (LpUVOps1) that is expressed in all three types of L. polyphemus eyes. It is expressed in most photoreceptors in median ocelli, the only L. polyphemus eyes in which UV sensitivity was previously detected, and in the dendrite of eccentric cells in lateral compound eyes. Therefore, eccentric cells, previously thought to be non-photosensitive second-order neurons, may actually be UV-sensitive photoreceptors. LpUVOps1 is also expressed in small photoreceptors in L. polyphemus ventral larval eyes, and intracellular recordings from these photoreceptors confirm that LpUVOps1 is an active, UV-sensitive photopigment. These photoreceptors also express LpOps5, which we demonstrate is an active, long-wavelength-sensitive photopigment. Thus small photoreceptors in ventral larval eyes, and probably those of the other larval eyes, have dual sensitivity to UV and visible light. Interestingly, the spectral tuning of small ventral photoreceptors may change day to night, because the level of LpOps5 in their rhabdoms is lower during the day than during the night, whereas LpUVOps1 levels show no diurnal change. These and previous findings show that opsin co-expression and the differential regulation of co-expressed opsins in rhabdoms is a common feature of L. polyphemus photoreceptors. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Opsin expression in Limulus eyes: a UV opsin is expressed in each eye type and co-expressed with a visible light-sensitive opsin in ventral larval eyes

    PubMed Central

    Battelle, Barbara-Anne; Kempler, Karen E.; Harrison, Alexandra; Dugger, Donald R.; Payne, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The eyes of the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, are a model for studies of visual function and the visual systems of euarthropods. Much is known about the structure and function of L. polyphemus photoreceptors, much less about their photopigments. Three visible-light-sensitive L. polyphemus opsins were characterized previously (LpOps1, 2 and 5). Here we characterize a UV opsin (LpUVOps1) that is expressed in all three types of L. polyphemus eyes. It is expressed in most photoreceptors in median ocelli, the only L. polyphemus eyes in which UV sensitivity was previously detected, and in the dendrite of eccentric cells in lateral compound eyes. Therefore, eccentric cells, previously thought to be non-photosensitive second-order neurons, may actually be UV-sensitive photoreceptors. LpUVOps1 is also expressed in small photoreceptors in L. polyphemus ventral larval eyes, and intracellular recordings from these photoreceptors confirm that LpUVOps1 is an active, UV-sensitive photopigment. These photoreceptors also express LpOps5, which we demonstrate is an active, long-wavelength-sensitive photopigment. Thus small photoreceptors in ventral larval eyes, and probably those of the other larval eyes, have dual sensitivity to UV and visible light. Interestingly, the spectral tuning of small ventral photoreceptors may change day to night, because the level of LpOps5 in their rhabdoms is lower during the day than during the night, whereas LpUVOps1 levels show no diurnal change. These and previous findings show that opsin co-expression and the differential regulation of co-expressed opsins in rhabdoms is a common feature of L. polyphemus photoreceptors. PMID:24948643

  2. UV Tanning Equipment | Radiation Protection | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-08-07

    Sun lamps and tanning equipment emit ultraviolet (UV) rays. People who are exposed to UV rays over a long period of time are more likely to develop skin cancer. People with light skin are in more danger because their skin is more sensitive to UV rays.

  3. UV Light Potentiates STING (Stimulator of Interferon Genes)-dependent Innate Immune Signaling through Deregulation of ULK1 (Unc51-like Kinase 1)*

