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Sample records for gesellschaft fuer nuklearmedizin

  1. The German Interlinguistics Society Gesellschaft fur Interlinguistik.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O Riain, Sean

    2003-01-01

    Describes the German interlinguistics society Gesellschaft fur Interlinguistik (GIL), which was founded to bring together interlinguistics and esperantology scholars. Highlights GIL's principal fields of activity and discusses its role in the fields of international linguistic communication, language planning, esperantolgy, and the teaching of…

  2. The Internationalization of the `Astronomische Gesellschaft'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    Organized internationalization in astronomy started with a first meeting of 15 European astronomers in Gotha in 1798. Two years later the `Vereinigte Astronomische Gesellschaft' (VAG) was founded in Lilienthal, near Bremen, to organize the compilation of ecliptic star charts for finding the missing planet between Mars and Jupiter. Also, cooperation was planned for observing comets and variable stars. More than half of the members originated from non-German speaking countries. For publication of the results the `Monatliche Correspondenz' was founded in 1800 by Franz Xaver von Zach (1754-1832). I will not discuss here the resulting success (discovery of the asteroids and in 1845 the publication of the `Berliner Akademische Sternkarten'). The problem of reducing the increasing amount of asteroid observations came up in 1857 in the `Section Geographie und Astronomie' (founded in 1828) of the `Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und ärzte'. >From the two roots mentioned, the `Astronomische Gesellschaft' was founded in Heidelberg in 1863 -- again internationally structured: 11 out of 26 members were from foreign observatories, and until the 1930s well over 50% of the members were foreign. Again the main aim was international cooperation, particularly in compiling various catalogues and bibliographies (AGK1 and GuL). A difficult situation arose after World War I when the `International Astronomical Union' (IAU) was founded, in 1919. But these two international organizations, the AG and the IAU, coexisted because they had different goals. Thanks especially to the Swedish astronomer Svante Elis Strömgren (1870-1947), who was elected president, the `Astronomische Gesellschaft' still flourished throughout the 1920s.

  3. The Structure of the Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (Society of German Chemists).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rilling, Rainer

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the history and function of the West-German Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker and its role in the communication and reward system of its discipline. Explores its role in the West German science system, exploring ideology and politics. (JM)

  4. Gesellschaft fuer angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik, Scientific Annual Meeting, Universitaet Dortmund, West Germany, Apr. 1-4, 1986, Reports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Various papers on applied mathematics and mechanics are presented. The general topics addressed include: mechanics of fluids; numerical treatment of differential equations; optimization, decision theory, stochastics, and insurance mathematics; applied analysis and mathematical physics; and numerical analysis.

  5. Gesellschaft fuer angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik, Annual Scientific Meeting, Universitaet Regensburg, Regensburg, West Germany, April 16-19, 1984, Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Problems in applied mathematics and mechanics are addressed in reviews and reports. Areas covered are vibration and stability, elastic and plastic mechanics, fluid mechanics, the numerical treatment of differential equations (general theory and finite-element methods in particular), optimization, decision theory, stochastics, actuarial mathematics, applied analysis and mathematical physics, and numerical analysis. Included are major lectures on separated flows, the transition regime of rarefied-gas dynamics, recent results in nonlinear elasticity, fluid-elastic vibration, the new computer arithmetic, and unsteady wave propagation in layered elastic bodies.

  6. Internationality from the VAG (1800) to the Astronomische Gesellschaft. (German Title: Internationalität von der VAG (1800) bis zur Astronomischen Gesellschaft)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    Organized internationalization in astronomy started with a first meeting of 15 European astronomers in Gotha in 1798. Two years later the ``Vereinigte Astronomische Gesellschaft'' (VAG) was founded in Lilienthal near Bremen, to organize the compilation of ecliptic star charts for finding the missing planet between Mars and Jupiter. Cooperation was also planned for observing comets and variable stars. More than half of the members originated from non-German speaking countries. In 1800, the ``Monatliche Correspondenz'' was founded by Franz Xaver von Zach to publish the results. In 1857, the problem of analyzing the increasing amount of asteroid observations came up in the ``Section Geographie und Astronomie'' (founded in 1828) of the ``Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte'', and was further discussed in 1860 and 1861. From these two roots mentioned, the ``Astronomische Gesellschaft'' (AG) was founded in Heidelberg in 1863 - again internationally structured: 11 out of 26 members were from foreign observatories, and until the 1930s well over 50% of the members were foreigners - the maximum was 65% in 1880. The main aim was again international cooperation, particularly in compiling various catalogues and bibliographies (AGK1 and GuL). The ``International Union for Cooperation in Solar Research'' (ISU) and the ``International Astronomical Union'' (IAU) were founded in 1904 and in 1919, respectively. A difficult situation arose after World War I, when the allied countries were not allowed to be members until 1928. But the international organizations, the AG and the IAU, co-existed because they had different goals. Thanks especially to the Swedish astronomer Svante Elis Strömgren, who was elected president, the ``Astronomische Gesellschaft'' still flourished through the 1920s.

  7. How the Anatomische Gesellschaft excluded unwanted members after 1945-among them Eugen Fischer and Max Clara.

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The Anatomische Gesellschaft, an international Germany-based association of anatomists, was closed down in 1945, after the end of the "Third Reich". It was eventually re-founded in 1949, continuing its tradition from its foundation in 1886, based in large part on the membership prior to 1945. Newly available archival material reveals, however, that at least six members were explicitly prevented from re-joining the society. This includes Max Clara, who was accused of plagiarism and, at least implicitly, of basing his career on Nazi party support. It also includes Eugen Fischer, a leading anthropologist of the Nazi period, who was seen to be indirectly responsible for Nazi crimes like forced sterilisation or extermination of "anthropologically defined" groups of people. Therefore, Fischer's honorary membership, which had already been published in the membership directory, was revoked after a heated internal debate. Nevertheless, these exclusions cannot be interpreted as a self-directed "denazification" of the Anatomische Gesellschaft, as political activity in line with the Nazis was not the main criterion for these exclusions. Incidentally, the archival sources also reveal that Wolfgang Bargmann, who had been elected as the first post-war secretary of the Gesellschaft in 1949, resigned from this post after only one year in office because his management of this "Fischer affair" was felt to be too autocratic.

  8. The Anatomische Gesellschaft and National Socialism - A preliminary analysis based on the society proceedings.

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, Andreas

    2012-06-01

    The Anatomische Gesellschaft (AG) is an international society for the anatomical sciences and at the same time the main organising body for German anatomists. This study analyses how the AG went through the years of National Socialism. As the society does not possess archival material from that time, the analysis is mainly based on the society proceedings (Verhandlungen der Anatomischen Gesellschaft) published annually after each meeting from 1934 to 1939 and again in 1950. During the period of National Socialism, the AG kept its international status against demands to make it a purely German society. It did not introduce anti-Jewish regulations or the Führer principle into its bylaws. The membership directories reveal that it was at least possible for members whose career was disrupted by Nazi policies to remain on the membership lists throughout the Nazi period. However, in contrast to later assumptions that no persecuted member of the AG was ever struck from its register, 17 of 57 persecuted members left the society between 1933 and 1939. The membership of six of these members was cancelled, officially for unpaid fees. However, other members with much longer arrears were not cancelled. To date, no additional historical information is available to assess the circumstances of these cancellations. In general, it remains remarkable that, in contrast to many other societies, the AG did not follow the path of preemptive obedience towards the new rulers. More archival sources need to be uncovered to elucidate the external influences and internal negotiations behind the published documents. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  9. Gesellschaft fuer angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik, Scientific Annual Meeting, Universitaet Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany, Apr. 13-17, 1987, Reports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recent experimental, theoretical, and numerical investigations of problems in applied mechanics are discussed in reviews and reports. The fields covered include vibration and stability; the mechanics of elastic and plastic materials; fluid mechanics; the numerical treatment of differential equations; finite and boundary elements; optimization, decision theory, stochastics, and actuarial analysis; applied analysis and mathematical physics; and numerical analysis. Reviews are presented on mathematical applications of geometric-optics methods, biomechanics and implant technology, vibration theory in engineering, the stiffness and strength of damaged materials, and the existence of slow steady flows of viscoelastic fluids of integral type.

  10. Gesellschaft fuer angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik, Scientific Annual Meeting, Universitaet Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany, Apr. 13-17, 1987, Reports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recent advances in the analytical and numerical treatment of physical and engineering problems are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics addressed include fluid mechanics, numerical methods for differential equations, FEM approaches, and boundary-element methods. Consideration is given to optimization, decision theory, stochastics, actuarial mathematics, applied mathematics and mathematical physics, and numerical analysis.

  11. Cosmopolitan sociology and the classical canon: Ferdinand Tönnies and the emergence of global Gesellschaft.

    PubMed

    Inglis, David

    2009-12-01

    How relevant are figures from the classical sociological canon for present day efforts to found cosmopolitan forms of sociological thought? According to the critique of Ulrich Beck, the classical sociologists remain far too wedded to nation-state-centred ways of thinking to play an important role in the development of cosmopolitan sociology. This paper argues that such a critique fails to account for the ways in which certain classical sociologists were attuned to the emerging cosmopolitical conditions of their own time, were not wholly wedded to nation-state-based conceptualizations, and thus can function as both groundings of, and inspirations for, cosmopolitan sociological endeavours. The apparently unpromising case of Tönnies is focused on, the paper showing how he outlined an account of how and why a planet-spanning condition of Gesellschaft developed a position which diverges from and counterpoints Marx's analysis of similar phenomena in important ways. The stereotype of Tönnies as an arch-conservative is also dissolved, allowing him to be considered as one of the most important antecedents of contemporary cosmopolitan sociological practice and a canonical figure still relevant for present-day purposes.

  12. Die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft in der Weimarer Republik und während der Nazidiktatur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilke, Jürgen

    Nach anfänglichen Schwierigkeiten durch den 1. Weltkrieg erlangte die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft (DStatG) unter dem renommierten Statistiker und Vorsitzenden der DStatG, Friedrich Zahn, durch eine Vielzahl von Aktivitäten hohes Ansehen. Es gab Bestrebungen, Statistiker aus allen Arbeitsfeldern der Statistik in die DStatG zu integrieren, wobei die "Mathematische Statistik" nur zögerlich akzeptiert wurde (Konjunkturforschung, Zeitreihenanalyse). Nach der Machtübernahme 1933 durch Adolf Hitler geriet die DStatG in das Fahrwasser nationalsozialistischer Ideologie und Politik (Führerprinzip, Gleichschaltung des Vereinswesens). Damit war eine personelle Umstrukturierung in der DStatG verbunden. Politisch Missliebige und rassisch Verfolgte mussten die DStatG verlassen (Bernstein, Freudenberg, Gumbel u.a.). Unter den Statistikern gab es alle Abstufungen im Verhalten zum Regime von Ablehnung und zwangsweiser Anpassung über bereitwilliges Mitläufertum bis zu bewusster Täterschaft. Besonders die Bevölkerungsstatistik wurde durch die NS- Rassenpolitik auf lange Sicht diskreditiert. Im Rahmen von Wirtschaftsplanung und Aufrüstung wurden neue zukunftsträchtige statistische Modelle (Grünig, Bramstedt, Leisse) entwickelt.

  13. The Anatomische Gesellschaft and National Socialism: an analysis based on newly available archival material.

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    The newly available scientific estate of Heinrich von Eggeling (1869-1954), long-time secretary of the Anatomische Gesellschaft (AG), allows a more profound analysis of how this scientific association went through the period of the "Third Reich". At the first meeting under the new rulers in 1934, von Eggeling and Siegfried Mollier prevented their board colleague Martin Heidenhain from giving an introductory talk because they (not unjustly) feared anti-Jewish protests, but also because many anatomy professors, like other German scholars, were fervent nationalists who welcomed Hitler and largely accepted the expulsion of Jewish and other colleagues as 'inevitable' for national renewal. Many persecuted members nevertheless remained on the membership lists and the AG never officially introduced anti-Jewish bylaws. Eggeling and his like-minded colleagues successfully defended the international status of the AG, though not so much against the Nazi authorities but against a younger generation of anatomists who were willing to benefit from the new political situation and strived for their own German anatomical association. The available archival material suggests that the motivation of the established leading members of the AG to take this specific path was not rooted in opposition to the new rulers but rather in defence of their traditional status of reputed professors running a time-honoured, world leading society. This made international reputation an important guideline for many decisions. While they did ward off attempts by the younger generation to politicise the AG, their post-war calls for an apolitical science remain ambivalent, as their own stance had not always been apolitical.

  14. Anatomische Gesellschaft from 1933 to 1950: a professional society under political strain - the Benninghoff papers.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Sabine

    2013-10-01

    The Anatomische Gesellschaft (anatomical society, AG) was founded in Germany in 1886 as an international society and remains the main organizing body of German anatomists to this day. A previous study of the history of the AG during National Socialism (NS) was based on the published proceedings of the AG and drew the preliminary conclusion that the "AG did not follow the path of preemptive obedience toward the new rulers" in contrast to some other professional societies. However, it was noted that archival sources were needed to support this conclusion and to illustrate the decision process within the society. Such sources are now available in the estate papers of Alfred Benninghoff, a leading anatomist at the time. His correspondence supports the previous finding that the AG was able to maintain its international character, thereby enabling it to avoid the active exclusion of "non-Aryan" members. The papers also confirm that the AG did not defend its vulnerable members as valiantly as the official narrative suggests, a fact illustrated in a controversy surrounding Martin Heidenhain. The interactions and conflicts between the leaders of the AG can now be reconstructed, i.e. between the secretary of the AG Heinrich von Eggeling, Benninghoff and Hermann Stieve. The Benninghoff documents also refer to a meeting of a subsection of the AG in November 1942, at which a disturbing radicalization of some anatomists developed. Finally, the papers reflect the political realities for German professionals trying to re-establish their science in a country divided into four occupation zones. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Proceedings of the Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland, the Nederlandse Anatomen Vereniging and the Anatomische Gesellschaft

    PubMed Central

    2001-01-01

    A Tripartite Meeting of the Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland, the Nederlandse Anatomen Vereniging and the Anatomische Gesellschaft was held at St John's College, University of Cambridge, from 24th – 26th July 2000. It included symposia on ‘The neuroanatomical basis of the emergence of behaviour’ and on ‘Anatomy, the challenges ahead’ An Anatomical Society Review Lecture was given by Professor Martin Johnson of the University of Cambridge, and a European Federation for Experimental Morphology (EFEM) Lecture by Professor Karl Zilles of the University of Düsseldorf. The following are abstracts of communications and posters presented at the meeting. PMID:17103664

  16. Normalizing the Supernormal: The Formation of the “Gesellschaft Für Psychologische Forschung” (“Society for Psychological Research”), c. 1886–1890

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    This paper traces the formation of the German “Gesellschaft für psychologische Forschung” (“Society for Psychological Research”), whose constitutive branches in Munich and Berlin were originally founded as inlets for alternatives to Wundtian experimental psychology from France and England, that is, experimental researches into hypnotism and alleged supernormal phenomena. By utilizing the career trajectories of Max Dessoir and Albert von Schrenck-Notzing as founding members of the “Gesellschaft,” this paper aims to open up novel perspectives regarding extra-scientific factors involved in historically determining the epistemological and methodological boundaries of nascent psychology in Germany. PMID:23169462

  17. Gesellschaft, Lebensgemeinschaft, Ökosystem - Über die Kongruenz von politischen und ökologischen Theorien der Entwicklung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, Annette

    Im Jahr 1859 veröffentlichte Charles Darwin "On the Origin of Species“. Seine Evolutionstheorie ist das wohl spektakulärste Beispiel einer naturwissenschaftlichen Theorie großer gesellschaftlicher Relevanz. Ihre verschiedenen Facetten wurden in der Öffentlichkeit kontrovers diskutiert, unter anderem auch ihre Anwendung zur Erklärung von Zuständen und Prozessen menschlicher Gesellschaften. Zum Teil wurde die Seiensweise der Natur - scheinbar unabhängig von gesellschaftlichen Interessen - für die Erklärung und Legitimation gesellschaftlicher Zustände oder die Legitimation von politischen Ideologien herangezogen (Sozialdarwinismus). Denn Gesellschaft funktioniere ja so, wie Darwin die Natur erklärt habe: es herrsche z. B. Konkurrenzkampf, Auslese und Arbeitsteilung, Erfolg hätten diejenigen, die sich an die Bedingungen am Besten anpassten.

  18. The Nachlass (estate) of Heinrich von Eggeling (1869-1954), long-time secretary of the Anatomische Gesellschaft.

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Heinrich von Eggeling (1869-1954), professor of anatomy in Breslau from 1922, was secretary of the Anatomische Gesellschaft (AG) from 1919 until 1949 and also editor of the Anatomischer Anzeiger, today's Annals of Anatomy. His "Wissenschaftlicher Nachlass [scientific estate]" could recently be located in private hands and has now been made available at the archive of the AG held by the current secretary. It consists of 45 folders, mainly containing von Eggeling's national and international correspondence from 1919 to 1953. It thus covers the times of the Weimar republic and of the "Third Reich" as well as the post-war period, when the AG had been officially closed down by the Allied Control Council and was eventually re-founded in 1949. Von Eggeling preserved this material despite war destruction of his Berlin home, where he lived after his retirement in 1935, and his cramped post-war confines in a small town near Hannover. The estate also includes autobiographical manuscripts of von Eggeling and some material from his predecessor, the first secretary of the AG since 1886, Karl von Bardeleben (1849-1918). There is evidence that the correspondence is not complete, even if there are no significant time gaps. The contents suggest that letters deemed insignificant, like fee reminders or editorial decisions, were discarded at some point, but it remains unclear by whom. This estate fills a significant gap in the historical material related to the AG and will be an important source for any future historical investigation regarding the society.

  19. 20. HISTORIC VIEW OF THE VEREIN FUER RAUMSCHIFFAHRT, 1930. LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. HISTORIC VIEW OF THE VEREIN FUER RAUMSCHIFFAHRT, 1930. LEFT TO RIGHT: RUDOLF NEBEL, FRANZ RITTER, UNKNOWN, KURT HEINISCH, UNKNOWN, HERMANN OBERTH, UNKNOWN, KLAUS RIEDEL, WERNHER VON BRAUN, UNKNOWN, KLAUS RIEDEL HOLDS EARLY VERSION OR MODEL FOR THE MINIMUM ROCKET, 'MIRAK'. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  20. [Therapy of bone metastases with radium-223. German guidelines].

    PubMed

    Pöppel, Thorsten D; Andreeff, Michael; Becherer, Alexander; Bockisch, Andreas; Fricke, Eva; Geworski, Lilli; Heinzel, Alexander; Krause, Bernd J; Krause, Thomas; Mitterhauser, Markus; Scheidhauer, Klemens; Schenck, Marcus; Sonnenschein, Wilfried; Gabriel, Michael

    2016-09-26

    This document describes the guideline for therapy of bone metastases with radium-223 ((223)Ra) published by the Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen Fachgesellschaften in Germany (AWMF) under the auspices of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Nuklearmedizin (DGN), Östereichische Gesellschaft für Nuklearmedizin (OGN), and Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Nuklearmedizin (SGNM). This guidance is based on an interdisciplinary consensus. These recommendations are a prerequisite for the quality management in the treatment of patients with bone metastases from prostate cancer using (223)Ra. They are aimed at guiding nuclear medicine specialists in selecting candidates to receive therapy and to deliver the treatment in a safe and effective manner. The document contains background information and definitions. It covers the rationale, indications and contraindications for therapy with (223)Ra. Essential topics are the requirements for institutions performing the therapy, which patient data have to be available prior to performance of therapy, and how treatment has to be carried out technically and organisationally. Moreover, essential elements of follow-up and aftercare are specified. As a matter of principle, the treatment inclusive aftercare has to be realised in close cooperation with the involved medical disciplines.

  1. Military Periodicals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    per year) ICDM of North America, Inc. 2065 Martin Avenue, Ste. 104 Santa Clara, California 95050 Executive Editor: Rosalyn 0. Barry $36.00 NCOA...Djurgaardsslatten 92 115 21 Stockholm, Sweden Telephone: 08-782 56 10 Editor: Hans Ulfhielm Kr. 30 Militaer Geschichte (6/yr) Institut Fuer Deutsche ... Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Heereskunde e.v. Augustin-Wibbelt Strasse 8 4720 Beckum, West Germany DM.60 Znamenosets (M) (Formerly Starshina

  2. [Radioiodine therapy for benign thyroid diseases (version 5). German Guideline].

    PubMed

    Dietlein, Markus; Grünwald, Frank; Schmidt, Matthias; Schneider, Peter; Verburg, Frederik A; Luster, Markus

    2016-12-06

    The version 5 of the guideline for radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid disorders is an update of the version 4, which was published by the German Society of Nuclear Medicine (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Nuklearmedizin, DGN) in co-ordination with the German Society of Endocrinology (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Endokrinologie, DGE, Sektion Schilddrüse) and the German Society of General- and Visceral-Surgery (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Allgemein- und Viszeralchirurgie, DGAV) in 2007. This guideline was harmonized with the recommendations of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM). According to the German "Directive on Radiation Protection in Medicine" the physician specialised in nuclear medicine ("Fachkunde in der Therapie mit offenen radioaktiven Stoffen") is responsible for the justfication to treat with radioiodine. Therefore, relevant medical indications for radioiodine therapy and alternative therapeutic options are discussed within the guideline. This procedure guideline is developed in the consensus of a representative expert group. This fulfils the level S1 (first step) within the German classification of Clinical Practice Guidelines.

  3. The Work of Rural Professionals: Doing the Gemeinshaft-Gesellschaft Gavotte

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellow, Muriel

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers how rurality affects the work of professionals. Sociologists have paid little attention to possible rural-urban differences in work styles and no study exists which compares the rural experience of those in different professions. I review the literature describing the work of various rural professionals and examine interview…

  4. URSI and Nachrichtentechnische Gesellschaft, General Session, Kleinheubach, West Germany, Oct. 6-10, 1986, Reports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Factors affecting the atmospheric propagation of EM waves, research on the ionosphere, and advances in radar and communications technology are examined in reviews and reports. Topics discussed include refraction corrections for radio astronomy and geodesy, speckle masking, radar studies of atmospheric motion, EISCAT measurements in the polar electrojet, active experiments in the polar ionosphere, and dispersion relations for drift-Alfven and drift-acoustic waves. Consideration is given to a microcomputer prediction system for HF communications over Europe, frequency determination of a hyperfine line of CH4 at 88 THz, multipath propagation in digital mobile communication, a robust digital voice transmission technique for land mobile radio, CMOS LSI for digital signal processing in mobile radio equipment, the representation of EM fields by dyadic Green functions, scalarization of Maxwell's equations for anisotropic media, and satellite antennas for land vehicles and aircraft.

  5. INSTITUT FUER FLUGMEDIZIN (Institute for Flight Medicine),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    AVIATION MEDICINE , SCIENTIFIC ORGANIZATIONS), PERFORMANCE(HUMAN), HIGH ALTITUDE, RESPIRATION, DECOMPRESSION SICKNESS, CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERES, WEST...GERMANY, TRACER STUDIES, PSYCHOLOGY, ACCELERATION, PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, AEROSPACE MEDICINE , SPACE CREWS

  6. URSI and Informationstechnische Gesellschaft, General Meeting, Kleinheubach, Federal Republic of Germany, Oct. 7-11, 1991, Reports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Various papers on information and system theory, wave propagation, system and circuit technology, and integrated electronics are presented. Individual topics addressed include: traveling ionospheric disturbances, nonlinear interaction of TIDs, impulsive magnetic structures in the morning side of the polar light region, TIDs and other effects of ionospheric origin in solar radio flux records, particle dynamics near force-free surfaces of rotating magnets, upper mesospheric wind field at intermediate heights during increased geomagnetic activity, location determination of E-region irregularities parallel to the earth's magnetic field, dissipation and wave processes in collisionless shocks, propagation of a sudden impulse in the magnetosphere and ionosphere. Also discussed are: plasmas produced by upper surface waves, chaos in plasmas, relativistic dynamics of electrically charged particles in extremely strong plane wave fields, solitary waves in the mesosphere, effects of magnetic fields on communication systems, analysis of electromagnetic field using upper surface current simulation, time and frequency comparison of VLBI, optical transmission of microwave signals in active phase-controlled antennas.

  7. Current German Laser and Quantum Optics Research Reviewed at the 50th Annual Meeting of the Physikalische Gesellschaft.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-23

    sessions) RESEARCH REVIEWED AT THE 50th ANNUAL . Optical chaos and photon statistics MEETINC OF THE PHYSIKALISCHE GESELL - * Industrial reports and...Ierl-). He recounted work with his col- am sure they were) then it emerges that ie.igue- In which they tested the posst- the most active subfield of

  8. Proceedings of the 8th high energy heavy ion study

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.W.; Wozniak, G.J.

    1988-01-01

    This was the eighth in a series of conferences jointly sponsored by the Nuclear Science Division of LBL and the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung in West Germany. Sixty papers on current research at both relativistic and intermediate energies are included in this report. Topics covered consisted of: Equation of State of Nuclear Matter, Pion and High Energy Gamma Emission, Theory of Multifragmentation, Intermediate Energies, Fragmentation, Atomic Physics, Nuclear Structure, Electromagnetic Processes, and New Facilities planned for SIS-ESR. The latest design parameters of the Bevalac Upgrade Proposal were reviewed for the user community. Also, the design of a new electronic 4..pi.. detector, a time projection chamber which would be placed at the HISS facility, was presented.

  9. Evidence-based (S3) Guideline on (anogenital) Lichen sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Kirtschig, G; Becker, K; Günthert, A; Jasaitiene, D; Cooper, S; Chi, C-C; Kreuter, A; Rall, K K; Aberer, W; Riechardt, S; Casabona, F; Powell, J; Brackenbury, F; Erdmann, R; Lazzeri, M; Barbagli, G; Wojnarowska, F

    2015-10-01

    Lichen sclerosus (LS) is an inflammatory skin disease that usually involves the anogenital area. All patients with symptoms or signs suspicious of lichen sclerosus should be seen at least once initially by a physician with a special interest in the disease in order to avoid delay in diagnosis, as early treatment may cure the disease in some and reduce or prevent scarring. The diagnosis is made clinically in most cases. Biopsies should only be performed under certain circumstances. The gold standard for treatment remains potent to very potent topical steroids; however, mild and moderate disease in boys and men may be cured by circumcision. Certain triggers should be avoided. http://www.euroderm.org/images/stories/guidelines/2014/S3-Guideline-on-Lichen-sclerosus.pdf http://www.awmf.org/fachgesellschaften/mitgliedsgesellschaften/visitenkarte/fg/deutsche-gesellschaft-fuer-gynaekologie-und-geburtshilfe-dggg.html.

  10. Key issues recently treated within the French-German safety approach

    SciTech Connect

    Frisch, W.; Gros, G.

    1997-12-01

    The development of the common French-German safety approach for future PWRs started in 1992. The general approach was issued in May 1993. It was accomplished on three working levels: the technical safety organizations GRS (Gesellschaft for Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit) and IPSN (Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire) developed the technical basis, advisory groups GPR (Groupe Permanent charge des Reacteurs Nucleaires) and RSK (Reaktorsicherheitskom-mission) developed common recommendations, and the authorities BMU (Bundesministerium fuer Naturschutz, Umwelt und Reaktorsicherheit) and DSIN (Direction de la surete des Installations Nucleaires) issued the common safety approach. It contains safety objectives and general principles. The common approach has been presented at the ARS`94 Conference. Some important objectives and principles are briefly summarized in this paper, and the results of this work are described. 4 refs.

  11. Mechanism of 'GSI oscillations' in electron capture by highly charged hydrogen-like atomic ions

    SciTech Connect

    Krainov, V. P.

    2012-07-15

    We suggest a qualitative explanation of oscillations in electron capture decays of hydrogen-like {sup 140}Pr and {sup 142}Pm ions observed recently in an ion experimental storage ring (ESR) of Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI) mbH, Darmstadt, Germany. This explanation is based on the electron multiphoton Rabi oscillations between two Zeeman states of the hyperfine ground level with the total angular momentum F = 1/2. The Zeeman splitting is produced by a constant magnetic field in the ESR. Transitions between these states are produced by the second, sufficiently strong alternating magnetic field that approximates realistic fields in the GSI ESR. The Zeeman splitting amounts to only about 10{sup -5} eV. This allows explaining the observed quantum beats with the period 7 s.

  12. Chemical Research at the Institut fuer Strahlenchemie, Muelheim.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-16

    distributed in microorganisms, higher plants, and animals. In plants it is found as the fully phosphorylated derivative, phytic acid . IHP is the...deoxyribonucleic acid olefin radical cation vesicles inositol hexaphosphate (IHP) photochemistry hemoglobin photochemical disinfection of water 20...OF TIS PAGE fMb 21" -. effort of the institute involves the radiation chemistry of deoxyribonucleic acid and model compounds. Described in this report

  13. Der Forschungsflughafen und das Institut fuer Luft- und Raumfahrtsysteme

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Forschungsflughafen Aerodata Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt DLR VW Air Services TU Braunschweig Luftfahrt-Bundesamt LBA Deutscher Aeroclub... Aerodata - Weltmarktführer für Flight Inspection Systeme Flight Inspection - Flugvermessung

  14. The Bernhard-Nocht-Institut fuer Schiffs- und Tropenkrankheiten Hamburg,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    PARASITES, *WORMS), (*PROTOZOA, PARASITES), (*PARASITIC DISEASES, TROPICAL REGIONS), DISEASES, FILARIAE, SCHISTOSOMA, INFECTIONS, GASTROPODA, AMOEBA, TRYPANOSOMA, LEISHMANIA, PARASITES, THERAPY, CHEMOTHERAPY , WEST GERMANY

  15. Shaping the System - The DRG Evaluation Project of the German Society for Gynaecology and Obstetrics (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gynäkologie und Geburtshilfe, DGGG).

    PubMed

    Fiori, W; Renner, S P; Siam, K; Babapirali, J; Roeder, N; Dausch, E; Hildebrandt, T; Hillemanns, P; Nehmzow, M; Zygmunt, M; Piroth, D; Schem, C; Schwenzer, T; Friese, K; Wallwiener, D; Beckmann, M W

    2013-08-01

    Introduction: The German DRG system is annually adapted to the changing services provided. For the further development, the self-governing body and its DRG Institute (InEK) depend on participation of the users. Methods: For one of the DRG evaluation projects initiated by DGGG, cost and performance data for the year 2011 from 16 hospitals were available. After plausibility checks and corrections, analyses for service and cost homogeneity were performed. In cases of inadequate DRG-representation attributes were sought that would make an appropriate reimbursement possible. Conspicuities and potential solutions were checked for clinical plausibility. Results: 44 concrete modification proposals for further development of the G-DRG system were formulated and submitted in due time to the InEK. In addition, 3 modification proposals were addressed to the German Institute for Medical Documentation and Information (Deutsches Institut für Medizinische Dokumentation und Information, DIMDI) for further development of the diagnosis classification ICD-10-GM. For all modification proposals care was taken to minimise misdirected incentives and to reduce the potential for disputes with the cost bearers and their auditors services in settlements. Discussion: The publication of the G-DRG system 2014 shows which modification proposals have been realised. Essentially, an appropriate redistribution of the resources among the gynaecological and obstetrics departments is to be expected. The financial pressure that is caused by the generally inadequate financing of hospitals will not be reduced by a further development of the G-DRG system.

  16. The Capability Approach and Early Childhood Education Curricula: An Investigation into Teachers' Beliefs and Practices. Arbeit, Bildung & Gesellschaft/Labour, Education & Society. Volume 35

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potsi, Autoanneta

    2016-01-01

    This book explores the Capability Approach (CA) as an alternative critical lens through which to regard early childhood education (ECE) curricula. The CA framework is a counter narrative to the narrow instrumentalism that reduces education to a mere process of academic skills acquisition for a future workplace. Primarily the book draws on the…

  17. Soziale Arbeit in guter Gesellschaft? Gesellschaftliche Modernisierung und die "Normalisierung" der Sozialpadagogik (Social Work in Good Company? Social Modernization and the "Normalization" of Social Pedagogics).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaarschuch, Andreas

    1996-01-01

    Confronts the thesis that Germany is witnessing a process of "normalization" of social work, substantiated by the expansion of the fields of action of social work, with findings of a sociocultural "division of society." Inquires into the consequences of these findings for clients and objectives of social work. (DSK)

  18. International Union of Radio Science and Nachrichtentechnische Gesellschaft, General Meeting, Kleinheubach, West Germany, October 4-8, 1982, Lectures and Reports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noise sources affecting the transmission of data with the aid of lightguides are considered along with the noise of semiconductor lasers with external feedback, the recoding and reproduction of microwave holograms according to the scanning procedure and their optical subsequent treatment, a stripline dipole with dielectric covering, and a computer-controlled broadband system for measuring scattered fields and for locating scattering centers. Other topics explored are related to analog signal processing in the dust particle experiment of the Giotto mission, the ionosphere as a limiting factor in HF radio communication, distance errors related to atmospheric effects at signal frequencies greater than 100 MHz in the case of geodetic systems of measurement, and the experiment PIA of the ESA mission Giotto, a device for the analysis of the mass of the smallest particles which are released from Halley's comet. Attention is also given to the first results with Eiscat, the optimization of continuum receiving systems in radio astronomy, and solar 'blips' and the heating of X-ray areas.

  19. Key issues of the common French-German safety approach for future PWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Frisch, W.; Rohde, J.; Gros, G.; Queniart, D.

    1996-07-01

    The development of the common French-German safety approach started in 1992 after a preparatory phase of about 2 years. It was accomplished on three working levels: the technical safety organizations GRS (Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit) and IPSN (institute de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire) developed the technical basis, advisory groups GPR (Groupe Permanent charge des Reacteurs Nucleaires) and RSK (Reaktorsicherheitskommission) developed common recommendations, and the authorities BMU (Bundesministerium fuer Naturschutz, Umwelt und Reaktorsicherheit) and DSIN (Direction de la Surete des Installations Nucleaires) issued the common safety approach. The general common safety approach issued in May 1993 contains safety objectives, general principles and already some technical principles. Important objectives are to reduce the annual probability of core melt, to exclude large early releases and to mitigate low pressure core melt sequences so that the associated maximum conceivable release would necessitate only very limited protective measures in area and in time. Based on this general safety approach, more detailed recommendations have been developed in 1994. A selection of the detailed recommendations is presented in the full paper. These recommendations are applicable to the EPR project for which the basic design is now underway.

  20. [Guideline (S2k, AWMF) of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Pneumologie und Beatmungsmedizin and the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Arbeitsmedizin und Umweltmedizin "Diagnostics and Expert Opinion in the Occupational Disease No. 4101 Silicosis (Including Coal Worker's Pneumoconiosis)"].

    PubMed

    Baur, X; Heger, M; Bohle, R M; Hering, K G; Hofmann-Preiß, K; Nowak, D; Tannapfel, A; Teschler, H; Voshaar, T; Kraus, T

    2016-12-01

    During the last 1.5 years an update of the guideline on silicosis was made by an interdisciplinary working group. New medical and scientific knowledge and the experience in expert opinion practice were taken into account.By preparing the initial guideline in 2010 standardization of diagnostics and adaption of the "Moers convention" which was not based on medical knowledge was in the focus, whereas the current update deals with fine emendation and extension, especially of the compensation rate (adaption with the Reichenhall recommendation).The diagnosis of silicosis (including mixed dust pneumoconiosis) is based on a detailed occupational history, and predominantly on the typical radiological findings. However, at initial diagnosis the standardized LD-HRCT takes an important role because of its high sensitivity and specificity. Exceptional cases are those with characteristic findings in chest X-ray follow-up. Correspondingly, it is mentioned in the guideline: "The standardized appraisal of the Low-Dose-Volume HRCT requires application of the CT classification (ICOERD, International Classification of Occupational and Environmental Respiratory diseases). In order to diagnose silicosis in CT scan opacities with sharp borders in both central upper lung fields and their circumferencies have to be documented. By comparing with ILO standard radiographs at least profusion category 1 in the right and left upper lung fields has to be reached (total profusion category 2)."The pathologic minimal requirement for the diagnosis of silicosis which has undergone controversial discussion has now also been defined. Corresponding to Hnizdo et al. 2000 it is now mentioned: "Finding of less than 5 silicotic granuloma per lung lobe by palpation is regarded as insignificant." This is a convention and not a threshold based on detailed medical scientific and statistical studies; it is based on extended experience in the South African gold mines.This guideline also deals with silicotic hilar (and sometimes mediastinial) lymph nodes; according to the guideline working group they do not closely correlate with the degree of pulmonary involvement. Extended conglomerating and enduring lymph-node processes may lead to dislocation of the hili with impairment of large bronchi and vessels. Shell-like calcifications dominating in the periphery of lymph nodes produce so-called egg-shell hili.The paragraph on exercise testing is now extended: if neither ergometry nor spiroergometry can be performed a 6 minute walking test by measuring oxygen saturation should be done.Furthermore, in individual expert opinion examinations right heart catheterization (the patient is not obliged to give informed consent) may be recommended, if echo cardiography gives evidence for pulmonary hypertension or if it is difficult to differentiate between right and left heart failure. The presence of pulmonary hypertension which is of prognostic relevance has to be considered when grading reduction in earning capacity.For interpretation of spirometry values the new GLI reference values has to be applied. Grading of impairment is due to the recommendation of the DGP.According to current medical scientific knowledge it is unclear, whether certain disorders of the rheumatic group such is scleroderma or Caplan syndrome which are sometimes associated with silicosis (or coal workers' pneumoconiosis) belong in toto to the occupational disease number 4101 (silicosis). Within this context, additional studies are needed to clarify the role of occupational quartz exposure and other risk factors.The guideline working group hopes that this update will help to optimize diagnostics and expert opinion of silicotic patients.

  1. Proton microscopy at GSI and FAIR

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, Frank E; Mariam, Fesseha G; Golubev, A A; Turtikov, V I; Varentsov, D

    2009-01-01

    Proton radiography was invented in the 1990's at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as a diagnostic to study dynamic material properties under extreme pressures, strain and strain rate. Since this time hundreds of dynamic proton radiography experiments have been performed at LANL and facilities have been commissioned at the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP) in Russia for similar applications in dynamic material studies. Recently an international collaboration was formed to develop a new proton radiography capability for the study of dynamic material properties at the Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research (FAIR) located at Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt, Germany. This new Proton microscope for FAIR (PRIOR) will provide radiographic imaging of dynamic systems with unprecedented spatial, temporal and density resolution, resulting in a window for understanding dynamic material properties at new length scales. These dynamic experiments will be driven with many energy sources including heavy ions, high explosives and lasers. The design of the proton microscope and expected radiographic performance is presented.

  2. Castor-1C spent fuel storage cask decay heat, heat transfer, and shielding analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Rector, D.R.; McCann, R.A.; Jenquin, U.P.; Heeb, C.M.; Creer, J.M.; Wheeler, C.L.

    1986-12-01

    This report documents the decay heat, heat transfer, and shielding analyses of the Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear Services (GNS) CASTOR-1C cask used in a spent fuel storage demonstration performed at Preussen Elektra's Wurgassen nuclear power plant. The demonstration was performed between March 1982 and January 1984, and resulted in cask and fuel temperature data and cask exterior surface gamma-ray and neutron radiation dose rate measurements. The purpose of the analyses reported here was to evaluate decay heat, heat transfer, and shielding computer codes. The analyses consisted of (1) performing pre-look predictions (predictions performed before the analysts were provided the test data), (2) comparing ORIGEN2 (decay heat), COBRA-SFS and HYDRA (heat transfer), and QAD and DOT (shielding) results to data, and (3) performing post-test analyses if appropriate. Even though two heat transfer codes were used to predict CASTOR-1C cask test data, no attempt was made to compare the two codes. The codes are being evaluated with other test data (single-assembly data and other cask data), and to compare the codes based on one set of data may be premature and lead to erroneous conclusions.

  3. Experiments on Synthesis of the Heaviest Element at RIKEN

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, K.; Morimoto, K.; Kaji, D.; Haba, H.; Kanumgo, R.; Katori, K.; Kikunaga, H.; Ohnishi, T.; Suda, T.; Yoneda, A.; Yoshida, A.; Akiyama, T.; Goto, S.; Ideguchi, E.; Koura, H.; Kudo, H.; Ozawa, A.; Sueki, K.; Sato, N.; Tokanai, F.

    2007-02-26

    At the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN) a series of experiments studying the productions and their decays of the heaviest elements have been performed by using a gas-filled recoil ion separator GARIS. Results on the isotope of the 112th element, 277112, and on that of the 113th element, 278113, are reviewed. Tow decay chains which are assigned to be ones originating from the isotope 277112 were observed in the 208Pb(70Zn, n) reaction. Both chains consisted of four consecutive alpha decays followed by a spontaneous fission. The results provide a confirmation of the production and decay of the isotope 277112 reported by a research group at Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany, produced via the same reaction by using a velocity filter. Tow decay chains, both consisted of four consecutive alpha decays followed by a spontaneous fission, were observed also in the reaction 209Bi(70Zn, n). Those are assigned to be the convincing candidate events of the decays of the isotope of the 113th element, 278113, and its daughter nuclei, 274Rg, 270Mt, 266Bh, and 262Db.

  4. Round-robin pretest analyses of a 1:6-scale reinforced concrete containment model subject to static internal pressurization

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, D.B.

    1987-05-01

    Analyses of a 1:6-scale reinforced concrete containment model that will be tested to failure at Sandia National Laboratories in the spring of 1987 were conducted by the following organizations in the United States and Europe: Sandia National Laboratories (USA), Argonne National Laboratory (USA), Electric Power Research Institute (USA), Commissariat a L'Energie Atomique (France), HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (UK), Comitato Nazionale per la ricerca e per lo sviluppo dell'Energia Nucleare e delle Energie Alternative (Italy), UK Atomic Energy Authority, Safety and Reliability Directorate (UK), Gesellschaft fuer Reaktorsicherheit (FRG), Brookhaven National Laboratory (USA), and Central Electricity Generating Board (UK). Each organization was supplied with a standard information package, which included construction drawings and actual material properties for most of the materials used in the model. Each organization worked independently using their own analytical methods. This report includes descriptions of the various analytical approaches and pretest predictions submitted by each organization. Significant milestones that occur with increasing pressure, such as damage to the concrete (cracking and crushing) and yielding of the steel components, and the failure pressure (capacity) and failure mechanism are described. Analytical predictions for pressure histories of strain in the liner and rebar and displacements are compared at locations where experimental results will be available after the test. Thus, these predictions can be compared to one another and to experimental results after the test.

  5. Shaping the System – The DRG Evaluation Project of the German Society for Gynaecology and Obstetrics (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gynäkologie und Geburtshilfe, DGGG)

    PubMed Central

    Fiori, W.; Renner, S. P.; Siam, K.; Babapirali, J.; Roeder, N.; Dausch, E.; Hildebrandt, T.; Hillemanns, P.; Nehmzow, M.; Zygmunt, M.; Piroth, D.; Schem, C.; Schwenzer, T.; Friese, K.; Wallwiener, D.; Beckmann, M. W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The German DRG system is annually adapted to the changing services provided. For the further development, the self-governing body and its DRG Institute (InEK) depend on participation of the users. Methods: For one of the DRG evaluation projects initiated by DGGG, cost and performance data for the year 2011 from 16 hospitals were available. After plausibility checks and corrections, analyses for service and cost homogeneity were performed. In cases of inadequate DRG-representation attributes were sought that would make an appropriate reimbursement possible. Conspicuities and potential solutions were checked for clinical plausibility. Results: 44 concrete modification proposals for further development of the G-DRG system were formulated and submitted in due time to the InEK. In addition, 3 modification proposals were addressed to the German Institute for Medical Documentation and Information (Deutsches Institut für Medizinische Dokumentation und Information, DIMDI) for further development of the diagnosis classification ICD-10-GM. For all modification proposals care was taken to minimise misdirected incentives and to reduce the potential for disputes with the cost bearers and their auditors services in settlements. Discussion: The publication of the G-DRG system 2014 shows which modification proposals have been realised. Essentially, an appropriate redistribution of the resources among the gynaecological and obstetrics departments is to be expected. The financial pressure that is caused by the generally inadequate financing of hospitals will not be reduced by a further development of the G-DRG system. PMID:24771931

  6. Abstracts of papers presented at the 8th workshop of the Virology Section of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Hygiene und Mikro-biologie, Würzburg, March 17-19, 1983.

    PubMed

    1983-09-01

    17 adenovirus strains were found to be antigenically related to prototype Ad 15 by neutralization. No relationship to Ad 15, but to Ad 9 could be detected by hemagglutination-inhibition; we therefore named them Ad 15/H9 intermediate strains. After analysis of the genome by five different restriction enzymes, the fragment patterns obtained deviated widely from the prototype Ad 15, but only slightly from Ad 9. Differences could also be observed among the variants. After digestion by five restriction enzymes, altogether six genome types could be established among the 17 intermediate strains. To map the variations on the genome of the 15/H9 strains, two methods were employed: the double digestion of the DNA and DNA fragments together with the determination of the terminal fragments made it possible to construct a physical map. The second method depends on a particularity of adenoviruses: the DNA is covalently linked with a 55 kD protein at the 5' terminus. After digestion of the DNA, which does contain this protein, the terminal DNA fragments do not migrate into the agarose gel; after an additional digestion with pronase B, they do migrate into the gel. Thus the terminal fragments were determined by comparing the fragment patterns with and without previous pronase B treatment.

  7. Die nuklearen Anlagen von Hanford (1943-1987) Eine Fallstudie über die Schnittstellen von Physik, Biologie und die US-amerikanische Gesellschaft zur Zeit des Kalten Krieges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macuglia, Daniele

    Die Geschichte des Kalten Krieges eröffnet viele Möglichkeiten, sich näher mit den Schnittstellen von Physik und Biologie während des 20. Jahrhunderts zu befassen. Nicht nur das Unglück in Tschernobyl aus dem Jahr 1986, auch das Beispiel der nuklearen Anlagen in Hanford in den Vereinigten Staaten zeigt die biologischen Folgen von nuklearer Physik.

  8. Bolometer array development at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreysa, Ernst; Gemuend, Hans-Peter; Gromke, J.; Haslam, C. G.; Reichertz, L.; Haller, Eugene E.; Beeman, Jeffrey W.; Hansen, V.; Sievers, A.; Zylka, R.

    1998-07-01

    Continuum radiometers based on bolometers have a long tradition at the Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie (MPIfR) in Bonn, Germany. Arrays of bolometers have been under development since the early 90s. A small 7-element system, operating at 300 mK, saw first light in 1992 at the IRAM 30 m- telescope and has been used successfully by numerous observers at that facility since then. While this array had a conventional 'composite' design, it was obvious that larger arrays, especially for higher frequencies, could take advantage of microfabrication technology. The recent MPIfR bolometer arrays employ a hybrid approach. They combine a single-mode horn array with a planar bolometer array on a single crystal Silicon wafer with Silicon-Nitride membranes. With efficient absorbing structures, the bolometers couple to the single mode of the radiation field collected by the horns, without needing integrating cavities. Readout is provided by NTD-Germanium thermistors that are attached to the absorbers. This paper covers the history of this development, the general aspects of the bolometer arrays, including the coupling to the telescope, and the status of work in progress.

  9. Wie viele 'paedagogische Grammatiken' fuer den Fremdsprachenunterricht? (How Many "Pedagogical Grammars" for Foreign Language Teaching?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czepluch, Hartmut; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Gives a typology of various possible approaches to grammar teaching, involving grammars for learning, for skill acquisition, and those which look at course organization, media and teaching aids. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  10. The Fringe Reading Facility at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Stroemungsforschung

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, F.; Meier, G. E. A.; Wegner, H.; Timm, R.; Wenskus, R.

    1987-01-01

    A Mach-Zehnder interferometer is used for optical flow measurements in a transonic wind tunnel. Holographic interferograms are reconstructed by illumination with a He-Ne-laser and viewed by a video camera through wide angle optics. This setup was used for investigating industrial double exposure holograms of truck tires in order to develop methods of automatic recognition of certain manufacturing faults. Automatic input is achieved by a transient recorder digitizing the output of a TV camera and transferring the digitized data to a PDP11-34. Interest centered around sequences of interferograms showing the interaction of vortices with a profile and subsequent emission of sound generated by this process. The objective is the extraction of quantitative data which relates to the emission of noise.

  11. Hoer-Sprech-Uebungen fuer Iraner (Aural-Oral Exercises for Iranians).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharf, Kurt

    1980-01-01

    Exercises are presented as supplementary material for beginning classes. Many examples illustrate ways to consolidate the learned material, with particular reference to the textbook "Ich lerne Deutsch" and its pictures. Other exercises are designed to compare German and Farsi sentence structure. (IFS/WGA)

  12. Low Reflection Absorbers for Electromagnetic Waves (Reflexionsarme Absorber Fuer Elektromagnetische Wellen)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1960-11-01

    should be briefly recalled. They consist of air sound, as a rule, of porous substances, mineral wool , glass wool, and similar substances, whose...nonreflecting room, then small particles of graphite will -17- pi m u . I be inserted into the pores of the porous glass wool or mineral wool . Such wedges

  13. Lesekurse fuer Anfaenger-Fachbereich Psychologie (Reading Courses for Beginners-Psychology)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armaleo-Popper, Lore

    1976-01-01

    Describes a German course for psychologists, given in Italy by the author, using eight original texts by Freud and Mitscherlich. These were assigned for 40-50 hours' continuation reading at home, or were discussed in the 100-120 hours in the classroom. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  14. Une lecon de "Franzoesisch fuer Sie" - Niveau 1 (A Lesson of "French for You," Level 1)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldhendler, Daniel; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Using as an example Lesson 12 from the text for adults, "Franzoesisch fur Sie" ("French for You") (Huber, Munich), a teaching outline addressed to language learners at the beginners' level is presented. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  15. Pflanzen als Naehrsubstrat fuer Cryptococcus Neoformans (Plants as a Substratum for Growth of Cryptococcus Neoformans),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The suitability of plants as a possible substratum for growth (in vitro) of C . neoformans has been investigated. A sample of hay collected from...the second left unsterile. The samples were inoculated by flooding them with suspensions prepared from two known strains of C . neoformans . The...month and subsequently at room temperature. Discrete colonies of C . neoformans appeared after five days on samples of hay as well as of dandelion

  16. Hoer-Sprech-Uebungen fuer Iraner (Aural-Oral Exercises for Iranians).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharf, Kurt

    1980-01-01

    Exercises are presented as supplementary material for beginning classes. Many examples illustrate ways to consolidate the learned material, with particular reference to the textbook "Ich lerne Deutsch" and its pictures. Other exercises are designed to compare German and Farsi sentence structure. (IFS/WGA)

  17. Ein Rundfunkkurs fuer Russisch - Klasse 8 (Radio course in Russian, Course 8)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holjewilken, Gudrun

    1974-01-01

    Information is presented regarding the radio course, beginning in the school year 1974-1975, of 9 broadcasts on Lessons 2 through 10 of the textbook: aims, methodological design, topics, action frames, activity of the individual broadcasts. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  18. Lesekurse fuer Anfaenger-Fachbereich Psychologie (Reading Courses for Beginners-Psychology)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armaleo-Popper, Lore

    1976-01-01

    Describes a German course for psychologists, given in Italy by the author, using eight original texts by Freud and Mitscherlich. These were assigned for 40-50 hours' continuation reading at home, or were discussed in the 100-120 hours in the classroom. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  19. Effectiveness of Carbon Ion Radiotherapy in the Treatment of Skull-Base Chordomas

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz-Ertner, Daniela . E-mail: Daniela.Ertner@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Karger, Christian P.; Feuerhake, Alexandra; Nikoghosyan, Anna; Combs, Stephanie E.; Jaekel, Oliver; Edler, Lutz; Scholz, Michael; Debus, Juergen

    2007-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and toxicity of carbon ion radiotherapy in chordomas of the skull base. Methods and Materials: Between November 1998 and July 2005, a total of 96 patients with chordomas of the skull base have been treated with carbon ion radiation therapy (RT) using the raster scan technique at the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt, Germany. All patients had gross residual tumors. Median total dose was 60 CGE (range, 60-70 CGE) delivered in 20 fractions within 3 weeks. Local control and overall survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Toxicity was assessed according to the Common Terminology Criteria (CTCAE v.3.0) and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) / European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) score. Results: Mean follow-up was 31 months (range, 3-91 months). Fifteen patients developed local recurrences after carbon ion RT. The actuarial local control rates were 80.6% and 70.0% at 3 and 5 years, respectively. Target doses in excess of 60 CGE and primary tumor status were associated with higher local control rates. Overall survival was 91.8% and 88.5% at 3 and 5 years, respectively. Late toxicity consisted of optic nerve neuropathy RTOG/EORTC Grade 3 in 4.1% of the patients and necrosis of a fat plomb in 1 patient. Minor temporal lobe injury (RTOG/EORTC Grade 1-2) occurred in 7 patients (7.2%). Conclusions: Carbon ion RT offers an effective treatment option for skull-base chordomas with acceptable toxicity. Doses in excess of 75 CGE with 2 CGE per fraction are likely to increase local control probability.

  20. Carbon ion radiotherapy of skull base chondrosarcomas

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz-Ertner, Daniela . E-mail: Daniela.Ertner@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Nikoghosyan, Anna; Hof, Holger; Didinger, Bernd; Combs, Stephanie E.; Jaekel, Oliver; Karger, Christian P.; Edler, Lutz; Debus, Juergen

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness and toxicity of carbon ion radiotherapy in chondrosarcomas of the skull base. Patients and Methods: Between November 1998 and September 2005, 54 patients with low-grade and intermediate-grade chondrosarcomas of the skull base have been treated with carbon ion radiation therapy (RT) using the raster scan technique at the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, Germany. All patients had gross residual tumors after surgery. Median total dose was 60 CGE (weekly fractionation 7 x 3.0 CGE). All patients were followed prospectively in regular intervals after treatment. Local control and overall survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Toxicity was assessed according to the Common Terminology Criteria (CTCAE v.3.0) and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG)/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) score. Results: Median follow-up was 33 months (range, 3-84 months). Only 2 patients developed local recurrences. The actuarial local control rates were 96.2% and 89.8% at 3 and 4 years; overall survival was 98.2%at 5 years. Only 1 patient developed a mucositis CTCAE Grade 3; the remaining patients did not develop any acute toxicities >CTCAE Grade 2. Five patients developed minor late toxicities (RTOG/EORTC Grades 1-2), including bilateral cataract (n = 1), sensory hearing loss (n = 1), a reduction of growth hormone (n = 1), and asymptomatic radiation-induced white matter changes of the adjacent temporal lobe (n = 2). Grade 3 late toxicity occurred in 1 patient (1.9%) only. Conclusions: Carbon ion RT is an effective treatment for low- and intermediate-grade chondrosarcomas of the skull base offering high local control rates with low toxicity.

  1. Methodology, status and plans for development and assessment of the code ATHLET

    SciTech Connect

    Teschendorff, V.; Austregesilo, H.; Lerchl, G.

    1997-07-01

    The thermal-hydraulic computer code ATHLET (Analysis of THermal-hydraulics of LEaks and Transients) is being developed by the Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) for the analysis of anticipated and abnormal plant transients, small and intermediate leaks as well as large breaks in light water reactors. The aim of the code development is to cover the whole spectrum of design basis and beyond design basis accidents (without core degradation) for PWRs and BWRs with only one code. The main code features are: advanced thermal-hydraulics; modular code architecture; separation between physical models and numerical methods; pre- and post-processing tools; portability. The code has features that are of special interest for applications to small leaks and transients with accident management, e.g. initialization by a steady-state calculation, full-range drift-flux model, dynamic mixture level tracking. The General Control Simulation Module of ATHLET is a flexible tool for the simulation of the balance-of-plant and control systems including the various operator actions in the course of accident sequences with AM measures. The code development is accompained by a systematic and comprehensive validation program. A large number of integral experiments and separate effect tests, including the major International Standard Problems, have been calculated by GRS and by independent organizations. The ATHLET validation matrix is a well balanced set of integral and separate effects tests derived from the CSNI proposal emphasizing, however, the German combined ECC injection system which was investigated in the UPTF, PKL and LOBI test facilities.

  2. Das Allgemeine Statistische Archiv

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinne, Horst

    Das Allgemeine Statistische Archiv1, nachfolgend kurz Archiv genannt, ist die älteste, ausschließlich der Statistik gewidmete deutschsprachige wissenschaftliche Fachzeitschrift. Sie ist gut zwanzig Jahre älter als die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft, zu deren Publikationsorgan sie mit der Gründung der Gesellschaft im Jahre 1911 wurde. Zeitschrift und Gesellschaft blicken auf eine sehr wechselvolle, aber erfolgreiche gemeinsame Geschichte zurück. Die wissenschaftliche Arbeit der Gesellschaft ist im Archiv und seinen Sonderheften für nachfolgende Generationen dokumentiert.

  3. Fuer eine phonologische Basis der Ausspracheschulung im Russischunterricht (Toward a Phonological Basis for the Teaching of Russian Pronunciation)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eismann, Wolfgang

    1976-01-01

    Criticizes the three leading Russian textbooks used in West Germany for not basing their phonetic teaching on a firm knowledge of Russian phonemes. Suggestions are made for incorporating a "minimum phonetics" into a basic Russian course. Authentic language situations, imitation, and theory are important. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  4. Gestaltung und Verwendung von Unterrichtsmittelkomplexen fuer den Russischunterricht (The Designing and Application of Instructional Units for the Teaching of Russian)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guenther, Klaus

    1974-01-01

    Presents bases from school policy and general characteristics of teaching-material units, the main features and elements of each of said units, and the pedagogic-methodological functions of the various parts. Presentation is based on, as an example, the teaching unit "In the department store" (Grade 9). (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  5. Europeanization of the Hospital Markets - Opportunities and Risks for German Hospitals (Europaeisierung des Krankenhausmarkets - Chancen und Risiken fuer deutsche Krankenhaeuser)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-07-06

    e Peise Dpos𔄁ln G. Neubauer: Einftihrung in die Themnatik 4 . Ausblick* 0 Bdatneut. Phase Konergetzhase oninungspolffische Opbion MIuse Diskussion mm...2180163 4.070 2W,4135 3 .004 0 12 a 4 ,. 4 e sho 426_8_48 1,10C 09M2,95 3 8 C2 -004,13 100 8 3M inovwion 3M HIS - Pan Europische Projekt-Studie Tagungsband...780 1998 1999 200 2001 2002 B SornMischeKH RPsychatmsd*KHGU Polnische Krankenhduser: Bettenkapazitaten sana M W - - 2 3 0 . M6 9 2 21.7 1 3 2 1 4 A W

  6. Prevention, diagnosis, therapy and follow-up care of sepsis: 1st revision of S-2k guidelines of the German Sepsis Society (Deutsche Sepsis-Gesellschaft e.V. (DSG)) and the German Interdisciplinary Association of Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine (Deutsche Interdisziplinäre Vereinigung für Intensiv- und Notfallmedizin (DIVI))

    PubMed Central

    Reinhart, K.; Brunkhorst, F. M.; Bone, H.-G.; Bardutzky, J.; Dempfle, C.-E.; Forst, H.; Gastmeier, P.; Gerlach, H.; Gründling, M.; John, S.; Kern, W.; Kreymann, G.; Krüger, W.; Kujath, P.; Marggraf, G.; Martin, J.; Mayer, K.; Meier-Hellmann, A.; Oppert, M.; Putensen, C.; Quintel, M.; Ragaller, M.; Rossaint, R.; Seifert, H.; Spies, C.; Stüber, F.; Weiler, N.; Weimann, A.; Werdan, K.; Welte, T.

    2010-01-01

    Practice guidelines are systematically developed statements and recommendations that assist the physicians and patients in making decisions about appropriate health care measures for specific clinical circumstances taking into account specific national health care structures. The 1st revision of the S-2k guideline of the German Sepsis Society in collaboration with 17 German medical scientific societies and one self-help group provides state-of-the-art information (results of controlled clinical trials and expert knowledge) on the effective and appropriate medical care (prevention, diagnosis, therapy and follow-up care) of critically ill patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. The guideline had been developed according to the “German Instrument for Methodological Guideline Appraisal” of the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies (AWMF). In view of the inevitable advancements in scientific knowledge and technical expertise, revisions, updates and amendments must be periodically initiated. The guideline recommendations may not be applied under all circumstances. It rests with the clinician to decide whether a certain recommendation should be adopted or not, taking into consideration the unique set of clinical facts presented in connection with each individual patient as well as the available resources. PMID:20628653

  7. Prevention, diagnosis, therapy and follow-up care of sepsis: 1st revision of S-2k guidelines of the German Sepsis Society (Deutsche Sepsis-Gesellschaft e.V. (DSG)) and the German Interdisciplinary Association of Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine (Deutsche Interdisziplinäre Vereinigung für Intensiv- und Notfallmedizin (DIVI)).

    PubMed

    Reinhart, K; Brunkhorst, F M; Bone, H-G; Bardutzky, J; Dempfle, C-E; Forst, H; Gastmeier, P; Gerlach, H; Gründling, M; John, S; Kern, W; Kreymann, G; Krüger, W; Kujath, P; Marggraf, G; Martin, J; Mayer, K; Meier-Hellmann, A; Oppert, M; Putensen, C; Quintel, M; Ragaller, M; Rossaint, R; Seifert, H; Spies, C; Stüber, F; Weiler, N; Weimann, A; Werdan, K; Welte, T

    2010-06-28

    Practice guidelines are systematically developed statements and recommendations that assist the physicians and patients in making decisions about appropriate health care measures for specific clinical circumstances taking into account specific national health care structures. The 1(st) revision of the S-2k guideline of the German Sepsis Society in collaboration with 17 German medical scientific societies and one self-help group provides state-of-the-art information (results of controlled clinical trials and expert knowledge) on the effective and appropriate medical care (prevention, diagnosis, therapy and follow-up care) of critically ill patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. The guideline had been developed according to the "German Instrument for Methodological Guideline Appraisal" of the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies (AWMF). In view of the inevitable advancements in scientific knowledge and technical expertise, revisions, updates and amendments must be periodically initiated. The guideline recommendations may not be applied under all circumstances. It rests with the clinician to decide whether a certain recommendation should be adopted or not, taking into consideration the unique set of clinical facts presented in connection with each individual patient as well as the available resources.

  8. [Prevention and follow-up care of sepsis. 1st revision of S2k guidelines of the German Sepsis Society (Deutsche Sepsis-Gesellschaft e.V., DSG) and the German Interdisciplinary Association of Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine (Deutsche Interdisziplinäre Vereinigung für Intensiv- und Notfallmedizin, DIVI)].

    PubMed

    Brunkhorst, F M; Gastmeier, P; Kern, W; Krüger, W; Mayer, K; Weimann, A; Welte, T; Putensen, C; Werdan, K; Reinhart, K

    2010-07-01

    The 1st revision of the S2k guideline on the prevention and follow-up care of sepsis, provided by the German Sepsis Society in collaboration with 17 German medical scientific societies and one self-help group provides state-of-the-art information on the effective and appropriate medical care of critically ill patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. The guideline recommendations may not be applied under all circumstances. It rests with the clinician to decide whether a certain recommendation should be adopted or not, taking into consideration the unique set of clinical facts presented in connection with each individual patient as well as the available resources.

  9. Comparison of Biological Effectiveness of Carbon-Ion Beams in Japan and Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Uzawa, Akiko; Ando, Koichi Koike, Sachiko; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Takai, Nobuhiko; Hirayama, Ryoichi; Watanabe, Masahiko; Scholz, Michael; Elsaesser, Thilo; Peschke, Peter

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: To compare the biological effectiveness of 290 MeV/amu carbon-ion beams in Chiba, Japan and in Darmstadt, Germany, given that different methods for beam delivery are used for each. Methods and Materials: Murine small intestine and human salivary gland tumor (HSG) cells exponentially growing in vitro were irradiated with 6-cm width of spread-out Bragg peaks (SOBPs) adjusted to achieve nearly identical beam depth-dose profiles at the Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba, and the SchwerIonen Synchrotron in Darmstadt. Cell kill efficiencies of carbon ions were measured by colony formation for HSG cells and jejunum crypts survival in mice. Cobalt-60 {gamma} rays were used as the reference radiation. Isoeffective doses at given survivals were used for relative biological effectiveness (RBE) calculations and interinstitutional comparisons. Results: Isoeffective D{sub 10} doses (mean {+-} standard deviation) of HSG cells ranged from 2.37 {+-} 0.14 Gy to 3.47 {+-} 0.19 Gy for Chiba and from 2.31 {+-} 0.11 Gy to 3.66 {+-} 0.17 Gy for Darmstadt. Isoeffective D{sub 10} doses of gut crypts after single doses ranged from 8.25 {+-} 0.17 Gy to 10.32 {+-} 0.14 Gy for Chiba and from 8.27 {+-} 0.10 Gy to 10.27 {+-} 0.27 Gy for Darmstadt, whereas isoeffective D{sub 30} doses after three fractionated doses were 9.89 {+-} 0.17 Gy through 13.70 {+-} 0.54 Gy and 10.14 {+-} 0.20 Gy through 13.30 {+-} 0.41 Gy for Chiba and Darmstadt, respectively. Overall difference of RBE between the two facilities was 0-5% or 3-7% for gut crypt survival or HSG cell kill, respectively. Conclusion: The carbon-ion beams at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Chiba, Japan and the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, Germany are biologically identical after single and daily fractionated irradiation.

