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Sample records for ghost expressing trypanosoma

  1. Trypanosoma cruzi expresses diverse repetitive protein antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Hoft, D F; Kim, K S; Otsu, K; Moser, D R; Yost, W J; Blumin, J H; Donelson, J E; Kirchhoff, L V

    1989-01-01

    We screened a Trypanosoma cruzi cDNA expression library with human and rabbit anti-T. cruzi sera and identified cDNA clones that encode polypeptides containing tandemly arranged repeats which are 6 to 34 amino acids in length. The peptide repeats encoded by these cDNAs varied markedly in sequence, copy number, and location relative to the polyadenylation site of the mRNAs from which they were derived. The repeats were specific for T. cruzi, but in each case the sizes of the corresponding mRNAs and the total number of repeat copies encoded varied considerably among different isolates of the parasite. Expression of the peptide repeats was not stage specific. One of the peptide repeats occurred in a protein with an Mr of greater than 200,000 and one was in a protein of Mr 75,000 to 105,000. The frequent occurrence and diversity of these peptide repeats suggested that they may play a role in the ability of the parasite to evade immune destruction in its invertebrate and mammalian hosts, but the primary roles of these macromolecules may be unrelated to the host-parasite relationship. Images PMID:2659529

  2. Geophysical expression of the Ghost Dance fault, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ponce, D.A.; Langenheim, V.E.; ,

    1995-01-01

    Gravity and ground magnetic data collected along surveyed traverses across Antler and Live Yucca Ridges, on the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, reveal small-scale faulting associated with the Ghost Dance and possibly other faults. These studies are part of an effort to evaluate faulting in the vicinity of a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain.

  3. VSG gene expression site control in insect form Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Rudenko, G; Blundell, P A; Taylor, M C; Kieft, R; Borst, P

    1994-11-15

    When the African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei is taken up from mammals by a tse-tse fly, it replaces its variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) coat by a procyclin coat. Transcription of VSG genes stops in the fly, but transcription of sequences derived from the promoter area of the VSG expression site(s) remains high. Whether this is due to continuing high activity of one promoter or to low activity of many promoters was unclear. We have used the small differences between the sequences of different expression sites to show that multiple expression site promoters are active in insect form trypanosomes. This is confirmed by the low expression of single copy marker genes introduced into the transcribed area. However, if the expression site promoter is removed from the genomic location of the expression site and inserted in the non-transcribed spacer of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA), it is derepressed. Derepression of transcription can also be accomplished by replacing the promoter of an expression site by an rDNA promoter. We conclude that the down-regulation of VSG gene expression site promoters in insect form trypanosomes is affected by both the DNA sequence of the promoter and the genomic context in which it resides.

  4. Structural features affecting variant surface glycoprotein expression in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Böhme, Ulrike; Cross, George A M

    2003-05-01

    The glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) of Trypanosoma brucei is the most abundant GPI-anchored protein expressed on any cell, and is an essential virulence factor. To determine what structural features affect efficient expression of VSG, we made a series of mutations in two VSGs. Inserting 18 amino acids, between the amino- and carboxy-terminal domains, reduced the expression of VSG 221 to about 3% of the wild-type level. When this insertion was combined with deletion of the single carboxy-terminal subdomain, expression was reduced a further three-fold. In VSG 117, which contains two carboxy-terminal subdomains, point mutation of the intervening N-glycosylation site reduced expression about 15-fold. Deleting the most carboxy-terminal subdomain and intervening region, including the N-glycosylation site, reduced expression to 15-20% of wild type VSG, and deletion of both subdomains reduced expression to <1%. Despite their low abundance, all VSG mutants were GPI anchored on the cell surface. Our results suggest that, for a protein to be efficiently displayed on the surface of bloodstream-form T. brucei, it is essential that it contains the conserved structural motifs of a T. brucei VSG. Serum resistance-associated protein (SRA), which confers human infectivity on T. brucei, strongly resembles a VSG deletion mutant. Expression of three epitope-tagged versions of SRA in T. brucei conferred total resistance to human serum. SRA possesses a canonical GPI signal sequence, but we were unable to obtain unequivocal evidence for the presence of a GPI anchor. SRA was not released during osmotic lysis, indicating that it is not GPI anchored on the cell surface.

  5. Trypanosoma cruzi Gene Expression in Response to Gamma Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Grynberg, Priscila; Passos-Silva, Danielle Gomes; Mourão, Marina de Moraes; Hirata Jr, Roberto; Macedo, Andrea Mara; Machado, Carlos Renato; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Franco, Glória Regina

    2012-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is an organism highly resistant to ionizing radiation. Following a dose of 500 Gy of gamma radiation, the fragmented genomic DNA is gradually reconstructed and the pattern of chromosomal bands is restored in less than 48 hours. Cell growth arrests after irradiation but, while DNA is completely fragmented, RNA maintains its integrity. In this work we compared the transcriptional profiles of irradiated and non-irradiated epimastigotes at different time points after irradiation using microarray. In total, 273 genes were differentially expressed; from these, 160 were up-regulated and 113 down-regulated. We found that genes with predicted functions are the most prevalent in the down-regulated gene category. Translation and protein metabolic processes, as well as generation of precursor of metabolites and energy pathways were affected. In contrast, the up-regulated category was mainly composed of obsolete sequences (which included some genes of the kinetoplast DNA), genes coding for hypothetical proteins, and Retrotransposon Hot Spot genes. Finally, the tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1, a gene involved in double-strand DNA break repair process, was up-regulated. Our study demonstrated the peculiar response to ionizing radiation, raising questions about how this organism changes its gene expression to manage such a harmful stress. PMID:22247781

  6. Gene Discovery through Expressed Sequence Tag Sequencing in Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Verdun, Ramiro E.; Di Paolo, Nelson; Urmenyi, Turan P.; Rondinelli, Edson; Frasch, Alberto C. C.; Sanchez, Daniel O.

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) constitutes a useful approach for gene identification that, in the case of human pathogens, might result in the identification of new targets for chemotherapy and vaccine development. As part of the Trypanosoma cruzi genome project, we have partially sequenced the 5′ ends of 1,949 clones to generate ESTs. The clones were randomly selected from a normalized CL Brener epimastigote cDNA library. A total of 14.6% of the clones were homologous to previously identified T. cruzi genes, while 18.4% had significant matches to genes from other organisms in the database. A total of 67% of the ESTs had no matches in the database, and thus, some of them might be T. cruzi-specific genes. Functional groups of those sequences with matches in the database were constructed according to their putative biological functions. The two largest categories were protein synthesis (23.3%) and cell surface molecules (10.8%). The information reported in this paper should be useful for researchers in the field to analyze genes and proteins of their own interest. PMID:9784549

  7. Trypanosoma cruzi modulates gene expression of plasma membrane repair-related proteins.

    PubMed

    Brígido, Rebecca Tavares E Silva; Tavares, Paula Cristina Brígido; Santos, Marlus Alves Dos; Santos, Júlia de Gouveia; Souza, Maria Aparecida de; Goulart, Isabela Maria Bernardes; Silva, Claudio Vieira da

    2017-10-01

    Plasma membrane injury and repair is particularly prevalent in muscle cells. Here, we aimed to verify dysferlin, acid sphingomyelinase and transcriptional factor EB gene expression during Trypanosoma cruzi infection in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that the parasite modulates gene expression of these proteins in a way dependent on the number of plasma membrane interacting parasites and in a rapamycin-sensitive manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Ghost Stories: Exploiting the Convention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Judith

    1980-01-01

    Distinguishes between ghost stories and spook stories, arguing that the motivation of the writer of spook stories is to frighten the reader, while the writer of ghost stories is making a serious attempt to find expression for various kinds of psychological experience. (HOD)

  9. Delineation of the regulated Variant Surface Glycoprotein gene expression site domain of Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Sheader, Karen; Berberof, Magali; Isobe, Tomoko; Borst, Piet; Rudenko, Gloria

    2003-05-01

    The African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei is protected in the bloodstream of the mammalian host by a dense Variant Surface Glycoprotein (VSG) coat. Although an individual cell has hundreds of VSG genes, the active VSG is transcribed in a mutually exclusive fashion from one of about twenty telomeric VSG expression sites. Expression sites are regulated domains flanked by 50 bp repeat arrays and extensive tracts of repetitive elements. We have integrated exogenous rDNA and expression site promoters upstream of the 50 bp repeats of the VO2 VSG expression site. Transcription from both types of exogenous promoter is downregulated and comparable to promoters targeted into the VSG Basic Copy arrays. We show that the upstream exogenous rDNA promoter escapes VSG expression site control, as switching the downstream VO2 VSG expression site on and off does not affect its activity. Therefore, the 50 bp repeat arrays appear to be the boundary of the regulated expression site domain.

  10. Expression of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored Trypanosoma brucei transferrin-binding protein complex in insect cells.

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhri, M; Steverding, D; Kittelberger, D; Tjia, S; Overath, P

    1994-01-01

    The expression site-associated gene ESAG 6 was previously implicated in transferrin binding in the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei. ESAG 6 and the closely related ESAG 7 of T. brucei strain AnTat1.3 have now been expressed in insect cells using the baculovirus expression system. Expression of ESAG 6 alone in insect cells gives rise to a glycosylated protein of approximately 52 kDa, which is cell surface-associated through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor at its C terminus. The ESAG 7 product of about 42 kDa is also glycosylated, but lacks the glycosylphosphatidylinositol modification, and is located intracellularly. No transferrin-binding activity is observed when either ESAG is expressed independently. However, their expression results in a cell surface complex of ESAG 6 and 7 products that specifically binds transferrin. This shows that both ESAG 6 and 7 products are necessary and sufficient for binding to transferrin. Images PMID:8022802

  11. Controls of the expression of the Vsg in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Vanhamme, L; Pays, E

    1998-03-01

    We present an overview of the regulation of vsg expression, focusing on initiation and elongation of transcription as well as processing and stabilization of the transcripts. We propose a model where common factors are involved in the reverse controls of the genes for the two main stage-specific antigens, the Vsg and procyclin: a cross-talk between the two transcription units would allow a fast rerouting of limiting factors at differentiation, thereby allowing the expression of only one type of antigen at a time. A similar mechanism would ensure that only one vsg ES is fully expressed at a time in bloodstream forms.

  12. A VSG expression site-associated gene confers resistance to human serum in Trypanosoma rhodesiense.

    PubMed

    Xong, H V; Vanhamme, L; Chamekh, M; Chimfwembe, C E; Van Den Abbeele, J; Pays, A; Van Meirvenne, N; Hamers, R; De Baetselier, P; Pays, E

    1998-12-11

    Infectivity of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense to humans is due to its resistance to a lytic factor present in human serum. In the ETat 1 strain this character was associated with antigenic variation, since expression of the ETat 1.10 variant surface glycoprotein was required to generate resistant (R) clones. In addition, in this strain transcription of a gene termed SRA was detected in R clones only. We show that the ETat 1.10 expression site is the one selectively transcribed in R variants. This expression site contains SRA as an expression site-associated gene (ESAG) and is characterized by the deletion of several ESAGs. Transfection of SRA into T.b. brucei was sufficient to confer resistance to human serum, identifying this gene as one of those responsible for T.b. rhodesiense adaptation to humans.

  13. Extended recombinant bacterial ghost system.

    PubMed

    Lubitz, W; Witte, A; Eko, F O; Kamal, M; Jechlinger, W; Brand, E; Marchart, J; Haidinger, W; Huter, V; Felnerova, D; Stralis-Alves, N; Lechleitner, S; Melzer, H; Szostak, M P; Resch, S; Mader, H; Kuen, B; Mayr, B; Mayrhofer, P; Geretschläger, R; Haslberger, A; Hensel, A

    1999-08-20

    Controlled expression of cloned PhiX174 gene E in Gram-negative bacteria results in lysis of the bacteria by formation of an E-specific transmembrane tunnel structure built through the cell envelope complex. Bacterial ghosts from a variety of bacteria are used as non-living candidate vaccines. In the recombinant ghost system, foreign proteins are attached on the inside of the inner membrane as fusions with specific anchor sequences. Ghosts have a sealed periplasmic space and the export of proteins into this space vastly extends the capacity of ghosts or recombinant ghosts to function as carriers of foreign antigens. In addition, S-layer proteins forming shell-like self assembly structures can be expressed in candidate vaccine strains prior to E-mediated lysis. Such recombinant S-layer proteins carrying foreign epitopes further extend the possibilities of ghosts as carriers of foreign epitopes. As ghosts have inherent adjuvant properties, they can be used as adjuvants in combination with subunit vaccines. Subunits or other ligands can also be coupled to matrixes like dextran which are used to fill the internal lumen of ghosts. Oral, aerogenic or parenteral immunization of experimental animals with recombinant ghosts induced specific humoral and cellular immune responses against bacterial and target components including protective mucosal immunity. The most relevant advantage of recombinant bacterial ghosts as immunogens is that no inactivation procedures that denature relevant immunogenic determinants are employed in this production. This fact explains the superior quality of ghosts when compared to other inactivated vaccines. The endotoxic component of the outer membrane does not limit the use of ghosts as vaccine candidates but triggers the release of several potent immunoregulatory cytokines. As carriers, there is no limitation in the size of foreign antigens that can be inserted in the membrane and the capacity of all spaces including the membranes, peri

  14. Trypanosoma cruzi: Molecular characterization of an RNA binding protein differentially expressed in the parasite life cycle

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Díaz, Leticia; Duhagon, María Ana; Smircich, Pablo; Sotelo-Silveira, José; Robello, Carlos; Krieger, Marco Aurelio; Goldenberg, Samuel; Williams, Noreen; Dallagiovanna, Bruno; Garat, Beatriz

    2007-01-01

    Molecular studies have shown several peculiarities in the regulatory mechanisms of gene expression in trypanosomatids. Protein coding genes are organized in long polycistronic units that seem to be constitutively transcribed. Therefore, post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression is considered to be the main point for control of transcript abundance and functionality. Here we describe the characterization of a 17 kDa RNA-binding protein from Trypanosoma cruzi (TcRBP19) containing an RNA recognition motive (RRM). This protein is coded by a single copy gene located in a high molecular weight chromosome of T. cruzi. Orthologous genes are present in the TriTryp genomes. TcRBP19 shows target selectivity since among the different homoribopolymers it preferentially binds polyC. TcRBP19 is a low expression protein only barely detected at the amastigote stage localizing in a diffuse pattern in the cytoplasm. PMID:17475252

  15. Consequences of telomere shortening at an active VSG expression site in telomerase-deficient Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Dreesen, Oliver; Cross, George A M

    2006-12-01

    Trypanosoma brucei evades the host immune response by sequential expression of a large family of variant surface glycoproteins (VSG) from one of approximately 20 subtelomeric expression sites (ES). VSG transcription is monoallelic, and little is known about the regulation of antigenic switching. To explore whether telomere length could affect antigenic switching, we created a telomerase-deficient cell line, in which telomeres shortened at a rate of 3 to 6 bp at each cell division. Upon reaching a critical length, short silent ES telomeres were stabilized by a telomerase-independent mechanism. The active ES telomere progressively shortened and frequently broke. Upon reaching a critical length, the short active ES telomere stabilized, but the transcribed VSG was gradually lost from the population and replaced by a new VSG through duplicative gene conversion. We propose a model in which subtelomeric-break-induced replication-mediated repair at a short ES telomere leads to duplicative gene conversion and expression of a new VSG.

  16. Trypanosoma brucei: Enrichment by UV of intergenic transcripts from the variable surface glycoprotein gene expression site

    SciTech Connect

    Coquelet, H.; Tebabi, P.; Pays, A.; Steinert, M.; Pays, E. )

    1989-09-01

    The expression site for the variable surface glycoprotein (VSG) gene AnTat 1.3A of Trypanosoma brucei is 45 kilobases long and encompasses seven expression site-associated genes (ESAGs). After UV irradiation, several large transcripts from the putative promoter region were strongly enriched. We report that one such major transcript starts near the poly(A) addition site of the first gene (ESAG 7), spans the intergenic region, and extends to the poly(A) addition site of the second gene (ESAG 6), thus bypassing the normal 3' splice site of the ESAG 6 mRNA. Since this transcript is spliced, we conclude that UV irradiation does not inhibit splicing but stabilizes unstable processing products. This demonstrates that at least some intergenic regions of the VSG gene expression site are continuously transcribed in accordance with a polycistronic transcription model.

  17. Heterologous expression of a plant arginine decarboxylase gene in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Carolina; Serra, María P; Pereira, Claudio A; Huber, Alejandra; González, Nélida S; Algranati, Israel D

    2004-11-01

    Wild-type Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes lack arginine decarboxylase (ADC) enzymatic activity. However, the transformation of these parasites with a recombinant plasmid containing the oat ADC cDNA coding region gave rise to the transient heterologous expression of the enzyme, suggesting the absence of endogenous mechanisms that could inhibit the expression of a hypothetical own ADC gene or the assay used to measure its enzymatic activity. The foreign ADC enzyme expressed in the transgenic T. cruzi was characterized by identification of the products, the stoichiometry of the catalysed reaction, the specific inhibition by alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA) and the study of its metabolic turnover. The half-life of the heterologous ADC activity in T. cruzi was about 150 min. Bioinformatics studies and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses seem to indicate the absence of ADC-like DNA sequences in the wild-type T. cruzi genome.

  18. A shuttle vector which facilitates the expression of transfected genes in Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, J M; Ward, H M; Miles, M A; Kendall, G

    1992-01-01

    A Trypanosoma cruzi expression vector has been constructed using sequences derived from the flanking regions of the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) genes. The neomycin phosphotransferase (neor) gene was incorporated as a selectable marker. Using electroporation we have introduced this vector into both T. cruzi and Leishmania cells and conferred G418 resistance. Transformation is mediated by large extrachromosomal circular elements composed of head-to-tail tandem repeats of the vector. The transformed phenotype is stable for at least 6 months in the absence of G418 and can be maintained during passage through the T. cruzi life-cycle. Foreign genes inserted into an expression site within the vector (pTEX) can be expressed at high levels in transformed cells. To our knowledge this paper describes the first trypanosome shuttle vector and the first vector which functions in both trypanosomes and Leishmania. Images PMID:1324472

  19. Expression, purification and crystallization of Trypanosoma cruzi dihydroorotate dehydrogenase complexed with orotate

    SciTech Connect

    Inaoka, Daniel Ken; Takashima, Eizo; Osanai, Arihiro; Shimizu, Hironari; Nara, Takeshi; Aoki, Takashi; Harada, Shigeharu; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2005-10-01

    The Trypanosoma cruzi dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, a key enzyme in pyrimidine de novo biosynthesis and redox homeostasis, was crystallized in complex with its first reaction product, orotate. Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHOD) catalyzes the oxidation of dihydroorotate to orotate, the fourth step and the only redox reaction in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidine. DHOD from Trypanosoma cruzi (TcDHOD) has been expressed as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Crystals of the TcDHOD–orotate complex were grown at 277 K by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion technique using polyethylene glycol 3350 as a precipitant. The crystals diffract to better than 1.8 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation (λ = 0.900 Å). X-ray diffraction data were collected at 100 K and processed to 1.9 Å resolution with 98.2% completeness and an overall R{sub merge} of 7.8%. The TcDHOD crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 67.87, b = 71.89, c = 123.27 Å. The presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit (2 × 34 kDa) gives a crystal volume per protein weight (V{sub M}) of 2.2 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of 44%.

  20. Expression in Escherichia coli of a dominant immunogen of Trypanosoma cruzi recognized by human chagasic sera.

    PubMed Central

    Cotrim, P C; Paranhos, G S; Mortara, R A; Wanderley, J; Rassi, A; Camargo, M E; da Silveira, J F

    1990-01-01

    A genomic clone expressing a Trypanosoma cruzi antigen in Escherichia coli was identified using human chagasic sera. Chagasic antibodies affinity purified on extracts of this clone recognized a high-molecular-weight protein expressed in all developmental stages of the parasite life cycle, as well as in various T. cruzi strains. The antigen is associated with the cytoskeleton of the parasite and localizes along the attachment region between the flagellum and the cell body. Antibodies to the recombinant antigen were detected in the sera of 115 chagasic patients from different endemic regions, but not in sera of patients with leishmaniasis, T. rangeli infection, or other parasitic diseases. Our data suggest that the presence of antibodies to this antigen may be specifically associated with Chagas' disease. Images PMID:1691209

  1. Optimization of computational ghost imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Chao; Wang, Xiaoqian; Wang, Zhifeng; Li, Zhe; Du, Guijiao; Chang, Feng; Yao, Zhihai

    2017-08-01

    We studied the second-order correlation function of computational ghost imaging, and we gave the expressions of second-order correlation function in the signal and background region. We found the total intensity of the modulated source influences the visibility of the reconstructed image. We discussed the positive-negative correlation phenomenon in a computational ghost imaging (CGI) system, and a protocol was given to distinguish the positive and negative correlations. This protocol allows us to determine the dividing line of positive and negative correlations before sampling, and it was verified by our simulations and experiments; the imaging quality of computational ghost imaging can be greatly improved by using this protocol.

  2. Tigutcystatin, a cysteine protease inhibitor from Triatoma infestans midgut expressed in response to Trypanosoma cruzi

    SciTech Connect

    Buarque, Diego S.; Spindola, Leticia M.N.; Martins, Rafael M.; Braz, Gloria R.C.; Tanaka, Aparecida S.

    2011-09-23

    Highlights: {yields} Tigutcystatin inhibits Trypanosoma cruzi cysteine proteases with high specificity. {yields} Tigutcystatin expression is up-regulated in response to T. cruzi infection. {yields} It is the first cysteine proteases inhibitor characterized from a triatomine insect. -- Abstract: The insect Triatoma infestans is a vector of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. A cDNA library was constructed from T. infestans anterior midgut, and 244 clones were sequenced. Among the EST sequences, an open reading frame (ORF) with homology to a cystatin type 2 precursor was identified. Then, a 288-bp cDNA fragment encoding mature cystatin (lacking signal peptide) named Tigutcystatin was cloned fused to a N-terminal His tag in pET-14b vector, and the protein expressed in Escherichia coli strain Rosetta gami. Tigutcystatin purified and cleaved by thrombin to remove His tag presented molecular mass of 11 kDa and 10,137 Da by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, respectively. Purified Tigutcystatin was shown to be a tight inhibitor towards cruzain, a T. cruzi cathepsin L-like enzyme (K{sub i} = 3.29 nM) and human cathepsin L (K{sub i} = 3.78 nM). Tissue specific expression analysis showed that Tigutcystatin was mostly expressed in anterior midgut, although amplification in small intestine was also detected by semi quantitative RT-PCR. qReal time PCR confirmed that Tigutcystatin mRNA is significantly up-regulated in anterior midgut when T. infestans is infected with T. cruzi. Together, these results indicate that Tigutcystatin may be involved in modulation of T. cruzi in intestinal tract by inhibiting parasite cysteine proteases, which represent the virulence factors of this protozoan.

  3. Genetic and expression analysis of cattle identifies candidate genes in pathways responding to Trypanosoma congolense infection

    PubMed Central

    Noyes, Harry; Brass, Andy; Obara, Isaiah; Anderson, Susan; Archibald, Alan L.; Bradley, Dan G.; Fisher, Paul; Freeman, Abigail; Gibson, John; Gicheru, Michael; Hall, Laurence; Hanotte, Olivier; Hulme, Helen; McKeever, Declan; Murray, Caitriona; Oh, Sung Jung; Tate, Catriona; Smith, Ken; Tapio, Miika; Wambugu, John; Williams, Diana J.; Agaba, Morris; Kemp, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    African bovine trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma sp., is a major constraint on cattle productivity in sub-Saharan Africa. Some African Bos taurus breeds are highly tolerant of infection, but the potentially more productive Bos indicus zebu breeds are much more susceptible. Zebu cattle are well adapted for plowing and haulage, and increasing their tolerance of trypanosomiasis could have a major impact on crop cultivation as well as dairy and beef production. We used three strategies to obtain short lists of candidate genes within QTL that were previously shown to regulate response to infection. We analyzed the transcriptomes of trypanotolerant N'Dama and susceptible Boran cattle after infection with Trypanosoma congolense. We sequenced EST libraries from these two breeds to identify polymorphisms that might underlie previously identified quantitative trait loci (QTL), and we assessed QTL regions and candidate loci for evidence of selective sweeps. The scan of the EST sequences identified a previously undescribed polymorphism in ARHGAP15 in the Bta2 trypanotolerance QTL. The polymorphism affects gene function in vitro and could contribute to the observed differences in expression of the MAPK pathway in vivo. The expression data showed that TLR and MAPK pathways responded to infection, and the former contained TICAM1, which is within a QTL on Bta7. Genetic analyses showed that selective sweeps had occurred at TICAM1 and ARHGAP15 loci in African taurine cattle, making them strong candidates for the genes underlying the QTL. Candidate QTL genes were identified in other QTL by their expression profile and the pathways in which they participate. PMID:21593421

  4. Gene expression and molecular modeling of the HSP104 chaperone of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Campos, R A; da Silva, M L; da Costa, G V; Bisch, P M; Peralta, J M; Silva, R; Rondinelli, E; Urményi, T P

    2012-08-06

    Heat shock protein (HSP) 104 is a highly conserved molecular chaperone that catalyzes protein unfolding, disaggregation and degradation under stress conditions. We characterized HSP104 gene structure and expression in Trypanosoma cruzi, a protozoan parasite that causes Chagas' disease. The T. cruzi HSP104 is an 869 amino-acid protein encoded by a single-copy gene that has the highest sequence similarity (76%) with that of T. brucei and the lowest (23%) with that of the human protein. HSP104 transcripts were detected at room temperature, and levels increased after incubation at 37° or 40°C. The HSP104 protein was found at low levels in non-heat-shocked cells, and accumulated continuously up to 24 h at elevated temperatures. We developed a predicted structural model of hexameric T. cruzi HSP104, which showed some conserved features.

  5. Mapping of B-Cell Epitopes in a Trypanosoma cruzi Immunodominant Antigen Expressed in Natural Infections

    PubMed Central

    Lesénéchal, Mylène; Becquart, Laurence; Lacoux, Xavier; Ladavière, Laurent; Baida, Renata C. P.; Paranhos-Baccalà, Glaucia; da Silveira, José Franco

    2005-01-01

    Tc40 is an immunodominant antigen present in natural Trypanosoma cruzi infections. This immunogen was thoroughly mapped by using overlapping amino acid sequences identified by gene cloning and chemical peptide synthesis. To map continuous epitopes of the Tc40 antigen, an epitope expression library was constructed and screened with sera from human chagasic patients. A major, linear B-cell epitope spanning residues 403 to 426 (PAKAAAPPAA) was identified in the central domain of Tc40. A synthetic peptide spanning this region reacted strongly with 89.8% of the serum samples from T. cruzi-infected individuals. This indicates that the main antigenic site is defined by the linear sequence of the peptide rather than a conformation-dependent structure. The major B-cell epitope of Tc40 shares a high degree of sequence identity with T. cruzi ribosomal and RNA binding proteins, suggesting the existence of cross-reactivity among these molecules. PMID:15699429

  6. Pepper's Ghost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2011-09-01

    Without applications of physics such as counter-weighted sets and backdrops, inclined planes, stage lighting instruments, and other mechanisms for deus ex machina, dramatic productions would revert to the words only—fine for Shakespeare and Becket, but not good for audiences who are accustomed to experiencing plays with the eye as well as the ear. Pepper's Ghost is a 19th-century stage illusion, based on basic optical principles, that can find its way into your introductory classroom.

  7. Localization of the modified base J in telomeric VSG gene expression sites of Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, F; Wijsman, E R; Kieft, R; van der Marel, G A; van Boom, J H; Borst, P

    1997-12-01

    African trypanosomes such as Trypanosoma brucei undergo antigenic variation in the bloodstream of their mammalian hosts by regularly changing the variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) gene expressed. The transcribed VSG gene is invariably located in a telomeric expression site. There are multiple expression sites and one way to change the VSG gene expressed is by activating a new site and inactivating the previously active one. The mechanisms that control expression site switching are unknown, but have been suggested to involve epigenetic regulation. We have found previously that VSG genes in silent (but not active) expression sites contain modified restriction endonuclease cleavage sites, and we have presented circumstantial evidence indicating that this is attributable to the presence of a novel modified base beta-D-glucosyl-hydroxymethyluracil, or J. To directly test this, we have generated antisera that specifically recognize J-containing DNA and have used these to determine the precise location of this modified thymine in the telomeric VSG expression sites. By anti J-DNA immunoprecipitations, we found that J is present in telomeric VSG genes in silenced expression sites and not in actively transcribed telomeric VSG genes. J was absent from inactive chromosome-internal VSG genes. DNA modification was also found at the boundaries of expression sites. In the long 50-bp repeat arrays upstream of the promoter and in the telomeric repeat arrays downstream of the VSG gene, J was found both in silent and active expression sites. This suggests that silencing results in a gradient of modification spreading from repetitive DNA flanks into the neighboring expression site sequences. In this paper, we discuss the possible role of J in silencing of expression sites.

  8. Expression of a retroposon-like sequence upstream of the putative Trypanosoma brucei variant surface glycoprotein gene expression site promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Lodes, M J; Smiley, B L; Stadnyk, A W; Bennett, J L; Myler, P J; Stuart, K

    1993-01-01

    We have cloned the region spanning the putative promoter from two variant surface glycoprotein gene expression sites that are at each end of chromosome M4 of Trypanosoma brucei IsTat 7. Both expression sites contain a retroposon-like sequence (ESR) pseudogene whose 3' end is approximately 30 bp upstream of the putative expression site promoter. The ESRs from both expression sites share considerable sequence homology and are related to LINE-like elements, especially the T. brucei ingi retroposon. Other ESRs are located on large, but not intermediate or mini-, chromosomes in the IsTaR 1 serodeme, and the total copy number is 10 to 20, similar to that estimated for variant surface glycoprotein expression sites. No DNA rearrangements in the vicinity of the ESR and putative expression site promoter were detected following antigenic switches in the IsTaR 1 serodeme. ESR transcripts are present in bloodstream, but not procyclic, forms. Variation in transcript size and sequence between bloodstream variant antigenic types implies that only the ESR from the active expression site is transcribed. This pattern of expression reflects that of sequences downstream of the putative expression site promoter, suggesting that the region of coordinately controlled expression extends upstream of this promoter. Images PMID:8413293

  9. Early expression of a Trypanosoma brucei VSG gene duplicated from an incomplete basic copy.

    PubMed

    Aline, R F; Myler, P J; Gobright, E; Stuart, K D

    1994-01-01

    Intrachromosomal variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) genes in Trypanosoma brucei are expressed by a mechanism involving gene conversion. The 3' boundary of gene conversion is usually within the last 130 bp of the VSG gene, a region of partially conserved sequences. We report here the loss of the predominant telomeric A VSG gene in the cloned variant antigenic type (VAT) 5A3, leaving only an intrachromosomal A VSG gene (the A-B gene). The nucleotide sequence of the A-B VSG gene reveals that it lacks the normal VSG 3' sequence. Surprisingly, we find cells expressing this A-B VSG gene in relapse populations arising from VAT 5A3. Since the A VSG mRNAs from these cells have a normal 3' sequence, the incomplete A-B VSG gene must be expressed via a partial gene conversion that supplies the functional 3' end. Although the A-B VSG gene is no longer predominant like the telomeric A VSG gene, it is still expressed more frequently than other intrachromosomal VSG genes, suggesting that factors other than a telomeric location determine whether a VSG gene is expressed early in a serodeme.

  10. Improved lysis efficiency and immunogenicity of Salmonella ghosts mediated by co-expression of λ phage holin-endolysin and ɸX174 gene E

    PubMed Central

    Won, Gayeon; Hajam, Irshad Ahmed; Lee, John Hwa

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial ghosts (BGs) are empty cell envelopes derived from Gram-negative bacteria by bacteriophage ɸX174 gene E mediated lysis. They represent a novel inactivated vaccine platform; however, the practical application of BGs for human vaccines seems to be limited due to the safety concerns on the presence of viable cells in BGs. Therefore, to improve the lysis efficiency of the gene E, we exploited the peptidoglycan hydrolyzing ability of the λ phage holin-endolysins to expedite the process of current BG production system. In this report, we constructed a novel ghost plasmid encoding protein E and holin-endolysins in tandem. We observed that sequential expressions of the gene E and the holin-endolysins elicited rapid and highly efficient Salmonella lysis compared to the lysis mediated by gene E only. These lysed BGs displayed improved immunogenicity in mice compared to the gene E mediated BGs. Consequently, seventy percent of the mice immunized with these novel ghosts survived against a lethal challenge while all the mice vaccinated with gene E mediated ghosts died by day 9 post-infection. We conclude that this novel strategy has the potential to generate highly efficient inactivated candidate vaccines that could replace the currently available bacterial vaccines. PMID:28332591

  11. Reflective ghost imaging through turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, Nicholas D.; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    2011-12-15

    Recent work has indicated that ghost imaging may have applications in standoff sensing. However, most theoretical work has addressed transmission-based ghost imaging. To be a viable remote-sensing system, the ghost imager needs to image rough-surfaced targets in reflection through long, turbulent optical paths. We develop, within a Gaussian-state framework, expressions for the spatial resolution, image contrast, and signal-to-noise ratio of such a system. We consider rough-surfaced targets that create fully developed speckle in their returns and Kolmogorov-spectrum turbulence that is uniformly distributed along all propagation paths. We address both classical and nonclassical optical sources, as well as a computational ghost imager.

  12. Global Gene Expression Profiling through the Complete Life Cycle of Trypanosoma vivax.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Andrew P; Goyard, Sophie; Xia, Dong; Foth, Bernardo J; Sanders, Mandy; Wastling, Jonathan M; Minoprio, Paola; Berriman, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The parasitic flagellate Trypanosoma vivax is a cause of animal trypanosomiasis across Africa and South America. The parasite has a digenetic life cycle, passing between mammalian hosts and insect vectors, and a series of developmental forms adapted to each life cycle stage. Each point in the life cycle presents radically different challenges to parasite metabolism and physiology and distinct host interactions requiring remodeling of the parasite cell surface. Transcriptomic and proteomic studies of the related parasites T. brucei and T. congolense have shown how gene expression is regulated during their development. New methods for in vitro culture of the T. vivax insect stages have allowed us to describe global gene expression throughout the complete T. vivax life cycle for the first time. We combined transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of each life stage using RNA-seq and mass spectrometry respectively, to identify genes with patterns of preferential transcription or expression. While T. vivax conforms to a pattern of highly conserved gene expression found in other African trypanosomes, (e.g. developmental regulation of energy metabolism, restricted expression of a dominant variant antigen, and expression of 'Fam50' proteins in the insect mouthparts), we identified significant differences in gene expression affecting metabolism in the fly and a suite of T. vivax-specific genes with predicted cell-surface expression that are preferentially expressed in the mammal ('Fam29, 30, 42') or the vector ('Fam34, 35, 43'). T. vivax differs significantly from other African trypanosomes in the developmentally-regulated proteins likely to be expressed on its cell surface and thus, in the structure of the host-parasite interface. These unique features may yet explain the species differences in life cycle and could, in the form of bloodstream-stage proteins that do not undergo antigenic variation, provide targets for therapy.

  13. Global Gene Expression Profiling through the Complete Life Cycle of Trypanosoma vivax

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Andrew P.; Goyard, Sophie; Xia, Dong; Foth, Bernardo J.; Sanders, Mandy; Wastling, Jonathan M.; Minoprio, Paola; Berriman, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The parasitic flagellate Trypanosoma vivax is a cause of animal trypanosomiasis across Africa and South America. The parasite has a digenetic life cycle, passing between mammalian hosts and insect vectors, and a series of developmental forms adapted to each life cycle stage. Each point in the life cycle presents radically different challenges to parasite metabolism and physiology and distinct host interactions requiring remodeling of the parasite cell surface. Transcriptomic and proteomic studies of the related parasites T. brucei and T. congolense have shown how gene expression is regulated during their development. New methods for in vitro culture of the T. vivax insect stages have allowed us to describe global gene expression throughout the complete T. vivax life cycle for the first time. We combined transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of each life stage using RNA-seq and mass spectrometry respectively, to identify genes with patterns of preferential transcription or expression. While T. vivax conforms to a pattern of highly conserved gene expression found in other African trypanosomes, (e.g. developmental regulation of energy metabolism, restricted expression of a dominant variant antigen, and expression of ‘Fam50’ proteins in the insect mouthparts), we identified significant differences in gene expression affecting metabolism in the fly and a suite of T. vivax-specific genes with predicted cell-surface expression that are preferentially expressed in the mammal (‘Fam29, 30, 42’) or the vector (‘Fam34, 35, 43’). T. vivax differs significantly from other African trypanosomes in the developmentally-regulated proteins likely to be expressed on its cell surface and thus, in the structure of the host-parasite interface. These unique features may yet explain the species differences in life cycle and could, in the form of bloodstream-stage proteins that do not undergo antigenic variation, provide targets for therapy. PMID:26266535

  14. Paraxial ghost image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd El-Maksoud, Rania H.; Sasian, José M.

    2009-08-01

    This paper develops a methodology to model ghost images that are formed by two reflections between the surfaces of a multi-element lens system in the paraxial regime. An algorithm is presented to generate the ghost layouts from the nominal layout. For each possible ghost layout, paraxial ray tracing is performed to determine the ghost Gaussian cardinal points, the size of the ghost image at the nominal image plane, the location and diameter of the ghost entrance and exit pupils, and the location and diameter for the ghost entrance and exit windows. The paraxial ghost irradiance point spread function is obtained by adding up the irradiance contributions for all ghosts. Ghost simulation results for a simple lens system are provided. This approach provides a quick way to analyze ghost images in the paraxial regime.

  15. Modulation of the Immune Response by Nematode Secreted Acetylcholinesterase Revealed by Heterologous Expression in Trypanosoma musculi

    PubMed Central

    Vaux, Rachel; Schnoeller, Corinna; Berkachy, Rita; Roberts, Luke B.; Hagen, Jana; Gounaris, Kleoniki

    2016-01-01

    Nematode parasites secrete molecules which regulate the mammalian immune system, but their genetic intractability is a major impediment to identifying and characterising the biological effects of these molecules. We describe here a novel system for heterologous expression of helminth secreted proteins in the natural parasite of mice, Trypanosoma musculi, which can be used to analyse putative immunomodulatory functions. Trypanosomes were engineered to express a secreted acetylcholinesterase from Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Infection of mice with transgenic parasites expressing acetylcholinesterase resulted in truncated infection, with trypanosomes cleared early from the circulation. Analysis of cellular phenotypes indicated that exposure to acetylcholinesterase in vivo promoted classical activation of macrophages (M1), with elevated production of nitric oxide and lowered arginase activity. This most likely occurred due to the altered cytokine environment, as splenocytes from mice infected with T. musculi expressing acetylcholinesterase showed enhanced production of IFNγ and TNFα, with diminished IL-4, IL-13 and IL-5. These results suggest that one of the functions of nematode secreted acetylcholinesterase may be to alter the cytokine environment in order to inhibit development of M2 macrophages which are deleterious to parasite survival. Transgenic T. musculi represents a valuable new vehicle to screen for novel immunoregulatory proteins by extracellular delivery in vivo to the murine host. PMID:27802350

  16. Nuclear Compartmentalization Contributes to Stage-Specific Gene Expression Control in Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Pastro, Lucía; Smircich, Pablo; Di Paolo, Andrés; Becco, Lorena; Duhagon, María A.; Sotelo-Silveira, José; Garat, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    In the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, as in other trypanosomatids, transcription of protein coding genes occurs in a constitutive fashion, producing large polycistronic transcription units. These units are composed of non-functionally related genes which are pervasively processed to yield each mRNA. Therefore, post-transcriptional processes are crucial to regulate gene expression. Considering that nuclear compartmentalization could contribute to gene expression regulation, we comparatively studied the nuclear, cytoplasmic and whole cell transcriptomes of the non-infective epimastigote stage of T. cruzi, using RNA-Seq. We found that the cytoplasmic transcriptome tightly correlates with the whole cell transcriptome and both equally correlate with the proteome. Nonetheless, 1,200 transcripts showed differential abundance between the nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions. For the genes with transcript content augmented in the nucleus, significant structural and compositional differences were found. The analysis of the reported epimastigote translatome and proteome, revealed scarce ribosome footprints and encoded proteins for them. Ontology analyses unveiled that many of these genes are distinctive of other parasite life-cycle stages. Finally, the relocalization of transcript abundance in the metacyclic trypomastigote infective stage was confirmed for specific genes. While gene expression is strongly dependent on transcript steady-state level, we here highlight the importance of the distribution of transcripts abundance between compartments in T. cruzi. Particularly, we show that nuclear compartmentation is playing an active role in the developmental stage determination preventing off-stage expression. PMID:28243589

  17. Differential Expression Profiles in the Midgut of Triatoma infestans Infected with Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Buarque, Diego S.; Braz, Glória R. C.; Martins, Rafael M.; Tanaka-Azevedo, Anita M.; Gomes, Cícera M.; Oliveira, Felipe A. A.; Schenkman, Sergio; Tanaka, Aparecida S.

    2013-01-01

    Chagas disease, or American trypanosomiasis, is a parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi and is transmitted by insects from the Triatominae subfamily. To identify components involved in the protozoan-vector relationship, we constructed and analyzed cDNA libraries from RNA isolated from the midguts of uninfected and T. cruzi-infected Triatoma infestans, which are major vectors of Chagas disease. We generated approximately 440 high-quality Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) from each T. infestans midgut cDNA library. The sequences were grouped in 380 clusters, representing an average length of 664.78 base pairs (bp). Many clusters were not classified functionally, representing unknown transcripts. Several transcripts involved in different processes (e.g., detoxification) showed differential expression in response to T. cruzi infection. Lysozyme, cathepsin D, a nitrophorin-like protein and a putative 14 kDa protein were significantly upregulated upon infection, whereas thioredoxin reductase was downregulated. In addition, we identified several transcripts related to metabolic processes or immunity with unchanged expressions, including infestin, lipocalins and defensins. We also detected ESTs encoding juvenile hormone binding protein (JHBP), which seems to be involved in insect development and could be a target in control strategies for the vector. This work demonstrates differential gene expression upon T. cruzi infection in the midgut of T. infestans. These data expand the current knowledge regarding vector-parasite interactions for Chagas disease. PMID:23658688

  18. Nuclear Compartmentalization Contributes to Stage-Specific Gene Expression Control in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Pastro, Lucía; Smircich, Pablo; Di Paolo, Andrés; Becco, Lorena; Duhagon, María A; Sotelo-Silveira, José; Garat, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    In the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, as in other trypanosomatids, transcription of protein coding genes occurs in a constitutive fashion, producing large polycistronic transcription units. These units are composed of non-functionally related genes which are pervasively processed to yield each mRNA. Therefore, post-transcriptional processes are crucial to regulate gene expression. Considering that nuclear compartmentalization could contribute to gene expression regulation, we comparatively studied the nuclear, cytoplasmic and whole cell transcriptomes of the non-infective epimastigote stage of T. cruzi, using RNA-Seq. We found that the cytoplasmic transcriptome tightly correlates with the whole cell transcriptome and both equally correlate with the proteome. Nonetheless, 1,200 transcripts showed differential abundance between the nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions. For the genes with transcript content augmented in the nucleus, significant structural and compositional differences were found. The analysis of the reported epimastigote translatome and proteome, revealed scarce ribosome footprints and encoded proteins for them. Ontology analyses unveiled that many of these genes are distinctive of other parasite life-cycle stages. Finally, the relocalization of transcript abundance in the metacyclic trypomastigote infective stage was confirmed for specific genes. While gene expression is strongly dependent on transcript steady-state level, we here highlight the importance of the distribution of transcripts abundance between compartments in T. cruzi. Particularly, we show that nuclear compartmentation is playing an active role in the developmental stage determination preventing off-stage expression.

  19. Micro RNA expression profiles in peripheral blood cells of rats that were experimentally infected with Trypanosoma congolense and different Trypanosoma brucei subspecies.

    PubMed

    Simo, Gustave; Lueong, Smiths; Grebaut, Pascal; Guny, Gerard; Hoheisel, Jörg D

    2015-08-01

    To identify miRNAs whose expression are differentially regulated during trypanosome infections a microarray targeting more than 600 rat miRNA was used to analyze the miRNA expression profiles between uninfected rats and animals infected by Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma brucei s.l. The potential targets of dysregulated miRNAs as well as their biological pathways and functions were predicted using several bioinformatics software tools. Irrespective of the infecting trypanosome species, eight miRNAs (seven up- and one down-regulated) were dysregulated during infections. Moreover, other miRNAs were differentially regulated in rats infected by specific trypanosome species. Functional analyses of differentially regulated miRNAs indicated their involvement in diverse biological processes. Among these, transcription repressor activity, gene expression control as well as protein transporter activity were predominant. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis of dysregulated miRNAs revealed their involvement in several biological pathways and disease conditions. This suggests possible modulation of such pathways following trypanosome infection; for example, the MAPK signaling pathway which is known to play vital roles in apoptosis, innate immune response and response to viral infections was highly affected. Axon guidance was equally highly impacted and may indicate a cross reactivity between pathogen proteins and guidance molecules representing one pathological mechanism as it has been observed with influenza HA. Furthermore, Ingenuity pathway analyses of dysregulated miRNAs and potential targets indicated strong association with inflammatory responses, cell death and survival as well as infectious diseases. The data generated here provide valuable information to understand the regulatory function of miRNAs during trypanosome infections. They improved our knowledge on host-parasite cross-talks and provide a framework for investigations to

  20. Mono-allelic VSG expression by RNA polymerase I in Trypanosoma brucei: expression site control from both ends?

    PubMed

    Günzl, Arthur; Kirkham, Justin K; Nguyen, Tu N; Badjatia, Nitika; Park, Sung Hee

    2015-02-01

    Trypanosoma brucei is a vector borne, lethal protistan parasite of humans and livestock in sub-Saharan Africa. Antigenic variation of its cell surface coat enables the parasite to evade adaptive immune responses and to live freely in the blood of its mammalian hosts. The coat consists of ten million copies of variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) that is expressed from a single VSG gene, drawn from a large repertoire and located near the telomere at one of fifteen so-called bloodstream expression sites (BESs). Thus, antigenic variation is achieved by switching to the expression of a different VSG gene. A BES is a tandem array of expression site-associated genes and a terminal VSG gene. It is polycistronically transcribed by a multifunctional RNA polymerase I (RNAPI) from a short promoter that is located 45-60 kb upstream of the VSG gene. The mechanism(s) restricting VSG expression to a single BES are not well understood. There is convincing evidence that epigenetic silencing and transcription attenuation play important roles. Furthermore, recent data indicated that there is regulation at the level of transcription initiation and that, surprisingly, the VSG mRNA appears to have a role in restricting VSG expression to a single gene. Here, we review BES expression regulation and propose a model in which telomere-directed, epigenetic BES silencing is opposed by BES promoter-directed, activated RNAPI transcription.

  1. Recombinant expression and biochemical characterisation of two alanyl aminopeptidases of Trypanosoma congolense.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Davita; Boulangé, Alain F V; Coustou, Virginie; Baltz, Théo; Coetzer, Theresa H T

    2013-12-01

    Trypanosoma congolense is a haemoprotozoan parasite that causes African animal trypanosomosis, a wasting disease of cattle and small ruminants. Current control methods are unsatisfactory and no conventional vaccine exists due to antigenic variation. An anti-disease vaccine approach to control T. congolense has been proposed requiring the identification of parasitic factors that cause disease. Immunoprecipitation of T. congolense antigens using sera from infected trypanotolerant cattle allowed the identification of several immunogenic antigens including two M1 type aminopeptidases (APs). The two APs were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. As the APs were expressed as insoluble inclusion bodies it was necessary to develop a method for solubilisation and subsequent refolding to restore conformation and activity. The refolded APs both showed a distinct substrate preference for H-Ala-AMC, an optimum pH of 8.0, puromycin-sensitivity, inhibition by bestatin and amastatin, and cytoplasmic localisation. The two APs are expressed in procyclic metacyclic and bloodstream form parasites. Down-regulation of both APs by RNAi resulted in a slightly reduced growth rate in procyclic parasites in vitro.

  2. The NADP+-linked glutamate dehydrogenase from Trypanosoma cruzi: sequence, genomic organization and expression.

    PubMed Central

    Barderi, P; Campetella, O; Frasch, A C; Santomé, J A; Hellman, U; Pettersson, U; Cazzulo, J J

    1998-01-01

    NADP-linked glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP+-GluDH, EC 1.4.1.4) has been purified to homogeneity from epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi by an improved procedure, and the amino acid sequences of 11 internal peptides obtained by digestion with trypsin, endopeptidase Lys-C, endopeptidase Arg-C or CNBr have been obtained. Using oligonucleotide primers synthesized according to the amino acid sequence of the N-terminus of the mature enzyme and to the nucleotide sequence of a clone corresponding to the C-terminus, obtained by immunological screening of an expression library, two complete open reading frames (TcGluDH1 and TcGluDH2) were isolated and sequenced. The sequences obtained are most similar to that of the NADP+-GluDH of Escherichia coli (70-72% identity), and less similar (50-56%) to those of lower eukaryotes. Using TcGluDH1 as a probe, evidence for the presence of several genes and developmental regulation of the expression of NADP+-GluDH in different parasite stages was obtained. TcGluDH1 encodes an enzymically active protein, since its expression in E. coli resulted in the production of a GluDH activity with kinetic parameters similar to those of the natural enzyme. PMID:9480915

  3. NLP is a novel transcription regulator involved in VSG expression site control in Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Mani Shankar; Kushwaha, Manish; Ersfeld, Klaus; Fullbrook, Alexander; Stanne, Tara M.; Rudenko, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei mono-allelically expresses one of approximately 1500 variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) genes while multiplying in the mammalian bloodstream. The active VSG is transcribed by RNA polymerase I in one of approximately 15 telomeric VSG expression sites (ESs). T. brucei is unusual in controlling gene expression predominantly post-transcriptionally, and how ESs are mono-allelically controlled remains a mystery. Here we identify a novel transcription regulator, which resembles a nucleoplasmin-like protein (NLP) with an AT-hook motif. NLP is key for ES control in bloodstream form T. brucei, as NLP knockdown results in 45- to 65-fold derepression of the silent VSG221 ES. NLP is also involved in repression of transcription in the inactive VSG Basic Copy arrays, minichromosomes and procyclin loci. NLP is shown to be enriched on the 177- and 50-bp simple sequence repeats, the non-transcribed regions around rDNA and procyclin, and both active and silent ESs. Blocking NLP synthesis leads to downregulation of the active ES, indicating that NLP plays a role in regulating appropriate levels of transcription of ESs in both their active and silent state. Discovery of the unusual transcription regulator NLP provides new insight into the factors that are critical for ES control. PMID:21076155

  4. NLP is a novel transcription regulator involved in VSG expression site control in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Mani Shankar; Kushwaha, Manish; Ersfeld, Klaus; Fullbrook, Alexander; Stanne, Tara M; Rudenko, Gloria

    2011-03-01

    Trypanosoma brucei mono-allelically expresses one of approximately 1500 variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) genes while multiplying in the mammalian bloodstream. The active VSG is transcribed by RNA polymerase I in one of approximately 15 telomeric VSG expression sites (ESs). T. brucei is unusual in controlling gene expression predominantly post-transcriptionally, and how ESs are mono-allelically controlled remains a mystery. Here we identify a novel transcription regulator, which resembles a nucleoplasmin-like protein (NLP) with an AT-hook motif. NLP is key for ES control in bloodstream form T. brucei, as NLP knockdown results in 45- to 65-fold derepression of the silent VSG221 ES. NLP is also involved in repression of transcription in the inactive VSG Basic Copy arrays, minichromosomes and procyclin loci. NLP is shown to be enriched on the 177- and 50-bp simple sequence repeats, the non-transcribed regions around rDNA and procyclin, and both active and silent ESs. Blocking NLP synthesis leads to downregulation of the active ES, indicating that NLP plays a role in regulating appropriate levels of transcription of ESs in both their active and silent state. Discovery of the unusual transcription regulator NLP provides new insight into the factors that are critical for ES control.

  5. Catalase expression impairs oxidative stress-mediated signalling in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Freire, Anna Cláudia Guimarães; Alves, Ceres Luciana; Goes, Grazielle Ribeiro; Resende, Bruno Carvalho; Moretti, Nilmar Silvio; Nunes, Vinícius Santana; Aguiar, Pedro Henrique Nascimento; Tahara, Erich Birelli; Franco, Glória Regina; Macedo, Andréa Mara; Pena, Sérgio Danilo Junho; Gadelha, Fernanda Ramos; Guarneri, Alessandra Aparecida; Schenkman, Sergio; Vieira, Leda Quercia; Machado, Carlos Renato

    2017-09-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is exposed to oxidative stresses during its life cycle, and amongst the strategies employed by this parasite to deal with these situations sits a peculiar trypanothione-dependent antioxidant system. Remarkably, T. cruzi's antioxidant repertoire does not include catalase. In an attempt to shed light on what are the reasons by which this parasite lacks this enzyme, a T. cruzi cell line stably expressing catalase showed an increased resistance to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) when compared with wild-type cells. Interestingly, preconditioning carried out with low concentrations of H2O2 led untransfected parasites to be as much resistant to this oxidant as cells expressing catalase, but did not induce the same level of increased resistance in the latter ones. Also, presence of catalase decreased trypanothione reductase and increased superoxide dismutase levels in T. cruzi, resulting in higher levels of residual H2O2 after challenge with this oxidant. Although expression of catalase contributed to elevated proliferation rates of T. cruzi in Rhodnius prolixus, it failed to induce a significant increase of parasite virulence in mice. Altogether, these results indicate that the absence of a gene encoding catalase in T. cruzi has played an important role in allowing this parasite to develop a shrill capacity to sense and overcome oxidative stress.

  6. Generation of Salmonella ghost cells expressing fimbrial antigens of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and evaluation of their antigenicity in a murine model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chan Song; Hur, Jin; Eo, Seong Kug; Park, Sang-Youel; Lee, John Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium ghost cells expressing K88ab, K88ac, K99, and FasA fimbriae of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) in their envelopes were constructed. The genes encoding the fimbriae were individually cloned into an expression plasmid, pMMP81, carrying the asd gene, which was subsequently electroporated into the Δasd S. Typhimurium mutant. Plasmid pJHLP99, carrying the phiX174 lysis gene E, was also subsequently electroporated into the Salmonella mutant. The presence of the individual fimbriae on the ghost cells was examined by Western blot analysis. Forty BALB/c mice were equally divided into 2 groups of 20 mice each. Group A mice were intramuscularly vaccinated with a mixture of the 4 ghost cells expressing the individual fimbriae. The group B mice were inoculated with sterile phosphate-buffered saline as a control. The antigen-specific serum IgG concentrations were significantly higher in group A than in group B from week 2 until week 6 after inoculation. In addition, the antigen-specific IgA concentrations in fecal samples were significantly higher in group A than in group B at week 2 after inoculation. A large difference between the groups in the number of antigen-specific IgA-secreting cells in the small intestine was observed by immunohistochemical study. Also, the splenic lymphocyte proliferative responses were significantly greater in group A than in the control mice. These results suggest that vaccination with our Salmonella ghost cells can induce both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses and that the increased number of antigen-specific IgA-secreting cells in the small intestine may be correlated with the elevated fecal IgA immune response. PMID:26733731

  7. Cloning, Heterologous Expression, and Distinct Substrate Specificity of Protein Farnesyltransferase from Trypanosoma brucei*

    PubMed Central

    Buckner, Frederick S.; Yokoyama, Kohei; Nguyen, Lisa; Grewal, Anita; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Tempst, Paul; Strickland, Corey L.; Xiao, Li; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Gelb, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    Protein prenylation occurs in the protozoan that causes African sleeping sickness (Trypanosoma brucei), and the protein farnesyltransferase appears to be a good target for developing drugs. We have cloned the α- and β-subunits of T. brucei protein farnesyltransferase (TB-PFT) using nucleic acid probes designed from partial amino acid sequences obtained from the enzyme purified from insect stage parasites. TB-PFT is expressed in both bloodstream and insect stage parasites. Enzymatically active TB-PFT was produced by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli. Compared with mammalian protein farnesyltransferases, TB-PFT contains a number of inserts of >25 residues in both subunits that reside on the surface of the enzyme in turns linking adjacent α-helices. Substrate specificity studies with a series of 20 peptides SSCALX (where X indicates a naturally occurring amino acid) show that the recombinant enzyme behaves identically to the native enzyme and displays distinct specificity compared with mammalian protein farnesyltransferase. TB-PFT prefers Gln and Met at the X position but not Ser, Thr, or Cys, which are good substrates for mammalian protein farnesyltransferase. A structural homology model of the active site of TB-PFT provides a basis for understanding structure-activity relations among substrates and CAAX mimetic inhibitors. PMID:10749864

  8. Escherichia coli ghosts or live E. coli expressing the ferri-siderophore receptors FepA, FhuE, IroN and IutA do not protect broiler chickens against avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC).

    PubMed

    Tuntufye, Huruma Nelwike; Ons, Ellen; Pham, Anh Dao Nguyen; Luyten, Tom; Van Gerven, Nani; Bleyen, Nele; Goddeeris, Bruno Maria

    2012-10-12

    The aim of this study was to investigate if immunization with the ferri-siderophore receptors FepA, FhuE, IroN and IutA could protect chickens against avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) infection. The antigens were administered as recombinant proteins in the outer membrane (OM) of E. coli strain BL21 Star DE3. In a first immunization experiment, live E. coli expressing all 4 recombinant ferri-siderophore receptors (BL21(L)) were given intranasally. In a second immunization experiment, a mixture of E. coli ghosts containing recombinant FepA and IutA and ghosts containing recombinant FhuE and IroN was evaluated. For both experiments non-recombinant counterparts of the tentative vaccines were administered as placebo. At the time of challenge, the IgG antibody response for BL21(L) and a mixture of E. coli ghosts containing recombinant FepA and IutA and ghosts containing recombinant FhuE and IroN was significantly higher in all immunized groups as compared to the negative control groups (LB or PBS) confirming successful immunization. Although neither of the tentative vaccines could prevent lesions and mortality upon APEC infection, immunization with bacterial ghosts resulted in a decrease in mortality from 50% (PBS) to 31% (non-recombinant ghosts) or 20% (recombinant ghosts) and these differences were not found to be significant. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Trypanosoma brucei gambiense adaptation to different mammalian sera is associated with VSG expression site plasticity.

    PubMed

    Cordon-Obras, Carlos; Cano, Jorge; González-Pacanowska, Dolores; Benito, Agustin; Navarro, Miguel; Bart, Jean-Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infection is widely considered an anthroponosis, although it has also been found in wild and domestic animals. Thus, fauna could act as reservoir, constraining the elimination of the parasite in hypo-endemic foci. To better understand the possible maintenance of T. b. gambiense in local fauna and investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying adaptation, we generated adapted cells lines (ACLs) by in vitro culture of the parasites in different mammalian sera. Using specific antibodies against the Variant Surface Glycoproteins (VSGs) we found that serum ACLs exhibited different VSG variants when maintained in pig, goat or human sera. Although newly detected VSGs were independent of the sera used, the consistent appearance of different VSGs suggested remodelling of the co-transcribed genes at the telomeric Expression Site (VSG-ES). Thus, Expression Site Associated Genes (ESAGs) sequences were analysed to investigate possible polymorphism selection. ESAGs 6 and 7 genotypes, encoding the transferrin receptor (TfR), expressed in different ACLs were characterised. In addition, we quantified the ESAG6/7 mRNA levels and analysed transferrin (Tf) uptake. Interestingly, the best growth occurred in pig and human serum ACLs, which consistently exhibited a predominant ESAG7 genotype and higher Tf uptake than those obtained in calf and goat sera. We also detected an apparent selection of specific ESAG3 genotypes in the pig and human serum ACLs, suggesting that other ESAGs could be involved in the host adaptation processes. Altogether, these results suggest a model whereby VSG-ES remodelling allows the parasite to express a specific set of ESAGs to provide selective advantages in different hosts. Finally, pig serum ACLs display phenotypic adaptation parameters closely related to human serum ACLs but distinct to parasites grown in calf and goat sera. These results suggest a better suitability of swine to maintain T. b. gambiense infection supporting

  10. Trypanosoma brucei gambiense Adaptation to Different Mammalian Sera Is Associated with VSG Expression Site Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Cordon-Obras, Carlos; Cano, Jorge; González-Pacanowska, Dolores; Benito, Agustin; Navarro, Miguel; Bart, Jean-Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infection is widely considered an anthroponosis, although it has also been found in wild and domestic animals. Thus, fauna could act as reservoir, constraining the elimination of the parasite in hypo-endemic foci. To better understand the possible maintenance of T. b. gambiense in local fauna and investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying adaptation, we generated adapted cells lines (ACLs) by in vitro culture of the parasites in different mammalian sera. Using specific antibodies against the Variant Surface Glycoproteins (VSGs) we found that serum ACLs exhibited different VSG variants when maintained in pig, goat or human sera. Although newly detected VSGs were independent of the sera used, the consistent appearance of different VSGs suggested remodelling of the co-transcribed genes at the telomeric Expression Site (VSG-ES). Thus, Expression Site Associated Genes (ESAGs) sequences were analysed to investigate possible polymorphism selection. ESAGs 6 and 7 genotypes, encoding the transferrin receptor (TfR), expressed in different ACLs were characterised. In addition, we quantified the ESAG6/7 mRNA levels and analysed transferrin (Tf) uptake. Interestingly, the best growth occurred in pig and human serum ACLs, which consistently exhibited a predominant ESAG7 genotype and higher Tf uptake than those obtained in calf and goat sera. We also detected an apparent selection of specific ESAG3 genotypes in the pig and human serum ACLs, suggesting that other ESAGs could be involved in the host adaptation processes. Altogether, these results suggest a model whereby VSG-ES remodelling allows the parasite to express a specific set of ESAGs to provide selective advantages in different hosts. Finally, pig serum ACLs display phenotypic adaptation parameters closely related to human serum ACLs but distinct to parasites grown in calf and goat sera. These results suggest a better suitability of swine to maintain T. b. gambiense infection supporting

  11. Trypanosoma rangeli: differential expression of ecto-phosphatase activities in response to inorganic phosphate starvation.

    PubMed

    Dick, Claudia Fernanda; Dos-Santos, André Luiz Araújo; Fonseca-de-Souza, André L; Rocha-Ferreira, Juliana; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2010-04-01

    In this work, we showed that living cells of Trypanosoma rangeli express different ecto-phosphatase activities in response to different inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentrations in the culture medium. The ecto-phosphatase activity from T. rangeli grown at low-Pi concentration was inhibited by the increase of the pH, while the ecto-phosphatase of the cells grown at high Pi concentration was not modulated by the change of the pH of the medium. Okadaic acid inhibited only the ecto-phosphatase activity from cells grown at low-Pi concentration but not the ecto-phosphatase activity from cells grown at high-Pi concentration. Accordingly, phosphatase activity from T. rangeli grown at low Pi concentration was able to hydrolyze P-serine and P-threonine at high rate but not P-tyrosine. The phosphatase activity from T. rangeli grown at high-Pi concentration was able to hydrolyze P-serine, P-threonine and P-tyrosine with the same rate. The addition of anterior midgut homogenate of Rhodnius prolixus on the epimastigotes suspension inhibited the enzyme activity of T. rangeli grown at low-Pi concentration. On the other hand, anterior midgut homogenate had no effect in the ecto-phosphatase of T. rangeli maintained at high-Pi concentration. Altogether, the results described here indicate that ecto-phosphatase activities hydrolyzing phosphorylated compounds present in the extracellular medium of T. rangeli are regulated by the external Pi concentration.

  12. FACT plays a major role in histone dynamics affecting VSG expression site control in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Denninger, Viola; Rudenko, Gloria

    2014-11-01

    Chromatin remodelling is involved in the transcriptional regulation of the RNA polymerase I transcribed variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) expression sites (ESs) of Trypanosoma brucei. We show that the T. brucei FACT complex contains the Pob3 and Spt16 subunits, and plays a key role in ES silencing. We see an inverse correlation between transcription and condensed chromatin, whereby FACT knockdown results in ES derepression and more open chromatin around silent ES promoters. Derepressed ESs show increased sensitivity to micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digestion, and a decrease in histones at silent ES promoters but not telomeres. In contrast, FACT knockdown results in more histones at the active ES, correlated with transcription shut-down. ES promoters are derepressed in cells stalled at the G2/M cell cycle stage after knockdown of FACT, but not in G2/M cells stalled after knockdown of cyclin 6. This argues that the observed ES derepression is a direct consequence of histone chaperone activity by FACT at the G2/M cell cycle stage which could affect transcription elongation, rather than an indirect consequence of a cell cycle checkpoint. These experiments highlight the role of the FACT complex in cell cycle-specific chromatin remodelling within VSG ESs.