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Michael G.; Lindsey-Boltz, Laura A.; Sancar, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism by which ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths of sunlight trigger or exacerbate the symptoms of the autoimmune disorder lupus erythematosus is not known but may involve a role for the innate immune system. Here we show that UV radiation potentiates STING (stimulator of interferon genes)-dependent activation of the immune signaling transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) in response to cytosolic DNA and cyclic dinucleotides in keratinocytes and other human cells. Furthermore, we find that modulation of this innate immune response also occurs with UV-mimetic chemical carcinogens and in a manner that is independent of DNA repair and several DNA damage and cell stress response signaling pathways. Rather, we find that the stimulation of STING-dependent IRF3 activation by UV is due to apoptotic signaling-dependent disruption of ULK1 (Unc51-like kinase 1), a pro-autophagic protein that negatively regulates STING. Thus, deregulation of ULK1 signaling by UV-induced DNA damage may contribute to the negative effects of sunlight UV exposure in patients with autoimmune disorders. PMID:25792739

  4. UV Light-Driven Photodegradation of Methylene Blue by Using Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4/SiO2 Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indrayana, I. P. T.; Julian, T.; Suharyadi, E.

    2018-04-01

    The photodegradation activity of nanocomposites for 20 ppm methylene blue solution has been investigated in this work. Nanocomposites Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4/SiO2 have been synthesized using coprecipitation method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern confirmed the formation of three phases in sample Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4/SiO2 i.e., Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4, Zn(OH)2, and SiO2. The appearance of SiO2 phase showed that the encapsulation process has been carried out. The calculated particles size of Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4/SiO2 is greater than Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4. Bonding analysis via vibrational spectra for Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4/SiO2 confirmed the formation of bonds Me-O-Si stretching (2854.65 cm-1) and Si-O-Si asymmetric stretching (1026.13 cm-1). The optical gap energy of Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4/SiO2 was smaller (2.70 eV) than Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 (3.04 eV) due to smaller lattice dislocation and microstrain that affect their electronic structure. The Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4/SiO2 showed high photodegradation ability due to smaller optical gap energy and the appearance of SiO2 ligand that can easily attract dye molecules. The Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4/SiO2 also showed high degradation activity even without UV light radiation. The result showed that photodegradation reaction doesn’t follow pseudo-first order kinetics.

  5. Effects of garlic on cellular doubling time and DNA strand breaks caused by UV light and BPL, enhanced with catechol and TPA

    SciTech Connect

    Baturay, N.Z.; Gayle, F.; Liu, S.

    1995-11-01

    3T3 cell cultures were exposed to UV light and Beta-Propiolactone. Neoplastic cell transformation (TF) was demonstrated after concurrent addition of catechol, or repeated addition of TPA. Addition of garlic to all fluences/concentrations of the carcinogen/cocarcinogen/promoter groups reduced the number of transformed foci/dish by at least 40%. Since the cell cycle is prolonged following exposure to carcinogens, it is likely the cell requires a longer time to repair this damage. The doubling time (DT) was extended from 12 to 36 hrs. when cells were exposed to BPL and from 12 o 28 hrs. when cells were exposed to 3.0J/M2/sec. If anmore » anticarcinogenic compound is also added, it is reasonable to assume that the cell cycle may be further elongated. The cell cycle, denoted by DT was lengthened from 12 to 47 hrs and from 12 to 86 hrs for BPL and UVC, respectively. The extensions occurred in a dope dependent manner. The concentrations of the cocarcinogen and promoter remained constant throughout the experiment. When strand breaks were determined at the same dose sequences, by alkaline elution, more repair was seen with garlic where the lowest and middle doses of BPL were used and almost no decrease in % DNA eluted was seen with UVC exposed cells. With catechol, there was a two-fold decrease in % DNA eluted at the lowest and middle fluences. When TPA was added, all three fluences of UVC showed more than a threefold decrease in % DNA eluted. BPS with both TPA and catechol, again showed a reduction in strand breaks only low and middle doses. Both a direct-acting alkylating agent, BPL, and a physical carcinogen, UVC, were homogeneously affected, in terms of doubling time, but not when strand break repair was examined. A separate mechanism may be responsible for repair, and the mechanism associated with combinations of physical carcinogen enhancing agents combined with some non-carcinogens may be more profoundly affected by some natural products.« less

