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Sample records for ghrelin gene expression

  1. Effect of ghrelin on aldolase gene expression in the heart of chronic hypoxic rat.

    PubMed

    Aliparasti, Mohammad Reza; Alipour, Mohammad Reza; Almasi, Shohreh; Feizi, Hadi

    2012-01-01

    Chronic hypoxia causes apoptosis of cardiac myocytes, however, energy production by anaerobic glycolysis protects myocardium against hypoxia injuries. Aldolase A is a well-characterised key enzyme of the glycolysis pathway. Ghrelin, a 28-amino-acid peptide, synthesizes in the stomach and has protective roles in cardiovascular systems and also affects metabolic pathways. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ghrelin on aldolase A gene expression after chronic hypoxia in the rat hearts. Twenty four adult male wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups. Hypoxic rats with saline or ghrelin treatment were placed in a normobaric hypoxic chamber (O2 11 %), for two weeks. Controls remained in room air. Aldolase A gene expression was measured by Real-Time RT-PCR. the transcriptiom rate of Aldolase A in hypoxic animals did not change significantly compared to negative control ones. During chronic hypoxia, ghrelin treatment increased the amount of heart Aldolase A gene expression compared to negative controls (P = 0.029). Hypoxic animals that were treated with ghrelin were significantly more polycythemic than the controls and even hypoxic with saline treated rats (P < 0.001). It seems that ghrelin interferes in the cardiac metabolism through upregulation of glycolytic enzymes. In other words, it may protect heart from possible hypoxia induced damages.

  2. Effect of Ghrelin on Aldolase Gene Expression in the Heart of Chronic Hypoxic Rat

    PubMed Central

    Aliparasti, Mohammad Reza; Alipour, Mohammad Reza; Almasi, Shohreh; Feizi, Hadi

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic hypoxia causes apoptosis of cardiac myocytes, however, energy production by anaerobic glycolysis protects myocardium against hypoxia injuries. Aldolase A is a well-characterised key enzyme of the glycolysis pathway. Ghrelin, a 28-amino-acid peptide, synthesizes in the stomach and has protective roles in cardiovascular systems and also affects metabolic pathways. Objectives Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ghrelin on aldolase A gene expression after chronic hypoxia in the rat hearts. Materials and Methods Twenty four adult male wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups. Hypoxic rats with saline or ghrelin treatment were placed in a normobaric hypoxic chamber (O2 11 %), for two weeks. Controls remained in room air. Aldolase A gene expression was measured by Real-Time RT-PCR. Results the transcriptiom rate of Aldolase A in hypoxic animals did not change significantly compared to negative control ones. During chronic hypoxia, ghrelin treatment increased the amount of heart Aldolase A gene expression compared to negative controls (P = 0.029). Hypoxic animals that were treated with ghrelin were significantly more polycythemic than the controls and even hypoxic with saline treated rats (P < 0.001). Conclusions It seems that ghrelin interferes in the cardiac metabolism through upregulation of glycolytic enzymes. In other words, it may protect heart from possible hypoxia induced damages. PMID:23843819

  3. Hepatic changes in metabolic gene expression in old ghrelin and ghrelin receptor knockout mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ghrelin knockout (GKO) and ghrelin receptor (growth hormone secretagogue receptor) knockout (GHSRKO) mice exhibit enhanced insulin sensitivity, but the mechanism is unclear. Insulin sensitivity declines with age and is inversely associated with accumulation of lipid in liver, a key glucoregulatory ...

  4. [Cloning, prokaryotic expression of cattle Ghrelin gene and biological activity detection of the expressed protein].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ailing; Zhang, Li; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Liangzhi; Lan, Xianyong; Zhang, Chunlei; Zhang, Cunfang; Zhu, Zeyi

    2009-01-01

    The cDNA of cattle Ghrelin gene was amplified from abomasum fundic gland mRNA of Qinchuan Cattle by RT-PCR. PCR product was cloned into the T vector pGM-T to construct pGh-T1 for sequencing. Then the cDNA was subcloned into the prokaryotic expressing plasmid vector pET32a (+) and transformed into host Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3) for expression. The expression of pGh-32 mature Ghrelin protein was induced by IPTG and was identified by SDS-PAGE. The expression product was observed with soluble protein and inclusion body. Western blotting showed that the recombinant protein was recognized by his-antibody specifically. The protein was purified by Ni-NTA column and was used to inject rabbits to obtain polyclona antibody. ELISA result showed that the antibody titer was 1:12 800. The immunohistochemistry test between the hypothalamus arcuate nucleus and the antibody showed that fusion protein had biological activity. This will provide a basis for further study on the biological function of Ghrelin protein to growth and development and fat deposition of cattle.

  5. Regulation of oxidative stress and somatostatin, cholecystokinin, apelin gene expressions by ghrelin in stomach of newborn diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Zeynep Mine; Sacan, Ozlem; Karatug, Ayse; Turk, Neslihan; Yanardag, Refiye; Bolkent, Sehnaz; Bolkent, Sema

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether ghrelin treatment has a protective effect on gene expression and biochemical changes in the stomach of newborn streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. In this study, four groups of Wistar rats were used: control, ghrelin control, diabetic and diabetic+ghrelin. The rats were sacrificed after four weeks of treatment for diabetes. The gene expressions of: somatostatin, cholecystokinin, apelin and the altered active caspase-3, active caspase-8, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, were investigated in the pyloric region of the stomach and antioxidant parameters were measured in all the stomach. Although ghrelin treatment to diabetic rats lowered the stomach lipid peroxidation levels, the stomach glutathione levels were increased. Exogenous ghrelin caused an increased activities of stomach catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase in diabetic rats. Numbers of somatostatin, cholecystokinin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunoreactive cells decreased in the diabetic+ghrelin group compared to the diabetic group. Apelin mRNA expressions were remarkably less in the diabetic+ghrelin rats than in diabetic rats. The results may indicate that ghrelin treatment has a protective effect to some extent on the diabetic rats. This protection is possibly accomplished through the antioxidant activity of ghrelin observed in type 2 diabetes. Consequently exogenous ghrelin may be a candidate for therapeutic treatment of diabetes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Ghrelin on Sexual Behavior and Luteinizing Hormone Beta-subunit Gene Expression in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Babaei-Balderlou, Farrin; Khazali, Homayoun

    2016-01-01

    Background: The hormones of hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis have facilitative effects on reproductive behavior in mammals. Ghrelin as a starvation hormone has an inhibitory effect on HPG axis’ function. Hence, it is postulated that ghrelin may reduce the sexual behavior through inhibiting of HPG axis. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of ghrelin and its antagonist, [D-Lys3 ]-GHRP-6, on sexual behavior and LH beta-subunit gene expression in male rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 128 male Wistar rats were divided into two groups. Each group was further subdivided into eight subgroups (n=8 rats/subgroup) including the animals that received saline, ghrelin (2, 4 or 8 nmol), [D-Lys3 ]-GHRP-6 (5 or 10 nmol) or co-administration of ghrelin (4 nmol) and [D-Lys3 ]-GHRP-6 (5 or 10 nmol) through the stereotaxically implanted cannula into the third cerebral ventricle. The sexual behavior of male rats encountering with females and the hypo-physeal LH beta-subunit gene expression were evaluated at two different groups. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Ghrelin injection (4 and 8 nmol) significantly (p<0.01) increased the latencies to the first mount, intromission and ejaculation as well as the post-ejaculatory interval. Also, 4 and 8 nmol ghrelin significantly (p<0.05) increased the number of mount and decreased the number of ejaculation. In co-administrated groups, [D-Lys3 ]-GHRP-6 antagonized the effects of ghrelin. Ghrelin injection (4 and 8 nmol) reduced the LH beta-subunit gene expression while pretreatment with [D-Lys3 ]-GHRP-6 improved the gene expression. Conclusion: Ghrelin decreased the sexual behavior and LH beta-subunit gene expression in male rats, whereas [D-Lys3 ]-GHRP-6 antagonizes these effects. PMID:27141463

  7. Ghrelin Administration Increases the Bax/Bcl-2 Gene Expression Ratio in the Heart of Chronic Hypoxic Rats.

    PubMed

    Aliparasti, Mohammad Reza; Alipour, Mohammad Reza; Almasi, Shohreh; Feizi, Hadi

    2015-06-01

    Programmed cell death or apoptosis, is a biochemical procedure that initiates due to some conditions, including hypoxia. Bax and Bcl-2 are among the agents that regulate apoptosis. The amplification of the first one triggers the initiation of apoptosis, and the second one prevents it. Ghrelin is an endogenous peptide that antiapoptosis is its new effect. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of ghrelin on the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Twenty four wistar rats were divided randomly in three groups; control, hypoxic + saline and hypoxic + ghrelin. Hypoxic animals lived in O2 11% for 2 weeks and received either saline or ghrelin subcutaneously daily. The bax and Bcl-2 gene expression were measured by Real-Time RT-PCR. Chronic hypoxia increased the Bax gene expression significantly compared with normal animals (P = 0.008), but the Bcl-2 was not affected by hypoxia. The Bax/Bcl-2 ratio also amplified significantly (P=0.005). Ghrelin administration significantly increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in the hypoxic animals compared to the hypoxic + saline and normal groups (p=0.042 and P= 0.001, respectively). In the present study, animals' treatment with ghrelin leads to an increment of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, which indicates a controversy related to cardioprotection of ghrelin.

  8. Ghrelin Administration Increases the Bax/Bcl-2 Gene Expression Ratio in the Heart of Chronic Hypoxic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Aliparasti, Mohammad Reza; Alipour, Mohammad Reza; Almasi, Shohreh; Feizi, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Programmed cell death or apoptosis, is a biochemical procedure that initiates due to some conditions, including hypoxia. Bax and Bcl-2 are among the agents that regulate apoptosis. The amplification of the first one triggers the initiation of apoptosis, and the second one prevents it. Ghrelin is an endogenous peptide that antiapoptosis is its new effect. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of ghrelin on the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Methods: Twenty four wistar rats were divided randomly in three groups; control, hypoxic + saline and hypoxic + ghrelin. Hypoxic animals lived in O2 11% for 2 weeks and received either saline or ghrelin subcutaneously daily. The bax and Bcl-2 gene expression were measured by Real-Time RT-PCR. Results: Chronic hypoxia increased the Bax gene expression significantly compared with normal animals (P = 0.008), but the Bcl-2 was not affected by hypoxia. The Bax/Bcl-2 ratio also amplified significantly (P=0.005). Ghrelin administration significantly increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in the hypoxic animals compared to the hypoxic + saline and normal groups (p=0.042 and P= 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: In the present study, animals’ treatment with ghrelin leads to an increment of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, which indicates a controversy related to cardioprotection of ghrelin. PMID:26236657

  9. Expression analysis of key somatotropic axis and liporegulatory genes in ghrelin- and obestatin-infused dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Grala, T M; Kay, J K; Walker, C G; Sheahan, A J; Littlejohn, M D; Lucy, M C; Roche, J R

    2010-07-01

    Ghrelin, an orexigenic hormone, is the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). Obestatin is produced from the same precursor peptide as ghrelin, and although obestatin was initially thought to promote actions opposite to those of ghrelin, many studies have failed to confirm this hypothesis. In the current study, multiparous cows were continuously infused with ghrelin (n = 10) or obestatin (n = 10) for 8 wk and compared to an untreated group (n = 10) to examine the effects of these hormones on somatotropic and liporegulatory gene expression. The expression of key genes was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Growth hormone secretagogue receptor mRNA expression was altered in ghrelin- and obestatin-infused cows in a similar manner, as expression was increased at 4 wk, however it had decreased by 8 wk. Obestatin-infused cows presented with a significant decrease in the expression of ATP-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1) in adipose tissue, suggesting changes in cholesterol transport. Liver insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein-3 mRNA displayed a week-by-treatment interaction, as expression was increased in control and obestatin-infused cows; however, expression decreased in ghrelin-infused cows. Adipose expression of hormone sensitive lipase (LIPE) mRNA was not altered by treatment or time, suggesting hormone infusion is not initiating lipolysis. The expression of lipogenic genes in adipose tissue increased with time in all groups, consistent with the general lactational profile of lipogenesis in dairy cows. These data indicate that continuous infusion of ghrelin or obestatin does not alter the expression of key somatotropic or liporegulatory genes in the lactating dairy cow, although obestatin infusion may alter cholesterol transport.

  10. Daily supplementation with ghrelin improves in vitro bovine blastocysts formation rate and alters gene expression related to embryo quality.

    PubMed

    Dovolou, Eleni; Periquesta, Eva; Messinis, Ioannis E; Tsiligianni, Theodora; Dafopoulos, Konstantinos; Gutierrez-Adan, Alfonso; Amiridis, Georgios S

    2014-03-01

    Ghrelin is a gastric peptide having regulatory role in the reproductive system functionality, acting mainly at central level. Because the expression of ghrelin system (ghrelin and its receptor) has been detected in the bovine ovary, the objectives of the present study were to investigate whether ghrelin can affect the developmental potential of in vitro-produced embryos, and to test their quality in terms of relative abundance of various genes related to metabolism, apoptosis and oxidation. In the first experiment, in vitro-produced zygotes were cultured in the absence (control [C]) and in the presence of three concentrations of acylated ghrelin (200 pg/mL [Ghr200], 800 pg/mL [Ghr800]; and 2000 pg/mL [Ghr2000]); blastocyst formation rates were examined on Days 7, 8, and 9. In the second experiment, only the 800 pg/mL dose of ghrelin was used. Zygotes were produced as in experiment 1 and 24 hours post insemination they were divided into 4 groups; in two groups (C; without ghrelin; Ghr800 with ghrelin), embryos were cultured without medium replacement; in the remaining two groups (Control N and GhrN), the culture medium was daily renewed. A pool of Day-7 blastocysts were snap frozen for relative mRNA abundance of various genes related to metabolism, oxidation, implantation, and apoptosis. In experiment 3, embryos were produced as in experiment 2, but in the absence of serum (semi-defined culture medium). In experiment 1, no differences were detected between C, Ghr200, and Ghr2000, although fewer blastocysts were produced in group Ghr800 compared with C. In experiment 2, the lowest blastocysts yield was found in Ghr800, whereas daily renewal of ghrelin (Ghr800N) resulted to increased blastocysts formation rate, which on Day 7 was the highest among groups (P < 0.05). In experiment 3, ghrelin significantly suppressed blastocysts yield. Significant differences were detected in various relative mRNA abundance, giving an overall final notion that embryos produced in the

  11. Expression of the ghrelin receptor gene in neurons of the medulla oblongata of the rat.

    PubMed

    Bron, Romke; Yin, Lei; Russo, Domenico; Furness, John B

    2013-08-15

    There is ambiguity concerning the distribution of neurons that express the ghrelin receptor (GHSR) in the medulla oblongata. In the current study we used a sensitive nonradioactive method to investigate GHSR mRNA distribution by in situ hybridization. Strong expression of the GHSR gene was confirmed in neurons of the facial nucleus (FacN, 7), the dorsal vagal complex (DVC), and the semicompact (but not compact) nucleus ambiguus (AmbSC and AmbC). In addition, expression of GHSR was found in other regions, where it had not been described before. GHSR-positive neurons were observed in the gustatory rostral nucleus tractus solitarius and in areas involved in vestibulo-ocular processing (such as the medial vestibular nucleus and the nucleus abducens). GHSR expression was also noted in ventral areas associated with cardiorespiratory control, including the gigantocellular reticular nucleus, the lateral paragigantocellular nucleus, the rostral and caudal ventrolateral medulla, the (pre)-Bötzinger complex, and the rostral and caudal ventrolateral respiratory group. However, GHSR-positive neurons in ventrolateral areas did not express markers for cardiovascular presympathetic vasomotor neurons, respiratory propriobulbar rhythmogenic neurons, or sensory interneurons. GHSR-positive cells were intermingled with catecholamine neurons in the dorsal vagal complex but these populations did not overlap. Thus, the ghrelin receptor occurs in the medulla oblongata in 1) second-order sensory neurons processing gustatory, vestibulo-ocular, and visceral sensation; 2) cholinergic somatomotor neurons of the FacN and autonomic preganglionic neurons of the DMNX and AmbSC; 3) cardiovascular neurons in the DVC, Gi, and LPGi; 4) neurons of as yet unknown function in the ventrolateral medulla.

  12. Effects of Dietary Fibers on Weight Gain, Carbohydrate Metabolism and Gastric Ghrelin Gene Expression in High Fat Diet Fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhong Q.; Zuberi, Aamir; Zhang, Xian H.; Macgowan, Jacalyn; Qin, Jianhua; Ye, Xin; Son, Leslie; Wu, Qinglin; Lian, Kun; Cefalu, William T.

    2009-01-01

    Diets that are high in dietary fiber are reported to have substantial health benefits. We sought to compare the metabolic effects for three types of dietary fibers, i.e. sugar cane fiber (SCF), psyllium (PSY) and cellulose (CEL) on body weight, carbohydrate metabolism and stomach ghrelin gene expression in a high-fat diet fed mouse model. Thirty-six male mice (C57BL/6) were randomly divided into four groups that consumed high fat-diets or high fat diet containing 10% SCF, PSY, and CEL respectively. After baseline measurements were assessed for body weight, plasma insulin, glucose, leptin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), animals were treated for 12 weeks. Parameters were re-evaluated at end of study. Whereas there was no difference at the baseline, body weight gains in the PSY and SCF groups were significantly lower than in CEL group at end of study, No difference in body weight was observed between the PSY and SCF animals. Body composition analysis demonstrated that fat mass in the SCF group was considerably lower than in the CEL and HFD groups. In addition, fasting plasma glucose and insulin and areas under curve of IPGTT were also significantly lower in the SCF and PSY groups than in the CEL and HFD groups. Moreover, fasting plasma concentrations of leptin were significantly lower and GLP-1 level was two-fold higher in the SCF and PSY mice than in the HFD and CEL mice. Ghrelin mRNA levels of stomach in SCF groups were significantly lower than in CEL and HFD groups as well. These results suggest differences in response to dietary fiber intake in this animal model as high fat diets incorporating dietary fibers such as SCF and PSY appeared to attenuate weight gain, enhance insulin sensitivity, and modulate leptin and GLP-1 secretion and gastric ghrelin gene expression. PMID:17998014

  13. Food restriction, ghrelin, its antagonist and obestatin control expression of ghrelin and its receptor in chicken hypothalamus and ovary.

    PubMed

    Sirotkin, Alexander V; Pavlova, Silvia; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Grossmann, Roland; Jiménez, Magdalena Romero; Rodriguez, Juan Manuel Castellano; Valenzuela, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the role of age, nutritional state and some metabolic hormones in control of avian hypothalamic and ovarian ghrelin/ghrelin receptor system. We examined the effect of food restriction, administration of ghrelin 1-18, ghrelin antagonistic analogue (D-Lys-3)-GHRP-6, obestatin and combinations of them on the expression of ghrelin and ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1a) in hypothalamus and ovary of old (23months of age) and young (7months of age) chickens. Expression of mRNAs for ghrelin and GHS-R1a in both hypothalamus and largest ovarian follicle was measured by RT-PCR. It was observed that food restriction could promote the expression of ghrelin and GHS-R1a in hypothalamus and ovary of the old chickens, but in the young chickens it reduced expression of ghrelin and did not affect expression of GHS-R1a in the ovary. Administration of ghrelin 1-18 did not affect hypothalamic or ovarian ghrelin mRNA, but significantly increased the expression of GHS-R1a in hypothalamus, but not in ovary. (D-Lys-3)-GHRP-6, significantly stimulated accumulation of ghrelin, but not GHS-R1a mRNA in hypothalamus or ghrelin or GHS-R1a in the ovary. Ghrelin 1-18 and (D-Lys-3)-GHRP-6, when given together, were able either to prevent or to induce effect of these hormones. Obestatin administration increased expression of ghrelin gene in the hypothalamus, but not expression of hypothalamic GHS-R1a, ovarian ghrelin and GHS-R1a. Furthermore, obestatin was able to modify effect of both ghrelin and fasting on hypothalamic and ovarian mRNA for ghrelin GHS-R1a. Our results (1) confirm the existence of ghrelin and its functional receptors GHS-R1a in the chicken hypothalamus and ovary (2) confirm the age-dependent control of ovarian ghrelin by feeding, (3) demonstrate, that nutritional status can influence the expression of both ghrelin and GHS-R1a in hypothalamus and in the ovary (3) demonstrates for the first time, that ghrelin can promote generation of its

  14. Evidence that endogenous SST inhibits ACTH and ghrelin expression by independent pathways.

    PubMed

    Luque, Raul M; Gahete, Manuel D; Hochgeschwender, Ute; Kineman, Rhonda D

    2006-08-01

    Corticosterone and total ghrelin levels are increased in somatostatin (SST) knockout mice (Sst-/-) compared with SST-intact controls (Sst+/+). Because exogenous ghrelin can increase glucocorticoids, the question arises whether elevated levels of ghrelin contribute to elevated corticosterone levels in Sst-/- mice. We report that Sst-/- mice had elevated mRNA levels for pituitary proopiomelanocortin (POMC), the precursor of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), whereas mRNA levels for hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) did not differ from Sst+/+ mice. Furthermore, SST suppressed pituitary POMC mRNA levels and ACTH release in vitro independently of CRH actions. In contrast, it has been reported that ghrelin increases glucocorticoids via a central effect on CRH secretion and that n-octanoyl ghrelin is the form of ghrelin that activates the GHS-R1a and modulates CRH neuronal activity. Consistent with elevations in total ghrelin levels, Sst-/- mice displayed an increase in stomach ghrelin mRNA levels, whereas hypothalamic and pituitary expression of ghrelin was not altered. Despite the increase in total ghrelin levels, circulating levels of n-octanoyl ghrelin were not altered in Sst-/- mice. Because glucocorticoids and ghrelin increase in response to fasting, we examined the impact of fasting on the adrenal axis and ghrelin in Sst+/+ and Sst-/- mice and found that endogenous SST does not significantly contribute to this adaptive response. We conclude that endogenous SST inhibits basal ghrelin gene expression in a tissue specific manner and independently and directly inhibits pituitary ACTH synthesis and release. Thus endogenous SST exerts an inhibitory effect on ghrelin synthesis and on the adrenal axis through independent pathways.

  15. Triterpenes suppress octanoylated ghrelin production in ghrelin-expressing human gastric carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Kensuke; Oiso, Shigeru; Uto, Takuhiro; Morinaga, Osamu; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Kariyazono, Hiroko

    2016-01-01

    Ghrelin is an appetite-stimulating peptide hormone with an octanoyl modification at serine 3 that is essential for its orexigenic effect. Ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) is the enzyme that catalyzes ghrelin acylation using fatty acyl-coenzyme A as a substrate. We previously developed an assay system based on the AGS-GHRL8 cell line that produces octanoylated ghrelin in the presence of octanoic acid, and demonstrated that some fatty acids suppressed octanoylated ghrelin production. Recent studies have reported that triterpenes have anti-obesity effect. Since such triterpenes, like fatty acids, have a carboxyl group, we speculated that they can suppress octanoylated ghrelin production. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of triterpenes on octanoylated ghrelin production. Asiatic acid, corosolic acid, glycyrrhetinic acid, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid suppressed octanoylated ghrelin levels in AGS-GHRL8 cells without decreasing transcript expression of GOAT or furin, a protease required for ghrelin maturation. β-amyrin had no effect on octanoylated ghrelin level, which was only slightly inhibited by uvaol; the fact that both these triterpenes lack a carboxyl group indicates that this group is important for suppressing octanoylated ghrelin production. These results suggest that triterpenes may have the potential as obesity-preventing agents with suppressive effect on octanoylated ghrelin production.

  16. Ghrelin and obestatin in thyroid gland - immunohistochemical expression in nodular goiter, papillary and medullary cancer.

    PubMed

    Gurgul, Edyta; Kasprzak, Aldona; Blaszczyk, Agata; Biczysko, Maciej; Surdyk-Zasada, Joanna; Seraszek-Jaros, Agnieszka; Ruchala, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies analyzing ghrelin and obestatin expression in thyroid gland tissue are not unanimous and are mostly related to ghrelin. The role of ghrelin and obestatin in the thyroid gland appears very interesting due to their probable involvement in cell proliferation. Furthermore, since the thyroid gland is associated with the maintenance of energy balance, the relationship between ghrelin, obestatin and thyroid function is worthy of consideration. The aim of the study was to assess ghrelin and obestatin immunocytochemical expression in nodular goiter (NG), papillary cancer (PTC) and medullary cancer (MTC). Analyzed samples included 9 cases of NG, 8 cases of PTC and 11 cases of MTC. The analysis of ghrelin and obestatin expression was performed by use of the immunohistochemical (IHC) EnVision system and evaluated with filter HSV software (quantitative morphometric analysis). Quantitative ghrelin expression in MTC cells was higher than in NG (p = 0.013) and correlated negatively with the size of the tumor (r= -0.829, p < 0.05). We did not observe any differences in ghrelin expression neither between MTC and PTC nor between NG and PTC. Obestatin immunoexpression pattern in all analyzed specimens was irregular and poorly accented. The strongest immunoreactivity for obestatin was demonstrated in NG. In MTC obestatin expression was significantly weaker than in NG and PTC (p < 0.05 in both cases). In NG the intensity of obestatin immunostaining was significantly higher than that of ghrelin (p = 0.03). Conversely, ghrelin expression in MTC was definitely more evident than obestatin immunoreactivity (p < 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference between ghrelin and obestatin expression in PTC. No correlations were detected between reciprocal tissue expressions of ghrelin and obestatin in the analyzed specimens of NG, PTC or MTC. The differences between ghrelin expression in NG and MTC suggest that ghrelin may be involved in thyroid cell proliferation

  17. Ghrelin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The gut hormone ghrelin was discovered in 1999. In the last 15 years, ample data have been generated on ghrelin. Bedsides its hallmark function as an appetite stimulator, ghrelin also has many other important functions. In this review, we discussed ghrelin's functions in learning and memory, gut mov...

  18. Ontogeny expression of ghrelin, neuropeptide Y and cholecystokinin in blunt snout bream, Megalobrama amblycephala.

    PubMed

    Ping, H-C; Feng, K; Zhang, G-R; Wei, K-J; Zou, G-W; Wang, W-M

    2014-04-01

    Ghrelin, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cholecystokinin (CCK) all have important roles in the regulation of feeding in fish and mammals. To better understand the role of the three peptides in appetite regulation in the early developmental stages of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala), partial cDNA sequences of ghrelin, NPY and CCK genes were cloned. And then, real-time quantitative PCR and RT-PCR were used to detect and quantify the mRNA expressions of these genes from zygotes to larvae of 50 days after hatching (DAH). Ghrelin, NPY and CCK were all expressed throughout the embryonic and larval development stages, and the expression levels were higher in larval stages than in embryonic stages. Ghrelin and NPY mRNA expressions were upregulated at 1, 3, 5 DAH, while CCK mRNA expression was reduced significantly at 3 DAH. The mRNA expression levels of three genes in larvae varied significantly until 30 DAH. In adult fish, all three peptides were detected to be expressed in brain and several peripheral tissues. Ghrelin mRNA was mainly expressed in the intestine, whereas NPY and CCK mRNAs were mainly expressed in the brain. Taken together, these results indicate that ghrelin, NPY and CCK may have roles in early development and participate in the regulation of feeding of larvae in blunt snout bream and will be helpful for further investigation into feed intake regulation in adults of this species.

  19. Ghrelin induces leptin resistance by activation of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 expression in male rats: implications in satiety regulation.

    PubMed

    Heldsinger, Andrea; Grabauskas, Gintautas; Wu, Xiaoyin; Zhou, ShiYi; Lu, Yuanxu; Song, Il; Owyang, Chung

    2014-10-01

    The anorexigenic adipocyte-derived hormone leptin and the orexigenic hormone ghrelin act in opposition to regulate feeding behavior via the vagal afferent pathways. The mechanisms by which ghrelin exerts its inhibitory effects on leptin are unknown. We hypothesized that ghrelin activates the exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac), inducing increased SOCS3 expression, which negatively affects leptin signal transduction and neuronal firing in nodose ganglia (NG) neurons. We showed that 91 ± 3% of leptin receptor (LRb) -bearing neurons contained ghrelin receptors (GHS-R1a) and that ghrelin significantly inhibited leptin-stimulated STAT3 phosphorylation in rat NG neurons. Studies of the signaling cascades used by ghrelin showed that ghrelin caused a significant increase in Epac and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) expression in cultured rat NG neurons. Transient transfection of cultured NG neurons to silence SOCS3 and Epac genes reversed the inhibitory effects of ghrelin on leptin-stimulated STAT3 phosphorylation. Patch-clamp studies and recordings of single neuronal discharges of vagal primary afferent neurons showed that ghrelin markedly inhibited leptin-stimulated neuronal firing, an action abolished by silencing SOCS3 expression in NG. Plasma ghrelin levels increased significantly during fasting. This was accompanied by enhanced SOCS3 expression in the NG and prevented by treatment with a ghrelin antagonist. Feeding studies showed that silencing SOCS3 expression in the NG reduced food intake evoked by endogenous leptin. We conclude that ghrelin exerts its inhibitory effects on leptin-stimulated neuronal firing by increasing SOCS3 expression. The SOCS3 signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in ghrelin's inhibitory effect on STAT3 phosphorylation, neuronal firing, and feeding behavior.

  20. Ghrelin Induces Leptin Resistance by Activation of Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 3 Expression in Male Rats: Implications in Satiety Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Heldsinger, Andrea; Grabauskas, Gintautas; Wu, Xiaoyin; Zhou, ShiYi; Lu, Yuanxu; Song, Il

    2014-01-01

    The anorexigenic adipocyte-derived hormone leptin and the orexigenic hormone ghrelin act in opposition to regulate feeding behavior via the vagal afferent pathways. The mechanisms by which ghrelin exerts its inhibitory effects on leptin are unknown. We hypothesized that ghrelin activates the exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac), inducing increased SOCS3 expression, which negatively affects leptin signal transduction and neuronal firing in nodose ganglia (NG) neurons. We showed that 91 ± 3% of leptin receptor (LRb) –bearing neurons contained ghrelin receptors (GHS-R1a) and that ghrelin significantly inhibited leptin-stimulated STAT3 phosphorylation in rat NG neurons. Studies of the signaling cascades used by ghrelin showed that ghrelin caused a significant increase in Epac and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) expression in cultured rat NG neurons. Transient transfection of cultured NG neurons to silence SOCS3 and Epac genes reversed the inhibitory effects of ghrelin on leptin-stimulated STAT3 phosphorylation. Patch-clamp studies and recordings of single neuronal discharges of vagal primary afferent neurons showed that ghrelin markedly inhibited leptin-stimulated neuronal firing, an action abolished by silencing SOCS3 expression in NG. Plasma ghrelin levels increased significantly during fasting. This was accompanied by enhanced SOCS3 expression in the NG and prevented by treatment with a ghrelin antagonist. Feeding studies showed that silencing SOCS3 expression in the NG reduced food intake evoked by endogenous leptin. We conclude that ghrelin exerts its inhibitory effects on leptin-stimulated neuronal firing by increasing SOCS3 expression. The SOCS3 signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in ghrelin's inhibitory effect on STAT3 phosphorylation, neuronal firing, and feeding behavior. PMID:25060362

  1. Prevention of diet-induced obesity by safflower oil: insights at the levels of PPARalpha, orexin, and ghrelin gene expression of adipocytes in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Fengchen; Sun, Yuqian; Zhang, Jinchao

    2010-03-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevention of diet-induced obesity by a high safflower oil diet and adipocytic gene expression in mice. Forty 3-week-old C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into three groups: control group (CON, 5% lard + 5% safflower oil), high lard group (LAR, 45% lard + 5% safflower oil), and high safflower oil group (SAF, 45% safflower oil + 5% lard). After 10 weeks, 10 mice of the LAR group were switched to high safflower oil diet (LAR-SAF). Ten weeks later, glucose tolerance tests were performed by intraperitoneal injection of glucose. Circulating levels of lipid and insulin were measured and white adipose tissues were taken for gene chip and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. The LAR group showed higher body weight, adiposity index, insulin, and lipids than the CON group (P<0.05). The body weight in the LAR-SAF group decreased after dietary reversal. The plasma biochemical profiles decreased in the LAR-SAF and SAF groups (P<0.05) compared with those of the LAR group. The blood glucose level of the LAR-SAF group was reduced during intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test compared with that of the LAR group. The LAR-SAF group had lower levels of Orexin and Ghrelin gene expression, whereas the level of PPARalpha gene expression was significantly enhanced compared with that of the LAR group. So, the SAF diet can alter adipocytic adiposity-related gene expression and result in effective amelioration of diet-induced obesity.

  2. Ghrelin receptor agonist GHRP-2 prevents arthritis-induced increase in E3 ubiquitin-ligating enzymes MuRF1 and MAFbx gene expression in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Granado, Miriam; Priego, Teresa; Martín, Ana I; Villanúa, Maria Angeles; López-Calderón, Asunción

    2005-12-01

    Chronic arthritis is a catabolic state associated with an inhibition of the IGF system and a decrease in body weight. Cachexia and muscular wasting is secondary to protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of adjuvant-induced arthritis on the muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases muscle ring finger 1 (MuRF1) and muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx) as well as on IGF-I and IGF-binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) gene expression in the skeletal muscle. We also studied whether the synthetic ghrelin receptor agonist, growth hormone releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2), was able to prevent arthritis-induced changes in the skeletal muscle. Arthritis induced an increase in MuRF1, MAFbx (P < 0.01), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha mRNA (P < 0.05) in the skeletal muscle. Arthritis decreased the serum IGF-I and its gene expression in the liver (P < 0.01), whereas it increased IGF-I and IGFBP-5 gene expression in the skeletal muscle (P < 0.01). Administration of GHRP-2 for 8 days prevented the arthritis-induced increase in muscular MuRF1, MAFbx, and TNF-alpha gene expression. GHRP-2 treatment increased the serum concentrations of IGF-I and the IGF-I mRNA in the liver and in the cardiac muscle and decreased muscular IGFBP-5 mRNA both in control and in arthritic rats (P < 0.05). GHRP-2 treatment increased muscular IGF-I mRNA in control rats (P < 0.01), but it did not modify the muscular IGF-I gene expression in arthritic rats. These data indicate that arthritis induces an increase in the activity of the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway that is prevented by GHRP-2 administration. The parallel changes in muscular IGFBP-5 and TNF-alpha gene expression with the ubiquitin ligases suggest that they can participate in skeletal muscle alterations during chronic arthritis.

  3. Association studies on ghrelin and ghrelin receptor gene polymorphisms with obesity.

    PubMed

    Gueorguiev, Maria; Lecoeur, Cécile; Meyre, David; Benzinou, Michael; Mein, Charles A; Hinney, Anke; Vatin, Vincent; Weill, Jacques; Heude, Barbara; Hebebrand, Johannes; Grossman, Ashley B; Korbonits, Márta; Froguel, Philippe

    2009-04-01

    Ghrelin exerts a stimulatory effect on appetite and regulates energy homeostasis. Ghrelin gene variants have been shown to be associated with metabolic traits, although there is evidence suggesting linkage and association with obesity and the ghrelin receptor (GHSR). We hypothesized that these genes are good candidates for susceptibility to obesity. Direct sequencing identified 12 ghrelin single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 8 GHSR SNPs. The 10 common SNPs were genotyped in 1,275 obese subjects and in 1,059 subjects from a general population cohort of European origin. In the obesity case-control study, the GHSR SNP rs572169 was found to be associated with obesity (P = 0.007 in additive model, P = 0.001 in dominant model, odds ratio (OR) 1.73, 95% confidence interval (1.23-2.44)). The ghrelin variant, g.A265T (rs4684677), showed an association with obesity (P = 0.009, BMI adjusted for age and sex) in obese families. The ghrelin variant, g.A-604G (rs27647), showed an association with insulin levels at 2-h post-oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) (P = 0.009) in obese families. We found an association between the eating behavior "overeating" and the GHSR SNP rs2232169 (P = 0.02) in obese subjects. However, none of these associations remained significant when corrected for multiple comparisons. Replication of the nominal associations with obesity could not be confirmed in a German genome-wide association (GWA) study for rs4684677 and rs572169 polymorphisms. Our data suggest that common polymorphisms in ghrelin and its receptor genes are not major contributors to the development of polygenic obesity, although common variants may alter body weight and eating behavior and contribute to insulin resistance, in particular in the context of early-onset obesity.

  4. Sequence, genomic organization and expression of two channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, ghrelin receptors.

    PubMed

    Small, Brian C; Quiniou, Sylvie M A; Kaiya, Hiroyuki

    2009-12-01

    Two ghrelin receptor (GHS-R) genes were isolated from channel catfish tissue and a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library. The two receptors were characterized by determining tissue distribution, ontogeny of receptor mRNA expression, and effects of exogenous homologous ghrelin administration on target tissue mRNA expression. Analysis of sequence similarities indicated two genes putatively encoding GHS-R1 and GHS-R2, respectively, which have been known to be present in zebrafish. Organization and tissue expression of the GHS-R1 gene was similar to that reported for other species, and likewise yielded two detectable mRNA products as a result of alternative splicing. Expression of both full-length, GHS-R1a, and splice variant, GHS-R1b, mRNA was highest in the pituitary. Gene organization of GHS-R2 was similar to GHS-R1, but no splice variant was identified. Expression of GHS-R2a mRNA was highest in the Brockmann bodies. GHS-R1a mRNA was detected in unfertilized eggs and throughout embryogenesis, whereas GHR-R2a mRNA was not expressed in unfertilized eggs or early developing embryos and was the highest at the time of hatching. Catfish intraperitoneally injected with catfish ghrelin-Gly had greater mRNA expression of GHS-R1a in pituitaries at 2 h and Brockmann bodies at 4 h, and of GHS-R2a in Brockmann bodies at 6 h post injection. Amidated catfish ghrelin (ghrelin-amide) had no observable effect on expression of either pituitary receptor; however, GHS-R1a and GHS-R2a mRNA expression levels were increased 4 h post injection of ghrelin-amide in Brockmann bodies. This is the first characterization of GHS-R2a and suggests regulatory and functional differences between the two catfish receptors.

  5. Sequencing analysis of ghrelin gene 5' flanking region: relations between the sequence variants, fasting plasma total ghrelin concentrations, and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Vartiainen, Johanna; Kesäniemi, Y Antero; Ukkola, Olavi

    2006-10-01

    Ghrelin is a 28-amino-acid peptide with several functions linked to energy metabolism. Low ghrelin plasma concentrations are associated with obesity, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, whereas high concentrations reflect states of negative energy balance. Several studies addressing the hormonal and neural regulation of ghrelin gene expression have been carried out, but the role of genetic factors in the regulation of ghrelin plasma levels remains unclear. To elucidate the role of genetic factors in the regulation of ghrelin expression, we screened 1657 nucleotides of the ghrelin gene 5' flanking region (promoter and possible regulatory sites) for new sequential variations from patient samples with low (n = 50) and high (n = 50) fasting plasma total ghrelin concentrations (low- and high-ghrelin groups). Eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 3 of which were rare variants (allelic frequency less than 1%) were found in our population. The genotype distribution patterns of the SNPs did not differ between the study groups, except for SNP-501A>C (P = .039). In addition, the SNP-01A>C was associated with body mass index (BMI) (P = .018). This variant was studied further in our large and well-defined Oulu Project Elucidating Risk for Atherosclerosis (OPERA) cohort (n = 1045) by the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique. No significant association of SNP-501A>C genotypes with fasting ghrelin plasma concentrations was found in the whole OPERA population. However, the association of this SNP with BMI and with waist circumference reached statistical significance in OPERA (P = .047 and .049, respectively), remaining of borderline significance for BMI after adjustments (P = .055). The results indicate that factors other than the 11 SNPs found in this study in the 5' flanking region of ghrelin gene are the main determinants of ghrelin plasma levels. However, SNP-501 A>C genotype distribution seems to be different in subjects having the highest

  6. Ghrelin.

    PubMed

    Müller, T D; Nogueiras, R; Andermann, M L; Andrews, Z B; Anker, S D; Argente, J; Batterham, R L; Benoit, S C; Bowers, C Y; Broglio, F; Casanueva, F F; D'Alessio, D; Depoortere, I; Geliebter, A; Ghigo, E; Cole, P A; Cowley, M; Cummings, D E; Dagher, A; Diano, S; Dickson, S L; Diéguez, C; Granata, R; Grill, H J; Grove, K; Habegger, K M; Heppner, K; Heiman, M L; Holsen, L; Holst, B; Inui, A; Jansson, J O; Kirchner, H; Korbonits, M; Laferrère, B; LeRoux, C W; Lopez, M; Morin, S; Nakazato, M; Nass, R; Perez-Tilve, D; Pfluger, P T; Schwartz, T W; Seeley, R J; Sleeman, M; Sun, Y; Sussel, L; Tong, J; Thorner, M O; van der Lely, A J; van der Ploeg, L H T; Zigman, J M; Kojima, M; Kangawa, K; Smith, R G; Horvath, T; Tschöp, M H

    2015-06-01

    The gastrointestinal peptide hormone ghrelin was discovered in 1999 as the endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Increasing evidence supports more complicated and nuanced roles for the hormone, which go beyond the regulation of systemic energy metabolism. In this review, we discuss the diverse biological functions of ghrelin, the regulation of its secretion, and address questions that still remain 15 years after its discovery. In recent years, ghrelin has been found to have a plethora of central and peripheral actions in distinct areas including learning and memory, gut motility and gastric acid secretion, sleep/wake rhythm, reward seeking behavior, taste sensation and glucose metabolism.

  7. Expression of obestatin and ghrelin in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Karaoglu, Aziz; Aydin, Suleyman; Dagli, Adile F; Cummings, David E; Ozercan, Ibrahim H; Canatan, Halit; Ozkan, Yusuf

    2009-03-01

    Ghrelin and obestatin are two peptide hormones with opposing roles in the control of appetite: orexigenic and anorexigenic, respectively. Loss of appetite is a common, serious complication of many forms of malignancy. The goals of this study were to investigate: (i) whether there are differences in ghrelin and obestatin peptide expression in thyroid tissues from a series of papillary carcinoma cases and normal controls, and (ii) whether there are correlations between tissue ghrelin and obestatin levels in series of papillary carcinoma cases and normal controls. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that in sections of benign human thyroid tissue, anti-ghrelin antibody reacted with intense staining in colloid-filled follicles. In benign thyroid tissues, colloids displayed plentiful dispersion in comparison with papillary microcarcinomas, whereas colloids in malignant thyroid tissues were uncommon. We found markedly lower tissue ghrelin levels in thyroid tissue of patients with papillary carcinomas, compared with normal thyroid tissues (P = 0.001). Immunohistochemical analysis also showed that obestatin in papillary carcinoma stained positively to various degrees. Obestatin tissue levels in papillary carcinomas tended to be slightly higher than those in normal thyroid tissue, but this was not statistically significant (P = 0.29). We also report that thyroid tissue of patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis produced ghrelin and obestatin at similar levels as in normal thyroid tissue, even though colloid in Hashimoto's disease is scarce. We conclude that depressed expression of ghrelin, but not obestatin, is specific to papillary carcinoma, and this difference might constitute a diagnostic tool to differentiate papillary carcinoma from normal thyroid tissue. We currently do not know how these peptides are regulated and what factors are involved in papillary carcinoma, which inhibit the expression of ghrelin but not obestatin. This issue warrants further studies.

  8. Obestatin, a peptide encoded by the ghrelin gene, opposes ghrelin's effects on food intake.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian V; Ren, Pei-Gen; Avsian-Kretchmer, Orna; Luo, Ching-Wei; Rauch, Rami; Klein, Cynthia; Hsueh, Aaron J W

    2005-11-11

    Ghrelin, a circulating appetite-inducing hormone, is derived from a prohormone by posttranslational processing. On the basis of the bioinformatic prediction that another peptide also derived from proghrelin exists, we isolated a hormone from rat stomach and named it obestatin-a contraction of obese, from the Latin "obedere," meaning to devour, and "statin," denoting suppression. Contrary to the appetite-stimulating effects of ghrelin, treatment of rats with obestatin suppressed food intake, inhibited jejunal contraction, and decreased body-weight gain. Obestatin bound to the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR39. Thus, two peptide hormones with opposing action in weight regulation are derived from the same ghrelin gene. After differential modification, these hormones activate distinct receptors.

  9. Ghrelin

    PubMed Central

    Müller, T.D.; Nogueiras, R.; Andermann, M.L.; Andrews, Z.B.; Anker, S.D.; Argente, J.; Batterham, R.L.; Benoit, S.C.; Bowers, C.Y.; Broglio, F.; Casanueva, F.F.; D'Alessio, D.; Depoortere, I.; Geliebter, A.; Ghigo, E.; Cole, P.A.; Cowley, M.; Cummings, D.E.; Dagher, A.; Diano, S.; Dickson, S.L.; Diéguez, C.; Granata, R.; Grill, H.J.; Grove, K.; Habegger, K.M.; Heppner, K.; Heiman, M.L.; Holsen, L.; Holst, B.; Inui, A.; Jansson, J.O.; Kirchner, H.; Korbonits, M.; Laferrère, B.; LeRoux, C.W.; Lopez, M.; Morin, S.; Nakazato, M.; Nass, R.; Perez-Tilve, D.; Pfluger, P.T.; Schwartz, T.W.; Seeley, R.J.; Sleeman, M.; Sun, Y.; Sussel, L.; Tong, J.; Thorner, M.O.; van der Lely, A.J.; van der Ploeg, L.H.T.; Zigman, J.M.; Kojima, M.; Kangawa, K.; Smith, R.G.; Horvath, T.; Tschöp, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Background The gastrointestinal peptide hormone ghrelin was discovered in 1999 as the endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Increasing evidence supports more complicated and nuanced roles for the hormone, which go beyond the regulation of systemic energy metabolism. Scope of review In this review, we discuss the diverse biological functions of ghrelin, the regulation of its secretion, and address questions that still remain 15 years after its discovery. Major conclusions In recent years, ghrelin has been found to have a plethora of central and peripheral actions in distinct areas including learning and memory, gut motility and gastric acid secretion, sleep/wake rhythm, reward seeking behavior, taste sensation and glucose metabolism. PMID:26042199

  10. Ghrelin in central neurons.

    PubMed

    Ferrini, F; Salio, C; Lossi, L; Merighi, A

    2009-03-01

    Ghrelin, an orexigenic peptide synthesized by endocrine cells of the gastric mucosa, is released in the bloodstream in response to a negative energetic status. Since discovery, the hypothalamus was identified as the main source of ghrelin in the CNS, and effects of the peptide have been mainly observed in this area of the brain. In recent years, an increasing number of studies have reported ghrelin synthesis and effects in specific populations of neurons also outside the hypothalamus. Thus, ghrelin activity has been described in midbrain, hindbrain, hippocampus, and spinal cord. The spectrum of functions and biological effects produced by the peptide on central neurons is remarkably wide and complex. It ranges from modulation of membrane excitability, to control of neurotransmitter release, neuronal gene expression, and neuronal survival and proliferation. There is not at present a general consensus concerning the source of ghrelin acting on central neurons. Whereas it is widely accepted that the hypothalamus represents the most important endogenous source of the hormone in CNS, the existence of extra-hypothalamic ghrelin-synthesizing neurons is still controversial. In addition, circulating ghrelin can theoretically be another natural ligand for central ghrelin receptors. This paper gives an overview on the distribution of ghrelin and its receptor across the CNS and critically analyses the data available so far as regarding the effects of ghrelin on central neurotransmission.

  11. Ghrelin in Central Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ferrini, F; Salio, C; Lossi, L; Merighi, A

    2009-01-01

    Ghrelin, an orexigenic peptide synthesized by endocrine cells of the gastric mucosa, is released in the bloodstream in response to a negative energetic status. Since discovery, the hypothalamus was identified as the main source of ghrelin in the CNS, and effects of the peptide have been mainly observed in this area of the brain. In recent years, an increasing number of studies have reported ghrelin synthesis and effects in specific populations of neurons also outside the hypothalamus. Thus, ghrelin activity has been described in midbrain, hindbrain, hippocampus, and spinal cord. The spectrum of functions and biological effects produced by the peptide on central neurons is remarkably wide and complex. It ranges from modulation of membrane excitability, to control of neurotransmitter release, neuronal gene expression, and neuronal survival and proliferation. There is not at present a general consensus concerning the source of ghrelin acting on central neurons. Whereas it is widely accepted that the hypothalamus represents the most important endogenous source of the hormone in CNS, the existence of extra-hypothalamic ghrelin-synthesizing neurons is still controversial. In addition, circulating ghrelin can theoretically be another natural ligand for central ghrelin receptors. This paper gives an overview on the distribution of ghrelin and its receptor across the CNS and critically analyses the data available so far as regarding the effects of ghrelin on central neurotransmission. PMID:19721816

  12. In Situ Localization and Rhythmic Expression of Ghrelin and ghs-r1 Ghrelin Receptor in the Brain and Gastrointestinal Tract of Goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    PubMed Central

    Unniappan, Suraj; Kah, Olivier; Gueguen, Marie-M.; Bertucci, Juan I.; Alonso-Gómez, Ángel L.; Valenciano, Ana I.; Isorna, Esther; Delgado, María J.

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin is a gut-brain peptide hormone, which binds to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) to regulate a wide variety of biological processes in fish. Despite these prominent physiological roles, no studies have reported the anatomical distribution of preproghrelin transcripts using in situ hybridization in a non-mammalian vertebrate, and its mapping within the different encephalic areas remains unknown. Similarly, no information is available on the possible 24-h variations in the expression of preproghrelin and its receptor in any vertebrate species. The first aim of this study was to investigate the anatomical distribution of ghrelin and GHS-R1a ghrelin receptor subtype in brain and gastrointestinal tract of goldfish (Carassius auratus) using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Our second aim was to characterize possible daily variations of preproghrelin and ghs-r1 mRNA expression in central and peripheral tissues using real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Results show ghrelin expression and immunoreactivity in the gastrointestinal tract, with the most abundant signal observed in the mucosal epithelium. These are in agreement with previous findings on mucosal cells as the primary synthesizing site of ghrelin in goldfish. Ghrelin receptor was observed mainly in the hypothalamus with low expression in telencephalon, pineal and cerebellum, and in the same gastrointestinal areas as ghrelin. Daily rhythms in mRNA expression were found for preproghrelin and ghs-r1 in hypothalamus and pituitary with the acrophase occurring at nighttime. Preproghrelin, but not ghs-r1a, displayed a similar daily expression rhythm in the gastrointestinal tract with an amplitude 3-fold higher than the rest of tissues. Together, these results described for the first time in fish the mapping of preproghrelin and ghrelin receptor ghs-r1a in brain and gastrointestinal tract of goldfish, and provide the first evidence for a daily regulation of both genes

  13. Ghrelin axis genes, peptides and receptors: recent findings and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Seim, Inge; Josh, Peter; Cunningham, Peter; Herington, Adrian; Chopin, Lisa

    2011-06-20

    The ghrelin axis consists of the gene products of the ghrelin gene (GHRL), and their receptors, including the classical ghrelin receptor GHSR. While it is well-known that the ghrelin gene encodes the 28 amino acid ghrelin peptide hormone, it is now also clear that the locus encodes a range of other bioactive molecules, including novel peptides and non-coding RNAs. For many of these molecules, the physiological functions and cognate receptor(s) remain to be determined. Emerging research techniques, including proteogenomics, are likely to reveal further ghrelin axis-derived molecules. Studies of the role of ghrelin axis genes, peptides and receptors, therefore, promises to be a fruitful area of basic and clinical research in years to come.

  14. Ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) is expressed in prostate cancer tissues and cell lines and expression is differentially regulated in vitro by ghrelin

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ghrelin is a 28 amino acid peptide hormone that is expressed in the stomach and a range of peripheral tissues, where it frequently acts as an autocrine/paracrine growth factor. Ghrelin is modified by a unique acylation required for it to activate its cognate receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), which mediates many of the actions of ghrelin. Recently, the enzyme responsible for adding the fatty acid residue (octanoyl/acyl group) to the third amino acid of ghrelin, GOAT (ghrelin O-acyltransferase), was identified. Methods We used cell culture, quantitative real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and immunohistochemistry to demonstrate the expression of GOAT in prostate cancer cell lines and tissues from patients. Real-time RT-PCR was used to demonstrate the expression of prohormone convertase (PC)1/3, PC2 and furin in prostate cancer cell lines. Prostate-derived cell lines were treated with ghrelin and desacyl ghrelin and the effect on GOAT expression was measured using quantitative RT-PCR. Results We have demonstrated that GOAT mRNA and protein are expressed in the normal prostate and human prostate cancer tissue samples. The RWPE-1 and RWPE-2 normal prostate-derived cell lines and the LNCaP, DU145, and PC3 prostate cancer cell lines express GOAT and at least one other enzyme that is necessary to produce mature, acylated ghrelin from proghrelin (PC1/3, PC2 or furin). Finally, ghrelin, but not desacyl ghrelin (unacylated ghrelin), can directly regulate the expression of GOAT in the RWPE-1 normal prostate derived cell line and the PC3 prostate cancer cell line. Ghrelin treatment (100nM) for 6 hours significantly decreased GOAT mRNA expression two-fold (P < 0.05) in the PC3 prostate cancer cell line, however, ghrelin did not regulate GOAT expression in the DU145 and LNCaP prostate cancer cell lines. Conclusions This study demonstrates that GOAT is expressed in prostate cancer specimens and cell lines. Ghrelin regulates GOAT

  15. β1-Adrenergic receptor deficiency in ghrelin-expressing cells causes hypoglycemia in susceptible individuals

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Bharath K.; Osborne-Lawrence, Sherri; Vijayaraghavan, Prasanna; Hepler, Chelsea; Zigman, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Ghrelin is an orexigenic gastric peptide hormone secreted when caloric intake is limited. Ghrelin also regulates blood glucose, as emphasized by the hypoglycemia that is induced by caloric restriction in mouse models of deficient ghrelin signaling. Here, we hypothesized that activation of β1-adrenergic receptors (β1ARs) localized to ghrelin cells is required for caloric restriction–associated ghrelin release and the ensuing protective glucoregulatory response. In mice lacking the β1AR specifically in ghrelin-expressing cells, ghrelin secretion was markedly blunted, resulting in profound hypoglycemia and prevalent mortality upon severe caloric restriction. Replacement of ghrelin blocked the effects of caloric restriction in β1AR-deficient mice. We also determined that treating calorically restricted juvenile WT mice with beta blockers led to reduced plasma ghrelin and hypoglycemia, the latter of which is similar to the life-threatening, fasting-induced hypoglycemia observed in infants treated with beta blockers. These findings highlight the critical functions of ghrelin in preventing hypoglycemia and promoting survival during severe caloric restriction and the requirement for ghrelin cell–expressed β1ARs in these processes. Moreover, these results indicate a potential role for ghrelin in mediating beta blocker–associated hypoglycemia in susceptible individuals, such as young children. PMID:27548523

  16. Effects of development and delayed feed access on ghrelin expression in neonatal broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Yu, Y; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, H H; Tao, H; Ou, C B; Wang, Q X; Guo, F; Ma, J Y

    2016-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of development and delayed feed access on ghrelin expression in neonatal chickens. In experiment 1, ghrelin levels in ad libitum-fed chickens were assessed from hatching (0 h) to 120 h. Ghrelin mRNA expression increased after hatching and reached peak levels at 24 h; levels were 1.8-fold higher compared to those at 0 h. Afterward, ghrelin expression decreased consistently throughout the later experimental period, and at 120 h, it was only 16.0% of 0 h levels. The density of ghrelin immunopositive cells in the proventriculus and plasma ghrelin levels decreased slightly from hatching to 48 h and later increased slowly until the end of the experimental period. In a follow-up study, chickens were assigned randomly into 2 groups after hatching, a control group ( C: , fed ad libitum) and a delayed feeding group ( F+SF: , 72-h fast period, subsequently fed ad libitum). Delayed feed access for 72 h up-regulated ghrelin mRNA expression significantly in the proventriculus (P < 0.05) to 2.1-fold higher levels compared to the control, while the density of ghrelin immunopositive cells and the plasma ghrelin level decreased (P < 0.05) to 28.4% and 64.8% of the control, respectively. After the onset of feeding, the ghrelin mRNA expression in the delayed feeding group was decreased but still higher than that of the control (P < 0.05). The density of ghrelin immunopositive cells and the plasma ghrelin level climbed quickly and all returned to the control level with a supply of food for 48 h. These results suggest that the onset of feeding in neonatal chickens stimulated an increase in ghrelin peptide levels and that ghrelin peptide levels increased with age. Neonatal chickens respond to food deprivation in a different way than do young and adult chickens. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  17. Ghrelin promotes oral tumor cell proliferation by modifying GLUT1 expression.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Dominik; Reckenbeil, Jan; Wenghoefer, Matthias; Stark, Helmut; Frentzen, Matthias; Allam, Jean-Pierre; Novak, Natalija; Frede, Stilla; Götz, Werner; Probstmeier, Rainer; Meyer, Rainer; Winter, Jochen

    2016-03-01

    In our study, ghrelin was investigated with respect to its capacity on proliferative effects and molecular correlations on oral tumor cells. The presence of all molecular components of the ghrelin system, i.e., ghrelin and its receptors, was analyzed and could be detected using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. To examine cellular effects caused by ghrelin and to clarify downstream-regulatory mechanisms, two different oral tumor cell lines (BHY and HN) were used in cell culture experiments. Stimulation of either cell line with ghrelin led to a significantly increased proliferation. Signal transduction occurred through phosphorylation of GSK-3β and nuclear translocation of β-catenin. This effect could be inhibited by blocking protein kinase A. Glucose transporter1 (GLUT1), as an important factor for delivering sufficient amounts of glucose to tumor cells having high requirements for this carbohydrate (Warburg effect) was up-regulated by exogenous and endogenous ghrelin. Silencing intracellular ghrelin concentrations using siRNA led to a significant decreased expression of GLUT1 and proliferation. In conclusion, our study describes the role for the appetite-stimulating peptide hormone ghrelin in oral cancer proliferation under the particular aspect of glucose uptake: (1) tumor cells are a source of ghrelin. (2) Ghrelin affects tumor cell proliferation through autocrine and/or paracrine activity. (3) Ghrelin modulates GLUT1 expression and thus indirectly enhances tumor cell proliferation. These findings are of major relevance, because glucose uptake is assumed to be a promising target for cancer treatment.

  18. Zebrafish ghrelin is expressed in pancreatic endocrine cells and regulated by metabolic state.

    PubMed

    Eom, Ji; Hong, Minsun; Cone, Roger D; Song, Youngsup

    2013-09-13

    Mammalian ghrelin is a stomach-derived peptide that stimulates secretion of growth hormone and food intake. Zebrafish is an excellent model system for forward genetic studies, and many aspects of energy homeostasis characterized in mammals appear to be conserved in the zebrafish. In this study, we investigated the expression and regulation of zebrafish ghrelin by metabolic status. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that zebrafish ghrelin is highly enriched in anterior gut associated tissues. Using in situ hybridization with adult zebrafish tissues, we found that zebrafish ghrelin mRNA was not expressed in intestine tissue, but rather in clusters of endocrine pancreas cells distinct from insulin-expressing islets. Fasting specifically upregulated pancreatic ghrelin but not brain ghrelin expression by 3- to 4-fold and refeeding restored ghrelin transcript to control levels seen in the fed group within 5 h. These results demonstrate that although ghrelin is expressed in a different site in zebrafish, it is responsive to metabolic state in a similar manner as mammalian ghrelin, suggesting a role in the regulation of feeding in teleosts, and thus validate the utility of zebrafish as a genetic model system for the analysis of the ghrelin system and energy homeostasis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Intracerebroventricularly (ICV) Injected Ghrelin on Cardiac Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity/Expression in Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Sudar Milovanovic, E; Jovanovic, A; Misirkic-Marjanovic, M; Vucicevic, Lj; Janjetovic, K; Isenovic, E R

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of ghrelin on regulation of cardiac inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity/expression in high fat (HF), obese rats.For this study, male Wistar rats fed with HF diet (30% fat) for 4 weeks were injected every 24 h for 5 days intracerebroventricularly (ICV) with ghrelin (0.3 nmol/5 µl) or with an equal volume of phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Control rats were ICV injected with an equal volume of PBS. Glucose, insulin and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations were measured in serum, while arginase activity and citrulline concentrations were measured in heart lysate. Protein iNOS and regulatory subunit of nuclear factor-κB (NFκB-p65), phosphorylation of enzymes protein kinase B (Akt) at Ser(473), and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) at Tyr(202)/Tyr(204) were determined in heart lysate by Western blot. For gene expression of iNOS qRT-PCR was used.Results show significantly (p<0.01) higher serum NO production in ghrelin treated HF rats compared with HF rats. Ghrelin significantly reduced citrulline concentration (p<0.05) and arginase activity (p<0.01) in HF rats. In ghrelin treated HF rats, gene and protein expression of iNOS and NFκB-p65 levels were significantly (p<0.05) increased compared with HF rats. Increased phosphorylation of Akt (p<0.01) and decreased (p<0.05) ERK1/2 phosphorylation were detected in HF ghrelin treated rats compared with HF rats hearts.Results from this study indicate that exogenous ghrelin induces expression and activity of cardiac iNOS via Akt phosphorylation followed by NFκB activation in HF rats.

