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Sample records for germination plant growth

  1. Modulation of germination and growth of plants by meditation.

    PubMed

    Haid, M; Huprikar, S

    2001-01-01

    So called primitive peoples of the world share a philosophy that human interaction via ceremony or ritual can affect the natural world. Is it possible to affect the germination and growth of plants by imbuing them with an intent to stimulate or inhibit them? We conducted a double blind series of experiments to determine whether a process of meditation on the water (referred to as "treated") given to a controlled planting of green peas or wheat would affect their germination. Peas were given water treated with stimulating intent. Statistical analysis was done using contingency table, Fisher's test, and Mantel-Haenszel analysis. The germination rate of 504 seeds receiving treated water with stimulating intent was 60.3% compared to 51.8% for the 504 controls (p = 0.006, 0.047, 0.003 respectively). A similar experiment was conducted with wheat with the intent of inhibiting germination. The germination rate of 2970 wheat seeds receiving treated water with inhibitory intent was 70.7% versus 74.9% for 2970 controls (p < 0.001, 0.0001, 0.001 respectively). During the sixth run of the wheat (inhibition) experiment, the seedlings were harvested and individually weighed on the tenth day after planting to determine whether there was any difference in growth. The mass of the treated seedlings was statistically significantly lower (mean = 97 mg versus 106 mg for the controls) when compared by analysis of variance (p = 0.000056). We conclude that meditation upon the water supplied to green peas and wheat can affect their germination rates and growth.

  2. Effect of salt stress on seed germination and seedling growth of three salinity plants.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan

    2008-05-01

    Seeds of three halophyte species included Limonium sinense Kuntze, Glycine soja sieb. and Sorghum sudanense Stapf. were used to investigate the effects of different salinity concentrations on their germination percentage, germination energy, germination index, relative germination rate, relative salt-injury rate, radicle length and hypocotyl length. Results showed that seeds of G. soja can germinate well and rapidly at lower level of salt (< 200 mmol L(-1)), 50 mmol L(-1) salt concentrations is better to S. sudanense, suitable salt concentrations was beneficial to germinate of S. sudanense seeds. Seeds of L. sinense and S. sudanense can germinate at higher level of salt (400 mmol L(-1)). Three plant seeds had different physiological mechanism for germination under salt stress, radicle hypocotyl ratio of L. sinense and S. sudanense increased with increasing salt suggested that they had the higher tolerance in shoot growth under NaCl stress, which is perhaps the reason for their wide utilisation for saline soil rehabilitation.

  3. Phytotoxic activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum extracts on germination and seedling growth of different plant species.

    PubMed

    Islam, A K M Mominul; Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Phytotoxic activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum (Lamiaceae) plant extracts was investigated against the germination and seedling growth of cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli), and timothy (Phleum pratense) at four different concentrations. The plant extracts at concentrations greater than 30 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL(-1) reduced significantly the total germination percent (GP), germination index (GI), germination energy (GE), speed of emergence (SE), seedling vigour index (SVI), and coefficient of the rate of germination (CRG) of all test species except barnyard grass and GP of lettuce. In contrast, time required for 50% germination (T 50) and mean germination time (MGT) were increased at the same or higher than this concentration. The increasing trend of T 50 and MGT and the decreasing trend of other indices indicated a significant inhibition or delay of germination of the test species by O. tenuiflorum plant extracts and vice versa. In addition, the shoot and root growth of all test species were significantly inhibited by the extracts at concentrations greater than 10 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL(-1). The I 50 values for shoot and root growth were ranged from 26 to 104 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL(-1). Seedling growth was more sensitive to the extracts compared to seed germination. Results of this study suggest that O. tenuiflorum plant extracts have phytotoxic properties and thus contain phytotoxic substances. Isolation and characterization of those substances from this plant may act as a tool for new natural, biodegradable herbicide development to control weeds. PMID:25032234

  4. Phytotoxic Activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum Extracts on Germination and Seedling Growth of Different Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Phytotoxic activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum (Lamiaceae) plant extracts was investigated against the germination and seedling growth of cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli), and timothy (Phleum pratense) at four different concentrations. The plant extracts at concentrations greater than 30 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL−1 reduced significantly the total germination percent (GP), germination index (GI), germination energy (GE), speed of emergence (SE), seedling vigour index (SVI), and coefficient of the rate of germination (CRG) of all test species except barnyard grass and GP of lettuce. In contrast, time required for 50% germination (T50) and mean germination time (MGT) were increased at the same or higher than this concentration. The increasing trend of T50 and MGT and the decreasing trend of other indices indicated a significant inhibition or delay of germination of the test species by O. tenuiflorum plant extracts and vice versa. In addition, the shoot and root growth of all test species were significantly inhibited by the extracts at concentrations greater than 10 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL−1. The I50 values for shoot and root growth were ranged from 26 to 104 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL−1. Seedling growth was more sensitive to the extracts compared to seed germination. Results of this study suggest that O. tenuiflorum plant extracts have phytotoxic properties and thus contain phytotoxic substances. Isolation and characterization of those substances from this plant may act as a tool for new natural, biodegradable herbicide development to control weeds. PMID:25032234

  5. Seed storage conditions change the germination pattern of clonal growth plants in Mediterranean salt marshes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Espinar, J.L.; Garcia, L.V.; Clemente, L.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of salinity level and extended exposure to different salinity and flooding conditions on germination patterns of three saltmarsh clonal growth plants (Juncus subulatus, Scirpus litoralis, and S. maritimus) was studied. Seed exposure to extended flooding and saline conditions significantly affected the outcome of the germination process in a different, though predictable, way for each species, after favorable conditions for germination were restored. Tolerance of the germination process was related to the average salinity level measured during the growth/germination season at sites where established individuals of each species dominated the species cover. No relationship was found between salinity tolerance of the germination process and seed response to extended exposure to flooding and salinity conditions. The salinity response was significantly related to the conditions prevailing in the habitats of the respective species during the unfavorable (nongrowth/nongermination) season. Our results indicate that changes in salinity and hydrology while seeds are dormant affect the outcome of the seed-bank response, even when conditions at germination are identical. Because these environmental-history-dependent responses differentially affect seed germination, seedling density, and probably sexual recruitment in the studied and related species, these influences should be considered for wetland restoration and management.

  6. Seed storage conditions change the germination pattern of clonal growth plants in Mediterranean salt marshes.

    PubMed

    Espinar, José L; García, Luis V; Clemente, Luis

    2005-07-01

    The effect of salinity level and extended exposure to different salinity and flooding conditions on germination patterns of three salt-marsh clonal growth plants (Juncus subulatus, Scirpus litoralis, and S. maritimus) was studied. Seed exposure to extended flooding and saline conditions significantly affected the outcome of the germination process in a different, though predictable, way for each species, after favorable conditions for germination were restored. Tolerance of the germination process was related to the average salinity level measured during the growth/germination season at sites where established individuals of each species dominated the species cover. No relationship was found between salinity tolerance of the germination process and seed response to extended exposure to flooding and salinity conditions. The salinity response was significantly related to the conditions prevailing in the habitats of the respective species during the unfavorable (nongrowth/nongermination) season. Our results indicate that changes in salinity and hydrology while seeds are dormant affect the outcome of the seed-bank response, even when conditions at germination are identical. Because these environmental-history-dependent responses differentially affect seed germination, seedling density, and probably sexual recruitment in the studied and related species, these influences should be considered for wetland restoration and management. PMID:21646131

  7. Light and Plants. A Series of Experiments Demonstrating Light Effects on Seed Germination, Plant Growth, and Plant Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, R. J.; And Others

    A brief summary of the effects of light on plant germination, growth and development, including photoperiodism and pigment formation, introduces 18 experiments and demonstrations which illustrate aspects of these effects. Detailed procedures for each exercise are given, the expected results outlined, and possible sources of difficulty discussed.…

  8. Mycorrhizal fungi of Vanilla: diversity, specificity and effects on seed germination and plant growth.

    PubMed

    Porras-Alfaro, Andrea; Bayman, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Mycorrhizal fungi are essential for the germination of orchid seeds. However, the specificity of orchids for their mycorrhizal fungi and the effects of the fungi on orchid growth are controversial. Mycorrhizal fungi have been studied in some temperate and tropical, epiphytic orchids, but the symbionts of tropical, terrestrial orchids are still unknown. Here we study diversity, specificity and function of mycorrhizal fungi in Vanilla, a pantropical genus that is both terrestrial and epiphytic. Mycorrhizal roots were collected from four Vanilla species in Puerto Rico, Costa Rica and Cuba. Cultured and uncultured mycorrhizal fungi were identified by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer region of nuclear rDNA (nrITS) and part of the mitochondrial ribosomal large subunit (mtLSU), and by counting number of nuclei in hyphae. Vanilla spp. were associated with a wide range of mycorrhizal fungi: Ceratobasidium, Thanatephorus and Tulasnella. Related fungi were found in different species of Vanilla, although at different relative frequencies. Ceratobasidium was more common in roots in soil and Tulasnella was more common in roots on tree bark, but several clades of fungi included strains from both substrates. Relative frequencies of genera of mycorrhizal fungi differed significantly between cultured fungi and those detected by direct amplification. Ceratobasidium and Tulasnella were tested for effects on seed germination of Vanilla and effects on growth of Vanilla and Dendrobium plants. We found significant differences among fungi in effects on seed germination and plant growth. Effects of mycorrhizal fungi on Vanilla and Dendrobium were similar: a clade of Ceratobasidium had a consistently positive effect on plant growth and seed germination. This clade has potential use in germination and propagation of orchids. Results confirmed that a single orchid species can be associated with several mycorrhizal fungi with different functional consequences for the plant.

  9. A Simple and Versatile 2-Dimensional Platform to Study Plant Germination and Growth under Controlled Humidity

    PubMed Central

    Sizmur, Tom; Lind, Kara R.; Benomar, Saida; VanEvery, Hannah; Cademartiri, Ludovico

    2014-01-01

    We describe a simple, inexpensive, but remarkably versatile and controlled growth environment for the observation of plant germination and seedling root growth on a flat, horizontal surface over periods of weeks. The setup provides to each plant a controlled humidity (between 56% and 91% RH), and contact with both nutrients and atmosphere. The flat and horizontal geometry of the surface supporting the roots eliminates the gravitropic bias on their development and facilitates the imaging of the entire root system. Experiments can be setup under sterile conditions and then transferred to a non-sterile environment. The system can be assembled in 1-2 minutes, costs approximately 8.78$ per plant, is almost entirely reusable (0.43$ per experiment in disposables), and is easily scalable to a variety of plants. We demonstrate the performance of the system by germinating, growing, and imaging Wheat (Triticum aestivum), Corn (Zea mays), and Wisconsin Fast Plants (Brassica rapa). Germination rates were close to those expected for optimal conditions. PMID:24806462

  10. A simple and versatile 2-dimensional platform to study plant germination and growth under controlled humidity.

    PubMed

    Sizmur, Tom; Lind, Kara R; Benomar, Saida; VanEvery, Hannah; Cademartiri, Ludovico

    2014-01-01

    We describe a simple, inexpensive, but remarkably versatile and controlled growth environment for the observation of plant germination and seedling root growth on a flat, horizontal surface over periods of weeks. The setup provides to each plant a controlled humidity (between 56% and 91% RH), and contact with both nutrients and atmosphere. The flat and horizontal geometry of the surface supporting the roots eliminates the gravitropic bias on their development and facilitates the imaging of the entire root system. Experiments can be setup under sterile conditions and then transferred to a non-sterile environment. The system can be assembled in 1-2 minutes, costs approximately 8.78$ per plant, is almost entirely reusable (0.43$ per experiment in disposables), and is easily scalable to a variety of plants. We demonstrate the performance of the system by germinating, growing, and imaging Wheat (Triticum aestivum), Corn (Zea mays), and Wisconsin Fast Plants (Brassica rapa). Germination rates were close to those expected for optimal conditions.

  11. A simple and versatile 2-dimensional platform to study plant germination and growth under controlled humidity.

    PubMed

    Sizmur, Tom; Lind, Kara R; Benomar, Saida; VanEvery, Hannah; Cademartiri, Ludovico

    2014-01-01

    We describe a simple, inexpensive, but remarkably versatile and controlled growth environment for the observation of plant germination and seedling root growth on a flat, horizontal surface over periods of weeks. The setup provides to each plant a controlled humidity (between 56% and 91% RH), and contact with both nutrients and atmosphere. The flat and horizontal geometry of the surface supporting the roots eliminates the gravitropic bias on their development and facilitates the imaging of the entire root system. Experiments can be setup under sterile conditions and then transferred to a non-sterile environment. The system can be assembled in 1-2 minutes, costs approximately 8.78$ per plant, is almost entirely reusable (0.43$ per experiment in disposables), and is easily scalable to a variety of plants. We demonstrate the performance of the system by germinating, growing, and imaging Wheat (Triticum aestivum), Corn (Zea mays), and Wisconsin Fast Plants (Brassica rapa). Germination rates were close to those expected for optimal conditions. PMID:24806462

  12. Effects of diesel and kerosene on germination and growth of coastal wetland plant species.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kee Dae

    2014-11-01

    This study aims to investigate effects of diesel and kerosene on seed germination and seedling growth among coastal wetland plants to select species that can be used for the restoration and revegetation of oil-polluted habitats. Tests on 51 species were performed in Petri dishes containing 0 %, 6 %, 12 %, and 18 % diesel, 20 %, 40 %, and 60 % kerosene; each treatment combination was replicated five times with 20 seeds in each Petri dish. All dishes were held in a growth chamber with 20°C day of 12 h/15°C night of 12 h in 80 % humidity for 20 days for calculating the germination percentage, seedling weight, and seedling vitality. The germination percentage of Rumex stenophyllus decreased significantly in diesel and kerosene treatments. The weights of seedlings treated with diesel and kerosene either increased or decreased in comparison with controls depending on the species. Vitality percentage values were high for seedlings of Chenopodium ficifolium. Thus, herbaceous plant responses to oil treatments are species-specific. PMID:25138038

  13. Effects of diesel and kerosene on germination and growth of coastal wetland plant species.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kee Dae

    2014-11-01

    This study aims to investigate effects of diesel and kerosene on seed germination and seedling growth among coastal wetland plants to select species that can be used for the restoration and revegetation of oil-polluted habitats. Tests on 51 species were performed in Petri dishes containing 0 %, 6 %, 12 %, and 18 % diesel, 20 %, 40 %, and 60 % kerosene; each treatment combination was replicated five times with 20 seeds in each Petri dish. All dishes were held in a growth chamber with 20°C day of 12 h/15°C night of 12 h in 80 % humidity for 20 days for calculating the germination percentage, seedling weight, and seedling vitality. The germination percentage of Rumex stenophyllus decreased significantly in diesel and kerosene treatments. The weights of seedlings treated with diesel and kerosene either increased or decreased in comparison with controls depending on the species. Vitality percentage values were high for seedlings of Chenopodium ficifolium. Thus, herbaceous plant responses to oil treatments are species-specific.

  14. Impact of hydrocarbons from a diesel fuel on the germination and early growth of subantarctic plants.

    PubMed

    Macoustra, Gabriella K; King, Catherine K; Wasley, Jane; Robinson, Sharon A; Jolley, Dianne F

    2015-07-01

    Special Antarctic Blend (SAB) is a diesel fuel dominated by aliphatic hydrocarbons that is commonly used in Antarctic and subantarctic regions. The past and present use of SAB fuel at Australia's scientific research stations has resulted in multiple spills, contaminating soils in these pristine areas. Despite this, no soil quality guidelines or remediation targets have been developed for the region, primarily due to the lack of established indigenous test species and subsequent biological effects data. In this study, twelve plant species native to subantarctic regions were collected from Macquarie Island and evaluated to determine their suitably for use in laboratory-based toxicity testing, using germination success and seedling growth (shoot and root length) as endpoints. Two soil types (low and high organic carbon (OC)) were investigated to reflect the variable OC content found in soils on Macquarie Island. These soils were spiked with SAB fuel and aged for 14 days to generate a concentration series of SAB-contaminated soils. Exposure doses were quantified as the concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH, nC9-nC18) on a soil dry mass basis. Seven species successfully germinated on control soils under laboratory conditions, and four of these species (Colobanthus muscoides Hook.f., Deschampsia chapmanii Petrie, Epilobium pendunculare A.Cunn. and Luzula crinita Hook.f.) showed a dose-dependent inhibition of germination when exposed to SAB-contaminated soils. Contaminated soils with low OC were generally more toxic to plants than high organic carbon soils. Increasing soil-TPH concentrations significantly inhibited shoot and root growth, and root length was identified as the most sensitive endpoint. Although the test species were tolerant to SAB-contaminated soils in germination assays, development of early life stages (up to 28 days) were generally more sensitive indicator of exposure effects, and may be more useful endpoints for future testing.

  15. Rare earth elements (REEs): effects on germination and growth of selected crop and native plant species.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Philippe J; Carpenter, David; Boutin, Céline; Allison, Jane E

    2014-02-01

    The phytotoxicity of rare earth elements (REEs) is still poorly understood. The exposure-response relationships of three native Canadian plant species (common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca L., showy ticktrefoil, Desmodium canadense (L.) DC. and switchgrass, Panicum virgatum L.) and two commonly used crop species (radish, Raphanus sativus L., and tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L.) to the REEs lanthanum (La), yttrium (Y) and cerium (Ce) were tested. In separate experiments, seven to eight doses of each element were added to the soil prior to sowing seeds. Effects of REE dose on germination were established through measures of total percent germination and speed of germination; effects on growth were established through determination of above ground biomass. Ce was also tested at two pH levels and plant tissue analysis was conducted on pooled samples. Effects on germination were mostly observed with Ce at low pH. However, effects on growth were more pronounced, with detectable inhibition concentrations causing 10% and 25% reductions in biomass for the two native forb species (A. syriaca and D. canadense) with all REEs and on all species tested with Ce in both soil pH treatments. Concentration of Ce in aboveground biomass was lower than root Ce content, and followed the dose-response trend. From values measured in natural soils around the world, our results continue to support the notion that REEs are of limited toxicity and not considered extremely hazardous to the environment. However, in areas where REE contamination is likely, the slow accumulation of these elements in the environment could become problematic.

  16. Rare earth elements (REEs): effects on germination and growth of selected crop and native plant species.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Philippe J; Carpenter, David; Boutin, Céline; Allison, Jane E

    2014-02-01

    The phytotoxicity of rare earth elements (REEs) is still poorly understood. The exposure-response relationships of three native Canadian plant species (common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca L., showy ticktrefoil, Desmodium canadense (L.) DC. and switchgrass, Panicum virgatum L.) and two commonly used crop species (radish, Raphanus sativus L., and tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L.) to the REEs lanthanum (La), yttrium (Y) and cerium (Ce) were tested. In separate experiments, seven to eight doses of each element were added to the soil prior to sowing seeds. Effects of REE dose on germination were established through measures of total percent germination and speed of germination; effects on growth were established through determination of above ground biomass. Ce was also tested at two pH levels and plant tissue analysis was conducted on pooled samples. Effects on germination were mostly observed with Ce at low pH. However, effects on growth were more pronounced, with detectable inhibition concentrations causing 10% and 25% reductions in biomass for the two native forb species (A. syriaca and D. canadense) with all REEs and on all species tested with Ce in both soil pH treatments. Concentration of Ce in aboveground biomass was lower than root Ce content, and followed the dose-response trend. From values measured in natural soils around the world, our results continue to support the notion that REEs are of limited toxicity and not considered extremely hazardous to the environment. However, in areas where REE contamination is likely, the slow accumulation of these elements in the environment could become problematic. PMID:23978671

  17. Carbon nanotubes are able to penetrate plant seed coat and dramatically affect seed germination and plant growth.

    PubMed

    Khodakovskaya, Mariya; Dervishi, Enkeleda; Mahmood, Meena; Xu, Yang; Li, Zhongrui; Watanabe, Fumiya; Biris, Alexandru S

    2009-10-27

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were found to penetrate tomato seeds and affect their germination and growth rates. The germination was found to be dramatically higher for seeds that germinated on medium containing CNTs (10-40 mug/mL) compared to control. Analytical methods indicated that the CNTs are able to penetrate the thick seed coat and support water uptake inside seeds, a process which can affect seed germination and growth of tomato seedlings. PMID:19772305

  18. Interaction between hydrogen peroxide and plant hormones during germination and the early growth of pea seedlings.

    PubMed

    Barba-Espin, G; Diaz-Vivancos, P; Clemente-Moreno, M J; Albacete, A; Faize, L; Faize, M; Pérez-Alfocea, F; Hernández, J A

    2010-06-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) increased the germination percentage of pea seeds, as well as the growth of seedlings in a concentration-dependent manner. The effect of H(2)O(2) on seedling growth was removed by incubation with 10 microm ABA. The H(2)O(2)-pretreatment produced an increase in ascorbate peroxidase (APX), peroxidase (POX) and ascorbate oxidase (AAO). The increases in these ascorbate-oxidizing enzymes correlated with the increase in the growth of the pea seedlings as well as with the decrease in the redox state of ascorbate. Moreover, the increase in APX activity was due to increases in the transcript levels of cytosolic and stromal APX (cytAPX, stAPX). The proteomic analysis showed that H(2)O(2) induced proteins related to plant signalling and development, cell elongation and division, and cell cycle control. A strong correlation between the effect of H(2)O(2) on plant growth and the decreases in ABA and zeatin riboside (ZR) was observed. The results suggest an interaction among the redox state and plant hormones, orchestrated by H(2)O(2), in the induction of proteins related to plant signalling and development during the early growth of pea seedlings.

  19. Effect of essential oil of Origanum rotundifolium on some plant pathogenic bacteria, seed germination and plant growth of tomato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadaşoǧlu, Fatih; Kotan, Recep; Karagöz, Kenan; Dikbaş, Neslihan; Ćakmakçi, Ramazan; Ćakir, Ahmet; Kordali, Şaban; Özer, Hakan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to determine effect of Origanum rotundifolium's essential oil on some plant pathogenic bacterias, seed germination and plant growth of tomato. Xanthomonas axanopodis pv. vesicatoria strain (Xcv-761) and Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. michiganensis strain (Cmm) inoculated to tomato seed. The seeds were tested for germination in vitro and disease severity and some plant growth parameters in vivo. In vitro assay, maximum seed germination was observed at 62,5 µl/ml essential oil treatment in seeds inoculated with Xcv-761 and at 62,5 µl/ml essential oil and streptomycin treatment in seeds inoculated with Cmm. The least infected cotiledon number was observed at 500 µg/ml streptomycin treatment in seeds inoculated with Cmm. In vivo assay, maximum seed germination was observed at 250 µl/ml essential oil teratment in tomato inoculated with Cmm. Lowest disease severity, is seen in the CMM infected seeds with 250 µl/ml essential oil application these results were statistically significant when compared with pathogen infected seeds. Similarly, in application conducted with XCV-761 infected seed, the lowest disease severity was observed for seeds as a result of 250 µl/ml essential oil application. Also according to the results obtained from essential oil application of CMM infected seeds conducted with 62,5 µl/ml dose; while disease severity was found statistically insignificant compared to 250 µl/ml to essential oil application, ıt was found statistically significant compared to pathogen infected seeds. The results showed that essential oil of O. rotundifolium has a potential for some suppressed plant disease when it is used in appropriate dose.

  20. Germination, survival and growth of three vascular plants on biological soil crusts from a Mexican tropical desert.

    PubMed

    Godínez-Alvarez, H; Morín, C; Rivera-Aguilar, V

    2012-01-01

    Information about the effects of biological soil crusts (BSC) on germination, seedling survival and growth of vascular plants is controversial because they can have positive, neutral or negative effects. This controversy may be because most studies conducted until now have just analysed one or two recruitment stages independently. To understand the BSC effects on vascular plants, it is necessary to consider each stage of the recruitment process and synthesise all this information. The goal of this study was twofold. First, we analyse germination, seedling survival and growth of three vascular plants (Agave marmorata, Prosopis laevigata and Neobuxbaumia tetetzo) on BSC (cyanobacteria and mixed crust) from a tropical desert region of south-central México. Second, we synthesise the information to determine the total effect of BSC on plant species performance. We conducted experiments under controlled conditions to evaluate the proportion of germinated seeds, proportion of surviving seedlings and seedling dry weight in BSC and bare soil. Results showed that BSC have different effects on germination, seedling survival and growth of plant species. Plant species performance was qualitatively higher on BSC than bare soil. The highest performance of A. marmorata and P. laevigata was observed on cyanobacteria and mixed crusts, respectively. The highest performance of N. tetetzo was on both crust types.

  1. Butenolides from plant-derived smoke: natural plant-growth regulators with antagonistic actions on seed germination.

    PubMed

    Light, Marnie E; Burger, Ben V; Staerk, Dan; Kohout, Ladislav; Van Staden, Johannes

    2010-02-26

    Smoke plays an intriguing role in promoting the germination of seeds of many species following a fire. Recently, a bicyclic compound containing a condensed butenolide moiety, 3-methyl-2H-furo[2,3-c]pyran-2-one (1), was reported as a potent germination promoter from plant-derived smoke. In this study, a related butenolide, 3,4,5-trimethylfuran-2(5H)-one (2), which inhibits germination and significantly reduces the effect of 1 when applied simultaneously, was also isolated from plant-derived smoke. The interaction of these compounds with opposing actions on seed germination may have important ecological implications in a post-fire environment and could be useful molecules for understanding the events involved in breaking seed dormancy and promoting seed germination.

  2. Effects of moist cold stratification on germination, plant growth regulators, metabolites and embryo ultrastructure in seeds of Acer morrisonense (Sapindaceae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Shun-Ying; Chou, Shih-Han; Tsai, Ching-Chu; Hsu, Wen-Yu; Baskin, Carol C; Baskin, Jerry M; Chien, Ching-Te; Kuo-Huang, Ling-Long

    2015-09-01

    Breaking of seed dormancy by moist cold stratification involves complex interactions in cells. To assess the effect of moist cold stratification on dormancy break in seeds of Acer morrisonense, we monitored percentages and rates of germination and changes in plant growth regulators, sugars, amino acids and embryo ultrastructure after various periods of cold stratification. Fresh seeds incubated at 25/15 °C for 24 weeks germinated to 61%, while those cold stratified at 5 °C for 12 weeks germinated to 87% in 1 week. Neither exogenous GA3 nor GA4 pretreatment significantly increased final seed germination percentage. Total ABA content of seeds cold stratified for 12 weeks was reduced about 3.3-fold, to a concentration similar to that in germinated seeds (radicle emergence). Endogenous GA3 and GA7 were detected in 8-week and 12-week cold stratified seeds but not in fresh seeds. Numerous protein and lipid bodies were present in the plumule, first true leaves and cotyledons of fresh seeds. Protein and lipid bodies decreased greatly during cold stratification, and concentrations of total soluble sugars and amino acids increased. The major non-polar sugars in fresh seeds were sucrose and fructose, but sucrose increased and fructose decreased significantly during cold stratification. The major free amino acids were proline and tryptophan in fresh seeds, and proline increased and tryptophan decreased during cold stratification. Thus, as dormancy break occurs during cold stratification seeds of A. morrisonense undergo changes in plant growth regulators, proteins, lipids, sugars, amino acids and cell ultrastructure.

  3. In vitro: Response of plant growth regulators and antimalformins on conidia germination of Fusarium mangiferae and incidence of mango malformation.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Mohammad Wahid; Tula, Suresh; Shukla, Alok; Pant, Ramesh Chandra; Tuteja, Narendra

    2013-11-01

    Mango malformation is the most important and threatening disease of recent times, primarily because of persistent lacuna in complete understanding of its nature. Diverse Fusarium spp, including F. mangiferae, were found to be associated with the disease. Here, F. mangiferae from mango cv Dashehri was morphologically characterized. Typically, oval-shaped microconidia without septum and crescent-shaped macroconidia with 3-septate were more often observed, whereas not a single chlamydospore was detected. The length and width of micro- and macro-conidia were 7.5, 55, 3.2, and 3.5, respectively. The plant growth regulators such as NAA, GA3, BAP and ethrel were found to induce in vitro germination of conidia of F. mangiferae after 12 h. In contrast, antimalformin silver nitrate (AgNO3) inhibits conidial germination in vitro and none of conidia was germinated beyond 500 ppm, however antimalformin glutathione was highly effective in stimulating conidial germination of F. mangiferae in vitro at > 1000 ppm after 24 h. We observed that the response of F. mangiferae to germinate the conidia in vitro under influence of plant growth regulators and antimalformins is not coincided with earlier findings of reduced disease incidence by exogenous application of these compounds. The present findings do not authenticate the involvement of F. mangiferae in the disease, however hormonal imbalance, most probably ethylene, might be responsible for deformed functional morphology of panicle. Further, a signal transduction mechanism of stress-stimulated ethylene imbalance causing physio-morphological changes in reproductive organs of mango flower and thereby failure of fertilization and fruit set, which needs to be investigated.

  4. In vitro: Response of plant growth regulators and antimalformins on conidia germination of Fusarium mangiferae and incidence of mango malformation.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Mohammad Wahid; Tula, Suresh; Shukla, Alok; Pant, Ramesh Chandra; Tuteja, Narendra

    2013-11-01

    Mango malformation is the most important and threatening disease of recent times, primarily because of persistent lacuna in complete understanding of its nature. Diverse Fusarium spp, including F. mangiferae, were found to be associated with the disease. Here, F. mangiferae from mango cv Dashehri was morphologically characterized. Typically, oval-shaped microconidia without septum and crescent-shaped macroconidia with 3-septate were more often observed, whereas not a single chlamydospore was detected. The length and width of micro- and macro-conidia were 7.5, 55, 3.2, and 3.5, respectively. The plant growth regulators such as NAA, GA3, BAP and ethrel were found to induce in vitro germination of conidia of F. mangiferae after 12 h. In contrast, antimalformin silver nitrate (AgNO3) inhibits conidial germination in vitro and none of conidia was germinated beyond 500 ppm, however antimalformin glutathione was highly effective in stimulating conidial germination of F. mangiferae in vitro at > 1000 ppm after 24 h. We observed that the response of F. mangiferae to germinate the conidia in vitro under influence of plant growth regulators and antimalformins is not coincided with earlier findings of reduced disease incidence by exogenous application of these compounds. The present findings do not authenticate the involvement of F. mangiferae in the disease, however hormonal imbalance, most probably ethylene, might be responsible for deformed functional morphology of panicle. Further, a signal transduction mechanism of stress-stimulated ethylene imbalance causing physio-morphological changes in reproductive organs of mango flower and thereby failure of fertilization and fruit set, which needs to be investigated. PMID:24505497

  5. Effects of moist cold stratification on germination, plant growth regulators, metabolites and embryo ultrastructure in seeds of Acer morrisonense (Sapindaceae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Shun-Ying; Chou, Shih-Han; Tsai, Ching-Chu; Hsu, Wen-Yu; Baskin, Carol C; Baskin, Jerry M; Chien, Ching-Te; Kuo-Huang, Ling-Long

    2015-09-01

    Breaking of seed dormancy by moist cold stratification involves complex interactions in cells. To assess the effect of moist cold stratification on dormancy break in seeds of Acer morrisonense, we monitored percentages and rates of germination and changes in plant growth regulators, sugars, amino acids and embryo ultrastructure after various periods of cold stratification. Fresh seeds incubated at 25/15 °C for 24 weeks germinated to 61%, while those cold stratified at 5 °C for 12 weeks germinated to 87% in 1 week. Neither exogenous GA3 nor GA4 pretreatment significantly increased final seed germination percentage. Total ABA content of seeds cold stratified for 12 weeks was reduced about 3.3-fold, to a concentration similar to that in germinated seeds (radicle emergence). Endogenous GA3 and GA7 were detected in 8-week and 12-week cold stratified seeds but not in fresh seeds. Numerous protein and lipid bodies were present in the plumule, first true leaves and cotyledons of fresh seeds. Protein and lipid bodies decreased greatly during cold stratification, and concentrations of total soluble sugars and amino acids increased. The major non-polar sugars in fresh seeds were sucrose and fructose, but sucrose increased and fructose decreased significantly during cold stratification. The major free amino acids were proline and tryptophan in fresh seeds, and proline increased and tryptophan decreased during cold stratification. Thus, as dormancy break occurs during cold stratification seeds of A. morrisonense undergo changes in plant growth regulators, proteins, lipids, sugars, amino acids and cell ultrastructure. PMID:26094157

  6. Seed borne nature of Azotobacter chroococcum in chilli (Capsicum annum) and its role in seed germination and plant growth.

    PubMed

    Bhat, J M; Alagawadi, A R

    1998-01-01

    Investigations were carried out on seed borne nature of Azotobacter chroococcum in chilli and their role in plant growth at the Department of Agriculture Microbiology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad. Azotobacter chroococcum were isolated from both surface sterilized and unsterilized seeds of 14 varieties of chilli at different stages of fruit maturity. Inoculation with these strains increased the seed germination, root, shoot length and total dry matter content of chilli plants significantly in both sterilized and unsterilized soil., the results of which are presented.

  7. Synergistic Effects of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and Chitosan on In Vitro Seeds Germination, Greenhouse Growth, and Nutrient Uptake of Maize (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Agbodjato, Nadège A.; Noumavo, Pacôme A.; Adjanohoun, Adolphe; Agbessi, Léonce; Baba-Moussa, Lamine

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of three plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and chitosan either singly or in combination on maize seeds germination and growth and nutrient uptake. Maize seeds were treated with chitosan and bacterial solution. The germination and growth tests were carried out in square Petri dishes and plastic pots. The combination chitosan-A. lipoferum-P. fluorescens has increased the seeds vigor index up to 36.44% compared to the control. In comparison to the control, P. putida has significantly improved root weight (44.84%) and germinated seed weight (31.39%) whereas chitosan-P. putida has increased the shoot weight (65.67%). For the growth test, the maximal heights (17.66%) were obtained by plants treated with the combination A. lipoferum-P. fluorescens-P. putida. Chitosan-P. fluorescens induced the highest increases of leaves per plant (50.09%), aerial (84.66%), and underground biomass (108.77%) production. The plants inoculated with A. lipoferum had the large leaf areas with an increase of 54.08%, while combinations P. fluorescens-P. putida and chitosan-A. lipoferum improved the aerial and underground dry matter of plants to 26.35% and 18.18%. The nitrogen content of the plants was increased by chitosan-A. lipoferum-P. fluorescens-P. putida with an increasing of 41.61%. The combination of chitosan and PGPR can be used as biological fertilizers to increase maize production. PMID:26904295

  8. Effect of fungal and plant metabolites on broomrapes (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.) seed germination and radicle growth.

    PubMed

    Cimmino, Alessio; Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Andolfi, Anna; Basso, Sara; Rubiales, Diego; Evidente, Antonio

    2014-10-29

    Orobanche and Phelipanche species (the broomrapes) are root parasitic plants, some of which cause heavy yield losses on important crops. The development of herbicides based on natural metabolites from microbial and plant origin, targeting early stages on parasitic plant development, might contribute to the reduction of broomrape seed bank in agricultural soils. Therefore, the effect of metabolites belonging to different classes of natural compounds on broomrape seed germination and radicle development was assayed in vitro. Among the metabolites tested, epi-sphaeropsidone, cyclopaldic acid, and those belonging to the sesquiterpene class induced broomrape germination in a species-specific manner. epi-Epoformin, sphaeropsidin A, and cytochalasans inhibited germination of GR24-treated broomrape seeds. The growth of broomrape radicle was strongly inhibited by sphaeropsidin A and compounds belonging to cyclohexene epoxide and cytochalasan classes. Broomrape radicles treated with epi-sphaeropsidone developed a layer of papillae while radicles treated with cytochalasans or with sphaeropsidin A turned necrotic. These findings allow new lead natural herbicides for the management of parasitic weeds to be identified.

  9. Effect of fungal and plant metabolites on broomrapes (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.) seed germination and radicle growth.

    PubMed

    Cimmino, Alessio; Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Andolfi, Anna; Basso, Sara; Rubiales, Diego; Evidente, Antonio

    2014-10-29

    Orobanche and Phelipanche species (the broomrapes) are root parasitic plants, some of which cause heavy yield losses on important crops. The development of herbicides based on natural metabolites from microbial and plant origin, targeting early stages on parasitic plant development, might contribute to the reduction of broomrape seed bank in agricultural soils. Therefore, the effect of metabolites belonging to different classes of natural compounds on broomrape seed germination and radicle development was assayed in vitro. Among the metabolites tested, epi-sphaeropsidone, cyclopaldic acid, and those belonging to the sesquiterpene class induced broomrape germination in a species-specific manner. epi-Epoformin, sphaeropsidin A, and cytochalasans inhibited germination of GR24-treated broomrape seeds. The growth of broomrape radicle was strongly inhibited by sphaeropsidin A and compounds belonging to cyclohexene epoxide and cytochalasan classes. Broomrape radicles treated with epi-sphaeropsidone developed a layer of papillae while radicles treated with cytochalasans or with sphaeropsidin A turned necrotic. These findings allow new lead natural herbicides for the management of parasitic weeds to be identified. PMID:25272312

  10. Effect of nanosilica and silicon sources on plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, soil nutrients and maize seed germination.

    PubMed

    Karunakaran, Gopalu; Suriyaprabha, Rangaraj; Manivasakan, Palanisamy; Yuvakkumar, Rathinam; Rajendran, Venkatachalam; Prabu, Periyasamy; Kannan, Narayanasamy

    2013-09-01

    The study was aimed at evaluating the effect of nanosilica and different sources of silicon on soil properties, total bacterial population and maize seed germination. Nanosilica was synthesised using rice husk and characterised. Silica powder was amorphous (50 nm) with >99.9% purity. Sodium silicate treated soil inhibited plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in contrast to nanosilica and other bulk sources. Surface property and effect of soil nutrient content of nanosilica treatment were improved. Colony forming unit (CFU) was doubled in the presence of nanosilica from 4 × 105 CFU (control) to 8 × 105 CFU per gram of soil. The silica and protein content of bacterial biomass clearly showed an increase in uptake of silica with an increase in nanosilica concentration. Nanosilica promoted seed germination percentage (100%) in maize than conventional Si sources. These studies show that nanosilica has favourable effect on beneficial bacterial population and nutrient value of soil. PMID:24028804

  11. Incorporation of plant growth regulators into the priming solution improves sugar beet germination, emergence and seedling growth at low-temperature.

    PubMed

    Govahi, Mostafa; Arvin, Mohammad Javad; Saffari, Ghazaleh

    2007-10-01

    In a series of experiments, impact of inclusion of plant growth regulators into the KNO3 priming solution on low temperature seed germination, emergence percentage and seedling growth of sugar beet was investigated. Seeds were primed in 3% KNO3 solution for 6 days at 25 degrees C in darkness containing one of the following: 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, or 1 mM acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) or 1, 3, 5 or 10 microM methyl jasmonated (MeJA). A non-primed treatment was also included in the experiment. Priming seeds in the presence or absence of plant growth regulators in general improved final germination percentage (FGP), germination rate (G50) and germination synchrony (G10-90) at 15 degrees C compared with non-primed seeds which had an FGP of 42%, G50 of 11.3 days and G10-90 of 11.7 days. Priming seeds in KNO3 solution containing 0.05 mM of ASA resulted in the highest germination percentage (89%), fastest germination rate (G50 = 5.3 days) and the most synchronous germination (G10-90 = 10.7 days). Emergence percentages were the highest for the seeds primed in the presence of 0.05 mM ASA (83%) and 3 microM MeJA (81%) while non-primed seeds had an emergence percentage of 40%. Fastest emergence rate (E50) were also obtained from seeds primed in KNO3 supplemented with 3 microM MeJA (E50 = 14.4 days) and 0.05 mM ASA (E50 = 14.4 days). Shoot fresh and dry weight of seedlings were significantly affected by treatments and priming in the presence of 0.05 mM ASA resulted in highest seedling shoot fresh and dry weight. These results indicate that priming seeds in 0.05 mM of ASA or 3 microM MeJA incorporated into the KNO3 solution can be more effective than KNO3 alone to improve low temperature germination performance of seeds and subsequent seedling growth.

  12. Effects of non-carbonaceous meteoritic extracts on the germination, growth and chlorophyll content of edible plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcano, Vicente; Matheus, Paula; Cedeño, Cesyen; Falcon, Nelson; Palacios-Prü, Ernesto

    2005-10-01

    We have conducted an investigation on the effects that the extracts of a non-carbonaceous meteorite could have on the germination and growth of plants and the ability of non-carbonaceous meteoritic resource to serve as nutrient source for young plants of edible types. Selected plants were two dicotyledons ( Lycopersicon esculentum and Daucus carota) and one monocotyledon ( Zea mays). Solution cultures were developed using seeds, seedlings and seed-embryos. Meteoritic powder was obtained from the Vigirima mesosiderite, which was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Results showed that extracts having variable concentrations of meteoritic matter favored an earlier germination in some plant species but the increase of the concentrations produced a decreased germination. However, total germination rate was higher in the presence of meteoritic extracts than in the presence of controls in the all species. A high metabolic yield in the protein synthesis was seen in dicotyledons utilizing Type-A and B extracts having concentrations of 4.16-8.33×10 3 mg l -1. Phaeophytinization index and chlorophyll a/b ratio, suggesting a negative effect of the heavy metals or acidic ions over the photosynthetic activity when extracts having high meteoritic concentrations were utilized. However, a higher chlorophyll (a) production in comparison to that of chlorophyll (b) was seen in extracts (Type-A and -B) with low concentrations of meteoritic matter. On the other hand, Z. mays seed-embryos growing in extracts (Type-D) having 3.53×10 4 mg l -1 of meteoritic matter showed a protein production (9.81×10 -2 mg protein mg wet wt -1) higher than that observed in seed-embryos coming from extracts having lower concentrations. However, in Murashige medium, the seed-embryos exhibited a enhanced growth and a relatively higher protein production (10.3×10 -2 mg protein mg wet wt. -1). Further, chlorophyll (a+b) synthesis was higher in Murashige medium than in

  13. The allelopathic effects of invasive plant Solidago canadensis on seed germination and growth of Lactuca sativa enhanced by different types of acid deposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Congyan; Xiao, Hongguang; Zhao, Lulu; Liu, Jun; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Fei; Shi, Yanchun; Du, Daolin

    2016-04-01

    Invasive species can exhibit allelopathic effects on native species. Meanwhile, the types of acid deposition are gradually changing. Thus, the allelopathic effects of invasive species on seed germination and growth of native species may be altered or even enhanced under conditions with diversified acid deposition. This study aims to assess the allelopathic effects (using leaves extracts) of invasive plant Solidago canadensis on seed germination and growth of native species Lactuca sativa treated with five types of acid deposition with different SO4(2-) to NO3(-) ratios (1:0, sulfuric acid; 5:1, sulfuric-rich acid; 1:1, mixed acid; 1:5, nitric-rich acid; 0:1, nitric acid). Solidago canadensis leaf extracts exhibited significantly allelopathic effects on germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. High concentration of S. canadensis leaf extracts also similarly exhibited significantly allelopathic effects on root length of L. sativa. This may be due to that S. canadensis could release allelochemicals and then trigger allelopathic effects on seed germination and growth of L. sativa. Acid deposition exhibited significantly negative effects on seedling biomass, root length, seedling height, germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. This may be ascribed to the decreased soil pH values mediated by acid deposition which could produce toxic effects on seedling growth. Sulfuric acid deposition triggered more toxic effects on seedling biomass and vigor index of L. sativa than nitric acid deposition. This may be attributing to the difference in exchange capacity with hydroxyl groups (OH(-)) between SO4(2-) and NO3(-) as well as the fertilizing effects mediated by nitric deposition. All types of acid deposition significantly enhanced the allelopathic effects of S. canadensis on root length, germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. This may be due to the negatively synergistic effects of

  14. The allelopathic effects of invasive plant Solidago canadensis on seed germination and growth of Lactuca sativa enhanced by different types of acid deposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Congyan; Xiao, Hongguang; Zhao, Lulu; Liu, Jun; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Fei; Shi, Yanchun; Du, Daolin

    2016-04-01

    Invasive species can exhibit allelopathic effects on native species. Meanwhile, the types of acid deposition are gradually changing. Thus, the allelopathic effects of invasive species on seed germination and growth of native species may be altered or even enhanced under conditions with diversified acid deposition. This study aims to assess the allelopathic effects (using leaves extracts) of invasive plant Solidago canadensis on seed germination and growth of native species Lactuca sativa treated with five types of acid deposition with different SO4(2-) to NO3(-) ratios (1:0, sulfuric acid; 5:1, sulfuric-rich acid; 1:1, mixed acid; 1:5, nitric-rich acid; 0:1, nitric acid). Solidago canadensis leaf extracts exhibited significantly allelopathic effects on germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. High concentration of S. canadensis leaf extracts also similarly exhibited significantly allelopathic effects on root length of L. sativa. This may be due to that S. canadensis could release allelochemicals and then trigger allelopathic effects on seed germination and growth of L. sativa. Acid deposition exhibited significantly negative effects on seedling biomass, root length, seedling height, germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. This may be ascribed to the decreased soil pH values mediated by acid deposition which could produce toxic effects on seedling growth. Sulfuric acid deposition triggered more toxic effects on seedling biomass and vigor index of L. sativa than nitric acid deposition. This may be attributing to the difference in exchange capacity with hydroxyl groups (OH(-)) between SO4(2-) and NO3(-) as well as the fertilizing effects mediated by nitric deposition. All types of acid deposition significantly enhanced the allelopathic effects of S. canadensis on root length, germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. This may be due to the negatively synergistic effects of

  15. Brassinosteroids promote Arabidopsis pollen germination and growth.

    PubMed

    Vogler, Frank; Schmalzl, Christina; Englhart, Maria; Bircheneder, Martin; Sprunck, Stefanie

    2014-09-01

    Pollen tubes are among the fastest tip-growing plant cells and represent an excellent experimental system for studying the dynamics and spatiotemporal control of polarized cell growth. However, investigating pollen tube tip growth in the model plant Arabidopsis remains difficult because in vitro pollen germination and pollen tube growth rates are highly variable and largely different from those observed in pistils, most likely due to growth-promoting properties of the female reproductive tract. We found that in vitro grown Arabidopsis pollen respond to brassinosteroid (BR) in a dose-dependent manner. Pollen germination and pollen tube growth increased nine- and fivefold, respectively, when media were supplemented with 10 µM epibrassinolide (epiBL), resulting in growth kinetics more similar to growth in vivo. Expression analyses show that the promoter of one of the key enzymes in BR biosynthesis, CYP90A1/CPD, is highly active in the cells of the reproductive tract that form the pathway for pollen tubes from the stigma to the ovules. Pollen tubes grew significantly shorter through the reproductive tract of a cyp90a1 mutant compared to the wild type, or to a BR perception mutant. Our results show that epiBL promotes pollen germination and tube growth in vitro and suggest that the cells of the reproductive tract provide BR compounds to stimulate pollen tube growth.

  16. Effects of fluoride on germination, early growth and antioxidant enzyme activities of legume plant species Prosopis juliflora.

    PubMed

    Saini, Poonam; Khan, Suphiya; Baunthiyal, Mamta; Sharma, Vinay

    2013-03-01

    Prosopis juliflora (Mimosoideae) is a fast growing and drought resistant tree of semi-arid region of India where fluoride (F) toxicity is a common problem. In the present investigations this species was fluoride tested to check their capacity as bioindicator plant and its efficiency to accumulate. To achieve this aim, P. juliflora seedlings grown in hydroponic culture containing different concentrations of F were analyzed for germination percentage together with some biochemical parameters viz, antioxidant enzyme activities, total chlorophyll and accumulation of F in different plant parts. After 15 days of treatment, root growth (r = -0.928, p < 0.01), shoot growth (r = -0.976, p < 0.01), vigor index (r = -0.984, p < 0.01) were in decreasing trend with increasing concentration of NaF. Both catalase (3.2 folds) and peroxidase (2.7 folds) enzymes activity increased with increase in F concentration. Plant accumulated larger portion of the F in the roots (1024.63 microg g(-1) d.wt.) followed by shoot (492.30 microg g(-1) d.wt.). As P. juliflora did not show any morphological changes (marginal and tip chlorosis of leaf portions, necrosis and together these features are referred to as leaf "tip-burn") therefore, this species may be used as suitable bioindicator species for potentially F affected areas. Further, higher accumulation of F in roots indicates that P. juliflora is a suitable species for the removal of F in phytoremediation purposes.

  17. Effects of Posidonia oceanica beach-cast on germination, growth and nutrient uptake of coastal dune plants.

    PubMed

    Del Vecchio, Silvia; Marbà, Núria; Acosta, Alicia; Vignolo, Clara; Traveset, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Seagrass meadows play an important role in marine ecosystems. A part of seagrass production is also exported to adjacent coastal terrestrial systems, possibly influencing their functioning. In this work we experimentally analyzed the effect of Posidonia oceanica beach-cast on plant germination, growth, and nutrient uptake of two plant species (Cakile maritima and Elymus farctus) that grow on upper beaches and fore dunes along the Mediterranean coasts. We compared plants growing in simple sand (control) with those growing in a substrate enriched with P. oceanica wrack (treatment) in laboratory. P. oceanica wrack doubled the N substrate pool and kept the substrate humid. Plants growing in the treated substrate grew faster, were twice as large as those growing in the control substrate, while tissues were enriched in N and P (Cakile by the 1.3 fold in N and 2.5 fold in P; Elymus by 1.5 fold in N and 2 fold in P). Our results suggest a positive effect of seagrass litter for the enhancing of dune species, highlighting its role for the conservation of coastal dune ecosystems.

  18. Effects of water level, shade and time on germination and growth of freshwater marsh plants along a simulated successional gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, C.H.; Bridgham, S.D.; Leicht, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    1. We examined the effect of soil organic content (1.4, 3.6, 7.2% soil C), water level (+2, -1, -4 cm from soil surface) and duration (13 or 33 days) on 10 species that varied in abundance during succession in freshwater marshes. We also determined the effect of shade (0, 40, 80% shade) and soil organic content (1.4 and 7.2% soil C) on germination of six species over 62 days with water 0.5 cm below the soil surface. 2. Water level consistently affected species germination on both dates. Above-ground biomass was generally higher with increasing organic content of soil, but shade had little effect on germination or height. 3 The hydrologic zone in which species were found in the field was a good indicator of the response of germination to hydrology. Both early successional species and species wide-spread across the successional gradient show similar germination on all organic contents, while later successional species appear to germinate best at higher organic contents. 4. Successional changes in soils are capable of affecting plant community development, independent of disturbance.

  19. Unraveling the effect of structurally different classes of insecticide on germination and early plant growth of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr].

    PubMed

    Dhungana, Sanjeev Kumar; Kim, Il-Doo; Kwak, Hwa-Sook; Shin, Dong-Hyun

    2016-06-01

    Although a considerable number of studies about the effect of different insecticides on plant physiology and metabolism have been carried out, research work about the comparative action of structurally different classes of insecticide on physiological and biochemical properties of soybean seed germination and early growth has not been found. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different classes of insecticides on soybean seed germination and early plant growth. Soybean seeds of Bosuk cultivar were soaked for 24h in distilled water or recommended dose (2mLL(-1), 1mLL(-1), 0.5gL(-1), and 0.5gL(-1) water for insecticides Mepthion, Myungtaja, Actara, and Stonate, respectively) of pesticide solutions of four structurally different classes of insecticides - Mepthion (fenitrothion; organophosphate), Myungtaja (etofenprox; pyrethroid), Actara (thiamethoxam; neonicotinoid), and Stonate (lambda-cyhalothrin cum thiamethoxam; pyrethroid cum neonicotinoid) - which are used for controlling stink bugs in soybean crop. Insecticides containing thiamethoxam and lamda-cyhalothrin cum thiamethoxam showed positive effects on seedling biomass and content of polyphenol and flavonoid, however fenitrothion insecticide reduced the seed germination, seed and seedling vigor, and polyphenol and flavonoid contents in soybean. Results of this study reveal that different classes of insecticide have differential influence on physiologic and metabolic actions like germination, early growth, and antioxidant activities of soybean and this implies that yield and nutrient content also might be affected with the application of different types of insecticide.

  20. Unraveling the effect of structurally different classes of insecticide on germination and early plant growth of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr].

    PubMed

    Dhungana, Sanjeev Kumar; Kim, Il-Doo; Kwak, Hwa-Sook; Shin, Dong-Hyun

    2016-06-01

    Although a considerable number of studies about the effect of different insecticides on plant physiology and metabolism have been carried out, research work about the comparative action of structurally different classes of insecticide on physiological and biochemical properties of soybean seed germination and early growth has not been found. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different classes of insecticides on soybean seed germination and early plant growth. Soybean seeds of Bosuk cultivar were soaked for 24h in distilled water or recommended dose (2mLL(-1), 1mLL(-1), 0.5gL(-1), and 0.5gL(-1) water for insecticides Mepthion, Myungtaja, Actara, and Stonate, respectively) of pesticide solutions of four structurally different classes of insecticides - Mepthion (fenitrothion; organophosphate), Myungtaja (etofenprox; pyrethroid), Actara (thiamethoxam; neonicotinoid), and Stonate (lambda-cyhalothrin cum thiamethoxam; pyrethroid cum neonicotinoid) - which are used for controlling stink bugs in soybean crop. Insecticides containing thiamethoxam and lamda-cyhalothrin cum thiamethoxam showed positive effects on seedling biomass and content of polyphenol and flavonoid, however fenitrothion insecticide reduced the seed germination, seed and seedling vigor, and polyphenol and flavonoid contents in soybean. Results of this study reveal that different classes of insecticide have differential influence on physiologic and metabolic actions like germination, early growth, and antioxidant activities of soybean and this implies that yield and nutrient content also might be affected with the application of different types of insecticide. PMID:27155482

  1. Residual effect of germination temperature on the growth of peas.

    PubMed

    Highkin, H R; Lang, A

    1966-03-01

    In Pisum sativum there is a marked difference in the final height of the plants depending on the temperature at which the seed is germinated. Significant differences were also found in such parameters as growth rate, node of first flower, seeds per plant, pods per plant as well as flowers per plant.

  2. The effect of plant growth regulators, nitric oxide, nitrate, nitrite and light on the germination of dimorphic seeds of Suaeda salsa under saline conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiqiang; Liu, Xiaojing; Ajmal Khan, M; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro

    2005-06-01

    Suaeda salsa, a leaf succulent shrub in the family Chenopodiaceae, is one of the most important halophytes in China. Suaeda salsa produces dimorphic seeds (soft brown seeds and hard black seeds). Seeds of S. salsa were collected from the coastal salt flats near Huanghua City, China. Experiments were conducted to determine the salinity-alleviating effect of plant growth regulators, nitric oxide, nitrate, nitrite and light on the germination of dimorphic seeds of S. salsa. Brown seeds had a higher germination rate than black seeds in all experiments. Black seeds were more sensitive to salt in the absence of light in comparison to brown seeds. Brown seeds absorbed water more quickly in comparison to black seeds and were found to be more tolerant of salt stress. Our results showed that 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC, the immediate precursor of ethylene), nitrite, GA(4) and BA improved seed germination in the presence of salt. However, nitrate, GA(1), GA(3) failed to alleviate salt stress. ABA inhibited seed germination and seedling growth. Possible mechanisms involved in the alleviation of salt stress in S. salsa seeds and the ecological adaptation of the seeds to the environment are discussed.

  3. Citricoccus zhacaiensis B-4 (MTCC 12119) a novel osmotolerant plant growth promoting actinobacterium enhances onion (Allium cepa L.) seed germination under osmotic stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, Govindan; Bhatt, Ravindra M; Upreti, Kaushal K; Bindu, Gurupadam Hema; Shweta, Kademani

    2015-05-01

    The water potential of rhizospheric soil is a key parameter that determines the availability of water, oxygen, and nutrients to plants and microbes. Recent global warming trends and erratic precipitation patterns have resulted in the emergence of drought as a major constraint of agricultural productivity. Though several strategies are being evaluated to address this issue, a novel approach is the utilization of microbes for alleviation of drought stress effects in crops. Citricoccus zhacaiensis B-4 is an osmotolerant actinobacterium isolated from banana rhizosphere on mannitol supplemented medium (-2.92 MPa osmotic potential). This isolate expressed plant growth promotion traits viz, IAA, GA3 production, phosphate, zinc solubilization, ACC deaminase activity and ammonia production under PEG induced osmotic stress and non-stress conditions. Under in vitro osmotic conditions, biopriming with the actinobacterium improved the percent germination, seedling vigour and germination rate of onion seeds (cv. Arka Kalyan) at osmotic potentials up to -0.8 MPa. Considering its novelty, osmotolerance and plant growth promoting traits, biopriming with C. zhacaiensis is suggested as a viable option for the promotion of onion seed germination under drought stressed environments.

  4. Effect of vermicast generated from an allelopathic weed lantana (Lantana camara) on seed germination, plant growth, and yield of cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba).

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, M; Hussain, N; Gajalakshmi, S; Abbasi, S A

    2014-11-01

    In perhaps the first-ever study of its kind, the effect of vermicompost, derived solely from an allelopathic weed, on the germination, growth, and yield of a botanical species, has been carried out. In test plots, the soil was treated with the vermicompost of lantana (Lantana camara) at the rates of 5, 7.5, and 10 t ha(-1), and cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) was grown on it. The performance of these systems was compared with the systems in which the soil was fortified with inorganic fertilizers (IFs) in concentrations equivalent to those present in the respective vermicompost (VC) treatments. Additionally, a set of control was studied in which the soil was used without fortification by either VC or IF. It was seen that up to 51.5 % greater germination success occurred in the VC treatments compared to controls. VC also supported better plant growth in terms of stem diameter, shoot length, shoot mass, number of leaves, and leaf pigments. The positive impact extended up to fruit yield. In addition, vermicast application enhanced root nodule formation, reduced disease incidence, and allowed for a smaller number of stunted plants. The results indicate that allelopathic ingredients of lantana seem to have been totally eliminated during the course of its vermicomposting and that lantana vermicompost has the potential to support germination, growth, and fruit yield better than equivalent quantities of IFs. PMID:24946699

  5. Effect of vermicast generated from an allelopathic weed lantana (Lantana camara) on seed germination, plant growth, and yield of cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba).

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, M; Hussain, N; Gajalakshmi, S; Abbasi, S A

    2014-11-01

    In perhaps the first-ever study of its kind, the effect of vermicompost, derived solely from an allelopathic weed, on the germination, growth, and yield of a botanical species, has been carried out. In test plots, the soil was treated with the vermicompost of lantana (Lantana camara) at the rates of 5, 7.5, and 10 t ha(-1), and cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) was grown on it. The performance of these systems was compared with the systems in which the soil was fortified with inorganic fertilizers (IFs) in concentrations equivalent to those present in the respective vermicompost (VC) treatments. Additionally, a set of control was studied in which the soil was used without fortification by either VC or IF. It was seen that up to 51.5 % greater germination success occurred in the VC treatments compared to controls. VC also supported better plant growth in terms of stem diameter, shoot length, shoot mass, number of leaves, and leaf pigments. The positive impact extended up to fruit yield. In addition, vermicast application enhanced root nodule formation, reduced disease incidence, and allowed for a smaller number of stunted plants. The results indicate that allelopathic ingredients of lantana seem to have been totally eliminated during the course of its vermicomposting and that lantana vermicompost has the potential to support germination, growth, and fruit yield better than equivalent quantities of IFs.

  6. Glycinebetaine enhances the tolerance of tomato plants to high temperature during germination of seeds and growth of seedlings.

    PubMed

    Li, Shufen; Li, Feng; Wang, Jianwei; Zhang, Wen; Meng, Qingwei; Chen, Tony H H; Murata, Norio; Yang, Xinghong

    2011-11-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. 'Moneymaker') was transformed with a codA gene, from Arthrobacter globiformis, for choline oxidase that had been modified to allow targeting to both chloroplasts and the cytosol. Glycinebetaine (GB) accumulated in seeds of transformed plants up to 1 µmol g(-1) dry weight (DW), while no detectable GB was found in wild-type (WT) seeds. The codA-transgenic seeds germinated faster and at higher frequency than WT seeds with high temperature treatment. After heat stress, levels of expression of a mitochondrial small heat-shock protein (MT-sHSP), heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) and heat-shock cognate 70 (HSC70) were higher in transgenic seeds than in WT seeds during heat stress, and the accumulation of HSP70 was more prominent in codA-transgenic seeds than in WT seeds. Addition of GB to the germination medium or imbibition of seeds in a solution of GB enhanced the tolerance of WT seeds to high temperatures. WT seeds treated with exogenous GB also expressed heat-shock genes at elevated levels and accumulated more HSP70 than controls. Our results suggest that GB, either applied exogenously or accumulated in vivo in codA-transgenic seeds, enhanced the expression of heat-shock genes in and improved the tolerance to high temperature of tomato seeds during germination. PMID:21711358

  7. Effects of plant growth promoting bacteria and mycorrhizal on Capsicum annuum L. var. aviculare ([Dierbach] D'Arcy and Eshbaugh) germination under stressing abiotic conditions.

    PubMed

    Rueda-Puente, Edgar Omar; Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; Castellanos-Cervantes, T; García-Hernández, José Luís; Tarazòn-Herrera, Mario Antonio; Moreno Medina, Salomòn; Gerlach Barrera, Luis Ernesto

    2010-08-01

    Capsicum annuum var. aviculare to Tarahumara and Papago Indians and farmers of Sonora desert is a promising biological and commercial value as a natural resource from arid and semiarid coastal zones. Traditionally, apply synthetic fertilizers to compensate for soil nitrogen deficiency. However, indiscriminate use of these fertilizers might increase salinity. The inoculation by plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) represents an alternative as potential bio fertilizer resources for salty areas. Seeds ecotypes from four areas of Sonora desert (Mazocahui, Baviacora, Arizpe, La Tortuga), in order to inoculate them with one species of PGPB and AMF. Two germination tests were carried out to study the effect of salinity, temperature regime (night/day) and inoculation with PGPB and AMF growth factors measured on germination (percentage and rate), plant height, root length, and produced biomass (fresh and dry matter). The results indicated that from four studied ecotypes, Mazocahui was the most outstanding of all, showing the highest germination under saline and non-saline conditions. However, the PGPB and AMF influenced the others variables evaluated. This study is the first step to obtain an ideal ecotype of C. a. var. aviculare, which grows in the northwest of México and promoting this type of microorganisms as an efficient and reliable biological product. Studies of the association of PGPB and AMF with the C. a. var. aviculare-Mazocahui ecotype are recommended to determine the extent to which these observations can be reproduced under field conditions.

  8. Effects of plant growth promoting bacteria and mycorrhizal on Capsicum annuum L. var. aviculare ([Dierbach] D'Arcy and Eshbaugh) germination under stressing abiotic conditions.

    PubMed

    Rueda-Puente, Edgar Omar; Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; Castellanos-Cervantes, T; García-Hernández, José Luís; Tarazòn-Herrera, Mario Antonio; Moreno Medina, Salomòn; Gerlach Barrera, Luis Ernesto

    2010-08-01

    Capsicum annuum var. aviculare to Tarahumara and Papago Indians and farmers of Sonora desert is a promising biological and commercial value as a natural resource from arid and semiarid coastal zones. Traditionally, apply synthetic fertilizers to compensate for soil nitrogen deficiency. However, indiscriminate use of these fertilizers might increase salinity. The inoculation by plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) represents an alternative as potential bio fertilizer resources for salty areas. Seeds ecotypes from four areas of Sonora desert (Mazocahui, Baviacora, Arizpe, La Tortuga), in order to inoculate them with one species of PGPB and AMF. Two germination tests were carried out to study the effect of salinity, temperature regime (night/day) and inoculation with PGPB and AMF growth factors measured on germination (percentage and rate), plant height, root length, and produced biomass (fresh and dry matter). The results indicated that from four studied ecotypes, Mazocahui was the most outstanding of all, showing the highest germination under saline and non-saline conditions. However, the PGPB and AMF influenced the others variables evaluated. This study is the first step to obtain an ideal ecotype of C. a. var. aviculare, which grows in the northwest of México and promoting this type of microorganisms as an efficient and reliable biological product. Studies of the association of PGPB and AMF with the C. a. var. aviculare-Mazocahui ecotype are recommended to determine the extent to which these observations can be reproduced under field conditions. PMID:20447830

  9. Germination and growth of wheat in simulated Martian atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartzkopf, Steven H.; Mancinelli, Rocco L.

    One design for a manned Mars base incorporates a bioregenerative life support system based upon growing higher plants at a low atmospheric pressure in a greenhouse on the Martian surface. To determine the concept's feasibility, the germination and initial growth of wheat ( Triticum aestivum) was evaluated at low atmospheric pressures in simulated Martian atmosphere (SMA) and in SMA supplemented with oxygen. Total atmospheric pressures ranged from 10 to 1013 mb. No seeds germinated in pure SMA, regardless of atmospheric pressure. In SMA plus oxygen at 60 mb total pressure, germination and growth occurred but were lower than in the Earth atmosphere controls.

  10. Germination and growth of wheat in simulated Martian atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Schwartzkopf, S H; Mancinelli, R L

    1991-01-01

    One design for a manned Mars base incorporates a bioregenerative life support system based upon growing higher plants at a low atmospheric pressure in a greenhouse on the Martian surface. To determine the concept's feasibility, the germination and initial growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum) was evaluated at low atmospheric pressures in simulated Martian atmosphere (SMA) and in SMA supplemented with oxygen. Total atmospheric pressures ranged from 10 to 1013 mb. No seeds germinated in pure SMA, regardless of atmospheric pressure. In SMA plus oxygen at 60 mb total pressure, germination and growth occurred but were lower than in the Earth atmosphere controls.

  11. Germination and growth of wheat in simulated Martian atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzkopf, Steven H.; Mancinelli, Rocco L.

    1991-01-01

    One design for a manned Mars base incorporates a bioregenerative life support system based upon growing higher plants at a low atmospheric pressure in a greenhouse on the Martian surface. To determine the concept's feasibility, the germination and initial growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum) was evaluated at low atmospheric pressures in simulated Martian atmosphere (SMA) and in SMA supplemented with oxygen. Total atmospheric pressures ranged from 10 to 1013 mb. No seeds germinated in pure SMA, regardless of atmospheric pressure. In SMA plus oxygen at 60 mb total pressure, germination and growth occurred but were lower than in the earth atmosphere controls.

  12. Germination and growth of wheat in simulated Martian atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Schwartzkopf, S H; Mancinelli, R L

    1991-01-01

    One design for a manned Mars base incorporates a bioregenerative life support system based upon growing higher plants at a low atmospheric pressure in a greenhouse on the Martian surface. To determine the concept's feasibility, the germination and initial growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum) was evaluated at low atmospheric pressures in simulated Martian atmosphere (SMA) and in SMA supplemented with oxygen. Total atmospheric pressures ranged from 10 to 1013 mb. No seeds germinated in pure SMA, regardless of atmospheric pressure. In SMA plus oxygen at 60 mb total pressure, germination and growth occurred but were lower than in the Earth atmosphere controls. PMID:11537561

  13. Cyperus rotundus extract inhibits acetylcholinesterase activity from animal and plants as well as inhibits germination and seedling growth in wheat and tomato.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rashmi; Gupta, Rajendra

    2007-05-30

    Cyperus rotundus (nutgrass) is the world's worst invasive weed through tubers. Its success in dominating natural habitats depends on its ability to prevent herbivory, and to kill or suppress other plants growing in its vicinity. The present study was done to investigate whether chemicals in nutgrass target neuronal and non-neuronal acetylcholinesterases to affect surrounding animals and plants respectively. Methanolic extract of tubers of nutgrass strongly inhibited activity of AChE from electric eel, wheat and tomato. It also inhibited seed germination and seedling growth in wheat and tomato. Our results suggest that inhibitor of AChE in nutgrass possibly acts as agent of plant's war against (a) herbivore animals, and (b) other plants trying to grow in the same habitat. An antiAChE from nutgrass has been purified by employing chromatography and crystallization. The structural determination of the purified inhibitor is in progress.

  14. Mitochondrial biogenesis in plants during seed germination.

    PubMed

    Law, Simon R; Narsai, Reena; Whelan, James

    2014-11-01

    Mitochondria occupy a central role in the eukaryotic cell. In addition to being major sources of cellular energy, mitochondria are also involved in a diverse range of functions including signalling, the synthesis of many essential organic compounds and a role in programmed cell death. The active proliferation and differentiation of mitochondria is termed mitochondrial biogenesis and necessitates the coordinated communication of mitochondrial status within an integrated cellular network. Two models of mitochondrial biogenesis have been defined previously, the growth and division model and the maturation model. The former describes the growth and division of pre-existing mature organelles through a form of binary fission, while the latter describes the propagation of mitochondria from structurally and biochemically simple promitochondrial structures that upon appropriate stimuli, mature into fully functional mitochondria. In the last decade, a number of studies have utilised seed germination in plants as a platform for the examination of the processes occurring during mitochondrial biogenesis. These studies have revealed many new aspects of the tightly regulated procession of events that define mitochondrial biogenesis during this period of rapid development. A model for mitochondrial biogenesis that supports the maturation of mitochondria from promitochondrial structures has emerged, where mitochondrial signalling plays a crucial role in the early steps of seed germination. PMID:24727594

  15. The effect of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on asparagus seedlings and germinating seeds subjected to water stress under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Liddycoat, Scott M; Greenberg, Bruce M; Wolyn, David J

    2009-04-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can have positive effects on vigour and productivity, especially under stress conditions. In asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) field culture, seeds are planted in high-density nurseries, and 1-year-old crowns are transplanted to production fields. Performance can be negatively affected by water stress, transplant shock, and disease pressure on wounded roots. PGPR inoculation has the potential to alleviate some of the stresses incurred in the production system. In this study, the effects of PGPR (Pseudomonas spp.) treatment were determined on 3-week-old greenhouse-grown seedlings and germinating seeds of 2 asparagus cultivars. The pots were irrigated to a predetermined level that resulted in optimum growth or the plants were subjected to drought or flooding stress for 8 weeks. The cultivars responded differently to PGPR: single inoculations of seedlings enhanced growth of 'Guelph Millennium' under optimum conditions and 'Jersey Giant' seedlings under drought stress. Seed inoculations with PGPR resulted in a positive response only for 'Guelph Millennium', for which both single or multiple inoculations enhanced plant growth under drought stress.

  16. The effect of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on asparagus seedlings and germinating seeds subjected to water stress under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Liddycoat, Scott M; Greenberg, Bruce M; Wolyn, David J

    2009-04-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can have positive effects on vigour and productivity, especially under stress conditions. In asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) field culture, seeds are planted in high-density nurseries, and 1-year-old crowns are transplanted to production fields. Performance can be negatively affected by water stress, transplant shock, and disease pressure on wounded roots. PGPR inoculation has the potential to alleviate some of the stresses incurred in the production system. In this study, the effects of PGPR (Pseudomonas spp.) treatment were determined on 3-week-old greenhouse-grown seedlings and germinating seeds of 2 asparagus cultivars. The pots were irrigated to a predetermined level that resulted in optimum growth or the plants were subjected to drought or flooding stress for 8 weeks. The cultivars responded differently to PGPR: single inoculations of seedlings enhanced growth of 'Guelph Millennium' under optimum conditions and 'Jersey Giant' seedlings under drought stress. Seed inoculations with PGPR resulted in a positive response only for 'Guelph Millennium', for which both single or multiple inoculations enhanced plant growth under drought stress. PMID:19396238

  17. Phytotoxicity assessment on corn stover biochar, derived from fast pyrolysis, based on seed germination, early growth, and potential plant cell damage.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Shen, Fei; Guo, Haiyan; Wang, Zhanghong; Yang, Gang; Wang, Lilin; Zhang, Yanzong; Zeng, Yongmei; Deng, Shihuai

    2015-06-01

    The potential phytotoxicity of water extractable toxicants in a typical corn stover biochar, the product of fast pyrolysis, was investigated using an aqueous biochar extract on a soil-less bioassay with tomato plants. The biochar dosage of 0.0-16.0 g beaker(-1) resulted in an inverted U-shaped dose-response relationship between biochar doasage and seed germination/seedling growth. This indicated that tomato growth was slightly stimulated by low dosages of biochar and inhibited with higher dosages of biochar. Additionally, antioxidant enzyme activities in the roots and leaves were enhanced at lower dosages, but rapidly decreased with higher dosages of biochar. With the increased dosages of biochar, the malondialdehyde content in the roots and leaves increased, in addition with the observed morphology of necrotic root cells, suggesting that serious damage to tomato seedlings occurred. EC50 of root length inhibition occurred with biochar dosages of 9.2 g beaker(-1) (3.5th day) and 16.7 g beaker(-1) (11th day) (equivalent to 82.8 and 150.3 t ha(-1), respectively), which implied that toxicity to the early growth of tomato can potentially be alleviated as the plant grows.