  10. 25 Jahre - Institut fuer Geodaesie, Teil 3: Aus dem Leben des Instituts (25 Years - Institute of Geodesy, Part 3: The Life of the Institute)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    wesentlich niedrigeren Preise, in kleinen Gaststdtten ein. Sehr beliebt war das >Tam-Tamo, wo es ftir wenig Geld zdhe Schnitzel und hervorragende Avocados und...ausreichend bemnessen; sie erlaubten insbesondere in der Phase der Erstausstattung eine grol3zUlgige Beschaffung aller ftir Lehre und Forschung...Fakultdt der Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitat in Bonn auf. Ein besonderes Ereignis unter den damaligen Bedingungen stellte ftir mich ein

  11. DFVLR/FAA (Deutsche Forschungs-und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt/Federal Aviation Administration) Propeller Noise Tests in the German- Dutch Wind Tunnel DNW

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    result the computer needs a higher disturbance factor (F = 2.44 = 144 %) for averaging at least 50 time-sequences and deletes 6 series in this mode. The...80 Q 70 ~ 60 50 r 40 - 0 10 200 H A P TC I (,’ NIIF 1 1N TIA -[S 0 1 - - -1 w~~i i i i v1 n)ric 10 AVERACE K 7 0 ) POCR SPECTRUiM_(P < 1-4 %* _ 100 0

  12. Schulgrammatik und Fachgrammatiken: Fuer eine differenzierte Konzeption der didaktischen Grammatik (School Grammar and Scientific Grammar: Toward a Differentiated Concept of Didactic Grammar).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Volkmar

    1979-01-01

    Defines the practical functions of various types of grammars, and theoretical functions of linguistic grammars. Points out some differences between the two (stressing contrast between native and foreign languages), as well as differences in defining, finality, or variation of categories, and in psycho- and sociolinguistic components. (IFS/WGA)

  13. Standortplanung fuer die Feuerwehr der Bundeswehr mit Methoden des Operations Research (Location Planning for the Fire Department of the German Armed Forces with the Methods of Operations Research)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    die Feuerwehr der Bundeswehr mit Methoden des Operations Research (Location Planning for the Fire Department of the German Anned Forces with the...important part of the operational capability of the force. The fire stations in the premises of the German armed forces provide a smooth service and increase...the safety of the soldiers, the environment and dealing with the material. Since October I, 2012, the fire stations are centrally managed fire

  14. Briefkasten oder Brieftaube? Zur Auswahl der Lexik in amerikanischen Deutschlehrwerken fuer die Grundstufe. ("Mailbox" or "Carrier Pigeon"? Selecting Vocabulary for American College-Level Elementary German Textbooks).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Sibylle

    A comparison of four college-level elementary German textbooks reveals significant differences in the numbers of vocabulary entries in each textbook. Further comparison of three of the textbooks with the basic German vocabulary lists provided in "Kontaktschwelle Deutsch als Fremdsprache" and in "Das Zertificat Deutsch als Fremdsprache" reveal in…

  15. Ausdruckskraft und Regelmaessigkeit: Was Esperanto fuer automatische Uebersetzung geeignet macht (Expressiveness and Formal Regularity: What Makes Esperanto Suitable for Machine Translation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Klaus

    1988-01-01

    Describes DLT, the multilingual machine translation system that uses Esperanto as an intermediate language in which substantial portions of the translation subprocesses are carried out. The criteria for choosing an intermediate language and the reasons for preferring Esperanto over other languages are explained. (Author/DJD)

  16. 25 Jahre - Institut fuer Geodaesie, Teil 1: Wissenschaftliche Beitraege und Berichte (25 Years - Institute of Geodesy, Part 1: Scientific Contributions and Reports)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    des Dispersionswinkels zur Bestimmung der Refraktion. AVN 100, S. 51-62, 1993 HAMMING, R., W.: Digitale Filter. VCH-Verlag, Weinheim 1987 HAMPEL, F...KRONMOLLER, H.: Digitale Signalverarbeitung. Springer-Verlag, Berlin 1991 KUHLMANN, H.: Ein Beitrag zur Oberwachung von Briickenbauwerken mit...1987), das Europdische Referenzsystem - EUREF (SEEGER/ALTINER/ENGELHARDT/FRANKE/HABRICH/SCHLC- TER 1998) und das Sistema di Referencia del America del

  17. 25 Jahre - Institut fuer Geodaesie, Teil 2: Forschungsarbeiten und Veroeffentlichungen (25 Years - Institute of Geodesy, Part 2: Research Areas and Publications)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    diesen Einsatzgebieten zurn Standardverfahren entwickelt. In diesern Zusam- menhang wurden insbesondere fUlr die Deutsche Balm eine ganze Reihe...Vermessungs-Nachrichten 103, S.287-298, 1996 Marcus, M. G., Chambers, F. B., Miller, M. M.,Lang, M.: Recent Trends in Lemon Creek Glacier, Caspary, W...F. B., Miller, M. M., Heft 58, Neubiberg, 1997 Lang, M.: Recent Trends in Lemon Creek Glacier, Alaska. Schriftenreihe Studiengang Vermessungs- Zhong

  18. Zur Frage der Textauswahl in einem Lesekurs fuer die Sozialwissenschaften (On the Question of the Choice of Textbooks in a Course in the Social Sciences)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apelt, Hans-Peter

    1974-01-01

    Passages from three selected samples of textbooks are used to show what requirements are made of textbooks in the social sciences. Some hints are given to the teacher for converting reading suggestions into instructional material. Short texts from Karl Marx are also suggested. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  19. Right-Wing Extremism in Germany and the Consequences for the Armed Forces (Rechtsextreme orientierungen in deutschland und ihre folgen fuer die bundeswehr)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    religi~ iser Gruppen, von denen naturgemai3 nicht alle den Einsatz fremder Streitkrafte in ihrem Staatsgebiet begrtiffen. Ober die Untergrabung von...Miinster/Westfalen. St~Sss, Richard (1994): Forschungs- und Erklarungsansatze - emn Oberblick. In: Kowalski, Wolfgang ; Schr6der, Wolfgang (Hrsg

  20. Sichere Sprachkenntnisse als Grundlage fuer eine hoehere Qualitaet der Koennensentwicklung.2 (Secure Language Knowledge as a Basis for a Higher Quality of Skill Development. 2)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guenther, Klaus

    1974-01-01

    Topics are: questions regarding intensive learning, awareness of goals and methods as a pre-requisite for effective pupil activity, exposition of typical pupil activity and suggestions for meaningful homework assignments. Examples are given. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  1. Sichere Sprachkenntnisse als Grundlage fuer eine hoehere Qualitaet der Koennensentwicklung. 1 (Secure Language Knowledge as a Basis for a Higher Quality of Skill Development. 1)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guenther, Klaus

    1974-01-01

    Topics are: aspects in the systematic acquisition of firm, lasting and ready-to-use knowledge and skill as a basis of instruction; nature of language knowledge; the dialectic of knowledge acquisition and the development of skill; intensive learning; and the design of vocabulary drill units. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  2. Materialien und Modelle fuer den Franzoesischunterricht in der Sekundarstufe Zwei (Materials and Models for Teaching French in Grades 11-13)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frei, Alfons

    1978-01-01

    Texts available for French courses in the highest grades are listed according to topics, which include: position of women, today's youth, the language of advertising, French colonialism, holidays and tourism, modern city living, criminality, French politics. Hints for the teacher are included. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  3. The Development of Primary Cell Batteries for Torpedoes and Midget Submarine in Germany (Die Entwicklung von Primaerelementbatterien fuer Torpedos und Kleinst-U-Boote in Deutschland),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-05

    displacement 1314 1 Water capacity 141 1 Negative buoyancy 20.4 % A run of 9000 meters was calculated at a speed of 30 kn. Torpedo G 76 - II ( Gerat 20... future , owing to the critical war situation the work on this torpedo was discontinued by decision of the Torpedo Committee at the TVA, as well as at IG...longer compatible with the requirements of antisubmarine warfare, and that in the future thermal motive power in torpedoes will take on ever greater

  4. Ausbildung in der Arbeit mit dem Sprachlabor fuer Lehramtskandidaten der Anglistik. Ein Erfahrungsbericht (Training in Language Laboratory Work for English Teacher Candidates. A Report on an Experience)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorbahn, Adeline; Wilpert, Klaus

    1975-01-01

    Reports on work at the University of Erlangen beginners' seminar on language laboratory work. This led to production of original laboratory exercises, which were tried out in a Gymnasium class. The aim was to introduce teacher candidates early to problems attending the introduction of language laboratories. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  5. Zur Frage der Textauswahl in einem Lesekurs fuer die Sozialwissenschaften (On the Question of the Choice of Textbooks in a Course in the Social Sciences)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apelt, Hans-Peter

    1974-01-01

    Passages from three selected samples of textbooks are used to show what requirements are made of textbooks in the social sciences. Some hints are given to the teacher for converting reading suggestions into instructional material. Short texts from Karl Marx are also suggested. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  6. Zum Problem des Tests, insbesondere des Einstufungstests, im Deutschunterricht fuer Auslaender (On the Problem of Tests, Particularly Placement Tests, in Teaching German to Foreigners)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breitung, H. A.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    New placement procedure at Humboldt University includes interviews and placement tests. Interviews reveal response ability, tempo, pronunciation, comprehension, etc. The 60-minute test that follows is described and results discussed, as well as difficulty level and grading. Results: better grouping of students, less shifting, better work. (Text is…

  7. Briefkasten oder Brieftaube? Zur Auswahl der Lexik in amerikanischen Deutschlehrwerken fuer die Grundstufe. ("Mailbox" or "Carrier Pigeon"? Selecting Vocabulary for American College-Level Elementary German Textbooks).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Sibylle

    A comparison of four college-level elementary German textbooks reveals significant differences in the numbers of vocabulary entries in each textbook. Further comparison of three of the textbooks with the basic German vocabulary lists provided in "Kontaktschwelle Deutsch als Fremdsprache" and in "Das Zertificat Deutsch als Fremdsprache" reveal in…

  8. Eine aussichtsreiche Lehrmethode fuer fachspezifische Kurse am Ende des zweiten Jahres (A Promising Teaching Method for Content-Area Course at the End of the Second Year).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murti, Kamakshi P.

    1988-01-01

    A course for Business German teaches strategies of textual analysis to develop in the students the reading skills necessary to recognize unfamiliar vocabulary and concepts by using known vocabulary. The course is designed both for students of German without a business background and for business students without knowledge of German. (DJD)

  9. 77 FR 506 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... Express, LLC. Filing Party: Wade S. Hooker, Esq.; 211 Central Park W; New York, NY 10024. Synopsis: The... Interoceanica, S.A and Hamburg Sudamerikanische Dampfschiffahrts-Gesellschaft KG. Filing Party: Wade S. Hooker...

  10. Audio-Immersion und Deutsch als Fremdsprache (Audio-Immersion and German as a Foreign Language)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Lothar

    1973-01-01

    Based on a paper by H. Schenk presented at 3. Arbeitstagung der Gesellschaft fur Angewandte Linguistik, Stuttgart, West Germany, 7-9 October, 1971 (Third Workshop of the Society for Applied Linguistics). (DD)

  11. Preparing Field Grade Officers for Joint Staff Assignments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-19

    Charles Edward White, The Enlightened Soldier: Scharnhorst and the Militarische Gesellschaft in Berlin , 1801-1805 (Ann Arbor: UMI, 1987), 137. Quote was...White, Charles Edward. The Enlightened Soldier: Scharnhorst and the Militarische Gesellschaft in Berlin , 1801-1805. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1987. Wilson... Isaiah , III. “Educating the Post-Modern U.S. Army Strategic Planner: Improving the Organizational Construct.” FT Leavenworth, KS: School of Advanced

  12. Wege in die Zukunft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauermann, Göran; Mosler, Karl

    Die Zukunft stellt große Herausforderungen an die Arbeit der Deutschen Statistischen Gesellschaft. Sie betreffen die gestiegenen Anforderungen der Nutzer von Statistik, die Kommunikationsmöglichkeiten des Internets sowie die Dynamik der statistischen Wissenschaften und ihrer Anwendungsgebiete. Das Kapitel 5 beschreibt, wie sich die Gesellschaft diesen Herausforderungen stellt und welche Ziele sie sich in der wissenschaftlichen Zusammenarbeit und im Kampf gegen das Innumeratentum gesetzt hat.

  13. [Participation of hospital nephrology departments in outpatient dialysis care. Joint Statement of the »Deutsche Gesellschaft für Nephrologie (DGfN)«, »Verband leitender Klinikärzte in der Nephrologie (VLKN)«, »Verband Deutsche Nierenzentren (DN) e. V.« , »KfH Kuratorium für Dialyse und Nierentransplantation e. V.« and »PHV - Der Dialysepartner Patienten-Heimversorgung«].

    PubMed

    Floege, Jürgen; Alscher, Mark Dominik; Bach, Dieter; Dähne, Werner; Daschner, Michael; Kuhlmann, Martin

    2015-09-01

    The proposals by health care providers to impose drastic limits on chronic dialysis in hospitals to the extent that it can only be provided on loss-making terms, will jeopardize the cost efficiency of nephrological departments in hospitals and hence their continued existence. Such departments play a key role within the discipline, however, as the training of nephrologists is tied to them by further training regulations. The authors take the view that the proposals by health care providers are short-sighted with regard to the quality of care and the safeguarding of care in the future, and that they counteract the goals of quality assurance currently dominating the health policy agenda. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. [Nuclear medicine: medical technology research].

    PubMed

    Lerch, H; Jigalin, A

    2005-01-01

    AIM, METHOD: The scientific publications in the 2003 and 2004 issues of the journal Nuklearmedizin were analyzed retrospectively with regard to the proportion of medical technology research. Out of a total of 73 articles examined, 9 (12%) were classified as medical technology research, that is, 8/15 of the original papers (16%) and one of the case reports (5%). Of these 9 articles, 44% (4/9) focused on the combination of molecular and morphological imaging with direct technical appliance or information technology solutions. Medical technology research is limited in the journal's catchment area. The reason for this is related to the interdependency between divergent development dynamics in the medical technology industry's locations, the many years that the area of scintigraphic technology has been underrepresented, research policy particularly in discrepancies in the promotion of molecular imaging and a policy in which health is not perceived as a predominantly good and positive economic factor, but more as a curb to economic development.

  15. German guidelines for the diagnosis and management of infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    2007-06-01

    This Gudelines are the translation of the German Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Infective Endocarditis, which were prepared by the Working Group on Infective Endocarditis of the Paul-Ehrlich-Society and the German Society for Cardiology, Heart, and Circulatory Research in cooperation with the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Thorax-, Herz und Gefässchirurgie (DGTHG; German Society for Thorax-, Cardiac-, and Vascular Surgery), the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Infektiologie (DGI; German Society for Infectious Diseases), the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internistische Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin (DGIIN; German Society for Internal Intensive Care Medicin and Emergency Medicine), the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Hygiene und Mikrobiologie (DGHM; German Society for Hygiene and Microbiology) and the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Innere Medizin (DGIM; German Society for Internal Medicine) (Naber CK et al. [S2 Guideline for diagnosis and therapy of infectious endocarditis] Z Kardiol. 2004;93:1005-21). The Guidelines provide recommendations for the diagnosis and management of infective endocarditis.

  16. [Welcome to the DGN Congress].

    PubMed

    Reichmann, Heinz

    2017-08-01

    Liebe Kolleginnen und Kollegen, ich möchte dieses Editorial nutzen, um Sie ganz herzlich, auch im Namen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Neurologie, zum Jahreskongress unserer Gesellschaft vom 20. – 23.09.17 nach Leipzig einzuladen. Der Wissenschaftsstandort Leipzig darf auf herausragende Fachkollegen zurückblicken. So hat Wilhelm Erb 1880 als Professor der Medizinischen Poliklinik die Neurologie als eigenständiges Lehrfach entwickelt und hatte das Privileg, mit den Neurowissenschaftlern Paul Flechsig und Paul Julius Möbius zusammen zu arbeiten. Das Team um Herrn Prof. Claßen, Kongresspräsident, und Frau Prof. Saur, Kongresssekretärin, hat zusammen mit dem Programm-Komitee der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Neurologie ein außerordentlich spannendes und vielfältiges Programm zusammen gestellt.

  17. Multiparticle Entanglement and Spatial Addressability of Ultracold Atoms in Optical Lattices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    Immanuel F. Bloch Stefan Kuhr Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz Institute Fuer Physik/Quantum Mainz, Germany 55099 EOARD GRANT 07-3090...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz Institute Fuer Physik/Quantum Mainz, Germany 55099 8...Entanglement and Spatial Addressability of Ultracold Atoms in Optical Lattices Prof. Dr. Immanuel Bloch Dr. Stefan Kuhr Johannes

  18. Preaward Evaluation and Responsibility Determination of Foreign Contractors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    3 Contractor Country Contract Number Bundesamt Fuer Wehrtechnik FRG DAJA3786C0326 Bundesamt Fuer Wehrtechnik FRG F6154686D0022 Construcciones ...Aeronauticas SA Spain F0960385C0006 Construcciones Aeronauticas SA Spain F4260086C6464 Daimler Benz AG FRG DAJA3778GOO11 Eaton Corp. FRG F0960382D0663

  19. [German Urological Associations under National Socialism].

    PubMed

    Krischel, M; Moll, F; Fangerau, H

    2011-09-01

    The Deutsche Gesellschaft für Urologie (German Urological Association), established in 1907, was a German-Austrian medical society in which Jewish physicians held important positions. When the Nazis seized power in 1933, the Austrian Hans Rubritius was president of the society. The non-German presidency and the exclusion of Jewish colleagues from the professional society and medical practice led to a halt of the society's activities. At the same time in the mid 1930s, German urologists founded the Gesellschaft Reichsdeutscher Urologen (Association of Reichs-German Urologists) whose members aligned themselves with Nazi health policies and in turn received professional and personal benefits.

  20. Herausforderungen durch die deutsche Wiedervereinigung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stäglin, Reiner

    Die Wiedervereinigung stellte auch die Statistik vor große Aufgaben. Die als Organ der staatlichen Planung staatsnah orientierte Statistik der DDR musste auf das zur Neutralität und wissenschaftlichen Unabhängigkeit verpflichtete System der Bundesrepublik umgestellt werden. Ebenso verlangten die Universitäten eine Neuorientierung. Die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft hat sich vor allem dreier Aufgaben mit großem Engagement, aber auch mit Bedachtsamkeit angenommen: Aufnahme und Integration der Statistiker aus den neuen Bundesländern in die Gesellschaft, Begleitung der Neuausrichtung des Faches Statistik an deren Hochschulen und Sicherung sowie Nutzung von Datenbeständen der ehemaligen DDR.

  1. Bouchon d’oreille a attenuation active adaptee aux bruits d’helicoptere (Ear Plugs for Active Attenuation Adapted for Helicopter Noises) (Gehoerschutzstopsel mit aktriver Daempfung, geeignet fuer Hubschrauberlaerm)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    Hubschrauberharm RWsum6 Le spectre du bruit d’un h~licopt~re se compose de deux parties bien distinctes. La premi~re est une composante basses frquences...61ectrique comme haut-parleur. Avec cc type d’t6metteur, on parties bien distinctes. La premiere est une composante arrivait A obtenir une...d’augmenter la vitesse de convergence. Pour le syst~me les signaul y1 n dr etr Pournl sont dtcm in fedack, de dimnl inue feedforward on a choisi

  2. Utopische Literatur im Leistungskurs Englisch. Vorschlaege fuer Planung und Durchfuehrung eines halbjaehrigen Kurses (Utopian Literature in the English Honors Course. Suggestions for Planning and Teaching a Half-Year Course)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnitter, Helmut

    1976-01-01

    Gives prerequisites for participation, editions of texts used (Orwell, "1984"; Huxley, "Brave New World"; More, "Utopia") and mentions auxiliary materials. After listing aims of the course, gives suggestions as to method and organization of the course. Sketches various phases of discussion and forms for checking on…

  3. DFVLR/FAA (Deutsche Forschungs-und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt/Federal Aviation Administration) Propeller Noise Tests in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel DNW. Appendix VI. The Effect of Engine-Cowling Installation,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    6 ) 0 I . n -10 20 =.5 TIMEQU EC . S- A( P P 8.7 Hx PIN= -9. .t.’ ~ ~ 0102 4 [[.TIME -REQ VY AVEAG , 6 )POE PETU...231 c:.00 T: 2-87.5 10INSTANTANEOUS ITIME HISTORY MX9. 5 (L I 0 0 -. 5 - - - TUE-RV 11w VRG 6 )PWRSETU MF .7H -10 00 7 0 Iu I a60 50 010 20 30 4...7 RUN: 17D rP: p 0 : 19.90 NH: .6745 n: 2100 rpm v/u: .231 d: .00 T: 287 . K 30 INSTANTANEOUS TIME HISTORY PMAX= 1 . 6 20 - 10 a 0 In S0 0 -40

  4. Mikrowellenspektroskopie Genauere Hyperfeinstruktur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Manuel; Winters, Danyal F. A.; Thompson, Richard C.

    2005-07-01

    Übergänge zwischen Hyperfeinstruktur-Niveaus liegen im Bereich der Mikrowellen und entziehen sich daher hoch genauen Messungen mit Lasern. Am Imperial College London wird derzeit in Zusammenarbeit mit der Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt ein Experiment aufgebaut, das solche Messungen an gespeicherten, nahezu ruhenden Ionen zulässt.

  5. Affirmative Action, Delivered Equality and the Concept of Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segalman, Ralph

    This paper describes three models of society: (1) the gemeinschaft, (2) the gesellschaft, and (3) the pseudo-gemeinschaft, and examines the affirmative action process and its relationship to the utopian ideals of equality of opportunity and delivered equality. In a gemeinschaft community, members look out for one another and the community exists…

  6. Alienation, Mass Society and Mass Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dam, Hari N.

    This monograph examines the nature of alienation in mass society and mass culture. Conceptually based on the "Gemeinschaft-Gesellschaft" paradigm of sociologist Ferdinand Tonnies, discussion traces the concept of alienation as it appears in the philosophies of Hegel, Marx, Kierkegaard, Sartre, and others. Dwight Macdonald's "A Theory of Mass…

  7. The Quasigeoid and the Standard Elevations -- East Germany --

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    3. Listing, E. B., »About our Present Knowledge of the Shape and Siae of the Earth," Nachrichten der Koenig- .lichen Gesellschaft /Reports of the...sT, "The Outer Gravitational Field and the Shape of the Physical Earth’s Surface," (in Russian), Nachrichten der Akademie der Wissenschaftea der

  8. 56. Photocopy of newspaper illustration. MAIN VIEW: EAST, INSET VIEW: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. Photocopy of newspaper illustration. MAIN VIEW: EAST, INSET VIEW: NORTHWEST. (From Illustrirte Zeitung, 'Die Neuen Docks der 'Hamburg-Amerikanischen Packetfahrt-Actien-Gesellschaft' in Hoboken, New Jersey,' June 9, 1883, p. 495. Artist unknown) - Hoboken Piers Headhouse, River Street at Hudson River, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  9. Reisebericht London: Interner Workshop: "Knowledge Based Systems in Information Science" (London Travel Report: Internal Workshop: "Knowledge Based Systems in Information Science").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Hans-Reiner

    Written in German, this report summarizes a workshop on teaching and research activities in information science that was held at the City University, London, and attended by faculty and students from the university's Department of Information Science and H.-R. Simon of the GID (Gesellschaft fur Information und Dokumentation), Frankfort am Main,…

  10. Data Mining for Double Stars in Astrometric Catalogs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-22

    Leipzig: Astron. Gesellschaft in Kommission bei Wilhelm Engelmann) Bobone, J. 1973, Catalogo ‘‘Cordoba E’’ (Cordoba: Obs. Astron.) Boss, B. 1931, Albany...Good Hope, during the Years 1905-1911 (Edinburgh: Neill) Greaves, J. 2004, MNRAS, 355, 585 Guerin, L. C., & Bobone, J. 1954, Catalogo ‘‘Cordoba D

  11. Educating Educators in a Volatile Climate--The Challenge of Modernising Higher Business Schools in Serbia and Montenegro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollinshead, Graham

    2006-01-01

    This study is set in the rapidly changing higher educational environment that has ensued in Serbia and Montenegro in the post Milosevic era. Its primary focus is a "Training Trainers" initiative, mounted by the GTZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit/Society for Technical Co-operation), designed to upgrade the teaching…

  12. Empowering Indigenous Languages and Cultures: The Impact of German Bilateral Assistance in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortina, Regina

    2010-01-01

    Working in Latin America for several decades to address the educational needs of poor and indigenous groups, the GTZ (Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit) has helped to develop the knowledge base of intercultural bilingual education. The goal of this article is to analyze Germany's impact from the mid-1970s to the present as the GTZ has…

  13. User Needs and Major Challenges for Defence Against Terrorism - Results of SeNTRE Study for European Commission Preparatory Action on Security Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    l’Armement (Centre d’Etude du Bouchet), FhG (Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft), VTT (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland), EADS Astrium , Finmeccanica...Technical Research FhG Allemagne Centre of Finland VTT Finlande EADS EADS France EADS Astrium ASM-U UK Finmeccanica FNM Italie Dassault DASS France

  14. Educating Educators in a Volatile Climate--The Challenge of Modernising Higher Business Schools in Serbia and Montenegro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollinshead, Graham

    2006-01-01

    This study is set in the rapidly changing higher educational environment that has ensued in Serbia and Montenegro in the post Milosevic era. Its primary focus is a "Training Trainers" initiative, mounted by the GTZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit/Society for Technical Co-operation), designed to upgrade the teaching…

  15. Providing Information Services in Videotex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Gary L.

    1986-01-01

    The provision of information through videotex in West Germany is described. Information programs and services of the Gesellschaft fur Information und Dokumentation (GID) and its cooperative partners are reviewed to illustrate program contents, a marketing strategy, and the application of gateway technology with mainframe and personal computers.…

  16. Genetics Home Reference: congenital nephrotic syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... B, Ashraf S, Vega-Warner V, Bockenhauer D, Elshakhs NA, Joseph M, Hildebrandt F; Gesellschaft für Pädiatrische Nephrologie ( ... M, Kemper MJ, Mueller D, Fathy HM, Soliman NA; SRNS Study Group, Hildebrandt F. A single-gene ...

  17. Reisebericht London: Interner Workshop: "Knowledge Based Systems in Information Science" (London Travel Report: Internal Workshop: "Knowledge Based Systems in Information Science").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Hans-Reiner

    Written in German, this report summarizes a workshop on teaching and research activities in information science that was held at the City University, London, and attended by faculty and students from the university's Department of Information Science and H.-R. Simon of the GID (Gesellschaft fur Information und Dokumentation), Frankfort am Main,…

  18. Linking Educational Research Activities across Europe: A Review of the WIFO Gateway to Research on Education in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Sabine

    2007-01-01

    The WIFO Gateway to Research on Education in Europe (http://www.wifo-gate.org) is an Internet portal focusing on vocational education and training and human resource development. Launched 10 years ago by the Research Forum Education and Society (Wissenschaftsforum Bildung und Gesellschaft-WIFO) Berlin, it has developed in several stages in close…

  19. 18. HISTORIC VIEW OF MAX VALIER, FOUNDING MEMBER OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. HISTORIC VIEW OF MAX VALIER, FOUNDING MEMBER OF THE VEREIN FUER RAUMSCHIFFAHRT (GERMAN SOCIETY FOR SPACE TRAVEL), DRIVES HIS ROCKET CAR IN 1931. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  20. European Conference on Visual Perception (6th).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-30

    Institut fuer Verhaltenswissenschaft, ETH- Zentrum, 8092 Zuerich - Switzerland W. GERBINO: Istituto di Psicologia , Universitk di Padova, Piazza Capitaniato...fuer medizinische Psychologie, Schillerstrasse 42 - 8000 Muenchen 2, West Germany L. JANEZ ESCALADA: Psicologia Matem&tica, Facultad de Psicologla...Norway P. MANCINI: Istituto di Fisiologia clinica del C.N.R., Via Bonanno Pisano - 56100 Pisa, Italy C.A. MARZI: Istituto di Psicologia . Universit

  1. Modifications to Army Facilities Components System Drawings to Reflect Use of Metric-Sized Lumber.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    2040 x 915 PHENAPAN DEUTSCHE NOVOPAN SP ISO-Verle- NSCM: XN003 geplatte V 100 - 00-V02-473! 19.0 2050 x 925 2040 x 915 ditto ditto Si: - 00-V02-4732...use: Build-in furniture Spanplatte, beide Seiten geschliffen, Gueteklasse I-I Verwcndungszweck: Fuer Einbaumoebel CODE 5530 Staerke Abmessungen...laminated, flat pressed, both sides sanded, for general purpose; DIN 68761 Holzspanplatte (Flachpressplatte), beide Seiten geschliffen, fuer allgemeine

  2. [Quo vadis, modern intensive care medicine? Outdated considerations regarding risks and side effects].

    PubMed

    Duttge, G

    2016-04-01

    Modern intensive care medicine is faced with large challenges which are not solely caused by medical-technical progress, but above all by the demographic and value-related changes of society and its citizens. Thereby, three central problem areas are of particular interest: the fragile effectiveness of a patient's right to self-determination at the end of life, the uncertainties regarding the demarcation of futility, and the question of the influence of economic considerations (rationing) in view of the different levels for the allocation of duties and execution of duties. This article contains the revised version of the lecture from June 18, 2015 on the occasion of the 47th annual joint conference of DGIIN (Deutschen Gesellschaft für Internistische Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin) and ÖGIAIN (Österreichischen Gesellschaft für Internistische und Allgemeine Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin) on the general subject: "quality and humanity".

  3. Regionalstatistik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppmann, Helmut; Fürnrohr, Michael

    Viele Aufgaben in Politik, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft erfordern nicht nur globale, sondern auch regionale Lösungen. Die Regionalstatistik ist deshalb unentbehrlich für viele Planungs- und Entscheidungsprozesse. Ihren Ausbau und ihre Nutzung zu fördern, hat sich der Ausschuss für Regionalstatistik der Deutschen Statistischen Gesellschaft zum Ziel gesetzt. Dieses Kapitel stellt zunächst einige Grundlagen der Regionalstatistik und die Aufgaben des Ausschusses dar. Es folgen das umfangreiche regionalstatistische Datenangebot der Statistischen Ämter des Bundes und der Länder und seine Nutzung. Ein ergänzender Abschnitt ist der Arbeit des Instituts für Bau-, Stadt- und Raumforschung gewidmet. Das Kapitel schließt mit einem Ausblick auf die Weiterentwicklung des regionalstatistischen Datenangebotes aus Sicht der amtlichen Statistik.

  4. [Geriatric trauma centers - requirements catalog. An initiative to promote and guarantee the quality of care of elderly trauma patients receiving inpatient care].

    PubMed

    Gogol, M; van den Heuvel, D; Lüttje, D; Püllen, R; Reingräber, A C; Schulz, R-J; Veer, A; Wittrich, A

    2014-06-01

    For the care of the elderly, specific geriatric care facilities in hospitals and specialized rehabilitation centers have been established in the last 20 years throughout Germany. In addition, trauma surgery departments in hospitals and clinics also provide comprehensive care for trauma patients. The present requirements catalog was developed with the aim to ensure the standardization and quality assurance of these care facilities. Thus, the structural basics and, in particular, the structured cooperation between geriatrics and trauma surgery are described and defined in terms of structure, process, and outcome quality. The Bundesverband Geriatrie, the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Geriatrie, and the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gerontologie und Geriatrie offer documentation for external and internal use and evaluation of the structures and processes for certification of geriatric trauma centers. Prerequisite for certification is to meet the technical requirements defined in the requirements catalogue or documents derived from it, and proof of a quality management system according to ISO 9001.

  5. AGARD Bulletin. Meetings, Publications, Membership.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    V.GEORGE Professor Dr Ing. J.BARCHE Chef d’Etat-Major Adjoint Feldhausen 46 Logistique die [a Force Aerienne 2804 Lilienthal Quartier Reine Elisabeth rue...B.P. No.10 B-1 180 Bruxelles Domaine de Corbeville 91401, Orsay Colonel d’Aviation Ir. C.SPRENKELS Commandant 2 me WingGRMN Logistique (22 Log W)GEMN...Adjoint Informatique Logistique Leiter der Hauptabteilung Datenverarbeitung Etat Major Force Afrienne (VSL/I) Gesellschaft fur Information und Quartier

  6. Quantum Optics Initiative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-30

    does not include saturation, which is a very important effect in our measurements, especially for atmospheric pressure and below. The effects of... Cold Atom Meeting, Banff, Canada (2/06). Physics Colloquium, University of Houston, Houston (1/06). Aspen Center for Physics Workshop on Strong...Atlanta, GA (3/05). Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft Annual Meeting, Berlin (3/05). Workshop on Solitons in BEC’s, Almagro, Spain (2/05). Banff Cold

  7. Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, now located in the town of Garching north of Munich in Germany, is one of the more than 70 autonomous research institutes of the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft. It was founded in 1958 under the direction of Ludwig Biermann as part of the Max-Planck-Institut für Physik und Astrophysik, directed at that time by Werner Heisenberg. In 1979, when the headquarters of t...

  8. Computer Simulation of Electrochemical Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    1997. 9. " Feynman Path Centroid Methods for Condensed Phase Quantum Dynamics", Invited Lecture at the Los Alamos Workshop on Novel Monte Carlo...Montreal, Canada, May, 1997. 3. "Path Integral Centroid Methods in Condensed Phase Quantum Dynamics", Invited Lecture , International Summer School on the...Excess Proton in Water", Invited Lecture at the Deutsche Bunsen-Gesellschaft für Physikalische Chemie International Discussion Meeting on "Hydrogen

  9. Ökonometrie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frohn, Joachim

    Die Ökonometrie, als eine Wissenschaft auf der Schnittstelle zwischen Mathematik, Statistik und den Wirtschaftswissenschaften, ist auch in der Deutschen Statistischen Gesellschaft (DStatG) zu einer tragenden Säule geworden. Das vorliegende Kapitel gibt einen kurzen Überblick über die Entwicklung der wichtigsten Gebiete der Ökonometrie und die Arbeit im "Ausschuss für Empirische Wirtschaftsforschung und Angewandte Ökonometrie".

  10. On the Law of Inertia. Translation of: Ueber das Beharrungsgesetz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Ludwig

    2014-04-01

    This article is a translation of Ludwig Lange: "Ueber das Beharrungsgesetz" in: Berichte ueber Verhandlungen der Koenigl. Saechsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, math.-physik. Klasse (Leipzig, 1885), SS. 333-351. Translated by Herbert Pfister, Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, 72076 Tübingen, Germany; herbert.pfister@uni-tuebingen.de. Kind assistance by Julian Barbour is acknowledged.

  11. 150 Years of the German Chemical Society (GDCh), New Board Members, and More.

    PubMed

    Gölitz, Peter

    2017-01-02

    Should manuscripts by young authors with low H indices be directly rejected? Such crazy ideas can be extrapolated from the notion that lots of citations are a guarantee for high quality. Such flawed developments in scientific publishing are one theme of the Editorial by the Editor in Chief of Angewandte Chemie, as are far more positive aspects, such as the activities of the German Chemical Society (GDCh; Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker) in it anniversary year, 2017.

  12. Initiative Within the Philosophy of Auftragstaktik: Determining Factors of the Understanding of Initiative in the German Army, 1806-1955

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Defense in-Depth,” in The Encyclopedia of World War I, A Political, Social , and Military History, ed. Spencer C. Tucker (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC...Führung are based on ethical, legal, political, and social foundations and meet military demands [emphasis in the original]. These foundations and...Innere Führung ein hoher Anspruch an die Praxis, Rede an der Führungsakademie der Bundeswehr.” June 20, 2003. In Gesellschaft, Militär, Krieg und

  13. Information Services: Their Organization, Control and Use.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    Hauptabteilung Managing Director Datenverarbeitung Norwegian Centre for Informatics Gesellschaft fOr Information Forskningsveien I und Dokumentation (GIl...Oslo 3 Herriotstrasse 5 Norway D-6000 Frankfurt am Main 71 Fed Rep of Germany Mr J.G.Coyne Manager Mr D.W.Goode Technical Information Center Chief...drive and enthusiasm in the management and library staff. This latter point was endorsed by Mr Sauter (DTIC USA) who went oil to commend the value of

  14. Astronomy from Olbers to Schwarzschild. (German Title: Astronomie von Olbers bis Schwarzschild)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Wolfgang R.; Hamel, Jürgen

    This issue comprises talks presented 2000 September 18 at the colloquium ``International relations in astronomy'' it is supplemented by additional articles about this topic. The foundation of the international ``Vereinigte Astronomische Gesellschaft'', which took place in 1800 in Bremen, prompted us to investigate the development of astronomy in German-speaking regions, and its international relations during the 19th century. We investigate the activities of famous astronomers like W. Olbers, J.E. Bode, F.X. von Zach, J.H. Schroeter, H.C. Schumacher and K. Schwarzschild, as well as those of their less famous professional colleagues like J.G. Schrader and L. de Ball. The geographical spectrum extends from Bremen and Lilienthal over Kiel, Gotha and Dresden to Copenhagen, Vienna and Chile. Among the topics are: telescope construction, including telescopes made by Herschel, the rediscovery of the minor planet Ceres 1801/02, the Berlin ``Astronomisches Jahrbuch'', the foundation of the ``Astronomische Nachrichten'', the evolution from the ``Vereinigte Astronomische Gesellschaft'' to the present-day ``Astronomische Gesellschaft'', the research at the Kuffner Observatory in Vienna, the professionalization in astronomy, and the attempts of many countries to establish a southern observatory in Chile. A listing of astronomical monuments in Lilienthal and Bremen concludes the book. All papers are written in German with English abstracts.

  15. DFVLR/FAA (Deutsche Forschungs-und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt/Federal Aviation Administration) Propeller Noise Tests in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel DNW. Appendix V. The Effect of Propeller Disc-Plane Attitude (Propeller 2: Thickness 8.5%, Square Tip-Shape),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    100 PlX 1. ul -100 cl -200 0L a- -300 -400 -i PMIN= -340.2 -500 1 .0 .5 1.0 TIME - REV. 120 AVERAGE (70) P IOWER SPECTRUM OF= 11 .2 Hz 110 00 0...268 4: 3.60 T: 288.6 K, AVERAGE (68) TIME HISTOPY (AP < 56 %) PMAX= 60.9 50 -- ,’-qJ .. 50 TIME- 0 ul -50 Lu a., -,,ɜ - Io -200 r18 . .0 .5 1.0 TIME

  16. Allgemeine Sprachfaehigkeit und Fremdsprachenerwerb. Zur Struktur von Leistungsdimensionen und linguistischer Kompetenz des Fremdsprachenlerners (General Language Ability and Foreign Language Acquisition. On the Structure of Performance Dimensions and the Linguistic Competence of the Foreign Language Learner). Diskussions beitraege aus dem Institute fuer Bildungsforschung, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sang, Fritz; Vollmer, Helmut J.

    This study investigates the theoretical plausibility and empirical validity of the assumption that all performance in a foreign language can be traced back to a single factor, the general language ability factor. The theoretical background of this hypothesis is reviewed in detail. The concept of a unitary linguistic competence, interpreted as an…

  17. DFVLR/FAA (Deutsche Forschungs-und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt/Federal Aviation Administration) Propeller Noise Tests in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel DNW. Appendix IV. The Effect of Propeller Disc-Plane Attitude (Propeller 1: Thickness 6.4%, Round Tip-Shape),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    8.7 Hzj . -1)0 I ’ 0~ wD1001 90 " a- • ..°I 60 I ’ 0 10 20 30 0 HARMONIC NUMBER 20 1W SKHz FREQUENC i-.. -7...TIME - REV. 2AVERAGE (69) POWER SPECTRUM% 110 OF= 8.7 HZj 1I100 a~ 30 (p80 70 - 010 20 3𔃺 HARMONIC NUMeER 0 12K HZ FREQUENCY -.. 4- 4% % { DATA...AVERAGE (6,4) POWER SPECTRUM ~ 180 OF= 7.5 Hzj .- 00 a-- -J 90 ui~J 0 10 20 30 4 HARMONIC NUMBER 0 2 KHz FREQUENCY 4 DATA POINT: FN-4 PUN:. 169 N,: P

  18. Allgemeine Sprachfaehigkeit und Fremdsprachenerwerb. Zur Struktur von Leistungsdimensionen und linguistischer Kompetenz des Fremdsprachenlerners (General Language Ability and Foreign Language Acquisition. On the Structure of Performance Dimensions and the Linguistic Competence of the Foreign Language Learner). Diskussions beitraege aus dem Institute fuer Bildungsforschung, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sang, Fritz; Vollmer, Helmut J.

    This study investigates the theoretical plausibility and empirical validity of the assumption that all performance in a foreign language can be traced back to a single factor, the general language ability factor. The theoretical background of this hypothesis is reviewed in detail. The concept of a unitary linguistic competence, interpreted as an…

  19. Mission in the East: The Building of an Army in a Democracy in the New German States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    tendency for NV A veterans to deny complicity in the SED regime. Some of them are attempting to rationalize their previous actions in the light of... Hannelore Kaeber and Bernard Tripp (Bonn: Bundeszentrale fuer politische Bildung, 1 984) , p. 261 . 1 2 . Paragraph 8, "Soldatengesetz," p. 26 1

  20. Educational and Nonprofit Institutions Receiving Prime Contract Awards for RDT&E (Research, Development, Test and Evaluation), Fiscal Year 1981.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    SCIENCE & TECH 162 - UNITED KINGDOM MINISTRY OF DEFENCE 2,670 - UN KINGDOM 162 UN KINGDOM 2,670 INSTITUT FUER ATMOSPHAERISCHE 25 - UNIVERSITE RENE ... DESCARTES 10 - GERMANY 25 FRANCE 10 INVERESK RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL 106 - 8,602 UN KINGDOM 106 ISRAEL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 55 - ISRAEL 55 KEELE UNIVERSITY

  1. Modeling the Penetration Behavior of Rigid Into Ballistic Gelatin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    CORCELETTE QUEBEC GOA 1R0 CANADA 4 ERNST MACH INSTITUT V HOHL ER E SCHMOLINSKE E SCHNEIDER K THOMA ECKERSTRASSE 4 D-7800...FREIBURG I BR 791 4 GERMANY 3 FRAUNHOFER INSTITUT FUER KURZZEITDYNAMIK ERNST MACH INSTITUT H ROTHENHAEUSLER H SENF E STRASSBURGER

  2. BKG/DGFI Combination Center Annual Report 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachmann, Sabine; Loesler, Michael; Heinkelmann, Robert; Gerstl, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (Bundesamt fuer Kartographie und Geodaesie, BKG) and the German Geodetic Research Institute (Deutsches Geodaetisches Forschungsinstitut, DGFI)BKG/DGFI Combination Center in 2011 and outlines the planned activities for the year 2012. The main focus was to stabilize outlier detection and to update the Web presentation of the combined products.

  3. Analysis and Evaluation of German Attainments and Research in the Liquid Rocket Engine Field. Volume 8. Rocket Engine Control and Safety Circuits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1951-02-01

    to operation. Second, the use of an electrical junction box (23, Fig. 5) through which all electrical lines are routed .. The junction box makes...Data F.E. 1779/5 „.„.,,,., APJ No. A 5-23 / . [16] Heller Not available from CADO Unterlagen fuer Triebwerk des Projektes C-2 (Basic

  4. Rheological Behavior of Entangled Polystyrene-Polyhedral Oligosilsesquioxane (POSS) Copolymer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-24

    and precipitated into 100 mL of methanol. After stirring 1 hour, the copolymer was isolated on fritted glassware and air-dried overnight. 1H NMR...Hesse, W. Z. Zeitschrift fuer Anorganische und Allgemeine Chemie 1926, 156, 245-257. 53 Fulcher, G. S. Journal of the American Ceramic Society

  5. 22. HISTORIC VIEW OF EARLY TEST STAND IN GERMANY PERHAPS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. HISTORIC VIEW OF EARLY TEST STAND IN GERMANY PERHAPS THE ENGINE IS FOR THE VFR'S (VEREIN FUER RAUMSCHIFFAHRT) 4 STICK REPULSOR. ENGINE IN PHOTOS IS BEING TANKED WITH LOX (NOTICE THE FROST FORMING AT THE BOTTOM OF THE TANK BEHIND THE LADDER. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  6. Lernen und Lehren von Mathematik-Analysen zum Unterrichtshandeln II - Band 6, IDM-Reihe, Untersuchungen zum Mathematikunterricht. (Learning and Teaching of Mathematics - Analysis of Instructional Actions II - Volume 6, IDM Series, Inquiries into Mathematics Instruction.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauersfeld, Heinrich; And Others

    This set of five papers, written in German with abstracts in English, was collected by the Institut fuer Didaktit der Mathematik (Institute for the Teaching of Mathematics) at the University of Bielefeld in West Germany. In the first paper, Bauersfeld considers domains of subjective experiences as the best issue for an interactive theory of…

  7. Adsorption of Soluble Silica Species on Alumina Powders and Vice Versa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    material, and it shifted more with increasing amounts of dissolved species. Acknowledgement This research was supported by the Army Research Office...Biesheuvel, P. M.; Yu, B. C.; Meinhart , C. D.; Lange, F. F. Zeitschrift fuer Metallkunde 2003, 94, 377-380. (6) Alexander, G. B.; Heston, W. M.; Iler, R. K. J

  8. Controlling and Evaluation of Employment Promotion and the Employment Services in Germany. IAB Labour Market Research Topics No. 36.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkmann, Christian

    This paper addresses the emerging evaluation and controlling system of Germany's Bundesanstalt fuer Arbeit, which is responsible for employment promotion. Part 1 discusses changes in employment administration in European countries, a process that has occurred in the Federal Republic of Germany, although most of the basic structures have been…

  9. Working Time and the Volume of Work in Germany: The IAB Concept of Measurement. IAB Labour Market Research Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach, Hans-Uwe; Koch, Susanne

    The Institut fuer Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB) or Institute for Employment Research has developed a detailed working time and volume of work measurement concept in order to more comprehensively assess the demand for labor. The individual components of working time in Germany are obtained from various data sources and combined to form…

  10. Aeroacoustics research in Europe: The CEAS-ASC report on 2003 highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, W.

    2004-11-01

    This is a report on some highlights of aeroacoustics research in Europe in 2003, compiled from information provided to the Aeroacoustics Specialists Committee of the Confederation of European Aerospace Societies (CEAS). The CEAS currently comprises the national Aerospace Societies of France (Association Aéronautique et Astronautique de France), Germany (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Luft- und Raumfahrt), Italy (Associazione Italiana di Aeronautica e Astronautica), The Netherlands (Nederlandse Vereniging voor Luchtvaarttechniek), Spain (Asociación de Ingenieros Aeronáuticos de España), Sweden (Flygtekniska Föreningen), Switzerland (Schweizerische Vereinigung für Flugwissenschaften) and the UK (The Royal Aeronautical Society).

  11. [Development and future position of the Academy of German Urologists].

    PubMed

    Michel, M S; Hakenberg, O; Schroeder, A

    2014-08-01

    In order to do justice to the complex requirements of vocational training in urology, last year the Academy made great progress in further development. During the 65(th) annual congress of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Urologie (DGU, German Society of Urology) a multitude of Academy forums and Academy expert courses were offered again by the working groups. The Academy now provides four academy sections. After foundation of the junior academy and the team academy, the additional groups of patient academy and knowledge academy were also created.

  12. Energieeffizienz im Verkehr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helms, Hinrich; Lambrecht, Udo; Hanusch, Jan

    Mobilität - also Beweglichkeit - kennzeichnet unsere Gesellschaft heute mehr als je zuvor. So können und müssen viele individuelle Bedürfnisse nicht mehr direkt am Wohnort, sondern an anderen Orten erfüllt werden. Mobilität kann in diesem Kontext auch definiert werden als " die Möglichkeit, durch Ortsveränderung Interessen realisieren zu können.“ (SRU 2005). Oft führt eine hohe Mobilität auch zu hohem Verkehrsaufkommen, wobei Verkehr dabei als tatsächliche Ortsveränderung verstanden wird (realisierte Mobilität).

  13. Der Einfluss der Digitalisierung auf die Organisation eines Unternehmens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Wolfram M.

    Die Digitalisierung schreitet mit großen Schritten voran. Dies wirkt sich nicht nur auf die Gesellschaft im Grundsatz, sondern auch auf das Verhalten der Kunden aus. Neue Kommunikationswege beschleunigen die Interaktion zwischen Unternehmen und Verbraucher. Im Vergleich mit großen Internetfirmen werden etablierte Dienstleistungsunternehmen - vom Energieversorger bis zu Versicherungen - stark unter Druck gesetzt, sich noch intensiver mit dem Kundenservice auseinanderzusetzen. Dies wird nur möglich sein, wenn sich die Organisationen entsprechend positionieren und sich frühzeitig auf die Veränderungen einstellen. Hieraus ergeben sich mehr Chancen als Risiken, zumal es nicht nur neue Prozesse, sondern auch neue Berufsbilder geben wird.

  14. [Current issues in pulmonary pathology. Report of the working group on pulmonary pathology of the German Society of Pathology].

    PubMed

    Schnabel, Ph A; Petersen, I; Junker, K

    2012-11-01

    The working group on pulmonary pathology of the German Society of Pathology (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Pathologie, DGP) developed very actively in the last year. Apart from the autumn meeting in Heidelberg in 2011 and the sessions at the annual DGP meeting in Berlin it was possible to realize a first publication with support and coauthorship of several members of the working group dealing with the classification of lung adenocarcinoma. In this report the key aspects of the activity related to the following issues are summarized including non-small cell lung carcinoma, neuroendocrine tumors of the lungs, interstitial pulmonary diseases, cell blocks in cytology and banking in thoracic pathology.

  15. Lifetime measurement of the metastable 2 3P 0 state in He-like uranium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toleikis, S.; Manil, B.; Bednarz, G.; Berdermann, E.; Beyer, H. F.; Bosch, F.; Bräuning-Demian, A.; Gumberidze, A.; Indelicato, P.; Kozhuharov, C.; Liesen, D.; Marrus, R.; Mokler, P. H.; Stachura, Z.; Stöhlker, T.; Warczak, A.

    2005-07-01

    The lifetime of the 2 3P0 state in He-like uranium has been measured in a beam-foil time-of-flight experiment at the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung accelerator facility with the result τ(2 3P0) = 58.2(9.5) ps. With the measured lifetime it is possible to derive a value of Δ E2s Lamb = 76. 3 ± 20. 6 eV for the n = 2 Lamb shift in uranium.

  16. Air resistance measurements on actual airplane parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiselsberger, C

    1923-01-01

    For the calculation of the parasite resistance of an airplane, a knowledge of the resistance of the individual structural and accessory parts is necessary. The most reliable basis for this is given by tests with actual airplane parts at airspeeds which occur in practice. The data given here relate to the landing gear of a Siemanms-Schuckert DI airplane; the landing gear of a 'Luftfahrzeug-Gesellschaft' airplane (type Roland Dlla); landing gear of a 'Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen' G airplane; a machine gun, and the exhaust manifold of a 269 HP engine.

  17. Fast six-channel pyrometer for warm-dense-matter experiments with intense heavy-ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, P.A.; Kulish, M.I.; Mintsev, V.; Nikolaev, D.N.; Ternovoi, V.Ya.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Udrea, S.; Tahir, N.A.; Varentsov, D.; Hug, A.

    2008-12-01

    This paper describes a fast multi-channel radiation pyrometer that was developed for warmdense-matter experiments with intense heavy ion beams at Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung mbH (GSI). The pyrometer is capable of measuring of brightness temperatures from 2000 K to 50000 K, at 6 wavelengths in visible and near-infrared parts of spectrum, with 5 nanosecond temporal resolution and several micrometers spatial resolution. The pyrometer's spectral discrimination technique is based on interference filters, which act as filters and mirrors to allow for simultaneous spectral discrimination of the same ray at multiple wavelengths.

  18. Forensic medicine in the German Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Strauch, H; Wirth, I; Geserick, G

    2004-09-10

    Forensic medicine services were resumed in the territory of the Soviet occupation zone in early summer 1945. One coherent legal system was established, following the foundation of the German Democratic Republic (GDR), 7 October 1949. Forensic medicine was subject of teaching and examinations from the very outset. Sub-specialisation (fellowship) was introduced in 1955. The Gesellschaft für Gerichtliche Medizin der DDR (GDR Society of Forensic Medicine) was established in 1967 and began to organise with high continuity a wide-ranging variety of scientific events. Almost all administrative districts had their own institute of forensic medicine by 1990.

  19. [Migraine variants and unusual types of migraine in childhood].

    PubMed

    Gaul, C; Kraya, T; Holle, D; Benkel-Herrenbrück, I; Schara, U; Ebinger, F

    2011-04-01

    Migraine is a frequent primary headache disorder in children and adolescents. Most of the young sufferers of migraine describe typical migraine symptoms but sometimes rare forms of migraine variants and unusual types of migraine occur in children and adolescents. These childhood periodic syndromes are common precursors of migraine. Phenotypes are alternating hemiplegia of childhood, benign paroxysmal torticollis, benign paroxysmal vertigo of childhood, alternating hemiplegia in childhood, Alice in Wonderland syndrome, cyclic vomiting syndrome, acute confusional migraine and abdominal migraine. © Deutsche Gesellschaft zum Studium des Schmerzes

  20. Aeromagnetic and Gravity Surveys in Afghanistan: A Web Site for Distribution of Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweeney, Ronald E.; Kucks, Robert P.; Hill, Patricia L.; Finn, Carol A.

    2006-01-01

    Aeromagnetic data were digitized from aeromagnetic maps created from aeromagnetic surveys flown in southeastern and southern Afghanistan in 1966 by PRAKLA, Gesellschaft fur praktische Lagerstattenforschung GmbH, Hannover, Germany, on behalf of the 'Bundesanstalt fur Bodenforschung', Hannover, Germany. The digitization was done along contour lines, followed by interpolation of the data along the original survey flight-lines. Survey and map specifications can be found in two project reports, 'prakla_report_1967.pdf' and 'bgr_report_1968.pdf', made available in this open-file report.

  1. Linking social change and developmental change: shifting pathways of human development.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Patricia M

    2009-03-01

    P. M. Greenfield's new theory of social change and human development aims to show how changing sociodemographic ecologies alter cultural values and learning environments and thereby shift developmental pathways. Worldwide sociodemographic trends include movement from rural residence, informal education at home, subsistence economy, and low-technology environments to urban residence, formal schooling, commerce, and high-technology environments. The former ecology is summarized by the German term Gemeinschaft ("community") and the latter by the German term Gesellschaft ("society"; Tönnies, 1887/1957). A review of empirical research demonstrates that, through adaptive processes, movement of any ecological variable in a Gesellschaft direction shifts cultural values in an individualistic direction and developmental pathways toward more independent social behavior and more abstract cognition--to give a few examples of the myriad behaviors that respond to these sociodemographic changes. In contrast, the (much less frequent) movement of any ecological variable in a Gemeinschaft direction is predicted to move cultural values and developmental pathways in the opposite direction. In conclusion, sociocultural environments are not static either in the developed or the developing world and therefore must be treated dynamically in developmental research.

  2. [History of Medical Mycology in the former German Democratic Republic].

    PubMed

    Seebacher, C; Blaschke-Hellmessen, Renate; Kielstein, P

    2002-01-01

    After the Second World War the development of medical mycology in Germany had taken a very different course in the east and west parts depending on the political division. In this respect our contribution deals with the situation in the former German Democratic Republic. Efficient mycological centres were founded step by step almost in all medical universities on the basis of the mycological laboratories in dermatological hospitals competent for diagnostic work, but also for teaching and scientific research. In this context biologists were the main stay of mycology, they finally were integrated to the same degree in the universities like physicians. The effectiveness of the Gesellschaft für Medizinische Mykologie der DDR (GMM), its board of directors and its working groups as well as the topics of human and animal mycology during this period are described. Especially the merger of the GMM with the Deutschsprachige Mykologische Gesellschaft after the reunification of Germany without problems and the kind co-operation of Prof. Dr. Johannes Müller during this procedure are emphasized.

  3. Interface science of controlled metal/metal and metal/ceramic interfaces prepared using ultrahigh vacuum diffusion bonding

    SciTech Connect

    King, W.E.; Campbell, G.H.; Coombs, A.W.; Johnson, G.W.; Kelly, B.E.; Reitz, T.C.; Stoner, S.L.; Wien, W.L.; Wilson, D.M.

    1993-04-01

    We have designed, constructed, and are operating a capability for production of controlled homophase and heterophase interfaces: an ultrahigh vacuum diffusion bonding machine. This machine is based on a previous design which is operating at the Max Planck Institut fuer Metallforschung, Institut fuer Werkstoffwissenschaft, Stuttgart, FRG. In this method, flat-polished single or polycrystals of materials with controlled surfaced topography can be heat treated up to 1500C in ultrahigh vacuum. Surfaces of annealed samples can be sputter cleaned and characterized prior to bonding. Samples can then be precisely aligned crystallographically to obtain desired grain boundary misorientations. Material couples can then be bonded at temperatures up to 1500C and pressures up to 10 MPa. Results are presented from initial work on Mo grain boundaries and Cu/Al{sub 2}A{sub 3} interfaces.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Catalogue of Nearby Stars, Edition 1969 (Gliese, 1979)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gliese, W.

    2015-11-01

    The Catalogue of Nearby Stars, Edition 1969, is a new edition of the "Katalog der Sterne naeher als 20pc fuer 1950.0" (Giiese 1957, Astron. Rechen-Inst. Heidelberg Mitt. A, 8). It contains the data available at the end of 1968 for the 915 stars of the first edition, as well as stars with parallaxes >=0.045arcsec. (1 data file).

  5. Mission Planning System (MPS)/Intelligence Computer System (ICS) System Set (MISS). MPS Follow-On Hardware Report (Preliminary)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-31

    Electronic Combat vIii EIFEL ................ Electronik Information und Fuhrung Systeme Fuer die Einsatzbereitshaft der Luftwaffe (Multi...functions of the wing ICS is to receive this data from various operations and Intelligence sources, such as EIFEL , IINCOMNET, CONSTANT SOURCE, and WCCS...interim capability to directly receive and process data from EIFEL , IINCOMNET, WCCS, CONDUIT, and CONSTANT SOURCE if the installation of the MPS Follow-On

  6. Subcontracted R and D final report: analysis of samples obtained from GKT gasification test of Kentucky coal. Nonproprietary version

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, S.V.

    1983-09-01

    A laboratory test program was performed to obtain detailed compositional data on the Gesellshaft fuer Kohle-Technologie (GKT) gasifier feed and effluent streams. GKT performed pilot gasification tests with Kentucky No. 9 coal and collected various samples which were analyzed by GKT and the Radian Corporation, Austin, Texas. The coal chosen had good liquefaction characteristics and a high gasification reactivity. No organic priority pollutants or PAH compounds were detected in the wash water, and solid waste leachates were within RCRA metals limits.

  7. The NATO Two-Track Decision: The Impact of Public Opinion on Government Policy in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    Noelle - Neumann , "The Missile Gap," p. 46. * S 81 the SPD was very careful to emphasize the arms control portion of the decision as its first priority. This...1983), p. 1. 5 3Ibid., p. 3; and Noelle - Neumann , "The Missile Gap," p. 45. 5 4 Wolfgang Wagner, "Der Regierungswechsel in Bonn: Aussenpolitische...fuer Demoskopie Allensbach) was founded in 1947 by Elisabeth Noelle - Neumann and E.P. Neumann . The Institute concentrates on political, scientific

  8. First light of the ESO Laser Guide Star Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccini Calia, D.; Allaert, E.; Alvarez, J. L.; Araujo Hauck, C.; Avila, G.; Bendek, E.; Buzzoni, B.; Comin, M.; Cullum, M.; Davies, R.; Dimmler, M.; Guidolin, I.; Hackenberg, W.; Hippler, S.; Kellner, S.; van Kesteren, A.; Koch, F.; Neumann, U.; Ott, T.; Popovic, D.; Pedichini, F.; Quattri, M.; Quentin, J.; Rabien, S.; Silber, A.; Tapia, M.

    2006-06-01

    Two teams of scientists and engineers at Max Planck Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik and at the European Southern Observatory have joined forces to design, build and install the Laser Guide Star Facility for the VLT. The Laser Guide Star Facility has now been completed and installed on the VLT Yepun telescope at Cerro Paranal. In this paper we report on the first light and first results from the Commissioning of the LGSF.

  9. State Resolved Thermal Hydrothermal Collision Dynamics of Atmospheric Species

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    surface liquid. The HF(v=2,J) rotational distributions are well fit with a two temperature Boltzmann analysis (see above), with a near room...Single Molecule Level: From Quantum Dots to Docking of RNA" , Lehrstuhl für BioMolekulare Optik, Department für Physik. Ludwig Maximilians...34, Lehrstuhl fuer BioMolekulare Optik, Department of Physics, Ludwig Maximilians Universitaet, Munich, Germany, April 25, 2006. "Gas-Liquid Interfaces

  10. Exploratory simulations of multiphase effects in gas injection and ventilation tests in an underground rock laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Finsterle, S. . Versuchsanstalt fuer Wasserbau, Hydrologie und Glaciologie); Schlueter, E.; Pruess, K. )

    1990-06-01

    This report is one of a series documenting the results of the Nagra-DOE Cooperative (NDC-I) research program in which the cooperating scientists explore the geological, geophysical, hydrological, geochemical, and structural effects was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) through the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and the Swiss Nationale Genossenschaft fuer die Lagerung radioaktiver Abfaella (Nagra) and concluded in September 1989. 16 refs., 29 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Dynamic Deformation of a Ceramic/GRP Composite From KE Impact

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    absorb more energy by elastic and plastic deformation and exhibit therefore much less damage after impact . Acknowledgement . The authors gratefully...i ARMY RESEARCH LABORATORY Dynamic Deformation of a Ceramic/ GRP Composite From KE Impact E. StraPburger H. Senf prepared by Fraunhofer...Deformation of a Ceramic/GRP Composite From KE Impact c: DAJA45-93-C-0045 E. StraBburger and H. Senf Fraunhofer-Institut Fuer Kurzzeitdynamik ARL-CR-282

  12. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 12, Number 7,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    Turbomaschinen infolge der 23. Black, H.F., "Effects of Fluid-Filled Clearance Labyrinthstroemung," Ing. Arch ., 43 p 127 Spaces on Centrifugal Pump and Submerged...Turbomaschinen als Ursache fuer die Entstehung schwingungsanfachender Querkrafte," Ing. Arch ., 28. Smith, K.J., "An Operation History of Fractional 45...Systems Having benkraftmaschinenanlagen," Konstruktion, 31 Asymmetric Elements," Ing. Arch ., 47 p 293 (9), p 357 (1979). (1978). 48. Yamada, T. and

  13. Biologische Wirkungen der Bestrahlung mit schweren Ionen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefer, Jürgen

    1982-06-01

    Experiments with accelerated heavy ions may contribute to the understanding of biological radiation action. After outlining the theoretical background experiments are described which were carried out at the UNILAC-machine (Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany) where ions up to uranium can be accelerated to maximal specific energies of 10 MeV/u. Yeast cells served as biological test systems with the synthesis of ribosomal RNA (r-RNA), colony-forming ability and mutation induction as experimental endpoints. A relationship between action and energy deposition by individual particles can be demonstrated for the inhibition of r-RNA synthesis, in other cases the ion energy plays also an important role indicating that the interaction of δ-electrons from different particles contributes significantly to the biological effect.

  14. Genetics as a modernization program: biological research at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes and the political economy of the Nazi State.

    PubMed

    Gausemeier, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    During the Third Reich, the biological institutes of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society (KWG, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft) underwent a substantial reorganization and modernization. This paper discusses the development of projects in the fields of biochemical genetics, virus research, radiation genetics, and plant genetics that were initiated in those years. These cases exemplify, on the one hand, the political conditions for biological research in the Nazi state. They highlight how leading scientists advanced their projects by building close ties with politicians and science-funding organizations and companies. On the other hand, the study examines how the contents of research were shaped by, and how they contributed to, the aims and needs of the political economy of the Nazi system. This paper therefore aims not only to highlight basic aspects of scientific development under Nazism, but also to provide general insights into the structure of the Third Reich and the dynamics of its war economy.

  15. A giant planet around a metal-poor star of extragalactic origin.

    PubMed

    Setiawan, Johny; Klement, Rainer J; Henning, Thomas; Rix, Hans-Walter; Rochau, Boyke; Rodmann, Jens; Schulze-Hartung, Tim

    2010-12-17

    Stars in their late stage of evolution, such as horizontal branch stars, are still largely unexplored for planets. We detected a planetary companion around HIP 13044, a very metal-poor star on the red horizontal branch, on the basis of radial velocity observations with a high-resolution spectrograph at the 2.2-meter Max-Planck Gesellschaft-European Southern Observatory telescope. The star's periodic radial velocity variation of P = 16.2 days caused by the planet can be distinguished from the periods of the stellar activity indicators. The minimum mass of the planet is 1.25 times the mass of Jupiter and its orbital semimajor axis is 0.116 astronomical units. Because HIP 13044 belongs to a group of stars that have been accreted from a disrupted satellite galaxy of the Milky Way, the planet most likely has an extragalactic origin.

  16. Germany-US Nuclear Theory Exchange Program for QCD Studies of Hadrons & Nuclei 'GAUSTEQ'

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, Jozef; Melnitchouk, Wally

    2016-03-07

    GAUSTEQ was a Germany-U.S. exchange program in nuclear theory whose purpose was to focus research efforts on QCD studies of hadrons and nuclei, centered around the current and future research programs of Jefferson Lab and the Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Germany. GAUSTEQ provided travel support for theoretical physicists at US institutions conducting collaborative research with physicists in Germany. GSI (with its Darmstadt and Helmholtz Institute Mainz braches) served as the German “hub” for visits of U.S. physicists, while Jefferson Lab served as the corresponding “hub” for visits of German physicists visiting U.S. institutions through the reciprocal GUSTEHP (German-US Theory Exchange in Hadron Physics) program. GAUSTEQ was funded by the Office of Nuclear Physics of the U.S. Department of Energy, under Contract No.DE-SC0006758 and officially managed through Old Dominion University in Norfolk, Virginia. The program ran between 2011 and 2015.

  17. On the phylogenetic position of the scrub-birds (Passeriformes: Menurae: Atrichornithidae) of Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chesser, R.T.; ten, Have J.

    2007-01-01

    Evolutionary relationships of the scrub-birds Atrichornis were investigated using complete sequences of the recombination-activating gene RAG-1 and the proto-oncogene c-mos for two individuals of the noisy scrub-bird Atrichornis clamosus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Atrichornis was sister to the genus Menura (the lyrebirds) and that these two genera (the Menurae) were sister to the rest of the oscine passerines. A sister relationship between Atrichornis and Menura supports the traditional view, based on morphology and DNA hybridization, that these taxa are closely related. Similarly, a sister relationship with the remaining oscine passerines agrees with the morphological distinctiveness of Atrichornis and Menura, although this result contradicts conclusions based on DNA hybridization studies. Although Atrichornis is very well known morphologically, previous conclusions regarding its relationships were hampered by a lack of comparative knowledge of other passerines, making concurrence of the sequence data of particular significance. ?? Dt. Ornithologen-Gesellschaft e.V. 2007.

  18. Übergreifende Risiken und Unsicherheiten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renn, Ortwin

    Inzwischen kann die Wissenschaft mit Klimamodellen künftige Entwicklungen und Gefährdungen durch den Klimawandel relativ gut projizieren. Doch das ist immer mit Unsicherheiten und Mehrdeutigkeiten verbunden, die Anlass für gesellschaftliche Debatten geben. Im Mittelpunkt dieses Kapitels steht daher die Frage, wie Individuen, Gesellschaften und die Weltgemeinschaft mit globalen Risiken umgehen sollen und wie sie die mit Risiko verknüpften Probleme von Komplexität, Unsicherheit und Mehrdeutigkeit angehen wollen. Zudem gilt es auszuhandeln, wie viel Aufmerksamkeit und wie viele Ressourcen eine Gesellschaft aufwenden soll, um das Risiko "Klimawandel" zu mindern, während noch viele andere, ebenso gravierende Risiken die Menschheit bedrohen.

  19. Galactic and stellar dynamics in the era of high resolution surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boily, C. M.; Combes, F.; Hensler, G.; Spurzem, R.

    2008-12-01

    The conference Galactic and Stellar Dynamics in the Era of High Resolution Surveys took place at the European Doctoral College (EDC) in Strasbourg from 2008 March 16 to 20. The event was co-sponsored by the Astronomische Gesellschaft (AG) and the Société Fran\\c{c}aise d'Astronomie et d'Astrophysique (SF2A), a joint venture aiming to set a new trend of regular thematic meetings in specific areas of research. This special issue of the Astronomische Nachrichten is a compilation of the papers presented at the meeting. We give an outline of the meeting together with a short history of the relations of the two societies.

  20. [Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger (1781-1833), an extremely important naturalist and scholar].

    PubMed

    Schultka, Rüdiger; Göbbel, Luminita

    2002-11-01

    Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger (1781-1833) belongs to the famous scientists of the 19th century. His research work is enormous. Important termini e.g. diverticulum Meckelii, cartilago Meckelii, Meckel syndrome and Meckel Serres law reflect the scientific results obtained by Meckel. He worked as a professor of anatomy, pathology and zoology at the University of Halle, a town in the Central Germany. Meckel founded the scientific teratology. In the literature he is also referred to the German Cuvier. On 8 April 1802, J. F. Meckel defended his doctoral thesis "De cordis conditionibus abnormibus". On occasion of the 200th anniversary of this event, we like to honor J. F. Meckel the famous German anatomist. Therefore, during the 97th session of the Anatomische Gesellschaft at Halle, a satellite symposium "From Meck el to genom" was held.

  1. [Personnel requirements of medical radiation physics in radiotherapy in comparison to the current guidelines "radiation protection in medicine" : Special consideration of intensity-modulated radiation therapy].

    PubMed

    Leetz, H-K; Eipper, H H; Gfirtner, H; Schneider, P; Welker, K

    2014-08-01

    In 1994 and 1998 reports on staffing levels in medical radiation physics for radiation therapy were published by the "Deutsche Gesellschaft für Medizinische Physik" (DGMP, German Society for Medical Physics). Because of the technical and methodological progress, changes in recommended qualifications of staff and new governmental regulations, it was necessary to establish new staffing levels. The data were derived from a new survey in clinics. Some of the previously established results from the old reports were adapted to the new conditions by conversion.The staffing requirements were normalized to main components as in the earlier reports resulting in a simple method for calculation of staffing levels. The results were compared with the requirements in the "Richtlinie Strahlenschutz in der Medizin" (guidelines on radiation protection in medicine) and showed satisfactory agreement.

  2. Transatlantic link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    (left) European Geophysical Society (EGS) President Rolf Meissner at AGU Headquarters with (center) Executive Director Fred Spilhaus and (right) Foreign Secretary Juan Roederer. Meissner attended the meeting of AGU's Committee on International Participation (CIP) on February 26, 1988. At that meeting, specific ways of fostering close links between AGU and EGS were discussed.A few weeks later, Roederer and AGU staff, working with EGS Secretary-General Arne Richter at the EGS meeting in Bologna, Italy, March 21-25, planned details of the establishment of an AGU office in Europe. The Copernicus Gesellschaft, a new entity located on the premises of the Max Planck Institute for Aeronomy in Lindau, Federal Republic of Germany, will provide the administrative staff and handle logistics.

  3. Die chronische venöse Insuffizienz - Eine Zusammenfassung der Pathophysiologie, Diagnostik und Therapie.

    PubMed

    Santler, Bettina; Goerge, Tobias

    2017-05-01

    Die chronische Venenerkrankung ist eine weit verbreitete Krankheit, die in späteren Stadien mit einer Vielzahl an Symptomen, aber auch Komplikationen wie dem Ulcus cruris, einhergeht. Dies wiederum hat weitreichende Auswirkungen auf die Lebensqualität der Patienten wie auch auf das Gesundheitssystem. Für die Diagnostik der chronischen Venenerkrankungen steht eine Auswahl an Verfahren zur Verfügung, wobei sich die farbkodierte Duplexsonographie als Goldstandard etabliert hat. Im Bereich der Therapie kam es in den letzten Jahrzehnten zu großen Fortschritten, sodass heute auch Alternativen zum klassischen Stripping durch die endoluminalen Verfahren zur Verfügung stehen. Die Wahl der Therapieoption ist jedoch weiterhin stark abhängig von mehreren Faktoren, unter anderem von den anatomischen Gegebenheiten und dem Krankheitsstadium. Im folgenden Artikel werden die Anatomie und Pathophysiologie, sowie die aktuellen Standards der Diagnostik und Therapie zusammengefasst. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Sind die klassischen Methoden zur mykologischen Diagnostik noch "State-of-the-Art"?