  20. Expression and Possible Immune-regulatory Function of Ghrelin in Oral Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, K.; Laborde, N.J.; Kajiya, M.; Shin, J.; Zhu, T.; Thondukolam, A.K.; Min, C.; Kamata, N.; Karimbux, N.Y.; Stashenko, P.; Kawai, T.

    2011-01-01

    Originally found in stomach mucosa, ghrelin is a peptide appetite hormone that has been implicated as an immuno-modulatory factor. Ghrelin has also been found in salivary glands and saliva; however, its expression patterns and biological properties in the oral cavity remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the expression patterns of ghrelin in saliva, gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), and gingival tissue, as well as its in vitro effects on IL-8 production by TNF-α or LPS-stimulated oral epithelial cells. In the clinical samples obtained from 12 healthy volunteers, the concentration of ghrelin in GCF remarkably exceeded that detected in saliva. The expression of ghrelin mRNAs and growth hormone secretagogue (GHS) receptors could be detected in human oral epithelial cells. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed the expression of ghrelin in gingival epithelium, as well as in fibroblasts in the lamina propria. Ghrelin increased intracellular calcium mobilization and cAMP levels in oral epithelial cells, suggesting that ghrelin acts on epithelial cells to induce cell signaling. Furthermore, synthetic ghrelin inhibited the production of IL-8 from TNF-α or LPS-stimulated oral epithelial cells. These results indicate that ghrelin produced in the oral cavity appears to play a regulatory role in innate immune responses to inflammatory infection. PMID:21865591

  1. Correlation of ghrelin concentration and ghrelin, ghrelin-O-acetyltransferase (GOAT) and growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a mRNAs expression in the proventriculus and brain of the growing chicken.

    PubMed

    Kitazawa, Takio; Hiraga, Takeo; Teraoka, Hiroki; Yaosaka, Noriko; Kaiya, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    To determine mechanisms for age-related decrease of GHS-R1a expression in the chicken proventriculus, changes in mRNA expression of ghrelin and ghrelin-O-acetyltransferase (GOAT) as well as ghrelin concentrations in the proventriculus and plasma were examined in growing chickens. Changes in expression levels of ghrelin, GOAT and GHS-R1a mRNAs were also examined in different brain regions (pituitary, hypothalamus, thalamus, cerebellum, cerebral cortex, olfactory bulb, midbrain and medulla oblongata). Ghrelin concentrations in the proventriculus and plasma increased with aging and reached plateaus at 30-50 days after hatching. High level of ghrelin mRNA decreased at 3 days after hatching, and it became stable at half of the initial level. Expression levels of GHS-R1a and GOAT decreased 3 or 5 days after hatching and became stable at low levels. Significant negative correlations were found between plasma ghrelin and mRNA levels of GOAT and GHS-R1a. Expression levels of ghrelin mRNA were different in the brain regions, but a significant change was not seen with aging. GHS-R1a expression was detected in all brain regions, and age-dependent changes were observed in the pituitary and cerebellum. Different from the proventriculus, the expression of GOAT in the brain increased or did not change with aging. These results suggest that decreased GHS-R1a and GOAT mRNA expression in the proventriculus is due to endogenous ghrelin-induced down-regulation. Expression levels of ghrelin, GOAT and GHS-R1a in the brain were independently regulated from that in the proventriculus, and age-related and region-dependent regulation pattern suggests a local effect of ghrelin system in chicken brain.

  2. In1-ghrelin, a splice variant of ghrelin gene, is associated with the evolution and aggressiveness of human neuroendocrine tumors: Evidence from clinical, cellular and molecular parameters

    PubMed Central

    Gahete, Manuel D.; Ramos-Levi, Ana; Ibáñez-Costa, Alejandro; Rivero-Cortés, Esther; Serrano-Somavilla, Ana; Adrados, Magdalena; Culler, Michael D.; Castaño, Justo P.; Marazuela, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin system comprises a complex family of peptides, receptors (GHSRs), and modifying enzymes [e.g. ghrelin-O-acyl-transferase (GOAT)] that control multiple pathophysiological processes. Aberrant alternative splicing is an emerging cancer hallmark that generates altered proteins with tumorigenic capacity. Indeed, In1-ghrelin and truncated-GHSR1b splicing variants can promote development/progression of certain endocrine-related cancers. Here, we determined the expression levels of key ghrelin system components in neuroendocrine tumor (NETs) and explored their potential functional role. Twenty-six patients with NETs were prospectively/retrospectively studied [72 samples from primary and metastatic tissues (30 normal/42 tumors)] and clinical data were obtained. The role of In1-ghrelin in aggressiveness was studied in vitro using NET cell lines (BON-1/QGP-1). In1-ghrelin, GOAT and GHSR1a/1b expression levels were elevated in tumoral compared to normal/adjacent tissues. Moreover, In1-ghrelin, GOAT, and GHSR1b expression levels were positively correlated within tumoral, but not within normal/adjacent samples, and were higher in patients with progressive vs. with stable/cured disease. Finally, In1-ghrelin increased aggressiveness (e.g. proliferation/migration) of NET cells. Altogether, our data strongly suggests a potential implication of ghrelin system in the pathogenesis and/or clinical outcome of NETs, and warrant further studies on their possible value for the future development of molecular biomarkers with diagnostic/prognostic/therapeutic value. PMID:26124083

  3. In1-ghrelin, a splice variant of ghrelin gene, is associated with the evolution and aggressiveness of human neuroendocrine tumors: Evidence from clinical, cellular and molecular parameters.

    PubMed

    Luque, Raul M; Sampedro-Nuñez, Miguel; Gahete, Manuel D; Ramos-Levi, Ana; Ibáñez-Costa, Alejandro; Rivero-Cortés, Esther; Serrano-Somavilla, Ana; Adrados, Magdalena; Culler, Michael D; Castaño, Justo P; Marazuela, Mónica

    2015-08-14

    Ghrelin system comprises a complex family of peptides, receptors (GHSRs), and modifying enzymes [e.g. ghrelin-O-acyl-transferase (GOAT)] that control multiple pathophysiological processes. Aberrant alternative splicing is an emerging cancer hallmark that generates altered proteins with tumorigenic capacity. Indeed, In1-ghrelin and truncated-GHSR1b splicing variants can promote development/progression of certain endocrine-related cancers. Here, we determined the expression levels of key ghrelin system components in neuroendocrine tumor (NETs) and explored their potential functional role. Twenty-six patients with NETs were prospectively/retrospectively studied [72 samples from primary and metastatic tissues (30 normal/42 tumors)] and clinical data were obtained. The role of In1-ghrelin in aggressiveness was studied in vitro using NET cell lines (BON-1/QGP-1). In1-ghrelin, GOAT and GHSR1a/1b expression levels were elevated in tumoral compared to normal/adjacent tissues. Moreover, In1-ghrelin, GOAT, and GHSR1b expression levels were positively correlated within tumoral, but not within normal/adjacent samples, and were higher in patients with progressive vs. with stable/cured disease. Finally, In1-ghrelin increased aggressiveness (e.g. proliferation/migration) of NET cells. Altogether, our data strongly suggests a potential implication of ghrelin system in the pathogenesis and/or clinical outcome of NETs, and warrant further studies on their possible value for the future development of molecular biomarkers with diagnostic/prognostic/therapeutic value.

  4. Neutralizing circulating ghrelin by expressing a growth hormone secretagogue receptor-based protein protects against high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, J; Zhu, L; Anini, Y; Wang, Q

    2015-09-01

    Ghrelin is a stomach-derived peptide hormone that stimulates appetite and promotes adiposity through binding to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1a). Administration of ghrelin in rodents increases weight gain due to stimulating food intake and reducing fat utilization. Therefore, reducing circulating ghrelin levels holds the potential to reduce weight gain. We developed a GHS-R1a-fusion constructs of a decoy protein containing the ligand-binding domains of the ghrelin receptor. Intramuscular injection of the GHSR/Fc plasmid decreased circulating levels of acylated-ghrelin. When challenged with the high fat diet, treated mice displayed reduced weight gain compared with controls, which was associated with reduced fat accumulation in the peritoneum but not lean mass. Quantitative PCR with reverse transcription showed increased PPARγ and hormone sensitive lipase transcripts levels in adipose tissue of treated animals, illustrating a preference for increased fat utilization. Intra-peritoneal glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance tests showed improved glucose clearance and insulin sensitivity in GHSR/Fc treated animals. We suggest that in vivo expression of the GHSR-based fusion protein prevents diet-induced weight gain, altering adipose gene expression and improving glucose tolerance. These findings, while confirming the role of ghrelin in peripheral energy metabolism, suggest that a strategy involving neutralization of the circulation ghrelin by intramuscular injection of the GHSR1/Fc fusion construct may find clinical application in the treatment of obesity.

  5. Activation of c-fos expression in the rat inferior olivary nucleus by ghrelin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weizhen; Lin, Theodore R; Hu, Yuexian; Fan, Yongyi; Zhao, Lili; Mulholland, Michael W

    2003-12-26

    Ghrelin, a novel 28-amino-acid hormone secreted by gastric oxyntic glands, stimulates food intake and induces adiposity. We examined whether ghrelin activates the inferior olivary nucleus. Systemic administration of ghrelin (37 nmol/kg) induced the expression of c-fos immunoreactivity in inferior olive neurons (n=6 rats). The number of neurons containing c-fos staining was significantly increased in the ghrelin-treated rats (65+/-14 vs.11+/-6 positive neurons, n=5). No significant difference in c-fos-positive neurons was observed between left (32+/-5) and right (33+/-6) inferior olivary nuclei. The number of c-fos-positive neurons in rats with bilateral vagotomy was not significantly different from those with intact vagal nerves. The present study demonstrates that ghrelin induces c-fos expression in inferior olivary nucleus via a central mechanism.

  6. Ghrelin expression in hyperplastic and neoplastic proliferations of the enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Amitabh; Kamath, Anitha; Barry, Shepard-Annette; Dayal, Yogeshwar

    2004-01-01

    Ghrelin, a recently discovered peptide isolated from the gastric corpus mucosa, is believed to be important in the regulation of growth hormone secretion and has been shown to increase appetite and food intake as well. It may also have other gastrointestinal and cardiac functions. Because a cell of origin for ghrelin has not been convincingly identified in the gastric mucosa thus far, we studied the immunohistochemical expression of ghrelin in proliferative lesions of the enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells-a cell that is not only exclusively confined to the gastric corpus mucosa but is its dominant endocrine cell type as well. Formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissues from three cases of gastric ECL cell hyperplasia and five ECL carcinoids (three with coexisting foci of diffuse, linear, and micronodular hyperplasia) were immunohistochemically stained for ghrelin, using a commercially available antibody. The Sevier-Munger stain for ECL cells and immunohistochemical stains for chromogranin, gastrin, serotonin, somatostatin, and vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT-2) were performed on parallel sections for correlation with the ghrelin staining results. All ECL cell carcinoids and hyperplastic lesions were positive for both the Sevier-Munger and the immunohistochemical stains for chromogranin and VMAT-2. Immunoreactivity for ghrelin was seen in 4/5 ECL carcinoids, all cases of ECL cell hyperplasia, as well as in all areas with linear and micronodular hyperplasia adjacent to the ECL cell carcinoids. In each instance, such staining was confined to the Sevier-Munger, and VMAT-2 positive cells only. Our findings indicate that the ECL cells are either the ghrelin-producing cells of the gastric mucosa or acquire the capability to synthesize ghrelin during proliferative states encompassing the entire hyperplasia to neoplasia spectrum. In view of the orexigenic and other known actions of ghrelin, the functional and/or biologic significance of ghrelin production in such ECL

  7. Regulation of Pit-1 expression by ghrelin and GHRP-6 through the GH secretagogue receptor.

    PubMed

    García, A; Alvarez, C V; Smith, R G; Diéguez, C

    2001-09-01

    GH secretagogues are an expanding class of synthetic peptide and nonpeptide molecules that stimulate the pituitary gland to secrete GH through their own specific receptor, the GH-secretagogue receptor. The cloning of the receptor for these nonclassical GH releasing molecules, together with the more recent characterization of an endogenous ligand, named ghrelin, have unambiguously demonstrated the existence of a physiological system that regulates GH secretion. Somatotroph cell-specific expression of the GH gene is dependent on a pituitary-specific transcription factor (Pit-1). This factor is transcribed in a highly restricted manner in the anterior pituitary gland. The present experiments sought to determine whether the synthetic hexapeptide GHRP-6, a reference GH secretagogue compound, as well as an endogenous ligand, ghrelin, regulate pit-1 expression. By a combination of Northern and Western blot analysis we found that GHRP-6 elicits a time- and dose-dependent activation of pit-1 expression in monolayer cultures of infant rat anterior pituitary cells. This effect was blocked by pretreatment with actinomycin D, but not by cycloheximide, suggesting that this action was due to direct transcriptional activation of pit-1. Using an established cell line (HEK293-GHS-R) that overexpresses the GH secretagogue receptor, we showed a marked stimulatory effect of GHRP-6 on the pit-1 -2,500 bp 5'-region driving luciferase expression. We truncated the responsive region to -231 bp, a sequence that contains two CREs, and found that both CREs are needed for GHRP-6-induced transcriptional activation in both HEK293-GHS-R cells and infant rat anterior pituitary primary cultures. The effect was dependent on PKC, MAPK kinase, and PKA activation. Increasing Pit-1 by coexpression of pCMV-pit-1 potentiated the GHRP-6 effect on the pit-1 promoter. Similarly, we showed that the endogenous GH secretagogue receptor ligand ghrelin exerts a similar effect on the pit-1 promoter. These data

  8. Metabolic regulation of ghrelin O-acyl transferase (GOAT) expression in the mouse hypothalamus, pituitary, and stomach.

    PubMed

    Gahete, Manuel D; Córdoba-Chacón, Jose; Salvatori, Roberto; Castaño, Justo P; Kineman, Rhonda D; Luque, Raul M

    2010-04-12

    Ghrelin acts as an endocrine link connecting physiological processes regulating food intake, body composition, growth, and energy balance. Ghrelin is the only peptide known to undergo octanoylation. The enzyme mediating this process, ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT), is expressed in the gastrointestinal tract (GI; primary source of circulating ghrelin) as well as other tissues. The present study demonstrates that stomach GOAT mRNA levels correlate with circulating acylated-ghrelin levels in fasted and diet-induced obese mice. In addition, GOAT was found to be expressed in both the pituitary and hypothalamus (two target tissues of ghrelin's actions), and regulated in response to metabolic status. Using primary pituitary cell cultures as a model system to study the regulation of GOAT expression, we found that acylated-ghrelin, but not desacyl-ghrelin, increased GOAT expression. In addition, growth-hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and leptin increased, while somatostatin (SST) decreased GOAT expression. The physiologic relevance of these later results is supported by the observation that pituitary GOAT expression in mice lacking GHRH, SST and leptin showed opposite changes to those observed after in vitro treatment with the corresponding peptides. Therefore, it seems plausible that these hormones directly contribute to the regulation of pituitary GOAT. Interestingly, in all the models studied, pituitary GOAT expression paralleled changes in the expression of a dominant spliced-variant of ghrelin (In2-ghrelin) and therefore this transcript may be a primary substrate for pituitary GOAT. Collectively, these observations support the notion that the GI tract is not the only source of acylated-ghrelin, but in fact locally produced des-acylated-ghrelin could be converted to acylated-ghrelin within target tissues by locally active GOAT, to mediate its tissue-specific effects.

  9. Ghrelin, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cholecystokinin (CCK) in blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala): cDNA cloning, tissue distribution and mRNA expression changes responding to fasting and refeeding.

    PubMed

    Ji, Wei; Ping, Hai-Chao; Wei, Kai-Jian; Zhang, Gui-Rong; Shi, Ze-Chao; Yang, Rui-Bin; Zou, Gui-Wei; Wang, Wei-Min

    2015-11-01

    Blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala Yih, 1955) is an endemic freshwater fish in China for which the endocrine mechanism of regulation of feeding has never been examined. Ghrelin, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cholecystokinin (CCK) play important roles in the regulation of fish feeding. In this study, full-length cDNAs of ghrelin, NPY and CCK were cloned and analyzed from blunt snout bream. Both the ghrelin and NPY genes of blunt snout bream had the same amino acid sequences as grass carp, and CCK also shared considerable similarity with that of grass carp. The three genes were expressed in a wide range of adult tissues, with the highest expression levels of ghrelin in the hindgut, NPY in the hypothalamus and CCK in the pituitary, respectively. Starvation challenge experiments showed that the expression levels of ghrelin and NPY mRNA increased in brain and intestine after starvation, and the expression levels of CCK decreased after starvation. Refeeding could bring the expression levels of the three genes back to the control levels. These results indicated that the feeding behavior of blunt snout bream was regulated by the potential correlative actions of ghrelin, NPY and CCK, which contributed to the defense against starvation. This study will further our understanding of the function of ghrelin, NPY and CCK and the molecular mechanism of feeding regulation in teleosts.

  10. The expanding roles of the ghrelin-gene derived peptide obestatin in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Seim, Inge; Walpole, Carina; Amorim, Laura; Josh, Peter; Herington, Adrian; Chopin, Lisa

    2011-06-20

    Obestatin is a 23 amino acid, ghrelin gene-derived peptide hormone produced in the stomach and a range of other tissues throughout the body. While it was initially reported that obestatin opposed the actions of ghrelin with regards to appetite and food intake, it is now clear that obestatin is not an endogenous ghrelin antagonist, but it is a multi-functional peptide hormone in its own right. In this review we will discuss the controversies associated with the discovery of obestatin and explore emerging central and peripheral roles of obestatin, which includes adipogenesis, pancreatic homeostasis and cancer.

  11. Ghrelin and obestatin expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma: an immunohistochemical and biochemical study.

    PubMed

    Alnema, Manar M; Aydin, Suleyman; Ozkan, Yusuf; Dagli, Adile F; Ozercan, Hanifi I; Yildirim, Nezahat; Sahin, Ibrahim; Karaoglu, Aziz; Kilic, Nermin; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Ozercan, Mehmet R; Donder, Emir

    2010-06-01

    The underlying molecular mechanism of carcinogenesis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is poorly understood and appears to be controlled on many genetic, environmental, and hormonal factors. Obestatin and ghrelin, two recently discovered hormones, are co-expressed in endocrine cells. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the immunohistochemical features of OSCCs in relation to the tissue concentration of ghrelin and obestatin. The association between OSCC and Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) status was also explored. The expression of ghrelin and obestatin was examined by immunohistochemistry and immunoassay in oral biopsy specimens: 10 benign squamous epithelial cell samples, 10 microinvasive squamous cell carcinomas, and seven well-differentiated and seven poorly differentiated OSCCs. The presence of EBV was evaluated in these samples using immunohistochemistry. The concentrations of ghrelin and obestatin in tissue homogenates were measured by RIA and ELISA, respectively. Squamous cell carcinomas and benign tissue samples were positive for anti-EBV antibody, and obestatin and ghrelin were shown to be co-expressed in all stratified squamous epithelium samples. Expression of ghrelin and obestatin was decreased or absent in OSCCs in relation to the invasiveness of the carcinoma; ghrelin and obestatin levels in cancerous tissue homogenates were lower than in benign tissue homogenates. These results indicate that the concentrations and distribution of immunoreactive obestatin and ghrelin might be helpful in distinguishing OSCC from benign tumors. Maintaining normal levels of these hormones might be required for regulation of normal cell division. However, detailed studies will be required for better understanding of the complex mechanism of carcinogenesis relating to OSCCs.

  12. Voluntary exercise attenuates obesity-associated inflammation through ghrelin expressed in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kizaki, Takako; Maegawa, Taketeru; Sakurai, Takuya; Ogasawara, Jun-etsu; Ookawara, Tomomi; Oh-ishi, Shuji; Izawa, Tetsuya; Haga, Shukoh; Ohno, Hideki

    2011-09-30

    Chronic low-level inflammation is associated with obesity and a sedentary lifestyle, causing metabolic disturbances such as insulin resistance. Exercise training has been shown to decrease chronic low-level systemic inflammation in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating its beneficial effects are not fully understood. Ghrelin is a peptide hormone predominantly produced in the stomach that stimulates appetite and induces growth hormone release. In addition to these well-known functions, recent studies suggest that ghrelin localizes to immune cells and exerts an anti-inflammatory effect. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the role of ghrelin expressed in macrophages in the anti-inflammatory effects of voluntary exercise training. Expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 and F4/80 was increased in adipose tissue from mice fed a HFD (HFD mice) compared with mice fed a standard diet (SD mice), whereas the expression of these inflammatory cytokines was markedly decreased in mice performing voluntary wheel running during the feeding of a HFD (HFEx mice). The expression of TNF-α was also increased in peritoneal macrophages by a HFD and exercise training inhibited the increase of TNF-α expression. Interestingly, expression of ghrelin in peritoneal macrophages was decreased by a HFD and recovered by exercise training. Suppression of ghrelin expression by siRNA increased TNF-α expression and LPS-stimulated NF-κB activation in RAW264 cells, which is a macrophage cell line. TNF-α expression by stimulation with LPS was significantly suppressed in RAW264 cells cultured in the presence of ghrelin. These results suggest that ghrelin exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects in macrophages and functions as a mediator of the beneficial effects of exercise training.

  13. The Association of Polymorphisms in Leptin/Leptin Receptor Genes and Ghrelin/Ghrelin Receptor Genes With Overweight/Obesity and the Related Metabolic Disturbances: A Review.

    PubMed

    Ghalandari, Hamid; Hosseini-Esfahani, Firoozeh; Mirmiran, Parvin

    2015-07-01

    Leptin and ghrelin are two important appetite and energy balance-regulating peptides. Common polymorphisms in the genes coding these peptides and their related receptors are shown to be associated with body weight, different markers of obesity and metabolic abnormalities. This review article aims to investigate the association of common polymorphisms of these genes with overweight/obesity and the metabolic disturbances related to it. The keywords leptin, ghrelin, polymorphism, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), obesity, overweight, Body Mass Index, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (MeSH headings) were used to search in the following databases: Pubmed, Sciencedirect (Elsevier), and Google scholar. Overall, 24 case-control studies, relevant to our topic, met the criteria and were included in the review. The most prevalent leptin/leptin receptor genes (LEP/LEPR) and ghrelin/ghrelin receptor genes (GHRL/GHSR) single nucleotide polymorphisms studied were LEP G-2548A, LEPR Q223R, and Leu72Met, respectively. Nine studies of the 17 studies on LEP/LEPR, and three studies of the seven studies on GHRL/GHSR showed significant relationships. In general, our study suggests that the association between LEP/LEPR and GHRL/GHSR with overweight/obesity and the related metabolic disturbances is inconclusive. These results may be due to unidentified gene-environment interactions. More investigations are needed to further clarify this association.

  14. Immunohistochemical expression of ghrelin in capsaicin-treated rat ovaries during the different developmental periods

    PubMed Central

    Tütüncü, Ş.; İlhan, T.; Özfiliz, N.

    2016-01-01

    Red hot pepper is a plant that belongs to the Solanaceae family and is known as Capsicum annuum. Capsaicin is the active ingredient of cayenne pepper. Ghrelin is a hormone, which consists of polypeptide structure. Ghrelin also contributes to growth hormone secretion, energy balance, food intake and body weight regulator. The aim of this study was the localization and expression of ghrelin in the ovaries of rats treated with capsaicin during the postnatal development. Ninety female Sprague-Dawley rats (21 d) were used. The rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=30 each) as pubertal, post pubertal and adult. Each group was subdivided into three groups. The first subgroup (control) was given no injections. The second subgroup (vehicle) received only 0.3 cc solvent and the third subgroup (experiment) received subcutaneous injection of equal volume of capsaicin (1 mg/kg/d) for 42, 56, and 70 days. Ghrelin immunoreactivity was determined in ovarian follicular granulosa cells, interstitial cells and corpus luteal cells. A ghrelin immunopositive reaction located in the cytoplasm of cells in all groups. These results indicate that prolonged administration of low dose capsaicin does not affect ghrelin expression. However, follicular atresia was seen in lower rate in capsaicin treated group in comparison to other groups. PMID:27656230

  15. Butyrylcholinesterase gene transfer in obese mice prevents postdieting body weight rebound by suppressing ghrelin signaling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Vicky Ping; Gao, Yang; Geng, Liyi; Brimijoin, Stephen

    2017-09-25

    The worldwide prevalence of obesity is increasing at an alarming rate but treatment options remain limited. Despite initial success, weight loss by calorie restriction (CR) often fails because of rebound weight gain. Postdieting hyperphagia along with altered hypothalamic neuro-architecture appears to be one direct cause of this undesirable outcome. In response to calorie deficiency the circulating levels of the appetite-promoting hormone, acyl-ghrelin, rise sharply. We hypothesize that proper modulation of acyl-ghrelin and its receptor's sensitivity will favorably impact energy intake and reprogram the body weight set point. Here we applied viral gene transfer of the acyl-ghrelin hydrolyzing enzyme, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Our results confirmed that BChE overexpression decreased circulating acyl-ghrelin levels, suppressed CR-provoked ghrelin signaling, and restored central ghrelin sensitivity. In addition to maintaining healthy body weights, BChE treated mice had modest postdieting food intake and showed normal glucose homeostasis. Spontaneous activity and energy expenditure did not differ significantly between treated and untreated mice after body weight rebound, suggesting that BChE gene transfer did not alter energy expenditure in the long term. These findings indicate that combining BChE treatment with CR could be an effective approach in treating human obesity and aiding lifelong weight management.

  16. Ghrelin gene products rescue cultured adult rat hippocampal neural stem cells from high glucose insult.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sehee; Kim, Chanyang; Park, Seungjoon

    2016-10-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is decreased in type 2 diabetes, and this impairment appears to be important in cognitive dysfunction. Previous studies suggest that ghrelin gene products (acylated ghrelin (AG), unacylated ghrelin (UAG) and obestatin (OB)) promote neurogenesis. Therefore, we hypothesize that ghrelin gene products may reduce the harmful effects of high glucose (HG) on hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of these peptides on the survival of cultured hippocampal NSCs exposed to HG insult. Treatment of hippocampal NSCs with AG, UAG or OB inhibited HG-induced cell death and apoptosis. Exposure of cells to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a antagonist abolished the protective effects of AG against HG toxicity, whereas those of UAG or OB were preserved. All three peptides attenuated HG-induced decrease in BrdU-labeled and phosphohistone-H3-labeled cells. We also investigated the effects of ghrelin gene products on the regulation of apoptosis at the mitochondrial level. AG, UAG or OB rescued hippocampal NSCs from HG insult by inhibiting intracellular and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation and stabilizing mitochondrial transmembrane potential. In addition, cells treated with ghrelin gene products showed an increased Bcl-2 and decreased Bax levels, thereby increasing the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, inhibiting cytochrome c release and preventing caspase-3 activation. Finally, AG-, UAG- or OB-mediated protection was dependent on the activities of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase/uncoupling protein 2 pathway. Our data indicate that ghrelin gene products may act as survival factors that preserve mitochondrial function and inhibit oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  17. Ghrelin increases growth hormone production and functional expression of NaV1.1 and Na V1.2 channels in pituitary somatotropes.

    PubMed

    Magdaleno-Méndez, Adasue; Domínguez, Belisario; Rodríguez-Andrade, Araceli; Barrientos-Morales, Manuel; Cervantes-Acosta, Patricia; Hernández-Beltrán, Antonio; González-Ramírez, Ricardo; Felix, Ricardo

    2015-04-01

    A variety of ion channels are expressed in the plasma membrane of somatotropes within the anterior pituitary gland. Modification of these channels is linked to intracellular Ca2+ levels and therefore to hormone secretion. Previous investigations have shown that the gut-derived orexigenic peptide hormone ghrelin and synthetic GH-releasing peptides (GHRPs) stimulate release of growth hormone (GH) and increase the number of functional voltage-gated Ca2+ and Na+ channels in the membrane of clonal GC somatotropes. Here, we reveal that chronic treatment with ghrelin and its synthetic analog GHRP-6 also increases GH release from bovine pituitary somatotropes in culture, and that this action is associated with a significant increase in Na+ macroscopic current. Consistent with this, Na+ current blockade with tetrodotoxin (TTX) abolished the ghrelin- and GHRP-6-induced increase in GH release. Furthermore, semi-quantitative and real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed an upregulation in the transcript levels of GH, as well as of NaV1.1 and NaV1.2, two isoforms of TTX-sensitive Na+ channels expressed in somatotropes, after treatment with ghrelin or GHRP-6. These findings improve our knowledge on (i) the cellular mechanisms involved in the control of GH secretion, (ii) the molecular diversity of Na+ channels in pituitary somatotropes, and (iii) the regulation of GH and Na+ channel gene expression by ghrelin and GHRPs.

  18. Role of endogenous cortistatin in the regulation of ghrelin system expression at pancreatic level under normal and obese conditions.

    PubMed

    Chanclón, Belén; Luque, Raúl M; Córdoba-Chacón, José; Gahete, Manuel D; Pozo-Salas, Ana I; Castaño, Justo P; Gracia-Navarro, Francisco; Martínez-Fuentes, Antonio J

    2013-01-01

    Ghrelin-system components [native ghrelin, In1-ghrelin, Ghrelin-O-acyltransferase enzyme (GOAT) and receptors (GHS-Rs)] are expressed in a wide variety of tissues, including the pancreas, where they exert different biological actions including regulation of neuroendocrine secretions, food intake and pancreatic function. The expression of ghrelin system is regulated by metabolic conditions (fasting/obesity) and is associated with the progression of obesity and insulin resistance. Cortistatin (CORT), a neuropeptide able to activate GHS-R, has emerged as an additional link in gut-brain interplay. Indeed, we recently reported that male CORT deficient mice (cort-/-) are insulin-resistant and present a clear dysregulation in the stomach ghrelin-system. The present work was focused at analyzing the expression pattern of ghrelin-system components at pancreas level in cort-/- mice and their control littermates (cort +/+) under low- or high-fat diet. Our data reveal that all the ghrelin-system components are expressed at the mouse pancreatic level, where, interestingly, In1-ghrelin was expressed at higher levels than native-ghrelin. Thus, GOAT mRNA levels were significantly lower in cort-/- mice compared with controls while native ghrelin, In1-ghrelin and GHS-R transcript levels remained unaltered under normal metabolic conditions. Moreover, under obese condition, a significant increase in pancreatic expression of native-ghrelin, In1-ghrelin and GHS-R was observed in obese cort+/+ but not in cort-/- mice. Interestingly, insulin expression and release was elevated in obese cort+/+, while these changes were not observed in obese cort-/- mice. Altogether, our results indicate that the ghrelin-system expression is clearly regulated in the pancreas of cort+/+ and cort -/- under normal and/or obesity conditions suggesting that this system may play relevant roles in the endocrine pancreas. Most importantly, our data demonstrate, for the first time, that endogenous CORT is essential

  19. Diet-induced obesity causes ghrelin resistance in arcuate NPY/AgRP neurons.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Dana I; Enriori, Pablo J; Lemus, Moyra B; Cowley, Michael A; Andrews, Zane B

    2010-10-01

    Circulating ghrelin is decreased in obesity, and peripheral ghrelin does not induce food intake in obese mice. We investigated whether ghrelin resistance was a centrally mediated phenomenon involving dysregulated neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) circuits. We show that diet-induced obesity (DIO) (12 wk) suppresses the neuroendocrine ghrelin system by decreasing acylated and total plasma ghrelin, decreasing ghrelin and Goat mRNA in the stomach, and decreasing expression of hypothalamic GHSR. Peripheral (ip) or central (intracerebroventricular) ghrelin injection was able to induce food intake and arcuate nucleus Fos immunoreactivity in chow-fed but not high-fat diet-fed mice. DIO decreased expression of Npy and Agrp mRNA, and central ghrelin was unable to promote expression of these genes. Ghrelin did not induce AgRP or NPY secretion in hypothalamic explants from DIO mice. Injection of NPY intracerebroventricularly increased food intake in both chow-fed and high-fat diet-fed mice, indicating that downstream NPY/AgRP neural targets are intact and that defective NPY/AgRP function is a primary cause of ghrelin resistance. Ghrelin resistance in DIO is not confined to the NPY/AgRP neurons, because ghrelin did not stimulate growth hormone secretion in DIO mice. Collectively, our data suggests that DIO causes ghrelin resistance by reducing NPY/AgRP responsiveness to plasma ghrelin and suppressing the neuroendocrine ghrelin axis to limit further food intake. Ghrelin has a number of functions in the brain aside from appetite control, including cognitive function, mood regulation, and protecting against neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, central ghrelin resistance may potentiate obesity-related cognitive decline, and restoring ghrelin sensitivity may provide therapeutic outcomes for maintaining healthy aging.

  20. Ghrelin and obestatin in human neuroendocrine tumors: expression and effect on obestatin levels after food intake.

    PubMed

    Grönberg, Malin; Tsolakis, Apostolos V; Holmbäck, Ulf; Stridsberg, Mats; Grimelius, Lars; Janson, Eva T

    2013-01-01

    Ghrelin and obestatin are derived from the same peptide hormone precursor and are mainly produced by the gastric mucosa. Ghrelin is involved in many biological processes, whereas the physiological function of obestatin needs further investigation. The aims of the present study were to establish the incidence of ghrelin- and obestatin-immunoreactive cells in a comprehensive panel of human neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) and to investigate if blood obestatin concentrations are influenced during a standardized meal stimulation test in healthy individuals and patients with NETs. The expression of ghrelin and obestatin was investigated in NETs (n = 149) and other endocrine-related disorders (n = 3) using immunohistochemistry with specific polyclonal antibodies. Coexpression of the peptides was evaluated by double immunofluorescence. Concentrations of obestatin in blood were measured during a meal test in 6 healthy individuals and 5 patients with pancreatic NETs. Ghrelin and obestatin were expressed in 14/152 and 19/152 tumor tissues, respectively, mainly representing NETs of foregut origin and in pancreatic tissue from a nesidioblastosis patient. Double immunofluorescence staining showed colocalization of the peptides. During the meal test, obestatin levels in blood were unchanged in all patients but decreased significantly in the healthy individuals. Only a minority of NETs express ghrelin and obestatin. However, analysis of patients with tumors originating from tissues that express the peptides in normal conditions could be of importance. The results from the meal test indicate that the hormone levels are affected by food intake in healthy individuals, whereas obestatin levels remained unchanged in pancreatic NET patients. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. A novel human ghrelin variant (In1-ghrelin) and ghrelin-O-acyltransferase are overexpressed in breast cancer: potential pathophysiological relevance.

    PubMed

    Gahete, Manuel D; Córdoba-Chacón, José; Hergueta-Redondo, Marta; Martínez-Fuentes, Antonio J; Kineman, Rhonda D; Moreno-Bueno, Gema; Luque, Raúl M; Castaño, Justo P

    2011-01-01

    The human ghrelin gene, which encodes the ghrelin and obestatin peptides, contains 5 exons (Ex), with Ex1-Ex4 encoding a 117 amino-acid (aa) preproprotein that is known to be processed to yield a 28-aa (ghrelin) and/or a 23-aa (obestatin) mature peptides, which possess biological activities in multiple tissues. However, the ghrelin gene also encodes additional peptides through alternative splicing or post-translational modifications. Indeed, we previously identified a spliced mRNA ghrelin variant in mouse (In2-ghrelin-variant), which is regulated in a tissue-dependent manner by metabolic status and may thus be of biological relevance. Here, we have characterized a new human ghrelin variant that contains Ex0-1, intron (In) 1, and Ex2 and lacks Ex3-4. This human In1-ghrelin variant would encode a new prepropeptide that conserves the first 12aa of native-ghrelin (including the Ser3-potential octanoylation site) but has a different C-terminal tail. Expression of In1-variant was detected in 22 human tissues and its levels were positively correlated with those of ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT; p = 0.0001) but not with native-ghrelin expression, suggesting that In1-ghrelin could be a primary substrate for GOAT in human tissues. Interestingly, levels of In1-ghrelin variant expression in breast cancer samples were 8-times higher than those of normal mammary tissue, and showed a strong correlation in breast tumors with GOAT (p = 0.0001), ghrelin receptor-type 1b (GHSR1b; p = 0.049) and cyclin-D3 (a cell-cycle inducer/proliferation marker; p = 0.009), but not with native-ghrelin or GHSR1a expression. Interestingly, In1-ghrelin variant overexpression increased basal proliferation of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Taken together, our results provide evidence that In1-ghrelin is a novel element of the ghrelin family with a potential pathophysiological role in breast cancer.

  2. Hypothalamic κ-Opioid Receptor Modulates the Orexigenic Effect of Ghrelin

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Picó, Amparo; Vázquez, Maria J; González-Touceda, David; Folgueira, Cintia; Skibicka, Karolina P; Alvarez-Crespo, Mayte; Van Gestel, Margriet A; Velásquez, Douglas A; Schwarzer, Christoph; Herzog, Herbert; López, Miguel; Adan, Roger A; Dickson, Suzanne L; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén

    2013-01-01

    The opioid system is well recognized as an important regulator of appetite and energy balance. We now hypothesized that the hypothalamic opioid system might modulate the orexigenic effect of ghrelin. Using pharmacological and gene silencing approaches, we demonstrate that ghrelin utilizes a hypothalamic κ-opioid receptor (KOR) pathway to increase food intake in rats. Pharmacological blockade of KOR decreases the acute orexigenic effect of ghrelin. Inhibition of KOR expression in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus is sufficient to blunt ghrelin-induced food intake. By contrast, the specific inhibition of KOR expression in the ventral tegmental area does not affect central ghrelin-induced feeding. This new pathway is independent of ghrelin-induced AMP-activated protein kinase activation, but modulates the levels of the transcription factors and orexigenic neuropeptides triggered by ghrelin to finally stimulate feeding. Our novel data implicate hypothalamic KOR signaling in the orexigenic action of ghrelin. PMID:23348063

  3. THE EFFECTS OF Syzygium aromaticum-DERIVED TRITERPENES ON GASTROINTESTINAL GHRELIN EXPRESSION IN STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS.

    PubMed

    Luvuno, Mluleki; Mbongwa, Hlengiwe Prosperity; Khathi, Andile

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic polyphagia has been associated with elevated plasma ghrelin levels in experimental type 1 diabetes. This increase in food consumption contributes to chronic hyperglycaemia in diabetes thus contributing to the development of micro- and macrovascular complications. We have reported that plant-derived oleanolic acid (OA) and maslinic acid (MA) reduce blood glucose levels, in part, through the inhibition of intestinal carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes and glucose transporters. However, their effects on food intake and plasma ghrelin concentrations are unclear. Accordingly, we investigated the effects of these triterpenes on food intake and ghrelin expression in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The effects of OA and MA on blood glucose concentration; food and water intake were monitored over five weeks after which plasma ghrelin concentrations were measured. Additionally, the expression of ghrelin in the various sections of the GIT was determined using Western blot analysis. Ghrelin concentrations in untreated STZ-induced diabetic rats were significantly higher in comparison to the non-diabetic control. Interestingly, the administration of OA and MA reduced food intake, blood glucose levels and plasma ghrelin levels in STZ-induced diabetic rats. This was further complemented by significant reductions in the gastrointestinal expression of ghrelin suggesting that the anti-diabetic properties of these triterpenes are mediated, in part, through the reduction of food intake and the modulation of ghrelin expression. The findings of the study suggest that the control of food intake through the reduction of ghrelin expression by plant-derived OA and MA may constitute an avenue of glycaemic control in diabetes mellitus.

  4. Cysteamine improves growth performance and gastric ghrelin expression in preweaning piglets.

    PubMed

    Du, G; Shi, Z; Xia, D; Wei, X; Zhang, L; Parvizi, N; Zhao, R

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of cysteamine on growth performance of preweaning piglets and gastric expression of ghrelin mRNA in vivo and in vitro. Twelve litters of newborn piglets were allocated randomly to control and treatment groups. From 15 d of age, piglets in the control group were fed basal creep diet, whereas the treatment group received basal diet supplemented with 120 mg cysteamine per kg of diet until weaning on 35 d of age. Body weight gain, creep feed consumption, and diarrhea rates were recorded, and gastric mucosal tissues were collected for quantifying mRNA expression. To evaluate the direct effect of cysteamine on gastric ghrelin expression, primary cultures of gastric mucosal cells isolated from 35-d-old piglets were exposed to cysteamine for 20 h at 0, 1, 10, and 100 μg/mL, respectively. Dietary cysteamine increased (P < 0.05) average daily creep feed consumption and BW gain in preweaning pigs, which was accompanied by reduction in diarrhea rates. At 35 d of age, piglets treated with cysteamine showed increased (P < 0.05) ghrelin and gastrin and decreased (P < 0.05) somatostatin mRNA expression in gastric mucosa. Moreover, dietary cysteamine treatment increased serum concentration of gastrin (P < 0.05). In vitro, cysteamine significantly increased ghrelin mRNA expression in gastric mucosal cells at the concentration of 10 μg/mL. In conclusion, dietary cysteamine is effective in improving the growth performance and health condition of preweaning piglets, which is associated with its stimulatory effects on gastric ghrelin mRNA expression both in vivo and in vitro.

  5. Association of A-604G ghrelin gene polymorphism and serum ghrelin levels with the risk of obesity in a mexican population.

    PubMed

    Llamas-Covarrubias, Iris Monserrat; Llamas-Covarrubias, Mara Anaís; Martinez-López, Erika; Zepeda-Carrillo, Eloy Alfonso; Rivera-León, Edgar Alfonso; Palmeros-Sánchez, Beatriz; Alcalá-Zermeño, Juan Luis; Sánchez-Enríquez, Sergio

    2017-07-01

    Obesity is a metabolic disorder that has a multifactorial etiology and affects millions of people worldwide. Ghrelin, a hormone coded by the GHRL gene, plays a role in human body composition and appetite. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the GHRL gene have been associated with obesity and metabolic disorders. To evaluate the association of A-604G SNP of GHRL promoter region with serum ghrelin levels and the risk of obesity in a Mexican population. Two hundred and fifty individuals were enrolled and classified as obese or control subjects (CS) according to BMI. DNA samples, anthropometric measurements and biochemical parameters were obtained from all subjects. The A-604G SNP was genotyped using PCR-RFLPs technique. Ghrelin levels were measured using a commercial enzyme immunoassay. The G/G genotype was more frequent among obese individuals (p < 0.0001) when compared to CS. The G/A genotype and A allele were associated with protection against obesity (OR 0.29, p < 0.0001; OR 0.39, p < 0.0001 respectively), the A allele remained significant after adjusting for age and gender (OR: 0.25, p < 0.0001). Serum ghrelin levels were higher in obese patients (p = 0.004) than in CS, however, significance was lost after adjustment for age (p = 0.088). The G/G genotype was associated with higher levels of serum ghrelin (p = 0.02) independently of the effect of age. The G/G genotype of the A-604G SNP in the GHRL gene is associated with altered serum ghrelin levels and obesity. The A allele was also associated with protection against obesity in this study.

  6. Differential expression of ghrelin and its receptor (GHS-R1a) in various adrenal tumors and normal adrenal gland.

    PubMed

    Ueberberg, B; Unger, N; Sheu, S Y; Walz, M K; Schmid, K W; Saeger, W; Mann, K; Petersenn, S

    2008-03-01

    Ghrelin is a newly characterized, widely distributed peptide thought to be involved in the regulation of appetite. Significant effects on the release of growth hormone (GH) and ACTH have been demonstrated. This study compares the expression of ghrelin and its receptor (GHS-R) in various adrenal tumors and normal adrenal gland. Normal adrenal tissue was obtained after autopsy. Tissue was obtained from 13 pheochromocytomas (PHEOs), 15 cortisol-secreting adenomas (CPAs), 12 aldosterone-secreting adenomas (APAs), and 16 nonfunctional adenomas (NFAs) following laparoscopic surgery. Expression of ghrelin and GHS-R1a was investigated on RNA levels by using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and on protein levels by using immunohistochemistry. In the seven normal adrenal glands analyzed, ghrelin mRNA levels were 12-fold lower than in stomach. Ghrelin protein expression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. In all adrenal tumors, relevant levels of ghrelin mRNA were observed, with significantly lower expression in PHEOs and APAs than in normal adrenal gland. Ghrelin protein was detected in 0% of PHEOs, 55% of APAs, 87% of CPAs, and 54% of NFAs. GHS-R1a mRNA expression was detectable in normal adrenal gland, but the receptor protein was absent. In adrenal tumors, detectable levels of receptor mRNA were found in 38% of PHEOs, 13% of CPAs, and 25% of NFAs. GHS-R1a protein was absent in the majority of adrenal tumors. Expression of ghrelin in normal adrenal gland and adrenal tumors may indicate some unknown physiological function. The pathophysiological relevance of ghrelin expression in adrenal tumors remains to be investigated.

  7. The Stomach-Derived Hormone Ghrelin Increases Impulsive Behavior.

    PubMed

    Anderberg, Rozita H; Hansson, Caroline; Fenander, Maya; Richard, Jennifer E; Dickson, Suzanne L; Nissbrandt, Hans; Bergquist, Filip; Skibicka, Karolina P

    2016-04-01

    Impulsivity, defined as impaired decision making, is associated with many psychiatric and behavioral disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder as well as eating disorders. Recent data indicate that there is a strong positive correlation between food reward behavior and impulsivity, but the mechanisms behind this relationship remain unknown. Here we hypothesize that ghrelin, an orexigenic hormone produced by the stomach and known to increase food reward behavior, also increases impulsivity. In order to assess the impact of ghrelin on impulsivity, rats were trained in three complementary tests of impulsive behavior and choice: differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL), go/no-go, and delay discounting. Ghrelin injection into the lateral ventricle increased impulsive behavior, as indicated by reduced efficiency of performance in the DRL test, and increased lever pressing during the no-go periods of the go/no-go test. Central ghrelin stimulation also increased impulsive choice, as evidenced by the reduced choice for large rewards when delivered with a delay in the delay discounting test. In order to determine whether signaling at the central ghrelin receptors is necessary for maintenance of normal levels of impulsive behavior, DRL performance was assessed following ghrelin receptor blockade with central infusion of a ghrelin receptor antagonist. Central ghrelin receptor blockade reduced impulsive behavior, as reflected by increased efficiency of performance in the DRL task. To further investigate the neurobiological substrate underlying the impulsivity effect of ghrelin, we microinjected ghrelin into the ventral tegmental area, an area harboring dopaminergic cell bodies. Ghrelin receptor stimulation within the VTA was sufficient to increase impulsive behavior. We further evaluated the impact of ghrelin on dopamine-related gene expression and dopamine turnover in brain areas key in impulsive behavior control. This study provides the first

  8. Inhibitory Effect of Oleic Acid on Octanoylated Ghrelin Production.

    PubMed

    Oiso, Shigeru; Nobe, Miyuki; Iwasaki, Syuhei; Nii, Wakana; Goto, Natsumi; Seki, Yukari; Nakajima, Kensuke; Nakamura, Kazuo; Kariyazono, Hiroko

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin is a growth hormone-releasing peptide that also displays orexigenic activity. Since serine-3 acylation with octanoylate (octanoylation) is essential for the orexigenic activity of ghrelin, suppression of octanoylation could lead to amelioration or prevention of obesity. To enable the exploration of inhibitors of octanoylated ghrelin production, we developed a cell-based assay system using AGS-GHRL8 cells, in which octanoylated ghrelin concentration increases in the presence of octanoic acid. Using this assay system, we investigated whether fatty acids contained in foods or oils, such as acetic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and α-linolenic acid, have inhibitory effects on octanoylated ghrelin production. Acetic acid did not suppress the increase in octanoylated ghrelin production in AGS-GHRL8 cells, which was induced by the addition of octanoic acid. However, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and α-linolenic acid significantly suppressed octanoylated ghrelin production, with the effect of oleic acid being the strongest. Additionally, oleic acid decreased the serum concentration of octanoylated ghrelin in mice. The serum concentration of des-acyl ghrelin (without acyl modification) was also decreased, but the decrease was smaller than that of octanoylated ghrelin. Decreased octanoylated ghrelin production likely resulted from post-translational ghrelin processing, as there were no significant differences in gene expression in the stomach between oleic acid-treated mice and controls. These results suggest that oleic acid is a potential inhibitor of octanoylated ghrelin production and that our assay system is a valuable tool for screening compounds with suppressive effects on octanoylated ghrelin production.

  9. Ghrelin Gene Variants Influence on Metabolic Syndrome Components in Aged Spanish Population

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Mireia; Adam, Victoria; Palomera, Elisabet; Blesa, Sebastian; Díaz, Gonzalo; Buquet, Xavier; Serra-Prat, Mateu; Martín-Escudero, Juan Carlos; Palanca, Ana; Chaves, Javier Felipe; Puig-Domingo, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Background The role of genetic variations within the ghrelin gene on cardiometabolic profile and nutritional status is still not clear in humans, particularly in elderly people. Objectives We investigated six SNPs of the ghrelin gene and their relationship with metabolic syndrome (MS) components. Subjects and Methods 824 subjects (413 men/411 women, age 77.31±5.04) participating in the Mataró aging study (n = 310) and the Hortega study (n = 514) were analyzed. Anthropometric variables, ghrelin, lipids, glucose and blood pressure levels were measured, and distribution of SNPs -994CT (rs26312), -604GA (rs27647), -501AC (rs26802), R51Q (rs34911341), M72L (rs696217) and L90G (rs4684677) of the ghrelin gene evaluated. Genotypes were determined by multiplex PCR and SNaPshot minisequencing. MS (IDF criteria) was found in 54.9%. Results No association between any of the SNPs and levels of total fasting circulating ghrelin levels was found. C/A-A/A genotype of M72L was associated with increased risk of central obesity according to IDF criteria, while G/A-G/G genotypes of -604GA with reduced risk. A/A genotype of -501AC polymorphism was associated to decreased BMI. In relation to lipid profile, the same genotypes of -604GA were associated with increased total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol and -501AC with reduced triglycerides. There were no associations with systolic or diastolic blood pressure levels or with hypertension, glucose levels or diabetes and ghrelin polymorphisms. However, G/G genotype of -604GA was associated with glucose >100 mg/dL. Haplotype analysis showed that only one haplotype is associated with increased risk of waist circumference and central obesity. The analysis of subjects by gender showed an important and different association of these polymorphisms regarding MS parameters. Conclusion Ghrelin gene variants -604GA, -501AC and M72L are associated with certain components of MS, in particular to BMI and lipid profile in elderly Spanish subjects. PMID

  10. Ghrelin receptor expression and colocalization with anterior pituitary hormones using a GHSR-GFP mouse line.

    PubMed

    Reichenbach, Alex; Steyn, Frederik J; Sleeman, Mark W; Andrews, Zane B

    2012-11-01

    Ghrelin is the endogenous ligand for the GH secretagogue receptor (GHSR) and robustly stimulates GH release from the anterior pituitary gland. Ghrelin also regulates the secretion of anterior pituitary hormones including TSH, LH, prolactin (PRL), and ACTH. However, the relative contribution of a direct action at the GHSR in the anterior pituitary gland vs. an indirect action at the GHSR in the hypothalamus remains undefined. We used a novel GHSR-enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) reporter mouse to quantify GHSR coexpression with GH, TSH, LH, PRL, and ACTH anterior pituitary cells in males vs. females and in chow-fed or calorie-restricted (CR) mice. GHSR-eGFP-expressing cells were only observed in anterior pituitary. The number of GHSR-eGFP-expressing cells was higher in male compared with females, and CR did not affect the GHSR-eGFP cell number. Double staining revealed 77% of somatotrophs expressed GHSR-eGFP in both males and females. Nineteen percent and 12.6% of corticotrophs, 21% and 9% of lactotrophs, 18% and 19% of gonadotrophs, and 3% and 9% of males and females, respectively, expressed GHSR-eGFP. CR increased the number of TSH cells, but suppressed the number of lactotrophs and gonadotrophs, expressing GHSR-eGFP compared with controls. These studies support a robust stimulatory action of ghrelin via the GHSR on GH secretion and identify a previously unknown sexual dimorphism in the GHSR expression in the anterior pituitary. CR affects GHSR-eGFP expression on lactotrophs, gonadotrophs, and thyrotrophs, which may mediate reproductive function and energy metabolism during periods of negative energy balance. The low to moderate expression of GHSR-eGFP suggests that ghrelin plays a minor direct role on remaining anterior pituitary cells.

  11. Peripheral injection of ghrelin induces Fos expression in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kobelt, Peter; Wisser, Anna-Sophia; Stengel, Andreas; Goebel, Miriam; Inhoff, Tobias; Noetzel, Steffen; Veh, Rüdiger W.; Bannert, Norbert; van der Voort, Ivo; Wiedenmann, Bertram; Klapp, Burghard F.; Taché, Yvette; Mönnikes, Hubert

    2009-01-01

    Peripheral ghrelin has been shown to act as a gut–brain peptide exerting a potent orexigenic effect on food intake. The dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (DMH) is innervated by projections from other brain areas being part of the network of nuclei controlling energy homeostasis, among others NPY/AgRP-positive fibers arising from the arcuate nucleus (ARC). The aim of the study was to determine if peripherally administered ghrelin affects neuronal activity in the DMH, as assessed by Fos expression. The number of Fos positive neurons was determined in the DMH, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), ARC, ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH), nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and in the area postrema(AP) in non-fasted Sprague–Dawley rats in response to intraperitoneally (ip) injected ghrelin (3 nmol/rat) or vehicle (0.15 M NaCl). Peripheral ghrelin induced a significant increase in the number of Fos-ir positive neurons/section compared with vehicle in the ARC (mean±SEM: 49±2 vs. 23±2 neurons/section, p=0.001), PVN (69±5 vs. 34±3, p=0.001), and DMH (142±5 vs. 83±5, p<0.001). Fos-ir positive neurons were mainly localized within the ventral part of the DMH. No change in Fos expression was observed in the VMH (53±8 vs. 48±6, p=0.581), NTS (42±2 vs.40±3, p=0.603), and in the AP (7±1 vs. 5±1, p=0.096). Additional double-labelling with anti-Fos and anti-AgRP revealed that Fos positive neurons in the DMH were encircled by a network of AgRP-ir positive fibers. These data indicate that peripheral ghrelin activates DMH neurons and that NPY-/AgRP-positive fibers may be involved in the response. PMID:18329635

  12. Ghrelin and Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Osawa, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    Ghrelin is primarily secreted from the stomach and has been implicated in the coordination of eating behavior and weight regulation. Ghrelin also plays an essential role in the mechanism of gastric mucosal defense. Thus, it is important to clarify which diseases primarily influence changes in plasma ghrelin concentrations. Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection is involved in the pathogenesis of gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcer, gastric carcinoma, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. H pylori eradication is related to body weight change. Compared, H pylori infected and negative subjects with normal body mass index, plasma ghrelin concentration, gastric ghrelin mRNA, and the number of ghrelin producing cells in gastric mucosa are significantly lower in H pylori infected subjects than in H pylori-negative controls. Plasma ghrelin concentration decreases with the progression of gastric atrophy. Impaired gastric ghrelin production in association with atrophic gastritis induced by H pylori infection accounts for the decrease in plasma ghrelin concentration. However, the ratio of plasma acylated ghrelin to total ghrelin levels is higher in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis than in healthy subjects. This may result from the compensatory increase in plasma active ghrelin concentration in response to gastric atrophy. After H pylori eradication, gastric preproghrelin mRNA expression is increased nearly 4-fold in most cases. However, changes in plasma ghrelin concentrations before and after H pylori cure are not associated with the gastric ghrelin production. Plasma ghrelin changes are inversely correlated with both body weight change and initial plasma ghrelin levels. PMID:19009647

  13. Impact of changes in postnatal nutrition on puberty onset and the expression of hypothalamic GnRH and ghrelin.

    PubMed

    Cui, L-L; Li, P; Zhu, Z-Y

    2014-01-01

    Ghrelin is an octanoylated peptide hormone with multiple and diverse physiologic functions including an important role in energy homeostasis and reproduction. In this study, the adjustment effects of different postnatal nutritional status on puberty onset and the expression of hypothalamic ghrelin and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) were examined in 1 day-old female Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were randomly assigned into four groups: overnutrition group (Group O), normal group (Group N, control group), and undernutrition groups (Group U and U2). Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry were used to analyze the expression of hypothalamic ghrelin and GnRH. With a low level expression of hypothalamic ghrelin, the appearance of puberty onset and secretion peak of GnRH in Group O was earlier than the other groups. Undernutrition delayed puberty onset and the GnRH peak, at the same time, promoted the expression of hypothalamic ghrelin.While, the expression of hypothalamic ghrelin was suppressed at puberty onset.

  14. Ghrelin Increases Beta-Catenin Level through Protein Kinase A Activation and Regulates OPG Expression in Rat Primary Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Mrak, Emanuela; Casati, Lavinia; Pagani, Francesca; Rubinacci, Alessandro; Zarattini, Guido; Sibilia, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin, by binding growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), promotes osteoblast proliferation but the signaling mechanism of GHS-R on these cells remains unclear. Since canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway is critically associated with bone homeostasis, we investigated its involvement in mediating ghrelin effects in osteoblasts and in osteoblast-osteoclast cross talk. Ghrelin (10−10M) significantly increased β-catenin levels in rat osteoblasts (rOB). This stimulatory action on β-catenin involves a specific interaction with GHS-R1a, as it is prevented by the selective GHS-R1a antagonist, D-Lys3-GHRP-6 (10−7M). The effect of ghrelin on β-catenin involves the phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK-3β via protein kinase A (PKA). Inhibition of PKA activity reduces the facilitatory action of ghrelin on β-catenin stabilization. Ghrelin treatment of rOB significantly increases the expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG), which plays an important role in the regulation of osteoclastogenesis, and this effect is blocked by D-Lys3-GHRP-6. Furthermore, ghrelin reduced RANKL/OPG ratio thus contrasting osteoclastogenesis. Accordingly, conditioned media from rOB treated with ghrelin decreased the number of multinucleated TRAcP+ cells as compared with the conditioned media from untreated-control rOB. Our data suggest new roles for ghrelin in modulating bone homeostasis via a specific interaction with GHSR-1a in osteoblasts with subsequent enhancement of both β-catenin levels and OPG expression. PMID:25866509

  15. Continuous antagonism of the ghrelin receptor results in early induction of salt-sensitive hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takahiro; Nakashima, Yoshiki; Nakamura, Yuki; Ida, Takanori; Kojima, Masayasu

    2011-02-01

    Ghrelin is a hormone that mediates a variety of physiological roles, such as stimulating appetite, initiating food intake, and modulating energy metabolism. Although it has been reported that a bolus injection of ghrelin decreases blood pressure, the effect of continuous ghrelin administration on vasoregulation has yet to be determined. We examined the longitudinal effect of ghrelin on vasoregulation using Dahl-Iwai salt-sensitive rats. In this model, a high-salt diet induced high blood pressure and increased ghrelin levels but reduced food intake. In salt-sensitive hypertension, cumulative food intake decreased, while both ghrelin messenger RNA levels and plasma ghrelin content increased. Continuous administration of a ghrelin receptor agonist, growth hormone releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6), for 2 weeks by mini-osmotic pump did not change blood pressure values although the cumulative food intake recovered. In contrast, continuous administration of a ghrelin receptor antagonist, [D-Lys³]-GHRP-6, induced early elevations in blood pressure without changes in heart rate. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed high expression levels of genes involved in the catecholamine biosynthetic pathway, tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine-β-hydroxylase, after continuous [D-Lys³]-GHRP-6 administration. These results indicate that continuous antagonism of the ghrelin receptor results in early induction of salt-sensitive hypertension in this animal model and suggests that increases in autonomic nervous activity induced by ghrelin receptor antagonism are responsible, as indicated by the high expression levels of genes in the catecholamine biosynthetic pathway.