  6. Effect of calcination temperature on structure and photocatalytic activity under UV and visible light of nanosheets from low-cost magnetic leucoxene mineral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charerntanom, Wissanu; Pecharapa, Wisanu; Pavasupree, Suttipan; Pavasupree, Sorapong

    2017-07-01

    This research has experimentally synthesized the nanosheets from the naturally-mineral magnetic leucoxene under the hydrothermal synthesis condition of 105 °C for 24 h. Magnetic leucoxene was utilized as the starting material due to its high TiO2 content (70-80%) and inexpensiveness. The characterization of the synthesized nanosheets was subsequently carried out: the crystalline structure, the chemical composition, the shape, the size and the specific surface area, by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area analysis. The analysis results indicated that the starting magnetic leucoxene is of rutile phase while the synthesized nanosheets are of titanate structure (H2TixO2x + 1). After calcination at the temperature range of 300 and 400 °C, the calcined samples demonstrated TiO2 (B). At 500 and 600 °C, the calcined nanosheets revealed a bi-crystalline mixture consisting of TiO2 (B) and anatase TiO2. At 700-1000 °C, the crystalline structure shows anatase and rutile phase. At 1100 °C, the prepared samples consisted of a mixture of anatase, rutile phase of TiO2, and Fe2O3 phase. The synthesized product also exhibited the flower-like morphology with 2-5 μm in diameter, and the nanosheets structure was slightly curved, with 100 nm to 2 μm in width and 1-3 nm in thickness. At 100-200 °C showed sheets-like structure. At 300-1100 °C, the calcined nanosheets became unstable and began to decompose and transform into nanoparticles. The increasing size of nanoparticle decreased the specific surface area of the nanosheets, caused by increasing calcination temperature. Furthermore, the BET specific surface area of the nanosheets was approximately 279.8 m2/g. More importantly, the synthesized nanosheets achieved the higher photocatalytic activity under UV and visible light than did the commercial TiO2 nanoparticles (JRC-01, JRC-03

  7. Effects of ultraviolet light (UV-C) and heat treatment on the quality of fresh-cut Chokanan mango and Josephine pineapple.

    PubMed

    George, Dominic Soloman; Razali, Zuliana; Santhirasegaram, Vicknesha; Somasundram, Chandran

    2015-02-01

    The effects of ultraviolet (UV-C) and medium heat (70 °C) treatments on the quality of fresh-cut Chokanan mango and Josephine pineapple were investigated. Quality attributes included physicochemical properties (pH, titratable acidity, and total soluble solids), ascorbic acid content (vitamin C), antioxidant activity, as well as microbial inactivation. Consumers' acceptance was also investigated through sensory evaluation of the attributes (appearance, texture, aroma and taste). Furthermore, shelf-life study of samples stored at 4 ± 1 °C was conducted for 15 d. The fresh-cut fruits were exposed to UV-C for 0, 15, 30, and 60 min while heat treatments were carried out at 70 °C for 0, 5, 10 and 20 min. Both UV-C and medium heat treatments resulted in no significant changes to the physicochemical attributes of both fruits. The ascorbic acid content of UV-C treated fruits was unaffected; however, medium heat treatment resulted in deterioration of ascorbic acids in both fruits. The antioxidants were enhanced with UV-C treatment which could prove invaluable to consumers. Heat treatments on the other hand resulted in decreased antioxidant activities. Microbial count in both fruits was significantly reduced by both treatments. The shelf life of the fresh-cut fruits were also successfully extended to a maximum of 15 d following treatments. As for consumers' acceptance, UV-C treated fruits were the most accepted as compared to their heat-treated counterparts. The results obtained through this study support the use of UV-C treatment for better retention of quality, effective microbial inactivation and enhancement of health promoting compounds for the benefit of consumers. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. The Drosophila melanogaster Homologue of the Xeroderma Pigmentosum D Gene Product Is Located in Euchromatic Regions and Has a Dynamic Response to UV Light-induced Lesions in Polytene Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Reynaud, Enrique; Lomelí, Hilda; Vázquez, Martha; Zurita, Mario