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Cornelia; Bauer, Andrea; Brasch, Jochen; Nenoff, Pietro; Schaller, Martin; Mayser, Peter; Hipler, Uta-Christina; Elsner, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Die Labordiagnose einer Pilzinfektion der Haut basiert traditionell auf dem Nativpräparat und der Anzucht des Erregers aus dem klinischen Material. Auch der dermato- histologischer Nachweis von Pilzelementen ist möglich. Diese Methoden sind, sofern sie korrekt ausgeführt werden, in der Regel zum Pilznachweis geeignet. Im Zuge der personalisierten Medizin und den daraus erwachsenden Aufgaben werden jedoch neue Verfahren erforderlich, welche einfach, spezifisch und schnell sind. Der zusätzliche Einsatz von DNA-basierten molekularen Methoden erhöht die Empfindlichkeit sowie die diagnostische Spezifität und reduziert die zum Teil wochenlange Durchführungszeit der konventionellen mykologischen Diagnostik auf 24 bis 48 Stunden. Im Zuge der stetigen Weiterentwicklung im Bereich der personalisierten Medizin sind einfache Analysensysteme auf PCR-Basis denkbar, die in der Hautarztpraxis eine Dermatophyten-Sofort-Diagnostik erlauben (Point-of-Care-Tests). © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Diagnostic analysis of the Lake Uluabat in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Degirminci, Hasan; Alp, Ahmet; Buyukcangaz, Hakan

    2006-05-01

    Diagnostic analysis of wetlands is an ordered/structured method of examining wetland systems to identify their values and constraints for the solution of the environmental problems. This study focuses on the diagnostic analysis of Lake Uluabat on the feasibility of "Objective Oriented Project Planning (OOPP)" approach, created by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and further improved by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ). Negative changes both in water quality and quantity were determined as the core problems. The main results were summarized as the water pollution and fluctuation in the water level caused by the urban and agricultural waste disposals, sedimentation, and overfishing. These negative effects cause loss of biodiversity and damage to crops. Disposal control, training, adequate regulations, and a centralized control and monitoring authority have been proposed to cope with the determined problems.

  6. Beliefs, perceptions and psychosocial impact of acne amongst Singaporean students in tertiary institutions.

    PubMed

    Su, Peiqi; Chen Wee Aw, Derrick; Lee, Siew Hui; Han Sim Toh, Matthias Paul

    2015-03-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition which can have a negative impact on a patient's quality of life. A survey was distributed among students at tertiary institutions. Data was collected on participants' own rating of acne grade and how acne affected their social life. A clinician on-site graded the participants' acne. Of the 429 students who participated in the survey, 59.8 % felt embarrassed or self-conscious because of their acne. There was a low but statistically significant correlation (Spearman's Correlation Coefficient = 0.471, p < 0.001) between participants' and clinicians' grading of acne. Acne vulgaris causes a considerable amount of psychosocial stress. There are unfounded beliefs surrounding acne and unawareness of treatment options available. © 2015 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. "Resources for each other." The society of German neurologists and psychiatrists and the Nazi "health leadership".

    PubMed

    Schmuhl, Hans-Walter

    2011-11-01

    The history of the German Association for Psychiatry and--after its merger with the Society of German Neurologists in 1935--the Society of German Neurologists and Psychiatrists (Gesellschaft deutscher Neurologen und Psychiater, GDNP) during the period of National Socialism has been subjected to only rudimentary research. The conventionally accepted idea that two independent professional associations were "coordinated" from above and turned into the extended arm of Nazi genetic health policy (Erbgesundheitspolitik) against their will must be reconsidered. This paper asks how the relationship between the GDNP and the Nazi state can be described adequately. Psychiatry and neurology as practice and science, and the biopolicy development dictatorship of National Socialism functioned, so the basic thesis, as "resources for each other" (Mitchell Ash).

  8. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Coumarin-Triazole Hybrid Molecules as Potential Antitumor and Pancreatic Lipase Agents.

    PubMed

    Kahveci, Bahittin; Yılmaz, Fatih; Menteşe, Emre; Ülker, Serdar

    2017-08-01

    The design, synthesis, and investigation of antitumor and anti-lipase activities of some coumarin-triazole hybrid molecules are reported. The synthesis of these hybrid molecules was performed under microwave irradiation and conventional heating procedures. The newly synthesized hybrid molecules were investigated as inhibitors against four tumor cell lines (BT20 human breast carcinoma, SK-Mel 128 melanoma, DU-145 prostate carcinoma, and A549 lung carcinoma) and porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL). Most of these compounds showed notable antitumor activities against the tested tumor cell lines, and compounds 8i and 8l showed the best anti-lipase activity of 99.30 ± 0.56% and 99.85 ± 1.21%, respectively, at a concentration of 10 μM. © 2017 Deutsche Pharmazeutische Gesellschaft.

  9. Does body size influence nest attendance? A comparison of Ross's geese (Chen rossii) and the larger, sympatric lesser snow geese (C. caerulescens caerulescens)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jonsson, J.E.; Afton, A.D.; Alisauskas, R.T.

    2007-01-01

    The body-size hypothesis predicts that nest attendance is positively related to body size among waterfowl and that recess duration is inversely related to body size. Several physiological and behavioral characteristics of Ross's geese (Chen rossii) suggest that females of this species should maintain high nest attendance despite their relatively small body size. Accordingly, we used 8-mm films to compare the incubation behavior of Ross's geese to that of the larger, closely-related lesser snow geese (C. caerulescens caerulescens; hereafter, snow geese) nesting sympatrically at Karrak lake, Nunavut, Canada in 1993. We found that nest attendance averaged 99% for both species. Our results offer no support for the body-size hypothesis. We suggest that temperature requirements of embryos in relation to short incubation duration and a low foraging efficiency of females select for high nest attendance in both snow geese and Ross's geese. ?? Dt. Ornithologen-Gesellschaft e.V. 2007.

  10. The blood from Auschwitz and the silence of the scholars.

    PubMed

    Müller-Hill, B

    1999-01-01

    The Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Genetics and Eugenics in Berlin-Dahlem was the centre of scientific racism in Nazi Germany. Its bad history culminated in a research project to analyse the molecular basis of racial differences in the susceptibility to various infectious diseases such as tuberculosis. Josef Mengele, a former postdoc of the director of the institute, Otmar von Verschuer, collected blood samples and other material in Auschwitz from families and twins of Jews and Gypsies. The blood samples were analysed by Günther Hillmann in the Berlin laboratory of Nobel Prize winner Adolf Butenandt. Butenandt had just moved to Tübingen. The project was paid for by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. Butenandt, Hillmann and von Verschuer made scientific careers in the Federal Republic. To the present day this past has not been acknowledged by the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft as part of its history.

  11. Melanoma stem cells.

    PubMed

    Roesch, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    The cancer stem cell concept significantly broadens our understanding of melanoma biology. However, this concept should be regarded as an integral part of a holistic cancer model that also includes the genetic evolution of tumor cells and the variability of cell phenotypes within a dynamic tumor microenvironment. The biologic complexity and methodological difficulties in identifying cancer stem cells and their biomarkers are currently impeding the direct translation of experimental findings into clinical practice. Nevertheless, it is these methodological shortcomings that provide a new perspective on the phenotypic heterogeneity and plasticity of melanoma with important consequences for future therapies. The development of new combination treatment strategies, particularly with regard to overcoming treatment resistance, could significantly benefit from targeted elimination of cell subpopulations with cancer stem cell properties. © 2015 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. An advanced configuration management system for full scope power plant simulators

    SciTech Connect

    Storm, J.; Goemann, A.

    1996-11-01

    In August 1993 KSG Kraftwerks-Simulator-Gesellschaft, Germany, awarded a contract to STN ATLAS Elektronik for the delivery of two full scope replica training simulators for the German BWR plants Isar 1 and Philipsburg 1, known as the double simulator project S30 (S31/S32). For both projects a computer based Configuration Management System (CMS) was required to overcome deficiencies of older simulator systems in terms of limited upgrade and maintenance capabilities and incomplete documentation. The CMS allows complete control over the entire simulator system covering all software- and hardware-items and therewith exceed quality assurance requirements as defined in ISO 9000-3 which gives recommendations for software configuration management only. The system is realized under the project using the UNIX based relational database system EMPRESS and is in use as a development- and maintenance-tool to improve simulator quality and ensure simulator configuration integrity.

  13. Analysis of the reliability of the local effect model for the use in carbon ion treatment planning systems.

    PubMed

    Russo, G; Attili, A; Bourhaleb, F; Marchetto, F; Peroni, C; Schmitt, E; Bertrand, D

    2011-02-01

    In radiotherapy with carbon ions, biological effects of treatments have to be predicted. For this purpose, one of the most used models is the local effect model (LEM) developed at the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany. At the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Italy, the reliability of the last published version of LEM (LEM III) in reproducing radiobiological data has been checked under both monoenergetic and spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) carbon-ion irradiation. The reproduction of the monoenergetic measurements with the LEM was rather successful for some cell lines, while it failed for the less-radioresistant ones. The SOBP experimental trend was predicted by the LEM, but a large shift between model curves and measured points was observed.

  14. Recommendations of the German Society for Medical Education and the German Association of Medical Faculties regarding university-specific assessments during the study of human, dental and veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Jünger, Jana; Just, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    The practice of assessing student performance in human, dental and veterinary medicine at universities in German-speaking countries has undergone significant changes in the past decade. Turning the focus to practical requirements regarding medical practice during undergraduate study away from an often theory-dominated curriculum, the academic scrutiny of the basics of teaching medical knowledge and skills, and amendments to legislation, all require ongoing adjustments to curricula and the ways in which assessments are done during undergraduate medical education. To establish quality standards, the Gesellschaft für medizinische Ausbildung (GMA German Society for Medical Education) reached a consensus in 2008 on recommendations for administering medical school-specific exams which have now been updated and approved by the GMA assessments committee, together with the Medizinischer Fakultätentag (MFT German Association of Medical Faculties), as recommendations for the administration of high-quality assessments.

  15. Contributions to the History of Astronomy, Vol. 3. (German Title: Beiträge zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Wolfgang R.; Hamel, Jürgen

    The main papers of this issue deal with previously unknown details of the foundation of the astronomical observatories in Gotha and in Königsberg (with numerous original documents by F.W. Bessel), with the Mecklenburg ordnance survey (1853-1873, with previously unknown letters by C.F. Gauss), with the merits of the Leipzig astronomer G.A. Jahn, with the internationality of the Astronomische Gesellschaft, and with early, previously little noted works on the expansion of the Universe. The issue contains a description of the important collection of sundials in the Kassel museum, discussions about the Medieval ``Phantom Period'', about Goethe's description of the zodiacal light, as well as obituaries and book reviews. Most papers in German, one in English.

  16. [Special care units for acutely ill patients with cognitive impairment in Germany. Position paper].

    PubMed

    Hofmann, W; Rösler, A; Vogel, W; Nehen, H G

    2014-02-01

    Dementia is an increasing challenge for care providers in nursing homes and hospitals. Since the 1980s, special acute care units in nursing homes have developed rapidly. In Germany, the first unit in a hospital opened in 1990. In 2013, there were 22 units. In the following paper, the German Geriatric Society ("Deutsche Gesellschaft für Geriatrie e. V.") recommends basic standards for these wards. The basic standards for these wards include the following: a maximum of 20 beds, an area physically separated from the geriatric hospital department, their own dayroom and therapy room, a structured daily routine suitable for patients with dementia, the selection of permanent staff on a voluntary basis, specialized training, extended geriatric assessment, and special consideration of the background and social situation of the patients.

  17. Skin cancer induced by natural UV-radiation as an occupational disease—requirements for its notification and recognition.

    PubMed

    Diepgen, Thomas L; Brandenburg, Stephan; Aberer, Werner; Bauer, Andrea; Drexler, Hans; Fartasch, Manigé; John, Swen Malte; Krohn, Steffen; Palfner, Stefanie; Römer, Wolfgang; Schuhmacher-Stock, Uta; Elsner, Peter

    2014-12-01

    In Germany over 2.5 million employees have an increased risk of skin cancer due to their occupational exposure to natural UV-irradiation. The medical consultation board "Occupational diseases" of the Ministry of Labor and Social affairs has investigated the association between occupational UV-irradiation and skin cancer risk and recommends to add the following new occupational disease into the appendix1 of the German ordinance on occupational diseases: "Squamous cell carcinoma and multiple actinic keratosis due to natural UV-irradiation". In this article we report in the view of the German Society of Occupational and Environmental Dermatology (ABD) and the German Statutory accident insurance (DGUV), whose criteria have to be fulfilled for the notification and recognition of an occupational skin cancer due to natural UV-irradiation. © 2014 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. About SEFI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruprecht, Robert

    SEFI stands for Société Européenne pour la Formation des Ingénieurs (European Society of Engineering Education). This society, founded in 1973, is presented on the background of European educational tradition. SEFI is one of two European societies dedicated to the question of engineering education. For a long time, SEFI represented rather the western and northern part of Europe, while its sister organization IGIP (Internationale Gesellschaft für Ingenieurpädagogik - International Society for Engineering Pedagogy) concentrated on Middle and Eastern Europe. Nowadays, the two societies are working together and cover more or less all of Europe. SEFI’s activities, outreach, links, projects, and prospects are described and characterized. SEFI is not just involved with didactical questions. The society also takes an active role in the shaping of the European landscape of engineering education being member or partner of in a number of societies and contributing actively to EU projects.

  19. Keim oder kein Keim: Herausforderungen bei der Diagnose mykobakterieller Infektionen der Haut.

    PubMed

    Peters, Franziska; Batinica, Marina; Plum, Georg; Eming, Sabine A; Fabri, Mario

    2016-12-01

    Kutane Mykobakteriosen sind in Deutschland selten. Dennoch ist es für eine frühzeitige Diagnose und anschließende wirksame Behandlung erforderlich, dass diese Krankheitsbilder im ärztlichen Bewusstsein verankert sind. Darüber hinaus stehen Infektionen mit Mykobakterien auf der Liste der Differentialdiagnosen vieler Hautkrankheiten. Diagnosen kutaner Mykobakteriosen beruhen auf klinischen Merkmalen und auf Laboruntersuchungen, einschließlich bakterieller Kulturen, histopathologischer Untersuchungen und PCR-basierten Verfahren. Das Wissen um Möglichkeiten und Grenzen dieser Laboruntersuchungen ist von zentraler Bedeutung, um eine angemessene klinische Entscheidung zu treffen. In diesem Beitrag diskutieren wir die aktuellen diagnostischen Möglichkeiten, die in Verdachtsfällen kutaner Mykobakteriosen zur Verfügung stehen. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Mikrodaten und statistische Auswertungsmethoden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hujer, Reinhard

    Mit der zunehmenden Verfügbarkeit immer größerer Querschnitts- und Längschnittsdatensätze für Personen, Haushalte und Betriebe sowie deren Verknüpfungen hat sich die mikroökonometrische Forschung in den vergangenen Jahren rasant weiterentwickelt. Dies gilt sowohl aus methodischer als auch aus empirischer, anwendungsorientierter Sicht. Mikrodaten und mikroökonometrische Ansätze dienen dazu, aktuelle, politikrelevante Fragen aufzugreifen, sie zu analysieren und fundierte politische Empfehlungen zu geben, beispielsweise im Rahmen der Arbeitsmarkt- und Sozialpolitik, der Finanzanalyse und der Marketingforschung. Die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft (DStatG) und deren Mitglieder haben sich in den Ausschüssen und in Hauptversammlungen kontinuierlich mit den Weiterentwicklungen der mikroökonometrischen Methodik und den empirischen Anwendungen befasst. Zahlreiche Publikationen von Mitgliedern der DStatG haben entscheidend zum kritischen Diskurs und zum wissenschaftlichen Fortschritt in diesem Bereich beigetragen.

  1. The beginnings of German governmental sponsorship in astronomy: the solar eclipse expeditions of 1868 as a prelude to the Venus transit expeditions of 1874 and 1882

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, Hilmar W.

    The origins of the North German expeditions to observe the total solar eclipse of August 18, 1868, are outlined. The incentive was made by politician and science writer Aaron Bernstein, the financing was provided by the North German Federation, and the project was handled by members of the Astronomische Gesellschaft. The astronomical expeditions to Mulwar in India and Aden in South Arabia are summarized, the following archaeological expedition to upper Egypt is also considered. The activities of the participating scientists, also with respect to the preparation of popular accounts, are described. Finally, the impact of these expeditions on the planning of the large-scale project to observe the Venus transits of 1874 and 1882 is investigated.

  2. The Theory of Industrial Society and Cultural Schemata: Does the "Cultural Myth of Stigma" Underlie the WHO Schizophrenia Paradox?

    PubMed

    Pescosolido, Bernice A; Martin, Jack K; Olafsdottir, Sigrun; Long, J Scott; Kafadar, Karen; Medina, Tait R

    2015-11-01

    The WHO's International Studies of Schizophrenia conclude that schizophrenia may have a more benign course in "developing" societies than in the West. The authors focus on this finding's most common corollary: cultural schemata are shaped by the transition from agrarian to industrial society. Developing societies are viewed as traditional, gemeinschaft cultures lacking the stigmatizing beliefs about persons with mental illness held in modern, gesellschaft cultures of developed societies. The Stigma in Global Context-Mental Health Study formalized the cultural myth of public stigma (CMPS) with propositions linking level of development to intolerant, exclusionary, and individualistic attitudes. In 17 countries, the authors find no support for the corollary; where support is found, the findings are opposite expectations, with developed societies reporting lower stigma levels. Reconceptualizing of the cultural landscape on more specific dimensions also produces null or contrary findings. This correction to nostalgic myths of cultural context in developing societies thwarts misguided treatment, policy, and stigma-reduction efforts.

  3. Dermatologic therapy in geriatric patients.

    PubMed

    Kratzsch, Dorothea; Treudler, Regina

    2014-08-01

    Demographic changes in our society will lead to an increasing proportion of elderly people. Age-associated multimorbidity often results in polypharmacy and elevates the risk of adverse drug reactions. Decisive alterations in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics are detectable in old age, primarily a decrease in total body water, an altered ratio of muscle mass to fatty tissue, and decreased renal function. Changes in gastrointestinal transit, plasma protein binding, hepatic drug metabolism, and an increased susceptibility to drug-induced cognitive decompensation have also been reported. All these alterations should be considered in geriatric dermatotherapy to minimize drug-related complications caused by over- or underdosage and drug interactions. © 2014 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Methodik und Qualität statistischer Erhebungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krug, Walter; Schmidt, Jürgen; Wiegert, Rolf

    Kapitel 8 wirft einen Blick hinter die Kulissen statistischer Arbeit und ihrer Methoden, insbesondere auch hinter die der amtlichen Statistik: Wie kommen die Myriaden von Zahlen zustande, die heute aus statistischen Quellenwerken aller Art und aus Datenbanken abgerufen werden können? Dabei wird deutlich, welche Schwierigkeiten bei Erhebungen, insbesondere bei Stichprobenerhebungen, zu überwinden sind, wie man Antwortverweigerer kooperativer stimmt, wie sich auch aus kleinen Stichproben auf intelligente Weise verlässliche Ergebnisse erzielen lassen und wie Großstichproben auf europäischer Ebene harmonisiert werden. Am Beispiel des Zensus 2011 wird gezeigt, wie sich eine Kombination von Stichproben und Registerauswertungen als Ersatz für eine Volkszählung nutzen lässt. Mitglieder der Deutschen Statistischen Gesellschaft waren daran kooperativ beteiligt.

  5. Neuausrichtung und Konsolidierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grohmann, Heinz

    Mit der Wahl von Wolfgang Wetzel zum Vorsitzenden der Deutschen Statistischen Gesellschaft im Jahre 1972 begann eine 32jährige Ära, in der die praktische und die theoretische Statistik in einem ausgewogenen Verhältnis gepflegt wurden. Ein regelmäßiger vierjähriger Wechsel im Vorsitz stärkte die Gemeinschaft und die praktische wie die wissenschaftliche Arbeit gleichermaßen. Die jährlichen Hauptversammlungen behandelten gesellschaftlich aktuelle wie zukunftsorientierte Themen, und die Ausschüsse sowie weitere Veranstaltungen gaben Gelegenheit zur Förderung und Pflege einer Vielzahl von Arbeitsgebieten der Statistik. Darüber wird nicht nur in diesem Kapitel, sondern auch in den Teilen II und III des Bandes berichtet.

  6. Time domain analysis of coherent terahertz synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübers, H.-W.; Semenov, A.; Holldack, K.; Schade, U.; Wüstefeld, G.; Gol'tsman, G.

    2005-10-01

    The time structure of coherent terahertz synchrotron radiation at the electron storage ring of the Berliner Elektronensynchrotron und Speicherring Gesellschaft has been analyzed with a fast superconducting hot-electron bolometer. The emission from a single bunch of electrons was found to last ˜1500ps at frequencies around 0.4THz, which is much longer than the length of an electron bunch in the time domain (˜5ps). It is suggested that this is caused by multiple reflections at the walls of the beam line. The quadratic increase of the power with the number of electrons in the bunch as predicted for coherent synchrotron radiation and the transition from stable to bursting radiation were determined from a single storage ring fill pattern of bunches with different populations.

  7. New prospects in solar cooking

    SciTech Connect

    Grupp, M.; Klingshirn, A.

    1992-12-31

    Two studies have been completed recently for Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit and German Appropriate Technology Exchange. The first of these studies contains the following: a classification scheme for solar cookers according to collector type, heat transfer mechanism, and type of use; an assessment of the potential interest of different cooker concepts; a catalogue of 160 different solar cookers that have been tested and/or used in the field. The second study highlights the potential advantages of multi-energy (solar plus back-up) cooking and analyzes its particular boundary conditions. A choice of possible concepts for use in institutions is presented. Particular attention is paid to the problem of efficient heat transfer into removable cooking vessels. Social and cultural factors concerning the acceptance of new technologies are also discussed.

  8. Städte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuttler, Wilhelm; Oßenbrügge, Jürgen; Halbig, Guido

    Der globale Klimawandel stellt für Stadtregionen im Vergleich zu anderen Landnutzungsformen eine besondere Herausforderung dar. Städte sind wegen der hohen Bevölkerungs- und Infrastrukturdichte anfälliger gegenüber verschiedenen Klimafolgen; die Verschränkung mit den anderen Problemfeldern wie Verkehr, Wirtschaft und Gesundheit liegt auf der Hand. Die Aufrechterhaltung ihrer Funktionsfähigkeit ist unter sich verändernden Umweltbedingungen von grundlegender Bedeutung für die räumliche Organisation der Gesellschaft. Ausgehend von den Problemfeldern Hitze, Luftverschmutzung und Starkniederschläge stellt das Kapitel die besondere Verwundbarkeit von Städten dar und schildert, wie eine klimaangepasste Stadtentwicklung aussieht.

  9. Pathogenesis and clinical presentation of rosacea as a key for a symptom-oriented therapy.

    PubMed

    Reinholz, M; Ruzicka, T; Steinhoff, M; Schaller, M; Gieler, U; Schöfer, H; Homey, B; Lehmann, P; Luger, T A

    2016-12-01

    Rosacea is a common chronic inflammatory skin disorder that typically occurs in adults and affects the face. Synonyms of rosacea include "acne rosacea", "couperose" and "facial erythrosis", in German also "Kupferfinne" and "Rotfinne". The disorder is characterised by a chronic and flaring course and is caused by a genetically predisposed, multifactorial process. A higher incidence is seen in people with fair skin and a positive family history. The characteristic rosacea symptoms manifest primarily, but not exclusively centrofacially, with forehead, nose, chin and cheeks significantly affected. Based on the various main symptoms a classification of the individual clinical pictures can be performed. However, a classification often does not reflect the clinical reality, since the various symptoms commonly coexist. The present review provides an introduction on pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of rosacea and prefers a symptom-oriented therapy approach. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Use of SUSA in Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis for INL VHTR Coupled Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhard Strydom

    2010-06-01

    The need for a defendable and systematic Uncertainty and Sensitivity approach that conforms to the Code Scaling, Applicability, and Uncertainty (CSAU) process, and that could be used for a wide variety of software codes, was defined in 2008.The GRS (Gesellschaft für Anlagen und Reaktorsicherheit) company of Germany has developed one type of CSAU approach that is particularly well suited for legacy coupled core analysis codes, and a trial version of their commercial software product SUSA (Software for Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analyses) was acquired on May 12, 2010. This interim milestone report provides an overview of the current status of the implementation and testing of SUSA at the INL VHTR Project Office.

  11. [Staging of scientific facts in syphilis education. "The Shipwrecked" in the Berlin German Theater (1913)].

    PubMed

    Lazardzig, J

    2002-04-01

    The "Deutsche Gesellschaft zur Bekämpfung der Geschlechtskrankheiten" (DGBG) used plays as a means of public education. The play "Damaged Goods" (Les Avariés) by the French dramatist Eugéne Brieux (1858-1932) was used extensively for this purpose in Germany between 1910 and 1920. By proliferating a specific image of both the medical profession and the syphilis, it helped established the self-confidence of the then new dermatological discipline. The teaching of Alfred Fournier (1832-1914) provided the medical background for the play. In "The Inheritance of Syphilis" (1882) Fournier had laid the dramatic framework for Brieux' play. Analyzing the Berlin premiere of "Damaged Goods" on June 25 1913 in the German Theatre/Berlin, the interplay between scientific facts and theatrical license and their diverse influences on the public becomes obvious.

  12. [Safe:Trac course series of the German Society for Trauma Surgery on patient safety].

    PubMed

    Burghofer, K; Lackner, C K

    2009-08-01

    Based on crew resource management of the airline industry the German Society for Trauma Surgery (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Unfallchirurgie, DGU) was the first scientific community in Germany to develop and implement a training course for patient safety. The S:training courses contain four course formats which focus on the prehospital life support (S:PLS), the operating room (S:OR), the trauma room (S:TR) and the intensive care unit (S:ICU). In the training the importance of the human factor for the management of acute major trauma is developed by means of presentations, training videos, practical training, discussions and realistic case scenarios associated with the special working environment of the participants. A specially developed course manual acts as a work and reference book and course booking is possible at http://www.safe-trac.de.

  13. A non-invasive technique to bleed incubating birds without trapping: A blood-sucking bug in a hollow egg

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, P.H.; Voigt, C.C.; Arnold, J.M.; Nagel, R.

    2006-01-01

    We describe a non-invasive technique to obtain blood samples from incubating birds without trapping and handling. A larval instar of the blood-sucking bug Dipetalogaster maximus (Heteroptera) was put in a hollowed artificial egg which was placed in a common tern Sterna hirundo) nest. A gauze-covered hole in the egg allowed the bug to draw blood from the brood patch of breeding adults. We successfully collected 68 blood samples of sufficient amount (median=187 ??l). The daily success rate was highest during the early breeding season and averaged 34% for all trials. We could not detect any visible response by the incubating bird to the sting of the bug. This technique allows for non-invasive blood collection from bird species of various sizes without disturbance. ?? Dt. Ornithologen-Gesellschaft e.V. 2005.

  14. Diagnostics of discharge channels for neutralized chamber transport in heavy ion fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemann, C.; Penache, D.; Tauschwitz, A.; Rosmej, F. B.; Neff, S.; Birkner, R.; Constantin, C.; Knobloch, R.; Presura, R.; Yu, S. S.; Sharp, W. M.; Ponce, D. M.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.

    2003-01-01

    The final beam transport in the reactor chamber for heavy ion fusion in preformed plasma channels offers many attractive advantages compared to other transport modes. In the past few years, experiments at the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) accelerator facility have addressed the creation and investigation of discharge plasmas, designed for the transport of intense ion beams. Stable, self-standing channels of 50 cm length with currents up to 55 kA were initiated in low-pressure ammonia gas by a CO2-laser pulse along the channel axis before the discharge is triggered. The channels were characterized by several plasma diagnostics including interferometry and spectroscopy. We also present first experiments on laser-guided intersecting discharges.

  15. [Does medicine limit enlightenment?].

    PubMed

    Schipperges, H

    1977-01-01

    In the first, historical part the most important programs of "Medical Enlightenment", are pointed out, beginning with Leibniz, followed by the public health movement of the 18th century, up to the time of Immanuel Kant. Based on this historical background several concepts of a "Medical Culture" are analysed in detail, for instance the "Theorie einer Medizinal-Ordnung" by Johann Benjamin Ehrhard (1800), the "Medicinische Reform" by Rudolf Virchow (1848) and the programs of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Arzte" (about 1850-1890), the latter bearing both scientific and political character. Following the historical part, the question is raised whether "Enlightenment" is limited by medicine and whether medicine is able to provide a program for individual health education resulting in a more cultivated style of private life, and lastly how this might be realized.

  16. S3 guidelines for intensive care in cardiac surgery patients: hemodynamic monitoring and cardiocirculary system

    PubMed Central

    Carl, M.; Alms, A.; Braun, J.; Dongas, A.; Erb, J.; Goetz, A.; Goepfert, M.; Gogarten, W.; Grosse, J.; Heller, A. R.; Heringlake, M.; Kastrup, M.; Kroener, A.; Loer, S. A.; Marggraf, G.; Markewitz, A.; Reuter, D.; Schmitt, D. V.; Schirmer, U.; Wiesenack, C.; Zwissler, B.; Spies, C.

    2010-01-01

    Hemodynamic monitoring and adequate volume-therapy, as well as the treatment with positive inotropic drugs and vasopressors are the basic principles of the postoperative intensive care treatment of patient after cardiothoracic surgery. The goal of these S3 guidelines is to evaluate the recommendations in regard to evidence based medicine and to define therapy goals for monitoring and therapy. In context with the clinical situation the evaluation of the different hemodynamic parameters allows the development of a therapeutic concept and the definition of goal criteria to evaluate the effect of treatment. Up to now there are only guidelines for subareas of postoperative treatment of cardiothoracic surgical patients, like the use of a pulmonary artery catheter or the transesophageal echocardiography. The German Society for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Thorax-, Herz- und Gefäßchirurgie, DGTHG) and the German Society for Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Anästhesiologie und lntensivmedizin, DGAI) made an approach to ensure and improve the quality of the postoperative intensive care medicine after cardiothoracic surgery by the development of S3 consensus-based treatment guidelines. Goal of this guideline is to assess the available monitoring methods with regard to indication, procedures, predication, limits, contraindications and risks for use. The differentiated therapy of volume-replacement, positive inotropic support and vasoactive drugs, the therapy with vasodilatators, inodilatators and calcium sensitizers and the use of intra-aortic balloon pumps will also be addressed. The guideline has been developed following the recommendations for the development of guidelines by the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF). The presented key messages of the guidelines were approved after two consensus meetings under the moderation of the Association of the Scientific Medical

  17. S3 guidelines for intensive care in cardiac surgery patients: hemodynamic monitoring and cardiocirculary system.

    PubMed

    Carl, M; Alms, A; Braun, J; Dongas, A; Erb, J; Goetz, A; Goepfert, M; Gogarten, W; Grosse, J; Heller, A R; Heringlake, M; Kastrup, M; Kroener, A; Loer, S A; Marggraf, G; Markewitz, A; Reuter, D; Schmitt, D V; Schirmer, U; Wiesenack, C; Zwissler, B; Spies, C

    2010-06-15

    Hemodynamic monitoring and adequate volume-therapy, as well as the treatment with positive inotropic drugs and vasopressors are the basic principles of the postoperative intensive care treatment of patient after cardiothoracic surgery. The goal of these S3 guidelines is to evaluate the recommendations in regard to evidence based medicine and to define therapy goals for monitoring and therapy. In context with the clinical situation the evaluation of the different hemodynamic parameters allows the development of a therapeutic concept and the definition of goal criteria to evaluate the effect of treatment. Up to now there are only guidelines for subareas of postoperative treatment of cardiothoracic surgical patients, like the use of a pulmonary artery catheter or the transesophageal echocardiography. The German Society for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Thorax-, Herz- und Gefässchirurgie, DGTHG) and the German Society for Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Anästhesiologie und lntensivmedizin, DGAI) made an approach to ensure and improve the quality of the postoperative intensive care medicine after cardiothoracic surgery by the development of S3 consensus-based treatment guidelines. Goal of this guideline is to assess the available monitoring methods with regard to indication, procedures, predication, limits, contraindications and risks for use. The differentiated therapy of volume-replacement, positive inotropic support and vasoactive drugs, the therapy with vasodilatators, inodilatators and calcium sensitizers and the use of intra-aortic balloon pumps will also be addressed. The guideline has been developed following the recommendations for the development of guidelines by the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF). The presented key messages of the guidelines were approved after two consensus meetings under the moderation of the Association of the Scientific Medical

  18. [Consensus for the identification of geriatric patients in the emergency care setting in Germany].

    PubMed

    Thiem, U; Greuel, H W; Reingräber, A; Koch-Gwinner, P; Püllen, R; Heppner, H J; Pfisterer, M

    2012-06-01

    For the treatment of geriatric inpatients, the efficacy of a multimodal geriatric intervention based on findings of a comprehensive geriatric assessment has well been established. Therefore, the focus of elderly inpatient care switched to the identification of geriatric patients who have unintended or unscheduled contact to an accident and emergency department. In Germany, a uniform standard on how to correctly identify geriatric patients in such settings has yet to be established.Three medical societies, the Federal Association of Geriatrics ("Bundesverband Geriatrie", BVG), the German Society for Gerontology and Geriatrics ("Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gerontologie und Geriatrie", DGGG) and the German Geriatrics Society ("Deutsche Gesellschaft für Geriatrie", DGG) have reached a consensus on tools and instruments for the identification of geriatric patients in the emergency care setting. Basis of the consensus were the existing scientific evidence and further considerations, especially the applicability of international findings in Germany and feasibility.Three recommendations are made: (1) The use of prognostic indices is not recommended, as prognostic indices appear to be inappropriate to disclose the complex needs of geriatric patients. (2) Comprehensive geriatric assessment is established and effective, but too complex for use in the emergency setting. It is recommended for cases in which information from screening instruments or other sources does not allow a clear decision. (3) Among screening instruments, the Identification of Seniors At Risk (ISAR) screening tool seems to be well established and suitable for screening purposes in Germany. A German adaption is recommended as well as the implementation in settings where no other tools or geriatric expertise are available.

  19. Challenges for medical educators: results of a survey among members of the German Association for Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Huwendiek, Sören; Hahn, Eckhart G; Tönshoff, Burkhard; Nikendei, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Hintergrund: Trotz des zunehmenden Interesses an der medizinischen Aus-, Weiter- und Fortbildung bestehen im deutschsprachigen Raum derzeit keine Erkenntnisse über die von Lehrenden in der Medizin wahrgenommenen Herausforderungen in diesem Bereich. Vor diesem Hintergrund führten wir eine webbasierte Fragebogenerhebung unter den Mitgliedern der Gesellschaft für Medizinische Ausbildung e. V. (GMA) durch.Methodik: Im Rahmen einer umfassenden Erhebung zum Qualifizierungsbedarf, der Expertise und den Rahmenbedingungen engagierter Lehrender in der Medizin wurden die drei zentralen Herausforderungen erfragt, denen sich Lehrende in der Medizin ausgesetzt sehen und für die sie einen besonderen Bedarf an Unterstützung und/oder Veränderung sehen. Anhand von qualitativer Inhaltsanalyse wurden die Ergebnisse erstellt.Ergebnisse: Der Fragebogen wurde von 147 der 373 Mitglieder des Email-Verteilers der GMA (Rücklauf: 39%) ausgefüllt. Die Lehrenden gaben insgesamt 346 zentrale Herausforderungen im Bereich der Lehre an mit dem Schwerpunkt in folgenden Bereichen: Zu niedrige akademische Anerkennung des Einsatzes im Bereich der Lehre (53,5% der Antwortenden), zu geringe institutionelle (31,5%) und finanzielle (28,4%) Unterstützung, reformbedürftige Curricula (22,8%), zu wenig freie Zeit für Lehraufgaben (18,9%), zu niedrige Kompetenz der Lehrenden in Unterrichtsmethodik (18,1%), unzureichende Fakultätsentwicklungsprogramme (18,1%), unzureichende Vernetzung innerhalb der Institution (11,0%), genereller Mangel an Lehr-Personal (10,2%), die unterschiedlichen Voraussetzungen von Studierenden (8,7%), unzureichende Anerkennung und Vermittlung von Lehr-Forschung (5,5%), großer Prüfungsaufwand (4,7%) und fehlende Vorbilder im Bereich der medizinischen Ausbildung (3,2%).Schlussfolgerung: Als Herausforderungen werden von Lehrenden der Gesellschaft für Medizinische Ausbildung insbesondere die zu niedrige akademische Anerkennung und zu geringe institutionelle und finanzielle

  20. [German neurology and neurologists during the Third Reich: the aftermath].

    PubMed

    Martin, M; Fangerau, H; Karenberg, A

    2016-08-01

    The article discusses the consequences for neurology as a discipline which resulted from neurologists' participation in the crimes committed under National Socialism (NS). Chronologically, the current literature distinguishes mainly four overlapping stages: (1) a first phase was characterized by legal persecution and "denazification", which was also the time of the Nuremberg doctors' trial in which no neurologists were on trial. A detailed documentation of the trial for the German medical profession was published by Alexander Mitscherlich. (2) In the subsequent practice of wide amnestying and reintegration of former Nazi followers during the 1950s, neurologists were no exception as its elite continued in their positions. The year 1953 was the year of the Lisbon scandal, when chiefly Dutch representatives protested against the participation of Julius Hallervorden in the International Congress of Neurology. The newly founded societies, the German Society for Neurology (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Neurologie, DGN) and the German Society for Psychiatry and Neurology (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Psychiatrie und Neurologie, DGPN), unanimously supported their member. (3) The next period was characterized by a nascent criticism of the prevailing attitude of covering up the crimes committed by physicians during the Nazi period. The discovery of incriminating brain sections at various Max Planck Institutes brought neurology to the focus of the debate. (4) Since the 1980s and 1990s historians (of medicine) have been systematically examining medicine's Nazi past in a professional way, which resulted in a noticeable increase of knowledge. Additionally, a new generation of scholars provoked a change of mind insofar as they recognized medicine's responsibility for the crimes committed between 1933 and 1945. We expect that future historical research will further elucidate the history of neurology during the NS regime and have consequences for our current understanding of research

  1. [German neurology and neurologists during the Third Reich: Preconditions and general framework before and after 1933].

    PubMed

    Martin, M; Karenberg, A; Fangerau, H

    2016-08-01

    This article focuses on the institutional development of neurology in Germany up to the rise to power of the National Socialists and the radical sociopolitical changes after 1933. A wide range of scattered secondary literature was assessed and evaluated. Additionally, some original sources are literally quoted and interpreted according to the context. Since the end of the nineteenth century a complicated process of separation from internal medicine and psychiatry led to the formation of a self-conscious discipline of neurology. The first generation of German neurologists succeeded in founding the German Journal for Neurology ("Deutsche Zeitschrift für Nervenheilkunde") in 1890 and their own neurological association, the Society of German Neurologists ("Gesellschaft Deutscher Nervenärzte", GDN) in 1907. On an international scale, however, the institutional implementation of neurology with only a small number of chairs and few neurology departments remained more than modest. The ambitions for autonomy ended 2 years after the change of power in 1933. Regulatory interventions by the government and psychiatric interests led to the fusion of the GDN with the psychiatric specialist society, the new association being called the Society of German Neurologists and Psychiatrists ("Gesellschaft Deutscher Neurologen und Psychiater", GDNP) in 1935. In this group psychiatrists dominated the discourse. The expulsion, imprisonment and murder of physicians declared as non-Aryan or Jewish along with the forced consolidation ("Gleichschaltung") at the universities prompted profound changes in medical and academic life. It remains an ongoing challenge of neurological historical research to measure the impact of this upheaval on the few neurology departments in hospitals and private practices.

  2. Multi-Model Ensemble Wake Vortex Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koerner, Stephan; Ahmad, Nash'at N.; Holzaepfel, Frank; VanValkenburg, Randal L.

    2015-01-01

    Several multi-model ensemble methods are investigated for predicting wake vortex transport and decay. This study is a joint effort between National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt to develop a multi-model ensemble capability using their wake models. An overview of different multi-model ensemble methods and their feasibility for wake applications is presented. The methods include Reliability Ensemble Averaging, Bayesian Model Averaging, and Monte Carlo Simulations. The methodologies are evaluated using data from wake vortex field experiments.

  3. STORAGE RING MEASUREMENT OF ELECTRON IMPACT IONIZATION FOR Mg{sup 7+} FORMING Mg{sup 8+}

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, M.; Lestinsky, M.; Novotny, O.; Savin, D. W.; Bernhardt, D.; Mueller, A.; Schippers, S.; Wolf, A.

    2010-04-01

    We report electron impact ionization cross section measurements for Mg{sup 7+} forming Mg{sup 8+} at center of mass energies from approximately 200 eV to 2000 eV. The experimental work was performed using the heavy-ion storage ring TSR located at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik in Heidelberg, Germany. We find good agreement with distorted wave calculations using both the GIPPER code of the Los Alamos Atomic Physics Code suite and using the Flexible Atomic Code.

  4. Radioactive waste disposal in Germany: no site decision - Keeping competence

    SciTech Connect

    Kienzler, Bernhard; Geckeis, Horst; Gompper, Klaus; Klenze, Reinhardt

    2007-07-01

    The research programme of the Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE) at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe is dedicated to elaborate the fundamental understanding of radionuclide/actinide interactions with various components of the groundwater and with the relevant host rock materials at disposal relevant trace concentrations. INE's research programme was not biased after enactment of the Gorleben moratorium in 2001. This paper presents current R and D with respect to application in performance assessment/safety case of nuclear waste disposal. Focus is given to the leading role of the institute in various projects within EU framework programmes. (authors)

  5. Development of Fracture Mechanics Maps for Composite Materials. Volume 3.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    RD-At69 W4 DEVELOPMENT OF FRCTURE ECHNICS NPS FOR COMPOSITE V3jMATERIALS VOLUME 3( ) DEUTSCHE FORSCHUNOS- UND YERSUCHSANSTALT FUER LUFT- UND RAUMF...ungekerbter CFK -Laminate J.- Block DFVLR 4 Institut~~ ~ firSrutrecai Braunschweig le- DEUTSCHE ~~~~~*~ FOSHUG-UN ERUHA:TL Y FOR LUFT- UND RAUMFAHRT E.V...Laminaten mittels Schallemissionsanalyse e Braunschweig, den 15.11.1984 Der Bericht umfal~t-:-:. 32 Seiten mit . %. * 14 Bildern und 1 Anhang Institutsleiter

  6. Spectral radiance calibrations between 165-300 nm - An interlaboratory comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, J. M.; Ott, W. R.; Pitz, E.; Schulz, A.; Einfeld, D.; Stuck, D.

    1977-01-01

    The spectral radiance of deuterium lamps calibrated by the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie (MPI), by the U.S. National Bureau of Standards (NBS), and by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) are compared to check the agreement of UV radiometric scales. The NBS group used the optically thin continuum radiation from a wall-stabilized hydrogen arc as its fundamental radiometric standard, while the MPI and PTB groups used the synchrotron radiation facility in DESY. It is found that the spectral radiance scales based upon the DESY synchrotron and the NBS hydrogen arc are consistent, at least for one wavelength relative to another.

  7. PREFACE: PASREG 2003: International Workshop on Processing and Applications of Superconducting (RE)BCO Large Grain Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Masato; Cardwell, David; Salama, Kamel; Krabbes, Gernot; Habisreuther, Tobias; Gawalek, Wolfgang

    2005-02-01

    Superconducting melt-textured bulk (RE)BCO large grain materials are one of the most promising materials for power applications of high temperature superconductivity at the liquid nitrogen temperature range. Industrial applications are expected in high-speed low-loss magnetic bearings for flywheel energy storage devices, high-dynamic high-torque electric reluctance motors, and MAGLEV transportation systems. The material has high magnetic field trapping capability and therefore a new class of high-field superconducting permanent magnets will soon appear. However, there is still the need to improve the magnetic and mechanical material properties, as well as to increase the single domain size. This special issue contains papers concerning these topics presented at the International Workshop on the Processing and Applications of Superconducting (RE)BCO Large Grain Materials. The workshop was held on the 30 June-2 July 2003 in Jena, Germany, and was organized by the Institut fuer Physikalische Hochtechnologie, Jena. It was the fourth in the series of PASREG workshops after Cambridge, UK (1997), Morioka, Japan (1999), and Seattle, USA (2001). Sixty two contributions were presented at the workshop, 38 oral presentations and 24 poster presentations. This special issue contains 42 papers. The editors are grateful for the support of many colleagues who reviewed the manuscripts to guarantee their high technical quality. The editors also wish to thank Doris Litzkendorf and Tobias Habisreuther from Institut fuer Physikalische Hochtechnologie, Jena, for their assistance with the organization and handling of the manuscripts. Many thanks to the workshop co-chairman Gernot Krabbes from Leibniz-Institut fuer Festkoerper und Werkstoffforschung, Dresden, for hosting the workshop participants in Dresden. Finally, all attendees wish to acknowledge the efforts of Wolfgang Gawalek, Tobias Habisreuther, Doris Litzkendorf and the Team of Department Magnetics from the Institut fuer

  8. Multi-Model Ensemble Wake Vortex Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koerner, Stephan; Holzaepfel, Frank; Ahmad, Nash'at N.

    2015-01-01

    Several multi-model ensemble methods are investigated for predicting wake vortex transport and decay. This study is a joint effort between National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt to develop a multi-model ensemble capability using their wake models. An overview of different multi-model ensemble methods and their feasibility for wake applications is presented. The methods include Reliability Ensemble Averaging, Bayesian Model Averaging, and Monte Carlo Simulations. The methodologies are evaluated using data from wake vortex field experiments.

  9. Roentgensatellit (ROSAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guckenbiehl, F.; Ousley, G. W., Sr.

    1991-01-01

    The DSN (Deep Space Network) mission support requirements for ROSAT (Roentgensatellit) are summarized. ROSAT is an international cooperative program between NASA and the Bundesministerium fuer Forschung and Technologie (BMFT). The satellite was launched on a Delta 2 vehicle and placed in a circular orbit at an altitude of 580 km, with a 53-deg inclination. The mission objectives are outlined and the DSN support requirements are defined through the presentation of tables and narratives describing the spacecraft flight profile; DSN support coverage; frequency assignments; support parameters for telemetry and command; and tracking support responsibility.

  10. BOOK REVIEW: Astronomie von Olbers bis Schwarzschild. Nationale Entwicklungen und internationale Beziehungen im 19. Jahrhundert (Acta Historica Astronomiae Vol. 16)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, C.; Dick, W. R.; Hamel, J.

    2002-12-01

    The 14th volume of the Acta Historica Astronomiae is the Proceedings of a Colloquium International Relationships in Astronomy (in German) organised by the History of Astronomy Section of the Astronomische Gesellschaft held on September 18 in Lilienthal, Germany. The book contains 13 articles on astronomical topics covering the 19th and 20th centuries. The first paper is by Guenther Oestmann and deals with contemporary assessments of Johann Hieronymus Schroeter's (1745-1816) astronomical works and with later judgements of the scientific importance and significance of his observations as seen by astronomers and historians. This report is complemented by a second article on Schroeter's 25-ft reflector in Lilienthal near Bremen. To this end, author Felix Luehning has constructed a scale model of the telescope, and shows how the building of a model brings a deeper understanding of function and handling of this instrument. This brings us to a third paper on telescope building in Lilienthal: Hans-Joachim Leue describes the cooperation of Johann Hieronymus Schroeter and Johann Gottlieb Schrader in developing a white reflecting metal alloy for use as telescope mirror. The fourth article, by Klaus Schillinger, describes on the basis of archival documents the aquisition history of the Herschel telescopes, including telescope quality check, repair and building. Memorial sites referring to Wilhelm Olbers, Johann Hieronymus Schroeter, Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel and Carl Friedrich Gauss are described by Arno Langkavel in two walks outlined in the very last paper of this book. Peter Brosche, in the fifth paper, discusses the rediscovery of Ceres in December1801, a discovery that was the result of the combined efforts of a theoretician (Gauss) and an observer (Zach). Juergen Hamel's paper is based on previously unused archival sources and discusses the outstanding role played by H. C. Schumacher (1780-1850, editor of the Astronomische Nachrichten) in the communication between

  11. Timing and Kinematics of Cretaceous to Paleogene inversion at the SE margin of the Central European Basin System: Part 2, Thermochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, V.-E.; Dunkl, I.; von Eynatten, H.; Jähne, F.; Voigt, T.; Kley, J.

    2009-04-01

    mixed age information two different age groups can be recognized. A major group that is similar to the one reported above points to a short but intense pulse of exhumation and inversion in Coniacian to Campanian time. A younger, less significant age cluster yields information on a second phase of cooling and exhumation in the Paleocene-Eocene. The length distribution of AFT data leads to the assumption of rapid, partially multi-phase, exhumation events. In addition, the data of this study provides indications for thick Jurassic burial that likely reflect phases of Mesozoic extensional tectonics in at least parts of the CEBS. Jacobs, J., Breitkreuz, C. (2003): Zircon and apatite fission-track thermochronology of Late Carboniferous volcanic rocks of the NE German Basin. International Journal of Earth Sciences (Geologische Rundschau), 92, 165-172. Thomson, S., Brix, M., Carter, A. (1997): Late Cretaceous denudation of the Harz Massif assessed by apatite fission track analysis. In: G. Büchel and H. Lützner (Editors), Regionale Geologie von Mitteleuropa, 149. Hauptversammlung Deutsche Geologische Gesellschaft, Jena. Schriftenreihe der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft, 3, 115. Thomson, S.N., Zeh, A. (2000): Fission-track thermochronology of the Ruhla Crystalline Complex:. New constraints on the post-Variscan thermal evolution of the NW Saxo-Bohemian Massif. Tectonophysics, 324, 17-35. Ventura, B., Lisker, F., Kopp, J. (2003): Apatite fission track data from the dill-core Züllsdorf 1/63: implications for the reconstruction of the post Variscan exhumation of the Mid German Crystalline High. Zeitschrift für Geologische Wissenschaften, 31, 251-261. Voigt, T., Wiese, F., von Eynatten, H., Franzke, H.-J. & Gaupp, R. (2006): Facies evolution of syntectonic Upper Cretaceous deposits in the Subhercynian Cretaceous Basin and adjoining areas (Germany). Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geowissenschaften, 157/2, 203-244.

  12. SUNRISE: a balloon-borne telescope for high resolution solar observations in the visible and UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solanki, Sami K.; Gandorfer, Achim M.; Schuessler, Manfred; Curdt, W.; Lites, Bruce W.; Martinez-Pillet, Valentin; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Title, Alan M.

    2003-02-01

    Sunrise is a light-weight solar telescope with a 1 m aperture for spectro-polarimetric observations of the solar atmosphere. The telescope is planned to be operated during a series of long-duration balloon flights in order to obtain time series of spectra and images at the diffraction-limit and to study the UV spectral region down to ~200 nm, which is not accessible from the ground. The central aim of Sunrise is to understand the structure and dynamics of the magnetic field in the solar atmosphere. Through its interaction with the convective flow field, the magnetic field in the solar photosphere develops intense field concentrations on scales below 100 km, which are crucial for the dynamics and energetics of the whole solar atmosphere. In addition, Sunrise aims to provide information on the structure and dynamics of the solar chromosphere and on the physics of solar irradiance changes. Sunrise is a joint project of the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Aeronomie (MPAe), Katlenburg-Lindau, with the Kiepenheuer-Institut fuer Sonnenphysik (KIS), Freiburg, the High-Altitude Observatory (HAO), Boulder, the Lockheed-Martin Solar and Astrophysics Lab. (LMSAL), Palo Alto, and the Instituto de Astrofi sica de Canarias, La Laguna, Tenerife. In addition, there are close contacts with associated scientists from a variety of institutes.

  13. Measurement of Quantum Phase-Slips in Josephson Junction Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guichard, Wiebke

    2011-03-01

    Quantum phase-slip dynamics in Josephson junction chains could provide the basis for the realization of a new type of topologically protected qubit or for the implementation of a new current standard. I will present measurements of the effect of quantum phase-slips on the ground state of a Josephson junction chain. We can tune in situ the strength of the phase-slips. These phase-slips are the result of fluctuations induced by the finite charging energy of each junction in the chain. Our measurements demonstrate that a Josephson junction chain under phase bias constraint behaves in a collective way. I will also show evidence of coherent phase-slip interference, the so called Aharonov-Casher effect. This phenomenon is the dual of the well known Aharonov-Bohm interference. In collaboration with I.M. Pop, Institut Neel, C.N.R.S. and Universite Joseph Fourier, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble, France; I. Protopopov, L. D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kosygin str. 2, Moscow 119334, Russia and Institut fuer Nanotechnologie, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany; and F. Lecocq, Z. Peng, B. Pannetier, O. Buisson, Institut Neel, C.N.R.S. and Universite Joseph Fourier. European STREP MIDAS, ANR QUANTJO.

  14. Handbook of environmental chemistry. Volume 4. Part A, air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Hutzinger, O.

    1986-01-01

    Five authors have each contributed one chapter to this first part (A) of the series on Air Pollution (Volume 4). Thus the book is neither a handbook compilation of reference data nor a text on the subject of air pollution. The first and shortest chapter (22 pages) by A. Wint of the University of Nottingham, England, is an overview called Air Pollution in Perspective. The second chapter, by P. Fabian of Max-Planck-Institute fuer Aeronomie, FRG, is titled Halogenated Hydrocarbons in the Atmosphere. This chapter, in 29 pages, summarizes current data on twenty of these compounds. Hans Guesten of the Institute fuer Radiochemie, Karlsruhe, FRG, contributed chapter 3 on Formation, Transport, and Control of Photochemical Smog (52 pages). This chapter is a good survey of current understanding of smog although each of the three topics promised in the title could by itself take up a good sized book. Atmospheric Distribution of Pollutants and Modeling of Air Pollution Dispersion by H. van Dop of the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, the Netherlands, makes up Chapter 4 (42 pages). The article is written from a meteorological perspective. The last chapter, by J.M. Hales of Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories, USA, is titled The Mathematical Characterization of Precipitation Scavenging and Precipitation Chemistry (74 pages). Removal of pollutants from the atmosphere by precipitation is good news/bad news.

  15. (HFR-B1 experiment reporting and capsule disassembly)

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, B.F.

    1991-02-22

    The traveler visited the Joint Research Centre (JRC), Petten, The Netherlands, the Forschungszentrum GmbH (KFA), Juelich, Germany; and the Zentralinstitut fuer Kernforschung (ZfK), Rossendorf, Germany, during the period January 28 through February 9. At JRC, the analysis of the experiment HFR-B1 was discussed; a new schedule for issuance of the final data report was established. Other discussions at JRC concerned the capabilities of Petten to conduct two reactor experiments being proposed under the US/FRG cooperative program and the initial results of a proof test of Germany fuel spheres. At KFA, the main emphasis was on the disassembly of capsules 2 and 3 of the HFR-B1 experiment and agreement on the examinations and tests to be conducted with the disassembled components. The disassembly of capsule 3 was observed. Extensive discussions were conducted on the work, both experimental and analytical, being conducted in the Institut fuer Sicherheitsforschung und Reaktor Technologie. A major portion of the experimental work is being conducted at ZfK and a visit to this laboratory, sponosored by the KFA, was made on February 6 and 7. Cooperation with the US on the experimental and analytical work in the safety area was strongly emphasized. 1 tab.

  16. Between Autonomy and Accommodation:The German Physical Society during the Third Reich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Dieter

    2005-09-01

    I first sketch the history of the German Physical Society (Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft,DPG) from its founding by six young Berlin scientists as the Physical Society of Berlin (Physikalische Gesellschaft zu Berlin) in 1845, through its renaming as the DPG in 1899 and its rise to prominence by the beginning of the 1930s. I then turn to the history of the DPG during the Third Reich, which can be divided into two periods, from the transfer of power in Germany to the Nazis in 1933 to 1940, and from 1941 to 1945. During the first period, Johannes Stark (1874 1957), one of the leaders of the “German Physics” (Deutsche Physik) movement, attempted to gain election as the Chairman of the DPG in September 1933 but was repulsed. A period of relative autonomy of the DPG from Nazi ideology and policies ensued, which gradually was transformed into one of accommodation, until at the end of the 1938, Peter Debye (1884 1966), then Chairman of the DPG, bowed to governmental demands and Nazi activists in the DPG, introduced Nazi principles, and strongly advised the Jewish members of the DPG to withdraw from it. Debye left Germany in early 1940, and after a transitional period in which Jonathan Zenneck (1871 1959) served as Acting Chairman, Carl Ramsauer (1879 1955) was elected Chairman of the DPG in December 1940, thus opening the second period, the Ramsauer era, which lasted from 1941 until the end of the war in 1945. Ramsauer oversaw the self-coordination (Selbstgleichschaltung) of the DPG to the Nazi regime, and as an industrial physicist he led the DPG to establish ever more alliances with powerful figures in the military-industrial complex of Nazi Germany, which worked to the advantage both of Ramsauer and the DPG and to that of the Nazi regime during the course of the war. Finally, as the military defeat of Germany loomed, Ramsauer took steps aimed at insuring the survival of German physics in the postwar period. After the war, he masked the wartime activities of

  17. Haftung in der Medizintechnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Ute; Lücker, Volker

    Die Unversehrtheit von Leib und Leben ist das größte Rechtsgut unserer Gesellschaft. Dies macht schon das Grundgesetz in Art. 2 Abs. Satz 1 GG deutlich. Die Öffentlichkeit zeigt daher größtes Interesse an Produkten, welche der Gesundheit dienen und Leben retten oder erhalten. Dieses Interesse gilt einerseits der Entwicklung und Bereitstellung leistungsfähiger Medizinprodukte, andererseits zielt es auf deren Sicherheit. Um vor allem letztere zu gewährleisten, nimmt der Gesetzgeber alle Beteiligten in die Pflicht, die auftretenden Risiken auf das geringstmögliche Maß zu begrenzen. Dies spiegelt sich in den rechtlichen Vorgaben ebenso wie in den Haftungsfolgen, die bei Verletzung dieser Vorgaben greifen, wieder. Diese Folgen können dementsprechend gravierend ausfallen, von Geldstrafen bis zu Freiheitsstrafen, von Bußgeldzahlungen bis zum Schadenersatzansprüchen, die schnell ein wirtschaftliches Aus bedeuten können. Den Beteiligten, allen voran den Herstellern, muss deshalb daran gelegen sein, nicht nur die Produkte, sondern auch deren Sicherheit stetig weiter zu entwickeln.

  18. Does choice of estimators influence conclusions from true metabolizable energy feeding trials?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherfy, M.H.; Kirkpatrick, R.L.; Webb, K.E.

    2005-01-01

    True metabolizable energy (TME) is a measure of avian dietary quality that accounts for metabolic fecal and endogenous urinary energy losses (EL) of non-dietary origin. The TME is calculated using a bird fed the test diet and an estimate of EL derived from another bird (Paired Bird Correction), the same bird (Self Correction), or several other birds (Group Mean Correction). We evaluated precision of these estimators by using each to calculate TME of three seed diets in blue-winged teal (Anas discors). The TME varied by <2% among estimators for all three diets, and Self Correction produced the least variable TMEs for each. The TME did not differ between estimators in nine paired comparisons within diets, but variation between estimators within individual birds was sufficient to be of practical consequence. Although differences in precision among methods were slight, Self Correction required the lowest sample size to achieve a given precision. Feeding trial methods that minimize variation among individuals have several desirable properties, including higher precision of TME estimates and more rigorous experimental control. Consequently, we believe that Self Correction is most likely to accurately represent nutritional value of food items and should be considered the standard method for TME feeding trials. ?? Dt. Ornithologen-Gesellschaft e.V. 2005.

  19. Wood Gasification in a Lab-Scale Bubbling Fluidized Bed: Experiment and Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, L.; Schotte, E.; Thomas, S.; Schlinkert, A.; Herrmann, A.; Mosch, V.; Rajendran, V.; Heinrich, S.

    In theory, an integrated biomass gasification and fuel cell system has a higher overall plant efficiency when compared to the efficiency of biomass gasification combined with simple combustion systems and gas engines. In order to develop a prototype of this new concept of power plant operating in the range of l50kW to 5MW, several institutes of the Max Planck Society and the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft in Germany have been working on the ProBio project with focus on the theoretical and experimental investigation of an integrated 1-2kWe system. The paper will firstly describe the gasification unit of the system: a lab-scale atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed gasifier. Wood gasification experiments were conducted and the influence of operation parameters, i.e. gasification agents, equivalence ratio ER and steam to biomass ratio SIB on gas yield and gas composition was analyzed. In parallel with the experimental work, chemical kinetics of wood gasification was studied and simulated. Furthermore, simulation of bubbling fluidized bed hydrodynamics at high temperature, using commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software FLUENT, was also conducted to better understand the phenomenon of fluidization inside the bed.

  20. Quantensprung Digitalisierung - Energiewirtschaft im 21. Jahrhundert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thyen, Elmar

    Die Energiewende wird ohne eine umfassende Digitalisierung der Energiewirtschaft Stückwerk bleiben. Die historisch gewachsene, aus hunderten fossilen Großkraftwerken getriebene Energieversorgung hat sich durch den Zubau von mehr als einer Millionen dezentraler Erzeugungseinheiten innerhalb der vergangenen 15 Jahren radikal verändert. Zum Ausgleich von Last und Erzeugung, aber auch zum Aufbau neuer Geschäftsfelder ist die digitale Technik unverzichtbar. Ihre Möglichkeiten scheinen nahezu unbegrenzt, ihre Rolle wird in einer zukünftig nahezu vollständig elektrifizierten Gesellschaft zunehmend wichtiger werden. Neue Anbieter drängen auf den Markt und setzen die traditionelle Energiewirtschaft unter Druck. Energieversorger, die sich dem Wandel nicht stellen, drohen den Anschluss zu verpassen. Noch werden Verbundunternehmen und Stadtwerke von weitreichenden regulatorischen Vorgaben geschützt. Beispiele aus anderen Branchen zeigen aber, dass die Digitalisierung im Stande ist, regulatorische Mechanismen außer Kraft zu setzen. Zugleich verhindert die enge Regulierung und ein falsch verstandener Datenschutzbegriff in Deutschland die Entwicklung neuer Geschäftsmodelle, die energie- und volkswirtschaftlich sinnvoll wären.

  1. Monte Carlo simulations for the shielding of the future high-intensity accelerator facility FAIR at GSI.

    PubMed

    Radon, T; Gutermuth, F; Fehrenbacher, G

    2005-01-01

    The Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) is planning a significant expansion of its accelerator facilities. Compared to the present GSI facility, a factor of 100 in primary beam intensities and up to a factor of 10,000 in secondary radioactive beam intensities are key technical goals of the proposal. The second branch of the so-called Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) is the production of antiprotons and their storage in rings and traps. The facility will provide beam energies a factor of approximately 15 higher than presently available at the GSI for all ions, from protons to uranium. The shielding design of the synchrotron SIS 100/300 is shown exemplarily by using Monte Carlo calculations with the FLUKA code. The experimental area serving the investigation of compressed baryonic matter is analysed in the same way. In addition, a dose comparison is made for an experimental area operated with medium energy heavy-ion beams. Here, Monte Carlo calculations are performed by using either heavy-ion primary particles or proton beams with intensities scaled by the mass number of the corresponding heavy-ion beam.

  2. INITIAL TEST OF A FAST RAMPED SUPERCONDUCTING MODEL DIPOLE FOR GSIS PROPOSED SIS200 ACCELERATOR.

    SciTech Connect

    WANDERER,P.; ANERELLA,M.; GANETIS,G.; GHOSH,A.; JOSHI,P.; MARONE,A.; MURATORE,J.; SCHMALZLE,J.; SOIKA,R.; THOMAS,R.; KAUGERTS,J.; MORITZ,G.; HASSENZAHL,W.; WILSON,N.M.

    2003-05-12

    Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI) has proposed a large expansion of the existing facility in Darmstadt, Germany. The proposal includes an accelerator, SIS200, with rigidity of 200 Tam that utilizes 4 T superconducting dipoles ramped at 1 T/s. An R&D program including both the superconductor and the magnet is directed at achieving the desired ramp rate with minimal energy loss. The RHIC arc dipoles, with 8 cm aperture, possess adequate aperture and field strength but are ramped at only 1/20 of the desired rate. However, for reasons of speed and economy, the RHIC dipole is being used as the basis for this work. The superconductor R&D has progressed far enough to permit the manufacture of an initial cable with satisfactory properties. This cable has been used in the construction of a I m model magnet, appropriately modified from the RHIC design. The magnet has been tested successfully at 2 T/s to 4.38 T.

  3. A review of update clinical results of carbon ion radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Tsujii, Hirohiko; Kamada, Tadashi

    2012-08-01

    Among various types of ion species, carbon ions are considered to have the most balanced, optimal properties in terms of possessing physically and biologically effective dose localization in the body. This is due to the fact that when compared with photon beams, carbon ion beams offer improved dose distribution, leading to the concentration of the sufficient dose within a target volume while minimizing the dose in the surrounding normal tissues. In addition, carbon ions, being heavier than protons, provide a higher biological effectiveness, which increases with depth, reaching the maximum at the end of the beam's range. This is practically an ideal property from the standpoint of cancer radiotherapy. Clinical studies have been carried out in the world to confirm the efficacy of carbon ions against a variety of tumors as well as to develop effective techniques for delivering an efficient dose to the tumor. Through clinical experiences of carbon ion radiotherapy at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences and Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung, a significant reduction in the overall treatment time with acceptable toxicities has been obtained in almost all types of tumors. This means that carbon ion radiotherapy has meanwhile achieved for itself a solid place in general practice. This review describes clinical results of carbon ion radiotherapy together with physical, biological and technological aspects of carbon ions.

  4. German evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of Psoriasis vulgaris (short version)

    PubMed Central

    Kopp, I.; Augustin, M.; Banditt, K. B.; Boehncke, W. H.; Follmann, M.; Friedrich, M.; Huber, M.; Kahl, C.; Klaus, J.; Koza, J.; Kreiselmaier, I.; Mohr, J.; Mrowietz, U.; Ockenfels, H. M.; Orzechowski, H. D.; Prinz, J.; Reich, K.; Rosenbach, T.; Rosumeck, S.; Schlaeger, M.; Schmid-Ott, G.; Sebastian, M.; Streit, V.; Weberschock, T.; Rzany, B.

    2007-01-01

    Psoriasis vulgaris is a common and chronic inflammatory skin disease which has the potential to significantly reduce the quality of life in severely affected patients. The incidence of psoriasis in Western industrialized countries ranges from 1.5 to 2%. Despite the large variety of treatment options available, patient surveys have revealed insufficient satisfaction with the efficacy of available treatments and a high rate of medication non-compliance. To optimize the treatment of psoriasis in Germany, the Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft and the Berufsverband Deutscher Dermatologen (BVDD) have initiated a project to develop evidence-based guidelines for the management of psoriasis. The guidelines focus on induction therapy in cases of mild, moderate, and severe plaque-type psoriasis in adults. The short version of the guidelines reported here consist of a series of therapeutic recommendations that are based on a systematic literature search and subsequent discussion with experts in the field; they have been approved by a team of dermatology experts. In addition to the therapeutic recommendations provided in this short version, the full version of the guidelines includes information on contraindications, adverse events, drug interactions, practicality, and costs as well as detailed information on how best to apply the treatments described (for full version, please see Nast et al., JDDG, Suppl 2:S1–S126, 2006; or http://www.psoriasis-leitlinie.de). PMID:17497162

  5. Effects of heavy ions on visual function and electrophysiology of rodents: the ALTEA-MICE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sannita, W. G.; Acquaviva, M.; Ball, S. L.; Belli, F.; Bisti, S.; Bidoli, V.; Carozzo, S.; Casolino, M.; Cucinotta, F.; De Pascale, M. P.; Di Fino, L.; Di Marco, S.; Maccarone, R.; Martello, C.; Miller, J.; Narici, L.; Peachey, N. S.; Picozza, P.; Rinaldi, A.; Ruggieri, D.; Saturno, M.; Schardt, D.; Vazquez, M.

    2004-01-01

    ALTEA-MICE will supplement the ALTEA project on astronauts and provide information on the functional visual impairment possibly induced by heavy ions during prolonged operations in microgravity. Goals of ALTEA-MICE are: (1) to investigate the effects of heavy ions on the visual system of normal and mutant mice with retinal defects; (2) to define reliable experimental conditions for space research; and (3) to develop animal models to study the physiological consequences of space travels on humans. Remotely controlled mouse setup, applied electrophysiological recording methods, remote particle monitoring, and experimental procedures were developed and tested. The project has proved feasible under laboratory-controlled conditions comparable in important aspects to those of astronauts' exposure to particle in space. Experiments are performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratories [BNL] (Upton, NY, USA) and the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung mbH [GSI]/Biophysik (Darmstadt, FRG) to identify possible electrophysiological changes and/or activation of protective mechanisms in response to pulsed radiation. Offline data analyses are in progress and observations are still anecdotal. Electrophysiological changes after pulsed radiation are within the limits of spontaneous variability under anesthesia, with only indirect evidence of possible retinal/cortical responses. Immunostaining showed changes (e.g increased expression of FGF2 protein in the outer nuclear layer) suggesting a retinal stress reaction to high-energy particles of potential relevance in space.