  18. Biogenic green synthesis of monodispersed gum kondagogu (Cochlospermum gossypium) iron nanocomposite material and its application in germination and growth of mung bean (Vigna radiata) as a plant model.

    PubMed

    Raju, Dugyala; Mehta, Urmil J; Beedu, Sashidhar Rao

    2016-06-01

    An eco-friendly green and one-pot synthesis of highly monodispersed iron (Fe) nanoparticles (NPs) by using a natural biopolymer, gum kondagogu (GK) as reducing and capping agent is proposed. The NPs synthesised were characterised by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. As the concentration of gum and time increases, the intensity of NPs formation increased. The NPs were highly monodispersed with uniform circular shapes of 2-6 nm in size. The formed NPs were crystalline in nature which was confirmed by diffraction analysis. The conversion ratio of Fe ionic form to NPs was 21% which was quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Fe is essential for plant growth and development. A study was conducted to examine the effect of these NPs on the growth of mung bean (Vigna radiata). The radical length and biomass was increased in seeds exposed to Fe NPs than the ions. The uptake of Fe NPs by the sprouts was also quantified by ICP-MS, in which Fe was more in mung bean seeds exposed to NPs. The α-amylase activity was increased in the seeds exposed to NPs. The observed increase in the biomass by Fe NPs and seed germination may facilitate its application in the agriculture as an important cost-effective method for plant growth. PMID:27256894

  19. Biogenic green synthesis of monodispersed gum kondagogu (Cochlospermum gossypium) iron nanocomposite material and its application in germination and growth of mung bean (Vigna radiata) as a plant model.

    PubMed

    Raju, Dugyala; Mehta, Urmil J; Beedu, Sashidhar Rao

    2016-06-01

    An eco-friendly green and one-pot synthesis of highly monodispersed iron (Fe) nanoparticles (NPs) by using a natural biopolymer, gum kondagogu (GK) as reducing and capping agent is proposed. The NPs synthesised were characterised by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. As the concentration of gum and time increases, the intensity of NPs formation increased. The NPs were highly monodispersed with uniform circular shapes of 2-6 nm in size. The formed NPs were crystalline in nature which was confirmed by diffraction analysis. The conversion ratio of Fe ionic form to NPs was 21% which was quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Fe is essential for plant growth and development. A study was conducted to examine the effect of these NPs on the growth of mung bean (Vigna radiata). The radical length and biomass was increased in seeds exposed to Fe NPs than the ions. The uptake of Fe NPs by the sprouts was also quantified by ICP-MS, in which Fe was more in mung bean seeds exposed to NPs. The α-amylase activity was increased in the seeds exposed to NPs. The observed increase in the biomass by Fe NPs and seed germination may facilitate its application in the agriculture as an important cost-effective method for plant growth.

  20. Phytotoxicity assessment on corn stover biochar, derived from fast pyrolysis, based on seed germination, early growth, and potential plant cell damage.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Shen, Fei; Guo, Haiyan; Wang, Zhanghong; Yang, Gang; Wang, Lilin; Zhang, Yanzong; Zeng, Yongmei; Deng, Shihuai

    2015-06-01

    The potential phytotoxicity of water extractable toxicants in a typical corn stover biochar, the product of fast pyrolysis, was investigated using an aqueous biochar extract on a soil-less bioassay with tomato plants. The biochar dosage of 0.0-16.0 g beaker(-1) resulted in an inverted U-shaped dose-response relationship between biochar doasage and seed germination/seedling growth. This indicated that tomato growth was slightly stimulated by low dosages of biochar and inhibited with higher dosages of biochar. Additionally, antioxidant enzyme activities in the roots and leaves were enhanced at lower dosages, but rapidly decreased with higher dosages of biochar. With the increased dosages of biochar, the malondialdehyde content in the roots and leaves increased, in addition with the observed morphology of necrotic root cells, suggesting that serious damage to tomato seedlings occurred. EC50 of root length inhibition occurred with biochar dosages of 9.2 g beaker(-1) (3.5th day) and 16.7 g beaker(-1) (11th day) (equivalent to 82.8 and 150.3 t ha(-1), respectively), which implied that toxicity to the early growth of tomato can potentially be alleviated as the plant grows. PMID:25628114

  1. Germination, survival, and growth of grass and forb seedlings: Effects of soil moisture variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, Philip A.; Schultz, Megan J.

    2009-09-01

    Seed germination and seedling growth, survivorship, and final biomass and their responses to watering interval were studied in two grass and six forb species to assess germination and seedling growth responses to increased soil moisture variability as might occur with future increases in precipitation variability. Seeds were planted in prairie soil and watered at 1, 2, 4, or 7 d intervals ( I). Seed germination peaked at I = 4 d whereas leaf growth in grasses and forbs, and final biomass in grasses peaked at I = 7 d, suggesting that growth and biomass were favored at greater soil moisture variability than seed germination. Biomass responses to I were stronger than the germination responses, suggesting that soil moisture variability more strongly influenced post germination growth. Individual species responses to I fell into three groups; those with responses to I for: (1) seed germination and seedling survival, (2) biomass, or (3) both germination and biomass production. These species groups may be more useful than life form (i.e., grass/forb) for understanding seed germination and seedling dynamics in grasslands during periods of soil moisture variability. Seed germination and early growth may assume more importance in grassland plant community dynamics under more variable precipitation patterns.

  2. Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) impact on post-germination seedling growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chemical interaction between plants, which is referred to as allelopathy, may result in the inhibition of plant growth and development. The objective of this research was to determine the impact of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) plant extracts on the post-germination growth of five plant species...

  3. Plant growth and cultivation.

    PubMed

    Podar, Dorina

    2013-01-01

    There is a variety of methods used for growing plants indoor for laboratory research. In most cases plant research requires germination and growth of plants. Often, people have adapted plant cultivation protocols to the conditions and materials at hand in their own laboratory and growth facilities. Here I will provide a guide for growing some of the most frequently used plant species for research, i.e., Arabidopsis thaliana, barley (Hordeum vulgare) and rice (Oryza sativa). However, the methods presented can be used for other plant species as well, especially if they are related to the above-mentioned species. The presented methods include growing plants in soil, hydroponics, and in vitro on plates. This guide is intended as a starting point for those who are just beginning to work on any of the above-mentioned plant species. Methods presented are to be taken as suggestive and modification can be made according to the conditions existing in the host laboratory. PMID:23073874

  4. Plant growth and cultivation.

    PubMed

    Podar, Dorina

    2013-01-01

    There is a variety of methods used for growing plants indoor for laboratory research. In most cases plant research requires germination and growth of plants. Often, people have adapted plant cultivation protocols to the conditions and materials at hand in their own laboratory and growth facilities. Here I will provide a guide for growing some of the most frequently used plant species for research, i.e., Arabidopsis thaliana, barley (Hordeum vulgare) and rice (Oryza sativa). However, the methods presented can be used for other plant species as well, especially if they are related to the above-mentioned species. The presented methods include growing plants in soil, hydroponics, and in vitro on plates. This guide is intended as a starting point for those who are just beginning to work on any of the above-mentioned plant species. Methods presented are to be taken as suggestive and modification can be made according to the conditions existing in the host laboratory.

  5. Inter-specific variation in salinity effects on germination in Pacific Northwest tidal wetland plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental stressors such as salinity may affect plant germination and early growth, eventually impacting the distribution and abundance of more mature individuals. In a lab study we evaluated germination sensitivity to salinity in 13 tidal wetland species found in the Pacific...

  6. The contribution of germination functional traits to population dynamics of a desert plant community.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhenying; Liu, Shuangshuang; Bradford, Kent J; Huxman, Travis E; Venable, D Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Early life-cycle events play critical roles in determining the population and community dynamics of plants. The ecology of seeds and their germination patterns can determine range limits, adaptation to environmental variation, species diversity, and community responses to climate change. Understanding the adaptive consequences and environmental filtering of such functional traits will allow us to explain and predict ecological dynamics. Here we quantify key functional aspects of germination physiology and relate them to an existing functional ecology framework to explain long-term population dynamics for 13 species of desert annuals near Tucson, Arizona, USA. Our goal was to assess the extent to which germination functional biology contributes to long-term population processes in nature. Some of the species differences in base, optimum, and maximum temperatures for germination, thermal times to germination, and base water potentials for germination were strongly related to 20-yr mean germination fractions, 25-yr average germination dates, seed size, and long-term demographic variation. Comparisons of germination fraction, survival, and fecundity vs. yearly changes in population size found significant roles for all three factors, although in varying proportions for different species. Relationships between species' germination physiologies and relative germination fractions varied across years, with fast-germinating species being favored in years with warm temperatures during rainfall events in the germination season. Species with low germination fractions and high demographic variance have low integrated water-use efficiency, higher vegetative growth rates, and smaller, slower-germinating seeds. We have identified and quantified a number of functional traits associated with germination biology that play critical roles in ecological population dynamics. PMID:27008793

  7. The contribution of germination functional traits to population dynamics of a desert plant community.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhenying; Liu, Shuangshuang; Bradford, Kent J; Huxman, Travis E; Venable, D Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Early life-cycle events play critical roles in determining the population and community dynamics of plants. The ecology of seeds and their germination patterns can determine range limits, adaptation to environmental variation, species diversity, and community responses to climate change. Understanding the adaptive consequences and environmental filtering of such functional traits will allow us to explain and predict ecological dynamics. Here we quantify key functional aspects of germination physiology and relate them to an existing functional ecology framework to explain long-term population dynamics for 13 species of desert annuals near Tucson, Arizona, USA. Our goal was to assess the extent to which germination functional biology contributes to long-term population processes in nature. Some of the species differences in base, optimum, and maximum temperatures for germination, thermal times to germination, and base water potentials for germination were strongly related to 20-yr mean germination fractions, 25-yr average germination dates, seed size, and long-term demographic variation. Comparisons of germination fraction, survival, and fecundity vs. yearly changes in population size found significant roles for all three factors, although in varying proportions for different species. Relationships between species' germination physiologies and relative germination fractions varied across years, with fast-germinating species being favored in years with warm temperatures during rainfall events in the germination season. Species with low germination fractions and high demographic variance have low integrated water-use efficiency, higher vegetative growth rates, and smaller, slower-germinating seeds. We have identified and quantified a number of functional traits associated with germination biology that play critical roles in ecological population dynamics.

  8. Salt stress inhibits germination and early seedling growth in cabbage (Brassica oleracea capitata L.).

    PubMed

    Jamil, M; Lee, Kyeong Bo; Jung, Kwang Yong; Lee, Deog Bae; Han, Mi Suk; Rha, Eui Shik

    2007-03-15

    Salinity induced inhibition in germination and early stages of cabbage (Brassica oleracea capitata L.) [two varieties (autumn cabbage and spring cabbage)] were measured in response to increasing NaCl concentration. The salinity (NaCl) concentrations in solution were 0 (control), 4.7, 9.4 and 14.1 dS m(-1). Different concentrations of salt stress had considerable effect on germination, germination rate (1/t50, where t50 is the time to 50% of germination), root and shoot lengths, root, shoot and plant fresh weight of cabbage. Final germination in cabbage (autumn cabbage and spring cabbage) showed significant inhibition with increasing salt stress up to 14.1 dS m(-1) NaCl. The required time for germination increased with increasing concentration of salt. The seedling growth was strongly inhibited by all salt levels, particularly at 14.1 dS m(-1). Furthermore Root growth was more affected then shoots growth by salt stress. Fresh weights of root, shoot and plant were also severely affected by different salinity treatments. Linear regression revealed a significant negative relationship between salinity and final germination, germination rate, root and shoot lengths and fresh weights of roots, shoots and plants.

  9. Impact of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) leaf, bark, and core extracts on germination of five plant species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chemical interaction between plants, which is referred to as allelopathy, may result in the inhibition of plant growth and development. The objective of this research was to determine the impact of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) plant extracts on the germination and post-germination development ...

  10. Phytotoxicity of nanoparticles: inhibition of seed germination and root growth.

    PubMed

    Lin, Daohui; Xing, Baoshan

    2007-11-01

    Plants need to be included to develop a comprehensive toxicity profile for nanoparticles. Effects of five types of nanoparticles (multi-walled carbon nanotube, aluminum, alumina, zinc, and zinc oxide) on seed germination and root growth of six higher plant species (radish, rape, ryegrass, lettuce, corn, and cucumber) were investigated. Seed germination was not affected except for the inhibition of nanoscale zinc (nano-Zn) on ryegrass and zinc oxide (nano-ZnO) on corn at 2000 mg/L. Inhibition on root growth varied greatly among nanoparticles and plants. Suspensions of 2000 mg/L nano-Zn or nano-ZnO practically terminated root elongation of the tested plant species. Fifty percent inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of nano-Zn and nano-ZnO were estimated to be near 50mg/L for radish, and about 20mg/L for rape and ryegrass. The inhibition occurred during the seed incubation process rather than seed soaking stage. These results are significant in terms of use and disposal of engineered nanoparticles.

  11. Bioaugmentation with Petroleum-Degrading Consortia Has a Selective Growth-Promoting Impact on Crop Plants Germinated in Diesel Oil-Contaminated Soil.

    PubMed

    Graj, Weronika; Lisiecki, Piotr; Szulc, Alicja; Chrzanowski, Lukasz; Wojtera-Kwiczor, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Rhizoremediation is a complex type of green clean-up technology that involves both plants and the rhizosphere-associated microorganisms to decompose hazardous compounds. The success of the strategy strongly depends on plant tolerance towards the pollutant, as well as plant's interactions with the rhizospheric microbes. The microorganisms may be stimulated by the secreted root exudates, which results in an increased breakdown of contaminants in the rhizosphere. The main goal of this study was to establish a potential rhizoremediation combination for a diesel-polluted site. Inoculation of plant roots or seeds with indigenous rhizospheric populations is a common approach in the rhizoremediation. However, we introduced hydrocarbon-degrading consortia (M10, R3, and K52) that were previously isolated from crude oil-contaminated soil instead of indigenous microbes. Bioaugmentation with these petroleum degraders was applied to screen four high biomass crop species (Indian mustard, alfalfa, high erucic acid rapeseed, HEAR, and low erucic acid rapeseed, LEAR) for their tolerance towards diesel oil. At no pollution, a promoting effect of M10 bacteria could be observed on germination and root elongation of all plant species. Moreover, M10 consortiums increased the germination index at 6,000 mg diesel oil per kilogram dry soil in the case of Indian mustard, alfalfa, and HEAR. The latter species was found to increment its dry weight upon bioaugmentation with M10 bacteria and all diesel oil treatments (6,000 and 24,000 mg diesel oil per kilogram dry soil). The initial results indicate HEAR and the M10 bacterial consortium as a promising plant-microbe tandem for a long-term rhizoremediation process. PMID:24078757

  12. Bioaugmentation with Petroleum-Degrading Consortia Has a Selective Growth-Promoting Impact on Crop Plants Germinated in Diesel Oil-Contaminated Soil.

    PubMed

    Graj, Weronika; Lisiecki, Piotr; Szulc, Alicja; Chrzanowski, Lukasz; Wojtera-Kwiczor, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Rhizoremediation is a complex type of green clean-up technology that involves both plants and the rhizosphere-associated microorganisms to decompose hazardous compounds. The success of the strategy strongly depends on plant tolerance towards the pollutant, as well as plant's interactions with the rhizospheric microbes. The microorganisms may be stimulated by the secreted root exudates, which results in an increased breakdown of contaminants in the rhizosphere. The main goal of this study was to establish a potential rhizoremediation combination for a diesel-polluted site. Inoculation of plant roots or seeds with indigenous rhizospheric populations is a common approach in the rhizoremediation. However, we introduced hydrocarbon-degrading consortia (M10, R3, and K52) that were previously isolated from crude oil-contaminated soil instead of indigenous microbes. Bioaugmentation with these petroleum degraders was applied to screen four high biomass crop species (Indian mustard, alfalfa, high erucic acid rapeseed, HEAR, and low erucic acid rapeseed, LEAR) for their tolerance towards diesel oil. At no pollution, a promoting effect of M10 bacteria could be observed on germination and root elongation of all plant species. Moreover, M10 consortiums increased the germination index at 6,000 mg diesel oil per kilogram dry soil in the case of Indian mustard, alfalfa, and HEAR. The latter species was found to increment its dry weight upon bioaugmentation with M10 bacteria and all diesel oil treatments (6,000 and 24,000 mg diesel oil per kilogram dry soil). The initial results indicate HEAR and the M10 bacterial consortium as a promising plant-microbe tandem for a long-term rhizoremediation process.

  13. How Plants Make Light Work of Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendrick, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Presented is one of a series of articles designed to help science teachers keep current on ideas in specific areas in biology. Contained is information on how plants use light for growth, seed germination, and flowering. (PB)

  14. Evolution of 'smoke' induced seed germination in pyroendemic plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, J. E.; Pausas, J.G.

    2016-01-01

    Pyroendemics are plants in which seedling germination and successful seedling recruitment are restricted to immediate postfire environments. In many fire-prone ecosystems species cue their germination to immediate postfire conditions. Here we address how species have evolved one very specific mechanism, which is using the signal of combustion products from biomass. This is often termed ‘smoke’ stimulated germination although it was first discovered in studies of charred wood effects on germination of species strictly tied to postfire conditions (pyroendemics). Smoke stimulated germination has been reported from a huge diversity of plant species. The fact that the organic compound karrikin (a product of the degradation of cellulose) is a powerful germination cue in many species has led to the assumption that this compound is the only chemical responsible for smoke-stimulated germination. Here we show that smoke-stimulated germination is a complex trait with different compounds involved. We propose that convergent evolution is a more parsimonious model for smoke stimulated germination, suggesting that this trait evolved multiple times in response to a variety of organic and inorganic chemical triggers in smoke. The convergent model is congruent with the evolution of many other fire-related traits.

  15. Control of Seed Germination and Plant Development by Carbon and Nitrogen Availability.

    PubMed

    Osuna, Daniel; Prieto, Pilar; Aguilar, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the molecular basis of the influence of external carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio and other abiotic factors on phytohormones regulation during seed germination and plant developmental processes, and the identification of elements that participate in this response is essential to understand plant nutrient perception and signaling. Sugars (sucrose, glucose) and nitrate not only act as nutrients but also as signaling molecules in plant development. A connection between changes in auxin transport and nitrate signal transduction has been reported in Arabidopsis thaliana through the NRT1.1, a nitrate sensor and transporter that also functions as a repressor of lateral root growth under low concentrations of nitrate by promoting auxin transport. Nitrate inhibits the elongation of lateral roots, but this effect is significantly reduced in abscisic acid (ABA)-insensitive mutants, what suggests that ABA might mediate the inhibition of lateral root elongation by nitrate. Gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis has been also related to nitrate level in seed germination and its requirement is determined by embryonic ABA. These mechanisms connect nutrients and hormones signaling during seed germination and plant development. Thus, the genetic identification of the molecular components involved in nutrients-dependent pathways would help to elucidate the potential crosstalk between nutrients, nitric oxide (NO) and phytohormones (ABA, auxins and GAs) in seed germination and plant development. In this review we focus on changes in C and N levels and how they control seed germination and plant developmental processes through the interaction with other plant growth regulators, such as phytohormones.

  16. Effects of hypobaria and hypoxia on seed germination of six plant species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yongkang; Gao, Feng; Guo, Shuangsheng; Li, Fang

    2014-10-01

    Hypobaria (low pressure) is typically associated with hypoxia (low oxygen partial pressure). There are several advantages of growing higher plants under hypobaria in the moon or mars habitat. The objectives of this research were to investigate the seed germination of six plant species under hypobaric and ambient total pressure conditions. Seeds were sown and germinated under three levels of total atmospheric pressure (101, 30 and 10 kPa) and three levels of oxygen partial pressures (21, 6 and 2 kPa) in an 8-day study. Hypoxia (6 or 2 kPa) significantly inhibited all seed germination under three levels of total atmospheric pressure by increasing the electrical conductivity and the optical density, decreasing the seed germination percentage and seed dehydrogenase activity and inhibiting the growth of the shoots and roots. Hypobaria (30 or 10 kPa) markedly improved seed germination and root growth by enhancing the oxygen diffusion rate under hypoxic conditions (6 or 2 kPa). The seeds of three dicot plants (lettuce, Chinese cabbage and cucumber) were more sensitive to hypoxia caused by hypobaria than were those of three monocot plants (maize, wheat and rice); lettuce and cucumber seeds had the highest sensitivity, whereas rice seeds had the lowest sensitivity. This research demonstrates that six experimental seeds can germinate normally under hypobaria (30 kPa), but the oxygen partial pressure should not be less than 6 kPa.

  17. In Vivo Effects of Barbituates on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kordan, H. A.

    1984-01-01

    A simple, low-cost experimental system can be used to demonstrate the "in vivo" effects of barbituates on seed germination and seedling growth behavior in different plant species. Lipid solubility and concentration of individual barbituates both affect the response. List of materials needed, procedures used, and typical results obtained are…

  18. Effects of acidity on tree pollen germination and tube growth

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, J.S.; Van Rye, D.M.; Lassoie, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that pollen germination and tube growth are adversely affected by air pollutants. Pollutants may inhibit the function of pollen by reducing the number of pollen grains which germinate, by reducing the maximum length to which the pollen tubes grow, or by interfering with the formation of the generative cell. The paper reports on studies that are attempting to determine the effects acid rain may have on these crucial stages in the life histories of northeastern tree species. The first stage of this work assessed the effects of acidity in the growth medium on in vitro pollen germination for four deciduous forest species common to central New York State, Betula lutea (yellow birch), B. lenta (black birch), Acer saccharum (sugar maple), and Cornus florida (flowering dogwood). Measurements were taken at the end of the growth period to determine the percentage of grains which had germinated, and to estimate the average tube length. To determine the effects of pollen on the growth medium, the pH of the germination drop was measured at the end of the growth period.

  19. Contrasting effects of ethylene perception and biosynthesis inhibitors on germination and seedling growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Locke, J M; Bryce, J H; Morris, P C

    2000-11-01

    The effects of the plant growth regulator ethylene, and of ethylene inhibitors, on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) germination and seedling growth were investigated. Exogenous 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) at 100 microM enhanced ethylene production by barley seedlings and stimulated shoot growth, whereas both germination and seedling growth were inhibited by antagonists of ethylene perception (75 microM silver ions, 100 microM 2,5-norbornadiene (NBD)). In contrast, germination was unaffected by, and root and shoot growth of seedlings was strongly stimulated by inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis (10 microM cobalt chloride, 10 microM aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG)). Since the ethylene and polyamine biosynthetic pathways are linked through S:-adenosylmethionine, this prompted further explorations into the role of polyamines in germination and seedling growth. Exogenous polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) at 1 microM concentration stimulated barley seedling growth in a similar fashion to the ethylene biosynthetic inhibitors. Both polyamines and ethylene biosynthetic inhibitors reversed the inhibitory effects of ethylene perception inhibitors on germination and seedling growth. Blocking endogenous ethylene production with aminoethoxyvinylglycine enhanced the free putrescine and spermidine content of germinating barley grains. Thus endogenous polyamines may play a complementary, growth-promotive, role to ethylene in the normal course of barley germination. Further, experiments that have been carried out using inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis may have to be re-evaluated to take the possible effect of polyamines into account.

  20. The effect of gravity on plant germination.

    PubMed

    Takakura, T; Goto, E; Tanaka, M

    1996-01-01

    An axis clinostat was constructed to create micro and negative gravity also a rotated flat disk was constructed with different rotation rates to give increased gravity, by centrifugal force up to 48 g. Rice seeds were grown on agar in tubes at the constant air temperature of 20 degrees C under an average light condition of 110 micromol/m2/sec(PPF). Humidity was not controlled but was maintained above 90%. Since the tube containers were not large enough for long cultivation, shoot and root growth were observed every 12 hours until the sixth day from seeding. The lengths of shoots and roots for each individual plant were measured on the last day. The stem lengths were increased by microgravity but the root lengths were not. Under the negative gravity, negative orthogeotropism and under microgravity, diageotropism was observed. No significant effect of increased gravity was observed on shoot and root growth.

  1. The effect of gravity on plant germination.

    PubMed

    Takakura, T; Goto, E; Tanaka, M

    1996-01-01

    An axis clinostat was constructed to create micro and negative gravity also a rotated flat disk was constructed with different rotation rates to give increased gravity, by centrifugal force up to 48 g. Rice seeds were grown on agar in tubes at the constant air temperature of 20 degrees C under an average light condition of 110 micromol/m2/sec(PPF). Humidity was not controlled but was maintained above 90%. Since the tube containers were not large enough for long cultivation, shoot and root growth were observed every 12 hours until the sixth day from seeding. The lengths of shoots and roots for each individual plant were measured on the last day. The stem lengths were increased by microgravity but the root lengths were not. Under the negative gravity, negative orthogeotropism and under microgravity, diageotropism was observed. No significant effect of increased gravity was observed on shoot and root growth. PMID:11538807

  2. Seed germination of medicinal plant, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill), as affected by different priming techniques.

    PubMed

    Tahaei, Amirreza; Soleymani, Ali; Shams, Majid

    2016-09-01

    Reduced seed germination is among the most important factors adversely affecting crop stand and subsequent plant growth. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) is an important medicinal plant with poor seed germination rate, occasionally. It is accordingly pertinent to find methods which can enhance fennel seed germination and remove the barriers of dormancy breaking. The present experiments studied the effects of two different priming (cold moist stratification and osmopriming) and 14 dormancy breaking techniques (hormonal, osmopriming, biopriming, chemical priming, and hydropriming) on the seed germination and seedling growth of two different fennel genotypes under growth chamber conditions. In the first and second experiment, the priming techniques including the time lengths of cold moist stratification (0, 15, 30, and 45 days) and the concentrations of polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000, osmopriming at -0.99, -1.35, and -2.33 MPa) were used as the main plots. However, in both experiments, the dormancy breaking techniques and fennel genotypes were factorially combined and used as the subplots. Different seed- and seedling-related parameters including germination (%), plumule, radicle and seedling length, average germination time, rate and homogeneity of germination, and seed vigor index were determined. Both priming techniques were efficient on the enhancement of seed germination and seedling growth. Among the dormancy breaking techniques, Aminol Forte (biopriming), kadostim (biopriming), benzyl adenine + kinetin (biopriming), distilled water (hydropriming), gibberellin + kinetin (hormonal priming), and benzyl adenine + kinetin + gibberellin (biopriming) were the most effective ones. The related concentrations were equal to 100 mg/l, 10(-5) M, and 0.4 %. The fennel genotypes reacted significantly different under priming conditions. It is possible to enhance seed germination and seedling growth of fennel using priming and dormancy breaking

  3. Seed germination of medicinal plant, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill), as affected by different priming techniques.

    PubMed

    Tahaei, Amirreza; Soleymani, Ali; Shams, Majid

    2016-09-01

    Reduced seed germination is among the most important factors adversely affecting crop stand and subsequent plant growth. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) is an important medicinal plant with poor seed germination rate, occasionally. It is accordingly pertinent to find methods which can enhance fennel seed germination and remove the barriers of dormancy breaking. The present experiments studied the effects of two different priming (cold moist stratification and osmopriming) and 14 dormancy breaking techniques (hormonal, osmopriming, biopriming, chemical priming, and hydropriming) on the seed germination and seedling growth of two different fennel genotypes under growth chamber conditions. In the first and second experiment, the priming techniques including the time lengths of cold moist stratification (0, 15, 30, and 45 days) and the concentrations of polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000, osmopriming at -0.99, -1.35, and -2.33 MPa) were used as the main plots. However, in both experiments, the dormancy breaking techniques and fennel genotypes were factorially combined and used as the subplots. Different seed- and seedling-related parameters including germination (%), plumule, radicle and seedling length, average germination time, rate and homogeneity of germination, and seed vigor index were determined. Both priming techniques were efficient on the enhancement of seed germination and seedling growth. Among the dormancy breaking techniques, Aminol Forte (biopriming), kadostim (biopriming), benzyl adenine + kinetin (biopriming), distilled water (hydropriming), gibberellin + kinetin (hormonal priming), and benzyl adenine + kinetin + gibberellin (biopriming) were the most effective ones. The related concentrations were equal to 100 mg/l, 10(-5) M, and 0.4 %. The fennel genotypes reacted significantly different under priming conditions. It is possible to enhance seed germination and seedling growth of fennel using priming and dormancy breaking

  4. S-nitrosylation triggers ABI5 degradation to promote seed germination and seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Albertos, Pablo; Romero-Puertas, María C; Tatematsu, Kiyoshi; Mateos, Isabel; Sánchez-Vicente, Inmaculada; Nambara, Eiji; Lorenzo, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Plant survival depends on seed germination and progression through post-germinative developmental checkpoints. These processes are controlled by the stress phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). ABA regulates the basic leucine zipper transcriptional factor ABI5, a central hub of growth repression, while the reactive nitrogen molecule nitric oxide (NO) counteracts ABA during seed germination. However, the molecular mechanisms by which seeds sense more favourable conditions and start germinating have remained elusive. Here we show that ABI5 promotes growth via NO, and that ABI5 accumulation is altered in genetic backgrounds with impaired NO homeostasis. S-nitrosylation of ABI5 at cysteine-153 facilitates its degradation through CULLIN4-based and KEEP ON GOING E3 ligases, and promotes seed germination. Conversely, mutation of ABI5 at cysteine-153 deregulates protein stability and inhibition of seed germination by NO depletion. These findings suggest an inverse molecular link between NO and ABA hormone signalling through distinct posttranslational modifications of ABI5 during early seedling development.

  5. S-nitrosylation triggers ABI5 degradation to promote seed germination and seedling growth

    PubMed Central

    Albertos, Pablo; Romero-Puertas, María C.; Tatematsu, Kiyoshi; Mateos, Isabel; Sánchez-Vicente, Inmaculada; Nambara, Eiji; Lorenzo, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Plant survival depends on seed germination and progression through post-germinative developmental checkpoints. These processes are controlled by the stress phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). ABA regulates the basic leucine zipper transcriptional factor ABI5, a central hub of growth repression, while the reactive nitrogen molecule nitric oxide (NO) counteracts ABA during seed germination. However, the molecular mechanisms by which seeds sense more favourable conditions and start germinating have remained elusive. Here we show that ABI5 promotes growth via NO, and that ABI5 accumulation is altered in genetic backgrounds with impaired NO homeostasis. S-nitrosylation of ABI5 at cysteine-153 facilitates its degradation through CULLIN4-based and KEEP ON GOING E3 ligases, and promotes seed germination. Conversely, mutation of ABI5 at cysteine-153 deregulates protein stability and inhibition of seed germination by NO depletion. These findings suggest an inverse molecular link between NO and ABA hormone signalling through distinct posttranslational modifications of ABI5 during early seedling development. PMID:26493030

  6. Strontium mobility in germinating seeds and plants.

    PubMed

    Creger, C R; Allen, W S

    1969-03-01

    The uptake of strontium in the bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris) was linear for the first 34 hr during continuous exposure to radiostrontium. After 35 hr there was a sharp increase in the rate of uptake to 48 hr. Radioactivity could be detected in the plant as early as 1 hr after addition of radiostrontium to the growth medium.Seventy-five percent of the radiostrontium was located in the seed coat immediately after soaking bean seed in an (89)Sr solution. This radioactivity in the seed coat decreased rapidly up to the tenth day, while the proportion of strontium in the cotyledons increased, after which time the proportion of radiostrontium in the cotyledons began to decrease. The amount of radioactivity of the seedling axis increased constantly, as did the activity of the first and second leaves after their appearance on about the seventh day. The radioactivity in the developing third and fourth leaves of cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum) increased at the expense of the radioactivity in the first 2 leaves and stems. This represents a movement into certain parts and then a retranslocation out of these parts as other tissue begins to develop.

  7. Superoxide and its metabolism during germination and axis growth of Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek seeds.

    PubMed

    Singh, Khangembam Lenin; Chaudhuri, Abira; Kar, Rup Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Involvement of reactive oxygen species in regulation of plant growth and development is recently being demonstrated with various results depending on the experimental system and plant species. Role of superoxide and its metabolism in germination and axis growth was investigated in case of Vigna radiata seeds, a non-endospermous leguminous species having epigeal germination, by studying the effect of different reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitors, distribution of O2(•)- and H2O2 and ROS enzyme profile in axes. Germination percentage and axis growth were determined under treatment with ROS inhibitors and scavengers. Localization of O2(•)- and H2O2 was done using nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) and 3,3',5,5'-tetramethyl benzidine dihydrochloride hydrate (TMB), respectively. Apoplastic level of O2(•)- was monitored by spectrophotometric analysis of bathing medium of axes. Profiles of NADPH oxidase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were studied by in-gel assay. Germination was retarded by treatments affecting ROS level except H2O2 scavengers, while axis growth was retarded by all. Superoxide synthesis inhibitor and scavenger prevented H2O2 accumulation in axes in later phase as revealed from TMB staining. Activity of Cu/Zn SOD1 was initially high and declined thereafter. Superoxide being produced in apoplast possibly by NADPH oxidase activity is further metabolized to (•)OH via H2O2. Germination process depends possibly on (•)OH production in the axes. Post-germinative axis growth requires O2(•)- while the differentiating zone of axis (radicle) requires H2O2 for cell wall stiffening.

  8. Regulation of seed germination and seedling growth by chemical signals from burning vegetation.

    PubMed

    Nelson, David C; Flematti, Gavin R; Ghisalberti, Emilio L; Dixon, Kingsley W; Smith, Steven M

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that burning of vegetation stimulates new plant growth and landscape regeneration. The discovery that char and smoke from such fires promote seed germination in many species indicates the presence of chemical stimulants. Nitrogen oxides stimulate seed germination, but their importance in post-fire germination has been questioned. Cyanohydrins have been recently identified in aqueous smoke solutions and shown to stimulate germination of some species through the slow release of cyanide. However, the most information is available for karrikins, a family of butenolides related to 3-methyl-2H-furo[2,3-c]pyran-2-one. Karrikins stimulate seed germination and influence seedling growth. They are active in species not normally associated with fire, and in Arabidopsis they require the F-box protein MAX2, which also controls responses to strigolactone hormones. We hypothesize that chemical similarity between karrikins and strigolactones provided the opportunity for plants to employ a common signal transduction pathway to respond to both types of compound, while tailoring specific developmental responses to these distinct environmental signals.

  9. On the role of a Lipid-Transfer Protein. Arabidopsis ltp3 mutant is compromised in germination and seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Pagnussat, Luciana A; Oyarburo, Natalia; Cimmino, Carlos; Pinedo, Marcela L; de la Canal, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Plant Lipid-Transfer Proteins (LTPs) exhibit the ability to reversibly bind/transport lipids in vitro. LTPs have been involved in diverse physiological processes but conclusive evidence on their role has only been presented for a few members, none of them related to seed physiology. Arabidopsis seeds rely on storage oil breakdown to supply carbon skeletons and energy for seedling growth. Here, Arabidopsis ltp3 mutant was analyzed for its ability to germinate and for seedling establishment. Ltp3 showed delayed germination and reduced germination frequency. Seedling growth appeared reduced in the mutant but this growth restriction was rescued by the addition of an exogenous carbon supply, suggesting a defective oil mobilization. Lipid breakdown analysis during seedling growth revealed a differential profile in the mutant compared to the wild type. The involvement of LTP3 in germination and seedling growth and its relationship with the lipid transfer ability of this protein is discussed.

  10. On the role of a Lipid-Transfer Protein. Arabidopsis ltp3 mutant is compromised in germination and seedling growth.

    PubMed Central

    Pagnussat, Luciana A; Oyarburo, Natalia; Cimmino, Carlos; Pinedo, Marcela L; de la Canal, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Plant Lipid-Transfer Proteins (LTPs) exhibit the ability to reversibly bind/transport lipids in vitro. LTPs have been involved in diverse physiological processes but conclusive evidence on their role has only been presented for a few members, none of them related to seed physiology. Arabidopsis seeds rely on storage oil breakdown to supply carbon skeletons and energy for seedling growth. Here, Arabidopsis ltp3 mutant was analyzed for its ability to germinate and for seedling establishment. Ltp3 showed delayed germination and reduced germination frequency. Seedling growth appeared reduced in the mutant but this growth restriction was rescued by the addition of an exogenous carbon supply, suggesting a defective oil mobilization. Lipid breakdown analysis during seedling growth revealed a differential profile in the mutant compared to the wild type. The involvement of LTP3 in germination and seedling growth and its relationship with the lipid transfer ability of this protein is discussed. PMID:26479260

  11. Control of Seed Germination and Plant Development by Carbon and Nitrogen Availability

    PubMed Central

    Osuna, Daniel; Prieto, Pilar; Aguilar, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the molecular basis of the influence of external carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio and other abiotic factors on phytohormones regulation during seed germination and plant developmental processes, and the identification of elements that participate in this response is essential to understand plant nutrient perception and signaling. Sugars (sucrose, glucose) and nitrate not only act as nutrients but also as signaling molecules in plant development. A connection between changes in auxin transport and nitrate signal transduction has been reported in Arabidopsis thaliana through the NRT1.1, a nitrate sensor and transporter that also functions as a repressor of lateral root growth under low concentrations of nitrate by promoting auxin transport. Nitrate inhibits the elongation of lateral roots, but this effect is significantly reduced in abscisic acid (ABA)-insensitive mutants, what suggests that ABA might mediate the inhibition of lateral root elongation by nitrate. Gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis has been also related to nitrate level in seed germination and its requirement is determined by embryonic ABA. These mechanisms connect nutrients and hormones signaling during seed germination and plant development. Thus, the genetic identification of the molecular components involved in nutrients-dependent pathways would help to elucidate the potential crosstalk between nutrients, nitric oxide (NO) and phytohormones (ABA, auxins and GAs) in seed germination and plant development. In this review we focus on changes in C and N levels and how they control seed germination and plant developmental processes through the interaction with other plant growth regulators, such as phytohormones. PMID:26635847

  12. Control of Seed Germination and Plant Development by Carbon and Nitrogen Availability.

    PubMed

    Osuna, Daniel; Prieto, Pilar; Aguilar, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the molecular basis of the influence of external carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio and other abiotic factors on phytohormones regulation during seed germination and plant developmental processes, and the identification of elements that participate in this response is essential to understand plant nutrient perception and signaling. Sugars (sucrose, glucose) and nitrate not only act as nutrients but also as signaling molecules in plant development. A connection between changes in auxin transport and nitrate signal transduction has been reported in Arabidopsis thaliana through the NRT1.1, a nitrate sensor and transporter that also functions as a repressor of lateral root growth under low concentrations of nitrate by promoting auxin transport. Nitrate inhibits the elongation of lateral roots, but this effect is significantly reduced in abscisic acid (ABA)-insensitive mutants, what suggests that ABA might mediate the inhibition of lateral root elongation by nitrate. Gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis has been also related to nitrate level in seed germination and its requirement is determined by embryonic ABA. These mechanisms connect nutrients and hormones signaling during seed germination and plant development. Thus, the genetic identification of the molecular components involved in nutrients-dependent pathways would help to elucidate the potential crosstalk between nutrients, nitric oxide (NO) and phytohormones (ABA, auxins and GAs) in seed germination and plant development. In this review we focus on changes in C and N levels and how they control seed germination and plant developmental processes through the interaction with other plant growth regulators, such as phytohormones. PMID:26635847

  13. Effect of marble industry effluent on seed germination, post germinative growth and productivity of Zea mays L.

    PubMed

    Akbar, Fazal; Hadi, Fazal; Ullah, Zakir; Zia, Muhammad Amir

    2007-11-15

    A green house study was conducted at the University of Malakand, NWFP, Pakistan to evaluate the effect of marble industry effluent on soil pH, germination, post germinative growth and productivity of maize. The experiment was conducted in triplicate form for each treatment and tape water was used as control (T0). Effluents were diluted with tap water at concentration of 20% (T1), 40% (T2), 60% (T3), 80% (T4) and also used 100% (T5) concentration in 4 kg soil pot(-1) and plants were grown for 90 days. Results showed that there was a linear increase in pH of soil with increase in effluent concentration while germination, root length and stem girth was enhanced and found maximum at 40% concentration of effluent applied. The shoot length and root dry biomass was depressed as compared to control. It is concluded from the present study that marble industry effluent can be used as a fertilizer in low concentration especially for highly acidic soil but there is still need to carry out series of greenhouse and field trials to ascertain the fertilizer potentials of this effluent for maize crop. PMID:19090297

  14. Effect of Cold Plasma Treatment on Seed Germination and Growth of Wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jiafeng; He, Xin; Li, Ling; Li, Jiangang; Shao, Hanliang; Xu, Qilai; Ye, Renhong; Dong, Yuanhua

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of cold helium plasma treatment on seed germination, growth and yield of wheat. The effects of different power of cold plasma on the germination of treated wheat seeds were studied. We found that the treatment of 80 W could significantly improve seed germination potential (6.0%) and germination rate (6.7%) compared to the control group. Field experiments were carried out for wheat seeds treated with 80 W cold plasma. Compared with the control, plant height (20.3%), root length (9.0%) and fresh weight (21.8%) were improved significantly at seedling stage. At booting stage, plant height, root length, fresh weight, stem diameter, leaf area and leaf thickness of the treated plant were respectively increased by 21.8%, 11.0%, 7.0%, 9.0%, 13.0% and 25.5%. At the same time, the chlorophyll content (9.8%), nitrogen (10.0%) and moisture content (10.0%) were higher than those of the control, indicating that cold plasma treatment could promote the growth of wheat. The yield of treated wheat was 7.55 t · ha-1, 5.89% more than that of the control. Therefore, our results show that cold plasma has important application prospects for increasing wheat yield.

  15. Effects of acetylsalicylic acid on germination, growth and chlorophyll amounts of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Canakci, Songül; Munzuroğlu, Omer

    2007-09-01

    Germination activities, various growth parameters (primary root length, hypocotyl length, primary leaf length, plant length and increase in fresh weight) and chlorophyll (a+b) amounts of cucumber seeds exposed to 0, 10(-5), 10(-4), 10(-3) and 0.5x 10(-2) M aqueous solutions of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) for 48 h were established. While 0.5x 10(-2) M ASA significantly prevented germination activity of the seeds, other concentrations did not produce any effect, either positive or negative. Meanwhile, 0.5x 10(-2) M ASA inhibited radicle growth of the germinated seeds, while 10(-5) M ASA increased radicle growth. Other concentrations of ASA did not affect radicle growth. The following findings were obtained from the one-week seedlings exposed to ASA for 48 h: 0.5x10(-2) M ASA prevented growth (lengthening) of root, hypocotyl, leaf and plant and increased chlorophyll (a+b) amount with an increase in fresh weight. Contrary to 0.5x 10(-2) M ASA application, these features of the seedlings (except for the leaf length) were encouraged by 10(-5) M ASA. 10(-3)) M ASA only prevented root growth and reduced chlorophyll (a+b) amount. Other concentrations of ASA did not bring about any positive or negative effect on the features studied.

  16. Effect of electroplating factory effluent on the germination and growth of hyacinth bean and mustard.

    PubMed

    Ajmal, M; Khan, A U

    1985-12-01

    The effect of electroplating factory effluent in different concentrations (viz., 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, and 4.0%) on the germination and growth of hyacinth beans (Dolichos lablab) and mustard seeds (Brassica compestris) was studied. The germination of seeds was delayed with the increase of effluent concentration and the germination of mustard seeds was totally inhibited at 1.5% effluent concentration while hyacinth bean seeds tolerated the effluent up to 2.5% concentration. The metal content in the hyacinth bean plants increased with increasing effluent concentration but after 1.0% effluent concentration, the concentration of all the metals (Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cu, Zn, Fe) decreased in the plants except Cr, which increased throughout. Percentage germination, fresh weight, dry weight, root length, and shoot length of the plants were also analyzed. Cd, Ni, Co, Mn, and Pb were not detectable in the hyacinth bean plants. PMID:4065075

  17. Effects of indole amides on lettuce and onion germination and growth.

    PubMed

    Borgati, Thiago F; Boaventura, Maria Amelia D

    2011-01-01

    Auxins, such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), are important in plant germination and growth, while physiological polyamines, such as putrescine, are involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, and their concentrations increase during germination. In this work, novel indole amides were synthesized in good yields by monoacylation of morpholine and unprotected symmetrical diamines with indole-3-carboxylic acid, a putative metabolite of IAA, possessing no auxin-like activity. These amides were tested for their effects on seed germination and growth of the radicles and shoots of Lactuca sativa (lettuce) and Allium cepa (onion) seedlings, at 100.0, 1.0, and 0.01 microM concentrations. Germination was generally stimulated, with the exception of amide 3, derived from morpholine, at 100 microM. On radicle and shoot growth, the effect of these compounds was predominantly inhibitory. Compound 3 was the best inhibitor of growth of lettuce and onion, at the highest concentration. Amides, such as propanil, among others, are described as having herbicidal activity.

  18. In Vitro Seeds Germination and Seedling Growth of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc. (Fabaceae))

    PubMed Central

    Koné, Mongomaké; Koné, Tchoa; Silué, Nakpalo; Soumahoro, André Brahima; Kouakou, Tanoh Hilaire

    2015-01-01

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) is an indigenous grain legume. It occupies a prominent place in the strategies to ensure food security in sub-Saharan Africa. Development of an efficient in vitro regeneration system, a prerequisite for genetic transformation application, requires the establishment of optimal conditions for seeds germination and plantlets development. Three types of seeds were inoculated on different basal media devoid of growth regulators. Various strengths of the medium of choice and the type and concentration of carbon source were also investigated. Responses to germination varied with the type of seed. Embryonic axis (EA) followed by seeds without coat (SWtC) germinated rapidly and expressed a high rate of germination. The growth performances of plantlets varied with the basal medium composition and the seeds type. The optimal growth performances of plants were displayed on half strength MS basal medium with SWtC and EA as source of seeds. Addition of 3% sucrose in the culture medium was more suitable for a maximum growth of plantlets derived from EA. PMID:26550604

  19. In Vitro Seeds Germination and Seedling Growth of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc. (Fabaceae)).

    PubMed

    Koné, Mongomaké; Koné, Tchoa; Silué, Nakpalo; Soumahoro, André Brahima; Kouakou, Tanoh Hilaire

    2015-01-01

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) is an indigenous grain legume. It occupies a prominent place in the strategies to ensure food security in sub-Saharan Africa. Development of an efficient in vitro regeneration system, a prerequisite for genetic transformation application, requires the establishment of optimal conditions for seeds germination and plantlets development. Three types of seeds were inoculated on different basal media devoid of growth regulators. Various strengths of the medium of choice and the type and concentration of carbon source were also investigated. Responses to germination varied with the type of seed. Embryonic axis (EA) followed by seeds without coat (SWtC) germinated rapidly and expressed a high rate of germination. The growth performances of plantlets varied with the basal medium composition and the seeds type. The optimal growth performances of plants were displayed on half strength MS basal medium with SWtC and EA as source of seeds. Addition of 3% sucrose in the culture medium was more suitable for a maximum growth of plantlets derived from EA.

  20. Effects of Three Fire-Suppressant Foams on the Germination and Physiological Responses of Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Uhram; Mun, Saeromi; Waldman, Bruce; Lee, Eun Ju

    2014-10-01

    Suppressant foams used to fight forest fires may leave residual effects on surviving biota that managers need to consider prior to using them. We examined how three fire-suppressant foams (FSFs) (Forexpan S, Phos-Chek-WD881, and Silv-ex) affected seed germination and physiological responses of three plant species. Exposure to FSFs, whether in diluted concentrations or those typical in the field, reduced final germination percentages of seeds grown in petri dishes and within growth chambers. However, the FSFs did not cause total germination failure in any treatment. Inhibition of germination increased with longer exposure times, but only to diluted FSF solutions. Unlike in the laboratory experiments, none of the three FSFs affected seedling emergence when tested in field conditions. Further, we found no evidence of long-term phytotoxic effects on antioxidant enzyme activity nor chlorophyll content of the plant saplings. Therefore, although the three FSFs showed evidence of phytotoxicity to plants in laboratory tests, their actual impact on terrestrial ecosystems may be minimal. We suggest that the benefits of using these FSFs to protect plants in threatened forest ecosystems outweigh their minor risks.

  1. INTERACTION OF METHYL-TERT BUTYL ETHER AND WATER STRESS ON SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH IN SOIL MICROCOSMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a widespread contaminant in surface and ground water in the United States. Frequently irrigation is used to water fields to germinate planted seeds and sustain plant growth. A likely possibility exists that water used may have some MTBE. Our s...

  2. He-Ne laser-induced changes in germination, thermodynamic parameters, internal energy, enzyme activities and physiological attributes of wheat during germination and early growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, Yasir; Perveen, Rashida; Ashraf, Muhammad; Ali, Qasim; Iqbal, Munawar; Ahmad, Muhammad Raza

    2013-04-01

    Using low power continuous wave He-Ne laser irradiation of seeds, the germination characteristics, thermodynamic changes and enzyme activities as well as changes in morphological attributes were explored for wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. S-24) cultivar. The changes in thermodynamic properties such as change in enthalpy (ΔH), entropy generation [(ΔSe)], entropy flux [(ΔSc)], entropy generation ratio [(ΔS)e/Δt], and entropy flux ratio [(ΔS)c/Δt] showed significant (P < 0.05) changes at an energy level of 500 mJ. The germination energy (GE), germination percentage (G%), germination index (GI) as well as α-amylase and protease activities was also found to be higher at 500 mJ, while the mean emergence time (MET) and time for 50% germination (E50) decreased for 300 mJ irradiance. The internal energy of the seeds increased significantly at all laser energy levels, but was highest for 500 mJ 72 h after sowing. The enzyme activities increased up to 24 h after sowing and then declined. The activities of α-amylase and protease were found to be positively correlated with the plant physiological attributes. These results indicate that low power continuous wave He-Ne laser (632 nm) treatment has considerable biological effects on seed metabolism during germination as well as on later vegetative growth.

  3. Effect of magnetic field on seed germination and seedling growth of sunflower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matwijczuk, A.; Kornarzyński, K.; Pietruszewski, S.

    2012-07-01

    The impact of a variable magnetic field, magnetically treated water and a combination of both these factors on the germination of seeds and the final mass at the initial stage of growth sunflower plants was presented. Investigations were carried out in pots filled with sand, tin an air-conditioned plant house with no access to daylight using fluorescent light as illumination. A statistical significance positive impact was achieved for the samples subjected to the interaction of both stimulating factors simultaneously, the magnetic field and the impact of treated water several times on the speed of seed germination and final plant mass. Negative impacts were obtained for the majority of the test cases, for the magnetically treated water, the short duration of activity of the magnetic field and for the connection of the magnetic field and low-flow times.

  4. Metabolic adaptation to sugar/O2 deficiency for anaerobic germination and seedling growth in rice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuo-Wei; Chen, Peng Wen; Yu, Su-May

    2014-10-01

    Rice is characterized by a broad range of metabolic and morphological adaptations to flooding, such as germination and mobilization of stored nutrients under submergence until seedlings reach the water surface to carry out photosynthesis, and sustainable growth of mature plants for long durations under partial submergence. The underlying mechanisms of the molecular basis of adaptation to anaerobic germination and seedling growth in rice are being uncovered. Induction of an ensemble of hydrolases to mobilize endosperm nutrient reserves is one of the key factors for successful germination and coleoptile elongation in rice under submergence. To compensate for reduced efficiency of Tricarboxylic Acid cycle and oxidative respiration in mitochondria under O2 deficient conditions, α-amylases play a central role in the hydrolysis of starch to provide sugar substrates for glycolysis and alcohol fermentation for generating ATP. We review the progress on the molecular mechanism regulating α-amylase expression that involves the integration of signals generated by the hormone gibberellin (GA), sugar starvation and O2 deprivation that results in germination and sustainable seedling growth in rice under anaerobic conditions. Comparisons are also made between dicots and monocots for the molecular mechanism of induction of genes involved in alcohol fermentation and sugar/O2 deficiency sensing system.

  5. Impact of water potential on growth and germination of Fusarium solani soilborne pathogen of peanut.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Sofia; Casasnovas, Francisco; Ramirez, María L; Reynoso, María M; Torres, Adriana M

    2014-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the effect of osmotic and matric stress on germination and growth of two Fusarium solani strains, the etiological agent responsible of peanut brown root rot. Both strains had similar osmotic and matric potential ranges that allowed growth, being the latter one narrower. F. solani showed the ability to grow down to -14 MPa at 25 °C in non-ionic modified osmotic medium, while under matric stress this was limited to -8.4 MPa at 25 °C. However, both strains were seen to respond differently to decreasing osmotic and matric potentials, during early stages of germination. One strain (RC 338) showed to be more sensitive to matric than osmotic (non ionic) and the other one (RC 386) showed to be more sensitive to osmotic than matric imposed water stress. After 24 h of incubation, both isolates behaved similarly. The minimum water potential for germination was -8.4 MPa on glycerol amended media and -5.6 MPa for NaCl and PEG amended media, respectively. The knowledge of the water potential range which allow mycelia growth and spore germination of F. solani provides an inside to the likely behaviour of this devastating soilborne plant pathogen in nature and has important practical implications.

  6. Impact of water potential on growth and germination of Fusarium solani soilborne pathogen of peanut

    PubMed Central

    Palacios, Sofia; Casasnovas, Francisco; Ramirez, María L.; Reynoso, María. M.; Torres, Adriana M.

    2014-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the effect of osmotic and matric stress on germination and growth of two Fusarium solani strains, the etiological agent responsible of peanut brown root rot. Both strains had similar osmotic and matric potential ranges that allowed growth, being the latter one narrower. F. solani showed the ability to grow down to −14 MPa at 25 °C in non-ionic modified osmotic medium, while under matric stress this was limited to −8.4 MPa at 25 °C. However, both strains were seen to respond differently to decreasing osmotic and matric potentials, during early stages of germination. One strain (RC 338) showed to be more sensitive to matric than osmotic (non ionic) and the other one (RC 386) showed to be more sensitive to osmotic than matric imposed water stress. After 24 h of incubation, both isolates behaved similarly. The minimum water potential for germination was −8.4 MPa on glycerol amended media and −5.6 MPa for NaCl and PEG amended media, respectively. The knowledge of the water potential range which allow mycelia growth and spore germination of F. solani provides an inside to the likely behaviour of this devastating soilborne plant pathogen in nature and has important practical implications. PMID:25477950

  7. Impact of water potential on growth and germination of Fusarium solani soilborne pathogen of peanut.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Sofia; Casasnovas, Francisco; Ramirez, María L; Reynoso, María M; Torres, Adriana M

    2014-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the effect of osmotic and matric stress on germination and growth of two Fusarium solani strains, the etiological agent responsible of peanut brown root rot. Both strains had similar osmotic and matric potential ranges that allowed growth, being the latter one narrower. F. solani showed the ability to grow down to -14 MPa at 25 °C in non-ionic modified osmotic medium, while under matric stress this was limited to -8.4 MPa at 25 °C. However, both strains were seen to respond differently to decreasing osmotic and matric potentials, during early stages of germination. One strain (RC 338) showed to be more sensitive to matric than osmotic (non ionic) and the other one (RC 386) showed to be more sensitive to osmotic than matric imposed water stress. After 24 h of incubation, both isolates behaved similarly. The minimum water potential for germination was -8.4 MPa on glycerol amended media and -5.6 MPa for NaCl and PEG amended media, respectively. The knowledge of the water potential range which allow mycelia growth and spore germination of F. solani provides an inside to the likely behaviour of this devastating soilborne plant pathogen in nature and has important practical implications. PMID:25477950

  8. [Impact of priming on seed germination and seedling growth of Oldenlandia diffusa under drought stress].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zai-Biao; Lu, Wei-Wei; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Cao, Ya-Yue; Feng, Shan; Ning, Zi-Jun

    2014-04-01

    Current study was carried out to optimize the priming condition of Oldenlandia diffusa seeds, and improve germination rate and seed vigor of 0. diffusa seeds under drought conditions. Uniform design was used to optimize the concentration and priming time of three priming materials (PEG, KNO3, GA3). Different concentrations of polyethylene glycol (PEG) was used to simulate drought stress. The seedling was cultured in 1/4 Hoagland medium for 30 d. The results showed that seed priming treatment with 366 mg x kg(-1) GA3 for 1h resulted in significant increase in germination rate, germination index, vigor, root length, plant height and biomass of O. diffusa seeds under drought stress (15% PEG), while seed priming with 3.0% KNO3 for 1 h showed little effect on germination and growth of O. diffusa seeds under drought stress. Seed priming treatment with appropriate GA3 concentration and priming time could enhance seed germination and drought resistance of O. diffusa in seedling stage.

  9. Basal transcription factor 3 plays an important role in seed germination and seedling growth of rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenyi; Xu, Mengyun; Wang, Ya; Jamil, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    BTF3 has been recognized to be involved in plant growth and development. But its function remains mostly unknown during seed germination and seedling stage. Here, we have analyzed OsBTF3-related sequences in Oryza sativa L. subspecies, japonica, which resembles with the conserved domain of a nascent polypeptide associated complex (NAC) with different homologs of OsBTF3 and human BTF3. Inhibition of Osj10gBTF3 has led to considerable morphological changes during seed germination and seedling growth. Germination percentage was not influenced by the application of GA3, ABA, and NaCl but all concentrations caused wild-type (WT) seeds to germinate more rapidly than the RNAi (Osj10gBTF3 (Ri)) transgenic lines. Seedling inhibition was more severe in the Osj10gBTF3 (Ri) seedlings compared with their WT especially when treated with 100 or 200 μM GA3; 50% reduction in shoots was observed in Osj10gBTF3 (Ri) seedlings. The expression of Osj3g1BTF3, Osj3g2BTF3 and Osj10gBTF3 was primarily constitutive and generally modulated by NaCl, ABA, and GA3 stresses in both Osj10gBTF3 (Ri) lines and WT at the early seedling stage, suggesting that Osj3g1BTF3 and Osj10gBTF3 are much similar but different from Osj3g2BTF3 in biological function. These results show that OsBTF3 plays an important role in seed germination and seedling growth gives a new perception demonstrating that more multifaceted regulatory functions are linked with BTF3 in plants.

  10. Effect of saline water on seed germination and early seedling growth of the halophyte quinoa

    PubMed Central

    Panuccio, M. R.; Jacobsen, S. E.; Akhtar, S. S.; Muscolo, A.

    2014-01-01

    Salinization is increasing on a global scale, decreasing average yields for most major crop plants. Investigations into salt resistance have, unfortunately, mainly been focused on conventional crops, with few studies screening the potential of available halophytes as new crops. This study has been carried out to investigate the mechanisms used by quinoa, a facultative halophytic species, in order to cope with high salt levels at various stages of its development. Quinoa is regarded as one of the crops that might sustain food security in this century, grown primarily for its edible seeds with their high protein content and unique amino acid composition. Although the species has been described as a facultative halophyte, and its tolerance to salt stress has been investigated, its physiological and molecular responses to seawater (SW) and other salts have not been studied. We evaluated the effects of SW and different salts on seed germination, seedling emergence and the antioxidative pathway of quinoa. Seeds were germinated in Petri dishes and seedlings grown in pots with SW solutions (25, 50, 75 and 100 %) and NaCl, CaCl2, KCl and MgCl2 individually, at the concentrations in which they are present in SW. Our results demonstrated that all salts, at lower concentrations, increased the germination rate but not the germination percentages, compared with control (pure water). Conversely, seedlings were differently affected by treatments in respect to salt type and concentration. Growth parameters affected were root and shoot length, root morphology, fresh and dry weight, and water content. An efficient antioxidant mechanism was present in quinoa, activated by salts during germination and early seedling growth, as shown by the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Total antioxidant capacity was always higher under salt stress than in water. Moreover, osmotic and ionic stress factors had different degrees of influence on germination and development. PMID:25139769

  11. Effect of saline water on seed germination and early seedling growth of the halophyte quinoa.

    PubMed

    Panuccio, M R; Jacobsen, S E; Akhtar, S S; Muscolo, A

    2014-08-19

    Salinization is increasing on a global scale, decreasing average yields for most major crop plants. Investigations into salt resistance have, unfortunately, mainly been focused on conventional crops, with few studies screening the potential of available halophytes as new crops. This study has been carried out to investigate the mechanisms used by quinoa, a facultative halophytic species, in order to cope with high salt levels at various stages of its development. Quinoa is regarded as one of the crops that might sustain food security in this century, grown primarily for its edible seeds with their high protein content and unique amino acid composition. Although the species has been described as a facultative halophyte, and its tolerance to salt stress has been investigated, its physiological and molecular responses to seawater (SW) and other salts have not been studied. We evaluated the effects of SW and different salts on seed germination, seedling emergence and the antioxidative pathway of quinoa. Seeds were germinated in Petri dishes and seedlings grown in pots with SW solutions (25, 50, 75 and 100 %) and NaCl, CaCl2, KCl and MgCl2 individually, at the concentrations in which they are present in SW. Our results demonstrated that all salts, at lower concentrations, increased the germination rate but not the germination percentages, compared with control (pure water). Conversely, seedlings were differently affected by treatments in respect to salt type and concentration. Growth parameters affected were root and shoot length, root morphology, fresh and dry weight, and water content. An efficient antioxidant mechanism was present in quinoa, activated by salts during germination and early seedling growth, as shown by the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Total antioxidant capacity was always higher under salt stress than in water. Moreover, osmotic and ionic stress factors had different degrees of influence on germination and development.

  12. Effect of saline water on seed germination and early seedling growth of the halophyte quinoa.

    PubMed

    Panuccio, M R; Jacobsen, S E; Akhtar, S S; Muscolo, A

    2014-01-01

    Salinization is increasing on a global scale, decreasing average yields for most major crop plants. Investigations into salt resistance have, unfortunately, mainly been focused on conventional crops, with few studies screening the potential of available halophytes as new crops. This study has been carried out to investigate the mechanisms used by quinoa, a facultative halophytic species, in order to cope with high salt levels at various stages of its development. Quinoa is regarded as one of the crops that might sustain food security in this century, grown primarily for its edible seeds with their high protein content and unique amino acid composition. Although the species has been described as a facultative halophyte, and its tolerance to salt stress has been investigated, its physiological and molecular responses to seawater (SW) and other salts have not been studied. We evaluated the effects of SW and different salts on seed germination, seedling emergence and the antioxidative pathway of quinoa. Seeds were germinated in Petri dishes and seedlings grown in pots with SW solutions (25, 50, 75 and 100 %) and NaCl, CaCl2, KCl and MgCl2 individually, at the concentrations in which they are present in SW. Our results demonstrated that all salts, at lower concentrations, increased the germination rate but not the germination percentages, compared with control (pure water). Conversely, seedlings were differently affected by treatments in respect to salt type and concentration. Growth parameters affected were root and shoot length, root morphology, fresh and dry weight, and water content. An efficient antioxidant mechanism was present in quinoa, activated by salts during germination and early seedling growth, as shown by the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Total antioxidant capacity was always higher under salt stress than in water. Moreover, osmotic and ionic stress factors had different degrees of influence on germination and development. PMID:25139769

  13. Effect of different fertilizers on the germination and growth of velvetleaf (Abutilon theohrasti Medic.).

    PubMed

    Nagy, V; Nádasy, E

    2011-01-01

    Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medic.) is one of the most important and invasive weed species in Hungary and also in Europe. Its dangerousness derives from its germination biology characteristics and its strong competitive and allelopathic ability. In wide line space crops such as corn, sunflower and soybean it may reduce the yield significantly, According to some authors, this yield reducing ability is lower with bigger nutrient supplies. Our experiment was carried in Keszthely, Hungary (46 degrees 45'35.53"; 17 degrees 14'26.9") at the Institute of Plant Protection, Georgikon Faculty, University of Pannonia in 2009 and 2010. We studied the separate and combined effect of different fertilizers on the germination and growth of velvetleaf in greenhouse pot experiments. The applied fertilizers were Linzer NAC (27% N) in doses of 200 kg N ha(-1) (2,325 g Linzer NAC/pot), Patent Káli (30% K2O) in 100 kg K2O ha(-1) (1,05g Patent Káli/pot) and DC Szuperfoszfát (20.5% P2O5) in 100 kg P2O5 ha(-1) (1,05g DC Szuperfoszfát/pot). Our study was carried out in 1.5-litre pots with Ramman brown-forest soil in four replications, with 25 seeds of velvetleaf per pots. Five velvetleaf plants were removed four and six weeks after planting from the pots and the lenght, the fresh- and the air dried weight and the leaf area of the plants was measured. The data were analyzed by ANOVA. We observed that nitrogen which was applied alone or with other nutrients can reduce the germination and growth of Abutilon with 200kg N ha(-1) doses. Potassium and phosphorus stimulate germination and growth. The biggest stimulating effect was produced by potassium when it was applied alone. PMID:22696961

  14. Photoinduced toxicity of fluoranthene on germination and early development of plant seedling.

    PubMed

    Kummerová, Marie; Kmentová, Eva

    2004-07-01

    The influence of light on phytotoxicity of increased concentration (2, 5, 10 mg/l) of intact fluoranthene (FLT) and photomodified fluoranthene (phFLT) diluted in experimental solutions was investigated. The germination rate of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), onion (Allium cepa L.) and tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum L.) seeds and some parameters of seedlings primary growth of these plant species were used as laboratory indicators of phytotoxicity. Among them a length of root and shoot, their dry weight and a content of photosynthetic pigments in shoot were measured. The results demonstrated that the higher concentration (5 and 10 mg/l) of FLT and especially of phFLT significantly inhibited the germination rate of seeds and the length of root and shoot seedlings of all plant species. Decreased production of biomass expressed by dry weight of root and shoot was found in lettuce seedlings under the inhibitory effect of FLT and phFLT. An increased concentration of FLT and phFLT did not exhibit an unambiguous effect on the content of photosynthetic pigments in shoot of experimental plants. Only the highest concentration (10 mg/l) of FLT significantly increased content of chlorophylls a and b in lettuce, onion and tomato plants and content of carotenoids in lettuce and onion. Light intensified a significant inhibitory effect of phFLT in the most testified parameters of germination and seedling growth.

  15. Changes in the germination process and growth of pea in effect of laser seed irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podleśna, Anna; Gładyszewska, Bożena; Podleśny, Janusz; Zgrajka, Wojciech

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pre-sowing helium-neon (He-Ne) laser irradiation of pea seeds on changes in seed biochemical processes, germination rate, seedling emergence, growth rate, and yield. The first experimental factor was exposure to laser radiation: D0 - no irradiation, D3 - three exposures, D5 - five exposures, and the harvest dates were the second factor. Pre-sowing treatment of pea seeds with He-Ne laser light increased the concentrations of amylolytic enzymes and the content of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in pea seeds and seedlings. The exposure of seeds to He-Ne laser light improved the germination rate and uniformity and modified growth stages, which caused acceleration of flowering and ripening of pea plants. Laser light stimulation improved the morphological characteristics of plants by increasing plant height and leaf surface area. Irradiation improved the yield of vegetative and reproductive organs of pea, although the effects varied at the different growth stages. The increase in the seed yield resulted from a higher number of pods and seeds per plant, whereas no significant changes were observed in the number of seeds per pod. Both radiation doses exerted similarly stimulating effects on pea growth, development, and yield.

  16. Response of transgenic rice at germination and early seedling growth under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Jamil, Muhammad; Rha, Eui Shik

    2007-12-01

    The response of germination and early seedling growth of different transgenic rice lines (T-99, T-112, T-115 and T-121) were examined in different levels of salinity (0, 50, 100 and 150 mM NaCl). Final germination, germination rate (1/t50, where t50 is the time to 50% of germination) and early seedling growth were assessed. Final germination percentage was inhibited with increasing salt concentrations. The required time for germination also increased with increasing salinity levels. The seedling growth was also reduced by salt concentrations, particularly at 150 mM. Root and shoot lengths, root/shoot ratio, fresh weights of root and shoot were also decreased with increasing salt stress. T-99 and T-112 had shown greater performance at germination and early seedling growth as compared to other transgenic lines.

  17. Effects of cold plasma treatment on seed germination and seedling growth of soybean.

    PubMed

    Ling, Li; Jiafeng, Jiang; Jiangang, Li; Minchong, Shen; Xin, He; Hanliang, Shao; Yuanhua, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Effects of cold plasma treatment on soybean (Glycine max L. Merr cv. Zhongdou 40) seed germination and seedling growth were studied. Seeds were pre-treated with 0, 60, 80, 100 and 120 W of cold plasma for 15 s. Results showed that plasma treatments had positive effects on seed germination and seedling growth, and treatment of 80 W had the highest stimulatory effect. Germination and vigor indices significantly increased by 14.66% and 63.33%, respectively. Seed's water uptake improved by 14.03%, and apparent contact angle decreased by 26.19%. Characteristics of seedling growth, including shoot length, shoot dry weight, root length and root dry weight, significantly increased by 13.77%, 21.95%, 21.42% and 27.51%, respectively, compared with control. The seed reserve utilization, including weight of the mobilized seed reserve, seed reserve depletion percentage and seed reserve utilization efficiency significantly improved by cold plasma treatment. In addition, soluble sugar and protein contents were 16.51% and 25.08% higher than those of the control. Compared to a 21.95% increase in shoot weight, the root weight increased by 27.51% after treatment, indicating that plasma treatment had a greater stimulatory effect on plant roots. These results indicated that cold plasma treatment might promote the growth even yield of soybean.

  18. Methyl anthranilate and γ-decalactone inhibit strawberry pathogen growth and achene Germination.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Alan H; Evans, Shane Alan; Folta, Kevin M

    2013-12-26

    Plant volatile compounds have been shown to affect microbial growth and seed germination. Here two fruity volatiles found in strawberry ( Fragaria × ananassa ), γ-decalactone ("peachlike" aroma) and methyl anthranilate ("grapelike" aroma), were tested for effects on relevant pathogens and seedling emergence. Significant growth reduction was observed for Botrytis cinerea , Colletotrichum gloeosporioides , Colletotrichum acutatum , Phomopsis obscurans , and Gnomonia fragariae at 1 mM γ-decalactone or methyl anthranilate, and 5 mM γ-decalactone or methyl anthranilate supplemented medium resulted in complete cessation of fungal growth. Phytophthora cactorum was especially sensitive to 1 mM γ-decalactone, showing complete growth inhibition. Bacteriostatic effects were observed in Xanthamonas cultures. Postharvest infestations on store-bought strawberries were inhibited with volatile treatment. The γ-decalactone volatile inhibited strawberry and Arabidopsis thaliana germination. These findings show that two compounds contributing to strawberry flavor may also contribute to shelf life and suggest that γ-decalactone may play an ecological role by preventing premature germination. PMID:24328200

  19. Effects of cold plasma treatment on seed germination and seedling growth of soybean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Li; Jiafeng, Jiang; Jiangang, Li; Minchong, Shen; Xin, He; Hanliang, Shao; Yuanhua, Dong

    2014-07-01

    Effects of cold plasma treatment on soybean (Glycine max L. Merr cv. Zhongdou 40) seed germination and seedling growth were studied. Seeds were pre-treated with 0, 60, 80, 100 and 120 W of cold plasma for 15 s. Results showed that plasma treatments had positive effects on seed germination and seedling growth, and treatment of 80 W had the highest stimulatory effect. Germination and vigor indices significantly increased by 14.66% and 63.33%, respectively. Seed's water uptake improved by 14.03%, and apparent contact angle decreased by 26.19%. Characteristics of seedling growth, including shoot length, shoot dry weight, root length and root dry weight, significantly increased by 13.77%, 21.95%, 21.42% and 27.51%, respectively, compared with control. The seed reserve utilization, including weight of the mobilized seed reserve, seed reserve depletion percentage and seed reserve utilization efficiency significantly improved by cold plasma treatment. In addition, soluble sugar and protein contents were 16.51% and 25.08% higher than those of the control. Compared to a 21.95% increase in shoot weight, the root weight increased by 27.51% after treatment, indicating that plasma treatment had a greater stimulatory effect on plant roots. These results indicated that cold plasma treatment might promote the growth even yield of soybean.