  16. Different responses of circulating ghrelin, obestatin levels to fasting, re-feeding and different food compositions, and their local expressions in rats.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhi-Fu; Ren, An-Jing; Zheng, Xing; Qin, Yong-Wen; Cheng, Fang; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Hong; Yuan, Wen-Jun; Zou, Lin

    2008-07-01

    Obestatin, a sibling of ghrelin derived from preproghrelin, opposes several physiological actions of ghrelin. Our previous study has demonstrated that both plasma ghrelin and obestatin levels were decreased significantly 2h after food intake in human. To further expand current knowledge, we investigated the temporal profiles of their levels in ad libitum fed rats, 48h fasted rats and 48h fasted rats refed 2h with a standard chow, crude fiber, 50% glucose or water, and their expressions in stomach, liver and pancreatic islets immunohistochemically. Plasma ghrelin and obestatin levels were measured by EIA. Plasma leptin, insulin and glucose levels were also evaluated. Both plasma ghrelin and obestatin levels increased significantly in fasted rats compared with ad libitum fed rats. The ingestion of standard chow produced a profound and sustained suppression of ghrelin levels, whereas plasma obestatin levels decreased significantly but recovered quickly. Intake of crude fiber or 50% glucose, however, produced a more profound and sustained suppression of obestatin levels, though they had relatively less impact on ghrelin levels. Plasma glucose was the only independent predictor of ghrelin levels, obestatin levels, and ghrelin to obestatin ratios. Obestatin immunoreactivity was detected in the fundus of stomach, liver and pancreatic islets, with roughly similar patterns of distribution to ghrelin. These data show quantitative and qualitative differences in circulating ghrelin and obestatin responses to the short-term feeding status and nutrient composition, and may support a role for obestatin in regulating metabolism and energy homeostasis.

  17. Metabolic Benefit of Chronic Caloric Restriction and Activation of Hypothalamic AGRP/NPY Neurons in Male Mice Is Independent of Ghrelin.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Nicole H; Walsh, Heidi; Alvarez-Garcia, Oscar; Park, Seongjoon; Gaylinn, Bruce; Thorner, Michael O; Smith, Roy G

    2016-04-01

    Aging is associated with attenuated ghrelin signaling. During aging, chronic caloric restriction (CR) produces health benefits accompanied by enhanced ghrelin production. Ghrelin receptor (GH secretagogue receptor 1a) agonists administered to aging rodents and humans restore the young adult phenotype; therefore, we tested the hypothesis that the metabolic benefits of CR are mediated by endogenous ghrelin. Three month-old male mice lacking ghrelin (Ghrelin-/-) or ghrelin receptor (Ghsr-/-), and their wild-type (WT) littermates were randomly assigned to 2 groups: ad libitum (AL) fed and CR, where 40% food restriction was introduced gradually to allow Ghrelin-/- and Ghsr-/- mice to metabolically adapt and avoid severe hypoglycemia. Twelve months later, plasma ghrelin, metabolic parameters, ambulatory activity, hypothalamic and liver gene expression, as well as body composition were measured. CR increased plasma ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin concentrations in WT and Ghsr-/- mice. CR of WT, Ghsr-/-, and Ghrelin-/- mice markedly improved metabolic flexibility, enhanced ambulatory activity, and reduced adiposity. Inactivation of Ghrelin or Ghsr had no effect on AL food intake or food anticipatory behavior. In contrast to the widely held belief that endogenous ghrelin regulates food intake, CR increased expression of hypothalamic Agrp and Npy, with reduced expression of Pomc across genotypes. In the AL context, ablation of ghrelin signaling markedly inhibited liver steatosis, which correlated with reduced Pparγ expression and enhanced Irs2 expression. Although CR and administration of GH secretagogue receptor 1a agonists both benefit the aging phenotype, we conclude the benefits of chronic CR are a consequence of enhanced metabolic flexibility independent of endogenous ghrelin or des-acyl ghrelin signaling.

  18. Polymorphisms in the bovine ghrelin precursor (GHRL) and Syndecan-1 (SDC1) genes that are associated with growth traits in cattle.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiajie; Jin, Qijiang; Zhang, Chunlei; Fang, Xingtang; Gu, Chuanwen; Lei, Chuzhao; Wang, Juqiang; Chen, Hong

    2011-06-01

    Transgenically expressed Syndecan-1 was found in the hypothalamic nuclei that control energy balance, and was associated with maturity-onset obesity, while ghrelin has been shown to play important roles in the control of food intake, gastric acid secretion, energy homeostasis, and glucose and lipid metabolism. However, the roles of genetic variations of Syndecan-1 and ghrelin on growth trait have few been reported in cattle. Herein, five Chinese cattle breeds were analyzed by PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing methods. The bovine ghrelin gene showed eleven SNPs g.[267G>A, 271G>A, 290C>T, 326A>G, 327T>C, 420C>A, 569A>G, 945C>T, 993C>T, 4491A>G, 4644G>A] and three SNPs g.[420C>A, 569 A>G, 945C>T] were firstly detected in cattle. The bovine Syndecan-1 gene showed two SNPs. One SNP showed a transition C>G at position 21514, resulting in a synonymous mutation p.G(GGC)169G(GGG) and another showed a transversion C>T at position 22591, resulting in a synonymous mutation p.D(GAC)283D(GAT). In ghrelin gene, no significant associations were revealed between any variant sites and body weight, average daily gain, body sizes for different growth periods (6, 12, 18, and 24 months old), as well as for the milk yield at 305 days, milk protein rate and milk fat percentage. However, the polymorphism of Syndecan-1 gene was significantly associated with bovine birth weight and body length. Hence, we first suggested that Syndecan-1 gene could be regarded as molecular marker for superior birth weight and body length.

  19. Examination of the tissue ghrelin expression of rats with diet-induced obesity using radioimmunoassay and immunohistochemical methods.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Suleyman; Sahin, Ibrahim; Ozkan, Yusuf; Dag, Ersel; Gunay, Ahmet; Guzel, Saadet Pilten; Catak, Zekiye; Ozercan, Mehmet Resat

    2012-06-01

    Currently, obesity is an important health problem in all countries, both developed and developing. Dietary habits and neurohormonal imbalances play a critical role in obesity. Circulating amounts of ghrelin, which is a neurohormonal hormone, decrease with obesity and increase with weight loss. Although it is known that both mRNA and peptide version of the ghrelin hormone are expressed in almost all tissues of both humans and animals, it is not known how obesity changes the expression of this hormone in the tissues, with the exception of the gastrointestinal system tissues. Therefore, the objective of the present study is to show how diet-induced obesity in rats changes ghrelin expression in all system tissues, and thus, to shed light on the etiopathology of obesity. The study included 12 male and 12 female 2-month-old Wistar albino species rats. The animals in the control group were fed on standard rat pellet, while those in the experiment group were fed ad libitum on a cafeteria-style diet for 2 months. When their body mass index reached 1 g/cm(2), diet-induced obese (DIO) rats were sacrificed in a sterile environment after one night fasting. Ghrelin localizations in the tissues were studied immunohistochemically using avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (ABC) method, while tissue ghrelin amounts were analyzed using radioimmunoassay (RIA) method. When the ghrelin amounts in the urogenital system (with the exception of kidney tissues), sensory organs, respiratory system, immune system, skeletal muscle system, cardiovascular system, nervous system, and adipose tissue of rats analyzed by RIA method were compared to those in the control group, tissue ghrelin amounts in the DIO group were found lower. Immunohistochemical findings which showed a similar fall in ghrelin concentrations in the tissues were parallel to RIA results. In addition, ghrelin was shown to be synthesized in the cardiovascular system, heart muscle cells, tails of the sperms, hair follicles, lacrimal

  20. Peptide purification, complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and genomic DNA cloning, and functional characterization of ghrelin in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Kojima, Masayasu; Hosoda, Hiroshi; Moriyama, Shunsuke; Takahashi, Akiyoshi; Kawauchi, Hiroshi; Kangawa, Kenji

    2003-12-01

    We have identified ghrelin from the stomach of rainbow trout. Four isoforms of ghrelin peptide were isolated: the C-terminal amidated type of rainbow trout ghrelin (rt ghrelin) composed of 24 amino acids (GSSFLSPSQKPQVRQGKGKPPRV-amide) is a basic form; des-VRQ-rt ghrelin, which deleted three amino acids (V13R14Q15) from rt ghrelin; and further two types of rt ghrelin that retained the glycine residue at the C terminus, rt ghrelin-Gly, and des-VRQ-rt ghrelin-Gly. The third serine residue was modified by octanoic acid, decanoic acid, or the unsaturated form of those fatty acids. In agreement with the isolated peptides, two cDNAs of different lengths were isolated. The rt ghrelin gene has five exons and four introns, and two different mRNA molecules are predicted to be produced by alternative splicing of the gene. A high level of ghrelin mRNA expression was detected in the stomach, and moderate levels were detected in the brain, hypothalamus, and intestinal tracts. Des-VRQ-rt ghrelin stimulated the release of GH in the rat in vivo. Furthermore, des-VRQ-rt ghrelin stimulated the release of GH, but not the release of prolactin and somatolactin in rainbow trout in vivo and in vitro. These results indicate that ghrelin is a novel GH secretagogue in rainbow trout that may affect somatic growth or osmoregulation through GH. Because ghrelin is expressed in various tissues other than stomach, it may play important role(s) in cellular function as a local regulator.

  1. A low-salt diet increases the expression of renal sirtuin 1 through activation of the ghrelin receptor in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shao-Yu; Lin, Shuei-Liong; Chen, Yung-Ming; Wu, Vin-Cent; Yang, Wei-Shiung; Wu, Kwan-Dun

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) is renoprotective; however, details regarding its distribution and functions in the kidney remain unknown. Here, we demonstrated that Sirt1 was mainly expressed in the tubulointerstitial cells of normal rat kidneys and was co-localized with aquaporin 2, indicating it may be involved in water/salt regulation. Renal Sirt1 expression increased in the non-glomerular cytoplasmic portion of the kidney after a 24-h fast, but no significant changes in Sirt1 expression occurred after water loading (50 mL/kg) or 24-h water deprivation. After consuming a low-salt (0.075%) or 60% calorie restriction diet for 7 days, Sirt1 expression in the rat kidney was significantly increased, whereas a high-salt (8%) diet did not change the level of Sirt1 expression. The low-salt diet also increased Sirt1 expression in the heart, muscle, brain, and fat tissues. The increased Sirt1 that was observed in rats on a low-salt diet was associated with increased ghrelin expression in the distal nephron, with both molecules exhibiting similar distribution patterns. An in vitro experiment suggested that ghrelin increases Sirt1 expression in cortical collecting duct cells by activating ghrelin receptors. Our study indicates that this ‘ghrelin-Sirt1 system’ may participate in regulating sodium reabsorption in the distal nephron. PMID:27600292

  2. Clinical application of ghrelin.

    PubMed

    Strasser, Florian

    2012-01-01

    Ghrelin as a human natural hormone is involved in fundamental regulatory processes of eating and energy balance. Ghrelin signals the nutrient availability from the gastrointestinal tract to the central nervous system, up-regulates food intake and lowers energy expenditure mainly through hypothalamic mediators acting both centrally and peripherally including the gastrointestinal tract (motility, epithelium), promotes both neuro-endocrine and inflammatory signals to increase skeletal muscle growth and decrease protein breakdown, and increases lipolysis while body fat utilization is reduced. Ghrelin does more to exert its probably sentinel role around "human energy": it influences through mainly extra-hypothalamic actions the hedonic and incentive value of food, mood and anxiety, sleep-wake regulation, learning and memory, and neurogenesis. Recently numerous ghrelin gene-derived peptides were discovered, demonstrating the complexity within the ghrelin/ghrelin receptor axis. For clinical applications, not only the natural ghrelin and its slice variants, but also several modified or artificial molecules acting at ghrelin-associated receptors were and are developed. Current clinical applications are limited to clinical studies, focusing mainly on cachexia in chronic heart failure, COPD, cancer, endstage- renal-disease or cystic fibrosis, but also on frailty in elderly, gastrointestinal motility (e.g., gastroparesis, functional dyspepsia, postoperative ileus), after curative gastrectomy, anorexia nervosa, growth hormone deficient patients, alcohol craving, sleep-wake regulation (e.g. major depression), or sympathetic nervous activity in obesity. The results of completed, preliminary studies support the clinical potential of ghrelin, ghrelin gene-derived peptides, and artificial analogues, suggesting that larger clinical trials are demanded to move ghrelin towards an available and reimbursed pharmaceutical intervention.

  3. Ghrelin-induced adiposity is independent of orexigenic effects

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Tilve, Diego; Heppner, Kristy; Kirchner, Henriette; Lockie, Sarah H.; Woods, Stephen C.; Smiley, David L.; Tschöp, Matthias; Pfluger, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Ghrelin is a hormone produced predominantly by the stomach that targets a number of specific areas in the central nervous system to promote a positive energy balance by increasing food intake and energy storage. In that respect, similarities exist with the effects of consuming a high-fat diet (HFD), which also increases caloric intake and the amount of stored calories. We determined whether the effects of ghrelin on feeding and adiposity are influenced by the exposure to an HFD. Chronic intracerebroventricular ghrelin (2.5 nmol/d) increased feeding in lean rats fed a low-fat control diet (CD) [192±5 g (ghrelin+CD) vs. 152±5 g (control i.c.v. saline+CD), P<0.001], but the combination of ghrelin plus HFD did not result in significantly greater hyperphagia [150±7 g (ghrelin+HFD) vs. 136±4 g (saline+HFD)]. Despite failing to increase food intake in rats fed the HFD, ghrelin nonetheless increased adiposity [fat mass increase of 14±2 g (ghrelin+HFD) vs. 1±1 g (saline+HFD), P<0.001] up-regulating the gene expression of lipogenic enzymes in white adipose tissue. Our findings demonstrate that factors associated with high-fat feeding functionally interact with pathways regulating the effect of ghrelin on food intake. We conclude that ghrelin's central effects on nutrient intake and nutrient partitioning can be separated and suggest an opportunity to identify respective independent neuronal pathways.—Perez-Tilve, D., Heppner, K., Kirchner, H., Lockie, S. H., Woods, S. C., Smiley, D. L., Tschöp, M., and Pfluger, P. Ghrelin-induced adiposity is independent of orexigenic effects. PMID:21543764

  4. Molecular forms of hypothalamic ghrelin and its regulation by fasting and 2-deoxy-d-glucose administration.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takahiro; Fukue, Yoshihiko; Teranishi, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Yayoi; Kojima, Masayasu

    2005-06-01

    Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for the GH secretagogue receptor, is a hormone expressed in stomach and other tissues, such as hypothalamus, testis, and placenta. This hormone acts at a central level to stimulate GH secretion and food intake. Little is known, however, about the molecular forms and physiological roles of ghrelin within the hypothalamus. In this report, we detail the molecular forms, mRNA expression patterns, and peptide contents of ghrelin within the rat hypothalamus. Using the combination of reverse-phase HPLC and ghrelin-specific RIA, we determined that the rat hypothalamus contains both n-octanoyl-modified and des-acyl ghrelins. Fasting for 24 and 48 h significantly decreased ghrelin mRNA expression in the hypothalamus to 24% and 28% of control values, respectively. Both n-octanoyl-modified and des-acyl ghrelin content in the hypothalamus decreased after 24 and 48 h of fasting. These results contrast the changes in gastric ghrelin after fasting, which decreased in content despite increased mRNA expression. Two hours after injection of 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG), a selective blocker of carbohydrate metabolism, ghrelin peptide levels also decreased. Thus, induction of glucoprivic states, such as fasting and 2-DG treatment, decreased ghrelin gene expression and peptide content within the hypothalamus.

  5. The effect of ghrelin on Kiss-1 and KissR gene transcription and insulin secretion in rat islets of Langerhans and CRI-D2 cell line

    PubMed Central

    Sagheb, Mandana Mahmoodzaeh; Azarpira, Negar; Mokhtary, Mokhtar

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): Ghrelin is a peptide hormone that has been shown to have numerous central and peripheral effects. The central effects including GH secretion, food intake, and energy homeostasis are partly mediated by Kiss1- KissR signaling pathway. Ghrelin and its receptor are also expressed in the pancreatic islets. Ghrelin is one of the key metabolic factors controlling insulin secretion from the islets of Langerhans. We hypothesize that the inhibitory effect of ghrelin on KiSS-1 and KissR in the islet cells may be similar to the same inhibitory effect of ghrelin in the hypothalamus. Materials and Methods: To investigate the effect of ghrelin, we isolated the islets from adult male rats by collagenase and cultured CRI-D2 cell lines. Then, we incubated them with different concentrations of ghrelin for 24 hr. After RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis from both islets and CRI-D2 cells, the relative expression of KiSS-1 and KissR was evaluated by means of real-time PCR. Furthermore, we measured the amount of insulin secreted by the islets after incubation in different concentrations of ghrelin and glucose after 1 hr. Besides, we checked the viability of the cells after 24 hr cultivation. Results: Ghrelin significantly decreased the KiSS-1 and KissR mRNA transcription in rat islets and CRI-D2 cells. Besides, Ghrelin suppressed insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells and CRI-D2 cells. Conclusion: These findings indicate the possibility that KiSS-1 and KissR mRNA expression is mediator of ghrelin function in the islets of Langerhans. PMID:28133522

  6. Obestatin partially suppresses ghrelin stimulation of appetite in "high-responders" grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiaochen; Cai, Wenjing; Liang, Xu-Fang; Su, Hang; Yuan, Yongchao; Li, Aixuan; Tao, Ya-Xiong

    2015-06-01

    Ghrelin and obestatin are two gastrointestinal peptides obtained by post-translational processing of a common precursor, preproghrelin. The effect of obestatin on food intake is still controversial. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of ghrelin and obestatin on food intake in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus. Fish received intraperitoneal (IP) injection of saline, ghrelin (100 ng g(-1)BW), obestatin-like (25 ng g(-1)BW) and ghrelin in combination with obestatin-like. Ghrelin stimulation of food intake varied considerably among individual fish with 70.8% eliciting a robust response. In these high-responders, food intake was significantly increased by IP ghrelin within 2 h. Co-administration of ghrelin and obestatin-like resulted in a decrease in food intake, indicating that obestatin was able to antagonize the effect of ghrelin. However, IP obestatin-like alone could not regulate food intake in grass carp. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that IP ghrelin peptide led to a significant increase in mRNA abundance of NPY, Y8a and Y8b genes compared to saline injected fish, while in combination with obestatin-like peptide decreased ghrelin-induced gene expressions of these three genes. IP sole obestatin-like peptide did not modify the expression levels of NPY, Y8a, Y8b, CART and POMC compared to the control group. Therefore, IP administration of obestatin-like peptide, partially blocking the ghrelin-induced appetite, investigated the possible involvement of obestatin as a mediator of the ghrelin stimulatory action on food intake, at least in "high-responders" grass carp.

  7. Identification of a ghrelin-like peptide in two species of shark, Sphyrna lewini and Carcharhinus melanopterus.

    PubMed

    Kawakoshi, Akatsuki; Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Riley, Larry G; Hirano, Tetsuya; Grau, E Gordon; Miyazato, Mikiya; Hosoda, Hiroshi; Kangawa, Kenji

    2007-05-01

    In this study, we identified a ghrelin-like peptide (ghrelin-LP) in two elasmobranchs. The peptide, isoforms and cDNA encoding its precursor were isolated from the stomach of two sharks, the hammerhead (HH) shark (Sphyrna lewini) and the black-tip reef (BTR) shark (Carcharhinus melanopterus). The ghrelin-LP isolated from each shark was found to be 25 amino acids in length and exhibit high sequence homology with each other; only three amino acids were different. As has been shown in tetrapod and teleost fish ghrelins, shark ghrelin-LPs possess two forms that are distinguished by having the third serine residue (Ser) acylated by either octanoic or decanoic acid. The N-terminal four residues (GVSF), known as the active core of ghrelin, are not identical to those of other species (GSSF). Nevertheless, shark ghrelin-LP elevated Ca(2+) levels in CHO cell line expressing the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). Unlike teleosts ghrelin's, shark ghrelin-LPs are not amidated at the C-terminus. Messenger RNA of ghrelin-LP in the HH shark was predominantly expressed in the stomach as seen in other species, followed by the brain, intestine, gill, heart and liver. The nucleotide sequence of the ghrelin-LP gene in the HH shark was characterized to compare organization of the ghrelin gene with those in other species. The size of the HH ghrelin-LP gene was 8541 bp, two to ten times larger than that of other species studied to date. The HH ghrelin-LP gene is composed of five exons and four introns, which is the same as ghrelin genes in mammals, chicken and rainbow trout. In conclusion, the shark ghrelin-LPs identified in this study exhibit many characteristics for ghrelin in terms of peptide modifications, GHS-R activation, tissue distribution, and gene organization; however, it is necessary to further clarify their biological properties such as growth hormone-releasing or orexigenic activity before designating these peptides as ghrelin.

  8. Effects of long-term high-fat/high-energy and high-protein diets on insulin and ghrelin expression in developing rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiumin; Ni, Shaoqing; Xu, Yanping; Liang, Li; Du, Lizhong; Gu, Weizhong

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the long-term effects of high-fat/high-energy and high-protein diets on insulin secretion and ghrelin expression. Dams of Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a standard, high-fat/high-energy, or high-protein diet during pregnancy and lactation, and their pups were defined as control, high-fat and high-energy, and high-protein groups, respectively. The pups were fed the same diet as their dams after weaning. Plasma glucose, ghrelin, and insulin were analyzed on the first, third, seventh, and tenth postnatal days and at the end of second, third, fourth, eighth, and twelfth weeks. Ghrelin and insulin expression in the pancreas was measured using radioimmunoassay, double-staining immunohistochemistry, and confocal microscopy. Fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin concentrations, and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index increased with age. Total plasma ghrelin concentrations decreased with age. Plasma ghrelin concentrations were negatively correlated with glucose levels in all three groups. Plasma ghrelin was negatively correlated with plasma insulin only in the high-fat and high-energy group. Insulin secretion in the high-protein and high-fat and high-energy groups and pancreatic ghrelin content, pancreatic ghrelin-positive cells, and beta cells in all groups decreased with age. The percentage of ghrelin-positive cells correlated with the percentage of beta cells in all groups. Insulin and ghrelin expression in the plasma and pancreas was adversely affected by long-term high-fat/high-energy and high-protein diets.

  9. Gastric ghrelin, GOAT, leptin, and leptinR expression as well as peripheral serotonin are dysregulated in humans with obesity.

    PubMed

    Ritze, Y; Schollenberger, A; Hamze Sinno, M; Bühler, N; Böhle, M; Bárdos, G; Sauer, H; Mack, I; Enck, P; Zipfel, S; Meile, T; Königsrainer, A; Kramer, M; Bischoff, S C

    2016-06-01

    Gastrointestinal hormone release and the regulation of appetite and body weight are thought to be dysbalanced in obesity. However, human data investigating the expression of gastrointestinal hormones in the obese are rare. We studied the expression of ghrelin, leptin, and the serotonergic system in stomach tissue and serum of obese and non-obese individuals. Gastric tissue and serum were collected from 29 adult obese (BMI 48.7 ± 10.6 kg/m(2) ; mean ± SD) who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Gastric biopsies, surgery specimen or serum was obtained from 35 adult non-obese humans (BMI 22.7 ± 1.9 kg/m(2) ). Ghrelin, ghrelin O-acyl transferase (GOAT), leptin, leptin receptor, and tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) mRNA expression were measured by qRT-PCR. Serotonin (5HT) and leptin protein concentration were quantified in tissue extracts and serum; GOAT and ghrelin-positive cells were immunohistologically quantified in tissue. Additionally, 21 blood immune markers were analyzed. In gastric tissue, GOAT-positive cells were reduced (p < 0.01), but ghrelin-positive cells and mRNA were increased (both p < 0.05) in obese compared with non-obese individuals. Gastric leptin (p < 0.001) and leptin receptor (p < 0.001) mRNA expression, as well as leptin concentrations in serum (p < 0.001), were increased in obese compared with non-obese individuals. Serum 5HT was reduced (p < 0.05), while tissue 5HT and TPH1 mRNA were reduced only by trend. Interleukin 1 receptor a (IL1Ra), IL-8, IL-12, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (IL1Ra) were increased and IL1Ra correlated negatively with serum leptin. Our data indicate that obesity causes a dysregulation of gastrointestinal hormones at the tissue level and serum, including a negative correlation with an increased marker of subclinical inflammation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Thermogenic characterization of ghrelin receptor null mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ligen; Sun, Yuxiang

    2012-01-01

    Ghrelin is the only known circulating orexigenic hormone that increases food intake and promotes adiposity, and these physiological functions of ghrelin are mediated through its receptor growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). Ghrelin/GHS-R signaling plays a crucial role in energy homeostasis. Old GHS-R null mice exhibit a healthy phenotype-lean and insulin sensitive. Interestingly, the GHS-R null mice have increased energy expenditure, yet exhibit no difference in food intake or locomotor activity compared to wild-type mice. We have found that GHS-R is expressed in brown adipose tissue (BAT) of old mice. Ablation of GHS-R attenuates age-associated decline in thermogenesis, exhibiting a higher core body temperature. Indeed, the BAT of old GHS-R null mice reveals enhanced thermogenic capacity, which is consistent with the gene expression profile of increases in glucose/lipid uptake, lipogenesis, and lipolysis in BAT. The data collectively suggest that ghrelin/GHS-R signaling has important roles in thermogenesis. The recent discovery that BAT also regulates energy homeostasis in adult humans makes the BAT a new antiobesity target. Understanding the roles and molecular mechanisms of ghrelin/GHS-R in thermogenesis is of great significance. GHS-R antagonists might be a novel means of combating obesity by shifting adiposity balance from obesogenesis to thermogenesis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ghrelin and cancer.

    PubMed

    Chopin, Lisa; Walpole, Carina; Seim, Inge; Cunningham, Peter; Murray, Rachael; Whiteside, Eliza; Josh, Peter; Herington, Adrian

    2011-06-20

    Ghrelin is a peptide hormone that was originally isolated from the stomach as the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). Ghrelin has many functions, including the regulation of appetite and gut motility, growth hormone release from the anterior pituitary and roles in the cardiovascular and immune systems. Ghrelin and its receptor are expressed in a number of cancers and cancer cell lines and may play a role in processes associated with cancer progression, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell invasion and migration.

  12. Ghrelin, food intake, and botanical extracts: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Rezaie, Peyman; Mazidi, Mohsen; Nematy, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    A kind of growth hormone secretagogue (GHS), ghrelin, was first isolated from the rat stomach and plays a major role in the activation of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a) resulting the release of growth hormone (GH). The preproghrelin gene is placed on chromosome 3, at locus 3p25 –2 in humans and constitutes five exons and three introns. Ghrelin is most plentifully expressed in particular cells in the oxyntic glands of the gastric epithelium, initially named X/A-like cells. Almost 60-70% of circulating ghrelin is secreted by the stomach. Plasma ghrelin concentration alters throughout the day. Ghrelin has been suggested to act as a meal initiator because of its appetite-stimulating influences in free feeding rats in short period. In addition to ghrelin’s function as a meal motivator, it seems to contribute in long-term energy balance and nutritional status. In addition, many studies have been carried out in order to investigate the effects of natural and medicinal plants and botanical extracts on appetite, food intake, energy hemostasis, and the level of related hormones including ghrelin. Due to the importance of ghrelin in nutritional and medical sciences, this review was performed to understand new aspects of this hormone’s function. PMID:26445708

  13. Impact of intracerebroventricular obestatin on plasma acyl ghrelin, des-acyl ghrelin and nesfatin-1 levels, and on gastric emptying in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Yen; Lee, Wei-Jei; Chong, Keong; Lee, Shou-Dong; Liao, You-Di

    2012-07-01

    Obestatin, which is a putative 23-amino-acid peptide, is derived from the C-terminal part of the mammalian preproghrelin gene. Nesfatin-1 mRNA is co-expressed with ghrelin in gastric endocrine X/A-like cells; therefore, nesfatin-1 may also interact with preproghrelin gene products in the stomach. In this study, we investigated the impact of obestatin on the plasma levels of acyl ghrelin, des-acyl ghrelin and nesfatin-1, and on the gastric emptying of a solid nutrient meal 2 h after an intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection in conscious, fasted rats. The rats were implanted with ICV catheters. Plasma levels of acyl ghrelin, des-acyl ghrelin and nesfatin-1, expected to be co-expressed with obestatin, were measured, whereas the human/rat corticotropin-releasing factor (h/rCRF) was applied as an inhibitor of gastric emptying. The ICV administration of obestatin (0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 nmol/rat) did not modify the plasma acyl ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin levels, the acyl ghrelin/des-acyl ghrelin ratio and nesfatin-1 concentrations. The ICV acute administration of obestatin had no influence on the 2-h rate of gastric emptying of a solid nutrient meal, but the ICV h/rCRF injection delayed it. The weight of food ingested 1 h before ICV injection significantly, but negatively correlated with the gastric emptying of a solid nutrient meal. Our study indicates that the ICV injection of obestatin does not change the 2-h rate of gastric emptying of a solid nutrient meal and the relatively weak interrelationships between ghrelin gene products and nesfatin-1. However, the weight of the ingested food negatively affects the gastric emptying of a solid nutrient meal in conscious, fasted rats.

  14. Methyl donor deficiency affects fetal programming of gastric ghrelin cell organization and function in the rat.

    PubMed

    Bossenmeyer-Pourié, Carine; Blaise, Sébastien; Pourié, Grégory; Tomasetto, Catherine; Audonnet, Sandra; Ortiou, Sandrine; Koziel, Violette; Rio, Marie-Christine; Daval, Jean-Luc; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Beck, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Methyl donor deficiency (MDD) during pregnancy influences intrauterine development. Ghrelin is expressed in the stomach of fetuses and influences fetal growth, but MDD influence on gastric ghrelin is unknown. We examined the gastric ghrelin system in MDD-induced intrauterine growth retardation. By using specific markers and approaches (such as periodic acid-Schiff, bromodeoxyuridine, homocysteine, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick end labeling, immunostaining, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction), we studied the gastric oxyntic mucosa cellular organization and ghrelin gene expression in the mucosa in 20-day-old fetuses and weanling pups, and plasma ghrelin concentration in weanling rat pups of dams either normally fed or deprived of choline, folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 during gestation and suckling periods. MDD fetuses weighed less than controls; the weight deficit reached 57% at weaning (P < 0.001). Both at the end of gestation and at weaning, they presented with an aberrant gastric oxyntic mucosa formation with loss of cell polarity, anarchic cell migration, abnormal progenitor differentiation, apoptosis, and signs of surface layer erosion. Ghrelin cells were abnormally located in the pit region of oxyntic glands. At weaning, plasma ghrelin levels were decreased (-28%; P < 0.001) despite unchanged mRNA expression in the stomach. This decrease was associated with lower body weight. Taken together, these data indicate that one mechanism through which MDD influences fetal programming is the remodeling of gastric cellular organization, leading to dysfunction of the ghrelin system and dramatic effects on growth.

  15. Appetite regulation is independent of the changes in ghrelin levels in pregnant rats fed low-protein diet

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Haijun; Tanchico, Daren T; Yallampalli, Uma; Balakrishnan, Meena P; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Gestational protein restriction causes hypertension in the adult offspring. Very little is known about the food intake regulation and ghrelin signaling in pregnant dams fed a low-protein (LP) diet. We hypothesized that diet intake and ghrelin signaling are altered in pregnant rats fed the low-protein diet. Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a control (CT) or LP diet from Day 3 of pregnancy. Diet intake and body weight were monitored daily. Expression of ghrelin production-related genes in the stomach and appetite-related genes in the hypothalamus was analyzed by real-time PCR. Plasma levels of total and active ghrelin, growth hormone and leptin were measured by ELISA. Main results include: (1) Daily diet intake was greater in the LP group than in the CT group in early pregnancy, but substantially lower in late pregnancy; (2) Daily gain in body weight was substantially lower in the LP group in late pregnancy; (3) Expression of ghrelin production-related genes in the stomach and plasma total ghrelin levels were increased in LP group in late pregnancy; (4) Plasma active ghrelin levels were elevated in the LP group at mid-late pregnancy, but growth hormone and leptin levels were uncorrelated with active ghrelin in late pregnancy; and (5) Hypothalamic expression of ghrelin-stimulated genes in LP rats was unassociated with the changes in both plasma ghrelin levels and the diet intake. Taken together, the appetite in LP rats is greater in early pregnancy but reduced at late pregnancy, possibly due to ghrelin insensitivity in appetite regulation. PMID:25907788

  16. Appetite regulation is independent of the changes in ghrelin levels in pregnant rats fed low-protein diet.

    PubMed

    Gao, Haijun; Tanchico, Daren T; Yallampalli, Uma; Balakrishnan, Meena P; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2015-04-01

    Gestational protein restriction causes hypertension in the adult offspring. Very little is known about the food intake regulation and ghrelin signaling in pregnant dams fed a low-protein (LP) diet. We hypothesized that diet intake and ghrelin signaling are altered in pregnant rats fed the low-protein diet. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a control (CT) or LP diet from Day 3 of pregnancy. Diet intake and body weight were monitored daily. Expression of ghrelin production-related genes in the stomach and appetite-related genes in the hypothalamus was analyzed by real-time PCR. Plasma levels of total and active ghrelin, growth hormone and leptin were measured by ELISA. Main results include: (1) Daily diet intake was greater in the LP group than in the CT group in early pregnancy, but substantially lower in late pregnancy; (2) Daily gain in body weight was substantially lower in the LP group in late pregnancy; (3) Expression of ghrelin production-related genes in the stomach and plasma total ghrelin levels were increased in LP group in late pregnancy; (4) Plasma active ghrelin levels were elevated in the LP group at mid-late pregnancy, but growth hormone and leptin levels were uncorrelated with active ghrelin in late pregnancy; and (5) Hypothalamic expression of ghrelin-stimulated genes in LP rats was unassociated with the changes in both plasma ghrelin levels and the diet intake. Taken together, the appetite in LP rats is greater in early pregnancy but reduced at late pregnancy, possibly due to ghrelin insensitivity in appetite regulation. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  17. Ghrelin inhibits AngII -induced expression of TNF-α, IL-8, MCP-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Bin; Fang, Fang; Yang, Tianlu; Yu, Zaixin; Zhang, Bin; Xie, Xiumei

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Ghrelin, a gastric peptide, is involved in several metabolic and cardiovascular processes. Emerging evidence indicates the potential involvement of ghrelin in low-grade inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis and hypertension. Cytokine-induced inflammation is critical in these pathological states. The growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) has been identified in blood vessels, so we predict that ghrelin might inhibit proinflammatory responses in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The aim of this study is to examine the effect of ghrelin on angiotension II (AngII)-induced expression of TNF-α, MCP-1, IL-8 in HUVECs. Method: HUVECs were pretreated with ghrelin, with or without the specific antagonist of GHSR [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6, the selective inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) PDTC, and the selective inhibitor of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) PD98059. The cells were finally treated with AngII. The expression of TNF-α, MCP-1, IL-8 was examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The activity of ERK1/2 and NF-κB was analyzed by Western blot. Result: our study showed that ghrelin inhibited AngII -induced expression of IL-8, TNF-α and MCP-1 in the HUVECs via GHSR pathway in concentration- and time-dependent manners. We also found that ghrelin inhibited AngII -induced activation of ERK1/2 and NF-κB. Conclusions: these results suggest that Ghrelin may play novel antiinflammatory and immunoregulatory roles in HUVECs. PMID:25785032

  18. [Effect of electro-acupuncture at zusanli (ST36) on the expression of ghrelin and HMGB1 in the small intestine of sepsis rats].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-Nong; Wu, Wan; Jiang, Rong-Lin; Zhu, Mei-Fei; Lei, Shu; Lu, Bin

    2014-09-01

    To explore the expression of Ghrelin and high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) in the serum and the intestinal tissue of sepsis model rats, and to evaluate the effect of electro-acupuncture (EA) at Zusanli (ST36) on the expression of HMGB1 and Ghrelin. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, i.e., the sham-operation (sham), the cecal ligation and puncture group (CLP), the CLP + EA at Zusanli (ST36) group (EA), and the CLP + Ghrelin receptor blocking agent + EA group (GHSRA), 12 in each group. A sepsis rat model was prepared by CLP. The incision of the abdominal wall was immediately sutured along the ventral midline for rats in the Sham group. In the EA group EA at Zusanli (ST36) was performed 20 min after CLP surgery with the constant voltage (2 - 100 Hz, 2 mA) for 30 min. In the GHSRA group, Ghrelin receptor blocking agent, [D-Arg1, D-Phe5, D-Trp79, Leu11]-substance P (700 nmol/kg), was administered through intravenous injection immediately after CLP, and 20 min later, EA at Zusanli (ST36) was performed in the same way as for rats in the EA group. Blood samples were withdrawn 12 h after CLP. The serum levels of Ghrelin and HMGB1 were detected using ELISA. Ghrelin expressions and the number of Ghrelin immunopositive cell in the jejunum were determined by immunohistochemistry. HMGB1 contents of the jejunum tissue were detected by Western blotting. Compared with the Sham group, the number of serum immunopositive cells and the expression of HMGB1 in the jejunum tissue significantly increased and levels of Ghrelin and the expression rate of immunopositive cells significantly decreased in the CLP group (P < 0.05). Compared with the CLP group, the number of serum immunopositive cells and the expression of HMGB1 in the jejunum tissue significantly decreased, but levels of Ghrelin and the expression rate of immunopositive cells significantly increased in the EA group (P < 0.05). Compared with the EA group, the number of serum immunopositive

  19. Ghrelin receptor in Japanese fire belly newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster.

    PubMed

    Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Kangawa, Kenji; Miyazato, Mikiya

    2015-11-01

    We identified cDNA encoding a functional ghrelin receptor (growth hormone secretagogue-receptor 1a (GHS-R1a)) in a urodele amphibian, the Japanese fire belly newt (Cynops pyrrhogaster). Two functional receptor proteins, composed of 378- and 362-amino acids, were deduced from the identified cDNA because two candidate initiation methionine sites were found. The long-chain receptor protein shared 80%, 69%, and 59% identities with the bullfrog GHS-R1a, human GHS-R1a and tilapia GHS-R1a-like receptor, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the newt receptor is grouped to the clade of the tetrapod homologs, and very closed to anuran amphibians. In functional analyses, homologous newt ghrelin, heterologous bullfrog and rat ghrelin, and a GHS-R1a agonist, GHRP-6 increased intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells stably expressed newt GHS-R1a. The responsiveness was much greater in the short-chain receptor than in the long-chain receptor. Both receptors preferred to bind Ser(3)-ghrelin including newt and rat ghrelin than Thr(3)-ghrelin with bullfrog ghrelin. GHRP-6 has a similar affinity to bullfrog ghrelin. GHS-R1a mRNA was expressed in the brain, pituitary, intestine, pancreas, testis and fat body with high level, and eyes, heart, stomach, liver, gall bladder, kidney and dorsal skin with low level. In a fasting experiment, gene expression of GHS-R1a in the brain and pituitary increased 4days after fasting, and the increased level decreased to the initial level 2weeks after fasting. These changes are consistent with the change in ghrelin mRNA. In contrast, expression of ghrelin and GHS-R1a mRNA in the stomach decreased on day 4 after fasting, and increased 2weeks after fasting. These results indicate that ghrelin and its receptor system are present and altered by energy states in this newt.

  20. Hindbrain ghrelin receptor signaling is sufficient to maintain fasting glucose.

    PubMed

    Scott, Michael M; Perello, Mario; Chuang, Jen-Chieh; Sakata, Ichiro; Gautron, Laurent; Lee, Charlotte E; Lauzon, Danielle; Elmquist, Joel K; Zigman, Jeffrey M

    2012-01-01

    The neuronal coordination of metabolic homeostasis requires the integration of hormonal signals with multiple interrelated central neuronal circuits to produce appropriate levels of food intake, energy expenditure and fuel availability. Ghrelin, a peripherally produced peptide hormone, circulates at high concentrations during nutrient scarcity. Ghrelin promotes food intake, an action lost in ghrelin receptor null mice and also helps maintain fasting blood glucose levels, ensuring an adequate supply of nutrients to the central nervous system. To better understand mechanisms of ghrelin action, we have examined the roles of ghrelin receptor (GHSR) expression in the mouse hindbrain. Notably, selective hindbrain ghrelin receptor expression was not sufficient to restore ghrelin-stimulated food intake. In contrast, the lowered fasting blood glucose levels observed in ghrelin receptor-deficient mice were returned to wild-type levels by selective re-expression of the ghrelin receptor in the hindbrain. Our results demonstrate the distributed nature of the neurons mediating ghrelin action.

  1. On the central mechanism underlying ghrelin's chronic pro-obesity effects in rats: new insights from studies exploiting a potent ghrelin receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Salomé, N; Hansson, C; Taube, M; Gustafsson-Ericson, L; Egecioglu, E; Karlsson-Lindahl, L; Fehrentz, J A; Martinez, J; Perrissoud, D; Dickson, S L

    2009-09-01

    In the present study, we explore the central nervous system mechanism underlying the chronic central effects of ghrelin with respect to increasing body weight and body fat. Specifically, using a recently developed ghrelin receptor antagonist, GHS-R1A (JMV2959), we investigate the role of GHS-R1A in mediating the effects of ghrelin on energy balance and on hypothalamic gene expression. As expected, in adult male rats, chronic central treatment with ghrelin for 14 days, when compared to vehicle-treated control rats, resulted in an increased body weight, lean mass and fat mass (assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry), dissected white fat pad weight, cumulative food intake, food efficiency, respiratory exchange ratio and a decrease of energy expenditure. Co-administration of the ghrelin receptor antagonist JMV2959 suppressed/blocked the majority of these effects, with the notable exception of ghrelin-induced food intake and food efficiency. The hypothesis emerging from these data, namely that GHS-R1A mediates the chronic effects of ghrelin on fat accumulation, at least partly independent of food intake, is discussed in light of the accompanying data regarding the hypothalamic genes coding for peptides and receptors involved in energy balance regulation, which were found to have altered expression in these studies.

  2. Production of ghrelin by the stomach of patients with gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Kizaki, Junya; Aoyagi, Keishiro; Sato, Takahiro; Kojima, Masayasu; Shirouzu, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Poor nutrition and weight loss are important factors contributing to poor quality of life (QOL) after gastrectomy in patients with gastric cancer. Ghrelin is a hormone produced by the stomach that, plays a role in appetite increase and fat storage. The present study aims to clarify the location of ghrelin mRNA in the stomach, changes in blood ghrelin concentrations after gastrectomy and whether or not they are associated with the reconstruction method in patients with gastric cancer. We collected seven normal mucosa samples from different parts of six totally resected stomachs with gastric cancer. We extracted RNA from the normal mucosa, synthesized cDNA from total RNA (1 μg), and then quantified ghrelin mRNA using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR). Ghrelin blood concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits in 74 patients with gastric cancer (total gastrectomy (TG), n=23; distal gastrectomy (DG), n=30; proximal gastrectomy (PG), n=11; pylorus preserving gastrectomy (PPG), n=10). In order, the ghrelin gene was expressed most frequently in the gastric body, followed by the fornix, cardia, antrum and pylorus ring. Blood ghrelin concentrations after surgery similarly changed in all groups. The average blood ghrelin concentrations were significantly higher in the DG and PPG groups than in the TG group on postoperative days (POD) 1, 7, 30, 90 and 180. However, blood ghrelin concentrations did not significantly differ between the DG and TG groups on POD 270 and 360. Cells that produce ghrelin are supposed to be located mostly in the fundic gland of the stomach. We speculate that the production of ghrelin from other organs increases from around nine months after total gastrectomy. Therefore, evaluating the nutritional status and the weight of patients at nine months after total gastrectomy is important to help these patients improve their QOL.

  3. Genetic selection for body weight in chickens has altered responses of the brain's AMPK system to food intake regulation effect of ghrelin, but not obestatin.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pingwen; Siegel, Paul B; Denbow, D Michael

    2011-08-01

    The effects of ghrelin and obestatin regulation of food intake are different in mammals and chickens. We investigated central effects of ghrelin and obestatin in lines of chickens selected 50 generations for high (HWS) or low (LWS) body weight. We hypothesized that the effect of ghrelin and obestatin on food intake in 5-day-old chicks is mediated by the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) system and selection for body weight alters the brain's response to ghrelin and obestatin by changing the neuronal AMPK system. Although intracerebroventricular (ICV) ghrelin injection decreased food intake in both lines, the threshold for the anorexigenic effect of central ghrelin was lower in LWS than HWS chicks. Obestatin caused a linear dose-dependent increase in food intake in HWS but not LWS chicks. ICV injection of 0.4 nmol ghrelin inhibited hypothalamic AMPK related gene expression and phosphorylation of AMPK α and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) with the magnitude of inhibition different in the two lines. In contrast, ICV injection of 4 nmol obestatin did not affect mRNA expression of AMPK system or phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC in either line. These data support the premise of a lower threshold for anorexigenic effect of central ghrelin in LWS than HWS chicks, and this difference may be associated with differential hypothalamic AMPK signaling. Additionally, the hypothalamic mRNA level of ghrelin was significantly higher in LWS than HWS, which may have also contributed to the different threshold response to ghrelin in these two lines. The expression of the ghrelin receptor was also higher in the LWS line, but not until 56 days of age. In summary, selection for body weight has resulted in differences in the central ghrelin and obestatin system, and an altered brain AMPK system may contribute to the different neuronal response to ghrelin, but not obestatin.

  4. Ghrelin activates hypophysiotropic corticotropin-releasing factor neurons independently of the arcuate nucleus.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Agustina; Portiansky, Enrique; Sánchez-Jaramillo, Edith; Zigman, Jeffrey M; Perello, Mario

    2016-05-01

    Previous work has established that the hormone ghrelin engages the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal neuroendocrine axis via activation of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). The neuronal circuitry that mediates this effect of ghrelin is currently unknown. Here, we show that ghrelin-induced activation of PVN CRF neurons involved inhibition of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) inputs, likely via ghrelin binding sites that were localized at GABAergic terminals within the PVN. While ghrelin activated PVN CRF neurons in the presence of neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptor antagonists or in arcuate nucleus (ARC)-ablated mice, it failed to do it so in mice with ghrelin receptor expression limited to ARC agouti gene related protein (AgRP)/NPY neurons. These data support the notion that ghrelin activates PVN CRF neurons via inhibition of local GABAergic tone, in an ARC-independent manner. Furthermore, these data suggest that the neuronal circuits mediating ghrelin's orexigenic action vs. its role as a stress signal are anatomically dissociated.

  5. Maternal ghrelin deficiency compromises reproduction in female progeny through altered uterine developmental programming.

    PubMed

    Martin, J Ryan; Lieber, Sarah B; McGrath, James; Shanabrough, Marya; Horvath, Tamas L; Taylor, Hugh S

    2011-05-01

    Ghrelin has a well-known role in the regulation of appetite, satiety, energy metabolism, and reproduction; however ghrelin has not been implicated in reproductive tract development. We examined the effect of ghrelin deficiency on the developmental programming of female fertility. We observed that female wild-type mice born of ghrelin heterozygote dams (i.e. exposed in utero to ghrelin deficiency) had diminished fertility and produced smaller litters. We demonstrate that exposure to in utero ghrelin deficiency led to altered developmental programming of the reproductive tract. The number of ovarian follicles, corpora lutea, and embryos produced were identical in both exposed and unexposed mice. However wild-type embryos transferred to uteri of mice exposed to in utero ghrelin deficiency had a 60% reduction in the rate of embryo implantation compared with those transferred to wild-type unexposed uteri. We identified significant alterations in the uterine expression of four genes critical for implantation and a defect in uterine endometrial proliferation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the mechanism of subfertility was abnormal endometrial function. In utero exposure to decreased levels of ghrelin led to defects in developmental programming of the uterus and subsequent subfertility in wild-type offspring.

  6. Changes in the ghrelin hormone pathway maybe part of an unusual gastric system in monotremes.

    PubMed

    He, Chuan; Tsend-Ayush, Enkhjargal; Myers, Mark A; Forbes, Briony E; Grützner, Frank

    2013-09-15

    Ghrelin is a growth hormone (GH)-releasing and appetite-regulating peptide predominately released from the stomach. Ghrelin is evolutionarily highly conserved and known to have a wide range of functions including the regulation of metabolism by maintaining an insulin-glucose balance. The peptide is produced as a single proprotein, which is later proteolytically cleaved. Ghrelin exerts its biological function after O-n-octanoylation at residue serine 3, which is catalyzed by ghrelin O-acyl transferase (GOAT) and allows binding to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R 1a). Genes involved in the ghrelin pathway have been identified in a broad range of vertebrate species, however, little is known about this pathway in the basal mammalian lineage of monotremes (platypus and echidna). Monotremes are particularly interesting in this context, as they have undergone massive changes in stomach anatomy and physiology, accompanied by a striking loss of genes involved in gastric function. In this study, we investigated genes in the ghrelin pathway in monotremes. Using degenerate PCR, database searches and synteny analysis we found that genes encoding ghrelin and GOAT are missing in the platypus genome, whilst, as has been reported in other species, the GHSR is present and expressed in brain, pancreas, kidney, intestine, heart and stomach. This is the first report suggesting the loss of ghrelin in a mammal. The loss of this gene may be related to changes to the platypus digestive system and raises questions about the control of blood glucose levels and insulin response in monotreme mammals. In addition, the conservation of the ghrelin receptor gene in platypus indicates that another ligand(s) maybe acting via this receptor in monotremes.

  7. Unacylated Ghrelin Promotes Skeletal Muscle Regeneration Following Hindlimb Ischemia via SOD‐2–Mediated miR‐221/222 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Togliatto, Gabriele; Trombetta, Antonella; Dentelli, Patrizia; Cotogni, Paolo; Rosso, Arturo; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Granata, Riccarda; Ghigo, Ezio; Brizzi, Maria F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Surgical treatment of peripheral artery disease, even if successful, does not prevent reoccurrence. Under these conditions, increased oxidative stress is a crucial determinant of tissue damage. Given its reported antioxidant effects, we investigated the potential of unacylated‐ghrelin (UnAG) to reduce ischemia‐induced tissue damage in a mouse model of peripheral artery disease. Methods and Results We show that UnAG but not acylated ghrelin (AG) induces skeletal muscle regeneration in response to ischemia via canonical p38/mitogen‐actived protein kinase signaling UnAG protected against reactive oxygen species–induced cell injuries by inducing the expression of superoxide dismutase‐2 (SOD‐2) in satellite cells. This led to a reduced number of infiltrating CD68+ cells and was followed by induction of the myogenic process and a reduction in functional impairment. Moreover, we found that miR‐221/222, previously linked to muscle regeneration processes, was up‐regulated and negatively correlated with p57Kip2 expression in UnAG‐treated mice. UnAG, unlike AG, promoted cell‐cycle entry in satellite cells of mice lacking the genes for ghrelin and its receptor (GHSR1a). UnAG‐induced p38/mitogen‐actived protein kinase phosphorylation, leading to activation of the myogenic process, was prevented in SOD‐2–depleted SCs. By siRNA technology, we also demonstrated that SOD‐2 is the antioxidant enzyme involved in the control of miR‐221/222–driven posttranscriptional p57Kip2 regulation. Loss‐of‐function experiments targeting miR‐221/222 and local pre–miR‐221/222 injection in vivo confirmed a role for miR‐221/222 in driving skeletal muscle regeneration after ischemia. Conclusions These results indicate that UnAG‐induced skeletal muscle regeneration after ischemia depends on SOD‐2–induced miR‐221/222 expression and highlight its clinical potential for the treatment of reactive oxygen species–mediated skeletal muscle

  8. Is there an effect of ghrelin/ghrelin analogs on cancer? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Sever, Sakine; White, Donna L

    2016-01-01

    Ghrelin is a hormone with multiple physiologic functions, including promotion of growth hormone release, stimulation of appetite and regulation of energy homeostasis. Treatment with ghrelin/ghrelin-receptor agonists is a prospective therapy for disease-related cachexia and malnutrition. In vitro studies have shown high expression of ghrelin in cancer tissue, although its role including its impact in cancer risk and progression has not been established. We performed a systematic literature review to identify peer-reviewed human or animal in vivo original research studies of ghrelin, ghrelin-receptor agonists, or ghrelin genetic variants and the risk, presence, or growth of cancer using structured searches in PubMed database as well as secondary searches of article reference lists, additional reviews and meta-analyses. Overall, 45 (73.8%) of the 61 studies reviewed, including all 11 involving exogenous ghrelin/ghrelin-receptor agonist treatment, reported either a null (no statistically significant difference) or inverse association of ghrelin/ghrelin-receptor agonists or ghrelin genetic variants with cancer risk, presence or growth; 10 (16.7%) studies reported positive associations; and 6 (10.0%) reported both negative or null and positive associations. Differences in serum ghrelin levels in cancer cases vs controls (typically lower) were reported for some but not all cancers. The majority of in vivo studies showed a null or inverse association of ghrelin with risk and progression of most cancers, suggesting that ghrelin/ghrelin-receptor agonist treatment may have a favorable safety profile to use for cancer cachexia. Additional large-scale prospective clinical trials as well as basic bioscientific research are warranted to further evaluate the safety and benefits of ghrelin treatment in patients with cancer. PMID:27552970

  9. Association of cord blood des-acyl ghrelin with birth weight, and placental GHS-R1 receptor expression in SGA, AGA, and LGA newborns.

    PubMed

    González-Domínguez, Martha I; Lazo-de-la-Vega-Monroy, Maria-Luisa; Zaina, Silvio; Sabanero, Myrna; Daza-Benítez, Leonel; Malacara, Juan Manuel; Barbosa-Sabanero, Gloria

    2016-07-01

    Although ghrelin in cord blood has been associated to birth weight, its role in fetal and postnatal growth has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to analyze total ghrelin, acyl ghrelin (AG), and des-acyl ghrelin (DAG) in cord blood of newborns with idiopathic birth weight alterations, and to evaluate protein expression of placental GHS-R1, in order to investigate their correlation with birth weight and placental weight. We performed a cross-sectional comparative study in umbilical cord blood and placentas from healthy mothers of SGA, AGA, and LGA (small, adequate and large for gestational age) term newborns (n = 20 per group). Cord blood total ghrelin, AG, and DAG were measured by ELISA, and placental GHS-R1 expression was evaluated by Western blot. Cord blood DAG was higher in SGA compared to AGA newborns (902.1 ± 109.1 and 597.4 ± 58.2 pg/ml, respectively, p = 0.01) while LGA and AGA showed similar values (627.2 ± 76.4 pg/ml for LGA, p = 0.80). DAG negatively correlated with birthweight (r = -0.31, p = 0.02) and placental weight (r = -0.33, p = 0.02). No differences in AG or total ghrelin were found. GHS-R1 protein in placenta was not differentially expressed among SGA, AGA, and LGA. Our results suggest a role of DAG in intrauterine growth. Further studies are needed in order to elucidate the mechanisms by which DAG participates in fetal growth.

  10. Ghrelin acylation and metabolic control.

    PubMed

    Al Massadi, O; Tschöp, M H; Tong, J

    2011-11-01

    Since its discovery, many physiologic functions have been ascribed to ghrelin, a gut derived hormone. The presence of a median fatty acid side chain on the ghrelin peptide is required for the binding and activation of the classical ghrelin receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR)-1a. Ghrelin O-acyl transferase (GOAT) was recently discovered as the enzyme responsible for this acylation process. GOAT is expressed in all tissues that have been found to express ghrelin and has demonstrated actions on several complex endocrine organ systems such as the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal, insular and adrenal axis as well as the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, bone and gustatory system. Ghrelin acylation is dependent on the function of GOAT and the availability of substrates such as proghrelin and short- to medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs). This process is governed by GOAT activity and has been shown to be modified by dietary lipids. In this review, we provided evidence that support an important role of GOAT in the regulation of energy homeostasis and glucose metabolism by modulating acyl ghrelin (AG) production. The relevance of GOAT and AG during periods of starvation remains to be defined. In addition, we summarized the recent literature on the metabolic effects of GOAT specific inhibitors and shared our view on the potential of targeting GOAT for the treatment of metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  11. Ghrelin promotes thymopoiesis during aging

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Vishwa Deep; Yang, Hyunwon; Sun, Yuxiang; Weeraratna, Ashani T.; Youm, Yun-Hee; Smith, Roy G.; Taub, Dennis D.

    2007-01-01

    The decline in adaptive immunity, T lymphocyte output, and the contraction of the TCR repertoire with age is largely attributable to thymic involution. The loss of thymic function with age may be due to diminished numbers of progenitors and the loss of critical cytokines and hormones from the thymic microenvironment. We have previously demonstrated that the orexigenic hormone ghrelin is expressed by immune cells and regulates T cell activation and inflammation. Here we report that ghrelin and ghrelin receptor expression within the thymus diminished with progressive aging. Infusion of ghrelin into 14-month-old mice significantly improved the age-associated changes in thymic architecture and thymocyte numbers, increasing recent thymic emigrants and improving TCR diversity of peripheral T cell subsets. Ghrelin-induced thymopoiesis during aging was associated with enhanced early thymocyte progenitors and bone marrow–derived Lin–Sca1+cKit+ cells, while ghrelin- and growth hormone secretagogue receptor–deficient (GHS-R–deficient) mice displayed enhanced age-associated thymic involution. Leptin also enhanced thymopoiesis in aged but not young mice. Our findings demonstrate what we believe to be a novel role for ghrelin and its receptor in thymic biology and suggest a possible therapeutic benefit of harnessing this pathway in the reconstitution of thymic function in immunocompromised subjects. PMID:17823656

  12. Peptide YY directly inhibits ghrelin-activated neurons of the arcuate nucleus and reverses fasting-induced c-Fos expression.