  6. Green tea in dermatology--myths and facts.

    PubMed

    Zink, Alexander; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia

    2015-08-01

    Green tea consumption has a long tradition in Asian countries--especially China. The epidemiologically and experimentally observed anticarcinogenic and antiinflammatory effects of green tea have led to the implementation of green tea extracts in multiple therapeutic applications - both in dermatological and cosmeceutical preparations. The most abundant evidence exists for the anticarcinogenic and chemopreventive effect of green tea or its major constituent epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Almost equally evident is the effect in infectious diseases such as cutaneous viral infections. For external genital warts, a topical ointment with green tea extracts was licensed in the USA in 2010, and recently also in Europe. Experimental evidence pinpointing the block of central signal transduction factors in inflammatory mechanisms has led to the evaluation of catechins in inflammatory disorders such as atopic dermatitis. The belief of green tea as a "wonder weapon" against diseases dates back thousands of years. According to a Chinese legend, ancient Emperor Shen Nung noted a delightful aroma after some leaves of a nearby tree had fallen into boiling water. He immediately proclaimed the new "drink" as "heaven-sent", starting the belief - persisting until today - of green tea as a medication from nature against many different diseases. This review summarizes biological effects and clinical implications of green tea. © 2015 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Stranded in Vienna: Wilhelm Ebert (1871-1916) (German Title: Gestrandet in Wien: Wilhelm Ebert (1871-1916))

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnell, Anneliese

    2011-08-01

    Wilhelm Ebert, born 1871 in Leipzig, did study astronomy for a short time in Geneva and afterwards in Munich where he finished his PhD. He spent most of his scientific life in France, working on problems of latitude determination and celestial mechanics, mostly at the Bureau des Longitudes in Paris. He was member of the Astronomische Gesellschaft. Probably he used some of the regular meetings of the AG to introduce his work to German astronomers - for a rather short time he worked at the observatories of Kiel, Straßburg and Greifswald. In Greifswald he qualified for giving university lectures and he started to collect astronomical instruments to establish an observatory. M. Loewy, at that time director of Paris observatory, asked him to come back to France, first he had a position at Nice Observatory and shortly afterwards in Paris again. In 1909 he decided to live in Vienna, once more he applied for the qualification of giving university lectures; this time the procedure was easy going. He announced quite a lot of courses but nobody knows if they really took place. From February 1915 until his death in November 1916 he stayed in a psychiatric hospital in Vienna suffering from a disease which was uncurable at that time. His wife tried to get some information about his death in 1937. Already at that time he was unknown to the members of Vienna Observatory.

  8. Nagelbefall kann bei Patienten mit Psoriasis auf eine Enthesiopathie hinweisen.

    PubMed

    Castellanos-González, Maria; Joven, Beatriz Esther; Sánchez, Julio; Andrés-Esteban, Eva María; Vanaclocha-Sebastián, Francisco; Romero, Pablo Ortiz; Díaz, Raquel Rivera

    2016-11-01

    Obwohl subklinische Enthesiopathie ein gut etabliertes diagnostisches Merkmal der Psoriasisarthritis (PsA) ist, wird sie häufig übersehen, da viele Patienten asymptomatisch sind. Gäbe es klinische Hinweise auf das Vorliegen einer Enthesiopathie, würde dies den Klinikern die Möglichkeit eröffnen, eine PsA frühzeitig zu diagnostizieren. Es wurde eine monozentrische prospektive Studie mit insgesamt 90 Psoriasis-Patienten durchgeführt, um mittels Ultraschall das Vorliegen von Enthesenanomalien zu untersuchen und eine Korrelation mit dem Befall der Nägel festzustellen. Enthesenanomalien wurden bei 23 Patienten (25,5 %) gefunden, von denen 19 (82,6 %) Nagelbefall aufwiesen. Bei 4 Patienten waren die Nägel nicht betroffen. Enthesiopathie lag bei 31,1 % (19/61) der Patienten mit Onychopathie vor, von den Patienten ohne Nagelbefall litten nur 13,8 % (4/29) an Enthesiopathie (p = 0,07). Zwischen dem Target-NAPSI-Score und dem Vorliegen einer Enthesiopathie bestand eine signifikante Korrelation. Eine signifikante Korrelation bestand darüber hinaus auch zwischen dem Vorliegen einer Enthesiopathie und der Anzahl der betroffenen Nägel (p = 0,035). Klinische Belege für eine Onychopathie können der Schlüssel für die frühe Diagnose einer Enthesiopathie bei Psoriasis-Patienten sein. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Psychosocial burden and desire for support in outpatients with skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Buchhold, Britta; Wiesmann, Ulrich; Bahlmann, Johannes; Lutze, Stine; Eggert, Claudia; Arnold, Andreas; Daeschlein, Georg; Jünger, Michael; Hannich, Hans-Joachim

    2016-04-01

    An important basis for adequate psycho-oncological and psychosocial care of cancer patients is the regular assessment of their psychosocial distress and thus their need for care. For this purpose, there are numerous questionnaires available. The objective of the present study was to assess whether distressed patients require professional support and which screening instrument outpatients with skin cancer prefer. In a cross-sectional survey, we asked outpatients with skin cancer to fill out three questionnaires assessing psychosocial stress, and to indicate which one they considered most adequate. Patients were offered the following three instruments: Hornheide Questionnaire (27 items), Hornheide Screening Instrument (7 items), and the Distress Thermometer. In addition, we inquired about the patients' desire for support. (1) Comparing subjective distress and patients' declared desire for support revealed a marked divergence. While one-third of the 137 patients were identified as being in need of care, only 11.5% of the sample requested such support. (2) 63.7% of patients chose the long version of the Hornheide Questionnaire. In addition to their psychosocial burden, patients' desire for support should be assessed. Moreover, apart from screening tools, other ways to provide access to psychosocial care should be considered. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Intermittent noninvasive ventilation at San José Hospital in Chile: report of a German donation.

    PubMed

    Arellano Maric, M P; Roldán Toledo, R; Huttmann, S E; Storre, J H; Windisch, W

    2015-03-01

    Home mechanical ventilation is currently expanding in Chile, but its application along the country is hindered by financial and geographical reasons. In 2006 the San José Hospital in Santiago de Chile developed a non-invasive ventilation (NIV) center as a strategy to overcome the limitations of ventilator availability from public resources. Since then, this center provides intermittent diurnal sessions of NIV to patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure. In 2013, a collaboratory work between the Chilean doctors, the German Interdisciplinary Society of Home Mechanical Ventilation (DIGAB = Deutsche Interdisziplinäre Gesellschaft für Außerklinische Beatmung) and the German non-invasive (NIV) home care provider "Heinen und Löwenstein" organized a donation of 100 second-hand ventilators (BiPAP Synchrony; Respironics, USA) including masks and tubing systems, which were provided by Heinen und Löwenstein. The ventilator devices arrived in Santiago in January 2014. Since then, the following initiatives have been launched: 1) the establishment of a domiciliary mechanical ventilation program independent of governmental founding, 2) NIV setting-titration, 3) renewal of ventilators at the hospital's intermittent NIV unit. Future goals are the establishment of a rehabilitation unit with concomitant NIV therapy and a clinical research program. Therefore, the German donation of ventilators and equipment has a reported impact on the development of NIV in Chile.

  11. Parasites, flies and men--21st Meeting of the German Society of Parasitology in Würzburg.

    PubMed

    Ponte-Sucre, Alicia; Moll, Heidrun

    2005-01-01

    The German Society of Parasitology (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Parasitologie) was founded in 1960 and its 21st biannual meeting took place in Würzburg, Germany, from March 17 to 20, 2004. Whereas interim meetings that are being held every other year focus on specific topics of parasitology, such as the symposia on "Life in Vacuoles" in 2003 and on "Immunomodulation by Parasites" in 2001, the general biannual meetings cover a wide range of topics. This year's meeting at the University of Würzburg was organised by Klaus Brehm and Matthias Frosch (both at the Institute of Hygiene) and Heidrun Moll (Institute for Molecular Biology of Infectious Diseases). It was attended by more than 500 scientists from 16 countries who presented 181 research projects dealing with the topics defence mechanisms and immunology, genomics and proteomics, epidemiology, cell biology and biochemistry, chemotherapy and vaccines, parasite classification and morphology, vectors, intermediate hosts, and veterinary parasitology. In addition, six plenary lectures highlighted the subjects of comparative nematode genomics, cell biology, immunology, and parasite eradication programmes.

  12. Investigation of the structure of light exotic nuclei by proton elastic scattering in inverse kinematics

    SciTech Connect

    Alkhazov, G. D.; Vorobyov, A. A.; Dobrovolsky, A. V. Inglessi, A. G.; Korolev, G. A.; Khanzadeev, A. V.

    2015-05-15

    In order to study the spatial structure of exotic nuclei, it was proposed at the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI) to measure the differential cross section for small-angle proton elastic scattering in inverse kinematics. Several experiments in beams of 0.7-GeV/nucleon exotic nuclei were performed at the heavy-ion accelerator facility of GSI (Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany) by using the IKAR ionization spectrometer developed at PNPI. The IKAR ionization chamber filled with hydrogen at a pressure of 10 bar served simultaneously as a target and as a recoil-proton detector, which measured the recoil-proton energy. The beam-particle scattering angle was also measured. The results obtained for the cross sections in question were analyzed on the basis of the Glauber-Sitenko theory using phenomenological nuclear-density distributions with two free parameters. Nuclear-matter distributions and root-mean-square radii were found for the nuclei under investigation. The size of the halo in the {sup 6}He, {sup 8}He, {sup 11}Li, and {sup 14}Be nuclei was determined among other things. Information about neutron distributions in nuclei was deduced by combining the data obtained here with the known values of the radii of proton distributions. A sizable neutron skin was revealed in the {sup 8}Li, {sup 9}Li, and {sup 12}Be nuclei.

  13. Organizational responses to a changing aid environment: the German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ).

    PubMed

    Hill, Peter S

    2002-01-01

    As a major European donor, German government development assistance faces a series of challenges. Recent political changes have raised expectations for demonstrable health outcomes as a result of German development assistance; there has been a deepened commitment to collaboration with other bilateral and multilateral donors; and partner countries are increasingly open to new approaches to development. German development assistance also reflects a new ethos of partnership and the shift to programmatic and sector based development approaches. At the same time, its particular organizational structure and administrative framework highlight the extent of structural and systems reforms required of donors by changing development relationships, and the tensions created in responding to these. This paper examines organizational changes within the German Agency for Technical Cooperation (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische, Zusammenarbeit) (GTZ), aimed at increasing its Regional, Sectoral, Managerial and Process competence as they affect health and related sectors. These include the decentralization of GTZ, the trend to integration of projects, the increasing focus on policy and health systems reform, increased inter-sectoral collaboration, changes in recruitment and training, new perspectives in planning and evaluation and the introduction of a quality management programme.

  14. HELIOS Critical Design Review: Quality Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoehr, H. C.; Herholz, J.; Prem, H.; Mann, D.; Reichert, L.; Rupp, W.; Campbell, D.; Boettger, H.; Zerwes, G.; Kurvin, C.

    1972-01-01

    The following is an account of the activities of the Quality Assurance (QA) department of the project management office highlighting some of the ways in which it controls QA of the subcontractors on one hand and reports on Quality to GfW (Gesellschaft fur Weltraumforschung) on the other hand. The basic document prepared by MBB (Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm) for QA activities is 1. The QA plan based on GfW 002. The QA department is responsible moreover for monitoring and making decisions about the quality of parts and materials and the governing document for this activity is 2. The Parts and Materials Control Plan based on GfW 001 - the reliability program provisions, as well as GfW 002. A brief survey of the contents of the QA Plan is shown. It should be noted that QA activity dealing with parts procurement is partially covered in a separate presentation entitled "Hi-Rel Parts". Supplementary quality documents are shown.

  15. Development of integrated radioactive waste packaging and conditioning solutions in the UK

    SciTech Connect

    Sibley, Peter; Butter, Kevin; Zimmerman, Ian; Viermann, Joerg; Messer, Matthias

    2013-07-01

    In order to offer a more cost effective, safer and efficient Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) management service, EnergySolutions EU Ltd. and Gesellschaft fur Nuklear-Service mbH (GNS) have been engaged in the development of integrated radioactive waste retrieval, packaging and conditioning solutions in the UK. Recognising the challenges surrounding regulatory endorsement and on-site implementation in particular, this has resulted in an alternative approach to meeting customer, safety regulator and disposability requirements. By working closely with waste producers and the organisation(s) responsible for endorsing radioactive waste management operations in the UK, our proposed solutions are now being implemented. By combining GNS' off-the-shelf, proven Ductile Cast Iron Containers (DCICs) and water removal technologies, with EnergySolutions EU Ltd.'s experience and expertise in waste retrieval, safety case development and disposability submissions, a fully integrated service offering has been developed. This has involved significant effort to overcome technical challenges such as onsite equipment deployment, active commissioning, conditioning success criteria and disposability acceptance. Our experience in developing such integrated solutions has highlighted the importance of working in collaboration with all parties to achieve a successful and viable outcome. Ultimately, the goal is to ensure reliable, safe and effective delivery of waste management solutions. (authors)

  16. Incidence and classification of cutaneous manifestations in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ziemer, Mirjana; Müller, Anne-Katrin; Hein, Gert; Oelzner, Peter; Elsner, Peter

    2016-12-01

    There have only been few studies examining rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-related skin manifestations in larger patient populations. Herein, we present current data on the prevalence and spectrum of cutaneous lesions in RA, addressing disease activity scores, anti-CCP antibodies as well as novel pharmacological approaches. Between November 2006 and July 2007, 214 patients with RA treated at the Division of Rheumatology, University Hospital Jena, Germany, were prospectively examined. 27.5 % of patients exhibited RA-related skin manifestations, almost all of which were rheumatoid nodules. These lesions occurred significantly more frequently in patients with longstanding disease, those testing positive for rheumatoid factor and anti-CCP-antibodies, as well as individuals on leflunomide and TNF-alpha antagonists. Comparatively lower prevalence rates were observed for palisading neutrophilic and granulomatous dermatitis and rheumatoid vasculitis. Despite increasingly early treatment of RA and use of novel pharmacological agents, there is a high prevalence of rheumatoid nodules, which represent the most common cutaneous manifestation in RA. The higher prevalence of rheumatoid nodules in patients on leflunomide and TNF-alpha antagonists might be an indication that pharmacological treatment has only limited effects on their formation, possibly due to pathogenetic pathways that are only inadequately affected by drug therapies. By contrast, palisading neutrophilic and granulomatous dermatitis and rheumatoid vasculitis appear to respond better to novel pharmacological agents. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Pseudosyndactyly - an inflammatory and fibrotic wound healing disorder in recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa.

    PubMed

    Breitenbach, Jenny; Gruber, Christina; Klausegger, Alfred; Trost, Andrea; Bogner, Barbara; Reitsamer, Herbert; Bauer, Johann W

    2015-12-01

    A genetic blistering skin disease, recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB), is marked by severe wound healing defects and finger contractures. The purpose of this investigation was to elucidate the mechanisms of impaired wound healing and pseudosyndactyly occurring in RDEB patients by studying the role of known inflammation and fibrosis markers in RDEB pseudosyndactyly tissue. We studied the expression of the fibrosis and/or inflammation markers tenascin-C, α-smooth muscle actin, transforming growth factor-β1, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 in scarring and nonscarring tissue from healthy donors and RDEB patients by semiquantitative real time-PCR and, where applicable, by immunoblots. Furthermore, the distribution pattern of α-smooth muscle actin and tenascin-C were assessed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Based on mRNA and protein analysis, we found upregulation of tenascin-C, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 - but not of transforming growth factor-β1 - in recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa scar samples taken from pseudosyndactyly hands. Unexpectedly, α-smooth muscle actin was not upregulated. Our results confirm inflammation and fibrosis in recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa, especially in scars, suggesting major roles for these processes in pseudosyndactyly. Our data therefore suggests the potential use of antiinflammatory and antifibrotic drugs in the prevention of pseudosyndactyly. © 2015 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Tannins from Potentilla officinalis display antiinflammatory effects in the UV erythema test and on atopic skin.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Julia; Wölfle, Ute; Schempp, Christoph M; Casetti, Federica

    2016-09-01

    Rich in tannins, the rhizome of Potentilla officinalis (PO) has traditionally been used in the topical treatment of inflammatory disorders of the skin and mucous membranes. The objective of the present study was to examine the antiinflammatory effects of PO in the UV erythema test as well as in patients with atopic skin. Using the UV erythema test, the antiinflammatory effects of a PO extract (2 %) - compared to 1 % hydrocortisone acetate - were assessed in a randomized, prospective, placebo-controlled double-blind study of 40 healthy volunteers. In the context of a prospective non-controlled trial, the efficacy and tolerability of 2 % PO cream (applied to defined test areas twice daily for two weeks) was evaluated in twelve adults and twelve children with atopic skin using a partial SCORAD. In addition, the effects on the degree of erythema in the test areas was measured photometrically. In the UV erythema test, PO cream significantly reduced the erythema index compared to the vehicle. The antiinflammatory effects of PO cream were comparable to those of 1 % hydrocortisone acetate cream. The clinical study with atopic patients revealed a significant reduction in the partial SCORAD as well as erythema in the test areas. No adverse events were recorded. PO cream displays antiinflammatory effects in vivo. It is effective in and well tolerated by patients with atopic skin. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Die histologischen Typen der lymphomatoiden Papulose - Ein Vorschlag für die Vereinfachung des Buchstabenchaos.

    PubMed

    Kempf, Werner; Mitteldorf, Christina; Karai, Laszlo J; Robson, Alistair

    2017-04-01

    Die lymphomatoide Papulose (LYP) ist klinisch durch rezidivierende papulonoduläre Läsionen charakterisiert. Im Gegensatz zu dieser stereotypen klinischen Präsentation zeigt die Erkrankung ein breites histologisches Spektrum mit verschiedenen Infiltratmustern, unterschiedlichen Tumorzellgrößen und variablen Phänotypen. Die revidierte WHO-Klassifikation 2016 umfasst die histologischen LYP-Typen A bis E und einen sechsten Typ, dem eine spezielle Mutation zugrunde liegt. Darüber hinaus werden jedoch immer wieder neue Typen vorgeschlagen, wobei sich die Ausweitung nicht ausschließlich auf histologische Muster bezieht, sondern sich auch auf klinische und genetische Aspekte ausdehnt. Dies führt zu einer Ausweitung der alphabetischen Liste mit zunehmender Komplexität der Terminologie und kann anstelle eines vereinfachten diagnostischen Zugangs zur Verwirrung führen. Zudem kann es zu Überschneidungen unterschiedlicher Typen kommen. Diese Entwicklung wirft die Frage auf, wie die Terminologie der lymphomatoiden Papulose vereinfacht werden kann, ohne dabei auf die histologischen Besonderheiten zu verzichten. Wir schlagen daher einen praktischen Zugang zur Terminologie der lymphomatoide Papulosen vor, welcher sich ausschließlich auf deskriptive Begriffe beschränkt und nicht auf einer alphabetischen Bezeichnung der LYP-Typen beruht. Unser Vorschlag soll einen praktikablen und benutzerfreundlichen Zugang zur Terminologie der lymphomatoiden Papulose ermöglichen und damit den diagnostischen Prozess sowie die Kommunikation zwischen Klinikern und Pathologen vereinfachen. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Structure in the Dusty Debris around Vega

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilner, D. J.; Holman, M. J.; Kuchner, M. J.; Ho, P. T. P.

    2002-04-01

    We present images of the Vega system obtained with the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer at a 1.3 mm wavelength with submillijansky sensitivity and ~2.5" resolution (about 20 AU). These observations clearly detect the stellar photosphere and two dust emission peaks offset from the star by 9.5" and 8.0" to the northeast and southwest, respectively. These offset emission peaks are consistent with the barely resolved structure visible in previous submillimeter images, and they account for a large fraction of the dust emission. The presence of two dust concentrations at the observed locations is plausibly explained by the dynamical influence of an unseen planet of a few Jupiter masses in a highly eccentric orbit that traps dust in principal mean motion resonances. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. IRAM is supported by the Instut Nationale des Sciences de L'Univers, CNRS (France), Max-Plank-Gesellschaft (Germany), and Instituto Geográfico Nacional (Spain).

  1. [Erwin H. Ackerknecht and the Berg/Rath Affair in 1964. On the coping of German medical historians with their history].

    PubMed

    Morgeli, C; Jobmann, A

    1997-01-01

    In 1964, the Zurich medical historian Erwin H. Ackerknect announced his decision to resign from the German Society of Medical History, Natural Science and Technology (Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Geschichte der Medizin, Naturwissenschaft und Technik - DGGMNT) in a letter to 150 colleagues and prominent personalities in scientific, academic and political circles. Ackerknecht explained that he was resigning from the Society because the medical faculty of the University of Gottingen, supported by its professor of medical history, Gernot Rath - also chairman of the DGGMNT - had awarded the Venia legendi medical history chair to the x-ray specialist and medical historian Alexander Berg. Berg was ideologically compromised by his co-authorship of a book that embraced the ideals of National Socialism and in which he was mentioned as a Obersturmfuhrer of SS. Apart from describing the events surrounding Berg's promotion to the teaching position, this article presents Ackerknecht's perspective on the situation, the continuing influence of further Nazi era's leading historians of medicine the war - enabling Berg to assume his position - as well as the DGGMNT's controversial reactions to Ackerknecht's resignation and the consequences that the affair was to have for the Society.

  2. Accelerators for Discovery Science and Security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, A. M. M.; Bluem, H. P.; Jarvis, J. D.; Park, J. H.; Rathke, J. W.; Schultheiss, T. J.

    2015-05-01

    Several Advanced Energy Systems (AES) accelerator projects that span applications in Discovery Science and Security are described. The design and performance of the IR and THz free electron laser (FEL) at the Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft in Berlin that is now an operating user facility for physical chemistry research in molecular and cluster spectroscopy as well as surface science, is highlighted. The device was designed to meet challenging specifications, including a final energy adjustable in the range of 15-50 MeV, low longitudinal emittance (<50 keV-psec) and transverse emittance (<20 π mm-mrad), at more than 200 pC bunch charge with a micropulse repetition rate of 1 GHz and a macropulse length of up to 15 μs. Secondly, we will describe an ongoing effort to develop an ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) source that is scheduled for completion in 2015 with prototype testing taking place at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). This tabletop X-band system will find application in time-resolved chemical imaging and as a resource for drug-cell interaction analysis. A third active area at AES is accelerators for security applications where we will cover some top-level aspects of THz and X-ray systems that are under development and in testing for stand-off and portal detection.

  3. Recommissioned German refinery ready to meet tough fuels, emissions specs

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1993-08-09

    In November and December 1991, Beta Raffinerie-gesellschaft Wilhelmshaven MBH restarted the mothballed refinery at Wilhelmshaven, Germany. The refurbished refinery is sophisticated enough to produce high-grade, low-sulfur fuels and meet stringent emissions specifications, even when processing high-sulfur crudes. Located on Jade Bay in northern Germany near Wilhelmshaven, the Beta facility is the only refinery in Germany on a deep-water port. Refurbishment and recommissioning took only about 1 year. The primary steps were: detailed visual/ultrasonic inspection; reassembly or replacement of all pumps; replacement of much of the piping and installment of new piping to improve tank farm flexibility; disassembly and reassembly of all jetty booms and dredging of the jetty; sandblasting and relining of all tanks, installation of double seals, and replacement of various tank bottoms; conversion or upgrading of several tanks to other uses; strengthening of LPG spheres and covering them with concrete casements; reactivating the Foxboro control system for startup (the system is now being replaced with another system); complete overhauling of all process units, replacement of drawers in towers, rotors, and other equipment, and debottlenecking of process units to achieve higher throughputs; upgrading of al furnaces and heaters, as required, and re-equipping; them with low-NO[sub x] burners; installation of a stack-emissions measurement control system; removal of all asbestos gaskets and replacing them with non asbestos gaskets, and renewal of rail and truck-loading automation and installation of bottom-loading and vapor-recovery systems.

  4. Investigation of factors associated with health-related quality of life and psychological distress in vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Bonotis, Konstantinos; Pantelis, Konstantinos; Karaoulanis, Sokratis; Katsimaglis, Chrysanthos; Papaliaga, Maria; Zafiriou, Efterpi; Tsogas, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Skin diseases distort the body image with possible negative effects on the quality of life and psychosocial health of patients. While vitiligo does not affect the physical well-being, it may be psychologically distressing. The present study was based on the hypothesis that particular factors might be critical regarding the adjustment to the disease. We investigated the vitiligo-related quality of life and psychological distress of 216 patients diagnosed with the disease in relation to demographic factors, disease components, and personality traits. For this purpose, we administered the self-completed questionnaires Dermatological Quality of Life Index, General Health Questionnaire, Eysenck Personality Inventory, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Statistical analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between patients' distress and health-related quality of life. Moreover, the impact of vitiligo on the quality of life was significantly associated with disease variables as well as personality traits and gender. On the other hand, psychological distress was significantly associated with personality traits and gender, but not with disease components. Our results indicate that the psychosocial adjustment to the disease is mainly influenced by subjective factors. This observation could imply the need for targeted support interventions in the treatment of vitiligo. © 2015 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Pediatric giant cell glioblastoma: New insights into a rare tumor entity

    PubMed Central

    Karremann, Michael; Butenhoff, Sandra; Rausche, Ulrike; Pietsch, Torsten; Wolff, Johannes E. A.; Kramm, Christof M.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about giant cell glioblastoma (GCG) in pediatric patients. The present study identified 18 pediatric patients with centrally reviewed GCG from the HIT-GBM database of the Gesellschaft für Paediatrische Onkologie und Haematologie in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. Clinical and epidemiological data were compared with those of 178 pediatric patients with centrally reviewed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) from the same database. In this unique series, median age, male preference, and median clinical history did not differ significantly between pediatric GCG and GBM patients. GCG showed a stronger predilection for cerebral hemispheres than did GBM, which may only partly explain the higher percentage of gross total tumor resections in GCG patients. Most surprising, the widely distributed hypothesis that GCG may imply a better prognosis than GBM could not be substantiated for our pediatric series. Future studies with larger patient numbers and molecular pathological analyses are still needed to corroborate the present findings and further elucidate the biology of GCG in children. PMID:19050301

  6. Back to the roots - dermatology in ancient Egyptian medicine.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Anke

    2016-04-01

    Although ancient Greek and Roman medicine is generally considered the origin of European medicine, there is evidence in ancient Egyptian texts suggesting a precursor role of ancient Egyptian medicine in this regard. What did Greek and Roman physicians learn from their Egyptian counterparts? Of the medical papyri discovered to date, the largest and most significant - the Ebers papyrus and the Smith papyrus - originate from the beginning of the New Kingdom, however, they were - at least in part - already written during the Old Kingdom. Considering the times, the spectrum of diseases treated as well as the range of conservative and surgical treatment methods was truly astounding. Taking a medical history, performing a thorough manual examination, and assessing clinical findings constituted key components in establishing a diagnosis. Apart from hygienic aspects, skin and hair disorders, the treatment of acute and chronic wounds and injuries as well as cosmetic procedures took on an important role. Even back then, physicians sought to assess inflammatory processes with respect to their cardinal features, implement graded wound therapy, and treat diseases with allopathic drugs. The 'channel theory' prevalent at that time, in which the unimpeded flow of bodily fluids was considered a fundamental prerequisite for health, may likely be regarded as precursor of ancient Greek humoral pathology. The latter became the basis for the subsequently established theory of the four humors, and was thus essential for the entire field of medieval medicine. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Argan woodlands in South Morocco as an area of conflict between degradation and sustainable land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchhoff, Mario; Kagermeier, Andreas; Ries, Johannes B.

    2016-04-01

    The Argan woodlands are endemic for South Morocco and prone to degradation through expanding and intensifying agriculture and overgrazing. Unvegetated areas extend further due to degradation of soil and vegetation. Here infiltration is less than on vegetated areas, while runoff and soil erosion increase. The sale of the highly valuable oil, gained from the seeds of the argan tree, can be seen as an economic alternative for the region and a chance of survival for the argan woodlands. With the introduction of women's cooperatives for the production and sale of the oil, the Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ, Association for Technical Cooperation) hoped to halt argan degradation from 1995 to 2002. The effects of this approach shall be studied in a proposed DFG-project. The erosion gradient between soils under canopy cover and intertree areas in varying stages of degradation will be at the center of the analysis. Insight into onsite and offsite degradation shall be gained through the measurement of runoff and erosion rates, which lead to rill and gully erosion downslope. Measurements of soil chemical and physical properties might also help indicate when an argan woodland can be classified as natural. Furthermore to be studied are the effects of the new found value of the Argan woodlands among the local population with focus on regional tourism and a possible reduction of grazing pressure. Sustainable soil management in combination with the needs of the local population is essential for a sustainable land use in the region.

  8. Outstanding personalities in German-speaking mycology : Dedicated to Professor Dr. Johannes Müller.

    PubMed

    Seebacher, Claus; Lotti, Torello; Roccia, Maria Grazia; Fioranelli, Massimo; Wollina, Uwe

    2017-02-23

    The history of medical and veterinary mycology in general has been reviewed in the excellent monography by G.C. Ainsworth (1905-1998) published in 1986. Here, we will focus on German-speaking mycology and their outstanding personalities. We will start with the early years when medical mycology was in its infancy. Microscopy was a most valuable tool for the identification of fungi followed by cultivation and staining methods. Human pathologies became linked to fungi. After World War I, medical mycology flourished as an integral part of dermatology at universities and in private institutes. The development was interrupted by World War II, which divided Germany. In both parts of Germany, medical mycology had to be re-established. After re-unification the two different medical societies joined together. The development of DMyK (Deutschsprachigen Mykologischen Gesellschaft - Mykologie) is illustrated. Important personalities and some of their achievements are mentioned. Mycology has attracted other fields of medicine including internal medicine, pediatrics, microbiology, and veterinary medicine.

  9. The mystery of the thymus gland.

    PubMed

    Liu, Daniel; Ellis, Harold

    2016-09-01

    The thymus is the last organ in the human body to have its mechanisms fully understood, having had its function fully delineated more than 50 years ago (Miller , Tissue Antigens 63:509-517). Prior to this, the thymus gland has had an interesting history with theories having included a role in fetal growth and development before becoming more sinisterly, a cause of sudden infant death in the late 19th century known as status lymphaticus (Paltauf , Wien Klin Wochenschr 2:877-881). Until Miller (, Lancet 278:748-749) eventually proved its primarily immunological role, the history of this mysterious gland has closely mirrored the history of medicine itself, troubling the minds of pathologists such as Virchow (, Ueber die Chlorose und die damit zusammenhängenden Anomalien im Gefässapparate, insbesondere über "Endocarditis puerperalis," vorgetragen in der Sitzung der Berliner Geburtshülflichen Gesellschaft vom 12) and Grawitz (, Deut Med Wochenschr 22:429-431), surgeons such as Astley Cooper (, The Anatomy of the Thymus Gland) and Keynes (1953, Ann R Coll Surg 12:88), and eminent medical epidemiologists such as Greenwood and Woods [, J Hyg (Lond) 26:305-326]. This article will hopefully be of interest therefore to both clinician and historian alike. Clin. Anat. 29:679-684, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Combination therapy of infantile hemangiomas with pulsed dye laser and Nd:YAG laser is effective and safe.

    PubMed

    Kaune, Kjell M; Lauerer, Peter; Kietz, Silke; Eich, Christoph; Thoms, Kai-Martin; Schön, Michael P; Zutt, Markus

    2014-06-01

    Infantile hemangiomas (IH) can cause severe complications such as obstruction, ulceration or heart failure. Therefore, in certain difficult-to-treat areas, or when there is no sign of involution, early and effective therapy is required. In rare instances, systemic treatments, like the beta-blocker propranolol and oral corticosteroids, can cause serious side effects. Effective and well-tolerated local treatment options are thus desirable as additive or alternative methods. In this retrospective interdisciplinary study, 38 children with 77 IH were treated with pulsed dye laser (PDL) (595 nm) and Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm). The treatment success and side effects were evaluated according to objective and subjective parameters, including hemangioma thickness measured by ultrasound and the parents' evaluation of treatment. All 77 treated IH responded to the therapy, of which 52.8 % healed after the end of treatment and 47.2 % had only minimum residual components. The success of treatment was assessed by the parents in 92.6 % as very good or good. Transient blistering occurred as the main side effect in 45.9 %. Combination therapy with PDL and Nd:YAG laser represents an effective local method for IH with minimal side effects. © 2014 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Hormone replacement after thyroid and parathyroid surgery.

    PubMed

    Schäffler, Andreas

    2010-11-01

    Hypothyroidism and hypocalcemia are common after thyroid and parathyroid surgery. In this article, the authors provide clinically-oriented recommendations to help surgeons, general practitioners, internists, and endocrinologists give their affected patients adequate hormone replacement therapy. Selective evaluation of original articles and reviews that were retrieved by a PubMed search over the years 1980 to 2010, as well as of the recommendations of medical societies including the Endocrine Society (USA), the German Society for Endocrinology (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Endokrinologie), and the American and European Thyroid Associations. Important issues in L-thyroxine replacement therapy include: the selection of the hormone preparation (T4 or T4/T3), combination with iodine (yes/no), the definition of therapeutic TSH ranges (particularly after surgery for thyroid cancer), the extent of remaining thyroid tissue after goiter surgery and its significance, underlying diseases, and drug interactions. The major issues in the treatment of postoperative hypoparathyroidism are: the selection of suitable calcium and vitamin D preparations, the definition of therapeutic goals, the treatment of hypercalciuria and hyperphosphatemia, and the option of recombinant parathormone therapy. Effective treatment requires an appropriate choice of medication and an understanding of its pharmacokinetics as well as of the possible effects of the patient's underlying disease, comorbidities, and other medications on its absorption and metabolism.

  12. [Sports medicine in Germany].

    PubMed

    Dickhuth, H-H

    2005-08-01

    Sports medicine covers many different aspects, ranging from clinical specialties, such as internal medicine, orthopedics or pediatrics to physiology and sports sciences. The requirements for sports medicine evolve mainly from exercise physiology (elite, leisure and health oriented physical activity), orthopedics and traumatology as well as from preventive and rehabilitative issues. In the new German curriculum, sports medicine is defined as a subspecialty. Historically, sports medicine in Germany has a federal structure with a governing body (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sportmedizin und Prävention). Due to these facts, University Departments of Sports Medicine (which vary greatly in size and performance) are either attached to Medical or non-Medical Faculties, such as Sports Sciences. In medical schools, sports medicine can be selected as an elective subject. However, the main part of teaching sports medicine is covered by Sports Science Faculties. In an international context, the strength of German sports medicine is its clinical orientation and close cooperation with the sport itself, especially high-performance sports. In the future, like in the Anglo- American countries, sports medicine in Germany will play a major role in health prevention and rehabilitation.

  13. [The foundation of the German Society for Child Psychiatry and Therapeutic Education – Paul Schroeder’s road to foundation chairman].

    PubMed

    Schepker, Klaus; Fangerau, Heiner

    2016-01-01

    The reconstruction of the evolutionary history of this professional association lays its focus on the developments which contributed to the society’s formal foundation during the time of the patient killings in Germany after 1939. Methodologically the study follows strategies of historical network analysis including the main actors of the foundation process. The foundation of this society can be seen as the result of the interaction of a) the Reichs-Health-Agency, its president Hans Reiter, and Fritz Rott as National Socialist health politicians, b) the scientific development geared to this policy of a young discipline that shared its knowledge base as well as its medical ‘object’ with established specialties like psychiatry and pediatrics, c) a postulated need for character studies, prognosis and selection, and d) personal as well as professional-political interests of the main protagonists Schroeder and Villinger. Once more it is obvious that medicine and politics were not only interwoven, but in certain areas in accordance with each other. Borders could rather be established between social regulatory “instances”. The foundation of the DGKH (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Kinderpsychiatrie und Heilpädagogik; German Society for Child Psychiatry and Therapeutic Education) is an example of a ‘radical regulatory reasoning’ according to Raphael, that by means of “institutional arrangements at medium level” (Raphael, 2001) was supposed to implement the ‘new National-Socialist order’.

  14. Chemical management and control strategies: experiences from the GTZ pilot project on chemical safety in Indonesian small and medium-sized enterprises.

    PubMed

    Tischer, M; Scholaen, S

    2003-10-01

    In 1998 the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) launched the Convention Project on Chemical Safety in developing countries. The project aims to support developing countries in the implementation of the Rotterdam and Stockholm Conventions, create human resources and institutional capacities and to demonstrate via pilot measures how chemical safety in the partner countries can be improved and sustainably implemented in line with international standards. With this objective the development of a Chemical Management Guide (CM Guide) for small and medium-sized enterprises in developing countries has been initiated. The guide describes a step-by-step approach which is based on identifying 'hot-spots' as a first step, and making a chemical inventory as a second step. The third step is the continuous improvement of chemical management. In total, there are six tools that aim to support the chemical management process: basic concepts for risk assessment; description of control approaches; using material safety data sheets (MSDSs); risk phrases for hazardous substances; safety phrases for hazardous substances; symbols used for labelling hazardous substances. In the course of the test-implementation of the CM Guide in Indonesia, it was found that MSDSs were not available in most of the smaller companies. In contrast, medium-sized and larger companies do have more MSDSs available. It was also found that the way to engage the minds of company owners and managers is with economic arguments related to the loss, waste and expiry of materials, and quality standards expected from importing countries.

  15. Effects of heavy ions on visual function and electrophysiology of rodents: the ALTEA-MICE project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sannita, W. G.; Acquaviva, M.; Ball, S. L.; Belli, F.; Bisti, S.; Bidoli, V.; Carozzo, S.; Casolino, M.; Cucinotta, F.; De Pascale, M. P.; Di Fino, L.; Di Marco, S.; Maccarone, R.; Martello, C.; Miller, J.; Narici, L.; Peachey, N. S.; Picozza, P.; Rinaldi, A.; Ruggieri, D.; Saturno, M.; Schardt, D.; Vazquez, M.; Lowenstein, D. (Principal Investigator)

    2004-01-01

    ALTEA-MICE will supplement the ALTEA project on astronauts and provide information on the functional visual impairment possibly induced by heavy ions during prolonged operations in microgravity. Goals of ALTEA-MICE are: (1) to investigate the effects of heavy ions on the visual system of normal and mutant mice with retinal defects; (2) to define reliable experimental conditions for space research; and (3) to develop animal models to study the physiological consequences of space travels on humans. Remotely controlled mouse setup, applied electrophysiological recording methods, remote particle monitoring, and experimental procedures were developed and tested. The project has proved feasible under laboratory-controlled conditions comparable in important aspects to those of astronauts' exposure to particle in space. Experiments are performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratories [BNL] (Upton, NY, USA) and the Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung mbH [GSI]/Biophysik (Darmstadt, FRG) to identify possible electrophysiological changes and/or activation of protective mechanisms in response to pulsed radiation. Offline data analyses are in progress and observations are still anecdotal. Electrophysiological changes after pulsed radiation are within the limits of spontaneous variability under anesthesia, with only indirect evidence of possible retinal/cortical responses. Immunostaining showed changes (e.g. increased expression of FGF2 protein in the outer nuclear layer) suggesting a retinal stress reaction to high-energy particles of potential relevance in space. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [The French project ETOILE: review of clinical data for light ion hadrontherapy].

    PubMed

    Pommier, P; Balosso, J; Bolla, M; Gérard, J P

    2002-12-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory was the pioneer in light ions hadrontherapy with almost 2500 patients treated between 1957 and 1993 with Helium and Neon. The NIRS (National Institute For Radiological Science, Chiba, Japan) was the first dedicated medical centre for cancer with more than 1200 patients exclusively treated with carbon ion from 1994. A three-year 70 to 100% local control was reported for radio-resistant cancers, supporting the use of high LET particles. Hypo-fractionation was particularly explored for lung cancers and hepatocarcinoma (4 sessions only). Dose escalation studies demonstrated a tumour dose-effect and permitted to precise dose constraints for healthy tissues especially for the rectum. More than 140 patients were treated with carbon ion exclusively or associated with photons since 1997 in the GSI laboratory Gesellschaft Für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany). A very high local control was also obtained for radioresistant cancer of the base of the skull. Preliminary clinical data seem to confirm the expected therapeutic gain with light ions, due to their ballistic and radio-biological properties, and justify the European projects for the construction of dedicated medical facilities for cancers. The French "Etoile" project will be integrated in the European hadrontherapy network "Enlight", with the objectives to coordinate technologic, medical and economic features.

  17. Wirksamkeit und Sicherheit von Fumarsäureestern in Kombination mit Phototherapie bei Patienten mit moderater bis schwerer Plaque-Psoriasis (FAST).

    PubMed

    Weisenseel, Peter; Reich, Kristian; Griemberg, Wiebke; Merten, Katharina; Gröschel, Christine; Gomez, Natalie Nunez; Taipale, Kirsi; Bräu, Beate; Zschocke, Ina

    2017-02-01

    Die Behandlung von Psoriasis-Patienten mit einer Kombination aus Fumarsäureestern (FSE, Fumaderm(®) ) und Phototherapie (UV) ist verbreitet, wurde aber im Rahmen von Studien wenig untersucht. Bisher liegen lediglich Daten aus einer kleinen Pilotstudie vor. Intention dieser Studie war, eine FSE/UV-Kombinationsbehandlung an einem größeren Patientenkollektiv mit mittelschwerer bis schwerer Psoriasis zu untersuchen. In dieser prospektiven, multizentrischen, nichtinterventionellen Studie wurden Daten von Patienten mit FSE/UV-Kombinationstherapie hinsichtlich der Wirksamkeit (PGA' PASI, DLQI, EQ-5D), Sicherheit und Dosierung über einen Zeitraum von zwölf Monaten erfasst und mit Daten einer retrospektiven Studie mit FSE-Monotherapie verglichen. Es wurden Daten von 363 Patienten ausgewertet. Unter der Kombinationstherapie verbesserten sich alle Wirksamkeitsparameter deutlich. Im Vergleich zur Monotherapie mit FSE konnte durch die Kombination mit UV ein schnellerer Wirkeintritt erzielt werden, wobei nach zwölf Monaten kein Unterschied in der Wirksamkeit bestand. Die Dauer und Art der Phototherapie zeigte keinen Einfluss auf die Wirksamkeitsparameter. Allgemein wurde die Kombinationstherapie gut vertragen. Unerwünschte Ereignisse wurden bei 7 % der Patienten berichtet. Die FSE/UV Kombinationstherapie zeigt eine gute Wirksamkeit und Verträglichkeit und kann zu einem schnelleren Wirkeintritt führen. Eine Kombinationstherapie erscheint vor allem in den ersten drei Monaten der FSE Behandlung sinnvoll. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Updates and achievements in virology.

    PubMed

    Buonaguro, Franco M; Campadelli-Fiume, Gabriella; De Giuli Morghen, Carlo; Palù, Giorgio

    2010-07-01

    The 4th European Congress of Virology, hosted by the Italian Society for Virology, attracted approximately 1300 scientists from 46 countries worldwide. It also represented the first conference of the European Society for Virology, which was established in Campidoglio, Rome, Italy in 2009. The main goal of the meeting was to share research activities and results achieved in European virology units/institutes and to strengthen collaboration with colleagues from both western and developing countries. The worldwide representation of participants is a testament to the strength and attraction of European virology. The 5-day conference brought together the best of current virology; topics covered all three living domains (bacteria, archaea and eucarya), with special sessions on plant and veterinary virology as well as human virology, including two oral presentations on mimiviruses. The conference included five plenary sessions, 31 workshops, one hepatitis C virus roundtable, ten special workshops and three poster sessions, as well as 45 keynote lectures, 191 oral presentations and 845 abstracts. Furthermore, the Gesellschaft fur Virologie Loeffler-Frosch medal award was given to Peter Vogt for his long-standing career and achievements; the Gardner Lecture of the European Society for Clinical Virology was presented by Yoshihiro Kawaoka, and the Pioneer in Virology Lecture of the Italian Society for Virology was presented by Ulrich Koszinowski.

  19. Quality of life and psychosocial impact of scarring and non-scarring alopecia in women.

    PubMed

    Katoulis, Alexandros C; Christodoulou, Christos; Liakou, Aikaterini I; Kouris, Anargyros; Korkoliakou, Panagiota; Kaloudi, Eythymia; Kanelleas, Antonios; Papageorgiou, Charalabos; Rigopoulos, Dimitrios

    2015-02-01

    Alopecia is a common dermatological condition with mostly cosmetic consequences that, nevertheless, has significant psychological and psychosocial impact. To assess the impact of alopecia on quality of life and certain psychological domains and to compare it between scarring and non-scarring alopecia in Greek adult women. Forty-four women, aged 18-70 years, with scarring (n = 19) or non-scarring alopecia (n = 25) were recruited. All patients were evaluated by Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES) and UCLA Loneliness Scale (UCLA-LS). Women with scarring alopecia had higher scores in DLQI, HADS and UCLA- LS and lower scores in RSES, compared to women with non-scarring alopecia. A statistically significant difference between the two groups was documented for DLQI (p = 0.0067), HADS (p = 0.0008), and HADS-Anxiety (HADS-A) (p < 0.05) and HADS-Depression (HADS-D) (p < 0.01) subscales. The psychological burden is heavier and quality of life is more severely impaired among women with scarring alopecia compared with non-scarring alopecia, probably depicting the poorer prognosis of the former. © 2015 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Interplay of collective flow phenomena and velocity correlations of intermediate-mass fragments in collisions of Au+Au at E=(100-400)A MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotte, R.; Kämpfer, B.; Mösner, J.; Neubert, W.; Wohlfarth, D.; Alard, J. P.; Amouroux, V.; Basrak, Z.; Bastid, N.; Belayev, I. M.; Berger, L.; Blaich, Th.; Boussange, S.; Buta, A.; Čaplar, R.; Cerruti, C.; Cindro, N.; Coffin, J. P.; Donà, R.; Dupieux, P.; Erö, J.; Fan, Z. G.; Fintz, P.; Fodor, Z.; Fraysse, L.; Freifelder, R.; Frolov, S.; Gobbi, A.; Grigorian, Y.; Guillaume, G.; Herrmann, N.; Hildenbrand, K. D.; Hölbling, S.; Houari, O.; Ibnouzahir, M.; Jeong, S. C.; Jundt, F.; Kecskemeti, J.; Koncz, P.; Korchagin, Y.; Krämer, M.; Kuhn, C.; Legrand, I.; Lebedev, A.; Manko, V.; Matulewicz, T.; Mgebrishvili, G.; Moisa, D.; Montarou, G.; Montbel, I.; Pelte, D.; Petrovici, M.; Pras, P.; Rami, F.; Ramillien, V.; Reisdorf, W.; Sadchikov, A.; Schüll, D.; Seres, Z.; Sikora, B.; Simion, V.; Smolyankin, S.; Sodan, U.; Teh, K.; Tezkratt, R.; Trzaska, M.; Vasiliev, M. A.; Wagner, P.; Wessels, J. P.; Wienold, T.; Wilhelmi, Z.; Zhilin, A. V.

    1995-05-01

    Velocity correlations of intermediate mass fragments (IMF), produced in collisions of Au+Au at 100, 150, 250, and 400A MeV beam energy, are extracted from measurements with the 4π detector system (FOPI) in construction stage I at Schwerionen-Synchrotron (SIS) at the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt. The IMF correlation functions of peripheral and semicentral events are found to be strongly affected by the collective sideward motion of nuclear matter. The sideflow causes an enhancement of correlations at small relative velocities. This enhancement results from the mixing of differently azimuthally oriented events; it vanishes if the events are rotated into a unique reaction plane. Selecting violent central collisions, the comparison of the data with a Coulomb dominated final-state interaction model points to a radius of the expanding and multifragmenting source of Rs~=13 fm for 100A MeV which appears shrinking by 20% when increasing the projectile energy to 400 MeV per nucleon. The deduced source radii are found to depend on the radial explosion energy used in the model. The inclusion of such a collective expansion is necessary for a reasonable description of the experimental single-particle spectra of the IMF. The unique Coulomb suppression of small relative IMF velocities, found for the given beam energy range, is attributed to rather constant averaged next-neighbor distances =8.6+/-0.2 fm of the IMF charge centers within the source at breakup time.

  1. Kohn-Sham Band Structure Benchmark Including Spin-Orbit Coupling for 2D and 3D Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huhn, William; Blum, Volker

    2015-03-01

    Accurate electronic band structures serve as a primary indicator of the suitability of a material for a given application, e.g., as electronic or catalytic materials. Computed band structures, however, are subject to a host of approximations, some of which are more obvious (e.g., the treatment of the exchange-correlation of self-energy) and others less obvious (e.g., the treatment of core, semicore, or valence electrons, handling of relativistic effects, or the accuracy of the underlying basis set used). We here provide a set of accurate Kohn-Sham band structure benchmarks, using the numeric atom-centered all-electron electronic structure code FHI-aims combined with the ``traditional'' PBE functional and the hybrid HSE functional, to calculate core, valence, and low-lying conduction bands of a set of 2D and 3D materials. Benchmarks are provided with and without effects of spin-orbit coupling, using quasi-degenerate perturbation theory to predict spin-orbit splittings. This work is funded by Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft.

  2. Effects of heavy ions on visual function and electrophysiology of rodents: the ALTEA-MICE project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sannita, W. G.; Acquaviva, M.; Ball, S. L.; Belli, F.; Bisti, S.; Bidoli, V.; Carozzo, S.; Casolino, M.; Cucinotta, F.; De Pascale, M. P.; hide

    2004-01-01

    ALTEA-MICE will supplement the ALTEA project on astronauts and provide information on the functional visual impairment possibly induced by heavy ions during prolonged operations in microgravity. Goals of ALTEA-MICE are: (1) to investigate the effects of heavy ions on the visual system of normal and mutant mice with retinal defects; (2) to define reliable experimental conditions for space research; and (3) to develop animal models to study the physiological consequences of space travels on humans. Remotely controlled mouse setup, applied electrophysiological recording methods, remote particle monitoring, and experimental procedures were developed and tested. The project has proved feasible under laboratory-controlled conditions comparable in important aspects to those of astronauts' exposure to particle in space. Experiments are performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratories [BNL] (Upton, NY, USA) and the Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung mbH [GSI]/Biophysik (Darmstadt, FRG) to identify possible electrophysiological changes and/or activation of protective mechanisms in response to pulsed radiation. Offline data analyses are in progress and observations are still anecdotal. Electrophysiological changes after pulsed radiation are within the limits of spontaneous variability under anesthesia, with only indirect evidence of possible retinal/cortical responses. Immunostaining showed changes (e.g. increased expression of FGF2 protein in the outer nuclear layer) suggesting a retinal stress reaction to high-energy particles of potential relevance in space. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Training requirements, expertise and basic conditions of committed medical educators in Germany].

    PubMed

    Huwendiek, Sören; Dern, Peter; Hahn, Eckhart G; Pediaditakis, Daphne; Tönshoff, Burkhard; Nikendei, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Despite an increasing interest in undergraduate, postgraduate and continuing medical education, little is known about the training requirements, expertise and basic conditions of medical educators. Against this backdrop, we initiated a web-based survey amongst members of the "Gesellschaft für Medizinische Ausbildung" (German Section of the Association for Medical Education in Europe) e.V. (GMA). We conducted a web-based survey designed to answer the following questions: How do medical educators judge (1) their training requirements, (2) their expertise and (3) basic conditions. 147 out of 373 members of the GMA e-mailing list responded to the questionnaire (overall response rate: 39%). The following were rated as high-priority training needs: development in medical education research methodology (56% of survey participants), student assessment (37%), supporting self-directed learning (35%), and computer-based training (32%). The highest level of expertise [Likert Scale: 1 = very low to 5 = very high] was perceived in: general teaching principles (3.76 +/- 0.74), curriculum development (3.74 +/- 0.95), student assessment (3.65 +/- 0.97] and evaluation of courses and curricula [3.65 +/- 0.9]. Regarding basic conditions, respondents noted a particular need for more funding in medical education [4.26 +/- 0.88] and more recognition of merits in medical education [4.20 +/- 0.92]. The survey respondents identified more training in research methodology and more academic recognition and funding as important challenges in the field of medical education.

  4. The IC1396N proto-cluster at a scale of ~250 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neri, R.; Fuente, A.; Ceccarelli, C.; Caselli, P.; Johnstone, D.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Wyrowski, F.; Tafalla, M.; Lefloch, B.; Plume, R.

    2007-06-01

    Aims:We investigate the mm-morphology of IC 1396 N with unprecedented spatial resolution to analyze its dust and molecular gas properties, and draw comparisons with objects of similar mass. Methods: We have carried out sensitive observations in the most extended configurations of the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer, to map the thermal dust emission at 3.3 and 1.3 mm, and the emission from the J=13_k→ 12k hyperfine transitions of methyl cyanide (CH3CN). Results: We unveil the existence of a sub-cluster of hot cores in IC 1396 N, distributed in a direction perpendicular to the emanating outflow. The cores are embedded in a common envelope of extended and diffuse dust emission. We find striking differences in the dust properties of the cores (β≃ 0) and the surrounding envelope (β≃ 1), very likely testifying to differences in the formation and processing of dust material. The CH3CN emission peaks towards the most massive hot core and is marginally extended in the outflow direction. Based on observations obtained at the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI). IRAM is funded by the Centre Nationale de la Recherche Scientifique (France), the Max-Planck Gesellschaft (Germany), and the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (Spain).

  5. Investigation of the structure of light exotic nuclei by proton elastic scattering in inverse kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkhazov, G. D.; Vorobyov, A. A.; Dobrovolsky, A. V.; Inglessi, A. G.; Korolev, G. A.; Khanzadeev, A. V.

    2015-05-01

    In order to study the spatial structure of exotic nuclei, it was proposed at the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI) to measure the differential cross section for small-angle proton elastic scattering in inverse kinematics. Several experiments in beams of 0.7-GeV/nucleon exotic nuclei were performed at the heavy-ion accelerator facility of GSI (Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany) by using the IKAR ionization spectrometer developed at PNPI. The IKAR ionization chamber filled with hydrogen at a pressure of 10 bar served simultaneously as a target and as a recoil-proton detector, which measured the recoil-proton energy. The beam-particle scattering angle was also measured. The results obtained for the cross sections in question were analyzed on the basis of the Glauber-Sitenko theory using phenomenological nuclear-density distributions with two free parameters. Nuclear-matter distributions and root-mean-square radii were found for the nuclei under investigation. The size of the halo in the 6He, 8He, 11Li, and 14Be nuclei was determined among other things. Information about neutron distributions in nuclei was deduced by combining the data obtained here with the known values of the radii of proton distributions. A sizable neutron skin was revealed in the 8Li, 9Li, and 12Be nuclei.

  6. [Research funding in German ophthalmology].

    PubMed

    Ziemssen, F; Meltendorf, C

    2012-11-01

    Since 2004 applications for research funding in ophthalmology have been evaluated together with those from neurosurgery, neuropathology, psychiatry, psychotherapy, psychosomatics, otolaryngology and neurology by a joint review board of the German Research Council (DFG). Facing a decreasing number of applications--in contrast to the need and importance of widespread ocular diseases--the working group "young academics" of the Deutsche Ophthalmologische Gesellschaft (DOG) assessed the perception of funding programmes and grants available. Young ophthalmologists think that they have poor prospects to receive funding by a DFG proposal. In comparison, specialist funding quotas show a stable development within the neurosciences over the last years. The sum of requested funding has a strong correlation with the total amount actually paid. By clarifying the number of funded proposals, the better transparency and communication for the existing programmes should improve the cooperativeness, the funding rate and number of applications in future. This inventory explicitly includes a motivational guidance for young researchers to take the initiative to do more proposals. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Estimation of Dry Fracture Weakness, Porosity, and Fluid Modulus Using Observable Seismic Reflection Data in a Gas-Bearing Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huaizhen; Zhang, Guangzhi

    2017-05-01

    Fracture detection and fluid identification are important tasks for a fractured reservoir characterization. Our goal is to demonstrate a direct approach to utilize azimuthal seismic data to estimate fluid bulk modulus, porosity, and dry fracture weaknesses, which decreases the uncertainty of fluid identification. Combining Gassmann's (Vier. der Natur. Gesellschaft Zürich 96:1-23, 1951) equations and linear-slip model, we first establish new simplified expressions of stiffness parameters for a gas-bearing saturated fractured rock with low porosity and small fracture density, and then we derive a novel PP-wave reflection coefficient in terms of dry background rock properties (P-wave and S-wave moduli, and density), fracture (dry fracture weaknesses), porosity, and fluid (fluid bulk modulus). A Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo nonlinear inversion method is proposed to estimate fluid bulk modulus, porosity, and fracture weaknesses directly from azimuthal seismic data. The inversion method yields reasonable estimates in the case of synthetic data containing a moderate noise and stable results on real data.

  8. Survey of sensitizing components of oxidative hair dyes (retail and professional products) in Germany.

    PubMed

    Kirchlechner, Stephan; Hübner, Anja; Uter, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    Components of oxidative hair dyes, such as p-toluylenediamine, are very potent contact sensitizers to which many consumers as well as hairdressers and their clients are commonly exposed. Based on the qualitative composition of both retail and professional haircare products as determined by package labeling (according to INCI), we conducted a survey on the exposure to active components of oxidative hair dyes in Germany. The joint occurrence of components is also discussed. Nearly all of the 20 most commonly used substances are potent or very potent contact sensitizers. Contained in 88 % of all products, p-toluylenediamine is the most common component. There are only minor differences between retail and professional products. A frequent combination of substances includes p-toluylenediamine (sulfate), resorcinol as well as m-aminophenol. However, their actual concentrations (which were not investigated in this study) may vastly differ depending on the shade of the individual hair dye. Descriptive univariate analysis reveals that the currently used patch test series "Hairdressing Chemicals", as recommended by the German Contact Allergy Research Group (DKG), does not adequately cover the spectrum of allergens consumers and professionals are exposed to. Other studies have also suggested that a number of other allergens should be tested as well. Taking into account the dynamic kinetics of oxidative hair dyes with respect to allergy development, the effects of combined simultaneous exposure to multiple allergens on the risk of sensitization requires further research. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. [Important results of about 45 years balneo-medical research in Bad Hall].

    PubMed

    Winkler, R; Klieber, M

    1998-01-01

    It was tried to show the most essential results of a approximately 45 years' research activity on the field of iodine balneology from the Paracelsus Institute and--since 1993--from the Paracelsus-Gesellschaft Bad Hall. The papers were concerned with: basical studies about the chemistry of the iodine waters, generation of special analytic methods and techniques for iodine determinations and for investigations of the iodine metabolism, generation of new therapeutical iodine applications (for example: eye iontophoresis, electro-aerosol; preparation of the iodine water for a mineral water indoor swimming-bath and for special therapy solutions), investigation of the (favourable) iodine effects on the cardiac and circulation system, on blood rheology, thyroid function, lipid metabolism and on the antioxidant defence mechanisms (with special consequences for arteriosclerosis, diabetes mellitus and cataract), also on visual function and eye diseases (retina, color perception, contrast sensitiveness, cataract, dry eye) and respiratory diseases. Comparative studies on patients and on experimental animals as well as model experiments (e.g. on connective tissue: in vitro studies; tissue cultures) have been used to objectify many empirically observed cure effects. Possible side-effects of a cure with iodine brine (e.g. iodism) were mentioned.

  10. Trichophyton species of Arthroderma benhamiae - a new infectious agent in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Nenoff, Pietro; Uhrlaß, Silke; Krüger, Constanze; Erhard, Marcel; Hipler, Uta-Christina; Seyfarth, Florian; Herrmann, Jürgen; Wetzig, Tino; Schroedl, Wieland; Gräser, Yvonne

    2014-07-01

    In Germany, infections due to the zoophilic dermatophyte Trichophyton (T.) species of Arthroderma benhamiae are being more frequently diagnosed. The source of infection of this emerging pathogen overlaps with that of the zoophilic species T. interdigitale. The most common source are guinea pigs. T. species of Arthroderma benhamiae causes inflammatory dermatophytosis in children and adolescents. In addition to tinea capitis, it may cause both tinea corporis, tinea manus and frequently tinea faciei. In Germany, T. species of Arthroderma benhamiae is a frequent zoophilic dermatophyte, which in regions is probably more frequent than Microsporum canis. The mycological identification of the isolates with their yellow stained colonies is based on their macroscopic and microscopic features. However, some exhibit colony features consistent with those of T. interdigitale. These strains only can be identified unambiguously by means of molecular techniques. Using detection methods such as PCR-ELISA or real-time PCR, the dermatophyte can be identified directly from clinical material. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA has been approved as culture confirmation test for T. species of Arthroderma benhamiae. In addition, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS) is useful. Widespread dermatophytosis due to T. species of Arthroderma benhamiae, in particular of tinea capitis, requires oral antifungal agents. Terbinafine is most effective, alternatives are fluconazole and itraconazole. © 2014 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Neutron dose measurements with the GSI ball at high-energy accelerators.

    PubMed

    Fehrenbacher, G; Gutermuth, F; Kozlova, E; Radon, T; Schuetz, R

    2007-01-01

    A moderator-type neutron monitor containing pairs of TLD 600/700 elements (Harshaw) modified with the addition of a lead layer (GSI ball) for the measurement of the ambient dose equivalent from neutrons at medium- and high-energy accelerators, is introduced in this work. Measurements were performed with the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) ball as well as with conventional polyethylene (PE) spheres at the high-energy accelerator SPS at European Organization for Nuclear Research [CERN (CERF)] and in Cave A of the heavy-ion synchrotron SIS at GSI. The measured dose values are compared with dose values derived from calculated neutron spectra folded with dose conversion coefficients. The estimated reading of the spheres calculated by means of the response functions and the neutron spectra is also included in the comparison. The analysis of the measurements shows that the PE/Pb sphere gives an improved estimate on the ambient dose equivalent of the neutron radiation transmitted through shielding of medium- and high-energy accelerators.

  12. 50 years of medicinal plant research - every progress in methodology is a progress in science.

    PubMed

    Phillipson, J David

    2003-06-01

    Many scientific methods of analysis have been developed for the investigation of the constituents and biological activities of medicinal plants during the 50 years since the inaugural meeting of the Gesellschaft für Arzneipflanzenforschung (GA). The chromatographic (e. g., TLC, GLC, HPLC), spectroscopic (e. g., UV, IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR, MS), and biological (e. g., anticancer, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulant, antiprotozoal, CNS) techniques utilized for medicinal plant research are briefly reviewed. The contribution that advances in scientific methodology have made to our understanding of the actions of some herbal medicines (e. g., Echinacea, Ginkgo, St John's wort, Cannabis), as well as to ethnopharmacology and biotechnology, are briefly summarized. Plants have provided many medicinal drugs in the past and remain as a potential source of novel therapeutic agents. Despite all of the powerful analytical techniques available, the majority of plant species has not been investigated chemically or biologically in any great detail and even well known medicinal plants require further clinical study.

  13. HELIOS Critical Design Review: Quality Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoehr, H. C.; Herholz, J.; Prem, H.; Mann, D.; Reichert, L.; Rupp, W.; Campbell, D.; Boettger, H.; Zerwes, G.; Kurvin, C.

    1972-01-01

    The following is an account of the activities of the Quality Assurance (QA) department of the project management office highlighting some of the ways in which it controls QA of the subcontractors on one hand and reports on Quality to GfW (Gesellschaft fur Weltraumforschung) on the other hand. The basic document prepared by MBB (Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm) for QA activities is 1. The QA plan based on GfW 002. The QA department is responsible moreover for monitoring and making decisions about the quality of parts and materials and the governing document for this activity is 2. The Parts and Materials Control Plan based on GfW 001 - the reliability program provisions, as well as GfW 002. A brief survey of the contents of the QA Plan is shown. It should be noted that QA activity dealing with parts procurement is partially covered in a separate presentation entitled "Hi-Rel Parts". Supplementary quality documents are shown.

  14. Prä- und perioperative Aspekte der Versorgung dermatochirurgischer Patienten.

    PubMed

    Müller, Cornelia S L; Hubner, Wakiko; Thieme-Ruffing, Sigrid; Pföhler, Claudia; Vogt, Thomas; Volk, Thomas; Gärtner, Barbara C; Bialas, Patric

    2017-02-01

    Die Dermatochirurgie nimmt hinsichtlich vieler Punkte eine Sonderstellung unter den operativen Fächern ein. Hierzu gehört in erster Linie die Tatsache, dass bis auf wenige Ausnahmen fast alle Eingriffe traditionell in Lokal- bzw. Regionalanästhesie und oft auch in räumlich-infrastruktureller Trennung von den großen Zentral-Operationssälen stattfinden können. Die peri- und postoperative Überwachung obliegt dabei dem dermatochirurgischen Operationsteam. Das sui generis kleinere OP-Team hat somit eine ganze Reihe perioperativer Notwendigkeiten zu beachten, um die sich in den "großen" chirurgischen Fächern eine Vielzahl verschiedener beteiligter Fachgruppen gemeinsam kümmern. Hierzu gehören neben Hygieneaspekten, Kenntnissen in der Überwachung der Patienten sowie dem Aspekt der surgical site infections auch Fragen zur postoperativen Schmerztherapie sowie detailliertes pharmakologisches Wissen über die zur Anwendung kommenden Lokalanästhetika und das Handling der damit assoziierten toxischen und allergischen Reaktionen. Eine interdisziplinäre Zusammenarbeit und Verantwortung für den Patienten ist notwendig und erfordert die Erarbeitung und Umsetzung qualitätsorientierter und evidenzbasierter Handlungsanweisungen, die im dermatochirurgischen OP-Setting meist weit über das eigentliche Fach hinausgehen. Ziel dieses Weiterbildungsartikels soll die komprimierte Darstellung der genannten fachübergreifenden Standpunkte bezüglich der wichtigsten perioperativen Aspekte sein. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. [Ultrasoud screening in abdominal aortic aneurysm--numbers, data, facts].

    PubMed

    Hyhlik-Dürr, A; Debus, S; Eckstein, H-H; Lang, W; Schmitz-Rixen, T; Böckler, D; Boeckler, D

    2010-10-01

    There are increasing numbers of elective surgeries not only for abdominal aortic aneurysm repair but also for emergencies because of ruptured aneurysms (rAAA). Mortality rates of rAAA up to 40-50% have remained unchanged for years. Because of the elevated incidence of complications in rAAA, the overall mortality is at least 80% and shows a dismal prognosis for this group of patients. With ultrasonography, a cost-efficient, technically simple and safe method with high sensitivity is available for detecting abdominal aortic aneurysms. On the basis on an electronic Medline literature search and evaluation of data from the "voluntary quality assurance for abdominal aortic aneurysms 2008" of the German Society of Vascular Surgery (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gefäßchirurgie und Gefäßmedizin DGG), this review presents critical analysis of the efficacy and cost-efficiency of an ultrasound-based screening programme for the early detection of abdominal aortic aneurysms. In this systematic review of the literature on AAA screening, a description of epidemiology and current situation concerning AAA in Germany will be given. The evaluation of 4 randomised studies for ultrasonic AAA screening is discussed and the recommendations of the German Society of Vascular Surgery concerning screening for AAA are highlighted. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart ˙ New York.

  16. Assessment of feedability of Kerr-McGee ash concentrate

    SciTech Connect

    Moujaes, S.F.

    1983-09-01

    Tests were performed to determine the feasibility of conveying Kerr-McGee ash concentrate from storage bins through the screw feeder to the Gesellschaft feur Kohle-Technologie (GKT) gasifier. A study comparing flow characteristics of coal, for which the GKT system was designed, and Kerr-McGee ash concentrate (KMAC) showed that properties were similar, although KMAC had a lower bulk density. A computer simulation based on these properties was then applied to the conveying system. Results showed that KMAC flow will be unstable for almost all the KMAC samples studied when the gradients in gas and solid contact pressure in the convergent outlet of the screw feeder are very large, and when the scale factor is relatively high, i.e., greater than the critical value of 460. However, use of larger bins coupled with operation of the screw feeder at a slower rpm should result in stable operation and satisfy the flow requirements of the process design. GKT concluded that while improvements can be made to boost throughput and increase stability, serious consideration should be given to an alternate pneumatic conveying system to the gasifier. 3 references, 4 figures, 4 tables.

  17. Instandhaltung und Normung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenkranz-Wuttig, Angela

    Das DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V. ist ein eingetragener Verein mit Sitz in Berlin. Das DIN erarbeitet gemeinsam mit den Experten der interessierten Kreise Normen und Standards als Dienstleistung für Wirtschaft, Staat und Gesellschaft. Die Kenntnis entsprechender Normen, Standards oder Regeln, sowie deren richtiger Einsatz, ist unter den heutigen Marktbedingungen für jedes Unternehmen ein nicht zu unterschätzender wirtschaftlicher Faktor. Normen schaffen Effizienz bei Produktionsabläufen und sorgen durch eine gleichbleibende sowie vergleichbare Produktqualität für Vertrauen bei den Endverbrauchern. Darüber hinaus stehen Normen unter rechtlichen Aspekten für mehr Sicherheit - Hersteller erreichen bei Anwendung und Einhaltung von Normen ein hohes Maß an rechtlicher Absicherung. Das DIN vertritt die deutschen Interessen in den europäischen und weltweiten Normungsorganisationen, siehe Abb. 1. Zuständig für die elektrotechnische Normung in Deutschland sowie als deutscher Repräsentant in den übernationalen Gremien ist die DKE Deutsche Kommission Elektrotechnik Elektronik Informationstechnik im DIN und VDE.

  18. Optical fibre biosensors using enzymatic transducers to monitor glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scully, P. J.; Betancor, L.; Bolyo, J.; Dzyadevych, S.; Guisan, J. M.; Fernández-Lafuente, R.; Jaffrezic-Renault, N.; Kuncová, G.; Matejec, V.; O'Kennedy, B.; Podrazky, O.; Rose, K.; Sasek, L.; Young, J. S.

    2007-10-01

    The construction and performance of a novel enzyme based optical sensor for in situ continuous monitoring of glucose in biotechnological production processes is presented. Sensitive optical coatings are formed from inorganic-organic hybrid polymers (ORMOCER®sORMOCER®: Trademark of Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung e. V. in Germany.) combined with a flurophore (ruthenium complex) and an enzyme, and applied to lenses, declad polymer optical fibre (POF) and polymer clad silica fibre (PCS). The enzyme, glucose oxidase, catalyzes oxidization of glucose to gluconic acid by depleting oxygen. Oxygen consumption is determined by measuring the fluorescence lifetime of metal organic ruthenium complexes which are quenched by oxygen. The coatings developed were designed to adhere to glass and polymer surfaces, to be compatible with enzymes and ruthenium complexes, and were demonstrated both as double- and single-layer structures. The sensor response to gaseous oxygen, dissolved oxygen and dissolved glucose was measured via fluorescence lifetime changes. A best detection limit of 0.5% (vol) has been determined for gaseous O2 with selected ORMOCER® sensing layers. Glucose concentrations were measured to a detection limit of 0.1 mmol L-1 over a range up to 30 mmol L-1. The sensor was usable for 30 days in a bioreactor. The opto-electronic instrumentation and performance in laboratory bioreactors and in an industrial reactor are evaluated.