  20. Effects of cold plasma treatment on seed germination and seedling growth of soybean

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Li; Jiafeng, Jiang; Jiangang, Li; Minchong, Shen; Xin, He; Hanliang, Shao; Yuanhua, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Effects of cold plasma treatment on soybean (Glycine max L. Merr cv. Zhongdou 40) seed germination and seedling growth were studied. Seeds were pre-treated with 0, 60, 80, 100 and 120 W of cold plasma for 15 s. Results showed that plasma treatments had positive effects on seed germination and seedling growth, and treatment of 80 W had the highest stimulatory effect. Germination and vigor indices significantly increased by 14.66% and 63.33%, respectively. Seed's water uptake improved by 14.03%, and apparent contact angle decreased by 26.19%. Characteristics of seedling growth, including shoot length, shoot dry weight, root length and root dry weight, significantly increased by 13.77%, 21.95%, 21.42% and 27.51%, respectively, compared with control. The seed reserve utilization, including weight of the mobilized seed reserve, seed reserve depletion percentage and seed reserve utilization efficiency significantly improved by cold plasma treatment. In addition, soluble sugar and protein contents were 16.51% and 25.08% higher than those of the control. Compared to a 21.95% increase in shoot weight, the root weight increased by 27.51% after treatment, indicating that plasma treatment had a greater stimulatory effect on plant roots. These results indicated that cold plasma treatment might promote the growth even yield of soybean. PMID:25080862

  1. Melatonin promotes seminal root elongation and root growth in transgenic rice after germination.

    PubMed

    Park, Sangkyu; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2012-11-01

    The effect of melatonin on root growth after germination was examined in transgenic rice seedlings expressing sheep serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT). Enhanced melatonin levels were found in T(3) homozygous seedlings because of the ectopic overexpression of sheep NAT, which is believed to be the rate-limiting enzyme in melatonin biosynthesis in animals. Compared with wild-type rice seeds, the transgenic rice seeds showed enhanced seminal root growth and an analogous number of adventitious roots 4 and 10 days after seeding on half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium. The enhanced initial seminal root growth in the transgenic seedlings matched their increased root biomass well. We also found that treatment with 0.5 and 1 μM melatonin promoted seminal root growth of the wild type under continuous light. These results indicate that melatonin plays an important role in regulating both seminal root length and root growth after germination in monocotyledonous rice plants. This is the first report on the effects of melatonin on root growth in gain-of-function mutant plants that produce high levels of melatonin.

  2. Plant Growth Regulators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickell, Louis G.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the effect of "plant growth regulators" on plants, such as controlling the flowering, fruit development, plant size, and increasing crop yields. Provides a list of plant growth regulators which includes their chemical, common, and trade names, as well as their different use(s). (GA)

  3. The influence of microbial associations on germination of wheat seeds and growth of seedlings under impact of zinc salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somova, L. A.; Pechurkin, N. S.

    2009-04-01

    The life support systems (LSS) for long-term missions are to use cycling-recycling systems, including biological recycling. Higher plants are the traditional regenerator of air and producer of food. They should be used in many successive generations of their reproduction in LSS. Studies of influence of microbial associations on germination of wheat seeds and on growth of seedlings under impact of heavy metals are necessary because of migration of heavy metals in LSS. Microbial associations are able to stimulate growth of plants, to protect them from pathogenic organisms and from toxicity of heavy metal salts. The goal of this work was to investigate effect of microbial associations on the germination of wheat seeds and on the growth of seedlings under impact of different concentrations of ZnSO4. The results of investigations showed that:Zinc salt had an adverse effect on germination of wheat seeds, beginning with concentrations of 8 MPC (Maximum Permissible Concentration) and higher.Microbial associations (concentrations -104 to 107 cells/ml) were able to decrease (partly or completely) the adverse effect of ZnSO4 on germination of wheat seeds.Concentrations (104-107 cells/ml) of microbial associations were able to decrease partly the adverse effect of zinc salts (intervals: from 1 to 32 MP?) on the growth and development of wheat plantlets during heterotrophic phase.The root system of plants was more sensitive to the adverse effect of ZnSO4 than shoots of plants.

  4. Are cactus growth forms related to germination responses to light? A test using Echinopsis species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega-Baes, Pablo; Aparicio-González, Mónica; Galíndez, Guadalupe; del Fueyo, Patricia; Sühring, Silvia; Rojas-Aréchiga, Mariana

    2010-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of light regimen (white light vs. darkness) on the germination of 12 species of the Echinopsis genus (tribe Trichocereeae, Cactaceae). This genus presents a variety of growth forms and relatively small and uniform seed size. These traits allowed us to test, within the same linage and removing seed mass effect, the hypothesis that the germination response to light (indifferent to light or positive photoblastic) is related to growth form. Our results reject this hypothesis since no seeds germinated in darkness, so all of the species can be classified as being positively photoblastic. The proportion of seed germination with white light was significantly different among cactus growth forms. Columnar cacti (arborescent, creeping and short) showed a greater proportion of seed germination than barrel and globose cacti. The germination rate differed among growth forms and species. At constant temperatures, creeping columnar cacti presented a significantly higher germination rate than the other growth forms. With alternating temperatures, columnar cacti showed higher germination rates than the other growth forms. The low proportion of seeds that germinated for some species indicates that they show seed dormancy. Our results suggest that germination responses to light in the cactus family could be related to seed mass and phylogenetic constraints.

  5. Effects of saline-alkaline stress on seed germination and seedling growth of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanyun; Lu, Zhaohua; He, Lei

    2014-08-01

    In order to study the adaptation ability of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) in the Yellow River Delta, the sweet sorghum variety Mart was used in this study to determine the roles of different saline-alkaline ratio stress treatment during seed germination to seedling stage. The results showed that Na+ concentration had a significant impact on the seed germination, seedling growth, and plant survival of sweet sorghum. Increasing Na+ concentration led to a decline in germination rate, final germination percentage, survival percentage, plant height, and dry weight per plant, a prolonged mean time of germination, as well as loss of improvement effect of low-Na+ concentration. The interaction effect of Na+ concentration and pH on the mean time of germination and germination rate was not significant (p<0.05). However, under the condition of low-Na+ concentration (100 mM), high pH reduced the mean time of germination and increased the germination rate, without decline in final germination percentage and survival percentage. Therefore, at least in the duration of seed germination to the harvest period in the research, the sweet sorghum was resistant to the pH stress (≥9.04) when the Na+ concentration was below 100 mM. When suffered from the saline-alkaline stress, the seedling of sweet sorghum was characterized by ecological adaptive features, such as decreased stem ratio and chlorophyll b content in leaves and increased root ratio and chlorophyll a content, in order to maintain the uptakes of water and nutrient, and carbon assimilation. When the stress intensified, the lipid oxidation products, e.g., malondialdehyde (MDA), increased in sweet sorghum seedlings. However, the increasing of soluble protein content and antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), and gatalase (CAT)) was only founded in neutral low-Na+ concentration treatment (A1), which indicated that high-salt concentration and pH all elicited harmful effects

  6. Effects of saline-alkaline stress on seed germination and seedling growth of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanyun; Lu, Zhaohua; He, Lei

    2014-08-01

    In order to study the adaptation ability of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) in the Yellow River Delta, the sweet sorghum variety Mart was used in this study to determine the roles of different saline-alkaline ratio stress treatment during seed germination to seedling stage. The results showed that Na+ concentration had a significant impact on the seed germination, seedling growth, and plant survival of sweet sorghum. Increasing Na+ concentration led to a decline in germination rate, final germination percentage, survival percentage, plant height, and dry weight per plant, a prolonged mean time of germination, as well as loss of improvement effect of low-Na+ concentration. The interaction effect of Na+ concentration and pH on the mean time of germination and germination rate was not significant (p<0.05). However, under the condition of low-Na+ concentration (100 mM), high pH reduced the mean time of germination and increased the germination rate, without decline in final germination percentage and survival percentage. Therefore, at least in the duration of seed germination to the harvest period in the research, the sweet sorghum was resistant to the pH stress (≥9.04) when the Na+ concentration was below 100 mM. When suffered from the saline-alkaline stress, the seedling of sweet sorghum was characterized by ecological adaptive features, such as decreased stem ratio and chlorophyll b content in leaves and increased root ratio and chlorophyll a content, in order to maintain the uptakes of water and nutrient, and carbon assimilation. When the stress intensified, the lipid oxidation products, e.g., malondialdehyde (MDA), increased in sweet sorghum seedlings. However, the increasing of soluble protein content and antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), and gatalase (CAT)) was only founded in neutral low-Na+ concentration treatment (A1), which indicated that high-salt concentration and pH all elicited harmful effects

  7. [Effects of simulated acid rain on seed germination and seedling growth of different type corn Zea mays].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Yan

    2013-06-01

    Taking normal corn, waxy corn, pop corn, and sweet corn as test materials, this paper studied their seed germination and seedling growth under effects of simulated acid rain (pH 6.0, 5.0, 4.0, 3.0, 2.0, and 1.0). Simulated acid rain at pH 2.0-5.0 had no significant effects on the seed germination and seedling growth, but at pH 1.0, the germination rate of normal corn, waxy corn, pop corn, and sweet corn was 91.3%, 68.7%, 27.5%, and 11.7%, respectively. As compared with those at pH 6.0 (CK), the germination rate, germination index, vigor index, germination velocity, shoot height, root length, shoot and root dry mass, and the transformation rate of stored substances at pH 1.0 had significant decrease, and the average germination time extended apparently. At pH 1.0, the effects of acid rain were greater at seedling growth stage than at germination stage, and greater on underground part than on aboveground part. Due to the differences in gene type, normal corn and waxy corn had the strongest capability against acid rain, followed by pop corn, and sweet corn. It was suggested that corn could be categorized as an acid rain-tolerant crop, the injury threshold value of acid rain was likely between pH 1.0 and pH 2.0, and normal corn and waxy corn would be prioritized for planting in acid rain-stricken area.

  8. [Effects of simulated acid rain on seed germination and seedling growth of different type corn Zea mays].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Yan

    2013-06-01

    Taking normal corn, waxy corn, pop corn, and sweet corn as test materials, this paper studied their seed germination and seedling growth under effects of simulated acid rain (pH 6.0, 5.0, 4.0, 3.0, 2.0, and 1.0). Simulated acid rain at pH 2.0-5.0 had no significant effects on the seed germination and seedling growth, but at pH 1.0, the germination rate of normal corn, waxy corn, pop corn, and sweet corn was 91.3%, 68.7%, 27.5%, and 11.7%, respectively. As compared with those at pH 6.0 (CK), the germination rate, germination index, vigor index, germination velocity, shoot height, root length, shoot and root dry mass, and the transformation rate of stored substances at pH 1.0 had significant decrease, and the average germination time extended apparently. At pH 1.0, the effects of acid rain were greater at seedling growth stage than at germination stage, and greater on underground part than on aboveground part. Due to the differences in gene type, normal corn and waxy corn had the strongest capability against acid rain, followed by pop corn, and sweet corn. It was suggested that corn could be categorized as an acid rain-tolerant crop, the injury threshold value of acid rain was likely between pH 1.0 and pH 2.0, and normal corn and waxy corn would be prioritized for planting in acid rain-stricken area. PMID:24066549

  9. Water potential affects Coniothyrium minitans growth, germination and parasitism of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum sclerotia.

    PubMed

    Jones, E Eirian; Stewart, Alison; Whipps, John M

    2011-09-01

    Water availability is an important environmental factor which has major effects on fungal activity. The effects of osmotic (KCl amended agar) and matric Polyethylene glycol ((PEG) 8000 amended agar) potentials over the range -0.1 to -5.0MPa on mycelial growth and conidial germination of eight isolates of the sclerotial parasite Coniothyrium minitans was assessed. The influence of soil water potential on the ability of three selected isolates (LU112, LU545, and T5R42i) to parasitise sclerotia of the plant pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was determined. For all eight C. minitans isolates, decreasing osmotic and matric potentials caused a reduction in mycelial growth and conidial germination. Isolates were more sensitive to decreasing matric potential than osmotic potential. Across the isolates, growth at an osmotic potential of -5.0MPa was 30-70% of the growth seen in the control, whereas less than 20% of the control growth was seen at the corresponding matric potential. Across all isolates no conidial germination was seen at matric potential of -5.0MPa. The C. minitans isolates varied in their sensitivity to decreasing water potentials. Mycelial growth and conidial germination of three isolates (LU112, Conio, and CH1) were more tolerant of low osmotic potential and matric potential with respect to mycelial growth. Isolates T5R42i and LU430 were least tolerant. In contrast, conidial germination of isolates Conio, LU545, and T5R42i were less sensitive to decreasing matric potential. Soil water potential was seen to affect infection and viability of sclerotia by the three C. minitans isolates. Isolate LU545 reduced sclerotial viability over a wider water potential range (-0.01 to -1.5MPa) compared with LU112 (-0.01 to -1.0MPa), with isolate T5R42i being intermediate. Indigenous soil fungi (Trichoderma spp. and Clonostachys rosea) were recovered from sclerotia but did not result in reduction in sclerotial viability. The relevance of these results in relation to

  10. Water potential affects Coniothyrium minitans growth, germination and parasitism of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum sclerotia.

    PubMed

    Jones, E Eirian; Stewart, Alison; Whipps, John M

    2011-09-01

    Water availability is an important environmental factor which has major effects on fungal activity. The effects of osmotic (KCl amended agar) and matric Polyethylene glycol ((PEG) 8000 amended agar) potentials over the range -0.1 to -5.0MPa on mycelial growth and conidial germination of eight isolates of the sclerotial parasite Coniothyrium minitans was assessed. The influence of soil water potential on the ability of three selected isolates (LU112, LU545, and T5R42i) to parasitise sclerotia of the plant pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was determined. For all eight C. minitans isolates, decreasing osmotic and matric potentials caused a reduction in mycelial growth and conidial germination. Isolates were more sensitive to decreasing matric potential than osmotic potential. Across the isolates, growth at an osmotic potential of -5.0MPa was 30-70% of the growth seen in the control, whereas less than 20% of the control growth was seen at the corresponding matric potential. Across all isolates no conidial germination was seen at matric potential of -5.0MPa. The C. minitans isolates varied in their sensitivity to decreasing water potentials. Mycelial growth and conidial germination of three isolates (LU112, Conio, and CH1) were more tolerant of low osmotic potential and matric potential with respect to mycelial growth. Isolates T5R42i and LU430 were least tolerant. In contrast, conidial germination of isolates Conio, LU545, and T5R42i were less sensitive to decreasing matric potential. Soil water potential was seen to affect infection and viability of sclerotia by the three C. minitans isolates. Isolate LU545 reduced sclerotial viability over a wider water potential range (-0.01 to -1.5MPa) compared with LU112 (-0.01 to -1.0MPa), with isolate T5R42i being intermediate. Indigenous soil fungi (Trichoderma spp. and Clonostachys rosea) were recovered from sclerotia but did not result in reduction in sclerotial viability. The relevance of these results in relation to

  11. Temperature and water stress during conditioning and incubation phase affecting Orobanche crenata seed germination and radicle growth.

    PubMed

    Moral, Juan; Lozano-Baena, María Dolores; Rubiales, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Orobanche crenata is a holoparasitic plant that is potentially devastating to crop yield of legume species. Soil temperature and humidity are known to affect seed germination, however, the extent of their influence on germination and radicle growth of those of O. crenata is largely unknown. In this work, we studied the effects of temperature, water potential (Ψt) and the type of water stress (matric or osmotic) on O. crenata seeds during conditioning and incubation periods. We found that seeds germinated between 5 and 30°C during both periods, with a maximum around 20°C. Germination increased with increasing Ψt from -1.2 to 0 MPa during conditioning and incubation periods. Likewise, seed germination increased logarithmically with length of conditioning period until 40 days. The impact of the type of water stress on seed germination was similar, although the radicle growth of seeds under osmotic stress was lower than under matric stress, what could explain the lowest infestation of Orobanche sp. in regions characterized by saline soil. The data in this study will be useful to forecast infection of host roots by O. crenata. PMID:26089829

  12. Temperature and water stress during conditioning and incubation phase affecting Orobanche crenata seed germination and radicle growth

    PubMed Central

    Moral, Juan; Lozano-Baena, María Dolores; Rubiales, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Orobanche crenata is a holoparasitic plant that is potentially devastating to crop yield of legume species. Soil temperature and humidity are known to affect seed germination, however, the extent of their influence on germination and radicle growth of those of O. crenata is largely unknown. In this work, we studied the effects of temperature, water potential (Ψt) and the type of water stress (matric or osmotic) on O. crenata seeds during conditioning and incubation periods. We found that seeds germinated between 5 and 30°C during both periods, with a maximum around 20°C. Germination increased with increasing Ψt from −1.2 to 0 MPa during conditioning and incubation periods. Likewise, seed germination increased logarithmically with length of conditioning period until 40 days. The impact of the type of water stress on seed germination was similar, although the radicle growth of seeds under osmotic stress was lower than under matric stress, what could explain the lowest infestation of Orobanche sp. in regions characterized by saline soil. The data in this study will be useful to forecast infection of host roots by O. crenata. PMID:26089829

  13. Whole-Plant Dynamic System of Nitrogen Use for Vegetative Growth and Grain Filling in Rice Plants (Oryza sativa L.) as Revealed through the Production of 350 Grains from a Germinated Seed Over 150 Days: A Review and Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Yoneyama, Tadakatsu; Tanno, Fumio; Tatsumi, Jiro; Mae, Tadahiko

    2016-01-01

    A single germinated rice (Oryza sativa L) seed can produce 350 grains with the sequential development of 15 leaves on the main stem and 7-10 leaves on four productive tillers (forming five panicles in total), using nitrogen (N) taken up from the environment over a 150-day growing season. Nitrogen travels from uptake sites to the grain through growing organ-directed cycling among sequentially developed organs. Over the past 40 years, the dynamic system for N allocation during vegetative growth and grain filling has been elucidated through studies on N and (15)N transport as well as enzymes and transporters involved. In this review, we synthesize the information obtained in these studies along the following main points: (1) During vegetative growth before grain-filling, about half of the total N in the growing organs, including young leaves, tillers, root tips and differentiating panicles is supplied via phloem from mature source organs such as leaves and roots, after turnover and remobilization of proteins, whereas the other half is newly taken up and supplied via xylem, with an efficient xylem-to-phloem transfer at stem nodes. Thus, the growth of new organs depends equally on both N sources. (2) A large fraction (as much as 80%) of the grain N is derived largely from mature organs such as leaves and stems by degradation, including the autophagy pathway of chloroplast proteins (e.g., Rubisco). (3) Mobilized proteinogenic amino acids (AA), including arginine, lysine, proline and valine, are derived mainly from protein degradation, with AA transporters playing a role in transferring these AAs across cell membranes of source and sink organs, and enabling their efficient reutilization in the latter. On the other hand, AAs such as glutamine, glutamic acid, γ-amino butyric acid, aspartic acid, and alanine are produced by assimilation of newly taken up N by roots and and transported via xylem and phloem. The formation of 350 filled grains over 50 days during the

  14. Whole-Plant Dynamic System of Nitrogen Use for Vegetative Growth and Grain Filling in Rice Plants (Oryza sativa L.) as Revealed through the Production of 350 Grains from a Germinated Seed Over 150 Days: A Review and Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Yoneyama, Tadakatsu; Tanno, Fumio; Tatsumi, Jiro; Mae, Tadahiko

    2016-01-01

    A single germinated rice (Oryza sativa L) seed can produce 350 grains with the sequential development of 15 leaves on the main stem and 7-10 leaves on four productive tillers (forming five panicles in total), using nitrogen (N) taken up from the environment over a 150-day growing season. Nitrogen travels from uptake sites to the grain through growing organ-directed cycling among sequentially developed organs. Over the past 40 years, the dynamic system for N allocation during vegetative growth and grain filling has been elucidated through studies on N and (15)N transport as well as enzymes and transporters involved. In this review, we synthesize the information obtained in these studies along the following main points: (1) During vegetative growth before grain-filling, about half of the total N in the growing organs, including young leaves, tillers, root tips and differentiating panicles is supplied via phloem from mature source organs such as leaves and roots, after turnover and remobilization of proteins, whereas the other half is newly taken up and supplied via xylem, with an efficient xylem-to-phloem transfer at stem nodes. Thus, the growth of new organs depends equally on both N sources. (2) A large fraction (as much as 80%) of the grain N is derived largely from mature organs such as leaves and stems by degradation, including the autophagy pathway of chloroplast proteins (e.g., Rubisco). (3) Mobilized proteinogenic amino acids (AA), including arginine, lysine, proline and valine, are derived mainly from protein degradation, with AA transporters playing a role in transferring these AAs across cell membranes of source and sink organs, and enabling their efficient reutilization in the latter. On the other hand, AAs such as glutamine, glutamic acid, γ-amino butyric acid, aspartic acid, and alanine are produced by assimilation of newly taken up N by roots and and transported via xylem and phloem. The formation of 350 filled grains over 50 days during the

  15. Whole-Plant Dynamic System of Nitrogen Use for Vegetative Growth and Grain Filling in Rice Plants (Oryza sativa L.) as Revealed through the Production of 350 Grains from a Germinated Seed Over 150 Days: A Review and Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Yoneyama, Tadakatsu; Tanno, Fumio; Tatsumi, Jiro; Mae, Tadahiko

    2016-01-01

    A single germinated rice (Oryza sativa L) seed can produce 350 grains with the sequential development of 15 leaves on the main stem and 7–10 leaves on four productive tillers (forming five panicles in total), using nitrogen (N) taken up from the environment over a 150-day growing season. Nitrogen travels from uptake sites to the grain through growing organ-directed cycling among sequentially developed organs. Over the past 40 years, the dynamic system for N allocation during vegetative growth and grain filling has been elucidated through studies on N and 15N transport as well as enzymes and transporters involved. In this review, we synthesize the information obtained in these studies along the following main points: (1) During vegetative growth before grain-filling, about half of the total N in the growing organs, including young leaves, tillers, root tips and differentiating panicles is supplied via phloem from mature source organs such as leaves and roots, after turnover and remobilization of proteins, whereas the other half is newly taken up and supplied via xylem, with an efficient xylem-to-phloem transfer at stem nodes. Thus, the growth of new organs depends equally on both N sources. (2) A large fraction (as much as 80%) of the grain N is derived largely from mature organs such as leaves and stems by degradation, including the autophagy pathway of chloroplast proteins (e.g., Rubisco). (3) Mobilized proteinogenic amino acids (AA), including arginine, lysine, proline and valine, are derived mainly from protein degradation, with AA transporters playing a role in transferring these AAs across cell membranes of source and sink organs, and enabling their efficient reutilization in the latter. On the other hand, AAs such as glutamine, glutamic acid, γ-amino butyric acid, aspartic acid, and alanine are produced by assimilation of newly taken up N by roots and and transported via xylem and phloem. The formation of 350 filled grains over 50 days during the

  16. Effect of smoke derivatives on in vitro pollen germination and pollen tube elongation of species from different plant families.

    PubMed

    Kumari, A; Papenfus, H B; Kulkarni, M G; Pošta, M; Van Staden, J

    2015-07-01

    Plant-derived smoke stimulates seed germination in numerous plant species. Smoke also has a positive stimulatory effect on pollen germination and pollen tube growth. The range of plant families affected my smoke still needs to be established since the initial study was restricted to only three species from the Amaryllidaceae. The effects of smoke-water (SW) and the smoke-derived compounds, karrikinolide (KAR1 ) and trimethylbutenolide (TMB) on pollen growth characteristics were evaluated in seven different plant families. Smoke-water (1:1000 and 1:2000 v:v) combined with either Brewbaker and Kwack's (BWK) medium or sucrose and boric acid (SB) medium significantly improved pollen germination and pollen tube growth in Aloe maculata All., Kniphofia uvaria Oken, Lachenalia aloides (L.f.) Engl. var. aloides and Tulbaghia simmleri P. Beauv. Karrikinolide (10(-6) and 10(-7) m) treatment significantly improved pollen tube growth in A. maculata, K. uvaria, L. aloides and Nematanthus crassifolius (Schott) Wiehle compared to the controls. BWK or SB medium containing TMB (10(-3) m) produced significantly longer pollen tubes in A. maculata, K. uvaria and N. crassifolius. These results indicate that plant-derived smoke and the smoke-isolated compounds may stimulate pollen growth in a wide range of plant species.

  17. Cytological and Proteomic Analyses of Osmunda cinnamomea Germinating Spores Reveal Characteristics of Fern Spore Germination and Rhizoid Tip Growth*

    PubMed Central

    Suo, Jinwei; Zhao, Qi; Zhang, Zhengxiu; Chen, Sixue; Cao, Jian'guo; Liu, Guanjun; Wei, Xing; Wang, Tai; Yang, Chuanping; Dai, Shaojun

    2015-01-01

    Fern spore is a good single-cell model for studying the sophisticated molecular networks in asymmetric cell division, differentiation, and polar growth. Osmunda cinnamomea L. var. asiatica is one of the oldest fern species with typical separate-growing trophophyll and sporophyll. The chlorophyllous spores generated from sporophyll can germinate without dormancy. In this study, the spore ultrastructure, antioxidant enzyme activities, as well as protein and gene expression patterns were analyzed in the course of spore germination at five typical stages (i.e. mature spores, rehydrated spores, double-celled spores, germinated spores, and spores with protonemal cells). Proteomic analysis revealed 113 differentially expressed proteins, which were mainly involved in photosynthesis, reserve mobilization, energy supplying, protein synthesis and turnover, reactive oxygen species scavenging, signaling, and cell structure modulation. The presence of multiple proteoforms of 25 differentially expressed proteins implies that post-translational modification may play important roles in spore germination. The dynamic patterns of proteins and their encoding genes exhibited specific characteristics in the processes of cell division and rhizoid tip growth, which include heterotrophic and autotrophic metabolisms, de novo protein synthesis and active protein turnover, reactive oxygen species and hormone (brassinosteroid and ethylene) signaling, and vesicle trafficking and cytoskeleton dynamic. In addition, the function skew of proteins in fern spores highlights the unique and common mechanisms when compared with evolutionarily divergent spermatophyte pollen. These findings provide an improved understanding of the typical single-celled asymmetric division and polar growth during fern spore germination. PMID:26091698

  18. [Plant hormones, plant growth regulators].

    PubMed

    Végvári, György; Vidéki, Edina

    2014-06-29

    Plants seem to be rather defenceless, they are unable to do motion, have no nervous system or immune system unlike animals. Besides this, plants do have hormones, though these substances are produced not in glands. In view of their complexity they lagged behind animals, however, plant organisms show large scale integration in their structure and function. In higher plants, such as in animals, the intercellular communication is fulfilled through chemical messengers. These specific compounds in plants are called phytohormones, or in a wide sense, bioregulators. Even a small quantity of these endogenous organic compounds are able to regulate the operation, growth and development of higher plants, and keep the connection between cells, tissues and synergy between organs. Since they do not have nervous and immume systems, phytohormones play essential role in plants' life.

  19. [Plant hormones, plant growth regulators].

    PubMed

    Végvári, György; Vidéki, Edina

    2014-06-29

    Plants seem to be rather defenceless, they are unable to do motion, have no nervous system or immune system unlike animals. Besides this, plants do have hormones, though these substances are produced not in glands. In view of their complexity they lagged behind animals, however, plant organisms show large scale integration in their structure and function. In higher plants, such as in animals, the intercellular communication is fulfilled through chemical messengers. These specific compounds in plants are called phytohormones, or in a wide sense, bioregulators. Even a small quantity of these endogenous organic compounds are able to regulate the operation, growth and development of higher plants, and keep the connection between cells, tissues and synergy between organs. Since they do not have nervous and immume systems, phytohormones play essential role in plants' life. PMID:24954142

  20. Differences in Germination, Growth, and Fecundity Characteristics of Dicamba-Fluroxypyr-Resistant and Susceptible Kochia scoparia.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vipan; Jha, Prashant

    2016-01-01

    The widespread occurrence of herbicide-resistant (HR) Kochia scoparia is an increasing concern for growers in the US Great Plains and Canada. K. scoparia populations resistant to dicamba have been reported in six US states. Populations cross-resistant to dicamba and fluroxypyr have been reported from wheat fields in Montana, USA. It is unclear whether resistance to the auxinic herbicides (dicamba and/or fluroxypyr), can alter the fitness traits of K. scoparia. The objectives of this research were to compare the germination dynamics in response to thermal environment, vegetative growth and fecundity characteristics, and the relative competitive ability of dicamba-fluroxypyr-susceptible (S) vs.-resistant (R) K. scoparia selected from within a single segregating population (collected from wheat-fallow field in MT). S and R selected lines were developed after three generations of recurrent group selection. Compared to the S selected line, the R selected line had lower cumulative germination at all constant temperatures except 25°C, and at all alternating temperatures except 30/35°C. Also, the R selected line had delayed germination relative to the S selected line. The R had lower plant height, plant width, primary branches, total leaf area, stem diameter, and shoot dry weight compared with the S plants in the absence of competition. The reduction in seed production per plant resulted in a 39% fitness cost. The 1000-seed weight of R (1.6 g) was also less than that of S (2.6 g). When grown in an intraspecific competition at different mixture proportions, replacement series indices for the growth parameters further indicated that the R was less competitive than the S. Evident from this research, the dicamba-fluroxypyr-resistant R selected line is less likely to persist in a field population in the absence of the auxinic herbicides. PMID:27537419

  1. Differences in Germination, Growth, and Fecundity Characteristics of Dicamba-Fluroxypyr-Resistant and Susceptible Kochia scoparia

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vipan; Jha, Prashant

    2016-01-01

    The widespread occurrence of herbicide-resistant (HR) Kochia scoparia is an increasing concern for growers in the US Great Plains and Canada. K. scoparia populations resistant to dicamba have been reported in six US states. Populations cross-resistant to dicamba and fluroxypyr have been reported from wheat fields in Montana, USA. It is unclear whether resistance to the auxinic herbicides (dicamba and/or fluroxypyr), can alter the fitness traits of K. scoparia. The objectives of this research were to compare the germination dynamics in response to thermal environment, vegetative growth and fecundity characteristics, and the relative competitive ability of dicamba-fluroxypyr–susceptible (S) vs.–resistant (R) K. scoparia selected from within a single segregating population (collected from wheat-fallow field in MT). S and R selected lines were developed after three generations of recurrent group selection. Compared to the S selected line, the R selected line had lower cumulative germination at all constant temperatures except 25°C, and at all alternating temperatures except 30/35°C. Also, the R selected line had delayed germination relative to the S selected line. The R had lower plant height, plant width, primary branches, total leaf area, stem diameter, and shoot dry weight compared with the S plants in the absence of competition. The reduction in seed production per plant resulted in a 39% fitness cost. The 1000-seed weight of R (1.6 g) was also less than that of S (2.6 g). When grown in an intraspecific competition at different mixture proportions, replacement series indices for the growth parameters further indicated that the R was less competitive than the S. Evident from this research, the dicamba-fluroxypyr–resistant R selected line is less likely to persist in a field population in the absence of the auxinic herbicides. PMID:27537419

  2. Effects of Aflatoxin on Germination and Growth of Lettuce

    PubMed Central

    Crisan, Eli V.

    1973-01-01

    The relative susceptibility of 30 cultivars of lettuce to inhibition by aflatoxin was studied. Seed germination was not inhibited by concentrations as high as 1,000 μg/ml in cultivar Imperial 44 or by 100 μg/ml in the remaining cultivars. Hypocotyl elongation was inhibited by 46 to 68% at a concentration of 100 μg of aflatoxin per ml. Seedlings exposed to aflatoxin did not become chlorotic. The similarity between the morphological reaction of plants to coumarin and aflatoxin suggests a common mode of action, but further studies of the physiological basis for the inhibitory reactions induced by these compounds will be necessary before such conclusions will be valid. PMID:4698861

  3. Enhancement in the germination, growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) using pre-sowing magnetic treatment of seeds.

    PubMed

    Naz, Afshan; Jamil, Yasir; ul Haq, Zia; Iqbal, Munawar; Ahmad, Muhammad Raza; Ashraf, Muhammad Irfan; Ahmad, Rasheed

    2012-06-01

    The effect of pre-sowing magnetic treatments was investigated on germination, growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus cv. Sapz pari). The dry okra seeds were exposed to sinusoidal magnetic field induced by an electromagnet. The average magnetic field exposure was 99 mT for 3 and 11 min and seeds with no magnetic field treatment were considered as control. Both treated and non-treated seeds were sown in experimental plots (120 m2) under similar conditions. Samples were collected at regular intervals for statistical analysis. A significant increase (P < 0.05) was observed in germination percentage, number of flowers per plant, leaf area (cm2), plant height (cm) at maturity, number of fruits per plant, pod mass per plant and number of seeds per plant. The 99 mT for 11 min exposure showed better results as compared to control.

  4. Enhancement in the germination, growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) using pre-sowing magnetic treatment of seeds.

    PubMed

    Naz, Afshan; Jamil, Yasir; ul Haq, Zia; Iqbal, Munawar; Ahmad, Muhammad Raza; Ashraf, Muhammad Irfan; Ahmad, Rasheed

    2012-06-01

    The effect of pre-sowing magnetic treatments was investigated on germination, growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus cv. Sapz pari). The dry okra seeds were exposed to sinusoidal magnetic field induced by an electromagnet. The average magnetic field exposure was 99 mT for 3 and 11 min and seeds with no magnetic field treatment were considered as control. Both treated and non-treated seeds were sown in experimental plots (120 m2) under similar conditions. Samples were collected at regular intervals for statistical analysis. A significant increase (P < 0.05) was observed in germination percentage, number of flowers per plant, leaf area (cm2), plant height (cm) at maturity, number of fruits per plant, pod mass per plant and number of seeds per plant. The 99 mT for 11 min exposure showed better results as compared to control. PMID:22803337

  5. Germination characteristics of six plant species growing on the Hanford Site. [Disturbed land revegetation feasibility studies

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, G.R.; Kirkham, R.R.; Cline, J.F.

    1980-03-01

    Six plant species (Siberian and thickspike wheatgrass, cheatgrass, sand dropseed, Indian ricegrass, and Russian thistle) found on the Hanford Site were studied as part of an investigation into the revegetation of disturbed areas. Germination response to three environmental parameters (soil moisture, soil temperature, and planting depth) were measured. Results indicated that when a polyethylene glycol solution was used to control the osmotic potential of the imbibition media, no significant decrease in germination rate occurred down to -3.0 bars. However, below -7.0 bars all species experienced a decrease in germination. When germinated in soil, all species except Russian thistle exhibited a significant decrease in germination rate at -0.3 bars. Russian thistle was the only species tested that exhibited germination at a soil temperature of 1/sup 0/C. All species gave optimum germination at temperatures between 10 and 15/sup 0/C. Thickspike wheatgrass was the only species tested which was able to germinate and emerge from a planting depth of greater than 2 inches. If supplemental moisture is provided, a shallow planting would be advisable for those species tested. If not overcome by pretreatment prior to planting, seed dormancy may be a significant factor which will reduce the germination potential of some species tested.

  6. [Effects of Pb2+ stress on seed germination & seedling growth of Rabdosia rubescens].

    PubMed

    Kong, Si-Xin; Su, He; Zhan, Yan-Ting; Li, Hai-Kui; Cui, Xu-Sheng; Guo, Yu-Hai

    2014-11-01

    The seeds of Rabdosia rubescens were as the materials to research the impacts of different lead (Pb2+) concentrations(0, 135, 270, 540, 1 080 mg x L(-1)) on seed germination and seedling growth. The results show that: Low concentration of lead had no obvious effect on early germination of the seed, the germination vigor and germination speed were lightly higher but not significantly differed at the level of Pb concentration 135 mg x L(-1) with control group; Mid-high concentration of Pb solution (270-1 080 mg x L(-1)) significantly inhibited the seed germination and seedling growth, which reduced the seed germination rate, germination vigor, germination index, embryo root length and shoot length, growth index with increasing of Pb concentrations. There was a inhibitory effect on embryo shoot length and root length at mid-high lead concentrations stress, and stronger inhibitory effect on root , which was more sensitive than shoot to Pb stress(P < 0.05). Pb bioaccumulation coefficient (BC) was 0.76-2.59, increased with concentration of Pb; Pb enrichment in seedling mainly caused the growth inhibition. The fitting model predictive analyses show, the critical concentration of Pb, which causes the germination rate and biomass fresh weight reducing 10%, is 195.18, 101.65 mg x L(-1).

  7. [Effects of Pb2+ stress on seed germination & seedling growth of Rabdosia rubescens].

    PubMed

    Kong, Si-Xin; Su, He; Zhan, Yan-Ting; Li, Hai-Kui; Cui, Xu-Sheng; Guo, Yu-Hai

    2014-11-01

    The seeds of Rabdosia rubescens were as the materials to research the impacts of different lead (Pb2+) concentrations(0, 135, 270, 540, 1 080 mg x L(-1)) on seed germination and seedling growth. The results show that: Low concentration of lead had no obvious effect on early germination of the seed, the germination vigor and germination speed were lightly higher but not significantly differed at the level of Pb concentration 135 mg x L(-1) with control group; Mid-high concentration of Pb solution (270-1 080 mg x L(-1)) significantly inhibited the seed germination and seedling growth, which reduced the seed germination rate, germination vigor, germination index, embryo root length and shoot length, growth index with increasing of Pb concentrations. There was a inhibitory effect on embryo shoot length and root length at mid-high lead concentrations stress, and stronger inhibitory effect on root , which was more sensitive than shoot to Pb stress(P < 0.05). Pb bioaccumulation coefficient (BC) was 0.76-2.59, increased with concentration of Pb; Pb enrichment in seedling mainly caused the growth inhibition. The fitting model predictive analyses show, the critical concentration of Pb, which causes the germination rate and biomass fresh weight reducing 10%, is 195.18, 101.65 mg x L(-1). PMID:25775796

  8. [Characteristics of Cannabis sativa L.: seed morphology, germination and growth characteristics, and distinction from Hibiscus cannabinus L].

    PubMed

    Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Kitazawa, Takashi; Kawano, Noriaki; Iida, Osamu; Kawahara, Nobuo

    2010-02-01

    Illegal cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivation is still a social problem worldwide. Fifty inquiries on cannabis that Research Center for Medicinal Plant Resources (Tsukuba Division) received between January 1, 2000 and March 31, 2009 were itemized in to 8 categories; 1: seed identification, 2: plant identification, 3: indoor cultivation, 4: outdoor cultivation, 5: germination and growth characteristics, 6: expected amount of cannabis products derived from illegal cannabis plant, 7: non-narcotic cannabis and 8: usage of medicinal cannabis. Top three inquiries were 1: seed identification (16 cases), 3: indoor cultivation (10 cases) and 4: outdoor cultivation (6 cases). Characteristics of cannabis, namely seed morphology, germination and growth characteristics, and distinction from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) that is frequently misjudged as cannabis, were studied to contribute for prevention of illegal cannabis cultivation.

  9. Pollen germination and tube growth: dependent on carbon dioxide and independent of ethylene.

    PubMed

    Sfakiotakis, E M; Simons, D H; Dilley, D R

    1972-06-01

    The influence of ethylene and CO(2) on pollen germination and tube growth was investigated employing ventilated culture systems. Ethylene had no effect on pollen germinability or tube growth. Germinating pollen did not produce a detectable amount of ethylene (less than 0.1 nl/g.hr). Supplementing the cultures with CO(2) caused a marked increase in germination and tube growth. The half-maximal response for germination was less than 0.5%. CO(2) levels ranging from 1.08 to 2.22% were found in the internal cavity of lily styles. CO(2) derived from stylar metabolism may, therefore, modulate pollen tube growth thus integrating the events leading to fertilization.

  10. Responses of Seed Germination, Seedling Growth, and Seed Yield Traits to Seed Pretreatment in Maize (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yu; Guan, Bo; Zhou, Daowei; Li, Guangdi; Lou, Yujie

    2014-01-01

    A series of seed priming experiments were conducted to test the effects of different pretreatment methods to seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Results indicated that the seeds primed by gibberellins (GA), NaCl, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) reagents showed a higher imbibitions rate compared to those primed with water. The final germination percentage and germination rate varied with different reagents significantly (P < 0.05). The recommended prime reagents were GA at 10 mg/L, NaCl at 50 mM, and PEG at 15% on account of germination experiment. 15% PEG priming reagent increased shoot and root biomass of maize seedling. The shoot biomass of seedlings after presoaking the seeds with NaCl reagent was significantly higher than the seedlings without priming treatment. No significant differences of plant height, leaf number, and hundred-grain weight were observed between control group and priming treatments. Presoaking with water, NaCl (50 mM), or PEG (15%) significantly increased the hundred-grain weight of maize. Therefore, seed pretreatment is proved to be an effective technique to improve the germination performance, seedling growth, and seed yield of maize. However, when compared with the two methods, if immediate sowing is possible, presoaking is recommended to harvest better benefits compared to priming method. PMID:25093210

  11. Responses of seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits to seed pretreatment in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu; Guan, Bo; Zhou, Daowei; Yu, Junbao; Li, Guangdi; Lou, Yujie

    2014-01-01

    A series of seed priming experiments were conducted to test the effects of different pretreatment methods to seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Results indicated that the seeds primed by gibberellins (GA), NaCl, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) reagents showed a higher imbibitions rate compared to those primed with water. The final germination percentage and germination rate varied with different reagents significantly (P < 0.05). The recommended prime reagents were GA at 10 mg/L, NaCl at 50 mM, and PEG at 15% on account of germination experiment. 15% PEG priming reagent increased shoot and root biomass of maize seedling. The shoot biomass of seedlings after presoaking the seeds with NaCl reagent was significantly higher than the seedlings without priming treatment. No significant differences of plant height, leaf number, and hundred-grain weight were observed between control group and priming treatments. Presoaking with water, NaCl (50 mM), or PEG (15%) significantly increased the hundred-grain weight of maize. Therefore, seed pretreatment is proved to be an effective technique to improve the germination performance, seedling growth, and seed yield of maize. However, when compared with the two methods, if immediate sowing is possible, presoaking is recommended to harvest better benefits compared to priming method.

  12. Seed fate in the myrmecochorous Neotropical plant Turnera ulmifolia L., from plant to germination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar-Rojas, Betzabeth; Rico-Gray, Víctor; Canto, Azucena; Cuautle, Mariana

    2012-04-01

    Myrmecochory (seed dispersal by ants) differs from other dispersal systems in a series of advantages offered by the ants to the plants. Here, seed fate, from fruit to germination, of the myrmecochorous Neotropical plant Turnera ulmifolia L. is described. Seed movement from the fruit to their germination was studied, using different measurements and experiments. The results show that a T. ulmifolia individual produces ca. 5000 seeds per year. The main pre-seed-fall predators are the larvae of the Microlepidopteran Crocidosema plebejana Zeller, which consumed 1% of the seeds on the plant. The red-land crab Gecarcinus lateralis (Freminville) consumed 19% of the seeds beneath the plant and was the main post-seed-fall predator. Seed removal by ants was recorded on and beneath the plant, and ants removed 49% of the total seed production. Considering the seed removal events, the ant Forelius analis contributed with 64% of the total number of events. F. analis took seeds to its nest and discarded 23% of the seeds collected. Germination of seeds collected by F. analis was two to four times higher than that of seeds with and without elaiosome, respectively. The relatively low seed predation was probably related to ant defense, associated with the presence of extrafloral nectaries in this plant and with seed removal on the plant. Our results suggest that F. analis is a quantitatively efficient but qualitatively inefficient seed disperser of T. ulmifolia.

  13. Effect of electroplating factory effluent on the germination and growth of hyacinth bean and mustard. [Dolichos lablab; Brassica compestris

    SciTech Connect

    Ajmal, M.; Khan, A.U.

    1985-12-01

    The effect of electroplating factory effluent in different concentrations (viz., 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, and 4.0%) on the germination and growth of hyacinth beans (Dolichos lablab) and mustard seeds (Brassica compestris) was studied. The germination of seeds was delayed with the increase of effluent concentration and the germination of mustard seeds was totally inhibited at 1.5% effluent concentration while hyacinth bean seeds tolerated the effluent up to 2.5% concentration. The metal content in the hyacinth bean plants increased with increasing effluent concentration but after 1.0% effluent concentration, the concentration of all the metals (Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cu, Zn, Fe) decreased in the plants except Cr, which increased throughout. Percentage germination, fresh weight, dry weight, root length, and shoot length of the plants were also analyzed. Cd, Ni, Co, Mn, and Pb were not detectable in the hyacinth bean plants.

  14. Studies on seed germination and growth in weed species of rice field under salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Hakim, M A; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Hanafi, M M; Selamat, A; Ismail, Mohd Razi; Karim, S M Rezaul

    2011-09-01

    An investigation was made to see the salt tolerance of 10 weed species of rice. Properly dried and treated seeds of weed species were placed on 9 cm diameter petridishes lined with Whatman No. 1 filter paper under 6 salinity regimes, viz. 0 (control), 4, 8, 16, 24 and 32 dS m(-1). The petri dishes were then kept in germinator at 25 +/- 1.0 degrees C and 12 hr light. The number of germinated seeds were recorded daily. The final germination percentage, germination index (GI), seedling vigour index, mean germination time and time for 50% germination were estimated. Root and shoot lengths of the weed seedlings were measured at 20 days after salt application and relative growth values were calculated. Results revealed that salinity decreased final germination percentage, seed of germination as measured by GI, and shoot and root length in all the species. Germination of most of the weed seeds was completely arrested (0) at 32 dS m(-1) salinity except in E. colona (12%) and C. iria (13.9%). The species C. iria, E. colona, J. linifolia and E. crusgalli showed better germination (above 30%) upto 24 dS m(-1) salinity level and were regarded as salt-tolerant weed species. J. linifolia, F. miliacea, L. chinensis and O. sativa L. (weedy rice) were graded as moderately tolerant and S. zeylanica, S. grosus and C. difformis were regarded as least tolerant weed species.

  15. Microgravity Effects on Plant Growth and Lignification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowles, Joe R.; Lemay, Richard; Jahns, Gary

    1988-12-01

    Lignin is a major cellular component of higher plants. One function of lignin is to support vertical plant growth in a gravity environment. Various investigators working in the 1 g environment have concluded that lignification is influenced by gravity. An experiment was designed for flight on Spacelab II to determine the effect of microgravity on lignification in young plant seedlings. A secondary objective of the experiment was to examine the effect of microgravity on overall seedling growth. Mung bean and oat seeds germinated and the seedlings grew during the Spacelab II mission. Growth of flight mung bean and oat seedlings, however, was slower, and the seedlings exhibited stem and root orientation difficulties. Flight pine seedlings were similar in appearance and growth to 1 g controls. The rate of lignin formation in seedlings grown in space was significantly less in all three species in comparison to 1 g controls. The experiment provided direct evidence that lignification is slowed in a microgravity environment.

  16. A high-throughput seed germination assay for root parasitic plants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Some root-parasitic plants belonging to the Orobanche, Phelipanche or Striga genus represent one of the most destructive and intractable weed problems to agricultural production in both developed and developing countries. Compared with most of the other weeds, parasitic weeds are difficult to control by conventional methods because of their life style. The main difficulties that currently limit the development of successful control methods are the ability of the parasite to produce a tremendous number of tiny seeds that may remain viable in the soil for more than 15 years. Seed germination requires induction by stimulants present in root exudates of host plants. Researches performed on these minute seeds are until now tedious and time-consuming because germination rate is usually evaluated in Petri-dish by counting germinated seeds under a binocular microscope. Results We developed an easy and fast method for germination rate determination based on a standardized 96-well plate test coupled with spectrophotometric reading of tetrazolium salt (MTT) reduction. We adapted the Mosmann’s protocol for cell cultures to germinating seeds and determined the conditions of seed stimulation and germination, MTT staining and formazan salt solubilization required to obtain a linear relationship between absorbance and germination rate. Dose–response analyses were presented as applications of interest for assessing half maximal effective or inhibitory concentrations of germination stimulants (strigolactones) or inhibitors (ABA), respectively, using four parameter logistic curves. Conclusion The developed MTT system is simple and accurate. It yields reproducible results for germination bioassays of parasitic plant seeds. This method is adapted to high-throughput screenings of allelochemicals (stimulants, inhibitors) or biological extracts on parasitic plant seed germination, and strengthens the investigations of distinctive features of parasitic plant germination

  17. Hydrothermal time models for conidial germination and mycelial growth of the seed pathogen Pyrenophora semeniperda.

    PubMed

    Barth, Connor W; Meyer, Susan E; Beckstead, Julie; Allen, Phil S

    2015-08-01

    Population-based threshold models using hydrothermal time (HTT) have been widely used to model seed germination. We used HTT to model conidial germination and mycelial growth for the seed pathogen Pyrenophora semeniperda in a novel approach to understanding its interactions with host seeds. Germination time courses and mycelial growth rates for P.semeniperda were measured on PDA amended to achieve a series of five water potentials (ca. 0 to -6 MPa) at six constant temperatures (5-30 °C). Conidial germination was described with alternative population-based models using constant or variable base and maximum temperature and water potential parameters. Mycelial growth was modeled as a continuous, linear process with constant base temperature and base water potential. Models based on HTT showed reasonable fit to germination and growth rate data sets. The best-fit conidial germination model (R(2) = 0.859) was based on variable base and maximum temperature as a function of water potential. The good fit of the linear mycelial growth model (R(2) = 0.916) demonstrated the utility of HTT for modeling continuous as well as population-based processes. HTT modeling may be a useful approach to the quantification of germination and growth processes in a wide range of filamentous fungi.

  18. Hydrothermal time models for conidial germination and mycelial growth of the seed pathogen Pyrenophora semeniperda.

    PubMed

    Barth, Connor W; Meyer, Susan E; Beckstead, Julie; Allen, Phil S

    2015-08-01

    Population-based threshold models using hydrothermal time (HTT) have been widely used to model seed germination. We used HTT to model conidial germination and mycelial growth for the seed pathogen Pyrenophora semeniperda in a novel approach to understanding its interactions with host seeds. Germination time courses and mycelial growth rates for P.semeniperda were measured on PDA amended to achieve a series of five water potentials (ca. 0 to -6 MPa) at six constant temperatures (5-30 °C). Conidial germination was described with alternative population-based models using constant or variable base and maximum temperature and water potential parameters. Mycelial growth was modeled as a continuous, linear process with constant base temperature and base water potential. Models based on HTT showed reasonable fit to germination and growth rate data sets. The best-fit conidial germination model (R(2) = 0.859) was based on variable base and maximum temperature as a function of water potential. The good fit of the linear mycelial growth model (R(2) = 0.916) demonstrated the utility of HTT for modeling continuous as well as population-based processes. HTT modeling may be a useful approach to the quantification of germination and growth processes in a wide range of filamentous fungi. PMID:26228560

  19. Plant growth promoting rhizobacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Doktycz, Mitchel John; Pelletier, Dale A.; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Weston, David

    2015-08-11

    The present invention is directed to the Pseudomonas fluorescens strain GM30 deposited under ATCC Accession No. PTA-13340, compositions containing the GM30 strain, and methods of using the GM30 strain to enhance plant growth and/or enhance plant resistance to pathogens.

  20. Effect of silver nanoparticles on rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. KDML 105) seed germination and seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Thuesombat, Pakvirun; Hannongbua, Supot; Akasit, Sanong; Chadchawan, Supachitra

    2014-06-01

    With the advances in nanotechnology, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been applied in many industries, increasing their potential exposure level in the environment, yet their environmental safety remains poorly evaluated. The possible effects of different sized AgNPs (20, 30-60, 70-120 and 150nm diameter) on jasmine rice, Oryza sativa L. cv. KDML 105, were investigated at different concentrations (0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 1000mg/L) upon seed germination and seedling growth. The results revealed that the level of seed germination and subsequent growth of those seedlings that germinated were both decreased with increasing sizes and concentrations of AgNPs. Based on the analysis of AgNPs accumulation in plant tissues, it implied that the higher uptake was found when the seeds were treated with the smaller AgNPs, 20nm diameter AgNPs, but it was trapped in the roots rather than transported to the leaves. These resulted in the less negative effects on seedling growth, when compared to the seed soaking with the larger AgNPs with 150nm diameter. The negative effects of AgNPs were supported by leaf cell deformation when rice seeds were treated with 150-nm-diameter AgNP at the concentration of 10 or 100mg/L during seed germination. These results further strengthen our understanding of environmental safety information with respect to nanomaterials.

  1. Microgravity Plant Growth Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Two visitors watch a TV monitor showing plant growth inside a growth chamber designed for operation aboard the Space Shuttle as part of NASA's Space Product Development program. The exhibit, featuring work by the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics, was at AirVenture 2000 sponsored by the Experimental Aircraft Association in Oshkosh, WI.

  2. Pyrimidine degradation influences germination seedling growth and production of Arabidopsis seeds

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Stefanie; Witz, Sandra; Rolletschek, Hardy; Möhlmann, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    PYD1 (dihydropyrimidine dehydogenase) initiates the degradation of pyrimidine nucleobases and is located in plastids. In this study, a physiological analysis of PYD1 employing T-DNA knockout mutants and overexpressors was carried out. PYD1 knockout mutants were restricted in degradation of exogenously provided uracil and accumulated high uracil levels in plant organs throughout development, especially in dry seeds. Moreover, PYD1 knockout mutants showed delayed germination which was accompanied by low invertase activity and decreased monosaccharide levels. Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important regulator of seed germination, and ABA-responsive genes were deregulated in PYD1 knockout mutants. Together with an observed increased PYD1 expression in wild-type seedlings upon ABA treatment, an interference of PYD1 with ABA signalling can be assumed. Constitutive PYD1 overexpression mutants showed increased growth and higher seed number compared with wild-type and knockout mutant plants. During senescence PYD1 expression increased to allow uracil catabolism. From this it is concluded that early in development and during seed production PYD1 is needed to balance pyrimidine catabolism versus salvage. PMID:21865177

  3. Effect of surfactants and temperature on germination and vegetative growth of Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Mwamburi, Lizzy A; Laing, Mark D; Miller, Ray M

    2015-03-01

    Three non-ionic surfactants: Tween20, Tween80 and Breakthru (®) were screened for their effects on spore germination and mycelial growth rates and for their influence on three isolates of Beauveria bassiana spore germination at various temperatures. Tween20 and Tween80 were compatible with all the B. bassiana isolates in the germination studies, but inhibited germination at higher surfactant concentrations, irrespective of the conidial concentrations . Breakthru (®) had an inhibitory effect on germination even at the lowest concentration of 0.1% on all the B. bassiana isolates. The effects of the surfactants on spore germination did not correspond with their effects on colony growth. Conidial viability within the same formulation declined significantly with increases in temperature, irrespective of the surfactant. The optimal temperature for conidial germination of B. bassiana isolates was approximately 25 °C with an upper limit at 30 °C. Isolate 7320 was identified as the least affected by the different surfactants. This isolate was able to germinate rapidly in a broad temperature range of 25-30 °C after 24 h, this characteristic being an essential factor in controlling house fly populations in poultry houses.

  4. Frugivory and the effects of ingestion by bats on the seed germination of three pioneering plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Carvalho-Ricardo, Maria C.; Uieda, Wilson; Fonseca, Renata Cristina B.; Rossi, Marcelo N.

    2014-02-01

    The dispersion and seedling establishment of pioneering plants can be favoured by the presence of frugivorous bats because the bats usually improve seed germination after ingestion. Although seed germinability is known to vary greatly after ingestion by different bats, the relative contribution of each bat species to seed germination within plant communities is poorly understood. In this study, we first determined the fauna of frugivorous bats in a semideciduous seasonal forest remnant in southern Brazil and subsequently identified the plant species of the seeds passed through their guts. Second, the germination performance (i.e., germination percentage and speed) of the seeds of three pioneering plants (Piper aduncum, Piper hispidinervum and Solanum granuloso-leprosum) ingested by the most abundant bats was compared with that of the non-ingested seeds (seeds collected from fruits). Additionally, the effects on seed germination of different bat species were compared. During one year, five species of frugivorous bats were caught, and the seeds of eleven identifiable plant species (not counting those of undetermined species) were found in their faeces. We found that the germination performance of the seeds of Piper species was significantly enhanced after ingestion by bats, whereas S. granuloso-leprosum seeds had neutral or reduced germinability when seeds in faeces were compared with pulp-removed seeds. Our results revealed that the bat species that were captured exerted different effects upon seed germination; such a disparity is expected to result in different rates of early establishment of these pioneer plants in tropical forests, most likely affecting forest composition and structure, particularly during the initial stages of succession.

  5. Toxic effects of heavy metals (Cd, Cr and Pb) on seed germination and growth and DPPH-scavenging activity in Brassica rapa var. turnip.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Maryam Mehmood; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Ahmad, Nisar; Ali, Mohammad; Mahmood, Tariq

    2014-04-01

    Toxicity of heavy metal is a wide spread environmental problem affecting all life forms including plants. In the present study the toxic effects of heavy metals, cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb) on seed germination rate (%), germination index (G-index) and growth (mm) of Brassica rapa var. turnip have been investigated. The seeds were soaked either in distilled water (control) or in aqueous solutions of Cd, Cr and Pb (1 g/l, 2.5 g/l and 5 g/l) at 4°C in dark for 24 hours. Prior to inoculation onto MS0 medium, the soaked seeds were either washed with sterile distilled water or inoculated without washing on solidified MS0 medium at 25 ± 2°C with 16/8-hour photoperiod in a growth chamber to germinate in vitro. Such stress conditions revealed that by increasing the concentration of heavy metals, the germination rate (%), G-index value and growth (mm) decreased significantly, suggesting their toxic effect on B. rapa var. turnip. This study further revealed that experiment with seed washing resulted in less toxicity of selected heavy metals on germination and growth of B. rapa var. turnip, as compared to experiment without washing. However, the resulting toxicity order of the selected heavy metals remained the same (Cd > Cr > Pb). Significant decrease has been observed in seed viability and germination potential and finally heavy metals completely ceased further growth and development of plants. The 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-scavenging activity revealed that significantly higher activity was observed in control plants without heavy metals treatment. Furthermore, the Cd-treated plants showed decreased antioxidant activity. Cr and Pb were less toxic as compared to Cd (control > Pb > Cr > Cd). This study revealed that selected heavy metals not only affected plant development but also disturbed plant metabolic pathways.

  6. Impatiens pollen germination and tube growth as a bioassay for toxic substances

    SciTech Connect

    Bliderback, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    Pollen of Impatiens sultanii Hook F. germinates and forms tubes rapidly at 25/sup 0/C in a simple medium containing 111.0 ppm CaCl/sub 2/, 13.6 ppm KH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/, and 1000 ppm boric acid. Calcium, potassium, and boron are essential for germination and tube growth, but sucrose is not required. Pollen tubes grow with equal rapidity in liquid medium or on a medium solidified with 1% agar. Tube growth rates are linear for 1 hr. When different pollen sources or clonal sources are utilized, no variation in pollen tube growth is observed, and pollen from individual flowers remain viable for 26 hr. Formaldehyde inhibits pollen germination, tube production, and tube lengths at 7.5-10 ppm. With 2,4-dichlorophenol, pollen germination and tube production is inhibited at 0.5-20 ppm, while tube growth is inhibited significantly at 25 ppm. A biphasic inhibition of germination and tube formation occurs with p-cresol with a low level of inhibition occurring at 40-60 ppm and a higher one at 100-125 ppm. Tube lengths were inhibited at 150 ppm p-cresol. Acrylamide and dioctyl phthalate have no measurable effect upon pollen germination and tube growth.

  7. Allelopathy effect of rice straw on the germination and growth of Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anuar, Fitryana Dewi Khairul; Ismail B., S.; Ahmad, Wan Juliana Wan

    2015-09-01

    A study on the effect of extract and decomposing rice straw of MR220 CL2, MR253 and MR263 on the germination and seedling growth of Echinochloa crus-galli has been conducted in the laboratory and greenhouse of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Three concentrations of aqueous extract (25, 50 and 100 g L-1) and decomposing rice straw (5, 10 and 15 g 500g-1) were used in the experiment. The experimental design used was the Complete Randomized Design (CRD) to evaluate the allelopathic effect of various concentrations of rice straw on various growth parameters of the test plants. All the experiments were carried out in three replications and conducted twice. Results showed that the rice straw extract of all the varieties showed significant effects on the germination and seedling growth of E. crus-galli. Aqueous extract of MR263 showed the greatest reduction on the germination of E.crus-galli compared to the other varieties at 100 g L-1 concentration (26% as compared to control). As the extract concentration of rice straw increased, the radicle length of E. crus-galli was significantly reduced. The radicle and hypocotyl length of E. crus-galli was significantly inhibited by 82.28% and 41.13% respectively at 100 g L-1 concentration of the aqueous extract of MR263. Decomposing rice straw of all rice varieties inhibited germination and all the growth parameters of the test plants. As the concentration of rice debris increased, the radicle length of the test plant decreased for all treatments. Decomposing rice straw of MR220 CL2 showed the greatest inhibitory effect on the growth of E. crus-galli compared to the other varieties. It inhibited the radicle, hypocotyl, fresh and dry weight of the test plants by 63.29%, 62.61%, 83.68% and 82.49% respectively as compared to the control. Therefore, rice straw of MR220 CL2, MR253 and MR263 showed allelopathic characteristics as they inhibited the germination and various growth parameters of E. crus-galli. However, further studies need

  8. Physiological parameters of salt tolerance during germination and seedling growth of Sorghum bicolor cultivars of the same subtropical origin

    PubMed Central

    Bafeel, Sameera Omar

    2014-01-01

    Salt-tolerant ecotypes (or cultivars, varieties, etc.) of different plant species have been long known to evolve in nature. In the past few years, plant breeders have made significant achievements regarding salt tolerance in a number of potential crops using artificial selection. The aim of this work was to evaluate and screening of the natural sea water (Red sea) tolerance of 7 Saudi local (Baish, Jazan; 17.388086, 42.524070) cultivars of sorghum (Sorghumbicolor L., Moench; Poaceae) with respect to the performance of some physiological parameters such as germination, shoot and root development which could be recommended to local farmers and plant breeders. The shoot growth of the studied sorghum cultivars were significantly affected by the exposure to sea water. Root growth was different among cultivars even when treated with normal water. The cultivar C3 (mix white and red seeds) was observed as more salt tolerant and cultivar C4 (whitish seeds) was more salt sensitive on the basis of the germination-ability and shoot development. Cultivar C3 was also observed to produce better seeds compared with the other cultivars. Results of this experiment can be useful to the local sorghum growing farmers or as a genetic resource for the development of sorghum cultivars with improved germination under salt stress. PMID:25183939

  9. Physiological parameters of salt tolerance during germination and seedling growth of Sorghum bicolor cultivars of the same subtropical origin.

    PubMed

    Bafeel, Sameera Omar

    2014-09-01

    Salt-tolerant ecotypes (or cultivars, varieties, etc.) of different plant species have been long known to evolve in nature. In the past few years, plant breeders have made significant achievements regarding salt tolerance in a number of potential crops using artificial selection. The aim of this work was to evaluate and screening of the natural sea water (Red sea) tolerance of 7 Saudi local (Baish, Jazan; 17.388086, 42.524070) cultivars of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L., Moench; Poaceae) with respect to the performance of some physiological parameters such as germination, shoot and root development which could be recommended to local farmers and plant breeders. The shoot growth of the studied sorghum cultivars were significantly affected by the exposure to sea water. Root growth was different among cultivars even when treated with normal water. The cultivar C3 (mix white and red seeds) was observed as more salt tolerant and cultivar C4 (whitish seeds) was more salt sensitive on the basis of the germination-ability and shoot development. Cultivar C3 was also observed to produce better seeds compared with the other cultivars. Results of this experiment can be useful to the local sorghum growing farmers or as a genetic resource for the development of sorghum cultivars with improved germination under salt stress. PMID:25183939

  10. SUPPRESSOR OF MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2 1 controls seed germination and seedling development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Stanga, John P; Smith, Steven M; Briggs, Winslow R; Nelson, David C

    2013-09-01

    Abiotic chemical signals discovered in smoke that are known as karrikins (KARs) and the endogenous hormone strigolactone (SL) control plant growth through a shared MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2 (MAX2)-dependent pathway. A SL biosynthetic pathway and candidate KAR/SL receptors have been characterized, but signaling downstream of MAX2 is poorly defined. A screen for genetic suppressors of the enhanced seed dormancy phenotype of max2 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) led to identification of a suppressor of max2 1 (smax1) mutant. smax1 restores the seed germination and seedling photomorphogenesis phenotypes of max2 but does not affect the lateral root formation, axillary shoot growth, or senescence phenotypes of max2. Expression of three transcriptional markers of KAR/SL signaling, D14-LIKE2, KAR-UP F-BOX1, and INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID INDUCIBLE1, is rescued in smax1 max2 seedlings. SMAX1 is a member of an eight-gene family in Arabidopsis that has weak similarity to HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN 101, which encodes a caseinolytic peptidase B chaperonin required for thermotolerance. SMAX1 and the SMAX1-like (SMXL) homologs are differentially expressed in Arabidopsis tissues. SMAX1 transcripts are most abundant in dry seed, consistent with its function in seed germination control. Several SMXL genes are up-regulated in seedlings treated with the synthetic SL GR24. SMAX1 and SMXL2 transcripts are reduced in max2 seedlings, which could indicate negative feedback regulation by KAR/SL signaling. smax1 seed and seedling growth mimics the wild type treated with KAR/SL, but smax1 seedlings are still responsive to 2H-furo[2,3-c]pyran-2-one (KAR2) or GR24. We conclude that SMAX1 is an important component of KAR/SL signaling during seed germination and seedling growth but is not necessary for all MAX2-dependent responses. We hypothesize that one or more SMXL proteins may also act downstream of MAX2 to control the diverse developmental responses to KARs and SLs.

  11. NO Promotes Seed Germination and Seedling Growth Under High Salt May Depend on EIN3 Protein in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xilong; Pan, Yajie; Chang, Bowen; Wang, Yucheng; Tang, Zhonghua

    2016-01-01

    The gas molecule nitric oxide (NO) can cooperate with ethylene to tightly modulate plant growth and stress responses. One of the mechanism of their crosstalk is that NO is able to activate ethylene biosynthesis, possibly through post-translational modification of key enzymes such as ACC synthase and oxidase by S-nitrosylation. In this paper, we focus on the crosstalk of NO with ethylene signaling transduction transcription factor EIN3 (Ethylene Insensitive 3) and downstream gene expression in alleviating germination inhibition and growth damage induced by high salt. The Arabidopsis lines affected in ethylene signaling (ein3eil1) and NO biosynthesis (nia1nia2) were employed to compare with the wild-type Col-0 and overexpressing line EIN3ox. Firstly, the obviously inhibited germination, greater ratio of bleached leaves and enhanced electrolyte leakage were found in ein3eil1 and nia1nia2 lines than in Col-0 plants upon high salinity. However, the line EIN3ox obtained a notably elevated ability to germinate and improved seedling resistance. The experiment with SNP alone or plus high salt mostly enhanced the expression of EIN3 transcripts, compared with ACO4 and ACS2. The western blot and transcript analysis found that high-salt-induced EIN3 stabilization and EIN3 transcripts were largely attenuated in the NO biogenesis mutant nia1nia2 plants than in Col-0 ones. This observation was confirmed by simulation experiments with NO scavenger cPTIO to block NO emission. Taken together, our study provides insights that NO promotes seed germination and seedlings growth under salinity may depend on EIN3 protein. PMID:26779234

  12. Interference of the Histone Deacetylase Inhibits Pollen Germination and Pollen Tube Growth in Picea wilsonii Mast.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yaning; Ling, Yu; Zhou, Junhui; Li, Xiaojuan

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) is a crucial component in the regulation of gene expression in various cellular processes in animal and plant cells. HDAC has been reported to play a role in embryogenesis. However, the effect of HDAC on androgamete development remains unclear, especially in gymnosperms. In this study, we used the HDAC inhibitors trichostatin A (TSA) and sodium butyrate (NaB) to examine the role of HDAC in Picea wilsonii pollen germination and pollen tube elongation. Measurements of the tip-focused Ca2+ gradient revealed that TSA and NaB influenced this gradient. Immunofluorescence showed that actin filaments were disrupted into disorganized fragments. As a result, the vesicle trafficking was disturbed, as determined by FM4-64 labeling. Moreover, the distribution of pectins and callose in cell walls was significantly altered in response to TSA and NaB. Our results suggest that HDAC affects pollen germination and polarized pollen tube growth in Picea wilsonii by affecting the intracellular Ca2+ concentration gradient, actin organization patterns, vesicle trafficking, as well as the deposition and configuration of cell wall components.

  13. Effect of Light Crude Oil-Contaminated Soil on Growth and Germination of Festuca arundinacea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minai-Tehrani, Dariush; Shahriari, Malek-Hossein; Savaghebi-Firoozabadi, Gholamreza

    In this study the effect of different concentrations of light crude oil (up to 10%) on the growth and germination of Festuca arundinacea (Tall fescue) was studied. Present results showed that the germination number and dry biomass of the plant decreased by increasing light crude oil concentration in the soil. The biomass was higher in 1% crude oil sample while it was lower in 10% crude oil sample. The length of leaves reduced in higher crude oil concentration in comparison with the control. Total and oil-degrading colony count of soil showed that the microbial population in 7 and 10% samples was higher than the control and low concentrations of crude oil (1 and 3% samples). The crude oil reduction in the vegetated and the non-vegetated samples was higher in 1% sample. All vegetated samples had higher crude oil reduction than non-vegetated samples. The higher reduction was occurred at 1% sample, while the lower reduction was seen at 10% sample.