  13. Cloning and expression of transgenes using linear vectors in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Curto, María de Los Ángeles; Lorenzi, Hernán A; Moraes Barros, Roberto R; Souza, Renata T; Levin, Mariano J; Da Silveira, José Franco; Schijman, Alejandro G

    2014-06-01

    The identification of new targets for vaccine and drug development for the treatment of Chagas' disease is dependent on deepening our understanding of the parasite genome. Vectors for genetic manipulation in Trypanosoma cruzi basically include those that remain as circular episomes and those that integrate into the parasite's genome. Artificial chromosomes are alternative vectors to overcome problematic transgene expression often occurring with conventional vectors in this parasite. We have constructed a series of vectors named pTACs (Trypanosome Artificial Chromosomes), all of them carrying telomeric and subtelomeric sequences and genes conferring resistance to different selection drugs. In addition, one pTAC harbours a modified GFP gene (pTAC-gfp), and another one carries the ornithine decarboxilase gene from Crithidia fasciculata (pTAC-odc). We have encountered artificial chromosomes generated from pTACs in transformed T. cruzi epimastigotes for every version of the designed vectors. These extragenomic elements, in approximately 6-8 copies per cell, remained as linear episomes, contained telomeres and persisted after 150 and 60 generations with or without selection drugs, respectively. The linear molecules remained stable through the different T. cruzi developmental forms. Furthermore, derived artificial chromosomes from pTAC-odc could complement the auxotrophy of T. cruzi for polyamines. Our results show that pTACs constitute useful tools for reverse functional genetics in T. cruzi that will contribute to a better understanding of T. cruzi biology. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Cloning and expression of the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene from Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, T E; Ullman, B

    1993-01-01

    The hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) enzyme of Trypanosoma brucei and related parasites provides a rational target for the treatment of African sleeping sickness and several other parasitic diseases. To characterize the T. brucei HGPRT enzyme in detail, the T. brucei hgprt was isolated within a 4.2 kb SalI-KpnI genomic insert and sequenced. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 630 bp that encoded a protein of 210 amino acids with a M(r) = 23.4 kd. After gap alignment, the T. brucei HGPRT exhibited 21-23% amino acid sequence identity, mostly in three clustered regions, with the HGPRTs from human, S. mansoni, and P falciparum, indicating that the trypanosome enzyme was the most divergent of the group. Surprisingly, the T. brucei HGPRT was more homologous to the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) from the prokaryote V. harveyi than to the eukaryotic HGPRTs. Northern blot analysis revealed two trypanosome transcripts of 1.4 and 1.9 kb, each expressed to equivalent degrees in insect vector and mammalian forms of the parasite. The T. brucei hgprt was inserted into an expression plasmid and transformed into S phi 606 E. coli that are deficient in both HPRT and xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase activities. Soluble, enzymatically active recombinant T. brucei HGPRT was expressed to high levels and purified to homogeneity by GTP-agarose affinity chromatography. The purified recombinant enzyme recognized hypoxanthine, guanine, and allopurinol, but not xanthine or adenine, as substrates and was inhibited by a variety of nucleotide effectors. The availability of a molecular clone encoding the T. brucei hgprt and large quantities of homogeneous recombinant HGPRT enzyme provides an experimentally manipulable molecular and biochemical system for the rational design of novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of African sleeping sickness and other diseases of parasitic origin. Images PMID:8265360

  15. Active VSG expression sites in Trypanosoma brucei are depleted of nucleosomes.

    PubMed

    Stanne, Tara M; Rudenko, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    African trypanosomes regulate transcription differently from other eukaryotes. Most of the trypanosome genome is constitutively transcribed by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) as large polycistronic transcription units while the genes encoding the major surface proteins are transcribed by RNA polymerase I (Pol I). In bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei, the gene encoding the variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) coat is expressed in a monoallelic fashion from one of about 15 VSG bloodstream form expression sites (BESs). Little is known about the chromatin structure of the trypanosome genome, and the chromatin state of active versus silent VSG BESs remains controversial. Here, we determined histone H3 occupancy within the genome of T. brucei, focusing on active versus silent VSG BESs in the bloodstream form. We found that histone H3 was most enriched in the nontranscribed 50-bp and 177-bp repeats and relatively depleted in Pol I, II, and III transcription units, with particular depletion over promoter regions. Using two isogenic T. brucei lines containing marker genes in different VSG BESs, we determined that histone H3 is 11- to 40-fold depleted from active VSG BESs compared with silent VSG BESs. Quantitative PCR analysis of fractionated micrococcal nuclease-digested chromatin revealed that the active VSG BES is depleted of nucleosomes. Therefore, in contrast to earlier views, nucleosome positioning appears to be involved in the monoalleleic control of VSG BESs in T. brucei. This may provide a level of epigenetic regulation enabling bloodstream form trypanosomes to efficiently pass on the transcriptional state of active and silent BESs to daughter cells.

  16. The effects of genetic exchange on variable antigen expression in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Turner, C M; Aslam, N; Smith, E; Buchanan, N; Tait, A

    1991-12-01

    The inheritance of variant surface antigens in Trypanosoma brucei has been determined by identifying variable antigen types (VATs) in each of two cloned parental stocks and then examining the presence and abundance of these VATs in hybrid progeny produced when these stocks undergo genetic exchange during co-transmission through tsetse flies. Nine VATs have been identified from the repertoire of the parental stock STIB 247L and 5 VATs have been identified from the parental stock STIB 386AA; the identified VATs were exclusive to each stock. Their inheritance was elucidated using two assays. In the first, repertoire antisera (RAS) containing antibody specificities to many different VATs were raised in rabbits to the 2 parental stocks and 6 progeny clones. The presence of VAT-specific antibodies in these RAS was then determined by antibody-dependent complement-mediated lysis. In the second assay, the 2 parental stocks and 4 hybrid progeny clones were each independently transmitted through tsetse flies and VATs observed using VAT-specific antisera in indirect immunofluorescence of metacyclic trypanosomes and in bloodstream forms of fly-bitten mice. The results from both assays showed that (1) both metacyclic- and bloodstream-VATs were inherited into the progeny, (2) each hybrid progeny clone contained some VATs from both parents, (3) hybrids did not express all the VATs from either parent, (4) there was little apparent pattern as to which VATs had been inherited and which had not and (5) the VAT repertoires of the hybrid progeny appeared to be larger than those of the parents. In addition, two results indicated that control of VAT expression remains unaltered after genetic exchange.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Ghost Imaging without Discord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Jeffrey H.; Venkatraman, Dheera; Wong, Franco N. C.

    2013-05-01

    Ragy and Adesso argue that quantum discord is involved in the formation of a pseudothermal ghost image. We show that quantum discord plays no role in spatial light modulator ghost imaging, i.e., ghost-image formation based on structured illumination realized with laser light that has undergone spatial light modulation by the output from a pseudorandom number generator. Our analysis thus casts doubt on the degree to which quantum discord is necessary for ghost imaging.

  18. Expression and the Peculiar Enzymatic Behavior of the Trypanosoma cruzi NTH1 DNA Glycosylase

    PubMed Central

    Ormeño, Fernando; Barrientos, Camila; Ramirez, Santiago; Ponce, Iván; Valenzuela, Lucía; Sepúlveda, Sofía; Bitar, Mainá; Kemmerling, Ulrike; Machado, Carlos Renato; Cabrera, Gonzalo; Galanti, Norbel

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas’ disease, presents three cellular forms (trypomastigotes, epimastigotes and amastigotes), all of which are submitted to oxidative species in its hosts. However, T. cruzi is able to resist oxidative stress suggesting a high efficiency of its DNA repair machinery.The Base Excision Repair (BER) pathway is one of the main DNA repair mechanisms in other eukaryotes and in T. cruzi as well. DNA glycosylases are enzymes involved in the recognition of oxidative DNA damage and in the removal of oxidized bases, constituting the first step of the BER pathway. Here, we describe the presence and activity of TcNTH1, a nuclear T. cruzi DNA glycosylase. Surprisingly, purified recombinant TcNTH1 does not remove the thymine glycol base, but catalyzes the cleavage of a probe showing an AP site. The same activity was found in epimastigote and trypomastigote homogenates suggesting that the BER pathway is not involved in thymine glycol DNA repair. TcNTH1 DNA-binding properties assayed in silico are in agreement with the absence of a thymine glycol removing function of that parasite enzyme. Over expression of TcNTH1 decrease parasite viability when transfected epimastigotes are submitted to a sustained production of H2O2.Therefore, TcNTH1 is the only known NTH1 orthologous unable to eliminate thymine glycol derivatives but that recognizes and cuts an AP site, most probably by a beta-elimination mechanism. We cannot discard that TcNTH1 presents DNA glycosylase activity on other DNA base lesions. Accordingly, a different DNA repair mechanism should be expected leading to eliminate thymine glycol from oxidized parasite DNA. Furthermore, TcNTH1 may play a role in the AP site recognition and processing. PMID:27284968

  19. Expression and the Peculiar Enzymatic Behavior of the Trypanosoma cruzi NTH1 DNA Glycosylase.

    PubMed

    Ormeño, Fernando; Barrientos, Camila; Ramirez, Santiago; Ponce, Iván; Valenzuela, Lucía; Sepúlveda, Sofía; Bitar, Mainá; Kemmerling, Ulrike; Machado, Carlos Renato; Cabrera, Gonzalo; Galanti, Norbel

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas' disease, presents three cellular forms (trypomastigotes, epimastigotes and amastigotes), all of which are submitted to oxidative species in its hosts. However, T. cruzi is able to resist oxidative stress suggesting a high efficiency of its DNA repair machinery.The Base Excision Repair (BER) pathway is one of the main DNA repair mechanisms in other eukaryotes and in T. cruzi as well. DNA glycosylases are enzymes involved in the recognition of oxidative DNA damage and in the removal of oxidized bases, constituting the first step of the BER pathway. Here, we describe the presence and activity of TcNTH1, a nuclear T. cruzi DNA glycosylase. Surprisingly, purified recombinant TcNTH1 does not remove the thymine glycol base, but catalyzes the cleavage of a probe showing an AP site. The same activity was found in epimastigote and trypomastigote homogenates suggesting that the BER pathway is not involved in thymine glycol DNA repair. TcNTH1 DNA-binding properties assayed in silico are in agreement with the absence of a thymine glycol removing function of that parasite enzyme. Over expression of TcNTH1 decrease parasite viability when transfected epimastigotes are submitted to a sustained production of H2O2.Therefore, TcNTH1 is the only known NTH1 orthologous unable to eliminate thymine glycol derivatives but that recognizes and cuts an AP site, most probably by a beta-elimination mechanism. We cannot discard that TcNTH1 presents DNA glycosylase activity on other DNA base lesions. Accordingly, a different DNA repair mechanism should be expected leading to eliminate thymine glycol from oxidized parasite DNA. Furthermore, TcNTH1 may play a role in the AP site recognition and processing.

  20. Ghost story. II. The midpoint ghost vertex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonora, L.; Maccaferri, C.; Santos, R. J. Scherer; Tolla, D. D.

    2009-11-01

    We construct the ghost number 9 three strings vertex for OSFT in the natural normal ordering. We find two versions, one with a ghost insertion at z = i and a twist-conjugate one with insertion at z = -i. For this reason we call them midpoint vertices. We show that the relevant Neumann matrices commute among themselves and with the matrix G representing the operator K1. We analyze the spectrum of the latter and find that beside a continuous spectrum there is a (so far ignored) discrete one. We are able to write spectral formulas for all the Neumann matrices involved and clarify the important role of the integration contour over the continuous spectrum. We then pass to examine the (ghost) wedge states. We compute the discrete and continuous eigenvalues of the corresponding Neumann matrices and show that they satisfy the appropriate recursion relations. Using these results we show that the formulas for our vertices correctly define the star product in that, starting from the data of two ghost number 0 wedge states, they allow us to reconstruct a ghost number 3 state which is the expected wedge state with the ghost insertion at the midpoint, according to the star recursion relation.

  1. Ghost diffraction and ghost imaging in two-color ghost imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Pei; Fu, Xi-quan

    2016-10-01

    Ghost diffraction and ghost imaging in two-color ghost imaging are investigated with pseudo-thermal light. Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel integral, the ghost diffraction (GD) and ghost imaging (GI) condition in two-color ghost imaging has been demonstrated. It is shown that GD and GI fringes in two-color ghost imaging can be obtained by conforming the GI condition and GD condition, respectively. The exchange of ghost diffraction and ghost imaging can be obtained by only changing one of the wavelength of two-color source when compared with the signal-color ghost imaging, and the condition of GD and GI in signal-color ghost imaging are a special case of two-color ghost imaging. The simulation results agree well with the theoretical analysis.

  2. Classical and quantum ghosts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sbisà, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of these notes is to provide a self-contained review of why it is generically a problem when a solution of a theory possesses ghost fields among the perturbation modes. We define what a ghost field is and we show that its presence is associated with a classical instability whenever the ghost field interacts with standard fields. We then show that the instability is more severe at quantum level, and that perturbative ghosts can exist only in low energy effective theories. However, if we do not consider very ad hoc choices, compatibility with observational constraints implies that low energy effective ghosts can exist only at the price of giving up Lorentz invariance or locality above the cut-off, in which case the cut-off has to be much lower that the energy scales we currently probe in particle colliders. We also comment on the possible role of extra degrees of freedom which break Lorentz invariance spontaneously.

  3. Expressed truncated N-terminal variable surface glycoprotein (VSG) of Trypanosoma evansi in E. coli exhibits immuno-reactivity.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, P P; Balumahendiran, M; Balamurugan, V; Rudramurthy, G R; Prabhudas, K

    2012-06-08

    The variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) of trypanosome is an important part of its body surface coat, which is expressed in early, middle and late stages of infection contributing a major diagnostic value. In the present study, the 5' end of the partial VSG gene sequences (681 bp) encoding N-terminal protein of RoTat 1.2 VSG (227 amino acid) was amplified, cloned into pET32a vector, and expressed in prokaryotic system. The fused His-tagged expressed VSG protein (43 kDa) of the Trypanosoma evansi was characterized in SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting using hyperimmune/immune sera raised against buffalo, dog, lion and leopard isolates of T. evansi. The expressed protein remained immunoreactive with all the sera combinations. The animals immunized with whole cell lysate or recombinant protein showed similar antibody reactions in ELISA and CATT (Card Agglutination Test for Trypanosomiasis). This study suggests the expressed recombinant truncated VSG is having its importance for its possible use in sero-diagnosis of surra.

  4. The anatomy and transcription of a monocistronic expression site for a metacyclic variant surface glycoprotein gene in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Pedram, M; Donelson, J E

    1999-06-11

    African trypanosomes evade the immune response of their mammalian hosts by switching the expression of their variant surface glycoprotein genes (vsg). The bloodstream trypanosome clone MVAT4 of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense expresses a metacyclic vsg as a monocistronic RNA from a promoter located 2 kilobases (kb) upstream of its start codon. Determination of 23 kb of sequence at the metacyclic variant antigen type 4 (MVAT) vsg expression site (ES) revealed an ES-associated gene (esag) 1 preceded by an ingi retroposon and an inverted region containing an unrelated vsg, short stretches of 70-bp repeats and a pseudo esag 3. Nuclear run-on experiments indicate that the 18-kb region upstream of the MVAT4 vsg promoter is transcriptionally silent. However, multiple members of different esag families are expressed from elsewhere in the genome. The MVAT4 vsg promoter is highly repressed in the procyclic stage, in contrast to the known polycistronic vsg ESs which undergo abortive transcription. Activation of the MVAT4 vsg ES occurs in situ without nucleotide sequence changes, although this monocistronic ES undergoes a pattern of base J modifications similar to that reported for the polycistronic ESs. The relative simplicity of the MVAT4 vsg ES and the uncoupled expression of the vsg and esags provide a unique opportunity for investigating the molecular mechanisms responsible for antigenic variation in African trypanosomes.

  5. A modular and optimized single marker system for generating Trypanosoma brucei cell lines expressing T7 RNA polymerase and the tetracycline repressor.

    PubMed

    Poon, S K; Peacock, L; Gibson, W; Gull, K; Kelly, S

    2012-02-01

    Here, we present a simple modular extendable vector system for introducing the T7 RNA polymerase and tetracycline repressor genes into Trypanosoma brucei. This novel system exploits developments in our understanding of gene expression and genome organization to produce a streamlined plasmid optimized for high levels of expression of the introduced transgenes. We demonstrate the utility of this novel system in bloodstream and procyclic forms of Trypanosoma brucei, including the genome strain TREU927/4. We validate these cell lines using a variety of inducible experiments that recapture previously published lethal and non-lethal phenotypes. We further demonstrate the utility of the single marker (SmOx) TREU927/4 cell line for in vivo experiments in the tsetse fly and provide a set of plasmids that enable both whole-fly and salivary gland-specific inducible expression of transgenes.

  6. Differential expression on mitochondrial tryparedoxin peroxidase (mTcTXNPx) in Trypanosoma cruzi after ferrocenyl diamine hydrochlorides treatments.

    PubMed

    Kohatsu, Andréa A N; Silva, Flávia A J; Francisco, Acácio I; Rimoldi, Aline; Silva, Marco T A; Vargas, Maria D; Rosa, João A da; Cicarelli, Regina M B

    Resistance to benznidazole in certain strains of Trypanosoma cruzi may be caused by the increased production of enzymes that act on the oxidative metabolism, such as mitochondrial tryparedoxin peroxidase which catalyses the reduction of peroxides. This work presents cytotoxicity assays performed with ferrocenyl diamine hydrochlorides in six different strains of T. cruzi epimastigote forms (Y, Bolivia, SI1, SI8, QMII, and SIGR3). The last four strains have been recently isolated from triatominae and mammalian host (domestic cat). The expression of mitochondrial tryparedoxin peroxidase was analyzed by the Western blotting technique using polyclonal antibody anti mitochondrial tryparedoxin peroxidase obtained from a rabbit immunized with the mitochondrial tryparedoxin peroxidase recombinant protein. All the tested ferrocenyl diamine hydrochlorides were more cytotoxic than benznidazole. The expression of the 25.5kDa polypeptide of mitochondrial tryparedoxin peroxidase did not increase in strains that were more resistant to the ferrocenyl compounds (SI8 and SIGR3). In addition, a 58kDa polypeptide was also recognized in all strains. Ferrocenyl diamine hydrochlorides showed trypanocidal activity and the expression of 25.5kDa mitochondrial tryparedoxin peroxidase is not necessarily increased in some T. cruzi strains. Most likely, other mechanisms, in addition to the over expression of this antioxidative enzyme, should be involved in the escape of parasites from cytotoxic oxidant agents.

  7. Temporal ghost imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuusela, Tom A.

    2017-05-01

    Ghost imaging in the spatial domain is nowadays a well-known but still a surprising phenomenon. It was demonstrated originally with entangled photon pairs and later with pseudo-thermal light. Very recently it was shown that it is also possible to create ghost images in the time domain using temporally incoherent light. In this case the object is not a spatial mask but a temporally varying modulation of the light. We show a simple experimental setup for temporal ghost imaging that can be implemented even in the undergraduate physics laboratory. Results are very close to the those reported in the first experimental study of this phenomenon.

  8. Developmental regulation and extracellular release of a VSG expression-site-associated gene product from Trypanosoma brucei bloodstream forms.

    PubMed

    Barnwell, Eleanor M; van Deursen, Frederick J; Jeacock, Laura; Smith, Katherine A; Maizels, Rick M; Acosta-Serrano, Alvaro; Matthews, Keith

    2010-10-01

    Trypanosomes evade host immunity by exchanging variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) coats. VSG genes are transcribed from telomeric expression sites, which contain a diverse family of expression-site-associated genes (ESAGs). We have discovered that the mRNAs for one ESAG family, ESAG9, are strongly developmentally regulated, being enriched in stumpy forms, a life-cycle stage in the mammalian bloodstream that is important for the maintenance of chronic parasite infections and for tsetse transmission. ESAG9 gene sequences are highly diverse in the genome and encode proteins with weak similarity to the massively diverse MASP proteins in Trypanosoma cruzi. We demonstrate that ESAG9 proteins are modified by N-glycosylation and can be shed to the external milieu, this being dependent upon coexpression with at least one other family member. The expression profile and extracellular release of ESAG9 proteins represents a novel and unexpected aspect of the transmission biology of trypanosomes in their mammalian host. We suggest that these molecules might interact with the external environment, with possible implications for infection chronicity or parasite transmission.

  9. Ghost Stories and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Gelderen, Virginia

    1988-01-01

    Discusses classroom projects developed jointly by students and teacher in a sixth grade gifted class. Describes projects involving ghost stories, science research, interviewing authors, the local telephone book, and holiday celebrations. (DHP)

  10. Ghost dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Furukawa, Tomonori; Yokoyama, Shuichiro; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Sugiyama, Naoshi; Mukohyama, Shinji E-mail: shu@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp E-mail: naoshi@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    2010-05-01

    We revisit ghost dark matter, the possibility that ghost condensation may serve as an alternative to dark matter. In particular, we investigate the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) background evolution and the large-scale structure (LSS) in the ΛGDM universe, i.e. a late-time universe dominated by a cosmological constant and ghost dark matter. The FRW background of the ΛGDM universe is indistinguishable from that of the standard ΛCDM universe if M∼>1eV, where M is the scale of spontaneous Lorentz breaking. From the LSS we find a stronger bound: M∼>10eV. For smaller M, ghost dark matter would have non-negligible sound speed after the matter-radiation equality, and thus the matter power spectrum would significantly differ from observation. These bounds are compatible with the phenomenological upper bound M∼<100GeV known in the literature.

  11. Transcript Expression Analysis of Putative Trypanosoma brucei GPI-Anchored Surface Proteins during Development in the Tsetse and Mammalian Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Amy F.; Cerqueira, Gustavo C.; Regmi, Sandesh; Wu, Yineng; El Sayed, Najib M.; Aksoy, Serap

    2012-01-01

    Human African Trypanosomiasis is a devastating disease caused by the parasite Trypanosoma brucei. Trypanosomes live extracellularly in both the tsetse fly and the mammal. Trypanosome surface proteins can directly interact with the host environment, allowing parasites to effectively establish and maintain infections. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchoring is a common posttranslational modification associated with eukaryotic surface proteins. In T. brucei, three GPI-anchored major surface proteins have been identified: variant surface glycoproteins (VSGs), procyclic acidic repetitive protein (PARP or procyclins), and brucei alanine rich proteins (BARP). The objective of this study was to select genes encoding predicted GPI-anchored proteins with unknown function(s) from the T. brucei genome and characterize the expression profile of a subset during cyclical development in the tsetse and mammalian hosts. An initial in silico screen of putative T. brucei proteins by Big PI algorithm identified 163 predicted GPI-anchored proteins, 106 of which had no known functions. Application of a second GPI-anchor prediction algorithm (FragAnchor), signal peptide and trans-membrane domain prediction software resulted in the identification of 25 putative hypothetical proteins. Eighty-one gene products with hypothetical functions were analyzed for stage-regulated expression using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The expression of most of these genes were found to be upregulated in trypanosomes infecting tsetse salivary gland and proventriculus tissues, and 38% were specifically expressed only by parasites infecting salivary gland tissues. Transcripts for all of the genes specifically expressed in salivary glands were also detected in mammalian infective metacyclic trypomastigotes, suggesting a possible role for these putative proteins in invasion and/or establishment processes in the mammalian host. These results represent the first large-scale report of the differential expression of

  12. Ex vivo infection of human placental chorionic villi explants with Trypanosoma cruzi and Toxoplasma gondii induces different Toll-like receptor expression and cytokine/chemokine profiles.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Christian; Muñoz, Lorena; Carrillo, Ileana; Liempi, Ana; Gallardo, Christian; Galanti, Norbel; Maya, Juan Diego; Kemmerling, Ulrike

    2017-07-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi and Toxoplasma gondii present, respectively, low and high congenital transmission rates. The placenta as an immune regulatory organ expresses TLRs, leading to the secretion of cytokines. Both parasites are recognized by TLR-2, TLR-4, and TLR-9. Here, we studied if the parasites induce differences in TLR protein expression, cytokine profiles, and whether receptor inhibition is related to parasite infection. Placental tissue explants were infected ex vivo with each parasite, TLRs protein expression, cytokine profile and parasite infection were determined by Western blotting, ELISA and qPCR. Trypanosoma cruzi and Toxoplasma gondii infection is related to TLR-2 and TLR-4/TLR-9, respectively. Trypanosoma cruzi elicits an increase in TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 cytokine secretion whereas T. gondii only increases the secretion of IL-8. The susceptibility of the placenta to each parasite is mediated partially by the innate immune response. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Low-momentum ghost dressing function and the gluon mass

    SciTech Connect

    Boucaud, Ph.; Leroy, J. P.; Le Yaouanc, A.; Micheli, J.; Pene, O.; Gomez, M. E.; Rodriguez-Quintero, J.

    2010-09-01

    We study the low-momentum ghost propagator Dyson-Schwinger equation in the Landau gauge, assuming for the truncation a constant ghost-gluon vertex, as it is extensively done, and a simple model for a massive gluon propagator. Then, regular Dyson-Schwinger equation solutions (the zero-momentum ghost dressing function not diverging) appear to emerge, and we show the ghost propagator to be described by an asymptotic expression reliable up to the order O(q{sup 2}). That expression, depending on the gluon mass and the zero-momentum Taylor-scheme effective charge, is proven to fit pretty well some low-momentum ghost propagator data [I. L. Bogolubsky, E. M. Ilgenfritz, M. Muller-Preussker, and A. Sternbeck, Phys. Lett. B 676, 69 (2009); Proc. Sci., LAT2007 (2007) 290] from big-volume lattice simulations where the so-called ''simulated annealing algorithm'' is applied to fix the Landau gauge.

  14. Decreased cruzipain and gp85/trans-sialidase family protein expression contributes to loss of Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigote virulence.

    PubMed

    San Francisco, Juan; Barría, Iván; Gutiérrez, Bessy; Neira, Iván; Muñoz, Christian; Sagua, Hernán; Araya, Jorge E; Andrade, Juan Carlos; Zailberger, Anibal; Catalán, Alejandro; Remonsellez, Francisco; Vega, José Luis; González, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Two cell lines derived from a single Trypanosoma cruzi clone by long-term passaging generated a highly virulent (C8C3hvir) and a low virulent (C8C3lvir) cell line. The C8C3hvir cell line was highly infective and lethal to Balb/c mice, and the C8C3lvir cell line was three- to five-fold less infective to mouse cardiomyocytes than C8C3hvir. The highly virulent T. cruzi cell line abundantly expressed the major cysteine proteinase cruzipain (Czp), complement regulatory protein (CRP) and trans-sialidase (TS), all of which are known to act as virulence factors in this parasite. The in vitro invasion capacity and in vivo Balb/c mouse infectiveness of the highly virulent strain was strongly reduced by pre-treatment with antisense oligonucleotides targeting TS or CRP or with E64d. Based on these results, we conclude that decreased levels of TS, CRP and Czp expression could contribute to loss of T. cruzi trypomastigote virulence.

  15. Intraspecies Variation in Trypanosoma cruzi GPI-Mucins: Biological Activities and Differential Expression of α-Galactosyl Residues

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Rodrigo P.; Torrecilhas, Ana C.; Assis, Rafael R.; Rocha, Marcele N.; Moura e Castro, Felipe A.; Freitas, Gustavo F.; Murta, Silvane M.; Santos, Sara L.; Marques, Alexandre F.; Almeida, Igor C.; Romanha, Alvaro J.

    2012-01-01

    The glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored mucins of Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes play an important immunomodulatory role during the course of Chagas disease. Here, some biological activities of tGPI-mucins from four T. cruzi isolates, including benznidazole-susceptible (BZS-Y), benznidazole-resistant (BZR-Y), CL, and Colombiana, were evaluated. GPI-mucins were able to differentially trigger the production of interleukin-12 and nitric oxide in BALB/c macrophages and modulate LLC-MK2 cell invasion. The significance of these variations was assessed after analysis of the terminal α-galactosyl residues. Enzymatic treatment with α-galactosidase indicated a differential expression of O-linked α-galactosyl residues among the strains, with higher expression of this sugar in BZS-Y and BZR-Y T. cruzi populations followed by Colombiana and CL. Unweighted pair group method analysis of the carbohydrate anchor profile and biological parameters allowed the clustering of two groups. One group includes Y and CL strains (T. cruzi II and VI), and the other group is represented by Colombiana strain (T. cruzi I). PMID:22764297

  16. A lytic monoclonal antibody to Trypanosoma cruzi bloodstream trypomastigotes which recognizes an epitope expressed in tissues affected in Chagas' disease.

    PubMed Central

    Zwirner, N W; Malchiodi, E L; Chiaramonte, M G; Fossati, C A

    1994-01-01

    It has been suggested that molecular mimicry between the antigens of Trypanosoma cruzi and the host could have a role in the onset of the chronic stage of Chagas' disease. In this article, we report on a monoclonal antibody (MAb), CAK20.12 (immunoglobulin G2b), which reacts with a polypeptidic epitope of a 150-kDa antigen expressed on the surface of several strains of T. cruzi. This MAb also causes lysis of bloodstream trypomastigotes. Serum samples from 30 of 30 patients with chronic and 11 of 13 patients with acute Chagas' disease present specific antibodies to this antigen. MAb CAK20.12 reacts, by indirect immunofluorescence, with human and syngeneic murine striated muscle tissue, with the smooth muscle layer of cardiac arteries, with the lamina muscularis mucosae and the external striated muscle layer of the esophagus, and with the smooth muscle cells of the colon from normal syngeneic mice. Reactivity with the small intestine was very weak, and no reactivity with ventricle or atrium tissue was detected. Adsorption with an antigenic fraction from normal murine striated muscle or from T. cruzi epimastigotes confirmed that MAb CAK20.12 recognizes a common epitope present in parasites and host tissues. MAb CAK20.12, lytic for the infective form of T. cruzi, recognizes an epitope expressed in striated and smooth muscle cells of the host tissues affected in the chronic stage of Chagas' disease. Images PMID:7514576

  17. Generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags from Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigote and amastigote cDNA libraries.

    PubMed

    Agüero, Fernán; Abdellah, Karim Ben; Tekiel, Valeria; Sánchez, Daniel O; González, Antonio

    2004-08-01

    We have generated 2771 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from two cDNA libraries of Trypanosoma cruzi CL-Brener. The libraries were constructed from trypomastigote and amastigotes, using a spliced leader primer to synthesize the cDNA second strand, thus selecting for full-length cDNAs. Since the libraries were not normalized nor pre-screened, we compared the representation of transcripts between the two using a statistical test and identify a subset of transcripts that show apparent differential representation. A non-redundant set of 1619 reconstructed transcripts was generated by sequence clustering. This dataset was used to perform similarity searches against protein and nucleotide databases. Based on these searches, 339 sequences could be assigned a putative identity. One thousand one-hundred and sixteen sequences in the non-redundant clustered dataset (68.8%) are new expression tags, not represented in the T. cruzi epimastigote ESTs that are in the public databases. Additional information is provided online at http://genoma.unsam.edu.ar/projects/tram. To the best of our knowledge these are the first ESTs reported for the life cycle stages of T. cruzi that occur in the vertebrate host.

  18. Novel protective antigens expressed by Trypanosoma cruzi amastigotes provide immunity to mice highly susceptible to Chagas' disease.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Eduardo L V; Claser, Carla; Haolla, Filipe A B; Zanella, Luiz G; Rodrigues, Mauricio M

    2008-08-01

    Earlier studies have demonstrated in A/Sn mice highly susceptible to Chagas' disease protective immunity against lethal Trypanosoma cruzi infection elicited by vaccination with an open reading frame (ORF) expressed by amastigotes. In our experiments, we used this mouse model to search for other amastigote-expressed ORFs with a similar property. Fourteen ORFs previously determined to be expressed in this developmental stage were individually inserted into a eukaryotic expression vector containing a nucleotide sequence that encoded a mammalian secretory signal peptide. Immunization with 13 of the 14 ORFs induced specific antibodies which recognized the amastigotes. Three of those immune sera also reacted with trypomastigotes and epimastigotes. After a lethal challenge with Y strain trypomastigotes, the vast majority of plasmid-injected mice succumbed to infection. In some cases, a significant delay in mortality was observed. Only two of these ORFs provided protective immunity against the otherwise lethal infection caused by trypomastigotes of the Y or Colombia strain. These ORFs encode members of the trans-sialidase family of surface antigens related to the previously described protective antigen amastigote surface protein 2 (ASP-2). Nevertheless, at the level of antibody recognition, no cross-reactivity was observed between the ORFs and the previously described ASP-2 from the Y strain. In immunofluorescence analyses, we observed the presence of epitopes related to both proteins expressed by amastigotes of seven different strains. In conclusion, our approach allowed us to successfully identify two novel protective ORFs which we consider interesting for future studies on the immune response to Chagas' disease.

  19. Novel Protective Antigens Expressed by Trypanosoma cruzi Amastigotes Provide Immunity to Mice Highly Susceptible to Chagas' Disease▿

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Eduardo L. V.; Claser, Carla; Haolla, Filipe A. B.; Zanella, Luiz G.; Rodrigues, Mauricio M.

    2008-01-01

    Earlier studies have demonstrated in A/Sn mice highly susceptible to Chagas' disease protective immunity against lethal Trypanosoma cruzi infection elicited by vaccination with an open reading frame (ORF) expressed by amastigotes. In our experiments, we used this mouse model to search for other amastigote-expressed ORFs with a similar property. Fourteen ORFs previously determined to be expressed in this developmental stage were individually inserted into a eukaryotic expression vector containing a nucleotide sequence that encoded a mammalian secretory signal peptide. Immunization with 13 of the 14 ORFs induced specific antibodies which recognized the amastigotes. Three of those immune sera also reacted with trypomastigotes and epimastigotes. After a lethal challenge with Y strain trypomastigotes, the vast majority of plasmid-injected mice succumbed to infection. In some cases, a significant delay in mortality was observed. Only two of these ORFs provided protective immunity against the otherwise lethal infection caused by trypomastigotes of the Y or Colombia strain. These ORFs encode members of the trans-sialidase family of surface antigens related to the previously described protective antigen amastigote surface protein 2 (ASP-2). Nevertheless, at the level of antibody recognition, no cross-reactivity was observed between the ORFs and the previously described ASP-2 from the Y strain. In immunofluorescence analyses, we observed the presence of epitopes related to both proteins expressed by amastigotes of seven different strains. In conclusion, our approach allowed us to successfully identify two novel protective ORFs which we consider interesting for future studies on the immune response to Chagas' disease. PMID:18579696

  20. Expression, purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of oligopeptidase B from Trypanosoma brucei

    SciTech Connect

    Rea, Dean; Hazell, Carole; Andrews, Norma W.; Morty, Rory E.; Fülöp, Vilmos

    2006-08-01

    Recombinant oligopeptidase B from T. brucei has been prepared and crystallized. Data were collected to 2.7 Å. Heavy-atom soaks and preparation of selenomethionine-substituted protein are in progress for structure determination by MAD or MIR. African sleeping sickness, also called trypanosomiasis, is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Peptidases from Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent, include the serine peptidase oligopeptidase B, a documented virulence factor and therapeutic target. Determination of the three-dimensional structure of oligopeptidase B is desirable to facilitate the development of novel inhibitors. Oligopeptidase B was overexpressed in Escherichia coli as an N-terminally hexahistidine-tagged fusion protein, purified using metal-affinity chromatography and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique in 7%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 6000, 1 M LiCl, 0.1 M bis-tris propane pH 7.5. Diffraction data to 2.7 Å resolution were collected using synchrotron radiation. The crystals belong to space group P3{sub 1}21 or P3{sub 2}21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 124.5, c = 249.9 Å. A complete data set to 2.7 Å was collected using synchrotron radiation.

  1. Phased array ghost elimination

    PubMed Central

    Kellman, Peter; McVeigh, Elliot R.

    2007-01-01

    Parallel imaging may be applied to cancel ghosts caused by a variety of distortion mechanisms, including distortions such as off-resonance or local flow, which are space variant. Phased array combining coefficients may be calculated that null ghost artifacts at known locations based on a constrained optimization, which optimizes SNR subject to the nulling constraint. The resultant phased array ghost elimination (PAGE) technique is similar to the method known as sensitivity encoding (SENSE) used for accelerated imaging; however, in this formulation is applied to full field-of-view (FOV) images. The phased array method for ghost elimination may result in greater flexibility in designing acquisition strategies. For example, in multi-shot EPI applications ghosts are typically mitigated by the use of an interleaved phase encode acquisition order. An alternative strategy is to use a sequential, non-interleaved phase encode order and cancel the resultant ghosts using PAGE parallel imaging. Cancellation of ghosts by means of phased array processing makes sequential, non-interleaved phase encode acquisition order practical, and permits a reduction in repetition time, TR, by eliminating the need for echo-shifting. Sequential, non-interleaved phase encode order has benefits of reduced distortion due to off-resonance, in-plane flow and EPI delay misalignment. Furthermore, the use of EPI with PAGE has inherent fat-water separation and has been used to provide off-resonance correction using a technique referred to as lipid elimination with an echo-shifting N/2-ghost acquisition (LEENA), and may further generalized using the multi-point Dixon method. Other applications of PAGE include cancelling ghosts which arise due to amplitude or phase variation during the approach to steady state. Parallel imaging requires estimates of the complex coil sensitivities. In vivo estimates may be derived by temporally varying the phase encode ordering to obtain a full k-space dataset in a scheme

  2. Perforin-expressing cytotoxic cells contribute to chronic cardiomyopathy in Trypanosoma cruzi infection

    PubMed Central

    Silverio, Jaline Coutinho; de-Oliveira-Pinto, Luzia Maria; da Silva, Andréa Alice; de Oliveira, Gabriel Melo; Lannes-Vieira, Joseli

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the dual participation of the immune response in controlling the invader and at the same time causing tissue damage might contribute to the design of effective new vaccines and therapies for Chagas disease. Perforin, a cytolytic protein product of killer cells, is involved in resistance to acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection. However, the contribution of perforin in parasite control and chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy is unclear. Perforin-positive cells were detected in the heart tissue during the acute and chronic phases of infection of C57BL/6 mice inoculated with low dose (102 parasites) of the Colombian T. cruzi strain. This protocol led to acute phase survival in both wild-type and perforin null (pfp−/−) mice lineages. During the chronic infection, parasitism and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) as well as interleukin (IL)-4+ and, mainly, interferon (IFN)-γ+ cells were more elevated in the heart tissue of pfp−/− mice. Higher levels of circulating NO and anti-parasite immunoglobulin (Ig)G2c and IgG3, paralleled by a prominent frequency of IFN-γ+ and IL-10+ splenocytes, were present in pfp−/−-infected mice. Therefore, although the perforin-dependent pathway plays a role, it is not crucial for anti-T. cruzi immunity and acute phase survival of mice infected with a low inoculum. Further, perforin deficiency resulted in lower activity of creatine kinase-muscle brain isoform (CK-MB) isoenzyme in serum and a more restricted connexin 43 loss, both of which are markers of the cardiomyocyte lesion. Moreover, perforin deficiency hampered the development of severe electrocardiographic abnormalities. Hence, our results corroborate that perforin-bearing cytotoxic cells might contribute to cardiomyocyte lesion and heart dysfunction during chronic T. cruzi infection, shedding light on immunopathogenesis of chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy. PMID:19878357

  3. TOPO3alpha influences antigenic variation by monitoring expression-site-associated VSG switching in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Sook; Cross, George A M

    2010-07-08

    Homologous recombination (HR) mediates one of the major mechanisms of trypanosome antigenic variation by placing a different variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) gene under the control of the active expression site (ES). It is believed that the majority of VSG switching events occur by duplicative gene conversion, but only a few DNA repair genes that are central to HR have been assigned a role in this process. Gene conversion events that are associated with crossover are rarely seen in VSG switching, similar to mitotic HR. In other organisms, TOPO3alpha (Top3 in yeasts), a type IA topoisomerase, is part of a complex that is involved in the suppression of crossovers. We therefore asked whether a related mechanism might suppress VSG recombination. Using a set of reliable recombination and switching assays that could score individual switching mechanisms, we discovered that TOPO3alpha function is conserved in Trypanosoma brucei and that TOPO3alpha plays a critical role in antigenic switching. Switching frequency increased 10-40-fold in the absence of TOPO3alpha and this hyper-switching phenotype required RAD51. Moreover, the preference of 70-bp repeats for VSG recombination was mitigated, while homology regions elsewhere in ES were highly favored, in the absence of TOPO3alpha. Our data suggest that TOPO3alpha may remove undesirable recombination intermediates constantly arising between active and silent ESs, thereby balancing ES integrity against VSG recombination.

  4. Altered Expression of Galectin-3 Induces Cortical Thymocyte Depletion and Premature Exit of Immature Thymocytes during Trypanosoma cruzi Infection

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Monteiro, Elizangela; Reis Lorenzato, Luciana; Kenji Nihei, Oscar; Junqueira, Mara; Rabinovich, Gabriel Adrián; Hsu, Daniel Kaiyuan; Liu, Fu-Tong; Savino, Wilson; Chammas, Roger; Villa-Verde, Déa Maria Serra

    2007-01-01

    During acute infection with Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas’ disease, the thymus undergoes intense atrophy followed by a premature escape of CD4+CD8+ immature cortical thymocytes. Here we report a pivotal role for the endogenous lectin galectin-3 in accelerating death of thymocytes and migration of these cells away from the thymus after T. cruzi infection. We observed a pronounced increase in galectin-3 expression that paralleled the extensive depletion of CD4+CD8+ immature thymocytes after infection. In vitro, recombinant galectin-3 induced increased levels of death in cortical immature thymocytes. Consistent with the role of galectin-3 in promoting cell death, thymuses from gal-3−/− mice did not show cortical thymocyte depletion after parasite infection in vivo. In addition, galectin-3 accelerated laminin-driven CD4+CD8+ thymocyte migration in vitro and in vivo induced exportation of CD4+CD8+ cells from the thymus to the peripheral compartment. Our findings provide evidence of a novel role for galectin-3 in the regulation of thymus physiology and identify a potential mechanism based on protein-glycan interactions in thymic atrophy associated with acute T. cruzi infection. PMID:17255323

  5. Altered expression of galectin-3 induces cortical thymocyte depletion and premature exit of immature thymocytes during Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    PubMed

    Silva-Monteiro, Elizangela; Reis Lorenzato, Luciana; Kenji Nihei, Oscar; Junqueira, Mara; Rabinovich, Gabriel Adrián; Hsu, Daniel Kaiyuan; Liu, Fu-Tong; Savino, Wilson; Chammas, Roger; Villa-Verde, Déa Maria Serra

    2007-02-01

    During acute infection with Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease, the thymus undergoes intense atrophy followed by a premature escape of CD4+CD8+ immature cortical thymocytes. Here we report a pivotal role for the endogenous lectin galectin-3 in accelerating death of thymocytes and migration of these cells away from the thymus after T. cruzi infection. We observed a pronounced increase in galectin-3 expression that paralleled the extensive depletion of CD4+CD8+ immature thymocytes after infection. In vitro, recombinant galectin-3 induced increased levels of death in cortical immature thymocytes. Consistent with the role of galectin-3 in promoting cell death, thymuses from gal-3-/- mice did not show cortical thymocyte depletion after parasite infection in vivo. In addition, galectin-3 accelerated laminin-driven CD4+CD8+ thymocyte migration in vitro and in vivo induced exportation of CD4+CD8+ cells from the thymus to the peripheral compartment. Our findings provide evidence of a novel role for galectin-3 in the regulation of thymus physiology and identify a potential mechanism based on protein-glycan interactions in thymic atrophy associated with acute T. cruzi infection.

  6. Differential protein expression throughout the life cycle of Trypanosoma congolense, a major parasite of cattle in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Eyford, Brett A.; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Smith, Derek; Loveless, Bianca; Hertz-Fowler, Christiane; Donelson, John E.; Inoue, Noboru; Pearson, Terry W.

    2011-01-01

    Trypanosoma congolense is an important pathogen of livestock in Africa. To study protein expression throughout the T. congolense life cycle, we used culture-derived parasites of each of the three main insect stages and bloodstream stage parasites isolated from infected mice, to perform differential protein expression analysis. Three complete biological replicates of all four life cycle stages were produced from T. congolense IL3000, a cloned parasite that is amenable to culture of major life cycle stages in vitro. Cellular proteins from each life cycle stage were trypsin digested and the resulting peptides were labeled with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ). The peptides were then analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). This method was used to identify and relatively quantify proteins from the different life cycle stages in the same experiment. A search of the Wellcome Trust's Sanger Institute's semi-annotated T. congolense database was performed using the MS/MS fragmentation data to identify the corresponding source proteins. A total of 2088 unique protein sequences were identified, representing 23% of the ∼9000 proteins predicted for the T. congolense proteome. The 1291 most confidently identified proteins were prioritized for further study. Of these, 784 yielded annotated hits while 501 were described as “hypothetical proteins”. Six proteins showed no significant sequence similarity to any known proteins (from any species) and thus represent new, previously uncharacterized T. congolense proteins. Of particular interest among the remainder are several membrane molecules that showed drastic differential expression, including, not surprisingly, the well-studied variant surface glycoproteins (VSGs), invariant surface glycoproteins (ISGs) 65 and 75, congolense epimastigote specific protein (CESP), the surface protease GP63, an amino acid transporter, a pteridine transporter and a haptoglobin–hemoglobin receptor. Several of

  7. Histone H1 plays a role in heterochromatin formation and VSG expression site silencing in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Povelones, Megan L; Gluenz, Eva; Dembek, Marcin; Gull, Keith; Rudenko, Gloria

    2012-01-01

    The African sleeping sickness parasite Trypanosoma brucei evades the host immune system through antigenic variation of its variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) coat. Although the T. brucei genome contains ∼1500 VSGs, only one VSG is expressed at a time from one of about 15 subtelomeric VSG expression sites (ESs). For antigenic variation to work, not only must the vast VSG repertoire be kept silent in a genome that is mainly constitutively transcribed, but the frequency of VSG switching must be strictly controlled. Recently it has become clear that chromatin plays a key role in silencing inactive ESs, thereby ensuring monoallelic expression of VSG. We investigated the role of the linker histone H1 in chromatin organization and ES regulation in T. brucei. T. brucei histone H1 proteins have a different domain structure to H1 proteins in higher eukaryotes. However, we show that they play a key role in the maintenance of higher order chromatin structure in bloodstream form T. brucei as visualised by electron microscopy. In addition, depletion of histone H1 results in chromatin becoming generally more accessible to endonucleases in bloodstream but not in insect form T. brucei. The effect on chromatin following H1 knock-down in bloodstream form T. brucei is particularly evident at transcriptionally silent ES promoters, leading to 6-8 fold derepression of these promoters. T. brucei histone H1 therefore appears to be important for the maintenance of repressed chromatin in bloodstream form T. brucei. In particular H1 plays a role in downregulating silent ESs, arguing that H1-mediated chromatin functions in antigenic variation in T. brucei.

  8. GHOST balloons around Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, Charles R.

    1988-01-01

    The GHOST balloon position as a function of time data shows that the atmospheric circulation around the Antarctic Continent at the 100 mb and 200 mb levels is complex. The GHOST balloons supposedly follow the horizontal trajectory of the air at the balloon level. The position of GHOST balloon 98Q for a three month period in 1968 is shown. The balloon moved to within 2 deg of the South Pole on 1 October 1968 and then by 9 December 1968 was 35 deg from the South Pole and close to its position on 1 September 1968. The balloon generally moved from west to east but on two occasions moved in the opposite direction for a few days. The latitude of GHOST balloons 98Q and 149Z which was at 200 mb is given. Both balloons tended to get closer to the South Pole in September and October. Other GHOST balloons at the same pressure and time period may not indicate similar behavior.

  9. Trispectrum from ghost inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Izumi, Keisuke; Mukohyama, Shinji E-mail: shinji.mukohyama@ipmu.jp

    2010-06-01

    Ghost inflation predicts almost scale-invariant primordial cosmological perturbations with relatively large non-Gaussianity. The bispectrum is known to have a large contribution at the wavenumbers forming an equilateral triangle and the corresponding nonlinear parameter f{sub NL}{sup equil} is typically of order O(10{sup 2}). In this paper we calculate trispectrum from ghost inflation and show that the corresponding nonlinear parameter τ{sub NL} is typically of order O(10{sup 4}). We investigate the shape dependence of the trispectrum and see that it has some features different from DBI inflation. Therefore, our result may be useful as a template to distinguish ghost inflation from other models of inflation by future experiments.

  10. The new ekpyrotic ghost

    SciTech Connect

    Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei; Kang, Jin U; Mukhanov, Viatcheslav E-mail: kangjinu@hotmail.com E-mail: mukhanov@theorie.physik.uni-muenchen.de

    2008-04-15

    The new ekpyrotic scenario attempts to solve the singularity problem by involving violation of the null energy condition in a model which combines the ekpyrotic/cyclic scenario with the ghost condensate theory and the curvaton mechanism of production of adiabatic perturbations of the metric. The Lagrangian of this theory, as well as of the ghost condensate model, contains a term with higher derivatives, which was added to the theory to stabilize its vacuum state. We found that this term may affect the dynamics of the cosmological evolution. Moreover, after a proper quantization, this term results in the existence of a new ghost field with negative energy, which leads to a catastrophic vacuum instability. We explain why one cannot treat this dangerous term as a correction valid only at small energies and momenta below some UV cutoff, and demonstrate the problems arising when one attempts to construct a UV completion of this theory.

  11. Medical Ghost-Writing

    PubMed Central

    Langdon-Neuner, Elise

    2008-01-01

    Any assistance an author receives with writing a scientific article that is not acknowledged in the article is described as ghost-writing. Articles ghost-written by medical writers engaged by pharmaceutical companies who have a vested interest in the content have caused concern after scandals revealed misleading content in some articles. A key criterion of authorship in medical journals is final approval of the article submitted for publication. Authors are responsible for the content of their articles and for acknowledging any assistance they receive. Action taken by some journals and medical writer associations to encourage acknowledgement is an uphill task in the light of disinterest from the pharmaceutical industry and ignorance or similar lack of interest by those who agree to be named authors. However, acknowledgment alone is not sufficient to resolve medical ghost-writing; issues of how the acknowledgement is formulated, permission to acknowledge and access to raw data also need to be tackled. PMID:22013363

  12. Ghost Cell Tumors.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Jason; Cohen, Molly D; Ramer, Naomi; Payami, Ali

    2017-04-01

    Ghost cell tumors are a family of lesions that range in presentation from cyst to solid neoplasm and in behavior from benign to locally aggressive or metastatic. All are characterized by the presence of ameloblastic epithelium, ghost cells, and calcifications. This report presents the cases of a 14-year-old girl with a calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT) and a 65-year-old woman with a peripheral dentinogenic ghost cell tumor (DGCT) with dysplastic changes, a rare locally invasive tumor of odontogenic epithelium. The first patient presented with a 1-year history of slowly progressing pain and swelling at the left body of the mandible. Initial panoramic radiograph displayed a mixed radiolucent and radiopaque lesion. An incisional biopsy yielded a diagnosis of CCOT. Decompression of the mass was completed; after 3 months, it was enucleated and immediately grafted with bone harvested from the anterior iliac crest. The second patient presented with a 3-month history of slowly progressing pain and swelling at the left body of the mandible. Initial panoramic radiograph depicted a mixed radiolucent and radiopaque lesion with saucerization of the buccal mandibular cortex. An incisional biopsy examination suggested a diagnosis of DGCT because of the presence of ghost cells, dentinoid, and islands of ameloblastic epithelium. Excision of the mass with peripheral ostectomy was completed. At 6 and 12 months of follow-up, no evidence of recurrence was noted.

  13. Ghost imaging with atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khakimov, R. I.; Henson, B. M.; Shin, D. K.; Hodgman, S. S.; Dall, R. G.; Baldwin, K. G. H.; Truscott, A. G.

    2016-12-01

    Ghost imaging is a counter-intuitive phenomenon—first realized in quantum optics—that enables the image of a two-dimensional object (mask) to be reconstructed using the spatio-temporal properties of a beam of particles with which it never interacts. Typically, two beams of correlated photons are used: one passes through the mask to a single-pixel (bucket) detector while the spatial profile of the other is measured by a high-resolution (multi-pixel) detector. The second beam never interacts with the mask. Neither detector can reconstruct the mask independently, but temporal cross-correlation between the two beams can be used to recover a ‘ghost’ image. Here we report the realization of ghost imaging using massive particles instead of photons. In our experiment, the two beams are formed by correlated pairs of ultracold, metastable helium atoms, which originate from s-wave scattering of two colliding Bose-Einstein condensates. We use higher-order Kapitza-Dirac scattering to generate a large number of correlated atom pairs, enabling the creation of a clear ghost image with submillimetre resolution. Future extensions of our technique could lead to the realization of ghost interference, and enable tests of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement and Bell’s inequalities with atoms.

  14. Differential expression of midgut proteins in Trypanosoma brucei gambiense-stimulated vs. non-stimulated Glossina palpalis gambiensis flies

    PubMed Central

    Geiger, Anne; Hamidou Soumana, Illiassou; Tchicaya, Bernadette; Rofidal, Valérie; Decourcelle, Mathilde; Santoni, Véronique; Hem, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    The unicellular pathogenic protozoan Trypanosoma brucei gambiense is responsible for the chronic form of sleeping sickness. This vector-borne disease is transmitted to humans by the tsetse fly of the group Glossina palpalis, including the subspecies G. p. gambiensis, in which the parasite completes its developmental cycle. Sleeping sickness control strategies can therefore target either the human host or the fly vector. Indeed, suppression of one step in the parasite developmental cycle could abolish parasite transmission to humans, with consequences on the spreading of the disease. In order to develop this type of approach, we have identified, at the proteome level, events resulting from the tripartite interaction between the tsetse fly G. p. gambiensis, its microbiome, and the trypanosome. Proteomes were analyzed from four biological replicates of midguts from flies sampled 3 days post-feeding on either a trypanosome-infected (stimulated flies) or a non-infected (non-stimulated flies) bloodmeal. Over 500 proteins were identified in the midguts of flies from both feeding groups, 13 of which were shown to be differentially expressed in trypanosome-stimulated vs. non-stimulated flies. Functional annotation revealed that several of these proteins have important functions that could be involved in modulating the fly infection process by trypanosomes (and thus fly vector competence), including anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic, cellular detoxifying, trypanosome agglutination, and immune stimulating or depressive effects. The results show a strong potential for diminishing or even disrupting fly vector competence, and their application holds great promise for improving the control of sleeping sickness. PMID:26029185

  15. A pol I transcriptional body associated with VSG mono-allelic expression in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Navarro, M; Gull, K

    2001-12-13

    In the mammalian host, African trypanosomes generate consecutive waves of parasitaemia by changing their antigenic coat. Because this coat consists of a single type of variant surface glycoprotein (VSG), the question arises of how a trypanosome accomplishes the transcription of only one of a multi-allelic family of VSG expression site loci to display a single VSG type on the surface at any one time. No major differences have been detected between the single active expression site and the cohort of inactive expression sites. Here we identify an extranucleolar body containing RNA polymerase I (pol I) that is transcriptionally active and present only in the bloodstream form of the parasite. Visualization of the active expression site locus by tagging with green fluorescent protein shows that it is specifically located at this unique pol I transcriptional factory. The presence of this transcriptional body in postmitotic nuclei and its stability in the nucleus after DNA digestion provide evidence for a coherent structure. We propose that the recruitment of a single expression site and the concomitant exclusion of inactive loci from a discrete transcriptional body define the mechanism responsible for VSG mono-allelic expression.

  16. The VSG expression sites of Trypanosoma brucei: multipurpose tools for the adaptation of the parasite to mammalian hosts.

    PubMed

    Pays, E; Lips, S; Nolan, D; Vanhamme, L; Pérez-Morga, D

    2001-04-25

    The variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) genes of Trypanosoma brucei are transcribed in telomeric loci termed VSG expression sites (ESs). Despite permanent initiation of transcription in most if not all of these multiple loci, RNA elongation is abortive except in bloodstream forms where full transcription up to the VSG occurs only in a single ES at a time. The ESs active in bloodstream forms are polycistronic and contain several genes in addition to the VSG, named ES-associated genes (ESAGs). So far 12 ESAGs have been identified, some of which are present only in some ESs. Most of these genes encode surface proteins and this list includes different glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol (GPI)-anchored proteins such as the heterodimeric receptor for the host transferrin (ESAG7/6), integral membrane proteins such as the receptor-like transmembrane adenylyl cyclase (ESAG4) and a surface transporter (ESAG10). An interesting exception is ESAG8, which may encode a cell cycle regulator involved in the differentiation of long slender into short stumpy bloodstream forms. Several ESAGs belong to multigene families including pseudogenes and members transcribed out of the ESs, named genes related to ESAGs (GRESAGs). However, some ESAGs (7, 6 and 8) appear to be restricted to the ESs. Most of these genes can be deleted from the active ES without apparently affecting the phenotype of bloodstream form trypanosomes, probably either due to the expression of ESAGs from 'inactive' ESs (ESAG7/6) or due to the expression of GRESAGs (in particular, GRESAGs4 and GRESAGs1). At least three ESAGs (ESAG7, ESAG6 and SRA) share the evolutionary origin of VSGs. The presence of these latter genes in ESs may confer an increased capacity of the parasite for adaptation to various mammalian hosts, as suggested in the case of ESAG7/6 and proven for SRA, which allows T. brucei to infect humans. Similarly, the existence of a collection of slightly different ESAG4s in the multiple ESs might provide the parasite

  17. Expression of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense Antigens in Leishmania tarentolae. Potential for Use in Rapid Serodiagnostic Tests (RDTs)

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, Barrie; Piening, Turid; Büscher, Philippe; Rogé, Stijn; Smales, C. Mark

    2015-01-01

    The development of rapid serodiagnostic tests for sleeping sickness and other diseases caused by kinetoplastids relies on the affordable production of parasite-specific recombinant antigens. Here, we describe the production of recombinant antigens from Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (T.b. gambiense) in the related species Leishmania tarentolae (L. tarentolae), and compare their diagnostic sensitivity and specificity to native antigens currently used in diagnostic kits against a panel of human sera. A number of T.b. gambiense protein antigen candidates were chosen for recombinant expression in L. tarentolae based on current diagnostics in field use and recent findings on immunodiagnostic antigens found by proteomic profiling. In particular, the extracellular domains of invariant surface glycoprotein 65 (ISG65), variant surface glycoproteins VSG LiTat 1.3 and VSG LiTat 1.5 were fused with C-terminal histidine tags and expressed as soluble proteins in the medium of cultured, recombinant L. tarentolae. Using affinity chromatography, on average 10 mg/L of recombinant protein was purified from cultures and subsequently tested against a panel of sera from sleeping sickness patients from controls, i.e. persons without sleeping sickness living in HAT endemic countries. The evaluation on sera from 172 T.b. gambiense human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) patients and from 119 controls showed very high diagnostic potential of the two recombinant VSG and the rISG65 fragments with areas under the curve between 0.97 and 0.98 compared to 0.98 and 0.99 with native VSG LiTat 1.3 and VSG LiTat 1.5 (statistically not different). Evaluation on sera from 78 T.b. rhodesiense HAT patients and from 100 controls showed an acceptable diagnostic potential of rISG65 with an area under the curve of 0.83. These results indicate that a combination of these recombinant antigens has the potential to be used in next generation rapid serodiagnostic tests. In addition, the L. tarentolae expression system

  18. Quantum ghost imaging through turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, P. Ben; Howland, Gregory A.; Howell, John C.; Chan, Kam Wai Clifford; O'Sullivan-Hale, Colin; Rodenburg, Brandon; Hardy, Nicholas D.; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.; Simon, D. S.; Sergienko, A. V.; Boyd, R. W.

    2011-05-15

    We investigate the effect of turbulence on quantum ghost imaging. We use entangled photons and demonstrate that for a specific experimental configuration the effect of turbulence can be greatly diminished. By decoupling the entangled photon source from the ghost-imaging central image plane, we are able to dramatically increase the ghost-image quality. When imaging a test pattern through turbulence, this method increases the imaged pattern visibility from V=0.15{+-}0.04 to 0.42{+-}0.04.

  19. The size of erythrocyte ghosts.

    PubMed

    Tatsumi, N

    1981-02-20

    The volume of resealed erythrocyte ghosts formed during hypotonic hemolysis of normal human erythrocytes was measured by means of a continuous mean corpuscular volume analyzer. The final volume of resealed ghosts was 140.6 +/- 15.2 fl. Strong correlations exist between the volume of ghosts and the initial mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin of the erythrocyte, and between the enlargement ratio and the mean corpuscular volume or mean corpuscular hemoglobin of the erythrocyte.

  20. Procyclin Null Mutants of Trypanosoma brucei Express Free Glycosylphosphatidylinositols on Their Surface

    PubMed Central

    Vassella, Erik; Bütikofer, Peter; Engstler, Markus; Jelk, Jennifer; Roditi, Isabel

    2003-01-01

    Procyclins are abundant, glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins on the surface of procyclic (insect) form trypanosomes. To investigate whether trypanosomes are able to survive without a procyclin coat, all four procyclin genes were deleted sequentially. Bloodstream forms of the null mutant exhibited no detectable phenotype and were able to differentiate to procyclic forms. Initially, differentiated null mutant cells were barely able to grow, but after an adaptation period of 2 mo in culture they proliferated at the same rate as wild-type trypanosomes. Analysis of these culture-adapted null mutants revealed that they were covered by free GPIs. These were closely related to the mature procyclin anchor in structure and were expressed on the surface in numbers comparable with that of procyclin in wild-type cells. However, free GPIs were smaller than the procyclin anchor, indicative of a lower number of poly-N-acetyllactosamine repeats, and a proportion contained diacylphosphatidic acid. Free GPIs are also expressed by wild-type cells, although to a lesser extent. These have been overlooked in the past because they partition in a solvent fraction (chloroform/water/methanol) that is normally discarded when GPI-anchored proteins are purified. PMID:12686589

  1. Neutrinos: Nature's Ghosts?

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2013-06-18

    Dr. Don Lincoln introduces one of the most fascinating inhabitants of the subatomic realm: the neutrino. Neutrinos are ghosts of the microworld, almost not interacting at all. In this video, he describes some of their properties and how they were discovered. Studies of neutrinos are expected to be performed at many laboratories across the world and to form one of the cornerstones of the Fermilab research program for the next decade or more.

  2. Neutrinos: Nature's Ghosts?

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-12

    Dr. Don Lincoln introduces one of the most fascinating inhabitants of the subatomic realm: the neutrino. Neutrinos are ghosts of the microworld, almost not interacting at all. In this video, he describes some of their properties and how they were discovered. Studies of neutrinos are expected to be performed at many laboratories across the world and to form one of the cornerstones of the Fermilab research program for the next decade or more.

  3. Independence from Kinetoplast DNA Maintenance and Expression Is Associated with Multidrug Resistance in Trypanosoma brucei In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Matthew K.

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that several antitrypanosomatid drugs accumulate in the parasite's mitochondrion, where they often bind to the organellar DNA, the kinetoplast. To what extent this property relates to the mode of action of these compounds has remained largely unquantified. Here we show that single point mutations that remove the dependence of laboratory strains of the sleeping sickness parasite Trypanosoma brucei on a functional kinetoplast result in significant resistance to the diamidine and phenanthridine drug classes. PMID:24550326

  4. Ghosts: Gateway to Organizational Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitzel, Tim; Had, Gary

    2001-01-01

    "Ghosts" are elements that influence an organization's view of itself, its ways of working, and its culturally specific attitudes; they exert an indirect influence over everything that happens within an organization. Successful organizational change requires identifying and integrating these ghosts. (JOW)

  5. Ghosts: Gateway to Organizational Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitzel, Tim; Had, Gary

    2001-01-01

    "Ghosts" are elements that influence an organization's view of itself, its ways of working, and its culturally specific attitudes; they exert an indirect influence over everything that happens within an organization. Successful organizational change requires identifying and integrating these ghosts. (JOW)

  6. Causes for "ghost" manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borok, S.; Goldfarb, I.; Gol'dshtein, V.

    2009-05-01

    The paper concerns intrinsic low-dimensional manifold (ILDM) method suggested in [Maas U, Pope SB. Simplifying chemical kinetics: intrinsic low-dimensional manifolds in composition space, combustion and flame 1992;88:239-64] for dimension reduction of models describing kinetic processes. It has been shown in a number of publications [Goldfarb I, Gol'dshtein V, Maas U. Comparative analysis of two asymptotic approaches based on integral manifolds. IMA J Appl Math 2004;69:353-74; Kaper HG, Kaper TJ, Asymptotic analysis of two reduction methods for systems of chemical reactions. Phys D 2002;165(1-2):66-93; Rhodes C, Morari M, Wiggins S. Identification of the low order manifolds: validating the algorithm of Maas and Pope. Chaos 1999;9(1):108-23] that the ILDM-method works successfully and the intrinsic low-dimensional manifolds belong to a small vicinity of invariant slow manifolds. The ILDM-method has a number of disadvantages. One of them is appearance of so-called "ghost"-manifolds, which do not have connection to the system dynamics [Borok S, Goldfarb I, Gol'dshtein V. "Ghost" ILDM - manifolds and their discrimination. In: Twentieth Annual Symposium of the Israel Section of the Combustion Institute, Beer-Sheva, Israel; 2004. p. 55-7; Borok S, Goldfarb I, Gol'dshtein V. About non-coincidence of invariant manifolds and intrinsic low-dimensional manifolds (ILDM). CNSNS 2008;71:1029-38; Borok S, Goldfarb I, Gol'dshtein V, Maas U. In: Gorban AN, Kazantzis N, Kevrekidis YG, Ottinger HC, Theodoropoulos C, editors. "Ghost" ILDM-manifolds and their identification: model reduction and coarse-graining approaches for multiscale phenomena. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer; 2006. p. 55-80; Borok S, Goldfarb I, Gol'dshtein V. On a modified version of ILDM method and its asymptotic analysis. IJPAM 2008; 44(1): 125-50; Bykov V, Goldfarb I, Gol'dshtein V, Maas U. On a modified version of ILDM approach: asymptotic analysis based on integral manifolds. IMA J Appl Math 2006

  7. Ghostly Open Clusters (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Fuente Marcos, R.

    We review theory and observations of the final stages of the evolution of open clusters. The distinguishing features of these ghostly objects depend upon the original membership of the cluster, the fraction of primordial binaries, and the initial mass function. Remnants of rich open clusters are difficult to detect and might exist in large numbers. We then examine the limited observational data available in this field, and discuss how to use the results of numerical integrations to plan future surveys and evaluate the quality of the available observational information. Current observational results render it very hard to distinguish between a poor open cluster, an open cluster remnant, or part of an association.