    PubMed

    Riediger, Thomas; Bothe, Christine; Becskei, Csilla; Lutz, Thomas A

    2004-01-01

    The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (Arc) monitors and integrates hormonal and metabolic signals involved in the maintenance of energy homeostasis. The orexigenic peptide ghrelin is secreted from the stomach during negative status of energy intake and directly activates neurons of the medial arcuate nucleus (ArcM) in rats. In contrast to ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY) is released postprandially from the gut and reduces food intake when applied peripherally. Neurons in the ArcM express ghrelin receptors and neuropeptide Y receptors. Thus, PYY may inhibit feeding by acting on ghrelin-sensitive Arc neurons. Using extracellular recordings, we (1) characterized the effects of PYY on the electrical activity of ghrelin-sensitive neurons in the ArcM of rats. In order to correlate the effect of PYY on neuronal activity with the energy status, we (2) investigated the ability of PYY to reverse fasting-induced c-Fos expression in Arc neurons of mice. In addition, we (3) sought to confirm that PYY reduces food intake under our experimental conditions. Superfusion of PYY reversibly inhibited 94% of all ArcM neurons by a direct postsynaptic mechanism. The PYY-induced inhibition was dose-dependent and occurred at a threshold concentration of 10(-8)M. Consistent with the opposite effects of ghrelin and PYY on food intake, a high percentage (50%) of Arc neurons was activated by ghrelin and inhibited by PYY. In line with this inhibitory action, peripherally injected PYY partly reversed the fasting-induced c-Fos expression in Arc neurons of mice. Similarly, refeeding of food-deprived mice reversed the fasting-induced activation in the Arc. Furthermore, peripherally injected PYY reduced food intake in 12-hour fasted mice. Thus the activity of Arc neurons correlated with the feeding status and was not only reduced by feeding but also by administration of PYY in non-refed mice. In conclusion, our current observations suggest that PYY may contribute to signaling a positive status of energy intake

  13. Mouse ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT) plays a critical role in bile acid reabsorption.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kihwa; Schmahl, Jennifer; Lee, Jong-Min; Garcia, Karen; Patil, Ketan; Chen, Amelia; Keene, Michelle; Murphy, Andrew; Sleeman, Mark W

    2012-01-01

    Ghrelin is a unique peptide gut hormone that requires post-translational modification to stimulate both feeding and growth hormone release. Ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) was identified as a specific acyl-transferase for ghrelin, and recent genetic deletion studies of the Goat gene (Goat(-/-)) uncovered the role of ghrelin in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. To further understand the physiological functions of the GOAT/ghrelin system, we have conducted a metabolomic and microarray profile of Goat-null mice, as well as determined Goat expression in different tissues using the lacZ reporter gene. Serum metabolite profile analysis revealed that Goat(-/-) mice exhibited increased secondary bile acids >2.5-fold. This was attributed to increased mRNA and protein expression of the ileal sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ISBT) in the intestinal and biliary tract. Increased expression of additional solute carrier proteins, including Slc5a12 (>10-fold) were also detected in the small intestine and bile duct. Goat staining was consistently observed in the pituitary glands, stomach, and intestines, and to a lesser extent in the gallbladder and pancreatic duct. This is the first report that the GOAT/ghrelin system regulates bile acid metabolism, and these findings suggest a novel function of GOAT in the regulation of intestinal bile acid reabsorption..

  14. Ghrelin is a prognostic marker and a potential therapeutic target in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Grönberg, Malin; Ahlin, Cecilia; Naeser, Ylva; Janson, Eva Tiensuu; Holmberg, Lars; Fjällskog, Marie-Louise

    2017-01-01

    Ghrelin and obestatin are gastrointestinal peptides, encoded by the same preproghrelin gene. Both are expressed in breast cancer tissue and ghrelin has been implicated in breast cancer tumorigenesis. Despite recent advances in breast cancer management the need for new prognostic markers and potential therapeutic targets in breast cancer remains high. We studied the prognostic impact of ghrelin and obestatin in women with node negative breast cancer. Within a cohort of women with breast cancer with tumor size ≤ 50 mm, no lymph node metastases and no initiation of adjuvant chemotherapy, 190 women were identified who died from breast cancer and randomly selected 190 women alive at the corresponding time as controls. Tumor tissues were immunostained with antibodies versus the peptides. Ghrelin expression was associated with better breast cancer specific survival in univariate analyses (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36-0.84) and in multivariate models, adjusted for endocrine treatment and age (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.36-0.89). Obestatin expression was non-informative (OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.60-2.46). Ghrelin expression is independent prognostic factor for breast cancer death in node negative patients-halving the risk for dying of breast cancer. Our data implies that ghrelin could be a potential therapeutic target in breast cancer treatment.

  15. No association of the neuropeptide Y (Leu7Pro) and ghrelin gene (Arg51Gln, Leu72Met, Gln90Leu) single nucleotide polymorphisms with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Kindler, Jochen; Bailer, Ursula; de Zwaan, Martina; Fuchs, Karoline; Leisch, Friedrich; Grün, Bettina; Strnad, Alexandra; Stojanovic, Mirjana; Windisch, Julia; Lennkh-Wolfsberg, Claudia; El-Giamal, Nadja; Sieghart, Werner; Kasper, Siegfried; Aschauer, Harald

    2011-06-01

    Genetic factors likely contribute to the biological vulnerability of eating disorders. Case-control association study on one neuropeptide Y gene (Leu7Pro) polymorphism and three ghrelin gene (Arg51Gln, Leu72Met and Gln90Leu) polymorphisms. 114 eating disorder patients (46 with anorexia nervosa, 30 with bulimia nervosa, 38 with binge eating disorder) and 164 healthy controls were genotyped. No differences were detected between patients and controls for any of the four polymorphisms in allele frequency and genotype distribution (P > 0.05). Allele frequencies and genotypes had no significant influence on body mass index (P > 0.05) in eating disorder patients. Positive findings of former case-control studies of associations between ghrelin gene polymorphisms and eating disorders could not be replicated. Neuropeptide Y gene polymorphisms have not been investigated in eating disorders before.

  16. Immunization against active ghrelin using virus-like particles for obesity treatment.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Sara; Pinho, Filipa; Ribeiro, Andreia M; Carreira, Marcos; Casanueva, Felipe F; Roy, Polly; Monteiro, Mariana P

    2013-01-01

    Ghrelin is a gut hormone that stimulates food intake. In physiological conditions, ghrelin plasma levels rise with fasting and decrease after meals. Obese individuals have low fasting ghrelin levels that rise after food restriction, which is pointed out as a reason for the difficulty in maintaining weight loss. Some bariatric surgery procedures prevent rise in ghrelin levels with weight loss and this has been hypothesised to contribute to the long-term success of the treatment. The main goal of this study was to develop a safe and effective anti-ghrelin vaccine for obesity, through the chemical conjugation of ghrelin with a virus like particle, namely NS1 protein tubules from the Bluetongue Virus (BTV) using a hetero-bifunctional cross linker. Male adult C57BL/6 mice, with a normal weight and with diet-induced obesity (DIO), were randomized into six weight matched groups (n=6/group) and each group of mice received three intra-peritoneal injections with two weeks intervals, containing either 75 μg of ghrelin- NS1 immunoconjugate, 75 μg of NS1 or PBS. Our data show that immunized animals present increasing titres of anti-ghrelin antibodies, while their cumulative food intake significantly decreased and energy expenditure was significantly enhanced, although there were no significative changes in body weight.Vaccinated DIO mice also displayed significant decrease of NPY gene expression in the basal hypothalamus reflecting a decrease in central orexigenic signals. This study suggests that this anti-ghrelin vaccine has a positive impact on energy homeostasis and may be an additional therapeutical tool to be used with diet and exercise for obesity treatment.

  17. T1R3 is expressed in brush cells and ghrelin-producing cells of murine stomach.

    PubMed

    Hass, Nicole; Schwarzenbacher, Karin; Breer, Heinz

    2010-03-01

    Various digestive and enteroendocrine signaling processes are constantly being adapted to the chemical composition and quantity of the chyme contained in the diverse compartments of the gastrointestinal tract. The chemosensory monitoring that underlies the adaptive capacity of the gut is thought to be performed by so called brush cells that share morphological and molecular features with gustatory sensory cells. A substantial population of brush cells is localized in the gastric mucosa. However, no chemosensory receptors have been found to be expressed in these cells so far, challenging the concept that they serve a chemosensory function. The canonical chemoreceptors for the detection of macronutrients are taste receptors belonging to the T1R family; these have been identified in several tissues in addition to the gustatory system including the small intestine. We demonstrate the expression of the T1R subtype T1R3, which is essential for the detection of both sugars and amino acids in the gustatory system, in two distinct cell populations of the gastric mucosa. One population corresponds to open-type brush cells, emphasizing the notion that they are a chemosensory cell type; T1R3 immunoreactivity in these cells is restricted to the apical cell pole, which might provide the basis for the detection of luminal macronutrient compounds. The second gastric T1R3-positive population consists of closed-type endocrine cells that produce ghrelin. This finding suggests that ghrelin-releasing cells, which lack access to the stomach lumen, might receive chemosensory input from macronutrients in the circulation via T1R3.

  18. Genetic variants of ghrelin in metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Ukkola, Olavi

    2011-11-01

    An increasing understanding of the role of genes in the development of obesity may reveal genetic variants that, in combination with conventional risk factors, may help to predict an individual's risk for developing metabolic disorders. Accumulating evidence indicates that ghrelin plays a role in regulating food intake and energy homeostasis and it is a reasonable candidate gene for obesity-related co-morbidities. In cross-sectional studies low total ghrelin concentrations and some genetic polymorphisms of ghrelin have been associated with obesity-associated diseases. The present review highlights many of the important problems in association studies of genetic variants and complex diseases. It is known that population-specific differences in reported associations exist. We therefore conclude that more studies on variants of ghrelin gene are needed to perform in different populations to get deeper understanding on the relationship of ghrelin gene and its variants to obesity.

  19. Ghrelin Receptor Deficiency does not Affect Diet-Induced Atherosclerosis in Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Habegger, Kirk M.; Grant, Erin; Pfluger, Paul Thomas; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Daugherty, Alan; Bruemmer, Dennis; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Hofmann, Susanna M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Ghrelin, a stomach-derived, secreted peptide, and its receptor (growth hormone secretagogue receptor, GHSR) are known to modulate food intake and energy homeostasis. The ghrelin system is also expressed broadly in cardiovascular tissues. Since ghrelin has been associated with anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties, but is also well known to promote obesity and impair glucose metabolism, we investigated whether ghrelin has any impact on the development of atherosclerosis. The hypothesis that endogenous ghrelin signaling may be involved in atherosclerosis has not been tested previously. Methods and Results: We crossed ghrelin receptor knockout mice (GHSr−/−) into a low-density lipoprotein receptor-null (Ldlr−/−) mouse line. In this model, atherosclerotic lesions were promoted by feeding a high-fat, high-cholesterol Western-type diet for 13 months, following a standard protocol. Body composition and glucose homeostasis were similar between Ldlr−/− and Ldlr/GHSR−/−ko mice throughout the study. Absence or presence of GHSr did not alter the apolipoprotein profile changes in response to diet exposure on an LDLRko background. Atherosclerotic plaque volume in the aortic arch and thoracic aorta were also not affected differentially in mice without ghrelin signaling due to GHSR gene disruption as compared to control LDLRko littermates. In light of the associations reported for ghrelin with cardiovascular disease in humans, the lack of a phenotype in these loss-of-function studies in mice suggests no direct role for endogenous ghrelin in either the inhibition or the promotion of diet-induced atherosclerosis. Conclusion: These data indicate that, surprisingly, the complex and multifaceted actions of endogenous ghrelin receptor mediated signaling on the cardiovascular system have minimal direct impact on atherosclerotic plaque progression as based on a loss-of-function mouse model of the disease. PMID:22649381

  20. Roles of leptin and ghrelin in adipogenesis and lipid metabolism of rainbow trout adipocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Salmerón, Cristina; Johansson, Marcus; Asaad, Maryam; Angotzi, Anna R; Rønnestad, Ivar; Stefansson, Sigurd O; Jönsson, Elisabeth; Björnsson, Björn Thrandur; Gutiérrez, Joaquim; Navarro, Isabel; Capilla, Encarnación

    2015-10-01

    Leptin and ghrelin are important regulators of energy homeostasis in mammals, whereas their physiological roles in fish have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, the effects of leptin and ghrelin on adipogenesis, lipolysis and on expression of lipid metabolism-related genes were examined in rainbow trout adipocytes in vitro. Leptin expression and release increased from preadipocytes to mature adipocytes in culture, but did not affect the process of adipogenesis. While ghrelin and its receptor were identified in cultured differentiated adipocytes, ghrelin did not influence either preadipocyte proliferation or differentiation, indicating that it may have other adipose-related roles. Leptin and ghrelin increased lipolysis in mature freshly isolated adipocytes, but mRNA expression of lipolysis markers was not significantly modified. Leptin significantly suppressed the fatty acid transporter-1 expression, suggesting a decrease in fatty acid uptake and storage, but did not affect expression of any of the lipogenesis or β-oxidation genes studied. Ghrelin significantly increased the mRNA levels of lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid synthase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β, and thus appears to stimulate synthesis of triglycerides as well as their mobilization. Overall, the study indicates that ghrelin, but not leptin seems to be an enhancer of lipid turn-over in adipose tissue of rainbow trout, and this regulation may at least partly be mediated through autocrine/paracrine mechanisms. The mode of action of both hormones needs to be further explored to better understand their roles in regulating adiposity in fish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The suppression of ghrelin signaling mitigates age-associated thermogenic impairment

    PubMed Central

    Bongmba, Odelia Y. N.; Ma, Xiaojun; Zhu, Xiongwei; Sheikh-Hamad, David; Sun, Yuxiang

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with severe thermogenic impairment, which contributes to obesity and diabetes in aging. We previously reported that ablation of the ghrelin receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), attenuates age-associated obesity and insulin resistance. Ghrelin and obestatin are derived from the same preproghrelin gene. Here we showed that in brown adipocytes, ghrelin decreases the expression of thermogenic regulator but obestatin increases it, thus showing the opposite effects. We also found that during aging, plasma ghrelin and GHS-R expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT) are increased, but plasma obestatin is unchanged. Increased plasma ghrelin and unchanged obestatin during aging may lead to an imbalance of thermogenic regulation, which may in turn exacerbate thermogenic impairment in aging. Moreover, we found that GHS-R ablation activates thermogenic signaling, enhances insulin activation, increases mitochondrial biogenesis, and improves mitochondrial dynamics of BAT. In addition, we detected increased norepinephrine in the circulation, and observed that GHS-R knockdown in brown adipocytes directly stimulates thermogenic activity, suggesting that GHS-R regulates thermogenesis via both central and peripheral mechanisms. Collectively, our studies demonstrate that ghrelin signaling is an important thermogenic regulator in aging. Antagonists of GHS-R may serve as unique anti-obesity agents, combating obesity by activating thermogenesis. PMID:25543537

  2. Ghrelin and obestatin: different role in fetal lung development?

    PubMed

    Nunes, Susana; Nogueira-Silva, Cristina; Dias, Emanuel; Moura, Rute S; Correia-Pinto, Jorge

    2008-12-01

    Ghrelin and obestatin are two proteins that originate from post-translational processing of the preproghrelin peptide. Various authors claim an opposed role of ghrelin and obestatin in several systems. Preproghrelin mRNA is significantly expressed in airway epithelium throughout lung development, predominantly during the earliest stages. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of ghrelin and obestatin in fetal lung development in vitro. Immunohistochemistry studies were performed at different gestational ages in order to clarify the expression pattern of ghrelin, GHS-R1a, obestatin and GPR39 during fetal lung development. Fetal rat lung explants were harvested at 13.5 days post-conception (dpc) and cultured during 4 days with increasing doses of total ghrelin, acylated ghrelin, desacyl-ghrelin, ghrelin antagonist (D-Lys(3)-GHRP-6) or obestatin. Immunohistochemistry studies demonstrated that ghrelin, GHS-R1a, obestatin and GPR39 proteins were expressed in primitive rat lung epithelium throughout all studied gestational ages. Total and acylated ghrelin supplementation significantly increased the total number of peripheral airway buds, whereas desacyl-ghrelin induced no effect. Moreover, GHS-R1a antagonist significantly decreased lung branching. Finally, obestatin supplementation induced no significant effect in the measured parameters. The present study showed that ghrelin has a positive effect in fetal lung development through its GHS-R1a receptor, whereas obestatin has no effect on lung branching.

  3. Is really endogenous ghrelin a hunger signal in chickens? Association of GHSR SNPs with increase appetite, growth traits, expression and serum level of GHRL, and GH.

    PubMed

    El-Magd, Mohammed Abu; Saleh, Ayman A; Abdel-Hamid, Tamer M; Saleh, Rasha M; Afifi, Mohammed A

    2016-10-01

    Chicken growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) is a receptor for ghrelin (GHRL), a peptide hormone produced by chicken proventriculus, which stimulates growth hormone (GH) release and food intake. The purpose of this study was to search for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in exon 2 of GHSR gene and to analyze their effect on the appetite, growth traits and expression levels of GHSR, GHRL, and GH genes as well as serum levels of GH and GHRL in Mandara chicken. Two adjacent SNPs, A239G and G244A, were detected in exon 2 of GHSR gene. G244A SNP was non-synonymous mutation and led to replacement of lysine amino acid (aa) by arginine aa, while A239G SNP was synonymous mutation. The combined genotypes of A239G and G244A SNPs produced three haplotypes; GG/GG, GG/AG, AG/AG, which associated significantly (P<0.05) with growth traits (body weight, average daily gain, shank length, keel length, chest circumference) at age from >4 to 16w. Chickens with the homozygous GG/GG haplotype showed higher growth performance than other chickens. The two SNPs were also correlated with mRNA levels of GHSR and GH (in pituitary gland), and GHRL (in proventriculus and hypothalamus) as well as with serum level of GH and GHRL. Also, chickens with GG/GG haplotype showed higher mRNA and serum levels. This is the first study to demonstrate that SNPs in GHSR can increase appetite, growth traits, expression and level of GHRL, suggesting a hunger signal role for endogenous GHRL.

  4. Effects of ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin on neurogenesis of the rat fetal spinal cord

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Miho; Nakahara, Keiko; Goto, Shintaro; Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Miyazato, Mikiya . E-mail: a0d201u@cc.miyazaki-u.ac.jp; Date, Yukari; Nakazato, Masamitsu; Kangawa, Kenji; Murakami, Noboru

    2006-11-24

    Expressions of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) mRNA and its protein were confirmed in rat fetal spinal cord tissues by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. In vitro, over 3 nM ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin induced significant proliferation of primary cultured cells from the fetal spinal cord. The proliferating cells were then double-stained using antibodies against the neuronal precursor marker, nestin, and the cell proliferation marker, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), and the nestin-positive cells were also found to be co-stained with antibody against GHS-R. Furthermore, binding studies using [{sup 125}I]des-acyl ghrelin indicated the presence of a specific binding site for des-acyl ghrelin, and confirmed that the binding was displaced with unlabeled des-acyl ghrelin or ghrelin. These results indicate that ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin induce proliferation of neuronal precursor cells that is both dependent and independent of GHS-R, suggesting that both ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin are involved in neurogenesis of the fetal spinal cord.

  5. Gastrointestinal Spatiotemporal mRNA Expression of Ghrelin vs Growth Hormone Receptor and New Growth Yield Machine Learning Model Based on Perturbation Theory.

    PubMed

    Ran, Tao; Liu, Yong; Li, Hengzhi; Tang, Shaoxun; He, Zhixiong; Munteanu, Cristian R; González-Díaz, Humberto; Tan, Zhiliang; Zhou, Chuanshe

    2016-07-27

    The management of ruminant growth yield has economic importance. The current work presents a study of the spatiotemporal dynamic expression of Ghrelin and GHR at mRNA levels throughout the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of kid goats under housing and grazing systems. The experiments show that the feeding system and age affected the expression of either Ghrelin or GHR with different mechanisms. Furthermore, the experimental data are used to build new Machine Learning models based on the Perturbation Theory, which can predict the effects of perturbations of Ghrelin and GHR mRNA expression on the growth yield. The models consider eight longitudinal GIT segments (rumen, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum), seven time points (0, 7, 14, 28, 42, 56 and 70 d) and two feeding systems (Supplemental and Grazing feeding) as perturbations from the expected values of the growth yield. The best regression model was obtained using Random Forest, with the coefficient of determination R(2) of 0.781 for the test subset. The current results indicate that the non-linear regression model can accurately predict the growth yield and the key nodes during gastrointestinal development, which is helpful to optimize the feeding management strategies in ruminant production system.

  6. The effects of fever on hormone ghrelins, immunoglobulins, and heat shock protein 70 expression after swine flu vaccinations.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Suleyman; Guven, Tumer; Sahin, İbrahim; Aksoy, Aziz; Kendir, Yalçın; İlhan, Mustafa N; Citil, Cihan; Catak, Zekiye; Ustun, Cemal

    2012-10-01

    For analyzing the changes in immunoglobulins, HSP70, ghrelin levels in blood samples were collected from volunteers vaccinated against swine flu before the vaccinations and on days 3, and 15, and 1 and 2 months after the vaccination in the presence or absence of fever associated with the it. The study included 11 subjects having developed a fever, and 13 subjects not having a fever, and 20 control subjects. Immunoglobulins were measured by nephelometry, and HSP70 and ghrelins by appropriate ELISA tests. The level of ghrelin was reduced, while the level of HSP70 was significantly increased in subjects who developed fevers. When temperatures were normalized, both levels were found similar to the control group. These results indicate that the increase in serum immunoglobulins levels associated with vaccinations, along with, elevations in HSP70 and reduced ghrelin levels associated with fever, may be the important parameters in the clinical evaluation and follow-up of treatments with vaccines.

  7. Gene expression technology

    SciTech Connect

    Goeddel, D.V. )

    1990-01-01

    The articles in this volume were assemble to enable the reader to design effective strategies for the expression of cloned genes and cDNAs. More than a compilation of papers describing the multitude of techniques now available for expressing cloned genes, this volume provides a manual that should prove useful for solving the majority of expression problems one likely to encounter. The four major expression systems commonly available to most investigators are stressed: Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, yeast, and mammalian cells. Each of these system has its advantages and disadvantages, details of which are found in Chapter 1 and the strategic overviews for the four major sections of the volume. The papers in each of these sections provide many suggestions on how to proceed if initial expression levels are not sufficient.

  8. Plasma ghrelin and obestatin levels are increased in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhao-Feng; Guo, Zhi-Fu; Cao, Jiang; Hu, Jian-Qiang; Zhao, Xian-Xian; Xu, Rong-Liang; Huang, Xin-Miao; Qin, Yong-Wen; Zheng, Xing

    2010-02-01

    Obestatin, encoded by the same gene as ghrelin, was first described as a physiological opponent of ghrelin. We investigated fasting plasma ghrelin and obestatin levels in spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar-Kyoto rats. We found that ghrelin levels, obestatin levels and the ratio of ghrelin to obestatin were significantly higher in spontaneously hypertensive rats than Wistar-Kyoto rats. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were positively correlated; however, heart period and baroreflex sensitivity were negatively correlated with ghrelin levels. Systolic blood pressure was positively correlated, whereas baroreflex sensitivity was negatively correlated with obestatin levels. In addition, systolic blood pressure was a significantly independent variable of ghrelin levels, obestatin levels, and the ghrelin to obestatin ratio in a multiple regression analysis. Our data suggests that there is a disturbance of ghrelin and obestatin in the circulation of spontaneously hypertensive rats and the ghrelin/obestatin system might play a role in blood pressure regulation.

  9. Involvement of Astrocytes in Mediating the Central Effects of Ghrelin.

    PubMed

    Frago, Laura M; Chowen, Julie A

    2017-03-02

    Although astrocytes are the most abundant cells in the mammalian brain, much remains to be learned about their molecular and functional features. Astrocytes express receptors for numerous hormones and metabolic factors, including the appetite-promoting hormone ghrelin. The metabolic effects of ghrelin are largely opposite to those of leptin, as it stimulates food intake and decreases energy expenditure. Ghrelin is also involved in glucose-sensing and glucose homeostasis. The widespread expression of the ghrelin receptor in the central nervous system suggests that this hormone is not only involved in metabolism, but also in other essential functions in the brain. In fact, ghrelin has been shown to promote cell survival and neuroprotection, with some studies exploring the use of ghrelin as a therapeutic agent against metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we highlight the possible role of glial cells as mediators of ghrelin's actions within the brain.

  10. Ghrelin in obesity and endocrine diseases.

    PubMed

    Scerif, Miski; Goldstone, Anthony P; Korbonits, Márta

    2011-06-20

    Ghrelin shows orexigenic effect through its action on the hypothalamic appetite-regulating pathways, while in the periphery ghrelin increases adipose tissue accumulation and has a diabetogenic effect on the liver and pancreas. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been suggested as one of the mediators of ghrelin's effects. Plasma ghrelin levels are dependent on body mass index as well as food intake patterns. Ghrelin levels are in general reduced in obese individuals and in subjects with insulin resistance. In contrast to other forms of obesity, patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) display high levels of ghrelin, reduced visceral adiposity and relative hypoinsulinemia. Relationships between obesity and common genomic variants of GHRL and GHS-R genes have been studied. Ghrelin may have a role in the weight-reducing effect of bariatric surgery; however, this is a much debated issue. Altered ghrelin levels have also been observed in Cushing's syndrome and thyroid disease probably due to the secondary insulin resistance in these subjects.

  11. Ghrelin in Female and Male Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, Joëlle; Maillard, Virginie; Coyral-Castel, Stéphanie; Ramé, Christelle; Froment, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    Ghrelin and one of its functional receptors, GHS-R1a (Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor 1a), were firstly studied about 15 years. Ghrelin is a multifunctional peptide hormone that affects several biological functions including food intake, glucose release, cell proliferation… Ghrelin and GHS-R1a are expressed in key cells of both male and female reproductive organs in several species including fishes, birds, and mammals suggesting a well-conserved signal through the evolution and a role in the control of fertility. Ghrelin could be a component of the complex series of nutrient sensors such as adipokines, and nuclear receptors, which regulate reproduction in function of the energy stores. The objective of this paper was to report the available information about the ghrelin system and its role at the level of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in both sexes. PMID:20700403

  12. Ghrelin-related peptides do not modulate vasodilator nitric oxide production or superoxide levels in mouse systemic arteries.

    PubMed

    Ku, Jacqueline M; Sleeman, Mark W; Sobey, Christopher G; Andrews, Zane B; Miller, Alyson A

    2016-04-01

    The ghrelin gene is expressed in the stomach where it ultimately encodes up to three peptides, namely, acylated ghrelin, des-acylated ghrelin and obestatin, which all have neuroendocrine roles. Recently, the authors' reported that these peptides have important physiological roles in positively regulating vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) production in the cerebral circulation, and may normally suppress superoxide production by the pro-oxidant enzyme, Nox2-NADPH oxidase. To date, the majority of studies using exogenous peptides infer that they may have similar roles in the systemic circulation. Therefore, this study examined whether exogenous and endogenous ghrelin-related peptides modulate NO production and superoxide levels in mouse mesenteric arteries and/or thoracic aorta. Using wire myography, it was found that application of exogenous acylated ghrelin, des-acylated ghrelin or obestatin to mouse thoracic aorta or mesenteric arteries failed to elicit a vasorelaxation response, whereas all three peptides elicited vasorelaxation responses of rat thoracic aorta. Also, none of the peptides modulated mouse aortic superoxide levels as measured by L-012-enhanced chemiluminescence. Next, it was found that NO bioactivity and superoxide levels were unaffected in the thoracic aorta from ghrelin-deficient mice when compared with wild-type mice. Lastly, using novel GHSR-eGFP reporter mice in combination with double-labelled immunofluorescence, no evidence was found for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR1a) in the throracic aorta, which is the only functional ghrelin receptor identified to date. Collectively these findings demonstrate that, in contrast to systemic vessels of other species (e.g. rat and human) and mouse cerebral vessels, ghrelin-related peptides do not modulate vasodilator NO production or superoxide levels in mouse systemic arteries.

  13. Ghrelin's second life: from appetite stimulator to glucose regulator.

    PubMed

    Verhulst, Pieter-Jan; Depoortere, Inge

    2012-07-07

    Ghrelin, a 28 amino acid peptide hormone produced by the stomach, was the first orexigenic hormone to be discovered from the periphery. The octanoyl modification at Ser³, mediated by ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT), is essential for ghrelin's biological activity. Ghrelin stimulates food intake through binding to its receptor (GRLN-R) on neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Ghrelin is widely expressed throughout the body; accordingly, it is implicated in several other physiological functions, which include growth hormone release, gastric emptying, and body weight regulation. Ghrelin and GRLN-R expression are also found in the pancreas, suggesting a local physiological role. Accordingly, several recent studies now point towards an important role for ghrelin and its receptor in the regulation of blood glucose homeostasis, which is the main focus of this review. Several mechanisms of this regulation by ghrelin have been proposed, and one possibility is through the regulation of insulin secretion. Despite some controversy, most studies suggest that ghrelin exerts an inhibitory effect on insulin secretion, resulting in increased circulating glucose levels. Ghrelin may thus be a diabetogenic factor. Obesity-related type 2 diabetes has become an increasingly important health problem, almost reaching epidemic proportions in the world; therefore, antagonists of the ghrelin-GOAT signaling pathway, which will tackle both energy- and glucose homeostasis, may be considered as promising new therapies for this disease.

  14. Obestatin and insulin in pancreas of newborn diabetic rats treated with exogenous ghrelin.

    PubMed

    Turk, Neslihan; Dağistanli, Fatma Kaya; Sacan, Ozlem; Yanardag, Refiye; Bolkent, Sema

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of ghrelin treatment on obestatin, insulin gene expression and biochemical parameters in the pancreas of newborn-streptozocin (STZ) diabetic rats. Rats were divided into 4 groups. Group I: control rats treated with physiological saline; group II: control rats treated with 100 μg/kg/day ghrelin; group III: two days after birth rats that received 100mg/kg STZ injected as a single dose to induce neonatal diabetes; group IV: neonatal-STZ-diabetic rats treated with ghrelin for four weeks. Sections of the pancreas were examined with immunohistochemistry for the expression of obestatin and insulin and in situ hybridization for the expression of insulin mRNA. The blood glucose levels were measured. Tissue homogenates were used for protein, glutathione, lipid peroxidation and non-enzymatic glycosylation levels and antioxidant enzyme analysis. There was a significant difference in blood glucose levels in newborn-STZ-diabetic rats compared to ghrelin treated diabetic rats at weeks 1, 2 and 4. In group IV, pancreatic non-enzymatic glycosylation and lipid peroxidation levels were decreased, however, glutathione levels and enzymatic activities were increased. Insulin peptide and mRNA (+) signals in islets of Langerhans and obestatin immunopositive cell numbers showed an increase in group IV compared to group III. These results suggest that administration of ghrelin to newborn rats may prevent effects of diabetes.

  15. The Antidepressant-like Effects of Estrogen-mediated Ghrelin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pu; Liu, Changhong; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xingyi; Ren, Bingzhong; Li, Bingjin

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin, one of the brain-gut peptides, stimulates food-intake. Recently, ghrelin has also shown to play an important role in depression treatment. However, the mechanism of ghrelin’s antidepressant-like actions is unknown. On the other hand, sex differences in depression, and the fluctuation of estrogens secretion have been proved to play a key role in depression. It has been reported that women have higher level of ghrelin expression, and ghrelin can stimulate estrogen secretion while estrogen acts as a positive feedback mechanism to up-regulate ghrelin level. Ghrelin may be a potential regulator of reproductive function, and estrogen may have additional effect in ghrelin’s antidepressantlike actions. In this review, we summarize antidepressant-like effects of ghrelin and estrogen in basic and clinical studies, and provide new insight on ghrelin’s effect in depression. PMID:26412072

  16. Translational research of ghrelin.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Hiroaki; Shiiya, Tomomi; Nakazato, Masamitsu

    2010-07-01

    Gastrointestinal peptides play important roles regulating feeding and energy homeostasis. Most gastrointestinal peptides including glucagon like peptide-1, peptide YY, amylin, and oxytomodulin are anorectic, and only ghrelin is an orexigenic peptide. Ghrelin increases appetite, modulates energy balance, suppresses inflammation, and enhances growth hormone secretion. Given its diversity of functions, ghrelin is expected be an effective therapy for lean patients with cachexia caused by chronic heart failure, chronic respiratory disease, anorexia nervosa, functional dyspepsia, and cancer. Clinical trials have demonstrated that ghrelin effectively increases lean body mass and activity in cachectic patients. Ghrelin interrupts the vicious cycle of the cachectic paradigm through its orexigenic, anabolic, and anti-inflammatory effects, and ghrelin administration may improve the quality of life of cachectic patients. We discuss the significant roles of ghrelin in the pathophysiology of cachectic diseases and the possible clinical applications of ghrelin.

  17. Maternal serum ratio of ghrelin to obestatin decreased in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Weiguang; Fan, Xiaobin; Yu, Yuecheng; Wang, Yingchun

    2015-10-01

    Ghrelin, an endogenous for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, has been shown to participate in blood pressure regulation. Obestatin, encoded by the same gene as ghrelin, is described as a physiological opponent of ghrelin. We hypothesized that ghrelin/obestatin imbalance played a role in the pathogenesis. This study was designed to determine the alterations of ghrelin and obestatin concentrations and ghrelin/obestatin ratio in maternal serum in preeclampsia. This retrospective case-control study included 31 preeclampsia and 31 gestational week-matched normal pregnancies. Ghrelin and obestatin concentrations in maternal serum were determined by radioimmunoassay, and the ghrelin/obestatin ratio was calculated. The ghrelin concentration and ghrelin/obestatin ratio in maternal serum were significantly lower in preeclampsia than in normal pregnancies (214.34±14.27pg/mL vs 251.49±16.15pg/mL, P=0.041, 1.07±0.09 vs 0.82±0.08, P=0.023). The obestatin concentration in maternal serum was significantly higher in preeclampsia than in normal pregnancies (276.35±15.38pg/mL vs 223.53±18.61pg/mL, P=0.019). The systolic blood pressure in preeclampsia was negatively correlated with ghrelin concentration and ghrelin/obestatin ratio (r=-0.549, P=0.003; r=-0.491, P=0.004) and was positively correlated with obestatin concentrations in preeclampsia (r=0.388, P=0.013). The findings of this study suggested disturbance of ghrelin and obestatin in maternal serum in preeclampsia, and ghrelin/obestatin imbalance might play a role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Copyright © 2015 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A natural variant of obestatin, Q90L, inhibits ghrelin's action on food intake and GH secretion and targets NPY and GHRH neurons in mice.

    PubMed

    Hassouna, Rim; Zizzari, Philippe; Viltart, Odile; Yang, Seung-Kwon; Gardette, Robert; Videau, Catherine; Badoer, Emilio; Epelbaum, Jacques; Tolle, Virginie

    2012-01-01

    Ghrelin and obestatin are two gut-derived peptides originating from the same ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide gene (GHRL). While ghrelin stimulates growth hormone (GH) secretion and food intake and inhibits γ-aminobutyric-acid synaptic transmission onto GHRH (Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone) neurons, obestatin blocks these effects. In Humans, GHRL gene polymorphisms have been associated with pathologies linked to an unbalanced energy homeostasis. We hypothesized that one polymorphism located in the obestatin sequence (Q to L substitution in position 90 of the ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide, rs4684677) may impact on the function of obestatin. In the present study, we tested the activity of native and Q90L obestatin to modulate ghrelin-induced food intake, GH secretion, cFos activity in GHRH and Neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons and γ-aminobutyric-acid activity onto GHRH neurons. Food intake, GH secretion and electrophysiological recordings were assessed in C57BL/6 mice. cFos activity was measured in NPY-Renilla-GFP and GHRH-eGFP mice. Mice received saline, ghrelin or ghrelin combined to native or Q90L obestatin (30 nmol each) in the early light phase. Ghrelin stimulation of food intake and GH secretion varied considerably among individual mice with 59-77% eliciting a robust response. In these high-responders, ghrelin-induced food intake and GH secretion were reduced equally by native and Q90L obestatin. In contrast to in vivo observations, Q90L was slightly more efficient than native obestatin in inhibiting ghrelin-induced cFos activation within the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and the nucleus tractus solitarius of the brainstem. After ghrelin injection, 26% of NPY neurons in the arcuate nucleus expressed cFos protein and this number was significantly reduced by co-administration of Q90L obestatin. Q90L was also more potent that native obestatin in reducing ghrelin-induced inhibition of γ-aminobutyric-acid synaptic transmission onto GHRH neurons. These data support

  19. Ghrelin and Breast Cancer: Emerging Roles in Obesity, Estrogen Regulation, and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Au, CheukMan Cherie; Furness, John B.; Brown, Kristy A.

    2017-01-01

    Local and systemic factors have been shown to drive the growth of breast cancer cells in postmenopausal obese women, who have increased risk of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Estrogens, produced locally in the breast fat by the enzyme aromatase, have an important role in promoting cancer cell proliferation. Ghrelin, a 28-amino acid peptide hormone, may also influence cancer growth. This peptide is produced in the stomach and acts centrally to regulate appetite and growth hormone release. Circulating levels of ghrelin, and its unacylated form, des-acyl ghrelin, are almost always inversely correlated with obesity, and these peptide hormones have recently been shown to inhibit adipose tissue aromatase expression. Ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin have also been shown to be produced by some tumor cells and influence tumor growth. The ghrelin/des-acyl ghrelin–cancer axis is complex, one reason being that tumor cells have been shown to express splice variants of ghrelin, and ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin might act at receptors other than the cognate ghrelin receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a, in tumors. Effects of ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin on energy homeostasis may also affect tumor development and growth. This review will summarize our current understanding of the role of ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin in hormone-dependent cancers, breast cancer in particular. PMID:28119851

  20. Induced Ablation of Ghrelin Cells in Adult Mice Does Not Decrease Food Intake, Body Weight, or Response to High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    McFarlane, Matthew R.; Brown, Michael S.; Goldstein, Joseph L.; Zhao, Tong-Jin

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Injection of the peptide hormone ghrelin stimulates food intake in mice and humans. However, mice born without ghrelin demonstrate no significant loss of appetite. This paradox suggests either that compensation develops in mice born without ghrelin or that ghrelin is not essential for appetite control. To distinguish these possibilities, we generated transgenic mice (Ghrl-DTR) that express the diphtheria toxin receptor in ghrelin-secreting cells. Injection of diphtheria toxin in adulthood ablated ghrelin cells and reduced plasma ghrelin by 80-95%. Ghrelin cell-ablated mice exhibited no loss of appetite or body weight and no resistance to a high fat diet. To stimulate food intake in mice by ghrelin injection, we had to raise plasma levels many-fold above normal. Like germline ghrelin-deficient mice, the ghrelin cell-ablated mice developed profound hypoglycemia when subjected to prolonged calorie restriction, confirming that ghrelin acts to maintain blood glucose under famine conditions. PMID:24836560

  1. Ghrelin's second life: From appetite stimulator to glucose regulator

    PubMed Central

    Verhulst, Pieter-Jan; Depoortere, Inge

    2012-01-01

    Ghrelin, a 28 amino acid peptide hormone produced by the stomach, was the first orexigenic hormone to be discovered from the periphery. The octanoyl modification at Ser3, mediated by ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT), is essential for ghrelin’s biological activity. Ghrelin stimulates food intake through binding to its receptor (GRLN-R) on neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Ghrelin is widely expressed throughout the body; accordingly, it is implicated in several other physiological functions, which include growth hormone release, gastric emptying, and body weight regulation. Ghrelin and GRLN-R expression are also found in the pancreas, suggesting a local physiological role. Accordingly, several recent studies now point towards an important role for ghrelin and its receptor in the regulation of blood glucose homeostasis, which is the main focus of this review. Several mechanisms of this regulation by ghrelin have been proposed, and one possibility is through the regulation of insulin secretion. Despite some controversy, most studies suggest that ghrelin exerts an inhibitory effect on insulin secretion, resulting in increased circulating glucose levels. Ghrelin may thus be a diabetogenic factor. Obesity-related type 2 diabetes has become an increasingly important health problem, almost reaching epidemic proportions in the world; therefore, antagonists of the ghrelin-GOAT signaling pathway, which will tackle both energy- and glucose homeostasis, may be considered as promising new therapies for this disease. PMID:22783041

  2. Involvement of Astrocytes in Mediating the Central Effects of Ghrelin

    PubMed Central

    Frago, Laura M.; Chowen, Julie A.

    2017-01-01

    Although astrocytes are the most abundant cells in the mammalian brain, much remains to be learned about their molecular and functional features. Astrocytes express receptors for numerous hormones and metabolic factors, including the appetite-promoting hormone ghrelin. The metabolic effects of ghrelin are largely opposite to those of leptin, as it stimulates food intake and decreases energy expenditure. Ghrelin is also involved in glucose-sensing and glucose homeostasis. The widespread expression of the ghrelin receptor in the central nervous system suggests that this hormone is not only involved in metabolism, but also in other essential functions in the brain. In fact, ghrelin has been shown to promote cell survival and neuroprotection, with some studies exploring the use of ghrelin as a therapeutic agent against metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we highlight the possible role of glial cells as mediators of ghrelin’s actions within the brain. PMID:28257088

  3. Reduced anticipatory locomotor responses to scheduled meals in ghrelin receptor deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Blum, I D; Patterson, Z; Khazall, R; Lamont, E W; Sleeman, M W; Horvath, T L; Abizaid, A

    2009-12-01

    Ghrelin, an orexigenic hormone produced by the stomach, is secreted in anticipation of scheduled meals and in correlation with anticipatory locomotor activity. We hypothesized that ghrelin is directly implicated in stimulating locomotor activity in anticipation of scheduled meals. To test this hypothesis, we observed 24 h patterns of locomotor activity in mice with targeted mutations of the ghrelin receptor gene (GHSR KO) and wild-type littermates, all given access to food for 4 h daily for 14 days. While wild type (WT) and GHSR KO mice produced increases in anticipatory locomotor activity, anticipatory locomotor activity in GHSR KO mice was attenuated (P<0.05). These behavioral measures correlated with attenuated levels of Fos immunoreactivity in a number of hypothalamic nuclei from GHSR KO placed on the same restricted feeding schedule for 7 days and sacrificed at ZT4. Interestingly, seven daily i.p. ghrelin injections mimicked hypothalamic Fos expression patterns to those seen in mice under restricted feeding schedules. These data suggest that ghrelin acts in the hypothalamus to augment locomotor activity in anticipation of scheduled meals.

  4. Reduced Anticipatory Locomotor Responses to Scheduled Meals in Ghrelin Receptor Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Ian D.; Patterson, Zack; Khazall, Rim; Lamont, Elaine Waddington; Sleeman, Mark W.; Horvath, Tamas L.; Abizaid, Alfonso

    2009-01-01

    Ghrelin, an orexigenic hormone produced by the stomach, is secreted in anticipation of scheduled meals and in correlation with anticipatory locomotor activity. We hypothesized that ghrelin is directly implicated in stimulating locomotor activity in anticipation of scheduled meals. To test this hypothesis, we observed 24 hr patterns of locomotor activity in mice with targeted mutations of the ghrelin receptor gene (GHSR KO) and wild-type littermates, all given access to food for four hours daily for 14 days. While WT and GHSR KO mice produced increases in anticipatory locomotor activity, anticipatory locomotor activity in GHSR KO mice was attenuated (p.< 0.05). These behavioral measures correlated with attenuated levels of Fos immunoreactivity in a number of hypothalamic nuclei from GHSR KO placed on the same restricted feeding schedule for seven days and sacrificed at ZT4. Interestingly, seven daily intraperitoeneal ghrelin injections mimicked hypothalamic Fos expression patterns to those seen in mice under restricted feeding schedules. These data suggest that ghrelin acts in the hypothalamus to augment locomotor activity in anticipation of scheduled meals. PMID:19666088

  5. Increased Ghrelin but Low Ghrelin-Reactive Immunoglobulins in a Rat Model of Methotrexate Chemotherapy-Induced Anorexia.

    PubMed

    François, Marie; Takagi, Kuniko; Legrand, Romain; Lucas, Nicolas; Beutheu, Stephanie; Bôle-Feysot, Christine; Cravezic, Aurore; Tennoune, Naouel; do Rego, Jean-Claude; Coëffier, Moïse; Inui, Akio; Déchelotte, Pierre; Fetissov, Sergueï O

    2016-01-01

    Cancer chemotherapy is commonly accompanied by mucositis, anorexia, weight loss, and anxiety independently from cancer-induced anorexia-cachexia, further aggravating clinical outcome. Ghrelin is a peptide hormone produced in gastric mucosa that reaches the brain to stimulate appetite. In plasma, ghrelin is protected from degradation by ghrelin-reactive immunoglobulins (Ig). To analyze possible involvement of ghrelin in the chemotherapy-induced anorexia and anxiety, gastric ghrelin expression, plasma levels of ghrelin, and ghrelin-reactive IgG were studied in rats treated with methotrexate (MTX). Rats received MTX (2.5 mg/kg, subcutaneously) for three consecutive days and were killed 3 days later, at the peak of anorexia and weight loss. Control rats received phosphate-buffered saline. Preproghrelin mRNA expression in the stomach was analyzed by in situ hybridization. Plasma levels of ghrelin and ghrelin-reactive IgG were measured by immunoenzymatic assays and IgG affinity kinetics by surface plasmon resonance. Anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in MTX-treated anorectic and in control rats were evaluated in the elevated plus-maze and the forced-swim test, respectively. In MTX-treated anorectic rats, the number of preproghrelin mRNA-producing cells was found increased (by 51.3%, p < 0.001) as well were plasma concentrations of both ghrelin and des-acyl-ghrelin (by 70.4%, p < 0.05 and 98.3%, p < 0.01, respectively). In contrast, plasma levels of total IgG reactive with ghrelin and des-acyl-ghrelin were drastically decreased (by 87.2 and 88.4%, respectively, both p < 0.001), and affinity kinetics of these IgG were characterized by increased small and big Kd, respectively. MTX-treated rats displayed increased anxiety- but not depression-like behavior. MTX-induced anorexia, weight loss, and anxiety are accompanied by increased ghrelin production and by a decrease of ghrelin-reactive IgG levels and affinity binding properties. Such changes of

  6. Early onset of ghrelin production in a marsupial.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Brandon R; Shaw, Geoff; Fletcher, Terry P; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2009-02-27

    Ghrelin regulates appetite in mammals and can stimulate growth hormone (GH) release from the pituitary. In rats and humans, ghrelin cells appear in the stomach during late fetal life. Nevertheless, the role of ghrelin in early mammalian development is not well understood. Marsupials deliver highly altricial young that weigh less than 1g so they must feed and digest milk at a comparatively immature stage of development. Since they complete their growth and differentiation while in the pouch, they are accessible models in which to determine the time course of ghrelin production during development. We examined the distribution of gastric ghrelin cells, plasma ghrelin concentrations and pituitary expression of the ghrelin receptor (ghsr-1alpha) and GH in the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii. There were ghrelin immunopositive cells in the developing mesenchyme of the stomach from day 10 post partum (pp) to day 150pp. Subsequently ghrelin protein in the fore-stomach declined and was absent by day 250pp but remained in the gastric cells of the hind-stomach. Ghrelin was detected in the developing pancreas from day 10pp but was absent by day 150pp and in the adult. Pituitary ghsr-1alpha expression and plasma concentrations of ghrelin increased significantly up to day 70-120pp while GH expression was also elevated, declining with GH to reach adult levels by day 180pp. These results demonstrate an early onset of gastric ghrelin expression in the tammar in concert with a functional stomach at a relatively earlier stage than that of developmentally more mature eutherian young.

  7. Ghrelin Attenuates Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction Following Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yijun; Wei, Yongxu; Yang, Wenlei; Cai, Yu; Chen, Bin; Yang, Guoyuan; Shang, Hanbing; Zhao, Weiguo

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal barrier dysfunction remains a critical problem in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and is associated with poor prognosis. Ghrelin, a brain-gut peptide, has been shown to exert protection in animal models of gastrointestinal injury. However, the effect of ghrelin on intestinal barrier dysfunction post-ICH and its possible underlying mechanisms are still unknown. This study was designed to investigate whether ghrelin administration attenuates intestinal barrier dysfunction in experimental ICH using an intrastriatal autologous blood infusion mouse model. Our data showed that treatment with ghrelin markedly attenuated intestinal mucosal injury at both histomorphometric and ultrastructural levels post-ICH. Ghrelin reduced ICH-induced intestinal permeability according to fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugated-dextran (FITC-D) and Evans blue extravasation assays. Concomitantly, the intestinal tight junction-related protein markers, Zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and claudin-5 were upregulated by ghrelin post-ICH. Additionally, ghrelin reduced intestinal intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression at the mRNA and protein levels following ICH. Furthermore, ghrelin suppressed the translocation of intestinal endotoxin post-ICH. These changes were accompanied by improved survival rates and an attenuation of body weight loss post-ICH. In conclusion, our results suggest that ghrelin reduced intestinal barrier dysfunction, thereby reducing mortality and weight loss, indicating that ghrelin is a potential therapeutic agent in ICH-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction therapy. PMID:27929421

  8. Acylated and unacylated ghrelin protect MC3T3-E1 cells against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced oxidative injury: pharmacological characterization of ghrelin receptor and possible epigenetic involvement.

    PubMed

    Dieci, Elisa; Casati, Lavinia; Pagani, Francesca; Celotti, Fabio; Sibilia, Valeria

    2014-07-01

    Increasing evidence suggests a role for oxidative stress in age-related decrease in osteoblast number and function leading to the development of osteoporosis. This study was undertaken to investigate whether ghrelin, previously reported to stimulate osteoblast proliferation, counteracts tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative damage in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells as well as to characterize the ghrelin receptor (GHS-R) involved in such activity. Pretreatment with ghrelin (10(-7)-10(-11)M) significantly increased viability and reduced apoptosis of MC3T3-E1 cells cultured with t-BHP (250 μM) for three hours at the low concentration of 10(-9)M as shown by MTT assay and Hoechst-33258 staining. Furthermore, ghrelin prevented t-BHP-induced osteoblastic dysfunction and changes in the cytoskeleton organization evidenced by the staining of the actin fibers with Phalloidin-FITC by reducing reactive oxygen species generation. The GHS-R type 1a agonist, EP1572 (10(-7)-10(-11)M), had no effect against t-BHP-induced cytotoxicity and pretreatment with the selective GHS-R1a antagonist, D-Lys(3)-GHRP-6 (10(-7)M), failed to remove ghrelin (10(-9) M)-protective effects against oxidative injury, indicating that GHS-R1a is not involved in such ghrelin activity. Accordingly, unacylated ghrelin (DAG), not binding GHS-R1a, displays the same protective actions of ghrelin against t-BHP-induced cytotoxicity. Preliminary observations indicate that ghrelin increased the trimethylation of lys4 on histones H3, a known epigenetic mark activator, which may regulate the expression of some genes limiting oxidative damage. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that ghrelin and DAG promote survival of MC3T3-E1 cell exposed to t-BHP-induced oxidative damage. Such effect is independent of GHS-R1a and is likely mediated by a common ghrelin/DAG binding site.

  9. Gene Express Inc.

    PubMed

    Saccomanno, Colette F

    2006-07-01

    Gene Express, Inc. is a technology-licensing company and provider of Standardized Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (StaRT-PCR) services. Designed by and for clinical researchers involved in pharmaceutical, biomarker and molecular diagnostic product development, StaRT-PCR is a unique quantitative and standardized multigene expression measurement platform. StaRT-PCR meets all of the performance characteristics defined by the US FDA as required to support regulatory submissions [101,102] , and by the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act of 1988 (CLIA) as necessary to support diagnostic testing [1] . A standardized mixture of internal standards (SMIS), manufactured in bulk, provides integrated quality control wherein each native template target gene is measured relative to a competitive template internal standard. Bulk production enables the compilation of a comprehensive standardized database from across multiple experiments, across collaborating laboratories and across the entire clinical development lifecycle of a given compound or diagnostic product. For the first time, all these data are able to be directly compared. Access to such a database can dramatically shorten the time from investigational new drug (IND) to new drug application (NDA), or save time and money by hastening a substantiated 'no-go' decision. High-throughput StaRT-PCR is conducted at the company's automated Standardized Expression Measurement (SEM) Center. Currently optimized for detection on a microcapillary electrophoretic platform, StaRT-PCR products also may be analyzed on microarray, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), or matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) platforms. SEM Center services deliver standardized genomic data--data that will accelerate the application of pharmacogenomic technology to new drug and diagnostic test development and facilitate personalized medicine.

  10. Peripheral injections of cholecystokinin, apelin, ghrelin and orexin in cavefish (Astyanax fasciatus mexicanus): effects on feeding and on the brain expression levels of tyrosine hydroxylase, mechanistic target of rapamycin and appetite-related hormones.

    PubMed

    Penney, Carla C; Volkoff, Hélène

    2014-01-15

    The effects of intraperitoneal injections of cholecystokinin (CCK), apelin, ghrelin, and orexin on food intake were examined in the blind cavefish Astyanax fasciatus mexicanus. CCK (50ng/g) induced a decrease in food intake whereas apelin (100ng/g), orexin (100ng/g), and ghrelin (100ng/g) induced an increase in food intake as compared to saline-injected control fish. In order to better understand the central mechanism by which these hormones act, we examined the effects of injections on the brain mRNA expression of two metabolic enzymes, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), and of appetite-regulating peptides, CCK, orexin, apelin and cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART). CCK injections induced a decrease in brain apelin injections, apelin injections induced an increase in TH, mTOR, and orexin brain expressions, orexin treatment increased brain TH expression and ghrelin injections induced an increase in mTOR and orexin brain expressions. CART expression was not affected by any of the injection treatments. Our results suggest that the enzymes TH and mTOR and the hormones CCK, apelin, orexin, and ghrelin all regulate food intake in cavefish through a complex network of interactions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Nonadditive gene expression in polyploids.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Liu, Xiaoxian; Pires, J Chris; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E

    2014-01-01

    Allopolyploidy involves hybridization and duplication of divergent parental genomes and provides new avenues for gene expression. The expression levels of duplicated genes in polyploids can show deviation from parental additivity (the arithmetic average of the parental expression levels). Nonadditive expression has been widely observed in diverse polyploids and comprises at least three possible scenarios: (a) The total gene expression level in a polyploid is similar to that of one of its parents (expression-level dominance); (b) total gene expression is lower or higher than in both parents (transgressive expression); and (c) the relative contribution of the parental copies (homeologs) to the total gene expression is unequal (homeolog expression bias). Several factors may result in expression nonadditivity in polyploids, including maternal-paternal influence, gene dosage balance, cis- and/or trans-regulatory networks, and epigenetic regulation. As our understanding of nonadditive gene expression in polyploids remains limited, a new generation of investigators should explore additional phenomena (i.e., alternative splicing) and use other high-throughput "omics" technologies to measure the impact of nonadditive expression on phenotype, proteome, and metabolome.

  12. Circulating ghrelin level is higher in HNF1A-MODY and GCK-MODY than in polygenic forms of diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Natalia; Hohendorff, Jerzy; Solecka, Iwona; Szopa, Magdalena; Skupien, Jan; Kiec-Wilk, Beata; Mlynarski, Wojciech; Malecki, Maciej T

    2015-12-01

    Ghrelin is a hormone that regulates appetite. It is likely to be involved in the pathophysiology of varying forms of diabetes. In animal studies, the ghrelin expression was regulated by the hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF1A). Mutations of the HNF1A gene cause maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY). We aimed to assess the circulating ghrelin levels in HNF1A-MODY and in other types of diabetes and to evaluate its association with HNF1A mutation status. Our cohort included 46 diabetic HNF1A gene mutation carriers, 55 type 2 diabetes (T2DM) subjects, 42 type 1 diabetes (T1DM) patients, and 31 glucokinase (GCK) gene mutation carriers with diabetes as well as 51 healthy controls. Plasma ghrelin concentration was measured using the immunoenzymatic assay with polyclonal antibody against the C-terminal fragment of its acylated and desacylated forms. Ghrelin concentrations were 0.75 ± 0.32, 0.70 ± 0.21, 0.50 ± 0.20, and 0.40 ± 0.16 ng/ml in patients with HNF1A-MODY, GCK-MODY, T1DM, and T2DM, respectively. The ghrelin levels were higher in HNF1A-MODY and GCK-MODY than in T1DM and T2DM (p < 0.001 for all comparisons) but lower than in non-diabetic controls (1.02 ± 0.29 ng/ml, p < 0.001 for both comparisons). In the multivariate linear model, the differences between both MODY groups and common diabetes types remained significant. Analysis by a HNF1A mutation type indicated that ghrelin concentration is similar in patients with different types of sequence differences. Plasma ghrelin level is higher in HNF1A-MODY and GCK-MODY than in the common polygenic forms of diabetes.

  13. Neuronal deletion of ghrelin receptor almost completely prevents diet-induced obesity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ghrelin signaling has major effects on energy- and glucose-homeostasis, but it is unknown whether ghrelin's functions are centrally and/or peripherally mediated. The ghrelin receptor, Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor (GHS-R), is highly expressed in brain and detectable in some peripheral tissues...

  14. Evolution of Gene Expression after Gene Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Nelson; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Yongrui; Messing, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    We took a rather unique approach to investigate the conservation of gene expression of prolamin storage protein genes across two different subfamilies of the Poaceae. We took advantage of oat plants carrying single maize chromosomes in different cultivars, called oat–maize addition (OMA) lines, which permitted us to determine whether regulation of gene expression was conserved between the two species. We found that γ-zeins are expressed in OMA7.06, which carries maize chromosome 7 even in the absence of the trans-acting maize prolamin-box-binding factor (PBF), which regulates their expression. This is likely because oat PBF can substitute for the function of maize PBF as shown in our transient expression data, using a γ-zein promoter fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP). Despite this conservation, the younger, recently amplified prolamin genes in maize, absent in oat, are not expressed in the corresponding OMAs. However, maize can express the oldest prolamin gene, the wheat high-molecular weight glutenin Dx5 gene, even when maize Pbf is knocked down (through PbfRNAi), and/or another maize transcription factor, Opaque-2 (O2) is knocked out (in maize o2 mutant). Therefore, older genes are conserved in their regulation, whereas younger ones diverged during evolution and eventually acquired a new repertoire of suitable transcriptional activators. PMID:25912045

  15. Ghrelin, reward and motivation.

    PubMed

    Menzies, John R W; Skibicka, Karolina P; Leng, Gareth; Dickson, Suzanne L

    2013-01-01

    Almost all circulating gut peptides contribute to the control of food intake by signalling satiety. One important exception is ghrelin, the only orexigenic peptide hormone thus far described. Ghrelin secretion increases before meals and behavioural and electrophysiological evidence shows that ghrelin acts in the hypothalamus via homeostatic pathways to signal hunger and increase food intake and adiposity. These findings strongly suggest that ghrelin is a dynamically regulated peripheral hunger signal. However, ghrelin also interacts with the brain reward pathways to increase food intake, alter food preference and enhance food reward. Here we discuss ghrelin's role as an endocrine gut-brain reward signal in relation to homeostatic and hedonic feeding control. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Acyl ghrelin acts in the brain to control liver function and peripheral glucose homeostasis in male mice.

    PubMed

    Stark, Romana; Reichenbach, Alex; Lockie, Sarah H; Pracht, Corinna; Wu, Qunli; Tups, Alexander; Andrews, Zane B

    2015-03-01

    Recent evidence suggests that peripheral ghrelin regulates glucose metabolism. Here, we designed experiments to examine how central acyl ghrelin infusion affects peripheral glucose metabolism under pair-fed or ad libitum feeding conditions. Mice received intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF), ghrelin, and allowed to eat ad libitum (icv ghrelin ad lib) or ghrelin and pair-fed to the aCSF group (icv ghrelin pf). Minipumps delivered acyl ghrelin at a dose of 0.25 μg/h at 0.5 μL/h for 7 days. There was no difference in daily blood glucose, insulin, glucagon, triglycerides, or nonesterified fatty acids. Body weight gain and food intake was significantly higher in icv ghrelin ad lib mice. However, both icv ghrelin ad lib and icv ghrelin pf groups exhibited heavier white adipose mass. Icv ghrelin pf mice exhibited better glucose tolerance than aCSF or icv ghrelin ad lib mice during a glucose tolerance test, although both icv ghrelin ad lib and icv ghrelin pf increased insulin release during the glucose tolerance test. Central acyl ghrelin infusion and pair feeding also increased breakdown of liver glycogen and triglyceride, and regulated genes involved in hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism. Icv ghrelin pf mice had an increase in plasma blood glucose during a pyruvate tolerance test relative to icv ghrelin ad lib or aCSF mice. Our results suggest that under conditions of negative energy (icv ghrelin pf), central acyl ghrelin engages a neural circuit that influences hepatic glucose function. Metabolic status affects the ability of central acyl ghrelin to regulate peripheral glucose homeostasis.