  14. Interference of the Histone Deacetylase Inhibits Pollen Germination and Pollen Tube Growth in Picea wilsonii Mast

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Junhui; Li, Xiaojuan

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) is a crucial component in the regulation of gene expression in various cellular processes in animal and plant cells. HDAC has been reported to play a role in embryogenesis. However, the effect of HDAC on androgamete development remains unclear, especially in gymnosperms. In this study, we used the HDAC inhibitors trichostatin A (TSA) and sodium butyrate (NaB) to examine the role of HDAC in Picea wilsonii pollen germination and pollen tube elongation. Measurements of the tip-focused Ca2+ gradient revealed that TSA and NaB influenced this gradient. Immunofluorescence showed that actin filaments were disrupted into disorganized fragments. As a result, the vesicle trafficking was disturbed, as determined by FM4-64 labeling. Moreover, the distribution of pectins and callose in cell walls was significantly altered in response to TSA and NaB. Our results suggest that HDAC affects pollen germination and polarized pollen tube growth in Picea wilsonii by affecting the intracellular Ca2+ concentration gradient, actin organization patterns, vesicle trafficking, as well as the deposition and configuration of cell wall components. PMID:26710276

  15. Phytotoxic effects of sewage sludge extracts on the germination of three plant species.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Wilson A; Domene, Xavier; Andrés, Pilar; Alcañiz, Josep M

    2008-11-01

    In order to evaluate the ability of three types of extracts to explain the ecotoxicological risk of treated municipal sewage sludges, the OECD 208A germination test was applied using three plants (Lolium perenne L., Brassica rapa L., and Trifolium pratense L.). Three equivalent batches of sludge, remained as dewatered sludge, composted with plant remains and thermally dried, from an anaerobic waste water treatment plant were separated. Samples from these three batches were extracted in water, methanol, and dichloromethane. Plant bioassays were performed and the Germination Index (GI) for the three plants was evaluated once after a period of 10 days. Germination in extracts was always lower than the respective controls. The germination in composted sludge (GI 40.9-86.2) was higher than the dewatered (GI 2.9-45.8), or thermally dried sludges (GI 24.6-64.4). A comparison of the germination between types of extracts showed differences for dewatered sludge with the three plants, where the water and methanol extracts had significantly lower germination than the dichloromethane extract. A higher half maximal effective concentration (EC50) in composted extracts was established, mainly in the water extract (EC50 431-490 g kg(-1)). On the contrary, the germination was strongly inhibited in the water extract of the dewatered sludge (EC50 14 g kg(-1)). The germination was positively correlated with the degree of organic matter stability of the parent sludge, and an inverse correlation was detected for total nitrogen, hydrolysable nitrogen and ammonium content. It is concluded that the phytotoxic effect of the water extract is more closely related to hydrophilic substances rather than lipophilic ones, and care must be taken with dewatered sludge application, especially with their aqueous eluates. Results obtained in this work show the suitability of the use of sludge extracts in ecotoxic assays and emphasize the relevance of sewage sludge stabilization by post

  16. Hormone-dependent Model on Seed Germination Sensitive to Growth Stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Satoshi; Mimura, Masayasu; Ohya, Tomoyuki; Okabe, Hirotaka; Kai, Shoichi

    2000-04-01

    In the germination of seeds, there often observes cluster-formation of well-grown roots and the edge effect phenomenon.During germination and growth before starting photosynthesis, direct interaction such as competition for nutrition among hosts is rather weak because of self-supplying of nutrition.Instead, hormones play an important role and may cause the above experimental observations.In order to understand these aspects, we propose a growth model for root.The hormone effect and its growth-stage-dependent sensitivity are taken into consideration.It is discussed how the growth process of grouping roots is influenced by exogenous hormones secreted from roots.

  17. Red spruce germination and growth in soil-mediated regeneration microcosms under acid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, M.

    1992-01-01

    In the past three decades, atmospheric pollution has caused substantial problems for the environment as well as for many biological processes. The objective of this study focuses on red spruce (Picea ruben Sarg.) regeneration potential and chemical change within the soil-water-plant continuum following simulated acid rain treatments. Inceptisols from three forests at 1735, 1920, and 2015 m at Mt. Mitchell, North Carolina had lower pH, bulk density, and higher organic matter, and base cations as altitude increased. Red spruce seeds were collected from two nearby standing trees at the 1735 m site. A strip-split-split plot experiment was constructed using soils from the two lower elevations, which support natural red spruce stands. Besides a control (pH 5.6, NO[sub 3]:SO[sub 4] ratio 0.10), eight treatments corresponding to two pHs (3.5 and 4.2) with four NO[sub 3]:SO[sub 4] ratios (0.20, 0.33, 0.40, and 0.67) each were used. Seedling emergence and growth, chemistry of soil. Soil leachate, and plant tissue were analyzed to test soil differences and treatment effects of acidity, nitrate, and sulfate. Temporal patterns of germination respond more to soil than to rain chemistry, but significant interactions were found. Besides higher survival, faster germinating seedlings in the 1735 m soil also produced more complex root system and more biomass. Lower root-to-shoot ratios at more acidic treatments suggest a negative effect of acidity on root growth. Canonical discriminant analysis revealed that factors controlling overall soil chemistry were dominated by soil origin, then by rain pH.

  18. cAMP signalling is involved in growth, germination, mycoparasitism and secondary metabolism in Trichoderma virens.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Mala; Mukherjee, Prasun K; Kale, Sharad P

    2007-06-01

    An adenylate-cyclase-encoding gene, tac1, of Trichoderma virens, a soil fungus used in the biocontrol of plant pathogens, has been cloned and sequenced. The tac1 ORF spanned 7032 bp, encoding a protein of 2153 aa, which shared an identity of 65 % with the adenylate cyclase of Colletotrichum lagenarium. Deletion of tac1, through double-crossover homologous recombination, lowered the intracellular cAMP levels to below the detection limit. The mutants showed only 5-6 % of the wild-type growth rate on agar, but grew normally in shake culture. The mutants did not sporulate in darkness, and the spores failed to germinate in water. In the confrontation assay, the mutants did not overgrow the test plant pathogens Sclerotium rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium sp. Against Pythium sp., the mutants produced a clear zone of inhibition in the confrontation assay. HPLC analysis and bioassay showed reduced secondary metabolite production in the mutants. Using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH), the genes that were underexpressed in the mutants were identified. Based on an array of 53 SSH library clones, 11 clones were identified as strongly downregulated in the Deltatac1 mutants; of these 11 clones, nine sequences were homologous to secondary metabolism-related gene sequences. Therefore, cAMP signalling positively regulates secondary metabolism in T. virens. This is believed to be the first direct genetic study on the role of cAMP signalling in a Trichoderma sp. Tac1 is also believed to be the first regulatory protein to be identified in T. virens that is involved in growth, germination, mycoparasitism and secondary metabolism.

  19. Effects of acidity on tree Pollen germination and tube growth. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Van Ryn, D.M.; Jacobson, J.S.

    1984-08-01

    Most of the northeastern hardwood forests in North America are exposed repeatedly to acidic rainfall at pH values below 5.0. Pollen germination, tube growth and fertilization, important parts of the reproductive process, are sensitive to changes in their chemical environment. Accordingly, the authors investigated the effects of acidity on pollen germination and tube elongation of four northeastern tree species: flowering dogwood, black birch, yellow birch, and sugar maple. Pollen was collected and germinated in a growth medium acidified to pH values ranging from 5.0 to 2.6. Pollen was found to be sensitive to acidification of the germination medium to below pH 4.2. These results suggest that acidic rain that now occurs in eastern North America may influence reproductive processes that are necessary for seed set and regeneration in northern hardwood forests.

  20. Effect of phytohormones on seed germination and seedling growth of Coriandrum sativum L.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mahender; Agnihotri, R K; Vamil, R; Sharma, R

    2014-04-01

    Coriander commonly known as Dhania or Chinese parsley is generally grown for its use in soups, salads, dressing vegetables, seasoning and chutney. Effect of two phytohormones viz. GA3 and 2,4-D on seed germination, seedling growth and various physiological and biochemical parameters were studied. The hormones were applied individually in different concentrations (10, 50 and 100 μM concentrations). Both the hormones enhanced the germination percentage, seedling growth (root and shoot length), leaf area, chlorophyll and carotenoid content. The application of these hormones also decreased the germination time. Maximum germination, shoot length, leaf area and carotenoid content was observed in 100 μm concentration of GA3. Root length, chl. a and chl. b was maximum in 50 μM of 2,4-D and 100 μm GA3, respectively. The application of two hormones exhibited a marked increase on all the parameters studied as compared to the control.

  1. Effect of phytohormones on seed germination and seedling growth of Coriandrum sativum L.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mahender; Agnihotri, R K; Vamil, R; Sharma, R

    2014-04-01

    Coriander commonly known as Dhania or Chinese parsley is generally grown for its use in soups, salads, dressing vegetables, seasoning and chutney. Effect of two phytohormones viz. GA3 and 2,4-D on seed germination, seedling growth and various physiological and biochemical parameters were studied. The hormones were applied individually in different concentrations (10, 50 and 100 μM concentrations). Both the hormones enhanced the germination percentage, seedling growth (root and shoot length), leaf area, chlorophyll and carotenoid content. The application of these hormones also decreased the germination time. Maximum germination, shoot length, leaf area and carotenoid content was observed in 100 μm concentration of GA3. Root length, chl. a and chl. b was maximum in 50 μM of 2,4-D and 100 μm GA3, respectively. The application of two hormones exhibited a marked increase on all the parameters studied as compared to the control. PMID:25911855

  2. Effects of Autumn and Spring Heat Waves on Seed Germination of High Mountain Plants.

    PubMed

    Orsenigo, Simone; Abeli, Thomas; Rossi, Graziano; Bonasoni, Paolo; Pasquaretta, Cristian; Gandini, Maurizia; Mondoni, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Alpine plants are considered to be particularly vulnerable to climate change and related extreme episodes, such as heat waves. Despite growing interest in the impact of heat waves on alpine plants, knowledge about their effects on regeneration is still fragmentary. Recruitment from seeds will be crucial for the successful migration and survival of these species and will play a key role in their future adaptation to climate change. In this study, we assessed the impacts of heat waves on the seed germination of 53 high mountain plants from the Northern Apennines (Italy). The seeds were exposed to laboratory simulations of three seasonal temperature treatments, derived from real data recorded at a meteorological station near the species growing site, which included two heat wave episodes that occurred both in spring 2003 and in autumn 2011. Moreover, to consider the effect of increasing drought conditions related to heat waves, seed germination was also investigated under four different water potentials. In the absence of heat waves, seed germination mainly occurred in spring, after seeds had experienced autumn and winter seasons. However, heat waves resulted in a significant increase of spring germination in c. 30% of the species and elicited autumn germination in 50%. When heat waves were coupled with drought, seed germination decreased in all species, but did not stop completely. Our results suggest that in the future, heat waves will affect the germination phenology of alpine plants, especially conditionally dormant and strictly cold-adapted chorotypes, by shifting the emergence time from spring to autumn and by increasing the proportion of emerged seedlings. The detrimental effects of heat waves on recruitment success is less likely to be due to the inhibition of seed germination per se, but rather due to seedling survival in seasons, and temperature and water conditions that they are not used to experiencing. Changes in the proportion and timing of emergence

  3. Effects of Autumn and Spring Heat Waves on Seed Germination of High Mountain Plants.

    PubMed

    Orsenigo, Simone; Abeli, Thomas; Rossi, Graziano; Bonasoni, Paolo; Pasquaretta, Cristian; Gandini, Maurizia; Mondoni, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Alpine plants are considered to be particularly vulnerable to climate change and related extreme episodes, such as heat waves. Despite growing interest in the impact of heat waves on alpine plants, knowledge about their effects on regeneration is still fragmentary. Recruitment from seeds will be crucial for the successful migration and survival of these species and will play a key role in their future adaptation to climate change. In this study, we assessed the impacts of heat waves on the seed germination of 53 high mountain plants from the Northern Apennines (Italy). The seeds were exposed to laboratory simulations of three seasonal temperature treatments, derived from real data recorded at a meteorological station near the species growing site, which included two heat wave episodes that occurred both in spring 2003 and in autumn 2011. Moreover, to consider the effect of increasing drought conditions related to heat waves, seed germination was also investigated under four different water potentials. In the absence of heat waves, seed germination mainly occurred in spring, after seeds had experienced autumn and winter seasons. However, heat waves resulted in a significant increase of spring germination in c. 30% of the species and elicited autumn germination in 50%. When heat waves were coupled with drought, seed germination decreased in all species, but did not stop completely. Our results suggest that in the future, heat waves will affect the germination phenology of alpine plants, especially conditionally dormant and strictly cold-adapted chorotypes, by shifting the emergence time from spring to autumn and by increasing the proportion of emerged seedlings. The detrimental effects of heat waves on recruitment success is less likely to be due to the inhibition of seed germination per se, but rather due to seedling survival in seasons, and temperature and water conditions that they are not used to experiencing. Changes in the proportion and timing of emergence

  4. Effects of Autumn and Spring Heat Waves on Seed Germination of High Mountain Plants

    PubMed Central

    Orsenigo, Simone; Abeli, Thomas; Rossi, Graziano; Bonasoni, Paolo; Pasquaretta, Cristian; Gandini, Maurizia; Mondoni, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Alpine plants are considered to be particularly vulnerable to climate change and related extreme episodes, such as heat waves. Despite growing interest in the impact of heat waves on alpine plants, knowledge about their effects on regeneration is still fragmentary. Recruitment from seeds will be crucial for the successful migration and survival of these species and will play a key role in their future adaptation to climate change. In this study, we assessed the impacts of heat waves on the seed germination of 53 high mountain plants from the Northern Apennines (Italy). The seeds were exposed to laboratory simulations of three seasonal temperature treatments, derived from real data recorded at a meteorological station near the species growing site, which included two heat wave episodes that occurred both in spring 2003 and in autumn 2011. Moreover, to consider the effect of increasing drought conditions related to heat waves, seed germination was also investigated under four different water potentials. In the absence of heat waves, seed germination mainly occurred in spring, after seeds had experienced autumn and winter seasons. However, heat waves resulted in a significant increase of spring germination in c. 30% of the species and elicited autumn germination in 50%. When heat waves were coupled with drought, seed germination decreased in all species, but did not stop completely. Our results suggest that in the future, heat waves will affect the germination phenology of alpine plants, especially conditionally dormant and strictly cold-adapted chorotypes, by shifting the emergence time from spring to autumn and by increasing the proportion of emerged seedlings. The detrimental effects of heat waves on recruitment success is less likely to be due to the inhibition of seed germination per se, but rather due to seedling survival in seasons, and temperature and water conditions that they are not used to experiencing. Changes in the proportion and timing of emergence

  5. Digital Gene Expression Analysis of Populus simonii × P. nigra Pollen Germination and Tube Growth

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Li-Juan; Yuan, Hong-Mei; Guo, Wen-Dong; Yang, Chuan-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Pollen tubes are an ideal model for the study of cell growth and morphogenesis because of their extreme elongation without cell division; however, the genetic basis of pollen germination and tube growth remains largely unknown. Using the Illumina/Solexa digital gene expression system, we identified 13,017 genes (representing 28.3% of the unigenes on the reference genes) at three stages, including mature pollen, hydrated pollen, and pollen tubes of Populus simonii × P. nigra. Comprehensive analysis of P. simonii × P. nigra pollen revealed dynamic changes in the transcriptome during pollen germination and pollen tube growth (PTG). Gene ontology analysis of differentially expressed genes showed that genes involved in functional categories such as catalytic activity, binding, transporter activity, and enzyme regulator activity were overrepresented during pollen germination and PTG. Some highly dynamic genes involved in pollen germination and PTG were detected by clustering analysis. Genes related to some key pathways such as the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway, regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, calcium signaling, and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis were significantly changed during pollen germination and PTG. These data provide comprehensive molecular information toward further understanding molecular mechanisms underlying pollen germination and PTG. PMID:27379121

  6. Plant Growth Facility (PGF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In a microgravity environment aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia Life and Microgravity Mission STS-78, compression wood formation and hence altered lignin deposition and cell wall structure, was induced upon mechanically bending the stems of the woody gymnosperms, Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda). Although there was significant degradation of many of the plant specimens in space-flight due to unusually high temperatures experienced during the mission, it seems evident that gravity had little or no effect on compression wood formation upon bending even in microgravity. Instead, it apparently results from alterations in the stress gradient experienced by the plant itself during bending under these conditions. This preliminary study now sets the stage for long-term plant growth experiments to determine whether compression wood formation can be induced in microgravity during phototropic-guided realignment of growing woody plant specimens, in the absence of any externally provided stress and strain.

  7. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) deficiency affects the germination, growth and fruit sugar content in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong-Xing; Yin, Yong-Gen; Sanuki, Atsuko; Fukuda, Naoya; Ezura, Hiroshi; Matsukura, Chiaki

    2015-11-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is a key regulatory enzyme and is utilized in the gluconeogenesis pathway in plants. Although, its catalytic and regulatory properties are quite well understood, there are uncertainties regarding its physiological role in many plants tissues such as the flesh of developing fruits. To further understand the function of PEPCK in fruits and other tissues, RNAi transgenic tomato plants in which SlPEPCK transcription was down-regulated by either CaMV 35S constitutive promoter or the fruit-specific E8 promoter were generated and characterized on the basis of their phenotypic and metabolic aspects. In the PEPCK-deficient lines, prominent growth suppression of germinated seedlings was observed and other vegetative suppression appeared during the early stage of plant growth in the 35S promoter-driven lines. In particular, root elongation was most obviously suppressed in the germinated seedlings, indicating that the gluconeogenesis pathway is involved in the root growth of seedlings. Regarding the primary metabolism in fruit, the soluble sugar content tended to decrease, whereas the malate content tended to increase in ripening fruits of the RNAi lines compared with the wild type. These results indicate that activation of the gluconeogenesis pathway from organic acids to sugars occurs during ripening but is suppressed by the knocking down of the PEPCK gene, suggesting that PEPCK participates in determining the sugar/acid ratio in ripening fruit. PMID:26381194

  8. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) deficiency affects the germination, growth and fruit sugar content in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong-Xing; Yin, Yong-Gen; Sanuki, Atsuko; Fukuda, Naoya; Ezura, Hiroshi; Matsukura, Chiaki

    2015-11-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is a key regulatory enzyme and is utilized in the gluconeogenesis pathway in plants. Although, its catalytic and regulatory properties are quite well understood, there are uncertainties regarding its physiological role in many plants tissues such as the flesh of developing fruits. To further understand the function of PEPCK in fruits and other tissues, RNAi transgenic tomato plants in which SlPEPCK transcription was down-regulated by either CaMV 35S constitutive promoter or the fruit-specific E8 promoter were generated and characterized on the basis of their phenotypic and metabolic aspects. In the PEPCK-deficient lines, prominent growth suppression of germinated seedlings was observed and other vegetative suppression appeared during the early stage of plant growth in the 35S promoter-driven lines. In particular, root elongation was most obviously suppressed in the germinated seedlings, indicating that the gluconeogenesis pathway is involved in the root growth of seedlings. Regarding the primary metabolism in fruit, the soluble sugar content tended to decrease, whereas the malate content tended to increase in ripening fruits of the RNAi lines compared with the wild type. These results indicate that activation of the gluconeogenesis pathway from organic acids to sugars occurs during ripening but is suppressed by the knocking down of the PEPCK gene, suggesting that PEPCK participates in determining the sugar/acid ratio in ripening fruit.

  9. Acetylesterase-mediated deacetylation of pectin impairs cell elongation, pollen germination, and plant reproduction.

    PubMed

    Gou, Jin-Ying; Miller, Lisa M; Hou, Guichuan; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Liu, Chang-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Pectin is a major component of the primary cell wall of higher plants. Some galacturonyl residues in the backbone of pectinaceous polysaccharides are often O-acetylated at the C-2 or C-3 position, and the resulting acetylesters change dynamically during the growth and development of plants. The processes involve both enzymatic acetylation and deacetylation. Through genomic sequence analysis, we identified a pectin acetylesterase (PAE1) from black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa). Recombinant Pt PAE1 exhibited preferential activity in releasing the acetate moiety from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) pectin in vitro. Overexpressing Pt PAE1 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) decreased the level of acetyl esters of pectin but not of xylan. Deacetylation engendered differential changes in the composition and/or structure of cell wall polysaccharides that subsequently impaired the cellular elongation of floral styles and filaments, the germination of pollen grains, and the growth of pollen tubes. Consequently, plants overexpressing PAE1 exhibited severe male sterility. Furthermore, in contrast to the conventional view, PAE1-mediated deacetylation substantially lowered the digestibility of pectin. Our data suggest that pectin acetylesterase functions as an important structural regulator in planta by modulating the precise status of pectin acetylation to affect the remodeling and physiochemical properties of the cell wall's polysaccharides, thereby affecting cell extensibility.

  10. Acetylesterase-Mediated Deacetylation of Pectin Impairs Cell Elongation, Pollen Germination, and Plant Reproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Gou J. Y.; Liu C.; Miller, L. M.; Hou, G.; Yu, X.-H.; Chen, X.-Y.

    2012-01-01

    Pectin is a major component of the primary cell wall of higher plants. Some galacturonyl residues in the backbone of pectinaceous polysaccharides are often O-acetylated at the C-2 or C-3 position, and the resulting acetylesters change dynamically during the growth and development of plants. The processes involve both enzymatic acetylation and deacetylation. Through genomic sequence analysis, we identified a pectin acetylesterase (PAE1) from black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa). Recombinant Pt PAE1 exhibited preferential activity in releasing the acetate moiety from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) pectin in vitro. Overexpressing Pt PAE1 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) decreased the level of acetyl esters of pectin but not of xylan. Deacetylation engendered differential changes in the composition and/or structure of cell wall polysaccharides that subsequently impaired the cellular elongation of floral styles and filaments, the germination of pollen grains, and the growth of pollen tubes. Consequently, plants overexpressing PAE1 exhibited severe male sterility. Furthermore, in contrast to the conventional view, PAE1-mediated deacetylation substantially lowered the digestibility of pectin. Our data suggest that pectin acetylesterase functions as an important structural regulator in planta by modulating the precise status of pectin acetylation to affect the remodeling and physiochemical properties of the cell wall's polysaccharides, thereby affecting cell extensibility.

  11. The influence of microbial associations on germination of wheat seeds and on the growth of seedlings under impact of Zink salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somova, L. A.; Pechurkin, N. S.; Mikheeva, G. A.

    The life support systems LSS for long-term missions are to use cycling-recycling systems including biological recycling Higher plants are the traditional regenerator of air and producer of food They should be used in many successive generations of their reproduction in LSS Development and studies of influence of microbial associations on germination of wheat seeds and on growth of seedlings under impact of heavy metals has good prospects and necessity because of migration of heavy metals in LSS Microbial associations are able to stimulate plants growth to protect them from pathogenic organisms and from toxicity of heavy metals salts The goal of this work was to investigate microbial associations action on the germination of wheat seeds and on the growth of seedlings under impact of different concentrations of ZnSO 4 The results of investigations showed 1 Zink salt had negative action on germination of wheat seeds beginning with concentrations - 8 MPC Maximum Permissible Concentration and higher 2 Microbial associations concentrations -10 4 -- 10 6 cells ml were able to decrease partly or completely the negative action of ZnSO 4 on germination of wheat seeds 3 Concentrations 10 4 -- 10 5 cells ml of microbial associations were able to decrease the negative action of Zink salts intervals from 2 to 32 MPA on the growth and development of wheat plantlets during heterotrophic phase 4 Root system of plants was more sensible to the negative action of ZnSO 4 than shoots of plants

  12. Analysis of directional root growth patterns from corn and soybean seeds germinated in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, H.; Tynes, G.; Norwood, K.

    The JOSE (JASON Outreach Seed Experiment) payload was the first plant experiment conducted on the International Space Station (ISS). It consisted of having an on-orbit watering of eight transparent seed pouches each of which contained 6 individual seeds of either soybean (Glycine max cv McCall) or corn ( Zea mays ). The seeds were glued to a germination paper substrate using a 1.2% guar glue solution. The payload was launched on the Orbiter Endeavour (STS-97; ISS Flight 4A) on 11/30/00 and transferred to the ISS on 12/8/00. The eight seed pouches were each watered with 12 mL of distilled water on 1/5/01. Two pouches containing corn plus two pouches containing soybean seeds were maintained in the light after watering. Two additional seed pouches of each species were maintained in the dark after watering. Digital photography was used to document the growth of the germinating seedlings in space. The images were down-linked to a world wide web site for dissemination to students. "Within" species differences (between the light and dark grown seedlings) as well as "between" species differences (comparing corn and soybean) were observed. By day 4 (post-imbibition) there was a clear phototropic effect in the light-grown corn seedlings, each, possessing a green shoot which grew upward towards the light source. In contrast, the dark-grown corn shoots were neither green (since chlorophyll synthesis had not been induced by light) nor were they growing in a uniform direction. For day 4 soybean seedlings, the only difference evident between those germinated under the light vs dark conditions was a slight greening up of the seeds maintained in the presence of light. For both the corn and soybean seedlings, roots grew in a random fashion, with some moving in an upward direction and others progressing downward, reflecting the lack of a gravitropic response which is the primary (earth-based) mechanism controlling the direction of root growth. By day 7 the initial 12 mL of water

  13. Germination and Early Growth of Brassica juncea in Copper Mine Tailings Amended with Technosol and Compost

    PubMed Central

    González, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Mine tailings represent a serious threat to the environment and human health; thus their restoration has become a major concern. In this study, the interactions between Brassica juncea and different mine soil treatments were evaluated in order to understand their effect on germination and early growth. Three soil treatments containing 25% and 50% of technosol and 30% of compost were prepared. Germination and early growth were assessed in soil and pore water extracts from the treatments. Unlike the untreated mine soil, the three treatments allowed germination and growth, achieving levels comparable to those of seedlings from the same species developed in normal conditions. The seedlings grown in 50% of technosol and 30% of compost exhibited greater germination percentages, higher growth, and more efficient mechanisms against oxidative stress, ascribed to the organic matter and nutrients content of these treatments. Considering the unequivocal ability of B. juncea for phytoremediation, the results suggest that technosol and compost may be an auspicious solution to allow the germination and early growth of this species in mine tailings. PMID:25386602

  14. Seeds Use Temperature Cues to Ensure Germination under Nurse-plant Shade in Xeric Kalahari Savannah

    PubMed Central

    Kos, Martijn; Poschlod, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims In arid environments many plant species are found associated with the canopies of woody perennials. Favourable conditions for establishment under canopies are likely to be associated with shade, but under canopies shade is distributed patchily and differs in quality. Diurnal temperature fluctuations and maximum temperatures could be reliable indicators of safe sites. Here, an examination is made as to whether canopy-associated species use temperature cues to germinate in shade patches, rather than matrix areas between trees. Methods The study was carried out in arid southern Kalahari savannah (Republic of South Africa). Perennial and annual species associated with Acacia erioloba trees and matrix species were germinated at temperature regimes resembling shaded and unshaded conditions. Soil temperature was measured in the field. Key Results Germination of all fleshy-fruited perennial acacia-associated species and two annual acacia-associated species was inhibited by the temperature regime resembling unshaded conditions compared with at least one of the regimes resembling shaded conditions. Inhibition in perennials decreased with seed mass, probably reflecting that smaller seedlings are more vulnerable to drought. Germination of matrix species was not inhibited by the unshaded temperature regime and in several cases it increased germination compared with shaded temperature regimes or constant temperature. Using phylogenetically independent contrasts a significant positive relationship was found between canopy association and the germination at shade temperatures relative to unshaded temperatures. Conclusions The data support the hypothesis that canopy species have developed mechanisms to prevent germination in open sun conditions. The results and data from the literature show that inhibition of germination at temperature regimes characteristic of open sun conditions can be found in fleshy-fruited species of widely divergent taxonomic groups. It is

  15. Germination and growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) at low atmospheric pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanarkel, Robert; Drew, Malcolm C.

    2002-01-01

    The response of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Waldmann's Green) to low atmospheric pressure was examined during the initial 5 days of germination and emergence, and also during subsequent growth to vegetative maturity at 30 days. Growth took place inside a 66-l-volume low pressure chamber maintained at 70 kPa, and plant response was compared to that of plants in a second, matching chamber that was at ambient pressure (approximately 101 kPa) as a control. In other experiments, to determine short-term effects of low pressure transients, plants were grown at ambient pressure until maturity and then subjected to alternating periods of 24 h of low and ambient atmospheric pressures. In all treatments the partial pressure of O2 was maintained at 21 kPa (approximately the partial pressure in air at normal pressure), and the partial pressure of CO2 was in the range 66.5-73.5 Pa (about twice that in normal air) in both chambers, with the addition of CO2 during the light phase. With continuous exposure to low pressure, shoot and root growth was at least as rapid as at ambient pressure, with an overall trend towards slightly greater performance at the lower pressure. Dark respiration rates were greater at low pressure. Transient periods at low pressure decreased transpiration and increased dark respiration but only during the period of exposure to low pressure. We conclude that long-term or short-term exposure to subambient pressure (70 kPa) was without detectable detriment to vegetative growth and development.

  16. Reassessment of an Arabidopsis cell wall invertase inhibitor AtCIF1 reveals its role in seed germination and early seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Su, Tao; Wolf, Sebastian; Han, Mei; Zhao, Hongbo; Wei, Hongbin; Greiner, Steffen; Rausch, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In higher plants, cell wall invertase (CWI) and vacuolar invertase (VI) are recognized as essential players in sugar metabolism and sugar signaling, thereby affecting source-sink interactions, plant development and responses to environmental cues. CWI and VI expression levels are transcriptionally controlled; however, both enzymes are also subject to posttranslational control by invertase inhibitor proteins. The physiological significances of inhibitor proteins during seed germination and early seedling development are not yet fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that the inhibitor isoform AtCIF1 impacted on seed germination and early seedling growth in Arabidopsis. The primary target of AtCIF1 was shown to be localized to the apoplast after expressing an AtCIF1 YFP-fusion construct in tobacco epidermis and transgenic Arabidopsis root. The analysis of expression patterns showed that AtCWI1 was co-expressed spatiotemporally with AtCIF1 within the early germinating seeds. Seed germination was observed to be accelerated independently of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) in the AtCIF1 loss-of-function mutant cif1-1. This effect coincided with a drastic increase of CWI activity in cif1-1 mutant seeds by 24 h after the onset of germination, both in vitro and in planta. Accordingly, quantification of sugar content showed that hexose levels were significantly boosted in germinating seeds of the cif1-1 mutant. Further investigation of AtCIF1 overexpressors in Arabidopsis revealed a markedly suppressed CWI activity as well as delayed seed germination. Thus, we conclude that the posttranslational modulation of CWI activity by AtCIF1 helps to orchestrate seed germination and early seedling growth via fine-tuning sucrose hydrolysis and, possibly, sugar signaling.

  17. Reassessment of an Arabidopsis cell wall invertase inhibitor AtCIF1 reveals its role in seed germination and early seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Su, Tao; Wolf, Sebastian; Han, Mei; Zhao, Hongbo; Wei, Hongbin; Greiner, Steffen; Rausch, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In higher plants, cell wall invertase (CWI) and vacuolar invertase (VI) are recognized as essential players in sugar metabolism and sugar signaling, thereby affecting source-sink interactions, plant development and responses to environmental cues. CWI and VI expression levels are transcriptionally controlled; however, both enzymes are also subject to posttranslational control by invertase inhibitor proteins. The physiological significances of inhibitor proteins during seed germination and early seedling development are not yet fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that the inhibitor isoform AtCIF1 impacted on seed germination and early seedling growth in Arabidopsis. The primary target of AtCIF1 was shown to be localized to the apoplast after expressing an AtCIF1 YFP-fusion construct in tobacco epidermis and transgenic Arabidopsis root. The analysis of expression patterns showed that AtCWI1 was co-expressed spatiotemporally with AtCIF1 within the early germinating seeds. Seed germination was observed to be accelerated independently of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) in the AtCIF1 loss-of-function mutant cif1-1. This effect coincided with a drastic increase of CWI activity in cif1-1 mutant seeds by 24 h after the onset of germination, both in vitro and in planta. Accordingly, quantification of sugar content showed that hexose levels were significantly boosted in germinating seeds of the cif1-1 mutant. Further investigation of AtCIF1 overexpressors in Arabidopsis revealed a markedly suppressed CWI activity as well as delayed seed germination. Thus, we conclude that the posttranslational modulation of CWI activity by AtCIF1 helps to orchestrate seed germination and early seedling growth via fine-tuning sucrose hydrolysis and, possibly, sugar signaling. PMID:26546341

  18. Germination, growth rates, and electron microscope analysis of tomato seeds flown on the LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Ernest C., Jr.; Bridgers, Kevin; Brown, Cecelia Wright

    1995-01-01

    The tomato seeds were flown in orbit aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) for nearly six years. During this time, the tomato seeds received an abundant exposure to cosmic radiation and solar wind. Upon the return of the LDEF to earth, the seeds were distributed throughout the United States and 30 foreign countries for analysis. The purpose of the experiment was to determine the long term effect of cosmic rays on living tissue. Our university analysis included germination and growth rates as well as Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray analysis of the control as well as Space-exposed tomato seeds. In analyzing the seeds under the Electron Microscope, usual observations were performed on the nutritional and epidermis layer of the seed. These layers appeared to be more porous in the Space-exposed seeds than on the Earth-based control seeds. This unusual characteristic may explain the increases in the space seeds growth pattern. (Several test results show that the Space-exposed seeds germinate sooner than the Earth-Based seeds. Also, the Space-exposed seeds grew at a faster rate). The porous nutritional region may allow the seeds to receive necessary nutrients and liquids more readily, thus enabling the plant to grow at a faster rate. Roots, leaves and stems were cut into small sections and mounted. After sputter coating the specimens with Argon/Gold Palladium Plasma, they were ready to be viewed under the Electron Microscope. Many micrographs were taken. The X-ray analysis displayed possible identifications of calcium, potassium, chlorine, copper, aluminum, silicon, phosphate, carbon, and sometimes sulfur and iron. The highest concentrations were shown in potassium and calcium. The Space-exposed specimens displayed a high concentration of copper and calcium in the two specimens. There was a significantly high concentration of copper in the Earth-based specimens, whereas there was no copper in the Space-exposed specimens.

  19. Germination, growth rates, and electron microscope analysis of tomato seeds flown on the LDEF

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, E.C. Jr.; Bridgers, K.; Brown, C.W.

    1995-02-01

    The tomato seeds were flown in orbit aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) for nearly six years. During this time, the tomato seeds received an abundant exposure to cosmic radiation and solar wind. Upon the return of the LDEF to earth, the seeds were distributed throughout the United States and 30 foreign countries for analysis. The purpose of the experiment was to determine the long term effect of cosmic rays on living tissue. Our university analysis included germination and growth rates as well as Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray analysis of the control as well as Space-exposed tomato seeds. In analyzing the seeds under the Electron Microscope, usual observations were performed on the nutritional and epidermis layer of the seed. These layers appeared to be more porous in the Space-exposed seeds than on the Earth-based control seeds. This unusual characteristic may explain the increases in the space seeds growth pattern. (Several test results show that the Space-exposed seeds germinate sooner than the Earth-Based seeds. Also, the Space-exposed seeds grew at a faster rate). The porous nutritional region may allow the seeds to receive necessary nutrients and liquids more readily, thus enabling the plant to grow at a faster rate. Roots, leaves and stems were cut into small sections and mounted. After sputter coating the specimens with Argon/Gold Palladium Plasma, they were ready to be viewed under the Electron Microscope. Many micrographs were taken. The X-ray analysis displayed possible identifications of calcium, potassium, chlorine, copper, aluminum, silicon, phosphate, carbon, and sometimes sulfur and iron. The highest concentrations were shown in potassium and calcium. The Space-exposed specimens displayed a high concentration of copper and calcium in the two specimens. There was a significantly high concentration of copper in the Earth-based specimens, whereas there was no copper in the Space-exposed specimens.

  20. Does passage time through the lizard Podarcis lilfordi's guts affect germination performance in the plant Withania frutescens?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castilla, Aurora M.

    2000-03-01

    I tested predictions of the hypothesis that a longer seed passage time through the gut of the lizard Podarcis lilfordi enhances germination performance in the plant Withania frutescens. I compared germination success and germination time between seeds that were ingested by lizards and control seeds that were not. I also explored relationships between natural variation in seed passage time and germination performance. Germination success did not differ between ingested (63 %) and non-ingested seeds (56 %); there was no significant relationship between germinability and retention time. Germination time did not differ between ingested and non-ingested seeds, and was unrelated to retention time. Hence, I found no support for the hypothesis that prolonged retention times should improve germination performance. In addition, this is a pilot study stressing the importance of reptiles as seed dispersers, at least in certain habitats.

  1. Overexpression of Arabidopsis Plasmodesmata Germin-Like Proteins Disrupts Root Growth and Development[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Byung-Kook; Li, Gang; Kang, Byung-Ho; Zeng, Fanchang; Lucas, William J.

    2012-01-01

    In plants, a population of non-cell-autonomous proteins (NCAPs), including numerous transcription factors, move cell to cell through plasmodesmata (PD). In many cases, the intercellular trafficking of these NCAPs is regulated by their interaction with specific PD components. To gain further insight into the functions of this NCAP pathway, coimmunoprecipitation experiments were performed on a tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plasmodesmal-enriched cell wall protein preparation using as bait the NCAP, pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) PHLOEM PROTEIN16 (Cm-PP16). A Cm-PP16 interaction partner, Nt-PLASMODESMAL GERMIN-LIKE PROTEIN1 (Nt-PDGLP1) was identified and shown to be a PD-located component. Arabidopsis thaliana putative orthologs, PDGLP1 and PDGLP2, were identified; expression studies indicated that, postgermination, these proteins were preferentially expressed in the root system. The PDGLP1 signal peptide was shown to function in localization to the PD by a novel mechanism involving the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi secretory pathway. Overexpression of various tagged versions altered root meristem function, leading to reduced primary root but enhanced lateral root growth. This effect on root growth was corrected with an inability of these chimeric proteins to form stable PD-localized complexes. PDGLP1 and PDGLP2 appear to be involved in regulating primary root growth by controlling phloem-mediated allocation of resources between the primary and lateral root meristems. PMID:22960910

  2. Overexpression of Arabidopsis plasmodesmata germin-like proteins disrupts root growth and development.

    PubMed

    Ham, Byung-Kook; Li, Gang; Kang, Byung-Ho; Zeng, Fanchang; Lucas, William J

    2012-09-01

    In plants, a population of non-cell-autonomous proteins (NCAPs), including numerous transcription factors, move cell to cell through plasmodesmata (PD). In many cases, the intercellular trafficking of these NCAPs is regulated by their interaction with specific PD components. To gain further insight into the functions of this NCAP pathway, coimmunoprecipitation experiments were performed on a tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plasmodesmal-enriched cell wall protein preparation using as bait the NCAP, pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) PHLOEM PROTEIN16 (Cm-PP16). A Cm-PP16 interaction partner, Nt-PLASMODESMAL GERMIN-LIKE PROTEIN1 (Nt-PDGLP1) was identified and shown to be a PD-located component. Arabidopsis thaliana putative orthologs, PDGLP1 and PDGLP2, were identified; expression studies indicated that, postgermination, these proteins were preferentially expressed in the root system. The PDGLP1 signal peptide was shown to function in localization to the PD by a novel mechanism involving the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi secretory pathway. Overexpression of various tagged versions altered root meristem function, leading to reduced primary root but enhanced lateral root growth. This effect on root growth was corrected with an inability of these chimeric proteins to form stable PD-localized complexes. PDGLP1 and PDGLP2 appear to be involved in regulating primary root growth by controlling phloem-mediated allocation of resources between the primary and lateral root meristems.

  3. Allelopathy of the invasive plant Bidens frondosa on the seed germination of Geum japonicum var. chinense.

    PubMed

    Wang, X F; Hassani, D; Cheng, Z W; Wang, C Y; Wu, J

    2014-01-01

    Five gradient concentrations (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, and 0.10 g/mL) of leaching liquors from the roots, stems, and leaves of the invasive plant Bidens frondosa were used as conditioning fluid to examine its influence on seed germination conditions of the native plant Geum japonicum var. chinense in Huangshan. All leaching liquors of organs suppressed the seed germination of Geum japonicum var. chinense and reduced the final germination percentage and rate, and increased the germination inhibition rate, with a bimodal dependence on concentration. The leaching liquor inhibited the seed germination significantly at the concentration of 0.02 g/mL respectively. The seed germination was also inhibited as the concentration reached to 0.04 g/mL and beyond. Hence the allelopathic effects of the organs were significantly enhanced respectively. This phenomenon represented the presence of allelopathy substances in the root, stem and leaf of Bidens frondosa. PMID:25511044

  4. Germination and root elongation bioassays in six different plant species for testing Ni contamination in soil.

    PubMed

    Visioli, Giovanna; Conti, Federica D; Gardi, Ciro; Menta, Cristina

    2014-04-01

    In vitro short-term chronic phytotoxicity germination and root elongation test were applied to test the effects of nickel (Ni) in seed germination and root elongation in six plants species: Cucumis sativus (Cucurbitaceae), Lepidium sativum and Brassica nigra (Brassicaceae), Trifolium alexandrinum and Medicago sativa (Fabaceae), Phacelia tanacetifolia (Boraginaceae). A naturally Ni rich soil was used to compare the results obtained. Unlike root elongation, germination was not affected by Ni in any of the six species tested. EC50 values, calculated on the root elongation, showed that Ni toxicity decreases in the following order: P. tanacetifolia > B. nigra > C. sativus > L. sativum > M. sativa > T. alexandrinum. The test conducted using soil elutriate revealed a significantly lower effect in both seed germination and root elongation when compared to the results obtained using untreated soil. Conversely, the test performed on soil confirmed the high sensitivity of C. sativus, P. tanacetifolia and L. sativum to Ni. PMID:24288040

  5. Characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana GCN2 kinase roles in seed germination and plant development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Merchant, Azim; Rockett, Kristin S; McCormack, Maggie; Pajerowska-Mukhtar, Karolina M

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic GCN2 (general control nonderepressible 2) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that plays an essential role in modulating amino acid metabolism in response to nutrient deprivation. A wide spectrum of GCN2 functions in yeast and mammals has been characterized that spans from responses to amino acid deficiency, development, differentiation and proper functions of mammalian organs to organism's life span, tumor cell survival and immune responses. Here we demonstrate that Arabidopsis thaliana GCN2 (AtGCN2) plays crucial roles in plant growth and development. We present evidence that AtGCN2 negatively regulates seed germination under diverse environmental conditions. Our genetic data supported the notion that AtGCN2 is required for leaf morphology and normal cellular physiology by controlling chlorophyll contents. Our gene expression analyses revealed that AtGCN2 negatively regulates several transcription factor genes that play important roles in plant gibberellic acid-related crosstalk. We concluded that AtGCN2 plays pivotal roles in various cellular processes essential for normal growth and development, hence expanding the functions of this general regulator beyond being merely a stress player.

  6. Characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana GCN2 kinase roles in seed germination and plant development

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Merchant, Azim; Rockett, Kristin S; McCormack, Maggie; Pajerowska-Mukhtar, Karolina M

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic GCN2 (general control nonderepressible 2) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that plays an essential role in modulating amino acid metabolism in response to nutrient deprivation. A wide spectrum of GCN2 functions in yeast and mammals has been characterized that spans from responses to amino acid deficiency, development, differentiation and proper functions of mammalian organs to organism's life span, tumor cell survival and immune responses. Here we demonstrate that Arabidopsis thaliana GCN2 (AtGCN2) plays crucial roles in plant growth and development. We present evidence that AtGCN2 negatively regulates seed germination under diverse environmental conditions. Our genetic data supported the notion that AtGCN2 is required for leaf morphology and normal cellular physiology by controlling chlorophyll contents. Our gene expression analyses revealed that AtGCN2 negatively regulates several transcription factor genes that play important roles in plant gibberellic acid-related crosstalk. We concluded that AtGCN2 plays pivotal roles in various cellular processes essential for normal growth and development, hence expanding the functions of this general regulator beyond being merely a stress player. PMID:25912940

  7. Magnetic fields: how is plant growth and development impacted?

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jaime A Teixeira; Dobránszki, Judit

    2016-03-01

    This review provides detailed insight on the effects of magnetic fields on germination, growth, development, and yield of plants focusing on ex vitro growth and development and discussing the possible physiological and biochemical responses. The MFs considered in this review range from the nanoTesla (nT) to geomagnetic levels, up to very strong MFs greater than 15 Tesla (T) and also super-weak MFs (near 0 T). The theoretical bases of the action of MFs on plant growth, which are complex, are not discussed here and thus far, there is limited mathematical background about the action of MFs on plant growth. MFs can positively influence the morphogenesis of several plants which allows them to be used in practical situations. MFs have thus far been shown to modify seed germination and affect seedling growth and development in a wide range of plants, including field, fodder, and industrial crops; cereals and pseudo-cereals; grasses; herbs and medicinal plants; horticultural crops (vegetables, fruits, ornamentals); trees; and model crops. This is important since MFs may constitute a non-residual and non-toxic stimulus. In addition to presenting and summarizing the effects of MFs on plant growth and development, we also provide possible physiological and biochemical explanations for these responses including stress-related responses of plants, explanations based on dia-, para-, and ferromagnetism, oriented movements of substances, and cellular and molecular changes.

  8. Effect of BPA on the germination, root development, seedling growth and leaf differentiation under different light conditions in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wen-Juan; Xiong, Can; Wua, Qiu-Ping; Liu, Jin-Xia; Liao, Hong-Mei; Chen, Wei; Liu, Yong-Sheng; Zheng, Lei

    2013-11-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known environmental toxic substance, which exerts unfavorable effects through endocrine disruptor (ER)-dependent and ER-independent mechanisms to threaten ecological systems seriously. BPA may also interact with other environmental factors, such as light and heavy metals, to have a synergetic effect in plants. However, there is little data concerning the toxic effect of BPA on the primary producers-plants and its possible interaction with light-dependent response. Here, the effects of BPA on germination, fresh weight, tap root length, and leaf differentiation were studied in Arabidopsis thaliana under different parts of light spectrum (dark, red, yellow, green, blue, and white light). Our results showed that low-dose BPA (1.0, 5.0 µM) caused an increase in the fresh weight, the tap root length and the lateral root formation of A. thaliana seedlings, while high-dose BPA (10.0, 25.0 µM) show an inhibition effect in a dose-dependent manner. Unlike karrikins, the effects of BPA on germination fresh weight and tap roots length under various light conditions are similar, which imply that BPA has no notable role in priming light response in germination and early seedling growth in A. thaliana. Meanwhile, BPA exposure influences the differentiation of A. thaliana leaf blade significantly in a light-dependent manner with little to no effect in dark and clear effect under red illumination.

  9. Impacts of Carpobrotus edulis (L.) N.E.Br. on the Germination, Establishment and Survival of Native Plants: A Clue for Assessing Its Competitive Strength

    PubMed Central

    Novoa, Ana; González, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Does Carpobrotus edulis have an impact on native plants? How do C. edulis’ soil residual effects affect the maintenance of native populations? What is the extent of interspecific competition in its invasion process? In order to answer those questions, we established pure and mixed cultures of native species and C. edulis on soil collected from invaded and native areas of Mediterranean coastal dunes in the Iberian Peninsula. We examined the impact of the invader on the germination, growth and survival of seeds and adult plants of two native plant species (Malcolmia littorea (L.) R.Br, and Scabiosa atropurpurea L.) growing with ramets or seeds of C. edulis. Residual effects of C. edulis on soils affected the germination process and early growth of native plants in different ways, depending on plant species and density. Interspecific competition significantly reduced the germination and early growth of native plants but this result was soil, density, timing and plant species dependent. Also, at any density of adult individuals of C. edulis, established native adult plants were not competitive. Moreover, ramets of C. edulis had a lethal effect on native plants, which died in a short period of time. Even the presence of C. edulis seedlings prevents the recruitment of native species. In conclusion, C. edulis have strong negative impacts on the germination, growth and survival of the native species M. littorea and S. atropurpurea. These impacts were highly depended on the development stages of native and invasive plants. Our findings are crucial for new strategies of biodiversity conservation in coastal habitats. PMID:25210924

  10. Influence of pulsed magnetic field on soybean (Glycine max L.) seed germination, seedling growth and soil microbial population.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Kumari, Bollipo Dyana Ranjitha

    2013-08-01

    The effects of pulsed magnetic field (PMF) treatment of soybean (Glycine max L. cv CO3) seeds were investigated on rate of seed germination, seedling growth, physico-chemical properties of seed leachates and soil microbial population under laboratory conditions. Seeds were exposed to PMF of 1500 nT at 0.1, 1.0 10.0 and 100.0 Hz for 5 h per day for 20 days, induced by enclosure coil systems. Non-treated seeds were considered as controls. All PMF treatments significantly increased the rate of seed germination, while 10 and 100 Hz PMFs showed the most effective response. The 1.0 and 10 Hz PMFs remarkably improved the fresh weight of shoots and roots, leaf area and plant height from seedlings from magnetically-exposed seeds compared to the control, while 10 Hz PMF increased the total soluble sugar, total protein and phenol contents. The leaf chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll were higher in PMF (10 and 100 Hz) pretreated plants, as compared to other treatments. In addition, activities of alpha-amylase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, nitrate reductase, peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase were increased, while beta-amylase and protease activities were declined in PMF (10 Hz)-exposed soybean plants. Similarly, the capacity of absorbance of water by seeds and electrical conductivity of seed leachates were significantly enhanced by 10 Hz PMF exposure, whereas PMF (10 Hz) pretreated plants did not affect the microbial population in rhizosphere soil. The results suggested the potential of 10 Hz PMF treatment to enhance the germination and seedling growth of soybean.

  11. Influence of pulsed magnetic field on soybean (Glycine max L.) seed germination, seedling growth and soil microbial population.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Kumari, Bollipo Dyana Ranjitha

    2013-08-01

    The effects of pulsed magnetic field (PMF) treatment of soybean (Glycine max L. cv CO3) seeds were investigated on rate of seed germination, seedling growth, physico-chemical properties of seed leachates and soil microbial population under laboratory conditions. Seeds were exposed to PMF of 1500 nT at 0.1, 1.0 10.0 and 100.0 Hz for 5 h per day for 20 days, induced by enclosure coil systems. Non-treated seeds were considered as controls. All PMF treatments significantly increased the rate of seed germination, while 10 and 100 Hz PMFs showed the most effective response. The 1.0 and 10 Hz PMFs remarkably improved the fresh weight of shoots and roots, leaf area and plant height from seedlings from magnetically-exposed seeds compared to the control, while 10 Hz PMF increased the total soluble sugar, total protein and phenol contents. The leaf chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll were higher in PMF (10 and 100 Hz) pretreated plants, as compared to other treatments. In addition, activities of alpha-amylase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, nitrate reductase, peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase were increased, while beta-amylase and protease activities were declined in PMF (10 Hz)-exposed soybean plants. Similarly, the capacity of absorbance of water by seeds and electrical conductivity of seed leachates were significantly enhanced by 10 Hz PMF exposure, whereas PMF (10 Hz) pretreated plants did not affect the microbial population in rhizosphere soil. The results suggested the potential of 10 Hz PMF treatment to enhance the germination and seedling growth of soybean. PMID:24772951

  12. Nod factors stimulate seed germination and promote growth and nodulation of pea and vetch under competitive conditions.

    PubMed

    Kidaj, Dominika; Wielbo, Jerzy; Skorupska, Anna

    2012-03-20

    Nod factors are lipochitooligosaccharide (LCO) produced by soil bacteria commonly known as rhizobia acting as signals for the legume plants to initiate symbiosis. Nod factors trigger early symbiotic responses in plant roots and initiate the development of specialized plant organs called nodules, where biological nitrogen fixation takes place. Here, the effect of specific LCO originating from flavonoid induced Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae GR09 culture was studied on germination, plant growth and nodulation of pea and vetch. A crude preparation of GR09 LCO significantly enhanced symbiotic performance of pea and vetch grown under laboratory conditions and in the soil. Moreover, the effect of GR09 LCOs seed treatments on the genetic diversity of rhizobia recovered from vetch and pea nodules was presented.

  13. Sensitivity of the Entomogenous Fungus Beauveria bassiana to Selected Plant Growth Regulators and Spray Additives

    PubMed Central

    Storey, Greggory K.; Gardner, Wayne A.

    1986-01-01

    Mefluidide was the only one of four plant growth regulators that caused little to no significant inhibition of in vitro germination and growth of the entomogenous fungus Beauveria bassiana. Silaid, paclobutrazol, and flurprimidol significantly inhibited germination and growth. Mortality of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, resulting from B. bassiana was significantly reduced when larvae were exposed to conidia plus soil treated with paclobutrazol. Larval mortality resulting from conidia plus soil treated with mefluidide did not differ significantly from mortality resulting from untreated conidia. Triton CS-7 was the only one of eight spray adjuvants that significantly inhibited germination of B. bassiana conidia. PMID:16347095

  14. BOA detoxification of four summer weeds during germination and seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Margot; Marocco, Adriano; Tabaglio, Vincenzo

    2012-07-01

    A recent greenhouse study revealed a significant reduction of germination and growth of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) and common purslane (Portulaca oleracea) by rye mulch, whereas velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) and common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album) were not suppressed. Since BOA detoxification by metabolic alteration may influence the relation between the benzoxazinoid content of the soil mulch and weed suppression, we tested the dynamics in BOA detoxification in different plant organs of three and 10-day-old seedlings of four warm season weeds incubated with five BOA concentrations (4, 20, 40, 80, and 200 μmol g(-1) fresh weight). In addition, germination and length of 3-day-old seedlings were measured after exposure to 0, 0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15 μmol BOA. Finally, we tested the influence of the MDR translocator inhibitors verapamil, nifedipine, and the GST inhibitor ethycrynic acid on BOA accumulation and detoxification activity. Due to BOA-detoxification, all weeds were able to grow in environments with low BOA contents. At higher contents, Abutilon theophrasti and Chenopodium album had a better chance to survive because of highly active mechanisms that avoided the uptake of BOA (A. theophrasti) and of efficient detoxification activities in youngest seedlings (C. album). The interpretation of all of the data gave the following sequence of increasing sensitivity: A. theophrasti < C. album < P. oleracea ≤ A. retroflexus. The results were in agreement with recent findings of the suppression of these weeds by rye mulches and their benzoxazinoid contents. Our studies demonstrate for the first time that the detoxification of BOA influences the survival of certain weeds in environments enriched with this allelochemical. Therefore, detoxification processes affect the potential for weed suppression by soil allelochemicals in sustainable weed management.

  15. β-Pinene inhibited germination and early growth involves membrane peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Chowhan, Nadia; Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy R; Kaur, Shalinder; Ahuja, Nitina; Kohli, Ravinder K

    2013-06-01

    β-Pinene, an oxygenated monoterpene, is abundantly found in the environment and widely occurring in plants as a constituent of essential oils. We investigated the phytotoxicity of β-pinene against two grassy (Phalaris minor, Echinochloa crus-galli) and one broad-leaved (Cassia occidentalis) weeds in terms of germination and root and shoot growth. β-Pinene (0.02-0.80 mg/ml) inhibited the germination, root length, and shoot length of test weeds in a dose-response manner. The inhibitory effect of β-pinene was greater in grassy weeds and on root growth than on shoot growth. β-Pinene (0.04-0.80 mg/ml) reduced the root length in P. minor, E. crus-galli, and C. occidentalis over that in the control by 58-60, 44-92, and 26-85 %, respectively. In contrast, shoot length was reduced over the control by 45-97 % in P. minor, 48-78 % in E. crus-galli, and 11-75 % in C. occidentalis at similar concentrations. Further, we examined the impact of β-pinene on membrane integrity in P. minor as one of the possible mechanisms of action. Membrane integrity was evaluated in terms of lipid peroxidation, conjugated diene content, electrolyte leakage, and the activity of lipoxygenases (LOX). β-Pinene (≥0.04 mg/ml) enhanced electrolyte leakage by 23-80 %, malondialdehyde content by 15-67 %, hydrogen peroxide content by 9-39 %, and lipoxygenases activity by 38-383 % over that in the control. It indicated membrane peroxidation and loss of membrane integrity that could be the primary target of β-pinene. Even the enhanced (9-62 %) activity of protecting enzymes, peroxidases (POX), was not able to protect the membranes from β-pinene (0.04-0.20 mg/ml)-induced toxicity. In conclusion, our results show that β-pinene inhibits root growth of the tested weed species through disruption of membrane integrity as indicated by enhanced peroxidation, electrolyte leakage, and LOX activity despite the upregulation of POX activity.

  16. Anaerobiosis and ethanol effects on germination, growth, and protein synthesis of five Echinochloa species

    SciTech Connect

    Dybiec, L.D. ); Rumpho, M.E.; Kennedy, R.A. )

    1989-04-01

    Five Echinochloa species, encompassing a spectrum from flood tolerant to flood intolerant, were studied to determine the mechanisms of anaerobic germination and growth. Seeds were germinated in air or N{sub 2}, plus 0, 1 or 3% ethanol, and germination rates and growth measurements recorded for 7 days. In air or N{sub 2} increasing ethanol levels did not affect total germination per se, although the rate of germination was delayed in N{sub 2}. Shoot/root lengths in air were highest for tolerant species and increased with increasing ethanol, whereas, in intolerant species, shoot/root lengths decreased with increasing ethanol. Aerobic vs. anaerobic polypeptide profiles of each of the species were compared by SDS/PAGE. For all species, the number of polypeptides decreased under anaerobiosis and several quantitative differences were apparent relative to the aerobic profile. In addition, amino acid incorporation into protein was analyzed by ({sup 35}S)-Met labeling of 3 day old seedlings grown in air or N{sub 2}. Significant protein synthesis was measured in tolerant seedlings under N{sub 2} and several polypeptides were specifically induced. These results are being compared with labeling patterns of the other semi-tolerant and intolerant Echinochloa species to determine their importance in flooding tolerance.

  17. Change in protein content during seed germination of a high altitude plant Podophyllum hexandrum Royle.

    PubMed

    Dogra, Vivek; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh; Sreenivasulu, Yelam

    2013-01-14

    Podophyllum hexandrum Royle (=Sinopodophyllum hexandrum) is a high-altitude medicinal plant exploited for its etoposides which are potential anticancer compounds. An effective, conventional propagation method is by seed. However, seed germination is erratic, and seedling survival is low. A marginal increase in Podophyllum seed germination was attained with organic solvents. In the present study an attempt was made to decipher the physiological and biochemical barriers in terms of change in proteins during seed germination of Podophyllum. Comparative 2-DE analysis between un-germinated (dormant) and germinating seeds revealed nearly 113 differentially expressed proteins, whereas Peptide Mass Fingerprint (PMF) analysis of 97 protein spots revealed appearance of 27 proteins, up-accumulation of 11 proteins, down-accumulation of 19 proteins and disappearance of 40 proteins with germination. Identified 59 proteins in the homology search were involved in metabolism (carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism; 20 proteins), ABA/GA signaling (17 proteins) and stress (15 proteins) related proteins. Seven proteins were with unknown function. Two-DE, and MS/MS analysis in conjunction with semi-quantitative RT-PCR data of cell wall hydrolyzing genes, revealed that in Podophyllum the radicle protrusion occurs might be because of the up-accumulation of cell wall hydrolases i.e. β-1, 3-glucanase and XET which weakens the thick walled micropylar endosperm.

  18. Seed germination of seven desert plants and implications for vegetation restoration

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Liming; Chen, Lijun; Jiang, Lianhe; Zhou, Jihua; Zheng, Yuanrun; Shimizu, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    Germination cues reflect the conditions under which a species is likely to succeed in recruitment. Therefore, knowledge of the seed germination characteristics of key plant species in desertified areas is essential for restoration. The aims of this study were to evaluate the seed germination responses of seven native species, and to explore the implications for vegetation restoration. Seeds of seven desert species were sown in Petri dishes and subjected to various temperature and light conditions. The seeds germinated well at day/night temperatures of 25/15 °C and 30/20 °C but poorly at 35/25 °C. Seeds germinated best in the dark, and final germination percentages of all species were strongly inhibited at a photon irradiance of 1000 µmol m−2 s−1. Based on these results and the environmental conditions of their natural habitat, Agropyron cristatum and Artemisia halodendron are best adapted to shifting sand dunes: Elymus dahuricus, Caragana korshinskii and C. microphylla for semi-fixed sand dunes: and Medicago sativa and Melilotus suaveolen for fixed sand dunes. If seeds are sown in early May, they will likely be buried in sand, and the precipitation and temperature conditions will be suitable for seedling survival. PMID:27179541

  19. Seed germination of seven desert plants and implications for vegetation restoration.

    PubMed

    Lai, Liming; Chen, Lijun; Jiang, Lianhe; Zhou, Jihua; Zheng, Yuanrun; Shimizu, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    Germination cues reflect the conditions under which a species is likely to succeed in recruitment. Therefore, knowledge of the seed germination characteristics of key plant species in desertified areas is essential for restoration. The aims of this study were to evaluate the seed germination responses of seven native species, and to explore the implications for vegetation restoration. Seeds of seven desert species were sown in Petri dishes and subjected to various temperature and light conditions. The seeds germinated well at day/night temperatures of 25/15 °C and 30/20 °C but poorly at 35/25 °C. Seeds germinated best in the dark, and final germination percentages of all species were strongly inhibited at a photon irradiance of 1000 µmol m(-2) s(-1) Based on these results and the environmental conditions of their natural habitat, Agropyron cristatum and Artemisia halodendron are best adapted to shifting sand dunes: Elymus dahuricus, Caragana korshinskii and C. microphylla for semi-fixed sand dunes: and Medicago sativa and Melilotus suaveolen for fixed sand dunes. If seeds are sown in early May, they will likely be buried in sand, and the precipitation and temperature conditions will be suitable for seedling survival. PMID:27179541

  20. Seed germination of seven desert plants and implications for vegetation restoration.

    PubMed

    Lai, Liming; Chen, Lijun; Jiang, Lianhe; Zhou, Jihua; Zheng, Yuanrun; Shimizu, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    Germination cues reflect the conditions under which a species is likely to succeed in recruitment. Therefore, knowledge of the seed germination characteristics of key plant species in desertified areas is essential for restoration. The aims of this study were to evaluate the seed germination responses of seven native species, and to explore the implications for vegetation restoration. Seeds of seven desert species were sown in Petri dishes and subjected to various temperature and light conditions. The seeds germinated well at day/night temperatures of 25/15 °C and 30/20 °C but poorly at 35/25 °C. Seeds germinated best in the dark, and final germination percentages of all species were strongly inhibited at a photon irradiance of 1000 µmol m(-2) s(-1) Based on these results and the environmental conditions of their natural habitat, Agropyron cristatum and Artemisia halodendron are best adapted to shifting sand dunes: Elymus dahuricus, Caragana korshinskii and C. microphylla for semi-fixed sand dunes: and Medicago sativa and Melilotus suaveolen for fixed sand dunes. If seeds are sown in early May, they will likely be buried in sand, and the precipitation and temperature conditions will be suitable for seedling survival.

  1. Carbonhydrate Content and Root Growth in Seeds Germinated Under Salt Stress: Implications for Seed Conditioning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugars and sugar alcohols have well documented roles in salt tolerance in whole plants and maturing seeds. Less is known, however, about possible effects of these compounds during germination. Seeds from mannitol-accumulating salt-tolerant celery [Apium graveloens L. var. dulce (P. Mill.) DC], non...

  2. Using hyperspectral imaging to determine germination of native Australian plant seeds.

    PubMed

    Nansen, Christian; Zhao, Genpin; Dakin, Nicole; Zhao, Chunhui; Turner, Shane R

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the ability to accurately and non-destructively determine the germination of three native Australian tree species, Acacia cowleana Tate (Fabaceae), Banksia prionotes L.F. (Proteaceae), and Corymbia calophylla (Lindl.) K.D. Hill & L.A.S. Johnson (Myrtaceae) based on hyperspectral imaging data. While similar studies have been conducted on agricultural and horticultural seeds, we are unaware of any published studies involving reflectance-based assessments of the germination of tree seeds. Hyperspectral imaging data (110 narrow spectral bands from 423.6nm to 878.9nm) were acquired of individual seeds after 0, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 50days of standardized rapid ageing. At each time point, seeds were subjected to hyperspectral imaging to obtain reflectance profiles from individual seeds. A standard germination test was performed, and we predicted that loss of germination was associated with a significant change in seed coat reflectance profiles. Forward linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was used to select the 10 spectral bands with the highest contribution to classifications of the three species. In all species, germination decreased from over 90% to below 20% in about 10-30days of experimental ageing. P50 values (equal to 50% germination) for each species were 19.3 (A. cowleana), 7.0 (B. prionotes) and 22.9 (C. calophylla) days. Based on independent validation of classifications of hyperspectral imaging data, we found that germination of Acacia and Corymbia seeds could be classified with over 85% accuracy, while it was about 80% for Banksia seeds. The selected spectral bands in each LDA-based classification were located near known pigment peaks involved in photosynthesis and/or near spectral bands used in published indices to predict chlorophyll or nitrogen content in leaves. The results suggested that seed germination may be successfully classified (predicted) based on reflectance in narrow spectral bands associated with the primary metabolism

  3. Effect of Fungicides and Plant Extracts on the Conidial Germination of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Causing Mango Anthracnose

    PubMed Central

    Imtiaj, Ahmed; Rahman, Syed Ajijur; Alam, Shahidul; Parvin, Rehana; Farhana, Khandaker Mursheda; Kim, Sang-Beom

    2005-01-01

    In Northern Bangladesh, generally mango trees are planted as agroforest that gives higher Net Present Value (NPV) than traditional agriculture. Mango anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz. is seen as a very destructive and widely distributed disease, which results in poor market value. Five fungicides such as Cupravit, Bavistin, Dithane M-45, Thiovit and Redomil were tested against conidial germination of C. gloeosporioides. Dithane M-45 and Redomil were the most effective when the conidia were immersed for 10~20 minutes at 500~1000 ppm concentrations. Antifungal activities of 13 plant extracts were tested against conidial germination of C. gloeosporioides. Conidial germination of C. gloeosporioides was completely inhibited in Curcuma longa (leaf and rhizome), Tagetes erecta (leaf) and Zingiber officinales (rhizome) after 15 minutes of incubation respectively. PMID:24049501

  4. Effect of Fungicides and Plant Extracts on the Conidial Germination of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Causing Mango Anthracnose.

    PubMed

    Imtiaj, Ahmed; Rahman, Syed Ajijur; Alam, Shahidul; Parvin, Rehana; Farhana, Khandaker Mursheda; Kim, Sang-Beom; Lee, Tae-Soo

    2005-12-01

    In Northern Bangladesh, generally mango trees are planted as agroforest that gives higher Net Present Value (NPV) than traditional agriculture. Mango anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz. is seen as a very destructive and widely distributed disease, which results in poor market value. Five fungicides such as Cupravit, Bavistin, Dithane M-45, Thiovit and Redomil were tested against conidial germination of C. gloeosporioides. Dithane M-45 and Redomil were the most effective when the conidia were immersed for 10~20 minutes at 500~1000 ppm concentrations. Antifungal activities of 13 plant extracts were tested against conidial germination of C. gloeosporioides. Conidial germination of C. gloeosporioides was completely inhibited in Curcuma longa (leaf and rhizome), Tagetes erecta (leaf) and Zingiber officinales (rhizome) after 15 minutes of incubation respectively. PMID:24049501

  5. Complete Genome of the Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas putida BIRD-1

    SciTech Connect

    Matilla, M.A.; van der Lelie, D.; Pizarro-Tobias, P.; Roca, A.; Fernandez, M.; Duque, E.; Molina, L.; Wu, X.; Gomez, M. J.; Segura, A.; Ramos, J.-L.

    2011-03-01

    We report the complete sequence of the 5.7-Mbp genome of Pseudomonas putida BIRD-1, a metabolically versatile plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium that is highly tolerant to desiccation and capable of solubilizing inorganic phosphate and iron and of synthesizing phytohormones that stimulate seed germination and plant growth.

  6. Soil warming increases plant species richness but decreases germination from the alpine soil seed bank.

    PubMed

    Hoyle, Gemma L; Venn, Susanna E; Steadman, Kathryn J; Good, Roger B; McAuliffe, Edward J; Williams, Emlyn R; Nicotra, Adrienne B

    2013-05-01

    Global warming is occurring more rapidly above the treeline than at lower elevations and alpine areas are predicted to experience above average warming in the future. Temperature is a primary factor in stimulating seed germination and regulating changes in seed dormancy status. Thus, plant regeneration from seed will be crucial to the persistence, migration and post disturbance recruitment of alpine plants in future climates. Here, we present the first assessment of the impact of soil warming on germination from the persistent alpine soil seed bank. Contrary to expectations, soil warming lead to reduced overall germination from the soil seed bank. However, germination response to soil temperature was species specific such that total species richness actually increased by nine with soil warming. We further explored the system by assessing the prevalence of seed dormancy and germination response to soil disturbance, the frequency of which is predicted to increase under climate change. Seeds of a significant proportion of species demonstrated physiological dormancy mechanisms and germination of several species appeared to be intrinsically linked to soil disturbance. In addition, we found no evidence of subalpine species and little evidence of exotic weed species in the soil, suggesting that the soil seed bank will not facilitate their invasion of the alpine zone. In conclusion, changes in recruitment via the alpine soil seed bank can be expected under climate change, as a result of altered dormancy alleviation and germination cues. Furthermore, the alpine soil seed bank, and the species richness therein, has the potential to help maintain local species diversity, support species range shift and moderate species dominance. Implications for alpine management and areas for further study are also discussed.

  7. Effect of Pb, Cd, Hg, As, and Cr on germination and root growth of Sinapis alba seeds

    SciTech Connect

    Fargasova, A. )

    1994-03-01

    Heavy metals have been widely recognized as highly toxic and dangerous. Plants, algae and bacteria respond to heavy metal toxicity by inducing different enzymes, creating ion influx/efflux for ionic balance and synthesizing small peptides. These peptides bind metal ions and reduce toxicity. Metals come from the natural weathering processes of the earth's crust, industrial discharge, pest or disease control agents applied to plants, urban run-off, mining, soil erosion, sewage effluents, air pollution fallout and other sources. Plants can be affected directly by air pollutants, as well as indirectly through the contamination of soil and water. At the same time, plant is a member of the food chain and may create a risk for man and animals through contamination of food supplies. In recent years a considerable progress has been made in the assay of trace elements in environmental plant samples. For higher plants, the accumulation of metals, especially cadmium, was tested when plants grew on sewage sludge-amended soils or in soils of cadmium residues from phosphate fertilizers. No reports were accessible to us on the direct effect of tested metals (Pb, Hg, Cr, As, Cd) on seed germination and root growth. The paucity of literature initiated our present work. In this study, an attempt has been made to investigate the acute toxicity of five metals (Cr[sup 6+], Cd[sup 2+], Hg[sup 2+], Pb[sup 2+], As[sup 5+]) which are widely spread in the environment and are widely recognized as highly toxic and dangerous. As the testing subject, mustard seeds (Sinapis alba) were used and their germination and root growth were observed. 12 refs., 1 tab.

  8. Students' Ideas about Plants and Plant Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barman, Charles R.; Stein, Mary; McNair, Shannan; Barman, Natalie S.

    2006-01-01

    Because the National Science Education Standards (1996) outline specific things K-8 students should know about plants, and previous data indicated that elementary students had difficulty understanding some major ideas about plants and plant growth, the authors of this article thought it appropriate to initiate an investigation to determine the…

  9. Detecting free radicals in biochars and determining their ability to inhibit the germination and growth of corn, wheat and rice seedlings.

    PubMed

    Liao, Shaohua; Pan, Bo; Li, Hao; Zhang, Di; Xing, Baoshan

    2014-01-01

    Biochar can benefit human society as a carbon-negative material and soil amendment. However, negative biochar impacts on plant germination and growth have been observed, and they have not been fully explained. Therefore, protocols to avoid these risks cannot be proposed. We hypothesized that the free radicals generated during charring may inhibit plant germination and growth. Significant electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signals were observed in the biochars derived from several types of common biomass (corn stalk, rice, and wheat straws) and the major biopolymer components of biomass (cellulose and lignin), but not in the original materials, suggesting the ubiquitous presence of free radicals in biochars. EPR signal intensity increased with increasing pyrolysis temperature, and it was dominantly contributed by oxygen centered in the mixture of oxygen- and carbon-centered free radicals as the temperature increased. The free radicals in biochars induced strong ·OH radicals in the aqueous phase. Significant germination inhibition, root and shoot growth retardation and plasma membrane damage were observed for biochars with abundant free radicals. Germination inhibition and plasma membrane damage were not obvious for biochars containing low free radicals, but they were apparent at comparable concentrations of conventional contaminants, such as heavy metals and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The potential risk and harm of relatively persistent free radicals in biochars must be addressed to apply them safely.