  8. Fermionic ghosts in Moyal string field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bars, Itzhak; Kishimoto, Isao; Matsuo, Yutaka

    2003-07-01

    We complete the construction of the Moyal star formulation of bosonic open string field theory (MSFT) by providing a detailed study of the fermionic ghost sector. In particular, as in the case of the matter sector, (1) we construct a map from Witten's star product to the Moyal product, (2) we propose a regularization scheme which is consistent with the matter sector and (3) as a check of the formalism, we derive the ghost Neumann coefficients algebraically directly from the Moyal product. The latter satisfy the Gross-Jevicki nonlinear relations even in the presence of the regulator, and when the regulator is removed they coincide numerically with the expression derived from conformal field theory. After this basic construction, we derive a regularized action of string field theory in the Siegel gauge and define the Feynman rules. We give explicitly the analytic expression of the off-shell four point function for tachyons, including the ghost contribution. Some of the results in this paper have already been used in our previous publications. This paper provides the technical details of the computations which were omitted there.

  9. Ghost-Story Telling: Keeping It Appropriate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weintraub, Jeff

    1996-01-01

    Guidelines for telling ghost stories at camp involve considering children's fears at different ages, telling age appropriate stories, determining appropriate times for telling ghost stories, and minimizing fear when a child becomes frightened by a ghost story. Includes tips on the selection, preparation, and presentation of ghost stories. (LP)

  10. Ghost-Story Telling: Keeping It Appropriate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weintraub, Jeff

    1996-01-01

    Guidelines for telling ghost stories at camp involve considering children's fears at different ages, telling age appropriate stories, determining appropriate times for telling ghost stories, and minimizing fear when a child becomes frightened by a ghost story. Includes tips on the selection, preparation, and presentation of ghost stories. (LP)

  11. Cosmology with a light ghost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Mikhail M.; Tokareva, Anna A.

    2016-12-01

    We study the creation and evolution of cosmological perturbations in renormalizable quadratic gravity with a Weyl term. We adopt a prescription that implies the stability of the vacuum at the price of introducing a massive spin-two ghost state, leading to the loss of unitarity. The theory may still be predictive regardless the interpretation of non-unitary processes provided that their rate is negligible compared to the Universe expansion rate. This implies that the ghost is effectively stable. In such a setup, there are two scalar degrees of freedom excited during inflation. The first one is the usual curvature perturbation whose power spectrum appears to coincide with that of single-field inflation. The second one is a scalar component of the ghost encoded in the shift vector of the metric in the uniform inflaton gauge. The amplitudes of primordial tensor and vector perturbations are strongly suppressed. After inflation the ghost field starts to oscillate and its energy density shortly becomes dominant in the Universe. For all ghost masses allowed by laboratory constraints ghosts should have ``overclosed'' the Universe at temperatures higher than that of primordial nucleosynthesis. Thus, the model with the light Weyl ghost is ruled out.

  12. Quantum Gravity Without Ghosts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewitt, Bryce; Molina-París, C.

    We give an outline of a recently discovered technique for building quantum effective action that is completely independent of gauge-fixing choices and ghost determinants. One makes maximum use of the geometry and fiber bundle structure of the space of field histories and introduces a set of nonlocal composite fields: the geodesic normal fields based on Vilkovisky's connection on the space of histories. The closed-time-path formalism of Schwinger, Bakshi, Mahantappa et al. can be adapted for these fields, and a set of gauge-fixing-independent dynamical equations for their expectation values (starting from given initial conditions) can be computed. An obvious application for such equations is to the study of the formation and radiative decay of black holes, and to other back-reaction problems.

  13. Chiral Bosonization of Superconformal Ghosts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Deheng; Shen, Yang; Liu, Jinling; Xiong, Yongjian

    1996-01-01

    We explain the difference of the Hilbert space of the superconformal ghosts (beta,gamma) system from that of its bosonized fields phi and chi. We calculate the chiral correlation functions of phi, chi fields by inserting appropriate projectors.

  14. Heterodyne 3D ghost imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xu; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Chenghua; Xu, Lu; Wang, Qiang; Zhao, Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Conventional three dimensional (3D) ghost imaging measures range of target based on pulse fight time measurement method. Due to the limit of data acquisition system sampling rate, range resolution of the conventional 3D ghost imaging is usually low. In order to take off the effect of sampling rate to range resolution of 3D ghost imaging, a heterodyne 3D ghost imaging (HGI) system is presented in this study. The source of HGI is a continuous wave laser instead of pulse laser. Temporal correlation and spatial correlation of light are both utilized to obtain the range image of target. Through theory analysis and numerical simulations, it is demonstrated that HGI can obtain high range resolution image with low sampling rate.

  15. Trypanosoma cruzi infection induces the expression of CD40 in murine cardiomyocytes favoring CD40 ligation-dependent production of cardiopathogenic IL-6.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Mariela Alejandra Moreno; Casasco, Agustina; González, Mariela; Postan, Miriam; Corral, Ricardo Santiago; Petray, Patricia Beatriz

    2016-02-01

    The inflammatory response in the myocardium is an important aspect of the pathogenesis of Chagas' heart disease raised by Trypanosoma cruzi. CD40, a transmembrane type I receptor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family, is expressed in a broad spectrum of cell types and is crucial in several inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Activation of CD40 through ligation to CD40L (CD154) induces multiple effects, including the secretion of proinflammatory molecules. In the present study, we examined the ability of T. cruzi to trigger the expression of CD40 in cardiac myocytes in vitro and in a murine model of chagasic cardiomyopathy. Our results indicate, for the first time, that T. cruzi is able to induce the expression of CD40 in HL-1 murine cardiomyocytes. Moreover, ligation of CD40 receptor upregulated interleukin-6 (IL-6), associated with inflammation. Furthermore, the induction of this costimulatory molecule was demonstrated in vivo in myocardium of mice infected with T. cruzi. This suggests that CD40-bearing cardiac muscle cells could interact with CD40L-expressing lymphocytes infiltrating the heart, thus contributing to inflammatory injury in chagasic cardiomyopathy.

  16. Trypanosoma cruzi Infection Down-Modulates the Immunoproteasome Biosynthesis and the MHC Class I Cell Surface Expression in HeLa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, Ricardo; Faria, Liliam O.; Kloss, Alexander; Favali, Cecília B. F.; Kuckelkorn, Ulrike; Kloetzel, Peter-Michael; de Sá, Cezar Martins; Lima, Beatriz D.

    2014-01-01

    Generally, Trypanosoma cruzi infection in human is persistent and tends to chronicity, suggesting that the parasite evade the immune surveillance by down regulating the intracellular antigen processing routes. Within the MHC class I pathway, the majority of antigenic peptides are generated by the proteasome. However, upon IFN-γ stimulation, the catalytic constitutive subunits of the proteasome are replaced by the subunits β1i/LMP2, β2i/MECL-1 and β5i/LMP7 to form the immunoproteasome. In this scenario, we analyzed whether the expression and activity of the constitutive and the immunoproteasome as well as the expression of other components of the MHC class I pathway are altered during the infection of HeLa cells with T. cruzi. By RT-PCR and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis, we showed that the expression and composition of the constitutive proteasome is not affected by the parasite. In contrast, the biosynthesis of the β1i, β2i, β5i immunosubunits, PA28β, TAP1 and the MHC class I molecule as well as the proteasomal proteolytic activities were down-regulated in infected-IFN-γ-treated cell cultures. Taken together, our results provide evidence that the protozoan T. cruzi specifically modulates its infection through an unknown posttranscriptional mechanism that inhibits the expression of the MHC class I pathway components. PMID:24752321

  17. Promoter occupancy of the basal class I transcription factor A differs strongly between active and silent VSG expression sites in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tu N; Müller, Laura S M; Park, Sung Hee; Siegel, T Nicolai; Günzl, Arthur

    2014-03-01

    Monoallelic expression within a gene family is found in pathogens exhibiting antigenic variation and in mammalian olfactory neurons. Trypanosoma brucei, a lethal parasite living in the human bloodstream, expresses variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) from 1 of 15 bloodstream expression sites (BESs) by virtue of a multifunctional RNA polymerase I. The active BES is transcribed in an extranucleolar compartment termed the expression site body (ESB), whereas silent BESs, located elsewhere within the nucleus, are repressed epigenetically. The regulatory mechanisms, however, are poorly understood. Here we show that two essential subunits of the basal class I transcription factor A (CITFA) predominantly occupied the promoter of the active BES relative to that of a silent BES, a phenotype that was maintained after switching BESs in situ. In these experiments, high promoter occupancy of CITFA was coupled to high levels of both promoter-proximal RNA abundance and RNA polymerase I occupancy. Accordingly, fluorescently tagged CITFA-7 was concentrated in the nucleolus and the ESB. Because a ChIP-seq analysis found that along the entire BES, CITFA-7 is specifically enriched only at the promoter, our data strongly indicate that monoallelic BES transcription is activated by a mechanism that functions at the level of transcription initiation.

  18. The trispectrum in ghost inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Qing-Guo

    2010-07-01

    We calculate the trispectrum in ghost inflation where both the contact diagram and scale-exchange diagram are taken into account. The shape of trispectrum is discussed carefully and we find that the local form is absent in ghost inflation. In general, for the non-local shape trispectrum there are not analogous parameters to τ{sub NL}{sup loc.} and g{sub NL}{sup loc.} which can completely characterize the size of local form trispectrum.

  19. A high throughput analysis of cytokines and chemokines expression during the course of Trypanosoma cruzi experimental oral infection.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Adele A; Notário, Ana Flávia O; Teixeira, Thaise L; e Silva, Rebecca T; Quintal, Amanda P N; Alves, Rosiane N; Brígido, Paula C; Siqueira, Carla S; Martins, Flávia A; Machado, Fabrício C; Clemente, Tatiana M; da Silva, Aline A; Borges, Bruna C; Teixeira, Samuel C; dos Santos, Marlus A; da Silva, Claudio V

    2016-05-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi has high biological and biochemical diversity and variable tissue tropism. Here we aimed to verify the kinetics of cytokine and chemokine in situ secretion in animals infected with two distinct T. cruzi strains after oral inoculation. Also, we investigated parasite migration, residence and pathological damage in stomach, heart and spleen. Our results showed that host immune response against T. cruzi infection is an intricate phenomenon that depends on the parasite strain, on the infected organ and on the time point of the infection. We believe that a wide comprehension of host immune response will potentially provide basis for the development of immunotherapeutic strategies in order to clear parasitism and minimize tissue injury. In this context, we find that KC poses as a possible tool to be used.

  20. Studying fermionic ghost imaging with independent photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianbin; Zhou, Yu; Zheng, Huaibin; Chen, Hui; Li, Fu-li; Xu, Zhuo

    2016-12-01

    Ghost imaging with thermal fermions is calculated based on two-particle interference in Feynman's path integral theory. It is found that ghost imaging with thermal fermions can be simulated by ghost imaging with thermal bosons and classical particles. Photons in pseudothermal light are employed to experimentally study fermionic ghost imaging. Ghost imaging with thermal bosons and fermions is discussed based on the point-to-point (spot) correlation between the object and image planes. The employed method offers an efficient guidance for future ghost imaging with real thermal fermions, which may also be generalized to study other second-order interference phenomena with fermions.

  1. New strategies for combination vaccines based on the extended recombinant bacterial ghost system.

    PubMed

    Eko, F O; Witte, A; Huter, V; Kuen, B; Fürst-Ladani, S; Haslberger, A; Katinger, A; Hensel, A; Szostak, M P; Resch, S; Mader, H; Raza, P; Brand, E; Marchart, J; Jechlinger, W; Haidinger, W; Lubitz, W

    1999-03-26

    Controlled expression of cloned PhiX174 gene E in Gram-negative bacteria results in lysis of the bacteria by formation of an E-specific transmembrane tunnel structure built through the cell envelope complex. Bacterial ghosts have been produced from a great variety of bacteria and are used as non-living candidate vaccines. In the recombinant ghost system, foreign proteins are attached on the inside of the inner membrane as fusions with specific anchor sequences. Ghosts have a sealed periplasmic space and the export of proteins into this space vastly extents the capacity of ghosts or recombinant ghosts to function as carriers of foreign antigens, immunomodulators or other substances. In addition, S-layer proteins forming shell-like self assembly structures can be expressed in bacterial candidate vaccine strains prior to E-mediated lysis. Such recombinant S-layer proteins carrying inserts of foreign epitopes of up to 600 amino acids within the flexible surface loop areas of the S-layer further extend the possibilities of ghosts as carriers of foreign epitopes. As ghosts do not need the addition of adjuvants to induce immunity in experimental animals they can also be used as carriers or targeting vehicles or as adjuvants in combination with subunit vaccines. Matrixes like dextran which can be used to fill the internal lumen of ghosts can be substituted with various ligands to bind the subunit or other materials of interest. Oral, aerogenic or parenteral immunization of experimental animals with recombinant ghosts induced specific humoral and cellular immune responses against bacterial and target components including protective mucosal immunity. The most relevant advantage of ghosts and recombinant bacterial ghosts as immunogens is that no inactivation procedures that denature relevant immunogenic determinants are employed in the production of ghosts. This fact explains the superior quality of ghosts when compared to other inactivated vaccines. As carriers of foreign

  2. The FACT subunit TbSpt16 is involved in cell cycle specific control of VSG expression sites in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Denninger, Viola; Fullbrook, Alexander; Bessat, Mohamed; Ersfeld, Klaus; Rudenko, Gloria

    2010-10-01

    The African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei monoallelically expresses one of more than 1000 Variant Surface Glycoprotein (VSG) genes. The active VSG is transcribed from one of about 15 telomeric VSG expression sites (ESs). It is unclear how monoallelic expression of VSG is controlled, and how inactive VSG ESs are silenced. Here, we show that blocking synthesis of the T. brucei FACT subunit TbSpt16 triggers a G2/early M phase cell cycle arrest in both bloodstream and insect form T. brucei. Segregation of T. brucei minichromosomes in these stalled cells is impaired, implicating FACT in maintenance of centromeres. Strikingly, knock-down of TbSpt16 results in 20- to 23-fold derepression of silent VSG ES promoters in bloodstream form T. brucei, with derepression specific to the G2/M cell cycle stage. In insect form T. brucei TbSpt16 knock-down results in 16- to 25-fold VSG ES derepression. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), TbSpt16 was found to be particularly enriched at the promoter region of silent but not active VSG ESs in bloodstream form T. brucei. The chromatin remodeler FACT is therefore implicated in maintenance of repressed chromatin present at silent VSG ES promoters, but is also essential for chromosome segregation presumably through maintenance of functional centromeres.

  3. RNA-seq de novo Assembly Reveals Differential Gene Expression in Glossina palpalis gambiensis Infected with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense vs. Non-Infected and Self-Cured Flies

    PubMed Central

    Hamidou Soumana, Illiassou; Klopp, Christophe; Ravel, Sophie; Nabihoudine, Ibouniyamine; Tchicaya, Bernadette; Parrinello, Hugues; Abate, Luc; Rialle, Stéphanie; Geiger, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (Tbg), causing the sleeping sickness chronic form, completes its developmental cycle within the tsetse fly vector Glossina palpalis gambiensis (Gpg) before its transmission to humans. Within the framework of an anti-vector disease control strategy, a global gene expression profiling of trypanosome infected (susceptible), non-infected, and self-cured (refractory) tsetse flies was performed, on their midguts, to determine differential genes expression resulting from in vivo trypanosomes, tsetse flies (and their microbiome) interactions. An RNAseq de novo assembly was achieved. The assembled transcripts were mapped to reference sequences for functional annotation. Twenty-four percent of the 16,936 contigs could not be annotated, possibly representing untranslated mRNA regions, or Gpg- or Tbg-specific ORFs. The remaining contigs were classified into 65 functional groups. Only a few transposable elements were present in the Gpg midgut transcriptome, which may represent active transpositions and play regulatory roles. One thousand three hundred and seventy three genes differentially expressed (DEGs) between stimulated and non-stimulated flies were identified at day-3 post-feeding; 52 and 1025 between infected and self-cured flies at 10 and 20 days post-feeding, respectively. The possible roles of several DEGs regarding fly susceptibility and refractoriness are discussed. The results provide new means to decipher fly infection mechanisms, crucial to develop anti-vector control strategies. PMID:26617594

  4. Inhibitory Receptors Are Expressed by Trypanosoma cruzi-Specific Effector T Cells and in Hearts of Subjects with Chronic Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Argüello, Rafael J.; Albareda, María C.; Alvarez, María G.; Bertocchi, Graciela; Armenti, Alejandro H.; Vigliano, Carlos; Meckert, Patricia C.; Tarleton, Rick L.; Laucella, Susana A.

    2012-01-01

    We had formerly demonstrated that subjects chronically infected with Trypanosoma cruzi show impaired T cell responses closely linked with a process of T cell exhaustion. Recently, the expression of several inhibitory receptors has been associated with T cell dysfunction and exhaustion. In this study, we have examined the expression of the cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and the leukocyte immunoglobulin like receptor 1 (LIR-1) by peripheral T. cruzi antigen-responsive IFN-gamma (IFN-γ)-producing and total T cells from chronically T. cruzi-infected subjects with different clinical forms of the disease. CTAL-4 expression was also evaluated in heart tissue sections from subjects with severe myocarditis. The majority of IFN-γ-producing CD4+ T cells responsive to a parasite lysate preparation were found to express CTLA-4 but considerably lower frequencies express LIR-1, irrespective of the clinical status of the donor. Conversely, few IFN-γ-producing T cells responsive to tetanus and diphtheria toxoids expressed CTLA-4 and LIR-1. Polyclonal stimulation with anti-CD3 antibodies induced higher frequencies of CD4+CTAL-4+ T cells in patients with severe heart disease than in asymptomatic subjects. Ligation of CTLA-4 and LIR-1 with their agonistic antibodies, in vitro, reduces IFN-γ production. Conversely, CTLA-4 blockade did not improved IFN-γ production in response to T. cruzi antigens. Subjects with chronic T. cruzi infection had increased numbers of CD4+LIR-1+ among total peripheral blood mononuclear cells, relative to uninfected individuals and these numbers decreased after treatment with benznidazole. CTLA-4 was also expressed by CD3+ T lymphocytes infiltrating heart tissues from chronically infected subjects with severe myocarditis. These findings support the conclusion that persistent infection with T. cruzi leads to the upregulation of inhibitory receptors which could alter parasite specific T cell responses in the chronic phase of Chagas disease. PMID

  5. Ghost Head Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Looking like a colorful holiday card, a new image from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope reveals a vibrant green and red nebula far from Earth.

    The image of NGC 2080, taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is available online at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc . Images like this help astronomers investigate star formation in nebulas.

    NGC 2080, nicknamed 'The Ghost Head Nebula,' is one of a chain of star-forming regions lying south of the 30 Doradus nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud. 30 Doradus is the largest star-forming complex in the local group of galaxies. This 'enhanced color' picture is composed of three narrow-band-filter images obtained by Hubble on March 28, 2000.

    The red and blue light come from regions of hydrogen gas heated by nearby stars. The green light on the left comes from glowing oxygen. The energy to illuminate the green light is supplied by a powerful stellar wind, a stream of high-speed particles coming from a massive star just outside the image. The central white region is a combination of all three emissions and indicates a core of hot, massive stars in this star-formation region. Intense emission from these stars has carved a bowl-shaped cavity in surrounding gas.

    In the white region, the two bright areas (the 'eyes of the ghost') - named A1 (left) and A2 (right) -- are very hot, glowing 'blobs' of hydrogen and oxygen. The bubble in A1 is produced by the hot, intense radiation and powerful stellar wind from one massive star. A2 contains more dust and several hidden, massive stars. The massive stars in A1 and A2 must have formed within the last 10,000 years, since their natal gas shrouds are not yet disrupted by the powerful radiation of the newborn stars.

    The Space Telescope Science Institute is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract with the Goddard Space Flight Center

  6. Bacterial ghosts as drug carrier and targeting vehicles.

    PubMed

    Huter, V; Szostak, M P; Gampfer, J; Prethaler, S; Wanner, G; Gabor, F; Lubitz, W

    1999-08-27

    A novel system for the packaging of drugs as well as vaccines is presented. Bacterial ghosts are intact, non-denatured bacterial envelopes that are created by lysis of bacteria through the expression of cloned phage PhiX174 gene E. Inhibition of induced E-mediated lysis by MgSO(4), harvesting of cells by centrifugation, and resuspension in low-ionic-strength buffers leads to rapid, violent lysis and results in empty bacterial envelopes with large (approximately 1 microm in diameter) openings. The construction of plasmid pAV1, which encodes a streptavidin fusion protein with an N-terminal membrane anchor sequence, allows the loading of the inner side of the cytoplasmic membrane with streptavidin. The functionality and efficacy of binding of even large biotinylated compounds in such streptavidin ghosts (SA-ghosts) was assessed using the enzyme alkaline phosphatase. The successful binding of biotinylated fluorescent dextran, as well as fluorescent DNA complexed with biotinylated polylysine, was demonstrated microscopically. The display by bacterial ghosts of morphological and antigenic surface structures of their living counterparts permits their attachment to target tissues such as the mucosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract, and their uptake by phagocytes and M cells. In consequence, SA-ghosts are proposed as drug carriers for site-specific drug delivery.

  7. Ghost story. I. Wedge states in the oscillator formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonora, Loriano; Maccaferri, Carlo; Scherer Santos, Ricardo J.; Tolla, Driba D.

    2007-09-01

    This paper is primarily devoted to the ghost wedge states in string field theory formulated with the oscillator formalism. Our aim is to prove, using such formalism, that the wedge states can be expressed as |nrangle = exp{[(2-n)/2](Script L0+Script L0†)}|0rangle, separately in the matter and ghost sector. This relation is crucial for instance in the proof of Schnabl's solution. We start from the exponentials in the rhs and wish to prove that they take precisely the form of wedge states. As a guideline we first re-demonstrate this relation for the matter part. Then we turn to the ghosts. On the way we face the problem of `diagonalizing' infinite rectangular matrices. We manage to give a meaning to such an operation and to prove that the eigenvalues we obtain satisfy the recursion relations of the wedge states.

  8. Ghost imaging for a reflected object with a rough surface

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Chunfang; Zhang Dawei; Chen Bin; Bai Yanfeng

    2010-12-15

    Ghost imaging for the reflected object with rough surface is investigated. The surface height variance {sigma}{sub h}{sup 2} and the correlation length l{sub c} have been introduced to characterize the rough surface. Based on a simple scattering model, we derive the analytical expressions which are used to describe the effects of {sigma}{sub h}{sup 2} and l{sub c} on ghost imaging. The results show that both {sigma}{sub h}{sup 2} and l{sub c} have no influence on the image resolution, while the convergence of the correlation decreases as {sigma}{sub h}{sup 2} increases. Additionally, the bucket detector used in the test arm can dramatically improve the visibility of ghost images. The results are backed up by numerical simulations, in which a Monte Carlo approach to generate a rough surface has been used.

  9. Isolation of the repertoire of VSG expression site containing telomeres of Trypanosoma brucei 427 using transformation-associated recombination in yeast.

    PubMed

    Becker, Marion; Aitcheson, Niall; Byles, Elaine; Wickstead, Bill; Louis, Edward; Rudenko, Gloria

    2004-11-01

    Trypanosoma brucei switches between variant surface glycoproteins (VSGs) allowing immune escape. The active VSG is in one of many telomeric bloodstream form VSG expression sites (BESs), also containing expression site-associated genes (ESAGs) involved in host adaptation. The role of BES sequence diversity in parasite virulence can best be understood through analysis of the full repertoire of BESs from a given T. brucei strain. However, few BESs have been cloned, as telomeres are highly underrepresented in standard libraries. We devised a strategy for isolating the repertoire of T. brucei 427 BES-containing telomeres in Saccaromyces cerevisiae by using transformation-associated recombination (TAR). We isolated 182 T. brucei 427 BES TAR clones, 167 of which could be subdivided into minimally 17 BES groups. This set gives us the first view of the breadth and diversity of BESs from one T. brucei strain. Most BESs ranged between 40 and 70 kb (average, 57 +/- 17 kb) and contained most identified ESAGs. Phylogenetic comparison of the cohort of BES promoter and ESAG6 sequences did not show similar trees, indicating rapid evolution most likely mediated by sequence exchange between BESs. This cloning strategy could be used for any T. brucei strain, facilitating research on the biodiversity of telomeric gene families and host-pathogen interactions.

  10. Automated N-glycan profiling of a mutant Trypanosoma rangeli sialidase expressed in Pichia pastoris, using tandem mass spectrometry and bioinformatics.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiying; Rasmussen, Morten I; Larsen, Martin R; Guo, Yao; Jers, Carsten; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Mikkelsen, Jørn D; Kirpekar, Finn

    2015-12-01

    A mutant Trypanosoma rangeli sialidase, Tr7, expressed in Pichia pastoris, exhibits significant trans-sialidase activity, and has been used for analytical-scale production of sialylated human milk oligosaccharides. Mass spectrometry-based site-specific N-glycoprofiling of Tr7 showed that heterogeneous high-mannose type N-glycans were present at all the five potential N-linked glycosites. N-linked glycans in Tr7 were predominantly neutral oligosaccharides with compositions Man(8-16)GlcNA(c2), but also mono- and di-phosphorylated oligosaccharides in the forms of Man(9-15)P(1)GlcNA(c2) and Man(9-14)P(2)GlcNA(c2), respectively. Some phosphorylated N-linked glycans further contained an additional HexNAc, which has not previously been reported in P. pastoris-expressed proteins. We compiled a method pipeline that combined hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography enrichment of glycopeptides, high accuracy mass spectrometry and automated interpretation of the mass spectra with in-house developed "MassAI" software, which proved efficient in glycan site microheterogeneity analysis. Functional analysis showed that the deglycosylated Tr7 retained more than 90% of both the sialidase and trans-sialidase activities relative to the glycosylated Tr7.

  11. Ghosting in anaglyphic stereoscopic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Andrew J.; Rourke, Tegan

    2004-05-01

    Anaglyphic 3D images are an easy way of displaying stereoscopic 3D images on a wide range of display types, e.g. CRT, LCD, print, etc. While the anaglyphic 3D image method is cheap and accessible, its use requires a compromise in stereoscopic image quality. A common problem with anaglyphic 3D images is ghosting. Ghosting (or crosstalk) is the leaking of an image to one eye, when it is intended exclusively for the other eye. Ghosting degrades the ability of the observer to fuse the stereoscopic image and hence the quality of the 3D image is reduced. Ghosting is present in various levels with most stereoscopic displays, however it is often particularly evident with anaglyphic 3D images. This paper describes a project whose aim was to characterize the presence of ghosting in anaglyphic 3D images due to spectral issues. The spectral response curves of several different display types and several different brands of anaglyph glasses were measured using a spectroradiometer or spectrophotometer. A mathematical model was then developed to predict the amount of crosstalk in anaglyphic 3D images when different combinations of displays and glasses are used, and therefore predict the best type of anaglyph glasses for use with a particular display type.

  12. A soluble factor from Trypanosoma cruzi inhibits transforming growth factor-ß-induced MAP kinase activation and gene expression in dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Mott, G Adam; Costales, Jaime A; Burleigh, Barbara A

    2011-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes human Chagas' disease, exerts a variety of effects on host extracellular matrix (ECM) including proteolytic degradation of collagens and dampening of ECM gene expression. Exposure of primary human dermal fibroblasts to live infective T. cruzi trypomastigotes or their shed/secreted products results in a rapid down-regulation of the fibrogenic genes collagenIα1, fibronectin and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2). Here we demonstrate the ability of a secreted/released T. cruzi factor to antagonize ctgf/ccn2 expression in dermal fibroblasts in response to TGF-ß, lysophosphatidic acid or serum, where agonist-induced phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases Erk1/2, p38 and JNK was also inhibited. Global analysis of gene expression in dermal fibroblasts identified a discrete subset of TGF-ß-inducible genes involved in cell proliferation, wound repair, and immune regulation that are inhibited by T. cruzi secreted/released factors, where the genes exhibiting the highest sensitivity to T. cruzi are known to be regulated by MAP kinase-activated transcription factors. Consistent with this observation, the Ets-family transcription factor binding site in the proximal promoter region of the ctgf/ccn2 gene (-91 bp to -84 bp) was shown to be required for T. cruzi-mediated down-regulation of ctgf/ccn2 reporter expression. The cumulative data suggest a model in which T. cruzi-derived molecules secreted/released early in the infective process dampen MAP kinase signaling and the activation of transcription factors that regulate expression of fibroblast genes involved in wound repair and tissue remodelling, including ctgf/ccn2. These findings have broader implications for local modulation of ECM synthesis/remodelling by T. cruzi during the early establishment of infection in the mammalian host and highlight the potential for pathogen-derived molecules to be exploited as tools to modulate the

  13. The genome of Trypanosoma cruzi contains a constitutively expressed, tandemly arranged multicopy gene homologous to a major heat shock protein.

    PubMed Central

    Dragon, E A; Sias, S R; Kato, E A; Gabe, J D

    1987-01-01

    cDNA libraries have been constructed in the plasmid vector pUC18 with mRNA isolated from both epimastigotes and trypomastigotes of the Peru strain of Trypanosoma cruzi. Pools of randomly selected clones were analyzed by hybridization-selection-translation. Translation products were immunoprecipitated either with normal human sera or with sera from patients with Chagas' disease (chagasic sera), and the immunoprecipitates were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. With this approach, a cDNA clone (pEC5) was identified which encodes a portion of an 85,000-Mr polypeptide. A genomic clone was subsequently isolated (FG1) by using oligonucleotide probes derived from the DNA sequence of this cDNA clone. A portion of this clone was isolated and sequenced, and the coding region for the protein was identified. Computer analysis of the predicted protein sequence indicates that this protein is closely related to the 83,000-Mr heat shock protein (hsp83) of Drosophila melanogaster, the hsp90 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the hsp90 of chicken. This gene is tandemly organized in the T. cruzi genome as a cluster of 6 to 10 copies. Images PMID:3550435

  14. A homolog of cyclophilin D is expressed in Trypanosoma cruzi and is involved in the oxidative stress-damage response.

    PubMed

    Bustos, Patricia L; Volta, Bibiana J; Perrone, Alina E; Milduberger, Natalia; Bua, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondria have an important role in energy production, homeostasis and cell death. The opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) is considered one of the key events in apoptosis and necrosis, modulated by cyclophilin D (CyPD), a crucial component of this protein complex. In Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan parasite that causes Chagas disease, we have previously described that mitochondrial permeability transition occurs after oxidative stress induction in a cyclosporin A-dependent manner, a well-known cyclophilin inhibitor. In the present work, a mitochondrial parasite cyclophilin, named TcCyP22, which is homolog to the mammalian CyPD was identified. TcCyP22-overexpressing parasites showed an enhanced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and loss of cell viability when exposed to a hydrogen peroxide stimulus compared with control parasites. Our results describe for the first time in a protozoan parasite that a mitochondrial cyclophilin is a component of the permeability transition pore and is involved in regulated cell death induced by oxidative stress.

  15. A homolog of cyclophilin D is expressed in Trypanosoma cruzi and is involved in the oxidative stress–damage response

    PubMed Central

    Bustos, Patricia L; Volta, Bibiana J; Perrone, Alina E; Milduberger, Natalia; Bua, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondria have an important role in energy production, homeostasis and cell death. The opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) is considered one of the key events in apoptosis and necrosis, modulated by cyclophilin D (CyPD), a crucial component of this protein complex. In Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan parasite that causes Chagas disease, we have previously described that mitochondrial permeability transition occurs after oxidative stress induction in a cyclosporin A-dependent manner, a well-known cyclophilin inhibitor. In the present work, a mitochondrial parasite cyclophilin, named TcCyP22, which is homolog to the mammalian CyPD was identified. TcCyP22-overexpressing parasites showed an enhanced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and loss of cell viability when exposed to a hydrogen peroxide stimulus compared with control parasites. Our results describe for the first time in a protozoan parasite that a mitochondrial cyclophilin is a component of the permeability transition pore and is involved in regulated cell death induced by oxidative stress. PMID:28179991

  16. Functional studies of TcRjl, a novel GTPase of Trypanosoma cruzi, reveals phenotypes related with MAPK activation during parasite differentiation and after heterologous expression in Drosophila model system.

    PubMed

    dos-Santos, Guilherme Rodrigo Reis Monteiro; Fontenele, Marcio Ribeiro; Dias, Felipe de Almeida; de Oliveira, Pedro Lagerblad; Nepomuceno-Silva, José Luciano; de Melo, Luiz Dione Barbosa; Araujo, Helena Maria Marcolla; Lopes, Ulisses Gazos

    2015-11-06

    The life cycle of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi comprises rounds of proliferative cycles and differentiation in distinct host environments. Ras GTPases are molecular switches that play pivotal regulatory functions in cell fate. Rjl is a novel GTPase with unknown function. Herein we show that TcRjl blocks in vivo cell differentiation. The forced expression of TcRjl leads to changes in the overall tyrosine protein phosphorylation profile of parasites. TcRjl expressing parasites sustained DNA synthesis regardless the external stimuli for differentiation. Heterologous expression in the Drosophila melanogaster genetic system strongly suggests a role from TcRjl protein in RTK-dependent pathways and MAPK activation.

  17. Functional studies of TcRjl, a novel GTPase of Trypanosoma cruzi, reveals phenotypes related with MAPK activation during parasite differentiation and after heterologous expression in Drosophila model system

    SciTech Connect

    Reis Monteiro dos-Santos, Guilherme Rodrigo; Fontenele, Marcio Ribeiro; Dias, Felipe de Almeida; Oliveira, Pedro Lagerblad de; Nepomuceno-Silva, José Luciano [Laboratório Integrado de Bioquímica Hatisaburo Masuda, NUPEM and others

    2015-11-06

    The life cycle of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi comprises rounds of proliferative cycles and differentiation in distinct host environments. Ras GTPases are molecular switches that play pivotal regulatory functions in cell fate. Rjl is a novel GTPase with unknown function. Herein we show that TcRjl blocks in vivo cell differentiation. The forced expression of TcRjl leads to changes in the overall tyrosine protein phosphorylation profile of parasites. TcRjl expressing parasites sustained DNA synthesis regardless the external stimuli for differentiation. Heterologous expression in the Drosophila melanogaster genetic system strongly suggests a role from TcRjl protein in RTK-dependent pathways and MAPK activation.

  18. Shuddering Shades! A Ghostly Book List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raburn, Josephine

    1985-01-01

    This 40-item annotated bibliography lists ghost novels intended for the fourth- to eighth-grade reading levels in the following categories: disturbed children, evil, family ghosts, restless spirits, time shifts, and weird phenomena. A discussion of the categorization of ghost stories and distinctions between poltergeists and apparitions is…

  19. Dogs infected with the blood trypomastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi display an increase expression of cytokines and chemokines plus an intense cardiac parasitism during acute infection.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Sheler Martins; Vieira, Paula Melo de Abreu; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Reis, Levi Eduardo Soares; da Silva Fonseca, Kátia; Nogueira, Nívia Carolina; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Tafuri, Washington Luiz; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins

    2014-03-01

    The recent increase in immigration of people from areas endemic for Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi) to the United States and Europe has raised concerns about the transmission via blood transfusion and organ transplants in these countries. Infection by these pathways occurs through blood trypomastigotes (BT), and these forms of T. cruzi are completely distinct of metacyclic trypomastigotes (MT), released by triatomine vector, in relation to parasite-host interaction. Thus, research comparing infection with these different infective forms is important for explaining the potential impacts on the disease course. Here, we investigated tissue parasitism and relative mRNA expression of cytokines, chemokines, and chemokine receptors in the heart during acute infection by MT or BT forms in dogs. BT-infected dogs presented a higher cardiac parasitism, increased relative mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory and immunomodulatory cytokines and of the chemokines CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL5/RANTES, and the chemokine receptor CCR5 during the acute phase of infection, as compared to MT-infected dogs. These results suggest that infection with BT forms may lead to an increased immune response, as revealed by the cytokines ratio, but this kind of immune response was not able to control the cardiac parasitism. Infection with the MT form presented an increase in the relative mRNA expression of IL-12p40 as compared to that of IL-10 or TGF-β1. Correlation analysis showed increased relative mRNA expression of IFN-γ as well as IL-10, which may be an immunomodulatory response, as well as an increase in the correlation of CCL5/RANTES and its CCR5 receptor. Our findings revealed a difference between inoculum sources of T. cruzi, as vectorial or transfusional routes of T. cruzi infection may trigger distinct parasite-host interactions during the acute phase, which may influence immunopathological aspects of Chagas disease.

  20. Expression of resistance to isometamidium and diminazene in Trypanosoma congolense in Boran cattle infected by Glossina morsitans centralis.

    PubMed

    Moloo, S K; Kutuza, S B

    1990-02-01

    Investigations were conducted on the sensitivity to isometamidium chloride (Samorin) and diminazene aceturate (Berenil) of derivatives of three of the Trypanosoma congolense stocks isolated between 1978 and 1983 from Zebu cattle in the Bobo-Dioulasso region of Burkina Faso. Boran cattle were used in the drug-sensitivity tests and were infected using Glossina morsitans centralis. The results showed that T. congolense stock IL 2466 isolated in 1978 was sensitive to the standard therapeutic dose of isometamidium chloride (0.25 mg kg-1) and of diminazene aceturate (a.i. 3.5 mg kg-1). However, T. congolense stock IL 2468 isolated in 1982 was resistant to both the prophylactic (0.5 and 1.0 mg kg-1) as well as the therapeutic doses of isometamidium chloride (up to 1.0 mg kg-1) although the sensitivity to the therapeutic dose of diminazene aceturate (3.5 mg kg-1) was not affected. The T. congolense stock IL 2856 isolated in 1983 was highly resistant to the therapeutic action of diminazene aceturate (up to 10.5 mg kg-1), as well as to the prophylactic (up to 1.0 mg kg-1) and therapeutic action of isometamidium chloride (up to 2.0 mg kg-1). The infection rates of the drug-resistant stocks of T. congolense in G.m. centralis, when goats were used as reservoir hosts, were as high (range, 22.3-56.3%) as of the drug sensitive stock (49.5%). The resistance trait in the two stocks remained stable after their cyclical development in the tsetse vectors. The rate of transmission of the drug-resistant stocks to mice by the infected tsetse was also high (mean 81.3%).

  1. Expression, purification, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of a recombinant Tc24 antigen as a vaccine against Trypanosoma cruzi infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Campos, Viridiana; Martinez-Vega, Pedro; Ramirez-Sierra, Maria Jesus; Rosado-Vallado, Miguel; Seid, Christopher A; Hudspeth, Elissa M; Wei, Junfei; Liu, Zhuyun; Kwityn, Cliff; Hammond, Molly; Ortega-López, Jaime; Zhan, Bin; Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Dumonteil, Eric

    2015-08-26

    The Tc24 calcium binding protein from the flagellar pocket of Trypanosoma cruzi is under evaluation as a candidate vaccine antigen against Chagas disease. Previously, a DNA vaccine encoding Tc24 was shown to be an effective vaccine (both as a preventive and therapeutic intervention) in mice and dogs, as evidenced by reductions in T. cruzi parasitemia and cardiac amastigotes, as well as reduced cardiac inflammation and increased host survival. Here we developed a suitable platform for the large scale production of recombinant Tc24 (rTc24) and show that when rTc24 is combined with a monophosphoryl-lipid A (MPLA) adjuvant, the formulated vaccine induces a Th1-biased immune response in mice, comprised of elevated IgG2a antibody levels and interferon-gamma levels from splenocytes, compared to controls. These immune responses also resulted in statistically significant decreased T. cruzi parasitemia and cardiac amastigotes, as well as increased survival following T. cruzi challenge infections, compared to controls. Partial protective efficacy was shown regardless of whether the antigen was expressed in Escherichia coli or in yeast (Pichia pastoris). While mouse vaccinations will require further modifications in order to optimize protective efficacy, such studies provide a basis for further evaluations of vaccines comprised of rTc24, together with alternative adjuvants and additional recombinant antigens. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Loss of the mono-allelic control of the VSG expression sites during the development of Trypanosoma brucei in the bloodstream.

    PubMed

    Amiguet-Vercher, Amelia; Pérez-Morga, David; Pays, Annette; Poelvoorde, Philippe; Van Xong, Huang; Tebabi, Patricia; Vanhamme, Luc; Pays, Etienne

    2004-03-01

    Transcription of the variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) gene of Trypanosoma brucei occurs in a single of multiple polycistronic expression sites (ESs). Analysis of RNA from proliferative long slender (LS) bloodstream forms demonstrated that initiation of transcription occurs in different ESs, but inefficient RNA processing and elongation is linked to RNA polymerase arrest in all except one unit at a time. The pattern of ES transcripts was analysed during the transformation of dividing LS forms into quiescent short stumpy (SS) forms. The results demonstrated that the mono-allelic control allowing preferential RNA production from a given ES stops during this process. Accordingly, the steady-state ES transcripts, particularly the VSG mRNA, were strongly reduced. However, transcripts from the beginning of different ESs were still synthesized, and in vitro run-on transcription analysis indicated that RNA polymerase was still fully associated with the promoter-proximal half of the 'active' ES. Analysis of transcripts from two central tandem genes confirmed the existence of a residual decreasing transcriptional gradient in the 'active' ES of SS forms. Thus, in these forms the RNA polymerase of the ES is inactivated in situ. This inactivation is accompanied by a strong overall reduction of nuclear DNA transcription. Although cAMP is involved in the LS to SS transformation, no direct effect of cAMP was observed on the VSG ES control.

  3. In silico identification of novel protective VSG antigens expressed by Trypanosoma brucei and an effort for designing a highly immunogenic DNA vaccine using IL-12 as adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Akhoon, Bashir Akhlaq; Slathia, Parvez Singh; Sharma, Preeti; Gupta, Shishir Kumar; Verma, Vijeshwar

    2011-01-01

    African trypanosomiasis continues to be a major health problem, with more adults dying from this disease world-wide. As the sequence diversity of Trypanosoma brucei is extreme, with VSGs having 15-25% identity with most other VSGs, hence it displays a huge diversity of adaptations and host specificities. Therefore the need for an improved vaccine has become an international priority. The highly conserved and specific epitopes acting as both CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell epitopes (FLINKKPAL and FTALCTLAA) were predicted from large bunch of VSGs of T. brucei. Besides, some other potential epitopes with very high affinity for MHC I and II molecules were also determined while taking consideration on the most common HLA in the general population which accounts for major ethnicities. The vaccine candidates were found to be effective even for non-african populations as predicted by population coverage analysis. Hence the migrating travelers acting as a spread means of the infection can probably also be treated successfully after injection of such a multiepitopic vaccine. Exploiting the immunoinformatics approaches, we designed a potential vaccine by using the consensus epitopic sequence of 388 VSG proteins of T. brucei and performed in silico cloning of multiepitopic antigenic DNA sequence in pBI-CMV1 vector. Moreover, various techniques like codon adaptation, CpG optimization, removal of self recognized epitopes, use of adjuvant and co-injection with plasmids expressing immune-stimulatory molecules were implemented to enhance the immunogenicity of the proposed in silico vaccine.

  4. The 3'-terminal region of the mRNAs for VSG and procyclin can confer stage specificity to gene expression in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Berberof, M; Vanhamme, L; Tebabi, P; Pays, A; Jefferies, D; Welburn, S; Pays, E

    1995-06-15

    The variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) and procyclin are the respective major surface antigens of the bloodstream and the procyclic forms of Trypanosoma brucei. These proteins and their mRNAs are both the most abundant and absolutely characteristic of their respective life cycle stages. We show that the 3'-terminal region of these mRNAs regulates expression of a reporter gene in an inverse manner, depending on the developmental form of the parasite. In the case of VSG mRNA, the 97 nt sequence upstream from the polyadenylation site is responsible for these effects. The regulation occurs through a variation of mRNA abundance which is not due to a change in primary transcription. In the bloodstream form this effect is manifested by an increase in RNA stability, whereas in the procyclic form it seems to be related to a reduction in the efficiency of mRNA maturation. The 3'-end of VSG mRNA can obviate the 5- to 10-fold stimulation of transcription driven by the procyclin promoter during differentiation from the bloodstream to the procyclic form. The predominance of posttranscriptional over transcriptional controls is probably linked to the organization of the trypanosome genome in polycistronic transcription units.

  5. Analysis of the VSG gene silent archive in Trypanosoma brucei reveals that mosaic gene expression is prominent in antigenic variation and is favored by archive substructure.

    PubMed

    Marcello, Lucio; Barry, J David

    2007-09-01

    Trypanosoma brucei evades host acquired immunity through differential activation of its large archive of silent variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) genes, most of which are pseudogenes in subtelomeric arrays. We have analyzed 940 VSGs, representing one half to two thirds of the arrays. Sequence types A and B of the VSG N-terminal domains were confirmed, while type C was found to be a constituent of type A. Two new C-terminal domain types were found. Nearly all combinations of domain types occurred, with some bias to particular combinations. One-third of encoded N-terminal domains, but only 13% of C-terminal domains, are intact, indicating a particular need for silent VSGs to gain a functional C-terminal domain to be expressed. About 60% of VSGs are unique, the rest occurring in subfamilies of two to four close homologs (>50%-52% peptide identity). We found a subset of VSG-related genes, differing from VSGs in genomic environment and expression patterns, and predict they have distinct function. Almost all (92%) full-length array VSGs have the partially conserved flanks associated with the duplication mechanism that activates silent genes, and these sequences have also contributed to archive evolution, mediating most of the conversions of segments, containing >/=1 VSG, within and between arrays. During infection, intact array genes became activated by duplication after two weeks, and mosaic VSGs assembled from pseudogenes became expressed by week three and predominated by week four. The small subfamily structure of the archive appears to be fundamental in providing the interacting donors for mosaic formation.

  6. Bloodstream form-specific up-regulation of silent vsg expression sites and procyclin in Trypanosoma brucei after inhibition of DNA synthesis or DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Sheader, Karen; te Vruchte, Daniëlle; Rudenko, Gloria

    2004-04-02

    The African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei transcribes the active variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) gene from one of about 20 VSG expression sites (ESs). In order to study ES control, we made reporter lines with a green fluorescent protein gene inserted behind the promoter of different ESs. We attempted to disrupt the silencing machinery, and we used fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis for the rapid and sensitive detection of ES up-regulation. We find that a range of treatments that either block nuclear DNA synthesis, like aphidicolin, or modify DNA-like cisplatin and 1-methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine results in up-regulation of silent ESs. Aphidicolin treatment was the most effective, with almost 80% of the cells expressing green fluorescent protein from a silent ES. All of these treatments blocked the cells in S phase. In contrast, a range of toxic chemicals had little or no effect on expression. These included berenil and pentamidine, which selectively cleave the mitochondrial kinetoplast DNA, the metabolic inhibitors suramin and difluoromethylornithine, and the mitotic inhibitor rhizoxin. Up-regulation also affected other RNA polymerase I (pol I) transcription units, as procyclin genes were also up-regulated after cells were treated with either aphidicolin or DNA-modifying agents. Strikingly, this up-regulation of silent pol I transcription units was bloodstream form-specific and was not observed in insect form T. brucei. We postulate that the redistribution of a limiting bloodstream form-specific factor involved in both silencing and DNA repair results in the derepression of normally silenced pol I transcription units after DNA damage.

  7. Intertextuality and "The Wedding Ghost."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, John

    1990-01-01

    Examines intertextual relationships in "The Wedding Ghost," a children's book written by Leon Garfield and illustrated by Charles Keeping. Concludes that, as a top-down component in reading, intertextuality has significant implications for how texts are approached and can be seen as an element which promotes the development of high-level…

  8. Ghost Imaging with Matter Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khakimov, Roman; Henson, Bryce; Shin, David; Hodgman, Sean; Dall, Robert; Baldwin, Kenneth; Truscott, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate, for the first time, high resolution ghost imaging of a macroscopic object using atoms. Ghost imaging is a novel technique in which the image emerges from cross-correlation of particles (usually photons)in two separate beams. One beam is detected with a single-pixel (bucket detector) after passing through the object, while the other beam does not interact with the object and is registered with high spatial resolution. Neither detector can reconstruct the image independently. In our experiment, the two beams are formed by correlated pairs of ultracold metastable helium atoms originating from thecollision of two Bose-Einstein Condensates. After s-wave scattering the atoms form a spherical shell of strongly correlated pairs with opposite momenta. We extend this technique with more than a10-foldincrease in the number of correlated pairs available for eachsingle experiment run, by using higher-order Bragg scattering in the Kapitza-Dirac regime, with multiple shells generated from different diffraction orders. Using single-atom detection, we create ghost images of a target maskwith a resolution given by the width of the cross-corrrelation function of atomic momenta. Future extensions could include ghost interference and EPR tests.

  9. Expression and production of cardiac angiogenic mediators depend on the Trypanosoma cruzi-genetic population in experimental C57BL/6 mice infection.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Deena; Bajracharya, Bijay; Paula-Costa, Guilherme; Salles, Beatriz C; Leite, Ana Luísa J; Menezes, Ana Paula J; Souza, Débora Ms; Oliveira, Laser Am; Talvani, André

    2017-03-01

    Mammalian cardiac cells are important targets to the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. The inflammatory reaction in the host aims at eliminating this parasite, can lead to cell destruction, fibrosis and hypoxia. Local hypoxia is well-defined stimulus to the production of angiogenesis mediators. Assuming that different genetic T. cruzi populations induce distinct inflammation and disease patterns, the current study aims to investigate whether the production of inflammatory and angiogenic mediators is a parasite strain-dependent condition. C57BL/6 mice were infected with the Y and Colombian strains of T. cruzi and euthanized at the 12th and 32nd days, respectively. The blood and heart tissue were processed in immune assays and/or qPCR (TNF, IL-17, IL-10, CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, CCR2, CCR5 and angiogenic factors VEGF, Ang-1, Ang-2) and in histological assays. The T. cruzi increased the inflammatory and angiogenic mediators in the infected mice when they were compared to non-infected animals. However, the Colombian strain has led to higher (i) leukocyte infiltration, (ii) cardiac TNF and CCL5 production/expression, (iii) cardiac tissue parasitism, and to higher (iv) ratio between heart/body weights. On the other hand, the Colombian strain has caused lower production and expression VEGF, Ang-1 and Ang-2, when it was compared to the Y strain of the parasite. The present study highlights that the T. cruzi-genetic population defines the pattern of angiogenic/inflammatory mediators in the heart tissue, and that it may contribute to the magnitude of the cardiac pathogenesis. Besides, such assumption opens windows to the understanding of the angiogenic mediator's role in association with the experimental T. cruzi infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Ghosts of the School Curriculum: Past, Present and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenway, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Ghosts haunt the school curriculum. Charles Dickens' "A Christmas Carol" provides a starting point for thinking about these curriculum ghosts. In the Preface, he states that he has "endeavoured in this Ghostly little book, to raise the Ghost of an Idea". In this article, the author seeks to raise the ghost of an idea, and to…

  11. Malleable mitochondrion of Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Verner, Zdeněk; Basu, Somsuvro; Benz, Corinna; Dixit, Sameer; Dobáková, Eva; Faktorová, Drahomíra; Hashimi, Hassan; Horáková, Eva; Huang, Zhenqiu; Paris, Zdeněk; Peña-Diaz, Priscila; Ridlon, Lucie; Týč, Jiří; Wildridge, David; Zíková, Alena; Lukeš, Julius

    2015-01-01

    The importance of mitochondria for a typical aerobic eukaryotic cell is undeniable, as the list of necessary mitochondrial processes is steadily growing. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of mitochondrial biology of an early-branching parasitic protist, Trypanosoma brucei, a causative agent of serious human and cattle diseases. We present a comprehensive survey of its mitochondrial pathways including kinetoplast DNA replication and maintenance, gene expression, protein and metabolite import, major metabolic pathways, Fe-S cluster synthesis, ion homeostasis, organellar dynamics, and other processes. As we describe in this chapter, the single mitochondrion of T. brucei is everything but simple and as such rivals mitochondria of multicellular organisms.

  12. Generation of safety enhanced Edwardsiella tarda ghost vaccine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Jin; Kwon, Se Ryun; Zenke, Kosuke; Lee, Eun Hye; Nam, Yoon Kwon; Kim, Sung Koo; Kim, Ki Hong

    2008-09-24

    A dual vector expressing the ghost-inducing PhiX174 lysis E gene and the bacterial DNA degrading staphylococcal nuclease A (SNA) gene was constructed to solve the problem of remnant antibiotic resistance genes and genomic DNA with intact pathogenic islands in the final product of Edwardsiella tarda ghosts (ETG). The SNA (devoid of secretion signal sequence and the nuclease B amino terminus sequence), fused with the 26 amino acid N-terminal sequence of the lambda phage Cro gene, showed successful degradation of bacterial nucleic acids. Furthermore, the nuclease activity of SNA in E. tarda was enhanced by codon optimization of the SNA gene using site-directed mutagenesis. ETG were generated via coexpression of the SNA gene and lysis gene E under the control of each lambdaP(R) promoter. The ghost bacteria generation system we describe is advantageous as it allows the use of a single plasmid, improves safety and vaccine purity by limiting residual genetic content from the ghost bacteria, and reduces production costs through cheap means of induction that use only temperature shifts.

  13. Deoxyhypusine Modification of Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 5A (eIF5A) Is Essential for Trypanosoma brucei Growth and for Expression of Polyprolyl-containing Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Suong; Leija, Chrisopher; Kinch, Lisa; Regmi, Sandesh; Li, Qiong; Grishin, Nick V.; Phillips, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    The eukaryotic protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei is the causative agent of human African trypanosomiasis. Polyamine biosynthesis is essential in T. brucei, and the polyamine spermidine is required for synthesis of a novel cofactor called trypanothione and for deoxyhypusine modification of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A). eIF5A promotes translation of proteins containing polyprolyl tracts in mammals and yeast. To evaluate the function of eIF5A in T. brucei, we used RNA interference (RNAi) to knock down eIF5A levels and found that it is essential for T. brucei growth. The RNAi-induced growth defect was complemented by expression of wild-type human eIF5A but not by a Lys-50 mutant that blocks modification by deoxyhypusine. Bioinformatics analysis showed that 15% of the T. brucei proteome contains 3 or more consecutive prolines and that actin-related proteins and cysteine proteases were highly enriched in the group. Steady-state protein levels of representative proteins containing 9 consecutive prolines that are involved in actin assembly (formin and CAP/Srv2p) were significantly reduced by knockdown of eIF5A. Several T. brucei polyprolyl proteins are involved in flagellar assembly. Knockdown of TbeIF5A led to abnormal cell morphologies and detached flagella, suggesting that eIF5A is important for translation of proteins needed for these processes. Potential specialized functions for eIF5A in T. brucei in translation of variable surface glycoproteins were also uncovered. Inhibitors of deoxyhypusination would be expected to cause a pleomorphic effect on multiple cell processes, suggesting that deoxyhypusine/hypusine biosynthesis could be a promising drug target in not just T. brucei but in other eukaryotic pathogens. PMID:26082486

  14. Deoxyhypusine Modification of Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 5A (eIF5A) Is Essential for Trypanosoma brucei Growth and for Expression of Polyprolyl-containing Proteins.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Suong; Leija, Chrisopher; Kinch, Lisa; Regmi, Sandesh; Li, Qiong; Grishin, Nick V; Phillips, Margaret A

    2015-08-07

    The eukaryotic protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei is the causative agent of human African trypanosomiasis. Polyamine biosynthesis is essential in T. brucei, and the polyamine spermidine is required for synthesis of a novel cofactor called trypanothione and for deoxyhypusine modification of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A). eIF5A promotes translation of proteins containing polyprolyl tracts in mammals and yeast. To evaluate the function of eIF5A in T. brucei, we used RNA interference (RNAi) to knock down eIF5A levels and found that it is essential for T. brucei growth. The RNAi-induced growth defect was complemented by expression of wild-type human eIF5A but not by a Lys-50 mutant that blocks modification by deoxyhypusine. Bioinformatics analysis showed that 15% of the T. brucei proteome contains 3 or more consecutive prolines and that actin-related proteins and cysteine proteases were highly enriched in the group. Steady-state protein levels of representative proteins containing 9 consecutive prolines that are involved in actin assembly (formin and CAP/Srv2p) were significantly reduced by knockdown of eIF5A. Several T. brucei polyprolyl proteins are involved in flagellar assembly. Knockdown of TbeIF5A led to abnormal cell morphologies and detached flagella, suggesting that eIF5A is important for translation of proteins needed for these processes. Potential specialized functions for eIF5A in T. brucei in translation of variable surface glycoproteins were also uncovered. Inhibitors of deoxyhypusination would be expected to cause a pleomorphic effect on multiple cell processes, suggesting that deoxyhypusine/hypusine biosynthesis could be a promising drug target in not just T. brucei but in other eukaryotic pathogens. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. TNF-α is expressed at sites of parasite and tissue destruction in the spleen of mice acutely infected with Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    LIMA, ELIANITA SUZART; ANDRADE, ZILTON A; ANDRADE, SONIA G

    2001-01-01

    Mice infected with a macrophagotropic strain of Trypanosoma cruzi develop progressive splenomegaly due to reactive hyperplasia with increased number of lymphocytes and macrophages, culminating in parasite disintegration and necrosis of parasitized cells. Necrotic changes have been attributed to the liberation of toxic cytokines, including TNF-α, from parasitized macrophages. In the present study, the presence of TNF‐α was investigated in situ. In addition the participation of destroyed parasites in inducing the liberation of TNF-α was examined in two highly susceptible mice strains (C3H and Swiss) and a more resistant strain (DBA). Swiss (90) C3H/He (83) and DBA (30) mice were infected with the Peruvian strain of T. cruzi. Nineteen infected Swiss mice, and 22 infected C3H/He were treated with Benznidazole (one or two doses, 100 mg/kg bw/day), on the 8th and 9th days after infection. Necrotic splenic lesions occurred in both susceptible and resistant strains of mice. Although differing in degree, lesions were more intense in C3H and Swiss than in DBA mice. Comparing untreated and treated susceptible mice, necrotic lesions were significantly less intense in the latter. By specific monoclonal antibody immunolabelling, TNF-α was demonstrated in the cytoplasm of macrophages and within necrotic areas, from Swiss, C3H/He and DBA mouse spleens. In conclusion, TNF-α, probably synthesized by macrophages, was strongly expressed at the sites of parasite and cell destruction, thus appearing to play a pivotal role in splenic necrotic changes associated with severe experimental T. cruzi infection. PMID:11846839

  16. A prime-boost immunization with Tc52 N-terminal domain DNA and the recombinant protein expressed in Pichia pastoris protects against Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    PubMed

    Matos, Marina N; Sánchez Alberti, Andrés; Morales, Celina; Cazorla, Silvia I; Malchiodi, Emilio L

    2016-06-14

    We have previously reported that the N-terminal domain of the antigen Tc52 (NTc52) is the section of the protein that confers the strongest protection against Trypanosoma cruzi infection. To improve vaccine efficacy, we conducted here a prime-boost strategy (NTc52PB) by inoculating two doses of pcDNA3.1 encoding the NTc52 DNA carried by attenuated Salmonella (SNTc52), followed by two doses of recombinant NTc52 expressed in Picchia pastoris plus ODN-CpG as adjuvant. This strategy was comparatively analyzed with the following protocols: (1) two doses of NTc52+ODN-CpG by intranasal route followed by two doses of NTc52+ODN-CpG by intradermal route (NTc52CpG); (2) four doses of SNTc52; and (3) a control group with four doses of Salmonella carrying the empty plasmid. All immunized groups developed a predominant Th1 cellular immune response but with important differences in antibody development and protection against infection. Thus, immunization with just SNTc52 induces a strong specific cellular response, a specific systemic antibody response that is weak yet functional (considering lysis of trypomastigotes and inhibition of cell invasion), and IgA mucosal immunity, protecting in both the acute and chronic stages of infection. The group that received only recombinant protein (NTc52CpG) developed a strong antibody immune response but weaker cellular immunity than the other groups, and the protection against infection was clear in the acute phase of infection but not in chronicity. The prime-boost strategy, which combines DNA and protein vaccine and both mucosal and systemic immunizations routes, was the best assayed protocol, inducing strong cellular and humoral responses as well as specific mucosal IgA, thus conferring better protection in the acute and chronic stages of infection.

  17. Anti-galectin-1 autoantibodies in human Trypanosoma cruzi infection: differential expression of this β-galactoside-binding protein in cardiac Chagas' disease

    PubMed Central

    Giordanengo, L; Gea, S; Barbieri, G; Rabinovich, G A

    2001-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Chagas' disease has been subject of active research and still remains to be ascertained. Galectin-1 (Gal-1), a member of a conserved family of animal β-galactoside-binding proteins, localized in human heart tissue, has been suggested to play key roles in immunological and inflammatory processes. In the present study we demonstrated the occurrence of anti-Gal-1 autoAb in sera from patients in the acute and chronic stages of Chagas' disease (ACD and CCD) by means of ELISA and Western blot analysis. We found a marked increase in the level and frequency of Ig E anti-Gal-1 antibodies in sera from patients with ACD, but a low frequency of Ig M anti-Gal-1 immunoreactivity. Moreover, Ig G immunoreactivity to this β-galactoside-binding protein was found to be correlated with the severity of cardiac damage in CCD, but was absent in nonrelated cardiomyopathies. We could not detect immunoreactivity with Trypanosoma cruzi antigens using a polyclonal antibody raised to human Gal-1 and no hemagglutinating activity could be specifically eluted from a lactosyl-agarose matrix from parasite lysates. Moreover, despite sequence homology between Gal-1 and shed acute phase antigen (SAPA) of T. cruzi, anti-Gal-1 antibodies eluted from human sera failed to cross-react with SAPA. In an attempt to explore whether Gal-1 immunoreactivity was originated from endogenous human Gal-1, we finally investigated its expression levels in cardiac tissue (the main target of Chagas' disease). This protein was found to be markedly upregulated in cardiac tissue from patients with severe CCD, compared to cardiac tissue from normal individuals. PMID:11422204

  18. Anti-galectin-1 autoantibodies in human Trypanosoma cruzi infection: differential expression of this beta-galactoside-binding protein in cardiac Chagas' disease.

    PubMed

    Giordanengo, L; Gea, S; Barbieri, G; Rabinovich, G A

    2001-05-01

    The pathogenesis of Chagas' disease has been subject of active research and still remains to be ascertained. Galectin-1 (Gal-1), a member of a conserved family of animal beta-galactoside-binding proteins, localized in human heart tissue, has been suggested to play key roles in immunological and inflammatory processes. In the present study we demonstrated the occurrence of anti-Gal-1 autoAb in sera from patients in the acute and chronic stages of Chagas' disease (ACD and CCD) by means of ELISA and Western blot analysis. We found a marked increase in the level and frequency of Ig E anti-Gal-1 antibodies in sera from patients with ACD, but a low frequency of Ig M anti-Gal-1 immunoreactivity. Moreover, Ig G immunoreactivity to this beta-galactoside-binding protein was found to be correlated with the severity of cardiac damage in CCD, but was absent in nonrelated cardiomyopathies. We could not detect immunoreactivity with Trypanosoma cruzi antigens using a polyclonal antibody raised to human Gal-1 and no hemagglutinating activity could be specifically eluted from a lactosyl-agarose matrix from parasite lysates. Moreover, despite sequence homology between Gal-1 and shed acute phase antigen (SAPA) of T. cruzi, anti-Gal-1 antibodies eluted from human sera failed to cross-react with SAPA. In an attempt to explore whether Gal-1 immunoreactivity was originated from endogenous human Gal-1, we finally investigated its expression levels in cardiac tissue (the main target of Chagas' disease). This protein was found to be markedly upregulated in cardiac tissue from patients with severe CCD, compared to cardiac tissue from normal individuals.

  19. Cloning and expression of Trypanosoma cruzi ribosomal protein P0 and epitope analysis of anti-P0 autoantibodies in Chagas' disease patients

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Chagas' disease, caused by the intracellular protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is a major cause of heart failure in endemic areas. Antigenic mimicry by T. cruzi antigens sharing epitopes with host macromolecules has been implicated in the pathogenesis which is thought to have a significant autoimmune component. We report herein on the cloning and characterization of a full-length cDNA from a T. cruzi expression library encoding a protein, TcP0, that is homologous to the human 38-kD ribosomal phosphoprotein HuP0. The T. cruzi P0 protein shows a clustering of residues that are evolutionarily conserved in higher eukaryotes. This includes an alanine- and glycine-rich region adjacent to a highly charged COOH terminus. This "hallmark" domain is the basis of the crossreactivity of the highly immunogenic eukaryotic P protein family. We found that T. cruzi-infected individuals have antibodies reacting with host (self) P proteins, as well as with recombinant TcP0. Deletion of the six carboxy-terminal amino acids abolished the reactivity of the T. cruzi infection sera with TcP0. This is similar to the specificity of anti-P autoantibodies described for a subset of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (Elkon, K., E. Bonfa, R. Llovet, W. Danho, H. Weissbach, and N. Brot. 1988. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 85:5186). These results suggest that T. cruzi P proteins may contribute to the development of autoreactive antibodies in Chagas' disease, and that the underlying mechanisms of anti-P autoantibody may be similar in Chagas' and SLE patients. This study represents the first definitive report of the cloning of a full-length T. cruzi antigen that mimics a characterized host homologue in structure, function, and shared antigenicity. PMID:1377223

  20. In vitro metacyclogenesis of Trypanosoma cruzi induced by starvation correlates with a transient adenylyl cyclase stimulation as well as with a constitutive upregulation of adenylyl cyclase expression.