    1999-01-01

    The XPD/ERCC2/Rad3 gene is required for excision repair of UV-damaged DNA and is an important component of nucleotide excision repair. Mutations in the XPD gene generate the cancer-prone syndrome, xeroderma pigmentosum, Cockayne’s syndrome, and trichothiodystrophy. XPD has a 5′- to 3′-helicase activity and is a component of the TFIIH transcription factor, which is essential for RNA polymerase II elongation. We present here the characterization of the Drosophila melanogaster XPD gene (DmXPD). DmXPD encodes a product that is highly related to its human homologue. The DmXPD protein is ubiquitous during development. In embryos at the syncytial blastoderm stage, DmXPD is cytoplasmic. At the onset of transcription in somatic cells and during gastrulation in germ cells, DmXPD moves to the nuclei. Distribution analysis in polytene chromosomes shows that DmXPD is highly concentrated in the interbands, especially in the highly transcribed regions known as puffs. UV-light irradiation of third-instar larvae induces an increase in the signal intensity and in the number of sites where the DmXPD protein is located in polytene chromosomes, indicating that the DmXPD protein is recruited intensively in the chromosomes as a response to DNA damage. This is the first time that the response to DNA damage by UV-light irradiation can be visualized directly on the chromosomes using one of the TFIIH components. PMID:10198066

  9. Mini-EUSO: A Precursor Mission on the International Space Station for the Observation of Atmosphere and Earth in the UV Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, Marco

    For any experiment aiming at the observation of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) from space, one key measurement is related to the UV emissions produced in the Earth's atmosphere. In view of the planned missions under study (KLYPVE-EUSO, JEM-EUSO, EUSO-FF) at the International Space Station (ISS) and on board of free-flyer satellites, a small, compact UV telescope, Mini-EUSO, is being developed by the JEM-EUSO International Collaboration to be placed at the UV-transparent, nadir looking window of the Russian module of the ISS. In addition to the main purpose of mapping the Earth in the UV range (300-400 nm), Mini-EUSO will also perform studies of atmospheric phenomena, observation of meteors, strange quark matter search and space debris tracking. It will as well enhance the technological readiness level of the EUSO concept and instruments. Mini-EUSO is a mission approved and selected by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) and, under the name "UV atmosphere", by the Russian Space Agency Roscosmos.

  10. Conjugation of (E)-5-[2-(Methoxycarbonyl)ethenyl]cytidine to hydrophilic microspheres: development of a mobile microscale UV light actinometer.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shiyue; Guan, Yousheng; Blatchley, Ernest R; Shen, Chengyue; Bergstrom, Donald E

    2008-03-01

    ( E)-5-[2-(Methoxycarbonyl)ethenyl]cytidine was biotinylated through a diisopropylsilylacetal linkage and attached to the surface of hydrophilic streptavidin-coated microspheres through the high-affinity noncovalent interaction between biotin and streptavidin. The functionalized microspheres form a stable suspension in water. Upon UV irradiation, the nonfluorescent ( E)-5-[2-(methoxycarbonyl)ethenyl]cytidine on the microspheres undergoes photocyclization to produce highly fluorescent 3-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-2,7-dioxopyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine. The fluorescence intensity of the microspheres can be correlated to the particle-specific UV doses applied at different suspension concentrations. The microspheres allow one to measure the UV dose (fluence) distribution in high-throughput water disinfection systems.