  10. Evaluation and refinement of a continuous seed germination and early seedling growth test for the use in the ecotoxicological assessment of soils.

    PubMed

    Gong, P; Wilke, B M; Strozzi, E; Fleischmann, S

    2001-07-01

    Four higher plant species (Avena sativa L., oat; Lepidium sativum L., cress; Brassica rapa Metzg., turnip; and Phaseolus vulgaris L., bush bean) and 15 soils including five mineral oil-contaminated soils were tested to assess a soil-based continuous seed germination and early seedling growth bioassay. Seed germination was recorded and the shoot biomass of 14-day seedlings measured. An automatic self-watering system was compared with the daily hand watering. Results obtained from this study show that the self-watering system had minor effects on both seed germination and early seedling growth, and that soil nutrient status rather than soil texture significantly affected both seedling emergence and shoot biomass. Proportional dilution of suspicious samples from primary tests with an appropriate control soil is recommended for secondary tests. Shoot biomass is a more sensitive measurement endpoint than seed germination. Bush bean should not be recommended for use due to its low sensitivity to mineral oil and poor germination in soil.

  11. Arabidopsis Fatty Acid Desaturase FAD2 Is Required for Salt Tolerance during Seed Germination and Early Seedling Growth

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jian; Li, Bei; Zhu, Qiang; Chen, Shaoliang; Zhang, Hongxia

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acid desaturases play important role in plant responses to abiotic stresses. However, their exact function in plant resistance to salt stress is unknown. In this work, we provide the evidence that FAD2, an endoplasmic reticulum localized ω-6 desaturase, is required for salt tolerance in Arabidopsis. Using vacuolar and plasma membrane vesicles prepared from the leaves of wild-type (Col-0) and the loss-of-function Arabidopsis mutant, fad2, which lacks the functional FAD2, we examined the fatty acid composition and Na+-dependent H+ movements of the isolated vesicles. We observed that, when compared to Col-0, the level of vacuolar and plasma membrane polyunsaturation was lower, and the Na+/H+ exchange activity was reduced in vacuolar and plasma membrane vesicles isolated from fad2 mutant. Consistent with the reduced Na+/H+ exchange activity, fad2 accumulated more Na+ in the cytoplasm of root cells, and was more sensitive to salt stress during seed germination and early seedling growth, as indicated by CoroNa-Green staining, net Na+ efflux and salt tolerance analyses. Our results suggest that FAD2 mediated high-level vacuolar and plasma membrane fatty acid desaturation is essential for the proper function of membrane attached Na+/H+ exchangers, and thereby to maintain a low cytosolic Na+ concentration for salt tolerance during seed germination and early seedling growth in Arabidopsis. PMID:22279586

  12. RRP41L, a putative core subunit of the exosome, plays an important role in seed germination and early seedling growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Zhang, Bangyue; Jia, Jianheng; Yan, Chunxia; Habaike, Ayijiang; Han, Yuzhen

    2013-01-01

    In prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, the 3'-5'-exonucleolytic decay and processing of RNAs are essential for RNA metabolism. However, the understanding of the mechanism of 3'-5'-exonucleolytic decay in plants is very limited. Here, we report the characterization of an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) transfer DNA insertional mutant that shows severe growth defects in early seedling growth, including delayed germination and cotyledon expansion, thinner yellow/pale-green leaves, and a slower growth rate. High-efficiency thermal asymmetric interlaced polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the insertional locus was in the sixth exon of AT4G27490, encoding a predicted 3'-5'-exonuclease, that contained a conserved RNase phosphorolytic domain with high similarity to RRP41, designated RRP41L. Interestingly, we detected highly accumulated messenger RNAs (mRNAs) that encode seed storage protein and abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis and signaling pathway-related protein during the early growth stage in rrp41l mutants. The mRNA decay kinetics analysis for seed storage proteins, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenases, and ABA INSENSITIVEs revealed that RRP41L catalyzed the decay of these mRNAs in the cytoplasm. Consistent with these results, the rrp41l mutant was more sensitive to ABA in germination and root growth than wild-type plants, whereas overexpression lines of RRP41L were more resistant to ABA in germination and root growth than wild-type plants. RRP41L was localized to both the cytoplasm and nucleus, and RRP41L was preferentially expressed in seedlings. Altogether, our results showed that RRP41L plays an important role in seed germination and early seedling growth by mediating specific cytoplasmic mRNA decay in Arabidopsis.

  13. The parasitic plant Cuscuta australis is highly insensitive to abscisic acid-induced suppression of hypocotyl elongation and seed germination.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Hettenhausen, Christian; Sun, Guiling; Zhuang, Huifu; Li, Jian-Hong; Wu, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    Around 1% of angiosperms are parasitic plants. Their growth and development solely or partly depend on host plants from which they extract water, nutrients, and other molecules using a parasitic plant-specific organ, the haustorium. Strong depletion of nutrients can result in serious growth retardation and in some cases, death of the hosts. The genus Cuscuta (dodder) comprises about 200 holoparasitic species occurring on all continents. Their seedlings have no roots and cotyledons but are only string-like hypocotyls. When they contact suitable host plants, haustoria are formed and thereafter seedlings rapidly develop into vigorously growing branches without roots and leaves. This highly specialized lifestyle suggests that Cuscuta plants likely have unique physiology in development and stress responses. Using germination and seedling growth assays, we show that C. australis seeds and seedlings are highly insensitive to abscisic acid (ABA). Transcriptome analysis and protein sequence alignment with Arabidopsis, tomato, and rice homologs revealed that C. australis most likely consists of only four functional ABA receptors. Given that Cuscuta plants are no longer severely challenged by drought stress, we hypothesize that the ABA-mediated drought resistance pathway in Cuscuta spp. might have had degenerated over time during evolution. PMID:26258814

  14. The parasitic plant Cuscuta australis is highly insensitive to abscisic acid-induced suppression of hypocotyl elongation and seed germination.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Hettenhausen, Christian; Sun, Guiling; Zhuang, Huifu; Li, Jian-Hong; Wu, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    Around 1% of angiosperms are parasitic plants. Their growth and development solely or partly depend on host plants from which they extract water, nutrients, and other molecules using a parasitic plant-specific organ, the haustorium. Strong depletion of nutrients can result in serious growth retardation and in some cases, death of the hosts. The genus Cuscuta (dodder) comprises about 200 holoparasitic species occurring on all continents. Their seedlings have no roots and cotyledons but are only string-like hypocotyls. When they contact suitable host plants, haustoria are formed and thereafter seedlings rapidly develop into vigorously growing branches without roots and leaves. This highly specialized lifestyle suggests that Cuscuta plants likely have unique physiology in development and stress responses. Using germination and seedling growth assays, we show that C. australis seeds and seedlings are highly insensitive to abscisic acid (ABA). Transcriptome analysis and protein sequence alignment with Arabidopsis, tomato, and rice homologs revealed that C. australis most likely consists of only four functional ABA receptors. Given that Cuscuta plants are no longer severely challenged by drought stress, we hypothesize that the ABA-mediated drought resistance pathway in Cuscuta spp. might have had degenerated over time during evolution.

  15. The Parasitic Plant Cuscuta australis Is Highly Insensitive to Abscisic Acid-Induced Suppression of Hypocotyl Elongation and Seed Germination

    PubMed Central

    Li, Juan; Hettenhausen, Christian; Sun, Guiling; Zhuang, Huifu; Li, Jian-Hong; Wu, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    Around 1% of angiosperms are parasitic plants. Their growth and development solely or partly depend on host plants from which they extract water, nutrients, and other molecules using a parasitic plant-specific organ, the haustorium. Strong depletion of nutrients can result in serious growth retardation and in some cases, death of the hosts. The genus Cuscuta (dodder) comprises about 200 holoparasitic species occurring on all continents. Their seedlings have no roots and cotyledons but are only string-like hypocotyls. When they contact suitable host plants, haustoria are formed and thereafter seedlings rapidly develop into vigorously growing branches without roots and leaves. This highly specialized lifestyle suggests that Cuscuta plants likely have unique physiology in development and stress responses. Using germination and seedling growth assays, we show that C. australis seeds and seedlings are highly insensitive to abscisic acid (ABA). Transcriptome analysis and protein sequence alignment with Arabidopsis, tomato, and rice homologs revealed that C. australis most likely consists of only four functional ABA receptors. Given that Cuscuta plants are no longer severely challenged by drought stress, we hypothesize that the ABA-mediated drought resistance pathway in Cuscuta spp. might have had degenerated over time during evolution. PMID:26258814

  16. Germination, growth rates, and electron microscope analysis of tomato seeds flown on the LDEF.

    PubMed

    Hammond, E C; Bridgers, K; Berry, F D

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of the experiment was to determine cosmic rays long-term effects on living tissue. A batch of tomato seeds were flown in orbit aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) for almost 6 y. During this time, the seeds received an abundant exposure to cosmic radiation. Upon the return of the LDEF to Earth, the seeds were distributed throughout the United States and 30 foreign countries for analysis. Our university analysis included germination and growth rates as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray analysis of the control as well as space exposed tomato seeds. In analyzing the seeds under the electron microscope, usual observations were performed on the nutritional and epidermis layer of the seed. These layers appeared to be more porous in the space exposed seeds than on Earth-based control seeds. This unusual characteristic may explain the increases in the space seeds growth pattern. (Several test results showed that the space-exposed seeds germinated sooner than Earth-based seeds. Also, the space-exposed seeds grew at a faster rate.) The porous nutritional region may allow the seeds to receive necessary nutrients and liquids more readily, thus enabling the plant to grow at a faster rate. Roots, leaves and stems were cut into small sections and mounted. After sputter coating the specimens with argon/gold palladium plasma, they were viewed under the electron microscope. Many micrographs were taken. The X-ray analysis displayed possible identifications of calcium, potassium, chlorine, copper, aluminum, silicon, phosphate, carbon, and sometimes sulfur and iron. The highest concentrations were shown in potassium and calcium. As a result of the electron interaction and X-ray production within the open seeds, the traditional layers of the space-exposed seed gave peaks of Mg, P and S, while the Earth seed gave an iron peak, which was not detected in the space-exposed seed because of electron beam positioning difference. The space

  17. Seed Dispersal and Germination Traits of 70 Plant Species Inhabiting the Gurbantunggut Desert in Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huiliang; Zhang, Daoyuan; Yang, Xuejun; Huang, Zhenying; Duan, Shimin; Wang, Xiyong

    2014-01-01

    Seed dispersal and germination were examined for 70 species from the cold Gurbantunggut Desert in northwest China. Mean and range (3 orders of magnitude) of seed mass were smaller and narrower than those in other floras (5–8 orders of magnitude), which implies that selection favors relatively smaller seeds in this desert. We identified five dispersal syndromes (anemochory, zoochory, autochory, barochory, and ombrohydrochory), and anemochorous species were most abundant. Seed mass (F = 3.50, P = 0.01), seed size (F = 8.31, P < 0.01), and seed shape (F = 2.62, P = 0.04) differed significantly among the five dispersal syndromes and barochorous species were significantly smaller and rounder than the others. There were no significant correlations between seed mass (seed weight) (P = 0.15), seed size (P = 0.38), or seed shape (variance) (P = 0.95) and germination percentage. However, germination percentages differed significantly among the dispersal syndromes (F = 3.64, P = 0.01) and seeds of ombrohydrochorous species had higher germination percentages than those of the other species. In the Gurbantunggut Desert, the percentage of species with seed dormancy was about 80%. In general, our studies suggest that adaptive strategies in seed dispersal and germination of plants in this area are closely related to the environment in which they live and that they are influenced by natural selection forces. PMID:25485296

  18. The effect of some non-protein amino acids on pollen germination and pollen-tube growth in five species of the Vicieae.

    PubMed

    Simola, L K

    1967-12-01

    The effects of canavanine, α,γ-diaminobutyric acid, homoarginine and lathyrine on the germination of pollen and on in-vitro growth of pollen tubes were studied in the following species: Lathyrus niger, L. silvestris, Vicia unijuga, Pisum sativum and Cicer arietinum.The effects of these non-protein amino acids depended on their quantity and on the plant species. Every amino acid had a promoting effect on germination and growth at some concentration in some species. Inhibition or promotion of pollen germination and pollen-tube growth were usually parallel. The stronger influence of some amino acid on growth than on germination may be due to slow penetration of the acid into the cell.Homoarginine and lathyrine had a promoting effect at all concentrations in L. niger, a species in which these amino acids occur naturally. In most other species they had, if anything, a very slight inhibitory effect, α,γ-Diaminobutyric acid and canavanine had the strongest inhibitory effects on the species studied. It seems possible that these amino acids are antimetabolites of common amino acids.It is obvious that non-protein amino acids can form effective hybridization barries, although the conditions in nature are more complex than in vitro. The ability to synthesize a new amino acid may therefore be of evolutionary significance in the isolation of new species and genera. PMID:24522605

  19. Germination and early plant development of ten plant species exposed to titanium dioxide and cerium oxide nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ten agronomic plant species were exposed to different concentrations of nano titanium dioxide (nTiO2) or nano cerium oxide (nCeO2) (0, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/L) to examine potential effects on germination and early seedling development. We modified a standard test protocol develop...

  20. Effects of water potential on mycelial growth, sclerotial production, and germination of Rhizoctonia solani from potato.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Faye; McQuilken, Mark P; Bain, Ruairidh A

    2006-06-01

    The effects of osmotic and matric potential on mycelial growth, sclerotial production and germination of isolates of Rhizoctonia solani [anastomosis groups (AGs) 2-1 and 3] from potato were studied on potato dextrose agar (PDA) adjusted osmotically with sodium chloride, potassium chloride, glycerol, and matrically with polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000. All isolates from AGs 2-1 and AG-3 exhibited fastest mycelial growth on unamended PDA (-0.4MPa), and growth generally declined with decreasing osmotic and matric potentials. Growth ceased between -3.5 and -4.0MPa on osmotically adjusted media, and at -2.0MPa on matrically adjusted media, with slight differences between isolates and osmotica. Sclerotium yield declined with decreasing osmotic potential, and formation by AG 2-1 and AG-3 isolates ceased between -1.5 and -3.0MPa and -2.5 and -3.5MPa, respectively. On matrically adjusted media, sclerotial formation by AG 2-1 isolates ceased at -0.8MPa, whereas formation by AG-3 isolates ceased at the lower matric potential of -1.5MPa. Sclerotial germination also declined with decreasing osmotic and matric potential, with total inhibition occurring over the range -3.0 to -4.0MPa on osmotically adjusted media, and at -2.0MPa on matrically adjusted media. In soil, mycelial growth and sclerotial germination of AG-3 isolates declined with decreasing total water potential, with a minimum potential of -6.3MPa permitting both growth and germination. The relevance of these results to the behaviour of R. solani AGs in soil and their pathogenicity on potato is discussed.

  1. Germination and Seedling Growth of Perennial Ryegrass in Acid Sulfate Soil Treated by Pyrite Nano-Encapsulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Kim, J.; Yi, J.; Kim, T.

    2007-05-01

    The trial pot experiment was conducted to validate the effect of encapsulation in reduction of acid rock drainage. Six different treatments were performed: A = control, four times spraying of distilled water; B = four times of 0.01 M H2O2; C = once-encapsulated and three times spraying of distilled water; D = twice-encapsulated and twice spraying of distilled water; E = three times-encapsulated and once spraying of distilled water and F = four times-encapsulated for the acid sulfate soil with pyrite bearing andesite powder and sand. After the encapsulation treatment, the perennial ryegrass (Loium perenne) was sowed to evaluate germination rate and growth for three months. The leachate was examined for the chemical properties. The leachate from the A pot (control) is characterized as acidic (pH below 3) and high concentrations of SO4-2: 12,022 mg/L, Al: 85.8 mg/L and Mn: 34.1 mg/L which can be toxic effect to the plant growth. However, the leachate from encapsulated pots showed near neutral (pH 6 to 7) and low concentrations of SO4-2 (below 3,000 mg/L), Al (below 45mg/L) and Mn (24 gm/L). The frequency of encapsulation treatment is related to reduction of acidic drainage. It was hard to identify the significant difference of the seed germination rate of ryegrass between the treatments, although root and shoot growth showed three times difference between the control (1.90g/pot) and four times encapsulated treatment (6.33g/pot) after 2 month growth. It is suggested that encapsulation of pyrite in acid sulfate soil causes the reduction of acidic drainage resulting in the higher growth of herbaceous plants.

  2. Use of Hydrogen Peroxide to Disinfect Hydroponic Plant Growth Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Henderson, Keith

    2000-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide was studied as an alternative to conventional bleach and rinsing methods to disinfect hydroponic plant growth systems. A concentration of 0.5% hydrogen peroxide was found to be effective. Residual hydrogen peroxide can be removed from the system by repeated rinsing or by flowing the solution through a platinum on aluminum catalyst. Microbial populations were reduced to near zero immediately after treatment but returned to pre-disinfection levels 2 days after treatment. Treating nutrient solution with hydrogen peroxide and planting directly into trays being watered with the nutrient solution without replenishment, was found to be detrimental to lettuce germination and growth.

  3. Laser effects on the growth and photosynthesis process in mustard plants (Sinapis Alba)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghel, Sorin; Stanescu, Constantin S.; Giosanu, Dana; Flenacu, Monica; Iorga-Siman, Ion

    2001-06-01

    In this paper we present the results of our experiments concerning the influence of the low energy laser (LEL) radiation on the germination, growth and photosyntheses processes in mustard plants (sinapis alba). We used a He-Ne laser ((lambda) equals 632.8 nm, P equals 6 mW) to irradiate the mustard seeds with different exposure times. The seeds were sowed and some determinations (the germination and growth intensity, chlorophyll quantity, and respiration intensity) were made on the plant culture. We ascertained that the germination and growth of the plants are influenced by the irradiation. Also, the chlorophyll quantity is the same for both plants from irradiated and non-irradiated seeds but the respiration and photosynthesis processes are influenced by the irradiation.

  4. Chemical Control of Plant Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agricultural Research Center (USDA), Beltsville, MD.

    Seven experiments are presented in this Science Study Aid to help students investigate the control of plant growth with chemicals. Plant growth regulators, weed control, and chemical pruning are the topics studied in the experiments which are based on investigations that have been and are being conducted at the U. S. Agricultural Research Center,…

  5. Biogenic nanoparticle-mediated augmentation of seed germination, growth, and antioxidant level of Eruca sativa mill. varieties.

    PubMed

    Ushahra, Jyoti; Bhati-Kushwaha, Himakshi; Malik, C P

    2014-09-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the influence of biogenic nanoparticles synthesized from Tridax procumbens on different parameters of seed germination, seedling growth, and various biochemical parameters in four Eruca sativa varieties having low percentage of germination. Seeds were treated with different concentrations (30 and 40 ppm) of biogenic nanoparticles, of which 30 ppm was found to be the most effective and was therefore used for subsequent studies. Initially, the effect of biogenic nanoparticles on germination percentage, speed of germination, coefficient of germination, mean germination time, shoot and root length, fresh and dry matter, and vigor index was studied. From the experiments performed and the results obtained, it was evident that the treatment with biogenic nanoparticles decreased the electrolyte leakage and level of malondialdehyde as compared to control. The treatment with biogenic nanoparticles enhanced the levels of proline and ascorbic acid and stimulated the antioxidant enzyme activities resulting in the reduced level of reactive oxygen species. These activities were found to be variety-dependent. The possible involvement of biogenic nanoparticles in the production of new pores in seed coat during their penetration, resulting in the influx of the nutrients inside the seed, is suggested. This accelerated seed germination is followed by rapid seedling growth. The present findings indicated that biogenic nanoparticles promote seed germination in E. sativa by overcoming the detrimental effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and improving the antioxidative defense system which finally result in increased seedling growth.

  6. Nitric oxide participates in cold-inhibited Camellia sinensis pollen germination and tube growth partly via cGMP in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Hua; Li, Xiao-Cheng; Zhu-Ge, Qiang; Jiang, Xin; Wang, Wei-Dong; Fang, Wan-Ping; Chen, Xuan; Li, Xing-Hui

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays essential roles in many biotic and abiotic stresses in plant development procedures, including pollen tube growth. Here, effects of NO on cold stress inhibited pollen germination and tube growth in Camellia sinensis were investigated in vitro. The NO production, NO synthase (NOS)-like activity, cGMP content and proline (Pro) accumulation upon treatment with NO scavenger cPTIO, NOS inhibitor L-NNA, NO donor DEA NONOate, guanylate cyclase (GC) inhibitor ODQ or phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor Viagra at 25°C (control) or 4°C were analyzed. Exposure to 4°C for 2 h reduced pollen germination and tube growth along with increase of NOS-like activity, NO production and cGMP content in pollen tubes. DEA NONOate treatment inhibited pollen germination and tube growth in a dose-dependent manner under control and reinforced the inhibition under cold stress, during which NO production and cGMP content promoted in pollen tubes. L-NNA and cPTIO markedly reduced the generation of NO induced by cold or NO donor along with partly reverse of cold- or NO donor-inhibited pollen germination and tube growth. Furthermore, ODQ reduced the cGMP content under cold stress and NO donor treatment in pollen tubes. Meanwhile, ODQ disrupted the reinforcement of NO donor on the inhibition of pollen germination and tube growth under cold condition. Additionally, Pro accumulation of pollen tubes was reduced by ODQ compared with that receiving NO donor under cold or control condition. Effects of cPTIO and L-NNA in improving cold-treated pollen germination and pollen tube growth could be lowered by Viagra. Moreover, the inhibitory effects of cPTIO and L-NNA on Pro accumulation were partly reversed by Viagra. These data suggest that NO production from NOS-like enzyme reaction decreased the cold-responsive pollen germination, inhibited tube growth and reduced Pro accumulation, partly via cGMP signaling pathway in C. sinensis.

  7. Phytochrome, plant growth and flowering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. W.; Bagnall, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    Attempts to use artificially lit cabinets to grow plants identical to those growing in sunlight have provided compelling evidence of the importance of light quality for plant growth. Changing the balance of red (R) to far-red (FR) radiation, but with a fixed photosynthetic input can shift the phytochrome photoequilibrium in a plant and generate large differences in plant growth. With FR enrichment the plants elongate, and may produce more leaf area and dry matter. Similar morphogenic responses are also obtained when light quality is altered only briefly (15-30 min) at the end-of-the-day. Conversely, for plants grown in natural conditions the response of plant form to selective spectral filtering has again shown that red and far-red wavebands are important as found by Kasperbauer and coworkers. Also, where photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) of sunlight have been held constant, the removal of far-red alone alters plant growth. With FR depletion plants grown in sunlight are small, more branched and darker green. Here we examine the implications for plant growth and flowering when the far-red composition of incident radiation in plant growth chambers is manipulated.

  8. Effects of extract liquid of SLS made from three different materials on seed germination and seedling growth of rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Lingzhi; Fu, Wenting; Liu, Hong; Yan, Min; Li, Leyuan

    Rice and wheat are the main candidate crops in the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) of China, for they are traditional food in Asia. Thus the recycling of their straws is an important issue in our BLSS, and it is a vital way to biologically process them into the soil like substrate (SLS) first and then reuse them in the plant cultivation system to achieve their recycle in BLSS. However, rice is a plant with strong allelopathic effects. And so far, it is also not clear that what kind of raw materials can be processed into proper SLS to grow rice in the BLSS. Therefore, in this study, the extract liquid of SLS made from three different materials including rice straw, wheat straw and rice-wheat mixed straw was utilized to investigate its effects on the seed germination and seedling growth of rice. The gradients of the extract concentrations (soil: water) were 1:3, 1:5, 1:9, and 1:15 with the deionized water used as control. The effects of different types of SLS on seed germination and seedling vitality of rice were confirmed by analyzing the germination rate, seedling length, root length, root fresh weight, seedling fresh weight and other indicates. In addition, based on the analysis towards pH, organic matter composition and other factors of the SLS as well as the chlorophyll and hormone content of rice, the mechanism of the inhibition was speculated and the preventive methods of this phenomenon was explored. Finally, the feasibility of cultivating rice on the SLS made from the above three kinds of raw materials was evaluated and the proper raw materials to be processed into SLS to grow rice were determined.

  9. Germination and initial growth of tree seedlings on deforested and natural forest soil at Dulhazara, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M Mohitul

    2012-12-01

    The destruction of natural forest is increasing due to urbanization, industrialization, settlement and for the agricultural expansion over last few decades, and studies for their recovery need to be undertaken. With this aim, this comparative study was designed to see the effects of deforested soil on germination and growth performance of five different tree species. In the experiment, five species namely Gmelina arborea, Swietenia mahagoni, Dipterocarpus turbinatus, Acacia auriculiformis and Syzygium grande were germinated for six weeks on seedbeds and raised in pots (25cm diameter, 30cm height), that were filled with two soil and type of land use: deforested and adjacent natural forest of Dulhazara Safari Park. Growth performance of seedling was observed up to 15 months based on height, collar diameter and biomass production at the end. Our results showed that the germination rate was almost similar in both type of land uses. Height growth of D. turbinatus, G. arborea and S. mahagoni seedlings was almost similar and A. auriculi formis and S. grande lower in deforested soil compared to natural forest soil, while collar diameter ofA. auriculi formis, G. arborea, S. grande and S. mahagoni lower and D. turbinatus similar in deforested soil compared to natural forest soil. After uprooting at 19 months, S. mahagoni seedlings were showed significantly (p< or =0.05) higher oven dry biomass, D. turbinatus and A. auriculiformis higher, while G. arborea showed significantly (p< or =0.05) lower and S. grande almost similar oven dry biomass in deforested soil compared to natural forest soil. Oven dry biomass of D. turbinatus seedlings at 19 month age in deforested soil was 21.96g (n=5) and in natural forest soil 18.86g (n=5). However, differences in germination rate and growth performance for different tree species indicated that soil are not too much deteriorated through deforestation at Dulhazara and without any failure such deforested lands would be possible to bring under

  10. Using composting for control seed germination of invasive plant (water hyacinth) in Extremadura (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labrador, Juana; Gordillo, Judit; Ruiz, Trinidad; Albano, Eva; Moreno, Marta M.

    2016-04-01

    The biotransformation of the invasive water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) by composting has been showed as a viable alternative to offset the economic cost of eliminating an invasive plant giving a value to the by-product; however, as result of the propagative plant capacity, it was necessary to check if the composting process could eliminate the germination seed rate. Despite the high temperatures and the biochemical biotransformation processes of the composting components, in the case of seed water hyacinth, with a recovery rate of 100%, damage was observed in some parts of the seed anatomy such as in the outer teguments; however, other parts of the seed coat and the endosperm maintained their integrity. A microscopic analysis revealed that the embryo was noticeable and this was supported by the rate of seed germination observed (3.5 ± 0.96%). The results indicate that the use of water hyacinth for compost production is not completely safe from an environmental perspective. Keywords: Eichhornia crassipes, water hyacinth, invasive plant, seed anatomy, seed germination rate, compost. References: Ruiz T., Martín de Rodrigo E., Lorenzo G., Albano E., Morán R., Sánchez J.M. 2008. The Water Hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes: an invasive plant in the Guadiana River Basin (Spain). Aquatic Invasions Volume 3, Issue 1:42-53.

  11. Loss of Mitochondrial Malate Dehydrogenase Activity Alters Seed Metabolism Impairing Seed Maturation and Post-Germination Growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sew, Yun Shin; Ströher, Elke; Fenske, Ricarda; Millar, A Harvey

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (mMDH; EC 1.1.1.37) has multiple roles; the most commonly described is its catalysis of the interconversion of malate and oxaloacetate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The roles of mMDH in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed development and germination were investigated in mMDH1 and mMDH2 double knockout plants. A significant proportion of mmdh1mmdh2 seeds were nonviable and developed only to torpedo-shaped embryos, indicative of arrested seed embryo growth during embryogenesis. The viable mmdh1mmdh2 seeds had an impaired maturation process that led to slow germination rates as well as retarded post-germination growth, shorter root length, and decreased root biomass. During seed development, mmdh1mmdh2 showed a paler green phenotype than the wild type and exhibited deficiencies in reserve accumulation and reduced final seed biomass. The respiration rate of mmdh1mmdh2 seeds was significantly elevated throughout their maturation, consistent with the previously reported higher respiration rate in mmdh1mmdh2 leaves. Mutant seeds showed a consistently higher content of free amino acids (branched-chain amino acids, alanine, serine, glycine, proline, and threonine), differences in sugar and sugar phosphate levels, and lower content of 2-oxoglutarate. Seed-aging assays showed that quiescent mmdh1mmdh2 seeds lost viability more than 3 times faster than wild-type seeds. Together, these data show the important role of mMDH in the earliest phases of the life cycle of Arabidopsis.

  12. Loss of Mitochondrial Malate Dehydrogenase Activity Alters Seed Metabolism Impairing Seed Maturation and Post-Germination Growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sew, Yun Shin; Ströher, Elke; Fenske, Ricarda; Millar, A Harvey

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (mMDH; EC 1.1.1.37) has multiple roles; the most commonly described is its catalysis of the interconversion of malate and oxaloacetate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The roles of mMDH in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed development and germination were investigated in mMDH1 and mMDH2 double knockout plants. A significant proportion of mmdh1mmdh2 seeds were nonviable and developed only to torpedo-shaped embryos, indicative of arrested seed embryo growth during embryogenesis. The viable mmdh1mmdh2 seeds had an impaired maturation process that led to slow germination rates as well as retarded post-germination growth, shorter root length, and decreased root biomass. During seed development, mmdh1mmdh2 showed a paler green phenotype than the wild type and exhibited deficiencies in reserve accumulation and reduced final seed biomass. The respiration rate of mmdh1mmdh2 seeds was significantly elevated throughout their maturation, consistent with the previously reported higher respiration rate in mmdh1mmdh2 leaves. Mutant seeds showed a consistently higher content of free amino acids (branched-chain amino acids, alanine, serine, glycine, proline, and threonine), differences in sugar and sugar phosphate levels, and lower content of 2-oxoglutarate. Seed-aging assays showed that quiescent mmdh1mmdh2 seeds lost viability more than 3 times faster than wild-type seeds. Together, these data show the important role of mMDH in the earliest phases of the life cycle of Arabidopsis. PMID:27208265

  13. [Relationship of bacteria of Bacillus genus with ciliate Colpoda steinii and their impact on germination of plant seeds].

    PubMed

    Pogorelova, V V; Bega, Z T; Kurdish, I K

    2012-01-01

    Features of symbiotic coexistence of bacteria of the genus Bacillus with ciliates Colpoda steinii have been studied. In their mutual cultivation during 10 days the number of bacteria B. subtilis IMV V-7023 was reduced 4.4 times, B. pumilus 3 - 3.4 times, B. megaterium 12 - 2.5 times. In the mixed culture with B. pumilus 3 the number of the ciliates increased gradualluy while under availability of the other two bacilli strains the number of protozoan increased in the first two days, after that their amount decreased. Treatment of some plants seeds by suspension of B. subtilis IMV V-7023 with the protozoan increased their germination and stimulated the growth of plants at the early stages of development.

  14. The Arabidopsis ZINC FINGER PROTEIN3 Interferes with Abscisic Acid and Light Signaling in Seed Germination and Plant Development1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Mary Prathiba; Papdi, Csaba; Kozma-Bognár, László; Nagy, István; López-Carbonell, Marta; Rigó, Gábor; Koncz, Csaba; Szabados, László

    2014-01-01

    Seed germination is controlled by environmental signals, including light and endogenous phytohormones. Abscisic acid (ABA) inhibits, whereas gibberellin promotes, germination and early seedling development, respectively. Here, we report that ZFP3, a nuclear C2H2 zinc finger protein, acts as a negative regulator of ABA suppression of seed germination in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Accordingly, regulated overexpression of ZFP3 and the closely related ZFP1, ZFP4, ZFP6, and ZFP7 zinc finger factors confers ABA insensitivity to seed germination, while the zfp3 zfp4 double mutant displays enhanced ABA susceptibility. Reduced expression of several ABA-induced genes, such as RESPONSIVE TO ABSCISIC ACID18 and transcription factor ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE4 (ABI4), in ZFP3 overexpression seedlings suggests that ZFP3 negatively regulates ABA signaling. Analysis of ZFP3 overexpression plants revealed multiple phenotypic alterations, such as semidwarf growth habit, defects in fertility, and enhanced sensitivity of hypocotyl elongation to red but not to far-red or blue light. Analysis of genetic interactions with phytochrome and abi mutants indicates that ZFP3 enhances red light signaling by photoreceptors other than phytochrome A and additively increases ABA insensitivity conferred by the abi2, abi4, and abi5 mutations. These data support the conclusion that ZFP3 and the related ZFP subfamily of zinc finger factors regulate light and ABA responses during germination and early seedling development. PMID:24808098

  15. Resilience of rice (Oryza spp.) pollen germination and tube growth to temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Coast, Onoriode; Murdoch, Alistair J; Ellis, Richard H; Hay, Fiona R; Jagadish, Krishna S V

    2016-01-01

    Resilience of rice cropping systems to potential global climate change will partly depend on the temperature tolerance of pollen germination (PG) and tube growth (PTG). Pollen germination of high temperature-susceptible Oryza glaberrima Steud. (cv. CG14) and Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica (cv. IR64) and high temperature-tolerant O. sativa ssp. aus (cv. N22), was assessed on a 5.6-45.4 °C temperature gradient system. Mean maximum PG was 85% at 27 °C with 1488 μm PTG at 25 °C. The hypothesis that in each pollen grain, the minimum temperature requirements (Tn ) and maximum temperature limits (Tx ) for germination operate independently was accepted by comparing multiplicative and subtractive probability models. The maximum temperature limit for PG in 50% of grains (Tx(50) ) was the lowest (29.8 °C) in IR64 compared with CG14 (34.3 °C) and N22 (35.6 °C). Standard deviation (sx ) of Tx was also low in IR64 (2.3 °C) suggesting that the mechanism of IR64's susceptibility to high temperatures may relate to PG. Optimum germination temperatures and thermal times for 1 mm PTG were not linked to tolerating high temperatures at anthesis. However, the parameters Tx(50) and sx in the germination model define new pragmatic criteria for successful and resilient PG, preferable to the more traditional cardinal (maximum and minimum) temperatures.

  16. Effect of cadmium on germination, coleoptile and root growth of barley seeds in the presence of gibberellic acid and kinetin.

    PubMed

    Munzuroglu, Omer; Zengin, Fikriye Kirbag

    2006-10-01

    Effect of cadmium on barley seeds treated with kinetin and gibberellic acid was investigated. As usual, cadmium has inhibited seed germination, and showed important inhibitory effects on roots and coleoptile growth after germination. In general, increase in cadmium concentration caused a greater inhibition of germination, root and coleoptile growth. The adverse effect of cadmium on root and coleoptile growth was more pronounced than that on germination. While testa was pierced by radicle (an indication of germination), no root or coleoptile development was observed above at concentration of 3-9.5 mM CdCl2xH2O. Low concentrations of cadmium have inhibited the root growth more than it did on coleoptile growth. Treatment of seeds with gibberellic acid and kinetin did not show any significant difference on the effect of cadmium in germination. However, inhibition of coleoptile elongation by cadmium has decreased a very much after kinetin application. The same result, although with lower rates when compared to kinetin, has been obtained for GA3 as well. In addition, the inhibitory effect of cadmium on root growth increased even more after kinetin application. The results have been found statistically significant through the least significant different (LSD) test at levels ofp < 0.05 and p < 0.01.

  17. [Effects of bryophytes in dark coniferous forest of Changbai Mountains on three conifers seed germination and seedling growth].

    PubMed

    Lin, Fei; Hao, Zhanqing; Ye, Ji; Jiang, Ping

    2006-08-01

    This paper studied the effects of Hylocomium splendens and Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus, the main bryophytes in dark coniferous forests of Changbai Mountains, on the seed germination and seedling growth of Pinus koraiensis, Picea koraiensis and Larix olgensis. The results indicated that at definite concentrations, the water extract of H. splendens inhibited Picea koraiensis seed germination, while that of R. triquetrus promoted it. Although the water extracts of the two bryophytes had no obvious effects on the seed germination of Picea koraiensis and Larix olgensis, they expedited the occurrence of the tree species' daily germination peak. The water extracts of test bryophytes inhibited the seedling growth of P. koraiensis and Picea koraiensis, but promoted that of Larix olgensis. The living shoots of the two bryophytes had no obvious effects on the seed germination of Picea koraiensis and Larix olgensis, but delayed the daily germination peak of Picea koraiensis while promoted that of Larix olgensis, andthe killed shoots inhibited the seed germination of all test tree species. Living shoots in larger amounts promoted the seedling growth of Picea koraiensis and Larix olgensis, but killed shoots were inadverse.

  18. Tomato Seed Coat Permeability to Selected Carbon Nanomaterials and Enhancement of Germination and Seedling Growth.

    PubMed

    Ratnikova, Tatsiana A; Podila, Ramakrishna; Rao, Apparao M; Taylor, Alan G

    2015-01-01

    Seed coat permeability was examined using a model that tested the effects of soaking tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) seeds in combination with carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNMs) and ultrasonic irradiation (US). Penetration of seed coats to the embryo by CBNMs, as well as CBNMs effects on seed germination and seedling growth, was examined. Two CBNMs, C60(OH)20 (fullerol) and multiwalled nanotubes (MWNTs), were applied at 50 mg/L, and treatment exposure ranged from 0 to 60 minutes. Bright field, fluorescence, and electron microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy provided corroborating evidence that neither CBNM was able to penetrate the seed coat. The restriction of nanomaterial (NM) uptake was attributed to the semipermeable layer located at the innermost layer of the seed coat adjacent to the endosperm. Seed treatments using US at 30 or 60 minutes in the presence of MWNTs physically disrupted the seed coat; however, the integrity of the semipermeable layer was not impaired. The germination percentage and seedling length and weight were enhanced in the presence of MWNTs but were not altered by C60(OH)20. The combined exposure of seeds to NMs and US provided insight into the nanoparticle-seed interaction and may serve as a delivery system for enhancing seed germination and early seedling growth.

  19. Tomato Seed Coat Permeability to Selected Carbon Nanomaterials and Enhancement of Germination and Seedling Growth

    PubMed Central

    Ratnikova, Tatsiana A.; Podila, Ramakrishna; Rao, Apparao M.; Taylor, Alan G.

    2015-01-01

    Seed coat permeability was examined using a model that tested the effects of soaking tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) seeds in combination with carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNMs) and ultrasonic irradiation (US). Penetration of seed coats to the embryo by CBNMs, as well as CBNMs effects on seed germination and seedling growth, was examined. Two CBNMs, C60(OH)20 (fullerol) and multiwalled nanotubes (MWNTs), were applied at 50 mg/L, and treatment exposure ranged from 0 to 60 minutes. Bright field, fluorescence, and electron microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy provided corroborating evidence that neither CBNM was able to penetrate the seed coat. The restriction of nanomaterial (NM) uptake was attributed to the semipermeable layer located at the innermost layer of the seed coat adjacent to the endosperm. Seed treatments using US at 30 or 60 minutes in the presence of MWNTs physically disrupted the seed coat; however, the integrity of the semipermeable layer was not impaired. The germination percentage and seedling length and weight were enhanced in the presence of MWNTs but were not altered by C60(OH)20. The combined exposure of seeds to NMs and US provided insight into the nanoparticle-seed interaction and may serve as a delivery system for enhancing seed germination and early seedling growth. PMID:26495423

  20. Gamma radiation effects on seed germination, growth and pigment content, and ESR study of induced free radicals in maize (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Marcu, Delia; Damian, Grigore; Cosma, Constantin; Cristea, Victoria

    2013-09-01

    The effects of gamma radiation are investigated by studying plant germination, growth and development, and biochemical characteristics of maize. Maize dry seeds are exposed to a gamma source at doses ranging from 0.1 to 1 kGy. Our results show that the germination potential, expressed through the final germination percentage and the germination index, as well as the physiological parameters of maize seedlings (root and shoot lengths) decreased by increasing the irradiation dose. Moreover, plants derived from seeds exposed at higher doses (≤0.5 kGy) did not survive more than 10 days. Biochemical differences based on photosynthetic pigment (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids) content revealed an inversely proportional relationship to doses of exposure. Furthermore, the concentration of chlorophyll a was higher than chlorophyll b in both irradiated and non-irradiated seedlings. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy used to evaluate the amount of free radicals induced by gamma ray treatment demonstrates that the relative concentration of radiation-induced free radicals depends linearly on the absorbed doses.

  1. Seed weight and germination behavior of the submerged plant Potamogeton pectinatus in the arid zone of northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhongqiang; Lu, Wei; Yang, Lei; Kong, Xianghong; Deng, Xuwei

    2015-01-01

    Variation in seed weight is common within and among plant species, but few studies have attempted to document the pattern of seed weight and germination attributes for aquatic macrophytes at a large scale. This study examined within-species variation in seed weight and germination attributes and the effects of environmental factors on seed traits of the submerged plant Potamogeton pectinatus in the arid zone of northwest China. Our results showed that the average seed weight was 0.24 g per 100 seeds with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 28.4% among the eight P. pectinatus populations. The total germination fraction of seeds of P. pectinatus was relatively poor, less than 35% in seven P. pectinatus populations, and the lowest germination percentage found was only 2%. There were significant differences in seed weight, time to onset of germination, and total germination fraction among the eight different populations. Hierarchical partitioning analysis showed a strongly positive correlation between seed weight and water temperature and pH. Seed weight and the maternal environmental factors significantly affected both time to initiation of germination and total germination fraction. Our results suggest that (1) seed weight variation in P. pectinatus primarily is the result of temperature variation during fruit development; (2) relatively poor germination fraction suggests that seeds are relatively unimportant in the short-term survival of populations and that it may be another adaptive trait allowing plants to take place in the right place and at the right time, especially in harsh environment; and (3) variation in seed germination traits should be determined by local environmental and intrinsic factors that interact in a complex fashion. PMID:25897389

  2. [Effects of salt stress on germination and in vitro growth of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.)].

    PubMed

    Benmahioul, Benamar; Daguin, Florence; Kaid-Harche, Meriem

    2009-08-01

    In order to study the salinity tolerance of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.), embryos developed from mature seeds were isolated and cultured in vitro and subjected to different NaCl concentrations (0, 42.8, 85.5, 171.1 and 256.6 mM) for 30 days. The results showed that in vitro germination of embryonic axes was not affected by the salt concentration. However, the germinated embryo survival rates decreased from 100% for the control to 62.9% for the highest salt concentration (256.6 mM). In addition, the plantlet growth (length of aerial and root parts, number of leaf produced per embryo, as well as the production of total fresh and dry matter for both aerial parts and roots) showed significant differences according the various salt concentrations.

  3. Inhibition of Orobanche crenata seed germination and radicle growth by allelochemicals identified in cereals.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Cimmino, Alessio; Evidente, Antonio; Rubiales, Diego

    2013-10-16

    Orobanche crenata is a parasitic weed that causes severe yield losses in important grain and forage legume crops. Cereals have been reported to inhibit O. crenata parasitism when grown intercropped with susceptible legumes, but the responsible metabolites have not been identified. A number of metabolites have been reported in cereals that have allelopathic properties against weeds, pests, and pathogens. We tested the effect of several allelochemicals identified in cereals on O. crenata seed germination and radicle development. We found that 2-benzoxazolinone, its derivative 6-chloroacetyl-2-benzoxazolinone, and scopoletin significantly inhibited O. crenata seed germination. Benzoxazolinones, l-tryptophan, and coumalic acid caused the stronger inhibition of radicle growth. Also, other metabolites reduced radicle length, this inhibition being dose-dependent. Only scopoletin caused cell necrotic-like darkening in the young radicles. Prospects for their application to parasitic weed management are discussed.

  4. Inhibition of Orobanche crenata seed germination and radicle growth by allelochemicals identified in cereals.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Cimmino, Alessio; Evidente, Antonio; Rubiales, Diego

    2013-10-16

    Orobanche crenata is a parasitic weed that causes severe yield losses in important grain and forage legume crops. Cereals have been reported to inhibit O. crenata parasitism when grown intercropped with susceptible legumes, but the responsible metabolites have not been identified. A number of metabolites have been reported in cereals that have allelopathic properties against weeds, pests, and pathogens. We tested the effect of several allelochemicals identified in cereals on O. crenata seed germination and radicle development. We found that 2-benzoxazolinone, its derivative 6-chloroacetyl-2-benzoxazolinone, and scopoletin significantly inhibited O. crenata seed germination. Benzoxazolinones, l-tryptophan, and coumalic acid caused the stronger inhibition of radicle growth. Also, other metabolites reduced radicle length, this inhibition being dose-dependent. Only scopoletin caused cell necrotic-like darkening in the young radicles. Prospects for their application to parasitic weed management are discussed. PMID:24044614

  5. Germination and early plant development of 10 plant species exposed to Nano TiO2 and CeO2

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ten agronomic plant species were exposed to different concentrations of nano-TiO2 or CeO2 (0, 250, 500 and 1000 ug/l) and followed to examine effects on germination and early seedling development. For TiO2, cabbage showed increased and corn decreased percent germination, while ...

  6. Tolerance of anaerobic conditions caused by flooding during germination and early growth in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Miro, Berta; Ismail, Abdelbagi M.

    2013-01-01

    Rice is semi-aquatic, adapted to a wide range of hydrologies, from aerobic soils in uplands to anaerobic and flooded fields in waterlogged lowlands, to even deeply submerged soils in flood-prone areas. Considerable diversity is present in native rice landraces selected by farmers over centuries. Our understanding of the adaptive features of these landraces to native ecosystems has improved considerably over the recent past. In some cases, major genes associated with tolerance have been cloned, such as SUB1A that confers tolerance of complete submergence and SNORKEL genes that control plant elongation to escape deepwater. Modern rice varieties are sensitive to flooding during germination and early growth, a problem commonly encountered in rainfed areas, but few landraces capable of germination under these conditions have recently been identified, enabling research into tolerance mechanisms. Major QTLs were also identified, and are being targeted for molecular breeding and for cloning. Nevertheless, limited progress has been made in identifying regulatory processes for traits that are unique to tolerant genotypes, including faster germination and coleoptile elongation, formation of roots and leaves under hypoxia, ability to catabolize starch into simple sugars for subsequent use in glycolysis and fermentative pathways to generate energy. Here we discuss the state of knowledge on the role of the PDC-ALDH-ACS bypass and the ALDH enzyme as the likely candidates effective in tolerant rice genotypes. Potential involvement of factors such as cytoplasmic pH regulation, phytohormones, reactive oxygen species scavenging and other metabolites is also discussed. Further characterization of contrasting genotypes would help in elucidating the genetic and biochemical regulatory and signaling mechanisms associated with tolerance. This could facilitate breeding rice varieties suitable for direct seeding systems and guide efforts for improving waterlogging tolerance in other crops

  7. Tolerance of anaerobic conditions caused by flooding during germination and early growth in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Miro, Berta; Ismail, Abdelbagi M

    2013-01-01

    Rice is semi-aquatic, adapted to a wide range of hydrologies, from aerobic soils in uplands to anaerobic and flooded fields in waterlogged lowlands, to even deeply submerged soils in flood-prone areas. Considerable diversity is present in native rice landraces selected by farmers over centuries. Our understanding of the adaptive features of these landraces to native ecosystems has improved considerably over the recent past. In some cases, major genes associated with tolerance have been cloned, such as SUB1A that confers tolerance of complete submergence and SNORKEL genes that control plant elongation to escape deepwater. Modern rice varieties are sensitive to flooding during germination and early growth, a problem commonly encountered in rainfed areas, but few landraces capable of germination under these conditions have recently been identified, enabling research into tolerance mechanisms. Major QTLs were also identified, and are being targeted for molecular breeding and for cloning. Nevertheless, limited progress has been made in identifying regulatory processes for traits that are unique to tolerant genotypes, including faster germination and coleoptile elongation, formation of roots and leaves under hypoxia, ability to catabolize starch into simple sugars for subsequent use in glycolysis and fermentative pathways to generate energy. Here we discuss the state of knowledge on the role of the PDC-ALDH-ACS bypass and the ALDH enzyme as the likely candidates effective in tolerant rice genotypes. Potential involvement of factors such as cytoplasmic pH regulation, phytohormones, reactive oxygen species scavenging and other metabolites is also discussed. Further characterization of contrasting genotypes would help in elucidating the genetic and biochemical regulatory and signaling mechanisms associated with tolerance. This could facilitate breeding rice varieties suitable for direct seeding systems and guide efforts for improving waterlogging tolerance in other crops.

  8. Bean Plants: A Growth Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Donna

    2004-01-01

    Teaching plant growth to seventh-grade life science students has been interesting for the author because she grew up in a rural area and always had to help in the garden. She made many assumptions about what her rural and suburban students knew. One year she decided to have them grow plants to observe the roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruit…

  9. Avenaol, a germination stimulant for root parasitic plants from Avena strigosa.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Il; Kisugi, Takaya; Khetkam, Pichit; Xie, Xiaonan; Yoneyama, Kaori; Uchida, Kenichi; Yokota, Takao; Nomura, Takahito; McErlean, Christopher S P; Yoneyama, Koichi

    2014-07-01

    Root exudates from the allelopathic plant, black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb.), were found to contain at least six different germination stimulants for root parasitic plants, but no known strigolactones (SLs). One of these germination stimulants was purified and named avenaol. Its HR-ESI-TOFMS analysis indicated that the molecular formula of avenaol is C20H24O7, and thus it contains an additional carbon compared with known C19-SLs. Its structure was determined as 5-((E)-(5-(3-hydroxy-1,5,5-trimethyl-2-oxobicyclo[4.1.0]heptan-7-yl)-2-oxodihydrofuran-3(2H)-ylidene)methoxy)-3-methylfuran-2(5H)-one, by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, and ESI- and EI-MS spectrometry. Although avenaol contains the C-D moiety, the common structural feature for all known SLs, it lacks the B ring and has an additional carbon atom between the A and C rings. Avenaol is a potent germination stimulant of Phelipanche ramosa seeds, but only a weak stimulant for seeds of Striga hermonthica and Orobanche minor.

  10. Effects of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil on germination, metabolism and early growth of green gram, Vigna radiata L.

    PubMed

    Masakorala, Kanaji; Yao, Jun; Chandankere, Radhika; Yuan, Haiyan; Liu, Haijun; Yu, Chan; Cai, Minmin

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate effects of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil on the leguminous plant, Vigna radiata L. Seed germination, metabolism and early growth performance of V. radiata L. were studied as parameters by applying a combined approach. The employed combined method which included microcalorimetry and analysis of the root cross section revealed dose dependent effects of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil on V. radiata L. for most parameters. Although significant reductions in measured parameters were observed even at low total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) levels such as 1 % and 1.5 %, calculated inhibitions, IC50 values and metabolic heat emission-time curves inferred that substantial negative effects can be expected on V. radiata L. in soils with comparatively high contamination levels, such as 2.5 % TPH and higher.

  11. Assessment of heavy metals phytotoxicity using seed germination and root elongation tests: a comparison of two growth substrates.

    PubMed

    Di Salvatore, M; Carafa, A M; Carratù, G

    2008-11-01

    Seed germination and root elongation test is used to evaluate hazardous waste sites and to assess toxicity of organic and inorganic compounds. Paper substrate, especially circular filter paper placed inside a Petri dish has long been used for this test. Same reports indicate that filter paper might interfere with the toxicity of inorganic substances, especially metal cations. This study evaluate toxicity of Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu on lettuce, broccoli, tomato and radish seed using two bed material: agar and filter paper. The results show that percent germination is not affected by substrates; vice versa, as for root elongation, the test in agar showed to be more sensible than that the one on filter paper. The radical growth inhibition depends on the metal, on the tested concentration and on the species; among the tested metals, cadmium was the one determining the highest toxic effects on different species and lettuce was the plant that suffered more. From the comparison, it is clearly evident the greater sensibility of the test in agar; on the other hand, the lower sensibility of the test on the filter paper might be caused by the partial and not homogeneous exposition of the root to metal cations.

  12. Assessment of heavy metals phytotoxicity using seed germination and root elongation tests: a comparison of two growth substrates.

    PubMed

    Di Salvatore, M; Carafa, A M; Carratù, G

    2008-11-01

    Seed germination and root elongation test is used to evaluate hazardous waste sites and to assess toxicity of organic and inorganic compounds. Paper substrate, especially circular filter paper placed inside a Petri dish has long been used for this test. Same reports indicate that filter paper might interfere with the toxicity of inorganic substances, especially metal cations. This study evaluate toxicity of Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu on lettuce, broccoli, tomato and radish seed using two bed material: agar and filter paper. The results show that percent germination is not affected by substrates; vice versa, as for root elongation, the test in agar showed to be more sensible than that the one on filter paper. The radical growth inhibition depends on the metal, on the tested concentration and on the species; among the tested metals, cadmium was the one determining the highest toxic effects on different species and lettuce was the plant that suffered more. From the comparison, it is clearly evident the greater sensibility of the test in agar; on the other hand, the lower sensibility of the test on the filter paper might be caused by the partial and not homogeneous exposition of the root to metal cations. PMID:18768198

  13. A Simple Plant Growth Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxlade, E.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the analysis of dandelion peduncle growth based on peduncle length, epidermal cell dimensions, and fresh/dry mass. Methods are simple and require no special apparatus or materials. Suggests that limited practical work in this area may contribute to students' lack of knowledge on plant growth. (Author/DH)

  14. SEC8, a Subunit of the Putative Arabidopsis Exocyst Complex, Facilitates Pollen Germination and Competitive Pollen Tube Growth1[w

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Rex A.; Synek, Lukás; Zarsky, Viktor; Fowler, John E.

    2005-01-01

    The exocyst, a complex of eight proteins, contributes to the morphogenesis of polarized cells in a broad range of eukaryotes. In these organisms, the exocyst appears to facilitate vesicle docking at the plasma membrane during exocytosis. Although we had identified orthologs for each of the eight exocyst components in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), no function has been demonstrated for any of them in plants. The gene encoding one exocyst component ortholog, AtSEC8, is expressed in pollen and vegetative tissues of Arabidopsis. Genetic studies utilizing an allelic series of six independent T-DNA mutations reveal a role for SEC8 in male gametophyte function. Three T-DNA insertions in SEC8 cause an absolute, male-specific transmission defect that can be complemented by expression of SEC8 from the LAT52 pollen promoter. Microscopic analysis shows no obvious abnormalities in the microgametogenesis of the SEC8 mutants, and the mutant pollen grains appear to respond to the signals that initiate germination. However, in vivo assays indicate that these mutant pollen grains are unable to germinate a pollen tube. The other three T-DNA insertions are associated with a partial transmission defect, such that the mutant allele is transmitted through the pollen at a reduced frequency. The partial transmission defect is only evident when mutant gametophytes must compete with wild-type gametophytes, and arises in part from a reduced pollen tube growth rate. These data support the hypothesis that one function of the putative plant exocyst is to facilitate the initiation and maintenance of the polarized growth of pollen tubes. PMID:16040664

  15. Cold Radiofrequency Plasma Treatment Modifies Wettability and Germination Speed of Plant Seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormashenko, Edward; Grynyov, Roman; Bormashenko, Yelena; Drori, Elyashiv

    2012-10-01

    We report the possibility to modify the wetting properties of the surfaces of a diversity of seeds including: lentils (Lens culinaris), beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and wheat (Triticum, species C9) by cold radiofrequency air plasma treatment. Air plasma treatment leads to the dramatic decrease in the apparent contact angle. Moreover, the speed of germination and yield (germination rate) of seeds can be modified by preliminary plasma treatment. The change in the wetting properties of seeds is at least partially due to oxidation of their surface under plasma treatment. Significant growth of the peaks corresponding to the nitrogen containing groups in the mass spectra of air plasma treated seeds was registered by TOF-SIMS spectroscopy.

  16. Cold Radiofrequency Plasma Treatment Modifies Wettability and Germination Speed of Plant Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Bormashenko, Edward; Grynyov, Roman; Bormashenko, Yelena; Drori, Elyashiv

    2012-01-01

    We report the possibility to modify the wetting properties of the surfaces of a diversity of seeds including: lentils (Lens culinaris), beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and wheat (Triticum, species C9) by cold radiofrequency air plasma treatment. Air plasma treatment leads to the dramatic decrease in the apparent contact angle. Moreover, the speed of germination and yield (germination rate) of seeds can be modified by preliminary plasma treatment. The change in the wetting properties of seeds is at least partially due to oxidation of their surface under plasma treatment. Significant growth of the peaks corresponding to the nitrogen containing groups in the mass spectra of air plasma treated seeds was registered by TOF-SIMS spectroscopy. PMID:23077725

  17. Light-Mediated Hormonal Regulation of Plant Growth and Development.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Mieke; Galvão, Vinicius Costa; Fankhauser, Christian

    2016-04-29

    Light is crucial for plant life, and perception of the light environment dictates plant growth, morphology, and developmental changes. Such adjustments in growth and development in response to light conditions are often established through changes in hormone levels and signaling. This review discusses examples of light-regulated processes throughout a plant's life cycle for which it is known how light signals lead to hormonal regulation. Light acts as an important developmental switch in germination, photomorphogenesis, and transition to flowering, and light cues are essential to ensure light capture through architectural changes during phototropism and the shade avoidance response. In describing well-established links between light perception and hormonal changes, we aim to give insight into the mechanisms that enable plants to thrive in variable light environments.

  18. Plant growth hormones suppress the development of Harpophora maydis, the cause of late wilt in maize.

    PubMed

    Degani, Ofir; Drori, Ran; Goldblat, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    Late wilt, a severe vascular disease of maize caused by the fungus Harpophora maydis, is characterized by rapid wilting of maize plants before tasseling and until shortly before maturity. The pathogen is currently controlled by resistant maize cultivars, but the disease is constantly spreading to new areas. The plant's late phenological stage at which the disease appears suggests that plant hormones may be involved in the pathogenesis. This work revealed that plant growth hormones, auxin (Indole-3-acetic acid) and cytokinin (kinetin), suppress H. maydis in culture media and in a detached root assay. Kinetin, and even more auxin, caused significant suppression of fungus spore germination. Gibberellic acid did not alter colony growth rate but had a signal suppressive effect on the pathogens' spore germination. In comparison, ethylene and jasmonic acid, plant senescing and defense response regulators, had minor effects on colony growth and spore germination rate. Their associate hormone, salicylic acid, had a moderate suppressive effect on spore germination and colony growth rate, and a strong influence when combined with auxin. Despite the anti-fungal auxin success in vitro, field experiments with dimethylamine salt of  2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (that mimics the influence of auxin) failed to suppress the late wilt. The lines of evidence presented here reveal the suppressive influence of the three growth hormones studied on fungal development and are important to encourage further and more in-depth examinations of this intriguing hormonal complex regulatory and its role in the maize-H. maydis interactions. PMID:25649030

  19. Plant growth hormones suppress the development of Harpophora maydis, the cause of late wilt in maize.

    PubMed

    Degani, Ofir; Drori, Ran; Goldblat, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    Late wilt, a severe vascular disease of maize caused by the fungus Harpophora maydis, is characterized by rapid wilting of maize plants before tasseling and until shortly before maturity. The pathogen is currently controlled by resistant maize cultivars, but the disease is constantly spreading to new areas. The plant's late phenological stage at which the disease appears suggests that plant hormones may be involved in the pathogenesis. This work revealed that plant growth hormones, auxin (Indole-3-acetic acid) and cytokinin (kinetin), suppress H. maydis in culture media and in a detached root assay. Kinetin, and even more auxin, caused significant suppression of fungus spore germination. Gibberellic acid did not alter colony growth rate but had a signal suppressive effect on the pathogens' spore germination. In comparison, ethylene and jasmonic acid, plant senescing and defense response regulators, had minor effects on colony growth and spore germination rate. Their associate hormone, salicylic acid, had a moderate suppressive effect on spore germination and colony growth rate, and a strong influence when combined with auxin. Despite the anti-fungal auxin success in vitro, field experiments with dimethylamine salt of  2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (that mimics the influence of auxin) failed to suppress the late wilt. The lines of evidence presented here reveal the suppressive influence of the three growth hormones studied on fungal development and are important to encourage further and more in-depth examinations of this intriguing hormonal complex regulatory and its role in the maize-H. maydis interactions.

  20. Seed biopriming with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: a review.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Ahmad; Turgay, Oğuz Can; Farooq, Muhammad; Hayat, Rifat

    2016-08-01

    Beneficial microbes are applied to the soil and plant tissues directly or through seed inoculation, whereas soil application is preferred when there is risk of inhibitors or antagonistic microbes on the plant tissues. Insufficient survival of the microorganisms, hindrance in application of fungicides to the seeds and exposure to heat and sunlight in subsequent seed storage in conventional inoculation methods force to explore appropriate and efficient bacterial application method. Seed priming, where seeds are hydrated to activate metabolism without actual germination followed by drying, increases the germination, stand establishment and stress tolerance in different crops. Seed priming with living bacterial inoculum is termed as biopriming that involves the application of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. It increases speed and uniformity of germination; also ensures rapid, uniform and high establishment of crops; and hence improves harvest quality and yield. Seed biopriming allows the bacteria to enter/adhere the seeds and also acclimatization of bacteria in the prevalent conditions. This review focuses on methods used for biopriming, and also the role in improving crop productivity and stress tolerance along with prospects of this technology. The comparison of methods being followed is also reviewed proposing biopriming as a promising technique for application of beneficial microbes to the seeds.

  1. Within-and among-year germination in Sonoran Desert winter annuals: bet hedging and predictive germination in a variable environment.

    PubMed

    Gremer, Jennifer R; Kimball, Sarah; Venable, D Lawrence

    2016-10-01

    In variable environments, organisms must have strategies to ensure fitness as conditions change. For plants, germination can time emergence with favourable conditions for later growth and reproduction (predictive germination), spread the risk of unfavourable conditions (bet hedging) or both (integrated strategies). Here we explored the adaptive value of within- and among-year germination timing for 12 species of Sonoran Desert winter annual plants. We parameterised models with long-term demographic data to predict optimal germination fractions and compared them to observed germination. At both temporal scales we found that bet hedging is beneficial and that predicted optimal strategies corresponded well with observed germination. We also found substantial fitness benefits to varying germination timing, suggesting some degree of predictive germination in nature. However, predictive germination was imperfect, calling for some degree of bet hedging. Together, our results suggest that desert winter annuals have integrated strategies combining both predictive plasticity and bet hedging.

  2. Within-and among-year germination in Sonoran Desert winter annuals: bet hedging and predictive germination in a variable environment.

    PubMed

    Gremer, Jennifer R; Kimball, Sarah; Venable, D Lawrence

    2016-10-01

    In variable environments, organisms must have strategies to ensure fitness as conditions change. For plants, germination can time emergence with favourable conditions for later growth and reproduction (predictive germination), spread the risk of unfavourable conditions (bet hedging) or both (integrated strategies). Here we explored the adaptive value of within- and among-year germination timing for 12 species of Sonoran Desert winter annual plants. We parameterised models with long-term demographic data to predict optimal germination fractions and compared them to observed germination. At both temporal scales we found that bet hedging is beneficial and that predicted optimal strategies corresponded well with observed germination. We also found substantial fitness benefits to varying germination timing, suggesting some degree of predictive germination in nature. However, predictive germination was imperfect, calling for some degree of bet hedging. Together, our results suggest that desert winter annuals have integrated strategies combining both predictive plasticity and bet hedging. PMID:27515951

  3. Small RNA mediated regulation of seed germination

    PubMed Central

    Das, Shabari Sarkar; Karmakar, Prakash; Nandi, Asis Kumar; Sanan-Mishra, Neeti

    2015-01-01

    Mature seeds of most of the higher plants harbor dormant embryos and go through the complex process of germination under favorable environmental conditions. The germination process involves dynamic physiological, cellular and metabolic events that are controlled by the interplay of several gene products and different phytohormones. The small non-coding RNAs comprise key regulatory modules in the process of seed dormancy and germination. Recent studies have implicated the small RNAs in plant growth in correlation with various plant physiological processes including hormone signaling and stress response. In this review we provide a brief overview of the regulation of seed germination or dormancy while emphasizing on the current understanding of the role of small RNAs in this regard. We have also highlighted specific examples of stress responsive small RNAs in seed germination and discussed their future potential. PMID:26528301

  4. Common gas phase molecules from fungi affect seed germination and plant health in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Fungal volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play important ecophysiological roles in mediating inter-kingdom signaling with arthropods but less is known about their interactions with plants. In this study, Arabidopsis thaliana was used as a model in order to test the physiological effects of 23 common vapor-phase fungal VOCs that included alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and other chemical classes. After exposure to a shared atmosphere with the 23 individual VOCs for 72 hrs, seeds were assayed for rate of germination and seedling formation; vegetative plants were assayed for fresh weight and chlorophyll concentration. All but five of the VOCs tested (1-decene, 2-n-heptylfuran, nonanal, geosmin and -limonene) had a significant effect in inhibiting either germination, seedling formation or both. Seedling formation was entirely inhibited by exposure to 1-octen-3-one, 2-ethylhexanal, 3-methylbutanal, and butanal. As assayed by a combination of fresh weight and chlorophyll concentration, 2-ethylhexanal had a negative impact on two-week-old vegetative plants. Three other compounds (1-octen-3-ol, 2-ethylhexanal, and 2-heptylfuran) decreased fresh weight alone. Most of the VOCs tested did not change the fresh weight or chlorophyll concentration of vegetative plants. In summary, when tested as single compounds, fungal VOCs affected A. thaliana in positive, negative or neutral ways. PMID:25045602

  5. Growth responses of five desert plants as influenced by biological soil crusts from a temperate desert, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Yuanming; Belnap, Jayne

    2015-01-01

    In almost all dryland systems, biological soil crusts (biocrusts) coexist alongside herbaceous and woody vegetation, creating landscape mosaics of vegetated and biocrusted patches. Results from past studies on the interaction between biocrusts and vascular plants have been contradictory. In the Gurbantunggut desert, a large temperate desert in northwestern China, well-developed lichen-dominated crusts dominate the areas at the base and between the sand dunes. We examined the influence of these lichen-dominated biocrusts on the germination, growth, biomass accumulation, and elemental content of five common plants in this desert: two shrubs (Haloxylon persicum, Ephedra distachya) and three herbaceous plants (Ceratocarpus arenarius, Malcolmia africana and Lappula semiglabra) under greenhouse conditions. The influence of biocrusts on seed germination was species-specific. Biocrusts did not affect percent germination in plants with smooth seeds, but inhibited germination of seeds with appendages that reduced or eliminated contact with the soil surface or prevented seeds from slipping into soil cracks. Once seeds had germinated, biocrusts had different influences on growth of shrub and herbaceous plants. The presence of biocrusts increased concentrations of nitrogen but did not affect phosphorus or potassium in tissue of all tested species, while the uptake of the other tested nutrients was species-specific. Our study showed that biocrusts can serve as a biological filter during seed germination and also can influence growth and elemental uptake. Therefore, they may be an important trigger for determining desert plant diversity and community composition in deserts.

  6. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) homeostasis regulates pollen germination and polarized growth in Picea wilsonii.

    PubMed

    Ling, Yu; Chen, Tong; Jing, Yanping; Fan, Lusheng; Wan, Yinglang; Lin, Jinxing

    2013-11-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a four-carbon non-protein amino acid found in a wide range of organisms. Recently, GABA accumulation has been shown to play a role in the stress response and cell growth in angiosperms. However, the effect of GABA deficiency on pollen tube development remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that specific concentrations of exogenous GABA stimulated pollen tube growth in Picea wilsonii, while an overdose suppressed pollen tube elongation. The germination percentage of pollen grains and morphological variations in pollen tubes responded in a dose-dependent manner to treatment with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MP), a glutamate decarboxylase inhibitor, while the inhibitory effects could be recovered in calcium-containing medium supplemented with GABA. Using immunofluorescence labeling, we found that the actin cables were disorganized in 3-MP treated cells, followed by the transition of endo/exocytosis activating sites from the apex to the whole tube shank. In addition, variations in the deposition of cell wall components were detected upon labeling with JIM5, JIM7, and aniline blue. Our results demonstrated that calcium-dependent GABA signaling regulates pollen germination and polarized tube growth in P. wilsonii by affecting actin filament patterns, vesicle trafficking, and the configuration and distribution of cell wall components.

  7. Acetylesterase-Mediated Deacetylation of Pectin Impairs Cell Elongation, Pollen Germination, and Plant Reproduction[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Gou, Jin-Ying; Miller, Lisa M.; Hou, Guichuan; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Liu, Chang-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Pectin is a major component of the primary cell wall of higher plants. Some galacturonyl residues in the backbone of pectinaceous polysaccharides are often O-acetylated at the C-2 or C-3 position, and the resulting acetylesters change dynamically during the growth and development of plants. The processes involve both enzymatic acetylation and deacetylation. Through genomic sequence analysis, we identified a pectin acetylesterase (PAE1) from black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa). Recombinant Pt PAE1 exhibited preferential activity in releasing the acetate moiety from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) pectin in vitro. Overexpressing Pt PAE1 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) decreased the level of acetyl esters of pectin but not of xylan. Deacetylation engendered differential changes in the composition and/or structure of cell wall polysaccharides that subsequently impaired the cellular elongation of floral styles and filaments, the germination of pollen grains, and the growth of pollen tubes. Consequently, plants overexpressing PAE1 exhibited severe male sterility. Furthermore, in contrast to the conventional view, PAE1-mediated deacetylation substantially lowered the digestibility of pectin. Our data suggest that pectin acetylesterase functions as an important structural regulator in planta by modulating the precise status of pectin acetylation to affect the remodeling and physiochemical properties of the cell wall's polysaccharides, thereby affecting cell extensibility. PMID:22247250

  8. [Effects of seed priming on physiology of seed germination and seeding growth of Marsdenia tenacissima under NaCl stress].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xue-feng; Liu, Li; Guo, Qiao-sheng; Li, Chao; Wang, Ping-li; Yang, Sheng-chao; Hang, Yue-yu

    2015-01-01

    To offer the reference and method for salt damage in the cultivation of Marsdenia tenacissima, the seeds of M. tenacissima collected from Maguan city ( Yunnan province) were taken as the test materials to study the effects of different priming materials on improving germination and growth under high-level salt stress condition. Four different treatments, which were GA3, KNO3-KH2PO4, PEG-6000, NaCl, combined with ANOVA were applied to test the performance of germination energy, germination percentage, germination index, MDA, SOD, and CAT. The results showed that the seed germination was obviously inhibited under salt stress and the soaked seeds with different priming materials could alleviate the damage of salt stress. Under these treatments, the activities of SOD, CAT the content of soluble protein significantly increased. While the content of MDA significantly decreased. The maximum index was obtained when treated with 1.20% KNO3-KH2PO4, the germination percentage increased from 52.67% to 87.33% and the activity of SOD increased from 138.01 to 219.44 respectively. Comparing with the treatment of 1.20% KNO3-KH2PO4, the germination percentage of treating with 300 mg x L(-1) GA3 increased from 52.67% to 80.67%, while the activity of SOD increased from 138.01 to 444.61.