    PubMed

    Hamedi, Afsaneh; Botelho, Larisse; Britto, Constança; Fragoso, Stenio Perdigão; Umaki, Adriana Castilhos Souza; Goldenberg, Samuel; Bottu, Guy; Salmon, Didier

    2015-01-01

    The Trypanosoma cruzi adenylyl cyclase (AC) multigene family encodes different isoforms (around 15) sharing a variable large N-terminal domain, which is extracellular and receptor-like, followed by a transmembrane helix and a conserved C-terminal catalytic domain. It was proposed that these key enzymes in the cAMP signalling pathway allow the parasite to sense its changing extracellular milieu in order to rapidly adapt to its new environment, which is generally achieved through a differentiation process. One of the critical differentiation events the parasitic protozoan T. cruzi undergoes during its life cycle, known as metacyclogenesis, occurs in the digestive tract of the insect and corresponds to the differentiation from noninfective epimastigotes to infective metacyclic trypomastigote forms. By in vitro monitoring the activity of AC during metacyclogenesis, we showed that both the activity of AC and the intracellular cAMP content follow a similar pattern of transient stimulation in a two-step process, with a first activation peak occurring during the first hours of nutritional stress and a second peak between 6 and 48 h, corresponding to the cellular adhesion. During this differentiation process, a general mechanism of upregulation of AC expression of both mRNA and protein is triggered and in particular for a major subclass of these enzymes that are present in various gene copies commonly associated to the THT gene clusters. Although the scattered genome distribution of these gene copies is rather unusual in trypanosomatids and seems to be a recent acquisition in the evolution of the T. cruzi clade, their encoded product redistributed on the flagellum of the parasite upon differentiation could be important to sense the extracellular milieu. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ghost signals in Allison emittance scanners

    SciTech Connect

    Stockli, Martin P.; Leitner, M.; Moehs, D.P.; Keller, R.; Welton, R.F.; /SNS Project, Oak Ridge /Tennessee U.

    2004-12-01

    For over 20 years, Allison scanners have been used to measure emittances of low-energy ion beams. We show that scanning large trajectory angles produces ghost signals caused by the sampled beamlet impacting on an electric deflection plate. The ghost signal strength is proportional to the amount of beam entering the scanner. Depending on the ions, and their velocity, the ghost signals can have the opposite or the same polarity as the main beam signals. The ghost signals cause significant errors in the emittance estimates because they appear at large trajectory angles. These ghost signals often go undetected because they partly overlap with the real signals, are mostly below the 1% level, and often hide in the noise. A simple deflection plate modification is shown to reduce the ghost signal strength by over 99%.

  2. UV-extending ghost inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, Mikhail M.; Sibiryakov, Sergey E-mail: sergey.sibiryakov@cern.ch

    2014-05-01

    We present a setup that provides a partial UV-completion of the ghost inflation model up to a scale which can be almost as high as the Planck mass. This is achieved by coupling the inflaton to the Lorentz-violating sector described by the Einstein-aether theory or its khronometric version. Compared to previous works on ghost inflation our setup allows to go beyond the study of small perturbations and include the background dynamics in a unified framework. In the specific regime when the expansion of the Universe is dominated by the kinetic energy of the inflaton we find that the model predicts rather high tensor-to-scalar ratio r ∼ 0.02÷0.2 and non-Gaussianity of equilateral type with f{sub NL} in the range from -50 to -5.

  3. Topological mixing with ghost rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouillart, Emmanuelle; Thiffeault, Jean-Luc; Finn, Matthew D.

    2006-03-01

    Topological chaos relies on the periodic motion of obstacles in a two-dimensional flow in order to form nontrivial braids. This motion generates exponential stretching of material lines, and hence efficient mixing. Boyland, Aref, and Stremler [J. Fluid Mech. 403, 277 (2000)] have studied a specific periodic motion of rods that exhibits topological chaos in a viscous fluid. We show that it is possible to extend their work to cases where the motion of the stirring rods is topologically trivial by considering the dynamics of special periodic points that we call “ghost rods”, because they play a similar role to stirring rods. The ghost rods framework provides a new technique for quantifying chaos and gives insight into the mechanisms that produce chaos and mixing. Numerical simulations for Stokes flow support our results.

  4. Topological mixing with ghost rods.

    PubMed

    Gouillart, Emmanuelle; Thiffeault, Jean-Luc; Finn, Matthew D

    2006-03-01

    Topological chaos relies on the periodic motion of obstacles in a two-dimensional flow in order to form nontrivial braids. This motion generates exponential stretching of material lines, and hence efficient mixing. Boyland, Aref, and Stremler [J. Fluid Mech. 403, 277 (2000)] have studied a specific periodic motion of rods that exhibits topological chaos in a viscous fluid. We show that it is possible to extend their work to cases where the motion of the stirring rods is topologically trivial by considering the dynamics of special periodic points that we call "ghost rods", because they play a similar role to stirring rods. The ghost rods framework provides a new technique for quantifying chaos and gives insight into the mechanisms that produce chaos and mixing. Numerical simulations for Stokes flow support our results.

  5. Of ghosts, horses, and psychopaths.

    PubMed

    Brandon, Catherine

    2011-12-01

    Recognition and respect for the cultures of Native Americans constitutes a basic requirement for cancer care and education approaches. This reflection shares the insights gained in fieldwork excavations in a pre-Apache archeological site on the Cibaque reservation. Despite the ghost pollution associated with contact with the dead, the Apache invited me to be a sponsor for a young girl's coming of age ceremony. I owed this gracious invitation to the wild horses, for the Apache had observed the horses' responses to my calls. Since horses are considered spiritually sensitive animals, their acceptance was an indicator of my resistance to ghost pollution. Therefore, I was a strong contender as a sponsor. My days among the tribe made me a better listener and observer, and thus a better physician to the cancer patients I continue to serve as a radiologist.

  6. Ghost properties of generalized theories of gravitation

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, R.B.; Moffat, J.W.

    1982-10-15

    We investigate theories of gravitation, in which spacetime is non-Riemannian and the metric g/sub munu/ is nonsymmetric, for ghosts and tachyons, using a spin-projection operator formalism. Ghosts are removed not by gauge invariance but by a Lagrange multiplier W/sub ..mu../, which occurs due to the breaking of projective invariance in the theory. Unified theories based on a Lagrangian containing a term lambdag/sup munu/g/sub / are proved to contain ghosts or tachyons.

  7. Cascading gravity is ghost free

    SciTech Connect

    Rham, Claudia de; Khoury, Justin; Tolley, Andrew J.

    2010-06-15

    We perform a full perturbative stability analysis of the 6D cascading gravity model in the presence of 3-brane tension. We demonstrate that for sufficiently large tension on the (flat) 3-brane, there are no ghosts at the perturbative level, consistent with results that had previously only been obtained in a specific 5D decoupling limit. These results establish the cascading gravity framework as a consistent infrared modification of gravity.

  8. SUMOylation by the E3 ligase TbSIZ1/PIAS1 positively regulates VSG expression in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    López-Farfán, Diana; Bart, Jean-Mathieu; Rojas-Barros, Domingo I; Navarro, Miguel

    2014-12-01

    Bloodstream form trypanosomes avoid the host immune response by switching the expression of their surface proteins between Variant Surface Glycoproteins (VSG), only one of which is expressed at any given time. Monoallelic transcription of the telomeric VSG Expression Site (ES) by RNA polymerase I (RNA pol I) localizes to a unique nuclear body named the ESB. Most work has focused on silencing mechanisms of inactive VSG-ESs, but the mechanisms involved in transcriptional activation of a single VSG-ES remain largely unknown. Here, we identify a highly SUMOylated focus (HSF) in the nucleus of the bloodstream form that partially colocalizes with the ESB and the active VSG-ES locus. SUMOylation of chromatin-associated proteins was enriched along the active VSG-ES transcriptional unit, in contrast to silent VSG-ES or rDNA, suggesting that it is a distinct feature of VSG-ES monoallelic expression. In addition, sequences upstream of the active VSG-ES promoter were highly enriched in SUMOylated proteins. We identified TbSIZ1/PIAS1 as the SUMO E3 ligase responsible for SUMOylation in the active VSG-ES chromatin. Reduction of SUMO-conjugated proteins by TbSIZ1 knockdown decreased the recruitment of RNA pol I to the VSG-ES and the VSG-ES-derived transcripts. Furthermore, cells depleted of SUMO conjugated proteins by TbUBC9 and TbSUMO knockdown confirmed the positive function of SUMO for VSG-ES expression. In addition, the largest subunit of RNA pol I TbRPA1 was SUMOylated in a TbSIZ-dependent manner. Our results show a positive mechanism associated with active VSG-ES expression via post-translational modification, and indicate that chromatin SUMOylation plays an important role in the regulation of VSG-ES. Thus, protein SUMOylation is linked to active gene expression in this protozoan parasite that diverged early in evolution.

  9. Ghost imaging with a single detector

    SciTech Connect

    Bromberg, Yaron; Katz, Ori; Silberberg, Yaron

    2009-05-15

    We experimentally demonstrate pseudothermal ghost imaging and ghost diffraction using only a single detector. We achieve this by replacing the high-resolution detector of the reference beam with a computation of the propagating field, following a recent proposal by Shapiro [Phys. Rev. A 78, 061802(R) (2008)]. Since only a single detector is used, this provides experimental evidence that pseudothermal ghost imaging does not rely on nonlocal quantum correlations. In addition, we show the depth-resolving capability of this ghost imaging technique.

  10. Entangled spins and ghost-spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jatkar, Dileep P.; Narayan, K.

    2017-09-01

    We study patterns of quantum entanglement in systems of spins and ghost-spins regarding them as simple quantum mechanical toy models for theories containing negative norm states. We define a single ghost-spin as in [20] as a 2-state spin variable with an indefinite inner product in the state space. We find that whenever the spin sector is disentangled from the ghost-spin sector (both of which could be entangled within themselves), the reduced density matrix obtained by tracing over all the ghost-spins gives rise to positive entanglement entropy for positive norm states, while negative norm states have an entanglement entropy with a negative real part and a constant imaginary part. However when the spins are entangled with the ghost-spins, there are new entanglement patterns in general. For systems where the number of ghost-spins is even, it is possible to find subsectors of the Hilbert space where positive norm states always lead to positive entanglement entropy after tracing over the ghost-spins. With an odd number of ghost-spins however, we find that there always exist positive norm states with negative real part for entanglement entropy after tracing over the ghost-spins.

  11. Low energy ghosts and the Jeans' instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gümrükçüoǧlu, A. Emir; Mukohyama, Shinji; Sotiriou, Thomas P.

    2016-09-01

    We show that a massless canonical scalar field minimally coupled to general relativity can become a tachyonic ghost at low energies around a background in which the scalar's gradient is spacelike. By performing a canonical transformation we demonstrate that this low energy ghost can be recast, at the level of the action, in a form of a fluid that undergoes a Jeans-like instability affecting only modes with large wavelength. This illustrates that low energy tachyonic ghosts do not lead to a catastrophic quantum vacuum instability, unlike the usual high-energy ghost degrees of freedom.

  12. In Vitro Infection of Trypanosoma cruzi Causes Decrease in Glucose Transporter Protein-1 (GLUT1) Expression in Explants of Human Placental Villi Cultured under Normal and High Glucose Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Mezzano, Luciana; Repossi, Gastón; Fretes, Ricardo E.; Lin, Susana; Sartori, María José; de Fabro, Sofía G. Parisi

    2012-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic Chagas' disease agent, induces changes in protein pattern of the human placenta syncytiotrophoblast. The glucose transporter protein-1 (GLUT1) is the primary isoform involved in transplacental glucose transport. We carried out in vitro assays to determine if T. cruzi infection would induce changes in placental GLUT1 protein expression under normal and high concentration of glucose. Using Western blot and immunohistological techniques, GLUT1 expression was determined in normal placental villi cultured under normal or high concentrations of glucose, with or without in vitro T. cruzi infection, for 24 and 48 hours. High glucose media or T. cruzi infection alone reduced GLUT1 expression. A yet more accentuated reduction was observed when infection and high glucose condition took place together. We inform, for the first time, that T. cruzi infection may induce reduction of GLUT1 expression under normal and high glucose concentrations, and this effect is synergic to high glucose concentrations. PMID:21941569

  13. In Vitro Infection of Trypanosoma cruzi Causes Decrease in Glucose Transporter Protein-1 (GLUT1) Expression in Explants of Human Placental Villi Cultured under Normal and High Glucose Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Mezzano, Luciana; Repossi, Gastón; Fretes, Ricardo E; Lin, Susana; Sartori, María José; de Fabro, Sofía G Parisi

    2012-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic Chagas' disease agent, induces changes in protein pattern of the human placenta syncytiotrophoblast. The glucose transporter protein-1 (GLUT1) is the primary isoform involved in transplacental glucose transport. We carried out in vitro assays to determine if T. cruzi infection would induce changes in placental GLUT1 protein expression under normal and high concentration of glucose. Using Western blot and immunohistological techniques, GLUT1 expression was determined in normal placental villi cultured under normal or high concentrations of glucose, with or without in vitro T. cruzi infection, for 24 and 48 hours. High glucose media or T. cruzi infection alone reduced GLUT1 expression. A yet more accentuated reduction was observed when infection and high glucose condition took place together. We inform, for the first time, that T. cruzi infection may induce reduction of GLUT1 expression under normal and high glucose concentrations, and this effect is synergic to high glucose concentrations.

  14. Stable variant-specific transcripts of the variant cell surface glycoprotein gene 1. 8 expression site in Trypanosoma brucei

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, C.; Van der Ploeg, L.H.T.

    1988-02-01

    The structure and transcriptional regulation of the 1.8 variant cell surface glycoproteins (VSG) gene expression site located on a 430-kilobase (kb) chromosome was examined in a 430-kb-chromosome-specific library. Using /sup 32/P-labeled nascent transcripts generated by nuclear run-on, the authors selected recombinant clones derived from the 430-kb chromosome which were coordinately activated with the 1.8 VSG gene. The results show that a repetitive region with a minimum size of 27 kb is coordinately activated with the 1.8 VSG gene. As with the 1.8 VSG gene, transcription is by RNA polymerases that are insensitive to the drug alpha-amanitin at concentrations up to 1 mgml. Transcription results in the generation of several stable variant-specific mRNAs. These mRNAs most likely belong to a family of repetitive expression-site-associated genes.

  15. Tsunami and ghost stories in Thailand: exploring the psychology of ghosts and religious rituals within the context of Thai Buddhism.

    PubMed

    Sorajjakool, Siroj

    2007-01-01

    The post-tsunami ghost phenomena in Thailand may be understood, in Jungian terms, as an expression of the autonomous complex of the collective psyche resulting from traumatic loss. Religious rituals, as in the context of Thai Buddhism, provide an alternative method of dealing with grief, and hence they affirm the place of religious practices in the overall psychological well-being of people from various cultural backgrounds.

  16. Immunotherapy of Trypanosoma cruzi infections.

    PubMed

    Chamond, N; Coatnoan, N; Minoprio, P

    2002-10-01

    The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, causative agent of Chagas' disease, is transmitted to man and other mammals by triatominae insects, or 'kissing bugs'. Since its discovery in 1909, by Carlos Chagas, this parasite has been the object of several publications in the domains of immunology, cellular biology and of control gene organization, regulation and expression. Although much progress has been made concerning prophylaxis of Chagas' disease, particularly vector eradication, additional cases of infection and disease development still occur every day throughout the world. Whilst infection was largely limited in the past to vector transmission in endemic areas of Latin America, its impact has increased in terms of congenital and blood transmission, transplants and recrudescence following immunosuppressive states. Reports on new insect vectors adapted to the parasite and domestic animals infected in more developed countries, emphasize the continuing worldwide public health issue. Therapy against this parasite is limited and cure is subjected to several criteria, such as susceptibility of the parasite strain, age of the host and stage of the disease. The ability of Trypanosoma cruzi to induce important and various host immune system dysfunctions makes the development of effective vaccines a laborious and complex task. These considerations strengthen the latent significance of Chagas' disease and encourage the search for new preventive procedures and the research on rational vaccines.

  17. Ghosting reduction method for color anaglyphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, An Jin; Kim, Hye Jin; Choi, Jae Wan; Yu, Ki Yun

    2008-02-01

    Anaglyph is the simplest and the most economical method for 3D visualization. However, anaglyph has several drawbacks such as loss of color or visual discomfort, e.g., region merging and the ghosting effect. In particular, the ghosting effect, which is caused by green penetrating to the left eye, brings on a slight headache, dizziness and vertigo. Therefore, ghosting effects have to be reduced to improve the visual quality and make viewing of the anaglyph comfortable. Since red lightness is increased by penetration by green, the lightness of the red band has to be compensated for. In this paper, a simple deghosting method is proposed using the red lightness difference of the left and right images. We detected a ghosting area with the criterion, which was calculated from the statistics of the difference image, and then the red lightness of the anaglyph was changed to be brighter or darker according to the degree of the difference. The amount of change of red lightness was determined empirically. These adjustments simultaneously reduced the ghosting effect and preserved the color lightness within the non-ghosting area. The proposed deghosting method works well, and the goal of this paper was to detect the ghosting area automatically and to reduce the ghosting.

  18. Ghost Children: Invisible Middle Level Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matteson, Shirley M.

    2014-01-01

    For this study, 119 middle level teacher candidates identified, observed, and documented their interactions with middle school "ghost children" as part of their field placement activities. About two thirds of the 124 ghost children identified for this study were male. The teacher candidates documented additional characteristics of ghost…

  19. Ghost of Mirach Rears its Spooky Head

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-31

    The Ghost of Mirach galaxy is shown in visible light on the left, and in ultraviolet as seen by NASA Galaxy Evolution Explorer on the right. The fields of view are identical in both pictures, with the Ghost of Mirach -— a galaxy called NGC 404.

  20. Variational method for lattice spectroscopy with ghosts

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, Tommy; Hagen, Christian; Gattringer, Christof; Glozman, Leonid Ya.; Lang, C.B.

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the variational method used in lattice spectroscopy calculations. In particular we address the role of ghost contributions which appear in quenched or partially quenched simulations and have a nonstandard euclidean time dependence. We show that the ghosts can be separated from the physical states. Our result is illustrated with numerical data for the scalar meson.

  1. Therapeutic Efficacy of a Subunit Vaccine in Controlling Chronic Trypanosoma cruzi Infection and Chagas Disease Is Enhanced by Glutathione Peroxidase Over-Expression.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shivali; Smith, Charity; Auclair, Sarah; Delgadillo, Anahi De Jesus; Garg, Nisha Jain

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi-induced oxidative and inflammatory responses are implicated in chagasic cardiomyopathy. In this study, we examined the therapeutic utility of a subunit vaccine against T. cruzi and determined if glutathione peroxidase (GPx1, antioxidant) protects the heart from chagasic pathogenesis. C57BL/6 mice (wild-type (WT) and GPx1 transgenic (GPxtg) were infected with T. cruzi and at 45 days post-infection (dpi), immunized with TcG2/TcG4 vaccine delivered by a DNA-prime/Protein-boost (D/P) approach. The plasma and tissue-sections were analyzed on 150 dpi for parasite burden, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, inflammatory infiltrate and fibrosis. WT mice infected with T. cruzi had significantly more blood and tissue parasite burden compared with infected/GPxtg mice (n = 5-8, p<0.01). Therapeutic vaccination provided >15-fold reduction in blood and tissue parasites in both WT and GPxtg mice. The increase in plasma levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO, 24.7%) and nitrite (iNOS activity, 45%) was associated with myocardial increase in oxidant levels (3-4-fold) and non-responsive antioxidant status in chagasic/WT mice; and these responses were not controlled after vaccination (n = 5-7). The GPxtg mice were better equipped than the WT mice in controlling T. cruzi-induced inflammatory and oxidative stress markers. Extensive myocardial and skeletal tissue inflammation noted in chagasic/WT mice, was significantly more compared with chagasic/GPxtg mice (n = 4-6, p<0.05). Vaccination was equally effective in reducing the chronic inflammatory infiltrate in the heart and skeletal tissue of infected WT and GPxtg mice (n = 6, p<0.05). Hypertrophy (increased BNP and ANP mRNA) and fibrosis (increased collagen) of the heart were extensively present in chronically-infected WT and GPxtg mice and notably decreased after therapeutic vaccination. We conclude the therapeutic delivery of D/P vaccine was effective in arresting the chronic parasite persistence and chagasic

  2. Accretion of Ghost Condensate by Black Holes

    SciTech Connect

    Frolov, A

    2004-06-02

    The intent of this letter is to point out that the accretion of a ghost condensate by black holes could be extremely efficient. We analyze steady-state spherically symmetric flows of the ghost fluid in the gravitational field of a Schwarzschild black hole and calculate the accretion rate. Unlike minimally coupled scalar field or quintessence, the accretion rate is set not by the cosmological energy density of the field, but by the energy scale of the ghost condensate theory. If hydrodynamical flow is established, it could be as high as tenth of a solar mass per second for 10MeV-scale ghost condensate accreting onto a stellar-sized black hole, which puts serious constraints on the parameters of the ghost condensate model.

  3. Ghost Condensation in N=1 Supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehn, Michael; Lehners, Jean-Luc; Ovrut, Burt

    We present the theory of an N=1 supersymmetric ghost condensate coupled to supergravity using a general formalism for constructing locally supersymmetric higher-derivative chiral superfield actions. The theory admits a ghost condensate vacuum in de Sitter spacetime. Expanded around this vacuum, the scalar sector is shown to be ghost-free with no spatial gradient instabilities. The fermion sector is found to consist of a massless chiral fermion and a massless gravitino. The ghost condensate vacuum spontaneously breaks local supersymmetry with the chiral field as the Goldstone fermion. Although potentially able to get a mass through the super-Higgs effect, the vanishing superpotential in the ghost condensate theory renders the gravitino massless.

  4. Magnified time-domain ghost imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryczkowski, Piotr; Barbier, Margaux; Friberg, Ari T.; Dudley, John M.; Genty, Goëry

    2017-04-01

    Ghost imaging allows the imaging of an object without directly seeing this object. Originally demonstrated in the spatial domain, it was recently shown that ghost imaging can be transposed into the time domain to detect ultrafast signals, even in the presence of distortion. We propose and experimentally demonstrate a temporal ghost imaging scheme which generates a 5× magnified ghost image of an ultrafast waveform. Inspired by shadow imaging in the spatial domain and building on the dispersive Fourier transform of an incoherent supercontinuum in an optical fiber, the approach overcomes the resolution limit of standard time-domain ghost imaging generally imposed by the detectors speed. The method can be scaled up to higher magnification factors using longer fiber lengths and light source with shorter duration.

  5. Thermal light ghost imaging based on morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhipeng; Shi, Jianhong; Zeng, Guihua

    2016-12-01

    The quality of thermal light ghost imaging could be degraded by undersampling noise. This kind of noise is generated because of finite sampling, which could reduce the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of ghost imaging and submerge object information. In order to reduce the undersampling noise, we propose a thermal light ghost imaging scheme based on the morphology (GIM). In this scheme, the average size of the undersampling noise can be obtained by computing the second-order correlation function of the ghost imaging system. According to the average size of the undersampling noise, the corresponding structure element can be designed and used in the morphological filter; then, the GIM reconstructed image can be obtained. The experiment results show that the peak signal-to-noise ratio of the GIM reconstructed image can increased by 80% than that of conventional ghost imaging for the same number of measurements.

  6. Ghost condensation on the lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Cucchieri, Attilio; Mendes, Tereza; Mihara, Antonio

    2005-11-01

    We perform a numerical study of ghost condensation--in the so-called Overhauser channel--for SU(2) lattice gauge theory in minimal Landau gauge. The off-diagonal components of the momentum-space ghost propagator G{sup cd}(p) are evaluated for lattice volumes V=8{sup 4}, 12{sup 4}, 16{sup 4}, 20{sup 4}, 24{sup 4} and for three values of the lattice coupling: {beta}=2.2, 2.3, 2.4. Our data show that the quantity {phi}{sup b}(p)={epsilon}{sup bcd}G{sup cd}(p)/2 is zero within error bars, being characterized by very large statistical fluctuations. On the contrary, vertical bar {phi}{sup b}(p) vertical bar has relatively small error bars and behaves at small momenta as L{sup -2}p{sup -z}, where L is the lattice side in physical units and z{approx_equal}4. We argue that the large fluctuations for {phi}{sup b}(p) come from spontaneous breaking of a global symmetry and are associated with ghost condensation. It may thus be necessary (in numerical simulations at finite volume) to consider vertical bar {phi}{sup b}(p) vertical bar instead of {phi}{sup b}(p), to avoid a null average due to tunneling between different broken vacua. Also, we show that {phi}{sup b}(p) is proportional to the Fourier-transformed gluon field components A-tilde{sub {mu}}{sup b}(q). This explains the L{sup -2} dependence of vertical bar {phi}{sup b}(p) vertical bar, as induced by the behavior of vertical bar A-tilde{sub {mu}}{sup b}(q) vertical bar. We fit our data for vertical bar {phi}{sup b}(p) vertical bar to the theoretical prediction (r/L{sup 2}+v)/(p{sup 4}+v{sup 2}), obtaining for the ghost condensate v an upper bound of about 0.058 GeV{sup 2}. In order to check if v is nonzero in the continuum limit, one probably needs numerical simulations at much larger physical volumes than the ones we consider. As a by-product of our analysis, we perform a careful study of the color structure of the inverse Faddeev-Popov matrix in momentum space.

  7. De novo transcriptome characterization of the ghost moth, Thitarodes pui, and elevation-based differences in the gene expression of its larvae.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenjing; Sun, Hongxia; Guo, Jixing; Jiang, Fengze; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Guren

    2015-12-10

    Thitarodes pui larvae are the hosts of a medicinal fungus, Ophiocordyceps sinensis, and are naturally distributed at an altitude of 4100-4650 m on Segrila Mountain of the Tibetan Plateau. Here, we conducted transcriptome profiling of T. pui larvae based on the Illumina high-throughput sequencing platform. Subsequently, we explored elevation-based differences of T. pui by comparing gene expression profiles between larvae at high-altitude (natural conditions) and larvae exposed to short-term (2months) low-altitude conditions. A total of 105,935,208 clean reads were assembled into 70,048 unigenes with a mean length of 639 bp. All unigenes were searched against public databases, with 51.26% unigenes being successfully annotated in the NR, SWISS-PROT, EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG), Gene Ontology (GO), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG) databases. A total of 11,846 unigenes were functionally classified into 239 KEGG pathways. Metabolism was the most represented pathway, with 4271 unigenes (36.05%). Using the transcriptome data as a reference, 629 (311 up-regulated/318 down-regulated) genes were differentially expressed by low-altitude larvae when compared with those of high-altitude larvae. The most significantly differentially expressed genes were annotated in the processes of carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, and respiration. This report provides valuable information about the T. pui transcriptome for future genomic studies, including how gene expression is altered in larvae reared at different elevations.

  8. Coulomb gauge ghost propagator and the Coulomb form factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quandt, M.; Burgio, G.; Chimchinda, S.; Reinhardt, H.

    The ghost propagator and the Coulomb potential are evaluated in Coulomb gauge on the lattice, using an improved gauge fixing scheme which includes the residual symmetry. This setting has been shown to be essential in order to explain the scaling violations in the instantaneous gluon propagator. We find that both the ghost propagator and the Coulomb potential are insensitive to the Gribov problem or the details of the residual gauge fixing, even if the Coulomb potential is evaluated from the A0 -propagator instead of the Coulomb kernel. In particular, no signs of scaling violations could be found in either quantity, at least to well below the numerical accuracy where these violations were visible for the gluon propagator. The Coulomb potential from the A0 -propagator is shown to be in qualitative agreement with the (formally equivalent) expression evaluated from the Coulomb kernel.

  9. The expression of RoTat 1.2 variable surface glycoprotein (VSG) in Trypanosoma evansi and T. equiperdum.

    PubMed

    Claes, F; Verloo, D; De Waal, D T; Majiwa, P A O; Baltz, T; Goddeeris, B M; Büscher, P

    2003-10-20

    In order to define whether the variable antigenic type RoTat 1.2 is restricted to Trypansoma evansi and could be used as antigen in serological tests to differentiate T. evansi from Trypansoma equiperdum, the appearance of RoTat 1.2-specific antibodies in rabbits, experimentally infected with T. evansi and T. equiperdum, respectively, was analyzed. Ten strains of T. evansi and 11 strains of T. equiperdum originating from Asia, Europe, Africa and Latin America were tested. Rabbit pre-infection sera and sera of days 7, 14, 25, 35 post-infection (p.i.) were analyzed for the presence of antibodies reactive with RoTat 1.2 in immune trypanolysis, ELISA/T. evansi and CATT/T. evansi. Within the duration of the infection (maximum 35 days), all T. evansi as well as 9 out of 11 T. equiperdum infected rabbits became positive in all these tests. The rabbits infected with T. equiperdum OVI (South Africa) and BoTat 1.1 (Morocco) remained negative in the immune trypanolysis test although the latter rabbit became positive in the CATT/T. evansi and ELISA/T. evansi. On the contrary, both rabbits were positive in immune trypanolysis when tested against their respective infecting population. From these data, we conclude that most T. equiperdum strains express isoVATs of RoTat 1.2. This explains, in part, why antibody tests based on T. evansi RoTat 1.2 cannot reliably distinguish between infections caused by T. evansi and those caused by T. equiperdum unless it can be proven that most described T. equiperdum are actually misclassified T. evansi.

  10. Improved protection against lung colonization by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae ghosts: characterization of a genetically inactivated vaccine.

    PubMed

    Huter, V; Hensel, A; Brand, E; Lubitz, W

    2000-09-29

    Pigs immunized with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae ghosts or a formalin-inactivated bacterin were found to be protected against clinical disease in both vaccination groups, whereas colonization of the lungs with A. pleuropneumoniae was only prevented in ghost-vaccinated pigs. Bacterial ghosts are empty cell envelopes created by the expression of a cloned bacteriophage lysis gene and, unlike formalin-inactivated bacteria, suffer no denaturing steps during their production. This quality may lead to a superior presentation of surface antigens to the immune system. Analysis by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting of the two vaccine preparations revealed different contents of antigenic proteins. In order to better understand the immunogenic properties of A. pleuropneumoniae ghosts and formalin-inactivated bacteria, we compared the serum antibody response induced in both treatment groups. Immune sera were tested on whole cell antigen or purified virulence factors including outer membrane protein preparations (OMPs), outer membrane lipoprotein OmlA1, transferrin binding proteins (TfbA1, TfbA7 and TfbB) and Apx toxins (ApxI, II and III). SDS-PAGE and immunoblots revealed no specific antibody response against the single virulence factors tested in any vaccinated animal. The two vaccination groups showed different recognition patterns of whole cell antigen and OMP-enriched preparations. A 100 kDa protein was recognized significantly stronger by ghost-vaccinated pigs than convalescent pigs. This unique antibody population induced by ghosts could play a determining role in the prevention of lung colonization. The same 100 kDa antigen was recognized by ghost-sera in homologous as well as heterologous serotype A. pleuropneumoniae protein preparations. Indications for a crossprotective potential in the ghost vaccine were supported by studies on rabbit hyperimmune sera.

  11. Bacterial ghosts as carrier and targeting systems for mucosal antigen delivery.

    PubMed

    Jalava, Katri; Eko, Francis O; Riedmann, Eva; Lubitz, Werner

    2003-02-01

    The application of new strategies to develop effective vaccines is essential in modern medicine. The bacterial ghost system is a novel vaccine delivery system endowed with intrinsic adjuvant properties. Bacterial ghosts are nonliving gram-negative bacterial cell envelopes devoid of cytoplasmic contents while maintaining their cellular morphology and native surface antigenic structures including bioadhesive properties. They are produced by PhiX174 protein E-mediated lysis of gram-negative bacteria. The intrinsic adjuvant properties of bacterial ghost preparations enhance immune responses against envelope-bound antigens, including T-cell activation and mucosal immunity. Since native and foreign antigens can be expressed in the envelope complex of ghosts before E-mediated lysis, multiple antigens of various origin can be presented to the immune system simultaneously. In addition, the extended bacterial ghost system represents a platform technology for specific targeting of DNA-encoded antigens to primary antigen-presenting cells. The potency, safety and relatively low production cost of bacterial ghosts offer a significant technical advantage, especially when used as combination vaccines.

  12. The effect of residual Nyquist ghost in quantitative echo-planar diffusion imaging.

    PubMed

    Porter, D A; Calamante, F; Gadian, D G; Connelly, A

    1999-08-01

    Single-shot diffusion-weighted echo-planar imaging (EPI) is typically used for most clinical diffusion studies due to its low sensitivity to patient motion. Although the Nyquist ghost artifact in EPI can be substantially reduced, there is frequently a residual ghost with low signal intensity. As reported in this study, this residual ghost can produce severe artifacts when maps of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) are calculated from single-shot echo-planar images. The artifacts presented in this paper appear as regions of apparently low ADC which simulate regions of reduced diffusion, but are in fact generated by b-value dependent Nyquist ghosts of the orbits. Data acquired in vivo were used to demonstrate that these artifacts can be avoided by including standard methods of spatial presaturation or fluid-suppression in the diffusion-weighted EPI protocol. In addition, phantom studies were used to illustrate how phase and amplitude variations in the ghost generate the artifacts and theoretical expressions, derived elsewhere, were used to provide a detailed understanding of the artifacts observed in vivo. The level of Nyquist ghost reported for the current generation of commercial scanners suggests that this is a general phenomenon which should be a consideration in all EPI-based diffusion studies. Magn Reson Med 42:385-392, 1999.

  13. Ghost imaging with broad distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, De-Yang; Zhang, Lu; Du, Shao-Jiang; Xia, Yun-Jie

    2015-10-01

    We present a scheme that is able to achieve the ghost imaging with broad distance. The physical nature of our scheme is that the different wavelength beams are separated in free space by an optical media according to the slow light or dispersion principle. Meanwhile, the equality of the optical distance of the two light arms is not violated. The photon correlation is achieved by the rotating ground glass plate (RGGP) and spatial light modulator (SLM), respectively. Our work shows that a monochromic ghost image can be obtained in the case of RGGP. More importantly, the position (or distance) of the object can be ascertained by the color of the image. Thus, the imaging and ranging processes are combined as one process for the first time to the best of our knowledge. In the case of SLM, we can obtain a colored image regardless of where the object is. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61178012, 11204156, 11304179, and 11247240), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant Nos. 20133705110001 and 20123705120002), the Scientific Research Foundation for Outstanding Young Scientists of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. BS2013DX034), and the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. ZR2012FQ024).

  14. Black holes in the ghost condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Mukohyama, Shinji

    2005-05-15

    We investigate how the ghost condensate reacts to black holes immersed in it. A ghost condensate defines a hypersurface-orthogonal congruence of timelike curves, each of which has the tangent vector u{sup {mu}}=-g{sup {mu}}{sup {nu}}{partial_derivative}{sub {nu}}{phi}. It is argued that the ghost condensate in this picture approximately corresponds to a congruence of geodesics. In other words, the ghost condensate accretes into a black hole just like a pressureless dust. Correspondingly, if the energy density of the ghost condensate at large distance is set to an extremely small value by cosmic expansion then the late-time accretion rate of the ghost condensate should be negligible. The accretion rate remains very small even if effects of higher derivative terms are taken into account, provided that the black hole is sufficiently large. It is also discussed how to reconcile the black-hole accretion with the possibility that the ghost condensate might behave like dark matter.

  15. Fast evaluation of surface sensitivity on ghost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehme, Beate

    2015-09-01

    Real optical systems are often suffering from false light caused by ghosts. In particular single reflections are critical in applications like reflected light illumination microscopy or confocal systems. The degradations of performance can be bright spots in the image or contrast, signal to noise or dynamic range reduction. Thus in these systems the suppression of first order reflections is important. State of the art optical design software supports ray trace based ghost image analysis. The automatic generation of reflex light paths is provided, but for systems with a large number of surfaces the analysis of all ghost light paths is time-consuming. Conventional Monte Carlo based non sequential ray trace sums up the reflections of all surfaces simultaneously. To achieve high accuracy a huge number of rays is necessary, what results in long computational time, especially if the distinction of surface influences needs multiple calculations. In this paper a fast method is proposed for the ranking of ghosts. It was developed for single reflections in centered optical systems. For each surface the ghost light path is calculated with paraxial and real ray trace. The ghost diameter and the corresponding illumination NA are calculated. Usually the distance of the reflex focus to the image is used as criterion to access the importance of a ghost. Here we use the power of the ghost ray bundle. It is compared with the signal strength and listed for all surfaces generating a ghost. So in one step a surface contribution of reflex powers as well as an estimation of total flux of reflected light is obtained. Due to the fact, that only a few rays have to be calculated, the method is rather fast. The accuracy can be estimated by comparison of paraxial and marginal ray trace. In the proposed method, some assumptions and approximations are made. They are assessed in respect to some practical examples, and by comparison with full brute force non-sequential ray trace. The usefulness of

  16. A Ghost Story: Ghosts and Gluons in the IR of QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pene, O.; Boucaud, P.; Leroy, J. P.; Le Yaouanc, A.; Micheli, J.; Rodriguez-Quintero, J.

    We discuss the different methods to obtain reliable informations about the deep infra-red behaviour of the gluon and ghost Green functions in QCD. We argue that a clever combination of analytical inputs and numerical ones is necessary. We illustrate this statement about the distinction between two classes of solutions of the ghost propagator Dyson-Schwinger equation (GPDSE). We conclude that the solution II ("decoupling") with a finite renormalised ghost dressing function at zero momentum is strongly favored by lattice QCD, We derive a method to solve numerically the GPDSE using lattice inputs concerning the gluon propagator. We derive an analytical small momentum expansion of the Ghost dressing function. We prove from the large cut-off behaviour of the ghost propagator renormalisation constant, $\\widetilde Z_3$, that the bare ghost dressing function is infinite at the infinite cut-off limit.

  17. Simplified D = 11 pure spinor b ghost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkovits, Nathan; Guillen, Max

    2017-07-01

    A b-ghost was constructed for the D = 11 non-minimal pure spinor superparticle by requiring that { Q, b} = T where Q={Λ}^{α }{D}_{α }+{R}^{α }{\\overline{W}}_{α } is the usual non-minimal pure spinor BRST operator. As was done for the D = 10 b-ghost, we will show that the D = 11 b-ghost can be simplified by introducing an SO(10, 1) fermionic vector {\\overline{Σ}}^i constructed out of the fermionic spinor D α and pure spinor variables. This simplified version will be shown to satisfy { Q, b} = T and { b, b} = BRST - trivial.

  18. Spectral properties of ghost Neumann matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Bonora, L.; Santos, R. J. Scherer; Tolla, D. D.

    2008-05-15

    We continue the analysis of the ghost wedge states in the oscillator formalism by studying the spectral properties of the ghost matrices of Neumann coefficients. We show that the traditional spectral representation is not valid for these matrices and propose a new heuristic formula that allows one to reconstruct them from the knowledge of their eigenvalues and eigenvectors. It turns out that additional data, which we call boundary data, are needed in order to actually implement the reconstruction. In particular our result lends support to the conjecture that there exists a ghost three strings vertex with properties parallel to those of the matter three strings vertex.

  19. Expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from the human pathogen Trypanosoma cruzi in complex with substrate

    PubMed Central

    Ortíz, Cecilia; Larrieux, Nicole; Medeiros, Andrea; Botti, Horacio; Comini, Marcelo; Buschiazzo, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    An N-terminally truncated version of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from Trypanosoma cruzi lacking the first 37 residues was crystallized both in its apo form and in a binary complex with glucose 6-­phosphate. The crystals both belonged to space group P21 and diffracted to 2.85 and 3.35 Å resolution, respectively. Self-rotation function maps were consistent with point group 222. The structure was solved by molecular replacement, confirming a tetrameric quaternary structure. PMID:22102256

  20. Ghost inflation and de Sitter entropy

    SciTech Connect

    Jazayeri, Sadra; Mukohyama, Shinji; Saitou, Rio; Watanabe, Yota

    2016-08-01

    In the setup of ghost condensation model the generalized second law of black hole thermodynamics can be respected under a radiatively stable assumption that couplings between the field responsible for ghost condensate and matter fields such as those in the Standard Model are suppressed by the Planck scale. Since not only black holes but also cosmology are expected to play important roles towards our better understanding of gravity, we consider a cosmological setup to test the theory of ghost condensation. In particular we shall show that the de Sitter entropy bound proposed by Arkani-Hamed, et al. is satisfied if ghost inflation happened in the early epoch of our universe and if there remains a tiny positive cosmological constant in the future infinity. We then propose a notion of cosmological Page time after inflation.

  1. The ghost propagator in Coulomb gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, P.; Reinhardt, H.

    2011-05-23

    We present results for a numerical study of the ghost propagator in Coulomb gauge whereby lattice results for the spatial gluon propagator are used as input to solving the ghost Dyson-Schwinger equation. We show that in order to solve completely, the ghost equation must be supplemented by a boundary condition (the value of the inverse ghost propagator dressing function at zero momentum) which determines if the solution is critical (zero value for the boundary condition) or subcritical (finite value). The various solutions exhibit a characteristic behavior where all curves follow the same (critical) solution when going from high to low momenta until 'forced' to freeze out in the infrared to the value of the boundary condition. The boundary condition can be interpreted in terms of the Gribov gauge-fixing ambiguity; we also demonstrate that this is not connected to the renormalization. Further, the connection to the temporal gluon propagator and the infrared slavery picture of confinement is discussed.

  2. The ghost propagator in Coulomb gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, P.; Reinhardt, H.

    2011-05-01

    We present results for a numerical study of the ghost propagator in Coulomb gauge whereby lattice results for the spatial gluon propagator are used as input to solving the ghost Dyson-Schwinger equation. We show that in order to solve completely, the ghost equation must be supplemented by a boundary condition (the value of the inverse ghost propagator dressing function at zero momentum) which determines if the solution is critical (zero value for the boundary condition) or subcritical (finite value). The various solutions exhibit a characteristic behavior where all curves follow the same (critical) solution when going from high to low momenta until `forced' to freeze out in the infrared to the value of the boundary condition. The boundary condition can be interpreted in terms of the Gribov gauge-fixing ambiguity; we also demonstrate that this is not connected to the renormalization. Further, the connection to the temporal gluon propagator and the infrared slavery picture of confinement is discussed.

  3. Temporal ghost imaging with twin photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denis, Séverine; Moreau, Paul-Antoine; Devaux, Fabrice; Lantz, Eric

    2017-03-01

    We use twin photons generated by spontaneous parametric down conversion to perform temporal ghost imaging of a single time signal. The retrieval of a binary signal containing eight bits is performed with an error rate below 1%.

  4. The erythrocyte ghost is a perfect osmometer.

    PubMed

    Kwant, W O; Seeman, P

    1970-02-01

    The osmotic swelling of intact erythrocytes in hypotonic solutions was measured using microhematocrit tubes, Van Allen tubes, and a calibrated Coulter counter. In agreement with earlier workers the intact cells did not behave as perfect osmometers, the cells swelling less than predicted by the Boyle-van't Hoff law. Erythrocyte ghosts were prepared from fresh intact erythrocytes by one-step hemolysis in 0.25% NaCl at an extremely dilute concentration of cells and the membranes were sealed at 37 degrees . The ghosts were mixed with NaCl solutions of different osmolarities and the MCV (mean cell volume) of the shrunken cells immediately monitored by a calibrated Coulter counter. It was found that the MCV values of the shrunken ghosts were accurately predicted by the Boyle-van't Hoff law. These results indicate that these erythrocyte ghosts behaved as perfect osmometers.

  5. Lorentz violation and Faddeev-Popov ghosts

    SciTech Connect

    Altschul, B.

    2006-02-15

    We consider how Lorentz-violating interactions in the Faddeev-Popov ghost sector will affect scalar QED. The behavior depends sensitively on whether the gauge symmetry is spontaneously broken. If the symmetry is not broken, Lorentz violations in the ghost sector are unphysical, but if there is spontaneous breaking, radiative corrections will induce Lorentz-violating and gauge-dependent terms in other sectors of the theory.

  6. Chasing Neoproterozoic Atmospheric Oxygen Ghosts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjerrum, C. J.; Canfield, D. E.; Dahl, T. W.

    2016-12-01

    Increasing atmospheric oxygen has been considered a necessary condition for the evolution of animal life for over half a century. While direct proxies for atmospheric oxygen are difficult to obtain, a number of indirect proxies have been giving us a ghost image of rising atmospheric oxygen at the close of the Precambrian. In this context, redox sensitive elements and isotopes represent the hallmark for a significant reduction in anoxic areas of the world ocean, implicating a significant rise of atmospheric oxygen during the Neoproterozoic. Here, we test to what degree redox sensitive elements in ancient marine sediments are proxies of atmospheric oxygen. We model the redox-chemical evolution of the shelf seas and ocean using a combination of 3D high resolution shelf sea models and a simpler global ocean biogeochemical model including climate weathering feedbacks, a free sea level and parameterized icecaps. We find that ecosystem evolution would have resulted in reorganization of the nutrient and redox balance of the shelf-ocean system causing a significant increase in oxygenated areas that permitted a boosting of trace metal concentrations in the remaining anoxic areas. While this reorganization takes place there is limited net change in the modelled atmospheric oxygen, warning us against interpreting changing trace metal concentrations and isotopes as reflecting a rise in atmospheric oxygen.

  7. The influence of the positive and negative defocusing on lensless ghost imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xue; Bai, Yanfeng; Shi, Xiaohui; Gao, Yang; Fu, Xiquan

    2017-01-01

    Lensless ghost imaging with fully spatially incoherent source is investigated theoretically and experimentally. The effects of positive and negative defocusing on lensless ghost imaging are studied by using classical optical theory and a fully spatially incoherent source. Based on the numerical calculation and experimental results, we find that the negative defocusing has a stronger influence on imaging resolution when compared with that from the positive defocusing. To explain this phenomenon, the analytical expression of point spread function with the positive and negative defocusing is presented.

  8. Brane induced gravity: Ghosts and naturalness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eglseer, Ludwig; Niedermann, Florian; Schneider, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Linear stability of brane induced gravity in two codimensions on a static pure tension background is investigated. The brane is regularized as a ring of finite circumference in extra space. By explicitly calculating the vacuum persistence amplitude of the corresponding quantum theory, we show that the parameter space is divided into two regions—one corresponding to a stable Minkowski vacuum on the brane and one being plagued by ghost instabilities. This analytical result affirms a recent nonlinear, but mainly numerical analysis. The main result is that the ghost is absent for a sufficiently large brane tension, in perfect agreement with a value expected from a natural effective field theory point of view. Unfortunately, the linearly stable parameter regime is either ruled out phenomenologically or becomes unstable for nontrivial cosmologies. We argue that supercritical brane backgrounds constitute the remaining window of opportunity. In the special case of a tensionless brane, we find that the ghost exists for all phenomenologically relevant values of the induced gravity scale. Regarding this case, there are contradicting results in the literature, and we are able to fully resolve this controversy by explicitly uncovering the errors made in the "no-ghost" analysis. Finally, a Hamiltonian analysis generalizes the ghost result to more than two codimensions.

  9. Ghost imaging of phase objects with classical incoherent light

    SciTech Connect

    Shirai, Tomohiro; Setaelae, Tero; Friberg, Ari T.

    2011-10-15

    We describe an optical setup for performing spatial Fourier filtering in ghost imaging with classical incoherent light. This is achieved by a modification of the conventional geometry for lensless ghost imaging. It is shown on the basis of classical coherence theory that with this technique one can realize what we call phase-contrast ghost imaging to visualize pure phase objects.

  10. Multispectral computational ghost imaging with multiplexed illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jian; Shi, Dongfeng

    2017-07-01

    Computational ghost imaging has attracted wide attention from researchers in many fields over the last two decades. Multispectral imaging as one application of computational ghost imaging possesses spatial and spectral resolving abilities, and is very useful for surveying scenes and extracting detailed information. Existing multispectral imagers mostly utilize narrow band filters or dispersive optical devices to separate light of different wavelengths, and then use multiple bucket detectors or an array detector to record them separately. Here, we propose a novel multispectral ghost imaging method that uses one single bucket detector with multiplexed illumination to produce a colored image. The multiplexed illumination patterns are produced by three binary encoded matrices (corresponding to the red, green and blue colored information, respectively) and random patterns. The results of the simulation and experiment have verified that our method can be effective in recovering the colored object. Multispectral images are produced simultaneously by one single-pixel detector, which significantly reduces the amount of data acquisition.

  11. Varying ghost dark energy and particle creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khurshudyan, M.

    2016-02-01

    One of the models of dark energy is the ghost dark energy, which has a geometrical origin. Recently, a certain type of phenomenological modification of ghost dark energy has been suggested which motivated us for this work. The goal of this paper is twofold. First, we would like to study the cosmological scenario involving interacting varying ghost dark energy. A cosmographic analysis of a non-interacting model is also performed. Then, we study the particle creation following the straight analogy between quantization in Minkowski background and canonical quantization of a scalar field in curved dynamical backgrounds. Particular attention will be paid to massless-particle production from a radiation-dominated universe (according to our toy model) which evolves to our large-scale universe. Constraints on the parameters of the models obtained during the cosmographic analysis did allow to demonstrate the possibility of a massless-particle creation in a radiation-dominated universe.

  12. Living with ghosts in Lorentz invariant theories

    SciTech Connect

    Garriga, Jaume; Vilenkin, Alexander E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu

    2013-01-01

    We argue that theories with ghosts may have a long lived vacuum state even if all interactions are Lorentz preserving. In space-time dimension D = 2, we consider the tree level decay rate of the vacuum into ghosts and ordinary particles mediated by non-derivative interactions, showing that this is finite and logarithmically growing in time. For D > 2, the decay rate is divergent unless we assume that the interaction between ordinary matter and the ghost sector is soft in the UV, so that it can be described in terms of non-local form factors rather than point-like vertices. We provide an example of a nonlocal gravitational-strength interaction between the two sectors, which appears to satisfy all observational constraints.

  13. Differential ghost imaging in time domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O-oka, Yoshiki; Fukatsu, Susumu

    2017-08-01

    Differential ghost imaging is attempted in time domain, i.e., temporal differential ghost imaging (TDGI), using pseudo-randomized light pulses and a temporal object consisting of no-return-to-zero bit patterns of varying duty. Evaluation of the signal-to-noise characteristics by taking into account errors due to false cross-correlation between the reference and the bucket detector readings indicates that the TDGI outperforms its non-differential counterpart, i.e., time-domain GI, in terms of consistently high and even duty-independent signal-to-noise ratios that are achieved.

  14. Entangled-photon compressive ghost imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Zerom, Petros; Chan, Kam Wai Clifford; Howell, John C.; Boyd, Robert W.

    2011-12-15

    We have experimentally demonstrated high-resolution compressive ghost imaging at the single-photon level using entangled photons produced by a spontaneous parametric down-conversion source and using single-pixel detectors. For a given mean-squared error, the number of photons needed to reconstruct a two-dimensional image is found to be much smaller than that in quantum ghost imaging experiments employing a raster scan. This procedure not only shortens the data acquisition time, but also suggests a more economical use of photons for low-light-level and quantum image formation.

  15. Evaluation of Salmonella Gallinarum ghost formulated with Montanide™ ISA 70 VG adjuvant as a vaccine against fowl typhoid.

    PubMed

    Jawale, Chetan; Somsanith, Nithiphonh; Eo, Seong; Park, Sang-Youel; Lee, John

    2015-12-01

    Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (LTB) protein is a potent adjuvant. Salmonella Gallinarum ghosts carrying LTB (S. Gallinarum-LTB ghosts) were genetically constructed using a plasmid, pJHL187-LTB, designed for the co-expression of the LTB and E lysis proteins. This study evaluates the immunopotentiating effects of Montanide™ ISA 70 VG on S. Gallinarum-LTB ghost vaccination against fowl typhoid. Five-week-old layer chickens were injected intramuscularly with sterile PBS (non-immunised control, Group A), S. Gallinarum-LTB ghost (Group B) or S. Gallinarum-LTB ghost emulsified with Montanide™ ISA 70 VG adjuvant (Group C). Chickens from both Groups B and C showed significant induction of antigen-specific systemic IgG response compared to controls; in addition, Group C showed enhanced induction of systemic IgG response compared to Group B. We observed significant induction of antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferative response and increased mRNA levels of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL2) in both Groups B and C. Furthermore, in the challenge experiment with a virulent strain of S. Gallinarum, Group C showed higher survival rates compared with other groups. These results indicate that vaccination with the S. Gallinarum-LTB ghost in combination with Montanide™ ISA 70 VG may enhance the protective immunity against fowl typhoid.

  16. Ghosting phenomena in single photon counting imagers with Vernier anode.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hao; Zhao, Baosheng; Qiurong, Yan; Liu, Yong'an; Hu, Huijun

    2011-02-01

    We provide the ghosting theory of two-dimensional Vernier anode based imagers. The single photon counting detection system based on Vernier anode is constructed. The ghosting, which occurs during the decoding of two-dimensional Vernier anode, and its possible solutions are described in detail. On the basis of the discussion of the decoding algorithm, the ghosting theoretical model is established. Phase conditions on which imaging ghosting can be avoided and the probability distribution function are proposed; the root causes of ghosting of two-dimensional Vernier anode are also discussed.

  17. The hnRNP F/H homologue of Trypanosoma brucei is differentially expressed in the two life cycle stages of the parasite and regulates splicing and mRNA stability

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sachin Kumar; Kosti, Idit; Plaut, Guy; Pivko, Asher; Tkacz, Itai Dov; Cohen-Chalamish, Smadar; Biswas, Dipul Kumar; Wachtel, Chaim; Waldman Ben-Asher, Hiba; Carmi, Shai; Glaser, Fabian; Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael; Michaeli, Shulamit

    2013-01-01

    Trypanosomes are protozoan parasites that cycle between a mammalian host (bloodstream form) and an insect host, the Tsetse fly (procyclic stage). In trypanosomes, all mRNAs are trans-spliced as part of their maturation. Genome-wide analysis of trans-splicing indicates the existence of alternative trans-splicing, but little is known regarding RNA-binding proteins that participate in such regulation. In this study, we performed functional analysis of the Trypanosoma brucei heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNP) F/H homologue, a protein known to regulate alternative splicing in metazoa. The hnRNP F/H is highly expressed in the bloodstream form of the parasite, but is also functional in the procyclic form. Transcriptome analyses of RNAi-silenced cells were used to deduce the RNA motif recognized by this protein. A purine rich motif, AAGAA, was enriched in both the regulatory regions flanking the 3′ splice site and poly (A) sites of the regulated genes. The motif was further validated using mini-genes carrying wild-type and mutated sequences in the 3′ and 5′ UTRs, demonstrating the role of hnRNP F/H in mRNA stability and splicing. Biochemical studies confirmed the binding of the protein to this proposed site. The differential expression of the protein and its inverse effects on mRNA level in the two lifecycle stages demonstrate the role of hnRNP F/H in developmental regulation. PMID:23666624

  18. Transcription of Trypanosoma brucei maxicircles

    SciTech Connect

    Michelotti, E.F.; Hajduk, S.L.

    1987-05-01

    Trypanosoma brucei is a protozoan parasite which developmentally regulates mitochondrial activity. In the mammal T. brucei produces ATP entirely by glycolysis while cytochrome mediated respiration resumes in the life-stage in the midgut of the insect vector. Using quantitative S1 nuclease protection assays two types of regulation of the steady state levels of the mitochondrial transcripts were found. Transcription of cytochrome b, cytochrome oxidase, and the rRNA genes is repressed in early bloodstream developmental stages, undergoes dramatic activation in later bloodstream stages, and finally a lesser activation in the insect developmental stage. Transcription of NADH dehydrogenase genes, however, is unregulated. Mitochondrial transcripts with a 5' triphosphate terminus, representing the site of transcription initiation, were capped using guanylyl transferase. The in vitro capped RNA hybridized to only one of eight mitochondrial restriction fragments on a Southern blot, however, hybridization of Southern blots with RNA from ..cap alpha..-/sup 32/P-UTP pulsed mitochondria labelled all restriction fragments equally. These results suggest that each DNA strand has a single promoter which directs the transcription of a full-length RNA which is subsequently processed. Different mitochondrial genes, despite being expressed on the same precursor RNA molecule, are independently regulated by both transcription initiation and RNA processing.

  19. Three-dimensional gravity and string ghosts

    SciTech Connect

    Carlip, S. ); Kogan, I.I. )

    1991-12-23

    It is known that much of the structure of string theory can be derived from three-dimensional topological field theory and gravity. We show here that, at least for simple topologies, the string diffeomorphism ghosts can also be explained in terms of three-dimensional physics.

  20. Who-o-o Reads Ghost Stories?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raburn, Josephine

    Ghost stories are most appealing in early adolescence, from the ages of 11 to 14 years. They are a natural for use with gifted children because they depend entirely upon language for their effect. The high interest they hold for a young person because of their subject matter also makes them a possibility for reluctant readers. As a psychological…

  1. 'Ghost of Mirach' Rears its Spooky Head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Visible/DSS Click on image for larger version Ultraviolet/GALEX Click on image for larger version Poster Version Click on image for larger version

    The 'Ghost of Mirach' galaxy is shown in visible light on the left, and in ultraviolet as seen by NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer on the right. The fields of view are identical in both pictures, with the Ghost of Mirach a galaxy called NGC 404 seen as the whitish spot in the center of the images. Mirach is a red giant star that looms large in visible light. Because NGC 404 is lost in the glare of this star, it was nicknamed the Ghost of Mirach.

    But when the galaxy is viewed in ultraviolet light, it comes to 'life,' revealing a never-before-seen ring. This ring, seen in blue in the picture on the right, contains new stars a surprise considering that the galaxy was previously thought to be, essentially, dead.

    The field of view spans 55,000 light years across. The Ghost of Mirach is located 11 million light-years from Earth. The star Mirach is very close in comparison it is only 200 light-years away and is visible with the naked eye.

    The visible data come from the Digitized Sky Survey of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Md.

  2. Josie, Winnicott, and the Hungry Ghosts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerity, Lani Alaine

    2001-01-01

    Using a case study, discusses the "seductive environment," a virtual environment of popular culture in which the human mind is seduced and turned into a "hungry ghost." Examines ideas about possible solutions through art therapy. Reviews the value of the creative process, contemplation, and Winnicott's idea of play. (Contains…

  3. Passive ghost imaging using caustics modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ming; Uhlmann, Jeffrey; Lanzagorta, Marco; Kanugo, Jayanth; Parashar, Aditya; Jitrik, Oliverio; Venegas-Andraca, Salvador E.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper we discuss and examine approaches for detecting large objects in low-light maritime environments with a goal of improving the detection of large targets within a region of interest. More specifically, a passive ghost imaging system is proposed for using caustics illumination patterns to reconstruct a target image from correlations with intensities captured by a bucket detector.

  4. Gribov's horizon and the ghost dressing function

    SciTech Connect

    Boucaud, Ph.; Leroy, J. P.; Le Yaouanc, A.; Micheli, J.; Pene, O.; Rodriguez-Quintero, J.

    2009-11-01

    We study a relation recently derived by K. Kondo at zero momentum between the Zwanziger's horizon function, the ghost dressing function and Kugo's functions u and w. We agree with this result as far as bare quantities are considered. However, assuming the validity of the horizon gap equation, we argue that the solution w(0)=0 is not acceptable since it would lead to a vanishing renormalized ghost dressing function. On the contrary, when the cutoff goes to infinity, u(0){yields}{infinity}, w(0){yields}-{infinity} such that u(0)+w(0){yields}-1. Furthermore w and u are not multiplicatively renormalizable. Relaxing the gap equation allows w(0)=0 with u(0){yields}-1. In both cases the bare ghost dressing function, F(0,{lambda}), goes logarithmically to infinity at infinite cutoff. We show that, although the lattice results provide bare results not so different from the F(0,{lambda})=3 solution, this is an accident due to the fact that the lattice cutoffs lie in the range 1-3 GeV{sup -1}. We show that the renormalized ghost dressing function should be finite and nonzero at zero momentum and can be reliably estimated on the lattice up to powers of the lattice spacing; from published data on a 80{sup 4} lattice at {beta}=5.7 we obtain F{sub R}(0,{mu}=1.5 GeV){approx_equal}2.2.

  5. Who-o-o Reads Ghost Stories?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raburn, Josephine

    Ghost stories are most appealing in early adolescence, from the ages of 11 to 14 years. They are a natural for use with gifted children because they depend entirely upon language for their effect. The high interest they hold for a young person because of their subject matter also makes them a possibility for reluctant readers. As a psychological…

  6. The Ghostly Workings of Danish Accountability Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pors, Justine Grønbaek

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes a framework for thinking about the ghostly, thus arguing that policy can be understood as a landscape of intersecting and colliding temporalities from which arouse curious workings of barely-there forces, spooky energies and vibrating saturations of affective ambivalences. I present an empirical study of a policy agenda of…

  7. Ghostly Remnant of an Explosive Past

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-07

    This enhanced image from the far-ultraviolet detector on NASA Galaxy Evolution shows a ghostly shell of ionized gas around Z Camelopardalis, a binary, or double-star system featuring a collapsed, dead star known as a white dwarf, and a companion star.

  8. The Ghostly Workings of Danish Accountability Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pors, Justine Grønbaek

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes a framework for thinking about the ghostly, thus arguing that policy can be understood as a landscape of intersecting and colliding temporalities from which arouse curious workings of barely-there forces, spooky energies and vibrating saturations of affective ambivalences. I present an empirical study of a policy agenda of…

  9. Ghost DBI-essence in fractal geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acikgoz, I.; Binbay, F.; Salti, M.; Aydogdu, O.

    2016-05-01

    Focusing on a fractal geometric ghost dark energy, we reconstruct the Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI)-essence-type scalar field and find exact solutions of the potential and warped brane tension. We also discuss statefinders for the selected dark energy description to make it distinguishable among others.

  10. Ghosts and Tachyons in the Fifth Dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pospelov, Maxim

    We present several solutions for the five-dimensional gravity models in the presence of bulk ghosts and tachyons to argue that these "troublesome" fields can be a useful model-building tool. The ghost-like signature of the kinetic term for a bulk scalar creates a minimum in the scale factor, removing the necessity for a negative tension brane in models with the compactified fifth dimension. It is shown that the model with the positive tension branes and a ghost field in the bulk leads to the radion stabilization. The bulk scalar with the variable sign kinetic term can be used to model both positive and negative tension branes of a finite width in the compact dimension. Finally, we present several ghost and tachyon field configurations in the bulk that lead to the localization of gravity in four dimensions, including one solution with the Gaussian profile for the metric, gμν(y) = ημν exp{-αy2}, which leads to a stronger localization of gravity than the Randall-Sundrum model.

  11. Prebifurcation periodic ghost orbits in semiclassical quantization

    SciTech Connect

    Kus, M. ); Haake, F. ); Delande, D. )

    1993-10-04

    Classical periodic orbits are stationary-phase points in path integral representations of quantum propagators. We show that complex solutions of the stationary-phase equation, not corresponding to real classical periodic orbits, give additional contributions to the propagator which can be important, especially near bifurcations. We reveal the existence and relevance of such periodic ghost orbits for a kicked top.

  12. 'Ghost of Mirach' Rears its Spooky Head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Visible/DSS Click on image for larger version Ultraviolet/GALEX Click on image for larger version Poster Version Click on image for larger version

    The 'Ghost of Mirach' galaxy is shown in visible light on the left, and in ultraviolet as seen by NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer on the right. The fields of view are identical in both pictures, with the Ghost of Mirach a galaxy called NGC 404 seen as the whitish spot in the center of the images. Mirach is a red giant star that looms large in visible light. Because NGC 404 is lost in the glare of this star, it was nicknamed the Ghost of Mirach.

    But when the galaxy is viewed in ultraviolet light, it comes to 'life,' revealing a never-before-seen ring. This ring, seen in blue in the picture on the right, contains new stars a surprise considering that the galaxy was previously thought to be, essentially, dead.

    The field of view spans 55,000 light years across. The Ghost of Mirach is located 11 million light-years from Earth. The star Mirach is very close in comparison it is only 200 light-years away and is visible with the naked eye.

    The visible data come from the Digitized Sky Survey of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Md.