  17. Effects of ghrelin on anorexia in tumor-bearing mice with eicosanoid-related cachexia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenhua; Andersson, Marianne; Iresjö, Britt-Marie; Lönnroth, Christina; Lundholm, Kent

    2006-06-01

    Ghrelin is a novel brain-gut peptide that stimulates food intake and may secondarily increase body weight via a growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). Tumor-bearing mice (MCG101), characterized by anorexia, fat loss and muscle wasting due to increased concentration of PGE2 and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha), were provided ghrelin i.p. at a low (20 microg/day) and high dose (40 microg/day) to examine the ability of ghrelin to counteract tumor-induced anorexia. Immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analyses were used to identify GHS-R expression in the brain as well as its relationship to NPY expression in hypothalamic neurons. GHS-R mRNA in hypothalamus and ghrelin mRNA in gastric fundus were quantified by RT-PCR. Body composition was determined by carcass extractions. GHS-R expression in hypothalamus and plasma ghrelin levels were significantly increased in freely-fed tumor-bearing mice, while gastric fundus expression of ghrelin was unaltered compared to non-tumor-bearing mice (controls). Ghrelin treatment increased food intake, body weight and whole body fat at both low and high doses of ghrelin in normal controls, while tumor-bearing mice showed improved intake and body composition at the high dose of ghrelin only. Exogenous ghrelin normalized the GHS-R expression in hypothalamus from tumor-bearing mice without alterations in the gastric fundus expression of ghrelin. Tumor growth was not altered by exogenous ghrelin. Our results indicate that MCG 101-bearing mice became ghrelin resistant despite upregulation of hypothalamic GHS-R expression, which confirms similar indirect observations in cancer patients. Thus, other factors downstream of the ghrelin-GHS-R system appear to be more important than ghrelin to explain cancer-induced anorexia.

  18. Molecular Cloning of Ghrelin and Characteristics of Ghrelin-Producing Cells in the Gastrointestinal Tract of the Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Takemi, Shota; Sakata, Ichiro; Apu, Auvijit Saha; Tsukahara, Shinji; Yahashi, Satowa; Katsuura, Goro; Iwashige, Fumihiro; Akune, Atsushi; Inui, Akio; Sakai, Takafumi

    2016-10-01

    Ghrelin was first isolated from human and rat as an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). In the present study, we determined the ghrelin cDNA sequence of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a small-bodied New World monkey, and investigated the distribution of ghrelin-producing cells in the gastrointestinal tract and localization profiles with somatostatin-producing cells. The marmoset ghrelin cDNA coding region was 354 base pairs, and showed high homology to that in human, rhesus monkey, and mouse. Marmoset ghrelin consists of 28 amino acids, and the N-terminal region is highly conserved as found in other mammalian species. Marmoset preproghrelin and mature ghrelin have 86.3% and 92.9% homology, respectively, to their human counterparts. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that marmoset ghrelin mRNA is highly expressed in the stomach, but it is not detected in other tissues of the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, a large number of ghrelin mRNA-expressing cells and ghrelin-immunopositive cells were detected in the mucosal layer of the stomach, but not in the myenteric plexus. Moreover, all the ghrelin cells examined in the stomach were observed to be closed-type. Double staining showed that somatostatin-immunopositive cells were not co-localized with ghrelin-producing cells; however, a subset of somatostatin-immunopositive cells is directly adjacent to ghrelin-immunopositive cells. These findings suggest that the distribution of ghrelin cells in marmoset differs from that in rodents, and thus the marmoset may be a more useful model for the translational study of ghrelin in primates. In conclusion, we have clarified the expression and cell distribution of ghrelin in marmoset, which may represent a useful model in translational study.

  19. Ghrelin signaling in heart remodeling of adult obese mice.

    PubMed

    Lacerda-Miranda, Glauciane; Soares, Vivian M; Vieira, Anatalia K G; Lessa, Juliana G; Rodrigues-Cunha, Alessandra C S; Cortez, Erika; Garcia-Souza, Erica P; Moura, Anibal S

    2012-05-01

    Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), has been suggested to be associated to obesity, insulin secretion, cardiovascular growth and homeostasis. GHS-R has been found in most of the tissues, and among the hormone action it is included the regulation of heart energy metabolism. Therefore, hypernutrition during early life leads to obesity, induces cardiac hypertrophy, compromises myocardial function, inducing heart failure in adulthood. We examined ghrelin signaling process in cardiac remodeling in these obese adult mice. The cardiomyocytes (cmy) of left ventricle were analyzed by light microscopy and stereology, content and phosphorilation of cardiac proteins: ghrelin receptor (growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a, GHSR-1a), protein kinase B (AKT and pAKT), phosphatidil inositol 3 kinase (PI3K), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and pAMPK) and actin were achieved by Western blotting. GHSR-1a gene expression was analyzed by Real Time-PCR. We observed hyperglycemia and higher liver and visceral fat weight in obese when compared to control group. Obese mice presented a marked increase in heart weight/tibia length, indicating an enlarged heart size or a remodeling process. Obese mice had increased GHSR-1a content and expression in the heart associated to PI3K content and increased AKT content and phosphorylation. In contrast, AMPK content and phosphorylation in heart was not different between experimental groups. Ghrelin plasma levels in obese group were decreased when compared to control group. Our data suggest that remodeled myocardial in adult obese mice overnourished in early life are associated with higher phosphorylation of GHSR-1a, PI3K and AKT but not with AMPK.

  20. Ghrelin receptor regulates adipose tissue inflammation in aging

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aging is commonly associated with low-grade adipose inflammation, which is closely linked to insulin resistance. Ghrelin is the only circulating orexigenic hormone which is known to increase obesity and insulin resistance. We previously reported that the expression of the ghrelin receptor, growth ho...

  1. Ghrelin Regulates Glucose and Glutamate Transporters in Hypothalamic Astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Fuente-Martín, Esther; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Argente-Arizón, Pilar; Díaz, Francisca; Granado, Miriam; Freire-Regatillo, Alejandra; Castro-González, David; Ceballos, María L; Frago, Laura M; Dickson, Suzanne L; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A

    2016-03-30

    Hypothalamic astrocytes can respond to metabolic signals, such as leptin and insulin, to modulate adjacent neuronal circuits and systemic metabolism. Ghrelin regulates appetite, adiposity and glucose metabolism, but little is known regarding the response of astrocytes to this orexigenic hormone. We have used both in vivo and in vitro approaches to demonstrate that acylated ghrelin (acyl-ghrelin) rapidly stimulates glutamate transporter expression and glutamate uptake by astrocytes. Moreover, acyl-ghrelin rapidly reduces glucose transporter (GLUT) 2 levels and glucose uptake by these glial cells. Glutamine synthetase and lactate dehydrogenase decrease, while glycogen phosphorylase and lactate transporters increase in response to acyl-ghrelin, suggesting a change in glutamate and glucose metabolism, as well as glycogen storage by astrocytes. These effects are partially mediated through ghrelin receptor 1A (GHSR-1A) as astrocytes do not respond equally to desacyl-ghrelin, an isoform that does not activate GHSR-1A. Moreover, primary astrocyte cultures from GHSR-1A knock-out mice do not change glutamate transporter or GLUT2 levels in response to acyl-ghrelin. Our results indicate that acyl-ghrelin may mediate part of its metabolic actions through modulation of hypothalamic astrocytes and that this effect could involve astrocyte mediated changes in local glucose and glutamate metabolism that alter the signals/nutrients reaching neighboring neurons.

  2. Ghrelin Regulates Glucose and Glutamate Transporters in Hypothalamic Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Fuente-Martín, Esther; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Argente-Arizón, Pilar; Díaz, Francisca; Granado, Miriam; Freire-Regatillo, Alejandra; Castro-González, David; Ceballos, María L.; Frago, Laura M.; Dickson, Suzanne L.; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Hypothalamic astrocytes can respond to metabolic signals, such as leptin and insulin, to modulate adjacent neuronal circuits and systemic metabolism. Ghrelin regulates appetite, adiposity and glucose metabolism, but little is known regarding the response of astrocytes to this orexigenic hormone. We have used both in vivo and in vitro approaches to demonstrate that acylated ghrelin (acyl-ghrelin) rapidly stimulates glutamate transporter expression and glutamate uptake by astrocytes. Moreover, acyl-ghrelin rapidly reduces glucose transporter (GLUT) 2 levels and glucose uptake by these glial cells. Glutamine synthetase and lactate dehydrogenase decrease, while glycogen phosphorylase and lactate transporters increase in response to acyl-ghrelin, suggesting a change in glutamate and glucose metabolism, as well as glycogen storage by astrocytes. These effects are partially mediated through ghrelin receptor 1A (GHSR-1A) as astrocytes do not respond equally to desacyl-ghrelin, an isoform that does not activate GHSR-1A. Moreover, primary astrocyte cultures from GHSR-1A knock-out mice do not change glutamate transporter or GLUT2 levels in response to acyl-ghrelin. Our results indicate that acyl-ghrelin may mediate part of its metabolic actions through modulation of hypothalamic astrocytes and that this effect could involve astrocyte mediated changes in local glucose and glutamate metabolism that alter the signals/nutrients reaching neighboring neurons. PMID:27026049

  3. Capsaicin-Sensitive Sensory Nerves Are Necessary for the Protective Effect of Ghrelin in Cerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bonior, Joanna; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Gajdosz, Ryszard; Pierzchalski, Piotr; Kot, Michalina; Leja-Szpak, Anna; Nawrot-Porąbka, Katarzyna; Link-Lenczowski, Paweł; Olszanecki, Rafał; Bartuś, Krzysztof; Trąbka, Rafał; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata; Dembiński, Artur; Jaworek, Jolanta

    2017-01-01

    Ghrelin was shown to exhibit protective and therapeutic effect in the gut. Aim of the study was to investigate the role of sensory nerves (SN) in the protective effect of ghrelin in acute pancreatitis (AP). Studies were performed on male Wistar rats or isolated pancreatic acinar cells. After capsaicin deactivation of sensory nerves (CDSN) or treatment with saline, rats were pretreated intraperitoneally with ghrelin or saline. In those rats, AP was induced by cerulein or pancreases were used for isolation of pancreatic acinar cells. Pancreatic acinar cells were incubated in cerulein-free or cerulein containing solution. In rats with intact SN, pretreatment with ghrelin led to a reversal of the cerulein-induced increase in pancreatic weight, plasma activity of lipase and plasma concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). These effects were associated with an increase in plasma interleukin-4 concentration and reduction in histological signs of pancreatic damage. CDSN tended to increase the severity of AP and abolished the protective effect of ghrelin. Exposure of pancreatic acinar cells to cerulein led to increase in cellular expression of mRNA for TNF-α and cellular synthesis of this cytokine. Pretreatment with ghrelin reduced this alteration, but this effect was only observed in acinar cells obtained from rats with intact SN. Moreover, CDSN inhibited the cerulein- and ghrelin-induced increase in gene expression and synthesis of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in those cells. Ghrelin exhibits the protective effect in cerulein-induced AP on the organ and pancreatic acinar cell level. Sensory nerves ablation abolishes this effect. PMID:28665321

  4. Method of controlling gene expression

    DOEpatents

    Peters, Norman K.; Frost, John W.; Long, Sharon R.

    1991-12-03

    A method of controlling expression of a DNA segment under the control of a nod gene promoter which comprises administering to a host containing a nod gene promoter an amount sufficient to control expression of the DNA segment of a compound of the formula: ##STR1## in which each R is independently H or OH, is described.

  5. The flow of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Misteli, Tom

    2004-03-01

    Gene expression is a highly interconnected multistep process. A recent meeting in Iguazu Falls, Argentina, highlighted the need to uncover both the molecular details of each single step as well as the mechanisms of coordination among processes in order to fully understand the expression of genes.

  6. Discovering modulators of gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Babur, Özgün; Demir, Emek; Gönen, Mithat; Sander, Chris; Dogrusoz, Ugur

    2010-01-01

    Proteins that modulate the activity of transcription factors, often called modulators, play a critical role in creating tissue- and context-specific gene expression responses to the signals cells receive. GEM (Gene Expression Modulation) is a probabilistic framework that predicts modulators, their affected targets and mode of action by combining gene expression profiles, protein–protein interactions and transcription factor–target relationships. Using GEM, we correctly predicted a significant number of androgen receptor modulators and observed that most modulators can both act as co-activators and co-repressors for different target genes. PMID:20466809

  7. Involvement of the transcription factor STAT1 in the regulation of porcine ovarian granulosa cell functions treated and not treated with ghrelin.

    PubMed

    Benco, A; Sirotkin, A V; Vasícek, D; Pavlová, S; Zemanová, J; Kotwica, J; Darlak, K; Valenzuela, F

    2009-09-01

    The aim of our in vitro experiments was to study the role of the transcription factor STAT1 and the hormone ghrelin in controlling porcine ovarian function. The effects of treatment with ghrelin (0, 1, 10, 100 ng/ml), transfection-induced overexpression of transcription factor STAT1, and their combination on apoptosis (expression of apoptosis-related peptides caspase-3, BAX and anti-apoptotic peptide BCL2), proliferation (expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigene PCNA, proliferation-associated protein kinase MAPK/ERK1,2) and release of the hormones progesterone (P(4)), prostaglandin F (PGF) and oxytocin (OXT) in cultured porcine ovarian granulosa cells was evaluated using RIA, immunocytochemistry and SDS-PAGE-western immunoblotting. It was found that ghrelin, when given alone, increased the expression of proliferation-associated PCNA and MAPK/ERK1,2, decreased the accumulation of apoptosis-related substances caspase-3, BAX, BCL2, decreased P(4), and increased PGF and OXT release. Ghrelin tended to promote accumulation of STAT1 in both control and transfected cells, although in transfected cells ghrelin at 1 ng/ml decreased STAT1 accumulation. Transfection of porcine granulosa cells by a gene construct encoding STAT1 promoted the expression of STAT1 and apoptosis-related-BAX but the expression of BCL2 did not, and decreased the accumulation of proliferation-associated MAPK/ERK1,2 but not that of PCNA. It also promoted PGF and OXT but not P(4) release. Overexpression of STAT1 reversed the effect of ghrelin on STAT1, PCNA, PGF, OXT (from stimulatory to inhibitory), BCL2, P(4) (from inhibitory to stimulatory), prevented ghrelin effect on caspase-3 and BAX, but did not affect ghrelin's effect on MAPK/ERK1,2 expression. These results suggest that ghrelin directly affects porcine ovarian cells function - stimulates proliferation, inhibits apoptosis and affects secretory activity. Furthermore, they demonstrated the involvement of the transcription factor STAT1 in

  8. Ghrelin and the short- and long-term regulation of appetite and body weight.

    PubMed

    Cummings, David E

    2006-08-30

    Ghrelin, an acylated upper gastrointestinal peptide, is the only known orexigenic hormone. Considerable evidence implicates ghrelin in mealtime hunger and meal initiation. Circulating levels decrease with feeding and increase before meals, achieving concentrations sufficient to stimulate hunger and food intake. Preprandial ghrelin surges occur before every meal on various fixed feeding schedules and also among individuals initiating meals voluntarily without time- or food-related cues. Ghrelin injections stimulate food intake rapidly and transiently, primarily by increasing appetitive feeding behaviors and the number of meals. Preprandial ghrelin surges are probably triggered by sympathetic nervous output. Postprandial suppression is not mediated by nutrients in the stomach or duodenum, where most ghrelin is produced. Rather, it results from post-ingestive increases in lower intestinal osmolarity (information probably relayed to the foregut via enteric nervous signaling), as well as from insulin surges. Consequently, ingested lipids suppress ghrelin poorly compared with other macronutrients. Beyond a probable role in meal initiation, ghrelin also fulfills established criteria for an adiposity-related hormone involved in long-term body-weight regulation. Ghrelin levels circulate in relation to energy stores and manifest compensatory changes in response to body-weight alterations. Ghrelin crosses the blood-brain barrier and stimulates food intake by acting on several classical body-weight regulatory centers, including the hypothalamus, hindbrain, and mesolimbic reward system. Chronic ghrelin administration increases body weight via diverse, concerted actions on food intake, energy expenditure, and fuel utilization. Congenital ablation of the ghrelin or ghrelin-receptor gene causes resistance to diet-induced obesity, and pharmacologic ghrelin blockade reduces food intake and body weight. Ghrelin levels are high in Prader-Willi syndrome and low after gastric bypass

  9. Ghrelin/obestatin ratio in two populations with low bodyweight: constitutional thinness and anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Germain, Natacha; Galusca, Bogdan; Grouselle, Dominique; Frere, Delphine; Tolle, Virginie; Zizzari, Philippe; Lang, François; Epelbaum, Jacques; Estour, Bruno

    2009-04-01

    Constitutional thinness (CT) and anorexia nervosa (AN) are two categories of severely underweight subjects. Some appetite-regulating hormones display opposite levels in AN and CT. While levels of ghrelin, an orexigenic hormone, fit with the normal food intake in CT, the lack of efficacy of increased ghrelin levels in AN is not clear. Obestatin is a recently described peptide derived from the preproghrelin gene, reported to inhibit appetite in contrast to ghrelin. The aim of this study was to determine whether the circadian profile of obestatin, total and acylated ghrelin levels is different in CT subjects when compared with AN patients. Six-points circadian profiles of plasma obestatin, acylated ghrelin, total ghrelin and other hormonal and nutritional parameters were evaluated in four groups of young women: 10 CT, 15 restricting-type AN, 7 restored from AN and 9 control subjects. Obestatin circadian levels were significantly higher in AN (p<0.0001) while no difference was found between CT and control subjects. Acylated and total ghrelin were found increased in AN. Acylated ghrelin/obestatin and total ghrelin/obestatin were found decreased in AN compared to CT or C subjects (p<0.05). The percentage of acylated ghrelin was found decreased in CT group (p<0.05). The decreased ghrelin/obestatin ratio found in AN might participate in the restraint in nutriment intake of these patients. In contrast, in CT a lower percentage of acylated over total ghrelin might be considered in the aetiology of this condition.

  10. Altered lipid and salt taste responsivity in ghrelin and GOAT null mice.

    PubMed

    Cai, Huan; Cong, Wei-Na; Daimon, Caitlin M; Wang, Rui; Tschöp, Matthias H; Sévigny, Jean; Martin, Bronwen; Maudsley, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Taste perception plays an important role in regulating food preference, eating behavior and energy homeostasis. Taste perception is modulated by a variety of factors, including gastric hormones such as ghrelin. Ghrelin can regulate growth hormone release, food intake, adiposity, and energy metabolism. Octanoylation of ghrelin by ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) is a specific post-translational modification which is essential for many biological activities of ghrelin. Ghrelin and GOAT are both widely expressed in many organs including the gustatory system. In the current study, overall metabolic profiles were assessed in wild-type (WT), ghrelin knockout (ghrelin(-/-)), and GOAT knockout (GOAT(-/-)) mice. Ghrelin(-/-) mice exhibited decreased food intake, increased plasma triglycerides and increased ketone bodies compared to WT mice while demonstrating WT-like body weight, fat composition and glucose control. In contrast GOAT(-/-) mice exhibited reduced body weight, adiposity, resting glucose and insulin levels compared to WT mice. Brief access taste behavioral tests were performed to determine taste responsivity in WT, ghrelin(-/-) and GOAT(-/-) mice. Ghrelin and GOAT null mice possessed reduced lipid taste responsivity. Furthermore, we found that salty taste responsivity was attenuated in ghrelin(-/-) mice, yet potentiated in GOAT(-/-) mice compared to WT mice. Expression of the potential lipid taste regulators Cd36 and Gpr120 were reduced in the taste buds of ghrelin and GOAT null mice, while the salt-sensitive ENaC subunit was increased in GOAT(-/-) mice compared with WT mice. The altered expression of Cd36, Gpr120 and ENaC may be responsible for the altered lipid and salt taste perception in ghrelin(-/-) and GOAT(-/-) mice. The data presented in the current study potentially implicates ghrelin signaling activity in the modulation of both lipid and salt taste modalities.

  11. Altered distribution of Ghrelin protein in mice molar development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Han, Xiuchun; Feng, Wei; Cui, Jian; Hasegawa, Tomoka; Amizuka, Norio; Xu, Xin; Li, Minqi

    2016-05-01

    Ghrelin, an appetite-stimulating hormone, plays diverse regulatory functions in cell growth, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis during mammalian development. There is limited information currently available regarding Ghrelin expression during mammalian tooth development, thus we aimed to establish the spatiotemporal expression of Ghrelin during murine molar odontogenesis. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the expression pattern of Ghrelin in mandible molar from E15.5 to PN7 during murine tooth development. The results showed that Ghrelin initially expressed in the inner enamel epithelium and the adjacent mesenchymal cells below, further with persistent expression in the ameloblasts and odontoblasts throughout the following developmental stages. In addition, Ghrelin was also present in Hertwig's epithelial root sheath at the beginning of tooth root formation. These results suggest that Ghrelin was present in tooth organs throughout the stages of tooth development, especially in ameloblasts and odontoblasts with little spatiotemporal expression differences. However, the potential regulatory roles of this hormone in tooth development still need to be validated by functional studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reduction in circulating ghrelin concentration after maturation does not affect food intake.

    PubMed

    Ariyasu, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Go; Iwakura, Hiroshi; Matsumura, Sigenobu; Inoue, Kazuo; Kangawa, Kenji; Nakao, Kazuwa; Akamizu, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Ghrelin has a potent orexigenic effect and induces adiposity when administered exogenously. Since plasma ghrelin levels rise before meals, ghrelin was thought to play a crucial role in the regulation of appetite. In contrast, mice deficient in the production of ghrelin or the corresponding receptor, GHS-R, do not eat less, throwing the role of ghrelin in the regulation of energy homeostasis into question. Since these mice lack ghrelin or GHS-R from the time of conception, the possibility that compensatory mechanisms may have arisen during development cannot be ruled out. In this study, we used a transgenic mouse model that expresses human diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor cDNA under the control of the ghrelin promoter (GPDTR-Tg mice). As previously reported, an injection of DT into this mouse model ablates ghrelin-secreting cells in the stomach but not in the hypothalamus, resulting in a reduction in circulating ghrelin levels. We used this model system to evaluate the physiological roles of circulating ghrelin in the regulation of food intake. Meal patterns, diurnal and nocturnal meal sizes, and cumulative food intake of DT-treated GPDTR-Tg mice were not affected, although circulating ghrelin levels markedly decreased even after fasting. These mice also displayed normal responses to starvation; however, the use of fat increased and slower weight gain when maintained on a high fat diet was observed. Together, these data suggest that circulating ghrelin does not play a crucial role in feeding behavior, but rather is involved in maintaining body weight.

  13. Postprandial Total Ghrelin Suppression Is Modulated by Melanocortin Signaling in Humans

    PubMed Central

    van der Klaauw, Agatha A.; Keogh, Julia M.; Henning, Elana; Blackwood, Anthea; Haqq, Andrea M.; Purnell, Jonathan Q.

    2013-01-01

    Contents: Ghrelin is implicated in meal initiation because circulating levels increase before and fall after meal consumption. In rodents, ghrelin stimulates food intake via hypothalamic circuits expressing the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R). Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of central melanocortinergic tone on ghrelin secretion in humans. Design/Setting/Patients/Main Outcome Measure: We measured plasma total ghrelin before and after 3 standardized meals in patients with MC4R mutations and obese and lean controls. Fasting total ghrelin, area under the curve, and early (30-min) and intermeal postprandial total ghrelin suppression (the percentage difference between the premeal and the 30-min postprandial or intermeal nadir total ghrelin concentration) were calculated. Results: Fasting total ghrelin concentrations and area under the curve for total ghrelin concentrations were significantly decreased in both obese groups compared to lean controls (fasting total ghrelin: lean controls, 1083 ± 203 pg/ml; and obese controls, 696 ± 81 pg/ml; MC4R: 609 ± 99 pg/ml, P < .05). Early and intermeal postprandial total ghrelin suppression was attenuated in MC4R-deficient patients compared to lean controls (P < .05); a similar pattern was observed for early postprandial suppression in comparison with obese controls, but this difference did not reach statistical significance (P = .09). Conclusions: These findings are consistent with a role for central melanocortinergic signaling in modulating meal-related total ghrelin suppression. PMID:23316086

  14. Reduced ghrelin secretion in the hypothalamus of rats due to cisplatin-induced anorexia.

    PubMed

    Yakabi, Koji; Sadakane, Chiharu; Noguchi, Masamichi; Ohno, Shino; Ro, Shoki; Chinen, Katsuya; Aoyama, Toru; Sakurada, Tomoya; Takabayashi, Hideaki; Hattori, Tomohisa

    2010-08-01

    Although chemotherapy with cisplatin is a widely used and effective cancer treatment, the undesirable gastrointestinal side effects associated with it, such as nausea, vomiting, and anorexia, markedly decrease patients' quality of life. To elucidate the mechanism underlying chemotherapy-induced anorexia, focusing on the hypothalamic ghrelin secretion-anorexia association, we measured hypothalamic ghrelin secretion in fasted and cisplatin-treated rats. Hypothalamic ghrelin secretion changes after vagotomy or administration of cisplatin. Cisplatin + rikkunshito, a serotonin 2C receptor antagonist or serotonin 3 receptor antagonist, was investigated. The effects of intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of ghrelin or the serotonin 2C receptor antagonist SB242084 on food intake were also evaluated in cisplatin-treated rats. Hypothalamic ghrelin secretion significantly increased in 24-h-fasted rats compared to freely fed rats and was markedly reduced 24 and 48 h after cisplatin treatment in cisplatin-treated rats compared to saline-treated rats, although their plasma ghrelin levels were comparable. In cisplatin-treated rats, icv ghrelin administration reversed the decrease in food intake, vagotomy partially restored hypothalamic ghrelin secretion, and hypothalamic serotonin 2C receptor mRNA expression increased significantly. Administration of rikkunshito (an endogenous ghrelin enhancer) or a serotonin 2C receptor antagonist reversed the decrease in hypothalamic ghrelin secretion and food intake 24 h after cisplatin treatment. Cisplatin-induced anorexia is mediated through reduced hypothalamic ghrelin secretion. Cerebral serotonin 2C receptor activation partially induces decrease in hypothalamic ghrelin secretion, and rikkunshito suppresses cisplatin-induced anorexia by enhancing this secretion.

  15. Fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) is linked to higher plasma levels of the hunger hormone ghrelin and lower serum levels of the satiety hormone leptin in older adults.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Christian; Axelsson, Tomas; Söderberg, Stefan; Larsson, Anders; Ingelsson, Erik; Lind, Lars; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2014-11-01

    The mechanisms through which common polymorphisms in the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) drive the development of obesity in humans are poorly understood. Using cross-sectional data from 985 older people (50% females) who participated at age 70 years in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS), circulating levels of ghrelin and leptin were measured after an overnight fast. In addition, subjects were genotyped for FTO rs17817449 (AA, n = 345 [35%]; AC/CA, n = 481 [48.8%]; CC, n = 159 [16.1%]). Linear regression analyses controlling for sex, self-reported physical activity level, fasting plasma glucose, and BMI were used. A positive relationship between the number of FTO C risk alleles and plasma ghrelin levels was found (P = 0.005; relative plasma ghrelin difference between CC and AA carriers = ∼ 9%). In contrast, serum levels of the satiety-enhancing hormone leptin were inversely linked to the number of FTO C risk alleles (P = 0.001; relative serum leptin difference between CC and AA carriers = ∼ 11%). These associations were also found when controlling for waist circumference. The present findings suggest that FTO may facilitate weight gain in humans by shifting the endocrine balance from the satiety hormone leptin toward the hunger-promoting hormone ghrelin.

  16. Human Lacrimal Gland Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Aakalu, Vinay Kumar; Parameswaran, Sowmya; Maienschein-Cline, Mark; Bahroos, Neil; Shah, Dhara; Ali, Marwan; Krishnakumar, Subramanian

    2017-01-01

    Background The study of human lacrimal gland biology and development is limited. Lacrimal gland tissue is damaged or poorly functional in a number of disease states including dry eye disease. Development of cell based therapies for lacrimal gland diseases requires a better understanding of the gene expression and signaling pathways in lacrimal gland. Differential gene expression analysis between lacrimal gland and other embryologically similar tissues may be helpful in furthering our understanding of lacrimal gland development. Methods We performed global gene expression analysis of human lacrimal gland tissue using Affymetrix ® gene expression arrays. Primary data from our laboratory was compared with datasets available in the NLM GEO database for other surface ectodermal tissues including salivary gland, skin, conjunctiva and corneal epithelium. Results The analysis revealed statistically significant difference in the gene expression of lacrimal gland tissue compared to other ectodermal tissues. The lacrimal gland specific, cell surface secretory protein encoding genes and critical signaling pathways which distinguish lacrimal gland from other ectodermal tissues are described. Conclusions Differential gene expression in human lacrimal gland compared with other ectodermal tissue types revealed interesting patterns which may serve as the basis for future studies in directed differentiation among other areas. PMID:28081151

  17. A circulating ghrelin mimetic attenuates light-induced phase delay of mice and light-induced Fos expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of rats.

    PubMed

    Yi, Chun-Xia; Challet, Etienne; Pévet, Paul; Kalsbeek, Andries; Escobar, Carolina; Buijs, Ruud M

    2008-04-01

    Anatomical evidence suggests that the ventromedial arcuate nucleus (vmARC) is a route for circulating hormonal communications to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Whether this vmARC-SCN connection is involved in the modulation of circadian activity of the SCN is not yet known. We recently demonstrated, in rats, that intravenous (i.v.) injection of a ghrelin mimetic, GHRP-6, during the daytime activated neurons in the vmARC and reduced the normal endogenous daytime Fos expression in the SCN. In the present study we show that i.v. administration of GHRP-6 decreases light-induced Fos expression at ZT13 in the rat SCN by 50%, indicating that light-induced changes in the SCN Fos expression can also be reduced by GHRP-6. Because it is difficult to study light-induced phase changes in rats, we examined the functional effects of GHRP-6 on light-induced phase shifts in mice and demonstrated that peripherally injected GHRP-6 attenuates light-induced phase delays at ZT13 by 45%. However, light-induced Fos expression in the mice SCN was not blocked by GHRP-6. These results illustrate that acute stimulation of the ghrelinergic system may modulate SCN activity, but that its effect on light-induced phase shifts and Fos expression in the SCN might be species related.

  18. Circulating ghrelin and ghrelin to obestatin ratio are low in patients with untreated mild-to-moderate hypertension.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhao-Feng; Guo, Zhi-Fu; Yang, Shu-Guang; Zheng, Xing; Cao, Jiang; Qin, Yong-Wen

    2010-12-10

    Obestatin, encoded by the same gene as ghrelin, was first described as a physiological opponent of ghrelin. We investigated fasting plasma ghrelin and obestatin levels and ratio of ghrelin to obestatin in humans with untreated mild-to-moderate hypertension and humans with normal blood pressure. We found that the plasma concentration of ghrelin and the ratio of ghrelin to obestatin were significantly lower in hypertension group compared with control group (236.3±12.3 pg/ml vs 381.4±25.6 pg/ml, P<0.01; 0.89±0.06 vs 1.2±0.06, P<0.01). The plasma concentration of obestatin was lower in hypertension group compared with control group, but the difference between the two groups was not significant (276.2±15.1 pg/ml vs 325.4±25.8 pg/ml, P>0.05). In a multiple regression model, systolic blood pressure, triglyceride and obestatin were independent predictors of ghrelin (standardized coefficient=-0.332; P=0.019; standardized coefficient=-0.302; P=0.030; standardized coefficient=0.630; P<0.0005, respectively). In another multiple regression model, only ghrelin was an independent predictor of obestatin (standardized coefficient=0.861; P<0.0005). Both systolic blood pressure and triglyceride were independent predictors of ratio of ghrelin to obestatin (standardized coefficient=-0.385; P=0.033; standardized coefficient=-0.430; P=0.018, respectively). Our data suggests that there are disturbances of ghrelin and obestatin in the circulating plasma of humans and the ghrelin/obestatin system might play a role in blood pressure regulation.

  19. Anxiolytic-Like Effects of Increased Ghrelin Receptor Signaling in the Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Morten; Ratner, Cecilia; Rudenko, Olga; Christiansen, Søren H.; Skov, Louise J.; Hundahl, Cecilie; Woldbye, David P.D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Besides the well-known effects of ghrelin on adiposity and food intake regulation, the ghrelin system has been shown to regulate aspects of behavior including anxiety and stress. However, the effect of virus-mediated overexpression of the ghrelin receptor in the amygdala has not previously been addressed directly. Methods: First, we examined the acute effect of peripheral ghrelin administration on anxiety- and depression-like behavior using the open field, elevated plus maze, forced swim, and tail suspension tests. Next, we examined the effect of peripheral ghrelin administration and ghrelin receptor deficiency on stress in a familiar and social environment using the Intellicage system. Importantly, we also used a novel approach to study ghrelin receptor signaling in the brain by overexpressing the ghrelin receptor in the amygdala. We examined the effect of ghrelin receptor overexpression on anxiety-related behavior before and after acute stress and measured the modulation of serotonin receptor expression. Results: We found that ghrelin caused an anxiolytic-like effect in both the open field and elevated plus maze tests. Additionally, it attenuated air-puff–induced stress in the social environment, while the opposite was shown in ghrelin receptor deficient mice. Finally, we found that overexpression of the ghrelin receptor in the basolateral division of the amygdala caused an anxiolytic-like effect and decreased the 5HT1a receptor expression. Conclusions: Ghrelin administration and overexpression of the ghrelin receptor in the amygdala induces anxiolytic-like behavior. Since the ghrelin receptor has high constitutive activity, ligand-independent signaling in vivo may be important for the observed anxiolytic-like effects. The anxiolytic effects seem to be mediated independently from the HPA axis, potentially engaging the central serotonin system. PMID:26578081

  20. Effect of heat stress on performance and expression of selected amino acid and glucose transporters, HSP90, leptin and ghrelin in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, Miguel; Cota, Margarita; Arce, Néstor; Castillo, Gilberto; Avelar, Ernesto; Espinoza, Salvador; Morales, Adriana

    2016-07-01

    Exposing animals to high ambient temperature provokes heat stress (HS) that may affect cellular function and reduced productive performance. The effect of chronic exposure (21d) of pigs to high ambient temperature on expression of amino acid (b(0,+)AT, CAT1) and glucose (SGLT1, GLUT4) transporters, ghrelin, leptin and HSP90 was evaluated. Eighteen pigs (32.6kg body weight) were distributed into 3 groups: (1) pigs housed under natural high ambient temperature conditions, and fed ad libitum (HS); (2) pigs housed in an air-conditioned room at 24°C (thermo-neutral) fed ad libitum (TNad); (3) pigs housed as in (2), but pair-fed with the HS pigs (TNpf). Body temperature, respiratory frequency, weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio were measured. At d-21 pigs were euthanized and samples from stomach, duodenum, jejunum, liver, longissimus and semitendinosus muscles, and white adipose tissue were collected for mRNA analysis. In the HS room ambient temperature fluctuated every day (23.6-37.6°C). Respiratory frequency and body temperature were higher in HS pigs (P<0.001). Weight gain and feed intake of TNad were higher (P<0.001) than TNpf and HS; gain: feed ratio was not affected by ambient temperature. Expression of HSP90 was higher in duodenum and longissimus (P≤0.038) of HS compared to TNpf. Expression of ghrelin, leptin and b(0,+)AT were not affected by ambient temperature (P>0.050). CAT1 expression in liver was higher (P=0.050) but in longissimus was lower (P=0.017) in HS than in TNpf pigs. Expression of SGLT1 was higher (P=0.045) in duodenum of HS than in TNpf but it was not different in jejunum (P=0.545); GLUT4 tended to be higher in liver and semitendinosus of HS pigs (P=0.063). In conclusion, feed intake remains low whereas respiratory frequency and body temperature remain higher; and expression of HSP90, CAT1, SGLT1 and GLUT4 increases in some tissues in pigs under chronic HS conditions.

  1. Anti-Obesity and Anti-Hyperglycemic Effects of Cinnamaldehyde via altered Ghrelin Secretion and Functional impact on Food Intake and Gastric Emptying

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Susana; Michlig, Stephanie; de Senarclens-Bezençon, Carole; Meylan, Jenny; Meystre, Julie; Pezzoli, Maurizio; Markram, Henry; le Coutre, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamon extract is associated to different health benefits but the active ingredients or pathways are unknown. Cinnamaldehyde (CIN) imparts the characteristic flavor to cinnamon and is known to be the main agonist of transient receptor potential-ankyrin receptor 1 (TRPA1). Here, expression of TRPA1 in epithelial mouse stomach cells is described. After receiving a single-dose of CIN, mice significantly reduce cumulative food intake and gastric emptying rates. Co-localization of TRPA1 and ghrelin in enteroendocrine cells of the duodenum is observed both in vivo and in the MGN3-1 cell line, a ghrelin secreting cell model, where incubation with CIN up-regulates expression of TRPA1 and Insulin receptor genes. Ghrelin secreted in the culture medium was quantified following CIN stimulation and we observe that octanoyl and total ghrelin are significantly lower than in control conditions. Additionally, obese mice fed for five weeks with CIN-containing diet significantly reduce their cumulative body weight gain and improve glucose tolerance without detectable modification of insulin secretion. Finally, in adipose tissue up-regulation of genes related to fatty acid oxidation was observed. Taken together, the results confirm anti-hyperglycemic and anti-obesity effects of CIN opening a new approach to investigate how certain spice derived compounds regulate endogenous ghrelin release for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25605129

  2. Anti-obesity and anti-hyperglycemic effects of cinnamaldehyde via altered ghrelin secretion and functional impact on food intake and gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Susana; Michlig, Stephanie; de Senarclens-Bezençon, Carole; Meylan, Jenny; Meystre, Julie; Pezzoli, Maurizio; Markram, Henry; le Coutre, Johannes

    2015-01-21

    Cinnamon extract is associated to different health benefits but the active ingredients or pathways are unknown. Cinnamaldehyde (CIN) imparts the characteristic flavor to cinnamon and is known to be the main agonist of transient receptor potential-ankyrin receptor 1 (TRPA1). Here, expression of TRPA1 in epithelial mouse stomach cells is described. After receiving a single-dose of CIN, mice significantly reduce cumulative food intake and gastric emptying rates. Co-localization of TRPA1 and ghrelin in enteroendocrine cells of the duodenum is observed both in vivo and in the MGN3-1 cell line, a ghrelin secreting cell model, where incubation with CIN up-regulates expression of TRPA1 and Insulin receptor genes. Ghrelin secreted in the culture medium was quantified following CIN stimulation and we observe that octanoyl and total ghrelin are significantly lower than in control conditions. Additionally, obese mice fed for five weeks with CIN-containing diet significantly reduce their cumulative body weight gain and improve glucose tolerance without detectable modification of insulin secretion. Finally, in adipose tissue up-regulation of genes related to fatty acid oxidation was observed. Taken together, the results confirm anti-hyperglycemic and anti-obesity effects of CIN opening a new approach to investigate how certain spice derived compounds regulate endogenous ghrelin release for therapeutic intervention.

  3. Ghrelin receptor activity amplifies hippocampal N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-mediated postsynaptic currents and increases phosphorylation of the GluN1 subunit at Ser896 and Ser897.

    PubMed

    Muniz, Brandon G; Isokawa, Masako

    2015-12-01

    Although ghrelin and its cognate receptor growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR1a) are highly localized in the hypothalamic nuclei for the regulation of metabolic states and feeding, GHSR1a is also highly localized in the hippocampus, suggesting its involvement in extra-hypothalamic functions. Indeed, exogenous application of ghrelin has been reported to improve hippocampal learning and memory. However, the underlying mechanism of ghrelin regulation of hippocampal functions is poorly understood. Here, we report ghrelin-promoted phosphorylation of GluN1 and amplified N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents in the CA1 pyramidal cells of the hippocampus in slice preparations. The ghrelin-induced responses were sensitive to a GHSR1a antagonist and inverse agonist, and were absent in GHSR1a homozygous knock-out mice. These results indicated that activation of GHSR1a was critical in the ghrelin-induced enhancement of the NMDAR function. Interestingly, heterozygous mouse hippocampi were also insensitive to ghrelin treatment, suggesting that a slight reduction in the availability of GHSR1a may be sufficient to negate the effect of ghrelin on GluN1 phosphorylation and NMDAR channel activities. In addition, NMDAR-mediated spike currents, which are of dendritic origin, were blocked by the GHSR1a antagonist, suggesting the presence of GHSR1a on the pyramidal cell dendrites in physical proximity to NMDAR. Together with our findings on the localization of GHSR1a in the CA1 region of the hippocampus, which was shown by fluorescent ghrelin binding, immunoreactivity, and enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter gene expression, we conclude that the activation of GHSR1a favours rapid modulation of the NMDAR-mediated glutamatergic synaptic transmission by phosphorylating GluN1 in the hippocampus. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Tuning noise in gene expression.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Sanjay

    2015-05-05

    The relative contribution of promoter architecture and the associated chromatin environment in regulating gene expression noise has remained elusive. In their recent work, Arkin, Schaffer and colleagues (Dey et al, 2015) show that mean expression and noise for a given promoter at different genomic loci are uncorrelated and influenced by the local chromatin environment.

  5. Monoallelic Gene Expression in Mammals.

    PubMed

    Chess, Andrew

    2016-11-23

    Monoallelic expression not due to cis-regulatory sequence polymorphism poses an intriguing problem in epigenetics because it requires the unequal treatment of two segments of DNA that are present in the same nucleus and that can indeed have absolutely identical sequences. Here, I focus on a few recent developments in the field of monoallelic expression that are of particular interest and raise interesting questions for future work. One development is regarding analyses of imprinted genes, in which recent work suggests the possibility that intriguing networks of imprinted genes exist and are important for genetic and physiological studies. Another issue that has been raised in recent years by a number of publications is the question of how skewed allelic expression should be for it to be designated as monoallelic expression and, further, what methods are appropriate or inappropriate for analyzing genomic data to examine allele-specific expression. Perhaps the most exciting recent development in mammalian monoallelic expression is a clever and carefully executed analysis of genetic diversity of autosomal genes subject to random monoallelic expression (RMAE), which provides compelling evidence for distinct evolutionary forces acting on random monoallelically expressed genes.

  6. Postprandial inhibition of gastric ghrelin secretion by long-chain fatty acid through GPR120 in isolated gastric ghrelin cells and mice

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xinping; Zhao, Xilin; Feng, Jianying; Liou, Alice P.; Anthony, Shari; Pechhold, Susanne; Sun, Yuxiang; Lu, Huiyan

    2012-01-01

    Ghrelin is a gastric peptide hormone that controls appetite and energy homeostasis. Plasma ghrelin levels rise before a meal and fall quickly thereafter. Elucidation of the regulation of ghrelin secretion has been hampered by the difficulty of directly interrogating ghrelin cells diffusely scattered within the complex gastric mucosa. Therefore, we generated transgenic mice with ghrelin cell expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) to enable characterization of ghrelin secretion in a pure population of isolated gastric ghrelin-expressing GFP (Ghr-GFP) cells. Using quantitative RT-PCR and immunofluorescence staining, we detected a high level of expression of the long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) receptor GPR120, while the other LCFA receptor, GPR40, was undetectable. In short-term-cultured pure Ghr-GFP cells, the LCFAs docosadienoic acid, linolenic acid, and palmitoleic acid significantly suppressed ghrelin secretion. The physiological mechanism of LCFA inhibition on ghrelin secretion was studied in mice. Serum ghrelin levels were transiently suppressed after gastric gavage of LCFA-rich lipid in mice with pylorus ligation, indicating that the ghrelin cell may directly sense increased gastric LCFA derived from ingested intraluminal lipids. Meal-induced increase in gastric mucosal LCFA was assessed by measuring the transcripts of markers for tissue uptake of LCFA, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid translocase (CD36), glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored HDL-binding protein 1, and nuclear fatty acid receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ. Quantitative RT-PCR studies indicate significantly increased mRNA levels of lipoprotein lipase, glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored HDL-binding protein 1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ in postprandial gastric mucosa. These results suggest that meal-related increases in gastric mucosal LCFA interact with GPR120 on ghrelin cells to inhibit ghrelin secretion. PMID:22678998

  7. Mediation of oxidative stress in hypothalamic ghrelin-associated appetite control in rats treated with phenylpropanolamine.

    PubMed

    Yu, C-H; Chu, S-C; Chen, P-N; Hsieh, Y-S; Kuo, D-Y

    2017-04-01

    Phenylpropanolamine (PPA)-induced appetite control is associated with oxidative stress in the hypothalamus. This study explored whether hypothalamic antioxidants participated in hypothalamic ghrelin system-associated appetite control in PPA-treated rats. Rats were given PPA daily for 4 days, and changes in food intake and the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY), the cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), superoxide dismutase, catalase, ghrelin, acyl ghrelin (AG), ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) and the ghrelin receptor (GHSR1a) were examined and compared. Results showed that both food intake and the expression of NPY and ghrelin/AG/GOAT/GHSR1a decreased in response to PPA treatment with maximum decrease on Day 2 of the treatment. In contrast, the expression of antioxidants and CART increased, with the maximum increase on Day 2, with the expression opposite to that of NPY and ghrelin. A cerebral infusion of either a GHSR1a antagonist or reactive oxygen species scavenger modulated feeding behavior and NPY, CART, antioxidants and ghrelin system expression, showing the involvement of ghrelin signaling and oxidative stress in regulating PPA-mediated appetite control. We suggest that hypothalamic ghrelin signaling system, with the help of antioxidants, may participate in NPY/CART-mediated appetite control in PPA-treated rats.

  8. Ghrelin system in alcohol-dependent subjects: role of plasma ghrelin levels in alcohol drinking and craving

    PubMed Central

    Leggio, Lorenzo; Ferrulli, Anna; Cardone, Silvia; Nesci, Antonio; Miceli, Antonio; Malandrino, Noemi; Capristo, Esmeralda; Canestrelli, Benedetta; Monteleone, Palmiero; Kenna, George A.; Swift, Robert M.; Addolorato, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Animal studies suggest that the gut-brain peptide ghrelin plays an important role in the neurobiology of alcohol dependence (AD). Human studies show an effect of alcohol on ghrelin levels and a correlation between ghrelin levels and alcohol craving in alcoholics. This investigation consisted of two studies. Study 1 was a 12-week study with alcohol-dependent subjects, where plasma ghrelin determinations were assessed four times (T0-T3) and related to alcohol intake and craving [Penn Alcohol Craving Score (PACS) and Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS)]. Serum growth hormone (GH) levels and assessment of the nutritional/metabolic status were also performed. Study 2 was a pilot case-control study to assess ghrelin gene polymorphisms (Arg51Gln and Leu72Met) in alcohol-dependent individuals. Study 1 showed no significant differences in ghrelin levels in the whole sample, while there was a statistical difference for ghrelin between non-abstinent and abstinent subjects. Baseline ghrelin levels were significantly and positively correlated with the PACS score at T1 and with all craving scores both at T2 and T3 (PACS, OCDS, obsessive and compulsive OCDS subscores). In Study 2, although there was a higher frequency of the Leu72Met ghrelin gene polymorphism in alcohol-dependent individuals, the distribution between healthy controls and alcohol dependent individuals was not statistically significant. This investigation suggests that ghrelin is potentially able to affect alcohol-seeking behaviors, such as alcohol drinking and craving, representing a new potential neuropharmacological target for AD. PMID:21392177

  9. Molecular evolution of GPCRs: Ghrelin/ghrelin receptors.

    PubMed

    Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Kangawa, Kenji; Miyazato, Mikiya

    2014-06-01

    After the discovery in 1996 of the GH secretagogue-receptor type-1a (GHS-R1a) as an orphan G-protein coupled receptor, many research groups attempted to identify the endogenous ligand. Finally, Kojima and colleagues successfully isolated the peptide ligand from rat stomach extracts, determined its structure, and named it ghrelin. The GHS-R1a is now accepted to be the ghrelin receptor. The existence of the ghrelin system has been demonstrated in many animal classes through biochemical and molecular biological strategies as well as through genome projects. Our work, focused on identifying the ghrelin receptor and its ligand ghrelin in laboratory animals, particularly nonmammalian vertebrates, has provided new insights into the molecular evolution of the ghrelin receptor. In mammals, it is assumed that the ghrelin receptor evolution is in line with the plate tectonics theory. In contrast, the evolution of the ghrelin receptor in nonmammalian vertebrates differs from that of mammals: multiplicity of the ghrelin receptor isoforms is observed in nonmammalian vertebrates only. This multiplicity is due to genome duplication and polyploidization events that particularly occurred in Teleostei. Furthermore, it is likely that the evolution of the ghrelin receptor is distinct from that of its ligand, ghrelin, because only one ghrelin isoform has been detected in all species examined so far. In this review, we summarize current knowledge related to the molecular evolution of the ghrelin receptor in mammalian and nonmammalian vertebrates. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

  10. An Integrative Review on Role and Mechanisms of Ghrelin in Stress, Anxiety and Depression.

    PubMed

    Bali, Anjana; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2016-01-01

    Ghrelin is orexigenic hormone primarily synthesized by endocrine X/A-like cells of gastric oxyntic mucosa to stimulate appetite and food intake along with regulation of growth hormone and insulin secretion; glucose and lipid metabolism; gastrointestinal motility; blood pressure, heart rate and neurogenesis. Furthermore, peripherally (after crossing the blood brain barrier) as well as centrally synthesized ghrelin (in the hypothalamus) regulates diverse functions of central nervous system including stress-associated behavioral functions. Exposure to stress alters the ghrelin levels and alteration in ghrelin levels significantly affects neuro-endocrinological parameters; metabolism-related physiology, behavior and mood. Studies have shown both anxiolytic and anxiogenic role of ghrelin suggesting its dual role in modulating anxiety-related behavior. However, it is proposed that increase in ghrelin levels during stress condition is an endogenous stress coping behavior and increased ghrelin levels may be required to prevent excessive anxiety. In preclinical and clinical studies, an elevation in ghrelin levels during depression has been correlated with their antidepressant activities. Ghrelin-induced modulation of stress and associated conditions has been linked to alteration in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis; autonomic nervous system (mainly sympathetic nervous system and serotonergic neurotransmission. A reciprocal relationship has been reported between corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and ghrelin as ghrelin increases the release of CRH, ACTH and corticosteroids; while CRH decreases the expression of ghrelin. Similarly, ghrelin increases the serotonin turnover and in turn, serotonin controls ghrelin signaling to modulate anxiety-related behavior. The present review discusses the dual role of ghrelin in stress and related behavioral disorders along with possible mechanisms.

  11. A role of ghrelin in canine mammary carcinoma cells proliferation, apoptosis and migration

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ghrelin is a natural ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). They are often co-expressed in multiple human tumors and related cancer cell lines what can indicate that the ghrelin/GHS-R axis may have an important role in tumor growth and progression. However, a role of ghrelin in canine tumors remains unknown. Thus, the aim of our study was two-fold: (1) to assess expression of ghrelin and its receptor in canine mammary cancer and (2) to examine the effect of ghrelin on carcinoma cells proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion. The expression of ghrelin and its receptor in canine mammary cancer tissues and cell lines (isolated from primary tumors and their metastases) was examined using Real-time qPCR and immunohistochemistry. For apoptosis analysis the Annexin V and propidium iodide dual staining was applied whereas cell proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay and BrdU incorporation test. The influence of ghrelin on cancer cells migration and invasion was assessed using Boyden chamber assays and wound healing assay. Results The highest expression of ghrelin was observed in metastatic cancers whereas the lowest expression of ghrelin receptor was detected in tumors of the 3rd grade of malignancy. Higher expression of ghrelin and its receptor was detected in cancer cell lines isolated from metastases than in cell lines isolated from primary tumors. In vitro experiments demonstrated that exposure to low doses of ghrelin stimulates cellular proliferation, inhibits apoptosis and promotes motility and invasion of canine mammary cancer cells. Growth hormone secretagogue receptor inhibitor ([D-Lys3]-GHRP6) as well as RNA interference enhances early apoptosis. Conclusion The presence of ghrelin and GHS-R in all of the examined canine mammary tumors may indicate their biological role in cancer growth and development. Our experiments conducted in vitro confirmed that ghrelin promotes cancer development and metastasis. PMID:22999388

  12. Blunted hypothalamic ghrelin signaling reduces diet intake in rats fed a low-protein diet in late pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gao, Haijun; Sisley, Stephanie; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2015-12-01

    Diet intake in pregnant rats fed a low-protein (LP) diet was significantly reduced during late pregnancy despite elevated plasma levels of ghrelin. In this study, we hypothesized that ghrelin signaling in the hypothalamus is blunted under a low-protein diet condition and therefore, it does not stimulate diet intake during late pregnancy. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal (CT) or LP diet from Day 1 of pregnancy. On Day 21, 0.5 μg ghrelin was given into the third ventricle (ICV). Diet and water intake at 30, 60, and 120 min after ICV injection was measured. Hypothalami were dissected and analyzed for expression of genes related to appetite regulation (Npy, Agrp, Pomc and Cart) and phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC proteins (downstream proteins of ghrelin receptor activation). Results include: In response to ICV injection of ghrelin, (1) diet intake was significantly lower in LP compared to CT rats; (2) water intake was not affected in LP rats; (3) expression of Npy and Agrp, but not Pomc and Cart, were higher in the hypothalamus of LP compared to CT rats; (4) the abundance of phosphorylated AMPK and the ratio of phosphorylated to total AMPK, but not the abundance of total AMPK, were lower in LP compared to CT rats; (5) the abundance of phosphorylated ACC, but not total ACC, was lower in LP rats. These findings suggest that blunted ghrelin signaling in the hypothalamus of pregnant rats fed a LP diet leads to reduced diet intake and exacerbates gestational protein insufficiency.

  13. Ghrelin stimulates angiogenesis in human microvascular endothelial cells: Implications beyond GH release

    SciTech Connect

    Li Aihua; Cheng Guangli; Zhu Genghui; Tarnawski, Andrzej S. . E-mail: atarnawski@yahoo.com

    2007-02-09

    Ghrelin, a peptide hormone isolated from the stomach, releases growth hormone and stimulates appetite. Ghrelin is also expressed in pancreas, kidneys, cardiovascular system and in endothelial cells. The precise role of ghrelin in endothelial cell functions remains unknown. We examined the expression of ghrelin and its receptor (GHSR1) mRNAs and proteins in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC) and determined whether ghrelin affects in these cells proliferation, migration and in vitro angiogenesis; and whether MAPK/ERK2 signaling is important for the latter action. We found that ghrelin and GHSR1 are constitutively expressed in HMVEC. Treatment of HMVEC with exogenous ghrelin significantly increased in these cells proliferation, migration, in vitro angiogenesis and ERK2 phosphorylation. MEK/ERK2 inhibitor, PD 98059 abolished ghrelin-induced in vitro angiogenesis. This is First demonstration that ghrelin and its receptor are expressed in human microvascular endothelial cells and that ghrelin stimulates HMVEC proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis through activation of ERK2 signaling.

  14. Differential effects of methamphetamine on expression of neuropeptide Y mRNA in hypothalamus and on serum leptin and ghrelin concentrations in ad libitum-fed and schedule-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Crowley, W R; Ramoz, G; Keefe, K A; Torto, R; Kalra, S P; Hanson, G R

    2005-01-01

    Relatively little is known concerning the interaction of psychostimulants with hypothalamic neuropeptide systems or metabolic hormones implicated in regulation of energy balance. The present studies tested whether methamphetamine alters the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AgRP), two important orexigenic neuropeptides, or proopiomelanocortin (POMC), the precursor for the anorexigenic peptide alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, or the secretion of leptin, insulin and ghrelin, concomitant with inhibition of food intake. Female rats were either fed ad libitum (AL) or placed on a scheduled feeding (SF) regimen, with access to food limited to 4 h/day. Administration of (+/-)-methamphetamine (7.5 mg/kg, i.p.) 2 h prior to food presentation significantly inhibited food intake in SF animals, but did not affect intake in AL animals. In a separate study, AL and SF animals were killed just prior to expected food presentation, and expression of NPY, AgRP and POMC mRNAs in hypothalamus was determined using in situ hybridisation; concentrations of leptin, insulin and ghrelin in serum were determined with radioimmunoassays. In saline-treated, SF controls, NPY and AgRP mRNA expression in arcuate nucleus and serum ghrelin were significantly elevated, and serum leptin and insulin were significantly reduced. Methamphetamine reversed the up-regulation of NPY mRNA expression observed in the SF condition, without affecting AgRP mRNA or the serum concentrations of metabolic hormones. However, in AL animals, NPY mRNA expression in arcuate and dorsomedial nuclei was significantly increased by methamphetamine, which also reduced serum leptin and insulin and increased serum ghrelin concentrations. These findings suggest that the inhibition of NPY expression in SF animals may be a mechanism underlying the anorexigenic effect of methamphetamine seen in this condition. The increase in NPY expression produced by methamphetamine in AL animals may be mediated by the

  15. Ghrelin and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Ezquerro, Silvia; Frühbeck, Gema; Rodríguez, Amaia

    2017-09-01

    A compromised autophagy is associated with the onset of obesity, type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Our aim is to review the potential role of ghrelin, a gut hormone involved in energy homeostasis, in the regulation of autophagy. In the recent years, it has been demonstrated that autophagy constitutes an important mechanism by which ghrelin exerts a plethora of central and peripheral actions. Ghrelin enhances autophagy through the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in different target organs to regulate lipid and glucose metabolism, the remodeling and protection of small intestine mucosa, protection against cardiac ischemia as well as higher brain functions such as learning and memory consolidation. Nonetheless, in inflammatory states, such as acute hepatitis, liver fibrosis or adipose tissue inflammation, ghrelin acts as an anti-inflammatory factor reducing the autophagic flux to prevent further cell injury. Interestingly, several cardiometabolic disorders, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or chronic heart failure are accompanied by low ghrelin levels in addition to altered autophagy. Ghrelin represents an attractive target for development of therapeutics for prevention or treatment of metabolic, cardiac or neuronal disorders, in which autophagy is impaired.

  16. [Ghrelin: beyond hunger regulation].

    PubMed

    Milke García, Maria del Pilar

    2005-01-01

    Man ingests food to mitigate hunger (mediated by physiological and biochemical signals), satisfy appetite (subjective sensation) and because of psychosocial reasons. Satiation biomarkers (stop feeding) are gastric distention and hormones (CCK, GLP-1) and satiety biomarkers (induce feeding) are food-induced thermogenesis, body temperature, glycaemia and also hormones (insulin, leptin and ghrelin). Oxidative metabolism/body composition, tryptophan/serotonin and proinflammatory cytokines are also implicated on hunger physiology. At the present time, ghrelin is the only known circulating orexigenic with potential on hunger/body weight regulation. It is a neuropeptide (endogenous ligand for the GH secretagogue) recently isolated from the oxyntic mucosa and synthesized mainly in the stomach. Its blood concentration depends on diet, hyperglucemia and adiposity/leptin. It is secreted 1-2 hours preprandially and its concentration decreases drastically during the postprandium. Ghrelin acts on the lateral hypothalamus and theoretically inhibits proinflammatory cytokine secretion and antagonizes leptin. Ghrelin physiologically increases food intake and stimulates adipogenesis, gastrointestinal motility and gastric acid secretion, and has other hormonal and cardiovascular functions. Ghrelin blood concentration is reduced in massive obesity, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, polycystic ovary syndrome, acromegaly, hypogonadism, ageing, short bowel syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis; and increased in primary or secondary anorexia, starvation, chronic liver disease and celiac disease. Cerebral and peritoneal ghrelin administration (rats) and systemic administration (rats and healthy volunteers, cancer patients or patients on peritoneal dialysis) promotes food consumption and increases adiposity, of utmost importance in the treatment of patients with anorexia.