  9. Effect of Essential Oils on Germination and Growth of Some Pathogenic and Spoilage Spore-Forming Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Voundi, Stève Olugu; Nyegue, Maximilienne; Lazar, Iuliana; Raducanu, Dumitra; Ndoye, Florentine Foe; Marius, Stamate; Etoa, François-Xavier

    2015-06-01

    The use of essential oils as a food preservative has increased due to their capacity to inhibit vegetative growth of some bacteria. However, only limited data are available on their effect on bacterial spores. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of some essential oils on the growth and germination of three Bacillus species and Geobacillus stearothermophilus. Essential oils were chemically analyzed using gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The minimal inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations of vegetative growth and spore germination were assessed using the macrodilution method. Germination inhibitory effect of treated spores with essential oils was evaluated on solid medium, while kinetic growth was followed using spectrophotometry in the presence of essential oils. Essential oil from Drypetes gossweileri mainly composed of benzyl isothiocyanate (86.7%) was the most potent, with minimal inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.0048 to 0.0097 mg/mL on vegetative cells and 0.001 to 0.002 mg/mL on spore germination. Furthermore, essential oil from D. gossweileri reduced 50% of spore germination after treatment at 1.25 mg/mL, and its combination with other oils improved both bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities with additive or synergistic effects. Concerning the other essential oils, the minimal inhibitory concentration ranged from 5 to 0.63 mg/mL on vegetative growth and from 0.75 to 0.09 mg/mL on the germination of spores. Spectrophotometric evaluation showed an inhibitory effect of essential oils on both germination and outgrowth. From these results, it is concluded that some of the essential oils tested might be a valuable tool for bacteriological control in food industries. Therefore, further research regarding their use as food preservatives should be carried out.

  10. Effect of Essential Oils on Germination and Growth of Some Pathogenic and Spoilage Spore-Forming Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Voundi, Stève Olugu; Nyegue, Maximilienne; Lazar, Iuliana; Raducanu, Dumitra; Ndoye, Florentine Foe; Marius, Stamate; Etoa, François-Xavier

    2015-06-01

    The use of essential oils as a food preservative has increased due to their capacity to inhibit vegetative growth of some bacteria. However, only limited data are available on their effect on bacterial spores. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of some essential oils on the growth and germination of three Bacillus species and Geobacillus stearothermophilus. Essential oils were chemically analyzed using gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The minimal inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations of vegetative growth and spore germination were assessed using the macrodilution method. Germination inhibitory effect of treated spores with essential oils was evaluated on solid medium, while kinetic growth was followed using spectrophotometry in the presence of essential oils. Essential oil from Drypetes gossweileri mainly composed of benzyl isothiocyanate (86.7%) was the most potent, with minimal inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.0048 to 0.0097 mg/mL on vegetative cells and 0.001 to 0.002 mg/mL on spore germination. Furthermore, essential oil from D. gossweileri reduced 50% of spore germination after treatment at 1.25 mg/mL, and its combination with other oils improved both bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities with additive or synergistic effects. Concerning the other essential oils, the minimal inhibitory concentration ranged from 5 to 0.63 mg/mL on vegetative growth and from 0.75 to 0.09 mg/mL on the germination of spores. Spectrophotometric evaluation showed an inhibitory effect of essential oils on both germination and outgrowth. From these results, it is concluded that some of the essential oils tested might be a valuable tool for bacteriological control in food industries. Therefore, further research regarding their use as food preservatives should be carried out. PMID:25884442

  11. Gibberellic acid (GA3) enhance seed water uptake, germination and early seedling growth in sugar beet under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Jamil, Muhammad; Rha, Eui Shik

    2007-02-15

    The study was carried out to assess whether water uptake could be improved in sugar beet seeds and salt tolerance at the germination and early seedling stage by soaking the seeds for 10 h in distilled water (control), 100, 150 and 200 mg L(-1) GA3. Electrical Conductivity (EC) values of the NaCl solution were 0.0 (control), 4.7, 9.4 and 14.1 dS n(-1) NaCl. Priming increased the final germination percentage and the germination rate (1/t 50, where t 50 is the time to 50% of germination) under saline condition. Water uptake of primed seeds also increased significantly with increasing concentration of GA3 as compared to control. Priming also alleviated the adverse effect of salt stress on sugar beet in terms of roots and shoots lengths and fresh weights of plants, roots and shoots.

  12. Epiphytic pink-pigmented methylotrophic bacteria enhance germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum) by producing phytohormone.

    PubMed

    Meena, Kamlesh K; Kumar, Manish; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G; Yandigeri, Mahesh S; Singh, Dhananjaya P; Saxena, Anil K; Arora, Dilip K

    2012-05-01

    Methylotrophic bacteria were isolated from the phyllosphere of different crop plants such as sugarcane, pigeonpea, mustard, potato and radish. The methylotrophic isolates were differentiated based on growth characteristics and colony morphology on methanol supplemented ammonium mineral salts medium. Amplification of the mxaF gene helped in the identification of the methylotrophic isolates as belonging to the genus Methylobacterium. Cell-free culture filtrates of these strains enhanced seed germination of wheat (Triticum aestivum) with highest values of 98.3% observed using Methylobacterium sp. (NC4). Highest values of seedling length and vigour were recorded with Methylobacterium sp. (NC28). HPLC analysis of production by bacterial strains ranged from 1.09 to 9.89 μg ml(-1) of cytokinins in the culture filtrate. Such cytokinin producing beneficial methylotrophs can be useful in developing bio-inoculants through co-inoculation of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs with other compatible bacterial strains, for improving plant growth and productivity, in an environment-friendly manner. PMID:22200783

  13. Changes in Colonic Bile Acid Composition following Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Are Sufficient to Control Clostridium difficile Germination and Growth

    PubMed Central

    Weingarden, Alexa R.; Dosa, Peter I.; DeWinter, Erin; Steer, Clifford J.; Shaughnessy, Megan K.; Johnson, James R.; Khoruts, Alexander; Sadowsky, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a highly effective therapy for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (R-CDI), but its mechanisms remain poorly understood. Emerging evidence suggests that gut bile acids have significant influence on the physiology of C. difficile, and therefore on patient susceptibility to recurrent infection. We analyzed spore germination of 10 clinical C. difficile isolates exposed to combinations of bile acids present in patient feces before and after FMT. Bile acids at concentrations found in patients’ feces prior to FMT induced germination of C. difficile, although with variable potency across different strains. However, bile acids at concentrations found in patients after FMT did not induce germination and inhibited vegetative growth of all C. difficile strains. Sequencing of the newly identified germinant receptor in C. difficile, CspC, revealed a possible correspondence of variation in germination responses across isolates with mutations in this receptor. This may be related to interstrain variability in spore germination and vegetative growth in response to bile acids seen in this and other studies. These results support the idea that intra-colonic bile acids play a key mechanistic role in the success of FMT, and suggests that novel therapeutic alternatives for treatment of R-CDI may be developed by targeted manipulation of bile acid composition in the colon. PMID:26789728

  14. [Effect of smoke water and distillation liquid on the seed germination and seedling growth of Trichosathes kirilowii].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Bian, Li-hua; Zou, Lin; Zhou, Bin-qian; Liu, Wei; Wang, Xiao

    2015-10-01

    Smoke water and distillation liquid were used to treat the seeds of Trichosathes kirilowii and to study the effects of smoke water and distillation liquid on the seed germination and seedling growth of T. kirilowii. The results showed that germination rate, germination index and germination vigor of T. kirilowii all were significantly improved with the treatment of SW and DL treatment. The activity of α-amylase were significantly increased with the treatment of SW and DL at 1:2,000. SW and DL treatment showed no significant effects on the activity of SOD. The activity of POD were markedly enhanced under the treatment of SW (1:000) and DL (1:2,000). CAT activity were increased with the treatment of SW and DL at 1:2,000 while were inhibited by SW and DL at 1:500. Seedling height and root length were increased with the treatment of SW and DL (1:1,000, 1:2,000). SW and DL treaments improved the content of chlorophyll, and moreover with the concentration of SW and DL, the stimulatory were also increased. This work demonstrated that smoke water and diatillation liquid at 1:2,000 could stimulate the seed germination and seedling growth of T. kirilowii, and it provided the references for the study of seed germination technology.

  15. Conidial germination in Scedosporium apiospermum, S. aurantiacum, S. minutisporum and Lomentospora prolificans: influence of growth conditions and antifungal susceptibility profiles.

    PubMed

    Mello, Thaís Pereira de; Aor, Ana Carolina; Oliveira, Simone Santiago Carvalho de; Branquinha, Marta Helena; Santos, André Luis Souza Dos

    2016-06-27

    In the present study, we have investigated some growth conditions capable of inducing the conidial germination in Scedosporium apiospermum, S. aurantiacum, S. minutisporum and Lomentospora prolificans. Germination in Sabouraud medium (pH 7.0, 37ºC, 5% CO2) showed to be a typically time-dependent event, reaching ~75% in S. minutisporum and > 90% in S. apiospermum, S. aurantiacum and L. prolificans after 4 h. Similar germination rate was observed when conidia were incubated under different media and pHs. Contrarily, temperature and CO2 tension modulated the germination. The isotropic conidial growth (swelling) and germ tube-like projection were evidenced by microscopy and cytometry. Morphometric parameters augmented in a time-dependent fashion, evidencing changes in size and granularity of fungal cells compared with dormant 0 h conidia. In parallel, a clear increase in the mitochondrial activity was measured during the transformation of conidia-into-germinated conidia. Susceptibility profiles to itraconazole, fluconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin varied regarding each morphotype and each fungal species. Overall, the minimal inhibitory concentrations for hyphae were higher than conidia and germinated conidia, except for caspofungin. Collectively, our study add new data about the conidia-into-hyphae transformation in Scedosporium and Lomentospora species, which is a relevant biological process of these molds directly connected to their antifungal resistance and pathogenicity mechanisms. PMID:27355215

  16. Changes in Colonic Bile Acid Composition following Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Are Sufficient to Control Clostridium difficile Germination and Growth.

    PubMed

    Weingarden, Alexa R; Dosa, Peter I; DeWinter, Erin; Steer, Clifford J; Shaughnessy, Megan K; Johnson, James R; Khoruts, Alexander; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a highly effective therapy for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (R-CDI), but its mechanisms remain poorly understood. Emerging evidence suggests that gut bile acids have significant influence on the physiology of C. difficile, and therefore on patient susceptibility to recurrent infection. We analyzed spore germination of 10 clinical C. difficile isolates exposed to combinations of bile acids present in patient feces before and after FMT. Bile acids at concentrations found in patients' feces prior to FMT induced germination of C. difficile, although with variable potency across different strains. However, bile acids at concentrations found in patients after FMT did not induce germination and inhibited vegetative growth of all C. difficile strains. Sequencing of the newly identified germinant receptor in C. difficile, CspC, revealed a possible correspondence of variation in germination responses across isolates with mutations in this receptor. This may be related to interstrain variability in spore germination and vegetative growth in response to bile acids seen in this and other studies. These results support the idea that intra-colonic bile acids play a key mechanistic role in the success of FMT, and suggests that novel therapeutic alternatives for treatment of R-CDI may be developed by targeted manipulation of bile acid composition in the colon. PMID:26789728

  17. [Effect of smoke water and distillation liquid on the seed germination and seedling growth of Trichosathes kirilowii].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Bian, Li-hua; Zou, Lin; Zhou, Bin-qian; Liu, Wei; Wang, Xiao

    2015-10-01

    Smoke water and distillation liquid were used to treat the seeds of Trichosathes kirilowii and to study the effects of smoke water and distillation liquid on the seed germination and seedling growth of T. kirilowii. The results showed that germination rate, germination index and germination vigor of T. kirilowii all were significantly improved with the treatment of SW and DL treatment. The activity of α-amylase were significantly increased with the treatment of SW and DL at 1:2,000. SW and DL treatment showed no significant effects on the activity of SOD. The activity of POD were markedly enhanced under the treatment of SW (1:000) and DL (1:2,000). CAT activity were increased with the treatment of SW and DL at 1:2,000 while were inhibited by SW and DL at 1:500. Seedling height and root length were increased with the treatment of SW and DL (1:1,000, 1:2,000). SW and DL treaments improved the content of chlorophyll, and moreover with the concentration of SW and DL, the stimulatory were also increased. This work demonstrated that smoke water and diatillation liquid at 1:2,000 could stimulate the seed germination and seedling growth of T. kirilowii, and it provided the references for the study of seed germination technology. PMID:27062809

  18. Conidial germination in Scedosporium apiospermum, S. aurantiacum, S. minutisporum and Lomentospora prolificans: influence of growth conditions and antifungal susceptibility profiles

    PubMed Central

    de Mello, Thaís Pereira; Aor, Ana Carolina; de Oliveira, Simone Santiago Carvalho; Branquinha, Marta Helena; dos Santos, André Luis Souza

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we have investigated some growth conditions capable of inducing the conidial germination in Scedosporium apiospermum, S. aurantiacum, S. minutisporum and Lomentospora prolificans. Germination in Sabouraud medium (pH 7.0, 37ºC, 5% CO2) showed to be a typically time-dependent event, reaching ~75% in S. minutisporum and > 90% in S. apiospermum, S. aurantiacum and L. prolificans after 4 h. Similar germination rate was observed when conidia were incubated under different media and pHs. Contrarily, temperature and CO2 tension modulated the germination. The isotropic conidial growth (swelling) and germ tube-like projection were evidenced by microscopy and cytometry. Morphometric parameters augmented in a time-dependent fashion, evidencing changes in size and granularity of fungal cells compared with dormant 0 h conidia. In parallel, a clear increase in the mitochondrial activity was measured during the transformation of conidia-into-germinated conidia. Susceptibility profiles to itraconazole, fluconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin varied regarding each morphotype and each fungal species. Overall, the minimal inhibitory concentrations for hyphae were higher than conidia and germinated conidia, except for caspofungin. Collectively, our study add new data about the conidia-into-hyphae transformation in Scedosporium and Lomentospora species, which is a relevant biological process of these molds directly connected to their antifungal resistance and pathogenicity mechanisms. PMID:27355215

  19. Effect of light exposure on in vitro germination and germ tube growth of eight species of rust fungi.

    PubMed

    Buck, James W; Dong, Weibo; Mueller, Daren S

    2010-01-01

    The effects of light on urediniospore germination and germ tube elongation was studied with eight species of rust fungi that infect ornamental plants or row crops. Exposure of six species of fungi to cool white fluorescent light at 400 or 600 micromol s(-1) m(-2) for 24 h significantly reduced germination with largest decreases typically observed at 600 micromol s(-1) m(-2). Germination and germ tube elongation did not recover during 24 h dark incubation after 18 h exposure to fluorescent light at 600 micromol s(-1) m(-2), indicating the effects were not reversible. Germ tube elongation of all fungi was negatively affected by increased length of exposure to fluorescent light. Increased exposure to fluorescent light differentially affected germination of the fungi with Puccinia hemerocallidis, Phakopsora pachyrhizi, Pucciniastrum vaccinii and Puccinia menthae negatively affected and Puccinia sorghi, Puccinia triticina, Puccinia pelargonii-zonalis and Puccinia iridis relatively unaffected in 10 h incubation. Exposure of Ph. pachyrhizi and P. triticina urediniospores to sunlight rapidly reduced germination and germ tube elongation with no germination observed for Ph. pachyrhizi after 2.5 h. Germ tube elongation but not germination of hydrated urediniospores of Ph. pachyrhizi and P. triticina was significantly reduced compared to dry urediniospores exposed to 10 h fluorescent light followed by 24 h dark incubation. Exposure to fluorescent light (all fungi) or sunlight (two fungi) negatively affected urediniospore germ tube elongation. Differences observed in urediniospore germination between fungi suggest some species have co-evolved with their host for differing light conditions. Our data suggests exposure of urediniospores to strong light could inactivate rust fungi on plant surfaces or in the atmosphere.

  20. Effect of light exposure on in vitro germination and germ tube growth of eight species of rust fungi.

    PubMed

    Buck, James W; Dong, Weibo; Mueller, Daren S

    2010-01-01

    The effects of light on urediniospore germination and germ tube elongation was studied with eight species of rust fungi that infect ornamental plants or row crops. Exposure of six species of fungi to cool white fluorescent light at 400 or 600 micromol s(-1) m(-2) for 24 h significantly reduced germination with largest decreases typically observed at 600 micromol s(-1) m(-2). Germination and germ tube elongation did not recover during 24 h dark incubation after 18 h exposure to fluorescent light at 600 micromol s(-1) m(-2), indicating the effects were not reversible. Germ tube elongation of all fungi was negatively affected by increased length of exposure to fluorescent light. Increased exposure to fluorescent light differentially affected germination of the fungi with Puccinia hemerocallidis, Phakopsora pachyrhizi, Pucciniastrum vaccinii and Puccinia menthae negatively affected and Puccinia sorghi, Puccinia triticina, Puccinia pelargonii-zonalis and Puccinia iridis relatively unaffected in 10 h incubation. Exposure of Ph. pachyrhizi and P. triticina urediniospores to sunlight rapidly reduced germination and germ tube elongation with no germination observed for Ph. pachyrhizi after 2.5 h. Germ tube elongation but not germination of hydrated urediniospores of Ph. pachyrhizi and P. triticina was significantly reduced compared to dry urediniospores exposed to 10 h fluorescent light followed by 24 h dark incubation. Exposure to fluorescent light (all fungi) or sunlight (two fungi) negatively affected urediniospore germ tube elongation. Differences observed in urediniospore germination between fungi suggest some species have co-evolved with their host for differing light conditions. Our data suggests exposure of urediniospores to strong light could inactivate rust fungi on plant surfaces or in the atmosphere. PMID:20943512

  1. The Effect of Resin and Monoterpenes on Spore Germination and Growth in Fusarium circinatum.

    PubMed

    Slinski, S L; Zakharov, F; Gordon, T R

    2015-01-01

    Resin obtained from Pinus radiata and five monoterpene components of resin (limonene, α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene, and myrcene) were tested to determine their effects on mycelial growth and germination and survival of spores of Fusarium circinatum, the cause of pitch canker in pine, and F. temperatum, which is interfertile with F. circinatum but not pathogenic to pine. Averaged across all treatments, F. temperatum sustained the greatest reduction in radial growth (16.9±0.02% of control). The greatest reduction in dry weight also occurred in F. temperatum (11.7±0.01% of control), and all isolates of F. circinatum were significantly less affected (P<0.05). Spore germination rates in a saturated atmosphere of monoterpenes were relatively high for all tested isolates but, when placed in direct contact with resin, spore survival was significantly greater for F. circinatum than for F. temperatum. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that greater tolerance of resin is one factor distinguishing F. circinatum from the nonpathogenic F. temperatum. However, differential tolerance of monoterpene components of resin is not sufficient to explain the observed variation in virulence to pine in F. circinatum.

  2. Chemical investigation of Cyperus distans L. and inhibitory activity of scabequinone in seed germination and seedling growth bioassays.

    PubMed

    Vilhena, Karyme S S; Guilhon, Giselle Maria Skelding Pinheiro; Zoghbi, Maria das Graças B; Santos, Lourivaldo Silva; Souza Filho, Antonio Pedro Silva

    2014-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the rhizomes of Cyperus distans (Cyperaceae) led to the identification of α-ciperone, cyperotundone and scabequinone, besides other common constituents. Complete assignment of the (13)C NMR data of scabequinone is being published for the first time. The inhibitory effects of C. distans extracts and scabequinone on the seed germination and seedling growth of Mimosa pudica, Senna obtusifolia and Pueraria phaseoloides were evaluated. Seed germination inhibition bioassay revealed that S. obtusifolia (52-53%) was more sensitive to the hexane and the methanol extracts at 1% than M. pudica (0-10%). Scabequinone at 250 mg L⁻¹ displayed seed germination inhibitions more than 50% and radicle growth reduction of more than 35% of the test species S. obtusifolia and P. phaseoloides, while the hypocotyl growth of M. pudica was significantly affected (>50%) by the quinone at the same concentration. These results demonstrate that scabequinone contributes to the overall inhibitory activities of C. distans.

  3. Chemical investigation of Cyperus distans L. and inhibitory activity of scabequinone in seed germination and seedling growth bioassays.

    PubMed

    Vilhena, Karyme S S; Guilhon, Giselle Maria Skelding Pinheiro; Zoghbi, Maria das Graças B; Santos, Lourivaldo Silva; Souza Filho, Antonio Pedro Silva

    2014-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the rhizomes of Cyperus distans (Cyperaceae) led to the identification of α-ciperone, cyperotundone and scabequinone, besides other common constituents. Complete assignment of the (13)C NMR data of scabequinone is being published for the first time. The inhibitory effects of C. distans extracts and scabequinone on the seed germination and seedling growth of Mimosa pudica, Senna obtusifolia and Pueraria phaseoloides were evaluated. Seed germination inhibition bioassay revealed that S. obtusifolia (52-53%) was more sensitive to the hexane and the methanol extracts at 1% than M. pudica (0-10%). Scabequinone at 250 mg L⁻¹ displayed seed germination inhibitions more than 50% and radicle growth reduction of more than 35% of the test species S. obtusifolia and P. phaseoloides, while the hypocotyl growth of M. pudica was significantly affected (>50%) by the quinone at the same concentration. These results demonstrate that scabequinone contributes to the overall inhibitory activities of C. distans. PMID:24941231

  4. Effect of aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves on germination and seedling growth of Vigna radiata (L.).

    PubMed

    Charchafchi, Fawzia Al; Al-Nabhani, Iman; Al-Kharousi, Hanan; Al-Quraini, Fatma; Al-Hanai, Amal

    2007-11-01

    This research was carried out to evaluate the allelopathic effect of leaves aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica on germination and seedling growth of Vigna radiata. Different methods were used to preparing leaves aqueous extract. Germination percentage and seedling growth of V. radiata significantly decreased gradually as the concentration of the aqueous leaves extracts of A. indica increased in comparison with water control. Severe toxicity was observed at high concentrations and moderate toxicity at low concentrations in comparison with water control. Aqueous leaves extract significantly inhibited root length more than shoot. These results indicated that some kind of inhibitor(s) was the responsible agent for the phytotoxic effect of A. indica on germination and seedling growth of V. radiata. PMID:19090247

  5. The toxic effect of lead on seed germination, growth, chlorophyll and protein contents of wheat and lens.

    PubMed

    Mesmar, M N; Jaber, K

    1991-01-01

    Lead is a heavy metal which is believed to be toxic when present in excessive amount. Excess Pb in Triticum sativum and Lens esculanta alters several physiological and biochemical processes in both species. Seed germination of both species grown on soaked filter paper with Pb (NO3)2 was highly inhibited (about 60% at 20 mM Pb (NO3)2). Results obtained from measurement of lead content in the roots and shoots of both species indicated that most of the lead accumulated in the roots of both species with a lower degree within the shoots. Lead uptake by both species whether grown in perlite medium or on filter paper soaked with Pb (NO3)2, was correlated with lead concentration. These results indicate a passive process of lead translocation. These results also show that lead inhibits the growth of both plant species, but root growth inhibition was more pronounced than shoot growth inhibition at different lead concentration. Total chlorophyll content was found to be decreased in both species after treatment with Pb (NO3)2. Total protein content in the seedlings, as our results have indicated, was found to be increased with increasing lead concentration in both species. PMID:1841484

  6. Increase of seed germination, growth and membrane integrity of wheat seedlings by exposure to static and a 10-KHz electromagnetic field.

    PubMed

    Payez, Atefeh; Ghanati, Faezeh; Behmanesh, Mehrdad; Abdolmaleki, Parviz; Hajnorouzi, Abazar; Rajabbeigi, Elham

    2013-12-01

    There is a large body of experimental data demonstrating various effects of magnetic field (MF) on plants growth and development. Although the mechanism(s) of perception of MF by plants is not yet elucidated, there is a possibility that like other stimuli, MF exerts its effects on plants by changing membrane integrity and conductance of its water channels, thereby influencing growth characteristics. In this study, the seeds of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Kavir) were imbibed in water overnight and then treated with or without a 30-mT static magnetic field (SMF) and a 10-kHz electromagnetic field (EMF) for 4 days, each 5 h. Water uptake of seeds reduced 5 h of the treatment with EMF but did not show changes in SMF treatment. Exposure to both magnetic fields did not affect germination percent of the seeds but increased the speed of germination, compared to the control group. Treatment with EMF significantly reduced seedling length and subsequently vigor index I, while SMF had no effects on these parameters. Both treatments significantly increased vigor index II, compared to the control group. These treatments also remarkably increased catalase activity and proline contents of seedlings but reduced the activity of peroxidase, the rate of lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakages of membranes. The results suggest promotional effects of EMFs on membrane integrity and growth characteristics of wheat seedlings.

  7. Differential chlorate inhibition of Chaetomium globosum germination, hyphal growth, and perithecia synthesis.

    PubMed

    Biles, Charles L; Wright, Desiree; Fuego, Marianni; Guinn, Angela; Cluck, Terry; Young, Jennifer; Martin, Markie; Biles, Josiah; Poudyal, Shubhra

    2012-12-01

    Chaetomium globosum Kunze:Fr is a dermatophytic, dematiaceous fungus that is ubiquitous in soils, grows readily on cellulolytic materials, and is commonly found on water-damaged building materials. Chlorate affects nitrogen metabolism in fungi and is used to study compatibility among anamorphic fungi by inducing nit mutants. The effect of chlorate toxicity on C. globosum was investigated by amending a modified malt extract agar (MEA), oat agar, and carboxymethyl cellulose agar (CMC) with various levels of potassium chlorate (KClO(3)). C. globosum perithecia production was almost completely inhibited (90-100 %) at low levels of KClO(3) (0.1 mM) in amended MEA. Inhibition of perithecia production was also observed on oat agar and CMC at 1 and 10 mM, respectively. However, hyphal growth in MEA was only inhibited 20 % by 0.1-100 mM KClO(3) concentrations. Hyphal growth was never completely inhibited at the highest levels tested (200 mM). Higher levels of KClO(3) were needed on gypsum board to inhibit perithecia synthesis. In additional experiments, KClO(3) did not inhibit C. globosum, Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger, Penicillum expansum, and airborne fungal spore germination. The various fungal spores were not inhibited by KClO(3) at 1-100 mM levels. These results suggest that C. globosum perithecia synthesis is more sensitive to chlorate toxicity than are hyphal growth and spore germination. This research provides basic information that furthers our understanding about perithecia formation and may help in developing control methods for fungal growth on building materials.

  8. Down-Regulating CsHT1, a Cucumber Pollen-Specific Hexose Transporter, Inhibits Pollen Germination, Tube Growth, and Seed Development.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jintao; Wang, Zhenyu; Yao, Fengzhen; Gao, Lihong; Ma, Si; Sui, Xiaolei; Zhang, Zhenxian

    2015-06-01

    Efficient sugar transport is needed to support the high metabolic activity of pollen tubes as they grow through the pistil. Failure of transport results in male sterility. Although sucrose transporters have been shown to play a role in pollen tube development, the role of hexoses and hexose transporters is not as well established. The pollen of some species can grow in vitro on hexose as well as on sucrose, but knockouts of individual hexose transporters have not been shown to impair fertilization, possibly due to transporter redundancy. Here, the functions of CsHT1, a hexose transporter from cucumber (Cucumis sativus), are studied using a combination of heterologous expression in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), histochemical and immunohistochemical localization, and reverse genetics. The results indicate that CsHT1 is a plasma membrane-localized hexose transporter with high affinity for glucose, exclusively transcribed in pollen development and expressed both at the levels of transcription and translation during pollen grain germination and pollen tube growth. Overexpression of CsHT1 in cucumber pollen results in a higher pollen germination ratio and longer pollen tube growth than wild-type pollen in glucose- or galactose-containing medium. By contrast, antisense suppression of CsHT1 leads to inhibition of pollen germination and pollen tube elongation in the same medium and results in a decrease of seed number per fruit and seed size when antisense transgenic pollen is used to fertilize wild-type or transgenic cucumber plants. The important role of CsHT1 in pollen germination, pollen tube growth, and seed development is discussed.

  9. Down-Regulating CsHT1, a Cucumber Pollen-Specific Hexose Transporter, Inhibits Pollen Germination, Tube Growth, and Seed Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jintao; Wang, Zhenyu; Yao, Fengzhen; Gao, Lihong; Ma, Si; Zhang, Zhenxian

    2015-01-01

    Efficient sugar transport is needed to support the high metabolic activity of pollen tubes as they grow through the pistil. Failure of transport results in male sterility. Although sucrose transporters have been shown to play a role in pollen tube development, the role of hexoses and hexose transporters is not as well established. The pollen of some species can grow in vitro on hexose as well as on sucrose, but knockouts of individual hexose transporters have not been shown to impair fertilization, possibly due to transporter redundancy. Here, the functions of CsHT1, a hexose transporter from cucumber (Cucumis sativus), are studied using a combination of heterologous expression in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), histochemical and immunohistochemical localization, and reverse genetics. The results indicate that CsHT1 is a plasma membrane-localized hexose transporter with high affinity for glucose, exclusively transcribed in pollen development and expressed both at the levels of transcription and translation during pollen grain germination and pollen tube growth. Overexpression of CsHT1 in cucumber pollen results in a higher pollen germination ratio and longer pollen tube growth than wild-type pollen in glucose- or galactose-containing medium. By contrast, antisense suppression of CsHT1 leads to inhibition of pollen germination and pollen tube elongation in the same medium and results in a decrease of seed number per fruit and seed size when antisense transgenic pollen is used to fertilize wild-type or transgenic cucumber plants. The important role of CsHT1 in pollen germination, pollen tube growth, and seed development is discussed. PMID:25888616

  10. Arabidopsis ACT11 modifies actin turnover to promote pollen germination and maintain the normal rate of tube growth.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ming; Huang, Shanjin

    2015-08-01

    Actin is an ancient conserved protein that is encoded by multiple isovariants in multicellular organisms. There are eight functional actin genes in the Arabidopsis genome, and the precise function and mechanism of action of each isovariant remain poorly understood. Here, we report the characterization of ACT11, a reproductive actin isovariant. Our studies reveal that loss of function of ACT11 causes a delay in pollen germination, but enhances pollen tube growth. Cytological analysis revealed that the amount of filamentous actin decreased, and the rate of actin turnover increased in act11 pollen. Convergence of actin filaments upon the germination aperture was impaired in act11 pollen, consistent with the observed delay of germination. Reduction of actin dynamics with jasplakinolide suppressed the germination and tube growth phenotypes in act11 pollen, suggesting that the underlying mechanisms involve an increase in actin dynamics. Thus, we demonstrate that ACT11 is required to maintain the rate of actin turnover in order to promote pollen germination and maintain the normal rate of pollen tube growth.

  11. Seed priming with chitosan improves maize germination and seedling growth in relation to physiological changes under low temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ya-jing; Hu, Jin; Wang, Xian-ju; Shao, Chen-xia

    2009-06-01

    Low temperature stress during germination and early seedling growth is an important constraint of global production of maize. The effects of seed priming with 0.25%, 0.50%, and 0.75% (w/v) chitosan solutions at 15 degrees C on the growth and physiological changes were investigated using two maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines, HuangC (chilling-tolerant) and Mo17 (chilling-sensitive). While seed priming with chitosan had no significant effect on germination percentage under low temperature stress, it enhanced germination index, reduced the mean germination time (MGT), and increased shoot height, root length, and shoot and root dry weights in both maize lines. The decline of malondialdehyde (MDA) content and relative permeability of the plasma membrane and the increase of the concentrations of soluble sugars and proline, peroxidase (POD) activity, and catalase (CAT) activity were detected both in the chilling-sensitive and chilling-tolerant maize seedlings after priming with the three concentrations of chitosan. HuangC was less sensitive to responding to different concentrations of chitosan. Priming with 0.50% chitosan for about 60 approximately 64 h seemed to have the best effects. Thus, it suggests that seed priming with chitosan may improve the speed of germination of maize seed and benefit for seedling growth under low temperature stress.

  12. Effects of aqueous extract of soil-like substrate made from three different materials on seed germination and seedling growth of rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Lingzhi; Fu, Yuming; Fu, Wenting; Yan, Min; Li, Leyuan; Liu, Hong

    2014-03-01

    Biologically processing rice and wheat straws into soil-like substrate (SLS) and then reusing them in plant cultivation system to achieve waste recycle is very crucially important in Bioregenerative life support system (BLSS). However, rice is a plant with strong allelopathic potential. It is not clear yet that what kinds of raw materials can be processed into proper SLS to grow rice in BLSS. Therefore, in this study, the aqueous extract of SLS made from three different materials including rice straw, wheat straw and rice-wheat straw mixture was utilized to investigate its effects on the seed germination and seedling growth of rice. The gradients of the extract concentrations (soil:water) were 1:3, 1:5, 1:9, and 1:15 with deionized water used as control. The effects of different types of SLS on seed germination and seedling vitality of rice were confirmed by analyzing the germination rate, seedling length, root length, the fresh weight and other indicants. In addition, based on the analysis towards pH, organic matter composition and other factors of the SLS as well as the chlorophyll, hormone content of rice, and the mechanism of the inhibition was speculated in order to explore the preventive methods of the phenomenon. Finally, the feasibility of cultivating rice on SLSs made from the raw materials mentioned above was evaluated and wheat raw was determined as the most appropriate material for growing rice.

  13. Plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes.

    PubMed

    Santoyo, Gustavo; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel; Orozco-Mosqueda, Ma del Carmen; Glick, Bernard R

    2016-02-01

    Bacterial endophytes ubiquitously colonize the internal tissues of plants, being found in nearly every plant worldwide. Some endophytes are able to promote the growth of plants. For those strains the mechanisms of plant growth-promotion known to be employed by bacterial endophytes are similar to the mechanisms used by rhizospheric bacteria, e.g., the acquisition of resources needed for plant growth and modulation of plant growth and development. Similar to rhizospheric plant growth-promoting bacteria, endophytic plant growth-promoting bacteria can act to facilitate plant growth in agriculture, horticulture and silviculture as well as in strategies for environmental cleanup (i.e., phytoremediation). Genome comparisons between bacterial endophytes and the genomes of rhizospheric plant growth-promoting bacteria are starting to unveil potential genetic factors involved in an endophytic lifestyle, which should facilitate a better understanding of the functioning of bacterial endophytes.

  14. Growth of bedding plants in commercial potting substrate amended with vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Bachman, G R; Metzger, J D

    2008-05-01

    Vermicompost has been promoted as a viable alternative container media component for the horticulture industry. The purpose of this research was to investigate the use of vermicompost at different points in the production cycle of tomato, marigold, pepper, and cornflower. The incorporation of vermicompost of pig manure origin into germination media up to 20% v/v enhanced shoot and root weight, leaf area, and shoot:root ratios of both tomato and French marigold seedlings; however amendment with vermicompost had little influence on pepper and cornflower seedling growth. Moreover there was no effect on the germination of seed of any species. When seedlings of tomato, French marigold, and cornflower were transplanted into 6-cell packs there was greater plant growth in media amended with vermicompost compared to the control media, and the greatest growth when vermicompost was amended into both the germination and transplant media. This effect was increased when seedlings in the transplant media were irrigated with water containing fertilizer.

  15. The Mars Plant Growth Experiment and Implications for Planetary Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Heather

    Plants are the ultimate and necessary solution for O2 production at a human base on Mars. Currently it is unknown if seeds can germinate on the Martian surface. The Mars Plant growth experiment (MPX) is a proposal for the first step in the development of a plant- based O2 production system by demonstrating plant germination and growth on the Martian surface. There is currently no planetary protection policy in place that covers plants on the Martian surface. We describe a planetary protection plan in compliance with NASA and COSPAR policy for a closed plant growth chamber on a Mars rover. We divide the plant growth chamber into two categories for planetary protection, the Outside: the outside of the chamber exposed to the Martian environment, and the Inside: the inside of the chamber which is sealed off from Mars atmosphere and contains the plant seeds and ancillary components for seed growth. We will treat outside surfaces of the chamber as other outside surfaces on the rover, wiped with a mixture of isopropyl alcohol and water as per Category IVb planetary protection requirements. All internal components of the MPX except the seeds and camera (including the water system, the plant growth stage and interior surface walls) will be sterilized by autoclave and subjected to sterilizing dry heat at a temperature of 125°C at an absolute humidity corresponding to a relative humidity of less than 25 percent referenced to the standard conditions of 0°C and 760 torr pressure. The seeds and internal compartments of the MPX in contact with the growth media will be assembled and tested to be free of viable microbes. MPX, once assembled, cannot survive Dry Heat Microbial Reduction. The camera with the radiation and CO2 sensors will be sealed in their own container and vented through HEPA filters. The seeds will be vernalized (microbe free) as per current Space Station methods described by Paul et al. 2001. Documentation of the lack of viable microbes on representative seeds

  16. Reduced Triacylglycerol Mobilization during Seed Germination and Early Seedling Growth in Arabidopsis Containing Nutritionally Important Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Pushkar; Callahan, Damien L.; Singh, Surinder P.; Petrie, James R.; Zhou, Xue-Rong

    2016-01-01

    There are now several examples of plant species engineered to synthesize and accumulate nutritionally important polyunsaturated fatty acids in their seed triacylglycerols (TAG). The utilization of TAG in germinating seeds of such transgenic plants was unknown. In this study, we examined the TAG utilization efficiency during seed germination in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds containing several examples of these fatty acids. Seed TAG species with native fatty acids had higher utilization rate than the TAG species containing transgenically produced polyunsaturated fatty acids. Conversely, quantification of the fatty acid components remaining in the total TAG after early stages of seed germination revealed that the undigested TAGs tended to contain elevated levels of the engineered polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). LC-MS analysis further revealed asymmetrical mobilization rates for the individual TAG species. TAGs which contained multiple PUFA fatty acids were mobilized slower than the species containing single PUFA. The mobilized engineered fatty acids were used in de novo membrane lipid synthesis during seedling development. PMID:27725822

  17. An effective system to produce smoke solutions from dried plant tissue for seed germination studies1

    PubMed Central

    Coons, Janice; Coutant, Nancy; Lawrence, Barbara; Finn, Daniel; Finn, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: An efficient and inexpensive system was developed to produce smoke solutions from plant material to research the influence of water-soluble compounds from smoke on seed germination. • Methods and Results: Smoke solutions (300 mL per batch) were produced by burning small quantities (100–200 g) of dried plant material from a range of species in a bee smoker attached by a heater hose to a side-arm flask. The flask was attached to a vacuum water aspirator, to pull the smoke through the water. The entire apparatus was operated in a laboratory fume hood. • Conclusions: Compared with other smoke solution preparation systems, the system described is easy to assemble and operate, inexpensive to build, and effective at producing smoke solutions from desired species in a small indoor space. Quantitative measurements can be made when using this system, allowing for replication of the process. PMID:25202613

  18. Effect of UV-C radiation and hypergravity on germination, growth and content of chlorophyll of wheat seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupiasih, N. Nyoman; Vidyasagar, Pandit B.

    2016-03-01

    An investigation of the effects of UV-C radiation and hypergravity on germination, growth and content of chlorophyll of wheat seedlings has been done. The UV-C irradiation periods of exposure were 30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 minutes. The hypergravity used were 1000 g, 2000 g and 2500 g. The combination treatment is UV-C irradiation for 180 min followed by each hypergravity. The results showed that irradiation of UV-C on wheat seeds have stimulated the seed germination, but hypergravity and combination treatments on wheat seeds have inhibited the seed germination. Those treatments gave negative effects to growth rate, the content of chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll of wheat seedlings.

  19. Synthesis and characterisation of metal nanoparticles and their effects on seed germination and seedling growth in commercially important Eruca sativa.

    PubMed

    Zaka, Mehreen; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Rahman, Latif-Ur; Shah, Afzal; Zia, Muhammad

    2016-06-01

    The synthesis, characterisation and application of metal nanoparticles have become an important and attractive branch of nanotechnology. In current study, metallic nanoparticles of silver, copper, and gold were synthesised using environment friendly method (polyols process), and applied on medicinally important plant: Eruca sativa. Effects of application of these nanoparticles were evaluated on seed germination frequency and biochemical parameters of plant tissues. Seeds of E. sativa were germinated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium incorporated with various combinations of nanoparticles suspension (30 µg/ml). Phytotoxicity study showed that nanoparticles could induce stress in plants by manipulating the endogenous mechanisms. In response to these stresses, plants release various defensive compounds; known as antioxidant secondary metabolites. These plants derived secondary metabolites having a great potential in treating the common human ailments. In the authors study, small-sized nanoparticles showed higher toxicity levels and enhanced secondary metabolites production, total protein content, total flavonoids content and total phenolics content.

  20. Synthesis and characterisation of metal nanoparticles and their effects on seed germination and seedling growth in commercially important Eruca sativa.

    PubMed

    Zaka, Mehreen; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Rahman, Latif-Ur; Shah, Afzal; Zia, Muhammad

    2016-06-01

    The synthesis, characterisation and application of metal nanoparticles have become an important and attractive branch of nanotechnology. In current study, metallic nanoparticles of silver, copper, and gold were synthesised using environment friendly method (polyols process), and applied on medicinally important plant: Eruca sativa. Effects of application of these nanoparticles were evaluated on seed germination frequency and biochemical parameters of plant tissues. Seeds of E. sativa were germinated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium incorporated with various combinations of nanoparticles suspension (30 µg/ml). Phytotoxicity study showed that nanoparticles could induce stress in plants by manipulating the endogenous mechanisms. In response to these stresses, plants release various defensive compounds; known as antioxidant secondary metabolites. These plants derived secondary metabolites having a great potential in treating the common human ailments. In the authors study, small-sized nanoparticles showed higher toxicity levels and enhanced secondary metabolites production, total protein content, total flavonoids content and total phenolics content. PMID:27256893

  1. Genotoxicity testing of 3,4,5-trimethylfuran-2(5H)-one, a compound from plant-derived smoke with germination inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Light, Marnie E; Anthonissen, Roel; Maes, Annemarie; Verschaeve, Luc; Pošta, Martin; Van Staden, Johannes

    2015-01-15

    Plant-derived smoke and certain smoke compounds improve seed germination and enhance seedling growth of many species. Thus, smoke-infused water and the active smoke-derived compounds have the potential to be used in different agricultural and horticultural applications. However, despite these interesting and potentially practical properties, it should also be ascertained whether such compounds may pose a health risk, particularly if they are to be used in the production of food or fodder crops. Amongst some of the aspects that would be important to understand are any possible genotoxic properties that the compounds may possess due to potential carry-over effects. Here, we report on a genotoxicity study of 3,4,5-trimethylfuran-2(5H)-one, a compound from plant-derived smoke previously shown to have germination inhibitory activity. Using two in vitro tests, namely the bacterial VITOTOX® test (with/without S9 metabolic activation) and the cytome assay on human C3A cells, no genotoxicity or toxicity was found. Furthermore, these results support a previous study where a related smoke-derived compound with germination promoting properties was investigated.

  2. Effect of bacterial inoculation of strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Alcaligenes feacalis and Bacillus subtilis on germination, growth and heavy metal (Cd, Cr, and Ni) uptake of Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Ndeddy Aka, Robinson Junior; Babalola, Olubukola Oluranti

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial inoculation may influence Brassica juncea growth and heavy metal (Ni, Cr, and Cd) accumulation. Three metal tolerant bacterial isolates (BCr3, BCd33, and BNi11) recovered from mine tailings, identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa KP717554, Alcaligenes feacalis KP717561, and Bacillus subtilis KP717559 were used. The isolates exhibited multiple plant growth beneficial characteristics including the production of indole-3-acetic acid, hydrogen cyanide, ammonia, insoluble phosphate solubilization together with the potential to protect plants against fungal pathogens. Bacterial inoculation improved seeds germination of B. juncea plant in the presence of 0.1 mM Cr, Cd, and Ni, as compared to the control treatment. Compared with control treatment, soil inoculation with bacterial isolates significantly increased the amount of soluble heavy metals in soil by 51% (Cr), 50% (Cd), and 44% (Ni) respectively. Pot experiment of B. juncea grown in soil spiked with 100 mg kg(-1) of NiCl2, 100 mg kg(-1) of CdCl2, and 150 mg kg(-1) of K2Cr2O7, revealed that inoculation with metal tolerant bacteria not only protected plants against the toxic effects of heavy metals, but also increased growth and metal accumulation of plants significantly. These findings suggest that such metal tolerant, plant growth promoting bacteria are valuable tools which could be used to develop bio-inoculants for enhancing the efficiency of phytoextraction. PMID:26503637

  3. Effect of bacterial inoculation of strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Alcaligenes feacalis and Bacillus subtilis on germination, growth and heavy metal (Cd, Cr, and Ni) uptake of Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Ndeddy Aka, Robinson Junior; Babalola, Olubukola Oluranti

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial inoculation may influence Brassica juncea growth and heavy metal (Ni, Cr, and Cd) accumulation. Three metal tolerant bacterial isolates (BCr3, BCd33, and BNi11) recovered from mine tailings, identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa KP717554, Alcaligenes feacalis KP717561, and Bacillus subtilis KP717559 were used. The isolates exhibited multiple plant growth beneficial characteristics including the production of indole-3-acetic acid, hydrogen cyanide, ammonia, insoluble phosphate solubilization together with the potential to protect plants against fungal pathogens. Bacterial inoculation improved seeds germination of B. juncea plant in the presence of 0.1 mM Cr, Cd, and Ni, as compared to the control treatment. Compared with control treatment, soil inoculation with bacterial isolates significantly increased the amount of soluble heavy metals in soil by 51% (Cr), 50% (Cd), and 44% (Ni) respectively. Pot experiment of B. juncea grown in soil spiked with 100 mg kg(-1) of NiCl2, 100 mg kg(-1) of CdCl2, and 150 mg kg(-1) of K2Cr2O7, revealed that inoculation with metal tolerant bacteria not only protected plants against the toxic effects of heavy metals, but also increased growth and metal accumulation of plants significantly. These findings suggest that such metal tolerant, plant growth promoting bacteria are valuable tools which could be used to develop bio-inoculants for enhancing the efficiency of phytoextraction.

  4. Plant-in-chip: Microfluidic system for studying root growth and pathogenic interactions in Arabidopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parashar, Archana; Pandey, Santosh

    2011-06-01

    We report a microfluidic platform for the hydroponic growth of Arabidopsis plants with high-resolution visualization of root development and root-pathogen interactions. The platform comprises a set of parallel microchannels with individual input/output ports where 1-day old germinated seedlings are initially placed. Under optimum conditions, a root system grows in each microchannel and its images are recorded over a 198-h period. Different concentrations of plant growth media show different root growth characteristics. Later, the developed roots are inoculated with two plant pathogens (nematodes and zoospores) and their physicochemical interactions with the live root systems are observed.

  5. SPATULA links daytime temperature and plant growth rate.

    PubMed

    Sidaway-Lee, Kate; Josse, Eve-Marie; Brown, Alanna; Gan, Yinbo; Halliday, Karen J; Graham, Ian A; Penfield, Steven

    2010-08-24

    Plants exhibit a wide variety of growth rates that are known to be determined by genetic and environmental factors, and different plants grow optimally at different temperatures, indicating that this is a genetically determined character. Moderate decreases in ambient temperature inhibit vegetative growth, but the mechanism is poorly understood, although a decrease in gibberellin (GA) levels is known to be required. Here we demonstrate that the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor SPATULA (SPT), previously known to be a regulator of low temperature-responsive germination, mediates the repression of growth by cool daytime temperatures but has little or no growth-regulating role under warmer conditions. We show that only daytime temperatures affect vegetative growth and that SPT couples morning temperature to growth rate. In seedlings, warm temperatures inhibit the accumulation of the SPT protein, and SPT autoregulates its own transcript abundance in conjunction with diurnal effects. Genetic data show that repression of growth by SPT is independent of GA signaling and phytochrome B, as previously shown for PIF4. Our data suggest that SPT integrates time of day and temperature signaling to control vegetative growth rate.

  6. Overexpression of the Vacuolar Sugar Carrier AtSWEET16 Modifies Germination, Growth, and Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis1[W

    PubMed Central

    Klemens, Patrick A.W.; Patzke, Kathrin; Deitmer, Joachim; Spinner, Lara; Le Hir, Rozenn; Bellini, Catherine; Bedu, Magali; Chardon, Fabien; Krapp, Anne; Neuhaus, H. Ekkehard

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report that SUGARS WILL EVENTUALLY BE EXPORTED TRANSPORTER (SWEET16) from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is a vacuole-located carrier, transporting glucose (Glc), fructose (Fru), and sucrose (Suc) after heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The SWEET16 gene, similar to the homologs gene SWEET17, is mainly expressed in vascular parenchyma cells. Application of Glc, Fru, or Suc, as well as cold, osmotic stress, or low nitrogen, provoke the down-regulation of SWEET16 messenger RNA accumulation. SWEET16 overexpressors (35SPro:SWEET16) showed a number of peculiarities related to differences in sugar accumulation, such as less Glc, Fru, and Suc at the end of the night. Under cold stress, 35SPro:SWEET16 plants are unable to accumulate Fru, while under nitrogen starvation, both Glc and Fru, but not Suc, were less abundant. These changes of individual sugars indicate that the consequences of an increased SWEET16 activity are dependent upon the type of external stimulus. Remarkably, 35SPro:SWEET16 lines showed improved germination and increased freezing tolerance. The latter observation, in combination with the modified sugar levels, points to a superior function of Glc and Suc for frost tolerance. 35SPro:SWEET16 plants exhibited increased growth efficiency when cultivated on soil and showed improved nitrogen use efficiency when nitrate was sufficiently available, while under conditions of limiting nitrogen, wild-type biomasses were higher than those of 35SPro:SWEET16 plants. Our results identify SWEET16 as a vacuolar sugar facilitator, demonstrate the substantial impact of SWEET16 overexpression on various critical plant traits, and imply that SWEET16 activity must be tightly regulated to allow optimal Arabidopsis development under nonfavorable conditions. PMID:24028846

  7. Plant perceptions of plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas.

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Gail M

    2004-01-01

    Plant-associated Pseudomonas live as saprophytes and parasites on plant surfaces and inside plant tissues. Many plant-associated Pseudomonas promote plant growth by suppressing pathogenic micro-organisms, synthesizing growth-stimulating plant hormones and promoting increased plant disease resistance. Others inhibit plant growth and cause disease symptoms ranging from rot and necrosis through to developmental dystrophies such as galls. It is not easy to draw a clear distinction between pathogenic and plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas. They colonize the same ecological niches and possess similar mechanisms for plant colonization. Pathogenic, saprophytic and plant growth-promoting strains are often found within the same species, and the incidence and severity of Pseudomonas diseases are affected by environmental factors and host-specific interactions. Plants are faced with the challenge of how to recognize and exclude pathogens that pose a genuine threat, while tolerating more benign organisms. This review examines Pseudomonas from a plant perspective, focusing in particular on the question of how plants perceive and are affected by saprophytic and plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas (PGPP), in contrast to their interactions with plant pathogenic Pseudomonas. A better understanding of the molecular basis of plant-PGPP interactions and of the key differences between pathogens and PGPP will enable researchers to make more informed decisions in designing integrated disease-control strategies and in selecting, modifying and using PGPP for plant growth promotion, bioremediation and biocontrol. PMID:15306406

  8. Water-Conserving Plant-Growth System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreschel, Thomas W.; Brown, Christopher S.

    1993-01-01

    Report presents further information about plant-growth apparatus described in "Tubular Membrane Plant-Growth Unit" (KSC-11375). Apparatus provides nutrient solution to roots of seedlings without flooding. Conserves water by helping to prevent evaporation from plant bed. Solution supplied only as utilized by seedlings. Device developed for supporting plant growth in space, also has applications for growing plants with minimum of water, such as in arid environments.

  9. Effects of Engineered Nanomaterials on Plants Growth: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Samira; Muhd Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Hashemi, Farahnaz Sadat Golestan

    2014-01-01

    Rapid development and wide applications of nanotechnology brought about a significant increment on the number of engineered nanomaterials (ENs) inevitably entering our living system. Plants comprise of a very important living component of the terrestrial ecosystem. Studies on the influence of engineered nanomaterials (carbon and metal/metal oxides based) on plant growth indicated that in the excess content, engineered nanomaterials influences seed germination. It assessed the shoot-to-root ratio and the growth of the seedlings. From the toxicological studies to date, certain types of engineered nanomaterials can be toxic once they are not bound to a substrate or if they are freely circulating in living systems. It is assumed that the different types of engineered nanomaterials affect the different routes, behavior, and the capability of the plants. Furthermore, different, or even opposing conclusions, have been drawn from most studies on the interactions between engineered nanomaterials with plants. Therefore, this paper comprehensively reviews the studies on the different types of engineered nanomaterials and their interactions with different plant species, including the phytotoxicity, uptakes, and translocation of engineered nanomaterials by the plant at the whole plant and cellular level. PMID:25202734

  10. Effects of engineered nanomaterials on plants growth: an overview.

    PubMed

    Aslani, Farzad; Bagheri, Samira; Muhd Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Hashemi, Farahnaz Sadat Golestan; Baghdadi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Rapid development and wide applications of nanotechnology brought about a significant increment on the number of engineered nanomaterials (ENs) inevitably entering our living system. Plants comprise of a very important living component of the terrestrial ecosystem. Studies on the influence of engineered nanomaterials (carbon and metal/metal oxides based) on plant growth indicated that in the excess content, engineered nanomaterials influences seed germination. It assessed the shoot-to-root ratio and the growth of the seedlings. From the toxicological studies to date, certain types of engineered nanomaterials can be toxic once they are not bound to a substrate or if they are freely circulating in living systems. It is assumed that the different types of engineered nanomaterials affect the different routes, behavior, and the capability of the plants. Furthermore, different, or even opposing conclusions, have been drawn from most studies on the interactions between engineered nanomaterials with plants. Therefore, this paper comprehensively reviews the studies on the different types of engineered nanomaterials and their interactions with different plant species, including the phytotoxicity, uptakes, and translocation of engineered nanomaterials by the plant at the whole plant and cellular level. PMID:25202734

  11. Differential Proteolysis of Glycinin and beta-Conglycinin Polypeptides during Soybean Germination and Seedling Growth.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K A; Rightmire, B R; Chen, J C; Tan-Wilson, A L

    1986-09-01

    The degradation of the major seed storage globulins of the soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merrill) was examined during the first 12 days of germination and seedling growth. The appearance of glycinin and beta-conglycinin degradation products was detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of cotyledon extracts followed by electroblotting to nitrocellulose and immunostaining using glycinin and beta-conglycinin specific antibodies. The three subunits of beta-conglycinin were preferentially metabolized. Of the three subunits of beta-conglycinin, the larger alpha and alpha' subunits are rapidly degraded, generating new beta-conglycinin cross-reactive polypeptides of 51,200 molecular weight soon after imbibition of the seed. After 6 days of growth the beta-subunit is also hydrolyzed. At least six polypeptides, ranging from 33,100 to 24,000 molecular weight, appear as apparent degradation products of beta-conglycinin. The metabolism of the glycinin acidic chains begins early in growth. The glycinin acidic chains present at day 3 have already been altered from the native form in the ungerminated seed, as evidenced by their higher mobility in an alkaline-urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system. However, no change in the molecular weight of these chains is detectable by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyarylamide gel electrophoresis. Examination of the glycinin polypeptide amino-termini by dansylation suggests that this initial modification of the acidic chains involves limited proteolysis at the carboxyl-termini, deamidation, or both. After 3 days of growth the acidic chains are rapidly hydrolyzed to a smaller (21,900 molecular weight) form. The basic polypeptides of glycinin appear to be unaltered during the first 8 days of growth, but are rapidly degraded thereafter to unidentified products. All of the original glycinin basic chains have been destroyed by day 10 of growth.

  12. Roles of Brassinosteroids and Related mRNAs in Pea Seed Growth and Germination1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Takahito; Ueno, Masaaki; Yamada, Yumiko; Takatsuto, Suguru; Takeuchi, Yasutomo; Yokota, Takao

    2007-01-01

    The levels of endogenous brassinosteroids (BRs) and the expression of the biosynthesis/metabolism/perception genes involved have been investigated during the development and germination of pea (Pisum sativum) seeds. When seeds were rapidly growing, the level of biologically active BRs (brassinolide [BL] and castasterone [CS]) and the transcript levels of two BR C-6 oxidases (CYP85A1 and CYP85A6) reached a maximum, suggesting the significance of BL and CS in seed development. In the early stages of germination, CS, but not BL, appeared and its level increased in the growing tissues in which the transcript level of CYP85A1 and CYP85A6 was high, suggesting the significance of CS in seed germination and early seedling growth of pea. 6-Deoxocathasterone (6-deoxoCT) was the quantitatively major BR in mature seeds. At the early stage of germination, the level of 6-deoxoCT was specifically decreased, whereas the levels of downstream intermediates were increased. It seems that 6-deoxoCT is the major storage BR and is utilized during germination and early growth stages. The level of the mRNAs of BR biosynthesis and perception genes fluctuated during seed development. In mature seeds, most of mRNAs were present, but the level was generally lower compared with immature seeds. However, CYP90A9 mRNA rapidly increased during seed development and reached the maximum in mature seeds. The mRNAs stored in mature pea seeds seem to be utilized when seeds germinate. However, it was found that de novo transcription of mRNAs also starts as early as during seed imbibition. PMID:17322340

  13. Germination and Initial Growth of Fagus orientalis Seedling under Different Stand Canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabari, Masoud

    Germination and early growth of Fagus orientalis seedling were studied in four stands with different canopy closures (closed, semi-closed, relatively-opened and opened stands) under a dominant beech forest, located in north of Iran. For this purpose, 196 beech seed-sown plastic pots (in four plots of 49 units) were set up under each canopy closure. In the beginning of the first growing season germination rate ranged between 78.1 and 84.7% in different stands but there was no statistically significant difference of this term in the stands. In the end of the first growing season survival rate of seedlings was 73.9-76.1% under closed and semi-closed stands. It decreased significantly to 31.7 and 18.0% under relatively-opened and opened stands, respectively. Shoot length was, in the order 70 and 90 mm in closed and semi-closed stands. It decreased to 40 and 30 mm in relatively-opened and opened stands, respectively. Vitality appeared mostly with high quality in closed and semi-closed stands and with low quality in relatively-opened and opened stands. Leaf biomass reduced in closed stand. There was an increase for leaf area in semi-closed stand and for Specific Leaf Weight (SLW) in relatively-opened and opened stands. Generally, the investigation shows that in the first growing season most characteristics of beech seedling were benefited from more favorable conditions in the denser stands (closed and semi-closed canopies).

  14. Effect of heavy metals on seed germination and seedling growth of common ragweed and roadside ground cover legumes.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jichul; Benoit, Diane L; Watson, Alan K

    2016-06-01

    In southern Québec, supplement roadside ground covers (i.e. Trifolium spp.) struggle to establish near edges of major roads and thus fail to assist turf recruitment. It creates empty niches vulnerable to weed establishment such as common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). We hypothesized that heavy metal stresses may drive such species shifts along roadside edges. A growth chamber experiment was conducted to assess effects of metals (Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu, and Cd) on germination and seedling behaviors of roadside weed (A. artemisiifolia) and ground cover legumes (Coronilla varia, Lotus corniculatus, and Trifolium arvense). All metals inhibited T. arvense germination, but the effect was least on A. artemisiifolia. Low levels of Pb and Ni promoted germination initiation of A. artemisiifolia. Germination of L. corniculatus was not affected by Zn, Pb, and Ni, but inhibited by Cu and Cd. Germination of C. varia was decreased by Ni, Cu, and Cd and delayed by Zn and Pb. Metal additions hindered seedling growth of all test species, and the inhibitory effect on the belowground growth was greater than on the aboveground growth. Seedling mortality was lowest in A. artemisiifolia but highest in T. arvense when exposed to the metal treatments. L. corniculatus and C. varia seedlings survived when subjected to high levels of Zn, Pb, and Cd. In conclusion, the successful establishment of A. artemisiifolia along roadside edges can be associated with its greater tolerance of heavy metals. The findings also revealed that L. corniculatus is a potential candidate for supplement ground cover in metal-contaminated roadside edges in southern Québec, especially sites contaminated with Zn and Pb.

  15. Effect of heavy metals on seed germination and seedling growth of common ragweed and roadside ground cover legumes.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jichul; Benoit, Diane L; Watson, Alan K

    2016-06-01

    In southern Québec, supplement roadside ground covers (i.e. Trifolium spp.) struggle to establish near edges of major roads and thus fail to assist turf recruitment. It creates empty niches vulnerable to weed establishment such as common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). We hypothesized that heavy metal stresses may drive such species shifts along roadside edges. A growth chamber experiment was conducted to assess effects of metals (Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu, and Cd) on germination and seedling behaviors of roadside weed (A. artemisiifolia) and ground cover legumes (Coronilla varia, Lotus corniculatus, and Trifolium arvense). All metals inhibited T. arvense germination, but the effect was least on A. artemisiifolia. Low levels of Pb and Ni promoted germination initiation of A. artemisiifolia. Germination of L. corniculatus was not affected by Zn, Pb, and Ni, but inhibited by Cu and Cd. Germination of C. varia was decreased by Ni, Cu, and Cd and delayed by Zn and Pb. Metal additions hindered seedling growth of all test species, and the inhibitory effect on the belowground growth was greater than on the aboveground growth. Seedling mortality was lowest in A. artemisiifolia but highest in T. arvense when exposed to the metal treatments. L. corniculatus and C. varia seedlings survived when subjected to high levels of Zn, Pb, and Cd. In conclusion, the successful establishment of A. artemisiifolia along roadside edges can be associated with its greater tolerance of heavy metals. The findings also revealed that L. corniculatus is a potential candidate for supplement ground cover in metal-contaminated roadside edges in southern Québec, especially sites contaminated with Zn and Pb. PMID:26882164

  16. LED Systems Target Plant Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    To help develop technologies for growing edible biomass (food crops) in space, Kennedy Space Center partnered with Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC), of Madison, Wisconsin, through the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. One result of this research was the High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC) system, components of which have been incorporated into a variety of agricultural greenhouse and consumer aquarium lighting features. The new lighting systems can be adapted to a specific plant species during a specific growth stage, allowing maximum efficiency in light absorption by all available photosynthetic tissues.

  17. (Plant growth with limited water)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The work supported by DOE in the last year built on our earlier findings that stem growth in soybean subjected to limited water is inhibited first by a physical limitation followed in a few hours by metabolic changes that reduce the extensibility of the cell walls. With time, there is modest recovery in extensibility and a 28kD protein accumulates in the walls of the growth-affected cells. A 31kD protein that was 80% similar in amino acid sequence also was present but did not accumulate in the walls of the stem cells. Explorations of the mRNA for these proteins showed that the mRNA for the 28kD protein increased in the shoot in response to water deprivation but the mRNA for the 31kD protein did not accumulate. In contrast, the roots continued to grow and the mRNA for the 31kD protein accumulated but the mRNA for the 28kD protein was undetectable. We also explored how growth occurs in the absence of an external water supply. We found that, under these conditions, internal water is mobilized from surrounding nongrowing or slowly growing tissues and is used by rapidly growing cells. We showed that a low water potential is normally present in the enlarging tissues and is the likely force that extracts water from the surrounding tissues. We found that it involved a gradient in water potential that extended from the xylem to the outlying cells in the enlarging region and was not observed in the slowly growing basal tissue of the stems of the same plant. The gradient was measured directly with single cell determinations of turgor and osmotic potential in intact plants. The gradient may explain instances of growth inhibition with limited water when there is no change in the turgor of the enlarging cells. 17 refs.

  18. Factors influencing seed germination of medicinal plant Salvia aegyptiaca L. (Lamiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Gorai, Mustapha; Gasmi, Hayet; Neffati, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Salvia aegyptiaca is a xerophytic perennial herb belongs to the Lamiaceae family commonly used for medicinal purposes. Laboratory experiments were carried out to assess the effects of temperature and salinity on seed germination and recovery responses after transferring to distilled water. Temperatures between 10 and 40 °C seem to be favourable for the germination of this species. Germination was inhibited by either an increase or decrease in temperature from the optimum (30 °C). The highest germination percentages were obtained at 0 mM NaCl; however, the increase of solution osmolalities progressively inhibited seed germination. The germination rate decreased with an increase in salinity for most of tested temperatures, but comparatively higher rates were obtained at 30 °C. Salt stress decreased both the percentage and the rate of germination. An interaction between salinity and temperature yielded no germination at 300 mM NaCl. By experimental transfer to distilled water, S. aegyptiaca seeds that were exposed to moderately saline conditions recovered and keep their ability to germinate mostly at low temperatures. At 300 mM NaCl, germination recovery decreased with increasing temperature and it was completely inhibited at 40 °C. PMID:23961132

  19. Evaluation of germination, growth and ecophysiological response of Cistus monspeliensis L. in different contaminated and uncontaminated soils of the Iberian Pyrite Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas Lago, Daniel; Santos, Erika S.; Carvalho, Luisa C.; Abreu, Maria Manuela

    2016-04-01

    Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB) is one of the most important volcanogenic massive sulfide ore deposits in the world. As a result of the mine activities, many areas from the IPB have become extreme environments with high concentrations of a wide variety of potentially hazardous elements (PHEs) and low pH in their soils, which cause severe contamination problems and inhibit or reduce the plant colonization and their growth. Nevertheless, Cistus monspeliensis L. grows spontaneously in mine areas from the IPB under these extreme conditions, which suggests that this species must have mechanisms to adapt and defend itself against oxidative stress caused by the high levels of PHEs. The main objectives of this study are to evaluate germination, growth, development and ecophysiological behaviour of C. monspeliensis in different contaminated and uncontaminated soils. For this purpose, two different assays were conducted in potted plants in a greenhouse with C. monspeliensis seeds collected in the São Domingos mine area (SE Portugal, IPB). In the first assay, twenty C. monspeliensis seeds were sowed to evaluate the germination in pots (n=4) with five different contaminated and uncontaminated soils - Uncontaminated soils: a sandy soil (A) and a soil from Caldeirão (C) (S of Portugal), Contaminated soils: two gossans from São Domingos mine (SD and G) and a gossan amended with an organic corrective (GC). After one month, germination rate was evaluated. Total and available multielemental concentrations were determined in the soils. In the second assay, C. monspeliensis seedlings were planted in the contaminated soil GC and in the uncontaminated soil C. After three months of growth, plants were harvested and shoots were separated from roots. Plant height, fresh biomass and multielemental concentration in shoots were quantified. Pigments (chlorophylls, anthocyanins and carotenoids), glutathione, ascorbate, H2O2 and the activities of several key antioxidative enzymes were also

  20. Deficiency of maize starch-branching enzyme i results in altered starch fine structure, decreased digestibility and reduced coleoptile growth during germination

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Two distinct starch branching enzyme (SBE) isoforms predate the divergence of monocots and dicots and have been conserved in plants since then. This strongly suggests that both SBEI and SBEII provide unique selective advantages to plants. However, no phenotype for the SBEI mutation, sbe1a, had been previously observed. To explore this incongruity the objective of the present work was to characterize functional and molecular phenotypes of both sbe1a and wild-type (Wt) in the W64A maize inbred line. Results Endosperm starch granules from the sbe1a mutant were more resistant to digestion by pancreatic α-amylase, and the sbe1a mutant starch had an altered branching pattern for amylopectin and amylose. When kernels were germinated, the sbe1a mutant was associated with shorter coleoptile length and higher residual starch content, suggesting that less efficient starch utilization may have impaired growth during germination. Conclusions The present report documents for the first time a molecular phenotype due to the absence of SBEI, and suggests strongly that it is associated with altered physiological function of the starch in vivo. We believe that these results provide a plausible rationale for the conservation of SBEI in plants in both monocots and dicots, as greater seedling vigor would provide an important survival advantage when resources are limited. PMID:21599988

  1. Effect of water activity and temperature on the germination and growth of Aspergillus tamarii isolated from "Maldive fish".

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Shazla; Mo, Li; Flint, Steve; Palmer, Jon; Fletcher, Graham C

    2012-11-15

    Germination times and radial growth rates of cyclopiazonic acid producing strains of Aspergillus tamarii isolated from a smoked dried fish product were studied over water activities (a(w)) ranging from 0.99 to 0.79 at 25°C, 30°C, 35°C and 40°C on two laboratory media. The a(w) of the media was controlled by either NaCl or a mixture of glucose and fructose. The optimum germination and growth were observed at temperatures between 30°C and 35°C. Germination was favored at the highest a(w) of 0.99 under all conditions. Growth however was dependent on the media and temperature with a lower optimum a(w) of 0.95 for NaCl media and 0.95 to 0.92 a(w) on media containing glucose/fructose. The minimum a(w) for growth was often higher than for germination while both parameters were influenced by temperature and media type. Germination on NaCl media was prevented at a(w) values below 0.82 at 25°C and 30°C, 0.85 at 35°C and 40°C. However, growth did not occur at a(w) <0.85 at 25-35°C. At those temperatures on glucose/fructose media, growth was observed at the lowest a(w) tested (0.79). On both media, the restrictive effect of lowered water activity was more pronounced at 40°C than at 25-35°C. Delays in germination increased and growth rates decreased with marginal a(w) and temperature conditions. The fungi displayed better tolerance on glucose/fructose media than on NaCl media on which it was partly inhibited by the NaCl. The information obtained here could be used to develop strategies for the control of this xerophilic fungus on smoked dried fish and other tropical foods on which it predominates. PMID:23177051

  2. [Growth responses of six leguminous plants adaptable in Northern Shaanxi to petroleum contaminated soil].

    PubMed

    Shan, Bao-Qin; Zhang, Yong-Tao; Cao, Qiao-Ling; Kang, Zhen-Yan; Li, Shu-Yuan

    2014-03-01

    To select appropriate native species in Northern Shaanxi for phytoremediation, the growth index of six kinds of leguminous plants planted in petroleum contaminated soils were investigated through pot culture. Petroleum concentrations were set at 0, 5 000, 10 000, 20 000, 40 000 mg x kg(-1) respectively with three replicates. Using different levels of seed germination rate, germination time, individual height, wilting rate, dry weight and chlorophyll content in leaves of tested plants as the ecological indicator. The results showed that tested plants have significantly different responses to petroleum pollution. Compared with those planted in clean soils, seed germination rate and individual height were promoted when petroleum concentration was lower than 5000 mg x kg(-1), but inhibition occurred when petroleum concentrations were higher than 10000 mg x kg(-1). Strong endurance of Medicago sativa was observed to petroleum polluted soil, especially at lower petroleum concentration. Leaf wilting of Robinia pseudoacacia was unobserved even when petroleum concentration was 40 000 mg x kg(-1), thus displaying the potential of remediating petroleum contaminated soils. The petroleum concentration was significantly and negatively correlated with seed germination rate, individual height and dry weight, but positively correlated with chlorophyll content in leaves.

  3. Ecotoxicological effects of polycyclic musks and cadmium on seed germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Chen, Cuihong; Zhou, Qixing; Bao, Yanyu; Li, Yaning; Wang, Ping

    2010-01-01

    Single and joint toxic effects of polycyclic musks including 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta[g]-2-benzopyran (HHCB) and 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-l,2,3,4-tetrahydronapthalene (AHTN) and cadmium (Cd) on seed germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum) were investigated. The results showed that the toxicity sequence of HHCB toxic to wheat seed germination and seedling growth was similar to that of AHTN, that is, germination rate > shoot elongation > root elongation, while the toxicity of Cd was in the sequence of root elongation > shoot elongation > germination rate, according to the LC50 and EC50 values. It is suggested that polycyclic musks and Cd had different toxicological mechanisms. Root and shoot elongation of wheat might be good bioindicators for the contamination of polycyclic musks and Cd in soil. The mixture of polycyclic musks and Cd had synergistic effects on T. aestivum according to the equi-toxic mixture approach when root elongation was selected as the toxicological endpoint. Thus, the joint toxicity of HHCB and Cd was significantly higher than the single toxicity of HHCB or Cd, which was also confirmed by the EC50 mix value of the mixture (EC50 mix = 0.530 TUmix). The EC(50mix) value of the mixture of AHTN and Cd was 0.614 TUmix, which indicated that the mixture toxicity was strengthened when AHTN coexisted with Cd.