  13. Expression, purification, and biochemical characterization of recombinant DNA polymerase beta of the Trypanosoma cruzi TcI lineage: requirement of additional factors and detection of phosphorylation of the native form.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Edio; Rojas, Diego A; Moreira-Ramos, Sandra; Urbina, Fabiola; Miralles, Vicente J; Solari, Aldo; Venegas, Juan

    2015-04-01

    Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is a major parasitic disease that affects millions of people in America. However, despite the high impact of this disease on human health, no effective and safe treatment has been found that eliminates the infecting parasite from human patients. Among the possible chemotherapeutic targets that could be considered for study in T. cruzi are the DNA polymerases, in particular DNA polymerase beta (polß), which previous studies have shown to be involved in kinetoplast DNA replication and repair. In this paper, we describe the expression, purification, and biochemical characterization of the Miranda clone polß, corresponding to lineage T. cruzi I (TcI). The recombinant enzyme purified to homogeneity displayed specific activity in the range described for a highly purified mammalian polß. However, the trypanosome enzyme exhibited important differences in biochemical properties compared to the mammalian enzymes, specifically an almost absolute dependency on KCl, high sensitivity to N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), and low sensitivity to ddTTP. Immuno-affinity purification of T. cruzi polymerase beta (Tcpolß) from epimastigote extracts showed that the native enzyme was phosphorylated. In addition, it was demonstrated that Tcpolß interacts with some proteins in a group of about 15 proteins which are required to repair 1-6 bases of gaps of a double strand damaged DNA. It is possible that these proteins form part of a DNA repair complex, analogous to that described in mammals and some trypanosomatids.

  14. Biological and immunological characterization of recombinant Yellow Fever 17D Viruses expressing a Trypanosoma cruzi Amastigote Surface Protein-2 CD8+ T cell epitope at two distinct regions of the genome

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The attenuated Yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine virus is one of the safest and most effective viral vaccines administered to humans, in which it elicits a polyvalent immune response. Herein, we used the YF 17D backbone to express a Trypanosoma cruzi CD8+ T cell epitope from the Amastigote Surface Protein 2 (ASP-2) to provide further evidence for the potential of this virus to express foreign epitopes. The TEWETGQI CD8+ T cell epitope was cloned and expressed based on two different genomic insertion sites: in the fg loop of the viral Envelope protein and the protease cleavage site between the NS2B and NS3. We investigated whether the site of expression had any influence on immunogenicity of this model epitope. Results Recombinant viruses replicated similarly to vaccine virus YF 17D in cell culture and remained genetically stable after several serial passages in Vero cells. Immunogenicity studies revealed that both recombinant viruses elicited neutralizing antibodies to the YF virus as well as generated an antigen-specific gamma interferon mediated T-cell response in immunized mice. The recombinant viruses displayed a more attenuated phenotype than the YF 17DD vaccine counterpart in mice. Vaccination of a mouse lineage highly susceptible to infection by T. cruzi with a homologous prime-boost regimen of recombinant YF viruses elicited TEWETGQI specific CD8+ T cells which might be correlated with a delay in mouse mortality after a challenge with a lethal dose of T. cruzi. Conclusions We conclude that the YF 17D platform is useful to express T. cruzi (Protozoan) antigens at different functional regions of its genome with minimal reduction of vector fitness. In addition, the model T. cruzi epitope expressed at different regions of the YF 17D genome elicited a similar T cell-based immune response, suggesting that both expression sites are useful. However, the epitope as such is not protective and it remains to be seen whether expression of larger domains of ASP-2

  15. Biological and immunological characterization of recombinant Yellow Fever 17D viruses expressing a Trypanosoma cruzi Amastigote Surface Protein-2 CD8+ T cell epitope at two distinct regions of the genome.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Raquel T; Nogueira, Alanderson R; Pereira, Mirian C S; Rodrigues, Maurício M; Galler, Ricardo; Bonaldo, Myrna C

    2011-03-18

    The attenuated Yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine virus is one of the safest and most effective viral vaccines administered to humans, in which it elicits a polyvalent immune response. Herein, we used the YF 17D backbone to express a Trypanosoma cruzi CD8+ T cell epitope from the Amastigote Surface Protein 2 (ASP-2) to provide further evidence for the potential of this virus to express foreign epitopes. The TEWETGQI CD8+ T cell epitope was cloned and expressed based on two different genomic insertion sites: in the fg loop of the viral Envelope protein and the protease cleavage site between the NS2B and NS3. We investigated whether the site of expression had any influence on immunogenicity of this model epitope. Recombinant viruses replicated similarly to vaccine virus YF 17D in cell culture and remained genetically stable after several serial passages in Vero cells. Immunogenicity studies revealed that both recombinant viruses elicited neutralizing antibodies to the YF virus as well as generated an antigen-specific gamma interferon mediated T-cell response in immunized mice. The recombinant viruses displayed a more attenuated phenotype than the YF 17DD vaccine counterpart in mice. Vaccination of a mouse lineage highly susceptible to infection by T. cruzi with a homologous prime-boost regimen of recombinant YF viruses elicited TEWETGQI specific CD8+ T cells which might be correlated with a delay in mouse mortality after a challenge with a lethal dose of T. cruzi. We conclude that the YF 17D platform is useful to express T. cruzi (Protozoan) antigens at different functional regions of its genome with minimal reduction of vector fitness. In addition, the model T. cruzi epitope expressed at different regions of the YF 17D genome elicited a similar T cell-based immune response, suggesting that both expression sites are useful. However, the epitope as such is not protective and it remains to be seen whether expression of larger domains of ASP-2, which include the TEWETGQI

  16. A safe and molecular-tagged Brucella canis ghosts confers protection against virulent challenge in mice.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jing; Bu, Zhaoyang; Lang, Xulong; Yan, Guangmou; Yang, Yanling; Wang, Xiuran; Wang, Xinglong

    2017-05-01

    Canine brucellosis, caused by Brucella canis, is a persistent infectious reproductive disease in dogs. The absence of effective treatment to the intracellular pathogen and the irreversible consequence of infection makes the need of a specific vaccine urgent. Bacterial ghosts (BGs) are the empty envelopes of bacteria with no genome content inside, which emerge as a proper vaccine candidate due to its intact outer antigen. It is generally derived from a genetically engineered strain, through the expression of Bacteriophage phiX174 lysis E gene upon induction. In this study, we combined the homologous recombination (HR) and bacterial ghost technologies, generating a genetically stable B. canis ghost strain which bears no drug resistance gene. When the ghost strain grows to OD600 of 0.6, 100% inactivation can be achieved under 42°C in 60h. The resultant BGs showed guaranteed safety and comparable immunogenicity to a live vaccine. The bacterial B0419 protein was depleted during HR process, which is subsequently proved to work as a molecular tag in distinguishing natural infection and BGs immunization through ELISA. Additionally, the BGs also conferred protection against B. canis RM6/66 and B. melitensis 16M. Therefore, the application of current BGs as a vaccine candidate and the corresponding serological diagnostic approach may provide better B. canis prevention strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. CD8+ T-Cells Expressing Interferon Gamma or Perforin Play Antagonistic Roles in Heart Injury in Experimental Trypanosoma Cruzi-Elicited Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Cipitelli, Márcio da Costa; Vinagre, Nathália Ferreira; Rodrigues, Maurício Martins; Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes; Lannes-Vieira, Joseli

    2012-01-01

    In Chagas disease, CD8+ T-cells are critical for the control of Trypanosoma cruzi during acute infection. Conversely, CD8+ T-cell accumulation in the myocardium during chronic infection may cause tissue injury leading to chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC). Here we explored the role of CD8+ T-cells in T. cruzi-elicited heart injury in C57BL/6 mice infected with the Colombian strain. Cardiomyocyte lesion evaluated by creatine kinase-MB isoenzyme activity levels in the serum and electrical abnormalities revealed by electrocardiogram were not associated with the intensity of heart parasitism and myocarditis in the chronic infection. Further, there was no association between heart injury and systemic anti-T. cruzi CD8+ T-cell capacity to produce interferon-gamma (IFNγ) and to perform specific cytotoxicity. Heart injury, however, paralleled accumulation of anti-T. cruzi cells in the cardiac tissue. In T. cruzi infection, most of the CD8+ T-cells segregated into IFNγ+ perforin (Pfn)neg or IFNγnegPfn+ cell populations. Colonization of the cardiac tissue by anti-T. cruzi CD8+Pfn+ cells paralleled the worsening of CCC. The adoptive cell transfer to T. cruzi-infected cd8−/− recipients showed that the CD8+ cells from infected ifnγ−/−pfn+/+ donors migrate towards the cardiac tissue to a greater extent and caused a more severe cardiomyocyte lesion than CD8+ cells from ifnγ+/+pfn−/− donors. Moreover, the reconstitution of naïve cd8−/− mice with CD8+ cells from naïve ifnγ+/+pfn−/− donors ameliorated T. cruzi-elicited heart injury paralleled IFNγ+ cells accumulation, whereas reconstitution with CD8+ cells from naïve ifnγ−/−pfn+/+ donors led to an aggravation of the cardiomyocyte lesion, which was associated with the accumulation of Pfn+ cells in the cardiac tissue. Our data support a possible antagonist effect of CD8+Pfn+ and CD8+IFNγ+ cells during CCC. CD8+IFNγ+ cells may exert a beneficial role, whereas CD8+Pfn+ may play a detrimental role

  18. Infrared finite ghost propagator in the Feynman gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar, A. C.; Papavassiliou, J.

    2008-06-15

    We demonstrate how to obtain from the Schwinger-Dyson equations of QCD an infrared finite ghost propagator in the Feynman gauge. The key ingredient in this construction is the longitudinal form factor of the nonperturbative gluon-ghost vertex, which, contrary to what happens in the Landau gauge, contributes nontrivially to the gap equation of the ghost. The detailed study of the corresponding vertex equation reveals that in the presence of a dynamical infrared cutoff this form factor remains finite in the limit of vanishing ghost momentum. This, in turn, allows the ghost self-energy to reach a finite value in the infrared, without having to assume any additional properties for the gluon-ghost vertex, such as the presence of massless poles. The implications of this result and possible future directions are briefly outlined.

  19. Perforin and gamma interferon expression are required for CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell-dependent protective immunity against a human parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, elicited by heterologous plasmid DNA prime-recombinant adenovirus 5 boost vaccination.

    PubMed

    de Alencar, Bruna C G; Persechini, Pedro M; Haolla, Filipe A; de Oliveira, Gabriel; Silverio, Jaline C; Lannes-Vieira, Joseli; Machado, Alexandre V; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T; Bruna-Romero, Oscar; Rodrigues, Mauricio M

    2009-10-01

    A heterologous prime-boost strategy using plasmid DNA, followed by replication-defective recombinant adenovirus 5, is being proposed as a powerful way to elicit CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell-mediated protective immunity against intracellular pathogens. We confirmed this concept and furthered existing research by providing evidence that the heterologous prime-boost regimen using the gene encoding amastigote surface protein 2 elicited CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell-mediated protective immunity (reduction of acute parasitemia and prolonged survival) against experimental infection with Trypanosoma cruzi. Protective immunity correlated with the presence of in vivo antigen-specific cytotoxic activity prior to challenge. Based on this, our second goal was to determine the outcome of infection after heterologous prime-boost immunization of perforin-deficient mice. These mice were highly susceptible to infection. A detailed analysis of the cell-mediated immune responses in immunized perforin-deficient mice showed an impaired gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) secretion by immune spleen cells upon restimulation in vitro with soluble recombinant antigen. In spite of a normal numeric expansion, specific CD8(+) T cells presented several functional defects detected in vivo (cytotoxicity) and in vitro (simultaneous expression of CD107a/IFN-gamma or IFN-gamma/tumor necrosis factor alpha) paralleled by a decreased expression of CD44 and KLRG-1. Our final goal was to determine the importance of IFN-gamma in the presence of highly cytotoxic T cells. Vaccinated IFN-gamma-deficient mice developed highly cytotoxic cells but failed to develop any protective immunity. Our study thus demonstrated a role for perforin and IFN-gamma in a number of T-cell-mediated effector functions and in the antiparasitic immunity generated by a heterologous plasmid DNA prime-adenovirus boost vaccination strategy.

  20. Perforin and Gamma Interferon Expression Are Required for CD4+ and CD8+ T-Cell-Dependent Protective Immunity against a Human Parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, Elicited by Heterologous Plasmid DNA Prime-Recombinant Adenovirus 5 Boost Vaccination▿

    PubMed Central

    de Alencar, Bruna C. G.; Persechini, Pedro M.; Haolla, Filipe A.; de Oliveira, Gabriel; Silverio, Jaline C.; Lannes-Vieira, Joseli; Machado, Alexandre V.; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T.; Bruna-Romero, Oscar; Rodrigues, Mauricio M.

    2009-01-01

    A heterologous prime-boost strategy using plasmid DNA, followed by replication-defective recombinant adenovirus 5, is being proposed as a powerful way to elicit CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell-mediated protective immunity against intracellular pathogens. We confirmed this concept and furthered existing research by providing evidence that the heterologous prime-boost regimen using the gene encoding amastigote surface protein 2 elicited CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell-mediated protective immunity (reduction of acute parasitemia and prolonged survival) against experimental infection with Trypanosoma cruzi. Protective immunity correlated with the presence of in vivo antigen-specific cytotoxic activity prior to challenge. Based on this, our second goal was to determine the outcome of infection after heterologous prime-boost immunization of perforin-deficient mice. These mice were highly susceptible to infection. A detailed analysis of the cell-mediated immune responses in immunized perforin-deficient mice showed an impaired gamma interferon (IFN-γ) secretion by immune spleen cells upon restimulation in vitro with soluble recombinant antigen. In spite of a normal numeric expansion, specific CD8+ T cells presented several functional defects detected in vivo (cytotoxicity) and in vitro (simultaneous expression of CD107a/IFN-γ or IFN-γ/tumor necrosis factor alpha) paralleled by a decreased expression of CD44 and KLRG-1. Our final goal was to determine the importance of IFN-γ in the presence of highly cytotoxic T cells. Vaccinated IFN-γ-deficient mice developed highly cytotoxic cells but failed to develop any protective immunity. Our study thus demonstrated a role for perforin and IFN-γ in a number of T-cell-mediated effector functions and in the antiparasitic immunity generated by a heterologous plasmid DNA prime-adenovirus boost vaccination strategy. PMID:19651871

  1. Multi-scale Adaptive Computational Ghost Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shuai; Liu, Wei-Tao; Lin, Hui-Zu; Zhang, Er-Feng; Liu, Ji-Ying; Li, Quan; Chen, Ping-Xing

    2016-01-01

    In some cases of imaging, wide spatial range and high spatial resolution are both required, which requests high performance of detection devices and huge resource consumption for data processing. We propose and demonstrate a multi-scale adaptive imaging method based on the idea of computational ghost imaging, which can obtain a rough outline of the whole scene with a wide range then accordingly find out the interested parts and achieve high-resolution details of those parts, by controlling the field of view and the transverse coherence width of the pseudo-thermal field illuminated on the scene with a spatial light modulator. Compared to typical ghost imaging, the resource consumption can be dramatically reduced using our scheme. PMID:27841339

  2. Multi-scale Adaptive Computational Ghost Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shuai; Liu, Wei-Tao; Lin, Hui-Zu; Zhang, Er-Feng; Liu, Ji-Ying; Li, Quan; Chen, Ping-Xing

    2016-11-01

    In some cases of imaging, wide spatial range and high spatial resolution are both required, which requests high performance of detection devices and huge resource consumption for data processing. We propose and demonstrate a multi-scale adaptive imaging method based on the idea of computational ghost imaging, which can obtain a rough outline of the whole scene with a wide range then accordingly find out the interested parts and achieve high-resolution details of those parts, by controlling the field of view and the transverse coherence width of the pseudo-thermal field illuminated on the scene with a spatial light modulator. Compared to typical ghost imaging, the resource consumption can be dramatically reduced using our scheme.

  3. Gravitational waves in ghost free bimetric gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Mohseni, Morteza

    2012-11-01

    We obtain a set of exact gravitational wave solutions for the ghost free bimetric theory of gravity. With a flat reference metric, the theory admits the vacuum Brinkmann plane wave solution for suitable choices of the coefficients of different terms in the interaction potential. An exact gravitational wave solution corresponding to a massive scalar mode is also admitted for arbitrary choice of the coefficients with the reference metric being proportional to the spacetime metric. The proportionality factor and the speed of the wave are calculated in terms of the parameters of the theory. We also show that a F(R) extension of the theory admits similar solutions but in general is plagued with ghost instabilities.

  4. Experimental X-Ray Ghost Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelliccia, Daniele; Rack, Alexander; Scheel, Mario; Cantelli, Valentina; Paganin, David M.

    2016-09-01

    We report an experimental proof of principle for ghost imaging in the hard-x-ray energy range. We use a synchrotron x-ray beam that is split using a thin crystal in Laue diffraction geometry. With an ultrafast imaging camera, we are able to image x rays generated by isolated electron bunches. At this time scale, the shot noise of the synchrotron emission process is measurable as speckles, leading to speckle correlation between the two beams. The integrated transmitted intensity from a sample located in the first beam is correlated with the spatially resolved intensity measured in the second, empty, beam to retrieve the shadow of the sample. The demonstration of ghost imaging with hard x rays may open the way to protocols to reduce radiation damage in medical imaging and in nondestructive structural characterization using free electron lasers.

  5. Exorcising the Ostrogradsky ghost in coupled systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Remko; Roest, Diederik

    2016-07-01

    The Ostrogradsky theorem implies that higher-derivative terms of a single mechanical variable are either trivial or lead to additional, ghost-like degrees of freedom. In this letter we systematically investigate how the introduction of additional variables can remedy this situation. Employing a Lagrangian analysis, we identify conditions on the La-grangian to ensure the existence of primary and secondary constraints that together imply the absence of Ostrogradsky ghosts. We also show the implications of these conditions for the structure of the equations of motion as well as possible redefinitions of the variables. We discuss applications to analogous higher-derivative field theories such as multi-Galileons and beyond Horndeski.

  6. Ghost imaging with twisted Gaussian Schell-model beam.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yangjian; Lin, Qiang; Korotkova, Olga

    2009-02-16

    Based on the classical optical coherence theory, ghost imaging with twisted Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) beams is analyzed. It is found that the twist phase of the GSM beam has strong influence on ghost imaging. As the absolute value of the twist factor increases, the ghost image disappears gradually, but its visibility increases. This phenomenon is caused by the fact that the twist phase enhances the transverse spatial coherence of the twisted GSM beam on propagation.

  7. Honorary and ghost authorship in nursing publications.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Maureen Shawn; Barnsteiner, Jane; Daly, John

    2014-11-01

    The purposes of this study were to (a) assess the prevalence of articles with honorary authors and ghost authors in 10 leading peer-reviewed nursing journals between 2010 to 2012; (b) compare the results to prevalence reported by authors of articles published in high-impact medical journals; and (c) assess the experiences of editors in the International Academy of Nursing Editors with honorary and guest authorship. Corresponding authors of articles published in 10 nursing journals between 2010 and 2012 were invited to complete an online survey about the contributions of coauthors to see if the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors () criteria for authorship were met. Additionally, members of the International Academy of Nursing Editors were invited to complete an online survey about their experiences in identifying honorary or ghost authors in articles submitted for publication. The prevalence of articles published in 10 nursing journals with honorary authors was 42%, and the prevalence of ghost authorship was 27.6%. This is a greater prevalence than what has been reported among medical journals. Qualitative data yielded five themes: lack of awareness around the rules for authorship; acknowledged need for debate, discussion, and promotion of ethical practice; knowingly tolerating, and sometimes deliberately promoting, transgressions in practice; power relations and expectations; and avoiding scrutiny. Among the 60 respondents to the editor survey, 22 (36.7%) reported identifying honorary authors and 13 (21.7%) reported ghost authors among papers submitted to their publications. Inappropriate authorship is a significant problem among scholarly nursing publications. If nursing scholarship is to maintain integrity and be considered trustworthy, and if publications are to be a factor in professional advancement, editors, nursing leaders, and faculty need to disseminate and adhere to ethical authorship practices. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  8. Suppressing ghost beams: Backlink options for LISA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isleif, K.-S.; Gerberding, O.; Penkert, D.; Fitzsimons, E.; Ward, H.; Robertson, D.; Livas, J.; Mueller, G.; Reiche, J.; Heinzel, G.; Danzmann, K.

    2017-05-01

    In this article we discuss possible design options for the optical phase reference system, the so called backlink, between two moving optical benches in a LISA satellite. The candidates are based on two approaches: Fiber backlinks, with additional features like mode cleaning cavities and Faraday isolators, and free beam backlinks with angle compensation techniques. We will indicate dedicated ghost beam mitigation strategies for the design options and we will point out critical aspects in case of an implementation in LISA.

  9. Esophageal Rupture After Ghost Pepper Ingestion.

    PubMed

    Arens, Ann; Ben-Youssef, Leila; Hayashi, Sandra; Smollin, Craig

    2016-12-01

    The ghost pepper, or "bhut jolokia," is one of the hottest chili peppers in the world. Ghost peppers have a measured "heat" of > 1,000,000 Scoville heat units (SHU), more than twice the strength of a habanero pepper. To our knowledge, no significant adverse effects of ghost pepper ingestion have been reported. A 47-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with severe abdominal and chest pain subsequent to violent retching and vomiting after eating ghost peppers as part of a contest. A subsequent chest x-ray study showed evidence of a left-sided pleural effusion and patchy infiltrates. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis showed pneumomediastinum with air around the distal esophagus, suggestive of a spontaneous esophageal perforation and a left-sided pneumothorax. The patient was intubated and taken immediately to the operating room, where he was noted to have a 2.5-cm tear in the distal esophagus, with a mediastinal fluid collection including food debris, as well as a left-sided pneumothorax. The patient was extubated on hospital day 14, and was discharged home with a gastric tube in place on hospital day 23. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Spontaneous esophageal rupture, Boerhaave syndrome, is a rare condition encountered by emergency physicians, with a high mortality rate. This case serves as an important reminder of a potentially life- threatening surgical emergency initially interpreted as discomfort after a large spicy meal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Coulomb gauge ghost Dyson-Schwinger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, P.; Reinhardt, H.

    2010-12-01

    A numerical study of the ghost Dyson-Schwinger equation in Coulomb gauge is performed and solutions for the ghost propagator found. As input, lattice results for the spatial gluon propagator are used. It is shown that in order to solve completely, the equation must be supplemented by a nonperturbative boundary condition (the value of the inverse ghost propagator dressing function at zero momentum), which determines if the solution is critical (zero value for the boundary condition) or subcritical (finite value). The various solutions exhibit a characteristic behavior where all curves follow the same (critical) solution when going from high to low momenta until forced to freeze out in the infrared to the value of the boundary condition. The renormalization is shown to be largely independent of the boundary condition. The boundary condition and the pattern of the solutions can be interpreted in terms of the Gribov gauge-fixing ambiguity. The connection to the temporal gluon propagator and the infrared slavery picture of confinement is explored.

  11. Chloride transport in human erythrocytes and ghosts: a quantitative comparison.

    PubMed

    Funder, J; Wieth, J O

    1976-11-01

    1. Homogeneous preparations of resealed ghosts with intracellular KCl concentrations between 15 and 900 mM could be prepared. Virtually all ghosts sealed to chloride. The chloride transport system was found not to be damaged: a quantitative comparison of the self-exchange of 36Cl- across intact and resealed membranes showed that both the transport capacity and a number of characteristic properties were identical (saturation kinetics, temperature dependence and the effect of inhibitors). 2. Due to the absence of intracellular titratable buffers intracellular chloride concentration in ghosts vary only slightly between pH5 and 11. The unidirectional exchange flux was constant between pH 7 and 11, showing that the transport system does not have a functionally important titratable group in the alkaline range, as previously assumed. The decrease of transport below pH 7 is similar in intact erythrocytes and ghosts. 3. Mean cellular volume of the resealed ghosts was a function of the amount of KCl added at 'reversal', before the ghosts are sealed. The ghosts shrank by osmosis when KCl was added to the suspension of 'unsealed' ghosts. The reflexion coefficient of sucrose (and therefore the osmotic effect) is larger than that of KCl. It was, therefore, possible to demonstrate that volume changes do not affect the chloride transport across the human red cell membrane. Unidirectional chloride fluxes at a KCl concentration of 165 mM were independent of ghost volume (100-40 mum3).

  12. Vertex operators of ghost number three in Type IIB supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, Andrei

    2016-06-01

    We study the cohomology of the massless BRST complex of the Type IIB pure spinor superstring in flat space. In particular, we find that the cohomology at the ghost number three is nontrivial and transforms in the same representation of the supersymmetry algebra as the solutions of the linearized classical supergravity equations. Modulo some finite dimensional spaces, the ghost number three cohomology is the same as the ghost number two cohomology. We also comment on the difference between the naive and semi-relative cohomology, and the role of b-ghost.

  13. Complete decoupling limit of ghost-free massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ondo, Nicholas A.; Tolley, Andrew J.

    2013-11-01

    We present the complete form of the decoupling limit of ghost-free massive gravity with a Minkowski reference metric, including the full interactions of the helicity-1 and helicity-0 modes of the massive spin-2 field. While in the metric language the square root structure of the mass terms makes it difficult to find a simple way to write down the interactions, we show that using the vierbein formulation of massive gravity, including Stückelberg fields for both diffeomorphism and local Lorentz symmetries, we can find an explicitly resummed expression for the helicity-1 field interactions. We clarify the equations of motion for the Lorentz Stückelberg fields and how these generate the symmetric vierbein condition which guarantees equivalence between the vierbein and metric formulations of massive gravity.

  14. Ghosts, UFOs, and magic: positive affect and the experiential system.

    PubMed

    King, Laura A; Burton, Chad M; Hicks, Joshua A; Drigotas, Stephen M

    2007-05-01

    Three studies examined the potential interactions of the experiential system and positive affect (PA) in predicting superstitious beliefs and sympathetic magic. In Study 1, experientiality and induced positive mood interacted to predict the emergence of belief in videos purporting to show unidentified flying objects or ghosts. In Study 2, naturally occurring PA interacted with experientiality to predict susceptibility to sympathetic magic, specifically difficulty in throwing darts at a picture of a baby (demonstrating the law of similarity). In Study 3, induced mood interacted with experientiality to predict sitting farther away from, and expressing less liking for, a partner who had stepped in excrement (demonstrating the law of contagion). Results are interpreted as indicating that PA promotes experiential processing. Implications for the psychology of nonrational beliefs and behaviors are discussed.

  15. 76 FR 76812 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BARBARY GHOST; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ... 0148] Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BARBARY GHOST; Invitation for... the vessel BARBARY GHOST is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: ``Sightseeing tours in the...

  16. Computational Ghost Imaging for Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erkmen, Baris I.

    2012-01-01

    This work relates to the generic problem of remote active imaging; that is, a source illuminates a target of interest and a receiver collects the scattered light off the target to obtain an image. Conventional imaging systems consist of an imaging lens and a high-resolution detector array [e.g., a CCD (charge coupled device) array] to register the image. However, conventional imaging systems for remote sensing require high-quality optics and need to support large detector arrays and associated electronics. This results in suboptimal size, weight, and power consumption. Computational ghost imaging (CGI) is a computational alternative to this traditional imaging concept that has a very simple receiver structure. In CGI, the transmitter illuminates the target with a modulated light source. A single-pixel (bucket) detector collects the scattered light. Then, via computation (i.e., postprocessing), the receiver can reconstruct the image using the knowledge of the modulation that was projected onto the target by the transmitter. This way, one can construct a very simple receiver that, in principle, requires no lens to image a target. Ghost imaging is a transverse imaging modality that has been receiving much attention owing to a rich interconnection of novel physical characteristics and novel signal processing algorithms suitable for active computational imaging. The original ghost imaging experiments consisted of two correlated optical beams traversing distinct paths and impinging on two spatially-separated photodetectors: one beam interacts with the target and then illuminates on a single-pixel (bucket) detector that provides no spatial resolution, whereas the other beam traverses an independent path and impinges on a high-resolution camera without any interaction with the target. The term ghost imaging was coined soon after the initial experiments were reported, to emphasize the fact that by cross-correlating two photocurrents, one generates an image of the target. In

  17. Landau ghost and the Källén-Lehmann representation in the relativistic many-body problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazuhiro, Tanaka; Wolfgang, Bentz; Akito, Arima; Beck, Friedrich

    1991-06-01

    We extend a method proposed by Redmond for the elimination of the Landau ghost in meson propagators to meson-nucleon field theories at finite density. This method is based on the perturbative calculation under the requirement of the correct analytic properties of the propagators expressed by the Källén-Lehmann representation. Using the dispersion relation technique based on the general framework of perturbation theory, the analytic structure of the meson propagators is clarified, and it is proved that the modified propagators obtained by our method are in fact free of the Landau ghost. We also construct the effective action incorporating our ghost free propagators and obtain the modified energy density of nuclear matter. Examples in the 1-loop case are presented. As an application, we derive the electromagnetic response function from our modified effective action, employing the generalized vector meson dominance principle. The RPA Coulomb response function using the ghost free meson propagators is calculated in nuclear matter and the effects of the ghost elimination are discussed.

  18. Variant surface glycoprotein from Trypanosoma evansi is partially responsible for the cross-reaction between Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma vivax.

    PubMed

    Uzcanga, Graciela L; Perrone, Trina; Noda, José Alfredo; Pérez-Pazos, Jacqueline; Medina, Rafael; Hoebeke, Johan; Bubis, José

    2004-01-27

    Salivarian trypanosomes use antigenic variation of their variant-specific surface glycoprotein (VSG) coat as a defense against the host immune system. Although about 1000 VSG and pseudo-VSG genes are scattered throughout the trypanosome genome, each trypanosome expresses only one VSG, while the rest of the genes are transcriptionally silent. A 64-kDa glycosylated cross-reacting antigen between Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma vivax (p64), which was purified from the TEVA1 T. evansi Venezuelan isolate, was proven here to represent the soluble form of a VSG. Initially, a biochemical characterization of p64 was carried out. Gel filtration chromatography, sedimentation, and chemical cross-linking provided evidences of the dimeric nature of p64. The hydrodynamic parameters indicated that p64 is asymmetrical with a frictional ratio f/fo = 1.57. Isoelectric focusing and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that p64 contained two isoforms with isoelectric points of 6.8-6.9 and 7.1-7.2. When p64 and three p64 Staphylococcus aureus V8 proteolytic fragments were sequenced, the same N-termini sequence was obtained: Ala-Pro-Ile-Thr-Asp-Ala-Asp-Leu-Gly-Pro-Ala-Gln-Ile-Ala-Asp, which displayed a significant homology with a putative Trypanosoma brucei VSG gene located on chromosome 4. Additionally, immunofluorescence microscopy on T. evansi and T. vivax established that p64 and its T. vivax homologue were confined to the surface of both parasites. An immunological characterization of this antigen was also carried out using several Venezuelan T. evansi isolates expressing different VSGs, which were obtained from naturally infected animals. Although sera from animals infected with the various T. evansi isolates recognized p64, only one isolate, besides TEVA1, contained polypeptides that were recognized by anti-p64 antibodies. All these results together with prior evidences [Uzcanga, G. et al. (2002) Parasitology 124, 287-299] confirmed that p64 is the

  19. Immunization of mice with Trypanosoma cruzi polyribosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Leon, L L; Leon, W; Chaves, L; Costa, S C; Cruz, M Q; Brascher, H M; Lima, A O

    1980-01-01

    Studies were carried out with a polyribosomal fraction isolated from Trypanosoma cruzi Y epimastigotes, with the intention to determine both its immunogenic activity and the degree of protection it could induce against experimental T. cruzi infection. This fraction was assayed in four groups of mice by using different schedules of vaccination and varying the dose, intervals, and route of administration. Seven days after the last dose, the animals were sacrificed for immunological studies or subjected to challenge with T. cruzi trypomastigotes. The results obtained in all schedules showed that our polyribosomal fraction only induced a weak antibody response, but was capable of evoking an expressive cellular response. It was also shown that this fraction has the capacity of inducing a high degree of protection against T. cruzi infection, as determined by the decrease of parasitemia and the prolonged survival time of immunized animals. PMID:6987175

  20. Visions of Inflation in World History: Ghost Story III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niederjohn, M. Scott; Schug, Mark C.; Wood, William C.

    2013-01-01

    This article represents the third in a "ghost story" series by the same authors. Readers may recall that Mr. Bernanke was "visited" by the ghosts of Adam Smith and John Maynard Keynes in the March/April 2010 issue of "Social Education" as these two famous economists debated the economic recovery (see EJ878912). Mr.…

  1. Visions of Inflation in World History: Ghost Story III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niederjohn, M. Scott; Schug, Mark C.; Wood, William C.

    2013-01-01

    This article represents the third in a "ghost story" series by the same authors. Readers may recall that Mr. Bernanke was "visited" by the ghosts of Adam Smith and John Maynard Keynes in the March/April 2010 issue of "Social Education" as these two famous economists debated the economic recovery (see EJ878912). Mr.…

  2. Temperature Contours and Ghost Surfaces for Chaotic Magnetic Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, S. R.; Breslau, J.

    2008-03-07

    Steady state solutions for anisotropic heat transport in a chaotic magnetic field are determined numerically and compared to a set of 'ghost surfaces' -surfaces constructed via an action-gradient flow between the minimax and minimizing periodic orbits. The ghost surfaces are in remarkable agreement with the temperature contours.

  3. Temperature Contours and Ghost-Surfaces for Chaotic Magnetic Fields

    SciTech Connect

    S.R. Hudson and J. Breslau

    2008-01-31

    Steady state solutions for anisotropic heat transport in a chaotic magnetic field are determined numerically and compared to a set of "ghost-surfaces", surfaces constructed via an action-gradient flow between the minimax and minimizing periodic orbits. The ghost-surfaces are in remarkable agreement with the temperature contours.

  4. Analyzing and Improving Image Quality in Reflective Ghost Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    imaging." Phys. Rev. A 79, 023833 (2009). [7] R . E . Meyers , K. S. Deacon. and Y. Shih, "Ghost-imaging experiment by measuring reflected photons," Phys...Rev. A 77, 041801 (2008). [8] R . E . Meyers and K. S. Deacon, "Quantum ghost imaging experiments at ARL," Proc. SPIE 7815. 781501 (2010). [9] J. H

  5. Expression of Trypanosoma cruzi surface antigen FL-160 is controlled by elements in the 3' untranslated, the 3' intergenic, and the coding regions.

    PubMed

    Weston, D; La Flamme, A C; Van Voorhis, W C

    1999-07-30

    The FL-160 surface antigen gene family of T. cruzi consists of hundreds of members of 160 kDa glycoproteins expressed in trypomastigotes, but not in epimastigotes. Steady-state levels of FL-160 mRNA were 80 to 100-fold higher in trypomastigotes than in epimastigotes, yet transcription rates were equivalent between the lifecycle stages. Luciferase reporter constructs demonstrated that the 3' untranslated region (UTR) and intergenic region (IR) following the coding sequence of FL-160 was sufficient to generate 8-fold higher luciferase expression in trypomastigotes compared with epimastigotes. Transfection of 3' UTR/IR deletion constructs revealed cis-acting elements which conferred a trypomastigote-specific expression pattern similar to that of FL-160. Parasites treated with translation and transcription inhibitors, cyclohexamide and Actinomycin D, respectively, displayed a stage-specific pattern of FL-160 mRNA degradation. Epimastigotes, but not trypomastigotes, treated with the inhibitors accumulated a 1.4 Kb FL-160 cleavage product. The cleavage site mapped to a 31 base poly-purine tract in the FL-160 coding region. The first 526 aa of FL-160, containing the 31 base poly-purine tract and several smaller tracts, were fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) and expressed from the T. cruzi tubulin locus. Stable transformants expressed 4-fold more FL-160:GFP fusion mRNA and 12-fold more fusion protein in the trypomastigote stage than in the epimastigote stage suggesting post-transcriptional and translational control elements. These data reveal at least two distinct control mechanisms for trypomastigote-specific expression of FL-160 surface glycoproteins, one involving the 3' UTR/IR and one involving the coding region of FL-160.

  6. THE BIREFRINGENCE OF THE HUMAN RED CELL GHOSTS

    PubMed Central

    Ponder, Eric; Barreto, Delia

    1956-01-01

    The type of birefringence described by Mitchison, which extends some 0.5 µ in from the surface of the human red cell ghost in glycerol and which shows a maximum retardation of about 7 A, is only found in ghosts which are sufficiently well hemoglobinised to be seen with the ordinary microscope. Ghosts from which all hemoglobin has been lost are not visible with the ordinary microscope and are not birefringent, although they are clearly visible with phase contrast. About 90 per cent of the ghosts in glycerol preparations are of the latter type, the exact percentage being a function of time. Mitchison's measurements of birefringence, although reproducible, accordingly apply only to ghosts in which some hemoglobin still remains complexed with the lipoprotein layers of the red cell ultrastructure, and do not enable one to draw conclusions as to the thickness and orientation of the lipoprotein surface layers. PMID:13286451

  7. Beam dumping ghost signals in electric sweep scanners

    SciTech Connect

    Stockli, M.P.; Leitner, M.; Moehs, D.P.; Keller, R.; Welton, R.F.; /SNS Project, Oak Ridge

    2004-12-01

    Over the last 20 years many labs started to use Allison scanners to measure low-energy ion beam emittances. We show that large trajectory angles produce ghost signals due to the impact of the beamlet on the electric deflection plates. The strength of the ghost signal is proportional to the amount of beam entering the scanner. Depending on the ions and their velocity, ghost signals can have the opposite polarity as the main beam signals or the same polarity. These ghost signals are easily overlooked because they partly overlap the real signals, they are mostly below the 1% level, and they are often hidden in the noise. However, they cause significant errors in emittance estimates because they are associated with large trajectory angles. The strength of ghost signals, and the associated errors, can be drastically reduced with a simple modification of the deflection plates.

  8. Stirring with ghost rods in a lid-driven cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Chen, Jie; Stremler, Mark

    2009-11-01

    It has shown that passive fluid particles moving on periodic orbits can be used to `stir' a viscous fluid in a two-dimensional lid-driven cavity that exhibits a figure-eight flow pattern (Stremler & Chen 2007). Fluid motion in the vicinity of these particles produces ``ghost rod'' structures that behave like semi-permeable rods in the flow. Since these ghost rods are present due to the system dynamics, perturbations in the boundary conditions lead to variations in the existence and structure of the ghost rods. We discuss these variations and assess the role of ghost rods in mixing over a range of operating conditions for this system. The results suggest that ghost rods can play an important role in mixing for other counter-rotating flows.

  9. Ghosts and matter couplings in massive gravity, bigravity and multigravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Rham, Claudia; Heisenberg, Lavinia; Ribeiro, Raquel H.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, several works have investigated the coupling to matter in ghost-free massive bigravity and multigravity and a new effective coupling to matter has been proposed. In this paper we clarify some confusion on the existence and the implications of a ghost above the strong coupling scale. We confirm that the standard constraint which is otherwise typically present in this type of theories disappears on generic backgrounds as soon as this new coupling is considered. This implies the reemergence of the Boulware-Deser ghost. Nevertheless the absence of ghost in the decoupling limit implies that the cutoff scale (if identified with the scale at which the ghost enters) is higher than the strong coupling scale. Therefore there is a valid interesting region of applicability for these couplings at scales below the cutoff.

  10. A priori physicalism, lonely ghosts and Cartesian doubt.

    PubMed

    Goff, Philip

    2012-06-01

    A zombie is a physical duplicates of a human being which lacks consciousness. A ghost is a phenomenal duplicate of a human being whose nature is exhausted by consciousness. Discussion of zombie arguments, that is anti-physicalist arguments which appeal to the conceivability of zombies, is familiar in the philosophy of mind literature, whilst ghostly arguments, that is, anti-physicalist arguments which appeal to the conceivability of ghosts, are somewhat neglected. In this paper I argue that ghostly arguments have a number of dialectical advantages over zombie arguments. I go onto explain how the conceivability of ghosts is inconsistent with two kinds of a priori physicalism: analytic functionalism and the Australian physicalism of Armstrong and Lewis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Covariant constraints in ghost free massive gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Deffayet, C.; Mourad, J.; Zahariade, G. E-mail: mourad@apc.univ-paris7.fr

    2013-01-01

    We show that the reformulation of the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley massive gravity theory using vielbeins leads to a very simple and covariant way to count constraints, and hence degrees of freedom. Our method singles out a subset of theories, in the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley family, where an extra constraint, needed to eliminate the Boulware Deser ghost, is easily seen to appear. As a side result, we also introduce a new method, different from the Stuckelberg trick, to extract kinetic terms for the polarizations propagating in addition to those of the massless graviton.

  12. Gluon and Ghost Dynamics from Lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, O.; Duarte, A. G.; Dudal, D.; Silva, P. J.

    2017-03-01

    The two point gluon and ghost correlation functions and the three gluon vertex are investigated, in the Landau gauge, using lattice simulations. For the two point functions, we discuss the approach to the continuum limit looking at the dependence on the lattice spacing and volume. The analytical structure of the propagators is also investigated by computing the corresponding spectral functions using an implementation of the Tikhonov regularisation to solve the integral equation. For the three point function we report results when the momentum of one of the gluon lines is set to zero and discuss its implications.

  13. Ghosted images: old lesbians on screen.

    PubMed

    Krainitzki, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Screen images of old lesbians combine modes of representing female gender, lesbian sexuality, and old age, all of which contain layers of otherness within a hetero-patriarchal and youth-centered society. Analyzing a range of films, from independent to mainstream cinema, this article explores how the ghosted lesbian paradigm intersects with narratives of aging as decline in representations of lesbian characters who are over the age of sixty. The spectral matters of illness, death, mourning, and widowhood inevitably culminate in an unhappy ending. Removed from a lesbian community context, intergenerational continuity vanishes and the old lesbian emerges as the cultural other.

  14. Gauge fields and ghosts in Rindler space

    SciTech Connect

    Zhitnitsky, Ariel R.

    2010-11-15

    We consider a two-dimensional Maxwell system defined on the Rindler space with metric ds{sup 2}=exp(2a{xi}){center_dot}(d{eta}{sup 2}-d{xi}{sup 2}) with the goal to study the dynamics of the ghosts. We find an extra contribution to the vacuum energy in comparison with Minkowski space-time with metric ds{sup 2}=dt{sup 2}-dx{sup 2}. This extra contribution can be traced to the unphysical degrees of freedom (in Minkowski space). The technical reason for this effect to occur is the property of Bogolubov's coefficients which mix the positive- and negative-frequency modes. The corresponding mixture cannot be avoided because the projections to positive-frequency modes with respect to Minkowski time t and positive-frequency modes with respect to the Rindler observer's proper time {eta} are not equivalent. The exact cancellation of unphysical degrees of freedom which is maintained in Minkowski space cannot hold in the Rindler space. In the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) approach this effect manifests itself as the presence of BRST charge density in L and R parts. An inertial observer in Minkowski vacuum |0> observes a universe with no net BRST charge only as a result of cancellation between the two. However, the Rindler observers who do not ever have access to the entire space-time would see a net BRST charge. In this respect the effect resembles the Unruh effect. The effect is infrared (IR) in nature, and sensitive to the horizon and/or boundaries. We interpret the extra energy as the formation of the ''ghost condensate'' when the ghost degrees of freedom cannot propagate, but nevertheless do contribute to the vacuum energy. Exact computations in this simple two-dimensional model support the claim made in a previous paper [F. R. Urban and A. R. Zhitnitsky, Nucl. Phys. B835, 135 (2010).] that the ghost contribution might be responsible for the observed dark energy in a four-dimensional Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker universe.

  15. RNA turnover in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, B; Czichos, J; Overath, P

    1987-01-01

    Regulation of variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) mRNA turnover in Trypanosoma brucei was studied in bloodstream forms, in procyclic cells, and during in vitro transformation of bloodstream forms to procyclic cells by approach-to-equilibrium labeling and pulse-chase experiments. Upon initiation of transformation at 27 degrees C in the presence of citrate-cis-aconitate, the half-life of VSG mRNA was reduced from 4.5 h in bloodstream forms to 1.2 h in transforming cells. Concomitantly, an approximately 25-fold decrease in the rate of transcription was observed, resulting in a 100-fold reduction in the steady-state level of de novo-synthesized VSG mRNA. This low level of expression was maintained for at least 7 h, finally decreasing to an undetectable level after 24 h. Transcription of the VSG gene in established procyclic cells was undetectable. For comparison, the turnover of polyadenylated and nonpolyadenylated RNA, beta-tubulin mRNA, and mini-exon-derived RNA (medRNA) was studied. For medRNA, no significant changes in the rate of transcription or stability were observed during differentiation. In contrast, while the rate of transcription of beta-tubulin mRNA in in vitro-cultured bloodstream forms, transforming cells, and established procyclic cells was similar, the half life was four to five times longer in procyclic cells (t1/2, 7 h) than in cultured bloodstream forms (t1/2, 1.4 h) or transforming cells (t1/2, 1.7 h). Inhibition of protein synthesis in bloodstream forms at 37 degrees Celsius caused a dramatic 20-fold decrease in the rate of VSG mRNA synthesis and a 6-fold decrease in half-life to 45 min, while beta-tubulin mRNA was stabilized 2- to 3-fold and mRNA stability remained unaffected. It is postulated that triggering transformation or inhibiting protein synthesis induces changes in the abundance of the same regulatory molecules which effect the shutoff of VSG gene transcription in addition to shortening the half-life of VSG mRNA. Images PMID:2436040

  16. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found a cosmic "ghost" lurking around a distant supermassive black hole. This is the first detection of such a high-energy apparition, and scientists think it is evidence of a huge eruption produced by the black hole. This discovery presents astronomers with a valuable opportunity to observe phenomena that occurred when the Universe was very young. The X-ray ghost, so-called because a diffuse X-ray source has remained after other radiation from the outburst has died away, is in the Chandra Deep Field-North, one of the deepest X-ray images ever taken. The source, a.k.a. HDF 130, is over 10 billion light years away and existed at a time 3 billion years after the Big Bang, when galaxies and black holes were forming at a high rate. "We'd seen this fuzzy object a few years ago, but didn't realize until now that we were seeing a ghost", said Andy Fabian of the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. "It's not out there to haunt us, rather it's telling us something - in this case what was happening in this galaxy billions of year ago." Fabian and colleagues think the X-ray glow from HDF 130 is evidence for a powerful outburst from its central black hole in the form of jets of energetic particles traveling at almost the speed of light. When the eruption was ongoing, it produced prodigious amounts of radio and X-radiation, but after several million years, the radio signal faded from view as the electrons radiated away their energy. HDF 130 Chandra X-ray Image of HDF 130 However, less energetic electrons can still produce X-rays by interacting with the pervasive sea of photons remaining from the Big Bang - the cosmic background radiation. Collisions between these electrons and the background photons can impart enough energy to the photons to boost them into the X-ray energy band. This process produces an extended X-ray source that lasts for another 30 million years or so. "This ghost tells us about the black hole's eruption long after

  17. Cell-cycle-regulated control of VSG expression site silencing by histones and histone chaperones ASF1A and CAF-1b in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Alsford, Sam; Horn, David

    2012-11-01

    Antigenic variation in African trypanosomes involves monoallelic expression and reversible silencing of variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) genes found adjacent to telomeres in polycistronic expression sites (ESs). We assessed the impact on ES silencing of five candidate essential chromatin-associated factors that emerged from a genome-wide RNA interference viability screen. Using this approach, we demonstrate roles in VSG ES silencing for two histone chaperones. Defects in S-phase progression in cells depleted for histone H3, or either chaperone, highlight in particular the link between chromatin assembly and DNA replication control. S-phase checkpoint arrest was incomplete, however, allowing G2/M-specific VSG ES derepression following knockdown of histone H3. In striking contrast, knockdown of anti-silencing factor 1A (ASF1A) allowed for derepression at all cell cycle stages, whereas knockdown of chromatin assembly factor 1b (CAF-1b) revealed derepression predominantly in S-phase and G2/M. Our results support a central role for chromatin in maintaining VSG ES silencing. ASF1A and CAF-1b appear to play constitutive and DNA replication-dependent roles, respectively, in the recycling and assembly of chromatin. Defects in these functions typically lead to arrest in S-phase but defective cells can also progress through the cell cycle leading to nucleosome depletion and derepression of telomeric VSG ESs.

  18. Robust EPI Nyquist ghost elimination via spatial and temporal encoding.

    PubMed

    Hoge, W Scott; Tan, Huan; Kraft, Robert A

    2010-12-01

    Nyquist ghosts are an inherent artifact in echo planar imaging acquisitions. An approach to robustly eliminate Nyquist ghosts is presented that integrates two previous Nyquist ghost correction techniques: temporal domain encoding (phase labeling for additional coordinate encoding: PLACE and spatial domain encoding (phased array ghost elimination: PAGE). Temporal encoding modulates the echo planar imaging acquisition trajectory from frame to frame, enabling one to interleave data to remove inconsistencies that occur between sampling on positive and negative gradient readouts. With PLACE, one can coherently combine the interleaved data to cancel residual Nyquist ghosts. If the level of ghosting varies significantly from image to image, however, the signal cancellation that occurs with PLACE can adversely affect SNR-sensitive applications such as perfusion imaging with arterial spin labeling. This work proposes integrating PLACE into a PAGE-based reconstruction process to yield significantly better Nyquist ghost correction that is more robust than PLACE or PAGE alone. The robustness of this method is demonstrated in the presence of magnetic field drift with an in-vivo arterial spin labeling perfusion experiment.

  19. Membrane perturbations of erythrocyte ghosts by spectrin release.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Takeo; Ozaki, Shinnosuke; Shimomura, Taiji; Terada, Shigeyuki

    2007-05-01

    The cytoskeleton plays an important role in the stability and function of the membrane. Spectrin release from erythrocyte ghosts makes the membrane more fragile. However, the detail of membrane fragility has remained unclear. In the present study, the effects of incubation temperatures and polyamines on the membrane structure of ghosts under hypotonic conditions have been examined. Upon exposure of ghosts to a hypotonic buffer at 0-37 degrees C, reduction of ghost volume, spectrin release and decrease of band 3-cytoskeleton interactions were clearly observed above 30 degrees C. However, such changes were completely inhibited by spermine and spermidine. Interestingly, conformational changes of spectrin induced at 37 degrees C or 49 degrees C were not suppressed by both polyamines. Flow cytometry of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled ghosts exposed to 37 degrees C demonstrated the two peaks corresponding to ghosts with normal spectrin content and decreased one. Taken together, these results indicate that the degree of spectrin release from the membrane under hypotonic conditions is not same in all ghosts, and that polyamines inhibit the spectrin release followed by changes in the membrane structure, but not conformational changes of spectrin.

  20. Interacting varying ghost dark energy models in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khurshudyan, Martiros; Khurshudyan, Amalya; Myrzakulov, Ratbay

    2015-06-01

    Motivated by recent developments in Cosmology we would like to consider an extension of the Ghost DE which we will name as varying Ghost DE. Ghost DE like other models was introduced recently as a possible way to explain accelerated expansion of the Universe. For the phenomenological origin of the varying Ghost dark energy in our Universe we can suggest an existence of some unknown dynamics between the Ghost Dark energy and a fluid which evaporated completely making sense of the proposed effect. Moreover, we assume that this was in the epochs and scales which are unreachable by present-day experiments, like in very early Universe. In this study we will investigate the model for cosmological validity. We will apply observational and causality constraints to illuminate physically correct behavior of the model from the phenomenological one. We saw that an interaction between the varying Ghost DE and cold DM (CDM) also provides a solution to the cosmological coincidence problem. And we found that the Ghost DE behaves as a fluid-like matter in early Universe.

  1. Odontogenic ghost cell tumour with clear cell components: clear cell odontogenic ghost cell tumour?

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jung Hoon; Ahn, Sang Gun; Kim, Su Gwan; Kim, Jin

    2004-07-01

    A case of odontogenic ghost cell tumour (OGCT) with clear cell components was encountered in the mandible of a 63-year-old man. The tumour revealed ameloblastomatous-type epithelial components accompanied by clusters of ghost cells and dentinoid juxtaposed to the odontogenic epithelium. In addition, some areas of the tumour tissue showed sheets and islands of clear, glycogen containing epithelial cells, which were separated by a thin fibrous connective tissue stroma. Both ameloblastic and clear cells exhibited positive immunoreactivities for cytokeratin 19 and AE1/3. It is not known whether this tumour represents a clear cell change of a pre-existing OGCT or a separate and distinct neoplasm derived de novo from the odontogenic epithelium. This tumour was given the term 'clear cell OGCT' because it captures the clear cell components, which is one of the most prominent distinguishing features of the tumour.

  2. A ghost story (II): Ghost, Gluons and the Gluon Condensate beyond the IR of QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Quintero, J.; Pene, O.; Boucaud, P.; Micheli, J.; Le Yaouanc, A.; Leroy, J. P.; de Soto, F.

    Beyond the deep IR, the analysis of ghost and gluon propagators still keeps very interesting non-perturbative information. The Taylor-scheme coupling can be computed and applied to obtain the $\\Lambda_{\\rm QCD}$ parameter from Landau gauge lattice simulations. Furthermore, a dimension-two gluon condensate, that can be understood in the instanton liquid model, plays an important role in the game.

  3. Immune responses and protection induced by Brucella suis S2 bacterial ghosts in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Li, Yi; Sun, Yang; Ji, Xue; Zhu, Lingwei; Guo, Xuejun; Zhou, Wei; Zhou, Bo; Liu, Shuang; Zhang, Ruian; Feng, Shuzhang

    2015-08-15

    With the purpose of generating Brucella suis bacterial ghosts and investigating the immunogenicity of bacterial ghosts as a vaccine candidate, the lysis gene E and temperature-sensitive regulator cassette were cloned into a shuttle plasmid, pBBR1MCS-2, for construction of a recombinant temperature-sensitive shuttle lysis plasmid, pBBR1MCS-E. pBBR1MCS-E was then introduced into attenuated B. suis live vaccine S2 bacteria, and the resultant transformants were used for production of B. suis ghosts (BSGs) by inducing lysis gene E expression. The BSGs were characterized by observing their morphology by transmission electron microscopy. The safety and immunogenicity of BSGs were further evaluated using a murine model, the result suggested that BSG was as safe as formalin-killed B. suis. In mice, BSG demonstrated a similar capacity of inducing pathogen-specific serum IgG antibody response, spleen CD3(+) and CD4(+) T cell responses, induce secretion of gamma interferon and interleukin-4, and protection levels against Brucella melitensis 16M challenge, as the attenuated B. suis live vaccine. These data suggesting that BSG could confer protection against Brucella infection in a mouse model of disease and may be developed as a new vaccine candidate against Brucella infection.

  4. The ghosts in the computer: the role of agency and animacy attributions in "ghost controls".

    PubMed

    Subiaul, Francys; Vonk, Jennifer; Rutherford, M D

    2011-01-01

    Three studies evaluated the role of 4-year-old children's agency- and animacy-attributions when learning from a computerized ghost control (GC). In GCs, participants observe events occurring without an apparent agent, as if executed by a "ghost" or unobserved causal forces. Using a touch-screen, children in Experiment 1 responded to three pictures in a specific order under three learning conditions: (i) trial-and-error (Baseline), (ii) imitation and (iii) Ghost Control. Before testing in the GC, children were read one of three scripts that determined agency attributions. Post-test assessments confirmed that all children attributed agency to the computer and learned in all GCs. In Experiment 2, children were not trained on the computer prior to testing, and no scripts were used. Three different GCs, varying in number of agency cues, were used. Children failed to learn in these GCs, yet attributed agency and animacy to the computer. Experiment 3 evaluated whether children could learn from a human model in the absence of training under conditions where the information presented by the model and the computer was either consistent or inconsistent. Children evidenced learning in both of these conditions. Overall, learning in social conditions (Exp. 3) was significantly better than learning in GCs (Exp. 2). These results, together with other published research, suggest that children privilege social over non-social sources of information and are generally more adept at learning novel tasks from a human than from a computer or GC.

  5. Exorcising the ghost of the Sputnik crisis.

    PubMed

    Kolberg, Espen Skarstein; Holt, Heidi Marie; Klevan, Ingvild

    2017-10-01

    Drug calculation is not immune to the undesirable impact of math anxiety and negative attitudes on test outcomes in nursing studies, and several studies indicate that math anxiety is present in the student population at such a degree that it is likely to interfere with these students' mathematical ability. Examining the educational system through the lens of history and adding a dash of cultural theory, a contributing cause to the math anxiety may be found in the Sputnik Crisis of the late 1950s, the ghostly remnants of which are still present in the stereotypes of mathematics promoted by mass media. In an effort to reshape the culturally conditioned attitudes which may be responsible for math anxiety, we suggest using elements from popular culture to diversify the perception and image of mathematics in drug calculation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ghost fishing activity in derelict blue crab traps in Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Julie A; Alford, Amy B

    2014-02-15

    Derelict crab traps impact the coastal ecosystem through continued catch of target species and species of conservation, economic, or recreational importance. During volunteer-supported crab trap cleanups in 2012 and 2013, we quantified ghost fishing activity in derelict crab traps in coastal Louisiana through a citizen scientist program. Volunteers removed 3607 derelict traps during these events, and over 65% of traps analyzed by citizen scientists were actively ghost fishing. Additionally, volunteers identified 19 species enmeshed in derelict traps, including a combination of fresh and saltwater species. We also detected a significant difference in the number of blue crab in actively ghost fishing derelict traps across removal locations with estimated catches varying between 2.4 and 3.5 crabs/trap. Our instantaneous estimates of ghost fishing activity are greater than those previously thought in Louisiana, further justifying current derelict crab trap prevention and removal extension and outreach programs in Louisiana and throughout the Gulf of Mexico.

  7. Halloween Is Coming: Ghostly Themes in the English Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Diana; Broderick, Vincent J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes how an English teacher uses ghost stories in his classroom to further students' interest in and understanding of epics. Presents a short unit in which all the class work focuses on scary kinds of things. (SR)

  8. 57. Historic American Buildings Survey From Motion Picture 'Ghost of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. Historic American Buildings Survey From Motion Picture 'Ghost of Romance' Date of Photo: August 4, 1920 CONVENTS - Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Rio Road & Lausen Drive, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Monterey County, CA

  9. Ghost cell differentiation and calcification in ameloblastic fibroma.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hai Yan; Gao, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Ghost cell differentiation within an ameloblastic fibroma is extremely rare. The ghost cells found in an ameloblastic fibroma in previously reported cases were all associated with a typical calcifying odontogenic cyst. Here, we report a case of an ameloblastic fibroma with focal ghost cells and calcifications in some neoplastic epithelial islands, but without other histologic manifestations consistent with a calcifying odontogenic cyst. The patient was a 13-year-old Chinese boy who presented with a bony-hard swelling in the posterior mandibular region over a 6-month period. Radiographs showed a well-defined multilocular radiolucency associated with an unerupted tooth. The lesion was mostly cystic-solid and comprised of odontogenic epithelial strands, islands and myxoid ectomesenchymal component microscopically. Small groups of ghost cells and calcification were noted in the epithelial islands.

  10. Noise reduction in selective computational ghost imaging using genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafari, Mohammad; Ahmadi-Kandjani, Sohrab; Kheradmand, Reza

    2017-03-01

    Recently, we have presented a selective computational ghost imaging (SCGI) method as an advanced technique for enhancing the security level of the encrypted ghost images. In this paper, we propose a modified method to improve the ghost image quality reconstructed by SCGI technique. The method is based on background subtraction using genetic algorithm (GA) which eliminates background noise and gives background-free ghost images. Analyzing the universal image quality index by using experimental data proves the advantage of this modification method. In particular, the calculated value of the image quality index for modified SCGI over 4225 realization shows an 11 times improvement with respect to SCGI technique. This improvement is 20 times in comparison to conventional CGI technique.

  11. TOPICAL REVIEW: Ghosts in the self-accelerating universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Kazuya

    2007-12-01

    The self-accelerating universe realizes the accelerated expansion of the universe at late times by large-distance modification of general relativity (GR) without a cosmological constant. The Dvali Gabadadze Porrati (DGP) braneworld model provides an explicit example of the self-accelerating universe. Recently, the DGP model became very popular for studying the observational consequences of the modified gravity models as an alternative to dark energy models in GR. However, it has been shown that the self-accelerating universe in the DGP model contains a ghost at the linearized level. The ghost carries negative energy densities and it leads to the instability of the spacetime. In this review, we review the origin of the ghost in the self-accelerating universe and explore the physical implications of the existence of the ghost.

  12. Object reconstitution using pseudo-inverse for ghost imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chi; Guo, Shuxu; Cao, Junsheng; Guan, Jian; Gao, Fengli

    2014-12-01

    We propose a novel method for object reconstruction of ghost imaging based on Pseudo-Inverse, where the original objects are reconstructed by computing the pseudo-inverse of the matrix constituted by the row vectors of each speckle field. We conduct reconstructions for binary images and gray-scale images. With equal number of measurements, our method presents a satisfying performance on enhancing Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and reducing computing time. Being compared with the other existing methods, its PSNR distinctly exceeds that of the traditional Ghost Imaging (GI) and Differential Ghost Imaging (DGI). In comparison with the Compressive-sensing Ghost Imaging (CGI), the computing time is substantially shortened, and in regard to PSNR our method exceeds CGI on grayscale images and performs as well as CGI visually on binary images. The influence of both the detection noise and the accuracy of measurement matrix on PSNR are also presented.

  13. Ghost fringe removal techniques using Lissajous data presentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erskine, David; Eggert, Jon; Celliers, Peter; Hicks, Damien

    2017-01-01

    Unwanted reflection of laser light from target windows can produce an additional component to the VISAR fringe record that can obscure and complicate the true signal. Accurately removing this so-called ghost component is essential for achieving high accuracy EOS measurements, especially when the true signal is only weakly reflected from the shock front. Independent of the choice of algorithm for processing the raw data into a complex fringe signal, we have found it beneficial to plot this signal as a Lissajous and seek the true center of this curve, since the ghost contribution is solved by a translation in the complex plane that recenters the Lissajous. For continuous velocity histories, we find that plotting the fringe visibility vs nonfringing intensity and optimizing linearity is a valuable tool for determining the proper ghost offsets. For discontinuous velocity histories, we have developed methods which relate the results of two VISARs having different velocity per fringe proportionalities to find the ghost offset.

  14. Periodic nonlinearity resulting from ghost reflections in heterodyne interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chien-ming

    2003-01-01

    Periodic nonlinearity is a systematic error limiting the accuracy of displacement measurements at the nanometer level. It results from many causes such as frequency mixing, polarization mixing, polarization-frequency mixing, and ghost reflections. The purpose of this paper is to study the periodic nonlinearity resulting from ghost reflections, which has not been investigated before. A generalized scheme of interferometer, which is free of frequency and polarization mixings, is used in the study. This ensures that the residual periodic nonlinearity is from the ghost reflections only. In this paper, a general form of periodic nonlinearity and a model including two kinds of ghost reflections, one with the same frequency and the other with two frequencies, are presented. The model is verified by experimental results.

  15. Detail view of door surround, note bracket & ghost of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of door surround, note bracket & ghost of (former) arched opening in the brickwork beside it - Leonard Mackall House, 1686 Thirty-Fourth Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  16. Parallel and Streaming Generation of Ghost Data for Structured Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Isenburg, M; Lindstrom, P; Childs, H

    2008-04-15

    Parallel simulations decompose large domains into many blocks. A fundamental requirement for subsequent parallel analysis and visualization is the presence of ghost data that supplements each block with a layer of adjacent data elements from neighboring blocks. The standard approach for generating ghost data requires all blocks to be in memory at once. This becomes impractical when there are fewer processors - and thus less aggregate memory - available for analysis than for simulation. We describe an algorithm for generating ghost data for structured grids that uses many fewer processors than previously possible. Our algorithm stores as little as one block per processor in memory and can run on as few processors as are available (possibly just one). The key idea is to slightly change the size of the original blocks by declaring parts of them to be ghost data, and by later padding adjacent blocks with this data.

  17. Lipid metabolism in Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Terry K.; Bütikofer, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei membranes consist of all major eukaryotic glycerophospholipid and sphingolipid classes. These are de novo synthesized from precursors obtained either from the host or from catabolised endocytosed lipids. In recent years, substantial progress has been made in the molecular and biochemical characterisation of several of these lipid biosynthetic pathways, using gene knockout or RNA interference strategies or by enzymatic characterization of individual reactions. Together with the completed genome, these studies have highlighted several possible differences between mammalian and trypanosome lipid biosynthesis that could be exploited for the development of drugs against the diseases caused by these parasites. PMID:20382188

  18. Nonperturbative gluon and ghost propagators in d = 3

    SciTech Connect

    Papavassiliou, Joannis

    2011-05-23

    We study the nonperturbative gluon and ghost propagators in d = 3 Yang-Mills, using the Schwinger-Dyson equations of the pinch technique. The use of the Schwinger mechanism leads to the dynamical generation of a gluon mass, which, in turn, gives rise to an infrared finite gluon propagator and ghost dressing function. The propagators obtained are in very good agreement with the results of SU(2) lattice simulations.

  19. Ghost authorship in industry-initiated randomised trials.

    PubMed

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Haahr, Mette T; Altman, Douglas G; Chan, An-Wen

    2007-01-01

    Ghost authorship, the failure to name, as an author, an individual who has made substantial contributions to an article, may result in lack of accountability. The prevalence and nature of ghost authorship in industry-initiated randomised trials is not known. We conducted a cohort study comparing protocols and corresponding publications for industry-initiated trials approved by the Scientific-Ethical Committees for Copenhagen and Frederiksberg in 1994-1995. We defined ghost authorship as present if individuals who wrote the trial protocol, performed the statistical analyses, or wrote the manuscript, were not listed as authors of the publication, or as members of a study group or writing committee, or in an acknowledgment. We identified 44 industry-initiated trials. We did not find any trial protocol or publication that stated explicitly that the clinical study report or the manuscript was to be written or was written by the clinical investigators, and none of the protocols stated that clinical investigators were to be involved with data analysis. We found evidence of ghost authorship for 33 trials (75%; 95% confidence interval 60%-87%). The prevalence of ghost authorship was increased to 91% (40 of 44 articles; 95% confidence interval 78%-98%) when we included cases where a person qualifying for authorship was acknowledged rather than appearing as an author. In 31 trials, the ghost authors we identified were statisticians. It is likely that we have overlooked some ghost authors, as we had very limited information to identify the possible omission of other individuals who would have qualified as authors. Ghost authorship in industry-initiated trials is very common. Its prevalence could be considerably reduced, and transparency improved, if existing guidelines were followed, and if protocols were publicly available.