  19. Efficacy of adapalene/benzoyl peroxide combination in moderate inflammatory acne and its impact on patient adherence.

    PubMed

    Gollnick, Harald P M; Funke, Gisela; Kors, Christian; Titzmann, Thomas; Jöstingmeyer, Petra; Jäckel, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    Adapalene 0.1 %/benzoyl peroxide (BPO) 2.5 % (Epiduo®) is the first, fixed-dose topical combination gel developed for the once-daily treatment of acne. The objective of this observational study was to assess efficacy and patient adherence under daily clinical practice conditions in a large population of young adults and adolescents (12 to 20 years) with moderate inflammatory acne. A total of 2 780 patients receiving adapalene-BPO were evaluated in this multicenter, open-label, prospective non-interventional observational study. Observation time per patient was approximately 12 weeks. Assessment parameters included changes in acne severity, treatment success, safety, and therapeutic adherence. After 12 weeks, the majority of patients (91.5 %) showed improvement of acne under adapalene-BPO treatment, with an initial therapeutic response noted after a median time of 14 days. Overall, 21.8 % of participants displayed complete resolution of visible acne lesions. Treatment adherence was assessed as good in 63.2 % of patients. The majority of individuals (69.5 %) experienced no or only mild local skin irritations. No serious adverse drug reactions (ADR) were reported during the course of the study. Adapalene-BPO is effective and safe in the treatment of moderate inflammatory acne. The fixed-dose combination and easy application simplifies the therapeutic regimen, leading to good treatment adherence in the majority of patients. © 2015 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Rosacea Management: Update on general measures and topical treatment options.

    PubMed

    Schaller, M; Schöfer, H; Homey, B; Hofmann, M; Gieler, U; Lehmann, P; Luger, T A; Ruzicka, T; Steinhoff, M

    2016-12-01

    Although there is presently no cure for rosacea, there are several recommended treatment options available to control many of the symptoms and to prevent them from getting worse. In addition to self-help measures like avoidance of trigger factors and proper skin care, rosacea management should include topical medications as one of the first-line choices for patients with erythematous and mild to severe papulopustular rosacea. Since mixed forms of characteristic rosacea symptoms are more common, medical treatment must be symptom-tailored for each individual case and will often involve a combination therapy. Approved topical agents for the major symptoms of rosacea encompass brimonidine for erythema and ivermectin, metronidazole or azelaic acid for inflammatory lesions, all of which have shown their efficacy in numerous valid, well-controlled trials. In addition, there are several other, not approved topical treatments which are possible options that require further validation in larger well-controlled studies. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Proctology - diseases of the anal region.

    PubMed

    Kreuter, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Proctology is a medical subspecialty that encompasses diseases of the perianal region, anal canal, and rectum. Dermatologists play a pivotal role in this realm, as inflammatory perianal disorders, infectious and sexually transmitted diseases, as well as perianal tumors and their precursor lesions fall within the core competency of dermatology. In a concise manner, the present article highlights all relevant disease groups in the field of proctology. With a particular focus on aspects pertinent to dermatologists, this includes inflammatory disorders, "classic" proctologic diseases, sexually transmitted diseases, malignancies of the anal region, as well as pathogen-induced diseases. Despite the wide variety of disorders, there are only five key symptoms prompting patients to consult a proctologist, including anal pruritus and burning, discharge, bleeding, pain, and foreign body sensation. A simple algorithm, which incorporates these symptoms as well as key clinical features, may assist in quickly establishing the correct diagnosis in everyday clinical practice. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Aromatic Regions Govern the Recognition of NADPH Oxidase Inhibitors as Diapocynin and its Analogues.

    PubMed

    Macías Pérez, Martha E; Hernández Rodríguez, Maricarmen; Cabrera Pérez, Laura C; Fragoso-Vázquez, M Jonathan; Correa-Basurto, José; Padilla-Martínez, Itzia I; Méndez Luna, David; Mera Jiménez, Elvia; Flores Sandoval, César; Tamay Cach, Feliciano; Rosales-Hernández, Martha C

    2017-10-01

    Oxidative stress is related to the pathogenesis and progress of several human diseases. NADPH oxidase (NOX), and mainly the NOX2 isoform, produces superoxide anions (O2(•)(-) ). To date, it is known that NOX2 can be inhibited by preventing the assembly of its subunits, p47phox and p22phox. In this work, we analyzed the binding to NOX2 of the apocynin dimer, diapocynin (C1), a known NOX2 inhibitor, and of 18 designed compounds (C2-C19) which have chemical relationships to C1, by in silico methods employing a p47phox structure from the Protein Data Bank (PDB code: 1WLP). C1 and six of the designed compounds were recognized in the region where p22phox binds to p47phox and makes π-π interactions principally with W193, W263, and Y279, which form an aromatic-rich region. C8 was chosen as the best compound according to the in silico studies and was synthesized and evaluated in vitro. C8 was able to prevent the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) similar to C1. In conclusion, targeting the aromatic region of p47phox through π-interactions is important for inhibiting NOX activity. © 2017 Deutsche Pharmazeutische Gesellschaft.

  3. Neue Techniken in der Neurorehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riener, Robert

    Zentralmotorische Lähmungen durch Schädigungen im Hirn oder Rückenmark stellen weltweit ein großes sozialmedizinisches Problem dar. In Deutschland treten mehr als 250.000 neue Schlaganfälle pro Jahr auf. Zudem leben in Deutschland mehr als 40.000 Menschen mit Querschnittlähmung. Dazu kommen Patienten mit Schädel-Hirn-Trauma, Zerebralparesen, Multipler Sklerose, Parkinson oder Entzündungen und Tumoren des zentralen Nervensystems. Solche zentralmotorische Pathologien können durch manuelle oder automatisierte Bewegungstherapien erfolgreich behandelt werden. Dabei wird durch ein häufiges, repetitives Bewegen von Körpersegmenten die Lern- und Anpassungsfähigkeit des Gehirns und Rückenmarks genutzt. Ist eine Heilung oder Behandlung nicht mehr möglich, so können zahlreiche Techniken dazu beitragen, Bewegungsfunktionen zu unterstützen, so dass die Patienten alltägliche Aktivitäten normal ausführen können und in die Gesellschaft reintegriert werden.

  4. On the detector arrangement for in-beam PET for hadron therapy monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo, Paulo; Shakirin, Georgy; Enghardt, Wolfgang

    2006-05-01

    In-beam positron emission tomography (in-beam PET) is currently the only method for an in situ monitoring of highly tumour-conformed charged hadron therapy. At the experimental carbon ion tumour therapy facility, running at the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany, all treatments have been monitored by means of a specially adapted dual-head PET scanner. The positive clinical impact of this project triggered the construction of a hospital-based hadron therapy facility, with in-beam PET expected to monitor more delicate radiotherapeutic situations. Therefore, we have studied possible in-beam PET improvements by optimizing the arrangement of the γ-ray detectors. For this, a fully 3D, rebinning-free, maximum likelihood expectation maximization algorithm applicable to several closed-ring or dual-head tomographs has been developed. The analysis of β+-activity distributions simulated from real-treatment situations and detected with several detector arrangements allows us to conclude that a dual-head tomograph with narrow gaps yields in-beam PET images with sufficient quality for monitoring head and neck treatments. For monitoring larger irradiation fields, e.g. treatments in the pelvis region, a closed-ring tomograph was seen to be highly desirable. Finally, a study of the space availability for patient and bed, tomograph and beam portal proves the implementation of a closed-ring detector arrangement for in-beam PET to be feasible.

  5. Estimation of Dry Fracture Weakness, Porosity, and Fluid Modulus Using Observable Seismic Reflection Data in a Gas-Bearing Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huaizhen; Zhang, Guangzhi

    2017-03-01

    Fracture detection and fluid identification are important tasks for a fractured reservoir characterization. Our goal is to demonstrate a direct approach to utilize azimuthal seismic data to estimate fluid bulk modulus, porosity, and dry fracture weaknesses, which decreases the uncertainty of fluid identification. Combining Gassmann's (Vier. der Natur. Gesellschaft Zürich 96:1-23, 1951) equations and linear-slip model, we first establish new simplified expressions of stiffness parameters for a gas-bearing saturated fractured rock with low porosity and small fracture density, and then we derive a novel PP-wave reflection coefficient in terms of dry background rock properties (P-wave and S-wave moduli, and density), fracture (dry fracture weaknesses), porosity, and fluid (fluid bulk modulus). A Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo nonlinear inversion method is proposed to estimate fluid bulk modulus, porosity, and fracture weaknesses directly from azimuthal seismic data. The inversion method yields reasonable estimates in the case of synthetic data containing a moderate noise and stable results on real data.

  6. The diversity-biomass-productivity relationships in grassland management and restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guo, Q.

    2007-01-01

    Diversity, biomass, and productivity, the three key community/ecosystem variables, are interrelated and pose reciprocal influences on each other. The relationships among the three variables have been a central focus in ecology and formed two schools of fundamentally different nature with two related applications: (1) management - how biomass manipulation (e.g., grazing, burning) affects diversity and productivity, and (2) restoration - how diversity manipulation (e.g., seeding, planting) affects biomass and productivity. In the past, the two apparently related aspects have been studied intensively but separately in basic research and the reciprocal effects of the three variables and applied aspects have not been jointly addressed. In most cases, optimal management often involves regulating biomass so that high diversity and productivity or other preferred habitat characteristics can be achieved and maintained, while restoration usually involves planting/seeding a certain number and/or combination of native species so that the native structure and function of the habitat can be restored and degraded ecosystems can recover faster. This article attempts to unify these two schools and discusses the significance and implications of the diversity-biomass-productivity relationships in practice, with particular emphasis on grassland ecosystems. ?? 2006 Gesellschaft fu??r O??kologie.

  7. Azelaic acid 20 % cream: effects on quality of life and disease severity in adult female acne patients.

    PubMed

    Kainz, Julius Thomas; Berghammer, Gabriele; Auer-Grumbach, Piet; Lackner, Verena; Perl-Convalexius, Sylvia; Popa, Rodica; Wolfesberger, Barbara

    2016-12-01

    Data on the efficacy of acne treatments and their impact on quality of life (QoL) in adult patients is sketchy. Assessment of the efficacy of azelaic acid 20 % cream (Skinoren(®) ) on acne severity and disease-related QoL. Noninterventional study in adult female patients with mild to moderate acne. Efficacy variables included DLQI and acne severity on the face, chest, and back using the Investigator's Global Assessment (IGA) scale (grade 1 = nearly clear skin; 2 = mild acne; 3 = moderate acne). Visits were scheduled at baseline, at 4-8 weeks, and at twelve weeks. Of the 251 women enrolled, 59 % had grade 1 acne at baseline; 31 %, grade 2; and 10 %, grade 3; the most commonly affected area of the body was the face (IGA grades 2 or 3: 79 %). After twelve weeks, there was significant improvement of acne on the face (IGA grades 0 or 1: 82 %), chest, and back. Median DLQI decreased from nine at baseline to five after twelve weeks. Ninety percent of physicians and patients rated the tolerability of the treatment as very good or good. Treatment with azelaic acid 20 % cream significantly improves acne severity and disease-related QoL in adult women. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Effects of heavy ions on visual function and electrophysiology of rodents: the ALTEA-MICE project.

    PubMed

    Sannita, W G; Acquaviva, M; Ball, S L; Belli, F; Bisti, S; Bidoli, V; Carozzo, S; Casolino, M; Cucinotta, F; De Pascale, M P; Di Fino, L; Di Marco, S; Maccarone, R; Martello, C; Miller, J; Narici, L; Peachey, N S; Picozza, P; Rinaldi, A; Ruggieri, D; Saturno, M; Schardt, D; Vazquez, M

    2004-01-01

    ALTEA-MICE will supplement the ALTEA project on astronauts and provide information on the functional visual impairment possibly induced by heavy ions during prolonged operations in microgravity. Goals of ALTEA-MICE are: (1) to investigate the effects of heavy ions on the visual system of normal and mutant mice with retinal defects; (2) to define reliable experimental conditions for space research; and (3) to develop animal models to study the physiological consequences of space travels on humans. Remotely controlled mouse setup, applied electrophysiological recording methods, remote particle monitoring, and experimental procedures were developed and tested. The project has proved feasible under laboratory-controlled conditions comparable in important aspects to those of astronauts' exposure to particle in space. Experiments are performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratories [BNL] (Upton, NY, USA) and the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung mbH [GSI]/Biophysik (Darmstadt, FRG) to identify possible electrophysiological changes and/or activation of protective mechanisms in response to pulsed radiation. Offline data analyses are in progress and observations are still anecdotal. Electrophysiological changes after pulsed radiation are within the limits of spontaneous variability under anesthesia, with only indirect evidence of possible retinal/cortical responses. Immunostaining showed changes (e.g. increased expression of FGF2 protein in the outer nuclear layer) suggesting a retinal stress reaction to high-energy particles of potential relevance in space. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. In-beam PET at high-energy photon beams: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, H.; Enghardt, W.

    2006-04-01

    For radiation therapy with carbon ion beams, either for the stable isotope 12C or for the radioactive one 11C, it has been demonstrated that the β+-activity distribution created or deposited, respectively, within the irradiated volume can be visualized by means of positron emission tomography (PET). The PET images provide valuable information for quality assurance and precision improvement of ion therapy. Dedicated PET scanners have been integrated into treatment sites at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator at Chiba (HIMAC), Japan, and the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany, to make PET imaging feasible during therapeutic irradiation (in-beam PET). A similar technique may be worthwhile for radiotherapy with high-energy bremsstrahlung. In addition to monitoring the dose delivery process which in-beam PET has been primarily developed for, it may be expected that radiation response of tissue can be detected by means of in-beam PET. We investigate the applicability of PET for treatment control in the case of using bremsstrahlung spectra produced by 15-50 MeV electrons. Target volume activation due to (γ, n) reactions at energies above 20 MeV yields moderate β+-activity levels, which can be employed for imaging. The radiation from positrons produced by pair production is not presently usable because the detectors are overloaded due to the low duty factor of medical electron linear accelerators. However, the degradation of images caused by positron motion between creation and annihilation seems to be tolerable.

  10. Conference scene: DGVS spring conference 2009.

    PubMed

    Kolligs, Frank Thomas

    2009-10-01

    The 3rd annual DGVS Spring Conference of the German Society for Gastroenterology (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Verdauungs- und Stoffwechselkrankheiten) was held at the Seminaris Campus Hotel in Berlin, Germany, on 8-9 May, 2009. The conference was organized by Roland Schmid and Matthias Ebert from the Technical University of Munich, Germany. The central theme of the meeting was 'translational gastrointestinal oncology: towards personalized medicine and individualized therapy'. The conference covered talks on markers for diagnosis, screening and surveillance of colorectal cancer, targets for molecular therapy, response prediction in clinical oncology, development and integration of molecular imaging in gastrointestinal oncology and translational research in clinical trial design. Owing to the broad array of topics and limitations of space, this article will focus on biomarkers, response prediction and the integration of biomarkers into clinical trials. Presentations mentioned in this summary were given by Matthias Ebert (Technical University of Munich, Germany), Esmeralda Heiden (Epigenomics, Berlin, Germany), Frank Kolligs (University of Munich, Germany), Florian Lordick (University of Heidelberg, Germany), Hans Jorgen Nielsen (University of Copenhagen, Denmark), Anke Reinacher-Schick (University of Bochum, Germany), Christoph Röcken (University of Berlin, Germany), Wolff Schmiegel (University of Bochum, Germany) and Thomas Seufferlein (University of Halle, Germany).

  11. The new ParaDIgm: IgM from bench to clinic: November 15-16, 2011, Frankfurt, Germany.

    PubMed

    Hanala, Sherif

    2012-01-01

    The inaugural IgM event entitled "The new ParaDIgm: IgM from bench to clinic" brought together the increasingly active and growing IgM antibody community to discuss recent advances and challenges facing the discovery and development of IgM antibody therapies and technologies. Researchers, clinicians and biomanufacturing experts delivered 21 talks on the basic science and isolation of IgM, upstream and downstream development, and formulation and clinical development of the molecules. Participants networked around topics aimed at exploring the full potential of IgM antibodies. The meeting was held at DECHEMA Gesellschaft für Chemische Technik und Biotechnologie e. V. (Society for Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology), a non-profit scientific and technical society based in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. The meeting was sponsored by Patrys, Laureate Biopharma, Bio-Rad Laboratories, BIA Separations, Percivia and the Bio Affinity Company (BAC). The second New ParaDIgm: IgM from bench to clinic meeting, will be held on April 23-24, 2013 in Frankfurt, Germany.

  12. Einstein and Boltzmann

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nauenberg, Michael

    2005-03-01

    In 1916 Einstein published a remarkable paper entitled ``On the Quantum Theory of Radiation''ootnotetextA. Einstein ``On the Quantum theory of Radiation,'' Phys. Zeitschrift 18 (1917) 121. First printed in Mitteilungender Physikalischen Gesellschaft Zurich. No 18, 1916. Translated into English in Van der Waerden ``Sources of Quantum Mechanics'' (North Holland 1967) pp. 63-77. in which he obtained Planck's formula for black-body radiation by introducing a new statistical hypothesis for the emmision and absorption of electromagneic radiation based on discrete bundles of energy and momentum which are now called photons. Einstein radiation theory replaced Maxwell's classical theory by a stochastic process which, when properly interpreted, also gives well known statistics of massless particles with even spin.^2 This quantum distribution, however, was not discovered by Einstein but was communicated to him by Bose in 1924. Like Boltzmann's classical counterpart, Einstein's statistical theory leads to an irreversible approach to thermal equilibrium, but because this violates time reversal, Einstein theory can not be regarded as a fundamental theory of physical process.ootnotetextM. Nauenberg ``The evolution of radiation towards thermal equilibrium: A soluble model which illustrates the foundations of statistical mechanics,'' American Journal of Physics 72 (2004) 313 Apparently Einstein and his contemporaries were unaware of this problem, and even today this problem is ignored in contemporary discussions of Einstein's treatment of the black-body spectrum.

  13. Characterization of close visual binaries from the AstraLux Large M Dwarf Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergfors, C.; Brandner, W.; Bonnefoy, M.; Schlieder, J.; Janson, M.; Henning, Th.; Chauvin, G.

    2016-03-01

    We present Very Large Telescope/Spectrograph for INtegral Field Observations in the Near Infrared (VLT/SINFONI) J, H + K spectra of seven close visual pairs in M dwarf binary/triple systems, discovered or observed by the AstraLux M dwarf survey. We determine the spectral types to within ±1.0 subclasses from comparison to template spectra and the strength of K-band water absorption, and derive effective temperatures. The results are compared to optical spectral types of the unresolved binary/multiple systems, and we confirm that our photometric method to derive spectral types in the AstraLux M dwarf survey is accurate. We look for signs of youth such as chromospheric activity and low surface gravity, and find an age in the range 0.25-1 Gyr for the GJ 852 system. Strong Li absorption is detected in optical spectra of the triple system J024902 obtained with the Fiberfed Extended Range Optical Spectrograph (FEROS) at the European Southern Observatory (ESO)-Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG) 2.2 m telescope. The equivalent width of the absorption suggests an age consistent with the β Pic moving group. However, further observations are needed to establish group membership. Ongoing orbital monitoring will provide dynamical masses and thus calibration of evolutionary models for low mass stars.

  14. Initiation of long, free-standing z discharges by CO2 laser gas heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemann, C.; Tauschwitz, A.; Penache, D.; Neff, S.; Knobloch, R.; Birkner, R.; Presura, R.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Yu, S. S.; Sharp, W. M.

    2002-01-01

    High current discharge channels can neutralize both current and space charge of very intense ion beams. Therefore, they are considered an interesting solution for final focus and beam transport in a heavy ion beam fusion reactor. At the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung accelerator facility, 50 cm long, free-standing discharge channels were created in a 60 cm diameter metallic chamber. Discharges with currents of 45 kA in 2 to 25 mbar ammonia (NH3) gas are initiated by a CO2 laser pulse along the channel axis before the capacitor bank is triggered. Resonant absorption of the laser, tuned to the v2 vibration of the ammonia molecule, causes strong gas heating. Subsequent expansion and rarefaction of the gas prepare the conditions for a stable discharge to fulfill the requirements for ion beam transport. The influence of an electric prepulse on the high current discharge was investigated. This article describes the laser-gas interaction and the discharge initiation mechanism. We found that channels are magnetohydrodynamic stable up to currents of 45 kA, measured by fast shutter and streak imaging techniques. The rarefaction of the laser heated gas is studied by means of a one-dimensional Lagrangian fluid code (CYCLOPS) and is identified as the dominant initiation mechanism of the discharge.

  15. Experimental investigation of ion beam transport in laser initiated plasma channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penache, D.; Niemann, C.; Tauschwitz, A.; Knobloch, R.; Neff, S.; Birkner, R.; Geißel, M.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Presura, R.; Penache, C.; Roth, M.; Wahl, H.

    2002-10-01

    The aim of the presented experiments is to study the transport of a heavy ion beam in a high-current plasma channel. The discharge is initiated in NH3 gas at pressures between 2 and 20 mbar by a line-tuned CO2 laser. A stable discharge over the entire electrode gap (0.5 m) was achieved for currents up to 60 kA. Concerning the ion beam transport, the magnetic field distribution inside the plasma channel has to be known. The ion-optical properties of the plasma channel have been investigated using different species of heavy ions (C, Ni, Au, U) with 11.4 MeV/u during six runs at the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschungs-UNILAC linear accelerator. The high magnetic field allowed the accomplishment of one complete betatron oscillation along the discharge channel. The results obtained up to now are very promising and suggest that, by scaling the discharge gap to longer distances, the beam transport over several meters is possible with negligible losses.

  16. Stability of gas discharge channels for final beam transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauschwitz, A.; Birkner, R.; Knobloch, R.; Neff, S.; Niemann, C.; Penache, D.; Presura, R.; Ponce, D.; Yu, S.

    2002-07-01

    Discharge plasma channels have been investigated in recent years at Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung Darmstadt (GSI) and at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California, in a number of experiments. A short summary of the experimental work at Berkeley and GSI is given. Different initiation mechanisms for gas discharges of up to 60 kA were studied and compared. In the Berkeley experiments, laser ionization of organic vapors in a buffer gas was used to initiate and direct the discharge while at GSI, laser gas heating and ion-beam-induced gas ionization were tested as initiation mechanisms. These three initiation techniques are compared and the stability of the resulting discharge channels is discussed. A discharge current of 50 kA, a channel diameter well below 1 cm, a pointing stability better than 200 [mu]m, and MHD stability of more than 10 [mu]s have been demonstrated simultaneously in the recent experiments. These parameters are sufficient or close to the requirements of a reactor application depending on the details of the target design. The experimental results show that transport channels work with sufficient stability, reproducibility, and ion optical properties for a wide pressure range of discharge gases and pressures.

  17. The Theory of Industrial Society and Cultural Schemata: Does the “Cultural Myth of Stigma” Underlie the WHO Schizophrenia Paradox?

    PubMed Central

    Pescosolido, Bernice A.; Martin, Jack K.; Olafsdottir, Sigrun; Long, J. Scott; Kafadar, Karen; Medina, Tait R.

    2015-01-01

    The “Better Prognosis Hypothesis” stems from World Health Organization studies known as the International Studies of Schizophrenia (ISoS). Despite greater availability and sophistication of treatment options in the West, schizophrenia appears to have a more benign course and better outcomes in “developing” societies. We focus on this finding's most common corollary: a simplified version of sociological notions of cultural reality shaped by the transition from agrarian to industrial society. Developing societies are viewed as traditional, gemeinschaft cultures that neither develop nor endorse stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs about persons with mental illness that exist in modern, gesellschaft cultures of developed societies. Using the Stigma in Global Context-Mental Health Study (SGC-MHS), we formalize the “Cultural Myth of Stigma,” propositions linking level of development to intolerant, exclusionary, and individualistic attitudes. In 17 countries, we find no support for the corollary. Where significant associations are documented, the findings are opposite expectations: the public in more developed societies reports lower stigma levels. Extensions to reconceptualizations of the cultural landscape also reveal null or contrary findings. This correction to nostalgic myths of cultural context in developing societies thwarts misguided treatment, policy, and stigma-reduction efforts. PMID:26640277

  18. [Trends in rehabilitation of patients with rheumatic diseases in Germany].

    PubMed

    Mau, W; Beyer, W; Ehlebracht-König, I; Engel, J-M; Genth, E; Jäckel, W H; Lange, U; Thiele, K

    2014-03-01

    Recent Deutsche Gesellschaft für Rheumatologie (DGRh, German Society of Rheumatology) guidelines emphasized the significance of coordinated multidisciplinary care and rehabilitation of patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Nationwide data from the German pension insurance funds showed that inpatient rehabilitation due to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) varied by a factor of 2.6 between the different German states. From 2000 to 2012 rehabilitation measures were reduced by one third, most significantly in men with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Rehabilitation measures because of RA or AS were provided up to 14 times more frequently by the German statutory pension insurance scheme compared with a large compulsory health insurance which is responsible for rehabilitation measures after retirement. In rehabilitation centers with high numbers of patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases, higher structural and process quality were demonstrated. In 2011 a total of 40 % of RA patients in the national database of the collaborative arthritis centers showed medium or severe functional limitations. Among these disabled RA patients inpatient rehabilitation was reduced by about 50 % between 1995 and 2011. Out of all RA patients from outpatient rheumatology care with severe functional limitations 38 % had no functional restoration therapy within the previous 12 months with a high variation between rheumatologists. Experiences from other European countries may inspire German rheumatologists and other involved health professionals to initiate a wider range of rehabilitative interventions in the future.

  19. Wiederbeginn nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strecker, Heinrich; Bassenge-Strecker, Rosemarie

    Dieses Kapitel schildert zunächst die Ausgangslage für die Statistik in Deutschland nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg: Der statistische Dienst in den Besatzungszonen musste teilweise erst aufgebaut und der statistische Unterricht an den Hochschulen wieder in Gang gebracht werden. In dieser Lage ergriff der Präsident des Bayerischen Statistischen Landesamtes, Karl Wagner, tatkräftig unterstützt von Gerhard Fürst, dem späteren Präsidenten des Statistischen Bundesamtes, die Initiative zur Neugründung der Deutschen Statistischen Gesellschaft (DStatG). Die Gründungsversammlung 1948 im München wurde zu einem Meilenstein in der Geschichte der DStatG. Ziel war es, alle Statistiker zur Zusammenarbeit anzuregen, ihre Qualifikation an das internationale Niveau heranzuführen und die Anwendung neuerer statistischer Methoden in der Praxis zu fördern. Es folgten 24 Jahre fruchtbarer Arbeit unter Karl Wagner (1948-1960) und Gerhard Fürst (1960-1972). Der Beitrag skizziert die Statistischen Wochen, die Tätigkeit der Ausschüsse und die Veröffentlichungen in dieser Zeit.

  20. The World Congress of Herpetology and Animal Conservation: Excerpts from the 6th World Congress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garner, T.W.J.; Hero, J.-M.; Jehle, R.; Kraus, F.; Muths, E.; Reed, R.N.; Vogt, R.C.; Hodl, W.

    2010-01-01

    The World Congress of Herpetology (WCH, http://www.worldcongressofherpetology.org/) is a relatively young organization as far as august herpetological societies go. It was formed in 1982, the year of the 25th meeting of the Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles (founded in 1958), which itself is a relative youngster when compared to organizations such as the American Society for Ichthyology and Herpetology (founded in 1913) or Die Deutsche Gesellschaft für Herpetologie und Terrarienkunde e. V. (originally founded in 1918 under a different name). Despite its youth, the WCH has accomplished much during its relatively short existence. Arguably the greatest accomplishment of the WCH was to provide the venue at the first meeting of the Congress, held in 1989 at Canterbury, UK, where numerous amphibian biologists shared tales of enigmatic declines and disappearances of amphibian study species. Undoubtedly these exchanges sparked the formation of the Declining Amphibian Populations Task Force, providing impetus for the establishment of IUCN's Global Amphibian Assessment. This assessment, along with other research, in turn confirmed that amphibians are declining at a global scale and are more threatened than any other vertebrate class comprehensively assessed to date (Houlahan et al., 2000; Stuart et al., 2004).

  1. [Toxoplasmosis round-robin test in Austria: results and limits of the toxoplasmosis screening].

    PubMed

    Auer, Herbert; Vander-Möse, Angelika; Picher, Otto; Aspöck, Horst

    2005-01-01

    In 1983 the Osterreichische Gesellschaft für Qualitätssicherung und Standardisierung medizinisch-diagnostischer Untersuchungen (OQUASTA) has invited the Department of Medical Parasitology of the Clinical Institute of Hygiene and Medical Microbiology, University of Vienna (today: Medical University of Vienna), to establish an external quality assessment service on the detection of specific antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii, one of the most prevalent protozoic parasites in the world. The objective of this project was the support of Austrian laboratories in standardising their test methods for the detection of specific antibodies against T. gondii. Between 1983 and 2004, 45 collaborating studies were carried out. During this period, the number of participating laboratories has increased from 10 in 1983 to about 50 in recent years. In total, the test results produced by the laboratories matched with the nominal values in more than 90%. On the examples of three human cases we demonstrate that externally validated serological methods alone, despite their great benefit, are not enough for a sufficient serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis; unusually complicated serological situations do arise and can only be met by the knowledge about special tests, the application of an appropriate examination strategy and -- last but not least -- by many years of experience.

  2. Jung's evolving views of Nazi Germany: from 1936 to the end of World War II.

    PubMed

    Schoenl, William

    2014-04-01

    This article first shows Jung's evolving views of Nazi Germany from 1936 to the beginning of World War II. In a lecture at the Tavistock Clinic, London, in October 1936, he made his strongest and most negative statements to that date about Nazi Germany. While in Berlin in September 1937 for lectures to the Jung Gesellschaft, his observations of Hitler at a military parade led him to conclude that should the catastrophe of war come it would be far more and bloodier than he had previously supposed. After the Sudetenland Crisis in Fall 1938, Jung in interviews made stronger comments on Hitler and Nazi Germany. The article shows how strongly anti-Nazi Jung's views were in relation to events during World War II such as Nazi Germany's invasion of Poland, the fall of France, the bombings of Britain, the U.S. entry into the War, and Allied troops advancing into Germany. Schoenl and Peck, 'An Answer to the Question: Was Jung, for a Time, a "Nazi Sympathizer" or Not?' (2012) demonstrated how his views of Nazi Germany changed from 1933 to March 1936. The present article shows how his views evolved from 1936 to the War's end in 1945.

  3. A Review of Update Clinical Results of Carbon Ion Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Tsujii, Hirohiko; Kamada, Tadashi

    2012-01-01

    Among various types of ion species, carbon ions are considered to have the most balanced, optimal properties in terms of possessing physically and biologically effective dose localization in the body. This is due to the fact that when compared with photon beams, carbon ion beams offer improved dose distribution, leading to the concentration of the sufficient dose within a target volume while minimizing the dose in the surrounding normal tissues. In addition, carbon ions, being heavier than protons, provide a higher biological effectiveness, which increases with depth, reaching the maximum at the end of the beam's range. This is practically an ideal property from the standpoint of cancer radiotherapy. Clinical studies have been carried out in the world to confirm the efficacy of carbon ions against a variety of tumors as well as to develop effective techniques for delivering an efficient dose to the tumor. Through clinical experiences of carbon ion radiotherapy at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences and Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung, a significant reduction in the overall treatment time with acceptable toxicities has been obtained in almost all types of tumors. This means that carbon ion radiotherapy has meanwhile achieved for itself a solid place in general practice. This review describes clinical results of carbon ion radiotherapy together with physical, biological and technological aspects of carbon ions. PMID:22798685

  4. Current diagnosis and treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Alter, Mareike; Hillen, Uwe; Leiter, Ulrike; Sachse, Michael; Gutzmer, Ralf

    2015-09-01

    Basal cell carcinoma represents is most common tumor in fair-skinned individuals. In Germany, age-standardized incidence rates are 63 (women) and 80 (men) per 100,000 population per year. Early lesions may be difficult to diagnose merely on clinical grounds. Here, noninvasive diagnostic tools such as optical coherence tomography and confocal laser scanning microscopy may be helpful. The clinical diagnosis is usually confirmed by histology. Standard therapy consists of complete excision with thorough histological examination, either by means of micrographic surgery or, depending on tumor size and location as well as infiltration, using surgical margins of 3-5 mm or more. In particular, multiple basal cell carcinomas (such as in Gorlin-Goltz syndrome) and locally advanced as well as rarely also metastatic basal cell carcinoma may pose a therapeutic challenge. In superficial basal cell carcinoma, nonsurgical therapies such as photodynamic therapy or topical agents may be considered. In case of locally advanced or metastatic basal cell carcinoma, an interdisciplinary tumor board should issue therapeutic recommendations. These include radiation therapy as well as systemic therapy with a hedgehog inhibitor. © 2015 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Innovative Conditioning Procedures for the Generation of Radioactive Waste Products which are Stable for Intermediate Storage or Repository-Independent in Final Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Steinmetz, H.J.; Heimbach, H.; Odoj, R.; Pruesse, R.; Wartenberg, W.

    2006-07-01

    The German Federal Government aims at a future final storage site for all kinds of radioactive waste within 30 years. Existing and newly-produced radioactive waste therefore has to be stored in interim storage facilities over very long periods of time. At present, most German radioactive waste or waste packages are produced and qualified according to the acceptance criteria of the projected final repository KONRAD. [1] Nevertheless, conditioning strategies for crude radioactive waste have to take into account the open question of the future repository site as well as requirements for long-term interim storage. The Quality Control Group for Radioactive Waste (in German: Produktkontrollstelle fuer radioaktive Abfaelle - PKS) works as an independent expert organisation for the quality checking of radioactive waste packages as well as evaluating conditioning procedures for waste containers suitable for final storage on behalf of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (in German: Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz - BfS). The Institute for Safety Research and Reactor Technology (in German: Institut fuer Sicherheitsforschung and Reaktortechnik - ISR) of the Research Centre Juelich investigates scientific/technical problems of nuclear disposal, especially in the field of waste treatment. In this context, ISR and PKS investigated and/or evaluated innovative procedures, by means of which radioactive waste flows may be minimized and rendered inert. QSA Global (formerly: AEA Technology QSA) conditions radioactive waste of German users from the fields of medicine, research and industry as well as from its own radioactive source production and operates an intermediate storage facility for radioactive waste containers. This poster deals with the characteristics and possible applications of new waste fixation media on the basis of organic and inorganic mineral polymers; with the approach of producing inherently safe waste forms for various geological formations. Plasma technology

  6. Reconstruction of π0 and η mesons via conversion method in Au+Au at 1.23 GeV/u with HADES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnke, C.; HADES Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Lepton pairs emerging from decays of virtual photons represent promising probes of matter under extreme conditions. In the energy domain of 1 - 2 GeV per nucleon, the HADES experiment at GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt studies di-electrons and strangeness production in various reactions, i.e. collisions of pions, protons, deuterons, heavy-ions, and nuceous with nuclei. An accurate determination of the medium radiation depends on a precise knowledge of the underlying hadronic cocktail composed of various sources contributing to the net spectra. Therefore, a measurement of the neutral meson yields together with the dileptons is crucial. In this contribution, the capability of HADES to detect e+e- pairs from conversion of real photons will be demonstrated. We will present results from a two-photon analysis of Au+Au collisions at 1.23 GeV/u providing information on neutral π0 and η mesons.

  7. Artificial modification meeting reminder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, W. E.

    A symposium on artificial modification of the ionosphere by high-powered radio waves (V. V. Migulin, Honorary Chairman) will be held September 19-23, 1988, at the Scandic Hotel, Tromso, Norway. The symposium, sponsored by Union Radio Scientifique Internationale Commissions (URSI) G and H, is in the URSI series which started at Suzdal in 1983. Information on the scientific program is available from V.V. Migulin, U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, 103907, Moscow Center, Marx Avl8, U.S.S.R.; Peter Stubbe, Max- Planck-Institut fuer Aeronomy, D-3411 Katlenburg- Lindau 3, Federal Republic of Germany; or W.E. Gordon, Rice University, Space Physics and Astronomy Dept., Houston, TX 77251. For local arrangements information, contact Asgeir Brekke, Institute Matematisk Realfag, Aurora Observatory, Box 953, N-9001, Tromso, Norway.

  8. Precision SAW filters for a large phased-array radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haydl, W. H.; Sander, W.; Wirth, W.-D.

    1981-05-01

    The electronically steerable radar (ELRA) at the Forschungsinstitut fuer Funk und Mathematik is an experimental S-band phased-array radar system consisting of separate transmitting and receiving arrays employing several coherent and incoherent signal-processing and data-handling techniques, incorporating multiple beam and multifunction operation for target search and tracking, adaptive interference suppression, and target resolution. This paper deals with the development and application of two types of SAW filters for the IF amplifier channel of the receiving array. Compared to conventional filters with lumped elements, these filters have some important merits. By making use of a special tuning technique, the center frequencies of all filters were adjusted, resulting in an rms deviation of less than 1 kHz. One type of the SAW filters represents an almost ideal approach of realizing a matched filter for rectangular shaped pulses. The conformity of the frequency responses of several hundred filters improved the noise suppression capability of the system.

  9. NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy 747SP shows off its new blue-and-white livery at L-3 Communications' Integrated Systems in Waco, Texas

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-25

    NASA's freshly painted Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) 747SP is shown at L-3 Communications Integrated Systems' facility in Waco, Texas, where major modifications and installation was performed. The observatory, which features a German-built 100-inch (2.5 meter) diameter infrared telescope weighing 20 tons, is approaching the flight test phase as part of a joint program by NASA and DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (German Aerospace Center). SOFIA's science and mission operations are being planned jointly by Universities Space Research Association (USRA) and the Deutsches SOFIA Institut (DSI). Once operational, SOFIA will be the world's primary infrared observatory during a mission lasting up to 20 years, as well as an outstanding laboratory for developing and testing instrumentation and detector technology.

  10. NASA's newly painted Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy 747SP is pushed back from L-3 Communications' Integrated Systems hangar in Waco, Texas

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-25

    NASA's freshly painted Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) 747SP aircraft sits outside a hangar at L-3 Communications Integrated Systems' facility in Waco, Texas. The observatory, which features a German-built 100-inch (2.5 meter) diameter infrared telescope weighing 20 tons, is approaching the flight test phase as part of a joint program by NASA and DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (German Aerospace Center). SOFIA's science and mission operations are being planned jointly by Universities Space Research Association (USRA) and the Deutsches SOFIA Institut (DSI). Once operational, SOFIA will be the world's primary infrared observatory during a mission lasting up to 20 years, as well as an outstanding laboratory for developing and testing instrumentation and detector technology.

  11. Observation of Spontaneous Neoclassical Tearing Modes

    SciTech Connect

    E.D. Fredrickson

    2001-10-03

    We present data in this paper from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) which challenges the commonly held belief that extrinsic MHD events such as sawteeth or ELMs [edge localized modes] are required to provide the seed islands that trigger Neoclassical Tearing Modes (NTMs). While sawteeth are reported to provide the trigger for most of the NTMs on DIII-D [at General Atomics in San Diego, California] and ASDEX-U [at Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik in Garching, Germany], the majority of NTMs seen in TFTR occur in plasmas without sawteeth, that is which are above the beta threshold for sawtooth stabilization. Examples of NTMs appearing in the absence of any detectable extrinsic MHD activity will be shown. Conversely, large n=1 modes in plasmas above the NTM beta threshold generally do not trigger NTMs. An alternative mechanism for generating seed islands will be discussed.

  12. Rocket- and aircraft-borne trace gas measurements in the winter polar stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, F.; Moehler, O.; Pfeilsticker, K.; Ziereis, H.

    1988-01-01

    In January and February 1987 stratospheric rocket- and aircraft-borne trace gas measurements were done in the North Polar region using ACIMS (Active Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry) and PACIMS (PAssive Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry) instruments. The rocket was launched at ESRANGE (European Sounding Rocket Launching Range) (68 N, 21 E, Northern Sweden) and the twin-jet research aircraft operated by the DFVLR (Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchs-anstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt), and equipped with a mass spectrometer laboratory was stationed at Kiruna airport. Various stratospheric trace gases were measured including nitric acid, sulfuric acid, non-methane hydrocarbons (acetone, hydrogen cyanide, acetonitrile, methanol etc.), and ambient cluster ions. The experimental data is presented and possible implications for polar stratospheric ozone discussed.

  13. Highlights from the 2013 International Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference, Santa Fe, NM

    SciTech Connect

    2013-04-15

    The 2013 International Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference was held in Santa Fe, NM from April 15-17. There were 15 invited talks spanning the field of fusion theory on topics such as stellerator theory, intrinsic rotation in tokamaks, transport in the plasma edge, and plasma-wall interactions. Author-provided summaries of several of the invited talks are included on pages 5 to 10 of this document. Plenary talks were given by Per Helander (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Greifswald, Germany) on “Overview of recent developments in stellerator theory”, Amit Misra (Los Alamos National Laboratory) on “Stable storage of Helium at interfaces in nanocomposites”, Sergei Krasheninnikov (UC San Diego) on “On the physics of the first wall in fusion devices”, and Stuart Bale (UC Berkeley) on “Solar wind thermodynamics and turbulence: collisional – collisionless transitions”.

  14. Thick Nano-Crystalline Diamond films for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dawedeit, Christoph

    2010-06-30

    This Diplomarbeit deals with the characterization of 9 differently grown diamond samples. Several techniques were used to determine the quality of these specimens for inertial confinement fusion targets. The quality of chemical vapor deposition diamond is usually considered in terms of the proportion of sp3-bonded carbon to sp2-bonded carbon in the sample. For fusion targets smoothness, Hydrogen content and density of the diamonds are further important characteristics. These characteristics are analyzed in this thesis. The research for thesis was done at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in collaboration with the Fraunhofer Institut für angewandte Festkörperphysik Freiburg, Germany. Additionally the Lehrstuhl fuer Nukleartechnik at Technical University of Germany supported the work.

  15. The NGS Pyramid wavefront sensor for ERIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccardi, A.; Antichi, J.; Quirós-Pacheco, F.; Esposito, S.; Carbonaro, L.; Agapito, G.; Biliotti, V.; Briguglio, R.; Di Rico, G.; Dolci, M.; Ferruzzi, D.; Pinna, E.; Puglisi, A.; Xompero, M.; Marchetti, E.; Fedrigo, E.; Le Louarn, M.; Conzelmann, R.; Delabre, B.; Amico, P.; Hubin, N.

    2014-07-01

    ERIS is the new Single Conjugate Adaptive Optics (AO) instrument for VLT in construction at ESO with the collaboration of Max-Planck Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, ETH-Institute for Astronomy and INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri. The ERIS AO system relies on a 40×40 sub-aperture Pyramid Wavefront Sensor (PWFS) for two operating modes: a pure Natural Guide Star high-order sensing for high Strehl and contrast correction and a low-order visible sensing in support of the Laser Guide Star AO mode. In this paper we present in detail the preliminary design of the ERIS PWFS that is developed under the responsibility of INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri in collaboration with ESO.

  16. The ERIS adaptive optics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccardi, A.; Esposito, S.; Agapito, G.; Antichi, J.; Biliotti, V.; Blain, C.; Briguglio, R.; Busoni, L.; Carbonaro, L.; Di Rico, G.; Giordano, C.; Pinna, E.; Puglisi, A.; Spanò, P.; Xompero, M.; Baruffolo, A.; Kasper, M.; Egner, S.; Suàrez Valles, M.; Soenke, C.; Downing, M.; Reyes, J.

    2016-07-01

    ERIS is the new AO instrument for VLT-UT4 led by a Consortium of Max-Planck Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, UK-ATC, ETH-Zurich, ESO and INAF. The ERIS AO system provides NGS mode to deliver high contrast correction and LGS mode to extend high Strehl performance to large sky coverage. The AO module includes NGS and LGS wavefront sensors and, with VLT-AOF Deformable Secondary Mirror and Laser Facility, will provide AO correction to the high resolution imager NIX (1-5um) and the IFU spectrograph SPIFFIER (1-2.5um). In this paper we present the preliminary design of the ERIS AO system and the estimated correction performance.

  17. Observatory Improvements for SOFIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peralta, Robert A.; Jensen, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a joint project between NASA and Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), the German Space Agency. SOFIA is based in a Boeing 747 SP and flown in the stratosphere to observe infrared wavelengths unobservable from the ground. In 2007 Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) inherited and began work on improving the plane and its telescope. The improvements continue today with upgrading the plane and improving the telescope. The Observatory Verification and Validation (V&V) process is to ensure that the observatory is where the program says it is. The Telescope Status Display (TSD) will provide any information from the on board network to monitors that will display the requested information. In order to assess risks to the program, one must work through the various threats associate with that risk. Once all the risks are closed the program can work towards improving the observatory.

  18. High power steady state MPD thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auweter-Kurtz, Monika; Habiger, Harald; Kurtz, Helmut; Schrade, Herbert; Sleziona, Cristian

    1993-04-01

    At the Institut fuer Raumfahrtsysteme (IRS) rotation symmetric magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters with self induced magnetic fields are investigated at high current levels in a steady state operation mode. MPD thrusters with different geometrics were compared, and the influence of mass flow rate and power input on the operating conditions of the thrusters explored. By optical and probe measurements, a systematic investigation of the plasma plume has been started. The investigation of the various instabilities of the arc and the plasma flow appearing at high power levels was continued. The computer code development for the geometry optimization of continuous self-field MPD thrusters, running with argon, was modified by considering higher degrees of ionization, which showed better agreement with the experiment.

  19. An intelligent ground operator support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goerlach, Thomas; Ohlendorf, Gerhard; Plassmeier, Frank; Bruege, Uwe

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents first results of the project 'Technologien fuer die intelligente Kontrolle von Raumfahrzeugen' (TIKON). The TIKON objective was the demonstration of feasibility and profit of the application of artificial intelligence in the space business. For that purpose a prototype system has been developed and implemented for the operation support of the Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT), a scientific spacecraft designed to perform the first all-sky survey with a high-resolution X-ray telescope and to investigate the emission of specific celestial sources. The prototype integrates a scheduler and a diagnosis tool both based on artificial intelligence techniques. The user interface is menu driven and provides synoptic displays for the visualization of the system status. The prototype has been used and tested in parallel to an already existing operational system.

  20. Dedicated Max-Planck beamline for the in situ investigation of interfaces and thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Stierle, A.; Steinhaeuser, A.; Ruehm, A.; Renner, F.U.; Weigel, R.; Kasper, N.; Dosch, H.

    2004-12-01

    A dedicated beamline for the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Metallforschung was recently taken into operation at the Angstroemquelle Karlsruhe (ANKA). Here we describe the layout of the beamline optics and the experimental end-station, consisting of a heavy duty multiple circle diffractometer. For both a new design was realized, combining a maximum flexibility in the beam properties [white, pink (focused) monochromatic, energy range 6-20 keV] with a special diffractometer for heavy sample environments up to 500 kg, that can be run in different geometrical modes. In addition the angular-reciprocal space transformations for the diffractometer in use are derived, which allows an operation of the instrument in the convenient six circle mode. As an example, results from surface x-ray diffraction on a Cu{sub 3}Au(111) single crystal are presented.

  1. CRYOGENIC AND VACUUM TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE LOW-ENERGY ELECTROSTATIC CRYOGENIC STORAGE RING

    SciTech Connect

    Orlov, D. A.; Lange, M.; Froese, M.; Hahn, R. von; Grieser, M.; Mallinger, V.; Sieber, T.; Weber, T.; Wolf, A.; Rappaport, M.

    2008-03-16

    The cryogenic and vacuum concepts for the electrostatic Cryogenic ion Storage Ring (CSR), under construction at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik in Heidelberg, is presented. The ring will operate in a broad temperature range from 2 to 300 K and is required to be bakeable up to 600 K. Extremely high vacuum and low temperatures are necessary to achieve long lifetimes of the molecular ions stored in the ring so that the ions will have enough time to cool by radiation to their vibrational and rotational ground states. To test cryogenic and vacuum technological aspects of the CSR, a prototype is being built and will be connected to the commercial cryogenic refrigerator recently installed, including a specialized 2-K connection system. The first results and the status of current work with the prototype are also presented.

  2. Progress in Heavy Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1988-09-01

    The progress of the field of Heavy Ion Fusion has been documented in the proceedings of the series of International Symposia that, in recent years, have occurred every second year. The latest of these conferences was hosted by Gesellshaft fuer Schwerionenforshung (GSI) in Darmstadt, West Germany, June 28-30, 1988. For this report, a few highlights from the conference are selected, stressing experimental progress and prospects for future advances. A little extra time is devoted to report on the developments at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) which is the center for most of the HIFAR program. The Director of the HIFAR program at LBL is Denis Keefe, who presented the HIF report at the last two of the meetings in this series, and in whose place the author is appearing now. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  3. The Nagra-DOE Cooperative Project

    SciTech Connect

    Long, J.C.S.; Levitch, R.A.; Zuidema, P.

    1993-04-01

    The Nagra-DOE Cooperative (NDC-I) research program was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) through the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), and the Swiss Nationale Genossenschaft fuer die Lagerung radioaktiver Abfaella (Nagra). Scientists participating in this project explored the geological, geophysical, hydrological, geochemical, and structural effects anticipated from the use of a rock mass as a geologic repository for nuclear waste. Six joint tasks were defined and are described briefly below. Tasks 1, 2, 3 and 5 were concerned with the characterization of fractured rock. Task 5 in particular was focused on investigations at the Grimsel Underground Laboratory in the Swiss Alps. Tasks 2 and 6 focused on the phenomenology associated with storing radioactive waste underground.

  4. Space Radar Image of Kilauea, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Data acquired on April 13, 1994 and on October 4, 1994 from the X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar on board the space shuttle Endeavour were used to generate interferometric fringes, which were overlaid on the X-SAR image of Kilauea. The volcano is centered in this image at 19.58 degrees north latitude and 155.55 degrees west longitude. The image covers about 9 kilometers by 13 kilometers (5.6 miles by 8 miles). The X-band fringes correspond clearly to the expected topographic image. The yellow line indicates the area below which was used for the three-dimensional image using altitude lines. The yellow rectangular frame fences the area for the final topographic image. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR. The Instituto Ricerca Elettromagnetismo Componenti Elettronici (IRECE) at the University of Naples was a partner in interferometry analysis.

  5. Space Radar Image of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This three-dimensional image of the volcano Kilauea was generated based on interferometric fringes derived from two X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar data takes on April 13, 1994 and October 4, 1994. The altitude lines are based on quantitative interpolation of the topographic fringes. The level difference between neighboring altitude lines is 20 meters (66 feet). The ground area covers 12 kilometers by 4 kilometers (7.5 miles by 2.5 miles). The altitude difference in the image is about 500 meters (1,640 feet). The volcano is located around 19.58 degrees north latitude and 155.55 degrees west longitude. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR. The Instituto Ricerca Elettromagnetismo Componenti Elettronici (IRECE) at the University of Naples was a partner in the interferometry analysis.

  6. PREFACE: 13th General Conference of the Condensed Matter Division of the European Physical Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, H.; Klein, R.; Schwoerer, M.

    1993-01-01

    The 13th General Conference of the Condensed Matter Division of the European Physical Society was held in conjunction with the Frühjahrstagung des Arbeitskreises Festkörperphysik der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft from March 29 till April 2, 1993, in Regensburg. The programme comprised 3,134 contributions : 8 Plenary Talks, 171 Invited Talks, 1,480 Contributed Talks, 1,441 Poster Presentations, 1 Public Evening Talk and 33 Exhibitors Reports. The abstracts have been published as Europhysics Conference Abstracts, Volume 17A/Verhandlungen der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft 5/1993. The table (see PDF file) shows the distribution of the Plenary and Invited Speakers as well as of the participants according to countries within and outside of Europe. The conference was the largest meeting of physicists held in Germany to date. It was a manifestation of the enormous scientific activity in both basic and applied research in the fields of Condensed Matter Physics in Europe. Most of the research work, which was presented at the conference, was done by young physicists. They represent a large human capital in Europe. Most of the senior physicists and many of our young colleagues maintain scientific cooperations, and also personal friendships, which are and which have been almost independent of national barriers over the past three decades. The latter is to a large extent due to the European Physical Society which always cultivated these contacts, especially between the eastern and western parts of Europe. We would like to express our sincere thanks to the members of the Programme Committee. By their intensive work, which was free from national interests, a scientific programme was prepared, which covered the entire field of Condensed Matter Physics. About 70% of the Plenary and Invited Speakers came from 20 different foreign countries and about 30% from Germany. The meeting therefore has been a truly European Conference. For the young physicists, the number of

  7. PREFACE: Astronomy at High Angular Resolution 2011: The central kiloparsec in galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iserlohe, Christof; Karas, Vladimir; Krips, Melanie; Eckart, Andreas; Britzen, Silke; Fischer, Sebastian

    2012-07-01

    We are pleased to present the proceedings from the Astronomy at High Angular Resolution 2011: The central kiloparsec in galactic nuclei conference. The conference took place in the Physikzentrum of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft (DPG), Bad Honnef, Germany, from 28 August to 2 September 2011. It was the second conference of this kind, following the Astronomy at High Angular Resolution conference held in Bad Honnef, three years earlier in 2008. The main objective of the conference was to frame the discussion of the broad range of physical processes that occur in the central 100pc of galactic nuclei. In most cases, this domain is difficult to probe through observations. This is mainly because of the lack of angular resolution, the brightness of the central engine and possible obscurations through dust and gas, which play together in the central regions of host galaxies of galactic nuclei within a broad range of activity. The presence of large amounts of molecular and atomic (both neutral and ionized) gas, dust and central engines with outflows and jets implies that the conditions for star formation in these regions are very special, and probably different from those in the disks of host galaxies. Numerous presentations covering a broad range of topics, both theoretical and experimental, those related to research on Active Galactic Nuclei and on a wide range of observed wavelengths were submitted to the Scientific Organizing Committee. Presentations have been grouped into six sessions: The nuclei of active galaxies The Galactic Center The immediate environment of Super Massive Black Holes The physics of nuclear jets and the interaction of the interstellar medium The central 100pc of the nuclear environment Star formation in that region The editors thank all participants of the AHAR 2011 conference for their enthusiasm and their numerous and vivid contributions to this conference. We would especially like to thank John Hugh Seiradakis from the Aristotle

  8. [Vaccination].

    PubMed

    Graubner, U B; Liese, J; Belohradsky, B H

    2001-09-01

    Vaccination has been an important part of antiinfectious prophylaxis in pediatric oncology comprising immunizations with special indication like varicella vaccine and follow-up of routine immunizations after chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Studies from the last decade demonstrate a loss of long term immunity to immunization preventable disease in most patients with chemotherapy and BMT who had received appropriate immunization before. So far routine vaccination programs following intensive chemotherapy have not been studied prospectively. Immunization programs following BMT have shown that immunizations with tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid, inactivated poliovirus vaccine and influenza vaccine - given at least 12 months after transplantation - are safe and effective. Vaccination with live attenuated trivalent vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella in patients without chronic "graft versus host disease" (GVHD) and without ongoing immunosuppressive therapy, performed 24 months after transplantation, proved to be safe too. Recommendations have been published by 5 different official groups: (1.) "Ständige Impfkommission" (STIKO) and (2.) "Deutsche Gesellschaft für pädiatrische Infektiologie" (DGPI) recommend varicella vaccine für children with leukemia in remission for at least 12 months, for children with solid tumors and for patients getting an organ transplantation. Both societies do not comment on the schedule of booster vaccinations (with live attenuated vaccines) after the end of chemotherapy and after BMT. (3.) "Qualitätssicherungsgruppe" der "Gesellschaft für pädiatrische Onkologie und Hämatologie" (QS-GPOH) recommends immunization with nonliving vaccines when the patient is off therapy for at least 3 months and immunization with live attenuated vaccines when he is off therapy for at least 6 months. This group does not comment on varicella vaccine which has been controversial among pediatric oncologists. (4.) The " Infectious

  9. A North Adriatic centenarian: The marine research station at Rovinj

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavodnik, D.

    1995-03-01

    The institute in Rovinj was founded in 1891 as the field station of the Berlin Aquarium. It soon gained in scientific importance. From 1911, it was governed by various scientific bodies, such as the ‘Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften’, the ‘Reale Comitato Talassografico Italiano’, and the ‘Jugoslavenska Akademija znanosti i umjetnosti’. At present, it is a department of the ‘Ruđer Bo\\vsković’ Institute, called the ‘Center for Marine Research Rovinj’. In the past hundred years, the Rovinj station experienced several ascents and declines in its development: both in the First and Second World Wars the station's scientific equipment, research vessels, library and reference collections were dispersed, and from 1945 1948 the station was closed. But in “happier” periods, rich support by the state and international bodies favoured the increase in research facilities and promoted interest among visiting scientists. The station has always been involved in studies of the Adriatic Sea, especially in its northern part. It contributed much to general knowledge of oceanography, of the physics and chemistry of the sea, but its paramount contribution is to various disciplines of marine biological sciences. Applied research, however, was most oriented to fisheries biology, especially shellfish culture, to resource studies, and, recently, to toxicology, bacteriology, eutrophication and pollution monitoring. The international approach in science and applied research was always favoured. At present, the Center is well equipped for complex coastal and offshore field- and laboratory research, and maintains facilities for graduate and postgraduate teaching. Scientific dissemination is also promoted by the public aquarium and professional meetings.

  10. Suitability of two commercial preparations for disinfections against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Ayhan; Kaleta, Erhard Franz

    2009-05-01

    Two commercially available preparations from the disinfectants list of the German Veterinary Association (Deutsche Veterinärmedizinische Gesellschaft e. V. (DVG)) were tested against a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) field isolate in a concentration as recommended in the list for disinfection of bacteria. The "Guidelines of DVG for testing of disinfection methods and chemical disinfectants" were used as methodical base. Initially, the examinations for determination of the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and suitable inactivation substances were carried out. The bactericidal effect of both commercial preparations--a formic acid preparation (55 g per 100 g) and a preparation containing 21 g glutaraldhyde plus 17 g per 100 g formaldehyde--as well as reference disinfectants (37% formaldehyde and 99.5% phenol) were examined in suspension and carrier tests. The suspension tests were performed without and with protein load (20% FBS). Pieces of linden wood were used as carriers. The recommendation of DVG for both Venno Vet 1 super and M&enno Veterinär B neu as bactericide (except of bacterial spores) is 30 min (for preventive disinfections) as well as 120 min contact (for specific disinfections) of 1% concentration. The results show that the disinfection of MRSA do not require higher concentrations and longer contact times as recommended in the disinfectant list of DVG for both commercial disinfectants. Both products were effective in suspension tests in a 1% concentration and within five minutes independent of protein load. In contrast, 1% phenol (reference disinfectant for suspension tests) needed 30 min reaction time without protein load as well as 60 min with protein load for complete inactivation of the MRSA field strain. In carrier tests, a 30 min contact of 1% concentration of both commercial disinfectants and 3% concentration of formalin (reference disinfectant for carrier tests) was sufficient for complete disinfection.

  11. Determination of vitamin A in liver and liver-containing products using narrow-bore normal, phase HPLC.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, E; Mehlitz, I; Oei, H B; Tiebach, R; Baltes, W

    1994-09-01

    Vitamin A concentrations in livers of fattening animals and liver-containing products may reach much higher values than was assumed up to now. This effect may be caused by animal feed, which is usually supplemented with vitamins. To support this supposition, 57 liver samples of different species of animals, 97 liver sausages and 106 samples of liver-containing infant food were analysed. For isolation of retinol from the sample matrix the sample was saponified for 16 h under a nitrogen atmosphere at room temperature. Retinol was extracted from the saponification solution by using disposable cartridges. For chromatographic determination a normal-phase HPLC system using a narrow-bore analytical column and a photodiode array detector was used. It was possible to separate all-trans-retinol from other isomers. The identity of the peaks could be confirmed by recording the UV spectra.--The results of the retinol contents found in the analysed samples ranged from 11.6 to 160.7 mg/100 g in liver, from 1.4 to 31.1 mg/100 g in liver sausages and from 0.5 to 3.8 mg/100 g in infant food containing between 5 and 11% liver. By consuming liver-containing meals frequently a multiple amount of the recommended dietary intake ranging from 0.375 mg for infants to 0.8 mg for adults may be taken up. Also the recommended daily intakes of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährung can be exceeded.--The carry-over effect of daily vitamin A consumption of pigs and their liver vitamin A was investigated by parallel determination of the retinol content in the liver after slaughtering and the vitamin A content in the pig-feed during the fattening period. A clear correlation between their daily vitamin A intake and the resulting retinol content in the livers was found.

  12. Ion Beam Therapy in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, Gerhard

    2009-03-01

    At present, seven facilities in Europe treat deep-seated tumors with particle beams, six with proton beams and one with carbon ions. Three of these facilities are in Moscow, St. Petersburg and Dubna, Russia. Other facilities include the TSL Uppsala, Sweden, CPO Orsay, France, and PSI Villigen, Switzerland, all for proton therapy, and GSI, Darmstadt, Germany, which utilizes carbon ions only. But only two of these facilities irradiate with scanned ion beams: the Paul Scherer Institute (PSI), Villigen (protons) and the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt. These two facilities are experimental units within physics laboratories and have developed the technique of intensity-modulated beam scanning in order to produce irradiation conforming to a 3-D target. There are three proton centers presently under construction in Munich, Essen and Orsay, and the proton facility at PSI has added a superconducting accelerator connected to an isocentric gantry in order to become independent of the accelerator shared with the physics research program. The excellent clinical results using carbon ions at National Institute of Radiological Science (NIRS) in Chiba and GSI have triggered the construction of four new heavy-ion therapy projects (carbon ions and protons), located in Heidelberg, Pavia, Marburg and Kiel. The projects in Heidelberg and Pavia will begin patient treatment in 2009, and the Marburg and Kiel projects will begin in 2010 and 2011, respectively. These centers use different accelerator designs but have the same kind of treatment planning system and use the same approach for the calculation of the biological effectiveness of the carbon ions as developed at GSI [1]. There are many other planned projects in the works. Do not replace the word "abstract," but do replace the rest of this text. If you must insert a hard line break, please use Shift+Enter rather than just tapping your "Enter" key. You may want to print this page and refer to it as a style

  13. Deutsches "Nationales Krebshilfe-Monitoring" 2015-2019 - Studienprotokoll und erste Ergebnisse.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Sven; Görig, Tatiana; Schilling, Laura; Breitbart, Eckhard W; Greinert, Rüdiger; Diehl, Katharina

    2017-09-01

    Das Projekt "Nationales Krebshilfe-Monitoring zur Solariennutzung" (National Cancer Aid Monitoring of Tanning Bed Use, NCAM) ist eine deutsche Großstudie mit dem Ziel, die wichtigsten Risikofaktoren für Hautkrebs zu beobachten: natürliches Sonnenlicht und künstliche UV-Strahlung. NCAM ist eine bundesweite Querschnittstudie mit zunächst vier Runden der Datenerfassung (sogenannten Wellen) zwischen 2015 und 2018. Jedes Jahr wird eine bundesweit repräsentative Stichprobe aus 3.000 Personen im Alter von 14 bis 45 Jahren befragt. Die Querschnittsbefragung wird durch eine Kohorte von n = 450 aktuellen Solariennutzern ergänzt. Die erste Welle im Jahr 2015 ergab eine Gesamtprävalenz der Solariennutzung von 29,5 %. Elf Prozent aller Teilnehmer hatten in den vergangenen zwölf Monaten ein Solarium genutzt. Zu den Determinanten der aktuellen Solariennutzung gehörten jüngeres Alter, weibliches Geschlecht und Vollzeit-/Teilzeitbeschäftigung. Die hauptsächlichen Beweggründe, die für die Nutzung eines Solariums genannt wurden, waren Entspannung und Attraktivitätssteigerung. NCAM ist weltweit die erste Studie zur Überwachung der Risikofaktoren für Hautkrebs in jährlichen Intervallen anhand einer großen, landesweit repräsentativen Stichprobe. Erste Ergebnisse deuten darauf hin, dass Millionen Deutsche trotz Warnungen der WHO Solarien nutzen, und dass viele dieser Nutzer Jugendliche sind - trotz gesetzlicher Beschränkungen, die das Ziel haben, die Nutzung von Solarien durch Minderjährige zu verhindern. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Vernachlässigte klinische Merkmale der follikulotropen Mycosis fungoides: eine große klinische Fallserie.

    PubMed

    Baykal, Can; Atci, Tugba; Ozturk Sari, Sule; Polat Ekinci, Algun; Buyukbabani, Nesimi

    2017-03-01

    Als seltene Form der Mycosis fungoides (MF), ist die follikulotrope MF (FMF) durch ein breites Spektrum klinischer Symptome gekennzeichnet. Dazu gehören, neben den vorherrschenden follikulären Läsionen, auch viele atypische Manifestationen. Das Ziel der vorliegenden Studie war eine klinische Bewertung von FMF-Patienten, unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von vernachlässigten dermatologischen Merkmalen. Insgesamt wurden 27 FMF-Patienten aus dem 572 Patienten umfassenden MF-Register unserer Abteilung retrospektiv bezüglich ihrer Demographie sowie der klinischen Merkmale, Behandlungsformen, Nachsorge und Therapieergebnisse bewertet. Neben den bekannten klinischen Symptomen der FMF fanden wir Lichen-spinulosus-artige Läsionen mit begleitender Hypopigmentierung (n = 3) und Alopezie (n = 2), infiltrierte/erhabene, erythematöse Plaques im Gesicht, die zunächst als Lupus tumidus angesehen wurden (n = 2), pseudotumorale Läsionen, die klinisch eine MF im Tumorstadium vortäuschten (n = 1), dauerhafte Exkoriationen (n = 1), erythematöse, Rosazea-artige Papeln im Gesicht (n = 1) sowie kuppelförmige, asymptomatische, mit Muzin gefüllte (in der Histologie) Papeln/Knoten (n = 2), die andere krankheitsbedingte Läsionen überlagerten. Es kamen mehrere Therapieansätze mit unterschiedlichem Ergebnis zur Anwendung. Acht (29,6 %) Patienten hatten FMF im Spätstadium. Das Bewusstsein für vernachlässigte klinische Symptome kann wesentlich dazu beitragen, verspätete Diagnosen dieser aggressiven MF-Variante zu verringern. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Widespread HCO Emission in the Nuclear Starburst of M82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Burillo, S.; Martín-Pintado, J.; Fuente, A.; Usero, A.; Neri, R.

    2002-08-01

    We present a high-resolution (~5") image of the nucleus of M82 showing the presence of widespread emission of the formyl radical (HCO). The HCO map, the first obtained in an external galaxy, reveals the existence of a structured disk of ~650 pc full diameter. The HCO distribution in the plane mimics the ring morphology displayed by other molecular/ionized gas tracers in M82. More precisely, rings traced by HCO, CO, and H II regions are nested, with the HCO ring lying in the outer edge of the molecular torus. Observations of HCO in Galactic clouds indicate that the abundance of HCO is strongly enhanced in the interfaces between the ionized and molecular gas. The surprisingly high overall abundance of HCO measured in M82 [X(HCO)~4×10-10] indicates that its nuclear disk can be viewed as a giant photon-dominated region (PDR) of ~650 pc size. The existence of various nested gas rings, with the highest HCO abundance occurring at the outer ring [X(HCO)~0.8×10-9], suggests that PDR chemistry is propagating in the disk. We discuss the inferred large abundances of HCO in M82 in the context of a starburst evolutionary scenario, picturing the M82 nucleus as an evolved starburst. Based on observations carried out with the Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM) Plateau de Bure Interferometer. IRAM is supported by the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (France), the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (Germany), and the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (Spain).

  16. The DGAV risk calculator: development and validation of statistical models for a web-based instrument predicting complications of colorectal cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Crispin, Alexander; Klinger, Carsten; Rieger, Anna; Strahwald, Brigitte; Lehmann, Kai; Buhr, Heinz-Johannes; Mansmann, Ulrich

    2017-08-10

    The purpose of this study is to provide a web-based calculator predicting complication probabilities of patients undergoing colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery in Germany. Analyses were based on records of first-time CRC surgery between 2010 and February 2017, documented in the database of the Study, Documentation, and Quality Center (StuDoQ) of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Allgemein- und Viszeralchirurgie (DGAV), a registry of CRC surgery in hospitals throughout Germany, covering demography, medical history, tumor features, comorbidity, behavioral risk factors, surgical procedures, and outcomes. Using logistic ridge regression, separate models were developed in learning samples of 6729 colon and 4381 rectum cancer patients and evaluated in validation samples of sizes 2407 and 1287. Discrimination was assessed using c statistics. Calibration was examined graphically by plotting observed versus predicted complication probabilities and numerically using Brier scores. We report validation results regarding 15 outcomes such as any major complication, surgical site infection, anastomotic leakage, bladder voiding disturbance after rectal surgery, abdominal wall dehiscence, various internistic complications, 30-day readmission, 30-day reoperation rate, and 30-day mortality. When applied to the validation samples, c statistics ranged between 0.60 for anastomosis leakage and 0.85 for mortality after rectum cancer surgery. Brier scores ranged from 0.003 to 0.127. While most models showed satisfactory discrimination and calibration, this does not preclude overly optimistic or pessimistic individual predictions. To avoid misinterpretation, one has to understand the basic principles of risk calculation and risk communication. An e-learning tool outlining the appropriate use of the risk calculator is provided.