  4. Plant growth chamber M design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, R. P.; Knott, W. M.

    1986-01-01

    Crop production is just one of the many processes involved in establishing long term survival of man in space. The benefits of integrating higher plants into the overall plan was recognized early by NASA through the Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) program. The first step is to design, construct, and operate a sealed (gas, liquid, and solid) plant growth chamber. A 3.6 m diameter by 6.7 m high closed cylinder (previously used as a hypobaric vessel during the Mercury program) is being modified for this purpose. The chamber is mounted on legs with the central axis vertical. Entrance to the chamber is through an airlock. This chamber will be devoted entirely to higher plant experimentation. Any waste treatment, food processing or product storage studies will be carried on outside of this chamber. Its primary purpose is to provide input and output data on solids, liquids, and gases for single crop species and multiple species production using different nutrient delivery systems.

  5. Growth of plant tissue cultures in simulated lunar soil: Implications for a lunar base Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venketeswaran, S.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments to determine whether plant tissue cultures can be grown in the presence of simulated lunar soil (SLS) and the effect of simulated lunar soil on the growth and morphogenesis of such cultures, as well as the effect upon the germination of seeds and the development of seedlings were carried out . Preliminary results on seed germination and seedling growth of rice and calli growth of winged bean and soybean indicate that there is no toxicity or inhibition caused by SLS. SLS can be used as a support medium with supplements of certain major and micro elements.

  6. Arabidopsis Stromal 70-kD Heat Shock Proteins Are Essential for Plant Development and Important for Thermotolerance of Germinating Seeds1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Su, Pai-Hsiang; Li, Hsou-min

    2008-01-01

    The 70-kD heat shock proteins (Hsp70s) have been shown to be important for protein folding, protein translocation, and stress responses in almost all organisms and in almost all subcellular compartments. However, the function of plastid stromal Hsp70s in higher plants is still uncertain. Genomic surveys have revealed that there are two putative stromal Hsp70s in Arabidopsis thaliana, denoted cpHsc70-1 (At4g24280) and cpHsc70-2 (At5g49910). In this study, we show that cpHsc70-1 and cpHsc70-2 could indeed be imported into the chloroplast stroma. Their corresponding T-DNA insertion knockout mutants were isolated and designated as Δcphsc70-1 and Δcphsc70-2. No visible phenotype was observed in the Δcphsc70-2 mutant under normal growth conditions. In contrast, Δcphsc70-1 mutant plants exhibited variegated cotyledons, malformed leaves, growth retardation, and impaired root growth, even though the protein level of cpHsc70-2 was up-regulated in the Δcphsc70-1 mutant. After heat shock treatment of germinating seeds, root growth from Δcphsc70-1 seeds was further impaired, indicating that cpHsc70-1 is important for thermotolerance of germinating seeds. No Δcphsc70-1 Δcphsc70-2 double mutant could be obtained, suggesting that the Δcphsc70 double knockout was lethal. Genotype analyses of F1 seedlings from various crosses indicated that double-knockout mutation was lethal to the female gametes and reduced the transmission efficiency of the male gametes. These results indicate that cpHsc70s are essential for plant development and the two cpHsc70s most likely have redundant but also distinct functions. PMID:18192441

  7. Nickel toxicity on seed germination and growth in radish (Raphanus sativus) and its recovery using copper and boron.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Shiv Shankar; Shukla, Rajni; Sharma, Y K

    2009-05-01

    Effect of various concentrations of nickel (100, 200, 500 and 1000 microM) and recovery treatments of boron (50 and 100 microM) and copper (15 and 75 microM) each with 200 microM and 500 microM of nickel on germination, growth, biomass, chlorophyll, carotenoids, pheophytin, amylase, protein, sugar as well as activity of catalase and peroxidase were studied in radish (Raphanus sativus cv. Early menu) seedlings. Nickel treatments caused a considerable reduction in germination percentage, growth and biomass. The different pigments were also decreased with nickel treatments. However boron addition with nickel recovered the negative effect on pigment contents. Among biochemical estimations, amylase activity and total proteins were found to be reduced in nickel treatments. Peroxidase and catalase activity were induced other than higher total sugar with nickel treatments. The combination of nickel with boron resulted into increased protein contents. This combination also reduced the catalase and peroxidase activity. The influence of nickel with copper failed to produce significant recovery except 200 microM nickel in combination with 15 microM copper with regard to catalase and peroxidase activity. The effect of nickel on hydrolyzing enzyme amylase was observed to be inhibitory resulting into poor germination followed by poor seedlings growth. The stress protecting enzymes peroxidase and catalase seem to be induced under the influence of nickel, and providing protection to the seedlings. The application of boron with nickel showed improved germination and growth. The level of catalase and peroxidase were found to be significantly reduced showing normal growth and biomass of seedlings.

  8. Nickel toxicity on seed germination and growth in radish (Raphanus sativus) and its recovery using copper and boron.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Shiv Shankar; Shukla, Rajni; Sharma, Y K

    2009-05-01

    Effect of various concentrations of nickel (100, 200, 500 and 1000 microM) and recovery treatments of boron (50 and 100 microM) and copper (15 and 75 microM) each with 200 microM and 500 microM of nickel on germination, growth, biomass, chlorophyll, carotenoids, pheophytin, amylase, protein, sugar as well as activity of catalase and peroxidase were studied in radish (Raphanus sativus cv. Early menu) seedlings. Nickel treatments caused a considerable reduction in germination percentage, growth and biomass. The different pigments were also decreased with nickel treatments. However boron addition with nickel recovered the negative effect on pigment contents. Among biochemical estimations, amylase activity and total proteins were found to be reduced in nickel treatments. Peroxidase and catalase activity were induced other than higher total sugar with nickel treatments. The combination of nickel with boron resulted into increased protein contents. This combination also reduced the catalase and peroxidase activity. The influence of nickel with copper failed to produce significant recovery except 200 microM nickel in combination with 15 microM copper with regard to catalase and peroxidase activity. The effect of nickel on hydrolyzing enzyme amylase was observed to be inhibitory resulting into poor germination followed by poor seedlings growth. The stress protecting enzymes peroxidase and catalase seem to be induced under the influence of nickel, and providing protection to the seedlings. The application of boron with nickel showed improved germination and growth. The level of catalase and peroxidase were found to be significantly reduced showing normal growth and biomass of seedlings. PMID:20120479

  9. Dynamic adaption of metabolic pathways during germination and growth of lily pollen tubes after inhibition of the electron transport chain.

    PubMed

    Obermeyer, Gerhard; Fragner, Lena; Lang, Veronika; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2013-08-01

    Investigation of the metabolome and the transcriptome of pollen of lily (Lilium longiflorum) gave a comprehensive overview of metabolic pathways active during pollen germination and tube growth. More than 100 different metabolites were determined simultaneously by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, and expressed genes of selected metabolic pathways were identified by next-generation sequencing of lily pollen transcripts. The time-dependent changes in metabolite abundances, as well as the changes after inhibition of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, revealed a fast and dynamic adaption of the metabolic pathways in the range of minutes. The metabolic state prior to pollen germination differed clearly from the metabolic state during pollen tube growth, as indicated by principal component analysis of all detected metabolites and by detailed observation of individual metabolites. For instance, the amount of sucrose increased during the first 60 minutes of pollen culture but decreased during tube growth, while glucose and fructose showed the opposite behavior. Glycolysis, tricarbonic acid cycle, glyoxylate cycle, starch, and fatty acid degradation were activated, providing energy during pollen germination and tube growth. Inhibition of the mitochondrial electron transport chain by antimycin A resulted in an immediate production of ethanol and a fast rearrangement of metabolic pathways, which correlated with changes in the amounts of the majority of identified metabolites, e.g. a rapid increase in γ-aminobutyric acid indicated the activation of a γ-aminobutyric acid shunt in the tricarbonic acid cycle, while ethanol fermentation compensated the reduced ATP production after inhibition of the oxidative phosphorylation.

  10. Ammonia volatilization from urea-application influenced germination and early seedling growth of dry direct-seeded rice.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiaoli; Wu, Wei; Shah, Farooq; Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang; Cui, Kehui; Liu, Hongyan; Nie, Lixiao

    2012-01-01

    Poor seed germination and early seedling growth associated with urea-induced soil ammonia volatilization are major constraints in the adoption of dry direct-seeded rice. To directly examine soil ammonia volatilization and its damage to seed germination and early seedling growth of dry direct-seeded rice when urea is applied at seeding, two Petri-dish incubation experiments and a field experiment were conducted. Ammonia volatilization due to urea application significantly reduced seed germination and early seedling growth of dry direct-seedling rice. NBPT significantly reduced ammonia volatilization following urea application. The application of ammonium sulfate, instead of urea at seeding, may mitigate poor crop establishment of dry direct-seeded rice. Root growth of dry direct-seeded rice was more seriously inhibited by soil ammonia volatilization than that of shoot. Results suggest that roots are more sensitive to soil ammonia toxicity than shoots in dry direct-seeded rice system when N is applied as urea at seeding. PMID:22454611

  11. Using a model-based framework for analysing genetic diversity during germination and heterotrophic growth of Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    Brunel, S.; Teulat-Merah, B.; Wagner, M.-H.; Huguet, T.; Prosperi, J. M.; Dürr, C.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The framework provided by an emergence model was used: (1) for phenotyping germination and heterotrophic growth of Medicago truncatula in relation to two major environmental factors, temperature and water potential; and (2) to evaluate the extent of genetic differences in emergence-model parameters. Methods Eight cultivars and natural accessions of M. trunculata were studied. Germination was recorded from 5 to 30 °C and from 0 to −0·75 MPa, and seedling growth from 10 to 20 °C. Key Results Thermal time to reach 50 % germination was very short (15 °Cd) and almost stable between genotypes, while base temperature (2–3 °C) and base water potential for germination (−0·7 to −1·3 MPa) varied between genotypes. Only 35 °Cd after germination were required to reach 30 mm hypocotyl length with significant differences among genotypes. Base temperature for elongation varied from 5·5 to 7·5 °C. Low temperatures induced a general shortening of the seedling, with some genotypes more responsive than others. No relationship with initial seed mass or seed reserve distribution was observed, which might have explained differences between genotypes and the effects of low temperatures. Conclusions The study provides a set of reference values for M. trunculata users. The use of the ecophysiological model allows comparison of these values between such non-crop species and other crops. It has enabled phenotypic variability in response to environmental conditions related to the emergence process to be identified. The model will allow simulation of emergence differences between genotypes in a range of environments using these parameter values. Genomic tools available for the model species M. trunculata will make it possible to analyse the genetic and molecular determinants of these differences. PMID:19251713

  12. [Interspecific allelopathic effect of different organs' aqueous extracts of Betula platyphylla and Larix olgensis on their seed germination and seedling growth].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhong-Ling; Wang, Qing-Cheng; Hao, Long-Fei

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, the Betula platyphylla root-, branch-, and foliage aqueous extracts and Larix olgensis root-, branch-, foliage-, and bark aqueous extracts over a range of concentrations 5.0, 12.5, 25.0, 50.0, and 100.0 mg x mL(-1) were used to study their interspecific allelopathic effect on the seed germination and seedling growth of the two tree species. All the L. olgensis organs' extracts, except its root extracts at concentration 5.0 mg x mL(-1), had inhibition effect on B. platyphylla seed germination rate, which was 54%, 58%, 59%, and 66% under the effects of L. olgensis foliage-, branch-, bark-, and root extracts, respectively, as compared with the control. With increasing concentration, the inhibition effect of L. olgensis root- and branch extracts increased while that of L. olgensis foliage- and bark extracts decreased. The L. olgensis organs' extracts, especially the foliage extracts at concentration 100.0 mg x mL(-1), had strong inhibition effect on B. platyphylla seed radicle- and hypocotyl length growth, with a decrement of 38% and 55% (P < 0.05), respectively. L. olgensis branch- and foliage extracts promoted, but root- and bark extracts inhibited B. platyphylla seedling growth and biomass production. B. platyphylla organs' extracts promoted L. olgensis seed germination, root- and branch extracts promoted hypocotyl length growth, but foliage extracts at 50.0 and 100.0 mg x mL(-1) decreased the hypocotyl length growth by 27% and 28% (P < 0.05), respectively. B. platyphylla organs' extracts mainly promoted L. olgensis seedling growth, with the height- and collar diameter growth and biomass accumulation at B. platyphylla foliage extracts concentration 5.0 mg x mL(-1) increased by 54%, 60%, and 100% (P < 0.05), respectively. Our results suggested that there existed obvious allelopathic effect between B. platyphylla and L. olgensis, and thus, mixed planting B. platyphylla and L. olgensis could have promotion effects on the growth of the two tree species.

  13. The effects of exogenous antioxidant germanium (Ge) on seed germination and growth of Lycium ruthenicum Murr subjected to NaCl stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Hou, Long-yu; Li, Qing-mei; Jiang, Ze-ping; Liu, Duo; Zhu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results of a study on the effects of exogenous antioxidant germanium (Ge) on seed germination and seedling growth, and its role as a radical scavenger that regulates related enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), under salt stress. Seeds were incubated in 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 mM NaCl to determine the salt tolerance of the Lycium ruthenicum Murr seedlings and from the results, the critical and ultimate salt concentrations were chosen for the next experiment. Subsequently, two treatments (seeds soaked in Ge and Ge added to salt) with four concentrations of GeO2 (0, 5, 10 and 20 μM) were used with the critical (150 mM) and ultimate salt concentrations (250 mM). The results demonstrated that salt alone inhibited seed germination significantly (≥150 mM) and reduced seedling growth (≥200 mM). The addition of exogenous Ge to the salt solution, as well as soaking the seeds in Ge, attenuated the salt stress effects in a manner dependent on the dose of Ge, as indicated by the increased percentage of seeds that germinated and improved seedling growth. The addition of Ge also showed a significant reversal of salt stress on the activities of antioxidant enzymes, with a decrease in SOD and POD activity, but an increase in CAT activity with 150 mM NaCl, and enhancement of SOD, POD and CAT with 250 mM NaCl. Correspondingly, the level of malondialdehyde was decreased significantly by each Ge treatment under salt stress. Further, for L. ruthenicum, adding 10 Ge and seeds soaked in 5 Ge were the most effective treatments. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show the protective effects of exogenous Ge against salt-induced oxidative damage in L. ruthenicum seed germination and seedling growth. Thus, L. ruthenicum can be used in areas with salty soil and Ge can promote the plants' salt tolerance. PMID:26360466

  14. Oxygen requirement of germinating flax seeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuznetsov, Oleg A.; Hasenstein, K. H.; Hasentein, K. H. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Plant experiments in earth orbit are typically prepared on the ground and germinated in orbit to study gravity effects on the developing seedlings. Germination requires the breakdown of storage compounds, and this metabolism depends upon respiration, making oxygen one of the limiting factors in seed germination. In microgravity lack of run-off of excess water requires careful testing of water dispensation and oxygen availability. In preparation for a shuttle experiment (MICRO on STS-107) we studied germination and growth of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seedlings in the developed hardware (Magnetic Field Chamber, MFC). We tested between four to 32 seeds per chamber (air volume=14 mL) and after 36 h measured the root length. At 90 microliters O2 per seed (32 seeds/chamber), the germination decreased from 94 to 69%, and the root length was reduced by 20%, compared to 8 seeds per chamber. Based on the percent germination and root length obtained in controlled gas mixtures between 3.6 and 21.6% O2 we determined the lower limit of reliable germination to be 10 vol. % O2 at atmospheric pressure. Although the oxygen available in the MFC's can support the intended number of seeds, the data show that seed storage and microgravity-related limitations may reduce germination. c2003 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  15. Oxygen requirement of germinating flax seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Oleg A.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    2003-05-01

    Plant experiments in earth orbit are typically prepared on the ground and germinated in orbit to study gravity effects on the developing seedlings. Germination requires the breakdown of storage compounds, and this metabolism depends upon respiration, making oxygen one of the limiting factors in seed germination. In microgravity lack of run-off of excess water requires careful testing of water dispensation and oxygen availability. In preparation for a shuttle experiment (MICRO on STS-107) we studied germination and growth of flax ( Linum usitatissimum L.) seedlings in the developed hardware (Magnetic Field Chamber, MFC). We tested between four to 32 seeds per chamber (air volume = 14 mL) and after 36 h measured the root length. At 90 μl O 2 per seed (32 seeds/chamber), the germination decreased from 94 to 69%, and the root length was reduced by 20%, compared to 8 seeds per chamber. Based on the percent germination and root length obtained in controlled gas mixtures between 3.6 and 21.6% O 2 we determined the lower limit of reliable germination to be 10 vol. % O 2 at atmospheric pressure. Although the oxygen available in the MFC's can support the intended number of seeds, the data show that seed storage and microgravity-related limitations may reduce germination.

  16. Endophytic bacteria isolated from orchid and their potential to promote plant growth.

    PubMed

    Faria, Deise Cristina; Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; Melo, Itamar Soares; de Carvalho Costa, Francisco Eduardo

    2013-02-01

    Twelve endophytic bacteria were isolated from the meristem of in vitro Cymbidium eburneum orchid, and screened according to indole yield quantified by colorimetric assay, in vitro phosphate solubilization, and potential for plant growth promotion under greenhouse conditions. Eight strains with positive results were classified into the genus Paenibacillus by FAME profile, and evaluated for their ability to increase survival and promote the growth of in vitro germinated Cattleya loddigesii seedlings during the acclimatization process. The obtained results showed that all strains produced detectable indole levels and did not exhibit potential for solubilizing inorganic phosphate. Particularly, an increase of the total biomass and number of leaves was observed. Two strains of Paenibacillus macerans promoted plant growth under greenhouse conditions. None of the treatments had a deleterious effect on growth of inoculated plants. These results suggest that these bacterial effects could be potentially useful to promote plant growth during seedling acclimatization in orchid species other than the species of origin.

  17. Germination and early plant development of ten plant species exposed to TiO2 and CeO2 nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ten agronomic plant species were exposed to different concentrations of nano titanium dioxide (nTiO2) or nano cerium oxide (nCeO2) (0, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/L) to examine potential effects on germination and early seedling development. We modified a standard test protocol develop...

  18. Effect on germination and early growth characteristics in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds exposed to static magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Vashisth, Ananta; Nagarajan, Shantha

    2010-01-15

    Seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) were exposed in batches to static magnetic fields of strength from 0 to 250mT in steps of 50mT for 1-4h in steps of 1h. Treatment of sunflower seeds in these magnetic fields increased the speed of germination, seedling length and seedling dry weight under laboratory germination tests. Of the various treatments, 50 and 200mT for 2h yielded the peak performance. Exposure of seeds to magnetic fields improved seed coat membrane integrity and reduced the cellular leakage and electrical conductivity. Treated seeds planted in soil resulted in statistically higher seedling dry weight, root length, root surface area and root volume in 1-month-old seedlings. In germinating seeds, enzyme activities of alpha-amylase, dehydrogenase and protease were significantly higher in treated seeds in contrast to controls. The higher enzyme activity in magnetic-field-treated sunflower seeds could be triggering the fast germination and early vigor of seedlings.

  19. Evaluation of Fungicides on Growth and Conidial Germination of Verticillium theobromae Isolated from Plantain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igeleke, C. L.; Ayanru, D. K. G.

    An evaluation of three fungicides, namely, benomyl [methyl l-(butyl-carbamoyl)-2-benzimidazole carbamate], calixin (tridomorph) and dithane M-45 (mancozeb), was carried out for their inhibitory effects on Verticillium theobromae, the causal organism of cigar-end rot disease of plantain (Musa paradisiaca). The LD50 of calixin, benomyl and dithane M-45 in inhibiting mycelial growth, were 0.14, 0.98 and 535.17 µg mL-1, respectively. Calixin was also the most effective in conidial germination inhibition with an LD50 of 21.78 µg mL-1, as compared with dithane M-45 86.39 µg mL-1 and benomyl 275.50 µg mL-1. Germ tubes of the test organism were distorted by the fungicides at varying concentrations. Calixin had greater distortion effect at a lower concentration of 10 µg mL-1, dithane M-45 (100 µg mL-1) and benomyl (1000 µg mL-1). The relevance of these results in relation to the control and management of cigar-end rot disease of plantain is discussed.

  20. Optimization of plant mineral nutrition under growth-limiting conditions in a lunar greenhouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaets, I.; Voznyuk, T.; Kovalchuk, M.; Rogutskyy, I.; Lukashov, D.; Mytrokhyn, O.; Mashkovska, S.; Foing, B.; Kozyrovska, N.

    It may be assumed that the first plants in a lunar base will play a main role in forming a protosoil of acceptable fertility needed for purposively growing second generation plants like wheat, rice, tulips, etc. The residues of the first-generation plants could be composted and transformed by microorganisms into a soil-like substrate within a loop of regenerative life support system. The lunar regolith may be used as a substrate for plant growth at the very beginning of a mission to reduce its cost. The use of microbial communities for priming plants will allow one to facilitate adaption to stressful conditions and to support the plant development under growth limiting conditions. Well-defined plant-associated bacteria were used for growing three cultivars to colonize French marigold (Tagetes patula L.) in anorthosite, a substrate of low bioavailability, analogous to a lunar rock. The consortium was composed of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and the bacterium Paenibacillus sp. IMBG156 which stimulated seed germination, better plant development, and finally, the flowering of inoculated tagetes. In contrast, control plants grew poorly in the anorthosite and practically did not survive until flowering. Analysis of bacterial community composition showed that all species colonized plant roots, however, the rate of colonization depended on the allelopatic characteristics of marigold varieties. Bacteria of consortium were able to liberate some elements (Ca, Fe, Mn, Si, Ni, Cu, Zn) from substrate anorthosite. Plant colonization by mixed culture of bacterial strains resulted in the increase of accumulation of K, Mg, Mn by the plant and in the lowering of the level of toxic metal accumulation. It was assumed that a rationally assembled consortium of bacterial strains promoted germination of marygold seeds and supported the plant development under growth limiting conditions by means of bioleaching plant essential nutritional elements and by protecting the plant against

  1. Osmotic conditioning and shading on the germination and on the initial growth of Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão seedlings.

    PubMed

    Scalon, Silvana P Q; Mota, Leandro H S; Mussury, Rosilda M

    2013-01-01

    The present work aimed to evaluate the osmotic conditioning and shading on the germination and on the initial growth of aroeira seedlings. The seeds were pre-imbibed in solutions with different concentrations of PEG (polyethylene glycol) and KNO3 and incubated at 10°C and 20°C temperatures, during 0 (control), 12 and 24 hours. After these periods, the seeds were dried until they reached the initial levels of humidity. After that, they were put for germinating in BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) chambers, at alternated 20-30°C. The control treatment and the pre-conditionings that presented the best results in BOD germination were selected, PEG (-1.0 MPa) + KNO3 (-1.0 MPa) and KNO3 (-1.0 MPa), with pre-imbibition for 12 h and incubated in BOD at 20°C. The seeds were sowed on trays and then they were transplanted, keeping under a net covered with 50% and 70% of shading and at sunlight. The osmotic conditioning did not change the seeds germination in BOD, but the highest aerial part size was observed in PEG -1.0 MPa + KNO3-1.0 MPa treatment. The shading levels at 50% and 70% and the osmotic conditioning with PEG -1.0 MPa + KNO3-1.0 MPa offered a higher emergence in a greenhouse condition; however, at sunlight the seeds presented a better index of quality on the 145th day. PMID:23828353

  2. Investigation of pulsed electromagnetic field as a novel organic pre-sowing method on germination and initial growth stages of cotton.

    PubMed

    Bilalis, Dimitrios J; Katsenios, Nikolaos; Efthimiadou, Aspasia; Karkanis, Anestis; Efthimiadis, Panagiotis

    2012-06-01

    Two different pre-sowing techniques have been investigated for their influence in an important industrial plant, namely cotton. Priming methods are very useful for agricultural practices because they improve crop seedling establishment, especially when environmental conditions are not optimum. Pulsed electromagnetic fields have been found to promote germination and improve early growth characteristics of cotton seedlings. Such priming techniques are especially valuable in organic cultivation, where chemical compounds are prohibited. PEG treatment showed an enhancement in some measurements, however in some cases the results were not statistically different compared to control plants. In addition, PEG treatment is a sophisticated method that is far from agricultural practices and farmers. In this research, two different ages of seeds were used (1- and 2-year-old) in order to investigate the promotory effects of priming techniques. Magnetic field treatment of 15 min was found to stimulate germination percentage and to promote seeds, resulting in 85% higher values than control seeds under real field conditions. Furthermore, seeds that were treated with magnetic field performed better in terms of early-stage measurements and root characteristics.

  3. Involvement of reactive oxygen species in endosperm cap weakening and embryo elongation growth during lettuce seed germination.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Chen, Bingxian; Xu, Zhenjiang; Shi, Zhaowan; Chen, Shanli; Huang, Xi; Chen, Jianxun; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2014-07-01

    Endosperm cap (CAP) weakening and embryo elongation growth are prerequisites for the completion of lettuce seed germination. Although it has been proposed that the cell wall loosening underlying these processes results from an enzymatic mechanism, it is still unclear which enzymes are involved. Here it is shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are non-enzymatic factors, may be involved in the two processes. In Guasihong lettuce seeds imbibed in water, O2·(-) and H2O2 accumulated and peroxidase activity increased in the CAP, whereas its puncture force decreased. In addition, in the radicle, the increase in embryo growth potential was accompanied by accumulation of O2·(-) and an increase in peroxidase activity. Imbibing seeds in 0.3% sodium dichloroisocyanurate (SDIC) reduced endosperm viability and the levels of O2·(-), H2O2, and peroxidase activity in the CAP, whereas the decrease in its puncture force was inhibited. However, in the embryo, SDIC did not affect the accumulation of O2·(-), peroxidase activity, and the embryo growth potential. As a result, SDIC caused atypical germination, in which the endosperm ruptured at the boundary between the CAP and lateral endosperm. ROS scavengers and ROS generation inhibitors inhibited the CAP weakening and also decreased the embryo growth potential, thus decreasing the percentage of seed germination. Exogenous ROS and ROS generation inducers increased the percentage of CAP rupture to some extent, and the addition of H2O2 to 0.3% SDIC enabled some seeds to undergo typical germination.

  4. Involvement of reactive oxygen species in endosperm cap weakening and embryo elongation growth during lettuce seed germination

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Chen, Bingxian; Xu, Zhenjiang; Shi, Zhaowan; Chen, Shanli; Huang, Xi; Chen, Jianxun; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Endosperm cap (CAP) weakening and embryo elongation growth are prerequisites for the completion of lettuce seed germination. Although it has been proposed that the cell wall loosening underlying these processes results from an enzymatic mechanism, it is still unclear which enzymes are involved. Here it is shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are non-enzymatic factors, may be involved in the two processes. In Guasihong lettuce seeds imbibed in water, O2·– and H2O2 accumulated and peroxidase activity increased in the CAP, whereas its puncture force decreased. In addition, in the radicle, the increase in embryo growth potential was accompanied by accumulation of O2·– and an increase in peroxidase activity. Imbibing seeds in 0.3% sodium dichloroisocyanurate (SDIC) reduced endosperm viability and the levels of O2·–, H2O2, and peroxidase activity in the CAP, whereas the decrease in its puncture force was inhibited. However, in the embryo, SDIC did not affect the accumulation of O2·–, peroxidase activity, and the embryo growth potential. As a result, SDIC caused atypical germination, in which the endosperm ruptured at the boundary between the CAP and lateral endosperm. ROS scavengers and ROS generation inhibitors inhibited the CAP weakening and also decreased the embryo growth potential, thus decreasing the percentage of seed germination. Exogenous ROS and ROS generation inducers increased the percentage of CAP rupture to some extent, and the addition of H2O2 to 0.3% SDIC enabled some seeds to undergo typical germination. PMID:24744430

  5. Involvement of reactive oxygen species in endosperm cap weakening and embryo elongation growth during lettuce seed germination.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Chen, Bingxian; Xu, Zhenjiang; Shi, Zhaowan; Chen, Shanli; Huang, Xi; Chen, Jianxun; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2014-07-01

    Endosperm cap (CAP) weakening and embryo elongation growth are prerequisites for the completion of lettuce seed germination. Although it has been proposed that the cell wall loosening underlying these processes results from an enzymatic mechanism, it is still unclear which enzymes are involved. Here it is shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are non-enzymatic factors, may be involved in the two processes. In Guasihong lettuce seeds imbibed in water, O2·(-) and H2O2 accumulated and peroxidase activity increased in the CAP, whereas its puncture force decreased. In addition, in the radicle, the increase in embryo growth potential was accompanied by accumulation of O2·(-) and an increase in peroxidase activity. Imbibing seeds in 0.3% sodium dichloroisocyanurate (SDIC) reduced endosperm viability and the levels of O2·(-), H2O2, and peroxidase activity in the CAP, whereas the decrease in its puncture force was inhibited. However, in the embryo, SDIC did not affect the accumulation of O2·(-), peroxidase activity, and the embryo growth potential. As a result, SDIC caused atypical germination, in which the endosperm ruptured at the boundary between the CAP and lateral endosperm. ROS scavengers and ROS generation inhibitors inhibited the CAP weakening and also decreased the embryo growth potential, thus decreasing the percentage of seed germination. Exogenous ROS and ROS generation inducers increased the percentage of CAP rupture to some extent, and the addition of H2O2 to 0.3% SDIC enabled some seeds to undergo typical germination. PMID:24744430

  6. Potential effects of elevated carbon dioxide levels on seed germination of three native plant species. [Nemophila menziesii; Layia platyglossa; Clarkia rubicunda

    SciTech Connect

    St. Omer, L.; Horvath, S.M.

    1983-12-01

    Germination responses of seeds of three native plant species - Nemophila menziesii H. and a. ssp. menziesii, Layia platyglossa (F. and M.) Gray ssp. platyglossa, and Clarkia rubicunda (Lindl.) Lewis and Lewis ssp. rubicunda - were investigated at atmospheric CO/sub 2/ levels of 0.03%, 0.07%, 0.14%, and 0.21% in controlled greenhouse experiments. Seeds were germinated in a 1:1 (vol/vol) mixture of vermiculite and sponge rock under natural conditions of daylengths and temperatures. Elevations in CO/sub 2/ concentrations did not significantly affect the germination responses of any of the three species, but their patterns of germination differed. The data suggest that increasing CO/sub 2/ concentrations such as those anticipated in the next century may not significantly affect germination of native plant species.

  7. Loss of Mitochondrial Malate Dehydrogenase Activity Alters Seed Metabolism Impairing Seed Maturation and Post-Germination Growth in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (mMDH; EC 1.1.1.37) has multiple roles; the most commonly described is its catalysis of the interconversion of malate and oxaloacetate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The roles of mMDH in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed development and germination were investigated in mMDH1 and mMDH2 double knockout plants. A significant proportion of mmdh1mmdh2 seeds were nonviable and developed only to torpedo-shaped embryos, indicative of arrested seed embryo growth during embryogenesis. The viable mmdh1mmdh2 seeds had an impaired maturation process that led to slow germination rates as well as retarded post-germination growth, shorter root length, and decreased root biomass. During seed development, mmdh1mmdh2 showed a paler green phenotype than the wild type and exhibited deficiencies in reserve accumulation and reduced final seed biomass. The respiration rate of mmdh1mmdh2 seeds was significantly elevated throughout their maturation, consistent with the previously reported higher respiration rate in mmdh1mmdh2 leaves. Mutant seeds showed a consistently higher content of free amino acids (branched-chain amino acids, alanine, serine, glycine, proline, and threonine), differences in sugar and sugar phosphate levels, and lower content of 2-oxoglutarate. Seed-aging assays showed that quiescent mmdh1mmdh2 seeds lost viability more than 3 times faster than wild-type seeds. Together, these data show the important role of mMDH in the earliest phases of the life cycle of Arabidopsis. PMID:27208265

  8. Complementarity among plant growth promoting traits in rhizospheric bacterial communities promotes plant growth.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mangal; Awasthi, Ashutosh; Soni, Sumit K; Singh, Rakshapal; Verma, Rajesh K; Kalra, Alok

    2015-10-27

    An assessment of roles of rhizospheric microbial diversity in plant growth is helpful in understanding plant-microbe interactions. Using random combinations of rhizospheric bacterial species at different richness levels, we analysed the contribution of species richness, compositions, interactions and identity on soil microbial respiration and plant biomass. We showed that bacterial inoculation in plant rhizosphere enhanced microbial respiration and plant biomass with complementary relationships among bacterial species. Plant growth was found to increase linearly with inoculation of rhizospheric bacterial communities with increasing levels of species or plant growth promoting trait diversity. However, inoculation of diverse bacterial communities having single plant growth promoting trait, i.e., nitrogen fixation could not enhance plant growth over inoculation of single bacteria. Our results indicate that bacterial diversity in rhizosphere affect ecosystem functioning through complementary relationship among plant growth promoting traits and may play significant roles in delivering microbial services to plants.

  9. Complementarity among plant growth promoting traits in rhizospheric bacterial communities promotes plant growth

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mangal; Awasthi, Ashutosh; Soni, Sumit K.; Singh, Rakshapal; Verma, Rajesh K.; Kalra, Alok

    2015-01-01

    An assessment of roles of rhizospheric microbial diversity in plant growth is helpful in understanding plant-microbe interactions. Using random combinations of rhizospheric bacterial species at different richness levels, we analysed the contribution of species richness, compositions, interactions and identity on soil microbial respiration and plant biomass. We showed that bacterial inoculation in plant rhizosphere enhanced microbial respiration and plant biomass with complementary relationships among bacterial species. Plant growth was found to increase linearly with inoculation of rhizospheric bacterial communities with increasing levels of species or plant growth promoting trait diversity. However, inoculation of diverse bacterial communities having single plant growth promoting trait, i.e., nitrogen fixation could not enhance plant growth over inoculation of single bacteria. Our results indicate that bacterial diversity in rhizosphere affect ecosystem functioning through complementary relationship among plant growth promoting traits and may play significant roles in delivering microbial services to plants. PMID:26503744

  10. Germination Ecology and Seed Dispersal of a Critically Endangered Plant: A Case Study of Pomaderris vacciniifolia (Round-Leaf Pomaderris)

    PubMed Central

    Dell, Matthew; Gibson, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Change in ecosystem disturbance regimes from human land-use poses a worldwide problem for management of rare species. Two important types of disturbance influencing the persistence of species in Australian ecosystems are habitat fragmentation and fire. In this study, seed dispersal and the germination ecology of Pomaderris vacciniifolia—a critically endangered, rare endemic Australian shrub—were examined to identify likely influences of fire and fragmentation on the decline of populations. The response of seed germination to simulated effects of wildfire and canopy openings was investigated, as was the unaided dispersal capability of seeds from parent plants. A significant increase in germination rate was observed following 100°C heat treatment to seeds, while smoke and light exposure had little influence. Seed imbibition was strongly influenced by heat treatment. The findings indicate a likely positive post-fire germination response, with implications for recruitment success determined by moisture availability following fire. Unaided seed dispersal was limited, which partly explains the apparent decline of populations. Understanding disturbance requirements for threatened species, and subsequent management of landscapes for disturbance, will aid conservation of rare species throughout the world. PMID:27557152

  11. Germination Ecology and Seed Dispersal of a Critically Endangered Plant: A Case Study of Pomaderris vacciniifolia (Round-Leaf Pomaderris).

    PubMed

    Patykowski, John; Dell, Matthew; Gibson, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Change in ecosystem disturbance regimes from human land-use poses a worldwide problem for management of rare species. Two important types of disturbance influencing the persistence of species in Australian ecosystems are habitat fragmentation and fire. In this study, seed dispersal and the germination ecology of Pomaderris vacciniifolia-a critically endangered, rare endemic Australian shrub-were examined to identify likely influences of fire and fragmentation on the decline of populations. The response of seed germination to simulated effects of wildfire and canopy openings was investigated, as was the unaided dispersal capability of seeds from parent plants. A significant increase in germination rate was observed following 100°C heat treatment to seeds, while smoke and light exposure had little influence. Seed imbibition was strongly influenced by heat treatment. The findings indicate a likely positive post-fire germination response, with implications for recruitment success determined by moisture availability following fire. Unaided seed dispersal was limited, which partly explains the apparent decline of populations. Understanding disturbance requirements for threatened species, and subsequent management of landscapes for disturbance, will aid conservation of rare species throughout the world. PMID:27557152

  12. Germination Ecology and Seed Dispersal of a Critically Endangered Plant: A Case Study of Pomaderris vacciniifolia (Round-Leaf Pomaderris).

    PubMed

    Patykowski, John; Dell, Matthew; Gibson, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Change in ecosystem disturbance regimes from human land-use poses a worldwide problem for management of rare species. Two important types of disturbance influencing the persistence of species in Australian ecosystems are habitat fragmentation and fire. In this study, seed dispersal and the germination ecology of Pomaderris vacciniifolia-a critically endangered, rare endemic Australian shrub-were examined to identify likely influences of fire and fragmentation on the decline of populations. The response of seed germination to simulated effects of wildfire and canopy openings was investigated, as was the unaided dispersal capability of seeds from parent plants. A significant increase in germination rate was observed following 100°C heat treatment to seeds, while smoke and light exposure had little influence. Seed imbibition was strongly influenced by heat treatment. The findings indicate a likely positive post-fire germination response, with implications for recruitment success determined by moisture availability following fire. Unaided seed dispersal was limited, which partly explains the apparent decline of populations. Understanding disturbance requirements for threatened species, and subsequent management of landscapes for disturbance, will aid conservation of rare species throughout the world.

  13. Evaluation of the effect of clinostat rotation on pollen germination and tube development as a tool for selection of plants in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Micco, Veronica; Scala, Michele; Aronne, Giovanna

    2006-05-01

    The choice of species and cultivar on which rely to sustain Close Loop Environmental Systems is generally approached by analysing the behaviour of plants in presence of stress (sporophytic selection). In this paper, we investigated the possibility to conduct the selection among genotypes in Space through the male gametophytic selection. Thus, we studied the effect of simulated microgravity on pollen germination and tube development of both woody and herbaceous crop species: Prunus armeniaca (apricot), P. dulcis (almond), Malus domestica (apple) and Vicia faba (broad bean). Pollen collected from just bloomed flowers was assessed for viability and incubated on the optimal growing medium in petri dishes both on a uni-axial clinostat and stationary in 1g. Then, pollen was observed under a light microscope to detect percent germination and growth direction. Histochemical analyses were performed to verify the presence and distribution of storage substances. Moreover, specific stainings and epifluorescent microscopy were applied to count nuclei, follow the migration of sperm cells and investigate the presence, size and morphology of callose plugs. Results showed that simulated microgravity affected pollen tube development. The different response showed by the various species indicates that male-gametophytic selection could be useful for the selection of plants in microgravity.

  14. A Putative Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Involved in Regulating Plant Growth and Development1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fengling; Asami, Tadao; Wu, Xianzhong; Tsang, Edward W.T.; Cutler, Adrian J.

    2007-01-01

    We have functionally characterized an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) gene AtHSD1 (At5g50600) that encodes a protein with homology to animal 11-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD). Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing AtHSD1 (designated AOHSD plants) under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter showed increased growth and seed yield as well as increased tolerance of saline stress and reduced seed dormancy. In canola (Brassica napus), transgenic plants overexpressing AtHSD1 also outgrew wild-type plants. AOHSD phenotypes were similar to those of plants that overproduced brassinosteroids (BRs) or overexpressed the BR receptor gene BRI1. A loss-of-function hsd mutant produced by RNA interference displayed a semidwarfed phenotype with reduced sensitivity to BRs. In contrast, AOHSD plants were hypersensitive to BRs and exhibited increased catabolism of abscisic acid (ABA). Germination of AOHSD seeds was less sensitive to ABA, while hsd seed was more sensitive to ABA during germination. AtHSD transcription was rapidly induced by BR treatment in wild type and was expressed widely in aerial plant parts, especially vascular tissues. This study demonstrates that AtHSD1 is involved in regulating growth and development in plants and is likely to promote or mediate BR effects. The gene has significant potential for improving growth and yield of canola and other agricultural crops. PMID:17616511

  15. Effect of cuticular waxes compounds from table grapes on growth, germination and gene expression in Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Silva-Moreno, Evelyn; Brito-Echeverría, Jocelyn; López, Miguel; Ríos, Juan; Balic, Iván; Campos-Vargas, Reinaldo; Polanco, Rubén

    2016-05-01

    Botrytis cinerea attacks a broad range of host causing significant economic losses in the worldwide fruit export industry. Hitherto, many studies have focused on the penetration mechanisms used by this phytopathogen, but little is known about the early stages of infection, especially those such as adhesion and germination. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of cuticular waxes compounds from table grapes on growth, germination and gene expression of B. cinerea. To accomplish this, growth was analyzed using as substrate n-alkanes extracted from waxes of fresh fruit (table grapes, blueberries and apricots). Subsequently, the main compounds of table grape waxes, oleanolic acid (OA) and n-fatty alcohols, were mixed to generate a matrix on which conidia of B. cinerea were added to assess their effect on germination and expression of bctub, bchtr and bchex genes. B. cinerea B05.10, isolated from grapes, increased its growth on a matrix composed by table grapes n-alkanes in comparison to a matrix made with n-alkanes from apricot or blueberries. Moreover, at 2.5 h, B05.10 germination increased 17 and 33 % in presence of n-alkanes from table grape, in comparison to conditions without alkanes or with blueberries alkanes, respectively. Finally, expression of bchtr and bchex showed a significant increase during the first hour after contact with n-fatty alcohols and OA. In conclusion, B. cinerea displays selectivity towards certain compounds found in host waxes, mainly n-fatty alcohols, which could be a good candidate to control this phytopathogen in early stages of infection. PMID:27038944

  16. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Enhance Salinity Stress Tolerance in Okra through ROS-Scavenging Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Habib, Sheikh Hasna; Kausar, Hossain; Saud, Halimi Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is a major environmental stress that limits crop production worldwide. In this study, we characterized plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase and examined their effect on salinity stress tolerance in okra through the induction of ROS-scavenging enzyme activity. PGPR inoculated okra plants exhibited higher germination percentage, growth parameters, and chlorophyll content than control plants. Increased antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, APX, and CAT) and upregulation of ROS pathway genes (CAT, APX, GR, and DHAR) were observed in PGPR inoculated okra plants under salinity stress. With some exceptions, inoculation with Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 had a significant influence on all tested parameters under salt stress, as compared to other treatments. Thus, the ACC deaminase-containing PGPR isolate Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 could be an effective bioresource for enhancing salt tolerance and growth of okra plants under salinity stress.

  17. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Enhance Salinity Stress Tolerance in Okra through ROS-Scavenging Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Sheikh Hasna; Kausar, Hossain; Saud, Halimi Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is a major environmental stress that limits crop production worldwide. In this study, we characterized plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase and examined their effect on salinity stress tolerance in okra through the induction of ROS-scavenging enzyme activity. PGPR inoculated okra plants exhibited higher germination percentage, growth parameters, and chlorophyll content than control plants. Increased antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, APX, and CAT) and upregulation of ROS pathway genes (CAT, APX, GR, and DHAR) were observed in PGPR inoculated okra plants under salinity stress. With some exceptions, inoculation with Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 had a significant influence on all tested parameters under salt stress, as compared to other treatments. Thus, the ACC deaminase-containing PGPR isolate Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 could be an effective bioresource for enhancing salt tolerance and growth of okra plants under salinity stress. PMID:26951880

  18. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Enhance Salinity Stress Tolerance in Okra through ROS-Scavenging Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Habib, Sheikh Hasna; Kausar, Hossain; Saud, Halimi Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is a major environmental stress that limits crop production worldwide. In this study, we characterized plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase and examined their effect on salinity stress tolerance in okra through the induction of ROS-scavenging enzyme activity. PGPR inoculated okra plants exhibited higher germination percentage, growth parameters, and chlorophyll content than control plants. Increased antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, APX, and CAT) and upregulation of ROS pathway genes (CAT, APX, GR, and DHAR) were observed in PGPR inoculated okra plants under salinity stress. With some exceptions, inoculation with Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 had a significant influence on all tested parameters under salt stress, as compared to other treatments. Thus, the ACC deaminase-containing PGPR isolate Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 could be an effective bioresource for enhancing salt tolerance and growth of okra plants under salinity stress. PMID:26951880

  19. The pollen organelle membrane proteome reveals highly spatial-temporal dynamics during germination and tube growth of lily pollen.

    PubMed

    Pertl, Heidi; Schulze, Waltraud X; Obermeyer, Gerhard

    2009-11-01

    As a first step in understanding the membrane-related dynamics during pollen grain germination and subsequent tube growth, the changes in protein abundance of membrane and membrane-associated proteins of 5 different membrane/organelle fractions were studied at physiologically important stages (0, 10, 30, 60, and 240 min) of Lilium longiflorum pollen in vitro culture. Proteins of each fraction and time point were identified by 'shot-gun' proteomics (LC-MS/MS). Analysis of more than 270 identified proteins revealed an increase in the abundance of proteins involved in cytoskeleton, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, as well as ion transport before pollen grain germination (10-30 min), whereas proteins involved in membrane/protein trafficking, signal transduction, stress response and protein biosynthesis decreased in abundance during this time. Proteins of amino acids and lipids/steroids metabolism, proteolysis, transcription, cell wall biosynthesis as well as nutrient transport showed a time-independent abundance profile. These spatiotemporal patterns were confirmed by immunodetection of specific proteins of the cellular processes membrane/protein trafficking and ion transport. Our results reveal major protein rearrangements at endomembranes and the plasma membrane before and as the pollen grains start tube growth. The spatiotemporal protein abundance changes correlate with the underlying developmental and physiological processes of the germinating pollen grain. PMID:19799449

  20. An assessment of the effects of crude oil pollution on soil properties, germination and growth of maize (Zea mays) using two crude types--Forcados light and Escravos light.

    PubMed

    Ogboghodo, I A; Iruaga, E K; Osemwota, I O; Chokor, J U

    2004-01-01

    The effect of crude oil pollution on soil properties, germination and height of maize (Zea mays) was investigated under natural environment in three separate pot experiments. Two crude oil types--Forcados light and Escravos light were used. In Experiment 1, the effect of crude oil application on germination using high pollution levels of 5, 15, 25 and 40 mL kg(-1) of soil was assessed. In Experiment 2, the effect of crude oil application on maize plant height using the same pollution levels was assessed. The last experiment (Experiment 3) was used to test for the effects of crude oil application on maize plant height using lower levels of pollution (1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mL kg(-1) of soil). Soil samples were collected before, during and after the experiment and analyzed for some physical and chemical properties. Results obtained showed variation in chemical properties of soil. % organic matter increased from 1.34 to 2.62% in polluted soils. Available P decreased from 15.00 ppm in control to between 7.34 and 5.42 in soils polluted with 'high' levels of crude oil. Statistical analysis of height data showed that crude oil inhibited the growth of maize at high pollution levels. High levels of pollution also inhibited germination and for Escravos light there was no germination at 40 mL kg(-1) soil level of crude oil pollution. PMID:15327154

  1. An assessment of the effects of crude oil pollution on soil properties, germination and growth of maize (Zea mays) using two crude types--Forcados light and Escravos light.

    PubMed

    Ogboghodo, I A; Iruaga, E K; Osemwota, I O; Chokor, J U

    2004-01-01

    The effect of crude oil pollution on soil properties, germination and height of maize (Zea mays) was investigated under natural environment in three separate pot experiments. Two crude oil types--Forcados light and Escravos light were used. In Experiment 1, the effect of crude oil application on germination using high pollution levels of 5, 15, 25 and 40 mL kg(-1) of soil was assessed. In Experiment 2, the effect of crude oil application on maize plant height using the same pollution levels was assessed. The last experiment (Experiment 3) was used to test for the effects of crude oil application on maize plant height using lower levels of pollution (1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mL kg(-1) of soil). Soil samples were collected before, during and after the experiment and analyzed for some physical and chemical properties. Results obtained showed variation in chemical properties of soil. % organic matter increased from 1.34 to 2.62% in polluted soils. Available P decreased from 15.00 ppm in control to between 7.34 and 5.42 in soils polluted with 'high' levels of crude oil. Statistical analysis of height data showed that crude oil inhibited the growth of maize at high pollution levels. High levels of pollution also inhibited germination and for Escravos light there was no germination at 40 mL kg(-1) soil level of crude oil pollution.

  2. The effects of solar radiation on plant growth

    SciTech Connect

    Agard, J.

    1995-09-01

    This phase of this continuing project was completed in April, 1994, using Dahlgren No. 855 hybrid sunflower seeds and Park Seeds No. 0950 non-hybrid sunflower seeds in both the control groups and the tests groups. The control groups (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6) were grown under normal, un-radiated, conditions. The tests groups (1a, 2a, 3a, 4a, 5a, and 6a) were grown onboard the Space Shuttle Discovery on the STS-60 flight in February 1994. All data from this experiment (both control and test groups) will be taken and recorded in a data log and compared against each other to determine the radiation effects of solar radiation on plant germination and growth.

  3. The effects of solar radiation on plant growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agard, Joslyn

    1995-01-01

    This phase of this continuing project was completed in April, 1994, using Dahlgren #855 hybrid sunflower seeds and Park Seeds #0950 non-hybrid sunflower seeds in both the control groups and the tests groups. The control groups (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6) were grown under normal, un-radiated, conditions. The tests groups (1a, 2a, 3a, 4a, 5a, and 6a) were grown onboard the Space Shuttle Discovery on the STS-60 flight in February 1994. All data from this experiment (both control and test groups) will be taken and recorded in a data log and compared against each other to determine the radiation effects of solar radiation on plant germination and growth.

  4. Spiral Growth in Plants: Models and Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Bradford D.

    2004-01-01

    The analysis and simulation of spiral growth in plants integrates algebra and trigonometry in a botanical setting. When the ideas presented here are used in a mathematics classroom/computer lab, students can better understand how basic assumptions about plant growth lead to the golden ratio and how the use of circular functions leads to accurate…

  5. Allelopathic effects of weeds extracts against seed germination of some plants.

    PubMed

    Kadioglu, Izzet; Yanar, Yusuf; Asav, Unal

    2005-04-01

    This study investigated the allelopathic effects of various weeds extracts on seed germination of 11 crop species. Most of the weed extracts tested had inhibitory effects on seed germination of common bean, tomato, pepper, squash, onion, barley, wheat, and corn at different application rates as compared with the 10% acetone control. Chickpea seed germination was inhibited by extracts of Solanum nigrum L., Chenopodium album L., and Matricaria chamomilla L. (10%, 20% and 22.5%, respectively) at the end of 21 day incubation period. However, Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers., and Reseda lutea L. extracts stimulated chickpea seed germination at the rates of 95%, 94%, and 93%, respectively, compared to control. It was concluded that some of the weed extracts tested in this study could be used as inhibitor while others could be used as stimulator for the crops.

  6. Effect of Radiation on Seed Germinating Ability Ofwild-Growing and Cultivated Plants, Sources of Bioactive Substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabanov, Aleksandr; Tirranen, Lyalya; Zykova, Irina; Bondarenko, Gennadiy

    2016-07-01

    In the above-ground parts of common chickweed (Stellaria media) the content of vitamin C was experimentally quantified, which (in terms of dry matter) was 81.55 mg/100 g; 133 mg/100 g and 161.76 mg/100 g depending on the growing site. 52 components were detected in the essential oil of the above-ground parts of common chickweed (Stellaria media). Chamazulene, neophytodien and phytol are the major components of whole oil. A wide range of elements was identified in the plants and seeds of common chickweed (Stellaria media), and in the seeds of carrots, parsley and lettuce. It was established that UV irradiation (lamp with a wavelength of 254 nm and 283 nm) of chickweed seeds (Stellaria media) for 15 sec. and 100 sec. in a microbiological box on a table at a distance from the object didn't affect their germinating ability. The germinating ability of the experimental seeds was identical to the control (no irradiation) seeds. With the help of an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer Renger 2 (Germany) at a voltage of 1.6 kV during 15 sec. the effect of "soft" radiation on the seed germinating ability of chickweed, carrot, parsley and lettuce seeds was studied.Under the effect of "soft" radiation during 15 sec. all the experimental chickweed seeds sprouted, like in the control. The germinating ability of the exposed lettuce seeds was 100% after one day, while only 45% of the exposed parsley seeds grew after 21 days. The exposed carrot seeds (70%) grew after 18 days. The effect of "hard" radiation on the germinating ability of common chickweed seeds was investigated using an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer S4 Pioneer (Germany) at a voltage of 60 kV for 15 sec and 100 sec. Under the effect of "hard" radiation and during 15 seconds of exposure, where the distance (L) from the focus of the X-ray tube to the seeds of chickweed was 20 mm, the germinating ability of the experimental chickweed seeds was 30 %. At a voltage of 60 kV and 100-second exposure the germinating ability of the

  7. Effects of nanocrystalline powders (Fe, Co and Cu) on the germination, growth, crop yield and product quality of soybean (Vietnamese species DT-51)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buu Ngo, Quoc; Hien Dao, Trong; Chau Nguyen, Hoai; Tin Tran, Xuan; Van Nguyen, Tuong; Duong Khuu, Thuy; Huynh, Thi Ha

    2014-03-01

    Superdispersive iron, cobalt and copper nanocrystalline powders were synthesized in a water-ethanol medium by the reduction method using sodium borohydride as a reducing agent and carboxymethyl cellulose as a stabilizer (for Fe and Co nanoparticles). Transmission electron microscopy micrographs and x-ray diffraction analyses of the freshly prepared nanocrystalline powders indicated that they were in a zerovalent state with particle sizes ranging from 20 to 60 nm. The soybean seeds were treated with an extra low nanocrystalline dose (not more than 300 mg of each metal per hectare) and then sowed on an experimental landfill plot consisting of a farming area of 180 m2. This pre-sowing treatment of soybean seeds, which does not exert any adverse effect on the soil environment, reliably changed the biological indices of the plant growth and development. In particular, in laboratory experiments, the germination rates of soybean seeds treated with zerovalent Cu, Co and Fe were 65, 80 and 80%, respectively, whereas 55% germination was observed in the control sample; in the field experiment, for all of the nanoscale metals studied, the chlorophyll index increased by 7-15% and the number of nodules by 20-49% compared to the control sample, and the soybean crop yield increased up to 16% in comparison with the control sample.

  8. Protocol: optimising hydroponic growth systems for nutritional and physiological analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana and other plants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hydroponic growth systems are a convenient platform for studying whole plant physiology. However, we found through trialling systems as they are described in the literature that our experiments were frequently confounded by factors that affected plant growth, including algal contamination and hypoxia. We also found the way in which the plants were grown made them poorly amenable to a number of common physiological assays. Results The drivers for the development of this hydroponic system were: 1) the exclusion of light from the growth solution; 2) to simplify the handling of individual plants, and 3) the growth of the plant to allow easy implementation of multiple assays. These aims were all met by the use of pierced lids of black microcentrifuge tubes. Seed was germinated on a lid filled with an agar-containing germination media immersed in the same solution. Following germination, the liquid growth media was exchanged with the experimental solution, and after 14-21 days seedlings were transferred to larger tanks with aerated solution where they remained until experimentation. We provide details of the protocol including composition of the basal growth solution, and separate solutions with altered calcium, magnesium, potassium or sodium supply whilst maintaining the activity of the majority of other ions. We demonstrate the adaptability of this system for: gas exchange measurement on single leaves and whole plants; qRT-PCR to probe the transcriptional response of roots or shoots to altered nutrient composition in the growth solution (we demonstrate this using high and low calcium supply); producing highly competent mesophyll protoplasts; and, accelerating the screening of Arabidopsis transformants. This system is also ideal for manipulating plants for micropipette techniques such as electrophysiology or SiCSA. Conclusions We present an optimised plant hydroponic culture system that can be quickly and cheaply constructed, and produces plants with similar

  9. Improving Seed Germination and Peanut Yields by Cold Plasma Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling; Li, Jiangang; Shen, Minchong; Hou, Jinfeng; Shao, Hanliang; Dong, Yuanhua; Jiang, Jiafeng

    2016-10-01

    This study explored the effects of cold plasma treatment on seed germination, plant growth, and peanut yield. Cold plasma treatment improved germination and seedling growth, and the 120 W treatment produced the best effect. Germination potential and germination rate were markedly raised by 150% and 21%, respectively. Germination was accelerated and the uniformity of emergence improved. The apparent contact angle was decreased by 53%. Seedling shoot and root dry weights increased by 11% and 9%. Leaf area, leaf thickness, leaf nitrogen concentration, chlorophyll contents, and dry weight at the fruiting stage, together with plant height, stem diameter, and root dry weight at the mature stage were all markedly raised by the cold plasma treatment. The cold plasma treatment enhanced yield components, such as branch numbers per plant, pod numbers per plant, and 100 pod weights by 8%, 13%, and 9%, respectively, compared to the control. Furthermore, the yield improved by 10%. These results suggested that cold plasma treatment improved germination, plant growth, and yield, which might be due to the cold plasma increasing the leaf area, nitrogen concentrations, and chlorophyll contents. supported by National Key Technology Research and Development Program of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (No. 2012BAD05B04), National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41201241), “Strategic Priority Research Program” of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. XDB15030301) and Jiangsu Province Science and Technology Support Program (No. BE2013452)

  10. Spaceflight hardware for conducting plant growth experiments in space: the early years 1960-2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porterfield, D. M.; Neichitailo, G. S.; Mashinski, A. L.; Musgrave, M. E.

    2003-01-01

    The best strategy for supporting long-duration space missions is believed to be bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS). An integral part of a BLSS is a chamber supporting the growth of higher plants that would provide food, water, and atmosphere regeneration for the human crew. Such a chamber will have to be a complete plant growth system, capable of providing lighting, water, and nutrients to plants in microgravity. Other capabilities include temperature, humidity, and atmospheric gas composition controls. Many spaceflight experiments to date have utilized incomplete growth systems (typically having a hydration system but lacking lighting) to study tropic and metabolic changes in germinating seedlings and young plants. American, European, and Russian scientists have also developed a number of small complete plant growth systems for use in spaceflight research. Currently we are entering a new era of experimentation and hardware development as a result of long-term spaceflight opportunities available on the International Space Station. This is already impacting development of plant growth hardware. To take full advantage of these new opportunities and construct innovative systems, we must understand the results of past spaceflight experiments and the basic capabilities of the diverse plant growth systems that were used to conduct these experiments. The objective of this paper is to describe the most influential pieces of plant growth hardware that have been used for the purpose of conducting scientific experiments during the first 40 years of research. c2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Spaceflight hardware for conducting plant growth experiments in space: the early years 1960-2000.

    PubMed

    Porterfield, D M; Neichitailo, G S; Mashinski, A L; Musgrave, M E

    2003-01-01

    The best strategy for supporting long-duration space missions is believed to be bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS). An integral part of a BLSS is a chamber supporting the growth of higher plants that would provide food, water, and atmosphere regeneration for the human crew. Such a chamber will have to be a complete plant growth system, capable of providing lighting, water, and nutrients to plants in microgravity. Other capabilities include temperature, humidity, and atmospheric gas composition controls. Many spaceflight experiments to date have utilized incomplete growth systems (typically having a hydration system but lacking lighting) to study tropic and metabolic changes in germinating seedlings and young plants. American, European, and Russian scientists have also developed a number of small complete plant growth systems for use in spaceflight research. Currently we are entering a new era of experimentation and hardware development as a result of long-term spaceflight opportunities available on the International Space Station. This is already impacting development of plant growth hardware. To take full advantage of these new opportunities and construct innovative systems, we must understand the results of past spaceflight experiments and the basic capabilities of the diverse plant growth systems that were used to conduct these experiments. The objective of this paper is to describe the most influential pieces of plant growth hardware that have been used for the purpose of conducting scientific experiments during the first 40 years of research.

  12. Effects of properties of metal-contaminated soils on bacterial bioluminescence activity, seed germination, and root and shoot growth.

    PubMed

    Kang, Il-Mo; Kong, In Chul

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of several factors (metal contents and soil properties) on bacterial bioluminescence activity, seed germination and root/shoot growth of Lactuca in metal-contaminated soils. Each bioassay showed different sensitivities to extractants of soil samples. Average sensitivities of the bioassay were in the following order: root growth > bioluminescence ≥ shoot growth ≥ seed germination. Both total and weak acid-extracted metal contents showed no observable correlations with the activity of any bioassays (r(2) < 0.279). However, reasonable correlations were observed between the bioluminescence activity and organics (r(2) = 0.7198) as well as between root growth and CEC (r(2) = 0.6676). Effects of soils were difficult to generalize since they were dependent on many factors, such as soil properties, metal contents, and the organism used in each test. Nonetheless, these results indicated that a battery of bioassays is an effective strategy for assessment of contaminated soils. Furthermore, specific soil factors were shown to more influence on soil toxicity, depending on the type of bioassay.

  13. NaCl Effects on In Vitro Germination and Growth of Some Senegalese Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Thiam, Mahamadou; Champion, Antony; Diouf, Diaga; Ourèye Sy, Mame

    2013-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) is one of the most important grain legumes in sub-Saharian regions. It contributes to man food security by providing a protein-rich diet. However, its production is limited by abiotic stresses such as salinity. This study aims to evaluate the salt tolerance of 15 cowpea cultivars, at germination stage. The seed germination process consisted of sowing them in agarified water (8 g·L(-1)) supplemented with 6 different concentrations of NaCl (0, 10, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mM). Results highlighted that high salt concentrations drastically reduced germination and significantly delayed the process for all varieties. A cowpea varietal effect towards the salt tolerance was noticed. Genotypes Diongoma, 58-78, and 58-191 were more salt-tolerant cultivars while Mougne and Yacine were more salt-sensitive ones as confirmed in the three groups of the dendrogram. NaCl effects on the early vegetative growth of seedlings were assessed with a tolerant (58-191) and a susceptible (Yacine) cultivar. Morphological (length and dry biomass) and physiological (chlorophyll and proline contents) parameter measurements revealed a negative effect of high (NaCl). However, 58-191 was much more salt tolerant, and the chlorophyll and proline contents were higher than those of Yacine genotype at increasing salt concentrations.

  14. Germination and initial growth of Campomanesia xanthocarpa O. Berg. (Myrtaceae), in petroleum-contaminated soil and bioremediated soil.

    PubMed

    Gogosz, A M; Bona, C; Santos, G O; Botosso, P C

    2010-11-01

    In 2000 there was an oil spill at the Getúlio Vargas Refinery (REPAR) in Paraná. Nearly five years after contamination and the use of bioremediation, a study was carried out to identify the effects of the contaminated soil and the bioremediated soil on the germination and initial growth of C. xanthocarpa. The experiment was established with soil from REPAR, with three treatment groups: contaminated soil (C), bioremediated soil (B) and uncontaminated soil (U); with five repetitions of 50 seeds each. There was no significant difference in the percentage of germination and the speed of germination index. The production of total biomass (30 - 60 days) and shoot biomass (60 days) was greater in the bioremediated soil compared to the other treatments. The averages for the root biomass were lower in the contaminated soil than in the bioremediated soil. The shoot length and the total length of the seedling in the contaminated soil and uncontaminated soil were lower than in the bioremediated soil.

  15. NaCl Effects on In Vitro Germination and Growth of Some Senegalese Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Thiam, Mahamadou; Ourèye SY, Mame

    2013-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) is one of the most important grain legumes in sub-Saharian regions. It contributes to man food security by providing a protein-rich diet. However, its production is limited by abiotic stresses such as salinity. This study aims to evaluate the salt tolerance of 15 cowpea cultivars, at germination stage. The seed germination process consisted of sowing them in agarified water (8 g·L−1) supplemented with 6 different concentrations of NaCl (0, 10, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mM). Results highlighted that high salt concentrations drastically reduced germination and significantly delayed the process for all varieties. A cowpea varietal effect towards the salt tolerance was noticed. Genotypes Diongoma, 58-78, and 58-191 were more salt-tolerant cultivars while Mougne and Yacine were more salt-sensitive ones as confirmed in the three groups of the dendrogram. NaCl effects on the early vegetative growth of seedlings were assessed with a tolerant (58-191) and a susceptible (Yacine) cultivar. Morphological (length and dry biomass) and physiological (chlorophyll and proline contents) parameter measurements revealed a negative effect of high (NaCl). However, 58-191 was much more salt tolerant, and the chlorophyll and proline contents were higher than those of Yacine genotype at increasing salt concentrations. PMID:25937976

  16. Effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production: a potential source of botanical food preservative

    PubMed Central

    Gemeda, Negero; Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; Asrat, Daniel; Debella, Asfaw

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production. Method In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activity of essential oils was carried out using poisoned food techniques, spore germination assay, agar dilution assay, and aflatoxin arresting assay on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species. Results Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi) essential oils were tested against toxicogenic isolates of Aspergillus species. T. ammi oil showed highest antifungal activity. Absolute mycelial inhibition was recorded at 1 µl/mL by essential oils of T. ammi. The oil also showed, complete inhibition of spore germination at a concentration of 2 µl/mL. In addition, T. ammi oil showed significant antiaflatoxigenic potency by totally inhibiting aflatoxin production from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus at 0.5 and 0.75 µl/mL, respectively. Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and T. ammi oils as antifungal were found superior over synthetic preservative. Moreover, a concentration of 5 336.297 µl/kg body weight was recorded for LC50 on mice indicating the low mammalian toxicity and strengthening its traditional reputations. Conclusions In conclusion, the essential oils from T. ammi can be a potential source of safe natural food preservative for food commodities contamination by storage fungi. PMID:25183114

  17. Plant photomorphogenesis and canopy growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballare, Carlos L.; Scopel, Ana L.

    1994-01-01

    An important motivation for studying photomorphogenesis is to understand the relationships among plant photophysiology in canopies, canopy productivity, and agronomic yield. This understanding is essential to optimize lighting systems used for plant farming in controlled environments (CE) and for the design of genetically engineered crop strains with altered photoresponses. This article provides an overview of some basic principles of plant photomorphogenesis in canopies and discusses their implications for (1) scaling up information on plant photophysiology from individual plants in CE to whole canopies in the field, and (2) designing lighting conditions to increase plant productivity in CE used for agronomic purposes (e.g. space farming in CE Life Support Systems). We concentrate on the visible (lambda between 400 and 700 nm) and far-infrared (FR; lambda greater than 700 nm) spectral regions, since the ultraviolet (UV; 280 to 400 nm) is covered by other authors in this volume.

  18. Seed germination, root elongation, root-tip mitosis, and micronucleus induction of five crop plants exposed to chromium in fluvo-aquic soil.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jing-; Liu, Guan-Nan; Xue, Wei; Fu, Wen-Jun; Liang, Bao-Cui; Liu, Xin-Hui

    2014-03-01

    The present study aimed to determine the toxic effects of chromium (Cr) on cabbage (Brassica oleracea), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and corn (Zea mays), and identify the sensitive plant species and appropriate bioassays for potential use in phytotoxicity assessment of Cr in soil. Results showed that seed germination might not be a sensitive assay for assessing Cr toxicity because at most of the Cr levels there were no toxic effects. Root elongation was more sensitive to Cr than seed germination. The lowest concentration of adverse effect (LOAEC) of lettuce was 20 mg Cr/kg(-1) soil, and that of the other 4 species was 50 mg Cr/kg(-1) soil. The mitotic index fluctuated with increasing Cr concentration, thus it was insufficient to assess toxicity of Cr in soil. However, micronucleus assay showed that 5 mg Cr/kg(-1) soil caused a significant increase in micronucleus frequency in cabbage, cucumber, and lettuce. For wheat and corn, however, the LOAEC was 20 and 50 mg/Cr/kg(-1) soil, respectively. Furthermore, the analysis of Cr accumulation showed that lettuce significantly accumulated Cr for all the tested concentrations. However, corn and wheat significantly accumulated Cr only with the highest tested dose. This may explain the higher inhibitory effects of Cr on root growth. It can be concluded that root elongation and micronucleus assay are good indicators to assess the phytotoxicity of Cr in soil. Lettuce is the most sensitive species for indicating the toxicity of Cr in soil.

  19. Arabidopsis Cytokinin Receptor Mutants Reveal Functions in Shoot Growth, Leaf Senescence, Seed Size, Germination, Root Development, and Cytokinin MetabolismW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Riefler, Michael; Novak, Ondrej; Strnad, Miroslav; Schmülling, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    We used loss-of-function mutants to study three Arabidopsis thaliana sensor histidine kinases, AHK2, AHK3, and CRE1/AHK4, known to be cytokinin receptors. Mutant seeds had more rapid germination, reduced requirement for light, and decreased far-red light sensitivity, unraveling cytokinin functions in seed germination control. Triple mutant seeds were more than twice as large as wild-type seeds. Genetic analysis indicated a cytokinin-dependent endospermal and/or maternal control of embryo size. Unchanged red light sensitivity of mutant hypocotyl elongation suggests that previously reported modulation of red light signaling by A-type response regulators may not depend on cytokinin. Combined loss of AHK2 and AHK3 led to the most prominent changes during vegetative development. Leaves of ahk2 ahk3 mutants formed fewer cells, had reduced chlorophyll content, and lacked the cytokinin-dependent inhibition of dark-induced chlorophyll loss, indicating a prominent role of AHK2 and, particularly, AHK3 in the control of leaf development. ahk2 ahk3 double mutants developed a strongly enhanced root system through faster growth of the primary root and, more importantly, increased branching. This result supports a negative regulatory role for cytokinin in root growth regulation. Increased cytokinin content of receptor mutants indicates a homeostatic control of steady state cytokinin levels through signaling. Together, the analyses reveal partially redundant functions of the cytokinin receptors and prominent roles for the AHK2/AHK3 receptor combination in quantitative control of organ growth in plants, with opposite regulatory functions in roots and shoots. PMID:16361392

  20. Effects of various treatments on seed germination and growth of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) plays an important role in Mediterranean landscape. It is commercially propagated by grafting which requires the generation of seedlings. However, its seeds are very recalcitrant and need pretreatment for germination. In this study, carob seeds harvested from both wild a...

  1. Effects of calcium on seed germination, seedling growth and photosynthesis of six forest tree species under simulated acid rain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting-Wu; Wu, Fei-Hua; Wang, Wen-Hua; Chen, Juan; Li, Zhen-Ji; Dong, Xue-Jun; Patton, Janet; Pei, Zhen-Ming; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2011-04-01

    We selected six tree species, Pinus massoniana Lamb., Cryptomeria fortunei Hooibr. ex Otto et Dietr., Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook., Liquidambar formosana Hance, Pinus armandii Franch. and Castanopsis chinensis Hance, which are widely distributed as dominant species in the forest of southern China where acid deposition is becoming more and more serious in recent years. We investigated the effects and potential interactions between simulated acid rain (SiAR) and three calcium (Ca) levels on seed germination, radicle length, seedling growth, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis and Ca content in leaves of these six species. We found that the six species showed different responses to SiAR and different Ca levels. Pinus armandii and C. chinensis were very tolerant to SiAR, whereas the others were more sensitive. The results of significant SiAR × Ca interactions on different physiological parameters of the six species demonstrate that additional Ca had a dramatic rescue effect on the seed germination and seedling growth for the sensitive species under SiAR. Altogether, we conclude that the negative effects of SiAR on seed germination, seedling growth and photosynthesis of the four sensitive species could be ameliorated by Ca addition. In contrast, the physiological processes of the two tolerant species were much less affected by both SiAR and Ca treatments. This conclusion implies that the degree of forest decline caused by long-term acid deposition may be attributed not only to the sensitivity of tree species to acid deposition, but also to the Ca level in the soil.