  20. Ghost Authorship in Industry-Initiated Randomised Trials

    PubMed Central

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Haahr, Mette T; Altman, Douglas G; Chan, An-Wen

    2007-01-01

    Background Ghost authorship, the failure to name, as an author, an individual who has made substantial contributions to an article, may result in lack of accountability. The prevalence and nature of ghost authorship in industry-initiated randomised trials is not known. Methods and Findings We conducted a cohort study comparing protocols and corresponding publications for industry-initiated trials approved by the Scientific-Ethical Committees for Copenhagen and Frederiksberg in 1994–1995. We defined ghost authorship as present if individuals who wrote the trial protocol, performed the statistical analyses, or wrote the manuscript, were not listed as authors of the publication, or as members of a study group or writing committee, or in an acknowledgment. We identified 44 industry-initiated trials. We did not find any trial protocol or publication that stated explicitly that the clinical study report or the manuscript was to be written or was written by the clinical investigators, and none of the protocols stated that clinical investigators were to be involved with data analysis. We found evidence of ghost authorship for 33 trials (75%; 95% confidence interval 60%–87%). The prevalence of ghost authorship was increased to 91% (40 of 44 articles; 95% confidence interval 78%–98%) when we included cases where a person qualifying for authorship was acknowledged rather than appearing as an author. In 31 trials, the ghost authors we identified were statisticians. It is likely that we have overlooked some ghost authors, as we had very limited information to identify the possible omission of other individuals who would have qualified as authors. Conclusions Ghost authorship in industry-initiated trials is very common. Its prevalence could be considerably reduced, and transparency improved, if existing guidelines were followed, and if protocols were publicly available. PMID:17227134

  1. Haunted manuscripts: ghost authorship in the medical literature.

    PubMed

    Ngai, Stephanie; Gold, Jennifer L; Gill, Sudeep S; Rochon, Paula A

    2005-01-01

    Ghost authorship occurs when an individual who contributed substantially to a manuscript is not named in the byline or acknowledgments. Ghost authors may be employed by industry to prepare clinical trial results for publication. An expert is then "hired" as author so as to lend an air of credibility and neutrality to the manuscript. Ghost authorship is difficult to detect, and most articles that have been identified as ghostwritten were revealed as such only after investigative work by lawyers, journalists, or scientists. Ghost authorship is ethically questionable in that it may be used to mask conflicts of interest with industry. As it has been demonstrated that industry sponsorship of clinical trials may be associated with outcomes favorable to industry, this is problematic. Evidence-based medicine requires that clinical decisions be based on empirical evidence published in peer-reviewed medical journals. If physicians base their decisions on dubious research data, this can have negative consequences for patients. Ghost authorship also compromises academic integrity. A "film credit" concept of authority is one solution to the problems posed by ghost authorship. Other approaches have been taken by the United Kingdom and Denmark. A solution is necessary, as the relationship between authorship and accountability must be maintained.

  2. Publication ethics and the ghost management of medical publication.

    PubMed

    Sismondo, Sergio; Doucet, Mathieu

    2010-07-01

    It is by now no secret that some scientific articles are ghost authored - that is, written by someone other than the person whose name appears at the top of the article. Ghost authorship, however, is only one sort of ghosting. In this article, we present evidence that pharmaceutical companies engage in the ghost management of the scientific literature, by controlling or shaping several crucial steps in the research, writing, and publication of scientific articles. Ghost management allows the pharmaceutical industry to shape the literature in ways that serve its interests. This article aims to reinforce and expand publication ethics as an important area of concern for bioethics. Since ghost-managed research is primarily undertaken in the interests of marketing, large quantities of medical research violate not just publication norms but also research ethics. Much of this research involves human subjects, and yet is performed not primarily to increase knowledge for broad human benefit, but to disseminate results in the service of profits. Those who sponsor, manage, conduct, and publish such research therefore behave unethically, since they put patients at risk without justification. This leads us to a strong conclusion: if medical journals want to ensure that the research they publish is ethically sound, they should not publish articles that are commercially sponsored.

  3. The flagellar adenylate kinases of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Camara, María de los Milagros; Bouvier, León A; Miranda, Mariana R; Pereira, Claudio A

    2015-01-01

    Adenylate kinases (ADK) are key enzymes involved in cell energy management. Trypanosomatids present the highest number of variants in a single cell in comparison with the rest of the living organisms. In this work, we characterized two flagellar ADKs from Trypanosoma cruzi, called TcADK1 and TcADK4, which are also located in the cell cytosol. Interestingly, TcADK1 presents a stage-specific expression. This variant was detected in epimastigotes cells, and was completely absent in trypomastigotes and amastigotes, while TcADK4 is present in the major life cycle stages of T. cruzi. Both variants are also regulated, in opposite ways, along the parasite growth curve suggesting that their expression depends on the intra- and extracellular conditions. Both, TcADK1 and TcADK4 present N-terminal extension that could be responsible for their subcellular localization. The presence of ADK variants in the flagellum would be critical for the provision of energy in a process of high ATP consumption such as cell motility. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of FEMS. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Trypanosoma brucei metabolism is under circadian control.

    PubMed

    Rijo-Ferreira, Filipa; Pinto-Neves, Daniel; Barbosa-Morais, Nuno L; Takahashi, Joseph S; Figueiredo, Luisa M

    2017-03-13

    The Earth's rotation forced life to evolve under cyclic day and night environmental changes. To anticipate such daily cycles, prokaryote and eukaryote free-living organisms evolved intrinsic clocks that regulate physiological and behavioural processes. Daily rhythms have been observed in organisms living within hosts, such as parasites. Whether parasites have intrinsic molecular clocks or whether they simply respond to host rhythmic physiological cues remains unknown. Here, we show that Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of human sleeping sickness, has an intrinsic circadian clock that regulates its metabolism in two different stages of the life cycle. We found that, in vitro, ∼10% of genes in T. brucei are expressed with a circadian rhythm. The maximum expression of these genes occurs at two different phases of the day and may depend on a post-transcriptional mechanism. Circadian genes are enriched in cellular metabolic pathways and coincide with two peaks of intracellular adenosine triphosphate concentration. Moreover, daily changes in the parasite population lead to differences in suramin sensitivity, a drug commonly used to treat this infection. These results demonstrate that parasites have an intrinsic circadian clock that is independent of the host, and which regulates parasite biology throughout the day.

  5. Characterization of a Salmonella Typhimurium ghost carrying an adjuvant protein as a vaccine candidate for the protection of chickens against virulent challenge.

    PubMed

    Jawale, Chetan V; Lee, John Hwa

    2014-01-01

    In this study we describe the generation of a safe, immunogenic, genetically inactivated Salmonella Typhimurium ghost vaccine candidate carrying the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (LTB) protein as an adjuvant molecule. An asd(+) p15A ori(-) plasmid pJHL187-LTB harbouring the E lysis gene cassette and a foreign antigen delivery cassette containing the eltB gene was used to transform a Δasd Salmonella Typhimurium (JOL1311) strain to construct the ghost strain, JOL1499. Incubation of mid-logarithmic phase JOL1499 cultures at 42°C resulted in co-expression of the eltB and E lysis genes, leading to the generation of Salmonella Typhimurium ghost cells carrying the LTB protein (Salmonella Typhimurium-LTB ghost). The production of LTB in Salmonella Typhimurium-LTB ghost preparations was confirmed by western blot analysis, and functional activity of the LTB protein to bind with GM1 receptors was determined by means of GM1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Efficacy of the Salmonella Typhimurium-LTB ghost as a vaccine candidate was evaluated in a chicken model using 56 chickens at 5 weeks old, which were divided into four groups (n = 14): group A was designated the non-vaccinated control group, whereas the birds in groups B, C, and D were immunized intramuscularly with 10(9), 10(8), and 10(7) ghost cells, respectively. Compared with the non-immunized chickens (group A), immunized chickens (groups B, C and D) exhibited increased titres of plasma IgG and intestinal secretory IgA antibodies. After oral challenge with 10(9) colony-forming units of a virulent Salmonella Typhimurium strain, the vaccinated group B birds showed a decrease in internal organ colonization with the challenge strain.

  6. Characterizing and modelling 'ghost-rock' weathered limestones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Caroline; Goderniaux, Pascal; Deceuster, John; Poulain, Angélique; Kaufmann, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    'Ghost-rock' karst aquifer has recently been highlighted. In this particular type of aquifer, the karst is not expressed as open conduits but consists in zones where the limestone is weathered. The in-situ weathering of limestone leaves a soft porous material called 'alterite'. The hydro-mechanical properties of this material differs significantly from those of the host rock: the weathering enhances the storage capacity and the conductivity of the rock. This type of weathered karst aquifer has never been studied from a hydrogeological point of view. In this study, we present the hydraulic characterization of such weathered zones. We also present a modelling approach derived from the common Equivalent Porous Medium (EPM) approach, but including the spatial distribution of hydrogeological properties through the weathered features, from the hard rock to the alterite, according to a weathering index. Unlike the Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) approaches, which enable to take into account a limited number of fractures, this new approach allows creating models including thousands of weathered features. As the properties of the alterite have to be considered at a centimeter scale, it is necessary to upscale these properties to carry out simulations over large areas. Therefore, an upscaling method was developed, taking into account the anisotropy of the weathered features. Synthetic models are built, upscaled and different hydrogeological simulations are run to validate the method. This methodology is finally tested on a real case study: the modelling of the dewatering drainage flow of an exploited quarry in a weathered karst aquifer in Belgium.

  7. Characterization of Chemically-Induced Bacterial Ghosts (BGs) Using Sodium Hydroxide-Induced Vibrio parahaemolyticus Ghosts (VPGs)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Jung; Oh, Sung; Vinod, Nagarajan; Ji, Seongmi; Noh, Han Byul; Koo, Jung Mo; Lee, Su Hyeong; Kim, Sei Chang; Lee, Ki-Sung; Choi, Chang Won

    2016-01-01

    Acellular bacterial ghosts (BGs) are empty non-living bacterial cell envelopes, commonly generated by controlled expression of the cloned lysis gene E of bacteriophage PhiX174. In this study, Vibrio parahaemolyticus ghosts (VPGs) were generated by chemically-induced lysis and the method is based on minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), acetic acid, boric acid, citric acid, maleic acid, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acid. The MIC values of the respective chemicals were 3.125, 6.25, <50.0, 25.0, 6.25, 1.56, and 0.781 mg/mL. Except for boric acid, the lysis efficiency reached more than 99.99% at 5 min after treatment of all chemicals. Among those chemicals, NaOH-induced VPGs appeared completely DNA-free, which was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. Besides, lipopolysaccharides (LPS) extracted from the NaOH-induced VPGs showed no distinctive band on SDS-PAGE gel after silver staining. On the other hand, LPS extracted from wild-type bacterial cells, as well as the organic acids-induced VPGs showed triple major bands and LPS extracted from the inorganic acids-induced VPGs showed double bands. It suggests that some surface structures in LPS of the NaOH-induced VPGs may be lost, weakened, or modified by the MIC of NaOH. Nevertheless, Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay revealed that there is no significant difference in endotoxic activity between the NaOH-induced VPGs and wild-type bacterial cells. Macrophages exposed to the NaOH-induced VPGs at 0.5 × 106 CFU/mL showed cell viability of 97.9%, however, the MIC of NaOH did not reduce the cytotoxic effect of wild-type bacterial cells. Like Escherichia coli LPS, the NaOH-induced VPGs are an excellent activator of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and iNOS), anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10), and dual activities (IL-6) in the stimulated macrophage cells. On the other hand, the induction of TNF-α mRNA was remarkable in the macrophages exposed with wild-type cells. Scanning electron

  8. Lensless ghost imaging through the strongly scattering medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhe, Yang; Lianjie, Zhao; Xueliang, Zhao; Wei, Qin; Junlin, Li

    2016-02-01

    Lensless ghost imaging has attracted much interest in recent years due to its profound physics and potential applications. In this paper we report studies of the robust properties of the lensless ghost imaging system with a pseudo-thermal light source in a strongly scattering medium. The effects of the positions of the strong medium on the ghost imaging are investigated. In the lensless ghost imaging system, a pseudo-thermal light is split into two correlated beams by a beam splitter. One beam goes to a charge-coupled detector camera, labeled as CCD2. The other beam goes to an object and then is collected in another charge-coupled detector camera, labeled as CCD1, which serves as a bucket detector. When the strong medium, a pane of ground glass disk, is placed between the object and CCD1, the bucket detector, the quality of ghost imaging is barely affected and a good image could still be obtained. The quality of the ghost imaging can also be maintained, even when the ground glass is rotating, which is the strongest scattering medium so far. However, when the strongly scattering medium is present in the optical path from the light source to CCD2 or the object, the lensless ghost imaging system hardly retrieves the image of the object. A theoretical analysis in terms of the second-order correlation function is also provided. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11175094 and 91221205), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2015CB921002), and partially supported by the Basic Research Fund of Beijing Institute of Technology (Grant No. 20141842005).

  9. Artemisinins Inhibit Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense In Vitro Growth▿

    PubMed Central

    Mishina, Yuliya V.; Krishna, Sanjeev; Haynes, Richard K.; Meade, John C.

    2007-01-01

    Artemisinin compounds inhibit in vitro growth of cultured Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense at concentrations in the low micromolar range. Artemisinin also inhibits calcium-dependent ATPase activity in T. cruzi membranes, suggesting a mode of action via membrane pumps. Artemisinins merit further investigation as chemotherapeutic options for these pathogens. PMID:17339374

  10. Proteomics of Trypanosoma evansi Infection in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Pallavi, Rani; Chakravarthy, Harshini; Chandran, Syama; Kumar, Rajender; Gupta, Ashok Kumar; Singh, Raj Kumar; Yadav, Suresh Chandra; Tatu, Utpal

    2010-01-01

    Background Trypanosoma evansi infections, commonly called ‘surra’, cause significant economic losses to livestock industry. While this infection is mainly restricted to large animals such as camels, donkeys and equines, recent reports indicate their ability to infect humans. There are no World Animal Health Organization (WAHO) prescribed diagnostic tests or vaccines available against this disease and the available drugs show significant toxicity. There is an urgent need to develop improved methods of diagnosis and control measures for this disease. Unlike its related human parasites T. brucei and T. cruzi whose genomes have been fully sequenced T. evansi genome sequence remains unavailable and very little efforts are being made to develop improved methods of prevention, diagnosis and treatment. With a view to identify potential diagnostic markers and drug targets we have studied the clinical proteome of T. evansi infection using mass spectrometry (MS). Methodology/Principal Findings Using shot-gun proteomic approach involving nano-lc Quadrupole Time Of Flight (QTOF) mass spectrometry we have identified over 160 proteins expressed by T. evansi in mice infected with camel isolate. Homology driven searches for protein identification from MS/MS data led to most of the matches arising from related Trypanosoma species. Proteins identified belonged to various functional categories including metabolic enzymes; DNA metabolism; transcription; translation as well as cell-cell communication and signal transduction. TCA cycle enzymes were strikingly missing, possibly suggesting their low abundances. The clinical proteome revealed the presence of known and potential drug targets such as oligopeptidases, kinases, cysteine proteases and more. Conclusions/Significance Previous proteomic studies on Trypanosomal infections, including human parasites T. brucei and T. cruzi, have been carried out from lab grown cultures. For T. evansi infection this is indeed the first ever

  11. Prometheus and the Ghostly F Ring

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-07

    The thin sliver of Saturn's moon Prometheus lurks near ghostly structures in Saturn's narrow F ring in this view from NASA's Cassini spacecraft. Many of the narrow ring's faint and wispy features result from its gravitational interactions with Prometheus (86 kilometers, or 53 miles across). Most of the small moon's surface is in darkness due to the viewing geometry here. Cassini was positioned behind Saturn and Prometheus with respect to the sun, looking toward the moon's dark side and just a bit of the moon's sunlit northern hemisphere. Also visible here is a distinct difference in brightness between the outermost section of Saturn's A ring (left of center) and rest of the ring, interior to the Keeler Gap (lower left). This view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 13 degrees above the ring plane. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on May 13, 2017. The view was acquired at a distance of approximately 680,000 miles (1.1 million kilometers) from Saturn. Image scale is 4 miles (6 kilometers) per pixel. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21340

  12. [SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS: ON HONORS AND GHOSTS].

    PubMed

    Glezerman, Marek; Grossman, Ehud

    2017-06-01

    The ethics committee at the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University deals with complaints which are not necessarily related to teaching or to issues in the realm of the Institutional Review Board (Helsinki Commission). Virtually all complaints reaching the committee are based on disputed authorship of scientific publications. Researchers and clinicians are interested in publishing their research in order to share knowledge but also in order to comply with the dictum "Publish or Perish". They are publishing to enhance their reputation, to improve chances for funding and to increase the likelihood for clinical and academic promotion. Yet, lack of appropriate planning and agreements on authorship ahead of time may lead to frictions, misunderstandings and outright belligerence between authors. The issue of authorship is being addressed by scientific journals, academic institutions and committees of editors. All of them have published appropriate guidelines which form the basis for the work of the ethics committee. We deal with "honorary authorship", that is individuals who are listed as authors, although they have not contributed sufficiently to the research in order to merit authorship and we deal with "Ghost Authorship" that is when contributing researchers are not listed, as they should be among authors of a scientific publication. Specific case studies are presented.

  13. Ghost suppression in image restoration filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riemer, T. E.; Mcgillem, C. D.

    1975-01-01

    An optimum image restoration filter is described in which provision is made to constrain the spatial extent of the restoration function, the noise level of the filter output and the rate of falloff of the composite system point-spread away from the origin. Experimental results show that sidelobes on the composite system point-spread function produce ghosts in the restored image near discontinuities in intensity level. By redetermining the filter using a penalty function that is zero over the main lobe of the composite point-spread function of the optimum filter and nonzero where the point-spread function departs from a smoothly decaying function in the sidelobe region, a great reduction in sidelobe level is obtained. Almost no loss in resolving power of the composite system results from this procedure. By iteratively carrying out the same procedure even further reductions in sidelobe level are obtained. Examples of original and iterated restoration functions are shown along with their effects on a test image.

  14. Iterative deconvolution methods for ghost imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Situ, Guohai

    2016-10-01

    Ghost imaging (GI) is an important technique in single-pixel imaging. It has been demonstrated that GI has applications in various areas such as imaging through harsh environments and optical encryption. Correlation is widely used to reconstruct the object image in GI. But it only offers the signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) of the reconstructed image linearly proportional to the number of measurements. Here, we develop a kind of iterative deconvolution methods for GI. With the known image transmission matrix in GI, the first one uses an iterative algorithm to decrease the error between the reconstructed image and the ground-truth image. Ideally, the error converges to a minimum for speckle patterns when the number of measurements is larger than the number of resolution cells. The second technique, Gerchberg-Saxton (GS) like GI, takes the advantage of the integral property of the Fourier transform, and treats the captured data as constraints for image reconstruction. According to this property, we can regard the data recorded by the bucket detector as the Fourier transform of the object image evaluated at the origin. Each of the speckle patterns randomly selects certain spectral components of the object and shift them to the origin in the Fourier space. One can use these constraints to reconstruct the image with the GS algorithm. This deconvolution method is suitable for any single pixel imaging models. Compared to conventional GI, both techniques offer a nonlinear growth of the SNR value with respect to the number of measurements.

  15. Hubble Sees 'Ghost Light' From Dead Galaxies

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope has picked up the faint, ghostly glow of stars ejected from ancient galaxies that were gravitationally ripped apart several billion years ago. The mayhem happened 4 billion light-years away, inside an immense collection of nearly 500 galaxies nicknamed “Pandora’s Cluster,” also known as Abell 2744. The scattered stars are no longer bound to any one galaxy, and drift freely between galaxies in the cluster. By observing the light from the orphaned stars, Hubble astronomers have assembled forensic evidence that suggests as many as six galaxies were torn to pieces inside the cluster over a stretch of 6 billion years. Read more: 1.usa.gov/1yK2Ucp Credit: NASA/ESA/IAC/HFF Team, STScI NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  16. Quantum Gauge Theories : A True Ghost Story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharf, Gunter

    2001-03-01

    An innovative new treatment of particle physics using quantum gauge theory as its basis If regarded as operator theories, ghost fields play a very important role in quantum gauge theory, which forms the basis of modern particle physics. The author argues that all known forces in nature-electromagnetism, weak and strong forces, and gravity-follow in a unique way from the basic principle of quantum gauge invariance. Using that as a starting point, this volume discusses gauge theories as quantum theories, as part of a streamlined modern approach. The simplicity of using only this one method throughout the book allows the reader a clear understanding of the mathematical structure of nature, while this modern and mathematically well-defined approach elucidates the standard theory of particle physics without overburdening the reader with the full range of various ideas and methods. Though the subject matter requires a basic knowledge of quantum mechanics, the book's unprecedented and uncomplicated coverage will offer readers little difficulty. This revolutionary volume is suitable for graduate students and researchers alike and includes a completely new treatment of gravity as well as important new ideas on massive gauge fields.

  17. Ghost suppression in image restoration filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riemer, T. E.; Mcgillem, C. D.

    1975-01-01

    An optimum image restoration filter is described in which provision is made to constrain the spatial extent of the restoration function, the noise level of the filter output and the rate of falloff of the composite system point-spread away from the origin. Experimental results show that sidelobes on the composite system point-spread function produce ghosts in the restored image near discontinuities in intensity level. By redetermining the filter using a penalty function that is zero over the main lobe of the composite point-spread function of the optimum filter and nonzero where the point-spread function departs from a smoothly decaying function in the sidelobe region, a great reduction in sidelobe level is obtained. Almost no loss in resolving power of the composite system results from this procedure. By iteratively carrying out the same procedure even further reductions in sidelobe level are obtained. Examples of original and iterated restoration functions are shown along with their effects on a test image.

  18. Selective Preservation of Fossil Ghost Fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meacham, Amanda

    2016-04-01

    A unique type of fossil fish preservation has been discovered in the Angelo Member (Fossil Lake) of the Green River Formation. The Angelo Member is a predominately evaporative deposit dominated by dolomite, but contains facies of fossiliferous laminated calcimicrite. Fossil fish occurring in two beds conspicuously lack bones. Fish in the lower bed are only preserved as organic material, including skin, pigments, and eyes. Fish in the upper bed have three-dimensional etching where bones once existed but also contain skin, pigments, and eyes. The top third of the upper bed often contains calcite crystals that are pseudomorphs after trona and possibly halite. Preliminary mineralogical analysis and mapping of evaporate facies suggests that this unique preservation may be related to lake geochemical conditions, such as high pH and alkalinity. To our knowledge, this is the first time this type of preservation has been observed and studied. Fossils and sediments within these beds are being studied both vertically and laterally through the one-meter thick sequence containing the fossil fish using XRD, isotopic, SEM, thin section, and total organic carbon analysis. Nine quarries, 0.5-1 meter square, were excavated for both fossils and rock samples along with 17 additional rock sample locations across an approximately 25-kilometer square region. This investigation has the capability of reconstructing the paleoenvironment and lake chemistry of Fossil Lake during the deposition of the "ghost-fish" beds and solving the mystery of the "missing bones" and the unusual process of preservation.

  19. Population Gradients in Stellar Halos from GHOSTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailin, Jeremy; Monachesi, Antonela; Bell, Eric F.; de Jong, Roelof S.; Ghosts Survey

    2015-01-01

    We report on recent results from the Galaxy Halos, Outer disks, Substructure, Thick disks, and Star clusters (GHOSTS) survey, an HST ACS+WFC3 imaging survey to study stellar populations in and around 16 nearby spiral galaxies. By using HST resolution to resolve the stellar halos into individual red giant branch (RGB) stars, we are able to detect distinct stellar populations at several points throughout the halo of the half dozen massive highly-inclined galaxies in the sample. In approximately half of these galaxies, we detect a gradient in the color of the RGB; which we interpret as a metallicity gradient. Stellar halo formation models predict a wide variety of metallicity gradients: those in which the halos are dominated by stars formed in situ predict stronger gradients than we observe, while accretion-dominated halo models predict weaker or nonexistent gradients. Our measurements therefore provide a useful discriminator between stellar halo models, and at first look appear most consistent with the accretion-based model of Cooper et al. (2010).

  20. Troglitazone induces differentiation in Trypanosoma brucei

    SciTech Connect

    Denninger, Viola; Figarella, Katherine; Schoenfeld, Caroline; Brems, Stefanie; Busold, Christian; Lang, Florian; Hoheisel, Joerg; Duszenko, Michael . E-mail: michael.duszenko@uni-tuebingen.de

    2007-05-15

    Trypanosoma brucei, a protozoan parasite causing sleeping sickness, is transmitted by the tsetse fly and undergoes a complex lifecycle including several defined stages within the insect vector and its mammalian host. In the latter, differentiation from the long slender to the short stumpy form is induced by a yet unknown factor of trypanosomal origin. Here we describe that some thiazolidinediones are also able to induce differentiation. In higher eukaryotes, thiazolidinediones are involved in metabolism and differentiation processes mainly by binding to the intracellular receptor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor {gamma}. Our studies focus on the effects of troglitazone on bloodstream form trypanosomes. Differentiation was monitored using mitochondrial markers (membrane potential, succinate dehydrogenase activity, inhibition of oxygen uptake by KCN, amount of cytochrome transcripts), morphological changes (Transmission EM and light microscopy), and transformation experiments (loss of the Variant Surface Glycoprotein coat and increase of dihydroliponamide dehydrogenase activity). To further investigate the mechanisms responsible for these changes, microarray analyses were performed, showing an upregulation of expression site associated gene 8 (ESAG8), a potential differentiation regulator.

  1. Phosphatidylinositol kinase activities in Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes.

    PubMed

    Gimenez, Alba Marina; Gesumaría, María Celeste; Schoijet, Alejandra C; Alonso, Guillermo D; Flawiá, Mirtha M; Racagni, Graciela E; Machado, Estela E

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) metabolism through phosphatidylinositol kinase (PIKs) activities plays a central role in different signaling pathways. In Trypanosoma cruzi, causative agent of Chagas disease, PIKs have been proposed as target for drug design in order to combat this pathogen. In this work, we studied the classes of PI4K, PIPK and PI3K that could participate in signaling pathways in T. cruzi epimastigote forms. For this reason, we analyzed their enzymatic parameters and detailed responses to avowed kinase inhibitors (adenosine, sodium deoxycholate, wortmannin and LY294002) and activators (Ca(2+), phosphatidic acid, spermine and heparin). Our results suggest the presence and activity of a class III PI4K, a class I PIPK, a class III PI3K previously described (TcVps34) and a class I PI3K. Class I PI3K enzyme, here named TcPI3K, was cloned and expressed in a bacterial system, and their product was tested for kinase activity. The possible participation of TcPI3K in central cellular events of the parasite is also discussed.

  2. A Protein Complex Map of Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Vaibhav; Najafabadi, Hamed S.; Moshiri, Houtan; Jardim, Armando; Salavati, Reza

    2016-01-01

    The functions of the majority of trypanosomatid-specific proteins are unknown, hindering our understanding of the biology and pathogenesis of Trypanosomatida. While protein-protein interactions are highly informative about protein function, a global map of protein interactions and complexes is still lacking for these important human parasites. Here, benefiting from in-depth biochemical fractionation, we systematically interrogated the co-complex interactions of more than 3354 protein groups in procyclic life stage of Trypanosoma brucei, the protozoan parasite responsible for human African trypanosomiasis. Using a rigorous methodology, our analysis led to identification of 128 high-confidence complexes encompassing 716 protein groups, including 635 protein groups that lacked experimental annotation. These complexes correlate well with known pathways as well as for proteins co-expressed across the T. brucei life cycle, and provide potential functions for a large number of previously uncharacterized proteins. We validated the functions of several novel proteins associated with the RNA-editing machinery, identifying a candidate potentially involved in the mitochondrial post-transcriptional regulation of T. brucei. Our data provide an unprecedented view of the protein complex map of T. brucei, and serve as a reliable resource for further characterization of trypanosomatid proteins. The presented results in this study are available at: www.TrypsNetDB.org. PMID:26991453

  3. Troglitazone induces differentiation in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Denninger, Viola; Figarella, Katherine; Schönfeld, Caroline; Brems, Stefanie; Busold, Christian; Lang, Florian; Hoheisel, Jörg; Duszenko, Michael

    2007-05-15

    Trypanosoma brucei, a protozoan parasite causing sleeping sickness, is transmitted by the tsetse fly and undergoes a complex lifecycle including several defined stages within the insect vector and its mammalian host. In the latter, differentiation from the long slender to the short stumpy form is induced by a yet unknown factor of trypanosomal origin. Here we describe that some thiazolidinediones are also able to induce differentiation. In higher eukaryotes, thiazolidinediones are involved in metabolism and differentiation processes mainly by binding to the intracellular receptor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma. Our studies focus on the effects of troglitazone on bloodstream form trypanosomes. Differentiation was monitored using mitochondrial markers (membrane potential, succinate dehydrogenase activity, inhibition of oxygen uptake by KCN, amount of cytochrome transcripts), morphological changes (Transmission EM and light microscopy), and transformation experiments (loss of the Variant Surface Glycoprotein coat and increase of dihydroliponamide dehydrogenase activity). To further investigate the mechanisms responsible for these changes, microarray analyses were performed, showing an upregulation of expression site associated gene 8 (ESAG8), a potential differentiation regulator.

  4. Biosynthesis of very long chain fatty acids in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Livore, Verónica I; Uttaro, Antonio D

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma cruzi showed similar fatty acid (FA) compositions, having a high proportion of unsaturated FAs, mainly 18:2Δ9,12 (23-39%) and 18:1Δ9 (11-17%). C22 polyunsaturated FAs are in significant amounts only in T. brucei (12-20%) but represent a mere 2% of total FAs in T. cruzi. Both species have also similar profiles of medium- and long-chain saturated FAs, from 14:0 to 20:0. Interestingly, procyclic and bloodstream forms of T. brucei lack very long chain FAs (VLCFAs), whereas epimastigotes and trypomastigotes of T. cruzi contain 22:0 (0.1-0.2%), 24:0 (1.5-2%), and 26:0 (0.1-0.2%). This is in agreement with the presence of an additional FA elongase gene (TcELO4) in T. cruzi. TcELO4 was expressed in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant lacking the endogenous ScELO3, rescuing the synthesis of saturated and hydroxylated C26 FAs in the yeast. Expression of TcELO4 also rescued the synthetic lethality of a ScELO2, ScELO3 double mutation, and the VLCFA profile of the transformed yeast was similar to that found in T. cruzi. By identifying TcELO4 as the enzyme responsible for the elongation of FA from 16:0 and 18:0 up to 26:0, with 24:0 being the preferred product, this work completed the characterization of FA elongases in Trypanosoma spp.

  5. The role of Trypanosoma brucei MRPA in melarsoprol susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Alibu, Vincent P; Richter, Christina; Voncken, Frank; Marti, Gabriela; Shahi, Sanjay; Renggli, Christina Kunz; Seebeck, Thomas; Brun, Reto; Clayton, Christine

    2006-03-01

    We previously showed that over-expression of Trypanosoma brucei MRPA, a member of the multidrug resistance protein family in T. brucei, reproducibly resulted in resistance to the anti-trypanosomal drug melarsoprol in vitro. MRPA is predicted to mediate efflux of melarsoprol as a conjugate with trypanothione, a glutathione-spermidine conjugate which is the major small thiol in trypanosomes. Here, we show that depletion of MRPA by RNA interference resulted in moderate hypersensitivity to both melarsoprol and melarsen oxide. Over-expression of MRPA alone is not sufficient to cause melarsoprol resistance in vivo, although it is sufficient in vitro. This discrepancy is not an effect of drug metabolism since over-expression of MRPA alone conferred resistance to melarsoprol and its principle metabolite, melarsen oxide, in vitro. Over-expression of MRPA was not detected in four melarsoprol-resistant trypanosome isolates from sleeping sickness patients.

  6. Characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi telomerase.

    PubMed

    Campelo, Riward; Galindo, Maria Mercedes; Ramirez, Jose Luis

    2011-12-01

    High telomerase activity is always associated with actively dividing cells, however the detection of this activity in dividing Leishmania and Trypanosoma cruzi cells has always been disappointingly low. Recently, we have found that Leishmania major telomerase activity can be activated by heat, which combined with dilutions of the nuclear extracts produced an increase in activity comparable to cancer cells. Here we examined whether T. cruzi telomerase shares the same physicochemical properties of primer specificity and overall features of the L. major. Our studies revealed that no telomerase inhibitory factors were present in the nuclear lysates of T. cruzi however the enzyme was activated by heat and was very resilient to heat denaturation. We also showed the extension primer specificity, susceptibility to RNase-A and RNase-H digestion, and the effect of telomerase inhibitors.

  7. Protective immunity against Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Parodi, Cecilia; Padilla, Angel Marcelo; Basombrío, Miguel Angel

    2009-07-01

    Upon infection, Trypanosoma cruzi triggers a strong immune response that has both protective and pathological consequences. In this work, several important questions regarding protective immunity are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on recent studies of the important protective role of CD8+ T cells and on previous studies of immunisation of domestic T. cruzi reservoirs that sought to address practical vaccination problems. Research on the maturation of memory cells and studies indicating that the prevalence of T. cruzi-specific T-cell responses and a high frequency of committed CD8+ T cells are associated with better clinical outcomes are also reviewed. Additionally, animal models in which protection was achieved without immunopathological consequences are discussed.

  8. Application of joint orthogonal bases in compressive sensing ghost image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiang; Chen, Yi; Cheng, Zheng-dong; Liang, Zheng-yu; Zhu, Bin

    2016-11-01

    Sparse decomposition is one of the core issue of compressive sensing ghost image. At this stage, traditional methods still have the problems of poor sparsity and low reconstruction accuracy, such as discrete fourier transform and discrete cosine transform. In order to solve these problems, joint orthogonal bases transform is proposed to optimize ghost imaging. First, introduce the principle of compressive sensing ghost imaging and point out that sparsity is related to the minimum sample data required for imaging. Then, analyze the development and principle of joint orthogonal bases in detail and find out it can use less nonzero coefficients to reach the same identification effect as other methods. So, joint orthogonal bases transform is able to provide the sparsest representation. Finally, the experimental setup is built in order to verify simulation results. Experimental results indicate that the PSNR of joint orthogonal bases is much higher than traditional methods by using same sample data in compressive sensing ghost image.Therefore, joint orthogonal bases transform can realize better imaging quality under less sample data, which can satisfy the system requirements of convenience and rapid speed in ghost image.

  9. Interacting Generalized Ghost Dark Energy in Non-isotropic Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barati, F.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, the generalized Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) ghost model of dark energy in the framework of Einstein gravity is investigated. At first, the non-interacting generalized ghost dark energy in a Bianchi type I (BI) background is discussed. Then the equation of state parameter, ω D = p D / ρ D , the deceleration parameter, and the evolution equation of the generalized ghost dark energy are obtained. It was found that, in this case, ω D cannot cross the phantom line (ω D >-1) and eventually the universe approaches a de-Sitter phase of expansion (ω D →-1). Then, this investigation was extended to the interacting ghost dark energy in a non-isotropic universe. It was found that the equation of state parameter of the interacting generalized ghost dark energy can cross the phantom line (ω D <-1) provided the parameters of the model are chosen suitably. It was considered a specific model which permits the standard continuity equation in this theory. Besides ΩΛ and Ω m in standard Einstein cosmology, another density parameter, Ω σ , is expected by the anisotropy. The anisotropy of the universe decreases and the universe transits to an isotropic flat FRW universe accommodating the present acceleration.

  10. Prevalence of honorary and ghost authorship in Cochrane reviews.

    PubMed

    Mowatt, Graham; Shirran, Liz; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Rennie, Drummond; Flanagin, Annette; Yank, Veronica; MacLennan, Graeme; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Bero, Lisa A

    2002-06-05

    To determine the prevalence of honorary and ghost authorship in Cochrane reviews, how authorship is assigned, and the ways in which authors and Cochrane editorial teams contribute. Using a Web-based, self-administered survey, corresponding authors for 577 reviews published in issues 1 and 2 from 1999 of The Cochrane Library were invited to report on the prevalence of honorary and ghost authors, contributions by authors listed in the byline and members of Cochrane editorial teams, and identification of methods of assigning authorship. Responses were received for 362 reviews (63% response rate), which contained 913 authors. One hundred forty-one reviews (39%) had evidence of honorary authors, 32 (9%) had evidence of ghost authors (most commonly a member of the Cochrane editorial team), and 9 (2%) had evidence of both honorary and ghost authors. The editorial teams contributed in a wide variety of ways to 301 reviews (83%). Authorship was decided by the group of authors (31%) or lead author (25%) in most reviews. Authorship order was assigned according to contribution in most reviews (76%). The 3 functions contributed to most by those listed in the byline were assessing the quality of included studies (83%), interpreting data (82%), and abstracting data from included studies (77%). A substantial proportion of reviews had evidence of honorary and ghost authorship. The Cochrane editorial teams contributed to most Cochrane reviews.

  11. A Parallel Ghosting Algorithm for The Flexible Distributed Mesh Database

    DOE PAGES

    Mubarak, Misbah; Seol, Seegyoung; Lu, Qiukai; ...

    2013-01-01

    Critical to the scalability of parallel adaptive simulations are parallel control functions including load balancing, reduced inter-process communication and optimal data decomposition. In distributed meshes, many mesh-based applications frequently access neighborhood information for computational purposes which must be transmitted efficiently to avoid parallel performance degradation when the neighbors are on different processors. This article presents a parallel algorithm of creating and deleting data copies, referred to as ghost copies, which localize neighborhood data for computation purposes while minimizing inter-process communication. The key characteristics of the algorithm are: (1) It can create ghost copies of any permissible topological order inmore » a 1D, 2D or 3D mesh based on selected adjacencies. (2) It exploits neighborhood communication patterns during the ghost creation process thus eliminating all-to-all communication. (3) For applications that need neighbors of neighbors, the algorithm can create n number of ghost layers up to a point where the whole partitioned mesh can be ghosted. Strong and weak scaling results are presented for the IBM BG/P and Cray XE6 architectures up to a core count of 32,768 processors. The algorithm also leads to scalable results when used in a parallel super-convergent patch recovery error estimator, an application that frequently accesses neighborhood data to carry out computation.« less

  12. Study on the algorithm of computational ghost imaging based on discrete fourier transform measurement matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Leihong; Liang, Dong; Li, Bei; Kang, Yi; Pan, Zilan; Zhang, Dawei; Gao, Xiumin; Ma, Xiuhua

    2016-07-01

    On the basis of analyzing the cosine light field with determined analytic expression and the pseudo-inverse method, the object is illuminated by a presetting light field with a determined discrete Fourier transform measurement matrix, and the object image is reconstructed by the pseudo-inverse method. The analytic expression of the algorithm of computational ghost imaging based on discrete Fourier transform measurement matrix is deduced theoretically, and compared with the algorithm of compressive computational ghost imaging based on random measurement matrix. The reconstruction process and the reconstruction error are analyzed. On this basis, the simulation is done to verify the theoretical analysis. When the sampling measurement number is similar to the number of object pixel, the rank of discrete Fourier transform matrix is the same as the one of the random measurement matrix, the PSNR of the reconstruction image of FGI algorithm and PGI algorithm are similar, the reconstruction error of the traditional CGI algorithm is lower than that of reconstruction image based on FGI algorithm and PGI algorithm. As the decreasing of the number of sampling measurement, the PSNR of reconstruction image based on FGI algorithm decreases slowly, and the PSNR of reconstruction image based on PGI algorithm and CGI algorithm decreases sharply. The reconstruction time of FGI algorithm is lower than that of other algorithms and is not affected by the number of sampling measurement. The FGI algorithm can effectively filter out the random white noise through a low-pass filter and realize the reconstruction denoising which has a higher denoising capability than that of the CGI algorithm. The FGI algorithm can improve the reconstruction accuracy and the reconstruction speed of computational ghost imaging.

  13. Image-based method for automated phase correction of ghost.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunxiao; Luo, Limin; Tao, Hua; Wang, Shijie

    2005-01-01

    One of the most common artifacts for echo planar imaging is the ghost artifact, typically overcome with the aid of a reference scan preceding the actual image acquisition. In this work, we describe an automated free-scan-reference method for reducing ghost artifact using image-based correction. The two dimensional Fourier transformation of an entire data of image matrix is used to reconstruct two new images, one is reconstructed only by even rows, the other is only by odd rows, with the remaining ones zero-filled. Phase shift between even echoes and odd echoes can be computed by using the two images. Unwrapped phase shift gained by Marquardt-Levenber unlinear fitting can be used to suppress the ghost effectively.

  14. Ghost anomalous dimension in asymptotically safe quantum gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Eichhorn, Astrid; Gies, Holger

    2010-05-15

    We compute the ghost anomalous dimension within the asymptotic-safety scenario for quantum gravity. For a class of covariant gauge fixings and using a functional renormalization group scheme, the anomalous dimension {eta}{sub c} is negative, implying an improved UV behavior of ghost fluctuations. At the non-Gaussian UV fixed point, we observe a maximum value of {eta}{sub c{approx_equal}}-0.78 for the Landau-deWitt gauge within the given scheme and truncation. Most importantly, the backreaction of the ghost flow onto the Einstein-Hilbert sector preserves the non-Gaussian fixed point with only mild modifications of the fixed-point values for the gravitational coupling and cosmological constant and the associated critical exponents; also their gauge dependence is slightly reduced. Our results provide further evidence for the asymptotic-safety scenario of quantum gravity.

  15. Two-color ghost imaging with enhanced angular resolving power

    SciTech Connect

    Karmakar, Sanjit; Shih, Yanhua

    2010-03-15

    This article reports an experimental demonstration on nondegenerate, two-color, biphoton ghost imaging which reproduced a ghost image with enhanced angular resolving power by means of a greater field of view compared with that of classical imaging. With the same imaging magnification, the enhanced angular resolving power and field of view compared with those of classical imaging are 1.25:1 and 1.16:1, respectively. The enhancement of angular resolving power depends on the ratio between the idler and the signal photon frequencies, and the enhancement of the field of view depends mainly on the same ratio and also on the distances of the object plane and the imaging lens from the two-photon source. This article also reports the possibility of reproducing a ghost image with the enhancement of the angular resolving power by means of a greater imaging amplification compared with that of classical imaging.

  16. Ghost removing for HDR real-time video stream generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouderbane, Mustapha; Dubois, Julien; Heyrman, Barthélémy; Lapray, Pierre-Jean; Ginhac, Dominique

    2016-04-01

    High dynamic range (HDR) imaging generation from a set of low dynamic range images taken in different exposure times is a low cost and an easy technique. This technique provides a good result for static scenes. Temporal exposure bracketing cannot be applied directly for dynamic scenes, since camera or object motion in bracketed exposures creates ghosts in the resulting HDR image. In this paper we describe a real-time ghost removing hardware implementation on high dynamic range video ow added for our HDR FPGA based smart camera which is able to provide full resolution (1280 x 1024) HDR video stream at 60 fps. We present experimental results to show the efficiency of our implemented method in ghost removing.

  17. Quantum ghost image identification with correlated photon pairs.

    PubMed

    Malik, Mehul; Shin, Heedeuk; O'Sullivan, Malcolm; Zerom, Petros; Boyd, Robert W

    2010-04-23

    Ghost imaging can be performed using either quantum or classical states of light that possess strong spatial correlations. In both cases, the image is formed by averaging over many optical events. Here we show that it is possible to distinguish an object from a preestablished basis set of objects by using a small number of position-correlated photon pairs produced by spontaneous parametric down-conversion. The signal photon is incident on one member of a set of spatially nonoverlapping objects. The "ghost" image information is impressed upon the spatially separated idler photon and is extracted by means of holographic filtering and coincidence detection. We were able to distinguish among sets of two and four spatially nonoverlapping objects with confidence levels higher than 87% and 81%, respectively. This method of ghost imaging can be performed in situations requiring extremely low light levels.

  18. Modelling of classical ghost images obtained using scattered light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosby, S.; Castelletto, S.; Aruldoss, C.; Scholten, R. E.; Roberts, A.

    2007-08-01

    The images obtained in ghost imaging with pseudo-thermal light sources are highly dependent on the spatial coherence properties of the incident light. Pseudo-thermal light is often created by reducing the coherence length of a coherent source by passing it through a turbid mixture of scattering spheres. We describe a model for simulating ghost images obtained with such partially coherent light, using a wave-transport model to calculate the influence of the scattering on initially coherent light. The model is able to predict important properties of the pseudo-thermal source, such as the coherence length and the amplitude of the residual unscattered component of the light which influence the resolution and visibility of the final ghost image. We show that the residual ballistic component introduces an additional background in the reconstructed image, and the spatial resolution obtainable depends on the size of the scattering spheres.

  19. The preparation of human red cell ghosts containing calcium buffers.

    PubMed Central

    Simons, T J

    1976-01-01

    1. Ca buffers may be introduced into human red cells by reversible haemolysis. The resealed ghosts retain Ca and chelating anions in the same ratio as in the haemolysing solution, enabling the intracellular Ca2+ concentration to be calculated simply. 2. The passive permeability of the ghosts to Na and Cl is unaffected by intracellular Ca2+ concentrations in the 10(-8)-10(-4) M range, whereas the K permeability is greatly increased at concentrations above 10(-7) M. 3. These preparations enable Ca-dependent K movements to be studied under stable conditions. When the ghosts contain about 5 X 10(-6) M-Ca2+, over 96% of K transport occurs via the Ca-sensitive route. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:933031

  20. Optical secure image verification system based on ghost imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jingjing; Haobogedewude, Buyinggaridi; Liu, Zhengjun; Liu, Shutian

    2017-09-01

    The ghost imaging can perform Fourier-space filtering by tailoring the configuration. We proposed a novel optical secure image verification system based on this theory with the help of phase matched filtering. In the verification process, the system key and the ID card which contain the information of the correct image and the information to be verified are put in the reference and the test paths, respectively. We demonstrate that the ghost imaging configuration can perform an incoherent correlation between the system key and the ID card. The correct verification manifests itself with a correlation peak in the ghost image. The primary image and the image to be verified are encrypted and encoded into pure phase masks beforehand for security. Multi-image secure verifications can also be implemented in the proposed system.

  1. Quercetin, a fluorescent bioflavanoid, inhibits Trypanosoma brucei hexokinase 1

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, Heidi C.; Lyda, Todd L.; Chambers, Jeremy W.; Morris, Meredith T.; Christensen, Kenneth A.; Morris, James C.

    2010-01-01

    Hexokinases from the African trypanosome, Trypanosoma brucei, are attractive targets for the development of anti-parasitic drugs, in part because the parasite utilizes glycolysis exclusively for ATP production during the mammalian infection. Here, we have demonstrated that the bioflavanoid quercetin (QCN), a known trypanocide, is a mixed inhibitor of Trypanosoma brucei hexokinase 1 (TbHK1) (IC50 = 4.1 ± 0.8 μM). Spectroscopic analysis of QCN binding to TbHK1, taking advantage of the intrinsically fluorescent single tryptophan (Trp177) in TbHK1, revealed that QCN quenches emission of Trp177, which is located near the hinge region of the enzyme. ATP similarly quenched Trp177 emission, while glucose had no impact on fluorescence. Supporting the possibility that QCN toxicity is a consequence of inhibition of the essential hexokinase, in live parasites QCN fluorescence localizes to glycosomes, the subcellular home of TbHK1. Additionally, RNAi-mediated silencing of TbHK1 expression expedited QCN induced death, while over-expressing TbHK1 protected trypanosomes from the compound. In summary, these observations support the suggestion that QCN toxicity is in part attributable to inhibition of the essential TbHK1. PMID:20971104

  2. Mapping of VSG similarities in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Weirather, Jason L; Wilson, Mary E; Donelson, John E

    2012-02-01

    The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei switches its variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) to subvert its mammalian hosts' immune responses. The T. brucei genome contains as many as 1600 VSG genes (VSGs), but most are silent noncoding pseudogenes. Only one functional VSG, located in a telomere-linked expression site, is transcribed at a time. Silent VSGs are copied into a VSG expression site through gene conversion. Truncated gene conversion events can generate new mosaic VSGs with segments of sequence identity to other VSGs. To examine the VSG family sub-structure within which these events occur, we combined the available VSG sequences and annotations with scripted BLAST searches to map the relationships among VSGs in the T. brucei genome. Clusters of related VSGs were visualized in 2- and 3-dimensions for different N- and C-terminal regions. Five types of N-termini (N1-N5) were observed, within which gene recombinational events are likely to occur, often with fully-coding 'functional' or 'atypical'VSGs centrally located between more dissimilar VSGs. Members of types N1, N3 and N4 are most closely related in the middle of the N-terminal region, whereas type N2 members are more similar near the N-terminus. Some preference occurs in pairing between specific N- and C-terminal types. Statistical analyses indicated no overall tendency for more related VSGs to be located closer in the genome than less related VSGs, although exceptions were noted. Many potential mosaic gene formation events within each N-terminal type were identified, contrasted by only one possible mosaic gene formation between N-terminal types (N1 and N2). These data suggest that mosaic gene formation is a major contributor to the overall VSG diversity, even though gene recombinational events between members of different N-terminal types occur only rarely.

  3. Ghost Condensation and Modification of Gravity at Long distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luty, Markus

    2004-05-01

    This talk will describe the physics of a "ghost condensate", a new kind of cosmological fluid that can fill the universe and give rise to novel gravitational effects. The fluid has a preferred rest frame, but is nonetheless compatible with maximally symmetric spacetimes such as flat space or de Sitter. In the presence of a ghost condensate, gravity is modified in a nontrivial way at large distances and late times. New phenomena include new contributions to dark energy and dark matter, antigravity, new spin-dependent forces, and oscillatory potentials. All of this new physics can be described by a completely explicit and consistent effective field theory.

  4. Fractional Fourier transform in temporal ghost imaging with classical light

    SciTech Connect

    Setaelae, Tero; Shirai, Tomohiro; Friberg, Ari T.

    2010-10-15

    We investigate temporal, second-order classical ghost imaging with long, incoherent, scalar plane-wave pulses. We prove that in rather general conditions, the intensity correlation function at the output of the setup is given by the fractional Fourier transform of the temporal object. In special cases, the correlation function is shown to reduce to the ordinary Fourier transform and the temporal image of the object. Effects influencing the visibility and the resolution are considered. This work extends certain known results on spatial ghost imaging into the time domain and could find applications in temporal tomography of pulses.

  5. Ghost imaging for three-dimensional optical security

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wen Chen, Xudong

    2013-11-25

    Ghost imaging has become increasingly popular in quantum and optical application fields. Here, we report three-dimensional (3D) optical security using ghost imaging. The series of random phase-only masks are sparsified, which are further converted into particle-like distributions placed in 3D space. We show that either an optical or digital approach can be employed for the encoding. The results illustrate that a larger key space can be generated due to the application of 3D space compared with previous works.

  6. Ghost free systems with coexisting bosons and fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Rampei; Sakakihara, Yuki; Yamaguchi, Masahide

    2017-08-01

    We study the coexistence system of both bosonic and fermionic degrees of freedom. Even if a Lagrangian does not include higher derivatives, fermionic ghosts exist. For a Lagrangian with up to first derivatives, we find the fermionic ghost free condition in Hamiltonian analysis, which is found to be the same as requiring that the equations of motion of fermions be first order in Lagrangian formulation. When fermionic degrees of freedom are present, the uniqueness of time evolution is not guaranteed a priori because of the Grassmann property. We confirm that the additional condition, which is introduced to close Hamiltonian analysis, also ensures the uniqueness of the time evolution of the system.

  7. Mapping the ghost free bigravity into braneworld setup

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, Yasuho; Tanaka, Takahiro E-mail: tanaka@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2014-06-01

    We discuss whether or not bigravity theory can be embedded into the braneworld setup. As a candidate, we consider Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati two-brane model with the Goldberger-Wise radion stabilization. We will show that we can construct a ghost free model whose low energy spectrum is composed of a massless graviton and a massive graviton with a small mass. As is expected, the behavior of this effective theory is shown to be identical to the ghost free bigravity. Unfortunately, this correspondence breaks down at a relatively low energy due to the limitation of the adopted stabilization mechanism.

  8. Ghost-free, finite, fourth-order D = 3 gravity.

    PubMed

    Deser, S

    2009-09-04

    Canonical analysis of a recently proposed linear + quadratic curvature gravity model in D = 3 establishes its pure, irreducibly fourth derivative, quadratic curvature limit as both ghost-free and power-counting UV finite, thereby maximally violating standard folklore. This limit is representative of a generic class whose kinetic terms are conformally invariant in any dimension, but it is unique in simultaneously avoiding the transverse-traceless graviton ghosts plaguing D > 3 quadratic actions as well as double pole propagators in its other variables. While the two-term model is also unitary, its additional mode's second-derivative nature forfeits finiteness.

  9. Universal behavior of gluon and ghost propagators in the infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siringo, Fabio

    2017-03-01

    A universal behavior is predicted for ghost and gluon propagators in the infrared. The universal behavior is shown to be a signature of a one-loop approximation and emerges naturally by the massive expansion that predicts universal analytical functions for the inverse dressing functions that do not depend on any parameter or color number. By a scaling of units and by adding an integration constant, all lattice data, for different color numbers (and even quark content for the ghosts), collapse on the same universal curves predicted by the massive expansion.

  10. Characterization of the M32 metallocarboxypeptidase of Trypanosoma brucei: differences and similarities with its orthologue in Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Frasch, Alejandra P.; Carmona, Adriana K.; Juliano, Luiz; Cazzulo, Juan J.; Niemirowicz, Gabriela T.

    2012-01-01

    Metallocarboxypeptidases (MCP) of the M32 family of peptidases have been identified in a number of prokaryotic organisms but they are absent from eukaryotic genomes with the remarkable exception of those of trypanosomatids. The genome of Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of Sleeping Sickness, encodes one such MCP which displays 72% identity to the characterized TcMCP-1 from Trypanosoma cruzi. As its orthologue, TcMCP-1, Trypanosoma brucei MCP is a cytosolic enzyme expressed in both major stages of the parasite. Purified recombinant TbMCP-1 exhibits a significant hydrolytic activity against the carboxypeptidase B substrate FA (furylacryloil)-Ala-Lys at pH 7.0–7.8 resembling the T. cruzi enzyme. S everal divalent cations had little effect on TbMCP-1 activity but increasing amounts of Co2+ inhibited the enzyme. Despite having similar tertiary structure, both protozoan MCPs display different substrate specificity with respect to P1 position. Thus, TcMCP-1 enzyme cleaved Abz-FVK-(Dnp)-OH substrate (where Abz: o-aminobenzoic acid and Dnp: 2,4-dinitrophenyl) whereas TbMCP-1 had no activity on this substrate. Comparative homology models and sequence alignments using TcMCP-1 as a template led us to map several residues that could explain this difference. To verify this hypothesis, site-directed mutagenesis was undertaken replacing the TbMCP-1 residues by those present in TcMCP-1. We found that the substitution A414M led TbMCP-1 to gain activity on Abz-FVK-(Dnp)-OH, thus showing that this residue is involved in specificity determination, probably being part of the S1 sub-site. Moreover, the activity of both protozoan MCPs was explored on two vasoactive compounds such as bradykinin and angiotensin I resulting in two different hydrolysis patterns. PMID:22575602

  11. Theoretical scheme of thermal-light many-ghost imaging by Nth-order intensity correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yingchuan; Kuang Leman

    2011-05-15

    In this paper, we propose a theoretical scheme of many-ghost imaging in terms of Nth-order correlated thermal light. We obtain the Gaussian thin lens equations in the many-ghost imaging protocol. We show that it is possible to produce N-1 ghost images of an object at different places in a nonlocal fashion by means of a higher order correlated imaging process with an Nth-order correlated thermal source and correlation measurements. We investigate the visibility of the ghost images in the scheme and obtain the upper bounds of the visibility for the Nth-order correlated thermal-light ghost imaging. It is found that the visibility of the ghost images can be dramatically enhanced when the order of correlation becomes larger. It is pointed out that the many-ghost imaging phenomenon is an observable physical effect induced by higher order coherence or higher order correlations of optical fields.

  12. Harriot, Digges, and the Ghost in Hamlet.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usher, P. D.

    1998-12-01

    The cosmic allegorical interpretation of Hamlet (BAAS 28, 1305, 1996; 29, 1262, 1997; Giornale di Astronomia 24:3, 27, 1998) may be regarded as a Galilean postulatum with testable consequences. It associates leading characters in the play with cosmologists from the time of Ptolemy (Claudius) to Tycho Brahe (Rosencrantz and Guildenstern) and Thomas Digges (Hamlet). Lines 3.3.8-23 describe how the concepts of geocentricism and the sphere of fixed stars shared by the Ptolemaic and Tychonic models are imperiled by the Infinite Universe of Digges. Hitherto baffling lines 5.2.100-125 list in short order at least 16 attributes of Thomas Harriot, including his short bibliography (``soul of great article'') which may explain why he receives mention only in passing. The Ghost is Thomas Digges' father Leonard, who is a ``mole'' in the ``cellarage.'' That Leonard may have gone underground following restoration of his lands is supported by the range of years (1559-1574) of his alleged death, and conspicuous absence of a gravesite. Circumstances of his disappearance have remained mysterious (N&Q 2:X, 162, 1860; 6:X, 368, 515, 1884; 8:V, 186, 1894.) I suggest that, having been saved from execution and restored to gentility, he continued to work, writing in the tradition of his confrere's father Thomas Wyatt, Sr. who pioneered the English sonnet. The first Dowden series of sonnets reflects his love for his only child. The history of the perspective glass explains lines in Sonnets 14 and 103 (``my blunt invention'') and in the I.M.S. encomium wherein he did ``rowle back the heavens'' with a ``cleere and equall surface'' that is ``reflecting ages past.'' A portrait of Tycho helps date Sonnet 16 to between 1581 and 1585. Sonnets 18 and 87 would date to 1583 and 1595. Allusions to old age are not surprising. I.M.'s words: ``Wee wondred (Shake-speare) that thou went'st so soone'' and ``An Actors Art, can dye, and liue to acte a second part'' are explained, as are sources for The

  13. Witches, Ghosts, and Other Apparitions (Rainbow Teachers, Rainbow Students).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz, MaryCarmen; Duff, Ogle Burks

    1996-01-01

    Describes a number of ghost stories from American cultures, all of which, despite their different origins, seek to stimulate horror, escapism, and fantastic pleasure. Suggests that the stories may be used to improve reading and writing and incorporate "rainbow" themes in the classroom. (TB)

  14. Relevance of Web Documents:Ghosts Consensus Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorbunov, Andrey L.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to improve the quality of Internet search systems and introduces the Ghosts Consensus Method which is free from the drawbacks of digital democracy algorithms and is based on linear programming tasks. Highlights include vector space models; determining relevant documents; and enriching query terms. (LRW)

  15. Relevance of Web Documents:Ghosts Consensus Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorbunov, Andrey L.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to improve the quality of Internet search systems and introduces the Ghosts Consensus Method which is free from the drawbacks of digital democracy algorithms and is based on linear programming tasks. Highlights include vector space models; determining relevant documents; and enriching query terms. (LRW)

  16. Teen Girls' Resistance and the Disappearing Social in "Ghost World."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Henry A.

    2002-01-01

    Examines "Ghost World," a Hollywood film about youth, friendship, alienation, and survival, critically investigating how popular representations of youth signal a particular crisis of the social through a discourse of privatization, which fails to locate youth and problems they face within the related geographies of the social and political. The…

  17. High Speed Computational Ghost Imaging via Spatial Sweeping

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuwang; Liu, Yang; Suo, Jinli; Situ, Guohai; Qiao, Chang; Dai, Qionghai

    2017-01-01

    Computational ghost imaging (CGI) achieves single-pixel imaging by using a Spatial Light Modulator (SLM) to generate structured illuminations for spatially resolved information encoding. The imaging speed of CGI is limited by the modulation frequency of available SLMs, and sets back its practical applications. This paper proposes to bypass this limitation by trading off SLM’s redundant spatial resolution for multiplication of the modulation frequency. Specifically, a pair of galvanic mirrors sweeping across the high resolution SLM multiply the modulation frequency within the spatial resolution gap between SLM and the final reconstruction. A proof-of-principle setup with two middle end galvanic mirrors achieves ghost imaging as fast as 42 Hz at 80 × 80-pixel resolution, 5 times faster than state-of-the-arts, and holds potential for one magnitude further multiplication by hardware upgrading. Our approach brings a significant improvement in the imaging speed of ghost imaging and pushes ghost imaging towards practical applications. PMID:28358010

  18. Ghost fringe removal techniques using Lissajous data presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Erskine, David J.; Eggert, J. H.; Celliers, P. M.; Hicks, D. G.

    2016-03-14

    A VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector) is a Dopplervelocity interferometer which is an important optical diagnostic in shockwave experiments at the national laboratories, used to measureequation of state(EOS) of materials under extreme conditions. Unwanted reflection of laser light from target windows can produce an additional component to the VISAR fringe record that can distort and obscure the true velocity signal. When accurately removing this so-called ghost artifact component is essential for achieving high accuracy EOSmeasurements, especially when the true light signal is only weakly reflected from the shock front. Independent of the choice of algorithm for processing the raw data into a complex fringe signal, we have found it beneficial to plot this signal as a Lissajous and seek the proper center of this path, even under time varying intensity which can shift the perceived center. Moreover, the ghost contribution is then solved by a simple translation in the complex plane that recenters the Lissajous path. For continuous velocity histories, we find that plotting the fringe magnitude vs nonfringing intensity and optimizing linearity is an invaluable tool for determining accurate ghost offsets. For discontinuous velocity histories, we have developed graphically inspired methods which relate the results of two VISARs having different velocity per fringe proportionalities or assumptions of constant fringe magnitude to find the ghost offset. The technique can also remove window reflection artifacts in generic interferometers, such as in the metrology of surfaces.

  19. Contribution of ghost and narcissus effects in MTF calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arasa, Josep; Pizarro, Carlos; Tomas, Nuria; Diaz, Jose A.

    1999-08-01

    The MTF is a parameter used for quality analysis of a system in optical design. In optical design, this parameter is usually obtained without taking into account energy losses and ghost and narcissus effects. The proposed method to calculate MTF with this contribution has the same structure than traditional method. This one is based on ray tracing to obtain the PSF of the optical system, and then apply the Fourier transform to obtain MTF. The method we propose has three modifications from the traditional method: it uses a non-sequential ray tracing, it includes samples structures in the process to obtain the PSF and it also includes energy looses in the PSF function. In this work, we present the influence of and ghost and narcissus effects in MTF for a triplet system proposed by M. Laikin. We have obtained the traditional MTF with commercial available software Beam4, and our method without inclusion of ghost and narcissus effects. Also we have compared all results obtained with those that M. Laikin gives. Finally we have obtained the MTF with the contribution of ghost and narcissus effects using our proposed method.

  20. Ghost fringe removal techniques using Lissajous data presentation.

    PubMed

    Erskine, David J; Eggert, J H; Celliers, P M; Hicks, D G

    2016-03-01

    A VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector) is a Doppler velocity interferometer which is an important optical diagnostic in shockwave experiments at the national laboratories, used to measure equation of state (EOS) of materials under extreme conditions. Unwanted reflection of laser light from target windows can produce an additional component to the VISAR fringe record that can distort and obscure the true velocity signal. Accurately removing this so-called ghost artifact component is essential for achieving high accuracy EOS measurements, especially when the true light signal is only weakly reflected from the shock front. Independent of the choice of algorithm for processing the raw data into a complex fringe signal, we have found it beneficial to plot this signal as a Lissajous and seek the proper center of this path, even under time varying intensity which can shift the perceived center. The ghost contribution is then solved by a simple translation in the complex plane that recenters the Lissajous path. For continuous velocity histories, we find that plotting the fringe magnitude vs nonfringing intensity and optimizing linearity is an invaluable tool for determining accurate ghost offsets. For discontinuous velocity histories, we have developed graphically inspired methods which relate the results of two VISARs having different velocity per fringe proportionalities or assumptions of constant fringe magnitude to find the ghost offset. The technique can also remove window reflection artifacts in generic interferometers, such as in the metrology of surfaces.

  1. Ghost fringe removal techniques using Lissajous data presentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erskine, David J.; Eggert, J. H.; Celliers, P. M.; Hicks, D. G.

    2016-03-01

    A VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector) is a Doppler velocity interferometer which is an important optical diagnostic in shockwave experiments at the national laboratories, used to measure equation of state (EOS) of materials under extreme conditions. Unwanted reflection of laser light from target windows can produce an additional component to the VISAR fringe record that can distort and obscure the true velocity signal. Accurately removing this so-called ghost artifact component is essential for achieving high accuracy EOS measurements, especially when the true light signal is only weakly reflected from the shock front. Independent of the choice of algorithm for processing the raw data into a complex fringe signal, we have found it beneficial to plot this signal as a Lissajous and seek the proper center of this path, even under time varying intensity which can shift the perceived center. The ghost contribution is then solved by a simple translation in the complex plane that recenters the Lissajous path. For continuous velocity histories, we find that plotting the fringe magnitude vs nonfringing intensity and optimizing linearity is an invaluable tool for determining accurate ghost offsets. For discontinuous velocity histories, we have developed graphically inspired methods which relate the results of two VISARs having different velocity per fringe proportionalities or assumptions of constant fringe magnitude to find the ghost offset. The technique can also remove window reflection artifacts in generic interferometers, such as in the metrology of surfaces.