  17. Einsatz und Wirksamkeit von Systemtherapien bei Erwachsenen mit schwerer Neurodermitis: Erste Ergebnisse des deutschen Neurodermitis-Registers TREATgermany.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Jochen; Abraham, Susanne; Trautmann, Freya; Stephan, Victoria; Fölster-Holst, Regina; Homey, Bernhard; Bieber, Thomas; Novak, Natalija; Sticherling, Michael; Augustin, Matthias; Kleinheinz, Andreas; Elsner, Peter; Weidinger, Stephan; Werfel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Versorgungsregister dienen der Erfassung des Einsatzes und der Wirksamkeit von Therapien unter realen Versorgungsbedingungen und sind als Basis einer evidenzbasierten Gesundheitsversorgung unverzichtbar. Das deutsche Neurodermitis-Register TREATgermany wurde als weltweit erstes Register für Patienten mit schwerer Neurodermitis 2011 initiiert. Erwachsene mit schwerer Neurodermitis (aktuelle/frühere antientzündliche Systemtherapie und/oder objektiver SCORAD ≥ 40) werden über einen Zeitraum von 24 Monaten prospektiv beobachtet. Anhand validierter Erhebungsinstrumente werden die klinische Erkrankungsschwere (EASI, SCORAD), Lebensqualität (DLQI), Symptome, globale Erkrankungsschwere sowie die Patientenzufriedenheit erfasst und die durchgeführten Therapien dokumentiert. Die vorliegende Analyse beschreibt die Charakteristika, Therapiewahl und Wirksamkeit der eingesetzten antiinflammatorischen Systemtherapien der bis Oktober 2014 eingeschlossenen Patienten. An fünf Zentren wurden insgesamt 78 Patienten (Durchschnittsalter 39 Jahre, 61 % männlich) eingeschlossen. Bei den Patienten besteht eine hohe Inanspruchnahme ambulanter und stationärer Leistungen. Ciclosporin war das am häufigsten eingesetzte Systemtherapeutikum und zeigte die höchste klinische Effektivität (EASI-50-Ansprechrate 51 %; EASI-75-Ansprechrate 34 % nach zwölfwöchiger Therapie). Azathioprin, Methotrexat (MTX), Prednisolon oral, Mycophenolat, Alitretinoin und Leflunomid wurden ebenfalls bei einzelnen Patienten eingesetzt. Die vorliegende Registerauswertung gibt wichtige Hinweise zur derzeitigen Versorgung von Erwachsenen mit schwerer Neurodermitis in Deutschland, dokumentiert die hohe Erkrankungslast, den Nutzen vorhandener Therapien und den Bedarf an weiteren, effektiven und in der Langzeitanwendung sicheren Therapieoptionen. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Kompressionstherapie bei Patienten mit Ulcus cruris venosum.

    PubMed

    Dissemond, Joachim; Assenheimer, Bernd; Bültemann, Anke; Gerber, Veronika; Gretener, Silvia; Kohler-von Siebenthal, Elisabeth; Koller, Sonja; Kröger, Knut; Kurz, Peter; Läuchli, Severin; Münter, Christian; Panfil, Eva-Maria; Probst, Sebastian; Protz, Kerstin; Riepe, Gunnar; Strohal, Robert; Traber, Jürg; Partsch, Hugo

    2016-11-01

    Wund-D.A.CH. ist der Dachverband deutschsprachiger Fachgesellschaften, die sich mit den Thematiken der Wundbehandlung beschäftigen. Experten verschiedener Fachgesellschaften aus Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz haben nun einen aktuellen Konsens der Kompressionstherapie für Patienten mit Ulcus cruris venosum erstellt. In Europa ist das Ulcus cruris venosum eine der häufigsten Ursachen für chronische Wunden. Neben der konservativen und interventionellen Wund- und Venentherapie, ist die Kompressionstherapie die Basis der Behandlungsstrategien. Die Kompressionstherapie kann heute mit sehr unterschiedlichen Materialien und Systemen durchgeführt werden. Während in der Entstauungsphase insbesondere Verbände mit Kurzzugbinden oder Mehrkomponentensysteme zur Anwendung kommen, sind es anschließend überwiegend Ulkus-Strumpfsysteme. Eine weitere, bislang wenig verbreitete Alternative sind adaptive Kompressionsbandagen. Insbesondere für die Rezidivprophylaxe werden medizinische Kompressionsstrümpfe empfohlen. Durch die Vielzahl der heute zur Verfügung stehenden Behandlungsoptionen, kann für nahezu alle Patienten ein Konzept entwickelt werden, dass sich an den individuellen Bedürfnissen und Fähigkeiten orientiert und daher auch akzeptiert und durchgeführt wird. Die Kompressionstherapie ist für die Behandlung von Patienten mit Ulcus cruris venosum essentiell. In den letzten Jahren sind viele verschiedene Therapieoptionen verfügbar, die in den deutschsprachigen Ländern unterschiedlich angewendet oder durchgeführt werden. Daher soll dieser Expertenkonsens dazu beitragen, konkrete Empfehlungen für die praktische Durchführung der Kompressionstherapie von Patienten mit Ulcus cruris venosum darzustellen. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Kompressionstherapie - Versorgungspraxis: Informationsstand von Patienten mit Ulcus cruris venosum.

    PubMed

    Protz, Kerstin; Heyer, Kristina; Dissemond, Joachim; Temme, Barbara; Münter, Karl-Christian; Verheyen-Cronau, Ida; Klose, Katharina; Hampel-Kalthoff, Carsten; Augustin, Matthias

    2016-12-01

    Eine Säule der kausalen Therapie bei Patienten mit Ulcus cruris venosum ist die Kompressionstherapie. Sie unterstützt die Abheilung, reduziert Schmerzen und Rezidive und steigert die Lebensqualität. Bislang existieren kaum wissenschaftliche Daten zu dem Versorgungsstand und fachspezifischem Wissen von Patienten mit Ulcus cruris venosum. Standardisierte Fragebögen wurden bundesweit in 55 Pflegediensten, 32 Arztpraxen, vier Wundzentren und -sprechstunden sowie einem Pflegetherapiestützpunkt von Patienten mit Ulcus cruris venosum bei Erstvorstellung anonym ausgefüllt. Insgesamt nahmen 177 Patienten (Durchschnittsalter 69,4 Jahre; 75,1 % Frauen) teil. Ein florides Ulcus cruris venosum bestand im Mittel 17 Monate. 31,1 % hatten keine Kompressionstherapie, 40,1 % Binden und 28,8 % Strümpfe. Bei der Bestrumpfung hatten 13,7 % Kompressionsklasse III, 64,7 % Kompressionsklasse II und 19,6 % Kompressionsklasse I. 70,6 % legten die Strümpfe nach dem Aufstehen an, 21,1 % trugen sie Tag und Nacht. 39,2 % bereiteten die Strümpfe Beschwerden. Lediglich 11,7 % hatten eine An- und Ausziehhilfe. Die Binden wurden im Mittel 40,7 Wochen getragen und bei 69 % nicht unterpolstert. Bei 2,8 % wurde der Knöchel- und Waden-Umfang zur Erfolgskontrolle gemessen. Venensport machten 45,9 %. Ein Drittel hatte keine Kompressionsversorgung, obwohl diese eine Basismaßnahme der Therapie des Ulcus cruris venosum ist. Zudem ist deren korrekte Auswahl und Anwendung angesichts der langen Bestandsdauer der Ulzerationen zu hinterfragen. Weiterführende Fachkenntnisse bei Anwendern und Verordnern sowie Patientenschulungen sind erforderlich. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Zeitlicher Verlauf der avaskulären Nekrose des Hüftkopfes bei Patienten mit Pemphigus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Balighi, Kamran; Daneshpazhooh, Maryam; Aghazadeh, Nessa; Saeidi, Vahide; Shahpouri, Farzam; Hejazi, Pardis; Chams-Davatchi, Cheyda

    2016-10-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) wird in der Regel mit systemischen Corticosteroiden und Immunsuppressiva behandelt. Avaskuläre Nekrose (AVN) des Hüftkopfes ist eine gut bekannte schwerere Komplikation einer Corticosteroid-Therapie. Die Charakteristika dieser schweren Komplikation bei PV sind nach wie vor unbekannt. Nicht kontrollierte, retrospektive Untersuchung aller PV-bedingten AVN-Fälle, die in einer iranischen Klinik für bullöse Autoimmunerkrankungen zwischen 1985 und 2013 diagnostiziert wurden. Anhand der Krankenakten von 2321 untersuchten PV-Patienten wurden 45 Fälle (1,93 %) von femoraler AVN identifiziert. Dreißig davon waren Männer. Das mittlere Alter bei der Diagnose der AVN betrug 47,4 ± 14,2 Jahre. Der mittlere Zeitraum zwischen der Diagnose des PV und dem Einsetzen der AVN lag bei 25,3 ± 18,3 Monaten. Mit Ausnahme von acht Fällen (17,8 %) setzte die AVN bei der Mehrheit der Patienten innerhalb von drei Jahren nach Diagnose des PV ein. Die mittlere kumulative Dosis von Prednisolon bei Patienten mit AVN betrug 13.115,8 ± 7041,1 mg. Zwischen der Prednisolon-Gesamtdosis und dem Zeitraum bis zum Einsetzen der AVN bestand eine starke Korrelation (p = 0,001). Bei Patienten mit Alendronateinnahme in der Vorgeschichte war dieser Zeitraum signifikant kürzer (p = 0,01). Die AVN ist eine schwere Komplikation einer Corticosteroid-Behandlung bei Patienten mit PV. Sie wird bei 2 % der Patienten beobachtet und tritt vor allem in den ersten drei Behandlungsjahren auf. Bei Patienten, die höhere Dosen von Prednisolon erhalten, setzt die AVN tendenziell früher ein. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Krankheitsverlauf, medizinische Versorgung und Lebensqualität von Patienten mit kongenitalen melanozytären Nävi - Auswertung des deutschsprachigen KMN-Registers.

    PubMed

    Elisabeth Wramp, Maria; Langenbruch, Anna; Augustin, Matthias; Zillikens, Detlef; Krengel, Sven

    2017-02-01

    Kongenitale melanozytäre Nävi (KMN) bedeuten für Patienten und Familien eine psychologische Belastung und bergen zudem medizinische Risiken. Das 2005 gegründete deutschsprachige KMN-Register wurde nun einer Zwischenauswertung bezüglich des Krankheitsverlaufes, der medizinischen Versorgung und der Lebensqualität unterzogen. 100 Patienten, die sich in den Jahren 2005 bis 2012 mit einem Erstmeldebogen registriert hatten, wurde im Rahmen einer prospektiven Kohortenstudie Anfang 2013 ein Folgemeldebogen zugesandt. Außerdem wurden mithilfe standardisierter Fragebögen Daten zu Lebensqualität (dermatology life quality index, DLQI) und Stigmatisierungserfahrungen (perceived stigmatization questionnaire, PSQ; social comfort questionnaire, SCQ) erhoben. 83 % der Patienten oder deren Eltern antworteten (Altersdurchschnitt 11,2 Jahre, Median 6 Jahre; mittleres Follow-up 4,4 Jahre). Im Gesamtkollektiv wurden vier Melanome diagnostiziert, davon zwei zerebrale Melanome im Kindesalter, ein kutanes Melanom im Erwachsenenalter und eines, das sich als proliferierender Knoten erwies. Bei vier Kindern wurde eine neurokutane Melanozytose festgestellt, drei davon mit neurologischer Symptomatik. Chirurgisch behandelt wurden 88 % (73/83). Achtundsiebzig Prozent der Befragten berichteten eine geringe oder keine Beeinträchtigung der Lebensqualität. Die wahrgenommene Stigmatisierung beziehungsweise Beeinträchtigung des sozialen Wohlbefindens war generell ebenfalls gering. Die Ergebnisse geben einen Überblick über die Situation von Patienten mit KMN in Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz. Ein Melanom entwickelte sich in 3 %, eine ZNS-Beteiligung bestand in 4 % der Fälle. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Kombinierte Hoch-/Niedrig-Dosis-Therapie mit systemischen Glukokor-tikoiden bei schweren Verlaufsformen der Alopecia areata im Kindesalter.

    PubMed

    Jahn-Bassler, Karin; Bauer, Wolfgang Michael; Karlhofer, Franz; Vossen, Matthias G; Stingl, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Schwere Verlaufsformen der Alopecia areata (AA) im Kindesalter sind aufgrund limitierter Optionen therapeutisch herausfordernd. Systemische, hochdosierte Glukokortikoide weisen die schnellste Ansprechrate auf, nach dem Absetzen kommt es allerdings zu Rezidiven. Eine längerfristige Hochdosis-Anwendung ist aufgrund der zu erwartenden Nebenwirkungen nicht empfehlenswert. Eine dauerhafte Steroiderhaltungstherapie unterhalb der Cushing-Schwellen-Dosis nach Bolustherapie könnte die Krankheitsaktivität ohne Nebenwirkungen längerfristig unterdrücken. Im Rahmen einer offenen Anwendungsbeobachtung wurden 13 Kinder mit schweren Formen der AA in diese Studie eingeschlossen. Bei sieben Kindern lag eine AA totalis/universalis vor, bei sechs eine multifokale AA mit Befall von mehr als 50 % der Kopfhaut. Das Therapieregime sah eine initiale Prednisolon-Dosierung von 2 mg/kg Körpergeweicht (KG) vor und wurde innerhalb von neun Wochen auf eine Erhaltungsdosierung unter der individuellen Cushing-Schwelle reduziert. Der Nachbeobachtungszeitraum betrug ein bis drei Jahre. Wir beobachteten in 62 % aller Fälle ein komplettes Nachwachsen der Haare. Die mittlere Dauer bis zum Ansprechen lag bei 6,6 Wochen und konnte mit der Erhaltungstherapie über den gesamten Beobachtungszeitraum aufrechterhalten werden. An Nebenwirkungen wurden ausschließlich eine Gewichtszunahme (1-3 kg) bei allen Behandelten sowie eine milde Steroidakne in 23 % der Fälle beobachtet. Die kombinierte Hoch-/Niedrig-Dosis-Therapie mit systemischen Glukokortikoiden mittels Prednisolon zeigte eine hohe, dauerhafte Ansprechrate ohne signifikante Nebenwirkungen. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Verantwortlicher Umgang mit Antibiotika: Notwendigkeit der Antibiotikareduktion in der Aknetherapie.

    PubMed

    Gollnick, Harald P M; Buer, Jan; Beissert, Stefan; Sunderkätter, Cord

    2016-12-01

    Der übermäßige oder unkritische weltweite Einsatz von Antibiotika in der Medizin hat die Ausbreitung von Antibiotikaresistenzen beschleunigt. In einigen Bereichen sind viele Antibiotika bei bakteriellen Infektionen, die zuvor noch gut auf antibakterielle Wirkstoffe reagierten, mittlerweile wirkungslos geworden. Dermatologen/Venerologen setzten orale und topische Antibiotika bei der Behandlung von Acne vulgaris routinemäßig ein, obwohl Akne weder eine infektiöse Erkrankung ist noch alleine durch das Propionibacterium getriggert wird. Vielmehr ist sie eine komplexe, chronische entzündliche Hauterkrankung, die durch verschiedene pathogenetische Faktoren wie follikuläre Hyperkeratose, erhöhter Sebumproduktion, bakterielle Proliferation und Entzündung zustande kommt. Folglich sollte eine erfolgreiche Therapie auf die Bekämpfung verschiedener pathogenetischer Faktoren und nicht nur auf die von Propionibacterium acnes abzielen. Daher wurden topische Retinoide und Benzoylperoxid als Mittel der ersten Wahl definiert. Monotherapien mit lokalen Antibiotika sollten insgesamt vermieden werden. Systemische Antibiotika der Tetrazyklin-Gruppe haben bei bestimmen Krankheitsstadien ihren Sinn, ihre Wirkung könnte aber eher auf der antientzündlichen als auf der antibiotischen Reaktion beruhen. Gesundheitsbehörden ermahnen alle Gesundheitsdienstleister, den Einsatz von Antibiotika einzuschränken. Das Nutzen-Risiko-Verhältnis muss bei der Entscheidung für oder gegen eine antibiotische Therapie bei einem einzelnen Patienten immer auch in Bezug auf das öffentliche Interesse am Erhalt der Wirksamkeit von Antibiotika abgewogen werden. Im Folgenden werden das aktuelle Krankheitskonzept zu Acne vulgaris und die sich daraus ableitenden Konsequenzen für den Einsatz von Antibiotika vorgestellt. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Intraläsionale Therapie niedrig maligner primär kutaner B-Zell-Lymphome mit Anti-CD20-Antikörper: Nebenwirkungen korrelieren mit gutem klinischen Ansprechen.

    PubMed

    Eberle, Franziska C; Holstein, Julia; Scheu, Alexander; Fend, Falko; Yazdi, Amir S

    2017-03-01

    Die intraläsionale Gabe von Anti-CD20-Antikörpern (Rituximab) wurde als effektive Therapieoption für Patienten mit niedrig malignen primär kutanen B-Zell-Lymphomen beschrieben. Bis heute wurden allerdings keine Parameter identifiziert, welche reproduzierbar ein gutes klinisches Ansprechen dieser Therapie vorhersagen. Ziel dieser Studie ist, sowohl das klinische Ansprechen und die unerwünschten Nebenwirkungen als auch die Patientenwahrnehmung hinsichtlich intraläsionaler Injektionen von anti-CD20-Antikörpern zur Behandlung indolenter primär kutaner B-Zell-Lymphome im Vergleich mit anderen Therapien zu evaluieren. Elf Patienten mit einem primär kutanen B-Zell-Lymphom, namentlich primär kutanes Keimzentrumslymphom (n = 9) und primär kutanes Marginalzonenlymphom (n = 2), welche mittels intraläsionalem Anti-CD20-Antikörper behandelt wurden, wurden retrospektiv evaluiert hinsichtlich der Ansprechrate und unerwünschter Nebenwirkungen sowie in Bezug auf deren Selbsteinschätzung dieser und anderer Therapien des primär kutanen B-Zell-Lymphoms. Patienten, deren primär kutanes B-Zell-Lymphom mittels intraläsionaler Gabe von Anti-CD20-Antikörper behandelt wurde, zeigten ein komplettes oder partielles Ansprechen in 45 % beziehungsweise 27 % aller Patienten. Speziell Patienten mit grippeähnlichen Symptomen nach erfolgter Injektion zeigten ein gutes Ansprechen. Die Mehrheit der Patienten empfand die Therapie mit Rituximab als die beste Therapie im Vergleich zu anderen Therapien wie beispielsweise chirurgische Exzision oder Radiotherapie. Intraläsionales Rituximab ist eine effektive Therapie mit hoher Patientenzufriedenheit. Starke therapiebedingte Nebenwirkungen wie Fieber, Schüttelfrost und Kopfschmerzen nach Gabe von Rituximab könnten als Indikator für gute Wirksamkeit dienen. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Gebrauch von Komplementärmedizin bei Patienten mit metastasierendem Melanom unter Therapie mit Ipilimumab innerhalb einer klinischen Studie.

    PubMed

    Huebner, Jutta; Mohr, Peter; Simon, Jan-Christoph; Fluck, Michael; Berking, Carola; Zimmer, Lisa; Loquai, Carmen

    2016-05-01

    In Deutschland wenden 40-90 % aller Krebspatienten Methoden der komplementären and alternativen Medizin (KAM) an. Bis dato gibt es kein Datenmaterial zum Einsatz der KAM bei Melanompatienten. Das Ziel unserer Studie war es, Daten über den Gebrauch, die Informationsquellen und Ziele von Patienten mit metastasierendem Melanom zu erfassen. Einhundertsechsundfünfzig Patienten aus 25 Studienzentren nahmen an der DecOG-MM-PAL Multibasket Studie teil. Die beteiligten Personen wurden auch gebeten, an einer Nebenstudie teilzunehmen, die ihren Gebrauch von KAM erfassen sollte. Dazu wurde während der Behandlung ein standardisierter Fragebogen zu genau festgelegten Zeitpunkten ausgeteilt. Insgesamt gingen 55 Fragebögen von 32 (21 %) Melanompatienten ein. Von diesen gaben 17 (53 %) ein Interesse an KAM an, und sieben (22 %) machten von KAM Gebrauch. Die Hauptinformationsquellen (31 %) waren Familienmitglieder und Freunde, gefolgt von Ärzten (19 %). Die Hauptgründe für die Anwendung von KAM waren die Stärkung des Immunsystems (41 %) und des Körpers (34 %). Nahrungsergänzungsmittel (Vitamine und Spurenelemente) wurden am häufigsten angewendet (28 %). Eine relativ hohe Anzahl an Patienten mit metastasierendem Melanom machte trotz Teilnahme an einer klinischen Studie von KAM Gebrauch. Wechselwirkungen könnten durch biologisch basierte KAM auftreten, und hier besonders bei immunmodulierenden KAM- Strategien. Um Risiken zu vermeiden, sollte die Kommunikation zwischen den Ärzten und den Patienten verbessert werden. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Der Einfluss von Alitretinoin auf die Lebensqualität bei Patienten mit schwerem chronischen Handekzem: FUGETTA - Beobachtungsstudie unter Praxisbedingungen.

    PubMed

    Augustin, Matthias; Thaçi, Diamant; Kamps, Anja

    2016-12-01

    Alitretinoin ist die einzige zugelassene Behandlung für schweres chronisches Handekzem (CHE), das refraktär gegenüber potenten topischen Corticosteroiden ist. Bei dieser Studie (FUGETTA) wurde die Wirksamkeit von leitliniengerecht angewendetem oralem Alitretinoin sowie dessen Einfluss auf die Lebensqualität (LQ) bei Patienten mit schwerem refraktärem CHE beurteilt. Multizentrische, offene, nichtinterventionelle Beobachtungsstudie, durchgeführt in Deutschland. Die Patienten wurden nach Ermessen ihres behandelnden Arztes mit Alitretinoin 10 mg oder 30 mg einmal täglich über maximal 24 Wochen behandelt. Die Wirksamkeit wurde anhand des Physician Global Assessment (PGA) und des Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) bewertet. Zudem wurden unerwünschte Ereignisse (UE) erfasst. Die Studienpopulation bestand aus 658 Patienten (30 mg: n = 581; 10 mg: n = 77). Bei Beobachtungsbeginn litten die meisten Patienten (83 %) gemäß PGA an einem schweren CHE. Bei Beobachtungsende war das Handekzem bei 48 % der Patienten gemäß PGA vollständig oder fast vollständig abgeheilt (30 mg: 49 %; 10 mg: 43 %). Die mittlere Verbesserung des DLQI-Scores in Woche 24 betrug 58 % (30 mg: mittlere [SD] Veränderung gegenüber dem Ausgangswert -10,4 [8,04]) und 70 % (10 mg: mittlere [SD] Veränderung gegenüber dem Ausgangswert -10,8 [7,29]). Die Gesamtinzidenz von NW war niedrig und in den beiden Gruppen ähnlich. Alitretinoin führte zu einer schnellen, deutlichen Verbesserung der LQ bei Patienten mit schwerem CHE. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Plattenepithelkarzinom in Verbindung mit einer roten Tätowierung.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Inge; Prymak, Oleg; Epple, Matthias; Ernert, Carsten; Tannapfel, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    Obwohl Tätowierungen in den letzten Jahren außerordentlich beliebt geworden sind, wurde in der Literatur bisher nur über wenige Fälle schwerer Reaktionen berichtet, die zu einer malignen Transformation führten. Dies steht im Kontrast zu der praktisch unüberschaubaren Zahl an Tätowierungen weltweit. Die Zusammensetzung der für Tätowierungen verwendeten Farbstoffe variiert stark, und selbst gleiche Farbtöne können unterschiedliche Komponenten enthalten. Das Ziel unserer Studie war es zu untersuchen, auf welche Weise Tätowierungen möglicherweise Hautkrebs auslösen können. Wir berichten über den seltenen Fall einer 24-jährigen Frau, bei der sich sieben Monate nachdem sie eine Tätowierung auf dem Fußrücken erhalten hatte in unmittelbarer Nähe des verwendeten roten Farbstoffs ein Plattenepithelkarzinom entwickelte. Die Komplikationen begannen mit einer unspezifischen Schwellung. Die Läsion wurde histologisch untersucht. Die Zusammensetzung des inkorporierten Farbstoffs wurde mittels Rasterelektronenmikroskopie in Kombination mit energiedispersiver Elementanalyse analysiert. Zur weiteren Charakterisierung wurden Thermogravimetrie und Pulverdiffraktometrie eingesetzt. Der Tätowierungsfarbstoff enthielt hauptsächlich Bariumsulfat; Spuren von Al, S, Ti, P, Mg und Cl ließen sich ebenfalls nachweisen. Bei der Analyse zeigten sich Pigmentgranula unterschiedlicher Größe. In seltenen Fällen kann Tätowierungstinte karzinogene Effekte haben, die multifaktoriell zu sein scheinen. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Azelainsäure 20 % Creme: Auswirkung auf Lebensqualität und Krankheitsaktivität bei erwachsenen Patientinnen mit Acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Kainz, Julius Thomas; Berghammer, Gabriele; Auer-Grumbach, Piet; Lackner, Verena; Perl-Convalexius, Sylvia; Popa, Rodica; Wolfesberger, Barbara

    2016-12-01

    Zur Wirksamkeit von Aknetherapien und deren Auswirkungen auf die Lebensqualität erwachsener Patienten liegen kaum Daten vor. ZIEL: Erhebung der Wirkung von Azelainsäure 20 % Creme (Skinoren(®) ) auf Akne-Schweregrad und krankheitsbedingte Lebensqualität. Nichtinterventionelle Studie bei erwachsenen Patientinnen mit leichter bis mittelschwerer Akne. Wirksamkeitsparameter waren DLQI sowie Akne-Schweregrad im Gesicht, am Dekolleté sowie am Rücken im Gesamturteil des Prüfarztes (IGA-Skala: Grad 1 = annähernd reine Haut; 2 = leichte Akne; 3 = mittelschwere Akne). Visiten waren zu Studienbeginn sowie nach 4-8 und zwölf Wochen geplant. Von den 251 eingeschlossenen Patientinnen lag zu Studienbeginn bei 59 %, 31 % bzw. 10 % ein IGA-Grad von 1, 2 bzw. 3 vor; die am häufigsten betroffene Hautpartie war das Gesicht (IGA-Grad 2 oder 3: 79 %). Nach zwölf Behandlungswochen war eine signifikante Besserung der Acne vulgaris im Gesicht (IGA-Grad 0 oder 1: 82 %) sowie auf Dekolleté und Rücken feststellbar. Der mediane DLQI-Wert sank von neun zu Studienbeginn auf fünf nach zwölf Behandlungswochen. Neunzig Prozent der behandelnden Ärzte und Patientinnen beurteilten die Verträglichkeit der Behandlung als sehr gut oder gut. Die Anwendung von 20%iger Azelainsäure-Creme führt bei erwachsenen Frauen zu einer signifikanten Besserung der Acne vulgaris und der krankheitsbedingten Lebensqualität. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Retrospektive Analyse von Zufallsbefunden, die bei Patienten mit kutanem malignen Malignom durch (18) F-Fluordeoxyglucose-PET/CT erhoben wurden.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Franziska; Winkens, Thomas; Kaatz, Martin; Goetze, Steven; Freesmeyer, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Bei der (18) F-Fluordeoxyglucose-Positronenemissionstomographie/Computertomographie (FDG-PET/CT) ergeben sich häufig Zufallsbefunde. In der vorliegenden Studie konzentrierten wir uns auf mittels FDG-PET/CT erhaltene Zufallsbefunde bei Patienten mit kutanem Melanom und überprüften deren Relevanz hinsichtlich weiterer diagnostischer Maßnahmen und Interventionen. Die Krankenakten von 181 konsekutiven Melanom-Patienten wurden retrospektiv ausgewertet, um das Management von Zufallsbefunden zu dokumentieren. Der Schwerpunkt lag dabei auf den histologischen Befunden. Bei 33 von 181 (18 %) Patienten lagen 39 relevante Zufallsbefunde vor, und zwar im Kolorektalbereich (n = 15 Patienten), in der Schilddrüse (n = 8), der Prostata (n = 2), dem Bewegungsapparat (n = 2), in Lymphknoten (n = 2), der Parotis (n = 1), den Mandeln (n = 1), den Nieren (n = 1) und der Gallenblase (n = 1). Bei 25 Patienten schlossen sich weitere diagnostische Verfahren an, wobei in 21 Fällen ein klinisches Korrelat nachgewiesen wurde. Bei 16 von 21 Patienten ergab sich eine Neoplasie, darunter fünf maligne Läsionen (vier Kolonkarzinome und ein Prostatakarzinom). Die Malignome wurden frühzeitig diagnostiziert und in der Mehrzahl der Fälle erfolgreich entfernt. Der Einsatz der FDG-PET/CT als Routine-Diagnostik wird in den Leitlinien empfohlen und ist indiziert bei malignem Melanom ab Stadium IIC. In dieser Studie wurden auf effektive Weise ansonsten nicht erkannte Krebserkrankungen, insbesondere Kolonkarzinome, detektiert. In den meisten Fällen war eine frühe Intervention möglich. Zufallsbefunde durch FDG-PET/CT sollten, unter Berücksichtigung des Zustands und der Wünsche des Patienten, mit den geeigneten diagnostischen Maßnahmen abgeklärt werden. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Ustekinumab in der Therapie der Pustulosis palmoplantaris - Eine Fallserie mit neun Patienten.

    PubMed

    Buder, Valeska; Herberger, Katharina; Jacobi, Arnd; Augustin, Matthias; Radtke, Marc Alexander

    2016-11-01

    Die Pustulosis palmoplantaris ist eine chronisch entzündliche Hauterkrankung, die mit bedeutenden Einschränkungen der Lebensqualität und der Belastbarkeit einhergeht. Aufgrund von Zulassungsbeschränkungen und einem häufig therapierefraktären Verlauf sind die Behandlungsmöglichkeiten limitiert. Nach zuvor frustranen Therapien erhielten 9 Patienten mit Pustulosis palmoplantaris nach Ausschluss einer latenten Tuberkulose Ustekinumab (45 mg Ustekinumab bei < 100 kg Körpergewicht [KG], 90 mg Ustekinumab > 100 kg KG) in Woche 0, 4, 12 und 24. Reguläre Visiten erfolgten nach 4 und 12 Wochen, im weiteren Verlauf alle 12 Wochen. Das Durchschnittsalter bei Therapiebeginn betrug 48 Jahre. Drei Patienten waren männlich. Bei n  =  4 Patienten (44,4 %) wurde eine Verbesserung um 75 % des Palmoplantar-Psoriasis-Area-Severity-Index (PPPASI) erreicht. Insgesamt verbesserte sich der PPPASI nach 24 Wochen durchschnittlich um 71,6 %. Eine komplette Abheilung zeigte sich bei n  =  2 Patienten nach 24 Wochen. Bis auf lokale Injektionsreaktionen und leichte Infekte wurden keine unerwünschten Wirkungen beobachtet. Die Fallserie ist ein weiterer Beleg für die Wirksamkeit und Verträglichkeit von Ustekinumab in der Therapie der Pustulosis palmoplantaris. Zur Beurteilung der Langzeitwirkung und -sicherheit sowie der Wirksamkeit einer intermittierenden Therapie sind kontrollierte Studiendaten sowie Beobachtungen im Rahmen von Patientenregistern notwendig. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Counseling cancer patients on complementary and alternative medicine. Background, theory, and implementation of nationwide counseling facilities.

    PubMed

    Hübner, J; Muenstedt, K; Muecke, R; Micke, O; Stoll, C; Kleeberg, U R; Buentzel, J; Dennert, G; Prott, F J

    2013-08-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is of high relevance in oncology. Only a minority of professionals feel competent in CAM. Our aim was to provide a strategy for establishing evidence-based counseling on CAM in oncology in the German health system. We performed a systematic search of the literature on patient counseling concerning CAM. Of 811 articles identified in this search 51 met our inclusion criteria. Data from these articles were analyzed and adapted to the needs of German patients by a group of experts of the DEGRO ("Deutschen Gesellschaft für Radioonkologie") and the German Cancer Society. In the next step a strategy about how to integrate evidence-based counseling on CAM at cancer centers and oncological institutions was developed. First, evidence-based recommendations on CAM counseling were derived. The core of our strategy combines two levels of information provision: level 1 will be oncologists, radiotherapists and other specialists and level 2 oncological CAM experts. The latter group will serve as trainers and backup for complicated or advanced questions and for individual counseling of patients with complex needs. Professionals in level 1 will be offered special training. Evidence-based counseling on CAM is not only possible but also mandatory in order to meet patient information needs. Our proposal would allow for integrated counseling available at all oncological institutions and guarantee a high quality. Furthermore, provision of information on two different levels allows the effective use of resources (manpower and financing).

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Radial velocities of wide doubles (Halbwachs+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halbwachs, J. L.; Mayor, M.; Udry, S.

    2012-04-01

    Wide binaries are tracers of the gravity field of the Galaxy, but their study requires some caution. A large list of common proper motion stars selected from the third Astronomischen Gesellschaft Katalog (AGK3) was monitored with the CORAVEL (for COrrelation RAdial VELocities) spectrovelocimeter, in order to prepare a sample of physical binaries with very wide separations. 66 stars received special attention, since their radial velocities (RV) seemed to be variable. These stars were monitored over several years in order to derive the elements of their spectroscopic orbits. In addition, 10 of them received accurate RV measurements from the SOPHIE spectrograph of the T193 telescope at the Observatory of Haute-Provence. For deriving the orbital elements of double-lined spectroscopic binaries (SB2), a new method was applied, which assumed that the RV of blended measurements are linear combinations of the RV of the components. 13 SB2 orbits were thus calculated. The orbital elements were eventually obtained for 52 spectroscopic binaries (SB), two of them making a triple system. 40 SB received their first orbit and the orbital elements were improved for 10 others. In addition, 11 SB were discovered with very long periods for which the orbital parameters were not found. The median period of the 40 first orbits is 1yr, and several SB should be resolved or should receive an astrometric orbit in future, providing the masses of the components. In addition, it appeared that HD 153252 has a close companion, which is a candidate brown dwarf with a minimum mass of 50 Jupiter masses. (4 data files).

  13. Gerbstoffe aus Potentilla officinalis wirken entzündungshemmend im UV-Erythem-Test und bei Anwendung auf atopischer Haut.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Julia; Wölfle, Ute; Schempp, Christoph M; Casetti, Federica

    2016-09-01

    Das Rhizom von Potentilla officinalis (PO) ist reich an Gerbstoffen und wird traditionell zur äußerlichen Behandlung von Entzündungen der Haut und der Schleimhäute verwendet. Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit war die Bestätigung der antiinflammatorischen Eigenschaften von PO mittels eines UV-Erythem-Tests und einer klinischen Anwendungsstudie bei atopischer Haut. Die antiinflammatorische Wirkung eines PO-Extrakts (standardisiert auf 2 % Trockensubstanz) wurde in einer prospektiven, randomisierten, placebokontrollierten Doppelblindstudie mit 40 gesunden Erwachsenen im UV-Erythem-Test im Vergleich zu 1 % Hydrocortisonacetat untersucht. Im Rahmen einer prospektiven nicht kontrollierten Studie wurde die Wirkung und Verträglichkeit der 2 % PO-Creme an zwölf Erwachsenen und zwölf Kindern mit atopischer Haut nach Anwendung über zwei Wochen in einem definierten Testareal anhand eines Teil-SCORAD untersucht. Zusätzlich wurde die Beeinflussung der Hautrötung im Testareal photometrisch gemessen. Im UV-Erythem-Test zeigte die PO-Creme eine signifikante Reduktion des Erythemindex im Vergleich zum Vehikel. Die antiinflammatorische Wirkung des Verums entsprach der der 1 % Hydrocortisonacetat-Creme. Die klinische Studie bei Atopikern zeigte eine signifikante Abnahme des Teil-SCORAD und des Erythems im Testareal. Es wurden keine Unverträglichkeitsreaktionen beobachtet. PO als 2%ige Zubereitung besitzt entzündungshemmende Eigenschaften und ist wirksam und gut verträglich auf atopischer Haut. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Sexualverhalten, STIs und HIV-Übertragungsrisiken bei HIV-positiven MSM - Ansätze für die ärztliche Präventionsarbeit.

    PubMed

    Esser, Stefan; Krotzek, Judith; Dirks, Henrike; Scherbaum, Norbert; Schadendorf, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    Steigende Inzidenzen von HIV-Infektionen und STIs (sexually transmitted infections) bei MSM (men having sex with men) seit 2001 in Deutschland erfordern neue Ansätze in der ärztlichen Präventionsarbeit. Diese Studie befasst sich mit geeigneten Parametern für gezielte ärztliche Angebote an HIV-positive MSM mit hohem Risiko für die Übertragung von HIV und STIs. In einem zweijährigen Beobachtungszeitraum wurden 233 HIV-positive MSM in der HIV-Ambulanz des Universitätsklinikums Essen zu ihrem Sexualverhalten, Suchtmittelkonsum und psychischem Befinden im vorhergehenden Jahr systematisch befragt. Die dokumentierten Labordaten und klinische Verläufe wurden von der Erstdiagnose der HIV-Infektion bis zum Januar 2014 ausgewertet. Drogengebrauch, Promiskuität, jüngeres Lebensalter und bekannte STIs in der Vorgeschichte waren bei HIV-positiven MSM mit häufigerem ungeschützten Geschlechtsverkehr und einer höheren STI-Inzidenz assoziiert. Zusätzliche HIV-spezifische Parameter für ein erhöhtes HIV-Transmissionsrisiko waren neben einer nachweisbaren HIViruslast unbehandelte HIV-Infektionen, Therapieadhärenzprobleme, Wechsel der antiretroviralen Therapie in den letzten zwölf Monaten, bekannte HIV-Multiresistenz und ein höherer CD4-Zell-Nadir. Obwohl die HIViruslast in der Routineversorgung quartalsweise bestimmt und anschließend vom Arzt mitgeteilt wird, schätzten nur 60 % der HIV-positiven MSM ihr HIV-Transmissionsrisiko korrekt ein. Aus Routineuntersuchungen ergeben sich bei HIV-positiven MSM Profile, die auf ein Sexualverhalten mit hohem Risiko für die Übertragung von HIV und STIs hinweisen und Ansätze für die ärztliche Präventionsarbeit bieten. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. AGO Austria recommendation on screening and diagnosis of Lynch syndrome (LS).

    PubMed

    Zeimet, Alain G; Mori, Harald; Petru, Edgar; Polterauer, Stephan; Reinthaller, Alexander; Schauer, Christian; Scholl-Firon, Tonja; Singer, Christian; Wimmer, Katharina; Zschocke, Johannes; Marth, Christian

    2017-07-01

    This manuscript reports the consensus recommendations on screening and diagnosis of Lynch syndrome (LS) in patients with endometrial or ovarian cancer as well as on possible preventive measures in effectively LS-diagnosed women. The recommendations are issued by the Austrian Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Gynäkologische Onkologie (AGO) of the Österreichischen Gesellschaft für Gynäkologie und Geburtshilfe (OEGGG) after consultation of the most recent and relevant literature and following deliberation by the Genetic Task-Force convoked May, 2015 by the AGO Council. The Austrian AGO recommends immunohistochemical tissue screening for type-I and type-II endometrial cancers in all patients below the age of 70 years, and for all endometrioid and clear-cell ovarian cancers independently of the patient's age. If needed immunohistochemistry should be complemented by tissue MLH1 promotor hypermethylation testing and/or microsatellite instability (MSI) analysis. The diagnosis LS requires confirmation through identification of a germline mutation by a molecular genetic examination in the mismatch repair genes using the patient's blood. This should be performed without preceding tissue screening when in LS-associated cancer patients the family history fulfills the Amsterdam II or the revised Bethesda criteria. In LS-diagnosed women, the age for prophylactic surgery should be set flexibly based on an informed consent. Regarding the monitoring of these women, chemo-preventive measures as well as screening procedures either to avoid or to early detect LS-related tumors are discussed with a special light on their specific limitations.

  16. [S3-Guideline: Recommendations for intra-aortic balloon pumping in cardiac surgery].

    PubMed

    Pilarczyk, Kevin; Bauer, Adrian; Boening, Andreas; von der Brelie, Michael; Eichler, Ingolf; Gohrbandt, Bernard; Groesdonk, Heinrich Volker; Haake, Nils; Heringlake, Matthias; Langebartels, Georg; Markewitz, Andreas; Thiele, Holger; Trummer, Georg; Marggraf, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Although intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP) is the most frequently used mechanical cardiac assist device in cardiothoracic surgery, there are only guidelines for substantive sections of aortic counterpulsation including prophylactic and postoperative use. In contrast, evidence-based recommendations are still lacking concerning intraoperative use, management, contraindication and other relevant issues. According to international surveys, important aspects of IABP usage show a wide variation in clinical practice. The results of a national questionnaire performed before initiation of this guideline confirmed these findings and demonstrated a clear need for the development of a consensus-based guideline. Therefore, the presented multidisciplinary S-3-guideline was developed under the direction of the German Society for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Thorax-, Herz- und Gefäßchirurgie, DGTHG) to make evidence-based recommendations for the usage of aortic counterpulsation after cardiothoracic surgery according to the requirements of the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF) and the Medical Centre for Quality (Ärztliches Zentrum für Qualität - (ÄZQ)). Main topics discussed in this guideline involve IABP support in the prophylactic, preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative setting as well as the treatment of right heart failure, contraindications, anticoagulation, monitoring, weaning, and limitations of IABP therapy. The presented 15 key messages of the guideline were approved after two consensus meetings under moderation of the AWMF with participation of the German Society of Cardiology (DGK), German Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (DGAI), German Interdisciplinary Association for Intensive Care (DIVI) and the German Society for Cardiovascular Engineering (DGfK).

  17. Diagnosis and therapy of Candida infections: joint recommendations of the German Speaking Mycological Society and the Paul-Ehrlich-Society for Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ruhnke, Markus; Rickerts, Volker; Cornely, Oliver A; Buchheidt, Dieter; Glöckner, Andreas; Heinz, Werner; Höhl, Rainer; Horré, Regine; Karthaus, Meinolf; Kujath, Peter; Willinger, Birgit; Presterl, Elisabeth; Rath, Peter; Ritter, Jörg; Glasmacher, Axel; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Groll, Andreas H

    2011-07-01

    Invasive Candida infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised and hospitalised patients. This article provides the joint recommendations of the German-speaking Mycological Society (Deutschsprachige Mykologische Gesellschaft, DMyKG) and the Paul-Ehrlich-Society for Chemotherapy (PEG) for diagnosis and treatment of invasive and superficial Candida infections. The recommendations are based on published results of clinical trials, case-series and expert opinion using the evidence criteria set forth by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). Key recommendations are summarised here: The cornerstone of diagnosis remains the detection of the organism by culture with identification of the isolate at the species level; in vitro susceptibility testing is mandatory for invasive isolates. Options for initial therapy of candidaemia and other invasive Candida infections in non-granulocytopenic patients include fluconazole or one of the three approved echinocandin compounds; liposomal amphotericin B and voriconazole are secondary alternatives because of their less favourable pharmacological properties. In granulocytopenic patients, an echinocandin or liposomal amphotericin B is recommended as initial therapy based on the fungicidal mode of action. Indwelling central venous catheters serve as a main source of infection independent of the pathogenesis of candidaemia in the individual patients and should be removed whenever feasible. Pre-existing immunosuppressive treatment, particularly by glucocorticosteroids, ought to be discontinued, if feasible, or reduced. The duration of treatment for uncomplicated candidaemia is 14 days following the first negative blood culture and resolution of all associated symptoms and findings. Ophthalmoscopy is recommended prior to the discontinuation of antifungal chemotherapy to rule out endophthalmitis or chorioretinitis. Beyond these key recommendations, this article provides detailed recommendations

  18. Ecological hierarchies and self-organisation - Pattern analysis, modelling and process integration across scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reuter, H.; Jopp, F.; Blanco-Moreno, J. M.; Damgaard, C.; Matsinos, Y.; DeAngelis, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    A continuing discussion in applied and theoretical ecology focuses on the relationship of different organisational levels and on how ecological systems interact across scales. We address principal approaches to cope with complex across-level issues in ecology by applying elements of hierarchy theory and the theory of complex adaptive systems. A top-down approach, often characterised by the use of statistical techniques, can be applied to analyse large-scale dynamics and identify constraints exerted on lower levels. Current developments are illustrated with examples from the analysis of within-community spatial patterns and large-scale vegetation patterns. A bottom-up approach allows one to elucidate how interactions of individuals shape dynamics at higher levels in a self-organisation process; e.g., population development and community composition. This may be facilitated by various modelling tools, which provide the distinction between focal levels and resulting properties. For instance, resilience in grassland communities has been analysed with a cellular automaton approach, and the driving forces in rodent population oscillations have been identified with an agent-based model. Both modelling tools illustrate the principles of analysing higher level processes by representing the interactions of basic components.The focus of most ecological investigations on either top-down or bottom-up approaches may not be appropriate, if strong cross-scale relationships predominate. Here, we propose an 'across-scale-approach', closely interweaving the inherent potentials of both approaches. This combination of analytical and synthesising approaches will enable ecologists to establish a more coherent access to cross-level interactions in ecological systems. ?? 2010 Gesellschaft f??r ??kologie.

  19. Correspondence and correlates of couples' skin cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Heckman, Carolyn J; Darlow, Susan; Manne, Sharon L; Kashy, Deborah A; Munshi, Teja

    2013-07-01

    Skin cancer is common among older adults. Some national organizations recommend total cutaneous examination (TCE) and skin self-examination (SSE) for skin cancer detection. Although the spousal relationship is a known influence on health behavior, little is known about the level of correspondence in skin screening among couples. To investigate correspondence of TCE and SSE among older couples, demographic correlates of correspondence, and correspondence among barriers to skin examinations. Cross-sectional online survey of cohabitating partners 50 years or older performed from June 1, 2010, through July 31, 2010, via the nationally representative GfK (Gesellschaft für Konsumforschung or Society for Consumer Research) Internet panel. Both TCE in the past 3 years and SSE in the past year. RESULTS Correspondence among partners was high. For TCE, both partners had completed TCE in 23.9%, and both partners had not completed TCE in 47.3%. With regard to SSE, both partners had completed SSE in 39.8%, and both partners had not completed SSE in 38.9%. Correlates of both partners not completing TCE include lower household income, larger household size, nonmetropolitan residence, living in the Midwest, and being in a same-sex relationship. Correlates of both members not completing SSE included larger household size and being in a same-sex relationship. Barriers to screening that members of couples reported were similar to one another. Couples were mostly concordant with regard to engagement in skin examinations. Therefore, dyadic interventions to increase screening rates could be useful. Certain sociodemographic groups should especially be targeted.

  20. German gynecologic societies investigating their Nazi past.

    PubMed

    Frobenius, Wolfgang; Kinzelbach, Annemarie; Anthuber, Christoph; Dross, Fritz

    2014-11-01

    Research into the activities of German medical specialist associations during the Nazi period is still in its initial stages even today. In the field of gynecology and obstetrics as well, most representatives of the discipline continued to take an attitude based on "concealment and forgetting", even after the turn of the millennium. In order to break with this approach, the Bavarian Society for Obstetrics and Gynecology (Bayerische Gesellschaft für Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde, BGGF) commissioned an interdisciplinary research group to focus on clarifying its Nazi past for the purposes of a history of the institution on the occasion of its centenary. The research was based on the Society's archive. When the files were found to show conspicuous gaps for the Nazi period, the investigation was extended into the role of BGGF representatives and members who were active at the time. In some cases, it was possible to draw on existing studies and to supplement the available information from additional archival sources. It was found that the BGGF started at a very early stage to marginalize and ignore its "non-Aryan" members. No official decision to exclude such members was apparently taken, however. Many representatives and honorary members of the society were involved in promoting and carrying out eugenic sterilizations, simultaneously conducting abortions on some victims, and they at least shared responsibility for forced abortions among Ostarbeiterinnen ("Eastern workers", forced laborers from Eastern Europe). Accompanying unethical research that was mainly intended to garner academic prestige for the physicians involved was never discussed at the Society's conferences. Representatives of the Society who were substantially incriminated were able to continue their careers almost without interruption after 1945.

  1. Behandlungspräferenzen für Biologika bei Psoriasis: erfahrene Patienten legen Wert auf Nachhaltigkeit.

    PubMed

    Kromer, Christian; Peitsch, Wiebke K; Herr, Raphael; Schmieder, Astrid; Sonntag, Diana; Schaarschmidt, Marthe-Lisa

    2017-02-01

    Die Therapiezufriedenheit kann durch die Berücksichtigung von Patientenpräferenzen in der gemeinsamen Entscheidungsfindung verbessert werden. Kürzlich untersuchten wir Patientenpräferenzen für Eigenschaften von Biologika und fanden starke Präferenzen für Sicherheit und Wirksamkeit. Die vorliegende Studie hatte das Ziel, Auswirkungen von Therapieerfahrung auf diese Präferenzen zu erheben. Präferenzen für Ergebnis- (Wahrscheinlichkeit einer 50%igen und 90%igen Verbesserung, Zeit bis zum Ansprechen, Nachhaltigkeit des Erfolgs, Wahrscheinlichkeit von leichten und schweren Nebenwirkungen und Wahrscheinlichkeit eines ACR-20-Ansprechens) und Prozesseigenschaften (Behandlungsort, Behandlungshäufigkeit, Zeitaufwand und Applikationsweise) wurden bei 200 Teilnehmern mit mittelschwerer bis schwerer Psoriasis mit Hilfe von Conjoint-Analyse ermittelt. Der Einfluss aktueller und früherer Therapien, der Krankheitsdauer und der Behandlungszufriedenheit auf die "Relative Importance Scores" wurde durch Varianz-analysen, Post-hoc-Tests und multivariate Regressionen bestimmt. Teilnehmer, die aktuell eine topische Therapie (p = 0,02) oder eine Phototherapie (p = 0,032) erhielten, hielten den Zeitaufwand der Behandlung für wichtiger als andere. Diejenigen, denen zuvor traditionelle Systemtherapien (p = 0,028) oder Biologika (p = 0,044) verordnet worden waren, legten mehr Wert auf die Nachhaltigkeit als andere. Diese Eigenschaft gewann mit steigender Anzahl zuvor verabreichter systemischer Therapien (p = 0,045) und längerer Krankheitsdauer (p = 0,018) an Bedeutung. Patientenpräferenzen für Biologika variieren abhängig von der Therapieerfahrung und Krankheitsdauer. Diese Aspekte sollten bei der gemeinsamen Entscheidungsfindung berücksichtigt werden. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Medical legal and ethical questions in palliative medicine and euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Pribilla, O

    1994-12-16

    The increasing importance of legal and ethical questions in palliative medicine and euthanasia due to the increased technical possibilities for extending life will be considered. In palliative medicine, the choice of the best therapy will be discussed, especially in the case of oncological diseases. Here, consideration of the prospects of success, for example, in chemotherapy, is faced with partly serious side-effects. The requirements of palliative medicine that the patient has to be fully informed of the fatal prognosis of his disease is equally debated as the optimum pain therapy. In this respect, the modification of the Narcotics Act of 1 February 1993 is also under discussion. In the field of euthanasia, the technical development of life extension versus dying has raised considerable legal and ethical problems regarding termination of therapy. Additionally, fiscal considerations are of increasing relevance. The common development of the legal and ethical discussion, for example, with regard to the publicity of the work of the so-called 'Gesellschaft für humanes Sterben', the public discussion leading up to a hearing of the 'Bundestag' regarding active euthanasia leads to a realization of the subject. The proposals for an active termination of life by discontinuing therapy for adults and also for malformed newborns are discussed. A dispute concerning the new legal regulation of active euthanasia in the Netherlands of February 1993 is also discussed. There, around 2% of all deaths per year result from active termination of life and also cases where persons are not able to consent. This also has enormous consequences for the position of the physician.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs Regarding Cardiovascular Disease in Women: The Women's Heart Alliance.

    PubMed

    Bairey Merz, C Noel; Andersen, Holly; Sprague, Emily; Burns, Adam; Keida, Mark; Walsh, Mary Norine; Greenberger, Phyllis; Campbell, Susan; Pollin, Irene; McCullough, Cassandra; Brown, Nancy; Jenkins, Marjorie; Redberg, Rita; Johnson, Paula; Robinson, British

    2017-07-11

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number 1 killer of women in the United States, yet few younger women are aware of this fact. CVD campaigns focus little attention on physicians and their roles in assessing risk. In 2014, the Women's Heart Alliance (WHA) conducted a nationwide survey to determine barriers and opportunities for women and physicians with regard to CVD. From September 18 to 26, 2014, a total of 1,011 U.S. women (age 25 to 60 years) were interviewed using the GfK ("Gesellschaft für Konsumforschung" Knowledge Panel). From May 6 to 12, 2014, the e-Rewards Inc. Physician and Healthcare Professional Panel surveyed 200 primary care physicians (PCPs) and 100 cardiologists. Overall, 45% of women were unaware that CVD is the number 1 killer of women; only 11% knew a woman who died from CVD. Overall, 45% of women reported it was common to cancel or postpone a physician appointment until losing weight. CVD was rated as the top concern by only 39% of PCPs, after weight and breast health. Only 22% of PCPs and 42% of cardiologists (p = 0.0477) felt extremely well prepared to assess CVD risk in women, while 42% and 40% felt well-prepared (p = NS), respectively. Few comprehensively implemented guidelines. CVD was rated as the top concern less frequently than weight issues by both women and physicians. Social stigma particularly regarding body weight appeared to be a barrier. Physicians reported limited training and use of guideline assessment, whereas most supported a campaign and improved physician education. Campaigns should make CVD "real" to U.S. women, countering stereotypes with facts and validated assessments. Both community women and physicians endorsed investment in women's CVD research and physician education. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Challenges for medical educators: Results of a survey among members of the German association for medical education

    PubMed Central

    Huwendiek, Sören; Hahn, Eckhart G.; Tönshoff, Burkhard; Nikendei, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Background: Despite the increasing interest in medical education in the German-speaking countries, there is currently no information available on the challenges which medical educators face. To address this problem, we carried out a web-based survey among the members of the Association for Medical Education (Gesellschaft für medizinische Ausbildung, GMA). Methods: A comprehensive survey was carried out on the need for further qualifications, expertise and the general conditions of medical educators in Germany. As part of this study, the educators were asked to list the three main challenges which they faced and which required urgent improvement. The results were analysed by means of qualitative content analysis. Results: The questionnaire was completed by 147 of the 373 members on the GMA mailing list (response rate: 39%). The educators named a total of 346 challenges and emphasised the following areas: limited academic recognition for engagement in teaching (53.5% of educators), insufficient institutional (31.5%) and financial support (28.4%), a curriculum in need of reform (22.8%), insufficient time for teaching assignments (18,9%), inadequate teacher competence in teaching methods (18.1%), restricted faculty development programmes (18.1%), limited networking within the institution (11.0%), lack of teaching staff (10.2%), varying preconditions of students (8.7%), insufficient recognition and promotion of medical educational research (5.5%), extensive assessment requirements (4.7%), and the lack of role models within medical education (3.2%). Conclusion: The medical educators found the biggest challenges which they faced to be limited academic recognition and insufficient institutional and financial support. Consequently, improvements should be implemented to address these issues. PMID:24062818

  5. Submillimeter Galaxies at z ~ 2: Evidence for Major Mergers and Constraints on Lifetimes, IMF, and CO-H2 Conversion Factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tacconi, L. J.; Genzel, R.; Smail, I.; Neri, R.; Chapman, S. C.; Ivison, R. J.; Blain, A.; Cox, P.; Omont, A.; Bertoldi, F.; Greve, T.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Genel, S.; Lutz, D.; Swinbank, A. M.; Shapley, A. E.; Erb, D. K.; Cimatti, A.; Daddi, E.; Baker, A. J.

    2008-06-01

    We report subarcsecond resolution IRAM PdBI millimeter CO interferometry of four z ~ 2 submillimeter galaxies (SMGs), and sensitive CO(3-2) flux limits toward three z ~ 2 UV/optically selected star-forming galaxies. The new data reveal for the first time spatially resolved CO gas kinematics in the observed SMGs. Two of the SMGs show double or multiple morphologies, with complex, disturbed gas motions. The other two SMGs exhibit CO velocity gradients of ~500 km s-1 across <=0.2'' (1.6 kpc) diameter regions, suggesting that the star-forming gas is in compact, rotating disks. Our data provide compelling evidence that these SMGs represent extreme, short-lived "maximum" star-forming events in highly dissipative mergers of gas-rich galaxies. The resulting high-mass surface and volume densities of SMGs are similar to those of compact quiescent galaxies in the same redshift range and much higher than those in local spheroids. From the ratio of the comoving volume densities of SMGs and quiescent galaxies in the same mass and redshift ranges, and from the comparison of gas exhaustion timescales and stellar ages, we estimate that the SMG phase duration is about 100 Myr. Our analysis of SMGs and optically/UV selected high-redshift star-forming galaxies supports a "universal" Chabrier IMF as being valid over the star-forming history of these galaxies. We find that the 12CO luminosity to total gas mass conversion factors at z ~ 2-3 are probably similar to those assumed at z ~ 0. The implied gas fractions in our sample galaxies range from 20% to 50%. Based on observations obtained at the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI). IRAM is funded by the Centre National de la Recherché Scientifique (France), the Max-Planck Gesellschaft (Germany), and the Instituto Geografico Nacional (Spain).

  6. Experiments on the interaction of heavy ions with dense plasma at GSI-Darmstadt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stöckl, C.; Boine-Frankenheim, O.; Geißel, M.; Roth, M.; Wetzler, H.; Seelig, W.; Iwase, O.; Spiller, P.; Bock, R.; Süß, W.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.

    One of the main objectives of the experimental plasma physics activities at the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) are the interaction processes of heavy ions with dense ionized matter. Gas-discharge plasma targets were used for energy loss and charge state measurements in a regime of electron density and temperature up to 10 19 cm -3 and 20 eV, respectively. An improved model of the charge exchange processes in fully ionized hydrogen plasma, taking into account multiple excited electronic configurations which subsequently ionize, has removed the discrepancies of previous theoretical descriptions. The energy loss of the ion beam in partially ionized plasmas such as argon was found to agree very well with our simple theoretical model based on the modified Bethe-Bloch theory. A new setup with a 100 J/5 GW Nd-glass laser now provides access to density ranges up to 10 21 cm -3 and temperatures of up to 100 eV. First results of interaction experiments with laser-produced plasma are presented. To fully exploit the experimental possibilities of the new laser-plasma setup both improved charge state detection systems and better plasma diagnostics are indispensable. Present developments and future possibilities in these fields are presented. This paper summarizes the following contributions: Interaction of heavy-ion beams with laser plasma by C. Stöckl et al. Energy Loss of Heavy Ions in a laser-produced plasma by M. Roth et al. Charge state measurements of heavy ions passing a laser produced plasma with high time resolution by W. Süß et al. Plasma diagnostics for laser-produced plasma by O. Iwase et al. Future possibilities of plasma diagnostics at GSI by M. Geißel et al.

  7. Pre- And Post-Perihelion Results On The “Unexpectedly-Bright” Comet C/2012 F6 (Lemmon) Using IR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paganini, Lucas; DiSanti, M. A.; Mumma, M. J.; Villanueva, G. L.; Bonev, B. P.; Gibb, E. L.; Böhnhardt, H.; Lippi, M.; Käufl, H. U.

    2013-10-01

    Comet Lemmon has the potential to become the highlight of the 2013 calendar year. Indeed, this comet showed strong activity during its perihelion passage, and our high-resolution infrared spectroscopy revealed high production rates and a composition rich in volatiles, which even triggered follow-up observations at other wavelengths. The comet was observed on UT 2013 February 2-4 at pre-perihelion distances (Rh = 1.20 AU) with CRIRES at ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT, Chile), and on 2013 March 31 and April 1 at Rh = 0.75 AU (post-perihelion) with CSHELL at NASA’s Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF, Hawaii). We present chemical abundances (relative to water), rotational temperatures and 1D spatial profiles for several primary volatiles. With CRIRES, we quantified the ortho-para ratio of H2O using ortho and para emission lines, and searched for HDO obtaining an upper limit for D/H in water even though the required Doppler velocity during our astronomical campaign was inadequate to completely separate the terrestrial HDO contribution. Along with our IR observations, we will discuss the implications of these results in the context of the IR taxonomy based on primary volatiles in comets. We gratefully acknowledge support by the NASA Postdoctoral Program (Paganini), by NASA’s Planetary Astronomy (Paganini, Mumma, DiSanti, Villanueva) and Astrobiology (Mumma, DiSanti, Bonev) Programs, by NSF’s Astronomy and Astrophysics Research Grants Program (Bonev, Gibb), by the Max Planck Gesellschaft (Böhnhardt), and by the European Southern Observatory (Käufl).

  8. Occupational syncarcinogenesis in the skin - combined effects of two carcinogens from the German occupational disease list.

    PubMed

    Dickel, Heinrich; Blome, Otto; Dickel, Beate; Bruckner, Thomas; Stockfleth, Eggert; Soemantri, Silas Paras

    2016-12-01

    Though scientifically undisputed, cutaneous syncarcinogenesis is not reflected in German occupational disease (OD) regulations, which tend to be guided by the tenet of monocausality. Recognition of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and its precursor lesions as OD requires individual assessment as to whether the requirements pursuant to either OD 5103 (occupational exposure to natural UV radiation) or OD 5102 (occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) are fulfilled. Retrospective analysis of 28 patients (median age 72.5 years) with NMSC and respective precursor lesions who had been occupationally exposed to natural UV radiation and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. All cases had undergone expert medical assessment between September 2012 and September 2015. According to our assessments, all 28 cases met the occupational requirements pursuant to OD 5103 and 5102. In 26 cases (93 %), we recommended recognition of skin cancer as occupational disease pursuant to both OD 5103 and OD 5102. The competent occupational insurance association (BG) followed our recommendation in four cases. In eight cases, recognition was solely based on OD 5103; in ten cases, only on OD 5102. Four cases were denied recognition. Following adequate cumulative occupational exposure to natural UV light as well as occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, NMSC or its precursor lesions arising in UV-exposed areas should be reported to the competent occupational insurance association as "OD 5103 and 5102 in terms of syncarcinogenesis". Apart from the fact that the ensuing recognition proceedings will be able to more adequately reflect real-life workplace conditions, filing a report pursuant to both ODs also allows for recognition of basal cell carcinoma as occupational disease. According to current regulations, this would not be possible, if the assessment were solely based on OD 5103. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons

  9. Radiosensibilisierung durch BRAF Inhibitoren.

    PubMed

    Strobel, Sophia Boyoung; Pätzold, Sylvie; Zimmer, Lisa; Jensen, Alexandra; Enk, Alexander; Hassel, Jessica Cecile

    2017-07-01

    In der letzten Zeit wurden in der Literatur vermehrt erhöhte Hauttoxizitäten während einer Kombinationstherapie mit BRAF Inhibitoren und Radiotherapie beschrieben. Wir berichten über sieben Melanompatienten in einem nicht resezierbaren Stadium III oder IV, die eine kombinierte Behandlung aus Bestrahlung und BRAF-Inhibitor erhielten. Bei allen Patienten konnte durch die Kombinationstherapie ein gutes lokales Ansprechen erreicht werden. Nur bei zwei Patienten wurde eine schwere Radiodermatitis (CTCAE Grad 3 bzw. 4) beobachtet. Bei diesen Patienten, die beide Vemurafenib erhielten, trat die Radiodermatitis nach ein bzw. zwei Wochen auf und resultierte in einer Unterbrechung der BRAF-Inhibitor Behandlung.. Die kumulative Dosis bis zum Zeitpunkt der Strahlendermatitis betrug 10 Gy bzw. 35 Gy. Bei allen anderen Vemurafenibpatienten konnten nur milde Reaktionen im Sinne einer Radiodermatitis CTCAE Grad 2, beim Dabrafenibpatienten CTCAE Grade 1 diagnostiziert werden. Bei einem Patienten wurde eine Recalldermatitis nach 14 Tagen einer beendeten Strahlentherapie mit einer kumulativen Dosis von 30 Gy diagnostiziert. Schwere Toxizitätsreaktionen der Haut unter einer BRAF-Inhibitionen treten nicht häufig auf und sind meistens gut therapierbar. Deshalb sollte die Kombinationstherapie bei aggressiv wachsenden Melanomen eine Therapieoption bleiben. Obwohl ein erhöhtes Risiko der Hauttoxizität unter einer Kombinationstherapie von Radiatio und BRAF-Inhibitoren besteht, wird diese von den meisten Patienten gut toleriert. Sequenzielle Therapie anstelle von gleichzeitiger Behandlung scheint die Toxizitätreaktionen nicht zu verhindern. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. On natural-social commodities. The form and value of things.

    PubMed

    Halewood, Michael

    2012-09-01

    This article re-reads Marx's account of the commodity as a socio-natural entity. In doing so, it re-evaluates the status of the political (as opposed to questions of political economy) in Marx's analysis and also reads his argument in light of Actor-Network-Theory's call for the thingness of things to be taken seriously. The paper argues that there is a complex duality to the commodity as it is always comprised of both use-value and exchange-value and hence as both 'natural' and 'social'. It is pointed out that the usual translation of words with the root 'gesellschaft-' as 'social' is unhelpful and that a better term would be 'societal', as this enables Marx, and us, to re-approach the very distinction between the natural, the societal and the social. Marx's notion of 'value as equivalence' is then outlined and it is argued that this crucial stage in his account is often passed over. Value as equivalence is not a mere social production but relies upon the expression of the use-value of one thing in another. This leads to the third move which is an outline of the importance of value-form and social form. It is argued that it is this formation of a commodity (comprising both the natural and the social) which is the key both to understanding it as a specific historical entity as well as offering a powerful, non-reductive, account of the natural, social, material and historical character of things. Overall, the article attempts to develop a novel conception of natural-social commodities which does not premise either side of this dyad and so might help social theorists to talk of real things whilst avoiding charges of essentialism and reductionism as well as possible Latourian critiques of over-generalization. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2012.

  11. Diagnosis, Therapy and Follow-up Care of Vulvar Cancer and its Precursors. Guideline of the DGGG and DKG (S2k-Level, AWMF Registry Number 015/059, November 2015

    PubMed Central

    Schnürch, H. G.; Ackermann, S.; Alt, C. D.; Barinoff, J.; Böing, C.; Dannecker, C.; Gieseking, F.; Günthert, A.; Hantschmann, P.; Horn, L. C.; Kürzl, R.; Mallmann, P.; Marnitz, S.; Mehlhorn, G.; Hack, C. C.; Koch, M. C.; Torsten, U.; Weikel, W.; Wölber, L.; Hampl, M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This is an official guideline, published and coordinated by the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynäkologische Onkologie (AGO, Study Group for Gynecologic Oncology) of the Deutsche Krebsgesellschaft (DKG, German Cancer Society) and the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gynäkologie und Geburtshilfe (DGGG, German Society for Gynecology and Obstetrics). The number of cases with vulvar cancer is on the rise, but because of the former rarity of this condition and the resulting lack of literature with a high level of evidence, in many areas knowledge of the optimal clinical management still lags behind what would be required. This updated guideline aims to disseminate the most recent recommendations, which are much clearer and more individualized, and is intended to create a basis for the assessment and improvement of quality care in hospitals. Methods: This S2k guideline was drafted by members of the AGO Committee on Vulvar and Vaginal Tumors; it was developed and formally completed in accordance with the structured consensus process of the Association of Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen Fachgesellschaften, AWMF). Recommendations: 1. The incidence of disease must be taken into consideration. 2. The diagnostic pathway, which is determined by the initial findings, must be followed. 3. The clinical and therapeutic management of vulvar cancer must be done on an individual basis and depends on the stage of disease. 4. The indications for sentinel lymph node biopsy must be evaluated very carefully. 5. Follow-up and treatment for recurrence must be adapted to the individual case. PMID:27765958

  12. Results of the first thirty foot drop test of the MOSAIK KfK cask

    SciTech Connect

    Sorenson, K.B.; Salzbrenner, R.; Wellman, G.; Uncapher, W.; Bobbe, J.

    1991-01-01

    The MOSAIK KfK cask, a ductile cast iron (DCI) nuclear material transportation cask donated to Sandia by Gesellschaft fur NuklearService (GNS), was drop tested on June 25, 1990 in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Conditions of the test were; a 30 ft. drop without impact limiters onto an unyielding target, cask metal temperature {minus}16F or below, and a 0.75 inch deep flaw machined into the cask wall at the location of the highest tensile stress. The drop test was successful as judged by inspection of the machined flaw which showed no crack initiation. This drop test, in the first in a series, was designed to demonstrate the viability of using a fracture mechanics approach to design cask fabricated from ferritic materials. In addition, the test demonstrated that a DCI cask can withstand severe impacts under accident-type conditions without failing in a brittle mode. The drop test parameters were designed to produce high decelerations and yield-level stresses in the cask wall. The measured rigid body deceleration was approximately 800 gs. This compares with decelerations of 100 to 300 gs for drop tests of casks with impact limiters. The time to peak load was 1.2 to 2.8 msec., compared to 20 to 40 msec for casks dropped with impact limiters. The maximum strain during the drop test was 1400 microstrain, which equates to a maximum tensile stress of about 37000 psi. This level of stress slightly exceeds the static yield strength and is about 80% of the dynamic yield strength. The test results of this initial drop test are discussed in detail in this paper.