  2. Effects of calcium on seed germination, seedling growth and photosynthesis of six forest tree species under simulated acid rain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting-Wu; Wu, Fei-Hua; Wang, Wen-Hua; Chen, Juan; Li, Zhen-Ji; Dong, Xue-Jun; Patton, Janet; Pei, Zhen-Ming; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2011-04-01

    We selected six tree species, Pinus massoniana Lamb., Cryptomeria fortunei Hooibr. ex Otto et Dietr., Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook., Liquidambar formosana Hance, Pinus armandii Franch. and Castanopsis chinensis Hance, which are widely distributed as dominant species in the forest of southern China where acid deposition is becoming more and more serious in recent years. We investigated the effects and potential interactions between simulated acid rain (SiAR) and three calcium (Ca) levels on seed germination, radicle length, seedling growth, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis and Ca content in leaves of these six species. We found that the six species showed different responses to SiAR and different Ca levels. Pinus armandii and C. chinensis were very tolerant to SiAR, whereas the others were more sensitive. The results of significant SiAR × Ca interactions on different physiological parameters of the six species demonstrate that additional Ca had a dramatic rescue effect on the seed germination and seedling growth for the sensitive species under SiAR. Altogether, we conclude that the negative effects of SiAR on seed germination, seedling growth and photosynthesis of the four sensitive species could be ameliorated by Ca addition. In contrast, the physiological processes of the two tolerant species were much less affected by both SiAR and Ca treatments. This conclusion implies that the degree of forest decline caused by long-term acid deposition may be attributed not only to the sensitivity of tree species to acid deposition, but also to the Ca level in the soil. PMID:21470980

  3. Effects of high voltage nanosecond pulsed plasma and micro DBD plasma on seed germination, growth development and physiological activities in spinach.

    PubMed

    Ji, Sang-Hye; Choi, Ki-Hong; Pengkit, Anchalee; Im, Jun Sup; Kim, Ju Sung; Kim, Yong Hee; Park, Yeunsoo; Hong, Eun Jeong; Jung, Sun Kyung; Choi, Eun-Ha; Park, Gyungsoon

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we analyzed seed germination, seedling growth, and physiological aspects after treatment with high voltage nanosecond pulsed plasma and micro DBD plasma in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), a green leafy vegetable known to have low germination rate. Both germination and dry weight of seedlings increased after high voltage pulse shots were applied to spinach seeds. However seeds treated with many shots (10 shots) showed a decrease in germination rate and seedling growth. Seeds treated with air DBD plasma exhibited slightly higher germination and subsequent seedling growth than those treated with N2 plasma. Seed surface was degenerated after treated with high voltage pulsed plasma and micro DBD plasma but no significant difference in the degree of degeneration was observed among micro DBD plasma treatment time. Level of GA3 hormone and mRNA expression of an amylolytic enzyme-related gene in seeds were elevated 1 day after treatment with high voltage pulsed plasma. The relative amount of chlorophyll and total polyphenols in spinach seedlings grown from seeds treated with air DBD plasma was increased in 30 s, 1 min, and 3 min treatments. Taken together, our results suggest a possibility that plasma can enhance seed germination by triggering biochemical processes in seeds. PMID:26944552

  4. Effects of high voltage nanosecond pulsed plasma and micro DBD plasma on seed germination, growth development and physiological activities in spinach.

    PubMed

    Ji, Sang-Hye; Choi, Ki-Hong; Pengkit, Anchalee; Im, Jun Sup; Kim, Ju Sung; Kim, Yong Hee; Park, Yeunsoo; Hong, Eun Jeong; Jung, Sun Kyung; Choi, Eun-Ha; Park, Gyungsoon

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we analyzed seed germination, seedling growth, and physiological aspects after treatment with high voltage nanosecond pulsed plasma and micro DBD plasma in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), a green leafy vegetable known to have low germination rate. Both germination and dry weight of seedlings increased after high voltage pulse shots were applied to spinach seeds. However seeds treated with many shots (10 shots) showed a decrease in germination rate and seedling growth. Seeds treated with air DBD plasma exhibited slightly higher germination and subsequent seedling growth than those treated with N2 plasma. Seed surface was degenerated after treated with high voltage pulsed plasma and micro DBD plasma but no significant difference in the degree of degeneration was observed among micro DBD plasma treatment time. Level of GA3 hormone and mRNA expression of an amylolytic enzyme-related gene in seeds were elevated 1 day after treatment with high voltage pulsed plasma. The relative amount of chlorophyll and total polyphenols in spinach seedlings grown from seeds treated with air DBD plasma was increased in 30 s, 1 min, and 3 min treatments. Taken together, our results suggest a possibility that plasma can enhance seed germination by triggering biochemical processes in seeds.

  5. Dry matter, lipids, and proteins of canola seeds as affected by germination and seedling growth under illuminated and dark environments.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiyan; Vasanthan, Thava; Wettasinghe, Mahinda

    2004-12-29

    The effect of germination and growth under illuminated and dark environments on canola seed reserves was investigated. Depletion of proteins and lipids in whole seedlings and their top (leaf/cotyledons) and bottom parts (stem/roots/seed coat) was independent of light, whereas the protein solubility increased at a faster rate under an illuminated environment than in the dark. A rapid increase in free fatty acids but a net decrease of dry matter content in seedlings grown in the dark environment was observed. The dry matter content of seedlings grown in the illuminated environment increased due to photosynthetic biomass accumulation.

  6. Effects of ultrasonication on increased germination and improved seedling growth of aged grass seeds of tall fescue and Russian wildrye

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Juan; Wang, Quanzhen; Karagić, Đura; Liu, Xv; Cui, Jian; Gui, Jing; Gu, Muyu; Gao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The effects of ultrasonic treatments on the germination and seedling growth of aged tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and Russian wild rye (Psathyrostaehys juncea Nevski) seeds were determined using orthogonal matrix experimental design with four ultrasonic factors. The multivariate analysis of variance detected significant differences and coupling effects of the pair-wise factors. The activities of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Peroxidase (POD) and the Malondialdehyde (MDA) content were affected. The ultrasonic treatments had positive effects on the germination percentage (GP) of the aged seeds and the growth of the seedlings (GS) and therefore we provided a basic evidence for the application of ultrasonic treatment to pretreat aged grass seeds. For the four ultrasonic factors, the optimal conditions were a sonication time of 36.7 min, a sonication temperature of 35 °C, an output power of 367 W and a seed soaking time 4.1 h after binary quadratic regressions analyses. The ultrasonic treatment has the potential to improve seedling growth. Moreover, the longevity of the tall fescue and the Russian wild rye seeds was approximately 9.5 and 11.5 years, respectively, under natural conditions of storage. The physiological mechanisms that might contribute to the improved GP and GS were discussed. PMID:26928881

  7. Re-analysis of protein data reveals the germination pathway and up accumulation mechanism of cell wall hydrolases during the radicle protrusion step of seed germination in Podophyllum hexandrum- a high altitude plant.

    PubMed

    Dogra, Vivek; Bagler, Ganesh; Sreenivasulu, Yelam

    2015-01-01

    Podophyllum hexandrum Royle is an important high-altitude plant of Himalayas with immense medicinal value. Earlier, it was reported that the cell wall hydrolases were up accumulated during radicle protrusion step of Podophyllum seed germination. In the present study, Podophyllum seed Germination protein interaction Network (PGN) was constructed by using the differentially accumulated protein (DAP) data set of Podophyllum during the radicle protrusion step of seed germination, with reference to Arabidopsis protein-protein interaction network (AtPIN). The developed PGN is comprised of a giant cluster with 1028 proteins having 10,519 interactions and a few small clusters with relevant gene ontological signatures. In this analysis, a germination pathway related cluster which is also central to the topology and information dynamics of PGN was obtained with a set of 60 key proteins. Among these, eight proteins which are known to be involved in signaling, metabolism, protein modification, cell wall modification, and cell cycle regulation processes were found commonly highlighted in both the proteomic and interactome analysis. The systems-level analysis of PGN identified the key proteins involved in radicle protrusion step of seed germination in Podophyllum.

  8. Re-analysis of protein data reveals the germination pathway and up accumulation mechanism of cell wall hydrolases during the radicle protrusion step of seed germination in Podophyllum hexandrum- a high altitude plant

    PubMed Central

    Dogra, Vivek; Bagler, Ganesh; Sreenivasulu, Yelam

    2015-01-01

    Podophyllum hexandrum Royle is an important high-altitude plant of Himalayas with immense medicinal value. Earlier, it was reported that the cell wall hydrolases were up accumulated during radicle protrusion step of Podophyllum seed germination. In the present study, Podophyllum seed Germination protein interaction Network (PGN) was constructed by using the differentially accumulated protein (DAP) data set of Podophyllum during the radicle protrusion step of seed germination, with reference to Arabidopsis protein–protein interaction network (AtPIN). The developed PGN is comprised of a giant cluster with 1028 proteins having 10,519 interactions and a few small clusters with relevant gene ontological signatures. In this analysis, a germination pathway related cluster which is also central to the topology and information dynamics of PGN was obtained with a set of 60 key proteins. Among these, eight proteins which are known to be involved in signaling, metabolism, protein modification, cell wall modification, and cell cycle regulation processes were found commonly highlighted in both the proteomic and interactome analysis. The systems-level analysis of PGN identified the key proteins involved in radicle protrusion step of seed germination in Podophyllum. PMID:26579141

  9. Ethylene reduces plant gas exchange and growth of lettuce grown from seed to harvest under hypobaric and ambient total pressure.

    PubMed

    He, Chuanjiu; Davies, Fred T

    2012-03-01

    Naturally occurring high levels of ethylene can be a problem in spaceflight and controlled environment agriculture (CEA) leading to sterility and irregular plant growth. There are engineering and safety advantages of growing plants under hypobaria (low pressure) for space habitation. The goals of this research were to successfully grow lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. Buttercrunch) in a long-term study from seed to harvest under hypobaric conditions, and to investigate how endogenously produced ethylene affects gas exchange and plant growth from seed germination to harvest under hypobaric and ambient total pressure conditions. Lettuce was grown under two levels of total gas pressure [hypobaric or ambient (25 or 101 kPa)] in a long-term, 32-day study. Significant levels of endogenous ethylene occurred by day-15 causing reductions in photosynthesis, dark-period respiration, and a subsequent decrease in plant growth. Hypobaria did not mitigate the adverse ethylene effects on plant growth. Seed germination was not adversely affected by hypobaria, but was reduced by hypoxia (6 kPa pO(2)). Under hypoxia, seed germination was higher under hypobaria than ambient total pressure. This research shows that lettuce can be grown from seed to harvest under hypobaria (≅25% of normal earth ambient total pressure).

  10. Sealed Plant-Growth Chamber For Clinostat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Christopher S.; Dreschel, Thomas W.

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory chamber for growing plants used to measure photosynthesis and respiration in simulated microgravity. Holds plant specimens while rotated on clinostat, see article, "Clinostat Delivers Power To Plant-Growth Cabinets" (KSC-11537). Provides way of comparing gas-exchange rates of plants rotated horizontally on clinostat with those of stationary or vertically rotated plants. Gas extracted for analysis without stopping clinostat. Chamber includes potlike base and cylindrical cover, both made of transparent acrylic pipe. Gasket forms seal between cover and bottom plate of base. Cover bolted to pot baseplate, which in turn bolted to clinostat.

  11. Bacterial inoculants for enhanced seed germination of Spartina densiflora: Implications for restoration of metal polluted areas.

    PubMed

    Paredes-Páliz, Karina I; Pajuelo, Eloísa; Doukkali, Bouchra; Caviedes, Miguel Ángel; Rodríguez-Llorente, Ignacio D; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique

    2016-09-15

    The design of effective phytoremediation programs is severely hindered by poor seed germination on metal polluted soils. The possibility that inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) could help overcoming this problem is hypothesized. Our aim was investigating the role of PGPR in Spartina densiflora seed germination on sediments with different physicochemical characteristics and metal pollution degrees. Gram negative Pantoea agglomerans RSO6 and RSO7, and gram positive Bacillus aryabhattai RSO25, together with the consortium of the three strains, were used for independent inoculation experiments. The presence of metals (As, Cu, Pb and Zn) in sediments reduced seed germination by 80%. Inoculation with Bacillus aryabhattai RSO25 or Pantoea agglomerans RSO6 and RSO7 enhanced up to 2.5 fold the germination rate of S. densiflora in polluted sediments regarding non-inoculated controls. Moreover, the germination process was accelerated and the germination period was extended. The consortium did not achieve further improvements in seed germination.

  12. Germin-like protein 2 gene promoter from rice is responsive to fungal pathogens in transgenic potato plants.

    PubMed

    Munir, Faiza; Hayashi, Satomi; Batley, Jacqueline; Naqvi, Syed Muhammad Saqlan; Mahmood, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    Controlled transgene expression via a promoter is particularly triggered in response to pathogen infiltration. This is significant for eliciting disease-resistant features in crops through genetic engineering. The germins and germin-like proteins (GLPs) are known to be associated with plant and developmental stages. The 1107-bp Oryza sativa root GLP2 (OsRGLP2) gene promoter fused to a β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene was transformed into potato plants through an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The OsRGLP2 promoter was activated in response to Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc. and Alternaria solani Sorauer. Quantitative real-time PCR results revealed 4-5-fold increase in promoter activity every 24 h following infection. There was a 15-fold increase in OsRGLP2 promoter activity after 72 h of F. solani (Mart.) Sacc. treatment and a 12-fold increase observed with A. solani Sorauer. Our results confirmed that the OsRGLP2 promoter activity was enhanced under fungal stress. Furthermore, a hyperaccumulation of H2O2 in transgenic plants is a clear signal for the involvement of OsRGLP2 promoter region in the activation of specific genes in the potato genome involved in H2O2-mediated defense response. The OsRGLP2 promoter evidently harbors copies of GT-I and Dof transcription factors (AAAG) that act in response to elicitors generated in the wake of pathogen infection. PMID:26277722

  13. Germin-like protein 2 gene promoter from rice is responsive to fungal pathogens in transgenic potato plants.

    PubMed

    Munir, Faiza; Hayashi, Satomi; Batley, Jacqueline; Naqvi, Syed Muhammad Saqlan; Mahmood, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    Controlled transgene expression via a promoter is particularly triggered in response to pathogen infiltration. This is significant for eliciting disease-resistant features in crops through genetic engineering. The germins and germin-like proteins (GLPs) are known to be associated with plant and developmental stages. The 1107-bp Oryza sativa root GLP2 (OsRGLP2) gene promoter fused to a β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene was transformed into potato plants through an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The OsRGLP2 promoter was activated in response to Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc. and Alternaria solani Sorauer. Quantitative real-time PCR results revealed 4-5-fold increase in promoter activity every 24 h following infection. There was a 15-fold increase in OsRGLP2 promoter activity after 72 h of F. solani (Mart.) Sacc. treatment and a 12-fold increase observed with A. solani Sorauer. Our results confirmed that the OsRGLP2 promoter activity was enhanced under fungal stress. Furthermore, a hyperaccumulation of H2O2 in transgenic plants is a clear signal for the involvement of OsRGLP2 promoter region in the activation of specific genes in the potato genome involved in H2O2-mediated defense response. The OsRGLP2 promoter evidently harbors copies of GT-I and Dof transcription factors (AAAG) that act in response to elicitors generated in the wake of pathogen infection.

  14. Pollution level in distillery effluent and its phytotoxic effect on seed germination and early growth of maize and rice.

    PubMed

    Pandey, S N; Nautiyal, B D; Sharma, C P

    2008-03-01

    The effluent from a Lucknow- based distillery (Mohan Meakin Distillery) was analyzed for physico-chemical and biological parameters of pollution and concentration of potentially toxic heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni and Zn) and the effect of the distillery effluent, as such and on 50% dilution with tap water was studied on seed germination and seedling growth of maize (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.). The effluent was wine red in colour and highly acidic (pH approximately 55) and possessed decaying alcoholic smell. The effluent contained high values of different pollution parameters, particularly total solids, 3450 mgl(-1) (soluble plus suspended solids), alkalinity 1500 mgl(-1), biological oxygen demand (BOD, 1649 mgl(-1)) and chemical oxygen demand (COD, 2036 mgl(-1)). It had very low values of dissolved oxygen (DO, 0.34 mgl(-1)). The heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni and Zn) content, particularly the nickel concentration (0.029 mg l(-1)) was high. Use of the distillery effluent, even on 1:1 dilution with tap water inhibited germination and early seedling growth of maize and rice. In both maize and rice, more so in the former germination % of seeds, length of radicle and plumule and the fresh and dry weight of the seedlings were significantly reduced. The emerging leaves of the seedlings also developed visible effects of toxicity some of which resembled the symptoms of nickel toxicity. Our observations suggest that the effluent, as discharged from the distillery carry a heavy load of pollutants. Its discharge into the river Gomti poses a potential threat to the aquatic life, perticularly during the summer months when the water flow in the river is drastically reduced. The distillery effluentis also harmful for irrigating crops grown along the drain carrying it.

  15. Pollution level in distillery effluent and its phytotoxic effect on seed germination and early growth of maize and rice.

    PubMed

    Pandey, S N; Nautiyal, B D; Sharma, C P

    2008-03-01

    The effluent from a Lucknow- based distillery (Mohan Meakin Distillery) was analyzed for physico-chemical and biological parameters of pollution and concentration of potentially toxic heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni and Zn) and the effect of the distillery effluent, as such and on 50% dilution with tap water was studied on seed germination and seedling growth of maize (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.). The effluent was wine red in colour and highly acidic (pH approximately 55) and possessed decaying alcoholic smell. The effluent contained high values of different pollution parameters, particularly total solids, 3450 mgl(-1) (soluble plus suspended solids), alkalinity 1500 mgl(-1), biological oxygen demand (BOD, 1649 mgl(-1)) and chemical oxygen demand (COD, 2036 mgl(-1)). It had very low values of dissolved oxygen (DO, 0.34 mgl(-1)). The heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni and Zn) content, particularly the nickel concentration (0.029 mg l(-1)) was high. Use of the distillery effluent, even on 1:1 dilution with tap water inhibited germination and early seedling growth of maize and rice. In both maize and rice, more so in the former germination % of seeds, length of radicle and plumule and the fresh and dry weight of the seedlings were significantly reduced. The emerging leaves of the seedlings also developed visible effects of toxicity some of which resembled the symptoms of nickel toxicity. Our observations suggest that the effluent, as discharged from the distillery carry a heavy load of pollutants. Its discharge into the river Gomti poses a potential threat to the aquatic life, perticularly during the summer months when the water flow in the river is drastically reduced. The distillery effluentis also harmful for irrigating crops grown along the drain carrying it. PMID:18831388

  16. Seed Germination in Chenopodium album L: Relationships between Nitrate and the Effects of Plant Hormones.

    PubMed

    Saini, H S; Bassi, P K; Spencer, M S

    1985-04-01

    Effects of ethylene, gibberellins, and kinetin on the germination of two lots of Chenopodium album L. seeds, collected from the field in 1982 and 1983, were studied in relation to the availability of nitrate. The experiments were conducted in darkness and at temperatures ranging from 12 to 32 degrees C. Ethylene induced over 75% germination in the 1983 seed but had little effect on the 1982 seed. Nitrate was only slightly promotive in either of the two seed lots. A combination of ethylene and nitrate, however, acted synergistically on 1982 seed, resulting in as much germination as that induced in 1983 seed by ethylene alone. In 1983 seed, a combination of ethylene and nitrate was only marginally more effective than ethylene. A similar relationship was observed in the effects of gibberellic acid(4+7) (GA(4+7)) and nitrate on seeds from the two lots. The 1982 seed, which responded synergistically to combinations of nitrate with ethylene or GA(4+7) was found to contain an extremely low endogenous level of nitrate as compared to 1983 seed. Thus, high levels of either endogenous or applied nitrate appeared to enhance the germination response to ethylene or GA(4+7).Kinetin had no effect on 1982 seed and only a small promotive effect on 1983 seed. There was no synergism between kinetin and nitrate in either of the seed lots.

  17. Field emergence and plant density of sand bluestem lines selected for increased seed germination.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sand bluestem (Andropogon hallii Hack.) populations AB-medium Syn-1 and Syn-2, and CD-tall Syn-1 and Syn-2 were developed from populations AB-medium Syn-0 and CD-tall Syn-0 by recurrent selection for increased seed germination in low water potentials. The objective of this research was to verify if...

  18. Rotary plant growth accelerating apparatus. [weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dedolph, R. D. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    Rotary plant growth accelerating apparatus for increasing plant yields by effectively removing the growing plants from the constraints of gravity and increasing the plant yield per unit of space is described. The apparatus is comprised of cylindrical plant beds supported radially removed from a primary axis of rotation, with each plant bed being driven about its own secondary axis of rotation and simultaneously moved in a planetary path about the primary axis of rotation. Each plant bed is formed by an apertured outer cylinder, a perforated inner cylinder positioned coaxially, and rooting media disposed in the space between. A rotatable manifold distributes liquid nutrients and water to the rooting media through the perforations in the inner cylinders as the plant beds are continuously rotated by suitable drive means.

  19. Plant germination and production of callus from the yellow hornpoppy (Glaucium flavum): the first stage of micropropagation.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, M E; Arafa, A M; Soliman, S S; Eldahmy, S I

    2014-09-01

    The yellow hornpoppy, Glaucium flavum Cr. (Fam. Papaveraceae) is a perennial herb, distributed in the Mediterranean region, including Egypt. The plant contains many benzyl isoquinoline alkaloids from the aporphine type such as glaucine, isoboldine, 1-chelidonine, 1-norchelidonine and 3-O-methylarterenol, making it to display various medicinal activities including antitussive, anticancer, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral, hypoglycemic, analgesic, antipyretic, bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory effects. The plant is now rare and endangered in the Egyptian flora due to urban sprawl. The present study looks into Glaucium flavum seeds' in vitro germination as well as the ability of the explants taken from the growing seedlings to form stable callus lines in order to enable micropropagation as a way to save the rare plant. The study also scans the production of different medicinally valuable alkaloids, particularly glaucine, in produced callus.

  20. Plant germination and production of callus from the yellow hornpoppy (Glaucium flavum): the first stage of micropropagation.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, M E; Arafa, A M; Soliman, S S; Eldahmy, S I

    2014-09-01

    The yellow hornpoppy, Glaucium flavum Cr. (Fam. Papaveraceae) is a perennial herb, distributed in the Mediterranean region, including Egypt. The plant contains many benzyl isoquinoline alkaloids from the aporphine type such as glaucine, isoboldine, 1-chelidonine, 1-norchelidonine and 3-O-methylarterenol, making it to display various medicinal activities including antitussive, anticancer, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral, hypoglycemic, analgesic, antipyretic, bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory effects. The plant is now rare and endangered in the Egyptian flora due to urban sprawl. The present study looks into Glaucium flavum seeds' in vitro germination as well as the ability of the explants taken from the growing seedlings to form stable callus lines in order to enable micropropagation as a way to save the rare plant. The study also scans the production of different medicinally valuable alkaloids, particularly glaucine, in produced callus. PMID:25272947

  1. Effect of microgravity on plant growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Norman G.

    1994-01-01

    The overall goal of this research is to determine the effect of microgravity proper on plant growth (metabolism and cell wall formation). In addressing this goal, the work conducted during this grant period was divided into three components: analyses of various plant tissues previously grown in space aboard MIR Space Station; analyses of wheat tissues grown on Shuttle flight STS-51; and Phenylpropanoid metabolism and plant cell wall synthesis (earth-based investigations).

  2. Plant Growth Module (PGM) conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzkopf, Steven H.; Rasmussen, Daryl

    1987-01-01

    The Plant Growth Module for the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS), designed to answer basic science questions related to growing plants in closed systems, is described functionally with artist's conception drawings. Subsystems are also described, including enclosure and access; data acquisition and control; gas monitor and control; heating, ventilation, and air conditioning; air delivery; nutrient monitor and control; microbial monitoring and control; plant support and nutrient delivery; illumination; and internal operations. The hardware development plan is outlined.

  3. Carbohydrate Level and Growth of Tomato Plants

    PubMed Central

    Gent, Martin P. N.

    1984-01-01

    To what extent can the influence of environment on greenhouse tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) be explained by a linear response of the growth rate to carbohydrate level? To answer this question, young tomato plants were transplanted in January and March and grown for one-month periods under natural light either with or without CO2 enrichment to 1000 microliters per liter and either under a constant minimum temperature of 15°C or a minimum temperature that fluctuated between 20°C for 12 hours including the photoperiod and 10°C for the remaining 12 hours. The carbohydrate levels were measured for plants under all growth conditions at several times in the diurnal cycle. At the average irradiance in January, 2.3 megajoules per square meter per day, plants under CO2 enrichment grew 15% faster and had, on average, total nonstructural carbohydrate levels 27 milligrams per gram greater and soluble carbohydrates 3 milligrams per gram greater at all hours of the day than did plants grown under ambient CO2. Plants grown under fluctuating diurnal temperature grew slightly faster and had total nonstructural carbohydrate levels on average 8 milligrams per gram greater than plants grown under a more constant temperature. At the average irradiance in March-April, 4.3 megajoules per square meter per day, growth and carbohydrate level increased with CO2 enrichment under the control temperature regime but not under fluctuating temperatures. Plants in all growth regimens grew faster than in January. Over all plantings and growth regimens, relative growth rates were more highly correlated to total nonstructural carbohydrate levels than they were to irradiance, CO2, or temperature. PMID:16663908

  4. Plant Growth Promotion Activity of Keratinolytic Fungi Growing on a Recalcitrant Waste Known as "Hair Waste".

    PubMed

    Cavello, Ivana A; Crespo, Juan M; García, Sabrina S; Zapiola, José M; Luna, María F; Cavalitto, Sebastián F

    2015-01-01

    Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thom) Samsom is one of the most studied fungi in the control of plant parasitic nematodes. However, there is not specific information on its ability to inhibit some pathogenic bacteria, fungi, or yeast. This work reports the production of several antifungal hydrolytic enzymes by a strain of P. lilacinum when it is grown in a medium containing hair waste. The growth of several plant-pathogenic fungi, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium culmorum, was considerably affected by the presence of P. lilacinum's supernatant. Besides antifungal activity, P. lilacinum demonstrates the capability to produce indoleacetic acid and ammonia during time cultivation on hair waste medium. Plant growth-promoting activity by cell-free supernatant was evidenced through the increase of the percentage of tomato seed germination from 71 to 85% after 48 hours. A 21-day plant growth assay using tomato plants indicates that crude supernatant promotes the growth of the plants similar to a reference fertilizer (p > 0.05). These results suggest that both strain and the supernatant may have potential to be considered as a potent biocontrol agent with multiple plant growth-promoting properties. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the antifungal, IAA production and tomato growth enhancing compounds produced by P. lilacinum LPSC #876.

  5. Plant Growth Promotion Activity of Keratinolytic Fungi Growing on a Recalcitrant Waste Known as "Hair Waste".

    PubMed

    Cavello, Ivana A; Crespo, Juan M; García, Sabrina S; Zapiola, José M; Luna, María F; Cavalitto, Sebastián F

    2015-01-01

    Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thom) Samsom is one of the most studied fungi in the control of plant parasitic nematodes. However, there is not specific information on its ability to inhibit some pathogenic bacteria, fungi, or yeast. This work reports the production of several antifungal hydrolytic enzymes by a strain of P. lilacinum when it is grown in a medium containing hair waste. The growth of several plant-pathogenic fungi, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium culmorum, was considerably affected by the presence of P. lilacinum's supernatant. Besides antifungal activity, P. lilacinum demonstrates the capability to produce indoleacetic acid and ammonia during time cultivation on hair waste medium. Plant growth-promoting activity by cell-free supernatant was evidenced through the increase of the percentage of tomato seed germination from 71 to 85% after 48 hours. A 21-day plant growth assay using tomato plants indicates that crude supernatant promotes the growth of the plants similar to a reference fertilizer (p > 0.05). These results suggest that both strain and the supernatant may have potential to be considered as a potent biocontrol agent with multiple plant growth-promoting properties. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the antifungal, IAA production and tomato growth enhancing compounds produced by P. lilacinum LPSC #876. PMID:26697226

  6. Arabidopsis Synaptotagmin 2 Participates in Pollen Germination and Tube Growth and Is Delivered to Plasma Membrane via Conventional Secretion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Han, Shengcheng; Siao, Wei; Song, Chunqing; Xiang, Yun; Wu, Xiaorong; Cheng, Pengyu; Li, Hongjuan; Jásik, Ján; Mičieta, Karol; Turňa, Ján; Voigt, Boris; Baluška, František; Liu, Jin; Wang, Yingdian; Zhao, Heping

    2015-12-01

    Arabidopsis synaptotagmin 2 (SYT2) has been reported to participate in an unconventional secretory pathway in somatic cells. Our results showed that SYT2 was expressed mainly in the pollen of Arabidopsis thaliana. The pollen of syt2 T-DNA and RNA interference mutant lines exhibited reduced total germination and impeded pollen tube growth. Analysis of the expression of SYT2-GFP fusion protein in the pollen tube indicates that SYT2 was localized to distinct, patchy compartments but could co-localize with the Golgi markers, BODIPY TR C5 ceramide and GmMan1-mCherry. However, SYT2-DsRed-E5 was localized to the plasma membrane in Arabidopsis suspension cells, in addition to the Golgi apparatus. The localization of SYT2 at the plasma membrane was further supported by immunofluorescence staining in pollen tubes. Moreover, brefeldin A treatment inhibited the transport of SYT2 to the plasma membrane and caused SYT2 to aggregate and form enlarged compartments. Truncation of the SYT2-C2AB domains also resulted in retention of SYT2 in the Golgi apparatus. An in vitro phospholipid-binding assay showed that SYT2-C2AB domains bind to the phospholipid membrane in a calcium-dependent manner. Take together, our results indicated that SYT2 was required for pollen germination and pollen tube growth, and was involved in conventional exocytosis.

  7. Characterization of seed germination, seedling growth, and associated metabolic responses of Brassica juncea L. cultivars to elevated nickel concentrations.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Sveta; Sharma, Shanti S

    2016-03-01

    Seed germination and seedling growth responses of three Brassica juncea L. cultivars, namely Varuna, Kranti, and Pusa Jai Kisan, to nickel have been characterized. Ni suppressed the seed germination differentially, suppression being greater in cv. Kranti than in others. On the basis of seedling growth performance, cv. Varuna proved most tolerant to Ni. The Ni accumulation in seedlings differed strongly among the three cultivars. The lowest and highest Ni contents were observed in the seedlings of cvs. Kranti and Pusa Jai Kisan, respectively. Despite substantial Ni accumulation, cv. Varuna was most tolerant to Ni. Ni accumulation in seedlings was accompanied by differentially altered Fe and K contents and increased levels of non-protein thiols and free proline. The O2- and H2O2 contents and their respective scavenging enzymes in the seedlings responded differentially to the Ni treatment suggesting the involvement of redox imbalance in the development of Ni toxicity. Interestingly, the greater Ni tolerance of cv. Varuna coincided with the elevated constitutive activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). The data have implications for seedling establishment under Ni-rich conditions and in turn for phytoremediation. PMID:26025262

  8. Characterization of seed germination, seedling growth, and associated metabolic responses of Brassica juncea L. cultivars to elevated nickel concentrations.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Sveta; Sharma, Shanti S

    2016-03-01

    Seed germination and seedling growth responses of three Brassica juncea L. cultivars, namely Varuna, Kranti, and Pusa Jai Kisan, to nickel have been characterized. Ni suppressed the seed germination differentially, suppression being greater in cv. Kranti than in others. On the basis of seedling growth performance, cv. Varuna proved most tolerant to Ni. The Ni accumulation in seedlings differed strongly among the three cultivars. The lowest and highest Ni contents were observed in the seedlings of cvs. Kranti and Pusa Jai Kisan, respectively. Despite substantial Ni accumulation, cv. Varuna was most tolerant to Ni. Ni accumulation in seedlings was accompanied by differentially altered Fe and K contents and increased levels of non-protein thiols and free proline. The O2- and H2O2 contents and their respective scavenging enzymes in the seedlings responded differentially to the Ni treatment suggesting the involvement of redox imbalance in the development of Ni toxicity. Interestingly, the greater Ni tolerance of cv. Varuna coincided with the elevated constitutive activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). The data have implications for seedling establishment under Ni-rich conditions and in turn for phytoremediation.

  9. Effects of Atmospheric-Pressure N2, He, Air, and O2 Microplasmas on Mung Bean Seed Germination and Seedling Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Renwu; Zhou, Rusen; Zhang, Xianhui; Zhuang, Jinxing; Yang, Size; Bazaka, Kateryna; (Ken) Ostrikov, Kostya

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric-pressure N2, He, air, and O2 microplasma arrays have been used to investigate the effects of plasma treatment on seed germination and seedling growth of mung bean in aqueous solution. Seed germination and growth of mung bean were found to strongly depend on the feed gases used to generate plasma and plasma treatment time. Compared to the treatment with atmospheric-pressure O2, N2 and He microplasma arrays, treatment with air microplasma arrays was shown to be more efficient in improving both the seed germination rate and seedling growth, the effect attributed to solution acidification and interactions with plasma-generated reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Acidic environment caused by air discharge in water may promote leathering of seed chaps, thus enhancing the germination rate of mung bean, and stimulating the growth of hypocotyl and radicle. The interactions between plasma-generated reactive species, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitrogen compounds, and seeds led to a significant acceleration of seed germination and an increase in seedling length of mung bean. Electrolyte leakage rate of mung bean seeds soaked in solution activated using air microplasma was the lowest, while the catalase activity of thus-treated mung bean seeds was the highest compared to other types of microplasma.

  10. Effects of Atmospheric-Pressure N2, He, Air, and O2 Microplasmas on Mung Bean Seed Germination and Seedling Growth

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Renwu; Zhou, Rusen; Zhang, Xianhui; Zhuang, Jinxing; Yang, Size; Bazaka, Kateryna; (Ken) Ostrikov, Kostya

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric-pressure N2, He, air, and O2 microplasma arrays have been used to investigate the effects of plasma treatment on seed germination and seedling growth of mung bean in aqueous solution. Seed germination and growth of mung bean were found to strongly depend on the feed gases used to generate plasma and plasma treatment time. Compared to the treatment with atmospheric-pressure O2, N2 and He microplasma arrays, treatment with air microplasma arrays was shown to be more efficient in improving both the seed germination rate and seedling growth, the effect attributed to solution acidification and interactions with plasma-generated reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Acidic environment caused by air discharge in water may promote leathering of seed chaps, thus enhancing the germination rate of mung bean, and stimulating the growth of hypocotyl and radicle. The interactions between plasma-generated reactive species, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitrogen compounds, and seeds led to a significant acceleration of seed germination and an increase in seedling length of mung bean. Electrolyte leakage rate of mung bean seeds soaked in solution activated using air microplasma was the lowest, while the catalase activity of thus-treated mung bean seeds was the highest compared to other types of microplasma. PMID:27584560

  11. Effects of Atmospheric-Pressure N2, He, Air, and O2 Microplasmas on Mung Bean Seed Germination and Seedling Growth.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Renwu; Zhou, Rusen; Zhang, Xianhui; Zhuang, Jinxing; Yang, Size; Bazaka, Kateryna; Ken Ostrikov, Kostya

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric-pressure N2, He, air, and O2 microplasma arrays have been used to investigate the effects of plasma treatment on seed germination and seedling growth of mung bean in aqueous solution. Seed germination and growth of mung bean were found to strongly depend on the feed gases used to generate plasma and plasma treatment time. Compared to the treatment with atmospheric-pressure O2, N2 and He microplasma arrays, treatment with air microplasma arrays was shown to be more efficient in improving both the seed germination rate and seedling growth, the effect attributed to solution acidification and interactions with plasma-generated reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Acidic environment caused by air discharge in water may promote leathering of seed chaps, thus enhancing the germination rate of mung bean, and stimulating the growth of hypocotyl and radicle. The interactions between plasma-generated reactive species, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitrogen compounds, and seeds led to a significant acceleration of seed germination and an increase in seedling length of mung bean. Electrolyte leakage rate of mung bean seeds soaked in solution activated using air microplasma was the lowest, while the catalase activity of thus-treated mung bean seeds was the highest compared to other types of microplasma.

  12. Effects of Atmospheric-Pressure N2, He, Air, and O2 Microplasmas on Mung Bean Seed Germination and Seedling Growth.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Renwu; Zhou, Rusen; Zhang, Xianhui; Zhuang, Jinxing; Yang, Size; Bazaka, Kateryna; Ken Ostrikov, Kostya

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric-pressure N2, He, air, and O2 microplasma arrays have been used to investigate the effects of plasma treatment on seed germination and seedling growth of mung bean in aqueous solution. Seed germination and growth of mung bean were found to strongly depend on the feed gases used to generate plasma and plasma treatment time. Compared to the treatment with atmospheric-pressure O2, N2 and He microplasma arrays, treatment with air microplasma arrays was shown to be more efficient in improving both the seed germination rate and seedling growth, the effect attributed to solution acidification and interactions with plasma-generated reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Acidic environment caused by air discharge in water may promote leathering of seed chaps, thus enhancing the germination rate of mung bean, and stimulating the growth of hypocotyl and radicle. The interactions between plasma-generated reactive species, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitrogen compounds, and seeds led to a significant acceleration of seed germination and an increase in seedling length of mung bean. Electrolyte leakage rate of mung bean seeds soaked in solution activated using air microplasma was the lowest, while the catalase activity of thus-treated mung bean seeds was the highest compared to other types of microplasma. PMID:27584560

  13. Oxygen dependency of germinating Brassica seeds.

    PubMed

    Park, Myoung Ryoul; Hasenstein, Karl H

    2016-02-01

    Establishing plants in space, Moon or Mars requires adaptation to altered conditions, including reduced pressure and composition of atmospheres. To determine the oxygen requirements for seed germination, we imbibed Brassica rapa seeds under varying oxygen concentrations and profiled the transcription patterns of genes related to early metabolism such as starch degradation, glycolysis, and fermentation. We also analyzed the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and measured starch degradation. Partial oxygen pressure (pO2) greater than 10% resulted in normal germination (i.e., protrusion of radicle about 18 hours after imbibition) but lower pO2 delayed and reduced germination. Imbibition in an oxygen-free atmosphere for three days resulted in no germination but subsequent transfer to air initiated germination in 75% of the seeds and the root growth rate was transiently greater than in roots germinated under ambient pO2. In hypoxic seeds soluble sugars degraded faster but the content of starch after 24 h was higher than at ambient oxygen. Transcription of genes related to starch degradation, α-amylase (AMY) and Sucrose Synthase (SUS), was higher under ambient O2 than under hypoxia. Glycolysis and fermentation pathway-related genes, glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), 6-phosphofructokinase (PFK), fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (ALD), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), LDH, and ADH, were induced by low pO2. The activity of LDH and ADH was the highest in anoxic seeds. Germination under low O2 conditions initiated ethanolic fermentation. Therefore, sufficient oxygen availability is important for germination before photosynthesis provides necessary oxygen and the determination of an oxygen carrying capacity is important for uniform growth in space conditions.

  14. Oxygen dependency of germinating Brassica seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Myoung Ryoul; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2016-02-01

    Establishing plants in space, Moon or Mars requires adaptation to altered conditions, including reduced pressure and composition of atmospheres. To determine the oxygen requirements for seed germination, we imbibed Brassica rapa seeds under varying oxygen concentrations and profiled the transcription patterns of genes related to early metabolism such as starch degradation, glycolysis, and fermentation. We also analyzed the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and measured starch degradation. Partial oxygen pressure (pO2) greater than 10% resulted in normal germination (i.e., protrusion of radicle about 18 hours after imbibition) but lower pO2 delayed and reduced germination. Imbibition in an oxygen-free atmosphere for three days resulted in no germination but subsequent transfer to air initiated germination in 75% of the seeds and the root growth rate was transiently greater than in roots germinated under ambient pO2. In hypoxic seeds soluble sugars degraded faster but the content of starch after 24 h was higher than at ambient oxygen. Transcription of genes related to starch degradation, α-amylase (AMY) and Sucrose Synthase (SUS), was higher under ambient O2 than under hypoxia. Glycolysis and fermentation pathway-related genes, glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), 6-phosphofructokinase (PFK), fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (ALD), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), LDH, and ADH, were induced by low pO2. The activity of LDH and ADH was the highest in anoxic seeds. Germination under low O2 conditions initiated ethanolic fermentation. Therefore, sufficient oxygen availability is important for germination before photosynthesis provides necessary oxygen and the determination of an oxygen carrying capacity is important for uniform growth in space conditions.

  15. Oxygen dependency of germinating Brassica seeds.

    PubMed

    Park, Myoung Ryoul; Hasenstein, Karl H

    2016-02-01

    Establishing plants in space, Moon or Mars requires adaptation to altered conditions, including reduced pressure and composition of atmospheres. To determine the oxygen requirements for seed germination, we imbibed Brassica rapa seeds under varying oxygen concentrations and profiled the transcription patterns of genes related to early metabolism such as starch degradation, glycolysis, and fermentation. We also analyzed the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and measured starch degradation. Partial oxygen pressure (pO2) greater than 10% resulted in normal germination (i.e., protrusion of radicle about 18 hours after imbibition) but lower pO2 delayed and reduced germination. Imbibition in an oxygen-free atmosphere for three days resulted in no germination but subsequent transfer to air initiated germination in 75% of the seeds and the root growth rate was transiently greater than in roots germinated under ambient pO2. In hypoxic seeds soluble sugars degraded faster but the content of starch after 24 h was higher than at ambient oxygen. Transcription of genes related to starch degradation, α-amylase (AMY) and Sucrose Synthase (SUS), was higher under ambient O2 than under hypoxia. Glycolysis and fermentation pathway-related genes, glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), 6-phosphofructokinase (PFK), fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (ALD), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), LDH, and ADH, were induced by low pO2. The activity of LDH and ADH was the highest in anoxic seeds. Germination under low O2 conditions initiated ethanolic fermentation. Therefore, sufficient oxygen availability is important for germination before photosynthesis provides necessary oxygen and the determination of an oxygen carrying capacity is important for uniform growth in space conditions. PMID:26948011

  16. Effects of seven pure flavonoids from mosses on germination and growth of Tortula muralis HEDW (Bryophyta) and Raphanus sativus L (Magnoliophyta).

    PubMed

    Basile, Adriana; Sorbo, Sergio; López-Sáez, José Antonio; Castaldo Cobianchi, Rosa

    2003-04-01

    Dried mosses (five moss species) were progressively extracted and subjected to a four-step Craig distribution. Seven pure flavonoids were isolated and identified. The flavonoids were the flavones apigenin, apigenin-7-O-triglycoside, lucenin-2, luteolin-7-O-neohesperidoside, saponarine and vitexin; and the biflavonoid bartramiaflavone and they were submitted to biological tests. The tests were performed in vitro on spore germination and protonemal growth of the moss Tortula muralis and on seed germination and root growth of Raphanus sativus. Flavonoids caused a decrease in the percentage of spore germination, protonemal development and root growth. In addition they caused morphological alterations, such as forked tips, swollen apices, rounded cells and early formation of brood cells in the protonemata. Data were discussed in relation to the presence of allelochemicals in mosses.

  17. Vermicompost derived from different feedstocks as a plant growth medium.

    PubMed

    Warman, P R; Anglopez, M J

    2010-06-01

    This study determined feedstock effects on earthworm populations and the quality of resulting vermicomposts produced from different types of feedstocks using different vermicomposting durations. Feedstock combinations (Kitchen Paper Waste (KPW), Kitchen Yard Waste (KYW), Cattle Manure Yard Waste (CMY)), three durations of vermicomposting (45, 68 or 90 days), and two seed germination methods (with two concentrations of vermicompost) for radish, marigold and upland cress, served as the independent variables. The worms (Eisenia fetida) doubled their weight by day 68 in KPW and CMY vermicomposts and day 90 KPW vermicompost produced the greatest weight of worms. The direct seed germination method (seeding into soil or vermicompost-soil mixtures) indicated that KPW and KYW feedstocks decreased germination compared to the control, even in mature vermicompost. Seed germination was greater in the water extract method; however, most of the vermicompost extracts suppressed germination of the three seed species compared to the water controls. Vermicomposts from all three feedstocks increased leaf area and biomass compared to the control, especially in the 10% vermicompost:soil mix. Thus, seed germination and leaf area or plant biomass for these three species are contrasting vermicompost quality indicators.

  18. (Plant growth with limited water)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    When water is in short supply, soybean stem growth is inhibited by a physical limitation followed in a few hours by metabolic changes that reduce the extensibility of the cell walls. The extensibility then becomes the main limitation. With time, there is a modest recovery in extensibility along with an accumulation of a 28kD protein in the walls of the growth-affected cells. A 3lkD protein that was 80% similar in amino acid sequence also was present but did not accumulate in the walls of the stem cells. In the stem, growth was inhibited and the mRNA for the 28kD protein increased in response to water deprivation but the mRNA for the 3 1 kD protein did not. The roots continued to grow and the mRNA for the 28kD protein did not accumulate but the mRNA for the 3lkD protein did. Thus, there was a tissuespecific response of gene expression that correlated with the contrasting growth response to low water potential in the same seedlings. Further work using immunogold labeling, fluorescence labeling, and western blotting gave evidence that the 28kD protein is located in the cell wall as well as several compartments in the cytoplasm. Preliminary experiments indicate that the 28kD protein is a phosphatase.

  19. Effect of a water-based drilling waste on receiving soil properties and plants growth.

    PubMed

    Saint-Fort, Roger; Ashtani, Sahar

    2014-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine the relative effects of recommended land spraying while drilling (LWD) loading rate application for a source of water-based drilling waste material on selected soil properties and phytotoxicity. Drilling waste material was obtained from a well where a nitrate gypsum water based product was used to formulate the drilling fluid. The fluid and associated drill cuttings were used as the drilling waste source to conduct the experiment. The study was carried out in triplicate and involved five plant species, four drilling waste loading rates and a representative agricultural soil type in Alberta. Plant growth was monitored for a period of ten days. Drilling waste applied at 10 times above the recommended loading rate improved the growth and germination rate of all plants excluding radish. Loading rates in excess of 40 and 50 times had a deleterious effect on radish, corn and oat but not on alfalfa and barley. Germination rate decreased as waste loading rate increased. Effects on soil physical and chemical properties were more pronounced at the 40 and 50 times exceeding recommended loading rate. Significant changes in soil parameters occurred at the higher rates in terms of increase in soil porosity, pH, EC, hydraulic conductivity, SAR and textural classification. This study indicates that the applications of this type of water based drill cutting if executed at an optimal loading rate, may improve soil quality and results in better plant growth.

  20. Transgenic plants with enhanced growth characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Unkefer, Pat J.; Anderson, Penelope S.; Knight, Thomas J.

    2016-09-06

    The invention relates to transgenic plants exhibiting dramatically enhanced growth rates, greater seed and fruit/pod yields, earlier and more productive flowering, more efficient nitrogen utilization, increased tolerance to high salt conditions, and increased biomass yields. In one embodiment, transgenic plants engineered to over-express both glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase (GPT) and glutamine synthetase (GS) are provided. The GPT+GS double-transgenic plants of the invention consistently exhibit enhanced growth characteristics, with T0 generation lines showing an increase in biomass over wild type counterparts of between 50% and 300%. Generations that result from sexual crosses and/or selfing typically perform even better, with some of the double-transgenic plants achieving an astounding four-fold biomass increase over wild type plants.

  1. Effect of synthetic detergents on germination of fern spores

    SciTech Connect

    Devi, Y.; Devi, S.

    1986-12-01

    Synthetic detergents constitute one of the most important water pollutants by contaminating the lakes and rivers through domestic and industrial use. Considerable information is now available for the adverse effects of detergents an aquatic fauna including fish, algae, and higher aquatic plants. Marked inhibition of germination in orchids and brinjals and of seedlings growth in raddish suggest that rapidly growing systems could be sensitive to detergent polluted water. The present study of the effect of linear alkyl benzene sulphonate on germination of the spores of a fern, Diplazium esculentum aims at the understanding of the effects of water pollution on pteridophytes and the development of spore germination assay for phytoxicity evaluation.

  2. Plant Growth Modelling and Applications: The Increasing Importance of Plant Architecture in Growth Models

    PubMed Central

    Fourcaud, Thierry; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Stokes, Alexia; Lambers, Hans; Körner, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Background Modelling plant growth allows us to test hypotheses and carry out virtual experiments concerning plant growth processes that could otherwise take years in field conditions. The visualization of growth simulations allows us to see directly and vividly the outcome of a given model and provides us with an instructive tool useful for agronomists and foresters, as well as for teaching. Functional–structural (FS) plant growth models are nowadays particularly important for integrating biological processes with environmental conditions in 3-D virtual plants, and provide the basis for more advanced research in plant sciences. Scope In this viewpoint paper, we ask the following questions. Are we modelling the correct processes that drive plant growth, and is growth driven mostly by sink or source activity? In current models, is the importance of soil resources (nutrients, water, temperature and their interaction with meristematic activity) considered adequately? Do classic models account for architectural adjustment as well as integrating the fundamental principles of development? Whilst answering these questions with the available data in the literature, we put forward the opinion that plant architecture and sink activity must be pushed to the centre of plant growth models. In natural conditions, sinks will more often drive growth than source activity, because sink activity is often controlled by finite soil resources or developmental constraints. PMA06 This viewpoint paper also serves as an introduction to this Special Issue devoted to plant growth modelling, which includes new research covering areas stretching from cell growth to biomechanics. All papers were presented at the Second International Symposium on Plant Growth Modeling, Simulation, Visualization and Applications (PMA06), held in Beijing, China, from 13–17 November, 2006. Although a large number of papers are devoted to FS models of agricultural and forest crop species, physiological and genetic

  3. Growth of bedding plants in commercial potting substrate amended with vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Bachman, G R; Metzger, J D

    2008-05-01

    Vermicompost has been promoted as a viable alternative container media component for the horticulture industry. The purpose of this research was to investigate the use of vermicompost at different points in the production cycle of tomato, marigold, pepper, and cornflower. The incorporation of vermicompost of pig manure origin into germination media up to 20% v/v enhanced shoot and root weight, leaf area, and shoot:root ratios of both tomato and French marigold seedlings; however amendment with vermicompost had little influence on pepper and cornflower seedling growth. Moreover there was no effect on the germination of seed of any species. When seedlings of tomato, French marigold, and cornflower were transplanted into 6-cell packs there was greater plant growth in media amended with vermicompost compared to the control media, and the greatest growth when vermicompost was amended into both the germination and transplant media. This effect was increased when seedlings in the transplant media were irrigated with water containing fertilizer. PMID:17689243

  4. A novel role for Arabidopsis CBL1 in affecting plant responses to glucose and gibberellin during germination and seedling development.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Yong; Xu, Zhao-Shi; Chen, Yang; He, Guang-Yuan; Yang, Guang-Xiao; Chen, Ming; Li, Lian-Cheng; Ma, You-Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Glucose and phytohormones such as abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene, and gibberellin (GA) coordinately regulate germination and seedling development. However, there is still inadequate evidence to link their molecular roles in affecting plant responses. Calcium acts as a second messenger in a diverse range of signal transduction pathways. As calcium sensors unique to plants, calcineurin B-like (CBL) proteins are well known to modulate abiotic stress responses. In this study, it was found that CBL1 was induced by glucose in Arabidopsis. Loss-of-function mutant cbl1 exhibited hypersensitivity to glucose and paclobutrazol, a GA biosynthetic inhibitor. Several sugar-responsive and GA biosynthetic gene expressions were altered in the cbl1 mutant. CBL1 protein physically interacted with AKINβ1, the regulatory β subunit of the SnRK1 complex which has a central role in sugar signaling. Our results indicate a novel role for CBL1 in modulating responses to glucose and GA signals.

  5. Plant hormone cross-talk: the pivot of root growth.

    PubMed

    Pacifici, Elena; Polverari, Laura; Sabatini, Sabrina

    2015-02-01

    Root indeterminate growth and its outstanding ability to produce new tissues continuously make this organ a highly dynamic structure able to respond promptly to external environmental stimuli. Developmental processes therefore need to be finely tuned, and hormonal cross-talk plays a pivotal role in the regulation of root growth. In contrast to what happens in animals, plant development is a post-embryonic process. A pool of stem cells, placed in a niche at the apex of the meristem, is a source of self-renewing cells that provides cells for tissue formation. During the first days post-germination, the meristem reaches its final size as a result of a balance between cell division and cell differentiation. A complex network of interactions between hormonal pathways co-ordinates such developmental inputs. In recent years, by means of molecular and computational approaches, many efforts have been made aiming to define the molecular components of these networks. In this review, we focus our attention on the molecular mechanisms at the basis of hormone cross-talk during root meristem size determination.

  6. Effects of salinity on seed germination and early seedling growth of the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Torquemada, Yolanda; Sánchez-Lizaso, José Luis

    2013-03-01

    Previous research has demonstrated the low tolerance of Posidonia oceanica mature shoots to salinity variability but there is no information about the response of its seeds and seedlings to this impact. In the present study, two independent experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of salinity variation on germination, development and survival of P. oceanica seeds and seedlings under laboratory-controlled conditions. Maximum P. oceanica seed germination occurred at the control salinity (37), while mortality was lowest for this treatment. However, no significant differences were detected with other salinity levels (39-49). In contrast, salinity appears to play an important role in seedling development. The number of blades, the length of the primary root and the maximum length of leaves of seedlings were significantly reduced with increased salinities. The results observed in the present study are consistent with those obtained for mature P. oceanica shoots, and suggest that hypersalinities, such as those associated with brine discharge of a desalination plant, may limit P. oceanica seedling recruitment, affecting the expansion and recovery of Posidonia meadows.

  7. Impact of experimentally elevated ozone on seed germination and growth of Russian pine (Pinus sylvestris) and spruce (Picea spp.) provenances.

    PubMed

    Prozherina, Nadezda; Nakvasina, Elena; Oksanen, Elina

    2009-12-01

    The impact of elevated ozone concentrations on early ontogenetic stages of pine (Pinus sylvestris) and spruce (Picea abies, Picea obovata, P. abies x P. obovata) seedlings originating from different provenances in Russia were studied in the open-field ozone fumigation system located in Kuopio, Finland, over a span of 2 y. The AOT40 value (accumulated ozone dose over the threshold 40 ppb during daylight hours) was 11 ppm hr per growing season, which was 1.4 times higher than the ambient air concentration. The plants were measured for germination rate; shoot increment; needle length; and dry mass of needles, shoots, and roots. Significant differences between pine and spruce provenance response to ozone were found in all parameters. Ozone stress immediately reduced the germination rate of Northern pine provenances, whereas biomass reductions became evident during the second year of the exposure in all pine provenances. Spruce species were more tolerant to elevated ozone concentrations. Our results indicate that seedling development is vulnerable to increasing ozone concentrations and that attention must be paid to the provenance selection.

  8. Studies on the molecular mechanisms of seed germination.

    PubMed

    Han, Chao; Yang, Pingfang

    2015-05-01

    Seed germination that begins with imbibition and ends with radicle emergence is the first step for plant growth. Successful germination is not only crucial for seedling establishment but also important for crop yield. After being dispersed from mother plant, seed undergoes continuous desiccation in ecosystem and selects proper environment to trigger germination. Owing to the contribution of transcriptomic, proteomic, and molecular biological studies, molecular aspect of seed germination is elucidated well in Arabidopsis. Recently, more and more proteomic and genetic studies concerning cereal seed germination were performed on rice (Oryza sativa) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), which possess completely different seed structure and domestication background with Arabidopsis. In this review, both the common features and the distinct mechanisms of seed germination are compared among different plant species including Arabidopsis, rice, and maize. These features include morphological changes, cell and its related structure recovery, metabolic activation, hormone behavior, and transcription and translation activation. This review will provide more comprehensive insights into the molecular mechanisms of seed germination.

  9. Studies on the molecular mechanisms of seed germination.

    PubMed

    Han, Chao; Yang, Pingfang

    2015-05-01

    Seed germination that begins with imbibition and ends with radicle emergence is the first step for plant growth. Successful germination is not only crucial for seedling establishment but also important for crop yield. After being dispersed from mother plant, seed undergoes continuous desiccation in ecosystem and selects proper environment to trigger germination. Owing to the contribution of transcriptomic, proteomic, and molecular biological studies, molecular aspect of seed germination is elucidated well in Arabidopsis. Recently, more and more proteomic and genetic studies concerning cereal seed germination were performed on rice (Oryza sativa) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), which possess completely different seed structure and domestication background with Arabidopsis. In this review, both the common features and the distinct mechanisms of seed germination are compared among different plant species including Arabidopsis, rice, and maize. These features include morphological changes, cell and its related structure recovery, metabolic activation, hormone behavior, and transcription and translation activation. This review will provide more comprehensive insights into the molecular mechanisms of seed germination. PMID:25597791

  10. Regulation of Plant Morphology by Growth Retardants

    PubMed Central

    Grossmann, Klaus; Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Siebecker, Heinrich; Jung, Johannes

    1987-01-01

    The effects of the growth retardants tetcyclacis, a norbornenodiazetine, and LAB 150 978, a dioxanylalkenyl triazole, on seedling growth and endogenous levels of phytohormone-like substances in Glycine max L. cv Maple Arrow were studied. The levels of phytohormone-like substances in the root and in the various shoot tissues were analyzed by immunoassay. After seed treatment with both compounds, shoot growth was reduced more intensively than root growth. Both compounds decreased, on a fresh weight basis, the amount of various immunoreactive gibberellins when compared with the levels in control plants, especially in the shoot tip. Likewise, the growth retardants lowered the levels of abscisic acid-like material, particularly in the primary leaf, the epicotyl and the root. In contrast, the levels of trans-zeatin-riboside and dihydrozeatin-riboside-type cytokinins were considerably elevated by the growth retardants, mainly in the primary leaf, epicotyl, and hypocotyl. On the other hand the level of isopentenyladenosine-like material was less influenced. In general, the immunoreactive 3-indoleacetic acid content in the different plant parts was changed only slightly. It is assumed that besides their effect on gibberellin content both compounds interfere directly or indirectly with the regulation of the endogenous levels of abscisic acid and cytokinins. This might be seen as an additional mode of action of growth retardants explaining some side effects on developmental processes of treated plants, e.g. delayed senescence and enhanced chlorophyll concentration in the leaves. PMID:16665554

  11. Ambient has become strained. Identification of Acacia dealbata Link volatiles interfering with germination and early growth of native species.

    PubMed

    Souza-Alonso, Pablo; González, Luís; Cavaleiro, Carlos

    2014-09-01

    Acacia dealbata Link is a widespread invader in Mediterranean type ecosystems, and traits promoting its invasiveness are currently under investigation. Due to the dense atmosphere below its canopy, we hypothesized that volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from flowers, leaves, litter, or a mixture of treatments exert inhibitory effects on the natives Trifolium subterraneum, Lolium multiflorum, Medicago sativa, and also on its own seeds. We reported that VOCs from flowers significantly reduced germination in L. multiflorum and A. dealbata; moreover, root length, stem length, aboveground and belowground biomass were also reduced in all species studied. Volatile organic compounds from flowers and the mixture also increased significantly malondialdehyde content in T. subterraneum and L. multiflorum. The effects of VOCs on antioxidant enzymatic activities were species dependent. Flowers enhanced peroxidase but decreased superoxide dismutase activity in T. subterraneum. In contrast, VOCs released from leaves increased the activity of superoxide dismutase in L. multiflorum. GC/MS analyses revealed 27 VOCs in the volatile fraction from flowers, 12 of which were exclusive to this fraction. Within them, heptadecadiene, n-nonadecane, n-tricosane, and octadecene represent 62% of the fraction. We present evidence that the VOCs released from A. dealbata flowers strongly inhibited germination and seedling growth of selected species, and mainly on its own seedlings. As far as we know, this is the first evidence of phytotoxicity induced by VOCs in invasive species belonging to the Acacia genus. PMID:25260655

  12. Ambient has become strained. Identification of Acacia dealbata Link volatiles interfering with germination and early growth of native species.

    PubMed

    Souza-Alonso, Pablo; González, Luís; Cavaleiro, Carlos

    2014-09-01

    Acacia dealbata Link is a widespread invader in Mediterranean type ecosystems, and traits promoting its invasiveness are currently under investigation. Due to the dense atmosphere below its canopy, we hypothesized that volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from flowers, leaves, litter, or a mixture of treatments exert inhibitory effects on the natives Trifolium subterraneum, Lolium multiflorum, Medicago sativa, and also on its own seeds. We reported that VOCs from flowers significantly reduced germination in L. multiflorum and A. dealbata; moreover, root length, stem length, aboveground and belowground biomass were also reduced in all species studied. Volatile organic compounds from flowers and the mixture also increased significantly malondialdehyde content in T. subterraneum and L. multiflorum. The effects of VOCs on antioxidant enzymatic activities were species dependent. Flowers enhanced peroxidase but decreased superoxide dismutase activity in T. subterraneum. In contrast, VOCs released from leaves increased the activity of superoxide dismutase in L. multiflorum. GC/MS analyses revealed 27 VOCs in the volatile fraction from flowers, 12 of which were exclusive to this fraction. Within them, heptadecadiene, n-nonadecane, n-tricosane, and octadecene represent 62% of the fraction. We present evidence that the VOCs released from A. dealbata flowers strongly inhibited germination and seedling growth of selected species, and mainly on its own seedlings. As far as we know, this is the first evidence of phytotoxicity induced by VOCs in invasive species belonging to the Acacia genus.

  13. Stochasticity in plant cellular growth and patterning

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Heather M.; Roeder, Adrienne H. K.

    2014-01-01

    Plants, along with other multicellular organisms, have evolved specialized regulatory mechanisms to achieve proper tissue growth and morphogenesis. During development, growing tissues generate specialized cell types and complex patterns necessary for establishing the function of the organ. Tissue growth is a tightly regulated process that yields highly reproducible outcomes. Nevertheless, the underlying cellular and molecular behaviors are often stochastic. Thus, how does stochasticity, together with strict genetic regulation, give rise to reproducible tissue development? This review draws examples from plants as well as other systems to explore stochasticity in plant cell division, growth, and patterning. We conclude that stochasticity is often needed to create small differences between identical cells, which are amplified and stabilized by genetic and mechanical feedback loops to begin cell differentiation. These first few differentiating cells initiate traditional patterning mechanisms to ensure regular development. PMID:25250034

  14. Impact of kenaf extracts on germination of green bean, tomato, cucumber, and Italian ryegrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chemical interaction between plants, referred to as allelopathy, may result in the inhibition of plant growth and development. The objective of this research was to determine the impact of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) plant extracts on the seed germination of five plant species. Four concentra...

  15. Lunar base agriculture: Soils for plant growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W. (Editor); Henninger, Donald L. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    This work provides information on research and experimentation concerning various aspects of food production in space and particularly on the moon. Options for human settlement of the moon and Mars and strategies for a lunar base are discussed. The lunar environment, including the mineralogical and chemical properties of lunar regolith are investigated and chemical and physical considerations for a lunar-derived soil are considered. It is noted that biological considerations for such a soil include controlled-environment crop production, both hydroponic and lunar regolith-based; microorganisms and the growth of higher plants in lunar-derived soils; and the role of microbes to condition lunar regolith for plant cultivation. Current research in the controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) project is presented in detail and future research areas, such as the growth of higher research plants in CELSS are considered. Optimum plant and microbiological considerations for lunar derived soils are examined.

  16. Developmental Stages in Dynamic Plant Growth Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maclean, Heather; Dochain, Denis; Waters, Geoff; Stasiak, Michael; Dixon, Mike; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2011-09-01

    During the growth of red beet plants in a closed environment plant growth chamber, a change in metabolism was observed (decreasing photosynthetic quotient) which was not predicted by a previously developed simple dynamic model of photosynthesis and respiration reactions. The incorporation of developmental stages into the model allowed for the representation of this change in metabolism without adding unnecessary complexity. Developmental stages were implemented by dividing the model into two successive sub-models with independent yields. The transition between the phases was detected based on online measurements. Results showed an accurate prediction of carbon dioxide and oxygen fluxes.

  17. Dynamical scaling analysis of plant callus growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galeano, J.; Buceta, J.; Juarez, K.; Pumariño, B.; de la Torre, J.; Iriondo, J. M.

    2003-07-01

    We present experimental results for the dynamical scaling properties of the development of plant calli. We have assayed two different species of plant calli, Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa, under different growth conditions, and show that their dynamical scalings share a universality class. From a theoretical point of view, we introduce a scaling hypothesis for systems whose size evolves in time. We expect our work to be relevant for the understanding and characterization of other systems that undergo growth due to cell division and differentiation, such as, for example, tumor development.

  18. Dredged Illinois River Sediments: Plant Growth and Metal Uptake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darmody, R.G.; Marlin, J.C.; Talbott, J.; Green, R.A.; Brewer, E.F.; Stohr, C.

    2004-01-01

    Sedimentation of the Illinois River in central Illinois has greatly diminished the utility and ecological value of the Peoria Lakes reach of the river. Consequently, a large dredging project has been proposed to improve its wildlife habitat and recreation potential, but disposal of the dredged sediment presents a challenge. Land placement is an attractive option. Previous work in Illinois has demonstrated that sediments are potentially capable of supporting agronomic crops due to their high natural fertility and water holding capacity. However, Illinois River sediments have elevated levels of heavy metals, which may be important if they are used as garden or agricultural soil. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine if these sediments could serve as a plant growth medium. A secondary objective was to determine if plants grown on sediments accumulated significant heavy metal concentrations. Our results indicated that lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum L.), and snap bean (Phaseolus vulagaris L. var. humillis) grown in sediment and a reference topsoil did not show significant or consistent differences in germination or yields. In addition, there was not a consistent statistically significant difference in metal content among tomatoes grown in sediments, topsoil, or grown locally in gardens. In the other plants grown on sediments, while Cd and Cu in all cases and As in lettuce and snap bean were elevated, levels were below those considered excessive. Results indicate that properly managed, these relatively uncontaminated calcareous sediments can make productive soils and that metal uptake of plants grown in these sediments is generally not a concern.

  19. Rhizoctonia wilt suppression of brinjal (Solanum melongena L) and plant growth activity by Bacillus BS2.

    PubMed

    Boruah, H P Deka; Kumar, B S Dileep

    2003-06-01

    An antibiotic-producing and hydrogen-cyanide-producing rhizobacteria strain Bacillus BS2 showed a wide range of antifungal activity against many Fusarium sp. and brinjal wilt disease pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Seed bacterization with the strain BS2 promoted seed germination and plant growth in leguminous plants Phaseolus vulgaris and non-leguminous plants Solanum melongena L, Brassica oleracea var. capitata, B. oleraceae var. gongylodes and Lycopersicon esculentum Mill in terms of relative growth rate, shoot height, root length, total biomass production and total chlorophyll content of leaves. Yield of bacterized plants were increased by 10 to 49% compared to uninoculated control plants. Brinjal sapling raised through seed bacterization by the strain BS2 showed a significantly reduced wilt syndrome of brinjal caused by Rhizoctonia solani. Control of wilt disease by the bacterium was clue to the production of antibiotic-like substances, whereas plant growth-promotion was due to the activity of hydrogen cyanide. Root colonization study confirmed that the introduced bacteria colonized the roots and occupied 23-25% of total aerobic bacteria, which was confirmed using dual antibiotic (nalidixic acid and streptomycin sulphate) resistant mutant strain. The results obtained through this investigation suggested the potentiality of the strain BS2 to be used as a plant growth promoter and suppressor of wilt pathogen.

  20. Chemical characterization of new oxylipins from Cestrum parqui, and their effects on seed germination and early seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Fiorentino, Antonio; D'Abrosca, Brigida; Dellagreca, Marina; Izzo, Angelina; Natale, Angela; Pascarella, Maria Teresa; Pacifico, Severina; Zarrelli, Armando; Monaco, Pietro

    2008-09-01

    Isolation, chemical characterization, and phytotoxicity of five new oxylipins, together with seven already known related compounds, from Cestrum parqui L' Hérl. is reported. All the structures were elucidated on the basis of their spectral data, especially 1D-(1H- and 13C-NMR, DEPT) and 2D-NMR (COSY, TOCSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY). The configurations of the stereogenic C-atoms were determined by the Mosher's method. The compounds have been assayed for their phytotoxicity on Lactuca sativa at concentrations ranging between 10(-4) and 10(-8) M. The results of the phytotoxicity tests on the germination and growth of the test species, obtained by a cluster analysis, showed interesting relationship between the chemical structures of the compounds and their biological effects. PMID:18816534

  1. Seed germination, root elongation, root-tip mitosis, and micronucleus induction of five crop plants exposed to chromium in fluvo-aquic soil.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jing-; Liu, Guan-Nan; Xue, Wei; Fu, Wen-Jun; Liang, Bao-Cui; Liu, Xin-Hui

    2014-03-01

    The present study aimed to determine the toxic effects of chromium (Cr) on cabbage (Brassica oleracea), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and corn (Zea mays), and identify the sensitive plant species and appropriate bioassays for potential use in phytotoxicity assessment of Cr in soil. Results showed that seed germination might not be a sensitive assay for assessing Cr toxicity because at most of the Cr levels there were no toxic effects. Root elongation was more sensitive to Cr than seed germination. The lowest concentration of adverse effect (LOAEC) of lettuce was 20 mg Cr/kg(-1) soil, and that of the other 4 species was 50 mg Cr/kg(-1) soil. The mitotic index fluctuated with increasing Cr concentration, thus it was insufficient to assess toxicity of Cr in soil. However, micronucleus assay showed that 5 mg Cr/kg(-1) soil caused a significant increase in micronucleus frequency in cabbage, cucumber, and lettuce. For wheat and corn, however, the LOAEC was 20 and 50 mg/Cr/kg(-1) soil, respectively. Furthermore, the analysis of Cr accumulation showed that lettuce significantly accumulated Cr for all the tested concentrations. However, corn and wheat significantly accumulated Cr only with the highest tested dose. This may explain the higher inhibitory effects of Cr on root growth. It can be concluded that root elongation and micronucleus assay are good indicators to assess the phytotoxicity of Cr in soil. Lettuce is the most sensitive species for indicating the toxicity of Cr in soil. PMID:24318542

  2. Distillery effluent effect on seed germination, early seedling growth and pigment content of sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris Linn. var. mezzanau-poly).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vinod; Sharma, Rajeev; Sharma, K D

    2002-01-01

    Bioassay studies were carried out to assess the toxicity of distillery effluent on seed germination, seedling growth and pigment contents. Higher concentrations (> 5%) of effluent were found to be toxic but however, can be used for irrigational purpose after proper dilution.

  3. Effect of bacterial population density on germination wheat seeds and dynamics of simple artificial ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somova, L. A.; Pechurkin, N. S.; Sarangova, A. B.; Pisman, T. I.

    Effect of the size of rhizospheric bacterial populations on germination of seeds and development of simple terrestrial "wheat plants - rhizospheric microorganisms - artificial soil" and "wheat plants - artificial soil" systems has been studied. Experiments demonstrated that within specify ranges in the inoculate, the rhizospheric bacteria are capable of increasing the yield of germinated seeds and stimulate the growth of plantlets. Germination of seeds inoculated with bacteria was either stimulated, or inhibited or remained at control levels depending on the amount of bacteria. Plant biomass growth and total photoassimilation has been found to depend on the amount of bacteria on the plant roots: the higher the amount of bacteria on plant roots, the smaller is the biomass of plants but the total photoassimilation is, higher. Thus, depending on the amount of bacteria on the roots of plants the system either increases the biomass of plants or increases the total photoassimilation, i.e. "pumps" carbon through itself involving bacteria.

  4. Clipping corn plants at the 3 and 5 leaf growth stage fails to simulate uneven emergence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) planted in dry clay soils in the Mississippi Delta may not receive sufficient moisture to readily germinate or complete