  11. Microbial UV fluence-response assessment using a novel UV-LED collimated beam system.

    PubMed

    Bowker, Colleen; Sain, Amanda; Shatalov, Max; Ducoste, Joel

    2011-02-01

    A research study has been performed to determine the ultraviolet (UV) fluence-response of several target non-pathogenic microorganisms to UV light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) by performing collimated beam tests. UV-LEDs do not contain toxic mercury, offer design flexibility due to their small size, and have a longer operational life than mercury lamps. Comsol Multiphysics was utilized to create an optimal UV-LED collimated beam design based on number and spacing of UV-LEDs and distance of the sample from the light source while minimizing the overall cost. The optimized UV-LED collimated beam apparatus and a low-pressure mercury lamp collimated beam apparatus were used to determine the UV fluence-response of three surrogate microorganisms (Escherichia coli, MS-2, T7) to 255 nm UV-LEDs, 275 nm UV-LEDs, and 254 nm low-pressure mercury lamps. Irradiation by low-pressure mercury lamps produced greater E. coli and MS-2 inactivation than 255 nm and 275 nm UV-LEDs and similar T7 inactivation to irradiation by 275 nm UV-LEDs. The 275 nm UV-LEDs produced more efficient T7 and E. coli inactivation than 255 nm UV-LEDs while both 255 nm and 275 nm UV-LEDs produced comparable microbial inactivation for MS-2. Differences may have been caused by a departure from the time-dose reciprocity law due to microbial repair mechanisms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Use of Ultra-Violet (UV) Light Emitting Diodes (LEDS) in an Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) with Brilliant Blue FCF as an Indicator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    by low, direct current voltage, which are consistent with portable power sources such as batteries or photovoltaic cells (Crystal IS 2013...of Methylene Blue Adsorption on Power Output .................23 vii UV LED Quartz Lens Adsorption Experiment...29 Effect of Methylene Blue Adsorption on Power Output ............................................29 Figure 5 - Percent reduction of

  13. Preparation of TiO2/(TiO2-V2O5)/polypyrrole nanocomposites and a study on catalytic activities of the hybrid materials under UV/Visible light and in the dark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piewnuan, C.; Wootthikanokkhan, J.; Ngaotrakanwiwat, P.; Meeyoo, V.; Chiarakorn, S.

    2014-11-01

    Hybrid metal oxides/polymer nanocomposites, namely TiO2/(TiO2-V2O5)/polypyrrole (PPy), were synthesized via in situ polymerization. Structures of the products were characterized by SEM-EDX, XRD, and FTIR techniques. The light absorbance and band gap energy values of the materials were evaluated by UV/Visible spectroscopy. The catalytic activity of the materials was determined from a degradation of methylene blue. It was found that, regardless of the polymerization time, the absorbance of TiO2/(TiO2-V2O5)/PPy was greater than those of TiO2/PPy and the neat TiO2, respectively. This was in accordance with the decrease in the band gap energy of the materials. The catalytic activity of TiO2/(TiO2-V2O5) was also observed in the dark. After polymerization, the catalytic activity of nanocomposite under UV/Visible light and in the dark was compromised. The above effects are discussed in the light of the energy storage ability of V2O5 and capability of the polymer in acting as a binder for the system.

  14. Effect of UV irradiation on the apoptosis and necrosis of Jurkat cells using UV LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inada, Shunko A.; Amano, Hiroshi; Akasaki, Isamu; Morita, Akimichi; Kobayashi, Keiko

    2009-02-01

    Phototherapy is a very effective method for treating most of the incurable skin diseases. A fluorescent light bulb is used as a conventional UV light source for this type of therapy. However, infrared radiation from the light source sometimes causes serious problems on patient's health. In addition, the normal part of the skin is irradiated when a large fluorescent light bulb is used. Moreover, a conventional UV irradiation system is heavy and has a short lifetime and a high electrical power consumption. Therefore, a new UV light source for solving the problems of phototherapy is required. To realize low-power-consumption, lightweight and long-lifetime systems, group III nitride-based UV-A1 light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were investigated. We examined the UV LED irradiation of Jurkat cell, which is a tumor cell and more sensitive to UV light than a healthy cell. The numbers of apoptotic and necrotic cells were confirmed to be the same using a UV LED and a conventional lamp system. The UV LED showed the possibility of realizing a new UV light source for phototherapy.