  13. Late Pleistocene oscillations of the Drau Glacier (southern Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnitschar, Christina; Reitner, Jürgen; Draganits, Erich

    2016-04-01

    The Drau Glacier was the largest Pleistocene glacier in the southeastern part of the Alps and significantly shaped the landscape in this region. The study area is located at the termination of the Drau Glacier in the southern part of Austria (Carinthia). The investigation aims to decipher glacial dynamics during the Late Pleistocene glacial advance, stabilisation and final recession of this glacier based on geological/geomorphological mapping, interpretation of airborne laser scan (ALS) topographic data and lithostratigraphic investigations of glacial and periglacial sediments. Special emphasis is laid on the reconstruction of the maximum extent of the glaciation (LGM). Based on previous mapping by Bobek (1959) and Ucik (1996-1998) more details have been gained for the paleogeographic reconstruction based on glacial and non-glacial erosion and accumulation features. These include traces of pre-Upper Pleistocene glaciation, drumlins, terminal moraines and kettle holes. Paleogeographic reconstruction was done with correlation of different outcrops based on lithostratigraphy and ALS topography. Sequences of gravel related to glacial advance covered by till, followed by periglacial sediments allowed detailed reconstruction of the glacial sequence in this area and the complex succession of various extents of the Drau Glacier. References Bobek, Hans. 1959: Der Eisrückgang im östlichen Klagenfurter Becken. In: Mitteilungen der österreichischen geographischen Gesellschaft, Wien. Ucik, Friedrich Hans. 1996: Bericht über geologische Aufnahmen im Quartär auf Blatt 204 Völkermarkt, Jb. Geol. B.-A., 141, S. 340, Wien. Ucik, Friedrich Hans. 1997: Bericht über geologische Aufnahmen im Quartär auf Blatt 204 Völkermarkt, Jb. Geol. B.-A., 141, S. 325-326, Wien. Ucik, Friedrich Hans. 1998: Bericht über geologische Aufnahmen im Quartär auf Blatt 204 Völkermarkt, Jb. Geol. B.-A., 142, S. 333-334, Wien.

  14. LMC X-1: A New Spectral Analysis of the O-star in the Binary and Surrounding Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, E. A.; Russell, D. M.; Ritter, A.; Filipović, M. D.; Kaper, L.; Grieve, K.; O'Brien, A. N.

    2017-09-01

    We provide new observations of the LMC X-1 O star and its extended nebula structure using spectroscopic data from VLT/UVES as well as Hα imaging from the Wide Field Imager on the Max Planck Gesellschaft/European Southern Observatory 2.2 m telescope and ATCA imaging of the 2.1 GHz radio continuum. This nebula is one of the few known to be energized by an X-ray binary. We use a new spectrum extraction technique that is superior to other methods used to obtain both radial velocities and fluxes. This provides an updated spatial velocity of ≃ 21.0 +/- 4.8 km s-1 for the O star. The slit encompasses both the photo-ionized and shock-ionized regions of the nebula. The imaging shows a clear arc-like structure reminiscent of a wind bow shock in between the ionization cone and shock-ionized nebula. The observed structure can be fit well by the parabolic shape of a wind bow shock. If an interpretation of a wind bow shock system is valid, we investigate the N159-O1 star cluster as a potential parent of the system, suggesting a progenitor mass of ˜60 M ⊙ for the black hole. We further note that the radio emission could be non-thermal emission from the wind bow shock, or synchrotron emission associated with the jet-inflated nebula. For both wind- and jet-powered origins, this would represent one of the first radio detections of such a structure.

  15. Inzidenz von bullösen Autoimmunerkrankungen in Serbien: eine retrospektive Studie über 20 Jahre.

    PubMed

    Milinković, Mirjana; Janković, Slavenka; Medenica, Ljiljana; Nikolić, Miloš; Reljić, Vesna; Popadić, Svetlana; Janković, Janko

    2016-10-01

    Die meisten früheren Arbeiten zu den klinisch-epidemiologischen Merkmalen von bullösen Autoimmunerkrankungen (AIBD) konzentrierten sich vor allem auf eine einzige Krankheitsentität oder nur eine Krankheitsgruppe; nur in wenigen Studien wurde die Inzidenz verschiedener AIBD untersucht. Bei der vorliegenden Studie war es unser Ziel, das gesamte Spektrum der AIBD zu betrachten, die Inzidenz der häufigsten AIBD zu ermitteln und die zeitlichen Trends ihres Auftretens in Zentralserbien über einen Zeitraum von 20 Jahren zu untersuchen. Wir rekrutierten retrospektiv 1161 AIBD-Fälle, die in Zentralserbien von Januar 1991 bis Dezember 2010 neu diagnostiziert wurden. Die Diagnose stützte sich auf eine strikte klinische, histologische und immunhistologische Beurteilung. Folgende Inzidenzraten wurden für die einzelnen Erkrankungen ermittelt: 4,35 pro eine Million Einwohner/Jahr (pME/Jahr) für Pemphigus, 4,47 pME/Jahr für Pemphigoid, 1,42 pME/Jahr für Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH), 0,25 pME/Jahr IgA-Dermatose und 0,08 pME/Jahr für Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita. Im betrachteten Zeitraum stieg die altersbereinigte Inzidenzrate für Pemphigus und insbesondere für Pemphigoid signifikant an, während sie für DH, allerdings nicht signifikant, abnahm. Unsere Studie befasst sich zum ersten Mal mit den Inzidenzraten des gesamten Spektrums der AIBD in Serbien und untersucht die zeitlichen Trends ihres Auftretens über einen Zeitraum von 20 Jahren. Nach unserem besten Wissen wurde ein ähnlicher Befund wie der unsere, dass nämlich die Inzidenzraten von Pemphigus und Pemphigoid vergleichbar sind, bisher noch nicht publiziert. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Almagest (Ptolemy's Star Catalog)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ptolemy, C.: Manitius, K.

    1995-07-01

    This catalogue is the machine readable version of the star catalogue given by Claudius Ptolemy in his book called usually the Almagest. It is based upon its translation by K. Manitius (ed. B.G. Teubner, Leipzig 1913). The table reproduces the values given in book VII, chapter V, namely Identification, name, longitude, latitude and magnitude. To facilitate its use the following changes were made: Identifications : the numbers of Ambronn's catalogue (used by Manitius) were replaced by the numbers in the Bright Star Catalogue (D. Hoffleit and C. Jaschek - Fourth edition - Yale University Observatory 1982) which are commonly used today. Name : we have kept the Bayer names but omitted the description given by Manitius (for instance alpha UMi = that of the end of the tail). Whenever a disagreement exists concerning the identification of a given star, this is signaled by a "D" (disagreement) in the notes (last column). The list of disagreements was taken from Werner H. and Schmeidler F., "Synopsis der Nomenklatur der Fixsterne" - Wissensch. Verlags-Gesellschaft Stuttgart (1986) where the interested reader may find detailed references. Most of the disagreements stem from the work of Peters and Knobel, Washington 1915. Longitude : the Ptolomean longitudes were converted into the commonly used longitudes by adding 0 to longitudes in Aries, 30 to those in Taurus, etc. Longitudes vary thus between 0 and 360 . Latitudes : no change from Ptolemy. Magnitudes : no change from Ptolemy. Notes : "D" stands for disagreements over identifications, see above. With the publication of a computer readable version of this catalogue we hope to satisfy a long standing need. We also pay in this way our debt of gratitude toward the astronomer who produced the most used catalogue in the history of astronomy - for more than fourteen centuries it was THE catalogue by definition. It seems only appropriate that a data center, who is in a long way a descendant of such an enterprise, includes the

  17. New lasers and light sources - old and new risks?

    PubMed

    Paasch, Uwe; Schwandt, Antje; Seeber, Nikolaus; Kautz, Gerd; Grunewald, Sonja; Haedersdal, Merete

    2017-05-01

    Recent developments (new wavelengths, treatment concepts, and combinations) in the field of lasers, intense pulsed light (IPL), LED, as well as new energy and light sources have opened up new therapeutic options that extend beyond mere aesthetic indications. Thus, while fractional lasers used to be employed to merely treat wrinkles, the same devices - in the context of laser-assisted drug delivery - have now become important tools in the treatment of scars, field cancerization, and epithelial tumors. The requirements posed to physicians, both with respect to establishing the indication and conducting treatment, have been growing along with the increase in technological complexity as well as the rising number of comorbidities and comedications in a patient population that continues to age. At the same time, home-use devices have been introduced for a variety of indications. These devices are characterized by low power and special safety features aimed at preventing accidents, risks, and side effects. Despite the reduced efficacy of such self-treatment devices, there is an increased risk of misuse, given that the basic prerequisite for adequate treatment cannot be ensured, to wit, the exact diagnosis and therapeutic indication. Consequently, during hair removal or anti-wrinkle treatment, pigmented lesions and cutaneous neoplasms may be altered, thus giving rise to expected, unexpected and new side effects and complications. In the aforementioned setting, it is important that all potential users of these new technologies be properly trained in a manner that ensures those treated a maximum of safety and efficacy in accordance with the guiding principle "diagnosis certa - ullae therapiae fundamentum". © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Vom Urknall zum Durchknall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unzicker, Alexander

    Lautstarker Applaus erhob sich im Salon III/IV des Marriott-Hotels von Crystal City im amerikanischen Bundesstaat Virginia. In dem überfüllten Konferenzraum starrten alle wie gebannt auf die Leinwand, wo nicht mehr zu sehen war als ein nüchternes Diagramm aus zahlreichen Punkten und einer geschwungenen Kurve. Nureine eigenartige Personengruppe konnte sich davon zu Emotionen hinreißen lassen - Physiker auf der Jahrestagung der Astronomischen Gesellschaft, die ihren Begeisterungssturm noch minutenlang fortsetzten. Was war geschehen? Die im Diagramm aufgetragenen Daten bestätigten mit einer nie da gewesenen Genauigkeit ein fundamentales Naturgesetz zur Wärmeabstrahlung von heißen Körpern. 1900 von Max Planck entdeckt, leuchtete es nun in geradezu mathematischer Reinheit auf. Noch sensationeller war der Ursprung der Daten - Mikrowellensignale verschiedener Frequenzen, die nicht aus einem irdischen Labor stammten, sondern von einem heißen Urzustand des Universums! Ein Feuerball aus Wasserstoff und Helium, noch ohne jegliche Strukturen, die irgendwann Leben ermöglichen sollten, ließ damals seinem Licht freien Lauf. Mehr als zehn Milliarden Jahre war es bis zu den Detektoren des vom Menschen gebauten Satelliten COBE unterwegs, der wenige Tage zuvor die Daten übertragen hatte. Wenn ich das alles wie einen Film in meiner Vorstellung ablaufen lasse, bekomme ich immer eine Gänsehaut, als würde ich die inzwischen extrem abgekühlte Strahlung tatsächlich spüren. Ihre Gleichverteilung im Raum macht uns auch deutlich, dass wir uns nicht einbilden dürfen, an einem besonderen Ort im Universum zu leben - intelligente Aliens könnten sich seitdem überall entwickelt haben! Sollten sie - was nicht wahrscheinlich ist - uns wirklich von Zeit zu Zeit über die Schulter schauen, dann hätten sie an jenem Nachmittag des 13. Januar 1990, als der Vortrag stattfand, bestimmt anerkennend mit ihrem großen Kopf genickt.

  19. [German neurology and neurologists during the Third Reich: exemplified by research on epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Martin, M; Fangerau, H; Karenberg, A

    2016-08-01

    There are only a small number of studies dealing with the impact of eugenic theories and practices on the research of particular neurological diseases during the Third Reich. Thus, this contribution to the special issue on neurology in Germany between 1933 and 1945 focuses exemplarily on epilepsy research. By drawing on primary sources and secondary literature the article tries to reconstruct the scientific discourse of the time and consider the implications for patients. National socialistic ideology was based on eugenic thinking and the implementation of eugenic policies was a major political objective. An immediate effect of this policy was the passing of the Law for the Prevention of Genetically Diseased Offspring (Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses) in 1933. According to this law "hereditary epilepsy" along with various other neurological and psychiatric disorders was regarded as a mandatory indication for forced sterilization. Subsequently, funding of epileptological research was generously increased and extended, e. g. at the German Research Institute (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt) in Munich and the Rheinische Provinzial-Institut in Bonn. The main focus was placed on idiopathic forms of the disease, which were a priori considered as hereditary. At the annual meetings of the Society of German Neurologists and Psychiatrists (Gesellschaft deutscher Neurologen und Psychiater), lectures and debates on epilepsy repeatedly constituted a key topic. Some participants opted for a broad interpretation of "endogeneity" and thus favored an extension of the practice of sterilization but others advocated a more differentiated and restricted attitude. Several neurology researchers showed a penchant for self-mobilization in line with the doctrine of the new government.

  20. Retardation magnification and the appearance of relativistic jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jester, Sebastian

    2008-10-01

    Thanks to the availability of high-resolution high-sensitivity telescopes such as the Very Large Array, the Hubble Space Telescope and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, there is now a wealth of observational data on relativistic jets from active galactic nuclei (AGN) as well as galactic sources such as black hole X-ray binaries. Since the jet speeds cannot be constrained well from observations, but are generally believed to be relativistic, physical quantities inferred from observables are commonly expressed in terms of the unknown beaming parameters: the bulk Lorentz factor and the line-of-sight angle, usually in their combination as relativistic Doppler factor. This paper aims to resolve the discrepancies existing in the literature about such `debeaming' of derived quantities, in particular regarding the minimum-energy magnetic field estimate. The discrepancies arise because the distinction is not normally made between the case of a fixed source observed with different beaming parameters and the case where the source projection on the sky is held fixed. The former is usually considered, but it is the latter that corresponds to interpreting actual jet observations. Furthermore, attention is drawn to the fact that apparent superluminal motion has a spatial corollary, here called `retardation magnification', which implies that most parts of a relativistic jet that are actually present in the observer's frame (a `world map' in relativity terminology) are in fact hidden on the observer's image (the `world picture' in general, or `supersnapshot' in the special case of astronomy). Portions of this work were carried at the Particle Astrophysics Center, Fermilab MS 127, PO Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510, USA; and while the author was an Otto Hahn fellow of the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft at the Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ. E-mail: jester@mpia.de

  1. Occupational skin cancer due to UV-irradiation--Analyses of notified cases as "virtually-certain" occupational disease in Germany between 2005 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Jochen; Diepgen, Thomas L

    2014-06-01

    UV-induced skin cancer is not yet included in the German ordinance on occupational diseases and can only be notified and recognized acknowledged as "virtually-certain" occupational disease. The objective of the study was to analyze notified and acknowledged cases of occupational skin cancer due to UV-irradiation in Germany between 2005 and 2011. All notified cases of occupational skin cancer due to UV-irradiation have been analyzed which have been registered by the German Statutory accident insurance as of May 2012 were analyzed. The data analyze was descriptive stratified annually for presenting time trends.Data analysis was descriptive, stratified by year to defect time trends. Notified cases have increased annually with a total of 548 registered cases of occupational skin cancer induced by UV-irradiation between 2005 and 2011, and 74 recognized acknowledged cases. In 56 cases the procedure was not yet finished. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and in-situ squamous cell carcinoma (actinic keratosis, Bowen's disease) were most frequent and have been the most frequentlyobserved in 333 notified cases. and between 15.6 % and 24.9 % have been recognizedof cases with SCC and actinic keratosis were recognized, respectively. 184 patients with basal cell carcinoma were notified but only 6.5 % recognized acknowledged and only 3 cases with exclusive basal cell carcinoma. Out of 50 notified patients with Mmelanoma only one was recognizedacknowledged. The results are in good agreement with the proposal of the German Minister of labor to establish UV-induced skin cancer as a new occupational disease. © 2014 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Usage and effectiveness of systemic treatments in adults with severe atopic eczema: First results of the German Atopic Eczema Registry TREATgermany.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Jochen; Abraham, Susanne; Trautmann, Freya; Stephan, Victoria; Fölster-Holst, Regina; Homey, Bernhard; Bieber, Thomas; Novak, Natalija; Sticherling, Michael; Augustin, Matthias; Kleinheinz, Andreas; Elsner, Peter; Weidinger, Stephan; Werfel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The goal of clinical registries is to document the use and effectiveness of therapeutic interventions under real-life conditions. They are an indispensable prerequisite of evidence-based health care. Initiated in 2011, the German Atopic Dermatitis Registry TREATgermany is the first registry of patients with severe atopic dermatitis worldwide. Adults with severe atopic dermatitis (current/prior systemic antiinflammatory treatment and/or objective SCORAD ≥ 40) are prospectively followed over the course of 24 months. Employed treatment modalities are documented, and validated measuring tools are used to assess clinical disease severity (EASI, objective SCORAD), quality of life (DLQI), symptoms (POEM), global disease severity, as well as patient satisfaction. Herein, we describe the characteristics, therapeutic selection, and effectiveness of systemic antiinflammatory treatments of patients enrolled in the registry until October 2014. Overall, 78 individuals (mean age 39 years, 61 % men) were enrolled at five recruitment centers. Patients frequently made use of inpatient and outpatient services. Not only was cyclosporine the most frequently administered systemic treatment, but also the most effective (EASI 50 response rate 51 %; EASI 75 response rate 34 % at 12 weeks). Azathioprine, methotrexate, oral prednisolone, mycophenolate, alitretinoin, and leflunomide were also used in some patients. The present analysis of the German Atopic Dermatitis Registry provides important data with respect to current medical care of adults with severe atopic dermatitis in Germany. It shows the high disease burden, the benefits of current treatment options, and the need for additional effective and safe long-term treatment options. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Development of neurosurgery in Germany: comparison of data collected by polls for 1997, 2003, and 2008 among providers of neurosurgical care.

    PubMed

    Steiger, Hans J; Krämer, Michael; Reulen, Hans J

    2012-01-01

    To deduce structural trends in neurosurgery in Germany by comparison of data derived from polls conducted by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Neurochirurgie (DGNC) in 1997, 2003 and 2008. The questionnaires of the different polls probed a comparable set of issues. The data from the responding sample were extrapolated to the nationwide average or sum and compared between the different time periods. The number of identified neurosurgical departments increased from 146 to 201 during the years 1997-2008 largely as a result of the new foundation of numerous private groups. Nationwide total neurosurgical bed capacity and intensive care unit bed capacity increased modestly over the time period. The extrapolated total number of neurosurgical operations increased from 196,341 to 319,295. Although cranial and spinal neurosurgery remain the dominant subspecialties, the number of functional neurosurgical procedures and operations for pain increased more than proportionally. Outpatient procedures were established during the time period and corresponded in 2008 to a substantial proportion of the surgical volume. The total number of residents and board-certified neurosurgeons increased during the period 1997-2008 from 1513 to 1961. The proportion of residents decreased during 1997-2003 and then increased again. The number of neurosurgical operations increased in Germany proportionally to the economic growth of other service branches over the time period. Private organizations developed more than neurosurgical departments at university and other general hospitals. Work density measured as operations per physician increased during the period 1997-2008. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. B-Zell-Lymphome der Haut - Pathogenese, Diagnostik und Therapie.

    PubMed

    Nicolay, Jan P; Wobser, Marion

    2016-12-01

    Primär kutane B-Zell-Lymphome (PCBCL) beschreiben reifzellige lymphoproliferative Erkrankungen der B-Zell-Reihe, die primär die Haut betreffen. Die Biologie und der klinische Verlauf der einzelnen PCBCL-Subtypen variieren untereinander stark und unterscheiden sich grundsätzlich von primär nodalen und systemischen B-Zell-Lymphomen. Primär kutane Marginalzonenlymphome (PCMZL) und primäre kutane follikuläre Keimzentrumslymphome (PCFCL) werden auf Grund ihres unkomplizierten Verlaufs und ihrer exzellenten Prognose zu den indolenten PCBCL gezählt. Demgegenüber stellen die diffus großzelligen B-Zell-Lymphome, hauptsächlich vom Beintyp (DLBCL, LT) die aggressiveren PCBCL-Varianten mit schlechterer Prognose dar. Für die Ausbreitungsdiagnostik und die Therapieentscheidung sind eine genaue histologische und immunhistochemische Klassifizierung sowie der Ausschluss einer systemischen Beteiligung in Abgrenzung zu nodalen oder systemischen Lymphomen notwendig. Die Diagnostik sollte dabei durch molekularbiologische Untersuchungen unterstützt werden. Therapeutisch stehen für die indolenten PCBCL primär operative und radioonkologische Maßnahmen im Vordergrund sowie eine Systemtherapie mit dem CD20-Antikörper Rituximab bei disseminiertem Befall. Die aggressiveren Varianten sollten in erster Linie mit Kombinationen aus Rituximab und Polychemotherapieschemata wie z. B. dem CHOP-Schema oder Modifikationen davon behandelt werden. Auf Grund der in allen seinen Einzelheiten noch nicht vollständig verstandenen Pathogenese und Biologie sowie des begrenzten Therapiespektrums der PCBCL besteht hier, speziell beim DLBCL, LT, noch erheblicher Forschungsbedarf. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Succession of Hydrocarbon Degradation and Microbial Diversity during a Simulated Petroleum Seepage in Caspian Sea Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S.; Stagars, M.; Wefers, P.; Schmidt, M.; Knittel, K.; Krueger, M.; Leifer, I.; Treude, T.

    2016-02-01

    Microbial degradation of petroleum was investigated in intact sediment cores of Caspian Sea during a simulated petroleum seepage using a sediment-oil-flow-through (SOFT) system. Over the course of the SOFT experiment (190 days), distinct redox zones established and evolved in the sediment core. Methanogenesis and sulfate reduction were identified to be important processes in the anaerobic degradation of hydrocarbons. C1 to C6 n-alkanes were completely exhausted in the sulfate-reducing zone and some higher alkanes decreased during the upward migration of petroleum. A diversity of sulfate-reducing bacteria was identified by 16s rRNA phylogenetic studies, some of which are associated with marine seeps and petroleum degradation. The δ13C signal of produced methane decreased from -33.7‰ to -49.5‰ indicating crude oil degradation by methanogenesis, which was supported by enrichment culturing of methanogens with petroleum hydrocarbons and presence of methanogenic archaea. The SOFT system is, to the best of our knowledge, the first system that simulates an oil-seep like condition and enables live monitoring of biogeochemical changes within a sediment core during petroleum seepage. During our presentation we will compare the Caspian Sea data with other sediments we studied using the SOFT system from sites such as Santa Barbara (Pacific Ocean), the North Alex Mud Volcano (Mediterranean Sea) and the Eckernfoerde Bay (Baltic Sea). This research was funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SPP 1319) and DEA Deutsche Erdoel AG. Further support came from the Helmholtz and Max Planck Gesellschaft.

  6. Anatomy in the Third Reich: Careers disrupted by National Socialist Policies.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Sabine

    2012-06-01

    The history of anatomy in the Third Reich is still insufficiently explored, especially concerning its victims. These include not only the victims of the NS regime whose bodies were used in anatomical dissection, but also the Scholars of Anatomy whose careers were disrupted by NS policies. The spectrum of career disruption spanned from short-term suspension from work to death in concentration camps. In this study, the biographies of 462 Scholars of Anatomy were examined. 414 were members of the Anatomische Gesellschaft (Anatomical Society). Eighty-six persons (80 men, 6 women) were identified whose anatomical careers were disrupted by National Socialist policies. Sixty-two of them were members of the Anatomical Society. Their subsequent fate was dependent on the stage of the scholars' careers, their field of expertise, reason for dismissal (i.e. so-called Jewish descent or political dissent), nationality, country of residence or exile. Forty-three scholars emigrated, of whom 6 returned to positions in Germany and Austria after the war. Twenty-one remained in their home countries, of whom 17 were later reinstated in their positions. Twelve scholars were imprisoned, and 5 died in concentration camps. Five fates remain unresolved. As diverse as this group of scholars was, all of them had in common that a criminal regime forced them, being innocent of any crime, out of their position and work. Further work including the exploration of potential archival sources is necessary before a detailed and complete recounting of each individual life is possible. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Non-melanoma skin cancer is reduced after switch of immunosuppression to mTOR-inhibitors in organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Alter, Mareike; Satzger, Imke; Schrem, Harald; Kaltenborn, Alexander; Kapp, Alexander; Gutzmer, Ralf

    2014-06-01

    Organ transplant recipients are prone to the development of non-melanoma skin cancer. Organ transplant recipients often develop multiple non-melanoma skin cancers and the tumors show an aggressive growth pattern, therefore surgical therapy can be difficult. Switch of the immunosuppressive regimen to mTOR-inhibitors such as everolimus or sirolimus can have an antitumor effect. In a monocentric retrospective study we evaluated organ transplant recipients who presented with non-melanoma skin cancer in the years 2008-2010. Experience with patients who were switched to an mTOR-inhibitor due to non-melanoma skin cancer are reported in detail, and recent clinical studies are reviewed. 60 organ transplant recipients with non-melanoma skin cancer were evaluated. Due to the development of multiple non-melanoma skin cancer within a few years, the immunosuppressive regimen was switched to everolimus in 7 patients and to sirolimus in 5 patients. Eight patients were evaluable for the effect of mTOR-inhibitors on the development of non-melanoma skin cancer; 4 patients had to discontinue the medication with mTOR-inhibitors early due to various side effects. In the year before the switch to mTOR-inhibitors, 8 patients developed 16 squamous cell carcinomas, 3 Basal cell carcinomas and 22 cases of Bowen's disease. All tumors were histologically confirmed. In the year after switch of immunosuppression, the rate of squamous cell carcinomas (n = 2) and Bowen's disease (n = 3), but not of basal cell carcinomas (n = 2) was significantly reduced. Moreover, 5 prospective randomized trials recently have demonstrated a reduced number of non-melanoma skin cancers in organ transplant recipients after switch of the immunosuppressive regimen to mTOR-inhibitors. Switch of the immunosuppressive regimen to mTOR-inhibitors should be considered for organ transplant recipients suffering from multiple non-melanoma skin cancers. © 2014 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley

  8. Dry Cask Storage Characterization Project - Phase 1: CASTOR V/21 Cask Opening and Examination

    SciTech Connect

    Bare, Walter Claude; Ebner, Matthias Anthony; Torgerson, Laurence Dale

    2001-08-01

    This report documents visual examination and testing conducted in 1999 and early 2000 at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) on a Gesellschaft für Nuklear Service (GNS) CASTOR V/21 pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel dry storage cask. The purpose of the examination and testing is to develop a technical basis for renewal of licenses and Certificates of Compliance for dry storage systems for spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste at independent spent fuel storage installation sites. The examination and testing was conducted to assess the condition of the cask internal and external surfaces, cask contents consisting of 21 Westinghouse PWR spent fuel assemblies from Dominion’s (formerly named Virginia Power) Surry Power Station and cask concrete storage pad. The assemblies have been continuously stored in the CASTOR cask since 1985. Cask exterior surface and selected fuel assembly temperatures, and cask surface gamma and neutron dose rates were measured. Cask external/internal surfaces, fuel basket components including accessible weldments, fuel assembly exteriors, and primary lid seals were visually examined. Selected fuel rods were removed from one fuel assembly, visually examined, and then shipped to Argonne National Laboratory for nondestructive, destructive, and mechanical examination. Cask interior crud samples and helium cover gas samples were collected and analyzed. The results of the examination and testing indicate the concrete storage pad, CASTOR V/21 cask, and cask contents exhibited sound structural and seal integrity and that long-term storage has not caused detectable degradation of the spent fuel cladding or the release of gaseous fission products between 1985 and 1999.

  9. Movement patterns of Bar-headed Geese Anser indicus during breeding and post-breeding periods at Qinghai Lake, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cui, P.; Hou, Y.; Tang, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhou, Y.; Yin, Z.; Li, T.; Guo, S.; Xing, Z.; He, Y.; Prosser, D.J.; Newman, S.H.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Yan, B.; Lei, F.

    2011-01-01

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreak at Qinghai Lake, China, in 2005 caused the death of over 6,000 migratory birds, half of which were Bar-headed Geese Anser indicus. Understanding the movements of this species may inform monitoring of outbreak risks for HPAI viruses; thus, we investigated the movement patterns of 29 Bar-headed Geese at Qinghai Lake, China during 2007 and 2008 by using high resolution GPS satellite telemetry. We described the movements and distribution of marked Bar-headed Geese during the pre-nesting, nesting, and moulting periods. Of 21 Bar-headed Geese with complete transmission records, 3 moved to other areas during the nesting period: 2 to Jianghe wetland (50 km northwest of Qinghai Lake) and 1 to Cuolongka Lake (220 km northwest of Qinghai Lake) during the nesting period. We identified nesting attempts of 7 of the marked geese at Qinghai Lake. Four completed successful nesting attempts according to our rules of judgment for the breeding status, and 2 geese lost broods soon after hatching (hereafter referred to as unsuccessful breeders). Of 18 geese present at Qinghai Lake during the nesting period, 9 (6 non-breeders, 2 successful breeders and 1 unsuccessful breeder) remained at Qinghai Lake during the moulting period; and 9 (5 non-breeders, 4 unsuccessful breeders) left Qinghai Lake for moulting. Kuhai Lake, Donggeicuona Lake, Alake Lake, Zhaling-Eling Lake area and Huangheyuan wetland area were used as moulting sites. Geese that moulted at Qinghai Lake, Cuolongka Lake, Kuhai Lake, Donggeicuona Lake and Alake Lake also moved to Zhaling-Eling Lake area or Huangheyuan wetland area and stayed there for several days prior to autumn migration. Mean home range and core area estimates did not differ significantly by sex, year and between breeders and non-breeders. ?? 2010 Dt. Ornithologen-Gesellschaft e.V.

  10. Simon Marius vs. Galileo: Who First Saw Moons of Jupiter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Van Helden, Albert

    2016-10-01

    In his almanac for 1612 and book Mundus Iovalis of 1614, Simon Marius in Germany reported his discovery of moons around Jupiter, which he started writing down in late 1609 in the Julian calendar, which translated to 8 January 1610 in the Gregorian calendar in use by Galileo in Italy. Is Marius to be believed? Galileo certainly did not. But a Dutch jury of experts about three hundred years later reported that they validated the claim that Marius independently discovered the moons of Jupiter one day after Galileo first both saw and wrote down his discovery! There is no doubt that the names Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto came from Marius (to whom they were suggested by Kepler). See JMP's Journal for the History of Astronomy article, 46(2), 218-234 (2015).Marius wrote that he had been observing the moons around Jupiter since November 1609 (Julian), using a neighboring nobleman's telescope, which would mean that he actually saw the Jupiter satellites first (though publish or perish). Whether this feat was technically possible comes down to discussions of the capabilities of telescopes in the early 17th century.The quadricentennial of Marius's book was celebrated in Nuremberg with a symposium that is now in press in German with an English translation expected. One of us (AVH) has recently prepared a complete English translation of Marius's book, superseding the partial translation made 100 years ago. There is no evidence that, whether he saw what we now call the Galilean satellites first or not, Marius appreciated their cosmological significance the way that Galileo soon did. And Marius was certainly the first to publish tables of the moons of Jupiter.We thank the Chapin Library of Williams College and the Huntington Library for assistance with first editions of Marius's 1614 book, and we thank Pierre Leich of the Simon Marius Gesellschaft for his consultations.

  11. Measurement of the fluence response of the GSI neutron ball dosemeter in the energy range from thermal to 19 MeV.

    PubMed

    Fehrenbacher, G; Kozlova, E; Gutermuth, F; Radon, T; Schütz, R; Nolte, R; Böttger, R

    2007-01-01

    At high-energy particle accelerators, area monitoring needs to be performed in a wide range of neutron energies. In principle, neutrons occur from thermal energies up to the energy of the accelerated ions, which is for the present GSI (Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung) accelerator facility approximately 1-2 GeV per nucleon. There are no passive dosemeters available, which are designed for the use at high-energy accelerators. At GSI, a neutron dosemeter was developed, which is suitable for the measurement of high-energy neutron radiation by the insertion of a lead layer around Thermoluminescence (TL) detection elements (pairs of TL 600/700) at the centre of the dosemeter. The design of the sphere was derived from the construction of the extended range rem-counters for the measurement of ambient dose equivalent H(10). In this work, the dosemeter fluence response was measured in the quasi-monoenergetic neutron fields of the accelerator facility of the PTB in Braunschweig and in the thermal neutron field of the GKSS research reactor FRG-1 in Geesthacht. For the accelerator measurements, the reactions (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be, (3)H(p,n)(3)He and (2)H(d,n)(3)He were used to produce neutron fields with energy peaks between 144 keV and 19 MeV. The measured fluence responses are 27% too low for thermal energies and show an agreement with approximately 14% for the accelerator produced neutron fields related to the computed fluence responses (MCNP, FLUKA calculations). The measured as well as the computed fluence responses of the dosemeter are compared with the corresponding conversion coefficients.

  12. Physical activity prescription: a critical opportunity to address a modifiable risk factor for the prevention and management of chronic disease: a position statement by the Canadian Academy of Sport and Exercise Medicine.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Jane S; Frémont, Pierre; Khan, Karim; Poirier, Paul; Fowles, Jonathon; Wells, Greg D; Frankovich, Renata J

    2016-09-01

    Non-communicable disease is a leading threat to global health. Physical inactivity is a large contributor to this problem; in fact, the WHO ranks it as the fourth leading risk factor for overall morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Canada, at least 4 of 5 adults do not meet the Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines of 150 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per week. Physicians play an important role in the dissemination of physical activity (PA) recommendations to a broad segment of the population, as over 80% of Canadians visit their doctors every year and prefer to get health information directly from them. Unfortunately, most physicians do not regularly assess or prescribe PA as part of routine care, and even when discussed, few provide specific recommendations. PA prescription has the potential to be an important therapeutic agent for all ages in primary, secondary and tertiary prevention of chronic disease. Sport and exercise medicine (SEM) physicians are particularly well suited for this role and should collaborate with their primary care colleagues for optimal patient care. The purpose of this Canadian Academy and Sport and Exercise Medicine position statement is to provide an evidence-based, best practices summary to better equip SEM and primary care physicians to prescribe PA and exercise, specifically for the prevention and management of non-communicable disease. This will be achieved by addressing common questions and perceived barriers in the field.Author note This position statement has been endorsed by the following nine sport medicine societies: Australasian College of Sports and Exercise Physicians (ACSEP), American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM), British Association of Sports and Exercise Medicine (BASEM), European College of Sport & Exercise Physicians (ECOSEP), Norsk forening for idrettsmedisin og fysisk aktivite (NIMF), South African Sports Medicine Association (SASMA), Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Sportmedizin

  13. Quality management of clinical-practical instruction for Practical Year medical students in Germany - proposal for a catalogue of criteria from the German Society of Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Raes, Patricia; Angstwurm, Matthias; Berberat, Pascal; Kadmon, Martina; Rotgans, Jerome; Streitlein-Böhme, Irmgard; Burckhardt, Gerhard; Fischer, Martin R

    2014-01-01

    Zielsetzung: Die Ärztliche Approbationsordnung in ihrer derzeit gültigen Fassung von 2013 enthält Strukturvorgaben, die auch von den außeruniversitären Einrichtungen, welche sich an der PJ-Ausbildung beteiligen, erfüllt werden müssen. Diese Kriterien sind vergleichsweise allgemein gehalten. Außerdem können nicht alle Strukturvorgaben ohne weiteres auf alle Fachgebiete ausgeweitet werden. Um die Vergleichbarkeit der PJ-Ausbildung in Deutschland, nicht zuletzt vor dem Hintergrund der neu eingeführten PJ-Mobilität zu gewährleisten, ist es notwendig, einheitliche Qualitätskriterien für die PJ-Ausbildung zu definieren. Für den Qualitätsmanagementprozess der PJ-Ausbildungsstätten in Deutschland schlagen die Autoren deshalb einen Kriterienkatalog vor. Methoden: Im Januar 2014 beschloss der Vorstand der Gesellschaft für Medizinische Ausbildung die Einrichtung einer Arbeitsgruppe, bestehend aus Vertretern verschiedener deutscher Medizinischer Fakultäten. In dieser Gruppe wurden in einem, dem Delphi-Verfahren ähnlichen Prozess Kriterien für Struktur-, Prozess- und Ergebnisqualität in der PJ-Ausbildung entwickelt.Ergebnisse: Die entwickelten Kriterien zur Struktur-, Prozess- und Ergebnisqualität gelten für die PJ-Ausbildung an den Akademischen Lehrkrankenhäusern und Universitätskliniken. Zusätzlich werden Überprüfungsmodalitäten vorgeschlagen. Schlussfolgerung: Der vorliegende Kriterienkatalog soll dazu beitragen, der PJ-Ausbildung in Deutschland möglichst einheitliche Qualitätsstandards zugrunde zu legen.

  14. S1 guideline on occupational skin products: protective creams, skin cleansers, skin care products (ICD 10: L23, L24)--short version.

    PubMed

    Fartasch, Manigé; Diepgen, Thomas L; Drexler, Hans; Elsner, Peter; John, Swen Malte; Schliemann, Sibylle

    2015-06-01

    Job-related hand dermatitis heads up the list of reported occupational diseases. So-called skin products - understood to mean protective creams, skin cleansers and skin care products - are used for the primary and secondary prevention of job- related hand dermatitis. In the interests of evidence-based medicine, the only preventive measures and/or occupational skin products that should be used are those whose potential uses and efficacy are underpinned by scientific research. To this end, the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Berufs- und Umweltdermatologie e.V. (Working Group for Occupational and Environmental Dermatology, ABD) of the DDG (German Dermatological Society) and the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Arbeits- und Umweltmedizin (German Society for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, DGAUM) have summed up the latest scientific findings and recommendations in the updated guideline. The benefit of the combined application of protective creams and skin care products in the primary and secondary prevention of work-related contact dermatitis has been widely confirmed by recent clinical-epidemiological studies. The guideline clearly explains the necessity of demonstrating the efficacy of protective creams and cleansing products by means of in vivo methods in the sense of repetitive applications. Transferable standardised testing systems designed to examine the irritation potential and thus the compatibility of occupational skin cleansers and the reduction of irritation by protective skin creams have now been developed and validated by multicentre studies for skin protection creams and cleansers. The status of the current assessment of the safety of occupational skin products is also summarised.

  15. Official dosimetry with personal electronic dosemeters--the framework in Germany.

    PubMed

    Czarwinski, R; Kaulard, J; Pfeffer, W

    2007-01-01

    In Germany, personal electronic dosemeters (AEPDs) are presently applied mainly for operational radiation protection monitoring particularly in nuclear power engineering companies, large hospitals and research centres. This is done in addition to the official dosimetry of record. Therefore, frequently, double monitoring occurs-officially and operationally. A crucial advantage of AEPDs compared with passive dosemeters is the ability to adapt the monitoring period to the working time in controlled areas and to allow an immediate readout of the dose after leaving the controlled area, e.g. a job-related monitoring is possible by correlating the readout dose with the job performed. Germany started a general research project, consisting of two parts, for an optimised implementation of personal electronic dosemeters into official dosimetry. The use of AEPDs as official dosemeters depends on an approval by Federal and Federal State ('Länder') authorities as an official dosimetry system, which has to comply with special requirements ensuring that the legal requirements are fulfilled. The formulation of these special requirements is in the focus of part one of the research project, supervised by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) and performed by the Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH. As a result of part one, a framework was developed which is the basis for a future technical implementation project. Part one is described in the paper, while part two is still to be initiated and will deal with the implementation and testing phase of the introduction of personal electronic dosemeters as official dosemeters.

  16. Virtual patients in continuing medical education and residency training: a pilot project for acceptance analysis in the framework of a residency revision course in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Ronny; Hanebeck, Benjamin; Oberle, Stephan; Simon, Anke; Choukair, Daniela; Tönshoff, Burkhard; Huwendiek, Sören

    2015-01-01

    Zielsetzung: Virtuelle Patienten (VPs) sind eine E-Learning-Ressource, welche klinische Entscheidungsfindung an Fallbeispielen schult. Wichtig für ihre erfolgreiche Integration ist dabei die Verbindung mit Präsenzveranstaltungen im Sinne von „Blended Learning“. Bisher gibt es kaum Untersuchungen zum Einsatz von VPs in der Fort- und Weiterbildung. In der vorliegenden Pilot-Studie wurde der Einsatz von VPs im Rahmen eines pädiatrischen Weiterbildungsrepetitoriums untersucht. Methodik: Im Rahmen des Repetitoriums der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Kinder- und Jugendmedizin 2009 in Heidelberg wurden den ca. 200 Teilnehmenden eines pädiatrisch-nephrologischen Fachvortrags zum Thema „nephrotisches und nephritisches Syndrom im Kindesalter“ zwei VPs als Nachbereitung vor Ort zur Verfügung gestellt. Anhand eines Online-Fragebogens wurden verschiedene Aspekte der Lernerfahrung mit VPs, der Verknüpfung mit dem Fachvortrag sowie der Meinung hinsichtlich des Einsatzes von VPs allgemein in der Weiterbildung evaluiert. Ergebnisse: Der Rücklauf an auswertbaren Fragebögen betrug N=40 (ca. 21%), beungünstigt durch ein technisches Problem mit der Firewall vor Ort. Die Teilnehmenden empfanden die Fallbearbeitung als lohnende Lernerfahrung mit guter Vorbereitung für die Diagnostik und Therapie bei realen Patienten/innen mit entsprechenden Beschwerden. Insbesondere wurden die Falldarstellung, die Interaktivität und die Möglichkeit der wiederholten Übung unabhängig von Zeit und Ort positiv hervorgehoben. Gefragt zum grundsätzlichen Einsatz von VPs in der Weiterbildung wurden diese als geeignete Lernmodalität bewertet und der Wunsch nach mehr solcher Angebote geäußert. Schlussfolgerung: VPs können im Bereich der ärztlichen Weiterbildung eine sinn- und wertvolle Ergänzung zu den bisherigen Angeboten bieten.

  17. Evaluation of the long-term efficacy and safety of an imidacloprid 10%/flumethrin 4.5% polymer matrix collar (Seresto®) in dogs and cats naturally infested with fleas and/or ticks in multicentre clinical field studies in Europe

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The objective of these two GCP multicentre European clinical field studies was to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of a new imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (Seresto®, Bayer AnimalHealth, Investigational Veterinary Product(IVP)) in dogs and cats naturally infested with fleas and/or ticks in comparison to a dimpylat collar ("Ungezieferband fuer Hunde/fuer Katzen", Beaphar, Control Product (CP)). Methods 232 (IVP) and 81 (CP) cats and 271(IVP) and 129 (CP) dogs were treated with either product according to label claims and formed the safety population. Flea and tick counts were conducted in monthly intervals for up to 8 months in the efficacy subpopulation consisting of 118 (IVP) + 47 (CP) cats and 197 (IVP) + 94 (CP) dogs. Efficacy was calculated as reduction of infestation rate within the same treatment group and statistically compared between the two treatment groups. Results Preventive efficacy against fleas in cats/dogs varied in the IVP group between 97.4%/94.1% and 100%/100% (overall mean: 98.3%/96.7%) throughout the 8 month period and in the CP group between 57.1%/28.2% and 96.1%/67.8% (overall mean: 79.3%/57.9%). Preventive efficacy against ticks in cats/dogs varied in the IVP group between 94.0%/91.2% and 100%/100% (overall mean: 98.4%/94.7%) throughout the 8 month period and in the CP group between 90.7%/79.9% and 100%/88.0% (overall mean: 96.9%/85.6%). The IVP group was statistically non-inferior to the CP group, and on various assessment days, statistical superiority was proven for flea and tick count reduction in dogs and cats. Both treatments proved to be safe in dogs and cats with mainly minor local observations at the application site. There was moreover, no incidence of any mechanical problem with the collar in dogs and cats during the entire study period. Conclusions The imidacloprid/flumethrin collar proved to reduce tick counts by at least 90% and flea counts by at least 95% for a period of at least 7-8 months in cats and dogs

  18. space Radar Image of Long Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  19. Space Radar Image of Colima Volcano, Jalisco, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  20. Space Radar Image of Hong Kong, China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an X-SAR image spanning an area of approximately 20 kilometers by 40 kilometers (12 miles by 25 miles) of the island of Hong Kong, the Kowloon Peninsula and the new territories in southern China, taken by the imaging radar on board the space shuttle Endeavour on October 4, 1994. North is toward the top left corner of the image. The Kaitak Airport runway on Kowloon Peninsula (center right of image) was built on reclaimed land and extends almost 3 kilometers (nearly 2 miles) into Victoria Harbor. To the south of the harbor lies the island of Hong Kong. The bright areas around the harbor are the major residential and business districts. Housing more than six million residents, Hong Kong is the most densely populated area in the world. The large number of objects visible in the harbor and surrounding waters are a variety of sea-going vessels, anchored in one of the busiest seaports in the Far East. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in

  1. Space Radar Image of Raco Biomass Map

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v. (DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  2. North Central Thailand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations, and data processing of X-SAR.

  3. Space Radar Image of Central African Gorilla Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v. (DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  4. Stem cell origin of cancer and differentiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Sell, Stewart

    2004-07-01

    Our forefathers in pathology, on observing cancer tissue under the microscope in the mid-19th century, noticed the similarity between embryonic tissue and cancer, and suggested that tumors arise from embryo-like cells [Recherches dur le Traitement du Cancer, etc. Paris. (1829); Editoral Archiv fuer pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und fuer klinische Medizin 8 (1855) 23]. The concept that adult tissues contain embryonic remnants that generally lie dormant, but that could be activated to become cancer was later formalized by Cohnheim [Path. Anat. Physiol. Klin. Med. 40 (1867) 1-79; Virchows Arch. 65 (1875) 64] and Durante [Arch. Memori ed Osservazioni di Chirugia Practica 11 (1874) 217-226], as the "embryonal rest" theory of cancer. An updated version of the embryonal rest theory of cancer is that cancers arise from tissue stem cells in adults. Analysis of the cellular origin of carcinomas of different organs indicates that there is, in each instance, a determined stem cell required for normal tissue renewal that is the most likely cell of origin of carcinomas [Lab. Investig. 70 (1994) 6-22]. In the present review, the nature of normal stem cells (embryonal, germinal and somatic) is presented and their relationships to cancer are further expanded. Cell signaling pathways shared by embryonic cells and cancer cells suggest a possible link between embryonic cells and cancer cells. Wilm's tumors (nephroblastomas) and neuroblastomas are presented as possible tumors of embryonic rests in children. Teratocarcinoma is used as the classic example of the totipotent cancer stem cell which can be influenced by its environment to differentiate into a mature adult cell. The observation that "promotion" of an epidermal cancer may be accomplished months or even years after the initial exposure to carcinogen ("initiation"), implies that the original carcinogenic event occurs in a long-lived epithelial stem cell population. The cellular events during hepatocarcinogenesis

  5. Space Radar Image of San Francisco, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  6. Space Radar Image of Colima Volcano, Jalisco, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  7. Space Radar Image of Manaus, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v. (DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  8. Space Radar Image of Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  9. SPace Radar Image of Fort Irwin, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  10. Space Radar Image of Kilauea, Hawaii - interferometry 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This X-band image of the volcano Kilauea was taken on October 4, 1994, by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar. The area shown is about 9 kilometers by 13 kilometers (5.5 miles by 8 miles) and is centered at about 19.58 degrees north latitude and 155.55 degrees west longitude. This image and a similar image taken during the first flight of the radar instrument on April 13, 1994 were combined to produce the topographic information by means of an interferometric process. This is a process by which radar data acquired on different passes of the space shuttle is overlaid to obtain elevation information. Three additional images are provided showing an overlay of radar data with interferometric fringes; a three-dimensional image based on altitude lines; and, finally, a topographic view of the region. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR. The Instituto Ricerca Elettromagnetismo

  11. space Radar Image of Long Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  12. Space Radar Image of Long Valley, California in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v. (DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  13. Space Radar Image of Raco Vegetation Map

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v. (DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  14. Space Radar Image of Hong Kong, China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an X-SAR image spanning an area of approximately 20 kilometers by 40 kilometers (12 miles by 25 miles) of the island of Hong Kong, the Kowloon Peninsula and the new territories in southern China, taken by the imaging radar on board the space shuttle Endeavour on October 4, 1994. North is toward the top left corner of the image. The Kaitak Airport runway on Kowloon Peninsula (center right of image) was built on reclaimed land and extends almost 3 kilometers (nearly 2 miles) into Victoria Harbor. To the south of the harbor lies the island of Hong Kong. The bright areas around the harbor are the major residential and business districts. Housing more than six million residents, Hong Kong is the most densely populated area in the world. The large number of objects visible in the harbor and surrounding waters are a variety of sea-going vessels, anchored in one of the busiest seaports in the Far East. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in

  15. North Central Thailand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations, and data processing of X-SAR.

  16. Space Radar Image of Raco Biomass Map

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v. (DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  17. Compton Scattering and the Nucleon Polarizabilities in the A2 Collaboration at MAMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downie, Evangeline; MAMI A2 Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    There has been an upsurge in interest in Compton Scattering experiments as a means to understand the internal structure and dynamics of the nucleon. The new PDG value of β, the proton magnetic polarizability, changed noticeably, with no new data, simply new theoretical treatment of the existing data set. This indicates that the existing data is insufficient to constrain our extraction of these fundamental constants, which are important in areas of physics such as the proton radius determination, and neutron star physics. In the A2 Collaboration of the Institut fuer Kernphysik in Mainz, we use the MAMI accelerator with the Glasgow Mainz Photon Tagger to produce a quasi-monoenergetic, linearly polarized photon beam and apply it to a liquid hydrogen target. The reaction products detected in the Crystal Ball and TAPS large acceptance spectrometer array allow clean separation of the low-cross-section hadronic Compton scattering process. In so doing, we have produced the firs t measurement of the photon asymmetry in Compton scattering on the proton below the pion production threshold. Preliminary results show a demonstrable effect due to the polarizabilities. We will cover the experimental results and future prospects of the A2 polarizability program. There has been an upsurge in interest in Compton Scattering experiments as a means to understand the internal structure and dynamics of the nucleon. The new PDG value of β, the proton magnetic polarizability, changed noticeably, with no new data, simply new theoretical treatment of the existing data set. This indicates that the existing data is insufficient to constrain our extraction of these fundamental constants, which are important in areas of physics such as the proton radius determination, and neutron star physics. In the A2 Collaboration of the Institut fuer Kernphysik in Mainz, we use the MAMI accelerator with the Glasgow Mainz Photon Tagger to produce a quasi-monoenergetic, linearly polarized photon beam and

  18. The first educational interferometer in Mexico (FEYMANS): A novel project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villicana Pedraza, Ilhuiyolitzin; Guesten, Rolf; Saucedo Morales, Julio Cesar; Carreto, Francisco; Valdes Estrada, Erik; Wendolyn Blanco Cardenas, Monica; Rodríguez Garza, Carolina B.; Pech Castillo, Gerardo A.; Ángel Vaquerizo, Juan

    2016-07-01

    An interferometer is composed of several radio telescopes (dishes) separated by a defined distance and used in synchrony. This kind of array produces a superior angular resolution, better than the resolution achieved by a single dish of the same combined area. In this work we propose the First Educational Youth Mexican Array North South, FEYMANS. It consists of an educational interferometer with initially four dishes. This array harvests Mexico's geography by locating each dish at the periphery of the country; creating new scientific links of provincial populations with the capital. The FEYMANS project focus in high school students and their projects on physics, chemistry and astronomy as a final project. Also, it can be used for bachelor theses. The initial and central dish-node is planed to be in Mexico City. After its construction, the efforts will focus to build subsequent nodes, on the Northwest region, Northeast, or Southeast. Region Northwest will give service to Baja California, Sonora and Chihuahua states. Region Northeast will cover Coahuila, Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas. Finally, region Southeast will give access to Yucatan, Quintana Roo, Campeche, Tabasco and Chiapas. This project has been conceived by young professional astronomers and Mexican experts that will operate each node. Also, we have the technical support of the "Max Planck Institute fuer Radioastronomy in Bonn Germany" and the educational model of the "PARTNeR" project in Spain. This interferometer will be financed by Mexico's Federal Congress and by Mexico City's Legislative Assembly (ALDF).

  19. Comparison of different liquid hydrogen tank integration concepts for the ELAC-1 research configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albus, J.; Oery, H.

    1993-04-01

    One of the main problems associated with the structural design of a hypersonic aircraft is the conception of the cryogenic tank. Therefore two essential questions, in consideration of structural weight, volumetric efficiency and the aspects as well of inspection, maintenance and repair, as of exchangeability in case of leakage (leak before burst) and safety in operation, have to be answered. These questions concern the choice of the tank integration concept and the tank cross section. To get an idea how much the take-off weight depends on the tank integration concept, at the Institut fuer Leichtbau of the RWTH Aachen a program for weight estimation of hypersonic aircraft has been developed. Herewith the goal was to define well suited substitute models which allow the performance of parametric studies within a wide range of parameters in a tolerable amount of time. In the following the mass model and calculation methods used will be shortly introduced and finally the results achieved will be presented and discussed. On this occasion also comments on structural efficiency of different tank cross sections will be given.

  20. 17th International Microgravity Measurements Group Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard

    1998-01-01

    The Seventeenth International Microgravity Measurements Group (MGMG) meeting was held 24-26 March 1998 at the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) in Brook Park, Ohio. This meeting focused on the transition of microgravity science research from the Shuttle, Mir, and free flyers to the International Space Station. The MGMG series of meetings are conducted by the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project of the Microgravity Science Division at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The MGMG meetings provide a forum for the exchange of information and ideas about the microgravity environment and microgravity acceleration research in the Microgravity Research Program. The meeting had participation from investigators in all areas of microgravity research. The attendees included representatives from: NASA centers; National Space Development Agency of Japan; European Space Agency; Daimler Benz Aerospace AG; Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt; Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales; Canadian Space Agency, national research institutions; Universities in U.S., Italy, Germany, and Russia; and commercial companies in the U.S. and Russia. Several agencies presented summaries of the measurement, analysis, and characterization of the microgravity environment of the Shuttle, Mir, and sounding rockets over the past fifteen years. This extensive effort has laid a foundation for pursuing a similar course during future microgravity science experiment operations on the ISS. Future activities of microgravity environment characterization were discussed by several agencies who plan to operate on the ISS.

  1. Motor performance is better than normal in preschool children with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Wolfgang; Orenstein, David M; Paul, Karl; Hüls, Gerd; Braumann, Klaus M

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the motor performance in preschool children with a reliable and valid test battery developed to identify motor dysfunction and normal motor development in children aged from 4 to 6 years. Several aspects of motor performance were examined in 29 preschool children with cystic fibrosis (CF) age range 4-6 years (mean 5.2 +/- 0.8 years), FEV(1) 97.2 +/- 15.3pred and compared to with 22 healthy children of the same age 5.5 +/- 0.8 years. All children performed the "Motoriktest fuer 4-6jaehrige Kinder" (MOT) assessing seven different aspects of motor performance. Compared to healthy children, test score "Motor Quotient" (MQ) as the mean of all test items was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in children with CF (108.1 +/- 16 vs. 93.5 +/- 17.9). In both groups, the MQ can be classified as normal. Children with CF scored higher in MOT subtests "Agility and Coordination" (P < 0.05) and "Balance" (P < 0.01) than healthy children but not in the other subtests. We speculate that chest physiotherapy in preschool children with CF may have an effect on motor performance in general and in some aspects of motor performance.

  2. Microscopy of semiconducting materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennycook, S. J.

    1991-04-01

    The purpose of the trip was to present an invited talk at the 7th Oxford Conference on Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials entitled, High-Resolution Z-Contrast Imaging of Heterostructures and Superlattices, (Oxford, United Kingdom) and to visit VG Microscopes, East Grinstead, for discussions on the progress of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) 300-kV high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), which is currently on order. The traveler also visited three other institutions with 100-kV STEMs that either have or intend to purchase the necessary modifications to provide Z-contrast capability similar to that of the existing ORNL machine. Specifically, Max-Planck Institut fuer Metallforschung (Stuttgart, Germany); Cambridge University, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy (Cambridge, United Kingdom); and Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge University (Cambridge, United Kingdom) were visited. In addition, discussions were held with C. Humphreys on the possibility of obtaining joint funding for collaborative research involving electron beam writing and Z-contrast imaging in the Cambridge and Oak Ridge STEMs, respectively.

  3. Simulation of DKIST solar adaptive optics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, Jose; Carlisle, Elizabeth; Schmidt, Dirk

    2016-07-01

    Solar adaptive optics (AO) simulations are a valuable tool to guide the design and optimization process of current and future solar AO and multi-conjugate AO (MCAO) systems. Solar AO and MCAO systems rely on extended object cross-correlating Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors to measure the wavefront. Accurate solar AO simulations require computationally intensive operations, which have until recently presented a prohibitive computational cost. We present an update on the status of a solar AO and MCAO simulation tool being developed at the National Solar Observatory. The simulation tool is a multi-threaded application written in the C++ language that takes advantage of current large multi-core CPU computer systems and fast ethernet connections to provide accurate full simulation of solar AO and MCAO systems. It interfaces with KAOS, a state of the art solar AO control software developed by the Kiepenheuer-Institut fuer Sonnenphysik, that provides reliable AO control. We report on the latest results produced by the solar AO simulation tool.

  4. Construction and manufacturing of a microgearhead with 1.9-mm outer diameter for universal application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuerigen, Christian; Beckord, Ulrich; Bessey, Reiner

    1999-03-01

    Many new applications in medicine, telecommunication, automation systems etc. require powerful microdrives. Speeds up to 100.000 rpm and output torques in the (mu) Nm-range are typical characteristics of electromagnetic micromotors with diameters of a few millimeters. To accomplish a powerful microdrive, these micromotors have to be combined with micro gearheads of the same outer diameter. For such a micro gearhead with toothed wheels manufactured by use of the LIGA process a multi-stage planetary gear has many advantages. Many stages with different gear ratios can be combined to achieve a great number of different transmission, but manufacturing tolerances and a clearance for assembly must be respected. Therefore besides the selection of a reliable gearhead type and a suitable manufacturing process the optimization of the tooth profile is the key to the implementation of powerful micro gear systems with high output torques and efficiencies. The involute profile is the most suitable toothing, but many calculations and simulations are required to find the right modulus, total depth of teeth, profile offset etc. In a joint project Dr. Fritz Faulhaber GmbH and Co. KG and the Institut fuer Mikrotechnik Mainz GmbH developed a powerful microdevice with an outer diameter of only 1.9 mm.

  5. The Wonders of Physics Outreach Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprott, J. C.; Mirus, K. A.; Newman, D. E.; Watts, C.; Feeley, R. E.; Fernandez, E.; Fontana, P. W.; Krajewski, T.; Lovell, T. W.; Oliva, S.; Stoneking, M. R.; Thomas, M. A.; Jaimison, W.; Maas, K.; Milbrandt, R.; Mullman, K.; Narf, S.; Nesnidal, R.; Nonn, P.

    1996-11-01

    One important step toward public education about fusion energy is to first elevate the public's appreciation of science in general. Toward this end, the Wonders of Physics program was started at the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 1984 as a public lecture and demonstration series in an attempt to stem a growing tide of science illiteracy and to bolster the public's perception of the scientific enterprise. Since that time, it has grown into a public outreach endeavor which consists of a traveling demonstration show, educational pamphlets, videos, software, a website (http://sprott.physics.wisc.edu/wop.htm), and the annual public lecture demonstration series including tours highlighting the Madison Symmetric Torus and departmental facilities. The presentation has been made about 400 times to a total audience in excess of 50,000. Sample educational materials and Lecture Kits will be available at the poster session. Currently at Oak Ridge National Laboratories. Currently at Max Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik. *Currently at Johnson Controls.

  6. Konrad Repository Facing its Construction

    SciTech Connect

    Kunze, V.

    2008-07-01

    According to the German Atomic Energy Act the Federation is responsible for the construction and operation of installations for the safekeeping and disposal of radioactive waste. This duty was assigned to the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz - BfS). In 1982, the Federal Institute of Physics and Metrology (Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt - PTB) as the precursor of BfS applied for a license for the disposal of radioactive waste with negligible heat generation in the Konrad iron ore mine near Salzgitter at the Ministry for Environment of Lower Saxony. After 25 years of plan approval procedure and subsequent lawsuits the license is now valid and Konrad is waiting for construction. Facing this challenge BfS has established a project team to supervise the in-house and external activities to be done. It is intended to construct the Konrad repository within a preparation period of two years and a subsequent erection phase of four years. Thus, Konrad is planned to come into operation in 2013. In this paper the development of the plan approval procedure, the technical design of the planned repository, especially with regard to safety-related aspects, and the planning for the construction will be discussed. (authors)

  7. An approach for the limitation of fissile material resulting from criticality safety analysis of a waste repository

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, H.P. ); Gmal, B. )

    1993-01-01

    The Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS), Germany's Federal Office of Radiation Protection, intends to dispose of non-heat-generating radioactive waste, which may contain residual quantities of fissile materials like U 235 or Pu 239 in solid form, in the planned German Konrad repository. Within the framework of a comprehensive safety analysis, criticality safety for both the operational phase and the post-operational phase of the repository has been investigated. The performed analysis and the investigated scenarios as well as the calculation methods are described. As a result of the criticality safety considerations, limitations of fissionable materials are derived. These limitations restrict on the one hand the admissible mass concentration of fissile materials in the waste form and--on the other hand--the admissible mass of these materials in the cross section of an emplacement room, leading at the end to admissible masses per waste package. The mass limitations are determined separately for four radionuclides. In practice, a mixture of these radionuclides in a waste package has to be taken into account. Therefore, a summation criterion has been derived in order to ensure a high flexibility for the conditioning of the waste. This flexibility option does not result in a lower safety level of the repository.

  8. The University of Stuttgart IKE/University of Arizona student research program

    SciTech Connect

    Seale, R.L. )

    1988-01-01

    The University of Stuttgart's Institut fuer Kernenergetik und Energiesysteme (IKE) and the University of Arizona have had a joint program in which graduate students from the IKE spend 1 yr on the University of Arizona campus. This program started in 1982 largely as the result of an initiative begun by K.H. Hoecker, then director of IKE. Since 1985, Alfred Voss has been director and the program has continued without interruption. Under the program, the Deutscher Akademisher Austauschdienst, a government agency of the Federal Republic of Germany has funded scholarships for students from IKE, which provide support for 1 yr during which they attend the University of Arizona as visiting student scholars and engage in a research project under the direction of one of our faculty, which satisfies a part of the requirements for the Ingenieur-Diplom Fachrichtung Maschinenbau. The students get credit for their research from the University of Stuttgart. The topics have a broad range and include software development, artificial intelligence, radiation transport, and energy management studies.

  9. Responses in the growth of the northern forest biomes to a CO{sub 2}-induced climatic change, as evaluated by the Frankfurt Biosphere Model (FBM)

    SciTech Connect

    Hager, C.; Wurth, G.; Wagner, U.; Kohlmaier, G.H.

    1996-12-31

    The Frankfurt Biosphere Model (FBM), a mechanistic, seasonal and prognostic compartment model of the terrestrial biosphere, has been developed in recent years to simulate the carbon exchange fluxes between the vegetation and the atmosphere with a spatial resolution of 0.5{degree} x 0.5{degree} on a global scale. In this contribution the authors use the FBM to assess the possible changes in the transient response of the northern forest biomes under a future 2 {times} CO{sub 2} climate. The development of these ecosystems from its initial seedling state to its climax state is simulated under different climatic conditions. In their simulations the 2 {times} CO{sub 2} climate provided by the GCM of the MPI fuer Meteorologie in Hamburg (ECHAM) is used. The differences in vegetation`s growth under contemporary and future climate can be assessed by performing two model runs with the same parameterization but with different driving climatic variables for each vegetation type and location.

  10. Asgard Impact Structure on Callisto

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-12-18

    This four-frame mosaic shows the ancient impact structure Asgard on Jupiter's moon Callisto. This image is centered at 30 degrees north, 142 degrees west. The Asgard structure is approximately 1700 km across (1,056 mi) and consists of a bright central zone surrounded by discontinuous rings. The rings are tectonic features with scarps near the central zone and troughs at the outer margin. Several large impacts have smashed into Callisto after the formation of Asgard. The very young, bright-rayed crater Burr is located on the northern part of Asgard. This mosaic has been projected to show a uniform scale between the four mosaiced images. The image was processed by Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luftund Raumfahrt e.V., Berlin, Germany. This image was taken on November 4, 1996, at a distance of 111,891 kilometers (69,070 miles) by the solid state imaging television camera onboard the Galileo spacecraft during its third orbit around Jupiter. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00517

  11. Co-pyrolysis of coal/biomass and coal/sewage sludge mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Storm, C.; Ruediger, H.; Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G.

    1999-01-01

    Biomass and sewage sludge are attracting increasing interest in power plant technology as a source of carbon-dioxide-neutral fuels. A new way to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels could be the co-combustion or co-gasification of coal and biomass or coal and sewage sludge. In both cases, pyrolysis is the first step in the technical process. In order to obtain detailed information about the pyrolysis of coal/biomass and coal/sewage sludge mixtures as well as unblended fuels, the Institut fuer Verfahrenstechnik and Dampfkesselwesen (IVD) at the University of Stuttgart has carried out investigations using an electrically heated entrained flow reactor. The test runs provided information about fuel conversion efficiency, pyrolysis gas and tar yield, and composition of pyrolysis gas and tar. Besides gas and tar analysis investigations regarding the path of trace elements, like heavy metals, alkali, chlorine and nitrogen components, during the pyrolysis process varying different parameters have been carried out. The fuel nitrogen distribution between pyrolysis gas, tar, and char has been analyzed, as well as the ash composition, and, thus, the release of mineral components during pyrolysis.

  12. The development of the radio frequency driven negative ion source for neutral beam injectors (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, W.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Froeschle, M.; Heinemann, B.; Riedl, R.; Wuenderlich, D.

    2012-02-15

    Large and powerful negative hydrogen ion sources are required for the neutral beam injection (NBI) systems of future fusion devices. Simplicity and maintenance-free operation favors RF sources, which are developed intensively at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik (IPP) since many years. The negative hydrogen ions are generated by caesium-enhanced surface conversion of atoms and positive ions on the plasma grid surface. With a small scale prototype the required high ion current density and the low fraction of co-extracted electrons at low pressure as well as stable pulses up to 1 h could be demonstrated. The modular design allows extension to large source dimensions. This has led to the decision to choose RF sources for the NBI of the international fusion reactor, ITER. As an intermediate step towards the full size ITER source at IPP, the development will be continued with a half-size source on the new ELISE testbed. This will enable to gain experience for the first time with negative hydrogen ion beams from RF sources of these dimensions.

  13. Application of Surface Micro-Discharge plasma to spacecraft component decontamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Satoshi; Barczyk, Simon; Rettberg, Petra; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Klaempfl, Tobias; Zimmermann, Julia; Weber, Peter; Morfill, Gregor; Thomas, Hubertus

    2013-09-01

    In the field of extinct or extant extraterrestrial life research on other planets and moons, the prevention of biological contamination through spaceprobes is one of the most important requirements, and its detailed conditions are defined by the COSPAR planetary protection policy. Currently, a dry heat microbial reduction (DHMR) method is the only applicable way to satisfy the demand, which could, however, damage the sophisticated components like integrated circuits. In this study, cold atmospheric plasma based on the Surface Micro-Discharge technology was investigated for inactivation of different types of bacteria and endospores as an alternative method. After 90 min of plasma gas exposure, 3-6 log reductions were observed for the vegetative bacteria Escherichia coliand Deinococcus radiodurans and several types of bacterial endospores - including Bacillus atrophaeus, B. safensis, B. megaterium, B. megaterium 2c1 and B. thuringiensis E24. Furthermore, the applicability of the system for spacecraft decontamination was checked by studying the inactivation homogeneity, the temperature at the area of interest and the effects of the plasma gas exposure on different materials. The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support from Deutches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (FKZ 50 JR1005).

  14. EARLY SCIENCE WITH SOFIA, THE STRATOSPHERIC OBSERVATORY FOR INFRARED ASTRONOMY

    SciTech Connect

    Young, E. T.; Becklin, E. E.; De Buizer, J. M.; Andersson, B.-G.; Casey, S. C.; Helton, L. A.; Marcum, P. M.; Roellig, T. L.; Temi, P.; Herter, T. L.; Guesten, R.; Dunham, E. W.; Backman, D.; Burgdorf, M.; Caroff, L. J.; Erickson, E. F.; Davidson, J. A.; Gehrz, R. D.; Harper, D. A.; Harvey, P. M.; and others

    2012-04-20

    The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is an airborne observatory consisting of a specially modified Boeing 747SP with a 2.7 m telescope, flying at altitudes as high as 13.7 km (45,000 ft). Designed to observe at wavelengths from 0.3 {mu}m to 1.6 mm, SOFIA operates above 99.8% of the water vapor that obscures much of the infrared and submillimeter. SOFIA has seven science instruments under development, including an occultation photometer, near-, mid-, and far-infrared cameras, infrared spectrometers, and heterodyne receivers. SOFIA, a joint project between NASA and the German Aerospace Center Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft und-Raumfahrt, began initial science flights in 2010 December, and has conducted 30 science flights in the subsequent year. During this early science period three instruments have flown: the mid-infrared camera FORCAST, the heterodyne spectrometer GREAT, and the occultation photometer HIPO. This Letter provides an overview of the observatory and its early performance.