  2. Ghost fringe removal techniques using Lissajous data presentation

    DOE PAGES

    Erskine, David J.; Eggert, J. H.; Celliers, P. M.; ...

    2016-03-14

    A VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector) is a Dopplervelocity interferometer which is an important optical diagnostic in shockwave experiments at the national laboratories, used to measureequation of state(EOS) of materials under extreme conditions. Unwanted reflection of laser light from target windows can produce an additional component to the VISAR fringe record that can distort and obscure the true velocity signal. When accurately removing this so-called ghost artifact component is essential for achieving high accuracy EOSmeasurements, especially when the true light signal is only weakly reflected from the shock front. Independent of the choice of algorithm for processing themore » raw data into a complex fringe signal, we have found it beneficial to plot this signal as a Lissajous and seek the proper center of this path, even under time varying intensity which can shift the perceived center. Moreover, the ghost contribution is then solved by a simple translation in the complex plane that recenters the Lissajous path. For continuous velocity histories, we find that plotting the fringe magnitude vs nonfringing intensity and optimizing linearity is an invaluable tool for determining accurate ghost offsets. For discontinuous velocity histories, we have developed graphically inspired methods which relate the results of two VISARs having different velocity per fringe proportionalities or assumptions of constant fringe magnitude to find the ghost offset. The technique can also remove window reflection artifacts in generic interferometers, such as in the metrology of surfaces.« less

  3. Suppressing Ghost Diffraction in E-Beam-Written Gratings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Daniel; Backlund, Johan

    2009-01-01

    A modified scheme for electron-beam (E-beam) writing used in the fabrication of convex or concave diffraction gratings makes it possible to suppress the ghost diffraction heretofore exhibited by such gratings. Ghost diffraction is a spurious component of diffraction caused by a spurious component of grating periodicity as described below. The ghost diffraction orders appear between the main diffraction orders and are typically more intense than is the diffuse scattering from the grating. At such high intensity, ghost diffraction is the dominant source of degradation of grating performance. The pattern of a convex or concave grating is established by electron-beam writing in a resist material coating a substrate that has the desired convex or concave shape. Unfortunately, as a result of the characteristics of electrostatic deflectors used to control the electron beam, it is possible to expose only a small field - typically between 0.5 and 1.0 mm wide - at a given fixed position of the electron gun relative to the substrate. To make a grating larger than the field size, it is necessary to move the substrate to make it possible to write fields centered at different positions, so that the larger area is synthesized by "stitching" the exposed fields.

  4. Teen Girls' Resistance and the Disappearing Social in "Ghost World."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Henry A.

    2002-01-01

    Examines "Ghost World," a Hollywood film about youth, friendship, alienation, and survival, critically investigating how popular representations of youth signal a particular crisis of the social through a discourse of privatization, which fails to locate youth and problems they face within the related geographies of the social and political. The…

  5. More on ghosts in the Dvali-Gabadaze-Porrati model

    SciTech Connect

    Gorbunov, Dmitry; Sibiryakov, Sergei; Koyama, Kazuya

    2006-02-15

    It is shown by an explicit calculation that the excitations about the self-accelerating cosmological solution of the Dvali-Gabadaze-Porrati model contain a ghost mode. This raises serious doubts about viability of this solution. Our analysis reveals the similarity between the quadratic theory for the perturbations around the self-accelerating universe and an Abelian gauge model with two Stueckelberg fields.

  6. Inflation with a Weyl term, or ghosts at work

    SciTech Connect

    Deruelle, Nathalie; Youssef, Ahmed; Sasaki, Misao; Sendouda, Yuuiti E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp E-mail: ahmed.youssef@apc.univ-paris7.fr

    2011-03-01

    In order to assess the role of ghosts in cosmology, we study the evolution of linear cosmological perturbations during inflation when a Weyl term is added to the action. Our main results are that vector perturbations can no longer be ignored and that scalar modes diverge in the newtonian gauge but remain bounded in the comoving slicing.

  7. Witches, Ghosts, and Other Apparitions (Rainbow Teachers, Rainbow Students).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz, MaryCarmen; Duff, Ogle Burks

    1996-01-01

    Describes a number of ghost stories from American cultures, all of which, despite their different origins, seek to stimulate horror, escapism, and fantastic pleasure. Suggests that the stories may be used to improve reading and writing and incorporate "rainbow" themes in the classroom. (TB)

  8. What happens when Trypanosoma brucei leaves Africa.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Robert E; Simpson, Larry; Englund, Paul T

    2008-10-01

    Julius Lukes and co-workers evaluated the evolutionary origin of Trypanosoma equiperdum and Trypanosoma evansi, parasites that cause horse and camel diseases. Although similar to T. brucei, the sleeping-sickness parasite, these trypanosomes do not cycle through the tsetse fly and have been able to spread beyond Africa. Transmission occurs sexually, or via blood-sucking flies or vampire bats. They concluded that these parasites, which resemble yeast petite mutants, are T. brucei sub-species, which have evolved recently through changes in mitochondrial DNA.

  9. Inositolphosphoceramide Metabolism in Trypanosoma cruzi as Compared to other Trypanosomatids

    PubMed Central

    DE LEDERKREMER, ROSA M.; AGUSTI, ROSALÍA; DOCAMPO, ROBERTO

    2012-01-01

    Chagas disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and is endemic to North, Central and South American countries. Current therapy against this disease is only partially effective and produces adverse side effects. Studies on the metabolic pathways of T. cruzi, in particular those with no equivalent in mammalian cells, might identify targets for the development of new drugs. Ceramide is metabolized to inositolphosphoceramide (IPC) in T. cruzi and other kinetoplastid protists whereas in mammals it is mainly incorporated into sphingomyelin. In T. cruzi, in contrast to Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania spp., IPC functions as lipid anchor constituent of glycoproteins and free glycosylinositolphospholipids (GIPLs). Inhibition of IPC and GIPLs biosynthesis impairs differentiation of trypomastigotes into the intracellular amastigote forms. The gene encoding IPC synthase in T. cruzi has been identified and the enzyme has been expressed in a cell-free system. The enzyme involved in IPC degradation and the remodelases responsible for the incorporation of ceramide into free GIPLs or into the glycosylphosphatidyl inositols (GPIs) anchoring glycoproteins, and in fatty acid modifications of these molecules of T. cruzi have been understudied. IPC metabolism and remodeling could be exploited as targets for Chagas disease chemotherapy. PMID:21332877

  10. Wavelength-multiplexed ghost imaging in time (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryczkowski, Piotr; Genty, Goëry; Barbier, Margaux; Friberg, Ari T.; Dudley, John M.

    2017-02-01

    Ghost imaging is an optical technique that produces the image of an object by correlating the total amount of light transmitted through the object with the random intensity pattern that the object is irradiated with. When the technique is used with incoherent light sources, characterized by random temporal intensity fluctuations, it requires recording a very large number of distinct realizations to obtain a faithful image reproduction. In order to significantly reduce the number of realizations, one can use pre-programmed known patterns, so-called computational ghost imaging. Recently, ghost imaging was transposed into the time-domain to image ultrafast varying waveforms. Here, we report on a novel proof-of-concept experiment of computational ghost imaging in the time domain using wavelength multiplexing. By encoding different time-varying intensity patterns onto separate wavelength channels, we can perform simultaneous measurement of multiple realizations. This allows us to perform ghost imaging in real-time, without the need of probing the time-varying object repeatedly. Specifically, we use a programmable spectral filter to encode a set of 32 Hadamard-like time-varying intensity patterns onto a broadband LED light source. An electro-optic intensity modulator driven by an electrical waveform is used to create the time-varying object to be measured. The object is then reconstructed "blindly" by correlating the time-averaged transmission of each wavelength channels with the digitized form of the time-varying Hadamard patterns that illuminate the object. The temporal resolution of the measurement is currently to 0.5 s limited by the speed at which the variable spectral filter can be manipulated.

  11. AXAF-I ghost ray study: On orbit case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaetz, T. J.

    1993-01-01

    The problem of baffles for control of singly reflected (and nonreflected) ghost rays is considered. The theory of baffle design for Wolter Type I grazing incidence optics is reviewed, and a set of sample baffle parameters is obtained subject to the assumptions of nominal mirror figures and perfect manufacture and alignment of baffles. It is found that baffles forward of the optics (in the thermal precollimator) and between the mirror elements (at the CAP) are sufficient to allow the simultaneous ghost image and vignetting requirements to be satisfied for HRMA shells P1H1, P3H3, and P4H4. However, these baffles are not sufficient for the innermost shell P6H6; at best the requirements are slightly violated and there is no margin for tolerances. The addition of a baffle interior to the P6 space at an axial station about one third of the way forward from the aft end of the paraboloid will allow the ghost ray and vignetting requirements to be met. The minimum ghost ray angles and the vignetting angles are sensitive functions of the baffle positions and radii; tolerances of considerably better than 1 mm will be required. The sensitivities are coupled and correlated; further investigations should be undertaken in order to obtain baffle parameters which, combined with likely achievable tolerances, will minimize the risk of the vignetting/ghost ray requirements not being met. The lightweight carbon-epoxy composite used for thermal baffles has insufficient X-ray opacity to be a suitable material for construction of the controlling X-ray baffles; further study is needed to determine an appropriate material and to investigate its thermal and mechanical implications.

  12. Fed-Batch Production of Bacterial Ghosts Using Dielectric Spectroscopy for Dynamic Process Control

    PubMed Central

    Meitz, Andrea; Sagmeister, Patrick; Lubitz, Werner; Herwig, Christoph; Langemann, Timo

    2016-01-01

    The Bacterial Ghost (BG) platform technology evolved from a microbiological expression system incorporating the ϕX174 lysis gene E. E-lysis generates empty but structurally intact cell envelopes (BGs) from Gram-negative bacteria which have been suggested as candidate vaccines, immunotherapeutic agents or drug delivery vehicles. E-lysis is a highly dynamic and complex biological process that puts exceptional demands towards process understanding and control. The development of a both economic and robust fed-batch production process for BGs required a toolset capable of dealing with rapidly changing concentrations of viable biomass during the E-lysis phase. This challenge was addressed using a transfer function combining dielectric spectroscopy and soft-sensor based biomass estimation for monitoring the rapid decline of viable biomass during the E-lysis phase. The transfer function was implemented to a feed-controller, which followed the permittivity signal closely and was capable of maintaining a constant specific substrate uptake rate during lysis phase. With the described toolset, we were able to increase the yield of BG production processes by a factor of 8–10 when compared to currently used batch procedures reaching lysis efficiencies >98%. This provides elevated potentials for commercial application of the Bacterial Ghost platform technology. PMID:27681912

  13. Ghost contributions to charmonium production in polarized high-energy collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klasen, Michael; Kniehl, Bernd A.; Mihailă, Luminiţa N.; Steinhauser, Matthias

    2008-06-01

    In a previous paper [Phys. Rev. D 68, 034017 (2003)PRVDAQ0556-282110.1103/PhysRevD.68.034017], we investigated the inclusive production of prompt J/ψ mesons in polarized hadron-hadron, photon-hadron, and photon-photon collisions in the factorization formalism of nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics providing compact analytic results for the double longitudinal-spin asymmetry ALL. For convenience, we adopted a simplified expression for the tensor product of the gluon polarization four-vector with its charge conjugate, at the expense of allowing for ghosts and antighosts to appear as external particles. While such ghost contributions cancel in the cross section asymmetry ALL and thus were not listed in our previous paper, they do contribute to the absolute cross sections. Evaluating the latter from those formulas thus leads to erroneous results. For completeness and the reader’s convenience, they are provided in this addendum. This fully reconciles our results with those obtained by M. M. Meijer, J. Smith, and W. L. van Neerven [Phys. Rev. D 77, 034014 (2008)PRVDAQ0556-282110.1103/PhysRevD.77.034014].

  14. Ghost imaging and ghost diffraction with pseudo-thermal light generated by means of a programmable SLM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capeluto, M. G.; Duisterwinkel, H.; Schmiegelow, C. T.; Francisco, D.; Ledesma, S.; Iemmi, C.

    2011-01-01

    Ghost imaging and ghost diffraction are techniques in which information about the object or about its diffraction pattern is extracted by measuring the correlation between a reference beam and a beam that passes through the object. Although first experiments were carried on by using entangled photons, it was demonstrated that this technique can be performed by splitting incoherent pseudo-thermal radiation such as that obtained with a laser passing through a moving diffuser. In this work we implemented the use of a programmable phase spatial light modulator (SLM) in order to replace the rotating ground glass. In this way the random phase distributions obtained from the moving diffuser can be emulated by displaying onto the SLM different realizations of a random function with uniform distribution. Based on the programmability of the modulator we have studied the influence of diverse parameters such as speckle size or phase distributions in the final image quality. We carry on the experiment for two different cases ghost imaging and far field ghost diffraction.

  15. BEST statistics of Markovian fluxes: a tale of Eulerian tours and Fermionic ghosts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polettini, Matteo

    2015-09-01

    We provide an exact expression for the statistics of the fluxes of Markov jump processes at all times, improving on asymptotic results from large deviation theory. The main ingredient is a generalization of the BEST theorem in enumeratoric graph theory to Eulerian tours with open ends. In the long-time limit we reobtain Sanov’s theorem for Markov processes, which expresses the exponential suppression of fluctuations in terms of relative entropy. The finite-time power-law term, increasingly important with the system size, is a spanning-tree determinant that, by introducing Grassmann variables, can be absorbed into the effective Lagrangian of a Fermionic ghost field on a metric space, coupled to a gauge potential. With reference to concepts in nonequilibrium stochastic thermodynamics, the metric is related to the dynamical activity that measures net communication between states, and the connection is made to a previous gauge theory for diffusion processes.

  16. Skeletal muscle fiber types in the ghost crab, Ocypode quadrata: implications for running performance.

    PubMed

    Perry, Michael J; Tait, Jennifer; Hu, John; White, Scott C; Medler, Scott

    2009-03-01

    Ghost crabs possess rapid running capabilities, which make them good candidates for comparing invertebrate exercise physiology with that of more extensively studied vertebrates. While a number of studies have examined various aspects of running physiology and biomechanics in terrestrial crabs, none to date have defined the basic skeletal muscle fiber types that power locomotion. In the current study, we investigated skeletal muscle fiber types comprising the extensor and flexor carpopodite muscles in relation to running performance in the ghost crab. We used kinematic analyses to determine stride frequency and muscle shortening velocity and found that both parameters are similar to those of comparably sized mammals but slower than those observed in running lizards. Using several complementary methods, we found that the muscles are divided into two primary fiber types: those of the proximal and distal regions possess long sarcomeres (6.2+/-2.3 microm) observed in crustacean slow fibers and have characteristics of aerobic fibers whereas those of the muscle mid-region have short sarcomeres (3.5+/-0.4 microm) characteristic of fast fibers and appear to be glycolytic. Each fiber type is characterized by several different myofibrillar protein isoforms including multiple isoforms of myosin heavy chain (MHC), troponin I (TnI), troponin T (TnT) and a crustacean fast muscle protein, P75. Three different isoforms of MHC are differentially expressed in the muscles, with fibers of the mid-region always co-expressing two isoforms at a 1:1 ratio within single fibers. Based on our analyses, we propose that these muscles are functionally divided into a two-geared system, with the aerobic fibers used for slow sustained activities and the glycolytic mid-region fibers being reserved for explosive sprints. Finally, we identified subtle differences in myofibrillar isoform expression correlated with crab body size, which changes by several orders of magnitude during an animal's lifetime.

  17. Comparison of the signal-to-noise characteristics of quantum versus thermal ghost imaging

    SciTech Connect

    O'Sullivan, Malcolm N.; Chan, Kam Wai Clifford; Boyd, Robert W.

    2010-11-15

    We present a theoretical comparison of the signal-to-noise characteristics of quantum versus thermal ghost imaging. We first calculate the signal-to-noise ratio of each process in terms of its controllable experimental conditions. We show that a key distinction is that a thermal ghost image always resides on top of a large background; the fluctuations in this background constitutes an intrinsic noise source for thermal ghost imaging. In contrast, there is a negligible intrinsic background to a quantum ghost image. However, for practical reasons involving achievable illumination levels, acquisition times for thermal ghost images are often much shorter than those for quantum ghost images. We provide quantitative predictions for the conditions under which each process provides superior performance. Our conclusion is that each process can provide useful functionality, although under complementary conditions.

  18. Kinetic modelling of isometamidium chloride (Samorin) uptake by Trypanosoma congolense.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, I A; Mounsey, A; Eisler, M; Holmes, P H

    1992-08-01

    Clones of Trypanosoma congolense which express resistance to the widely used trypanocide isometamidium chloride accumulate less of the drug than clones which are sensitive to drug treatment. A mathematical model has been developed which was able to predict theoretical lines representing the uptake kinetics in trypanosomes which were sensitive to isometamidium, as well as for resistant trypanosomes in which reduced accumulation was a result of either reduced uptake or enhanced efflux of the drug. Data from drug uptake experiments were then fitted to these theoretical lines. While the value for drug efflux could not be separated from the dissociation constant of the trypanosomes for isometamidium, it was demonstrated that reduced accumulation is not a result of reduced uptake of isometamidium by drug-resistant trypanosomes.

  19. Mosaic VSGs and the scale of Trypanosoma brucei antigenic variation.

    PubMed

    Hall, James P J; Wang, Huanhuan; Barry, J David

    2013-01-01

    A main determinant of prolonged Trypanosoma brucei infection and transmission and success of the parasite is the interplay between host acquired immunity and antigenic variation of the parasite variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) coat. About 0.1% of trypanosome divisions produce a switch to a different VSG through differential expression of an archive of hundreds of silent VSG genes and pseudogenes, but the patterns and extent of the trypanosome diversity phenotype, particularly in chronic infection, are unclear. We applied longitudinal VSG cDNA sequencing to estimate variant richness and test whether pseudogenes contribute to antigenic variation. We show that individual growth peaks can contain at least 15 distinct variants, are estimated computationally to comprise many more, and that antigenically distinct 'mosaic' VSGs arise from segmental gene conversion between donor VSG genes or pseudogenes. The potential for trypanosome antigenic variation is probably much greater than VSG archive size; mosaic VSGs are core to antigenic variation and chronic infection.

  20. Mosaic VSGs and the Scale of Trypanosoma brucei Antigenic Variation

    PubMed Central

    Hall, James P. J.; Wang, Huanhuan; Barry, J. David

    2013-01-01

    A main determinant of prolonged Trypanosoma brucei infection and transmission and success of the parasite is the interplay between host acquired immunity and antigenic variation of the parasite variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) coat. About 0.1% of trypanosome divisions produce a switch to a different VSG through differential expression of an archive of hundreds of silent VSG genes and pseudogenes, but the patterns and extent of the trypanosome diversity phenotype, particularly in chronic infection, are unclear. We applied longitudinal VSG cDNA sequencing to estimate variant richness and test whether pseudogenes contribute to antigenic variation. We show that individual growth peaks can contain at least 15 distinct variants, are estimated computationally to comprise many more, and that antigenically distinct ‘mosaic’ VSGs arise from segmental gene conversion between donor VSG genes or pseudogenes. The potential for trypanosome antigenic variation is probably much greater than VSG archive size; mosaic VSGs are core to antigenic variation and chronic infection. PMID:23853603

  1. Tackling higher derivative ghosts with the Euclidean path integral

    SciTech Connect

    Fontanini, Michele; Trodden, Mark

    2011-05-15

    An alternative to the effective field theory approach to treat ghosts in higher derivative theories is to attempt to integrate them out via the Euclidean path integral formalism. It has been suggested that this method could provide a consistent framework within which we might tolerate the ghost degrees of freedom that plague, among other theories, the higher derivative gravity models that have been proposed to explain cosmic acceleration. We consider the extension of this idea to treating a class of terms with order six derivatives, and find that for a general term the Euclidean path integral approach works in the most trivial background, Minkowski. Moreover we see that even in de Sitter background, despite some difficulties, it is possible to define a probability distribution for tensorial perturbations of the metric.

  2. Phantom dark ghost in Einstein-Cartan gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yu-Chiao; Bouhmadi-López, Mariam; Chen, Pisin

    2017-05-01

    A class of dynamical dark energy models is constructed through an extended version of fermion fields corresponding to phantom dark ghost spinors, which are spin 1/2 with mass dimension 1. We find that if these spinors interact with torsion fields in a homogeneous and isotropic universe, then it does not imply any future dark energy singularity or any abrupt event, though the fermion has a negative kinetic energy. In fact, the equation of state of this dark energy model will asymptotically approach the value w=-1 from above without crossing the phantom divide and inducing therefore a de Sitter state. Consequently, we expect the model to be stable because no real phantom fields will be created. At late time, the torsion fields will vanish as the corresponding phantom dark ghost spinors dilute. As would be expected, intuitively, this result is unaffected by the presence of cold dark matter although the proof is not as straightforward as in general relativity.

  3. High-dimensional quantum nature of ghost angular Young's diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Lixiang; Leach, Jonathan; Jack, Barry; Padgett, Miles J.; Franke-Arnold, Sonja; She Weilong

    2010-09-15

    We propose a technique to characterize the dimensionality of entangled sources affected by any environment, including phase and amplitude masks or atmospheric turbulence. We illustrate this technique on the example of angular ghost diffraction using the orbital angular momentum (OAM) spectrum generated by a nonlocal double slit. We realize a nonlocal angular double slit by placing single angular slits in the paths of the signal and idler modes of the entangled light field generated by parametric down-conversion. Based on the observed OAM spectrum and the measured Shannon dimensionality spectrum of the possible quantum channels that contribute to Young's ghost diffraction, we calculate the associated dimensionality D{sub total}. The measured D{sub total} ranges between 1 and 2.74 depending on the opening angle of the angular slits. The ability to quantify the nature of high-dimensional entanglement is vital when considering quantum information protocols.

  4. A matter bounce by means of ghost condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Chunshan; Brandenberger, Robert H.; Levasseur, Laurence Perreault E-mail: rhb@mx0.hep.physics.mcgill.ca

    2011-04-01

    Assuming the existence of a scalar field which undergoes 'ghost condensation' and which has a suitably chosen potential, it is possible to obtain a non-singular bouncing cosmology in the presence of regular matter and radiation. The potential for the ghost condensate field can be chosen such that the cosmological bounce is stable against the presence of anisotropic stress. Cosmological fluctuations on long wavelengths relevant to current cosmological observations pass through the bounce unaffected by the new physics which yields the bounce. Thus, this model allows for the realization of the 'matter bounce' scenario, an alternative to inflationary cosmology for the generation of the observed primordial fluctuations in which the inhomogeneities originate as quantum vacuum perturbations which exit the Hubble radius in the matter-dominated phase of contraction.

  5. Removing the Ostrogradski ghost from degenerate gravity theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Biswajit

    2017-08-01

    The Ostrogradski ghost problem that appears in a higher-derivative system is considered for theories with constraints. A new prescription for removal of the ghost-creating momenta that come along the constrained systems is described based on the Dirac's constraint analysis. It is shown how one can make the canonical Hamiltonian bounded from below by systematically removing the constraints appearing in the system, thereby reducing the effective dimension of the phase space. To show the effect of higher-derivative terms, we consider the singularity-free Gauss-Bonnet theory coupled via a matter field to the Einstein-Hilbert action. Finally, we construct the canonical Hamiltonian for the theory that is bounded from below.

  6. Optical image hiding based on computational ghost imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Le; Zhao, Shengmei; Cheng, Weiwen; Gong, Longyan; Chen, Hanwu

    2016-05-01

    Imaging hiding schemes play important roles in now big data times. They provide copyright protections of digital images. In the paper, we propose a novel image hiding scheme based on computational ghost imaging to have strong robustness and high security. The watermark is encrypted with the configuration of a computational ghost imaging system, and the random speckle patterns compose a secret key. Least significant bit algorithm is adopted to embed the watermark and both the second-order correlation algorithm and the compressed sensing (CS) algorithm are used to extract the watermark. The experimental and simulation results show that the authorized users can get the watermark with the secret key. The watermark image could not be retrieved when the eavesdropping ratio is less than 45% with the second-order correlation algorithm, whereas it is less than 20% with the TVAL3 CS reconstructed algorithm. In addition, the proposed scheme is robust against the 'salt and pepper' noise and image cropping degradations.

  7. Use of the Location Inverse Solution to Reduce Ghost Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yong-Zhong; Li, Ting-Jun; Zhou, Zheng-Ou

    2009-12-01

    Through-the-wall imaging (TWI) is a difficult but important task for both law enforcement and military missions. Acquiring information on both the internal features of a structure and the location of people inside plays an important role in many fields such as antiterrorism, hostage search and rescue, and barricade situations. Up to now, a number of promising experimental systems have been developed to validate and evaluate diverse imaging methods, most of which are based on a linear antenna array to obtain an image of the objects. However, these methods typically use the backward projection (BP) algorithm based on ellipse curves, which usually generates additional ghost images. In this paper, the algorithm using the location inverse solution (LIS) to reduce the ghost images is proposed and simulated. The results of simulation show that this approach is feasible.

  8. Quantum Ghost Image Identification with Correlated Photon Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Mehul; Shin, Heedeuk; O'Sullivan, Malcolm; Zerom, Petros; Boyd, Robert W.

    2010-04-01

    Ghost imaging can be performed using either quantum or classical states of light that possess strong spatial correlations. In both cases, the image is formed by averaging over many optical events. Here we show that it is possible to distinguish an object from a preestablished basis set of objects by using a small number of position-correlated photon pairs produced by spontaneous parametric down-conversion. The signal photon is incident on one member of a set of spatially nonoverlapping objects. The “ghost” image information is impressed upon the spatially separated idler photon and is extracted by means of holographic filtering and coincidence detection. We were able to distinguish among sets of two and four spatially nonoverlapping objects with confidence levels higher than 87% and 81%, respectively. This method of ghost imaging can be performed in situations requiring extremely low light levels.

  9. Structural character of the Ghost Dance fault, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spengler, R.W.; Braun, C.A.; Linden, R.M.; Martin, L.G.; Ross-Brown, D. M.; Blackburn, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed structural mapping of an area that straddles the southern part of the Ghost Dance Fault has revealed the presence of several additional subparallel to anastomosing faults. These faults, mapped at a scale of 1:240, are: 1) dominantly north trending, 2) present on both the upthrown and downthrown sides of the surface trace of the Ghost Dance fault, 3) near-vertical features that commonly offset strata down to the west by 3 to 6 m (10 to 20 ft), and 4) commonly spaced 15 to 46 m (50 to 150 ft) apart. The zone also exhibits a structural fabric, containing an abundance of northwest-trending fractures. The width of the zone appears to be at least 213 m (700 ft) near the southernmost boundary of the study area but remains unknown near the northern extent of the study area, where the width of the study area is only 183 m (600 ft).

  10. Higuchi ghosts and gradient instabilities in bimetric gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Könnig, Frank

    2015-05-01

    Bimetric gravity theories allow for many different types of cosmological solutions, but not all of them are theoretically allowed. In this work we discuss the conditions to satisfy the Higuchi bound and to avoid gradient instabilities in the scalar sector at the linear level. We find that in expanding universes the ratio of the scale factors of the reference and observable metric has to increase at all times. This automatically implies a ghost-free helicity-2 and helicity-0 sector and enforces a phantom dark energy. Furthermore, the condition for the absence of gradient instabilities in the scalar sector will be analyzed. Finally, we discuss whether cosmological solutions can exist, including exotic evolutions like bouncing cosmologies, in which both the Higuchi ghost and scalar instabilities are absent at all times.

  11. Bianchi type I Universe and interacting ghost scalar fields models of dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossienkhani, H.

    2016-04-01

    We suggest a correspondence between interacting ghost dark energy model with the quintessence, tachyon and K-essence scalar field in a non-isotropic universe. This correspondence allows to reconstruct the potential and the dynamics for the scalar field of the interacting ghost dark energy model, which describe accelerated expansion of the universe. Our numerical result show the effects of the interaction and anisotropic on the evolutionary behavior the ghost scalar field models.

  12. Phase-retrieval ghost imaging of complex-valued objects

    SciTech Connect

    Gong Wenlin; Han Shensheng

    2010-08-15

    An imaging approach, based on ghost imaging, is reported to recover a pure-phase object or a complex-valued object. Our analytical results, which are backed up by numerical simulations, demonstrate that both the complex-valued object and its amplitude-dependent part can be separately and nonlocally reconstructed using this approach. Both effects influencing the quality of reconstructed images and methods to further improve the imaging quality are also discussed.

  13. Boulware-Deser ghost in extended quasidilaton massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukohyama, Shinji

    2017-08-01

    In the extended quasidilaton massive gravity we perform a nonlinear transformation of the shift vector and then calculate the second derivatives of the Hamiltonian density with respect to the lapse function and the (nonlinearly transformed) shift vector. It is then shown that the 4 ×4 Hessian matrix is invertible, meaning that the equations of motion for the lapse function and the shift vector simply determine themselves. Therefore, there is no primary constraint that removes the Boulware-Deser ghost.

  14. An introduction to ghost imaging: quantum and classical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padgett, Miles J.; Boyd, Robert W.

    2017-06-01

    Ghost imaging has been a subject of interest to the quantum optics community for the past 20 years. Initially seen as manifestation of quantum spookiness, it is now recognized as being implementable in both single- and many-photon number regimes. Beyond its scientific curiosity, it is now feeding novel imaging modalities potentially offering performance attributes that traditional approaches cannot match. This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantum technology for the 21st century'.

  15. Hawking radiation in the ghost condensate is nonthermal

    SciTech Connect

    Feldstein, Brian

    2008-09-15

    We consider a Schwarzschild black hole immersed in a ghost condensate background. It is shown that the Hawking radiation in the quanta of small perturbations around this background is highly suppressed - in particular, it is not given by a thermal spectrum. This result is in accord with observations that such black holes can be used to violate the generalized second law of thermodynamics, and thus cannot have a standard entropy/area relation.

  16. An introduction to ghost imaging: quantum and classical

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Robert W.

    2017-01-01

    Ghost imaging has been a subject of interest to the quantum optics community for the past 20 years. Initially seen as manifestation of quantum spookiness, it is now recognized as being implementable in both single- and many-photon number regimes. Beyond its scientific curiosity, it is now feeding novel imaging modalities potentially offering performance attributes that traditional approaches cannot match. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Quantum technology for the 21st century’. PMID:28652490

  17. Spectrin phosphorylation and shape change of human erythrocyte ghosts

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    Human erthrocyte membranes in isotonic medium change shape from crenated spheres to biconcave disks and cup-forms when incubated at 37 degrees C in the presence of MgATP (M. P. Sheetz and S. J. Singer, 1977, J. Cell Biol. 73:638-646). The postulated relationship between spectrin phosphorylation and shape change (W. Birchmeier and S. J. Singer, 1977, J. Cell Biol. 73:647-659) is examined in this report. Salt extraction of white ghosts reduced spectrin phosphorylation during shape changes by 85-95%. Salt extraction did not alter crenation, rate of MgATP-dependent shape change, or the fraction (greater than 80%) ultimately converted to disks and cup-forms after 1 h. Spectrin was partially dephosphorylated in intact cells by subjection to metabolic depletion in vitro. Membranes from depleted cells exhibited normal shape-change behavior. Shape-change behavior was influenced by the hemolysis buffer and temperature and by the time required for membrane preparation. Tris and phosphate ghosts lost the capacity to change shape after standing for 1-2 h at 0 degrees C. Hemolysis in HEPES or N- tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid yielded ghosts that were converted rapidly to disks in the absence of ATP and did not undergo further conversion to cup-forms. These effects could not be attributed to differential dephsphorylation of spectrin, because dephosphorylation during ghost preparation and incubation was negligible. These results suggest that spectrin phosphorylation is not required for MgATP-dependent shape change. It is proposed that other biochemical events induce membrane curvature changes and that the role of spectrin is passive. PMID:7204501

  18. Neural mechanism for binaural pitch perception via ghost stochastic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balenzuela, Pablo; García-Ojalvo, Jordi

    2005-06-01

    We present a physiologically plausible binaural mechanism for the perception of the pitch of complex sounds via ghost stochastic resonance. In this scheme, two neurons are driven by noise and a different periodic signal each (with frequencies f1=kf0 and f2=(k+1)f0, where k >1), and their outputs (plus noise) are applied synaptically to a third neuron. Our numerical results, using the Morris-Lecar neuron model with chemical synapses explicitly considered, show that intermediate noise levels enhance the response of the third neuron at frequencies close to f0, as in the cases previously described of ghost resonance. For the case of an inharmonic combination of inputs (f1=kf0+Δf and f2=(k+1)f0+Δf) noise is also seen to enhance the rates of most probable spiking for the third neuron at a frequency fr=f0+[Δf/(k+1/2)]. In addition, we show that similar resonances can be observed as a function of the synaptic time constant. The suggested ghost-resonance-based stochastic mechanism can thus arise either at the peripheral level or at a higher level of neural processing in the perception of pitch.

  19. Brane induced gravity, its ghost and the cosmological constant problem

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, S.F.; Strauss, Mikael von; Hofmann, Stefan E-mail: stefan.hofmann@physik.lmu.de

    2011-01-01

    ''Brane Induced Gravity'' is regarded as a promising framework for addressing the cosmological constant problem, but it also suffers from a ghost instability for parameter values that make it phenomenologically viable. We carry out a detailed analysis of codimension > 2 models employing gauge invariant variables in a flat background approximation. It is argued that using instead a curved background sourced by the brane would not resolve the ghost issue, unless a very specific condition is satisfied (if satisfiable at all). As for other properties of the model, from an explicit analysis of the 4-dimensional graviton propagator we extract a mass, a decay width and a momentum dependent modification of the gravitational coupling for the spin 2 mode. In the flat space approximation, the mass of the problematic spin 0 ghost is instrumental in filtering out a brane cosmological constant. The mass replaces a background curvature that would have had the same function. The optical theorem is used to demonstrate the suppression of graviton leakage into the uncompactified bulk. Then, we derive the 4-dimensional effective action for gravity and show that general covariance is spontaneously broken by the bulk-brane setup. This provides a natural realization of the gravitational Higgs mechanism. We also show that the addition of extrinsic curvature dependent terms has no bearing on linearized brane gravity.

  20. Ghost Dark Energy with Sign-changeable Interaction Term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadeh, M. Abdollahi; Sheykhi, A.; Moradpour, H.

    2017-08-01

    Regarding the Veneziano ghost of QCD and its generalized form, we consider a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe filled by a pressureless matter and a dark energy component interacting with each other through a mutual sign-changeable interaction of positive coupling constant. Our study shows that, at the late time, for the deceleration parameter we have q → -1, while the equation of state parameter of the interacting ghost dark energy (GDE) does not cross the phantom line, namely ω D ≥ -1. We also extend our study to the generalized ghost dark energy (GGDE) model and show that, at late time, the equation of state parameter of the interacting GGDE also respects the phantom line in both flat and non-flat universes. Moreover, we find out that, unlike the non-flat universe, we have q → -1 at late time for flat FRW universe. In order to make the behavior of the underlying models more clear, the deceleration parameter q as well as the equation of state parameter w D for flat and closed universes have been plotted against the redshift parameter, z. All of the studied cases admit a transition in the expansion history of universe from a deceleration phase to an accelerated one around z ≈ 0.6.

  1. Layer-by-layer microcapsules templated on erythrocyte ghost carriers.

    PubMed

    Shaillender, Mutukumaraswamy; Luo, Rongcong; Venkatraman, Subbu S; Neu, Björn

    2011-08-30

    This work reports the fabrication of layer-by-layer (LbL) microcapsules that provide a simple mean for controlling the burst and subsequent release of bioactive agents. Red blood cell (RBC) ghosts were loaded with fluorescently labeled dextran and lysozyme as model compounds via hypotonic dialysis with an encapsulation efficiency of 27-31%. It is demonstrated that these vesicles maintain their shape and integrity and that a uniform distribution of the encapsulated agents within these carriers is achieved. The loaded vesicles were then successfully coated with the biocompatible polyelectrolytes, poly-L-arginine hydrochloride and dextran sulfate. It is demonstrated that the release profiles of the encapsulated molecules can be regulated over a wide range by adjusting the number of polyelectrolyte layers. In addition, the LbL shell also protects the RBC ghost from decomposition thereby potentially preserving the bioactivity of encapsulated drugs or proteins. These microcapsules, consisting of an RBC ghost coated with a polyelectrolyte multilayer, provide a simple mean for the preparation of loaded LbL microcapsules eliminating the core dissolution and post-loading of bioactive agents, which are required for conventional LbL microcapsules.

  2. Understanding Nanocalcification: A Role Suggested for Crystal Ghosts

    PubMed Central

    Bonucci, Ermanno

    2014-01-01

    The present survey deals with the initial stage of the calcification process in bone and other hard tissues, with special reference to the organic-inorganic relationship and the transformation that the early inorganic particles undergo as the process moves towards completion. Electron microscope studies clearly exclude the possibility that these particles might be crystalline structures, as often believed, by showing that they are, instead, organic-inorganic hybrids, each comprising a filamentous organic component (the crystal ghost) made up of acidic proteins. The hypothesis is suggested that the crystal ghosts bind and stabilize amorphous calcium phosphate and that their subsequent degradation allows the calcium phosphate, once released, to acquire a hydroxyapatite, crystal-like organization. A conclusive view of the mechanism of biological calcification cannot yet be proposed; even so, however, the role of crystal ghosts as a template of the structures usually called “crystallites” is a concept that has gathered increasing support and can no longer be disregarded. PMID:25056630

  3. Ghost fringe removal techniques using Lissajous data presentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erskine, David; Eggert, Jon; Celliers, Peter; Hicks, Damien

    2015-06-01

    Unwanted reflection of laser light from target windows can produce an additional component to the VISAR fringe record that can obscure and complicate the true signal. Accurately removing this so-called ghost component is essential for achieving high accuracy EOS measurements, especially when the true signal is only weakly reflected from the shock front. Independent of the choice of algorithm for processing the raw data into a complex fringe signal, we have found it beneficial to plot this signal as a Lissajous and seek the true center of this curve, since the ghost contribution is solved by a translation in the complex plane that recenters the Lissajous. For continuous velocity histories, we find that plotting the fringe visibility vs nonfringing intensity and optimizing linearity is a valuable tool for determining the proper ghost offsets. For discontinuous velocity histories, we have developed equations which relate the results of two VISARs having different velocity per fringe proportionalities to find the true Lissjous center. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  4. Physicochemical characterization of artificial nanoerythrosomes derived from erythrocyte ghost membranes.

    PubMed

    Deák, Róbert; Mihály, Judith; Szigyártó, Imola Cs; Wacha, András; Lelkes, Gábor; Bóta, Attila

    2015-11-01

    Colloidal stabile nanoerythrosomes with 200 nm average diameter were formed from hemoglobin-free erythrocyte ghost membrane via sonication and membrane extrusion. The incorporation of extra lipid (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, DPPC), added to the sonicated ghosts, caused significant changes in the thermotropic character of the original membranes. As a result of the increased DPPC ratio the chain melting of the hydrated DPPC system and the characteristic small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) of the lipid bilayers appeared. Significant morphological changes were followed by transmission electron microscopy combined with freeze fracture method (FF-TEM). After the ultrasonic treatment the large entities of erythrocyte ghosts transformed into nearly spherical nanoerythrosomes with diameters between 100 and 300 nm and at the same time a great number of 10-30 nm large membrane proteins or protein clusters were dispersed in the aqueous medium. The infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) pointed out, that the sonication did not cause changes in the secondary structures of the membrane proteins under our preparation conditions. About fivefold of extra lipid--compared to the lipid content of the original membrane--caused homogeneous dispersion of nanoerythrosomes however the shape of the vesicles was not uniform. After the addition of about tenfold of DPPC, monoform and monodisperse nanoerythrosomes became typical. The outer surfaces of these roughly spherical objects were frequently polygonal, consisting of a net of pentagons and hexagons.

  5. Asymptotically free scalar curvature-ghost coupling in quantum Einstein gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Eichhorn, Astrid; Gies, Holger; Scherer, Michael M.

    2009-11-15

    We consider the asymptotic-safety scenario for quantum gravity which constructs a nonperturbatively renormalizable quantum gravity theory with the help of the functional renormalization group (RG). We verify the existence of a non-Gaussian fixed point and include a running curvature-ghost coupling as a first step towards the flow of the ghost sector of the theory. We find that the scalar curvature-ghost coupling is asymptotically free and RG relevant in the ultraviolet. Most importantly, the property of asymptotic safety discovered so far within the Einstein-Hilbert truncation and beyond remains stable under the inclusion of the ghost flow.

  6. Stability of Erythrocyte Ghosts: A γ -Ray Perturbed Angular Correlation Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, Carol A.; Tin, George W.; Baldeschwieler, John D.

    1983-03-01

    The structural integrity of erythrocyte ghosts made by the preswell and slow-dialysis techniques has been studied in vitro by use of γ -ray perturbed angular correlation (PAC) techniques and also by standard in vitro leakage methods employing sequestered labeled markers. Complexes of 111In3+ and nitrilotriacetate were encapsulated in ghosts made from human, rabbit, rat, and mouse erythrocytes, and their leakage was monitored by both methods. In addition, 125I-labeled bovine serum albumin was encapsulated, and ghost integrity was monitored by conventional leakage measurements. With the PAC technique the percentage of material released from human ghosts was determined quantitatively, and the results were equivalent to those obtained by the conventional method. In addition, at various times after intravenous injection, tissue distribution of the ghosts in the mouse was studied. The percent injected dose per gram of tissue of the labeled surface proteins of erythrocyte ghosts in circulation approximated that of the entrapped labeled albumin. This suggests that the ghost membrane and contents are strongly associated in vivo. Large 125I-labeled bovine serum albumin molecules and small 111In3+-nitrilotriacetate complexes were delivered in high quantities to the lung initially, and to the liver and spleen. Because erythrocyte ghosts have the ability to entrap a wide range of substances and deliver them to specific organs, ghosts may be preferable to other drug carriers or drug therapy for treatment of certain disorders.

  7. Optical authentication via photon-synthesized ghost imaging using optical nonlinear correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong

    2015-10-01

    We present a method for optical authentication via photon-synthesized ghost imaging using optical nonlinear correlation. In ghost imaging, multiple series of photons recorded at the object beam arm can be arbitrarily controlled for the generation of synthesized objects. Ghost imaging with sparse reference intensity patterns provides a channel to effectively modulate the noise-like synthesized objects during the recovery, and the reconstructed (noise-like) objects, i.e., added or subtracted information, can be further authenticated by optical nonlinear correlation algorithm. It is expected that the proposed method can provide an effective and promising alternative for ghost-imaging-based optical processing.

  8. Factors Affecting "Ghosting" In Time-Multiplexed Piano-Stereoscopic Crt Display Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipton, Lenny

    1987-06-01

    Two factors contributing to "ghosting" (image doubling) in plano-stereoscopic CRT displays are phosphor decay and dynamic range of the shutters. A ghosting threshold must be crossed before comfortable fusion can take place. The ghosting threshold changes as image brightness increases and with higher-contrast subjects and those with larger parallax values. Because of the defects of existing liquid crystal shutters, we developed a liquid-crystal shutter with high dynamic range, good transmission, and high speed. With these shutters, residual ghosting is a result of phosphor persistence.

  9. Protein geranylgeranyltransferase-I of Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Kohei; Gillespie, John R.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Buckner, Frederick S.; Gelb, Michael H.

    2008-01-01

    Protein geranylgeranyltransferase type I (PGGT-I) and protein farnesyltransferase (PFT) occur in many eukaryotic cells. Both consist of two subunits, the common αsubunit and a distinct β subunit. In the gene database of protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease, a putative protein that consists of 401 amino acids with ∼20% amino acid sequence identity to the PGGT-I β of other species was identified, cloned, and characterized. Multiple sequence alignments show that the T. cruzi ortholog contains all three of the zinc-binding residues and several residues uniquely conserved in the β subunit of PGGT-I. Co-expression of this protein and the α subunit of T. cruzi PFT in Sf9 insect cells yielded a dimeric protein that forms a tight complex selectively with [3H]geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, indicating a key characteristic of a functional PGGT-I. Recombinant T. cruzi PGGT-I ortholog showed geranylgeranyltransferase activity with distinct specificity toward the C-terminal CaaX motif of protein substrates compared to that of the mammalian PGGT-I and T. cruzi PFT. Most of the CaaX-containing proteins with X=Leu are good substrates of T. cruzi PGGT-I, and those with X=Met are substrates for both T. cruzi PFT and PGGT-I, whereas unlike mammalian PGGT-I, those with X=Phe are poor substrates for T. cruzi PGGT-I. Several candidates for T. cruzi PGGT-I or PFT substrates containing the C-terminal CaaX motif are found in the T. cruzi gene database. Among five C-terminal peptides of those tested, a peptide of a Ras-like protein ending with CVLL was selectively geranylgeranylated by T. cruzi PGGT-I. Other peptides with CTQQ (Tcj2 DNAJ protein), CAVM (TcPRL-1 protein tyrosine phosphatase), CHFM (a small GTPase like protein), and CQLF (TcRho1 GTPase) were specific substrates for T. cruzi PFT but not for PGGT-I. The mRNA and protein of the T. cruzi PGGT-I β ortholog were detected in three life-cycle stages of T. cruzi. Cytosol fractions from

  10. Preparation, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of old yellow enzyme from Trypanosoma cruzi

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiyama, Shigeru; Tokuoka, Keiji; Uchiyama, Nahoko; Okamoto, Naoki; Okano, Yousuke; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Inaka, Koji; Urade, Yoshihiro; Inoue, Tsuyoshi

    2007-10-01

    Old yellow enzyme from Trypanosoma cruzi, has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Old yellow enzyme (OYE) is an NADPH oxidoreductase that contains a flavin mononucleotide as a prosthetic group. The OYE from Trypanosoma cruzi, which produces prostaglandin F{sub 2α}, a potent mediator of various physiological and pathological processes, from prostaglandin H2. The protein was recombinantly expressed and purified from Escherichia coli and was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystal belongs to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 56.3, b = 78.8, c = 78.8 Å, β = 93.4° and two molecules per asymmetric unit. The crystals were suitable for X-ray crystallographic studies and diffracted to 1.70 Å resolution. A Patterson search method is in progress using the structure of OYE from Pseudomonas putida as a starting model.

  11. Overview of DNA Repair in Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei, and Leishmania major

    PubMed Central

    Passos-Silva, Danielle Gomes; Rajão, Matheus Andrade; Nascimento de Aguiar, Pedro Henrique; Vieira-da-Rocha, João Pedro; Machado, Carlos Renato; Furtado, Carolina

    2010-01-01

    A wide variety of DNA lesions arise due to environmental agents, normal cellular metabolism, or intrinsic weaknesses in the chemical bonds of DNA. Diverse cellular mechanisms have evolved to maintain genome stability, including mechanisms to repair damaged DNA, to avoid the incorporation of modified nucleotides, and to tolerate lesions (translesion synthesis). Studies of the mechanisms related to DNA metabolism in trypanosomatids have been very limited. Together with recent experimental studies, the genome sequencing of Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Leishmania major, three related pathogens with different life cycles and disease pathology, has revealed interesting features of the DNA repair mechanism in these protozoan parasites, which will be reviewed here. PMID:20976268

  12. Effects of the quark field on the ghost propagator of lattice Landau gauge QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Furui, Sadataka; Nakajima, Hideo

    2006-05-01

    Infrared features of the ghost propagator of color-diagonal and color antisymmetric ghost propagator of quenched SU(2) and quenched SU(3) are compared with those of unquenched Kogut-Susskind fermion SU(3) lattice Landau gauge. We compare (i) the fluctuation of the ghost propagator (ii) the ghost condensate parameter v of the local composite operator (LCO) approach, and (iii) the Binder cumulant of color antisymmetric ghost propagator between quenched and unquenched configurations. The color-diagonal SU(3) ghost dressing function of unquenched configurations has weaker singularity than the quenched configurations. In both cases fluctuations become large in q<0.5 GeV. The ghost condensate parameter v in the ghost propagator of the unquenched MILC{sub c} configuration samples is {approx}0.002-0.04 GeV{sup 2} while that of the SU(2) parallel tempering samples is consistent with 0. The Binder cumulant defined as U(q)=1-(1/3)(<{phi}-vector{sup 4}>/(<{phi}-vector{sup 2}>){sup 2}), where {phi}-vector(q) is the color antisymmetric ghost propagator measured by the sample average of gauge fixed configurations via parallel tempering method, becomes {approx}4/9 in all the momentum region. The Binder cumulant of the color antisymmetric ghost propagator of quenched SU(2) can be explained by the 3D Gaussian distribution, but that of the unquenched MILC{sub c} deviates slightly from that of the eight-dimensional Gaussian distribution. The stronger singularity and large fluctuation in the quenched configuration could be the cause of the deviation of the Kugo-Ojima confinement parameter c from 1, and the presence of ordering in the ghost propagator of unquenched configurations makes it closer to 1.

  13. Proctors exploit three-dimensional ghost tools during clinical-like training scenarios: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Jarc, Anthony M; Stanley, Andrew A; Clifford, Thomas; Gill, Inderbir S; Hung, Andrew J

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we examine three-dimensional (3D) proctoring tools (i.e., semitransparent ghost tools overlaid on the surgeon's field of view) on realistic surgical tasks. Additionally, we develop novel, quantitative measures of whether proctors exploit the additional capabilities offered by ghost tools. Seven proctor-trainee pairs completed realistic surgical tasks such as tissue dissection and suturing in a live porcine model using 3D ghost tools on the da Vinci Xi Surgical System. The usability and effectiveness of 3D ghost tools were evaluated using objective measures of proctor performance based on proctor hand movements and button presses, as well as post-study questionnaires. Proctors exploited the capabilities of ghost tools, such as 3D hand movement (p < 0.001), wristedness (p < 0.001), finger pinch gestures (p < 0.001), and bimanual hand motions (p < 0.001). The median ghost tool excursion distances across proctors in the x-, y-, and z-directions were 57.6, 31.9, and 50.7, respectively. Proctors and trainees consistently evaluated the ghost tools as effective across multiple categories of mentoring. Trainees found ghost tools more helpful than proctors across all categories (p < 0.05). Proctors exploit the augmented capabilities of 3D ghost tools during clinical-like training scenarios. Additionally, both proctors and trainees evaluated ghost tools as effective mentoring tools, thereby confirming previous studies on simple, inanimate tasks. Based on this preliminary work, advanced mentoring technologies, such as 3D ghost tools, stand to improve current telementoring and training technologies in robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery.

  14. Influence of preparative procedures on the membrane viscoelasticity of human red cell ghosts.

    PubMed

    Nash, G B; Tran-Son-Tay, R; Meiselman, H J

    1986-02-13

    The effects of systematic variations in the preparative procedures on the membrane viscoelastic properties of resealed human red blood cell ghosts have been investigated. Ghosts, prepared by hypotonic lysis at 0 degrees C and resealing at 37 degrees C, were subjected to: measurement of the time constant for extensional recovery (tc); measurement of the membrane shear elastic modulus (mu) via three separate techniques; determination of the membrane viscosity (eta m) via a cone-plate Rheoscope. Membrane viscosity was also determined as eta m = mu X tc. Compared to intact cells, ghosts had shorter tc, regardless of their residual hemoglobin concentration (up to 21.6 g/dl). However, prolonged exposure to hypotonic media did increase their recovery time toward the intact cell value. The shear elastic modulus, as judged by micropipette aspiration of membrane tongues (mu p), was similar for all ghosts and intact cells. This result, taken with the tc data, indicates that ghosts have reduced membrane viscosity. Rheoscopic analysis also showed that eta m was reduced for ghosts, with the degree of reduction (approx. 50%) agreeing well with that estimated by the product mu p X tc. However, flow channel and pipette elongation estimates indicated that the ghost membrane elastic modulus was somewhat elevated compared to intact cells. We conclude that: ghosts have reduced membrane viscosity; ghosts have membrane rigidities close to intact cells, except possibly when the membrane is subjected to very large strains; the reduction in eta m is not directly related to the loss of hemoglobin; prolonged exposure of ghosts to low-ionic strength media increases the membrane viscosity toward its initial cellular level. These data indicate that the mechanical characteristics of ghost membranes can be varied by changing the methods of preparation and thus have potential application to further studies of the structural determinants of red cell membrane viscoelasticity.

  15. 21 CFR 866.3870 - Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents. 866.3870 Section 866.3870 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3870 Trypanosoma...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3870 - Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents. 866.3870 Section 866.3870 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3870 Trypanosoma...

  17. Oxidative stress fuels Trypanosoma cruzi infection in mice

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, Claudia N.; Feijó, Daniel F.; Dutra, Fabianno F.; Carneiro, Vitor C.; Freitas, Guilherme B.; Alves, Letícia S.; Mesquita, Jacilene; Fortes, Guilherme B.; Figueiredo, Rodrigo T.; Souza, Heitor S.P.; Fantappié, Marcelo R.; Lannes-Vieira, Joseli; Bozza, Marcelo T.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative damage contributes to microbe elimination during macrophage respiratory burst. Nuclear factor, erythroid-derived 2, like 2 (NRF2) orchestrates antioxidant defenses, including the expression of heme-oxygenase–1 (HO-1). Unexpectedly, the activation of NRF2 and HO-1 reduces infection by a number of pathogens, although the mechanism responsible for this effect is largely unknown. We studied Trypanosoma cruzi infection in mice in which NRF2/HO-1 was induced with cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP). CoPP reduced parasitemia and tissue parasitism, while an inhibitor of HO-1 activity increased T. cruzi parasitemia in blood. CoPP-induced effects did not depend on the adaptive immunity, nor were parasites directly targeted. We also found that CoPP reduced macrophage parasitism, which depended on NRF2 expression but not on classical mechanisms such as apoptosis of infected cells, induction of type I IFN, or NO. We found that exogenous expression of NRF2 or HO-1 also reduced macrophage parasitism. Several antioxidants, including NRF2 activators, reduced macrophage parasite burden, while pro-oxidants promoted it. Reducing the intracellular labile iron pool decreased parasitism, and antioxidants increased the expression of ferritin and ferroportin in infected macrophages. Ferrous sulfate reversed the CoPP-induced decrease in macrophage parasite burden and, given in vivo, reversed their protective effects. Our results indicate that oxidative stress contributes to parasite persistence in host tissues and open a new avenue for the development of anti–T. cruzi drugs. PMID:22728935

  18. Harry Potter and the Ghost Teacher: Resurrecting the Lost Art of Lecturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Kathryn N.

    2010-01-01

    A significant image of classroom lectures is the one presented in J. K. Rowling's "Harry Potter" series. At Harry's Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry, the most torturous class is easily History of Magic, which is, incidentally, the only class in the school taught by a ghost. Being taught by a ghost could be quite exciting: not so in…

  19. Harry Potter and the Ghost Teacher: Resurrecting the Lost Art of Lecturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Kathryn N.

    2010-01-01

    A significant image of classroom lectures is the one presented in J. K. Rowling's "Harry Potter" series. At Harry's Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry, the most torturous class is easily History of Magic, which is, incidentally, the only class in the school taught by a ghost. Being taught by a ghost could be quite exciting: not so in…

  20. Hydraulic activities by ghost shrimp Neotrypaea californiensis induce oxic-anoxic oscillations in sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    We applied porewater pressure sensing, time-lapse photography and planar optode imaging of oxygen to investigate hydraulic behaviors of the Thalassinidean ghost shrimp Neotrypaea californiensis and the associated dynamics of oxygen in and around their burrows. Ghost shrimp were h...

  1. Hydraulic activities by ghost shrimp Neotrypaea californiensis induce oxic-anoxic oscillations in sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    We applied porewater pressure sensing, time-lapse photography and planar optode imaging of oxygen to investigate hydraulic behaviors of the Thalassinidean ghost shrimp Neotrypaea californiensis and the associated dynamics of oxygen in and around their burrows. Ghost shrimp were h...

  2. Hunting The Ghost Gun: An Analysis Of The U.S. Army Infantry Rifle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA JOINT APPLIED PROJECT HUNTING THE GHOST GUN: AN ANALYSIS OF THE U.S. ARMY......LEFT BLANK iii Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited HUNTING THE GHOST GUN: AN ANALYSIS OF THE U.S. ARMY INFANTRY

  3. 50 CFR 697.21 - Gear identification and marking, escape vent, maximum trap size, and ghost panel requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... vent, maximum trap size, and ghost panel requirements. 697.21 Section 697.21 Wildlife and Fisheries... identification and marking, escape vent, maximum trap size, and ghost panel requirements. (a) Gear identification... Administrator finds to be consistent with paragraph (c) of this section. (d) Ghost panel. (1) Lobster traps not...

  4. 50 CFR 697.21 - Gear identification and marking, escape vent, maximum trap size, and ghost panel requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... vent, maximum trap size, and ghost panel requirements. 697.21 Section 697.21 Wildlife and Fisheries... identification and marking, escape vent, maximum trap size, and ghost panel requirements. (a) Gear identification... Administrator finds to be consistent with paragraph (c) of this section. (d) Ghost panel. (1) Lobster traps not...

  5. 50 CFR 697.21 - Gear identification and marking, escape vent, maximum trap size, and ghost panel requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... vent, maximum trap size, and ghost panel requirements. 697.21 Section 697.21 Wildlife and Fisheries... identification and marking, escape vent, maximum trap size, and ghost panel requirements. (a) Gear identification... Administrator finds to be consistent with paragraph (c) of this section. (d) Ghost panel. (1) Lobster traps not...

  6. 50 CFR 697.21 - Gear identification and marking, escape vent, maximum trap size, and ghost panel requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... vent, maximum trap size, and ghost panel requirements. 697.21 Section 697.21 Wildlife and Fisheries... identification and marking, escape vent, maximum trap size, and ghost panel requirements. (a) Gear identification... Administrator finds to be consistent with paragraph (c) of this section. (d) Ghost panel. (1) Lobster traps not...

  7. Trypanosoma evansi: identification and characterization of a variant surface glycoprotein lacking cysteine residues in its C-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yonggen; Zhao, Xinxin; Zou, Jingru; Suo, Xun

    2011-01-01

    African trypanosomes are flagellated unicellular parasites which proliferate extracellularly in the mammalian host blood-stream and tissue spaces. They evade the hosts' antibody-mediated lyses by sequentially changing their variant surface glycoprotein (VSG). VSG tightly coats the entire parasite body, serving as a physical barrier. In Trypanosoma brucei and the closely related species Trypanosoma evansi, Trypanosoma equiperdum, each VSG polypeptide can be divided into N- and C-terminal domains, based on cysteine distribution and sequence homology. N-terminal domain, the basis of antigenic variation, is hypervariable and contains all the exposed epitopes; C-terminal domain is relatively conserved and a full set of four or eight cysteines were generally observed. We cloned two genes from two distinct variants of T. evansi, utilizing RT-PCR with VSG-specific primers. One contained a VSG type A N-terminal domain followed a C-terminal domain lacking cysteine residues. To confirm that this gene is expressed as a functional VSG, the expression and localization of the corresponding gene product were characterized using Western blotting and immunofluorescent staining of living trypanosomes. Expression analysis showed that this protein was highly expressed, variant-specific, and had a ubiquitous cellular surface localization. All these results indicated that it was expressed as a functional VSG. Our finding showed that cysteine residues in VSG C-terminal domain were not essential; the conserved C-terminal domain generally in T. brucei like VSGs would possibly evolve for regulating the VSG expression.

  8. Geometrical Effective Action: Gauge Field Theory Without Ghosts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, Carmen Molina

    Ghosts were invented by Feynman (1) in 1962 while trying to construct a quantum theory of gravity. Having convinced himself that there was no way in which the gravitational field could consistently escape quantization in a universe where everything else is subject to the laws of quantum mechanics, he was trying to see how these laws would work when applied to spacetime curvature. The first obstacle he faced was the non-Abelian character of the diffeomorphism group (the gauge group of gravity) which forces the gravitational field to act partly as its own source. In the language of Feynman graphs this means that gravitational charge (stress-energy) is carried by graviton lines as well as by all other lines and hence leaks all over every graph. Feynman's key idea for solving the problem was to replace every Feynman propagator by its equivalent, an advanced Green's function minus a positive-frequency Wightman function, and to throw away all noncausal loops of advanced Green's functions^1, obtaining thereby a mode sum over tree functions. It is easy to show that tree functions are gauge invariant provided the external lines bear only physical mode functions. Feynman therefore proposed to restrict the mode sums to physical modes, a procedure that not only secures gauge invariance but unitarity as well. But there is a difficulty: Because the physical mode functions are defined in a special frame, the procedure is not manifestly Lorentz invariant ^2. Feynman was able to show that deletion of the nonphysical modes is equivalent to subtracting, from the contribution of every closed loop, that of another (Lorentz invariant) loop propagating a particle having spin 1 (or one less than that of the gauge field). This is the ghost. Because its contribution is subtracted, it is a fermion. Feynman's discovery, and the work that it stimulated, made it seem as if the quantum theory of gauge fields cannot even be formulated without ghosts. It is the purpose of this dissertation to show

  9. Analysis and exploitation of multipath ghosts in radar target image classification.

    PubMed

    Smith, Graeme E; Mobasseri, Bijan G

    2014-04-01

    An analysis of the relationship between multipath ghosts and the direct target image for radar imaging is presented. A multipath point spread function (PSF) is defined that allows for specular reflections in the local environment and can allow the ghost images to be localized. Analysis of the multipath PSF shows that certain ghosts can only be focused for the far field synthetic aperture radar case and not the full array case. Importantly, the ghosts are shown to be equivalent to direct target images taken from different observation angles. This equivalence suggests that exploiting the ghosts would improve target classification performance, and this improvement is demonstrated using experimental data and a naïve Bayesian classifer. The maximum performance gain achieved is 32%.

  10. Lag and ghosting in a clinical flat-panel selenium digital mammography system

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomquist, Aili K.; Yaffe, Martin J.; Mawdsley, Gordon E.; Hunter, David M.; Beideck, Daniel J.

    2006-08-15

    We present measurements of lag and ghosting in a FDA-approved digital mammography system that uses a dielectric/selenium based detector structure. Lag is the carryover of signal from a previous image, whereas ghosting is the reduction of sensitivity caused by previous exposure history of the detector. Data from six selenium units were acquired. For the type of selenium detector tested, and under typical clinical usage conditions, the lag was as high as 0.15% of source signal and the ghosting could be as high as 15%. The amount of lag and ghosting varied from unit to unit. Results were compared with data acquired on a phosphor-based full-field digital mammography system. Modifications in the technology of the selenium detectors appear to have resulted in a marked decrease in both lag and ghosting effects in more recent systems.

  11. Diffusional water permeability of human erythrocytes and their ghosts

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    The diffusional water permeability of human red cells and ghosts was determined by measuring the rate of tracer efflux by means of an improved version of the continuous flow tube method, having a time resolution of 2-3 ms. At 25 degrees C, the permeability was 2.4 x 10(3) and 2.9 x 10(3) cm s-1 for red cells and ghosts, respectively. Permeability was affected by neither a change in pH from 5.5 to 9.5, nor by osmolality up to 3.3 osmol. Manganous ions at an extracellular concentration of 19 mM did not change diffusional water permeability, as recently suggested by NMR measurements. A "ground" permeability of 1 x 10(3) cm s-1 was obtained by inhibition with 1 mM of either p- chloromercuribenzoate (PCMB) or p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonate (PCMBS). Inhibition increased temperature dependence of water permeability for red cells and ghosts from 21 to 30 kJ mol-1 to 60 kJ mol-1. Although diffusional water permeability is about one order of magnitude lower than osmotic permeability, inhibition with PCMB and PCMBS, temperature dependence both before and after inhibition, and independence of osmolality showed that diffusional water permeability has qualitative features similar to those reported for osmotic permeability, which indicates that the same properties of the membrane determine both types of transport. It is suggested that the PCMB(S)- sensitive permeability above the ground permeability takes place through the intermediate phase between integral membrane proteins and their surrounding lipids. PMID:7097244

  12. Democracy - the real 'ghost' in the machine of global health policy: Comment on "A ghost in the machine? politics in global health policy".

    PubMed

    Harmer, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    Politics is not the ghost in the machine of global health policy. Conceptually, it makes little sense to argue otherwise, while history is replete with examples of individuals and movements engaging politically in global health policy. Were one looking for ghosts, a more likely candidate would be democracy, which is currently under attack by a new global health technocracy. Civil society movements offer an opportunity to breathe life into a vital, but dying, political component of global health policy.

  13. Stable cosmology in ghost-free quasidilaton theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gümrükçüoǧlu, A. Emir; Koyama, Kazuya; Mukohyama, Shinji

    2017-08-01

    We present a novel cosmological solution in the framework of extended quasidilaton theory which underwent scrutiny recently. We only consider terms that do not generate the Boulware-Deser degree of freedom, hence the ghost-free quasidilaton theory, and show three new branches of cosmological evolution therein. One of the solutions passes the perturbative stability tests. This new solution exhibits a late time self-acceleration and all graviton polarizations acquire masses that converge to a constant in the asymptotic future. Moreover, all modes propagate at the speed of light. We propose that this solution can be used as a benchmark model for future phenomenological studies.