  15. UV production of methane from surface and sedimenting IDPs on Mars in light of REMS data and with insights for TGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moores, John E.; Smith, Christina L.; Schuerger, Andrew C.

    2017-11-01

    This paper refines model predictions for the production of methane from UV-irradiated interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) now that the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) instrument onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover has made the first measurements of the UV environment on the surface of Mars, at Gale Crater. Once these measurements are included in a UV radiative transfer model, we find that modelled UV sol-integrated energies across the planet are lower than pre-measurement estimates by 35% on average, considering all latitudes and seasons. This reduction, in turn, reduces the predicted production of methane from individual accreting IDPs, extending their lifetimes and increasing the surface concentration of organics that must accumulate in order to emit sufficient methane to balance the accretion of organic compounds to Mars. Emission from reasonable accumulations of IDPs could range up to ∼7.9 × 10-4 ppbv sol-1. Richer deposits of organic carbon at the surface may emit methane at no more than 3.9 ppbv sol-1. An examination of IDP-derived methane production during atmospheric settling indicates that no more than 0.32% of organic carbon from meteor streams may be deposited in the atmosphere. Thus, such a process cannot explain either the spikes observed in methane nor the low equilibrium values observed by MSL. Instead, this discrepancy may be explained if < 80 tons per year of organic carbon survives to the surface, the atmospheric lifetime of methane is < 110 years or the efficiency of the UV-CH4 process is <7%. Under the assumption of reduced carbon input cycling in the Martian system from these processes, both soil concentrations of organic carbon and atmospheric measurements of methane observed by MSL are consistent with the UV-CH4 process. This refinement of methane production from IDPs and its geographical and vertical distribution will be an important input for models attempting to understand the results to be derived from the

  16. Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Audin, L.

    1994-12-31

    EPAct covers a vast territory beyond lighting and, like all legislation, also contains numerous {open_quotes}favors,{close_quotes} compromises, and even some sleight-of-hand. Tucked away under Title XIX, for example, is an increase from 20% to 28% tax on gambling winnings, effective January 1, 1993 - apparently as a way to help pay for new spending listed elsewhere in the bill. Overall, it is a landmark piece of legislation, about a decade overdue. It remains to be seen how the Federal Government will enforce upgrading of state (or even their own) energy codes. There is no mention of funding for {open_quotes}energy police{close_quotes} inmore » EPAct. Merely creating such a national standard, however, provides a target for those who sincerely wish to create an energy-efficient future.« less

  17. Novel Red-Emitting Ba₃Y(BO₃)₃:Bi3+, Eu3+ Phosphors for N-UV White Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Maggay, Irish Valerie B; Liu, Wei-Ren

    2018-01-01

    Ba3Y(BO3)3:Eu3+, Bi3+ were successfully prepared via a solid-state reaction. The crystallinity, photoluminescence properties, energy transfer and thermal quenching properties were studied. Subjecting Ba3Y(BO3)3:Bi3+ samples to different excitation wavelengths (340-370 nm), obtained blue and green emission ascribed to Bi3+(II) and Bi3+(I) sites, respectively. The influence of these two sites were systematically investigated. Bi3+ efficiently transferred its absorbed energy to neighboring Eu3+ sites by enhancing its luminescence intensity. Moreover, Bi3+ greatly enhanced the excitation spectra of Eu3+ in the N-UV region by 2.26 times which indicates that Ba3Y(BO3)3:Eu3+, Bi3+ can be used as a phosphor for w-LEDs using N-UV LED chips.