  15. SOFIA: Flying the Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asher, Troy; Cumming, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is an international cooperative development and operations program between the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the German Space Agency, DLR (Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft-und Raumfahrt). SOFIA is a 2.5 meter, optical/infrared/sub-millimeter telescope mounted in a Boeing model 747SP-21 aircraft and will be used for many basic astronomical observations performed at stratospheric altitudes. It will accommodate installation of different focal plane instruments with in-flight accessibility provided by investigators selected from the international science community. The Facility operational lifetime is planned to be greater than 20 years. This presentation will present the results of developmental testing of SOFIA, including analysis, envelope expansion and the first operational mission. It will describe a brief history of open cavities in flight, how NASA designed and tested SOFIAs cavity, as well as flight test results. It will focus on how the test team achieved key milestones by systematically and efficiently reducing the number of test points to only those absolutely necessary to achieve mission requirements, thereby meeting all requirements and saving the potential loss of program funding. Finally, it will showcase examples of the observatory in action and the first operational mission of the observatory, illustrating the usefulness of the system to the international scientific community. Lessons learned on how to whittle a mountain of test points into a manageable sum will be presented at the conclusion.

  16. German Data Center for the Solar Dynamics Observatory: A model for the PLATO mission?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burston, R.; Gizon, L.; Saidi, Y.; Solanki, S. K.

    2008-12-01

    The German Data Center for the Solar Dynamics Observatory (GDC-SDO), hosted by the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research in Germany, will provide access to SDO data for the German solar physics community. The GDC-SDO will make available all the relevant Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) data for helioseismology and smaller se- lected Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) data sets. This project commenced in August 2007 and is funded by the German Aerospace Center (Deutsches zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt or DLR) until December 2012. An important component of the GDC-SDO is the Data Record Management System (DRMS), developed in collaboration with the Stan- ford/Lockheed Joint Science Operations Center (JSOC). The PEGASUS workflow manage- ment system will be used to implement GDC-SDO data analysis pipelines. This makes use of the CONDOR High Throughput Computing Project for optimal job scheduling and also the GLOBUS Toolkit to enable grid technologies. Additional information about the GDC-SDO can be found at http://www.mps.mpg.de/projects/seismo/GDC1/index.html. Here, we sug- gest a similar structure and philosophy should be ideal for the PLATO mission, which looks for planetary transits and stellar oscillations and is being studied by ESA for an M-Mission slot in Cosmic Vision.

  17. The ARCHES project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motch, C.; Arches Consortium

    2014-07-01

    ARCHES (Astronomical Resource Cross-matching for High Energy Studies) is a FP7-Space funded project started in 2013 and involving the Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg including the CDS (France), the Leibniz-Institut fuer Astrophysik Potsdam (Germany), the University of Leicester (UK), the Universidad de Cantabria (IFCA, Spain) and the Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (Madrid, Spain). ARCHES aims at providing the international astronomical community with well-characterised multi-wavelength data in the form of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for large sets of objects extracted from the 3XMM catalogue. The project develops new tools implementing fully probabilistic simultaneous cross-correlation of several catalogues. SEDs are based on an enhanced version of the 3XMM catalogue and on a careful selection of the most relevant multi-wavelength archival catalogues. In order to ensure the largest audience, SEDs will be distributed to the international community through CDS services and through the Virtual Observatory. These enhanced resources are currently tested in the framework of several science cases. An integrated cluster finder is developed at Potsdam, AGN science is studied at Leicester and IFCA while populations of Galactic X-ray sources are investigated at Strasbourg and Madrid.

  18. Numerical and experimental study of unsteady flow field and vibration in radial inflow turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Kreuz-Ihli, T.; Filsinger, D.; Schulz, A.; Wittig, S.

    2000-04-01

    The blades of turbocharger impellers are exposed to unsteady aerodynamic forces, which cause blade vibrations and may lead to failures. An indispensable requirement for a safe design of radial inflow turbines is a detailed knowledge of the exciting forces. Up to now, only a few investigations relating to unsteady aerodynamic forces in radial turbines have been presented. To give a detailed insight into the complex phenomena, a comprehensive research project was initiated at the Institut fuer Thermische Stroemungsmaschinen, at the University of Karlsruhe. A turbocharger test rig was installed in the high-pressure, high-temperature laboratory of the institute. The present paper gives a description of the test rig design and the measuring techniques. The flow field in a vaneless radial inflow turbine was analyzed using laser-Doppler anemometry. First results of unsteady flow field investigations in the turbine scroll and unsteady phase-resolved measurements of the flow field in the turbine rotor will be discussed. Moreover, results from finite element calculations analyzing frequencies and mode shapes are presented. As vibrations in turbines of turbochargers are assumed to be predominantly excited by unsteady aerodynamic forces, a method to predict the actual transient flow in a radial turbine utilizing the commercial Navier-Stokes solver TASCflow3d was developed. Results of the unsteady calculations are presented and comparisons with the measured unsteady flow field are made. As a major result, the excitation effect of the tongue region in a vaneless radial inflow turbine can be demonstrated.

  19. DKIST visible tunable filter control software: connecting the DKIST framework to OPC UA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Alexander; Halbgewachs, Clemens; Kentischer, Thomas J.; Schmidt, Wolfgang; von der Lühe, Oskar; Sigwarth, Michael; Fischer, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    The Visible Tunable Filter (VTF) is a narrowband tunable filter system for imaging spectroscopy and spectropolarimetry based on large-format Fabry Perot interferometers that is currently built by the Kiepenheuer Institut fuer Sonnenphysik for the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST). The control software must handle around 30 motorised drives, 3 etalons, a polarizing modulator, a helium neon laser for system calibration, temperature controllers and a multitude of sensors. The VTF is foreseen as one of the DKISTs first-light instruments and should become operational in 2019. In the design of the control software we strongly separate between the high-level part interfacing to the DKIST common services framework (CSF) and the low-level control system software which guarantees real-time performance and synchronization to precision time protocol (PTP) based observatory time. For the latter we chose a programmable logic controller (PLC) from Beckhoff Automation GmbH which supports a wide set of input and output devices as well as distributed clocks for synchronizing signals down to the sub-microsecond level. In this paper we present the design of the required control system software as well as our work on extending the DKIST CSF to use the OPC Unified Architecture (OPC UA) standard which provides a cross-platform communication standard for process control and automation as an interface between the high-level software and the real-time control system.

  20. Simulation of earthquakes on strengthened masonry walls: photogrammetric determination of kinematic shape changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwegler, Gregor; Dold, J.

    1994-03-01

    In cooperation with the firm HILTI AG in Schaan the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA) in Dubendorf, Switzerland is carrying out tests on masonry walls. The goal of these tests is to post-strengthen such walls in seismically endangered zones through the use of fiber-based composites. During the loading, the 3-D deformation behavior of the wall is determined. Each brick is provided with two measurement points. During the measurement phase the masonry wall deforms by up to 0.04 mm due to relaxation. Given a required deformation resolution of at least 0.04 mm, it is therefore necessary to employ a measurement technique that accurately and rapidly ascertains the wall condition in 3-D. In cooperation with the Institut fuer Photogrammetrie und Bildverarbeitung Technische Universitaet Braunschweig it was possible for the first time to employ five large- format Rollei LFC recording cameras synchronously for the deformation measurement. A spatial reconstruction of the wall shape was possible with an average standard deviation of 0.02 mm for the object coordinates in the plane of the wall, resp. 0.03 mm perpendicular to the wall.

  1. Frequency comparison involving the Romanian primary length standard RO.1 within the framework of the EUROMET Project #498

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Gheorghe

    2001-06-01

    An international frequency comparison was carried out at the Bundesamt fuer Eich- und Vermessungswessen (BEV), Vienna, within the framework of the EUROMET Project #498 from August 29 to September 5, 1999. The frequency differences obtained when the RO.1 laser from the National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics (NILPRP), Romania, was compared with five lasers from Austria (BEV1), Czech Republic (PLD1), France (BIPM3), Poland (GUM1) and Hungary (OMH1) are reported. Frequency differences were computed by using the matrix determinations for the group d, e, f, g. Considering the frequency differences measured for a group of three lasers compared to each other, we call the closing frequency the difference between measured and expected frequency difference (resulting from the previous two measurements). For the RO1 laser, when the BIPM3 laser was the reference laser, the closing frequencies range from +8.1 kHz to - 3.8 kHz. The relative Allan standard deviation was used to express the frequency stability and resulted 3.8 parts in 1012 for 100 s sampling time and 14000 s duration of the measurements. The averaged offset frequency relative to the BIPM4 stationary laser was 5.6 kHz and the standard deviation was 9.9 kHz.

  2. Measurements of Gas-phase H2so4, Oh, So2 and Aerosol Size Distribution On Mount Zugspitze At The Schneefernerhaus: Estimation of Sources and Sinks of Sulfuric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uecker, J.; Hanke, M.; Kamm, S.; Umann, B.; Arnold, F.; Poeschl, U.; Niessner, R.

    Gas-phase sulfuric acid and OH have been measured by the novel MPI-K ULTRA- CIMS (ultra-trace gas detection by CIMS technique) at the Schneefernerhaus( 2750 m asl; below the summit of Mount Zugspitze, Germany) in October 2001. These mea- surements were accompanied by measurements of SO2 with another MPI-K CIMS instrument and aerosol size distribution measurements by DMPS (differential mobil- ity particle sizer) operated by the Institut fuer Wasserchemie (Technische Universitaet Muenchen). In that way a data set was obtained which allows investigating major sources and sinks of sulfuric acid under relative clean conditions. H2SO4 and espe- cially OH concentrations are relatively well correlated to solar flux. Noon maximum concentrations of OH and H2SO4 of 6.5·106 and 2·106 cm-3, respectively, were ob- served. The average SO2 concentrations were below 20 ppt. The aerosol size distribu- tion was obtained in 39 size ranges from 10 to 1056 nm. Typical aerosol concentrations are in the range of 400 to 1800 cm-3 during the discussed period of time. An estima- tion of the production rate of H2SO4 was inferred building on the reaction of SO2 and OH, while the loss rate was calculated by considering the condensation of H2SO4 on aerosol particles (Fuchs and Sutugin approach). Results of the measurements and calculations will be discussed.

  3. PROTON MICROSCOPY AT FAIR

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, F. E.; Mariam, F. G.; Golubev, A. A.; Turtikov, V. I.; Varentsov, D.

    2009-12-28

    Proton radiography was invented in the 1990's at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as a diagnostic to study dynamic material properties under extreme pressures, strain and strain rate. Since this time hundreds of dynamic proton radiography experiments have been performed at LANL and a facility has been commissioned at the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP) in Russia for similar applications in dynamic material studies. Recently an international effort has investigated a new proton radiography capability for the study of dynamic material properties at the Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research (FAIR) located in Darmstadt, Germany. This new Proton microscope for FAIR(PRIOR) will provide radiographic imaging of dynamic systems with unprecedented spatial, temporal and density resolution, resulting in a window for understanding dynamic material properties at new length scales. It is also proposed to install the PRIOR system at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung before installation at FAIR for dynamic experiments with different drivers including high explosives, pulsed power and lasers. The design of the proton microscope and expected radiographic performance is presented.

  4. The microstructural stability and mechanical properties of two low activation martensitic steels

    SciTech Connect

    Victoria, M.; Marmy, P.; Batawi, E.; Peters, J.; Briguet, C.; Rezai-Aria, F.; Gavillet, D.

    1996-12-31

    A desirable feature of future magnetically confined fusion reactors is the prospect of producing low level radioactive waste. In order to minimize the volume of radioactive material, in particular from the first wall and blanket structures, reduced long term activation alloys are being developed. Here, a low activation composition of a martensitic 9% Cr steel has been studied, based on the DIN (Deutsches Inst. fuer Normung) 1.4914 composition (MANET) but replacing Ni, Mo and Nb by the low activation elements W, V and Ta. Two casts were produced from high purity components, in which the effects of controlled additions of Mn (0.58 and 0.055 wt. %) and N (7 and 290 wt. ppm) were studied, so that the final compositions resulted in one cast with high Mn and low N (steel A) and the other with the opposite conditions (steel B). The two steels were evaluated in terms of structural stability and mechanical properties under tensile, fatigue and fracture toughness tests. It has been found that both alloys have a DBTT below room temperature, which in the case of the steel A is 70 K below that of MANET. Although the tensile strength is somewhat below that of the parent steel, both steels have longer fatigue life.

  5. Photoproduction and Photodisintigration Processes of the Deuteron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohs, Jessica; Briscoe, William; Hornidge, Dave; Moores, Korwin; McDermit, Kevin; Bulmer, Kris; Patterson, Steven; Starotsin, Sasha; Rost, Mattias; Downie, Eve

    2004-10-01

    The Mainz Mictrotron (MAMI) is a continuous wave electron accelerator located at the Institut fuer Kernphysik in Mainz, Germany. It is the best tagged photon facility below 855 MeV and has extremely high energy resolution. TAPS, or Two Arm Photon Spectrometer, is a high resolution photon detection system that has been used at MAMI for the past fifteen years. In 2002 the (SLAC) Crystal Ball multiphoton spectrometer was moved from Brookhaven National Laboratory to Mainz due to the excellent facilities at MAMI. The combination of TAPS and the Crystal Ball form a truly 4p detection system for protons and neutrons. A photon beam with energies between 400 and 855 MeV has been used with a liquid deuterium target to investigate several photoproduction and photodisintigration processes. Among these are coherent p0 production on the deuteron itself, p0 production off the individual quasi-free nucleons, and the photodisintigration of the deuteron into a proton and a neutron. While each of these processes have physics interest, the latter can also be used to calibrate the detection efficiency of the Crystal Ball and TAPS for neutrons. We plan to report on the preliminary physics and calibration results from the first measurements made with the deuterium target.

  6. [Ethics as a scientific basis for animal protection - on the advancement and amendment of the Codex Veterinarius].

    PubMed

    Kuhlmann, Ingrid; Luy, Joerg

    2005-01-01

    Seven years ago, the veterinary association for animal protection (Tieraerztliche Vereinigung fuer Tierschutz e.V., TVT) in Germany first published an orientation guide on the ethics of animal protection aimed at the entire veterinary profession: the "Codex Veterinarius - ethical guiding principles on veterinary action for the good and the protection of animals". The dilemmas of the veterinary profession have not changed since then, but as the principle that "nothing can be so good that it cannot be improved" also applies to the Codex, the two authors have attempted to optimise the few weak spots of the Codex. Joerg Luy sees the task of the Codex in surpassing the animal protection law in two respects: on the one hand regarding moral aspects that cannot be regulated (e.g. respect for the "intrinsic value" of the animal, which is greater than its "utilitarian value") and on the other hand in cases where the law does not live up to its own goals (e.g. regarding the inconsistent regulation on causing "longer term or repeated grave pain or suffering").

  7. In situ investigation of ion-induced dewetting of a thin iron-oxide film on silicon by high resolution scanning electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Amirthapandian, S.; Schuchart, F.; Garmatter, D.; Bolse, W.

    2012-11-15

    Using our new in situ high resolution scanning electron microscope, which is integrated into the UNILAC ion beamline at the Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt, Germany, we investigated the swift heavy ion induced dewetting of a thin iron oxide layer on Si. Besides heterogeneous hole nucleation at defects and spontaneous (homogeneous) hole nucleation, we could clearly identify a dewetting mechanism, which is similar to the spinodal dewetting observed for liquid films. Instead of being due to capillary waves, it is based on a stress induced surface instability. The latter results in the formation of a wavy surface with constant dominant wave-length and increasing amplitude during ion irradiation. Dewetting sets in as soon as the wave-troughs reach the film-substrate interface. Inspection of the hole radii and rim shapes indicates that removal of the material from the hole area occurs mainly by plastic deformation at the inner boundary and ion induced viscous flow in the peripheral zone due to surface tension.

  8. The Zurich Tradition: Backbone of the Wolf Number Series (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedli, T. K.

    2013-12-01

    The Wolf Series of Sunspot Relative Numbers is divided into a more recent part starting from 1849 up to present which is based on dedicated visual observations and into a reconstructed part reaching back to the mythological ages of Galileo, Harriot and Scheiner which is based solely on indirect countings made from drawings or texts from various archives. The Zurich tradition consists of a framework of rules and prerequisites concerning the quality and power of the instrumentation, the observation and counting techniques, the methods for calibration and preservation of scale and the construction of a long-term record. This framework guarantees the homogeneity of the series and the preservation of the original scale. In the modern part of the series up to 1980, the published Wolf numbers are based in over 90% of the days on calibrated visual observations of the original Fraunhofer refractor. The long term preservation of the original scale is thus mainly determined by the quality and validity of the calibration from one generation of standard observers to the next and on the internal consistency of the individual observing and counting methods of each standard observer. Since 1996 the historical standard refractor of Rudolf Wolf, in succession of the Zurich observers, has been used by the author for the daily determination of the sunspot relative number. With the aid of a small network of keen amateur astronomers of the Rudolf Wolf Gesellschaft these observations could be calibrated to the former Zurich scale. This results in an extension of the original Zurich series which is independent from the official one by SIDC or from the one by AAVSO. The main lesson learned from this exercise is that calibration functions reduce to simple proportionality factors as long as the calculations are made within a proper statistical regression framework over a sufficiently long evaluation period covering both maximum and minimum activity phases. Based on the original observations

  9. PEBBED Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis of the CRP-5 PBMR DLOFC Transient Benchmark with the SUSA Code

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhard Strydom

    2011-01-01

    The need for a defendable and systematic uncertainty and sensitivity approach that conforms to the Code Scaling, Applicability, and Uncertainty (CSAU) process, and that could be used for a wide variety of software codes, was defined in 2008. The GRS (Gesellschaft für Anlagen und Reaktorsicherheit) company of Germany has developed one type of CSAU approach that is particularly well suited for legacy coupled core analysis codes, and a trial version of their commercial software product SUSA (Software for Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analyses) was acquired on May 12, 2010. This report summarized the results of the initial investigations performed with SUSA, utilizing a typical High Temperature Reactor benchmark (the IAEA CRP-5 PBMR 400MW Exercise 2) and the PEBBED-THERMIX suite of codes. The following steps were performed as part of the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis: 1. Eight PEBBED-THERMIX model input parameters were selected for inclusion in the uncertainty study: the total reactor power, inlet gas temperature, decay heat, and the specific heat capability and thermal conductivity of the fuel, pebble bed and reflector graphite. 2. The input parameters variations and probability density functions were specified, and a total of 800 PEBBED-THERMIX model calculations were performed, divided into 4 sets of 100 and 2 sets of 200 Steady State and Depressurized Loss of Forced Cooling (DLOFC) transient calculations each. 3. The steady state and DLOFC maximum fuel temperature, as well as the daily pebble fuel load rate data, were supplied to SUSA as model output parameters of interest. The 6 data sets were statistically analyzed to determine the 5% and 95% percentile values for each of the 3 output parameters with a 95% confidence level, and typical statistical indictors were also generated (e.g. Kendall, Pearson and Spearman coefficients). 4. A SUSA sensitivity study was performed to obtain correlation data between the input and output parameters, and to identify the

  10. In-flight medical emergencies during airline operations: a survey of physicians on the incidence, nature, and available medical equipment.

    PubMed

    Hinkelbein, Jochen; Neuhaus, Christopher; Böhm, Lennert; Kalina, Steffen; Braunecker, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Data on the incidence of in-flight medical emergencies on-board civil aircraft are uncommon and rarely published. Such data could provide information regarding required medical equipment on-board aircraft and requisite training for cabin crew. The aim of the present study was to gather data on the incidences, nature, and medical equipment for in-flight medical emergencies by way of a survey of physician members of a German aerospace medical society. Using unipark.de (QuestBack GmbH, Cologne, Germany), an online survey was developed and used to gather specific information. Members of the German Society for Aviation and Space Medicine (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Luft- und Raumfahrtmedizin e.V.; DGLRM) were invited to participate in the survey during a 4-week period (21 March 2015 to 20 April 2015). Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis (p<0.05 was considered significant). Altogether, 121 members of the society responded to the survey (n=335 sent out). Of the 121 respondents, n=54 (44.6%) of the participants (89.9% male and 10.1% female; mean age, 54.1 years; n=121) were involved in at least one in-flight medical emergency. Demographic parameters in this survey were in concordance with the society members' demographics. The mean duration of flights was 5.7 hours and the respondents performed 7.1 airline flights per year (median). Cardiovascular (40.0%) and neurological disorders (17.8%) were the most frequent diagnoses. The medical equipment (78.7%) provided was sufficient. An emergency diversion was undertaken in 10.6% of the cases. Although using a different method of data acquisition, this survey confirms previous data on the nature of emergencies and gives plausible numbers. Our data strongly argue for the establishment of a standardized database for recording the incidence and nature of in-flight medical emergencies. Such a database could inform on required medical equipment and cabin crew training.

  11. The Fraunhofer MAVO FASPAS for smart system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melz, Tobias; Matthias, Michael; Drossel, Welf-Guntram; Sporn, Dieter; Schoenecker, Andreas; Poigne, Axel

    2005-05-01

    The Fraunhofer Gesellschaft is the largest organization for applied research in Europe, having a staff of some 12,700, predominantly qualified scientists and engineers, with an annual research budget of over one billion euros. One of its current internal Market-oriented strategic preliminary research (MaVo) projects is FASPAS (Function Consolidated Adaptive Structures Combining Piezo and Software Technologies for Autonomous Systems) which aims to promote adaptive structure technology for commercial exploitation within the current main research fields of the participating FhIs, namely automotive and machine tools engineering. Under the project management of the Fraunhofer-Institute Structural Durability and System Reliability LBF the six Fraunhofer Institutes LBF, IWU, IKTS, ISC, AiS and IIS bring together their competences ranging from material sciences to system reliability, in order to clarify unanswered questions. The predominant goal is to develop and validate methods and tools to establish a closed, modular development chain for the design and realization of such active structures which shall be useful in its width and depth, i.e. for specific R&D achievements such as the actuator development (depth) as well as the complete system design and realization (width). FASPAS focuses on the development of systems and on the following scientific topics: 1) on design and manufacturing technology for piezo components as integrable actuator/sensor semi-finished modules, 2) on development and transducer module integration of miniaturized electronics for charge generating sensor systems, 3) on the development of methods to analyze system reliability of active structures, 4) on the development of autonomous software structures for flexible, low cost electronics hardware for bulk production and 5) on the construction and validation of the complete, cost-effective development chain of function consolidated structures through application oriented demonstration structures. The

  12. In-flight medical emergencies during airline operations: a survey of physicians on the incidence, nature, and available medical equipment

    PubMed Central

    Hinkelbein, Jochen; Neuhaus, Christopher; Böhm, Lennert; Kalina, Steffen; Braunecker, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Background Data on the incidence of in-flight medical emergencies on-board civil aircraft are uncommon and rarely published. Such data could provide information regarding required medical equipment on-board aircraft and requisite training for cabin crew. The aim of the present study was to gather data on the incidences, nature, and medical equipment for in-flight medical emergencies by way of a survey of physician members of a German aerospace medical society. Materials and methods Using unipark.de (QuestBack GmbH, Cologne, Germany), an online survey was developed and used to gather specific information. Members of the German Society for Aviation and Space Medicine (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Luft- und Raumfahrtmedizin e.V.; DGLRM) were invited to participate in the survey during a 4-week period (21 March 2015 to 20 April 2015). Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis (p<0.05 was considered significant). Results Altogether, 121 members of the society responded to the survey (n=335 sent out). Of the 121 respondents, n=54 (44.6%) of the participants (89.9% male and 10.1% female; mean age, 54.1 years; n=121) were involved in at least one in-flight medical emergency. Demographic parameters in this survey were in concordance with the society members’ demographics. The mean duration of flights was 5.7 hours and the respondents performed 7.1 airline flights per year (median). Cardiovascular (40.0%) and neurological disorders (17.8%) were the most frequent diagnoses. The medical equipment (78.7%) provided was sufficient. An emergency diversion was undertaken in 10.6% of the cases. Although using a different method of data acquisition, this survey confirms previous data on the nature of emergencies and gives plausible numbers. Conclusion Our data strongly argue for the establishment of a standardized database for recording the incidence and nature of in-flight medical emergencies. Such a database could inform on required medical equipment and cabin crew training

  13. [Acute pain therapy in German hospitals as competitive factor. Do competition, ownership and case severity influence the practice of acute pain therapy?].

    PubMed

    Erlenwein, J; Hinz, J; Meißner, W; Stamer, U; Bauer, M; Petzke, F

    2015-07-01

    Due to the implementation of the diagnosis-related groups (DRG) system, the competitive pressure on German hospitals increased. In this context it has been shown that acute pain management offers economic benefits for hospitals. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the competitive situation, the ownership and the economic resources required on structures and processes for acute pain management. A standardized questionnaire on structures and processes of acute pain management was mailed to the 885 directors of German departments of anesthesiology listed as members of the German Society of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (DGAI, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Anästhesiologie und Intensivmedizin). For most hospitals a strong regional competition existed; however, this parameter affected neither the implementation of structures nor the recommended treatment processes for pain therapy. In contrast, a clear preference for hospitals in private ownership to use the benchmarking tool QUIPS (quality improvement in postoperative pain therapy) was found. These hospitals also presented information on coping with the management of pain in the corporate clinic mission statement more often and published information about the quality of acute pain management in the quality reports more frequently. No differences were found between hospitals with different forms of ownership in the implementation of acute pain services, quality circles, expert standard pain management and the implementation of recommended processes. Hospitals with a higher case mix index (CMI) had a certified acute pain management more often. The corporate mission statement of these hospitals also contained information on how to cope with pain, presentation of the quality of pain management in the quality report, implementation of quality circles and the implementation of the expert standard pain management more frequently. There were no differences in the frequency of using the benchmarking

  14. [S3 Guideline. Part 1: Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis of Non-Traumatic Adult Femoral Head Necrosis].

    PubMed

    Bohndorf, K; Beckmann, J; Jäger, M; Kenn, W; Maus, U; Nöth, U; Peters, K M; Rader, C; Reppenhagen, S; Roth, A

    2015-08-01

    Non-traumatic femoral head necrosis (FHN) is primarily a disease of the middle-aged adult. Early diagnosis, at a time with lacking or minimal clinical symptoms, is mandatory to consider conservative therapy or joint preserving operations as a therapeutic option. The new German S3 guideline about diagnosis and therapy of FHN is a cooperative effort of five professional medical societies, overall headed by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Orthopädie und Orthopädische Chirurgie (DGOOC). This review (part I/III) cites and explains the statements of the S3 guideline as agreed on the use of imaging methods for diagnosis of FHN. A diagnostic algorithm is presented. FHN clinically has to be considered in case of equivocal pain of a hip joint with a minimum of 6 weeks duration, when risk factors can be revealed, groin pain at clinical investigation, limping, pain or limitation of movement in case of load, and no obvious differential diagnoses. Is an FHN clinically suspected, primarily radiographs of the pelvis ap and a Lauenstein projection of the hip involved should be carried out. When the radiographs are normal, an MRI of the hips should follow routinely. MRI allows the diagnosis of FNH with high accuracy. Furthermore, MRI reveals the site and the size of the necrotic area involved and evaluates the integrity of the joint surface and subchondral fractures. When ARCO stage II (ARCO: Association Research Circulation Osseous) is diagnosed and MRI does not allow one to determine the joint surface with certainty, a CT of the hip joints should be performed. The S3 guideline explains and recommends the use of the ARCO classification. Although, this classification of 1993 is still largely based on radiographs, the pragmatic use of an "extended" version seems reasonable. Today, classical radiographic criteria like impression of the joint surface and subchondral fractures ("crescent sign") are better to be evaluated by MRI, in cases of subtle findings MRI is even surpassed by CT

  15. ABCB1-Gen-Polymorphismus in einer polnischen Kohorte ist mit Risiko für bullöses Pemphigoid assoziiert.

    PubMed

    Rychlik-Sych, Mariola; Barańska, Małgorzata; Dudarewicz, Michał; Skrętkowicz, Jadwiga; Żebrowska, Agnieszka; Owczarek, Jacek; Waszczykowska, Elżbieta

    2017-05-01

    Polymorphismen im ABCB1-Gen, das für das P-Glykoprotein kodiert, können die intrazelluläre Konzentration von Xenobiotika beeinflussen und so zur Entwicklung von Autoimmunerkrankungen, einschließlich des bullösen Pemphigoids (BP), beitragen. In der vorliegenden Studie sollte untersucht werden, ob in einer polnischen Kohorte die C3435T- und G2677T/A-Polymorphismen im ABCB1-Gen mit dem Risiko für ein BP assoziiert sind. Die Studie umfasste 71 Patienten mit BP und 156 gesunde Probanden. Der C3435T-Polymorphismus wurde mittels PCR-RFLP bestimmt und der G2677T/A-Polymorphismus mittels Allel-spezifischer PCR. Es gab zwar keine Korrelation zwischen dem C3435-Polymorphismus und dem BP-Risiko, aber wir konnten eine derartige Assoziation hinsichtlich des G2677T/A-Polymorphismus nachweisen. Das relative Risiko eines BP war bei Personen mit dem 2677TA-Genotyp um mehr als den Faktor fünf erhöht (OR = 5,52; p = 0,0063) und bei Trägern des 2677TT-Genotyps mehr als verdoppelt (OR = 2,40; p = 0,0076). Mit 2,40 (p = 0,000018) war die OR bei Trägern des 2677T-Allels ebenfalls erhöht. Die höhere Prävalenz des 2677GG-Genotyps und des 2677G-Allels bei der Kontrollgruppe sowie eine OR < 1,0 (0,22 beziehungsweise 0,33) legen eine Schutzfunktion des 2677G-Allels hinsichtlich der Ausbildung eines BP nahe. Die Ergebnisse der vorliegenden Studie zeigen, dass der G2677T/A-Polymorphismus im ABCB1-Gen das Risiko für die Entstehung eines BP beeinflussen könnte. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Wilhelm Winkler (1842-1910) - a Thuringian private astronomer and maecenas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weise, Wilfried; Dorschner, Johann; Schielicke, Reinhardt E.

    Wilhelm Winkler was born in 1842 in Eisenberg, Thuringia, as the son of a lawyer. After attending the trading high school in Gera, Winkler worked as a merchant in Eisenberg, following in the footsteps of his grandfather. In 1875 he gave up this trade and devoted his time entirely to astronomy. Advised by Carl Bruhns, director of the Leipzig University Observatory, he established an observatory on his estate in Gohlis near Leipzig. From 1878 Winkler regularly observed sunspots; other fields of his observational interests were comets, occultations of stars by the Moon, and Jupiter's satellites. In 1887 he went to Jena, where he contacted Ernst Abbe, who was the head of the Jena observatory, too. For some years, Winkler's instruments were used in the new observatory erected by Abbe, which replaced the old Ducal Observatory of the Goethe era. Winkler donated the precision pendulum clock and some other instruments to this observatory. He also offered his observational assistance whenever it was wanted. In 1893 Winkler built up his own observatory in Jena and published annual reports on his work in the Vierteljahrsschrift of the Astronomische Gesellschaft. His observational results mainly appeared in the journal Astronomische Nachrichten. In 1902 he was awarded an honorary doctor's degree by the Philosophical Faculty of Jena University. However, at that time his physical constitution began gradually to fade. He lost his left eye due to a sarcoma, and finally he died at the age of 68. In his will, he left 100 000 Mark in form of securities to Jena University (Winkler Foundation). The University Observatory got his 4.5 m dome, the transport of which from his residence to the final site was also paid for by him, several instruments, and a lot of books. In 1936 Winkler's dome was closed by the University. The observatory was transferred from the University to the Zeiss works in exchange for the observatory in the Jena Forst. Zeiss sponsored the reconstruction of the old dome

  17. PREFACE: XXV International Conference on Photonic, Electronic and Atomic Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Uwe; Moshammer, Robert; Mokler, Paul; Ullrich, Joachim

    2007-07-01

    in Belfast back in Europe, and the subsequent one, 2013 in Lanzhou, will be the first one ever held in China. A great perspective for this ever-growing field of science! Uwe Becker (Fritz-Haber-Institut, Berlin) Robert Moshammer (Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Heidelberg) Paul Mokler (Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt) Joachim Ullrich (Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Heidelberg) Editors Relaxed atmosphere for discussions during coffee breaks at ICPEAC XXV in Freiburg. Relaxed atmosphere for discussions during coffee breaks at ICPEAC XXV in Freiburg. The PDF file contains details of previous conferences, sponsors, exhibitors and committees.

  18. Alpine fold-and-thrust structures revealed: A 3D model from the Helvetic Zone (Säntis area, Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sala, Paola; Pfiffner, Adrian; Frehner, Marcel

    2013-04-01

    :25.000, Erläuterungen 78 Kempf, T.A., 1966: Geologie des westlichen Säntisgebirges. Beiträge geologische Karte der Schweiz N.F. 128. Pfiffner, O.A., 2011: Structural Map of the Helvetic Zone of the Swiss Alps. Geological Special Map no.128. Explanatory notes. Schlatter, L., 1941: Neue geologische Untersuchungen im mittleren Säntisgebirge. Bericht (Jahrbuch) der St. Gallischen Naturwissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft, Bd. 70.

  19. [Prolonged weaning: S2k-guideline published by the German Respiratory Society].

    PubMed

    Schönhofer, B; Geiseler, J; Dellweg, D; Moerer, O; Barchfeld, T; Fuchs, H; Karg, O; Rosseau, S; Sitter, H; Weber-Carstens, S; Westhoff, M; Windisch, W

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) is an essential part of modern intensive care medicine. MV is performed in patients with severe respiratory failure caused by insufficiency of the respiratory muscles and/or lung parenchymal disease when/after other treatments, i. e. oxygen, body position, secretion management, medication or non invasive ventilation have failed.In the majority of ICU patients weaning is routine and does not present any problems. Nevertheless 40-50 % of the time during mechanical ventilation is spent on weaning. About 20 % of patients need continued MV despite resolution of the conditions which originally precipitated the need for MV.There maybe a combination of reasons; chronic lung disease, comorbidities, age and conditions acquired in ICU (critical care neuromyopathy, psychological problems). According to an International Consensus Conference the criteria for "prolonged weaning" are fulfilled if patients fail at least three weaning attempts or require more than 7 days of weaning after the first spontaneous breathing trial. Prolonged weaning is a challenge. An inter- and multi-disciplinary approach is essential for weaning success. Complex, difficult to wean patients who fulfill the criteria for "prolonged weaning" can still be successfully weaned in specialised weaning units in about 50% of cases.In patients with unsuccessful weaning, invasive mechanical ventilation has to be arranged either at home or in a long term care facility.This S2-guideline was developed because of the growing number of patients requiring prolonged weaning. It is an initiative of the German Respiratory Society (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Pneumologie und Beatmungsmedizin e. V., DGP) in cooperation with other societies engaged in the field.The guideline is based on a systematic literature review of other guidelines, the Cochrane Library and PubMed.The consensus project was chaired by the Association of Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (Arbeitsgemeinschaft der

  20. Die Bedeutung der blauen Farbe in der Dermatoskopie.

    PubMed

    Popadić, Mirjana; Sinz, Christoph; Kittler, Harald

    2017-03-01

    Hautläsionen mit blauer Färbung werden häufig chirurgisch entfernt, um Malignität auszuschließen zu können. Das Ziel der vorliegenden Studie war es, die Bedeutung der blauen Färbung zu untersuchen. Wir untersuchten dermatoskopische Bilder retrospektiv auf blaue Farbe und klassifizierten sie gemäß der Musteranalyse. Von 1.123 pigmentierten Hautläsionen wiesen 144 (12,8 %) eine blaue Färbung auf. Von diesen waren 92 (63,9 %) bösartig. Unter den Läsionen mit Blaufärbung waren Nävi (n = 35, 24,3 %) und seborrhoische Keratosen (n = 8, 5,6 %) die häufigsten gutartigen Diagnosen. Von 103 (71,5 %) Läsionen mit einem strukturlosen blauen Muster waren acht (7,8 %) vollständig blau gefärbt und 95 (92,2 %) teilweise blau, davon zeigten 81 (78,6 %) periphere oder fleckige und 14 (13.6 %) eine zentrale Blaufärbung. Die meisten Läsionen mit peripherer oder fleckiger blauer Färbung waren Melanome (n = 47, 58 %), wohingegen die meisten Läsionen mit zentraler Blaufärbung Nävi darstellten (n = 9, 64,3 %). Von 28 Läsionen mit blauen Schollen waren 17 (60,7 %) Basalzellkarzinome. Bezüglich der Malignität war der positive prädiktive Wert der blauen Farbe 63,9 % (95 % KI: 56,0-71,8 %). Unter blaugefärbten bösartigen Läsionen ist eine strukturlose periphere oder fleckige blaue Farbe ein Hinweis auf Melanome, während blaue Schollen auf ein Basalzellkarzinom hinweisen. Als Fallstricke können sich seborrhoische Keratosen erweisen, die eine Blaufärbung zeigen können, sowie einige Nävi, vor allem kombinierte. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. What drives galactic magnetism?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chyży, K. T.; Sridhar, S. S.; Jurusik, W.

    2017-07-01

    reveals that high values of B are not restricted by the Hubble type and even dwarf (starbursting) galaxies can produce strong magnetic fields. However, weaker fields appear exclusively in later Hubble types and B as low as about 5 μG is not seen among typical spirals. Conclusions: The processes of generation of magnetic field in the dwarf and Magellanic-type galaxies are similar to those in the massive spirals and starbursts and are mainly coupled to local star-formation activity involving the small-scale dynamo mechanism. Based on observations with the 100-m telescope at Effelsberg operated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (MPIfR) on behalf of the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft.

  2. Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical (THM) Coupled Simulation of a Generic Site for Disposal of High Level Nuclear Waste in Claystone in Germany: Exemplary Proof of the Integrity of the Geological Barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massmann, J.; Ziefle, G.; Jobmann, M.

    2016-12-01

    Claystone is investigated as a potential host rock for the disposal of high level nuclear waste (HLW). In Germany, DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH, the BGR and the "Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS)" are developing an integrated methodology for safety assessment within the R&D project "ANSICHT". One part herein is the demonstration of integrity of the geological barrier to ensure safe containment of radionuclides over 1 million years. The mechanical excavation of an underground repository, the ex­po­si­tion of claystone to at­mos­pheric air, the insertion of backfill, buffer, sealing and supporting material as well as the deposition of heat producing waste constitute a sig­nif­i­cant disturbance of the underground system. A complex interacting scheme of thermal, hydraulic and mechanical (THM) processes can be expected. In this work, the finite element software OpenGeoSys, main­ly de­vel­oped at the "Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research GmbH (UFZ)", is used to simulate and evaluate several THM coupled effects in the repository surroundings up to the surface over a time span of 1 million years. The numerical setup is based on two generic geological models inspired by the representative geology of potentially suitable regions in North- and South Germany. The results give an insight into the evolution of temperature, pore pressure, stresses as well as deformation and enables statements concerning the extent of the significantly influenced area. One important effect among others is the temperature driven change in the densities of the solid and liquid phase and its influence on the stress field. In a further step, integrity criteria have been quantified, based on specifications of the German federal ministry of the environment. The exemplary numerical evaluation of these criteria demonstrates, how numerical simulations can be used to prove the integrity of the geological barrier and detect potential vulnerabilities. Fig.: Calculated zone of

  3. Limits on the spatial variations of the electron-to-proton mass ratio in the Galactic plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levshakov, S. A.; Reimers, D.; Henkel, C.; Winkel, B.; Mignano, A.; Centurión, M.; Molaro, P.

    2013-11-01

    Aims: We aim to validate the Einstein equivalence principle (local position invariance) by limiting the fractional changes in the electron-to-proton mass ratio, μ = me/mp, measured in Galactic plane objects. Methods: High-resolution spectral observations of dark clouds in the inversion line of NH3(1, 1) and pure rotational lines of other molecules (the so-called ammonia method) were performed at the Medicina 32-m and the Effelsberg 100-m radio telescopes to measure the radial velocity offsets, ΔRV = Vrot - Vinv, between the rotational and inversion transitions, which have different sensitivities to the value of μ. Results: In our previous observations (2008-2010), a mean offset of ⟨ΔRV⟩ = 0.027 ± 0.010 km s-1 (3σ confidence level (C.L.)) was measured. To test for possible hidden errors, we carried out additional observations of a sample of molecular cores in 2010-2013. As a result, a systematic error with an amplitude ~0.02 km s-1 in the radial velocities was revealed. The averaged offset between the radial velocities of the rotational transitions of HC3N(2-1), HC5N(9-8), HC7N(16-15), HC7N(21-20), and HC7N(23-22), and the inversion transition of NH3(1, 1) is ⟨ΔRV⟩ = 0.003 ± 0.018 km s-1 (3σ C.L.). This value, when interpreted in terms of Δμ/μ = (μobs - μlab)/μlab, constraints the μ-variation at the level of Δμ/μ < 2 × 10-8 (3σ C.L.), which is the most stringent limit on the fractional changes in μ based on astronomical observations. Based on observations obtained with the Effelsberg 100-m telescope operated by the Max-Planck Institut für Radioastronomie on behalf of the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (Germany), and with the Medicina 32-m telescope operated by INAF (Italy).

  4. Diagnostische Präzision der komponentenbasierten vs. der extraktbasierten In-vitro-Diagnostik von Insektengift-Allergien: Auswirkungen auf das klinische Management.

    PubMed

    Seyfarth, Florian; Miguel, Diana; Schliemann, Sibylle; Hipler, Uta-Christina

    2017-05-01

    Die Bestimmung von spezifischen IgE-Antikörpern spielt eine zentrale Bedeutung bei der Diagnostik von Bienen- und Wespengiftallergien. In den letzten Jahren wurden die komponentenbasierte Diagnostik (CRD) eingeführt, die die Bestimmung spezifischer IgE-Antikörper gegen die Allergene Api m 1, Ves v 1, Ves v 5 und Pol d 5 sowie kreuzreaktive Kohlenhydratdeterminanten (CCDs) erlaubt. Hierdurch soll vor allem bei Probanden mit Doppelsensibilisierungen die klinische Relevanz der einzelnen Sensibilisierungen besser beurteilt werden können. Die spezifischen IgE-Antikörper-Bestimmungen an 143 Probanden mit Bienen- und/oder Wespengiftallergie erfolgten mit den extraktbasierten ImmunoCAP®-Allergenen i1 und i3 sowie den ImmunoCAP®-Allergenkomponenten i208-211 und o214 (Api m 1, Ves v 1, Ves v 5, Pol d 5, CCD). Bei Doppelsensibilisierten wurde zusätzlich ein Inhibitionstest durchgeführt. An einem Teilkollektiv der Studienpopulation erfolgten sIgE-Bestimmungen gegen Api m 1, Api m 4, Pol d 5 und Ves v 5 mittels Allergiechip (ISAC®, n  =  44). Die Sensitivität von Ves v 5 bei isolierten Wespengiftallergikern betrug 78,5 %, gemeinsam mit Ves v 1 stieg diese auf 92,3 %. Die Sensitivität von Api m 1 bei isolierten Bienengiftallergikern betrug 25 %. Die komponentenbasierte Diagnostik und Inhibitionstests bei Doppelsensibilisierten lieferten divergente Ergebnisse. Die CRD mittels ISAC®-Allergiechip erbrachte deutliche Unterschiede vor allem im Hinblick auf die Diagnostik von Api m 1 und CCDs. Die CRD bereichert das diagnostische Spektrum, sofern sie nicht allein sondern zusätzlich zu den etablierten Verfahren eingesetzt wird. Sie sollte neben Ves v 5 stets die Bestimmung der IgE-Antikörper gegen Ves v 1 umfassen. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Subjective sleep complaints indicate objective sleep problems in psychosomatic patients: a prospective polysomnographic study.

    PubMed

    Linden, Michael; Dietz, Marie; Veauthier, Christian; Fietze, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate the relationship between subjective complaints and polysomnographical parameters in psychosomatic patients. A convenience sample of patients from a psychosomatic inpatient unit were classified according to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) as very poor sleepers (PSQI >10, n=80) and good sleepers (PSQI <6, n=19). They then underwent a polysomnography and in the morning rated their previous night's sleep using a published protocol (Deutschen Gesellschaft für Schlafforschung und Schlafmedizin morning protocol [MP]). In the polysomnography, significant differences were found between very poor and good sleepers according to the PSQI with respect to sleep efficiency and time awake after sleep onset. When comparing objective PSG and subjective MP, the polysomnographical sleep onset latency was significantly positively correlated with the corresponding parameters of the MP: the subjective sleep onset latency in minutes and the subjective evaluation of sleep onset latency (very short, short, normal, long, very long) were positively correlated with the sleep latency measured by polysomnography. The polysomnographical time awake after sleep onset (in minutes) was positively correlated with the subjective time awake after sleep onset (in minutes), evaluation of time awake after sleep onset (seldom, normal often), and subjective restfulness. The polysomnographical total sleep time (TST) was positively correlated with the subjective TST. Conversely, the polysomnographical TST was negatively correlated with the evaluation of TST (high polysomnographical TST was correlated with the subjective evaluation of having slept short or normal and vice versa). The polysomnographical sleep efficiency was positively correlated with subjective feeling of current well-being in the morning and subjective TST and negatively with subjective restfulness, subjective sleep onset latency, subjective evaluation of sleep onset latency, and evaluation of time awake after sleep

  6. Evaluation in medical education: A topical review of target parameters, data collection tools and confounding factors.

    PubMed

    Schiekirka, Sarah; Feufel, Markus A; Herrmann-Lingen, Christoph; Raupach, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Hintergrund und Fragestellung: Die Evaluation ist fester Bestandteil der Lehre an Medizinischen Fakultäten. Gemäß den Standards der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Evaluation müssen Evaluationsinstrumente eine faire und genaue Beurteilung der Lehrqualität erlauben. Entsprechend müssen die genutzten Erhebungsinstrumente eine hohe Reliabilität und Validität aufweisen. In dieser Übersichtsarbeit wird die verfügbare Literatur zur Evaluation des Medizinstudiums mit Hinblick auf die möglichen Dimensionen der Lehrqualität, die psychometrischen Eigenschaften der Instrumente und potentielle Störfaktoren dargestellt.Methoden: Ausgehend von einer Schlagwortsuche in Pubmed, PsycINFO und PSYNDEX wurde eine Literatur-Recherche zur Evaluation im Medizinstudium durchgeführt. Berücksichtigung fanden Arbeiten, die bis zum 30.6.2011 in die Datenbanken aufgenommen wurden sowie „graue Literatur“. Die Ergebnisse werden in narrativer Form präsentiert.Ergebnisse: Es wurden vier Dimensionen der Lehrqualität im Medizinstudium identifiziert: Strukturen, Prozesse, Dozenten-Charakteristika und das Lehr-Ergebnis. Zur Betrachtung der ersten drei Dimensionen werden in erster Linie studentische Bewertungen herangezogen. Hierfür liegen einige reliable, in deutscher Sprache verfügbare Instrumente vor. Die Validität studentischer Bewertungen wird jedoch durch zahlreiche potentielle Störfaktoren eingeschränkt. Zur Beurteilung des Lehr-Ergebnisses werden vor allem Prüfungsleistungen herangezogen, deren Nutzbarkeit allerdings aufgrund methodischer Probleme eingeschränkt sein kann. Zudem genügen nicht alle Prüfungen an deutschen medizinischen Fakultäten den gängigen Qualitätsstandards.Folgerung: Die Auswahl von Instrumenten zur Evaluation des Medizinstudiums sollte sich daran orientieren, welche Dimension der Lehre beurteilt werden soll. Entsprechend können Evaluationsergebnisse auch nur vor dem Hintergrund des vom genutzten Erhebungsinstrument abgebildeten Konstrukts und

  7. The determination of traces of O, N and C in the refractory metals Mo and W-an international effort.

    PubMed

    Ortner, H M

    1979-08-01

    The influence of traces of O, N and C on the physical and especially the mechanical properties of the refractory metals Mo and W is discussed. The technological and economic importance of determination of O, N and C in Mo and W is elucidated. The Commission of the European Communities launched a relevant multidisciplinary Community Programme as early as 1969. The present state, within this programme, of the determination of O, N and C in Mo and W is outlined. Additional studies by the refractory metals group of the chemistry section of the Gesellschaft Deutscher Metallhütten and Bergleute (GDMB) are also reported on. Oxygen. Two round-robin tests were conducted by the "non-metals in refractory metals" group of the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) for the determination of oxygen in molybdenum. Reducing fusion, 14-MeV neutron-, photon- and charged-particle activation analysis yielded comparable results of about 15 ppm O. Homogeneity studies were conclusive and the reference material was certified and is available from BCR. Oxygen concentrations in tungsten turned out to be even lower, certainly below 5 ppm. Only activation analytical methods will be adequate to determine the true oxygen content and work in this direction is being undertaken. Nitrogen. Relevant BCR round-robin tests for traces of N in Mo and W were not conclusive. Discrepancies were also found in a first round-robin test by the GDMB. It was possible, however, to reveal systematic errors frequently encountered in the classical Kjeldahl method, which turned out not to be applicable to the determination of nitrogen below 1O ppm. Only a newly devised micro-Kjeldahl method is capable of determining nitrogen down to 1 ppm and results for Mo are in good agreement with those of fusion methods. Nitrogen contents in W are presumably in the 100 ppM range and only determinable by ultrahigh-vacuum diffusion extraction and activation methods. Carbon. Carbon contents in Mo and W are also often presumably in the

  8. Observation of DNA damage of human hepatoma cells irradiated by heavy ions using comet assay

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Li-Mei; Li, Wen-Jian; Pang, Xin-Yue; Gao, Qing-Xiang; Feng, Yan; Zhou, Li-Bin; Zhang, Gao-Hua

    2003-01-01

    AIM: Now many countries have developed cancer therapy with heavy ions, especially in GSI (Gesellschaft fürSchwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt, Germany), remarkable results have obtained, but due to the complexity of particle track structure, the basic theory still needs further researching. In this paper, the genotoxic effects of heavy ions irradiation on SMMC-7721 cells were measured using the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). The information about the DNA damage made by other radiations such as X-ray, γ-ray, UV and fast neutron irradiation is very plentiful, while little work have been done on the heavy ions so far. Hereby we tried to detect the reaction of liver cancer cells to heavy ion using comet assay, meanwhile to establish a database for clinic therapy of cancer with the heavy ions. METHODS: The human hepatoma cells were chosen as the test cell line irradiated by 80Mev/u 20Ne10+ on HIRFL (China), the radiation-doses were 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 Gy, and then comet assay was used immediately to detect the DNA damages, 100-150 cells per dose-sample (30-50 cells were randomly observed at constant depth of the gel). The tail length and the quantity of the cells with the tail were put down. EXCEL was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: We obtained clear images by comet assay and found that SMMC-7721 cells were all damaged apparently from the dose 0.5 Gy to 8 Gy (t-test: P < 0.001, vs control). The tail length and tail moment increased as the doses increased, and the number of cells with tails increased with increasing doses. When doses were higher than 2 Gy, nearly 100% cells were damaged. Furthermore, both tail length and tail moment, showed linear equation. CONCLUSION: From the clear comet assay images, our experiment proves comet assay can be used to measure DNA damages by heavy ions. Meanwhile DNA damages have a positive correlation with the dose changes of heavy ions and SMMC-7721 cells have a great radiosensitivity to 20Ne10+. Different

  9. Subjective sleep complaints indicate objective sleep problems in psychosomatic patients: a prospective polysomnographic study

    PubMed Central

    Linden, Michael; Dietz, Marie; Veauthier, Christian; Fietze, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Objective To elucidate the relationship between subjective complaints and polysomnographical parameters in psychosomatic patients. Method A convenience sample of patients from a psychosomatic inpatient unit were classified according to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) as very poor sleepers (PSQI >10, n=80) and good sleepers (PSQI <6, n=19). They then underwent a polysomnography and in the morning rated their previous night’s sleep using a published protocol (Deutschen Gesellschaft für Schlafforschung und Schlafmedizin morning protocol [MP]). Results In the polysomnography, significant differences were found between very poor and good sleepers according to the PSQI with respect to sleep efficiency and time awake after sleep onset. When comparing objective PSG and subjective MP, the polysomnographical sleep onset latency was significantly positively correlated with the corresponding parameters of the MP: the subjective sleep onset latency in minutes and the subjective evaluation of sleep onset latency (very short, short, normal, long, very long) were positively correlated with the sleep latency measured by polysomnography. The polysomnographical time awake after sleep onset (in minutes) was positively correlated with the subjective time awake after sleep onset (in minutes), evaluation of time awake after sleep onset (seldom, normal often), and subjective restfulness. The polysomnographical total sleep time (TST) was positively correlated with the subjective TST. Conversely, the polysomnographical TST was negatively correlated with the evaluation of TST (high polysomnographical TST was correlated with the subjective evaluation of having slept short or normal and vice versa). The polysomnographical sleep efficiency was positively correlated with subjective feeling of current well-being in the morning and subjective TST and negatively with subjective restfulness, subjective sleep onset latency, subjective evaluation of sleep onset latency, and evaluation of

  10. Dynamical Properties of z ~ 2 Star-forming Galaxies and a Universal Star Formation Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouché, N.; Cresci, G.; Davies, R.; Eisenhauer, F.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Genzel, R.; Gillessen, S.; Lehnert, M.; Lutz, D.; Nesvadba, N.; Shapiro, K. L.; Sternberg, A.; Tacconi, L. J.; Verma, A.; Cimatti, A.; Daddi, E.; Renzini, A.; Erb, D. K.; Shapley, A.; Steidel, C. C.

    2007-12-01

    , 075.A-0466, 076.A-0527, 077.A-0576, 078.A-0600, and 079.A-0341 and on observations obtained at the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI). IRAM is funded by the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (France), the Max-Planck Gesellschaft (Germany), and the Instituto Geografico Nacional (Spain).

  11. Detections of CO Molecular Gas in 24 μm Bright ULIRGs at z ~ 2 in the Spitzer First Look Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Lin; Tacconi, L. J.; Fiolet, N.; Sajina, A.; Omont, A.; Lutz, D.; Zamojski, M.; Neri, R.; Cox, P.; Dasyra, K. M.

    2010-05-01

    the Institute for Radioastronomy at Millimeter Wavelengths (IRAM) Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI). IRAM is funded by the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (France), the Max-Planck Gesellschaft (Germany), and the Instituto Geografico Nacional (Spain).

  12. Starburst activity in the host galaxy of the z =2.58 quasar J1409+5628

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beelen, A.; Cox, P.; Pety, J.; Carilli, C. L.; Bertoldi, F.; Momjian, E.; Omont, A.; Petitjean, P.; Petric, A. O.

    2004-08-01

    We report the detection of CO emission from the optically luminous, radio-quiet quasar J140955.5+562827 (hereafter J1409+5628), at a redshift zCO =2.583. We also present VLA continuum maps and VLBA high spatial resolution observations at 1.4 GHz. Both the CO(3->2) and CO(7->6) emission lines are detected using the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer. The 3->2/7->6 line luminosity ratio is about 1/3, indicating the presence of warm and dense molecular gas with an estimated mass of 6 × 1010 M⊙. The infrared-to-CO luminosity ratio LFIR/L'CO(1->0) ≈ 500 L⊙ (K km s-1 pc2)-1, comparable to values found for other high-z sources where CO line emission is seen. J1409+5628 is detected using the VLA with a 1.4 GHz rest-frame luminosity density of 4.0 × 1025 W Hz-1. The rest-frame radio to far-infrared ratio, q, has a value of 2.0 which is similar to the values found in star forming galaxies. At the 30 mas resolution of the VLBA, J1409+5628 is not detected with a 4σ upper limit to the surface brightness of 0.29 mJy beam-1. This implies a limit to the intrinsic brightness temperature of 2 × 105 K at 8 GHz, typical for nuclear starbursts and more than two orders of magnitude fainter than typical radio-loud active galactic nuclei. Both the properties of the CO line emission and the radio emission from J1409+5628 are therefore consistent with those expected for a star forming galaxy. In J1409+5628 young massive stars are the dominant source of dust heating, accounting for most of the infrared luminosity. The massive reservoir of molecular gas can sustain the star formation rate of a few 1000 M⊙ yr-1 implied by the far-infrared luminosity for about 10 million years. This paper is based on observations obtained with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. IRAM is funded by Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (France), the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (Germany), and the Instituto Geografico Nacional (Spain).

  13. [Management of malnutrition in geriatric hospital units in Germany].

    PubMed

    Smoliner, C; Volkert, D; Wirth, R

    2013-01-01

    Elderly hospitalized patients have a high risk for developing malnutrition. The causes for an impaired nutritional status in old age are various and the impact is far-reaching. Malnutrition is a comorbidity that is well treatable and various studies show the favorable effect of nutrition therapy on nutritional status and prognosis. In the past few years, several guidelines have been developed to improve nutritional management and to ensure standardized procedures to identify patients at nutritional risk who will benefit from nutrition therapy. However, it is still not clear to what extent nutrition management has been implemented in geriatric wards in Germany. This survey is intended to give an overview on the situation of the current diagnosis and therapy of malnutrition and nutritional management in geriatric hospital units for acute and rehabilitative care. In 2011, the task force of the German Geriatric Society ("Deutsche Gesellschaft für Geriatrie", DGG) developed a questionnaire which was sent out to 272 directors of geriatric hospital and rehabilitational units. Included were questions regarding the size and staffing of the hospital and wards, food provision, diagnosis and therapy of malnutrition, as well as communication of malnutrition and nutrition therapy in the doctor's letter. A total of 38% of the questioned units answered. The following information was compiled: 31% of the geriatric facilities employed a doctor with training in clinical nutrition, 42% employ dieticians or nutritional scientists, and 90% speech and language pathologists. In 36% of the wards, a so-called geriatric menu is offered (small portions, rich in energy and/or protein, easy to chew). In 89% of the wards, snacks are available between meals. Diagnosis of malnutrition is mainly done by evaluation of weight and BMI. Validated and established screening tools are only used in 40% of the geriatric wards. Food records are carried out in 64% of the units when needed. Diagnosed

  14. Smartphone application of primary care guidelines used in education of medical students.

    PubMed

    Waldmann, Uta-Maria; Weckbecker, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Hintergrund und Fragestellung: Die Leitlinien der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Allgemeinmedizin (DEGAM) zu häufigen und wichtigen Beratungsanlässen in der Hausarztpraxis sind ein zentraler Inhalt der Lehre im Fach Allgemeinmedizin. Durch die Autoren wurden sie als App für Mobiltelefone aufbereitet und stehen somit nun Hausärzten und Studierenden jederzeit zur Verfügung. Die vorliegende Studie untersucht die Fragestellung: Wie bewerten Studierende den Nutzen dieser Anwendung für ihren Lernprozess im Fach Allgemeinmedizin?Methodik: Die Kurzversionen der 15 DEGAM-Leitlinien wurden als (Smartphone-Betriebssystem-unabhängige) Web-App mit Möglichkeit der Offline-Nutzung umgesetzt und Studierenden in Kurs, Blockpraktikum, Wahlfächern und PJ (Praktisches Jahr) Allgemeinmedizin angeboten. Die Evaluation erfolgte durch eine strukturierte Befragung über die Feedbackfunktion der Moodle-Lernplattform www.elearning-allgemeinmedizin.de mit Likertskalen und Freitextkommentaren.Ergebnisse: Der Evaluations-Rücklauf kam von 14 (25%) der 56 studentischen TesterInnen aus dem Kurs Allgemeinmedizin (9), dem Blockpraktikum (1), dem PJ (1) und Wahlfächern (4). Die App selbst sehen die Studierenden als Mehrwert zur Print/PDF-Version. Sie nutzen sie häufig und erfolgreich in Nischenzeiten und vor/während/nach Lehrveranstaltungen. Neben allgemeinem Interesse / Kennenlernen der Leitlinien und Lernen wird sie zum Nachschlagen konkreter (theoretischer) Fragestellungen eingesetzt, weniger im Zusammenhang mit Patientenkontakten. Interesse und Kenntnis der Leitlinien wird durch die App gefördert, insgesamt ist die Anwendung für die Bedürfnisse dieser Usergruppe gut geeignet.Diskussion: Die Leitlinien-App wurde von Studierenden sehr positiv bewertet: Als moderne Form, ihnen die Leitlinien näher zu bringen und ihre Kenntnisse zu erweitern, gerade auch durch den flexiblen Einsatz in Nischenzeiten und das attraktive Medium Smartphone. Letzteres verhindert aber auch eine verbindliche

  15. Establishment of the Certification System “Gynaecological Dysplasia” in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Beckmann, M. W.; Quaas, J.; Bischofberger, A.; Kämmerle, A.; Lux, M. P.; Wesselmann, S.

    2014-01-01

    Gynaecological cancer centres have been established nationwide in Germany since 2008 according to the certification system of the German Cancer Society (Deutsche Krebsgesellschaft e. V. [DKG]) and the German Society for Gynaecology and Obstetrics (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gynäkologie und Geburtshilfe e. V. [DGGG]). However, patient access to the certified gynaecological cancer centres is currently only possible through direct referrals. A longitudinal structure with the corresponding long-term documentation of both the high-grade precursors as well as the cancers does not exist as yet. According to the aims of the National Cancer Plan, a corresponding structure for the cancer entity “cervix carcinoma” should be established. The foundations for such a structure are appropriate diagnostic units that are responsible, after nationwide screening, for clarification according to guideline-conform principles. On the basis of the vote of the certification commission for gynaecological cancer centres under the chairmanship of the DKG, the Working Group for Gynaecological Oncology (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynäkologische Onkologie e. V. [AGO]), the Committee on Cervical Pathology and Colposcopy (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Zervixpathologie & Kolposkopie [AG-CPC]) and the DGGG the certification system for gynaecological dysplasia has been established. As a general principle, a distinction is made between the certification of a consulting practice for gynaecological dysplasia and a gynaecological dysplasia facility in order to integrate both outpatient and inpatient health-care facilities into the certification system. In analogy to the further catalogue of requirements from the DKG, quantitative and qualitative minimum numbers are demanded. Furthermore, the requirements of the certification process include a summary of patient information, the applied guidelines, continuing and further training, interdisciplinary cooperation in tumour boards, contents or, respectively

  16. Editorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-07-01

    This issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics sees the launch of a new section dedicated to the applied aspects of interface and surface science. The articles included in the section, in this, and in forthcoming issues reflect the growing practical importance of this field. The development of techniques for controlling growth and investigating characteristics of interfaces and surfaces has led to the creation of a wide range of devices whose performance may be highly dependent on interface and surface properties. With the introduction of the Applied Interfaces and Surfaces section we hope to provide a forum tailored to the needs of scientists concerned with all aspects of this field, thus reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the subject. The section is intended to complement the Surface and Interface Science section of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, which covers the fundamental aspects of this field. The Applied Interfaces and Surfaces section particularly invites papers on the topics listed below. Emphasis will be given to research relating to practical techniques for the growth, analysis and characterization of surfaces and interfaces, and on the effects of surface and interface properties on devices and applications. Practical aspects of the growth of interfaces, surfaces and thin films Nanoscale mechanical properties of interfaces and residual stresses Thermal treatment of surfaces Techniques for the preparation of surfaces Techniques for the analysis and characterization of surfaces and interfaces, such as AES, SIMS, STM, TEM, AFM, etc Surface modification using plasmas and other techniques Given its aims and scope, I am particularly pleased to launch this new section with a collection of papers from the recent International Symposium on Atomic Bonding at Internal Interfaces: Modelling and Spectroscopy. This meeting was held at the conference site of the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft and the conference organizers have kindly provided an

  17. How to define severely injured patients? -- an Injury Severity Score (ISS) based approach alone is not sufficient.

    PubMed

    Paffrath, Thomas; Lefering, Rolf; Flohé, Sascha

    2014-10-01

    Multiple injured patients, polytrauma or severely injured patients are terms used as synonyms in international literature describing injured patients with a high risk of mortality and cost consuming therapeutic demands. In order to advance the definition of these terms, we analysed a large trauma registry. In detail, we compared critically ill trauma patients first specified on a pure anatomical base according to the ISS or NISS, second in the original "polytrauma definition" with two body regions affected and finally all of them combined with a physiological component. Records that were collected in the TraumaRegister DGU(®) of the German Trauma Society (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Unfallchirurgie, DGU) between 1993 and 2011 (92,479 patients) were considered for this study. All patients with primary admission from scene with a minimum hospital stay of 48 h and an Injury Severity Score (ISS)≥ 16 were included. Pre-hospital and early admission data were used to determine physiological risk factors and calculate individual risk of death using the Revised Injury Severity Classification (RISC). 45,350 patients met inclusion criteria. The overall hospital mortality rate was 20.4%. The predicted mortality according to the RISC-Score was 21.6%. 36,897 patients (81.4%) had injuries in several body regions. The prevalence of the five physiological risk factors varied between 17% (high age) and 34% (unconsciousness). There were 17,617 patients (38.8%) without any risk factor present on admission, while 30.6% (n=13,890) of the patients had one and 30.5% (n=13,843) had two or more factors present. Patients with ISS ≥ 16 but no physiological risk factor present had a very low mortality rate of 3.1% (542 of 17,617). With an increasing number of physiological factors there was an almost linear increase in mortality up to an 86% rate in patients with all five factors present. The 'polytrauma' definition of Butcher and colleagues with AIS ≥ 3 in at least two different body

  18. In-situ measurement of bound states in the continuum in photonic crystal slabs (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalchmair, Stefan; Gansch, Roman; Genevet, Patrice; Zederbauer, Tobias; MacFarland, Donald; Detz, Hermann; Andrews, Aaron Maxwell; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried; Capasso, Federico; Loncar, Marko

    2016-04-01

    applications range include nonlinear optics, nano-optics, sensing and optical computing. This research was supported by the Austrian Science Fund FWF (Grant No. F2503-N17), the PLATON project 35N, the "Gesellschaft für Mikro- und Nanoelektronik" GMe and the European Research Council (Grant no. 639109). [1] C.W. Hsu et al. "Observation of trapped light within the radiation continuum", Nature 499, 188 (2013) [2] Y. Yang Y et al., "Analytical Perspective for Bound States in the Continuum in Photonic Crystal Slabs", Phys Rev Lett 113, 037401 (2014)

  19. As International As They Would Let Us Be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Virginia

    2015-08-01

    Astronomers wanting to chart the whole sky or even part of it 24/7 must collaborate across nations, continents, and hemispheres. The Greeks were perhaps the first to try, but the pioneering modern international scientific project, von Zach’s “Himmelspolitzei,” started in 1800 at Schröter’s Lilienthal Observatory, only to have the city burned and the observatory looted by retreating French soldiers in 1813. The first post-Vereinigte Astronomische Gesellschaft asteroid wasn’t found until 1845. A few international efforts were completed in the 19th century (the AGKI and BD); the Paris-centered Carte du Ciel (1887-1964) might have been done faster with American participation (cf. the League of Nations and the international treaty that declared, without the US, the moon to be the “common Heritage of Mankind”). Kapteyn’s Selected Areas (1906) and Hale’s Solar Union (1907) were just getting started. And then there was a war, ending with a treaty (Versailles) that abolished all previously-existing cultural and scientific organizations and called for new ones, to include only the victorious countries. This included the IAU. Neutrals were to come later and the losers maybe never. In fact, partly for financial reasons, Germany did not join until 1948. Nationalistic issues have slowly disappeared from IAU agendas since the “two adhering organizations” solution was adopted for China in 1982. Member countries now come and go, mostly for economic reasons. So where are we in this International Year of Light? Discouraged by ever-brightening night skies, with bright cities signifying vibrant economies and contrails extending across borders and oceans. But also with SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) due to start up in 2015; things run late, so perhaps in the upcoming centenary of the death of Solar Union member Karl Schvarzschild. It is in Jordan, with participation from Israel, the Palestinian Authority

  20. Multicentre evaluation of the Bayer DAX system.

    PubMed

    Morosini, L; Rossetti, M; Berti, P; Pallotti, G; Fabbri, V; Mambelli, M C; Franceschin, A; Dell'Anna, L; Cappelletti, P; Brocco, G

    1993-12-01

    The analytical performance of the DAX, a high-throughput random access analyser, was studied according to ECCLS guidelines (ECCLS Document Vol. 3, No. 2, Beuth Verlag, Berlin, 1986) in a multicentre evaluation involving four laboratories. The trial took about 4 months. Determinations of 12 analytes produced more than 60,000 data. The imprecision study on 3 control sera for all analytes gave a within-run CV (median of 4 laboratories) which never exceeded 3% and was below 2% in 94% of the results. The median between-day CV was less than 3% in 92% of the results, with a highest value of 5.0%. No significant drift was detected during the 5-hour work period. No relevant sample- and cuvette-related carry-over was found. The manufacturer's claims concerning linearity were fulfilled or exceeded. The recovery of the assigned values for the control sera (median of 4 laboratories) ranged from 94 to 106%. In the method comparison on patients' samples, deviations were statistically significant in some cases, due to differences either in the methods used or in the calibration of the systems used for comparison; the regression lines, as inspected visually, and the coefficients of correlation were, however, generally acceptable. Imprecision and inaccuracy were within the acceptability limits as recommended by the Société Française de Biologie Clinique (SFBC) (Biochim. Clin. 12 (1988) 284-327) and the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Klinische Chemie (DGKC) (Dt. Arztebl. 85 (11) (1988) A697-A712). The limits of acceptance, proposed more recently by Fraser et al. (Eur. J. Clin. Chem. Clin. Biochem. 30 (1992) 311-317), were met in thirty-three of thirty-six cases. The alpha-amylase assay was significantly affected by bilirubin and haemolysis; interferences for the remaining analytes were predictable and well-known from the literature. The rate of sample throughput was found to be in agreement with that claimed by the manufacturer. The software did not present problems and was readily