  17. In1-ghrelin splicing variant is overexpressed in pituitary adenomas and increases their aggressive features

    PubMed Central

    Ibáñez-Costa, Alejandro; Gahete, Manuel D.; Rivero-Cortés, Esther; Rincón-Fernández, David; Nelson, Richard; Beltrán, Manuel; de la Riva, Andrés; Japón, Miguel A.; Venegas-Moreno, Eva; Gálvez, Ma Ángeles; García-Arnés, Juan A.; Soto-Moreno, Alfonso; Morgan, Jennifer; Tsomaia, Natia; Culler, Michael D.; Dieguez, Carlos; Castaño, Justo P.; Luque, Raúl M.

    2015-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas comprise a heterogeneous subset of pathologies causing serious comorbidities, which would benefit from identification of novel, common molecular/cellular biomarkers and therapeutic targets. The ghrelin system has been linked to development of certain endocrine-related cancers. Systematic analysis of the presence and functional implications of some components of the ghrelin system, including native ghrelin, receptors and the recently discovered splicing variant In1-ghrelin, in human normal pituitaries (n = 11) and pituitary adenomas (n = 169) revealed that expression pattern of ghrelin system suffers a clear alteration in pituitary adenomasas comparedwith normal pituitary, where In1-ghrelin is markedly overexpressed. Interestingly, in cultured pituitary adenoma cells In1-ghrelin treatment (acylated peptides at 100 nM; 24–72 h) increased GH and ACTH secretion, Ca2+ and ERK1/2 signaling and cell viability, whereas In1-ghrelin silencing (using a specific siRNA; 100 nM) reduced cell viability. These results indicate that an alteration of the ghrelin system, specially its In1-ghrelin variant, could contribute to pathogenesis of different pituitary adenomas types, and suggest that this variant and its related ghrelin system could provide new tools to identify novel, more general diagnostic, prognostic and potential therapeutic targets in pituitary tumors. PMID:25737012

  18. In1-ghrelin splicing variant is overexpressed in pituitary adenomas and increases their aggressive features.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez-Costa, Alejandro; Gahete, Manuel D; Rivero-Cortés, Esther; Rincón-Fernández, David; Nelson, Richard; Beltrán, Manuel; de la Riva, Andrés; Japón, Miguel A; Venegas-Moreno, Eva; Gálvez, Ma Ángeles; García-Arnés, Juan A; Soto-Moreno, Alfonso; Morgan, Jennifer; Tsomaia, Natia; Culler, Michael D; Dieguez, Carlos; Castaño, Justo P; Luque, Raúl M

    2015-03-04

    Pituitary adenomas comprise a heterogeneous subset of pathologies causing serious comorbidities, which would benefit from identification of novel, common molecular/cellular biomarkers and therapeutic targets. The ghrelin system has been linked to development of certain endocrine-related cancers. Systematic analysis of the presence and functional implications of some components of the ghrelin system, including native ghrelin, receptors and the recently discovered splicing variant In1-ghrelin, in human normal pituitaries (n = 11) and pituitary adenomas (n = 169) revealed that expression pattern of ghrelin system suffers a clear alteration in pituitary adenomasas compared with normal pituitary, where In1-ghrelin is markedly overexpressed. Interestingly, in cultured pituitary adenoma cells In1-ghrelin treatment (acylated peptides at 100 nM; 24-72 h) increased GH and ACTH secretion, Ca(2+) and ERK1/2 signaling and cell viability, whereas In1-ghrelin silencing (using a specific siRNA; 100 nM) reduced cell viability. These results indicate that an alteration of the ghrelin system, specially its In1-ghrelin variant, could contribute to pathogenesis of different pituitary adenomas types, and suggest that this variant and its related ghrelin system could provide new tools to identify novel, more general diagnostic, prognostic and potential therapeutic targets in pituitary tumors.

  19. The effect of ghrelin on cell proliferation in small intestinal IEC-6 cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huafang; Xu, Guoxiong; Fan, Xiaoming

    2013-04-01

    Recent evidence demonstrates that ghrelin, a short orexigenic peptide from the stomach, has dual effects on cell proliferation in different cell types via autocrine and/or paracrine mechanisms. The aim of this study is to investigate the proliferative role of ghrelin in intestinal epithelial IEC-6 cells and explore underlying mechanism. RT-PCR was used for the detection of growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a. Cell proliferation was measured using Cell Counting Kit-8. Protein expression of ERK 1/2 and Akt was examined using western blotting. Inhibitors of mitogen activated protein kinases kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase were used to evaluate the role of these signalling pathways in ghrelin-induced proliferation of IEC-6 cells. Growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a mRNA was present in IEC-6 cells. Ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin increased IEC-6 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin activated ERK1/2, but not Akt. U0126, a specific inhibitor of mitogen activated protein kinases kinase, blocked ghrelin- and des-acyl ghrelin-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation and cell proliferation in IEC-6 cells. Ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin stimulate the proliferation of IEC-6 cells via the ERK1/2 pathway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Differential gene expression in glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Jakobs, Tatjana C

    2014-07-01

    In glaucoma, regardless of its etiology, retinal ganglion cells degenerate and eventually die. Although age and elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) are the main risk factors, there are still many mysteries in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. The advent of genome-wide microarray expression screening together with the availability of animal models of the disease has allowed analysis of differential gene expression in all parts of the eye in glaucoma. This review will outline the findings of recent genome-wide expression studies and discuss their commonalities and differences. A common finding was the differential regulation of genes involved in inflammation and immunity, including the complement system and the cytokines transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα). Other genes of interest have roles in the extracellular matrix, cell-matrix interactions and adhesion, the cell cycle, and the endothelin system.

  1. Differential Gene Expression in Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Jakobs, Tatjana C.

    2014-01-01

    In glaucoma, regardless of its etiology, retinal ganglion cells degenerate and eventually die. Although age and elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) are the main risk factors, there are still many mysteries in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. The advent of genome-wide microarray expression screening together with the availability of animal models of the disease has allowed analysis of differential gene expression in all parts of the eye in glaucoma. This review will outline the findings of recent genome-wide expression studies and discuss their commonalities and differences. A common finding was the differential regulation of genes involved in inflammation and immunity, including the complement system and the cytokines transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα). Other genes of interest have roles in the extracellular matrix, cell–matrix interactions and adhesion, the cell cycle, and the endothelin system. PMID:24985133

  2. Determination of ghrelin immunoreactivity in the rat stomach after fasting and refeeding.

    PubMed

    Sönmez, Mehmet Fatih; Ozan, Enver

    2007-01-01

    Ghrelin is a recently discovered hormone secreted by cells of the stomach. The aim of this study was to investigate fasting and refeeding induced alterations on ghrelin immunolabelling of cells of the stomach. Thirty-six adult male Wistar rats were used in this study. Rats were divided into six groups. Group I: control group; Group II: rats fasted for 7 days; Group III: rats fed for 1 day after 7 days of fasting; Group IV: rats fed for 3 days after 7 days of fasting; Group V: rats fed for 5 days after 7 days of fasting; Group VI: rats fed for 7 days after 7 days of fasting. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed and stomach tissues were processed for imunohistochemistry to localize ghrelin. Ghrelin-immunopositive cells were detected only in the mucosal lining of the stomach. After fasting for 7 days, the number of ghrelin-immunopositive cells increased significantly compared to the control rats. Following refeeding, the number of ghrelin-immunoreactive cells was reduced to a level comparable to the controls. Therefore, fasting and refeeding after fasting were observed to result in changes in ghrelin immunoreactivity in the cells of the stomach. We conclude that ghrelin is highly expressed in the stomach and that fasting increases the expression of ghrelin in the stomach, but this expression decreases after refeeding. Our results indicate that regulation of ghrelin is a process probably involved in the long-term control of nutritional states.

  3. Ghrelin produces antidepressant-like effect in the estrogen deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jie; Li, Bing Jin; Wang, Xue Feng; Zhong, Li Li; Cui, Ran Ji

    2017-08-29

    Recent evidence shows that ghrelin plays an important role in depression. However, it was little known whether ghrelin produces antidepressant-like effect in the ovariectomized mice. The present study was aimed to investigate the antidepressant-like effects of the ghrelin in ovariectomized mice. In the forced swim test, ghrelin significantly decreased immobility time, reversing the "depressive-like" effect observed in ovariectomized mice, and this effect was reversed by the tamoxifen. In addition, immunohistochemical study indicated that ghrelin treatment reversed the reductions in c-Fos expression induced by ovariectomy. An estrogen antagonist tamoxifen also antagonized the effect of ghrelin on the c-Fos expression. Furthermore, the western blotting indicated that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus, but not phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB)/CREB in the frontal cortex, were affected by ghrelin treatment. Ghrelin treatment significantly increased BrdU expression. Therefore, these findings suggest that ghrelin produces antidepressant-like effects in ovariectomized mice, and estrogen receptor may be involved in the antidepressant-like effects of the ghrelin.

  4. Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferl, Robert; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System (TAGES) investigation is one in a pair of investigations that use the Advanced Biological Research System (ABRS) facility. TAGES uses Arabidopsis thaliana, thale cress, with sensor promoter-reporter gene constructs that render the plants as biomonitors (an organism used to determine the quality of the surrounding environment) of their environment using real-time nondestructive Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) imagery and traditional postflight analyses.

  5. Identification, tissue distribution and functional characterization of the ghrelin receptor in West African lungfish, Protopterus annectens.

    PubMed

    Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Konno, Norifumi; Kangawa, Kenji; Uchiyama, Minoru; Miyazato, Mikiya

    2014-12-01

    We identified two ghrelin receptor isoforms, the ghrelin receptor type-1a (GHS-R1a) and its alternative splice form (GHS-R1b) for West African lungfish, Protopterus annectens. Lungfish GHS-R1a and 1b comprised 361 and 281 amino acids, respectively. Lungfish GHS-R1a showed the highest identity to coelacanth GHS-R1a (80.4%). The highest expression of GHS-R1a mRNAs was seen in the brain, liver, ovary, heart, intestine, and gills. GHS-R1b mRNAs were also detected in the same tissues with GHS-R1a, but their expression level was 1/20 that of GHS-R1a. In human embryonic kidney 293 cells transiently expressing lungfish GHS-R1a, rat and bullfrog ghrelin, and two GHS-R1a agonists, GHRP-6 and hexarelin, increased intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations. The intensity of the Ca(2+) increases induced by GHS-R1a agonists was twice when compared to that induced by ghrelin, although the median effective doses (ED50) were similar, suggesting a long-lasting effect of GHS-R1a agonists with similar affinity. We also examined changes in the GHS-R gene expression during an eight-week estivation. Body weight was slightly lowered, but plasma sodium and glucose concentrations decreased; plasma urea concentration increased significantly 4weeks after the start of estivation. Overall, expression of GHS-R1a mRNA decreased, but changes in GHS-R1b mRNA expression were inconsistent with those of GHS-R1a during estivation, suggesting an involvement of GHS-R in energy homeostasis, as seen in mammals. Our results suggest that the ghrelin-GHS-R1a system is present in this lungfish although ghrelin has not yet been found. The structure of GHS-R1a is closer to that of tetrapods than Actinopterygian fish, indicating a process of evolution that follows the Crossopterygii such as coelacanth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ghrelin improves vascular autophagy in rats with vascular calcification.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mingming; Liu, Lin; Song, Chenfang; Chen, Wei; Gui, Shuyan

    2017-06-15

    This study aimed to investigate whether ghrelin ameliorated vascular calcification (VC) through improving autophagy. VC model was induced by nicotine plus vitamin D3 in rats and β-glycerophosphate in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC). Calcium deposition was detected by von Kossa staining or alizarin red S staining. ALP activity was also detected. Western blot was used to assess the protein expression. Ghrelin treatment attenuated the elevation of calcium deposition and ALP activity in VC model both in vivo and in vitro. Interesting, the protein levels of autophagy markers, LC3 and beclin1 were significantly upregulated by ghrelin in VC model. An autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine blocks the ameliorative effect of ghrelin on VC. Furthermore, protein expressions of phosphate-AMPK were increased by ghrelin treatment both in calcified aorta and VSMC. The effect of ghrelin on autophagy induction and VC attenuation was prevented by AMPK inhibitor, compound C. Our results suggested that ghrelin improved autophagy through AMPK activation, which was resulted in VC amelioration. These data maybe throw light on prevention and therapy of VC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Stochastic Mechanisms in Gene Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAdams, Harley H.; Arkin, Adam

    1997-02-01

    In cellular regulatory networks, genetic activity is controlled by molecular signals that determine when and how often a given gene is transcribed. In genetically controlled pathways, the protein product encoded by one gene often regulates expression of other genes. The time delay, after activation of the first promoter, to reach an effective level to control the next promoter depends on the rate of protein accumulation. We have analyzed the chemical reactions controlling transcript initiation and translation termination in a single such ``genetically coupled'' link as a precursor to modeling networks constructed from many such links. Simulation of the processes of gene expression shows that proteins are produced from an activated promoter in short bursts of variable numbers of proteins that occur at random time intervals. As a result, there can be large differences in the time between successive events in regulatory cascades across a cell population. In addition, the random pattern of expression of competitive effectors can produce probabilistic outcomes in switching mechanisms that select between alternative regulatory paths. The result can be a partitioning of the cell population into different phenotypes as the cells follow different paths. There are numerous unexplained examples of phenotypic variations in isogenic populations of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells that may be the result of these stochastic gene expression mechanisms.

  8. Zipf's Law in Gene Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furusawa, Chikara; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2003-02-01

    Using data from gene expression databases on various organisms and tissues, including yeast, nematodes, human normal and cancer tissues, and embryonic stem cells, we found that the abundances of expressed genes exhibit a power-law distribution with an exponent close to -1; i.e., they obey Zipf’s law. Furthermore, by simulations of a simple model with an intracellular reaction network, we found that Zipf’s law of chemical abundance is a universal feature of cells where such a network optimizes the efficiency and faithfulness of self-reproduction. These findings provide novel insights into the nature of the organization of reaction dynamics in living cells.

  9. The atypical antipsychotic, olanzapine, potentiates ghrelin-induced receptor signaling: An in vitro study with cells expressing cloned human growth hormone secretagogue receptor.

    PubMed

    Tagami, Keita; Kashiwase, Yohei; Yokoyama, Akinobu; Nishimura, Hitomi; Miyano, Kanako; Suzuki, Masami; Shiraishi, Seiji; Matoba, Motohiro; Ohe, Yuichiro; Uezono, Yasuhito

    2016-08-01

    The growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) belongs to Gαq-coupled G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that mediates growth hormone release, food intake, appetite, glucose metabolism and body composition. Ghrelin has been identified as an endogenous ligand for GHS-R, and it is the only orexigenic peptide found in the peripheral organs. Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic agent that binds to and inhibits the activation of GPCR for several neurotransmitters, has metabolic side effects such as excessive appetite and weight gain. Recently, studies have revealed that the orexigenic mechanism of olanzapine is mediated via GHS-R signaling, although the precise mechanisms have not been clarified. In this study, we investigated the effect of olanzapine on ghrelin-mediated GHS-R signaling by using an electrical impedance-based receptor biosensor assay system (CellKey™). Olanzapine at concentrations of 10(-7) and 10(-6)mol/L enhanced ghrelin-induced (10(-10)-10(-8)mol/L) GHS-R activation. A Ca(2+) imaging assay revealed that olanzapine (10(-7) and 10(-6)mol/L) enhanced ghrelin (10(-7) M)-induced GHS-R activity. In contrast, haloperidol (an antipsychotic agent) failed to enhance this ghrelin-mediated GHS-R activation, as demonstrated by both the CellKey™ and Ca(2+) imaging assays. Together, these results suggest that olanzapine, but not haloperidol, promotes appetite by enhancing ghrelin-mediated GHS-R signaling.

  10. Transitional change in rat fetal cell proliferation in response to ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin during the last stage of pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Nakahara, Keiko; Kangawa, Kenji; Murakami, Noboru

    2010-03-12

    Expression of mRNA for the ghrelin receptor, GHS-R1a, was detected in various peripheral and central tissues of fetal rats, including skin, bone, heart, liver, gut, brain and spinal cord, on embryonic day (ED)15 and ED17. However, its expression in skin, bone, heart and liver, but not in gut, brain and spinal cord, became relatively weak on ED19 and disappeared after birth (ND2). Ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin facilitated the proliferation of cultured fetal (ED17, 19), but not neonatal (ND2), skin cells. On the other hand, with regard to cells from the spinal cord and hypothalamus, the proliferative effect of ghrelin continued after birth, whereas the effect of des-acyl ghrelin on neurogenesis in these tissues was lost at the ED19 fetal and ND2 neonatal stages. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the cells in the hypothalamus induced to proliferate by ghrelin at the ND2 stage were positive for nestin and glial fibrillary acidic protein. These results suggest that in the period immediately prior to, and after birth, rat fetal cells showing proliferation in response to ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin are at a transitional stage characterized by alteration of the expression of GHS-R1a and an undefined des-acyl ghrelin receptor, their responsiveness varying among different tissues.

  11. Neighboring Genes Show Correlated Evolution in Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Ghanbarian, Avazeh T; Hurst, Laurence D

    2015-07-01

    When considering the evolution of a gene's expression profile, we commonly assume that this is unaffected by its genomic neighborhood. This is, however, in contrast to what we know about the lack of autonomy between neighboring genes in gene expression profiles in extant taxa. Indeed, in all eukaryotic genomes genes of similar expression-profile tend to cluster, reflecting chromatin level dynamics. Does it follow that if a gene increases expression in a particular lineage then the genomic neighbors will also increase in their expression or is gene expression evolution autonomous? To address this here we consider evolution of human gene expression since the human-chimp common ancestor, allowing for both variation in estimation of current expression level and error in Bayesian estimation of the ancestral state. We find that in all tissues and both sexes, the change in gene expression of a focal gene on average predicts the change in gene expression of neighbors. The effect is highly pronounced in the immediate vicinity (<100 kb) but extends much further. Sex-specific expression change is also genomically clustered. As genes increasing their expression in humans tend to avoid nuclear lamina domains and be enriched for the gene activator 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, we conclude that, most probably owing to chromatin level control of gene expression, a change in gene expression of one gene likely affects the expression evolution of neighbors, what we term expression piggybacking, an analog of hitchhiking.

  12. Neonatal overfeeding disrupts pituitary ghrelin signalling in female rats long-term; Implications for the stress response

    PubMed Central

    Ziko, Ilvana; Spencer, Sarah J.

    2017-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to psychological stress are exacerbated in adult female but not male rats made obese due to overfeeding in early life. Ghrelin, traditionally known for its role in energy homeostasis, has been recently recognised for its role in coordinating the HPA responses to stress, particularly by acting directly at the anterior pituitary where the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), the receptor for acyl ghrelin, is abundantly expressed. We therefore hypothesised that neonatal overfeeding in female rats would compromise pituitary responsiveness to ghrelin, contributing to a hyperactive central stress responsiveness. Unlike in males where hypothalamic ghrelin signalling is compromised by neonatal overfeeding, there was no effect of early life diet on circulating ghrelin or hypothalamic ghrelin signalling in females, indicating hypothalamic feeding and metabolic ghrelin circuitry remains intact. However, neonatal overfeeding did lead to long-term alterations in the pituitary ghrelin system. The neonatally overfed females had increased neonatal and reduced adult expression of GHSR and ghrelin-O-acyl transferase (GOAT) in the pituitary as well as reduced pituitary responsiveness to exogenous acyl ghrelin-induced adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release in vitro. These data suggest that neonatal overfeeding dysregulates pituitary ghrelin signalling long-term in females, potentially accounting for the hyper-responsive HPA axis in these animals. These findings have implications for how females may respond to stress throughout life, suggesting the way ghrelin modifies the stress response at the level of the pituitary may be less efficient in the neonatally overfed. PMID:28282447

  13. Ghrelin knockout mice show decreased voluntary alcohol consumption and reduced ethanol-induced conditioned place preference.

    PubMed

    Bahi, Amine; Tolle, Virginie; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Brunel, Luc; Martinez, Jean; Tomasetto, Catherine-Laure; Karam, Sherif M

    2013-05-01

    Recent work suggests that stomach-derived hormone ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) antagonism may reduce motivational aspects of ethanol intake. In the current study we hypothesized that the endogenous GHS-R1A agonist ghrelin modulates alcohol reward mechanisms. For this purpose ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP), ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation and voluntary ethanol consumption in a two-bottle choice drinking paradigm were examined under conditions where ghrelin and its receptor were blocked, either using ghrelin knockout (KO) mice or the specific ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) antagonist "JMV2959". We showed that ghrelin KO mice displayed lower ethanol-induced CPP than their wild-type (WT) littermates. Consistently, when injected during CPP-acquisition, JMV2959 reduced CPP-expression in C57BL/6 mice. In addition, ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation was lower in ghrelin KO mice. Moreover, GHS-R1A blockade, using JMV2959, reduced alcohol-stimulated locomotion only in WT but not in ghrelin KO mice. When alcohol consumption and preference were assessed using the two-bottle choice test, both genetic deletion of ghrelin and pharmacological antagonism of the GHS-R1A (JMV2959) reduced voluntary alcohol consumption and preference. Finally, JMV2959-induced reduction of alcohol intake was only observed in WT but not in ghrelin KO mice. Taken together, these results suggest that ghrelin neurotransmission is necessary for the stimulatory effect of ethanol to occur, whereas lack of ghrelin leads to changes that reduce the voluntary intake as well as conditioned reward by ethanol. Our findings reveal a major, novel role for ghrelin in mediating ethanol behavior, and add to growing evidence that ghrelin is a key mediator of the effects of multiple abused drugs.

  14. CRF Type 2 Receptors Mediate the Metabolic Effects of Ghrelin in C2C12 cells

    PubMed Central

    Gershon, Eran; Vale, Wylie W

    2014-01-01

    Objective Ghrelin is known to regulate appetite control and cellular metabolism. The Corticotropin-Releasing Factor (CRF) family is also known to regulate energy balance. In this study, we investigated the links between ghrelin and the CRF family in C2C12 cells, a mouse myoblast cell line. Design and methods C2C12 cells were treated with ghrelin in the presence or absence of CRF receptor antagonists and then subjected to different metabolic analyses. Results Ghrelin enhanced glucose uptake by C2C12 cells, induced GLUT4 translocation to the cell surface and decreased RBP4 expression. A CRF-R2 selective antagonist, anti-sauvagine-30, blocked ghrelin-induced glucose uptake, Ghrelin upregulated CRF-R2 but not CRF-R1 levels. Moreover, ghrelin-treated C2C12 cells displayed a cAMP and pERK activation in response to Ucn3, a CRF-R2 specific ligand, but not in response to CRF or stressin, CRF-R1 specific ligands. Ghrelin also induced UCP2 and UCP3 expression, which were blocked by anti-sauvagine-30. Ghrelin did not induce fatty acids uptake by C2C12 cells or ACC expression. Even though C2C12 cells clearly exhibited responses to ghrelin, the known ghrelin receptor, GHSR1a, was not detectable in C2C12 cells. Conclusion Our results suggest that, ghrelin plays a role in regulating muscle glucose and, raise the possibility that suppression of the CRF-R2 pathway might provide benefits in high ghrelin states. PMID:23804489

  15. Increased ghrelin signaling prolongs survival in mouse models of human aging through activation of sirtuin1

    PubMed Central

    Fujitsuka, N; Asakawa, A; Morinaga, A; Amitani, M S; Amitani, H; Katsuura, G; Sawada, Y; Sudo, Y; Uezono, Y; Mochiki, E; Sakata, I; Sakai, T; Hanazaki, K; Yada, T; Yakabi, K; Sakuma, E; Ueki, T; Niijima, A; Nakagawa, K; Okubo, N; Takeda, H; Asaka, M; Inui, A

    2016-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) is known to retard aging and delay functional decline as well as the onset of diseases in most organisms. Ghrelin is secreted from the stomach in response to CR and regulates energy metabolism. We hypothesized that in CR ghrelin has a role in protecting aging-related diseases. We examined the physiological mechanisms underlying the ghrelin system during the aging process in three mouse strains with different genetic and biochemical backgrounds as animal models of accelerated or normal human aging. The elevated plasma ghrelin concentration was observed in both klotho-deficient and senescence-accelerated mouse prone/8 (SAMP8) mice. Ghrelin treatment failed to stimulate appetite and prolong survival in klotho-deficient mice, suggesting the existence of ghrelin resistance in the process of aging. However, ghrelin antagonist hastened death and ghrelin signaling potentiators rikkunshito and atractylodin ameliorated several age-related diseases with decreased microglial activation in the brain and prolonged survival in klotho-deficient, SAMP8 and aged ICR mice. In vitro experiments, the elevated sirtuin1 (SIRT1) activity and protein expression through the cAMP–CREB pathway was observed after ghrelin and ghrelin potentiator treatment in ghrelin receptor 1a-expressing cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Furthermore, rikkunshito increased hypothalamic SIRT1 activity and SIRT1 protein expression of the heart in the all three mouse models of aging. Pericarditis, myocardial calcification and atrophy of myocardial and muscle fiber were improved by treatment with rikkunshito. Ghrelin signaling may represent one of the mechanisms activated by CR, and potentiating ghrelin signaling may be useful to extend health and lifespan. PMID:26830139

  16. Neighboring Genes Show Correlated Evolution in Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbarian, Avazeh T.; Hurst, Laurence D.

    2015-01-01

    When considering the evolution of a gene’s expression profile, we commonly assume that this is unaffected by its genomic neighborhood. This is, however, in contrast to what we know about the lack of autonomy between neighboring genes in gene expression profiles in extant taxa. Indeed, in all eukaryotic genomes genes of similar expression-profile tend to cluster, reflecting chromatin level dynamics. Does it follow that if a gene increases expression in a particular lineage then the genomic neighbors will also increase in their expression or is gene expression evolution autonomous? To address this here we consider evolution of human gene expression since the human-chimp common ancestor, allowing for both variation in estimation of current expression level and error in Bayesian estimation of the ancestral state. We find that in all tissues and both sexes, the change in gene expression of a focal gene on average predicts the change in gene expression of neighbors. The effect is highly pronounced in the immediate vicinity (<100 kb) but extends much further. Sex-specific expression change is also genomically clustered. As genes increasing their expression in humans tend to avoid nuclear lamina domains and be enriched for the gene activator 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, we conclude that, most probably owing to chromatin level control of gene expression, a change in gene expression of one gene likely affects the expression evolution of neighbors, what we term expression piggybacking, an analog of hitchhiking. PMID:25743543

  17. Ghrelin and leptin pathophysiology in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Gunta, Sujana S; Mak, Robert H

    2013-04-01

    Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone with additional effects on the regulation of inflammation and the cardiovascular system. It may play an important role in the pathogenesis of cachexia/protein-energy wasting (PEW), inflammation and cardiovascular complications in chronic kidney disease (CKD). There are three circulating gene products of ghrelin, namely, acyl ghrelin, des-acyl ghrelin and obestatin, each with individual distinct functions. Perturbations of these circulating ghrelin proteins impact the overall milieu of CKD. Leptin is an anorexigenic hormone which is secreted from the adipocytes and interacts with ghrelin and other appetite-regulating hormones. Leptin also plays a role in regulating inflammation and the cardiovascular system. Indeed, ghrelin and leptin may play yin-and-yang roles in CKD pathophysiology. Clinical trials involving the use of the mimetics or antagonists of these hormones are limited to short-term phase I/II studies. Further understanding of their interactions in CKD pathophysiology is needed for potential large-scale clinical trials, which may impact the quality of life and survival of patients with CKD.

  18. Direct versus indirect actions of ghrelin on hypothalamic NPY neurons.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Hiroshi; Sheng, Zhenyu; Routh, Vanessa; Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J Marc; Bryan, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    ω-conotoxin, inhibitors of L- and N-type Ca2+ channels, respectively, while Ni2+, mibefradil, and TTA-P2 completely or partially inhibited ghrelin action, implicating T-type Ca2+ channels. Activation was also sensitive to a spider toxin, SNX-482, at concentrations selective for R-type Ca2+ channels. Nanomolar concentrations of GABA markedly inhibited ghrelin-activation of isolated NPY-GFP neurons, consistent with chronic suppression of ghrelin action in vivo. NPY neurons express all the molecular machinery needed to respond directly to ghrelin. Consistent with recent studies, ghrelin stimulates presynaptic inputs that activate NPY-GFP neurons in situ. Ghrelin can also directly activate a depolarizing conductance. Results with isolated NPY-GFP neurons suggest the ghrelin-activated, depolarizing current is a Na+ conductance with the pharmacologic properties of SUR1/Trpm4 non-selective cation channels. In the isolated neuron model, the opening of SUR1/Trpm4 channels activates T- and SNX482-sensitive R-type voltage dependent Ca2+ channels, which could contribute to NPY neuronal activity in situ.

  19. Diet-induced obesity suppresses ghrelin in rat gastrointestinal tract and serum.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Ibrahim; Aydin, Suleyman; Ozkan, Yusuf; Dagli, Adile Ferda; Akin, Kadir Okhan; Guzel, Saadet Pilten; Catak, Zekiye; Ozercan, Mehmet Resat

    2011-09-01

    The aims of the present study were to examine ghrelin expression in serum and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) tissues, and to measure tissue ghrelin levels and obesity-related alterations in some serum biochemical variables in rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO). The study included 12 male rats, 60 days old. The rats were randomly allocated to two groups (n = 6). Rats in the DIO group were fed a cafeteria-style diet to induce obesity, while those in the control group were fed on standard rat pellets. After a 12 week diet program including an adaptation period all rats were decapitated, tissues were individually fixed, ghrelin expression was examined by immunohistochemistry , and tissue and serum ghrelin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Serum biochemical variables were measured using an autoanalyzer. When the baseline and week 12 body mass index and GIT ghrelin expression were compared between DIO and control rats, BMI had increased and ghrelin expression decreased due to obesity. The RIA results were consistent with these findings. Serum glucose, LDL cholesterol, and total cholesterol levels were elevated and HDL cholesterol significantly decreased in the DIO group. A comparison of GIT tissues between the control and obese groups demonstrated that ghrelin was decreased in all tissues of the latter. This decrease was brought about a decline in the circulating ghrelin pool. This suggests that rather than being associated with a change in a single tissue, obesity is a pathological condition in which ghrelin expression is changed in all tissues.

  20. [Leptin, ghrelin, and physical exercise].

    PubMed

    da Mota, Gustavo R; Zanesco, Angelina

    2007-02-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem in the Western world resulting in serious social, physical and psychological damages. The genesis of obesity is complex involving a variety of factors such as genetic, psychological, metabolic and environmental factors. Progress in endocrinology and metabolism show that adipocyte is considered now as an endocrine tissue producing several substance including adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 and leptin. Specifically, leptin is the main peptide produced by the adipocyte and its serum concentration represents an important peripheral signal in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure in mammals. In addition to leptin, a new peptide was discovered recently named ghrelin. Ghrelin, a peptide hormone identified in the stomach, is directly involved with the regulation of energy balance and obesity. Physical exercise has been used as a non-pharmacological tool in management of body weight and the effect of physical activity on weight control is an important issue for clinical studies in endocrinology field. Thus, this review will attempt to update the knowledge of leptin and ghrelin on the body weight regulation and the effect of exercise training on these peptide concentrations. It can be concluded that the relationship between physical exercise and the plasma concentration of these peptides is not clear. The reasons for that could be related to the differences in duration, intensity and frequency of the training program employed in each study. Indeed, most of the studies have not analyzed the intensity of training program by either plasma lactate concentration or maximum oxygen consumption. On the other hand, genetic basis could also explain the discrepancies found in some studies, since it has been shown that polymorphism for a variety of genes might be an important factor to determine the differences of cellular response to physical training.

  1. Impact of Helicobacter pylori infection on gastric and plasma ghrelin dynamics in humans.

    PubMed

    Isomoto, Hajime; Ueno, Hiroaki; Saenko, Vladimir A; Mondal, Muhtashan S; Nishi, Yoshito; Kawano, Naoko; Ohnita, Ken; Mizuta, Yohei; Ohtsuru, Akira; Yamashita, Shunichi; Nakazato, Masamitsu; Kohno, Shigeru

    2005-08-01

    There are contradictory reports on the relationship between Helicobacter pylori and circulating ghrelin. We sought to clarify the influence of H. pylori infection on gastric and plasma ghrelin dynamics in humans. Using endoscopic biopsies from the corpus of 56 H. pylori-infected patients and 25 uninfected subjects, ghrelin mRNA expression levels and gastric ghrelin peptide contents were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction and radioimmunoassay, respectively. We also measured plasma ghrelin concentrations and analyzed the numbers of ghrelin immunoreactive cells in the fundic gland area. Fifty-one patients with H. pylori infection were treated with a 7-day triple therapy consisting of lansoprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin. The gastric ghrelin mRNA expression level of H. pylori-positive patients (1.64 +/- 1.27 in arbitrary units) was significantly lower than in H. pylori-negative subjects (4.87 +/- 4.1, p < 0.0001). A similar trend was noted for ghrelin peptide contents (31.2 +/- 27.5 vs 81.2 +/- 64.1 ng/mg protein, respectively, p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in the number of ghrelin immunoreactive cells/mm(2) in terms of H. plyori status. Plasma ghrelin concentrations in H. pylori-infected patients (144.6 +/- 7.8.8 fmol/ml) were significantly lower than in uninfected subjects (196.1 +/- 97.2, p < 0.05) and increased following cure of the infection. Plasma ghrelin levels correlated positively with the expression levels of ghrelin mRNA (r = 0.583, p < 0.0001) and peptide products (r = 0.574, p < 0.0001). There was a significant stepwise decrease in gastric ghrelin mRNA expression (p < 0.05), peptide contents (p < 0.01) and density of ghrelin immunoreactive cells (p < 0.05) with progression of histological severity of glandular atrophy in the corpus. The histological severity of chronic inflammation also negatively influenced the ghrelin mRNA expression (p < 0.001) and peptide production (p < 0.005). H. pylori infection has a

  2. Structure-Activity Study of Ghrelin(1-8) Resulting in High Affinity Fluorine-Bearing Ligands for the Ghrelin Receptor.

    PubMed

    Charron, Carlie L; Hou, Jinqiang; McFarland, Mark S; Dhanvantari, Savita; Kovacs, Michael S; Luyt, Leonard G

    2017-09-14

    The ghrelin receptor, also known as the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a), is a G-protein-coupled receptor that is differentially expressed in healthy tissue and several cancers, including prostate, testicular, and ovarian. Selectively targeting the ghrelin receptor using fluorine-18 tagged entities would allow localization and visualization of ghrelin receptor expressing carcinomas using PET imaging. The endogenous ligand ghrelin, a 28 amino acid peptide with 3.1 nM affinity, has poor in vivo stability. Here we report on ghrelin(1-8) analogues bearing modifications at residues 1, 3, 4, and 8. The lead analogue, [Inp(1),Dpr(3)(6-fluoro-2-naphthoate),1-Nal(4),Thr(8)]ghrelin(1-8), possessed an IC50 value of 0.11 nM that is a 28-fold improvement compared to the natural ligand. A novel 6-fluoro-2-pentafluorophenyl naphthoate (PFPN) prosthetic group was synthesized to incorporate fluorine-18 for PET imaging. This is not only the highest affinity ghrelin analogue reported but also the shortest ghrelin analogue capable of binding GHS-R1a with better affinity than ghrelin(1-28).

  3. Regulation of ABO gene expression.

    PubMed

    Kominato, Yoshihiko; Hata, Yukiko; Matsui, Kazuhiro; Takizawa, Hisao

    2005-07-01

    The ABO blood group system is important in blood transfusions and in identifying individuals during criminal investigations. Two carbohydrate antigens, the A and B antigens, and their antibodies constitute this system. Although biochemical and molecular genetic studies have demonstrated the molecular basis of the histo-blood group ABO system, some aspects remain to be elucidated. To explain the molecular basis of how the ABO genes are controlled in cell type-specific expression, during normal cell differentiation, and in cancer cells with invasive and metastatic potential that lack A/B antigens, it is essential to understand the regulatory mechanism of ABO gene transcription. We review the transcriptional regulation of the ABO gene, including positive and negative elements in the upstream region of the gene, and draw some inferences that help to explain the phenomena described above.

  4. Glucose, amino acids and fatty acids directly regulate ghrelin and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the intestine and hepatopancreas of goldfish (Carassius auratus) in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bertucci, Juan Ignacio; Blanco, Ayelén Melisa; Canosa, Luis Fabián; Unniappan, Suraj

    2017-04-01

    Ghrelin and nesfatin-1 are two peptidyl hormones primarily involved in food intake regulation. We previously reported that the amount of dietary carbohydrates, protein and lipids modulates the expression of these peptides in goldfish in vivo. In the present work, we aimed to characterize the effects of single nutrients on ghrelin and nesfatin-1 in the intestine and hepatopancreas. First, immunolocalization of ghrelin and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in goldfish hepatopancreas cells was studied by immunohistochemistry. Second, the effects of 2 and 4hour-long exposures of cultured intestine and hepatopancreas sections to glucose, l-tryptophan, oleic acid, linolenic acid (LNA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on ghrelin and nesfatin-1 gene and protein expression were studied. Co-localization of ghrelin and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the cytoplasm of goldfish hepatocytes was found. Exposure to glucose led to an upregulation of preproghrelin and a downregulation of nucb2/nesfatin-1 in the intestine. l-Tryptophan mainly decreased the expression of both peptides in the intestine and hepatopancreas. Fatty acids, in general, downregulated NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the intestine, but only the longer and highly unsaturated fatty acids inhibited preproghrelin. EPA exposure led to a decrease in preproghrelin, and an increase in nucb2/nesfatin-1 expression in hepatopancreas after 2h. These results show that macronutrients exert a dose- and time-dependent, direct regulation of ghrelin and nesfatin-1 in the intestine and hepatopancreas, and suggest a role for these hormones in the digestive process and nutrient metabolism.

  5. Gene expression profile of pulpitis

    PubMed Central

    Galicia, Johnah C.; Henson, Brett R.; Parker, Joel S.; Khan, Asma A.

    2016-01-01

    The cost, prevalence and pain associated with endodontic disease necessitate an understanding of the fundamental molecular aspects of its pathogenesis. This study was aimed to identify the genetic contributors to pulpal pain and inflammation. Inflamed pulps were collected from patients diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis (n=20). Normal pulps from teeth extracted for various reasons served as controls (n=20). Pain level was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS). Genome-wide microarray analysis was performed using Affymetrix GeneTitan Multichannel Instrument. The difference in gene expression levels were determined by the Significance Analysis of Microarray program using a false discovery rate (q-value) of 5%. Genes involved in immune response, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and signaling, integrin cell surface interactions, and others were expressed at relatively higher levels in the in the pulpitis group. Moreover, several genes known to modulate pain and inflammation showed differential expression in asymptomatic and mild pain patients (≥30mm on VAS) compared to those with moderate to severe pain. This exploratory study provides a molecular basis for the clinical diagnosis of pulpitis. With an enhanced understanding of pulpal inflammation, future studies on treatment and management of pulpitis and on pain associated with it can have a biological reference to bridge treatment strategies with pulpal biology. PMID:27052691

  6. Gene expression profile of pulpitis.

    PubMed

    Galicia, J C; Henson, B R; Parker, J S; Khan, A A

    2016-06-01

    The cost, prevalence and pain associated with endodontic disease necessitate an understanding of the fundamental molecular aspects of its pathogenesis. This study was aimed to identify the genetic contributors to pulpal pain and inflammation. Inflamed pulps were collected from patients diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis (n=20). Normal pulps from teeth extracted for various reasons served as controls (n=20). Pain level was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS). Genome-wide microarray analysis was performed using Affymetrix GeneTitan Multichannel Instrument. The difference in gene expression levels were determined by the significance analysis of microarray program using a false discovery rate (q-value) of 5%. Genes involved in immune response, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and signaling, integrin cell surface interactions, and others were expressed at relatively higher levels in the pulpitis group. Moreover, several genes known to modulate pain and inflammation showed differential expression in asymptomatic and mild pain patients (⩾30 mm on VAS) compared with those with moderate to severe pain. This exploratory study provides a molecular basis for the clinical diagnosis of pulpitis. With an enhanced understanding of pulpal inflammation, future studies on treatment and management of pulpitis and on pain associated with it can have a biological reference to bridge treatment strategies with pulpal biology.

  7. Upregulation and nuclear translocation of testicular ghrelin protects differentiating spermatogonia from ionizing radiation injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, W; Zeng, Y; Zhao, J; Zhu, C-J; Hou, W-G; Zhang, S

    2014-01-01

    Proper control of apoptotic signaling is important for maintenance of testicular homeostasis after ionizing radiation (IR). Herein, we challenged the hypothesis that ghrelin, a pleiotropic modulator, is potentially involved in IR-induced germ cell injury. Lower body exposure to 2 Gy of IR induced a notable increase of ghrelin expression in the nuclear of differentiating spermatogonia at defined stages, with an impairment in the Leydig cells (LCs)-expressing ghrelin. Unexpectedly, inhibition of the ghrelin pathway by intraperitoneal injection of a specific GHS-R1α antagonist enhanced spermatogonia elimination by apoptosis during the early recovery following IR, and thereafter resulted in impaired male fertility, suggesting that the anti-apoptotic effects of evoked ghrelin, although transient along testicular IR injury, have a profound influence on the post-injury recovery. In addition, inhibition of ghrelin signaling resulted in a significant increase in the intratesticular testosterone (T) level at the end of 21 days after IR, which should stimulate the spermatogenic recovery from surviving spermatogonia to a certain extent during the late stage. We further demonstrated that the upregulation and nuclear trafficking of ghrelin, elaborately regulated by IR-elicited antioxidant system in spermatogonia, may act through a p53-dependent mechanism. The elicitation of ghrelin expression by IR stress, the regulation of ghrelin expression by IR-induced oxidative stress and the interaction between p53 and ghrelin signaling during IR injury were confirmed in cultured spermatogonia. Hence, our results represent the first evidence in support of a radioprotective role of ghrelin in the differentiating spermatogonia. The acutely, delicate regulation of local-produced ghrelin appears to be a fine-tune mechanism modulating the balance between testicular homeostasis and early IR injury. PMID:24853426

  8. Upregulation and nuclear translocation of testicular ghrelin protects differentiating spermatogonia from ionizing radiation injury.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Zeng, Y; Zhao, J; Zhu, C-J; Hou, W-G; Zhang, S

    2014-05-22

    Proper control of apoptotic signaling is important for maintenance of testicular homeostasis after ionizing radiation (IR). Herein, we challenged the hypothesis that ghrelin, a pleiotropic modulator, is potentially involved in IR-induced germ cell injury. Lower body exposure to 2 Gy of IR induced a notable increase of ghrelin expression in the nuclear of differentiating spermatogonia at defined stages, with an impairment in the Leydig cells (LCs)-expressing ghrelin. Unexpectedly, inhibition of the ghrelin pathway by intraperitoneal injection of a specific GHS-R1α antagonist enhanced spermatogonia elimination by apoptosis during the early recovery following IR, and thereafter resulted in impaired male fertility, suggesting that the anti-apoptotic effects of evoked ghrelin, although transient along testicular IR injury, have a profound influence on the post-injury recovery. In addition, inhibition of ghrelin signaling resulted in a significant increase in the intratesticular testosterone (T) level at the end of 21 days after IR, which should stimulate the spermatogenic recovery from surviving spermatogonia to a certain extent during the late stage. We further demonstrated that the upregulation and nuclear trafficking of ghrelin, elaborately regulated by IR-elicited antioxidant system in spermatogonia, may act through a p53-dependent mechanism. The elicitation of ghrelin expression by IR stress, the regulation of ghrelin expression by IR-induced oxidative stress and the interaction between p53 and ghrelin signaling during IR injury were confirmed in cultured spermatogonia. Hence, our results represent the first evidence in support of a radioprotective role of ghrelin in the differentiating spermatogonia. The acutely, delicate regulation of local-produced ghrelin appears to be a fine-tune mechanism modulating the balance between testicular homeostasis and early IR injury.

  9. Ghrelin: an emerging player in the regulation of reproduction in non-mammalian vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Unniappan, Suraj

    2010-07-01

    The endocrine regulation of vertebrate reproduction is achieved by the coordinated actions of multiple endocrine factors mainly produced from the brain, pituitary, and gonads. In addition to these, several other tissues including the fat and gut produce factors that have reproductive effects. Ghrelin is one such gut/brain hormone with species-specific effects in the regulation of mammalian reproduction. Recent studies have shown that ghrelin and ghrelin receptor mRNAs, and protein are expressed in the ovary and testis of mammals, indicating a direct effect for ghrelin in the control of reproduction. Ghrelin regulates mammalian reproduction by modulating hormone secretion from the brain and pituitary, and by acting directly on the gonads to influence reproductive tissue development and steroid hormone release. Based on the studies reported so far, ghrelin seems to have a predominantly inhibitory role on mammalian reproduction. The presence of ghrelin and ghrelin receptor has been found in the brain, pituitary and gonads of several non-mammalian vertebrates. In contrast to mammals, ghrelin seems to have a stimulatory role in the regulation of non-mammalian reproduction. The main objective of this review is to do a perspective analysis of the comparative aspects of ghrelin regulation of reproduction.

  10. Ghrelin and Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Atalayer, Deniz; Gibson, Charlisa; Konopacka, Alexandra; Geliebter, Allan

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence supporting a multifactorial etiology that includes genetic, neurochemical, and physiological components for eating disorders above and beyond the more conventional theories based on psychological and sociocultural factors. Ghrelin is one of the key gut signals associated with appetite, and the only known circulating hormone that triggers a positive energy balance by stimulating food intake. This review summarizes recent findings and several conflicting reports on ghrelin in eating disorders. Understanding these findings and inconsistencies may help in developing new methods to prevent and treat patients with these disorders. PMID:22960103

  11. Diversification and coevolution of the ghrelin/growth hormone secretagogue receptor system in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Tine, Mbaye; Kuhl, Heiner; Teske, Peter R; Tschöp, Matthias H; Jastroch, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The gut hormone ghrelin is involved in numerous metabolic functions, such as the stimulation of growth hormone secretion, gastric motility, and food intake. Ghrelin is modified by ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) or membrane-bound O-acyltransferase domain-containing 4 (MBOAT4) enabling action through the growth hormone secretagogue receptors (GHS-R). During the course of evolution, initially strong ligand/receptor specificities can be disrupted by genomic changes, potentially modifying physiological roles of the ligand/receptor system. Here, we investigated the coevolution of ghrelin, GOAT, and GHS-R in vertebrates. We combined similarity search, conserved synteny analyses, phylogenetic reconstructions, and protein structure comparisons to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the ghrelin system. Ghrelin remained a single-gene locus in all vertebrate species, and accordingly, a single GHS-R isoform was identified in all tetrapods. Similar patterns of the nonsynonymous (dN) and synonymous (dS) ratio (dN/dS) in the vertebrate lineage strongly suggest coevolution of the ghrelin and GHS-R genes, supporting specific functional interactions and common physiological pathways. The selection profiles do not allow confirmation as to whether ghrelin binds specifically to GOAT, but the ghrelin dN/dS patterns are more similar to those of GOAT compared to MBOAT1 and MBOAT2 isoforms. Four GHS-R isoforms were identified in teleost genomes. This diversification of GHS-R resulted from successive rounds of duplications, some of which remained specific to the teleost lineage. Coevolution signals are lost in teleosts, presumably due to the diversification of GHS-R but not the ghrelin gene. The identification of the GHS-R diversity in teleosts provides a molecular basis for comparative studies on ghrelin's physiological roles and regulation, while the comparative sequence and structure analyses will assist translational medicine to determine structure-function relationships of the

  12. Gene Expression Studies in Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xlao-Guang; Mathur, Geetika; James, Anthony A.

    2009-01-01

    Research on gene expression in mosquitoes is motivated by both basic and applied interests. Studies of genes involved in hematophagy, reproduction, olfaction, and immune responses reveal an exquisite confluence of biological adaptations that result in these highly-successful life forms. The requirement of female mosquitoes for a bloodmeal for propagation has been exploited by a wide diversity of viral, protozoan and metazoan pathogens as part of their life cycles. Identifying genes involved in host-seeking, blood feeding and digestion, reproduction, insecticide resistance and susceptibility/refractoriness to pathogen development is expected to provide the bases for the development of novel methods to control mosquito-borne diseases. Advances in mosquito transgenesis technologies, the availability of whole genome sequence information, mass sequencing and analyses of transcriptomes and RNAi techniques will assist development of these tools as well as deepen the understanding of the underlying genetic components for biological phenomena characteristic of these insect species. PMID:19161831

  13. Does FACS perturb gene expression?

    PubMed

    Richardson, Graham M; Lannigan, Joanne; Macara, Ian G

    2015-02-01

    Fluorescence activated cell sorting is the technique most commonly used to separate primary mammary epithelial sub-populations. Many studies incorporate this technique before analyzing gene expression within specific cellular lineages. However, to our knowledge, no one has examined the effects of fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) separation on short-term transcriptional profiles. In this study, we isolated a heterogeneous mixture of cells from the mouse mammary gland. To determine the effects of the isolation and separation process on gene expression, we harvested RNA from the cells before enzymatic digestion, following enzymatic digestion, and following a mock FACS sort where the entire cohort of cells was retained. A strict protocol was followed to minimize disruption to the cells, and to ensure that no subpopulations were enriched or lost. Microarray analysis demonstrated that FACS causes minimal disruptions to gene expression patterns, but prior steps in the mammary cell isolation process are followed by upregulation of 18 miRNA's and rapid decreases in their predicted target transcripts. © 2015 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2015 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  14. The Gene Expression Omnibus Database.

    PubMed

    Clough, Emily; Barrett, Tanya

    2016-01-01

    The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database is an international public repository that archives and freely distributes high-throughput gene expression and other functional genomics data sets. Created in 2000 as a worldwide resource for gene expression studies, GEO has evolved with rapidly changing technologies and now accepts high-throughput data for many other data applications, including those that examine genome methylation, chromatin structure, and genome-protein interactions. GEO supports community-derived reporting standards that specify provision of several critical study elements including raw data, processed data, and descriptive metadata. The database not only provides access to data for tens of thousands of studies, but also offers various Web-based tools and strategies that enable users to locate data relevant to their specific interests, as well as to visualize and analyze the data. This chapter includes detailed descriptions of methods to query and download GEO data and use the analysis and visualization tools. The GEO homepage is at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/.

  15. Calcium signals activated by ghrelin and D-Lys(3)-GHRP-6 ghrelin antagonist in developing dorsal root ganglion glial cells.

    PubMed

    Erriquez, Jessica; Bernascone, Silvia; Ciarletta, Monica; Filigheddu, Nicoletta; Graziani, Andrea; Distasi, Carla

    2009-09-01

    Ghrelin is a hormone regulating energy homeostasis via interaction with its receptor, GHSR-1a. Ghrelin activities in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cells are unknown. Herein we show that ghrelin induces a change of cytosolic calcium concentration in both glia and neurons of embryonic chick DRG. Both RT-PCR and binding studies performed with fluorescent ghrelin in the presence of either unlabeled ghrelin or GHSR-1a antagonist D-Lys(3)-GHRP-6, indicate that DRG cells express GHSR-1a. In glial cells the response is characterized by a rapid transient rise in [Ca(2+)](i) followed by a long lasting rise. The calcium elevation is dependent on calcium release from thapsigargin-sensitive intracellular stores and on activation of two distinct Ca(2+) entry pathways, a receptor activated calcium entry and a store operated calcium entry. Surprisingly, D-Lys(3)-GHRP-6 exerts several activities in the absence of exogenous ghrelin: (i) it activates calcium release from thapsigargin-sensitive intracellular stores and calcium entry via voltage-operated channels in non-neuronal cells; (ii) it inhibits calcium oscillations in non-neuronal cells exhibiting spontaneous Ca(2+) activity and iii) it promotes apoptosis of DRG cells, both neurons and glia. In summary, we provide the first evidence for ghrelin activity in DRG, and we also demonstrate that the widely used D-Lys(3)-GHRP-6 ghrelin antagonist features ghrelin independent activities.

  16. Gene expression throughout a vertebrate's embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Describing the patterns of gene expression during embryonic development has broadened our understanding of the processes and patterns that define morphogenesis. Yet gene expression patterns have not been described throughout vertebrate embryogenesis. This study presents statistical analyses of gene expression during all 40 developmental stages in the teleost Fundulus heteroclitus using four biological replicates per stage. Results Patterns of gene expression for 7,000 genes appear to be important as they recapitulate developmental timing. Among the 45% of genes with significant expression differences between pairs of temporally adjacent stages, significant differences in gene expression vary from as few as five to more than 660. Five adjacent stages have disproportionately more significant changes in gene expression (> 200 genes) relative to other stages: four to eight and eight to sixteen cell stages, onset of circulation, pre and post-hatch, and during complete yolk absorption. The fewest differences among adjacent stages occur during gastrulation. Yet, at stage 16, (pre-mid-gastrulation) the largest number of genes has peak expression. This stage has an over representation of genes in oxidative respiration and protein expression (ribosomes, translational genes and proteases). Unexpectedly, among all ribosomal genes, both strong positive and negative correlations occur. Similar correlated patterns of expression occur among all significant genes. Conclusions These data provide statistical support for the temporal dynamics of developmental gene expression during all stages of vertebrate development. PMID:21356103

  17. Immunolocalisation of ghrelin and obestatin in human testis, seminal vesicles, prostate and spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Moretti, E; Vindigni, C; Tripodi, S A; Mazzi, L; Nuti, R; Figura, N; Collodel, G

    2014-01-01

    The role of ghrelin and obestatin in male reproduction has not completely been clarified. We explored ghrelin and obestatin localisation in the male reproductive system. Polyclonal antibodies anti-ghrelin and anti-obestatin were used to detect the expression of these hormones in human testis, prostate and seminal vesicles by immunocytochemistry, while in ejaculated and swim up selected spermatozoa by immunofluorescence. Sertoli cells were positive for both peptides and Leydig cells for ghrelin; germ cells were negative for both hormones. Mild signals for ghrelin and obestatin were observed in rete testis; efferent ductules were the most immune reactive region for both peptides. Epididymis was moderately positive for ghrelin; vas deferens and seminal vesicles showed intense obestatin and moderate ghrelin labelling; prostate tissue expressed obestatin alone. Ejaculated and selected spermatozoa were positive for both peptides in different head and tail regions. This study confirms ghrelin localisation in Leydig and Sertoli cells; the finding that ghrelin is expressed in rete testis, epididymis, vas deferens and seminal vesicles is novel, as well as the localisation of obestatin in almost all tracts of the male reproductive system. This research could offer insights for stimulating other studies, particularly on the role of obestatin in sperm physiology, which is still obscure.

  18. Classification of genes based on gene expression analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Angelova, M. Myers, C. Faith, J.

    2008-05-15

    Systems biology and bioinformatics are now major fields for productive research. DNA microarrays and other array technologies and genome sequencing have advanced to the point that it is now possible to monitor gene expression on a genomic scale. Gene expression analysis is discussed and some important clustering techniques are considered. The patterns identified in the data suggest similarities in the gene behavior, which provides useful information for the gene functionalities. We discuss measures for investigating the homogeneity of gene expression data in order to optimize the clustering process. We contribute to the knowledge of functional roles and regulation of E. coli genes by proposing a classification of these genes based on consistently correlated genes in expression data and similarities of gene expression patterns. A new visualization tool for targeted projection pursuit and dimensionality reduction of gene expression data is demonstrated.

  19. Ghrelin and the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Tokudome, Takeshi; Kishimoto, Ichiro; Miyazato, Mikiya; Kangawa, Kenj

    2014-01-01

    Ghrelin is a peptide that was originally isolated from the stomach. It exerts potent growth hormone (GH)-releasing and orexigenic activities. Several studies have highlighted the therapeutic benefits of ghrelin for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. In animal models of chronic heart failure, the administration of ghrelin improved cardiac function and remodeling; these findings were replicated in human patients with heart failure. Moreover, in an animal study, ghrelin administration effectively reduced pulmonary hypertension induced by chronic hypoxia. In addition, repeated administration of ghrelin to cachectic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had positive effects on overall body function, including muscle wasting, functional capacity and sympathetic activity. The administration of ghrelin early after myocardial infarction (MI) reduced fatal arrhythmia and related mortality. In ghrelin-deficient mice, both exogenous and endogenous ghrelin were protective against fatal arrhythmia and promoted remodeling after MI. Although the mechanisms underlying the effects of ghrelin on the cardiovascular system remain unclear, there are indications that its beneficial effects are mediated through both direct physiological actions, including increased GH levels, improved energy balance and direct actions on cardiovascular cells, and regulation of autonomic nervous system activity. Therefore, ghrelin is a promising novel therapeutic agent for cardiovascular disease.

  20. Characterization of Ghrelin O-Acyltransferase (GOAT) in goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Ayelén Melisa; Gómez-Boronat, Miguel; Alonso-Gómez, Ángel Luis; Yufa, Roman; Unniappan, Suraj; Delgado, María Jesús; Valenciano, Ana Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Ghrelin is the only known hormone posttranslationally modified with an acylation. This modification is crucial for most of ghrelin’s physiological effects and is catalyzed by the polytopic enzyme ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT). The aim of this study was to characterize GOAT in a teleost model, goldfish (Carassius auratus). First, the full-length cDNA sequence was obtained by RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods. Two highly homologous cDNAs of 1491 and 1413 bp, respectively, named goat-V1 and goat-V2 were identified. Deduced protein sequences (393 and 367 amino acids, respectively) are predicted to present 11 and 9 transmembrane regions, respectively, and both contain two conserved key residues proposed to be involved in catalysis: asparagine 273 and histidine 304. RT-qPCR revealed that both forms of goat mRNAs show a similar widespread tissue distribution, with the highest expression in the gastrointestinal tract and gonads and less but considerable expression in brain, pituitary, liver and adipose tissue. Immunostaining of intestinal sections showed the presence of GOAT immunoreactive cells in the intestinal mucosa, some of which colocalize with ghrelin. Using an in vitro approach, we observed that acylated ghrelin downregulates GOAT gene and protein levels in cultured intestine in a time-dependent manner. Finally, we found a rhythmic oscillation of goat mRNA expression in the hypothalamus, pituitary and intestinal bulb of goldfish fed at midday, but not at midnight. Together, these findings report novel data characterizing GOAT, and offer new information about the ghrelinergic system in fish. PMID:28178327

  1. Effects of exercise on the levels of peptide YY and ghrelin.

    PubMed

    Li, J-B; Asakawa, A; Li, Y; Cheng, K; Inui, A

    2011-03-01

    Ghrelin and peptide YY (PYY) are brain-gut peptides that have a variety of physiological functions and are involved in energy regulation. Thus far, abnormalities in the expression and secretion of ghrelin and PYY are known to occur in lifestyle-related diseases, including obesity, and the improvement of these abnormalities has become an important challenge. Exercise has recently been reported to influence ghrelin and PYY concentrations. Exercise increases the PYY secretion. The effects of exercise on ghrelin levels vary with the study subject, timing of exercise, and duration of exercise. Here, we review the findings of recent studies on the association of PYY and ghrelin with obesity, particularly, on the influence of exercise on PYY and ghrelin levels. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Noise in eukaryotic gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, William J.; KÆrn, Mads; Cantor, Charles R.; Collins, J. J.

    2003-04-01

    Transcription in eukaryotic cells has been described as quantal, with pulses of messenger RNA produced in a probabilistic manner. This description reflects the inherently stochastic nature of gene expression, known to be a major factor in the heterogeneous response of individual cells within a clonal population to an inducing stimulus. Here we show in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that stochasticity (noise) arising from transcription contributes significantly to the level of heterogeneity within a eukaryotic clonal population, in contrast to observations in prokaryotes, and that such noise can be modulated at the translational level. We use a stochastic model of transcription initiation specific to eukaryotes to show that pulsatile mRNA production, through reinitiation, is crucial for the dependence of noise on transcriptional efficiency, highlighting a key difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic sources of noise. Furthermore, we explore the propagation of noise in a gene cascade network and demonstrate experimentally that increased noise in the transcription of a regulatory protein leads to increased cell-cell variability in the target gene output, resulting in prolonged bistable expression states. This result has implications for the role of noise in phenotypic variation and cellular differentiation.