  18. Shedding Light on the Oxygen Reduction Reaction Mechanism in Ether-Based Electrolyte Solutions: A Study Using Operando UV-Vis Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hirshberg, Daniel; Sharon, Daniel; Afri, Michal; Lavi, Ronit; Frimer, Aryeh A; Metoki, Noa; Eliaz, Noam; Kwak, Won-Jin; Sun, Yang-Kook; Aurbach, Doron

    2018-04-04

    Using UV-vis spectroscopy in conjunction with various electrochemical techniques, we have developed a new effective operando methodology for investigating the oxygen reduction reactions (ORRs) and their mechanisms in nonaqueous solutions. We can follow the in situ formation and presence of superoxide moieties during ORR as a function of solvent, cations, anions, and additives in the solution. Thus, using operando UV-vis spectroscopy, we found evidence for the formation of superoxide radical anions during oxygen reduction in LiTFSI/diglyme electrolyte solutions. Nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) was used to indicate the presence of superoxide moieties based on its unique spectral response. Indeed, the spectral response of NBT containing solutions undergoing ORR could provide a direct indication for the level of association of the Li cations with the electrolyte anions.

  19. Determination of the four major surfactant classes in cleaning products by reversed-phase liquid chromatography using serially connected UV and evaporative light-scattering detection.

    PubMed

    Escrig-Doménech, Aarón; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Ramis-Ramos, Guillermo

    2016-08-17

    A method for the simultaneous determination of the most frequently used surfactant families -linear alkyl benzenesulphonates (LAS), alkyl ether sulphates (AES), fatty alcohol ethoxylates (FAE) and oleins (soaps, fatty acid salts) - in cleaning products, has been developed. The common reversed phase octyl (C8), pentafluorophenyl and biphenyl columns were not capable of separating the anionic LAS and AES classes; however, since only LAS absorbs in the UV, these two classes were independently quantified using a C8 column and serially connected UV and ELSD detection. The best compromise to resolve the four surfactant classes and the oligomers within the classes was achieved with a C8 column and an ACN/water gradient. To enhance retention of the anionic surfactants, ammonium acetate, as an ion-pairing agent compatible with ELSD detection, was used. Also, to shift the olein peaks with respect to that of the FAE oligomers, acetic acid was used. In the optimized method, modulation of the mobile phase, using ammonium acetate during elution of LAS and AES, and acetic acid after elution of LAS and AES, was provided. Quantitation of the overlapped LAS and AES classes was achieved by using the UV detector to quantitate LAS and the ELSD to determine AES by difference. Accuracy in the determination of AES was achieved by using a quadratic model, and by correcting the predicted AES concentration according to the LAS concentration previously established using the UV chromatogram. Another approach also leading to accurate predictions of the AES concentration was to increase the AES concentrations in the samples by adding a standard solution. In the samples reinforced with AES, correction of the predicted AES concentration was not required. FAE and olein were quantified using also quadratic calibration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Performance enhancement of Pt/TiO2/Si UV-photodetector by optimizing light trapping capability and interdigitated electrodes geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bencherif, H.; Djeffal, F.; Ferhati, H.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a hybrid approach based on an analytical and metaheuristic investigation to study the impact of the interdigitated electrodes engineering on both speed and optical performance of an Interdigitated Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Ultraviolet Photodetector (IMSM-UV-PD). In this context, analytical models regarding the speed and optical performance have been developed and validated by experimental results, where a good agreement has been recorded. Moreover, the developed analytical models have been used as objective functions to determine the optimized design parameters, including the interdigit configuration effect, via a Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm (MOGA). The ultimate goal of the proposed hybrid approach is to identify the optimal design parameters associated with the maximum of electrical and optical device performance. The optimized IMSM-PD not only reveals superior performance in terms of photocurrent and response time, but also illustrates higher optical reliability against the optical losses due to the active area shadowing effects. The advantages offered by the proposed design methodology suggest the possibility to overcome the most challenging problem with the communication speed and power requirements of the UV optical interconnect: high derived current and commutation speed in the UV receiver.