  14. Theoretical analysis of quantum ghost imaging through turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Kam Wai Clifford; Simon, D. S.; Sergienko, A. V.; Hardy, Nicholas D.; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.; Dixon, P. Ben; Howland, Gregory A.; Howell, John C.; Eberly, Joseph H.; O'Sullivan, Malcolm N.; Rodenburg, Brandon; Boyd, Robert W.

    2011-10-15

    Atmospheric turbulence generally affects the resolution and visibility of an image in long-distance imaging. In a recent quantum ghost imaging experiment [P. B. Dixon et al., Phys. Rev. A 83, 051803 (2011)], it was found that the effect of the turbulence can nevertheless be mitigated under certain conditions. This paper gives a detailed theoretical analysis to the setup and results reported in the experiment. Entangled photons with a finite correlation area and a turbulence model beyond the phase screen approximation are considered.

  15. Ghost dark energy models in specific modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jawad, Abdul; Salako, Ines G.; Sohail, Ayesha

    2016-09-01

    The paper is devoted to the study of the cosmic acceleration through ghost dark energy models (its simple and generalized form) in the dynamical Chern-Simons modified gravity. In order to check the reliability of this scenario, we explore different cosmological parameters, such as deceleration, equation of state parameters and squared speed of sound. The cosmological planes ωD - 'D and r- s are also investigated in this framework. The obtained results are consistent with observational data of various schemes (WMAP+eCAMB+BAO+H0).

  16. On the Uniqueness of Ghost-Free Special Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Dong; Xing, Yu-Hang

    2017-09-01

    Special gravity refers to interacting theories of massless gravitons in Minkowski space-time which are invariant under the abelian gauge invariance {h}ab\\to {h}ab+{\\partial }(a{χ }b) only. In this article we determine the most general form of special gravity free of Ostrogradski ghosts, meaning its equation of motion is of at most second order. Together with the recent works, this result could be helpful in formulating proofs of General Relativity as the unique physical theory of self-interacting massless gravitons. We also study how to construct gauge invariant couplings to matter fields.

  17. Temporal ghost imaging with pseudo-thermal speckle light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devaux, Fabrice; Phan Huy, Kien; Denis, Séverine; Lantz, Eric; Moreau, Paul-Antoine

    2017-02-01

    We report ghost imaging of a single non-reproducible temporal signal with kHz resolution by using pseudo-thermal speckle light patterns and a single detector array with a million of pixels working without any temporal resolution. A set of speckle patterns is generated deterministically at a sampling rate of tens kHz, multiplied by the temporal signal and time integrated in a single shot by the camera. The temporal information is retrieved by computing the spatial intensity correlations between this time integrated image and each speckle pattern of the set.

  18. Recovery of compacted soils in Mojave Desert ghost towns.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, R.H.; Steiger, J.W.; Wilshire, H.G.

    1986-01-01

    Residual compaction of soils was measured at seven sites in five Mojave Desert ghost towns. Soils in these Death Valley National Monument townsites were compacted by vehicles, animals, and human trampling, and the townsites had been completely abandoned and the buildings removed for 64 to 75 yr. Recovery times extrapolated using a linear recovery model ranged from 80 to 140 yr and averaged 100 yr. The recovery times were related to elevation, suggesting freeze-thaw loosening as an important factor in ameliorating soil compaction in the Mojave Desert. -from Authors

  19. Massive ghost theories with a line of defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosconi, Paola

    2003-06-01

    We study free massive fermionic ghosts, in the presence of an extended line of impurities, relying on the Lagrangian formalism. We propose two distinct defect interactions, respectively, of relevant and marginal nature. The corresponding scattering theories reveal the occurrence of resonances and instabilities in the former case and the presence of poles with imaginary residues in the latter. Correlation functions of the thermal and disorder operators are computed exactly, exploiting the bulk form factors and the matrix elements relative to the defect operator. In the marginal situation, the one-point function of the disorder operator displays a critical exponent continuously varying with the interaction strength.

  20. Refractive effects in 9Be scattering and nuclear rainbow ghosts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satchler, G. R.; Fulmer, C. B.; Auble, R. L.; Ball, J. B.; Bertrand, F. E.; Erb, K. A.; Gross, E. E.; Hensley, D. C.

    1983-08-01

    Data for the elastic scattering of 9Be on 12C and 16O at 158 MeV provide evidence of refractive effects that allow the optical potentials to be determined with little ambiguity. The real potentials are deep. Large angle data indicate dominance of negative-angle scattering from the far side of the target nucleus. The analysis also implies a residual rainbow phenomenon, contrary to what has been seen previously in heavy-ion scattering. We suggest this be called a rainbow ghost. Operated by Union Carbide Corporation under contract W-7405-eng-26 with the US Department of Energy.

  1. Transcriptional and phenotypical heterogeneity of Trypanosoma cruzi cell populations

    PubMed Central

    Seco-Hidalgo, Víctor; De Pablos, Luis Miguel; Osuna, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi has a complex life cycle comprising pools of cell populations which circulate among humans, vectors, sylvatic reservoirs and domestic animals. Recent experimental evidence has demonstrated the importance of clonal variations for parasite population dynamics, survival and evolution. By limiting dilution assays, we have isolated seven isogenic clonal cell lines derived from the Pan4 strain of T. cruzi. Applying different molecular techniques, we have been able to provide a comprehensive characterization of the expression heterogeneity in the mucin-associated surface protein (MASP) gene family, where all the clonal isogenic populations were transcriptionally different. Hierarchical cluster analysis and sequence comparison among different MASP cDNA libraries showed that, despite the great variability in MASP expression, some members of the transcriptome (including MASP pseudogenes) are conserved, not only in the life-cycle stages but also among different strains of T. cruzi. Finally, other important aspects for the parasite, such as growth, spontaneous metacyclogenesis or excretion of different catabolites, were also compared among the clones, demonstrating that T. cruzi populations of cells are also phenotypically heterogeneous. Although the evolutionary strategy that sustains the MASP expression polymorphism remains unknown, we suggest that MASP clonal variability and phenotypic heterogeneities found in this study might provide an advantage, allowing a rapid response to environmental pressure or changes during the life cycle of T. cruzi. PMID:26674416

  2. Establishment of HIV-1 model cell line GHOST(3) with stable DRiP78 and NHERF1 knockdown

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, Lin; HUANG, Xu-He; ZHOU, Ping-Ping; YU, Guo-Long; YAN, Jin; QIN, Bing; YAN, Xin-Ge; DIAO, Li-Mei; LIN, Peng; KUANG, Yi-Qun

    2015-01-01

    Chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR5 are indispensable co-receptors for HIV-1 entry into host cells. In our previous study, we identified that dopamine receptor-interacting protein 78 (DRiP78) and Na+-H+ exchanger regulatory factor 1 (NHERF1) are the CXCR4 and CCR5 homo- or hetero-dimer-interacting proteins. DRiP78 and NHERF1 are able to influence the co-receptor internalization and intracellular trafficking. Over-expression of NHERF1 affects the ligands or HIV-1 gp120-induced CCR5 internalization and HIV-1 production. It is reasonable to speculate that DRiP78 and NHERF1, as well as the signaling pathways involved in viral replication, would probably affect HIV-1 replication through regulating the co-receptors. In this present study, we designed two short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) targeting the DRiP78 and NHERF1, respectively, and constructed the pLenti6/BLOCK-iT-DEST lentiviral plasmids expressing DRiP78 or NHERF1 shRNA. The packaged lentiviruses were used to transduce the widely-applied HIV-1 model cell line GHOST(3). Then, cells with stable knockdown were established through selecting transduced cells with Blasticidin. This study, for the first time, reported the establishment of the GHOST(3) with DRiP78 and NHERF1 knockdown, which is the first stable cell line with HIV-1 co-receptor-interacting molecular defects. PMID:26018859

  3. An algebraic approach to laying a ghost to rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nucci, M. C.; Leach, P. G. L.

    2010-05-01

    In the recent literature there has been a resurgence of interest in the fourth-order field-theoretic model of Pais-Uhlenbeck (1950 Phys. Rev. 79 145-65) which has not had a good reception over the past half a century due to the existence of ghosts in the properties of the quantum mechanical solution. Bender and Mannheim (2008 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 41 304018) were successful in persuading the corresponding quantum operator to 'give up the ghost'. Their success had the advantage of making the model of Pais-Uhlenbeck acceptable to the physics community and in the process added further credit to the cause of advancement of the use of \\cal{ PT} symmetry. We present a case for the acceptance of the Pais-Uhlenbeck model in the context of Dirac's theory by providing an Hamiltonian that is not quantum mechanically haunted. The essential point is the manner in which a fourth-order equation is rendered into a system of second-order equations. We show by means of the method of reduction of order (Nucci M C 1996 J. Math. Phys. 37 1772-5) that it is possible to construct a Hamiltonian that gives rise to a satisfactory quantal description without having to abandon Dirac.

  4. Fourier-Transform Ghost Imaging with Hard X Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hong; Lu, Ronghua; Han, Shensheng; Xie, Honglan; Du, Guohao; Xiao, Tiqiao; Zhu, Daming

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge gained through x-ray crystallography fostered structural determination of materials and greatly facilitated the development of modern science and technology in the past century. However, it is only applied to crystalline structures and cannot resolve noncrystalline materials. Here we demonstrate a novel lensless Fourier-transform ghost imaging method with pseudothermal hard x rays that extends x-ray crystallography to noncrystalline samples. By measuring the second-order intensity correlation function of the light, Fourier-transform diffraction pattern of a complex amplitude sample is achieved at the Fresnel region in our experiment and the amplitude and phase distributions of the sample in the spatial domain are retrieved successfully. For the first time, ghost imaging is experimentally realized with x rays. Since a highly coherent x-ray source is not required, the method can be implemented with laboratory x-ray sources and it also provides a potential solution for lensless diffraction imaging with fermions, such as neutrons and electrons where intensive coherent sources usually are not available.

  5. Efficient ghost cell reconstruction for embedded boundary methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapaka, Narsimha; Al-Marouf, Mohamad; Samtaney, Ravi

    2016-11-01

    A non-iterative linear reconstruction procedure for Cartesian grid embedded boundary methods is introduced. The method exploits the inherent geometrical advantage of the Cartesian grid and employs batch sorting of the ghost cells to eliminate the need for an iterative solution procedure. This reduces the computational cost of the reconstruction procedure significantly, especially for large scale problems in a parallel environment that have significant communication overhead, e.g., patch based adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) methods. In this approach, prior computation and storage of the weightage coefficients for the neighbour cells is not required which is particularly attractive for moving boundary problems and memory intensive stationary boundary problems. The method utilizes a compact and unique interpolation stencil but also provides second order spatial accuracy. It provides a single step/direct reconstruction for the ghost cells that enforces the boundary conditions on the embedded boundary. The method is extendable to higher order interpolations as well. Examples that demonstrate the advantages of the present approach are presented. Supported by the KAUST Office of Competitive Research Funds under Award No. URF/1/1394-01.

  6. Cosmological constant from the ghost: A toy model

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, Federico R.; Zhitnitsky, Ariel R.

    2009-09-15

    We suggest that the solution to the cosmological vacuum energy puzzle is linked to the infrared sector of the effective theory of gravity interacting with standard model fields. We propose a specific solvable two dimensional model where our proposal can be explicitly tested. We analyze the 2d Schwinger model on a 2-torus and in curved 2d space, mostly exploiting the properties of its topological susceptibility, its links with the nontrivial topology or deviations from spacetime flatness, and its relations to the real 4d world. The Kogut-Susskind ghost (which is a direct analogue of the Veneziano ghost in 4d) on a 2-torus and in curved 2d space plays a crucial role in the computation of the vacuum energy. The departure from Minkowski flatness, which is defined as the cosmological constant in our framework, is found to scale as 1/L, where L is the linear size of the torus. Therefore, in spite of the fact that the physical sector of 2d QED is represented by a single massive scalar particle, the deviation from Minkowski space is linear in L rather than exponentially suppressed as one could naievely expect.

  7. Living with ghosts in Hořava-Lifshitz gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramazanov, S.; Arroja, F.; Celoria, M.; Matarrese, S.; Pilo, L.

    2016-06-01

    We consider the branch of the projectable Hořava-Lifshitz model which exhibits ghost instabilities in the low energy limit. It turns out that, due to the Lorentz violating structure of the model and to the presence of a finite strong coupling scale, the vacuum decay rate into photons is tiny in a wide range of phenomenologically acceptable parameters. The strong coupling scale, understood as a cutoff on ghosts' spatial momenta, can be raised up to Λ ˜ 10 TeV. At lower momenta, the projectable Hořava-Lifshitz gravity is equivalent to General Relativity supplemented by a fluid with a small positive sound speed squared (10-42 ≲) c s 2 ≲ 10-20, that could be a promising candidate for the Dark Matter. Despite these advantages, the unavoidable presence of the strong coupling obscures the implementation of the original Hořava's proposal on quantum gravity. Apart from the Hořava-Lifshitz model, conclusions of the present work hold also for the mimetic matter scenario, where the analogue of the projectability condition is achieved by a non-invertible conformal transformation of the metric.

  8. Fourier-Transform Ghost Imaging with Hard X Rays.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong; Lu, Ronghua; Han, Shensheng; Xie, Honglan; Du, Guohao; Xiao, Tiqiao; Zhu, Daming

    2016-09-09

    Knowledge gained through x-ray crystallography fostered structural determination of materials and greatly facilitated the development of modern science and technology in the past century. However, it is only applied to crystalline structures and cannot resolve noncrystalline materials. Here we demonstrate a novel lensless Fourier-transform ghost imaging method with pseudothermal hard x rays that extends x-ray crystallography to noncrystalline samples. By measuring the second-order intensity correlation function of the light, Fourier-transform diffraction pattern of a complex amplitude sample is achieved at the Fresnel region in our experiment and the amplitude and phase distributions of the sample in the spatial domain are retrieved successfully. For the first time, ghost imaging is experimentally realized with x rays. Since a highly coherent x-ray source is not required, the method can be implemented with laboratory x-ray sources and it also provides a potential solution for lensless diffraction imaging with fermions, such as neutrons and electrons where intensive coherent sources usually are not available.

  9. Instability of charged wormholes supported by a ghost scalar field

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, J. A.; Guzman, F. S.; Sarbach, O.

    2009-07-15

    In previous work, we analyzed the linear and nonlinear stability of static, spherically symmetric wormhole solutions to Einstein's field equations coupled to a massless ghost scalar field. Our analysis revealed that all these solutions are unstable with respect to linear and nonlinear spherically symmetric perturbations and showed that the perturbation causes the wormholes to either decay to a Schwarzschild black hole or undergo a rapid expansion. Here, we consider charged generalization of the previous models by adding to the gravitational and ghost scalar field an electromagnetic one. We first derive the most general static, spherically symmetric wormholes in this theory and show that they give rise to a four-parameter family of solutions. This family can be naturally divided into subcritical, critical and supercritical solutions depending on the sign of the sum of the asymptotic masses. Then, we analyze the linear stability of these solutions. We prove that all subcritical and all critical solutions possess one exponentially in time growing mode. It follows that all subcritical and critical wormholes are linearly unstable. In the supercritical case we provide numerical evidence for the existence of a similar unstable mode.

  10. Activity of Bisnaphthalimidopropyl Derivatives against Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Graça, Nuno A. G.; Gaspar, Luis; Costa, David M.; Loureiro, Inês; Thoo-Lin, Paul Kong; Ramos, Isbaal; Roura, Meritxell; Pruvost, Alain; Pemberton, Ian K.; Loukil, Hadjer; MacDougall, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Current treatments for African trypanosomiasis are either toxic, costly, difficult to administer, or prone to elicit resistance. This study evaluated the activity of bisnaphthalimidopropyl (BNIP) derivatives against Trypanosoma brucei. BNIPDiaminobutane (BNIPDabut), the most active of these compounds, showed in vitro inhibition in the single-unit nanomolar range, similar to the activity in the reference drug pentamidine, and presented low toxicity and adequate metabolic stability. Additionally, using a murine model of acute infection and live imaging, a significant decrease in parasite load in BNIPDabut-treated mice was observed. However, cure was not achieved. BNIPDabut constitutes a new scaffold for antitrypanosomal drugs that deserves further consideration. PMID:26787703

  11. Species-specific markers for the differential diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli and polymorphisms detection in Trypanosoma rangeli.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Keila Adriana Magalhães; Fajardo, Emanuella Francisco; Baptista, Rodrigo P; Macedo, Andrea Mara; Lages-Silva, Eliane; Ramírez, Luis Eduardo; Pedrosa, André Luiz

    2014-06-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli are kinetoplastid parasites which are able to infect humans in Central and South America. Misdiagnosis between these trypanosomes can be avoided by targeting barcoding sequences or genes of each organism. This work aims to analyze the feasibility of using species-specific markers for identification of intraspecific polymorphisms and as target for diagnostic methods by PCR. Accordingly, primers which are able to specifically detect T. cruzi or T. rangeli genomic DNA were characterized. The use of intergenic regions, generally divergent in the trypanosomatids, and the serine carboxypeptidase gene were successful. Using T. rangeli genomic sequences for the identification of group-specific polymorphisms and a polymorphic AT(n) dinucleotide repeat permitted the classification of the strains into two groups, which are entirely coincident with T. rangeli main lineages, KP1 (+) and KP1 (-), previously determined by kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) characterization. The sequences analyzed totalize 622 bp (382 bp represent a hypothetical protein sequence, and 240 bp represent an anonymous sequence), and of these, 581 (93.3%) are conserved sites and 41 bp (6.7%) are polymorphic, with 9 transitions (21.9%), 2 transversions (4.9%), and 30 (73.2%) insertion/deletion events. Taken together, the species-specific markers analyzed may be useful for the development of new strategies for the accurate diagnosis of infections. Furthermore, the identification of T. rangeli polymorphisms has a direct impact in the understanding of the population structure of this parasite.

  12. Chandra Finds Ghosts Of Eruption In Galaxy Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-01-01

    "Ghostly" relics of an ancient eruption that tore through a cluster of galaxies were recently uncovered by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. The discovery implies that galaxy clusters are the sites of enormously energetic and recurring explosions, and may provide an explanation why galaxy clusters behave like giant cosmic magnets. "Chandra's image revealed vast regions in the galaxy cluster Abell 2597 that contain almost no X-ray or radio emission. We call them ghost cavities," said Brian McNamara of Ohio University in Athens today during a press conference at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Washington. "They appear to be remnants of an old explosion where the radio emission has faded away over millions of years." The ghost cavities were likely created by extremely powerful explosions, due to material falling toward a black hole millions of times more massive than the Sun. As the matter swirled around the black hole, located in a galaxy near the center of the cluster, it generated enormous electromagnetic fields that expelled material from the vicinity of the black hole at high speeds. This explosive activity in Abell 2597 created jets of highly energetic particles that cleared out voids in the hot gas. Because they are lighter than the surrounding material, the cavities will eventually push their way to the edge of the cluster, just as air bubbles in water make their way to the surface. Researchers also found evidence that this explosion was not a one-time event. "We detected a small, bright radio source near the center of the cluster that indicates a new explosion has occurred recently," said team member Michael Wise of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, "so the cycle of eruption is apparently continuing." Though dim, the ghost cavities are not completely empty. They contain a mixture of very hot gas, high-energy particles and magnetic fields -- otherwise the cavities would have collapsed under the pressure of the surrounding hot

  13. Ghost reflections of Gaussian beams in anamorphic optical systems with an application to Michelson interferometer.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Maksoud, Rania H

    2016-02-20

    In this paper, a methodology is developed to model and analyze the effect of undesired (ghost) reflections of Gaussian beams that are produced by anamorphic optical systems. The superposition of these beams with the nominal beam modulates the nominal power distribution at the recording plane. This modulation may cause contrast reduction, veiling parts of the nominal image, and/or the formation of spurious interference fringes. The developed methodology is based on synthesizing the beam optical paths into nominal and ghost optical beam paths. Similar to the nominal beam, we present the concept that each ghost beam is characterized by a beam size, wavefront radius of curvature, and Gouy phase in the paraxial regime. The nominal and ghost beams are sequentially traced through the system and formulas for estimating the electric field magnitude and phase of each ghost beam at the recording plane are presented. The effective electric field is the addition of the individual nominal and ghost electric fields. Formulas for estimating Gouy phase, the shape of the interference fringes, and the central interference order are introduced. As an application, the theory of the formation of the interference fringes by Michelson interferometer is presented. This theory takes into consideration the ghost reflections that are formed by the beam splitter. To illustrate the theory and to show its wide applicability, simulation examples that include a Mangin mirror, a Michelson interferometer, and a black box optical system are provided.

  14. [Clinical application and mechanism on the ghost points in the treatment of mental diseases].

    PubMed

    Tao, Ying; Hou, Wenguang; Liang, Yan; Zong, Lei

    2015-02-01

    In order to explore the clinical application and mechanism of the ghost points in the treatment of mental diseases, taking "the ghost points" and "mental diseases" as the theme and the key words, the literatures in recent 10 years on the treatment of mental diseases with the ghost points were collected from CNKI and Wanfang database and analyzed. It is discovered that the ghost points can treat schizophrenia, manic-depressive disorder, dementia, stroke, loss of consciousness, insomnia. anxiety, depression and hysteria and the efficacy is favorable. It is believed that the ghost points act on balancing yin and yang, regulating qi and blood, regaining consciousness and tranquilizing the mind and they achieve the very excellent effect on mental diseases. At present, the reports on this aspect are limited. Hence, it is required to promote the study on the clinical application and mechanism of the ghost points so as to enlarge the clinical indications of the ghost points and provide the powerful support on mechanism for the treatment of mental diseases.

  15. Robust EPI Nyquist Ghost Elimination via Spatial and Temporal Encoding (EPI-GESTE)

    PubMed Central

    Hoge, W. Scott; Tan, Huan; Kraft, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Nyquist ghosts are an inherent artifact in EPI acquisitions. An approach to robustly eliminate Nyquist ghosts is presented that integrates two previous Nyquist ghost correction techniques: temporal domain encoding (Phase Labeling for Additional Coordinate Encoding: PLACE) and spatial domain encoding (Phased Array Ghost Elimination: PAGE). Temporal encoding modulates the EPI acquisition trajectory from frame to frame, enabling one to interleave data to remove inconsistencies that occur between sampling on positive and negative gradient readouts. With PLACE, one can coherently combine the interleaved data to cancel residual Nyquist ghosts. If the level of ghosting varies significantly from image to image, however, the signal cancellation that occurs with PLACE can adversely affect SNR-sensitive applications such as perfusion imaging with Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL). This work proposes integrating PLACE into a PAGE-based reconstruction process to yield significantly better Nyquist ghost correction that is more robust than PLACE or PAGE alone. The robustness of this method is demonstrated in the presence of magnetic field drift with an in-vivo ASL perfusion experiment. PMID:20665898

  16. A multigene family encoding surface glycoproteins in Trypanosoma congolense

    PubMed Central

    Thonnus, Magali; Guérin, Amandine; Rivière, Loïc

    2017-01-01

    Trypanosoma congolense, the causative agent of the most important livestock disease in Africa, expresses specific surface proteins involved in its parasitic lifestyle. Unfortunately, the complete repertoire of such molecules is far from being deciphered. As these membrane components are exposed to the host environment, they could be used as therapeutic or diagnostic targets. By mining the T. congolense genome database, we identified a novel family of lectin-like glycoproteins (TcoClecs). These molecules are predicted to have a transmembrane domain, a tandem repeat amino acid motif, a signal peptide and a C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD). This paper depicts several experimental arguments in favor of a surface localization in bloodstream forms of T. congolense. A TcoClec gene was heterologously expressed in U-2 OS cells and the product could be partially found at the plasma membrane. TcoClecs were also localized at the surface of T. congolense bloodstream forms. The signal was suppressed when the cells were treated with a detergent to remove the plasma membrane or with trypsin to « shave » the parasites and remove their external proteins. This suggests that TcoClecs could be potential diagnostic or therapeutic antigens of African animal trypanosomiasis. The potential role of these proteins in T. congolense as well as in other trypanosomatids is discussed. PMID:28357394

  17. Molecular mechanisms of Trypanosoma cruzi infection by oral route.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Nobuko

    2009-07-01

    Frequent reports on outbreaks of acute Chagas' disease by ingestion of food contaminated with parasites from triatomine insects illustrate the importance of this mode of transmission. Studies on oral Trypanosoma cruzi infection in mice have indicated that metacyclic trypomastigotes invade the gastric mucosal epithelium. A key molecule in this process is gp82, a stage-specific surface glycoprotein that binds to both gastric mucin and to target epithelial cells. By triggering Ca2+ signalling, gp82 promotes parasite internalisation. Gp82 is relatively resistant to peptic digestion at acidic pH, thus preserving the properties critical for oral infection. The infection process is also influenced by gp90, a metacyclic stage-specific molecule that negatively regulates the invasion process. T. cruzi strains expressing high gp90 levels invade cells poorly in vitro. However, their infectivity by oral route varies considerably due to varying susceptibilities of different gp90 isoforms to peptic digestion. Parasites expressing pepsin-susceptible gp90 become highly invasive against target cells upon contact with gastric juice. Such is the case of a T. cruzi isolate from an acute case of orally acquired Chagas' disease; the gp90 from this strain is extensively degraded upon short period of parasite permanence in the gastric milieu. If such an exacerbation of infectivity occurs in humans, it may be responsible for the severity of Chagas' disease reported in outbreaks of oral infection.

  18. High-resolution computational ghost imaging and ghost diffraction through turbulence via a beam-shaping method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Chun-Ling; Zhuo, Ling-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Imaging through atmospheric turbulence is a topic with a long history and grand challenges still exist in the remote sensing and astro observation fields. In this letter, we try to propose a simple scheme to improve the resolution of imaging through turbulence based on the computational ghost imaging (CGI) and computational ghost diffraction (CGD) setup via the laser beam shaping techniques. A unified theory of CGI and CGD through turbulence with the multi-Gaussian shaped incoherent source is developed, and numerical examples are given to see clearly the effects of the system parameters to CGI and CGD. Our results show that the atmospheric effect to the CGI and CGD system is closely related to the propagation distance between the source and the object. In addition, by properly increasing the beam order of the multi-Gaussian source, we can improve the resolution of CGI and CGD through turbulence relative to the commonly used Gaussian source. Therefore our results may find applications in remote sensing and astro observation.

  19. Gravitational lensing and ghost images in the regular Bardeen no-horizon spacetimes

    SciTech Connect

    Schee, Jan; Stuchlík, Zdeněk E-mail: zdenek.stuchlik@fpf.slu.cz

    2015-06-01

    We study deflection of light rays and gravitational lensing in the regular Bardeen no-horizon spacetimes. Flatness of these spacetimes in the central region implies existence of interesting optical effects related to photons crossing the gravitational field of the no-horizon spacetimes with low impact parameters. These effects occur due to existence of a critical impact parameter giving maximal deflection of light rays in the Bardeen no-horizon spacetimes. We give the critical impact parameter in dependence on the specific charge of the spacetimes, and discuss 'ghost' direct and indirect images of Keplerian discs, generated by photons with low impact parameters. The ghost direct images can occur only for large inclination angles of distant observers, while ghost indirect images can occur also for small inclination angles. We determine the range of the frequency shift of photons generating the ghost images and determine distribution of the frequency shift across these images. We compare them to those of the standard direct images of the Keplerian discs. The difference of the ranges of the frequency shift on the ghost and direct images could serve as a quantitative measure of the Bardeen no-horizon spacetimes. The regions of the Keplerian discs giving the ghost images are determined in dependence on the specific charge of the no-horizon spacetimes. For comparison we construct direct and indirect (ordinary and ghost) images of Keplerian discs around Reissner-Nördström naked singularities demonstrating a clear qualitative difference to the ghost direct images in the regular Bardeen no-horizon spacetimes. The optical effects related to the low impact parameter photons thus give clear signature of the regular Bardeen no-horizon spacetimes, as no similar phenomena could occur in the black hole or naked singularity spacetimes. Similar direct ghost images have to occur in any regular no-horizon spacetimes having nearly flat central region.

  20. Gravitational lensing and ghost images in the regular Bardeen no-horizon spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schee, Jan; Stuchlík, Zdeněk

    2015-06-01

    We study deflection of light rays and gravitational lensing in the regular Bardeen no-horizon spacetimes. Flatness of these spacetimes in the central region implies existence of interesting optical effects related to photons crossing the gravitational field of the no-horizon spacetimes with low impact parameters. These effects occur due to existence of a critical impact parameter giving maximal deflection of light rays in the Bardeen no-horizon spacetimes. We give the critical impact parameter in dependence on the specific charge of the spacetimes, and discuss "ghost" direct and indirect images of Keplerian discs, generated by photons with low impact parameters. The ghost direct images can occur only for large inclination angles of distant observers, while ghost indirect images can occur also for small inclination angles. We determine the range of the frequency shift of photons generating the ghost images and determine distribution of the frequency shift across these images. We compare them to those of the standard direct images of the Keplerian discs. The difference of the ranges of the frequency shift on the ghost and direct images could serve as a quantitative measure of the Bardeen no-horizon spacetimes. The regions of the Keplerian discs giving the ghost images are determined in dependence on the specific charge of the no-horizon spacetimes. For comparison we construct direct and indirect (ordinary and ghost) images of Keplerian discs around Reissner-Nördström naked singularities demonstrating a clear qualitative difference to the ghost direct images in the regular Bardeen no-horizon spacetimes. The optical effects related to the low impact parameter photons thus give clear signature of the regular Bardeen no-horizon spacetimes, as no similar phenomena could occur in the black hole or naked singularity spacetimes. Similar direct ghost images have to occur in any regular no-horizon spacetimes having nearly flat central region.

  1. Expression of co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 is altered in CD14 + HLA-DR + monocytes from patients with Chagas disease following induction by Trypanosoma cruzi recombinant antigens.

    PubMed

    Soares, Ana Karine de Araújo; Neves, Patrícia Areias Feitosa; Cavalcanti, Maria da Glória Aureliano de Melo; Marinho, Sílvia Martins; Oliveira, Wilson de; Souza, Joelma Rodrigues de; Lorena, Virginia Maria Barros de; Gomes, Yara de Miranda

    2016-01-01

    The relationships between monocytes and lymphocytes through MHC class II molecules and costimulatory, are of utmost importance for the production of an efficient immune response. In this work, we assessed the expression of surface molecules CD80 and CD86 on CD14+HLA-DR+ monocytes from patients with Chagas disease. The study population consisted of 31 patients with chronic clinical forms of Chagas disease. Patient blood samples were cultured in the presence of recombinant cytoplasmic repetitive antigen (CRA) and flagellar repetitive antigen (FRA). We found considerable differences in the expression profile of surface molecules involved in antigen presentation. CRA and FRA may contribute to host immune response evasion by Trypanozoma cruzi.

  2. Immune Evasion Strategies of Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Flávia Nardy, Ana; Freire-de-Lima, Célio Geraldo; Morrot, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Microbes have evolved a diverse range of strategies to subvert the host immune system. The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, provides a good example of such adaptations. This parasite targets a broad spectrum of host tissues including both peripheral and central lymphoid tissues. Rapid colonization of the host gives rise to a systemic acute response which the parasite must overcome. The parasite in fact undermines both innate and adaptive immunity. It interferes with the antigen presenting function of dendritic cells via an action on host sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin receptors. These receptors also induce suppression of CD4+ T cells responses, and we presented evidence that the sialylation of parasite-derived mucins is required for the inhibitory effects on CD4 T cells. In this review we highlight the major mechanisms used by Trypanosoma cruzi to overcome host immunity and discuss the role of parasite colonization of the central thymic lymphoid tissue in chronic disease. PMID:26240832

  3. Ghosts in the self-accelerating DGP branch with Gauss–Bonnet effect

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yen-Wei; Izumi, Keisuke; Bouhmadi-López, Mariam; Chen, Pisin

    2015-06-01

    The Dvali–Gabadadze–Porrati brane-world model provides a possible approach to address the late-time cosmic acceleration. However, it has subsequently been pointed out that a ghost instability will arise on the self-accelerating branch. Here, we carefully investigate whether this ghost problem could be possibly cured by introducing the Gauss–Bonnet term in the five-dimensional bulk action, a natural generalization to the Dvali–Gabadadze–Porrati model. Our analysis is carried out for a background where a de Sitter brane is embedded in an anti–de Sitter bulk. Our result shows that the ghost excitations cannot be avoided even in this modified model.

  4. Ameloblastic fibroma with ghost cell differentiation and calcification: A unique case report.

    PubMed

    Arora, Manpreet; Dave, Aparna; Shetty, Vishwaprakash; Saluja, Pulin

    2015-01-01

    The ameloblastic fibroma (AF) is an uncommon odontogenic tumor that may present an aggressive behavior and may have potential for malignant transformation. Ghost cell differentiation within AF is extremely rare. There are only seven cases in English literature in which ghost cells are found in AF but all these previously reported cases were associated with typical calcifying odontogenic cyst. Here, we present a unique case in 3(1/2)-year-old child with solid lesion which comprised odontogenic epithelium strands, islands, and myxoid ectomesenchyme with focal areas of ghost cell differentiation and calcification associated with neoplastic epithelium.

  5. Ghost cell glaucoma following sutureless scleral-fixated posterior chamber intraocular lens placement.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jordan M; Chang, Jonathan S; Bermudez-Magner, J Antonio; Dubovy, Sander R

    2015-01-01

    Secondary intraocular lens (IOL) placement in the absence of a capsular bag may result in several complications. The authors report the clinicopathologic features of a case of ghost cell glaucoma after the placement of a sutureless posterior chamber IOL. A 47-year-old male presented with a dislocated IOL and underwent lens exchange using a sutureless scleral-fixation technique. Over the following year, the patient developed recurrent vitreous hemorrhages and elevated intraocular pressure despite medical therapy, and an aqueous specimen disclosed ghost cells. Although uncommon, mechanical contact between the iris and a secondary IOL may produce persistent vitreous hemorrhage and elevated intraocular pressures with the formation of ghost cells.

  6. Protection of tilapia (Oreochromis mosambicus) from edwardsiellosis by vaccination with Edwardsiella tarda ghosts.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Se Ryun; Nam, Yoon Kwon; Kim, Sung Koo; Kim, Ki Hong

    2006-04-01

    The vaccine potential of Edwardsiella tarda ghosts produced by gene E mediated lysis was investigated using tilapia (Oreochromis mosambicus). Tilapia immunized with E. tarda ghosts (ETG) and formalin killed E. tarda (FKC) vaccines showed significantly higher serum agglutination titers than control fish. Fish immunized with ETG showed no significant differences with fish immunized with FKC in serum agglutination titers, but showed significantly higher bactericidal activity than fish immunized with FKC. Furthermore, fish immunized with ETG showed higher protection than fish immunized with FKC. As this promising type of a non-living whole cell envelope preparation seems to be favorable over conventional vaccines, we suggest E. tarda ghosts as a new vaccine candidate.

  7. Ghosts in the self-accelerating DGP branch with Gauss-Bonnet effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yen-Wei; Izumi, Keisuke; Bouhmadi-López, Mariam; Chen, Pisin

    2015-06-01

    The Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati brane-world model provides a possible approach to address the late-time cosmic acceleration. However, it has subsequently been pointed out that a ghost instability will arise on the self-accelerating branch. Here, we carefully investigate whether this ghost problem could be possibly cured by introducing the Gauss-Bonnet term in the five-dimensional bulk action, a natural generalization to the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model. Our analysis is carried out for a background where a de Sitter brane is embedded in an anti-de Sitter bulk. Our result shows that the ghost excitations cannot be avoided even in this modified model.

  8. Nonquadratic gauge fixing and ghosts for gauge theories on the hypersphere

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, F. T.; McKeon, D. G. C.

    2011-10-15

    It has been suggested that using a gauge fixing Lagrangian that is not quadratic in a gauge fixing condition is most appropriate for gauge theories formulated on a hypersphere. We reexamine the appropriate ghost action that is to be associated with gauge fixing, applying a technique that has been used for ensuring that the propagator for a massless spin-two field is transverse and traceless. It is shown that this nonquadratic gauge fixing Lagrangian leads to two pair of complex Fermionic ghosts and two Bosonic real ghosts.

  9. Differentiation of Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli of Colombia using minicircle hybridization tests.

    PubMed

    Botero, Adriana; Ortiz, Sylvia; Muñoz, Sergio; Triana, Omar; Solari, Aldo

    2010-11-01

    Although Trypanosoma rangeli is harmless for humans, it is a serious problem since it may be confused with diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. Both parasites overlap geographically, share antigenic protein, and are able to infect the same Triatominae vector and vertebrate host, including human. Our objective was to differentiate T. cruzi and T. rangeli isolates from Colombia based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the minicircles followed by appropriate hybridization tests with selected DNA probes and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. We worked with highly characterized T. cruzi and T. rangeli isolates from different biologic origins and geographic areas of Colombia, and they were analyzed by RFLP and PCR amplification of variable region of minicircles and Southern blot analysis. Our results and experimental conditions demonstrate the usefulness of PCR amplification of the minicircles followed by Southern blot analysis to differentiate T. cruzi from T. rangeli, which can be highly important to improve diagnosis of Chagas disease.

  10. In Vitro Uptake of Isometamidium and Diminazene by Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Girgis-Takla, Pamela; James, Dinah M.

    1974-01-01

    The cattle trypanocide, isometamidium, was readily taken up by inactivated Trypanosoma brucei, while its uptake by living parasites was reduced or inhibited by plasma. In both respects isometamidium differs from diminazene. PMID:15830490

  11. Biconcave shape of human red-blood-cell ghosts relies on density differences between the rim and dimple of the ghost's plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Joseph F

    2016-12-20

    The shape of the human red blood cell is known to be a biconcave disk. It is evident from a variety of theoretical work that known physical properties of the membrane, such as its bending energy and elasticity, can explain the red-blood-cell biconcave shape as well as other shapes that red blood cells assume. But these analyses do not provide information on the underlying molecular causes. This paper describes experiments that attempt to identify some of the underlying determinates of cell shape. To this end, red-blood-cell ghosts were made by hypotonic hemolysis and then reconstituted such that they were smooth spheres in hypo-osmotic solutions and smooth biconcave discs in iso-osmotic solutions. The spherical ghosts were centrifuged onto a coated coverslip upon which they adhered. When the attached spheres were changed to biconcave discs by flushing with an iso-osmotic solution, the ghosts were observed to be mainly oriented in a flat alignment on the coverslip. This was interpreted to mean that, during centrifugation, the spherical ghosts were oriented by a dense band in its equatorial plane, parallel to the centrifugal field. This appears to be evidence that the difference in the densities between the rim and the dimple regions of red blood cells and their ghosts may be responsible for their biconcave shape.

  12. Biconcave shape of human red-blood-cell ghosts relies on density differences between the rim and dimple of the ghost's plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Joseph F.

    2016-01-01

    The shape of the human red blood cell is known to be a biconcave disk. It is evident from a variety of theoretical work that known physical properties of the membrane, such as its bending energy and elasticity, can explain the red-blood-cell biconcave shape as well as other shapes that red blood cells assume. But these analyses do not provide information on the underlying molecular causes. This paper describes experiments that attempt to identify some of the underlying determinates of cell shape. To this end, red-blood-cell ghosts were made by hypotonic hemolysis and then reconstituted such that they were smooth spheres in hypo-osmotic solutions and smooth biconcave discs in iso-osmotic solutions. The spherical ghosts were centrifuged onto a coated coverslip upon which they adhered. When the attached spheres were changed to biconcave discs by flushing with an iso-osmotic solution, the ghosts were observed to be mainly oriented in a flat alignment on the coverslip. This was interpreted to mean that, during centrifugation, the spherical ghosts were oriented by a dense band in its equatorial plane, parallel to the centrifugal field. This appears to be evidence that the difference in the densities between the rim and the dimple regions of red blood cells and their ghosts may be responsible for their biconcave shape. PMID:27930321

  13. Trypanosoma cruzi meningoencephalitis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yasukawa, Kosuke; Patel, Shital M; Flash, Charlene A; Stager, Charles E; Goodman, Jerry C; Woc-Colburn, Laila

    2014-07-01

    As a result of global migration, a significant number of people with Trypanosoma cruzi infection now live in the United States, Canada, many countries in Europe, and other non-endemic countries. Trypanosoma cruzi meningoencephalitis is a rare cause of ring-enhancing lesions in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) that can closely mimic central nervous system (CNS) toxoplasmosis. We report a case of CNS Chagas reactivation in an AIDS patient successfully treated with benznidazole and antiretroviral therapy in the United States.

  14. The existence and abundance of ghost ancestors in biparental populations.

    PubMed

    Gravel, Simon; Steel, Mike

    2015-05-01

    In a randomly-mating biparental population of size N there are, with high probability, individuals who are genealogical ancestors of every extant individual within approximately log2(N) generations into the past. We use this result of J. Chang to prove a curious corollary under standard models of recombination: there exist, with high probability, individuals within a constant multiple of log2(N) generations into the past who are simultaneously (i) genealogical ancestors of each of the individuals at the present, and (ii) genetic ancestors to none of the individuals at the present. Such ancestral individuals-ancestors of everyone today that left no genetic trace-represent 'ghost' ancestors in a strong sense. In this short note, we use simple analytical argument and simulations to estimate how many such individuals exist in finite Wright-Fisher populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Research on ghost imaging method based on wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mengying; He, Ruiqing; Chen, Qian; Gu, Guohua; Zhang, Wenwen

    2017-09-01

    We present an algorithm of extracting the wavelet coefficients of object based on ghost imaging (GI) system. Through modification of the projected random patterns by using a series of templates, wavelet transform GI (WTGI) can directly measure the high frequency components of wavelet coefficients without needing the original image. In this study, we theoretically and experimentally perform the high frequency components of wavelet coefficients detection with an arrow and a letter A based on GI and WTGI. Comparing with the traditional method, the use of the algorithm proposed in this paper can significantly improve the quality of the image of wavelet coefficients in both cases. The special advantages of GI will make the wavelet coefficient detection based on WTGI very valuable in real applications.

  16. [Changes produce old ghosts anew--the insecure Europe].

    PubMed

    Beland, H

    1993-04-01

    Since the fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of existing socialist dictatorships, some of the ghosts that we thought to have long since exorcised have returned to haunt us anew-aggressive forms of nationalism, which we have turned a blind eye to for decades, and a violent species of xenophobia on occasion openly homicidal in nature are prominent features of present-day European reality. In Beland's view, such alarming phenomena can only be controlled successfully if we can contrive-both on an individual and collective plan- to de-activate the psychic mechanism of projecting our own evils and flaws onto others (i.e. "foreigners") and to achieve what Melanie Klein calls the "depressive position", i.e. attain to a higher guilt tolerance. This, Beland contends, is the central utopia of European humanism.

  17. Ghost Fano Resonance of Excitons in Twisted Bilayer Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yufeng

    2014-03-01

    Metallic systems are generally considered to be unable to harbor tightly bound excitons because of the strong screening effect as well as the absence of a finite band gap. Previously, exception has only been found in one-dimensional metallic carbon nanotubes due to the depressed screening effects and the symmetry gap. We explore the exciton spectra of twisted bilayer graphene (tBLG) and predict the existence of even more strongly bound exciton (with binding energy as large as 0.5eV) in this system despite of its higher dimensionality. Based on our results from first-principles simulations and effective model calculations, a mechanism known as the ghost Fano resonance is proposed for the bound exciton formation in metallic systems beyond the dimensonality-related argument. Our results shed light on engineering the e-h excitations in the few-layer van der Waals heterojunction. NSF Grant No. DMR-1207141.

  18. Ghosts in the Machine. Interoceptive Modeling for Chronic Pain Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Di Lernia, Daniele; Serino, Silvia; Cipresso, Pietro; Riva, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Pain is a complex and multidimensional perception, embodied in our daily experiences through interoceptive appraisal processes. The article reviews the recent literature about interoception along with predictive coding theories and tries to explain a missing link between the sense of the physiological condition of the entire body and the perception of pain in chronic conditions, which are characterized by interoceptive deficits. Understanding chronic pain from an interoceptive point of view allows us to better comprehend the multidimensional nature of this specific organic information, integrating the input of several sources from Gifford's Mature Organism Model to Melzack's neuromatrix. The article proposes the concept of residual interoceptive images (ghosts), to explain the diffuse multilevel nature of chronic pain perceptions. Lastly, we introduce a treatment concept, forged upon the possibility to modify the interoceptive chronic representation of pain through external input in a process that we call interoceptive modeling, with the ultimate goal of reducing pain in chronic subjects. PMID:27445681

  19. Spectral Camera based on Ghost Imaging via Sparsity Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhentao; Tan, Shiyu; Wu, Jianrong; Li, Enrong; Shen, Xia; Han, Shensheng

    2016-01-01

    The image information acquisition ability of a conventional camera is usually much lower than the Shannon Limit since it does not make use of the correlation between pixels of image data. Applying a random phase modulator to code the spectral images and combining with compressive sensing (CS) theory, a spectral camera based on true thermal light ghost imaging via sparsity constraints (GISC spectral camera) is proposed and demonstrated experimentally. GISC spectral camera can acquire the information at a rate significantly below the Nyquist rate, and the resolution of the cells in the three-dimensional (3D) spectral images data-cube can be achieved with a two-dimensional (2D) detector in a single exposure. For the first time, GISC spectral camera opens the way of approaching the Shannon Limit determined by Information Theory in optical imaging instruments. PMID:27180619

  20. Pulse-compression ghost imaging lidar via coherent detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Chenjin; Gong, Wenlin; Han, Shensheng

    2016-11-01

    Ghost imaging (GI) lidar, as a novel remote sensing technique,has been receiving increasing interest in recent years. By combining pulse-compression technique and coherent detection with GI, we propose a new lidar system called pulse-compression GI lidar. Our analytical results, which are backed up by numerical simulations, demonstrate that pulse-compression GI lidar can obtain the target's spatial intensity distribution, range and moving velocity. Compared with conventional pulsed GI lidar system, pulse-compression GI lidar, without decreasing the range resolution, is easy to obtain high single pulse energy with the use of a long pulse, and the mechanism of coherent detection can eliminate the influence of the stray light, which can dramatically improve the detection sensitivity and detection range.

  1. Constraint on ghost-free bigravity from gravitational Cherenkov radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Rampei; Tanaka, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Yamashita, Yasuho

    2016-09-01

    We investigate gravitational Cherenkov radiation in a healthy branch of background solutions in the ghost-free bigravity model. In this model, because of the modification of dispersion relations, each polarization mode can possess subluminal phase velocities, and the gravitational Cherenkov radiation could be potentially emitted from a relativistic particle. In the present paper, we derive conditions for the process of the gravitational Cherenkov radiation to occur and estimate the energy emission rate for each polarization mode. We found that the gravitational Cherenkov radiation emitted even from an ultrahigh energy cosmic ray is sufficiently suppressed for the graviton's effective mass less than 100 eV, and the bigravity model with dark matter coupled to the hidden metric is therefore consistent with observations of high energy cosmic rays.

  2. Long-distance temporal quantum ghost imaging over optical fibers

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Shuai; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yidong; Peng, Jiangde

    2016-01-01

    Since the first quantum ghost imaging (QGI) experiment in 1995, many QGI schemes have been put forward. However, the position-position or momentum-momentum correlation required in these QGI schemes cannot be distributed over optical fibers, which limits their large-scale geographical applications. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a scheme for long-distance QGI utilizing frequency correlated photon pairs. In this scheme, the frequency correlation is transformed to the correlation between the illuminating position of one photon and the arrival time of the other photon, by which QGI can be realized in the time domain. Since frequency correlation can be preserved when the photon pairs are distributed over optical fibers, this scheme provides a way to realize long-distance QGI over large geographical scale. In the experiment, long-distance QGI over 50 km optical fibers has been demonstrated. PMID:27194078

  3. Normalized iterative denoising ghost imaging based on the adaptive threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gaoliang; Yang, Zhaohua; Zhao, Yan; Yan, Ruitao; Liu, Xia; Liu, Baolei

    2017-02-01

    An approach for improving ghost imaging (GI) quality is proposed. In this paper, an iteration model based on normalized GI is built through theoretical analysis. An adaptive threshold value is selected in the iteration model. The initial value of the iteration model is estimated as a step to remove the correlated noise. The simulation and experimental results reveal that the proposed strategy reconstructs a better image than traditional and normalized GI, without adding complexity. The NIDGI-AT scheme does not require prior information regarding the object, and can also choose the threshold adaptively. More importantly, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the reconstructed image is greatly improved. Therefore, this methodology represents another step towards practical real-world applications.

  4. Anisotropic Generalized Ghost Pilgrim Dark Energy Model in General Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhi, M. Vijaya; Rao, V. U. M.; Aditya, Y.

    2017-02-01

    A spatially homogeneous and anisotropic locally rotationally symmetric (LRS) Bianchi type- I Universe filled with matter and generalized ghost pilgrim dark energy (GGPDE) has been studied in general theory of relativity. To obtain determinate solution of the field equations we have used scalar expansion proportional to the shear scalar which leads to a relation between the metric potentials. Some well-known cosmological parameters (equation of state (EoS) parameter ( ω Λ), deceleration parameter ( q) and squared speed of sound {vs2}) and planes (ω _{Λ }-dot {ω }_{Λ } and statefinder) are constructed for obtained model. The discussion and significance of these parameters is totally done through pilgrim dark energy parameter ( β) and cosmic time ( t).

  5. Ghost Dark Energy with Non-Linear Interaction Term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi, E.

    2016-06-01

    Here we investigate ghost dark energy (GDE) in the presence of a non-linear interaction term between dark matter and dark energy. To this end we take into account a general form for the interaction term. Then we discuss about different features of three choices of the non-linear interacting GDE. In all cases we obtain equation of state parameter, w D = p/ ρ, the deceleration parameter and evolution equation of the dark energy density parameter (Ω D ). We find that in one case, w D cross the phantom line ( w D < -1). However in two other classes w D can not cross the phantom divide. The coincidence problem can be solved in these models completely and there exist good agreement between the models and observational values of w D , q. We study squared sound speed {vs2}, and find that for one case of non-linear interaction term {vs2} can achieves positive values at late time of evolution.

  6. Hidden Kekule Order of Ghost Atoms on Monolayer Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, Christopher; Brown, Lola; Lochocki, Edward; Rosenthal, Ethan; Kim, Cheol-Joo; Ogawa, Yui; Shen, Kyle; Park, Jiwoong; Pasupathy, Abhay

    2015-03-01

    Various charge and spin ordered phases have been predicted to exist in graphene when the lattice symmetry is broken on the atomic scale. One such phase is the Kekule distortion, whereby the C-C bond symmetry is broken and the graphene unit cell is tripled. It has been proposed that when certain adatoms are placed on monolayer graphene, strong interactions can exist between them mediated by the graphene lattice. The graphene-adatom interaction can induce Kekule order in the graphene itself, and move the adatoms to produce a hidden Kekule ordering. In this talk I will discuss evidence from scanning tunneling microscopy, electron diffraction and angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy that shows the existence of this unique ordering in epitaxial graphene on copper. Interestingly, we find in this case that the Kekule order is induced by a dilute number of ``ghost atoms'' - unidentified atomic features - in the otherwise perfect copper lattice underneath monolayer graphene.

  7. Pulse-compression ghost imaging lidar via coherent detection.

    PubMed

    Deng, Chenjin; Gong, Wenlin; Han, Shensheng

    2016-11-14

    Ghost imaging (GI) lidar, as a novel remote sensing technique, has been receiving increasing interest in recent years. By combining pulse-compression technique and coherent detection with GI, we propose a new lidar system called pulse-compression GI lidar. Our analytical results, which are backed up by numerical simulations, demonstrate that pulse-compression GI lidar can obtain the target's spatial intensity distribution, range and moving velocity. Compared with conventional pulsed GI lidar system, pulse-compression GI lidar, without decreasing the range resolution, is easy to obtain high single pulse energy with the use of a long pulse, and the mechanism of coherent detection can eliminate the influence of the stray light, which is helpful to improve the detection sensitivity and detection range.

  8. Computational ghost imaging: advanced compressive sensing (CS) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katkovnik, Vladimir; Astola, Jaakko

    2012-10-01

    A novel efficient variational technique for speckle imaging is discussed. It is developed with the main motivation to filter noise, to wipe out the typical diffraction artifacts and to achieve crisp imaging. A sparse modeling is used for the wave field at the object plane in order to overcome the loss of information due to the ill-posedness of forward propagation image formation operators. This flexible and data adaptive modeling relies on the recent progress in sparse imaging and compressive sensing (CS). Being in line with the general formalism of CS, we develop an original approach to wave field reconstruction.7 In this paper we demonstrate this technique in its application for computational amplitude ghost imaging (GI), where a spatial light modulator (SLM) is used in order to generate a speckle wave field sensing a transmitted mask object.

  9. Consistency of nonlinear interacting ghost dark energy with recent observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi, E.; Golchin, H.; Mehrabi, A.; Movahed, S. M. S.

    In this paper, we investigate ghost dark energy model in the presence of nonlinear interaction between dark energy and dark matter. We also extend the analysis to the so-called generalized ghost dark energy (GGDE) which ρD = αH + βH2. The model contains three free parameters as ΩD,ζ(= 8πGβ 3 ) and b2 (the coupling coefficient of interactions). We propose three kinds of nonlinear interaction terms and discuss the behavior of equation of state, deceleration and dark energy density parameters of the model. We also find the squared sound speed and search for signs of stability of the model. To compare the interacting GGDE model with observational data sets, we use more recent observational outcomes, namely SNIa from JLA catalog, Hubble parameter, baryonic acoustic oscillation and the most relevant CMB parameters including, the position of acoustic peaks, shift parameters and redshift to recombination. For GGDE with the first nonlinear interaction, the joint analysis indicates that ΩD = 0.7192 ± 0.0062, b2 = 0.146 ‑0.026+0.030 and ζ = 0.104 ± 0.047 at 1 optimal variance error. For the second interaction, the best fit values at 1σ confidence are ΩD = 0.72091 ± 0.0065, b2 = 0.0395 ± 0.0080 and ζ ≤ 0.0173. According to combination of all observational data sets considered in this paper, the best fit values for third nonlinearly interacting model are ΩD = 0.7287 ± 0.0062, b2 = 0.0109 ± 0.0023 and ζ ≤ 0.00764 at 1σ confidence interval. Finally, we found that the presence of interaction is compatible in mentioned models via current observational datasets.

  10. A review of ghost gear entanglement amongst marine mammals, reptiles and elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Stelfox, Martin; Hudgins, Jillian; Sweet, Michael

    2016-10-15

    This review focuses on the effect that ghost gear entanglement has on marine megafauna, namely mammals, reptiles and elasmobranchs. A total of 76 publications and other sources of grey literature were assessed, and these highlighted that over 5400 individuals from 40 different species were recorded as entangled in, or associated with, ghost gear. Interestingly, there appeared to be a deficit of research in the Indian, Southern, and Arctic Oceans; and so, we recommend that future studies focus efforts on these areas. Furthermore, studies assessing the effects of ghost gear on elasmobranchs, manatees, and dugongs should also be prioritised, as these groups were underrepresented in the current literature. The development of regional databases, capable of recording entanglement incidences following a minimum global set of criteria, would be a logical next step in order to analyse the effect that ghost gear has on megafauna populations worldwide.

  11. Repressed ghosts and dissociated vampires in the enacted dimension of psychoanalytic treatment.

    PubMed

    Katz, Gil

    2015-04-01

    One of the most evocative uses of the metaphor of a ghost in psychoanalytic writing was crafted by Hans Loewald in "On the Therapeutic Action of Psycho-Analysis" (1960). In this seminal work, Loewald likened the process of psychoanalytic change to that of transforming psychic ghosts into ancestors. In the present paper, the author supplements the metaphor of ghosts that haunt with the metaphor of vampires that menace, and links these two alien experiences to two psychological processes: repression and dissociation. Descriptions of ghosts and vampires in folklore, and the ways they are experienced in analytic treatment, are followed by an explication of the enacted dimension of analytic process-the arena of treatment in which all demons are inevitably revivified, "recognized," and ultimately laid to rest. The paper includes a clinical illustration of a dissociated vampire: a Holocaust trauma transmitted across three generations of survivors. © 2015 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  12. The Ghost in the Touchscreen: Social Scaffolds Promote Learning by Toddlers.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Laura; Moser, Alecia; Lee, Herietta; Gerhardstein, Peter; Barr, Rachel

    2016-12-09

    This study examined the effect of a "ghost" demonstration on toddlers' imitation. In the ghost condition, virtual pieces moved to make a fish or boat puzzle. Fifty-two 2.5- and 3-year-olds were tested on a touchscreen (no transfer) or with 3D pieces (transfer); children tested with 3D pieces scored above a no demonstration baseline, but children tested on the touchscreen did not. Practice on the touchscreen (n = 23) by 2.5- and 3-year-olds prior to the ghost demonstration did not improve performance. Finally, children who learned the puzzle task via a social demonstration and were tested on the touchscreen (n = 26) performed better than the ghost conditions. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that social demonstrations enhance learning from novel touchscreen tools during early childhood.

  13. Ghost cell odontogenic tumor associated with odontoma--report of two rare cases.

    PubMed

    Hogge, Maritzabel; Velez, Ines; Kaltman, Steven; Movahed, Reza; Yeh, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The ghost cell odontogenic tumor (GCOT) is a neoplastic/cystic lesion with a diverse histopathological and clinical behavior It was formerly known as calcified odontogenic cyst, but in 2005 the World Health Organization categorized this lesion as an odontogenic, benign tumor rather than a cyst; nominating this neoplasm as calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor. A later comprehensive classification named it ghost cell odontogenic tumor because the most remarkable histopathologic characteristic is the presence of a mass of ghost cells embedded in the epithelium. We report two cases of a rare variant of a ghost cell odontogenic tumor associated with odontoma; to our knowledge, one is the youngest patient (four month old) reported in the English literature.

  14. Ghost identification based on single-pixel imaging in big data environment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen

    2017-07-10

    In recent years, single-pixel imaging has become one of the most interesting and promising imaging technologies for various applications. In this paper, a big data environment for the first time to my knowledge is designed and introduced into single-pixel ghost imaging for securing information. Many series of one-dimensional ciphertexts are recorded by a single-pixel bucket detector to form a big data environment. Several hidden inputs are further encoded based on ghost imaging by using hierarchical structure, and their corresponding ciphertexts are synthesized into the big data environment for verifying the hidden ghosts and identifying the targeted ghosts. This new finding could open up a different research perspective for exploring more applications based on single-pixel imaging.

  15. NASA Satellite Scares Up An Eerie Image of Haunted Lakes and Ghost Ships

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-10-29

    NASA Terra satellite presents this false color view of portions of Wisconsin and Michigan, including Devil Lake, Druid Lake, Ghost Lake, Spider Lake, and Witches Lake in Wisconsin; and Bat Lake, Corpse Pond and Witch Lake in Michigan.

  16. mRNA localization mechanisms in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Alves, Lysangela R; Guerra-Slompo, Eloise P; de Oliveira, Arthur V; Malgarin, Juliane S; Goldenberg, Samuel; Dallagiovanna, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetric mRNA localization is a sophisticated tool for regulating and optimizing protein synthesis and maintaining cell polarity. Molecular mechanisms involved in the regulated localization of transcripts are widespread in higher eukaryotes and fungi, but not in protozoa. Trypanosomes are ancient eukaryotes that branched off early in eukaryote evolution. We hypothesized that these organisms would have basic mechanisms of mRNA localization. FISH assays with probes against transcripts coding for proteins with restricted distributions showed a discrete localization of the mRNAs in the cytoplasm. Moreover, cruzipain mRNA was found inside reservosomes suggesting new unexpected functions for this vacuolar organelle. Individual mRNAs were also mobilized to RNA granules in response to nutritional stress. The cytoplasmic distribution of these transcripts changed with cell differentiation, suggesting that localization mechanisms might be involved in the regulation of stage-specific protein expression. Transfection assays with reporter genes showed that, as in higher eukaryotes, 3'UTRs were responsible for guiding mRNAs to their final location. Our results strongly suggest that Trypanosoma cruzi have a core, basic mechanism of mRNA localization. This kind of controlled mRNA transport is ancient, dating back to early eukaryote evolution.

  17. Comparative genomics of drug resistance in Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense.

    PubMed

    Graf, Fabrice E; Ludin, Philipp; Arquint, Christian; Schmidt, Remo S; Schaub, Nadia; Kunz Renggli, Christina; Munday, Jane C; Krezdorn, Jessica; Baker, Nicola; Horn, David; Balmer, Oliver; Caccone, Adalgisa; de Koning, Harry P; Mäser, Pascal

    2016-09-01

    Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense is one of the causative agents of human sleeping sickness, a fatal disease that is transmitted by tsetse flies and restricted to Sub-Saharan Africa. Here we investigate two independent lines of T. b. rhodesiense that have been selected with the drugs melarsoprol and pentamidine over the course of 2 years, until they exhibited stable cross-resistance to an unprecedented degree. We apply comparative genomics and transcriptomics to identify the underlying mutations. Only few mutations have become fixed during selection. Three genes were affected by mutations in both lines: the aminopurine transporter AT1, the aquaporin AQP2, and the RNA-binding protein UBP1. The melarsoprol-selected line carried a large deletion including the adenosine transporter gene AT1, whereas the pentamidine-selected line carried a heterozygous point mutation in AT1, G430R, which rendered the transporter non-functional. Both resistant lines had lost AQP2, and both lines carried the same point mutation, R131L, in the RNA-binding motif of UBP1. The finding that concomitant deletion of the known resistance genes AT1 and AQP2 in T. b. brucei failed to phenocopy the high levels of resistance of the T. b. rhodesiense mutants indicated a possible role of UBP1 in melarsoprol-pentamidine cross-resistance. However, homozygous in situ expression of UBP1-Leu(131) in T. b. brucei did not affect the sensitivity to melarsoprol or pentamidine.

  18. Characterisation of the fumarate hydratase repertoire in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    de Pádua, Ricardo A P; Kia, Ali Martin; Costa-Filho, Antonio J; Wilkinson, Shane R; Nonato, M Cristina

    2017-09-01

    Nifurtimox and benznidazole represent the only treatments options available targeting Chagas disease, the most important parasitic infection in the Americas. However, use of these is problematic as they are toxic and ineffective against the more severe stages of the disease. In this work, we used a multidisciplinary approach to characterise the fumarases from Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas Disease. We showed this trypanosome expresses cytosolic and mitochondrial fumarases that via an iron-sulfur cluster mediate the reversible conversion of fumarate to S-malate. Based on sequence, biochemical properties and co-factor binding, both T. cruzi proteins share characteristics with class I fumarases, enzymes found in bacteria and some other protozoa but absent from humans, that possess class II isoforms instead. Gene disruption suggested that although the cytosolic or mitochondrial fumarase activities are individually dispensable their combined activity is essential for parasite viability. Finally, based on the mechanistic differences with the human (host) fumarase, we designed and validated a selective inhibitor targeting the parasite enzyme. This study showed that T. cruzi fumarases should be exploited as targets for the development of new chemotherapeutic interventions against Chagas disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Interaction of Trypanosoma evansi with the plasminogen-plasmin system.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Héctor; Rondón-Mercado, Rocío; Avilán, Luisana; Concepción, Juan Luis

    2016-08-15

    Trypanosoma evansi is a widely-distributed haemoflagellated parasite of veterinary importance that infects a variety of mammals including horses, mules, camels, buffalos, cattle and deer. It is the causal agent of a trypanosomiasis known as Surra which produces epidemics of great economic importance in Africa, Asia and South America. The main pathology includes an enlarged spleen with hypertrophy of lymphoid follicles, congested lungs, neuronal degeneration and meningoencephalitis, where migration of the parasites from the blood to the tissues is essential. Most cells, including pathogenic cells, use diverse strategies for tissue invasion, such as the expression of surface receptors to bind plasminogen or plasmin. In this work, we show that T. evansi is able to bind plasminogen and plasmin on its surface. The analysis of this binding revealed a high affinity dissociation constant (Kd of 0.080±0.009μM) and 1×10(5) plasminogen binding sites per cell. Also a second population of receptors with a Kd of 0.255±0.070μM and 3.2×10(4) plasminogen binding sites per cell was determined. Several proteins with molecular masses between ∼18 and ∼70kDa are responsible for this binding. This parasite-plasminogen interaction may be important in the establishment of the infection in the vertebrate host, where the physiological concentration of available plasminogen is around 2μM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. High throughput screening for anti-Trypanosoma cruzi drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Padilla, Julio; Rodríguez, Ana

    2014-12-01

    The discovery of new therapeutic options against Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, stands as a fundamental need. Currently, there are only two drugs available to treat this neglected disease, which represents a major public health problem in Latin America. Both available therapies, benznidazole and nifurtimox, have significant toxic side effects and their efficacy against the life-threatening symptomatic chronic stage of the disease is variable. Thus, there is an urgent need for new, improved anti-T. cruzi drugs. With the objective to reliably accelerate the drug discovery process against Chagas disease, several advances have been made in the last few years. Availability of engineered reporter gene expressing parasites triggered the development of phenotypic in vitro assays suitable for high throughput screening (HTS) as well as the establishment of new in vivo protocols that allow faster experimental outcomes. Recently, automated high content microscopy approaches have also been used to identify new parasitic inhibitors. These in vitro and in vivo early drug discovery approaches, which hopefully will contribute to bring better anti-T. cruzi drug entities in the near future, are reviewed here.