  3. Harnessing gene expression networks to prioritize candidate epileptic encephalopathy genes.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Karen L; Lukic, Vesna; Thorne, Natalie P; Berkovic, Samuel F; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Bahlo, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    We apply a novel gene expression network analysis to a cohort of 182 recently reported candidate Epileptic Encephalopathy genes to identify those most likely to be true Epileptic Encephalopathy genes. These candidate genes were identified as having single variants of likely pathogenic significance discovered in a large-scale massively parallel sequencing study. Candidate Epileptic Encephalopathy genes were prioritized according to their co-expression with 29 known Epileptic Encephalopathy genes. We utilized developing brain and adult brain gene expression data from the Allen Human Brain Atlas (AHBA) and compared this to data from Celsius: a large, heterogeneous gene expression data warehouse. We show replicable prioritization results using these three independent gene expression resources, two of which are brain-specific, with small sample size, and the third derived from a heterogeneous collection of tissues with large sample size. Of the nineteen genes that we predicted with the highest likelihood to be true Epileptic Encephalopathy genes, two (GNAO1 and GRIN2B) have recently been independently reported and confirmed. We compare our results to those produced by an established in silico prioritization approach called Endeavour, and finally present gene expression networks for the known and candidate Epileptic Encephalopathy genes. This highlights sub-networks of gene expression, particularly in the network derived from the adult AHBA gene expression dataset. These networks give clues to the likely biological interactions between Epileptic Encephalopathy genes, potentially highlighting underlying mechanisms and avenues for therapeutic targets.

  4. Harnessing Gene Expression Networks to Prioritize Candidate Epileptic Encephalopathy Genes

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Karen L.; Lukic, Vesna; Thorne, Natalie P.; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Bahlo, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    We apply a novel gene expression network analysis to a cohort of 182 recently reported candidate Epileptic Encephalopathy genes to identify those most likely to be true Epileptic Encephalopathy genes. These candidate genes were identified as having single variants of likely pathogenic significance discovered in a large-scale massively parallel sequencing study. Candidate Epileptic Encephalopathy genes were prioritized according to their co-expression with 29 known Epileptic Encephalopathy genes. We utilized developing brain and adult brain gene expression data from the Allen Human Brain Atlas (AHBA) and compared this to data from Celsius: a large, heterogeneous gene expression data warehouse. We show replicable prioritization results using these three independent gene expression resources, two of which are brain-specific, with small sample size, and the third derived from a heterogeneous collection of tissues with large sample size. Of the nineteen genes that we predicted with the highest likelihood to be true Epileptic Encephalopathy genes, two (GNAO1 and GRIN2B) have recently been independently reported and confirmed. We compare our results to those produced by an established in silico prioritization approach called Endeavour, and finally present gene expression networks for the known and candidate Epileptic Encephalopathy genes. This highlights sub-networks of gene expression, particularly in the network derived from the adult AHBA gene expression dataset. These networks give clues to the likely biological interactions between Epileptic Encephalopathy genes, potentially highlighting underlying mechanisms and avenues for therapeutic targets. PMID:25014031

  5. Diet-induced obesity causes peripheral and central ghrelin resistance by promoting inflammation.

    PubMed

    Naznin, Farhana; Toshinai, Koji; Waise, T M Zaved; NamKoong, Cherl; Md Moin, Abu Saleh; Sakoda, Hideyuki; Nakazato, Masamitsu

    2015-07-01

    Ghrelin, a stomach-derived orexigenic peptide, transmits starvation signals to the hypothalamus via the vagus afferent nerve. Peripheral administration of ghrelin does not induce food intake in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. We investigated whether this ghrelin resistance was caused by dysfunction of the vagus afferent pathway. Administration (s.c.) of ghrelin did not induce food intake, suppression of oxygen consumption, electrical activity of the vagal afferent nerve, phosphorylation of ERK2 and AMP-activated protein kinase alpha in the nodose ganglion, or Fos expression in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of mice fed a HFD for 12 weeks. Administration of anti-ghrelin IgG did not induce suppression of food intake in HFD-fed mice. Expression levels of ghrelin receptor mRNA in the nodose ganglion and hypothalamus of HFD-fed mice were reduced. Inflammatory responses, including upregulation of macrophage/microglia markers and inflammatory cytokines, occurred in the nodose ganglion and hypothalamus of HFD-fed mice. A HFD blunted ghrelin signaling in the nodose ganglion via a mechanism involving in situ activation of inflammation. These results indicate that ghrelin resistance in the obese state may be caused by dysregulation of ghrelin signaling via the vagal afferent. © 2015 The authors.

  6. Gastrin mediated down regulation of ghrelin and its pathophysiological role in atrophic gastritis.

    PubMed

    Rau, T T; Sonst, A; Rogler, A; Burnat, G; Neumann, H; Oeckl, K; Neuhuber, W; Dimmler, A; Faller, G; Brzozowski, T; Hartmann, A; Konturek, P C

    2013-12-01

    The gastric hormone ghrelin is known as an important factor for energy homeostasis, appetite regulation and control of body weight. So far, ghrelin has mainly been examined as a serological marker for gastrointestinal diseases, and only a few publications have highlighted its role in local effects like mucus secretion. Ghrelin can be regarded as a gastroprotective factor, but little is known about the distribution and activity of ghrelin cells in pathologically modified tissues. We aimed to examine the morphological changes in ghrelin expression under several inflammatory, metaplastic and carcinogenic conditions of the upper gastrointestinal tract. In particular, autoimmune gastritis showed interesting remodeling effects in terms of ghrelin expression within neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia by immunohistochemistry. Using confocal laser microscopy, the gastrin/cholecystokinin receptor (CCKB) could be detected on normal ghrelin cells as well as in autoimmune gastritis. Functionally, we found evidence for a physiological interaction between gastrin and ghrelin in a primary rodent cell culture model. Additionally, we gathered serological data from patients with different basic gastrin levels due to long-term autoimmune gastritis or short-term proton pump inhibitor treatment with slightly reactive plasma gastrin elevations. Total ghrelin plasma levels showed a significantly inverse correlation with gastrin under long-term conditions. Autoimmune gastritis as a relevant condition within gastric carcinogenesis therefore has two effects on ghrelin-positive cells due to hypergastrinemia. On the one hand, gastrin stimulates the proliferation of ghrelinpositive cells as integral part of neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia, while on the other hand, plasma ghrelin is reduced by gastrin and lost in pseudopyloric and intestinal metaplastic areas. Ghrelin is necessary for the maintenance of the mucosal barrier and might play a role in gastric carcinogenesis, if altered under these pre

  7. Ghrelin Modulates Physiologic and Pathologic Retinal Angiogenesis through GHSR-1a

    PubMed Central

    Zaniolo, Karine; Sapieha, Przemyslaw; Shao, Zhuo; Stahl, Andreas; Zhu, Tang; Tremblay, Sophie; Picard, Emilie; Madaan, Ankush; Blais, Martine; Lachapelle, Pierre; Mancini, Joseph; Hardy, Pierre; Smith, Lois E. H.; Ong, Huy

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Vascular degeneration and the ensuing abnormal vascular proliferation are central to proliferative retinopathies. Given the metabolic discordance associated with these diseases, the authors explored the role of ghrelin and its growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR-1a) in proliferative retinopathy. Methods. In a rat model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), the contribution of ghrelin and GHSR-1a was investigated using the stable ghrelin analogs [Dap3]-ghrelin and GHRP6 and the GSHR-1a antagonists JMV-2959 and [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6. Plasma and retinal levels of ghrelin were analyzed by ELISA, whereas retinal expression and localization of GHSR-1a were examined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. The angiogenic and vasoprotective properties of ghrelin and its receptor were further confirmed in aortic explants and in models of vaso-obliteration. Results. Ghrelin is produced locally in the retina, whereas GHSR-1a is abundantly expressed in retinal endothelial cells. Ghrelin levels decrease during the vaso-obliterative phase and rise during the proliferative phase of OIR. Intravitreal delivery of [Dap3]-ghrelin during OIR significantly reduces retinal vessel loss when administered during the hyperoxic phase. Conversely, during the neovascular phase, ghrelin promotes pathologic angiogenesis through the activation of GHSR-1a. These angiogenic effects were confirmed ex vivo in aortic explants. Conclusions. New roles were disclosed for the ghrelin-GHSR-1a pathway in the preservation of retinal vasculature during the vaso-obliterative phase of OIR and during the angiogenic phase of OIR. These findings suggest that the ghrelin-GHSR-1a pathway can exert opposing effects on retinal vasculature, depending on the phase of retinopathy, and thus holds therapeutic potential for proliferative retinopathies. PMID:21642627

  8. The Hormone Ghrelin Prevents Traumatic Brain Injury Induced Intestinal Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Vishal; Ryu, Seok Yong; Blow, Chelsea; Costantini, Todd; Loomis, William; Eliceiri, Brian; Baird, Andrew; Wolf, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Intestinal barrier breakdown following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized by increased intestinal permeability, leading to bacterial translocation, and inflammation. The hormone ghrelin may prevent intestinal injury and have anti-inflammatory properties. We hypothesized that exogenous ghrelin prevents intestinal injury following TBI. A weight-drop model created severe TBI in three groups of anesthetized Balb/c mice. Group TBI: animals underwent TBI only; Group TBI/ghrelin: animals were given 10 μg of ghrelin intraperitoneally prior and 1 h following TBI; Group sham: no TBI or ghrelin injection. Intestinal permeability was measured 6 h following TBI by detecting serum levels of FITC-Dextran after injection into the intact ileum. The terminal ileum was harvested for histology, expression of the tight junction protein MLCK and inflammatory cytokine TNF-α. Permeability increased in the TBI group compared to the sham group (109.7 ± 21.8 μg/mL vs. 32.2 ± 10.1 μg/mL; p < 0.002). Ghrelin prevented TBI-induced permeability (28.3 ± 4.2 μg/mL vs. 109.7 ± 21.8 μg/mL; p < 0.001). The intestines of the TBI group showed blunting and necrosis of villi compared to the sham group, while ghrelin injection preserved intestinal architecture. Intestinal MLCK increased 73% compared to the sham group (p < 0.03). Ghrelin prevented TBI-induced MLCK expression to sham levels. Intestinal TNF-α increased following TBI compared to the sham group (46.2 ± 7.1 pg/mL vs. 24.4 ± 2.2 pg/mL p < 0.001). Ghrelin reduced TNF-α to sham levels (29.2 ± 5.0 pg/mL; p = NS). We therefore conclude that ghrelin prevents TBI-induced injury, as determined by intestinal permeability, histology, and intestinal levels of TNF-α. The mechanism for ghrelin mediating intestinal protection is likely multifactorial, and further studies are needed to delineate these possibilities. PMID:20858122

  9. Seasonal Effects on Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Goldinger, Anita; Shakhbazov, Konstantin; Henders, Anjali K.; McRae, Allan F.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Powell, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Many health conditions, ranging from psychiatric disorders to cardiovascular disease, display notable seasonal variation in severity and onset. In order to understand the molecular processes underlying this phenomenon, we have examined seasonal variation in the transcriptome of 606 healthy individuals. We show that 74 transcripts associated with a 12-month seasonal cycle were enriched for processes involved in DNA repair and binding. An additional 94 transcripts demonstrated significant seasonal variability that was largely influenced by blood cell count levels. These transcripts were enriched for immune function, protein production, and specific cellular markers for lymphocytes. Accordingly, cell counts for erythrocytes, platelets, neutrophils, monocytes, and CD19 cells demonstrated significant association with a 12-month seasonal cycle. These results demonstrate that seasonal variation is an important environmental regulator of gene expression and blood cell composition. Notable changes in leukocyte counts and genes involved in immune function indicate that immune cell physiology varies throughout the year in healthy individuals. PMID:26023781

  10. [Neuronal plasticity and gene expression].

    PubMed

    Sokolova, O O; Shtark, M B; Lisachev, P D

    2010-01-01

    Neuronal plasticity--a fundamental feature of brain--provides adequate interactions with dynamic environment. One of the most deeply investigated forms of the neuronal plasticity is a long-term potentiation (LTP)--a phenomenon underlying learning and memory. Signal paths activated during LTP converge into the nuclear of the neuron, giving rise to launch of the molecular-genetic programs, which mediate structural and functional remodeling of synapses. In the review data concerning involvement of multilevel gene expression into plastic change under neuronal activation are summarized.

  11. Does inbreeding affect gene expression in birds?

    PubMed

    Hansson, Bengt; Naurin, Sara; Hasselquist, Dennis

    2014-09-01

    Inbreeding increases homozygosity, exposes genome-wide recessive deleterious alleles and often reduces fitness. The physiological and reproductive consequences of inbreeding may be manifested already during gene regulation, but the degree to which inbreeding influences gene expression is unknown in most organisms, including in birds. To evaluate the pattern of inbreeding-affected gene expression over the genome and in relation to sex, we performed a transcriptome-wide gene expression (10 695 genes) study of brain tissue of 10-day-old inbred and outbred, male and female zebra finches. We found significantly lower gene expression in females compared with males at Z-linked genes, confirming that dosage compensation is incomplete in female birds. However, inbreeding did not affect gene expression at autosomal or sex-linked genes, neither in males nor in females. Analyses of single genes again found a clear sex-biased expression at Z-linked genes, whereas only a single gene was significantly affected by inbreeding. The weak effect of inbreeding on gene expression in zebra finches contrasts to the situation, for example, in Drosophila where inbreeding has been found to influence gene expression more generally and at stress-related genes in particular.

  12. Fasting plasma total ghrelin concentrations in monozygotic twins discordant for obesity.

    PubMed

    Leskelä, Piia; Ukkola, Olavi; Vartiainen, Johanna; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Kaprio, Jaakko; Bouchard, Claude; Kesäniemi, Y Antero

    2009-02-01

    Ghrelin is a hormone that is involved in the regulation of food intake. Neuronal, endocrine, and genetic factors have been shown to regulate plasma ghrelin levels; but the determinants of fasting ghrelin concentrations are not yet fully understood. The main aim was to explore the roles of adiposity and genetic differences in determining fasting plasma total ghrelin levels. We measured total ghrelin levels in a population of 23 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for obesity. In addition, 2 variants of ghrelin gene, namely, Arg51Gln and Leu72Met, were genotyped in 3 populations of monozygotic twin pairs: 23 obesity-discordant, 43 lean-concordant, and 46 obesity-concordant twin pairs. In discordant twins, lean co-twins had higher fasting plasma total ghrelin levels (950 pg/mL, SD = 328 pg/mL) than obese twins (720 pg/mL, SD = 143 pg/mL; P = .003). Arg51Gln-polymorphism of the ghrelin gene was equally distributed between the twin groups. However, there were significant differences in genotype frequencies at the Leu72Met polymorphism between the discordant and obese-concordant groups (P = .003) and between the discordant and lean-concordant groups (P = .011), but not between the 2 concordant groups. In the discordant group, there were fewer Met carriers (4%) than among the obese (17%) or the lean-concordant groups (15%). Plasma total ghrelin levels are affected by acquired obesity independent of genetic background. The Leu72 allele is particularly common among monozygotic twins discordant for obesity, suggesting that this ghrelin allele is more permissive in the regulation of energy balance. The ghrelin gene may thus play a role in the regulation of variability of body weight, such that Leu72 allele carriers are more prone to weight variability in response to environmental factors.

  13. Ghrelin directly stimulates adult hippocampal neurogenesis: implications for learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Li, Endan; Chung, Hyunju; Kim, Yumi; Kim, Dong Hyun; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Sato, Takahiro; Kojima, Masayasu; Park, Seungjoon

    2013-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is important in mediating hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. Exogenous ghrelin is known to stimulate progenitor cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of adult hippocampus. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of endogenous ghrelin in regulating the in vivo proliferation and differentiation of the newly generating cells in the adult hippocampus using ghrelin knockout (GKO) mice. Targeted deletion of ghrelin gene resulted in reduced numbers of progenitor cells in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus, while ghrelin treatment restored progenitor cell numbers to those of wild-type controls. We also found that not only the number of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells but also the fraction of immature neurons and newly generated neurons were decreased in the GKO mice, which were increased by ghrelin replacement. Additionally, in the GKO mice, we observed impairment of memory performance in Y-maze task and novel object recognition test. However, these functional deficiencies were attenuated by ghrelin administration. These results suggest that ghrelin directly induces proliferation and differentiation of adult neural progenitor cells in the SGZ. Our data suggest ghrelin may be a plausible therapeutic potential to enhance learning and memory processes.

  14. Emergence of ghrelin as a treatment for cachexia syndromes.

    PubMed

    DeBoer, Mark Daniel

    2008-09-01

    Cachexia is a constellation of symptoms that amount to body wasting in the setting of a variety of chronic illnesses, including cancer, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Cachexia is particularly worrisome clinically because it is associated with a worsened prognosis of the underlying disease. Despite a large amount of study in this area, no single agent has been shown to have consistent efficacy in human trials. One promising class in this setting is ghrelin receptor agonists. Ghrelin binds to the growth hormone secretagogue-1a receptor in appetite-regulating centers in the brain, increasing expression of neuropeptide Y and agouti-related peptide during short-term treatment. Ghrelin has also been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties, which is significant, given that cachexia is thought to be produced at least partly by inflammation induced by the underlying disease. Animal studies have demonstrated efficacy using growth hormone secretagogue receptor agonists to treat cachexia caused by cancer, chemotherapy, and chronic kidney disease. Limited human trials using ghrelin or ghrelin receptor agonists in cancer and heart disease have shown improved appetite and body mass during treatment, although longer-term trials are needed to confirm sustained effects. Also uncertain--but an intriguing possibility--is whether the improved weight gain with ghrelin treatment might also lessen the severity of the underlying disease and improve outcomes.

  15. Neonatal overnutrition causes early alterations in the central response to peripheral ghrelin

    PubMed Central

    Collden, Gustav; Balland, Eglantine; Parkash, Jyoti; Caron, Emilie; Langlet, Fanny; Prevot, Vincent; Bouret, Sebastien G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Excess nutrient supply and rapid weight gain during early life are risk factors for the development of obesity during adulthood. This metabolic malprogramming may be mediated by endocrine disturbances during critical periods of development. Ghrelin is a metabolic hormone secreted from the stomach that acts centrally to promote feeding behavior by binding to growth hormone secretagogue receptors in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Here, we examined whether neonatal overnutrition causes changes in the ghrelin system. Methods We used a well-described mouse model of divergent litter sizes to study the effects of postnatal overfeeding on the central and peripheral ghrelin systems during postnatal development. Results Mice raised in small litters became overweight during lactation and remained overweight with increased adiposity as adults. Neonatally overnourished mice showed attenuated levels of total and acyl ghrelin in serum and decreased levels of Ghrelin mRNA expression in the stomach during the third week of postnatal life. Normalization of hypoghrelinemia in overnourished pups was relatively ineffective at ameliorating metabolic outcomes, suggesting that small litter pups may present ghrelin resistance. Consistent with this idea, neonatally overnourished pups displayed an impaired central response to peripheral ghrelin. The mechanisms underlying this ghrelin resistance appear to include diminished ghrelin transport into the hypothalamus. Conclusions Early postnatal overnutrition results in central resistance to peripheral ghrelin during important periods of hypothalamic development. Because ghrelin signaling has recently been implicated in the neonatal programming of metabolism, these alterations in the ghrelin system may contribute to the metabolic defects observed in postnatally overnourished mice. PMID:25685686

  16. Ghrelin O-Acyl Transferase in Zebrafish Is an Evolutionarily Conserved Peptide Upregulated During Calorie Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Hatef, Azadeh; Yufa, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ghrelin is a multifunctional orexigenic hormone with a unique acyl modification enabled by ghrelin O-acyl transferase (GOAT). Ghrelin is well-characterized in nonmammals, and GOAT sequences of several fishes are available in the GenBank. However, endogenous GOAT in non-mammals remains poorly understood. In this research, GOAT sequence comparison, tissue-specific GOAT expression, and its regulation by nutrient status and exogenous ghrelin were studied. It was found that the bioactive core of zebrafish GOAT amino acid sequence share high identity with that of mammals. GOAT mRNA was most abundant in the gut. GOAT-like immunoreactivity (i.r.) was found colocalized with ghrelin in the gastric mucosa. Food deprivation increased, and feeding decreased GOAT and preproghrelin mRNA expression in the brain and gut. GOAT and ghrelin peptides in the gut and brain showed corresponding decrease in food-deprived state. Intraperitoneal injection of acylated fish ghrelin caused a significant decrease in GOAT mRNA expression, suggesting a feedback mechanism regulating its abundance. Together, these results provide the first in-depth characterization of GOAT in a non-mammal. Our results demonstrate that endogenous GOAT expression is responsive to metabolic status and availability of acylated ghrelin, providing further evidences for GOAT in the regulation of feeding in teleosts. PMID:26226634

  17. Ghrelin O-Acyl Transferase in Zebrafish Is an Evolutionarily Conserved Peptide Upregulated During Calorie Restriction.

    PubMed

    Hatef, Azadeh; Yufa, Roman; Unniappan, Suraj

    2015-10-01

    Ghrelin is a multifunctional orexigenic hormone with a unique acyl modification enabled by ghrelin O-acyl transferase (GOAT). Ghrelin is well-characterized in nonmammals, and GOAT sequences of several fishes are available in the GenBank. However, endogenous GOAT in non-mammals remains poorly understood. In this research, GOAT sequence comparison, tissue-specific GOAT expression, and its regulation by nutrient status and exogenous ghrelin were studied. It was found that the bioactive core of zebrafish GOAT amino acid sequence share high identity with that of mammals. GOAT mRNA was most abundant in the gut. GOAT-like immunoreactivity (i.r.) was found colocalized with ghrelin in the gastric mucosa. Food deprivation increased, and feeding decreased GOAT and preproghrelin mRNA expression in the brain and gut. GOAT and ghrelin peptides in the gut and brain showed corresponding decrease in food-deprived state. Intraperitoneal injection of acylated fish ghrelin caused a significant decrease in GOAT mRNA expression, suggesting a feedback mechanism regulating its abundance. Together, these results provide the first in-depth characterization of GOAT in a non-mammal. Our results demonstrate that endogenous GOAT expression is responsive to metabolic status and availability of acylated ghrelin, providing further evidences for GOAT in the regulation of feeding in teleosts.

  18. Arcuate AgRP neurons mediate orexigenic and glucoregulatory actions of ghrelin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Liu, Chen; Uchida, Aki; Chuang, Jen-Chieh; Walker, Angela; Liu, Tiemin; Osborne-Lawrence, Sherri; Mason, Brittany L; Mosher, Christina; Berglund, Eric D; Elmquist, Joel K; Zigman, Jeffrey M

    2014-02-01

    The hormone ghrelin stimulates eating and helps maintain blood glucose upon caloric restriction. While previous studies have demonstrated that hypothalamic arcuate AgRP neurons are targets of ghrelin, the overall relevance of ghrelin signaling within intact AgRP neurons is unclear. Here, we tested the functional significance of ghrelin action on AgRP neurons using a new, tamoxifen-inducible AgRP-CreER(T2) transgenic mouse model that allows spatiotemporally-controlled re-expression of physiological levels of ghrelin receptors (GHSRs) specifically in AgRP neurons of adult GHSR-null mice that otherwise lack GHSR expression. AgRP neuron-selective GHSR re-expression partially restored the orexigenic response to administered ghrelin and fully restored the lowered blood glucose levels observed upon caloric restriction. The normalizing glucoregulatory effect of AgRP neuron-selective GHSR expression was linked to glucagon rises and hepatic gluconeogenesis induction. Thus, our data indicate that GHSR-containing AgRP neurons are not solely responsible for ghrelin's orexigenic effects but are sufficient to mediate ghrelin's effects on glycemia.

  19. Islet β-cell ghrelin signaling for inhibition of insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Dezaki, Katsuya; Yada, Toshihiko

    2012-01-01

    Ghrelin, an acylated 28-amino acid peptide, was isolated from the stomach, where circulating ghrelin is produced predominantly. In addition to its unique role in regulating growth-hormone release, mealtime hunger, lipid metabolism, and the cardiovascular system, ghrelin is involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism. Ghrelin is expressed in pancreatic islets and released into pancreatic microcirculations. Ghrelin inhibits insulin release in mice, rats, and humans. Pharmacological and genetic blockades of islet-derived ghrelin markedly augment glucose-induced insulin release. The signal transduction mechanisms of ghrelin in islet β-cells are very unique, being distinct from those utilized for growth-hormone release. Ghrelin attenuates the glucose-induced cAMP production and PKA activation, which drives activation of Kv channels and suppression of the glucose-induced [Ca(2+)](i) increase and insulin release in β-cells. Insulinostatic function of the ghrelin-GHS-R system in islets is a potential therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ghrelin receptor signaling: a promising therapeutic target for metabolic syndrome and cognitive dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Wei-na; Golden, Erin; Pantaleo, Nick; White, Caitlin M.; Maudsley, Stuart; Martin, Bronwen

    2010-01-01

    The neuroendocrine hormone ghrelin is an octanoylated 28-residue peptide that exerts numerous physiological functions. Ghrelin exerts its effects on the body mainly through a highly conserved G protein-coupled receptor known as the growth hormone secretagagogue receptor subtype 1a (GHS-R1a). Ghrelin and GSH-R1a are widely expressed in both peripheral and central tissues/organs, and ghrelin signaling plays a critical role in maintaining energy balance and neuronal health. The multiple orexigenic effects of ghrelin and its receptor have been studied in great detail, and GHS-R1a-mediated ghrelin signaling has long been a promising target for the treatment of metabolic disorders, such as obesity. In addition to its well-characterized metabolic effects, there is also mounting evidence that ghrelin-mediated GHS-R1a signaling exerts neuroprotective effects on the brain. In this review, we will summarize some of the effects of ghrelin-mediated GSH-R1a signaling on peripheral energy balance and cognitive function. We will also discuss the potential pharmacotherapeutic role of GSH-R1a-mediated ghrelin signaling for the treatment of complex neuroendocrine disorders. PMID:20632971

  1. Ghrelin induces abdominal obesity via GHS-R-dependent lipid retention.

    PubMed

    Davies, Jeffrey S; Kotokorpi, Pia; Eccles, Sinan R; Barnes, Sarah K; Tokarczuk, Pawel F; Allen, Sophie K; Whitworth, Hilary S; Guschina, Irina A; Evans, Bronwen A J; Mode, Agneta; Zigman, Jeffrey M; Wells, Timothy

    2009-06-01

    Circulating ghrelin elevates abdominal adiposity by a mechanism independent of its central orexigenic activity. In this study we tested the hypothesis that peripheral ghrelin induces a depot-specific increase in white adipose tissue (WAT) mass in vivo by GH secretagogue receptor (GHS-R(1a))-mediated lipolysis. Chronic iv infusion of acylated ghrelin increased retroperitoneal and inguinal WAT volume in rats without elevating superficial sc fat, food intake, or circulating lipids and glucose. Increased retroperitoneal WAT mass resulted from adipocyte enlargement probably due to reduced lipid export (ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 mRNA expression and circulating free fatty acids were halved by ghrelin infusion). In contrast, ghrelin treatment did not up-regulate biomarkers of adipogenesis (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2 or CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-alpha) or substrate uptake (glucose transporter 4, lipoprotein lipase, or CD36) and although ghrelin elevated sterol-regulatory element-binding protein 1c expression, WAT-specific mediators of lipogenesis (liver X receptor-alpha and fatty acid synthase) were unchanged. Adiposity was unaffected by infusion of unacylated ghrelin, and the effects of acylated ghrelin were abolished by transcriptional blockade of GHS-R(1a), but GHS-R(1a) mRNA expression was similar in responsive and unresponsive WAT. Microarray analysis suggested that depot-specific sensitivity to ghrelin may arise from differential fine tuning of signal transduction and/or lipid-handling mechanisms. Acylated ghrelin also induced hepatic steatosis, increasing lipid droplet number and triacylglycerol content by a GHS-R(1a)-dependent mechanism. Our data imply that, during periods of energy insufficiency, exposure to acylated ghrelin may limit energy utilization in specific WAT depots by GHS-R(1a)-dependent lipid retention.

  2. Physiological roles revealed by ghrelin and ghrelin receptor deficient mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ghrelin is a hormone made in the stomach and known primarily for its growth hormone releasing and orexigenic properties. Nevertheless, ghrelin through its receptor, the GHS-R1a, has been shown to exert many roles including regulation of glucose homeostasis, memory & learning, food addiction and neur...

  3. Mechanoregulation of gene expression in fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Wang, James H.-C.; Thampatty, Bhavani P.; Lin, Jeen-Shang; Im, Hee-Jeong

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical loads placed on connective tissues alter gene expression in fibroblasts through mechanotransduction mechanisms by which cells convert mechanical signals into cellular biological events, such as gene expression of extracellular matrix components (e.g., collagen). This mechanical regulation of ECM gene expression affords maintenance of connective tissue homeostasis. However, mechanical loads can also interfere with homeostatic cellular gene expression and consequently cause the pathogenesis of connective tissue diseases such as tendinopathy and osteoarthritis. Therefore, the regulation of gene expression by mechanical loads is closely related to connective tissue physiology and pathology. This article reviews the effects of various mechanical loading conditions on gene regulation in fibroblasts and discusses several mechanotransduction mechanisms. Future research directions in mechanoregulation of gene expression are also suggested. PMID:17331678

  4. Fasting induces preproghrelin mRNA expression in the brain and gut of zebrafish, Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Amole, Navpreet; Unniappan, Suraj

    2009-03-01

    Ghrelin is a gut/brain hormone with a unique acyl modification and various biological functions in fish and mammals. In addition to its possible role as a circulating orexigenic factor, ghrelin has been shown to regulate several other physiological processes in fish in a species-specific manner. The objectives of this project were to identify the zebrafish ghrelin gene organization, study tissue specific preproghrelin mRNA expression and investigate the fasting induced changes in the expression of preproghrelin mRNA in zebrafish. Our reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis confirmed the predicted ghrelin sequence available in the GenBank and identified preproghrelin mRNA expression in several tissues including the brain, gut, ovary, testis, heart and gill. PCR using genomic DNA identified that the ghrelin gene in zebrafish is comprised of four exons and three introns. Quantitative (real-time) PCR studies indicate that there is a significant increase in preproghrelin mRNA expression in the brain and gut of zebrafish fasted for 3, 5 and 7 days when compared to the expression in ad libitum fed fish. Refeeding after a 7 day fast caused a significant and dramatic decrease in preproghrelin mRNA expression in the gut and brain of zebrafish. An increase in the expression of preproghrelin mRNA during fasting, and its decrease following refeeding suggests an orexigenic role for ghrelin in zebrafish. Overall, our results provide evidence for a highly conserved structure and biological actions of ghrelin in zebrafish. Further studies are required to identify the tissue specific functions of ghrelin in zebrafish.

  5. Differential Gene Expression in Human Cerebrovascular Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Shenkar, Robert; Elliott, J. Paul; Diener, Katrina; Gault, Judith; Hu, Ling-Jia; Cohrs, Randall J.; Phang, Tzulip; Hunter, Lawrence; Breeze, Robert E.; Awad, Issam A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We sought to identify genes with differential expression in cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs), arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), and control superficial temporal arteries (STAs) and to confirm differential expression of genes previously implicated in the pathobiology of these lesions. METHODS Total ribonucleic acid was isolated from four CCM, four AVM, and three STA surgical specimens and used to quantify lesion-specific messenger ribonucleic acid expression levels on human gene arrays. Data were analyzed with the use of two separate methodologies: gene discovery and confirmation analysis. RESULTS The gene discovery method identified 42 genes that were significantly up-regulated and 36 genes that were significantly down-regulated in CCMs as compared with AVMs and STAs (P = 0.006). Similarly, 48 genes were significantly up-regulated and 59 genes were significantly down-regulated in AVMs as compared with CCMs and STAs (P = 0.006). The confirmation analysis showed significant differential expression (P < 0.05) in 11 of 15 genes (angiogenesis factors, receptors, and structural proteins) that previously had been reported to be expressed differentially in CCMs and AVMs in immunohistochemical analysis. CONCLUSION We identify numerous genes that are differentially expressed in CCMs and AVMs and correlate expression with the immunohistochemistry of genes implicated in cerebrovascular malformations. In future efforts, we will aim to confirm candidate genes specifically related to the pathobiology of cerebrovascular malformations and determine their biological systems and mechanistic relevance. PMID:12535382

  6. Norovirus gene expression and replication.

    PubMed

    Thorne, Lucy G; Goodfellow, Ian G

    2014-02-01

    Noroviruses are small, positive-sense RNA viruses within the family Caliciviridae, and are now accepted widely as a major cause of acute gastroenteritis in both developed and developing countries. Despite their impact, our understanding of the life cycle of noroviruses has lagged behind that of other RNA viruses due to the inability to culture human noroviruses (HuNVs). Our knowledge of norovirus biology has improved significantly over the past decade as a result of numerous technological advances. The use of a HuNV replicon, improved biochemical and cell-based assays, combined with the discovery of a murine norovirus capable of replication in cell culture, has improved greatly our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of norovirus genome translation and replication, as well as the interaction with host cell processes. In this review, the current state of knowledge of the intracellular life of noroviruses is discussed with particular emphasis on the mechanisms of viral gene expression and viral genome replication.

  7. Effect of food restriction on reproductive-related genes and reproductive hormones in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, H H; Khalil, W K B; Shousha, W G; El-Sayed, E S M; Eskander, E F; Selim, R E

    2012-11-01

    A number of factors involved in the control of energy balance and metabolism act as modulators of gonadal axis. Ghrelin, a peptide secreted from the stomach and hypothalamus, has emerged as an orexigenic food intake controlling signal acting upon hypothalamus. Recently, the potential reproductive role of ghrelin has received great attention. This study was designed to investigate the influence of food restriction and consequent metabolic hormone (ghrelin) on the level and gene expression of female reproductive hormones in adult rats. To study the effect of chronic food restriction on ghrelin level in adult female rats and its relation to female reproductive hormones, 32 adult female Sprague Dawley rats divided into 4 groups: Group I (control group) comprised 8 rats fed ad libitum for 30 days, Group II, III and IV (food-restricted groups for 10, 20 and 30 days respectively) each consisted of 8 rats fed 50% of ad libitum intake determined by the amount of food consumed by the control group. Mean body weight of food restricted rats was observed to decrease during the period of the experiment. Food restriction produced significant increase of serum ghrelin with significant decrease of both gastric and hypothalamic ghrelin accompanied with significant increase in its gene expression in stomach and hypothalamus. Estradiol (E2), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels showed significant decrease correlated with down-regulation of gonadotropins, cyclin-dependent kinase (cdc2), cyclin B and kisspeptin (Kiss1) genes in food restricted rats compared with control group. Ghrelin could be one of the hormones responsible for the suppression of female reproductive axis in case of negative energy balance. Thus, ghrelin may operate as an autocrine/paracrine regulator of ovarian function. Overall, ghrelin may represent an additional link between body weight homeostasis and reproductive function.

  8. DESACYL GHRELIN INHIBITS THE OREXIGENIC EFFECT OF PERIPHERALLY INJECTED GHRELIN IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Inhoff, Tobias; Mönnikes, Hubert; Noetzel, Steffen; Stengel, Andreas; Goebel, Miriam; Dinh, Q. Thai; Riedl, Andrea; Bannert, Norbert; Wisser, Anna-Sophia; Wiedenmann, Bertram; Klapp, Burghard F.; Taché, Yvette

    2008-01-01

    Studies showed that the metabolic unlike the neuroendocrine effects of ghrelin could be abrogated by co-administered unacylated ghrelin. The aim was to investigate the interaction between ghrelin and desacyl ghrelin administered intraperitoneally on food intake and neuronal activity (c-Fos) in the arcuate nucleus in non-fasted rats. Ghrelin (13 μg/kg) significantly increased food intake within the first 30 min post injection. Desacyl ghrelin at 64 and 127 μg/kg injected simultaneously with ghrelin abolished the stimulatory effect of ghrelin on food intake. Desacyl ghrelin alone at both doses did not alter food intake. Both doses of desacyl ghrelin injected separately in the light phase had no effects on food intake when rats were fasted for 12 h. Ghrelin and desacyl ghrelin (64 μg/kg) injected alone increased the number of Fos positive neurons in the arcuate nucleus compared to vehicle. The effect on neuronal activity induced by ghrelin was significantly reduced when injected simultaneously with desacyl ghrelin. Double labeling revealed that nesfatin-1 immunoreactive neurons in the arcuate nucleus are activated by simultaneous injection of ghrelin and desacyl ghrelin. These results suggest that desacyl ghrelin suppresses ghrelin-induced food intake by curbing ghrelin-induced increased neuronal activity in the arcuate nucleus and recruiting nesfatin-1 immunopositive neurons. PMID:18938204

  9. Ghrelin reduces rat myocardial calcification induced by nicotine and vitamin D3 in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Jiang, Tao; Tang, Chaoshu; Su, Zijie; Zhang, Nong; Li, Guizhong

    2011-10-01

    Ghrelin, a newly discovered bioactive peptide, initially was identified as a strong stimulant for the release of growth hormone (GH) and that has improved cardiac function in patients suffering from end-stage chronic heart failure. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that ghrelin may have myocardial protective effects. However, the role of ghrelin in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases remains unclear. In this study, an in vivo model of rat myocardial calcification induced by vitamin D3 and nicotine was used to study the possible mechanism in the regulatory action of ghrelin on the calcified myocardium. Calcification increased total Ca2+ content and 45Ca2+ deposition in the myocardium and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activation in the plasma. Compared with the control group, ghrelin mRNA expression was up-regulated and the myocardium calcium content was significantly increased in vitamin D3 and nicotine-treated rats. Rats were subcutaneously injected with 1 or 10 nmol/kg ghrelin. Rats treated with both low- and high-dose ghrelin decreased total Ca2+ content and 45Ca2+ deposition in cardiac muscle and inhibited ALP activation in the myocardium and plasma, in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, osteopontin (OPN) mRNA expression significantly decreased and that of endothelin (ET-1) significantly increased with myocardial calcification. Ghrelin treatment increased OPN expression at the mRNA level and reduced ET-1 mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that exogenous administration with ghrelin attenuates myocardial calcification induced by nicotine and vitamin D3, and that the possible mechanism is via the ghrelin-induced increase in the OPN mRNA levels and decrease in the ET-1 mRNA expression in the myocardium.

  10. Ghrelin reverses experimental diabetic neuropathy in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kyoraku, Itaru; Shiomi, Kazutaka; Kangawa, Kenji; Nakazato, Masamitsu

    2009-11-20

    Ghrelin, an acylated peptide produced in the stomach, increases food intake and growth hormone secretion, suppresses inflammation and oxidative stress, and promotes cell survival and proliferation. We investigated the pharmacological potential of ghrelin in the treatment of polyneuropathy in uncontrolled streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in mice. Ghrelin or desacyl-ghrelin was administered daily for 4 weeks after STZ-induced diabetic polyneuropathy had developed. Ghrelin administration did not alter food intake, body weight gain, blood glucose levels, or plasma insulin levels when compared with mice given saline or desacyl-ghrelin administration. Ghrelin administration ameliorated reductions in motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities in diabetic mice and normalized their temperature sensation and plasma concentrations of 8-isoprostaglandin {alpha}, an oxidative stress marker. Desacyl-ghrelin failed to have any effect. Ghrelin administration in a mouse model of diabetes ameliorated polyneuropathy. Thus, ghrelin's effects represent a novel therapeutic paradigm for the treatment of this otherwise intractable disorder.

  11. Differential gene detection incorporating common expression patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oba, Shigeyuki; Ishii, Shin

    2009-12-01

    In detection of differentially expressed (DE) genes between different groups of samples based on a high-throughput expression measurement system, we often use a classical statistical testing based on a simple assumption that the expression of a certain DE gene in one group is higher or lower in average than that in the other group. Based on this simple assumption, the theory of optimal discovery procedure (ODP) (Storey, 2005) provided an optimal thresholding function for DE gene detection. However, expression patterns of DE genes over samples may have such a structure that is not exactly consistent with group labels assigned to the samples. Appropriate treatment of such a structure can increase the detection ability. Namely, genes showing similar expression patterns to other biologically meaningful genes can be regarded as statistically more significant than those showing expression patterns independent of other genes, even if differences in mean expression levels are comparable. In this study, we propose a new statistical thresholding function based on a latent variable model incorporating expression patterns together with the ODP theory. The latent variable model assumes hidden common signals behind expression patterns over samples and the ODP theory is extended to involve the latent variables. When applied to several gene expression data matrices which include cluster structures or 'cancer outlier' structures, the newly-proposed thresholding functions showed prominently better detection performance of DE genes than the original ODP thresholding function did. We also demonstrate how the proposed methods behave through analyses of real breast cancer and lymphoma datasets.

  12. Familial aggregation analysis of gene expressions

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Shao-Qi; Xu, Liang-De; Zhang, Guang-Mei; Li, Xia; Li, Lin; Shen, Gong-Qing; Jiang, Yang; Yang, Yue-Ying; Gong, Bin-Sheng; Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Fan; Xiao, Yun; Wang, Qing K

    2007-01-01

    Traditional studies of familial aggregation are aimed at defining the genetic (and non-genetic) causes of a disease from physiological or clinical traits. However, there has been little attempt to use genome-wide gene expressions, the direct phenotypic measures of genes, as the traits to investigate several extended issues regarding the distributions of familially aggregated genes on chromosomes or in functions. In this study we conducted a genome-wide familial aggregation analysis by using the in vitro cell gene expressions of 3300 human autosome genes (Problem 1 data provided to Genetic Analysis Workshop 15) in order to answer three basic genetics questions. First, we investigated how gene expressions aggregate among different types (degrees) of relative pairs. Second, we conducted a bioinformatics analysis of highly familially aggregated genes to see how they are distributed on chromosomes. Third, we performed a gene ontology enrichment test of familially aggregated genes to find evidence to support their functional consensus. The results indicated that 1) gene expressions did aggregate in families, especially between sibs. Of 3300 human genes analyzed, there were a total of 1105 genes with one or more significant (empirical p < 0.05) familial correlation; 2) there were several genomic hot spots where highly familially aggregated genes (e.g., the chromosome 6 HLA genes cluster) were clustered; 3) as we expected, gene ontology enrichment tests revealed that the 1105 genes were aggregating not only in families but also in functional categories. PMID:18466548

  13. Methods for monitoring multiple gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Berka, Randy; Bachkirova, Elena; Rey, Michael

    2012-05-01

    The present invention relates to methods for monitoring differential expression of a plurality of genes in a first filamentous fungal cell relative to expression of the same genes in one or more second filamentous fungal cells using microarrays containing Trichoderma reesei ESTs or SSH clones, or a combination thereof. The present invention also relates to computer readable media and substrates containing such array features for monitoring expression of a plurality of genes in filamentous fungal cells.

  14. Methods for monitoring multiple gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Berka, Randy; Bachkirova, Elena; Rey, Michael

    2013-10-01

    The present invention relates to methods for monitoring differential expression of a plurality of genes in a first filamentous fungal cell relative to expression of the same genes in one or more second filamentous fungal cells using microarrays containing Trichoderma reesei ESTs or SSH clones, or a combination thereof. The present invention also relates to computer readable media and substrates containing such array features for monitoring expression of a plurality of genes in filamentous fungal cells.

  15. Methods for monitoring multiple gene expression

    DOEpatents

    Berka, Randy; Bachkirova, Elena; Rey, Michael

    2008-06-01

    The present invention relates to methods for monitoring differential expression of a plurality of genes in a first filamentous fungal cell relative to expression of the same genes in one or more second filamentous fungal cells using microarrays containing Trichoderma reesei ESTs or SSH clones, or a combination thereof. The present invention also relates to computer readable media and substrates containing such array features for monitoring expression of a plurality of genes in filamentous fungal cells.

  16. Enhanced Ghrelin Levels and Hypothalamic Orexigenic AgRP and NPY Neuropeptide Expression in Models of Jejuno-Colonic Short Bowel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gillard, Laura; Billiauws, Lore; Stan-Iuga, Bogdan; Ribeiro-Parenti, Lara; Jarry, Anne-Charlotte; Cavin, Jean-Baptiste; Cluzeaud, Françoise; Mayeur, Camille; Thomas, Muriel; Freund, Jean-Noël; Lacorte, Jean-Marc; Le Gall, Maude; Bado, André; Joly, Francisca; Le Beyec, Johanne

    2016-06-21

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) patients developing hyperphagia have a better outcome. Gastrointestinal endocrine adaptations help to improve intestinal functions and food behaviour. We investigated neuroendocrine adaptations in SBS patients and rat models with jejuno-ileal (IR-JI) or jejuno-colonic (IR-JC) anastomosis with and without parenteral nutrition. Circulating levels of ghrelin, PYY, GLP-1, and GLP-2 were determined in SBS rat models and patients. Levels of mRNA for proglucagon, PYY and for hypothalamic neuropeptides were quantified by qRT-PCR in SBS rat models. Histology and immunostaining for Ki67, GLP-1 and PYY were performed in SBS rats. IR-JC rats, but not IR-JI, exhibited significantly higher crypt depths and number of Ki67-positive cells than sham. Fasting and/or postprandial plasma ghrelin and PYY concentrations were higher, or tend to be higher, in IR-JC rats and SBS-JC patients than in controls. Proglucagon and Pyy mRNA levels were significantly enhanced in IR-JC rats. Levels of mRNA coding hypothalamic orexigenic NPY and AgRP peptides were significantly higher in IR-JC than in sham rats. We demonstrate an increase of plasma ghrelin concentrations, major changes in hypothalamic neuropeptides levels and greater induction of PYY in SBS-JC rats and patients suggesting that jejuno-colonic continuity creates a peculiar environment promoting further gut-brain adaptations.

  17. Enhanced Ghrelin Levels and Hypothalamic Orexigenic AgRP and NPY Neuropeptide Expression in Models of Jejuno-Colonic Short Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gillard, Laura; Billiauws, Lore; Stan-Iuga, Bogdan; Ribeiro-Parenti, Lara; Jarry, Anne-Charlotte; Cavin, Jean-Baptiste; Cluzeaud, Françoise; Mayeur, Camille; Thomas, Muriel; Freund, Jean-Noël; Lacorte, Jean-Marc; Le Gall, Maude; Bado, André; Joly, Francisca; Le Beyec, Johanne

    2016-01-01

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) patients developing hyperphagia have a better outcome. Gastrointestinal endocrine adaptations help to improve intestinal functions and food behaviour. We investigated neuroendocrine adaptations in SBS patients and rat models with jejuno-ileal (IR-JI) or jejuno-colonic (IR-JC) anastomosis with and without parenteral nutrition. Circulating levels of ghrelin, PYY, GLP-1, and GLP-2 were determined in SBS rat models and patients. Levels of mRNA for proglucagon, PYY and for hypothalamic neuropeptides were quantified by qRT-PCR in SBS rat models. Histology and immunostaining for Ki67, GLP-1 and PYY were performed in SBS rats. IR-JC rats, but not IR-JI, exhibited significantly higher crypt depths and number of Ki67-positive cells than sham. Fasting and/or postprandial plasma ghrelin and PYY concentrations were higher, or tend to be higher, in IR-JC rats and SBS-JC patients than in controls. Proglucagon and Pyy mRNA levels were significantly enhanced in IR-JC rats. Levels of mRNA coding hypothalamic orexigenic NPY and AgRP peptides were significantly higher in IR-JC than in sham rats. We demonstrate an increase of plasma ghrelin concentrations, major changes in hypothalamic neuropeptides levels and greater induction of PYY in SBS-JC rats and patients suggesting that jejuno-colonic continuity creates a peculiar environment promoting further gut-brain adaptations. PMID:27323884

  18. Amplification of kinetic oscillations in gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, V. P.

    2008-10-01

    Because of the feedbacks between the DNA transcription and mRNA translation, the gene expression in cells may exhibit bistability and oscillations. The deterministic and stochastic calculations presented illustrate how the bistable kinetics of expression of one gene in a cell can be influenced by the kinetic oscillations in the expression of another gene. Due to stability of the states of the bistable kinetics of gene 1 and the relatively small difference between the maximum and minimum protein amounts during the oscillations of gene 2, the induced oscillations of gene 1 are found to typically be related either to the low-or high-reactive state of this gene. The quality of the induced oscillations may be appreciably better than that of the inducing oscillations. This means that gene 1 can serve as an amplifier of the kinetic oscillations of gene 2.

  19. UCP2 mediates ghrelin's action on NPY/AgRP neurons by lowering free radicals

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Zane B.; Liu, Zhong-Wu; Walllingford, Nicholas; Erion, Derek M.; Borok, Erzsebet; Friedman, Jeffery M.; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Shanabrough, Marya; Cline, Gary; Shulman, Gerald I.; Coppola, Anna; Gao, Xiao-Bing; Horvath, Tamas L.; Diano, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    The gut-derived hormone ghrelin exerts its effect on the brain by regulating neuronal activity. Ghrelin-induced feeding behaviour is controlled by arcuate nucleus neurons that co-express neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (NPY/AgRP neurons). However, the intracellular mechanisms triggered by ghrelin to alter NPY/AgRP neuronal activity are poorly understood. Here we show that ghrelin initiates robust changes in hypothalamic mitochondrial respiration in mice that are dependent on uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2). Activation of this mitochondrial mechanism is critical for ghrelin-induced mitochondrial proliferation and electric activation of NPY/AgRP neurons, for ghrelin-triggered synaptic plasticity of pro-opiomelanocortin-expressing neurons, and for ghrelin-induced food intake. The UCP2-dependent action of ghrelin on NPY/AgRP neurons is driven by a hypothalamic fatty acid oxidation pathway involving AMPK, CPT1 and free radicals that are scavenged by UCP2. These results reveal a signalling modality connecting mitochondria-mediated effects of G-protein-coupled receptors on neuronal function and associated behaviour. PMID:18668043

  20. Ablation of ghrelin receptor reduces adiposity and improves insulin sensitivity during aging by regulating fat metabolism in white and brown adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ligen; Saha, Pradip K; Ma, Xiaojun; Henshaw, Iyabo O; Shao, Longjiang; Chang, Benny H J; Buras, Eric D; Tong, Qiang; Chan, Lawrence; McGuinness, Owen P; Sun, Yuxiang

    2011-12-01

    Aging is associated with increased adiposity in white adipose tissues and impaired thermogenesis in brown adipose tissues; both contribute to increased incidences of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Ghrelin is the only known circulating orexigenic hormone that promotes adiposity. In this study, we show that ablation of the ghrelin receptor (growth hormone secretagogue receptor, GHS-R) improves insulin sensitivity during aging. Compared to wild-type (WT) mice, old Ghsr(-/-) mice have reduced fat and preserve a healthier lipid profile. Old Ghsr(-/-) mice also exhibit elevated energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate, yet have similar food intake and locomotor activity. While GHS-R expression in white and brown adipose tissues was below the detectable level in the young mice, GHS-R expression was readily detectable in visceral white fat and interscapular brown fat of the old mice. Gene expression profiles reveal that Ghsr ablation reduced glucose/lipid uptake and lipogenesis in white adipose tissues but increased thermogenic capacity in brown adipose tissues. Ghsr ablation prevents age-associated decline in thermogenic gene expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). Cell culture studies in brown adipocytes further demonstrate that ghrelin suppresses the expression of adipogenic and thermogenic genes, while GHS-R antagonist abolishes ghrelin's effects and increases UCP1 expression. Hence, GHS-R plays an important role in thermogenic impairment during aging. Ghsr ablation improves aging-associated obesity and insulin resistance by reducing adiposity and increasing thermogenesis. Growth hormone secretagogue receptor antagonists may be a new means of combating obesity by shifting the energy balance from obesogenesis to thermogenesis.

  1. Gene expression inference with deep learning.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yifei; Li, Yi; Narayan, Rajiv; Subramanian, Aravind; Xie, Xiaohui

    2016-06-15

    Large-scale gene expression profiling has been widely used to characterize cellular states in response to various disease conditions, genetic perturbations, etc. Although the cost of whole-genome expression profiles has been dropping steadily, generating a compendium of expression profiling over thousands of samples is still very expensive. Recognizing that gene expressions are often highly correlated, researchers from the NIH LINCS program have developed a cost-effective strategy of profiling only ∼1000 carefully selected landmark genes and relying on computational methods to infer the expression of remaining target genes. However, the computational approach adopted by the LINCS program is currently based on linear regression (LR), limiting its accuracy since it does not capture complex nonlinear relationship between expressions of genes. We present a deep learning method (abbreviated as D-GEX) to infer the expression of target genes from the expression of landmark genes. We used the microarray-based Gene Expression Omnibus dataset, consisting of 111K expression profiles, to train our model and compare its performance to those from other methods. In terms of mean absolute error averaged across all genes, deep learning significantly outperforms LR with 15.33% relative improvement. A gene-wise comparative analysis shows that deep learning achieves lower error than LR in 99.97% of the target genes. We also tested the performance of our learned model on an independent RNA-Seq-based GTEx dataset, which consists of 2921 expression profiles. Deep learning still outperforms LR with 6.57% relative improvement, and achieves lower error in 81.31% of the target genes. D-GEX is available at https://github.com/uci-cbcl/D-GEX CONTACT: xhx@ics.uci.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Calorie-restricted weight loss reverses high-fat diet-induced ghrelin resistance, which contributes to rebound weight gain in a ghrelin-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Dana I; Lockie, Sarah H; Wu, Qunli; Lemus, Moyra B; Stark, Romana; Andrews, Zane B

    2013-02-01

    Twelve weeks of high-fat diet feeding causes ghrelin resistance in arcuate neuropeptide Y (NPY)/agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons. In the current study, we investigated whether diet-induced weight loss could restore NPY/AgRP neuronal responsiveness to ghrelin and whether ghrelin mediates rebound weight gain after calorie-restricted (CR) weight loss. Diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were allocated to one of two dietary interventions until they reached the weight of age-matched lean controls. DIO mice received chow diet ad libitum or chow diet with 40% CR. Chow-fed and high-fat-fed mice served as controls. Both dietary interventions normalized body weight, glucose tolerance, and plasma insulin. We show that diet-induced weight loss with CR increases total plasma ghrelin, restores ghrelin sensitivity, and increases hypothalamic NPY and AgRP mRNA expression. We propose that long-term DIO creates a higher body weight set-point and that weight loss induced by CR, as seen in the high-fat CR group, provokes the brain to protect the new higher set-point. This adaptation to weight loss likely contributes to rebound weight gain by increasing peripheral ghrelin concentrations and restoring the function of ghrelin-responsive neuronal populations in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. Indeed, we also show that DIO ghrelin-knockout mice exhibit reduced body weight regain after CR weight loss compared with ghrelin wild-type mice, suggesting ghrelin mediates rebound weight gain after CR weight loss.

  3. Estimation and Testing of Gene Expression Heterosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peng; Nettleton, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Heterosis, also known as the hybrid vigor, occurs when the mean phenotype of hybrid off-spring is superior to that of its two inbred parents. The heterosis phenomenon is extensively utilized in agriculture though the molecular basis is still unknown. In an effort to understand phenotypic heterosis at the molecular level, researchers have begun to compare expression levels of thousands of genes between parental inbred lines and their hybrid offspring to search for evidence of gene expression heterosis. Standard statistical approaches for separately analyzing expression data for each gene can produce biased and highly variable estimates and unreliable tests of heterosis. To address these shortcomings, we develop a hierarchical model to borrow information across genes. Using our modeling framework, we derive empirical Bayes estimators and an inference strategy to identify gene expression heterosis. Simulation results show that our proposed method outperforms the more traditional strategy used to detect gene expression heterosis. This article has supplementary material online. PMID:25435758

  4. Estimation and Testing of Gene Expression Heterosis.

    PubMed

    Ji, Tieming; Liu, Peng; Nettleton, Dan

    2014-09-01

    Heterosis, also known as the hybrid vigor, occurs when the mean phenotype of hybrid off-spring is superior to that of its two inbred parents. The heterosis phenomenon is extensively utilized in agriculture though the molecular basis is still unknown. In an effort to understand phenotypic heterosis at the molecular level, researchers have begun to compare expression levels of thousands of genes between parental inbred lines and their hybrid offspring to search for evidence of gene expression heterosis. Standard statistical approaches for separately analyzing expression data for each gene can produce biased and highly variable estimates and unreliable tests of heterosis. To address these shortcomings, we develop a hierarchical model to borrow information across genes. Using our modeling framework, we derive empirical Bayes estimators and an inference strategy to identify gene expression heterosis. Simulation results show that our proposed method outperforms the more traditional strategy used to detect gene expression heterosis. This article has supplementary material online.

  5. Ghrelin Protects against Renal Damages Induced by Angiotensin-II via an Antioxidative Stress Mechanism in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fujimura, Keiko; Wakino, Shu; Minakuchi, Hitoshi; Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Hosoya, Koji; Komatsu, Motoaki; Kaneko, Yuka; Shinozuka, Keisuke; Washida, Naoki; Kanda, Takeshi; Tokuyama, Hirobumi; Hayashi, Koichi; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    We explored the renal protective effects by a gut peptide, Ghrelin. Daily peritoneal injection with Ghrelin ameliorated renal damages in continuously angiotensin II (AngII)-infused C57BL/6 mice as assessed by urinary excretion of protein and renal tubular markers. AngII-induced increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and senescent changes were attenuated by Ghrelin. Ghrelin also inhibited AngII-induced upregulations of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), ameliorating renal fibrotic changes. These effects were accompanied by concomitant increase in mitochondria uncoupling protein, UCP2 as well as in a key regulator of mitochondria biosynthesis, PGC1α. In renal proximal cell line, HK-2 cells, Ghrelin reduced mitochondria membrane potential and mitochondria-derived ROS. The transfection of UCP2 siRNA abolished the decrease in mitochondria-derived ROS by Ghrelin. Ghrelin ameliorated AngII-induced renal tubular cell senescent changes and AngII-induced TGF-β and PAI-1 expressions. Finally, Ghrelin receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR)-null mice exhibited an increase in tubular damages, renal ROS levels, renal senescent changes and fibrosis complicated with renal dysfunction. GHSR-null mice harbored elongated mitochondria in the proximal tubules. In conclusion, Ghrelin suppressed AngII-induced renal damages through its UCP2 dependent anti-oxidative stress effect and mitochondria maintenance. Ghrelin/GHSR pathway played an important role in the maintenance of ROS levels in the kidney. PMID:24747517

  6. Integrating GHS into the Ghrelin System

    PubMed Central

    Veldhuis, Johannes D.; Bowers, Cyril Y.

    2010-01-01

    Oligopeptide derivatives of metenkephalin were found to stimulate growth-hormone (GH) release directly by pituitary somatotrope cells in vitro in 1977. Members of this class of peptides and nonpeptidyl mimetics are referred to as GH secretagogues (GHSs). A specific guanosine triphosphatate-binding protein-associated heptahelical transmembrane receptor for GHS was cloned in 1996. An endogenous ligand for the GHS receptor, acylghrelin, was identified in 1999. Expression of ghrelin and homonymous receptor occurs in the brain, pituitary gland, stomach, endothelium/vascular smooth muscle, pancreas, placenta, intestine, heart, bone, and other tissues. Principal actions of this peptidergic system include stimulation of GH release via combined hypothalamopituitary mechanisms, orexigenesis (appetitive enhancement), insulinostasis (inhibition of insulin secretion), cardiovascular effects (decreased mean arterial pressure and vasodilation), stimulation of gastric motility and acid secretion, adipogenesis with repression of fat oxidation, and antiapoptosis (antagonism of endothelial, neuronal, and cardiomyocyte death). The array of known and proposed interactions of ghrelin with key metabolic signals makes ghrelin and its receptor prime targets for drug development. PMID:20798846

  7. Comparative analysis reveals loss of the appetite-regulating peptide hormone ghrelin in falcons.

    PubMed

    Seim, Inge; Jeffery, Penny L; Herington, Adrian C; Chopin, Lisa K

    2015-05-15

    Ghrelin and leptin are key peripherally secreted appetite-regulating hormones in vertebrates. Here we consider the ghrelin gene (GHRL) of birds (class Aves), where it has been reported that ghrelin inhibits rather than augments feeding. Thirty-one bird species were compared, revealing that most species harbour a functional copy of GHRL and the coding region for its derived peptides ghrelin and obestatin. We provide evidence for loss of GHRL in saker and peregrine falcons, and this is likely to result from the insertion of an ERVK retrotransposon in intron 0. We hypothesise that the loss of anorexigenic ghrelin is a predatory adaptation that results in increased food-seeking behaviour and feeding in falcons. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Widespread ectopic expression of olfactory receptor genes

    PubMed Central

    Feldmesser, Ester; Olender, Tsviya; Khen, Miriam; Yanai, Itai; Ophir, Ron; Lancet, Doron

    2006-01-01

    Background Olfactory receptors (ORs) are the largest gene family in the human genome. Although they are expected to be expressed specifically in olfactory tissues, some ectopic expression has been reported, with special emphasis on sperm and testis. The present study systematically explores the expression patterns of OR genes in a large number of tissues and assesses the potential functional implication of such ectopic expression. Results We analyzed the expression of hundreds of human and mouse OR transcripts, via EST and microarray data, in several dozens of human and mouse tissues. Different tissues had specific, relatively small OR gene subsets which had particularly high expression levels. In testis, average expression was not particularly high, and very few highly expressed genes were found, none corresponding to ORs previously implicated in sperm chemotaxis. Higher expression levels were more common for genes with a non-OR genomic neighbor. Importantly, no correlation in expression levels was detected for human-mouse orthologous pairs. Also, no significant difference in expression levels was seen between intact and pseudogenized ORs, except for the pseudogenes of subfamily 7E which has undergone a human-specific expansion. Conclusion The OR superfamily as a whole, show widespread, locus-dependent and heterogeneous expression, in agreement with a neutral or near neutral evolutionary model for transcription control. These results cannot reject the possibility that small OR subsets might play functional roles in different tissues, however considerable care should be exerted when offering a functional interpretation for ectopic OR expression based only on transcription information. PMID:16716209

  9. Ghrelin does not affect gastrointestinal contractility in rainbow trout and goldfish in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kitazawa, Takio; Itoh, Kentaro; Yaosaka, Noriko; Maruyama, Keisuke; Matsuda, Kouhei; Teraoka, Hiroki; Kaiya, Hiroyuki

    2012-09-15

    Ghrelin has been identified in rainbow trout and goldfish, and it has been shown to regulate growth hormone release and food intake in these species as seen in mammals. The aim of this study was to investigate the functional role of ghrelin in regulation of gastrointestinal contractility in both fishes. Neither rainbow trout ghrelin nor rat ghrelin affected the contractility of gastrointestinal strips of rainbow trout. Similarly, goldfish ghrelin-17 and rat ghrelin did not cause marked contraction in the goldfish intestinal bulb. Detail examinations using the goldfish intestine revealed that human neurotensin, substance-P, goldfish neuromedine-U and carbachol showed apparent contractile activities in the intestinal strips. Electrical field stimulation (EFS, 1-20 Hz) caused a frequency-dependent contraction of the intestinal bulb. Atropine partially inhibited and tetrodotoxin abolished the EFS-induced contraction. Pretreatments with goldfish ghrelin-17 and rat ghrelin did not modify the EFS-induced contraction. The mRNAs of two types of growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), GHS-R1a-1 and GHS-R1a-2, were detected in the goldfish intestine, and the expression level of GHS-R1a-2 was 4-times higher than that of GHS-R1a-1. The expression levels of GHS-R1a-1 and GHS-R1a-2 in four regions of the goldfish intestine (intestinal bulb, intestine-1, intestine-2 and intestine-3) were almost the same. In conclusion, ghrelin does not affect gastrointestinal contractility of the rainbow trout and goldfish, although GHSR-like receptor/GHS-R1a is expressed entire intestine. These results suggest diversity of ghrelin function in vertebrates.

  10. Altered Lipid and Salt Taste Responsivity in Ghrelin and GOAT Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Daimon, Caitlin M.; Wang, Rui; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Sévigny, Jean; Martin, Bronwen; Maudsley, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Taste perception plays an important role in regulating food preference, eating behavior and energy homeostasis. Taste perception is modulated by a variety of factors, including gastric hormones such as ghrelin. Ghrelin can regulate growth hormone release, food intake, adiposity, and energy metabolism. Octanoylation of ghrelin by ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) is a specific post-translational modification which is essential for many biological activities of ghrelin. Ghrelin and GOAT are both widely expressed in many organs including the gustatory system. In the current study, overall metabolic profiles were assessed in wild-type (WT), ghrelin knockout (ghrelin−/−), and GOAT knockout (GOAT−/−) mice. Ghrelin−/− mice exhibited decreased food intake, increased plasma triglycerides and increased ketone bodies compared to WT mice while demonstrating WT-like body weight, fat composition and glucose control. In contrast GOAT−/− mice exhibited reduced body weight, adiposity, resting glucose and insulin levels compared to WT mice. Brief access taste behavioral tests were performed to determine taste responsivity in WT, ghrelin−/− and GOAT−/− mice. Ghrelin and GOAT null mice possessed reduced lipid taste responsivity. Furthermore, we found that salty taste responsivity was attenuated in ghrelin−/− mice, yet potentiated in GOAT−/− mice compared to WT mice. Expression of the potential lipid taste regulators Cd36 and Gpr120 were reduced in the taste buds of ghrelin and GOAT null mice, while the salt-sensitive ENaC subunit was increased in GOAT−/− mice compared with WT mice. The altered expression of Cd36, Gpr120 and ENaC may be responsible for the altered lipid and salt taste perception in ghrelin−/− and GOAT−/− mice. The data presented in the current study potentially implicates ghrelin signaling activity in the modulation of both lipid and salt taste modalities. PMID:24124572

  11. Novel molecular aspects of ghrelin and leptin in the control of adipobiology and the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Amaia

    2014-01-01

    Ghrelin and leptin show opposite effects on energy balance. Ghrelin constitutes a gut hormone that is secreted to the bloodstream in two major forms, acylated and desacyl ghrelin. The isoforms of ghrelin not only promote adiposity by the activation of hypothalamic orexigenic neurons but also directly stimulate the expression of several fat storage-related proteins in adipocytes, including ACC, FAS, LPL and perilipin, thereby stimulating intracytoplasmic lipid accumulation. Moreover, both acylated and desacyl ghrelin reduce TNF-α-induced apoptosis and autophagy in adipocytes, suggesting an anti-inflammatory role of ghrelin in human adipose tissue. On the other hand, leptin is an adipokine with lipolytic effects. In this sense, leptin modulates via PI3K/Akt/mTOR the expression of aquaglyceroporins such as AQP3 and AQP7 that facilitate glycerol efflux from adipocytes in response to the lipolytic stimuli via its translocation from the cytosolic fraction (AQP3) or lipid droplets (AQP7) to the plasma membrane. Ghrelin and leptin also participate in the homeostasis of the cardiovascular system. Ghrelin operates as a cardioprotective factor with increased circulating acylated ghrelin concentrations in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) causally related to LV remodeling during the progression to LVH. Additionally, leptin induces vasodilation by inducible NO synthase expression (iNOS) in the vascular wall. In this sense, leptin inhibits the angiotensin II-induced Ca(2+) increase, contraction and proliferation of VSMC through NO-dependent mechanisms. Together, dysregulation of circulating ghrelin isoforms and leptin resistance associated to obesity, type 2 diabetes, or the metabolic syndrome contribute to cardiometabolic derangements observed in these pathologies.

  12. Effects of retinoic acid on growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor gene expression and growth hormone secretion in rat anterior pituitary cells.

    PubMed

    Maliza, Rita; Fujiwara, Ken; Tsukada, Takehiro; Azuma, Morio; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2016-06-30

    Retinoic acid (RA) is an important signaling molecule in embryonic development and adult tissue. The actions of RA are mediated by the nuclear receptors retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR), which regulate gene expression. RAR and RXR are widely expressed in the anterior pituitary gland. RA was reported to stimulate growth hormone (GH) gene expression in the anterior pituitary cells. However, current evidence is unclear on the role of RA in gene expression of growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor (Ghrh-r), growth hormone secretagogue receptor (Ghs-r) and somatostatin receptors (Sst-rs). Using isolated anterior pituitary cells of rats, we examined the effects of RA on gene expression of these receptors and GH release. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA; 10(-6) M) for 24 h increased gene expression levels of Ghrh-r and Ghs-r; however, expressions of Sst-r2 and Sst-r5 were unchanged. Combination treatment with the RAR-agonist Am80 and RXR-agonist PA024 mimicked the effects of ATRA on Ghrh-r and Ghs-r gene expressions. Exposure of isolated pituitary cells to ATRA had no effect on basal GH release. In contrast, ATRA increased growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)- and ghrelin-stimulated GH release from cultured anterior pituitary cells. Our results suggest that expressions of Ghrh-r and Ghs-r are regulated by RA through the RAR-RXR receptor complex and that RA enhances the effects of GHRH and ghrelin on GH release from the anterior pituitary gland.

  13. Improvement of Physical Decline Through Combined Effects of Muscle Enhancement and Mitochondrial Activation by a Gastric Hormone Ghrelin in Male 5/6Nx CKD Model Mice.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Masanori; Hagiwara, Aika; Miyashita, Kazutoshi; Wakino, Shu; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Kentaro; Fujii, Chikako; Sato, Masaaki; Mitsuishi, Masanori; Muraki, Ayako; Hayashi, Koichi; Doi, Toshio; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2015-10-01

    Because a physical decline correlates with an increased risk of a wide range of disease and morbidity, an improvement of physical performance is expected to bring significant clinical benefits. The primary cause of physical decline in 5/6 nephrectomized (5/6Nx) chronic kidney disease model mice has been regarded as a decrease in muscle mass; however, our recent study showed that a decrease in muscle mitochondria plays a critical role. In the present study, we examined the effects of a gastric hormone ghrelin, which has been reported to promote muscle mitochondrial oxidation, on the physical decline in the chronic kidney disease model mice, focusing on the epigenetic modulations of a mitochondrial activator gene, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α). Ghrelin treatment improved a decline in exercise endurance of 5/6Nx mice, associated with an increase in both of the muscle mass and mitochondrial amount. The expression level of PGC-1α was decreased in the skeletal muscle of 5/6Nx mice, which was associated with an increase in the methylation ratio of the cytosine residue at 260 base pairs upstream of the initiation point. Conversely, ghrelin treatment de-methylated the cytosine residue and increased the expression of PGC-1α. A representative muscle anabolic factor, IGF-1, did not affect the expression of PGC-1α and muscle mitochondrial amount, although it increased muscle mass. As a result, IGF-1 treatment in 5/6Nx mice did not increase the decreased exercise endurance as effectively as ghrelin treatment did. These findings indicate an advantage of ghrelin treatment for a recovery of physical decline.

  14. Ghrelin and gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chang-Zhen; Liu, Dong; Kang, Wei-Ming; Yu, Jian-Chun; Ma, Zhi-Qiang; Ye, Xin; Li, Kang

    2017-01-01

    Ghrelin, as a kind of multifunctional protein polypeptide, is mainly produced in the fundus of the stomach and can promote occurrence and development of many tumors, including gastrointestinal tumors, which has been proved by the relevant researches. Most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs, about 80%), as the most common mesenchymal tumor, also develop in the fundus. Scientific research has confirmed that ghrelin, its receptors and mRNA respectively can be found in GISTs, which demonstrated the existence of a ghrelin autocrine/paracrine loop in GIST tissues. However, no reports to date have specified the mechanism whether ghrelin can promote the occurrence and development of GISTs. Studies of pulmonary artery endothelial cells in a low-oxygen environment and cardiac muscle cells in an ischemic environment have shown that ghrelin can activate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) signaling pathway. Moreover, some studies of GISTs have confirmed that activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway can indeed promote the growth and progression of GISTs. Whether ghrelin is involved in the development or progression of GISTs through certain pathways remains unknown. Can we find a new target for the treatment of GISTs? This review explores and summaries the relationship among ghrelin, the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and the development of GISTs. PMID:28348480

  15. Ghrelin and the vagus nerve.

    PubMed

    Date, Yukari

    2012-01-01

    Ghrelin, a gastrointestinal hormone, stimulates feeding and secretion of growth hormone (GH). Ghrelin is thought to directly affect neurons involved in feeding or GH secretion through growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R; ghrelin receptor); however, it is still unclear whether ghrelin crosses through the blood-brain barrier. Recently, several gastrointestinal hormones have been shown to transmit signals involved in feeding to the brain at least in part via the vagal afferent system. In fact, ghrelin's action on feeding or GH secretion is abolished or attenuated in rats that have undergone vagotomy or treatment with capsaicin, a specific afferent neurotoxin. GHS-R is present in the vagal afferent neurons as well as the brain and is transported to the afferent terminals. In addition, the firing rate of vagal afferent fibers significantly decreases after ghrelin administration. Taken together, these data show that the vagal afferent system is the major pathway conveying ghrelin's signals for feeding and GH secretion to the brain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ghrelin and gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chang-Zhen; Liu, Dong; Kang, Wei-Ming; Yu, Jian-Chun; Ma, Zhi-Qiang; Ye, Xin; Li, Kang

    2017-03-14

    Ghrelin, as a kind of multifunctional protein polypeptide, is mainly produced in the fundus of the stomach and can promote occurrence and development of many tumors, including gastrointestinal tumors, which has been proved by the relevant researches. Most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs, about 80%), as the most common mesenchymal tumor, also develop in the fundus. Scientific research has confirmed that ghrelin, its receptors and mRNA respectively can be found in GISTs, which demonstrated the existence of a ghrelin autocrine/paracrine loop in GIST tissues. However, no reports to date have specified the mechanism whether ghrelin can promote the occurrence and development of GISTs. Studies of pulmonary artery endothelial cells in a low-oxygen environment and cardiac muscle cells in an ischemic environment have shown that ghrelin can activate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) signaling pathway. Moreover, some studies of GISTs have confirmed that activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway can indeed promote the growth and progression of GISTs. Whether ghrelin is involved in the development or progression of GISTs through certain pathways remains unknown. Can we find a new target for the treatment of GISTs? This review explores and summaries the relationship among ghrelin, the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and the development of GISTs.

  17. Integrating phenotype and gene expression data for predicting gene function.

    PubMed

    Malone, Brandon M; Perkins, Andy D; Bridges, Susan M

    2009-10-08

    This paper presents a framework for integrating disparate data sets to predict gene function. The algorithm constructs a graph, called an integrated similarity graph, by computing similarities based upon both gene expression and textual phenotype data. This integrated graph is then used to make predictions about whether individual genes should be assigned a particular annotation from the Gene Ontology. A combined graph was generated from publicly-available gene expression data and phenotypic information from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This graph was used to assign annotations to genes, as were graphs constructed from gene expression data and textual phenotype information alone. While the F-measure appeared similar for all three methods, annotations based upon the integrated similarity graph exhibited a better overall precision than gene expression or phenotype information alone can generate. The integrated approach was also able to assign almost as many annotations as the gene expression method alone, and generated significantly more total and correct assignments than the phenotype information could provide. These results suggest that augmenting standard gene expression data sets with publicly-available textual phenotype data can help generate more precise functional annotation predictions while mitigating the weaknesses of a standard textual phenotype approach.

  18. Circulating Ghrelin Acts on GABA Neurons of the Area Postrema and Mediates Gastric Emptying in Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Agustina; Cornejo, María P; Fernandez, Gimena; De Francesco, Pablo N; Garcia-Romero, Guadalupe; Uriarte, Maia; Zigman, Jeffrey M; Portiansky, Enrique; Reynaldo, Mirta; Perello, Mario

    2017-05-01

    Ghrelin is known to act on the area postrema (AP), a sensory circumventricular organ located in the medulla oblongata that regulates a variety of important physiological functions. However, the neuronal targets of ghrelin in the AP and their potential role are currently unknown. In this study, we used wild-type and genetically modified mice to gain insights into the neurons of the AP expressing the ghrelin receptor [growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR)] and their role. We show that circulating ghrelin mainly accesses the AP but not to the adjacent nucleus of the solitary tract. Also, we show that both peripheral administration of ghrelin and fasting induce an increase of c-Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, in GHSR-expressing neurons of the AP, and that GHSR expression is necessary for the fasting-induced activation of AP neurons. Additionally, we show that ghrelin-sensitive neurons of the AP are mainly γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic, and that an intact AP is required for ghrelin-induced gastric emptying. Overall, we show that the capacity of circulating ghrelin to acutely induce gastric emptying in mice requires the integrity of the AP, which contains a population of GABA neurons that are a target of plasma ghrelin. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  19. Changes in gene expression and sensitivity of cocaine reward produced by a continuous fat diet.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Gandía, M Carmen; Aracil-Fernández, Auxiliadora; Montagud-Romero, Sandra; Aguilar, Maria A; Manzanares, Jorge; Miñarro, José; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta

    2017-08-01

    Preclinical studies report that free access to a high-fat diet (HFD) alters the response to psychostimulants. The aim of the present study was to examine how HFD exposure during adolescence modifies cocaine effects. Gene expression of CB1 and mu-opioid receptors (MOr) in the nucleus accumbens (N Acc) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) and ghrelin receptor (GHSR) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) were assessed. Mice were allowed continuous access to fat from PND 29, and the locomotor (10 mg/kg) and reinforcing effects of cocaine (1 and 6 mg/kg) on conditioned place preference (CPP) were evaluated on PND 69. Another group of mice was exposed to a standard diet until the day of post-conditioning, on which free access to the HFD began. HFD induced an increase of MOr gene expression in the N Acc, but decreased CB1 receptor in the N Acc and PFC. After fat withdrawal, the reduction of CB1 receptor in the N Acc was maintained. Gene expression of GHSR in the VTA decreased during the HFD and increased after withdrawal. Following fat discontinuation, mice exhibited increased anxiety, augmented locomotor response to cocaine, and developed CPP for 1 mg/kg cocaine. HFD reduced the number of sessions required to extinguish the preference and decreased sensitivity to drug priming-induced reinstatement. Our results suggest that consumption of a HFD during adolescence induces neurobiochemical changes that increased sensitivity to cocaine when fat is withdrawn, acting as an alternative reward.

  20. Gene Expression Patterns in Ovarian Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Schaner, Marci E.; Ross, Douglas T.; Ciaravino, Giuseppe; Sørlie, Therese; Troyanskaya, Olga; Diehn, Maximilian; Wang, Yan C.; Duran, George E.; Sikic, Thomas L.; Caldeira, Sandra; Skomedal, Hanne; Tu, I-Ping; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Johnson, Steven W.; O'Dwyer, Peter J.; Fero, Michael J.; Kristensen, Gunnar B.; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Hastie, Trevor; Tibshirani, Robert; van de Rijn, Matt; Teng, Nelson N.; Longacre, Teri A.; Botstein, David; Brown, Patrick O.; Sikic, Branimir I.

    2003-01-01

    We used DNA microarrays to characterize the global gene expression patterns in surface epithelial cancers of the ovary. We identified groups of genes that distinguished the clear cell subtype from other ovarian carcinomas, grade I and II from grade III serous papillary carcinomas, and ovarian from breast carcinomas. Six clear cell carcinomas were distinguished from 36 other ovarian carcinomas (predominantly serous papillary) based on their gene expression patterns. The differences may yield insights into the worse prognosis and therapeutic resistance associated with clear cell carcinomas. A comparison of the gene expression patterns in the ovarian cancers to published data of gene expression in breast cancers revealed a large number of differentially expressed genes. We identified a group of 62 genes that correctly classified all 125 breast and ovarian cancer specimens. Among the best discriminators more highly expressed in the ovarian carcinomas were PAX8 (paired box gene 8), mesothelin, and ephrin-B1 (EFNB1). Although estrogen receptor was expressed in both the ovarian and breast cancers, genes that are coregulated with the estrogen receptor in breast cancers, including GATA-3, LIV-1, and X-box binding protein 1, did not show a similar pattern of coexpression in the ovarian cancers. PMID:12960427

  1. Arabidopsis gene expression patterns during spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, A.-L.; Ferl, R. J.

    The exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) plants to spaceflight environments resulted in the differential expression of hundreds of genes. A 5 day mission on orbiter Columbia in 1999 (STS-93) carried transgenic Arabidopsis plants engineered with a transgene composed of the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene promoter linked to the β -Glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. The plants were used to evaluate the effects of spaceflight on two fronts. First, expression patterns visualized with the Adh/GUS transgene were used to address specifically the possibility that spaceflight induces a hypoxic stress response, and to assess whether any spaceflight response was similar to control terrestrial hypoxia-induced gene expression patterns. (Paul et al., Plant Physiol. 2001, 126:613). Second, genome-wide patterns of native gene expression were evaluated utilizing the Affymetrix ATH1 GeneChip? array of 8,000 Arabidopsis genes. As a control for the veracity of the array analyses, a selection of genes identified with the arrays was further characterized with quantitative Real-Time RT PCR (ABI - TaqmanTM). Comparison of the patterns of expression for arrays of hybridized with RNA isolated from plants exposed to spaceflight compared to the control arrays revealed hundreds of genes that were differentially expressed in response to spaceflight, yet most genes that are hallmarks of hypoxic stress were unaffected. These results will be discussed in light of current models for plant responses to the spaceflight environment, and with regard to potential future flight opportunities.

  2. Expression of Sox genes in tooth development.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Katsushige; Kawasaki, Maiko; Watanabe, Momoko; Idrus, Erik; Nagai, Takahiro; Oommen, Shelly; Maeda, Takeyasu; Hagiwara, Nobuko; Que, Jianwen; Sharpe, Paul T; Ohazama, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Members of the Sox gene family play roles in many biological processes including organogenesis. We carried out comparative in situ hybridization analysis of seventeen sox genes (Sox1-14, 17, 18, 21) during murine odontogenesis from the epithelial thickening to the cytodifferentiation stages. Localized expression of five Sox genes (Sox6, 9, 13, 14 and 21) was observed in tooth bud epithelium. Sox13 showed restricted expression in the primary enamel knots. At the early bell stage, three Sox genes (Sox8, 11, 17 and 21) were expressed in pre-ameloblasts, whereas two others (Sox5 and 18) showed expression in odontoblasts. Sox genes thus showed a dynamic spatio-temporal expression during tooth development.

  3. Cell cycle regulated gene expression in yeasts.

    PubMed

    McInerny, Christopher J

    2011-01-01

    The regulation of gene expression through the mitotic cell cycle, so that genes are transcribed at particular cell cycle times, is widespread among eukaryotes. In some cases, it appears to be important for control mechanisms, as deregulated expression results in uncontrolled cell divisions, which can cause cell death, disease, and malignancy. In this review, I describe the current understanding of such regulated gene expression in two established simple eukaryotic model organisms, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In these two yeasts, the global pattern of cell cycle gene expression has been well described, and most of the transcription factors that control the various waves of gene expression, and how they are in turn themselves regulated, have been characterized. As related mechanisms occur in all other eukaryotes, including humans, yeasts offer an excellent paradigm to understand this important molecular process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Expression of Sox genes in tooth development

    PubMed Central

    KAWASAKI, KATSUSHIGE; KAWASAKI, MAIKO; WATANABE, MOMOKO; IDRUS, ERIK; NAGAI, TAKAHIRO; OOMMEN, SHELLY; MAEDA, TAKEYASU; HAGIWARA, NOBUKO; QUE, JIANWEN; SHARPE, PAUL T.; OHAZAMA, ATSUSHI

    2017-01-01

    Members of the Sox gene family play roles in many biological processes including organogenesis. We carried out comparative in situ hybridization analysis of seventeen sox genes (Sox1-14, 17, 18, 21) during murine odontogenesis from the epithelial thickening to the cytodifferentiation stages. Localized expression of five Sox genes (Sox6, 9, 13, 14 and 21) was observed in tooth bud epithelium. Sox13 showed restricted expression in the primary enamel knots. At the early bell stage, three Sox genes (Sox8, 11, 17 and 21) were expressed in pre-ameloblasts, whereas two others (Sox5 and 18) showed expression in odontoblasts. Sox genes thus showed a dynamic spatio-temporal expression during tooth development. PMID:26864488

  5. Effect of ghrelin administration on phagocytic activity in acute cold-restraint stress exposed rats.

    PubMed

    Tümer, Cemil; Bilgin, Hakki Murat; Obay, Basra Deniz; Diken, Hüda; Taşdemir, Ezel; Sermet, Abdurrahman

    2007-02-01

    Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for growth hormone secretagogue receptor, was identified in the rat stomach. This peptide acts through nitric oxide (NO) by expressing endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and down regulating inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) at its gastroproprotective effect against restraint stress induced damage. Recently the ghrelin receptor has also been detected in peripheral systems including immune tissue. We have investigated the possible effect of ghrelin on phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages in acute cold-restraint stress (ACRS) exposed rats. The rats were divided into control, stress and ghrelin groups. In ghrelin groups, single dose and three days consecutive dose of ghrelin (20 microg/kg. i.p.) were applied to rats that were exposed to ACRS for 4 h. 1 ml of saline was injected i.p. after ACRS for 3 consecutive days to the rats of the stress groups. Ghrelin administration reduced the increased phagocytic activity induced by ACRS. We conclude that ghrelin exerts an important role at macrophage phagocytic activity in ACRS exposed rats.

  6. Ghrelin stimulates synaptic formation in cultured cortical networks in a dose-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Stoyanova, Irina I; le Feber, Joost; Rutten, Wim L C

    2013-09-10

    Ghrelin was initially related to appetite stimulation and growth hormone secretion. However, it also has a neuroprotective effect in neurodegenerative diseases and regulates cognitive function. The cellular basis of these processes is related to synaptic efficacy and plasticity. Previous studies indicated that ghrelin has an excitatory effect on neuronal activity, and stimulates synaptic plasticity in vivo. Plasticity in the adult brain occurs in many different ways, including changes in synapse morphology and number. Therefore, we used in vitro neuronal cultures to investigate how ghrelin affects synaptogenesis. We used dissociated cortical cultures of newborn rats, chronically treated with different doses of ghrelin (0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2μM). After one-, two-, three- or four weeks cultures were immunostained for the presynaptic marker synaptophysin. In parallel, additional groups of non-treated cultures were immunostained for detection of ghrelin receptor (GHSR1). During development, GHSR1was increasingly expressed in all type of neurons, as well as the synaptophysin. Synaptic density depended on ghrelin concentration, and was much higher than in controls in all age groups. In conclusion, ghrelin leads to earlier network formation in dissociated cortical networks and an increase in number of synapses. The effect is probably mediated by GHSR1. These findings suggest that ghrelin may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of disorders related to synaptic impairment.

  7. Ghrelin increases vagally-mediated gastric activity by central sites of action

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Emily M.; Browning, Kirsteen N.; Travagli, R. Alberto; Holmes, Gregory M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Vagally dependent gastric reflexes are mediated through vagal afferent fibers synapsing upon neurons of the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) which, in turn modulate the preganglionic parasympathetic dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) neurons within the medullary dorsal vagal complex (DVC). The expression and transport of ghrelin receptors has been documented for the afferent vagus nerve, and functional studies have confirmed that vagal pathways are integral to ghrelin-induced stimulation of gastric motility. However, the central actions of ghrelin within the DVC have not been explored fully. Methods We assessed the responses to ghrelin in fasted rats using: 1) in vivo measurements of gastric tone and motility following IVth ventricle application or unilateral microinjection of ghrelin into the dorsal vagal complex (DVC); and, 2) whole cell recordings from gastric-projecting neurons of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) Results 1) IVth ventricle application or unilateral microinjection of ghrelin into the DVC elicited contractions of the gastric corpus via excitation of a vagal cholinergic efferent pathway; 2) Ghrelin facilitates excitatory, but not inhibitory, presynaptic transmission to DMV neurons. Conclusions Our data indicate that ghrelin acts centrally by activating excitatory synaptic inputs onto DMV neurons, resulting in increased cholinergic drive by way of vagal motor innervation to the stomach. PMID:24261332

  8. Impaired wake-promoting mechanisms in ghrelin receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Matthew; Pellinen, Jacob; Kapás, Levente; Szentirmai, Éva

    2012-01-01

    Ghrelin receptors are expressed by key components of the arousal system. Exogenous ghrelin induces behavioral activation, promotes wakefulness and stimulates eating. We hypothesized that ghrelin-sensitive mechanisms play a role in the arousal system. To test this, we investigated the responsiveness of ghrelin receptor knockout (KO) mice to two natural wake-promoting stimuli. Additionally, we assessed the integrity of their homeostatic sleep-promoting system using sleep deprivation. There was no significant difference in the spontaneous sleep-wake activity between ghrelin receptor KO and wild-type (WT) mice. WT mice mounted robust arousal responses to a novel environment and food deprivation. Wakefulness increased for 6 h after cage change accompanied by increases in body temperature and locomotor activity. Ghrelin receptor KO mice completely lacked the wake and body temperature responses to new environment. When subjected to 48 h food deprivation, WT mice showed marked increases in their waking time during the dark periods of both days. Ghrelin receptor KO mice failed to mount an arousal response on the first night and wake increases were attenuated on the second day. The responsiveness to sleep deprivation did not differ between the two genotypes. These results indicate that the ghrelin-receptive mechanisms play an essential role in the function of the arousal system but not in homeostatic sleep-promoting mechanisms. © 2011 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2011 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Gene set analysis for longitudinal gene expression data

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Gene set analysis (GSA) has become a successful tool to interpret gene expression profiles in terms of biological functions, molecular pathways, or genomic locations. GSA performs statistical tests for independent microarray samples at the level of gene sets rather than individual genes. Nowadays, an increasing number of microarray studies are conducted to explore the dynamic changes of gene expression in a variety of species and biological scenarios. In these longitudinal studies, gene expression is repeatedly measured over time such that a GSA needs to take into account the within-gene correlations in addition to possible between-gene correlations. Results We provide a robust nonparametric approach to compare the expressions of longitudinally measured sets of genes under multiple treatments or experimental conditions. The limiting distributions of our statistics are derived when the number of genes goes to infinity while the number of replications can be small. When the number of genes in a gene set is small, we recommend permutation tests based on our nonparametric test statistics to achieve reliable type I error and better power while incorporating unknown correlations between and within-genes. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method has a greater power than other methods for various data distributions and heteroscedastic correlation structures. This method was used for an IL-2 stimulation study and significantly altered gene sets were identified. Conclusions The simulation study and the real data application showed that the proposed gene set analysis provides a promising tool for longitudinal microarray analysis. R scripts for simulating longitudinal data and calculating the nonparametric statistics are posted on the North Dakota INBRE website http://ndinbre.org/programs/bioinformatics.php. Raw microarray data is available in Gene Expression Omnibus (National Center for Biotechnology Information) with accession number GSE6085. PMID

  10. Gene-Ontology-based clustering of gene expression data.

    PubMed

    Adryan, Boris; Schuh, Reinhard

    2004-11-01

    The expected correlation between genetic co-regulation and affiliation to a common biological process is not necessarily the case when numerical cluster algorithms are applied to gene expression data. GO-Cluster uses the tree structure of the Gene Ontology database as a framework for numerical clustering, and thus allowing a simple visualization of gene expression data at various levels of the ontology tree. The 32-bit Windows application is freely available at http://www.mpibpc.mpg.de/go-cluster/

  11. Gene Expression Profiling during Murine Tooth Development.

    PubMed

    Landin, Maria A Dos Santos Silva; Shabestari, Maziar; Babaie, Eshrat; Reseland, Janne E; Osmundsen, Harald

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the expression of genes, including ameloblastin (Ambn), amelogenin X chromosome (Amelx), and enamelin (Enam) during early (pre-secretory) tooth development. The expression of these genes has predominantly been studied at post-secretory stages. Deoxyoligonucleotide microarrays were used to study gene expression during development of the murine first molar tooth germ at 24 h intervals, starting at the 11th embryonic day (E11.5), and up to the 7th day after birth (P7). The profile search function of Spotfire software was used to select genes with similar expression profile as the enamel genes (Ambn, Amelx, and Enam). Microarray results where validated using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR), and translated proteins identified by Western-blotting. In situ localization of the Ambn, Amelx, and Enam mRNAs were monitored from E12.5 to E17.5 using deoxyoligonucleotide probes. Bioinformatics analysis was used to associate biological functions with differentially expressed (DE; p ≤ 0.05) genes. Microarray results showed a total of 4362 genes including Ambn, Amelx, and Enam to be significant DE throughout the time-course. The expression of the three enamel genes was low at pre-natal stages (E11.5-P0) increasing after birth (P1-P7). Profile search lead to isolation of 87 genes with significantly similar expression to the three enamel proteins. These mRNAs were expressed in dental epithelium and epithelium derived cells. Although expression of Ambn, Amelx, and Enam were lower during early tooth development compared to secretory stages enamel proteins were detectable by Western-blotting. Bioinformatic analysis associated the 87 genes with multiple biological functions. Around 35 genes were associated with 15 transcription factors.

  12. Gene Expression Profiling during Murine Tooth Development

    PubMed Central

    Landin, Maria A. dos Santos Silva; Shabestari, Maziar; Babaie, Eshrat; Reseland, Janne E.; Osmundsen, Harald

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the expression of genes, including ameloblastin (Ambn), amelogenin X chromosome (Amelx), and enamelin (Enam) during early (pre-secretory) tooth development. The expression of these genes has predominantly been studied at post-secretory stages. Deoxyoligonucleotide microarrays were used to study gene expression during development of the murine first molar tooth germ at 24 h intervals, starting at the 11th embryonic day (E11.5), and up to the 7th day after birth (P7). The profile search function of Spotfire software was used to select genes with similar expression profile as the enamel genes (Ambn, Amelx, and Enam). Microarray results where validated using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR), and translated proteins identified by Western-blotting. In situ localization of the Ambn, Amelx, and Enam mRNAs were monitored from E12.5 to E17.5 using deoxyoligonucleotide probes. Bioinformatics analysis was used to associate biological functions with differentially expressed (DE; p ≤ 0.05) genes. Microarray results showed a total of 4362 genes including Ambn, Amelx, and Enam to be significant DE throughout the time-course. The expression of the three enamel genes was low at pre-natal stages (E11.5–P0) increasing after birth (P1–P7). Profile search lead to isolation of 87 genes with significantly similar expression to the three enamel proteins. These mRNAs were expressed in dental epithelium and epithelium derived cells. Although expression of Ambn, Amelx, and Enam were lower during early tooth development compared to secretory stages enamel proteins were detectable by Western-blotting. Bioinformatic analysis associated the 87 genes with multiple biological functions. Around 35 genes were associated with 15 transcription factors. PMID:22866057

  13. Stratified gene expression analysis identifies major amyotrophic lateral sclerosis genes.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ashley R; Troakes, Claire; King, Andrew; Sahni, Vibhu; De Jong, Simone; Bossers, Koen; Papouli, Efterpi; Mirza, Muddassar; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Shaw, Christopher E; Shaw, Pamela J; Kirby, Janine; Veldink, Jan H; Macklis, Jeffrey D; Powell, John F; Al-Chalabi, Ammar

    2015-05-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease of motor neurons resulting in progressive paralysis. Gene expression studies of ALS only rarely identify the same gene pathways as gene association studies. We hypothesized that analyzing tissues by matching on degree of disease severity would identify different patterns of gene expression from a traditional case-control comparison. We analyzed gene expression changes in 4 postmortem central nervous system regions, stratified by severity of motor neuron loss. An overall comparison of cases (n = 6) and controls (n = 3) identified known ALS gene, SOX5, as showing differential expression (log2 fold change = 0.09, p = 5.5 × 10(-5)). Analyses stratified by disease severity identified expression changes in C9orf72 (p = 2.77 × 10(-3)), MATR3 (p = 3.46 × 10(-3)), and VEGFA (p = 8.21 × 10(-4)), all implicated in ALS through genetic studies, and changes in other genes in pathways involving RNA processing and immune response. These findings suggest that analysis of gene expression stratified by disease severity can identify major ALS genes and may be more efficient than traditional case-control comparison. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ghrelin and the growth hormone secretagogue receptor in growth and development.

    PubMed

    Chanoine, J-P; De Waele, K; Walia, P

    2009-04-01

    The pancreas is a major source of ghrelin in the perinatal period, whereas gastric production progressively increases after birth. Loss of function of the genes for ghrelin or for the constitutively activated growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) does not affect birth weight and early postnatal growth. However, ghrl(-/-) or ghsr(-/-) mice fed a high fat diet starting soon after weaning are resistant to diet-induced obesity, suggesting that ghrelin affects the maturation of the metabolic axes involved in energy balance. In addition, animal and human studies suggest that GHSR plays a physiological role in linear growth. In mice, absence of the GHSR gene is associated with lower insulin-like growth factor 1 concentrations and lower body mass in adult animals, independently of food intake. In humans, a mutation of the GHSR gene that impairs the constitutive activity of the receptor was found in two families with short stature. Administration of acylated ghrelin to rat pups directly does not affect weight gain. In contrast, administration of ghrelin to pregnant or lactating rats results in greater fetal weight and postnatal weight gain, respectively, suggesting that maternal ghrelin may stimulate perinatal growth. These data point toward a physiological role for ghrelin and GHSR in growth and/or in the maturation of hormonal systems involved in the regulation of energy balance.

  15. Photosynthetic gene expression in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Berry, James O; Yerramsetty, Pradeep; Zielinski, Amy M; Mure, Christopher M

    2013-11-01

    Within the chloroplasts of higher plants and algae, photosynthesis converts light into biological energy, fueling the assimilation of atmospheric carbon dioxide into biologically useful molecules. Two major steps, photosynthetic electron transport and the Calvin-Benson cycle, require many gene products encoded from chloroplast as well as nuclear genomes. The expression of genes in both cellular compartments is highly dynamic and influenced by a diverse range of factors. Light is the primary environmental determinant of photosynthetic gene expression. Working through photoreceptors such as phytochrome, light regulates photosynthetic genes at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Other processes that affect photosynthetic gene expression include photosynthetic activity, development, and biotic and abiotic stress. Anterograde (from nucleus to chloroplast) and retrograde (from chloroplast to nucleus) signaling insures the highly coordinated expression of the many photosynthetic genes between these different compartments. Anterograde signaling incorporates nuclear-encoded transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulators, such as sigma factors and RNA-binding proteins, respectively. Retrograde signaling utilizes photosynthetic processes such as photosynthetic electron transport and redox signaling to influence the expression of photosynthetic genes in the nucleus. The basic C3 photosynthetic pathway serves as the default form used by most of the plant species on earth. High temperature and water stress associated with arid environments have led to the development of specialized C4 and CAM photosynthesis, which evolved as modifications of the basic default expression program. The goal of this article is to explain and summarize the many gene expression and regulatory processes that work together to support photosynthetic function in plants.

  16. Aplysia californica neurons express microinjected neuropeptide genes.

    PubMed Central

    DesGroseillers, L; Cowan, D; Miles, M; Sweet, A; Scheller, R H

    1987-01-01

    Neuropeptide genes are expressed in specific subsets of large polyploid neurons in Aplysia californica. We have defined the transcription initiation sites of three of these neuropeptide genes (the R14, L11, and ELH genes) and determined the nucleotide sequence of the promoter regions. The genes contain the usual eucaryotic promoter signals as well as other structures of potential regulatory importance, including inverted and direct repeats. The L11 and ELH genes, which are otherwise unrelated, have homology in the promoter regions, while the R14 promoter was distinct. When cloned plasmids were microinjected into Aplysia neurons in organ culture, transitions between supercoiled, relaxed circular, and linear DNAs occurred along with ligation into high-molecular-weight species. About 20% of the microinjected neurons expressed the genes. The promoter region of the R14 gene functioned in expression of the microinjected DNA in all cells studied. When both additional 5' and 3' sequences were included, the gene was specifically expressed only in R14, suggesting that the specificity of expression is generated by a multicomponent repression system. Finally, the R14 peptide could be expressed in L11, demonstrating that it is possible to alter the transmitter phenotype of these neurons by introduction of cloned genes. Images PMID:3670293

  17. Stomach ghrelin-secreting cells as food-entrainable circadian clocks

    PubMed Central

    LeSauter, Joseph; Hoque, Nawshin; Weintraub, Michael; Pfaff, Donald W.; Silver, Rae

    2009-01-01

    Increases in arousal and activity in anticipation of a meal, termed “food anticipatory activity” (FAA), depend on circadian food-entrainable oscillators (FEOs), whose locations and output signals have long been sought. It is known that ghrelin is secreted in anticipation of a regularly scheduled mealtime. We show here that ghrelin administration increases locomotor activity in nondeprived animals in the absence of food. In mice lacking ghrelin receptors, FAA is significantly reduced. Impressively, the cumulative rise of activity before food presentation closely approximates a Gaussian function (r = 0.99) for both wild-type and ghrelin receptor knockout animals, with the latter having a smaller amplitude. For both groups, once an animal begins its daily anticipatory bout, it keeps running until the usual time of food availability, indicating that ghrelin affects response threshold. Oxyntic cells coexpress ghrelin and the circadian clock proteins PER1 and PER2. The expression of PER1, PER2, and ghrelin is rhythmic in light–dark cycles and in constant darkness with ad libitum food and after 48 h of food deprivation. In behaviorally arrhythmic-clock mutant mice, unlike control animals, there is no evidence of a premeal decrease in oxyntic cell ghrelin. Rhythmic ghrelin and PER expression are synchronized to prior feeding, and not to photic schedules. We conclude that oxyntic gland cells of the stomach contain FEOs, which produce a timed ghrelin output signal that acts widely at both brain and peripheral sites. It is likely that other FEOs also produce humoral signals that modulate FAA. PMID:19633195

  18. Ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) and energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Li, Ziru; Mulholland, Michael; Zhang, Weizhen

    2016-03-01

    Ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT), a member of MBOATs family, is essential for octanoylation of ghrelin, which is required for active ghrelin to bind with and activate its receptor. GOAT is expressed mainly in the stomach, pancreas and hypothalamus. Levels of GOAT are altered by energy status. GOAT contains 11 transmembrane helices and one reentrant loop. Its invariant residue His-338 and conserved Asn-307 are located in the endoplasmic reticulum lumen and cytosol respectively. GOAT contributes to the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure, as well as glucose and lipids homeostasis. Deletion of GOAT blocks the acylation of ghrelin leading to subsequent impairment in energy homeostasis and survival when mice are challenged with high energy diet or severe caloric restriction. GO-CoA-Tat, a peptide GOAT inhibitor, attenuates acyl-ghrelin production and prevents weight gain induced by a medium-chain triglycerides-rich high fat diet. Further, GO-CoA-Tat increases glucose- induced insulin secretion. Overall, inhibition of GOAT is a novel strategy for treatment of obesity and related metabolic disorders.

  19. Hippocampus ghrelin signaling mediates appetite through lateral hypothalamic orexin pathways

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Ted M; Hahn, Joel D; Konanur, Vaibhav R; Noble, Emily E; Suarez, Andrea N; Thai, Jessica; Nakamoto, Emily M; Kanoski, Scott E

    2015-01-01

    Feeding behavior rarely occurs in direct response to metabolic deficit, yet the overwhelming majority of research on the biology of food intake control has focused on basic metabolic and homeostatic neurobiological substrates. Most animals, including humans, have habitual feeding patterns in which meals are consumed based on learned and/or environmental factors. Here we illuminate a novel neural system regulating higher-order aspects of feeding through which the gut-derived hormone ghrelin communicates with ventral hippocampus (vHP) neurons to stimulate meal-entrained conditioned appetite. Additional results show that the lateral hypothalamus (LHA) is a critical downstream substrate for vHP ghrelin-mediated hyperphagia and that vHP ghrelin activated neurons communicate directly with neurons in the LHA that express the neuropeptide, orexin. Furthermore, activation of downstream orexin-1 receptors is required for vHP ghrelin-mediated hyperphagia. These findings reveal novel neurobiological circuitry regulating appetite through which ghrelin signaling in hippocampal neurons engages LHA orexin signaling. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11190.001 PMID:26745307

  20. Gene Expression Noise, Fitness Landscapes, and Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlebois, Daniel

    The stochastic (or noisy) process of gene expression can have fitness consequences for living organisms. For example, gene expression noise facilitates the development of drug resistance by increasing the time scale at which beneficial phenotypic states can be maintained. The present work investigates the relationship between gene expression noise and the fitness landscape. By incorporating the costs and benefits of gene expression, we track how the fluctuation magnitude and timescale of expression noise evolve in simulations of cell populations under stress. We find that properties of expression noise evolve to maximize fitness on the fitness landscape, and that low levels of expression noise emerge when the fitness benefits of gene expression exceed the fitness costs (and that high levels of noise emerge when the costs of expression exceed the benefits). The findings from our theoretical/computational work offer new hypotheses on the development of drug resistance, some of which are now being investigated in evolution experiments in our laboratory using well-characterized synthetic gene regulatory networks in budding yeast. Nserc Postdoctoral Fellowship (Grant No. PDF-453977-2014).

  1. The functional landscape of mouse gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen; Morris, Quaid D; Chang, Richard; Shai, Ofer; Bakowski, Malina A; Mitsakakis, Nicholas; Mohammad, Naveed; Robinson, Mark D; Zirngibl, Ralph; Somogyi, Eszter; Laurin, Nancy; Eftekharpour, Eftekhar; Sat, Eric; Grigull, Jörg; Pan, Qun; Peng, Wen-Tao; Krogan, Nevan; Greenblatt, Jack; Fehlings, Michael; van der Kooy, Derek; Aubin, Jane; Bruneau, Benoit G; Rossant, Janet; Blencowe, Benjamin J; Frey, Brendan J; Hughes, Timothy R

    2004-01-01

    Background Large-scale quantitative analysis of transcriptional co-expression has been used to dissect regulatory networks and to predict the functions of new genes discovered by genome sequencing in model organisms such as yeast. Although the idea that tissue-specific expression is indicative of gene function in mammals is widely accepted, it has not been objectively tested nor compared with the related but distinct strategy of correlating gene co-expression as a means to predict gene function. Results We generated microarray expression data for nearly 40,000 known and predicted mRNAs in 55 mouse tissues, using custom-built oligonucleotide arrays. We show that quantitative transcriptional co-expression is a powerful predictor of gene function. Hundreds of functional categories, as defined by Gene Ontology 'Biological Processes', are associated with characteristic expression patterns across all tissues, including categories that bear no overt relationship to the tissue of origin. In contrast, simple tissue-specific restriction of expression is a poor predictor of which genes are in which functional categories. As an example, the highly conserved mouse gene PWP1 is widely expressed across different tissues but is co-expressed with many RNA-processing genes; we show that the uncharacterized yeast homolog of PWP1 is required for rRNA biogenesis. Conclusions We conclude that 'functional genomics' strategies based on quantitative transcriptional co-expression will be as fruitful in mammals as they have been in simpler organisms, and that transcriptional control of mammalian physiology is more modular than is generally appreciated. Our data and analyses provide a public resource for mammalian functional genomics. PMID:15588312

  2. Age, sex, and lactating status regulate ghrelin secretion and GOAT mRNA levels from isolated rat stomach.

    PubMed

    Al-Massadi, O; Crujeiras, A B; González, R C; Pardo, M; Diéguez, C; Casanueva, F F; Seoane, L M

    2010-09-01

    Ghrelin is a stomach derivate peptide involved in energy homeostasis regulation, and ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) is the enzyme responsible for ghrelin acylation. Puberty is a period characterized by profound changes in the metabolic requirements and notable variations of sexual hormone levels. On the other hand, the weaning process is a fundamental modification of the diet, which implicates several adaptations of the gastrointestinal tract physiology. Until now the direct secretion of ghrelin by the stomach in these conditions, without interferences from other organs, has never been studied. The main objective of this article was to investigate how the stomach modulates ghrelin production and secretion as well as GOAT expression on these periods of life. Gastric ghrelin secretion is regulated through postnatal life in an independent way of gastric expression and circulating levels of this hormone. The present work shows a strong regulation of gastric ghrelin secretion by estrogens. The weaning strongly regulates gastric ghrelin secretion. Animals subjected to delayed weaning present a lower body weight than the corresponding controls. For the first time, it is shown that a noticeable decrease in circulating levels of testosterone and estrogens is associated with delay of weaning. GOAT mRNA levels in the stomach are strongly regulated by age, breastfeeding, and testosterone. In conclusion, the stomach itself regulates ghrelin and GOAT production to adapt the organism to the metabolic requirements demanded through each stage of life.

  3. Ghrelin and the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Isgaard, Jörgen

    2013-01-01

    Although ghrelin was initially associated with regulation of appetite, the cardiovascular system has also been recognized as a potentially important target for its effects. Moreover, experimental and a limited number of clinical studies suggest a potential role for ghrelin in the treatment of congestive heart failure. So far, reported cardiovascular effects of growth hormone secretagogues and/or ghrelin include lowering of peripheral resistance, either direct at the vascular level and/or by modulating sympathetic nervous activity. Other observed effects indicate possible improvement of contractility and cardioprotective and anti-inflammatory effects both in vivo and in vitro. Taken together, these results offer an interesting perspective on the future where further studies aiming at evaluating a role of growth hormone secretagogues and ghrelin in the treatment of cardiovascular disease are warranted.

  4. Gene expression in the etiology of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bray, Nicholas J

    2008-05-01

    Gene expression represents a fundamental interface between genes and environment in the development and ongoing plasticity of the human brain. Individual differences in gene expression are likely to underpin much of human diversity, including psychiatric illness. In the past decade, the development of microarray and proteomic technology has enabled global description of gene expression in schizophrenia. However, it is difficult on the basis of gene expression assays alone to distinguish between those changes that constitute primary etiology and those that reflect secondary pathology, compensatory mechanisms, or confounding influences. In this respect, tests of genetic association with schizophrenia will be instructive because changes in gene expression that result from gene variants that are associated with the disorder are likely to be of primary etiological significance. However, regulatory polymorphism is extremely difficult to recognize on the basis of sequence interrogation alone. Functional assays at the messenger RNA and/or protein level will be essential in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying genetic association with schizophrenia and are likely to become increasingly important in the identification of regulatory variants with which to test for association with the disorder and related traits. Once established, etiologically relevant changes in gene expression can be recapitulated in model systems in order to elucidate the molecular and physiological pathways that may ultimately give rise to the condition.

  5. Noise minimisation in gene expression switches.

    PubMed

    Monteoliva, Diana; McCarthy, Christina B; Diambra, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Gene expression is subject to stochastic variation which leads to fluctuations in the rate of protein production. Recently, a study in yeast at a genomic scale showed that, in some cases, gene expression variability alters phenotypes while, in other cases, these remain unchanged despite fluctuations in the expression of other genes. These studies suggested that noise in gene expression is a physiologically relevant trait and, to prevent harmful stochastic variation in the expression levels of some genes, it can be subject to minimisation. However, the mechanisms for noise minimisation are still unclear. In the present work, we analysed how noise expression depends on the architecture of the cis-regulatory system, in particular on the number of regulatory binding sites. Using analytical calculations and stochastic simulations, we found that the fluctuation level in noise expression decreased with the number of regulatory sites when regulatory transcription factors interacted with only one other bound transcription factor. In contrast, we observed that there was an optimal number of binding sites when transcription factors interacted with many bound transcription factors. This finding suggested a new mechanism for preventing large fluctuations in the expression of genes which are sensitive to the concentration of regulators.

  6. Noise Minimisation in Gene Expression Switches

    PubMed Central

    Monteoliva, Diana; McCarthy, Christina B.; Diambra, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Gene expression is subject to stochastic variation which leads to fluctuations in the rate of protein production. Recently, a study in yeast at a genomic scale showed that, in some cases, gene expression variability alters phenotypes while, in other cases, these remain unchanged despite fluctuations in the expression of other genes. These studies suggested that noise in gene expression is a physiologically relevant trait and, to prevent harmful stochastic variation in the expression levels of some genes, it can be subject to minimisation. However, the mechanisms for noise minimisation are still unclear. In the present work, we analysed how noise expression depends on the architecture of the cis-regulatory system, in particular on the number of regulatory binding sites. Using analytical calculations and stochastic simulations, we found that the fluctuation level in noise expression decreased with the number of regulatory sites when regulatory transcription factors interacted with only one other bound transcription factor. In contrast, we observed that there was an optimal number of binding sites when transcription factors interacted with many bound transcription factors. This finding suggested a new mechanism for preventing large fluctuations in the expression of genes which are sensitive to the concentration of regulators. PMID:24376783

  7. The Central Sirtuin 1/p53 Pathway Is Essential for the Orexigenic Action of Ghrelin

    PubMed Central

    Velásquez, Douglas A.; Martínez, Gloria; Romero, Amparo; Vázquez, María J.; Boit, Katia D.; Dopeso-Reyes, Iria G.; López, Miguel; Vidal, Anxo; Nogueiras, Ruben; Diéguez, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Ghrelin is a stomach-derived peptide that increases food intake through the activation of hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). However, the molecular mechanisms initiated by the activation of the ghrelin receptor, which in turn lead to AMPK activation, remain unclear. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a deacetylase activated in response to calorie restriction that acts through the tumor suppressor gene p53. We tested the hypothesis that the central SIRT1/p53 pathway might be mediating the orexigenic action of ghrelin. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS SIRT1 inhibitors, such as Ex527 and sirtinol, and AMPK activators, such as AICAR, were administered alongside ghrelin in the brain of rats and mice (wild-type versus p53 knockout [KO]). Their hypothalamic effects on lipid metabolism and changes in transcription factors and neuropeptides were assessed by Western blot and in situ hybridization. RESULTS The central pretreatment with Ex527, a potent SIRT1 inhibitor, blunted the ghrelin-induced food intake in rats. Mice lacking p53, a target of SIRT1 action, failed to respond to ghrelin in feeding behavior. Ghrelin failed to phosphorylate hypothalamic AMPK when rats were pretreated with Ex527, as it did in p53 KO mice. It is noteworthy that the hypothalamic SIRT1/p53 pathway seems to be specific for mediating the orexigenic action of ghrelin, because central administration of AICAR, a potent AMPK activator, increased food intake in p53 KO mice. Finally, blockade of the central SIRT1 pathway did not modify ghrelin-induced growth hormone secretion. CONCLUSIONS Ghrelin specifically triggers a central SIRT1/p53 pathway that is essential for its orexigenic action, but not for the release of growth hormone. PMID:21386086

  8. Physiological roles of ghrelin on obesity.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takahiro; Ida, Takanori; Nakamura, Yuki; Shiimura, Yuki; Kangawa, Kenji; Kojima, Masayasu

    2014-01-01

    Ghrelin is a stomach hormone that acts as an endogenous ligand of orphan G-protein coupled receptor. Ghrelin has various physiological functions, such as the stimulation of growth hormone release and of appetite, and fat accumulation. Ghrelin is the only peripheral hormone to transmit satiety signal. Mature ghrelin peptide is consisted of 28 amino acid residues, and is unusual among peptide hormones in that Ser3 is n-octanoylated to obtain. Furthermore, this modification is essential for ghrelin's activity. In order to add this side chain to acyl ghrelin, it is necessary for the recently discovered enzyme, ghrelin-O-acyl transferase (GOAT). Therefore, to understand of ghrelin's functions, it is useful to obtain the knowledge on structures and functions of ghrelin, ghrelin receptor and GOAT. Here, we review our current understanding of the structures and functions of ghrelin, and the relation between obesity and ghrelin. Finally, we referred to the ghrelin and related substances as a drug design target for obesity.

  9. Nucleosome repositioning underlies dynamic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Nocetti, Nicolas; Whitehouse, Iestyn

    2016-03-15

    Nucleosome repositioning at gene promoters is a fundamental aspect of the regulation of gene expression. However, the extent to which nucleosome repositioning is used within eukaryotic genomes is poorly understood. Here we report a comprehensive analysis of nucleosome positions as budding yeast transit through an ultradian cycle in which expression of >50% of all genes is highly synchronized. We present evidence of extensive nucleosome repositioning at thousands of gene promoters as genes are activated and repressed. During activation, nucleosomes are relocated to allow sites of general transcription factor binding and transcription initiation to become accessible. The extent of nucleosome shifting is closely related to the dynamic range of gene transcription and generally related to DNA sequence properties and use of the coactivators TFIID or SAGA. However, dynamic gene expression is not limited to SAGA-regulated promoters and is an inherent feature of most genes. While nucleosome repositioning occurs pervasively, we found that a class of genes required for growth experience acute nucleosome shifting as cells enter the cell cycle. Significantly, our data identify that the ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling enzyme Snf2 plays a fundamental role in nucleosome repositioning and the expression of growth genes. We also reveal that nucleosome organization changes extensively in concert with phases of the cell cycle, with large, regularly spaced nucleosome arrays being established in mitosis. Collectively, our data and analysis provide a framework for understanding nucleosome dynamics in relation to fundamental DNA-dependent transactions.

  10. Regulation of Flagellar Gene Expression in Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Osterman, I A; Dikhtyar, Yu Yu; Bogdanov, A A; Dontsova, O A; Sergiev, P V

    2015-11-01

    The flagellum of a bacterium is a supramolecular structure of extreme complexity comprising simultaneously both a unique system of protein transport and a molecular machine that enables the bacterial cell movement. The cascade of expression of genes encoding flagellar components is closely coordinated with the steps of molecular machine assembly, constituting an amazing regulatory system. Data on structure, assembly, and regulation of flagellar gene expression are summarized in this review. The regulatory mechanisms and correlation of the process of regulation of gene expression and flagellum assembly known from the literature are described.

  11. Gene Expression Patterns in Human Liver Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xin; Cheung, Siu Tim; So, Samuel; Fan, Sheung Tat; Barry, Christopher; Higgins, John; Lai, Kin-Man; Ji, Jiafu; Dudoit, Sandrine; Ng, Irene O.L.; van de Rijn, Matt; Botstein, David; Brown, Patrick O.

    2002-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of death worldwide. Using cDNA microarrays to characterize patterns of gene expression in HCC, we found consistent differences between the expression patterns in HCC compared with those seen in nontumor liver tissues. The expression patterns in HCC were also readily distinguished from those associated with tumors metastatic to liver. The global gene expression patterns intrinsic to each tumor were sufficiently distinctive that multiple tumor nodules from the same patient could usually be recognized and distinguished from all the others in the large sample set on the basis of their gene expression patterns alone. The distinctive gene expression patterns are characteristic of the tumors and not the patient; the expression programs seen in clonally independent tumor nodules in the same patient were no more similar than those in tumors from different patients. Moreover, clonally related tumor masses that showed distinct expression profiles were also distinguished by genotypic differences. Some features of the gene expression patterns were associated with specific phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of the tumors, including growth rate, vascular invasion, and p53 overexpression. PMID:12058060

  12. Participation of ghrelin signalling in the reciprocal regulation of hypothalamic NPY/POMC-mediated appetite control in amphetamine-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ching-Han; Chu, Shu-Chen; Chen, Pei-Ni; Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Kuo, Dong-Yih

    2017-06-01

    Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) have been documented to participate in amphetamine (AMPH)-induced appetite suppression. This study investigated whether ghrelin signalling is associated with changes in NPY/POMC-mediated appetite control. Rats were given AMPH daily for four days, and changes in food intake, body weight, plasma ghrelin, hypothalamic NPY, melanocortin 3 receptor (MC3R), ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT), acyl ghrelin (AG) and ghrelin receptor (GHSR1a) were examined and compared. Food intake, body weight and NPY expression decreased, while MC3R expression increased and expressed reciprocally to NPY expression during AMPH treatment. Plasma ghrelin and hypothalamic AG/GOAT/GHSR1a expression decreased on Day 1 and Day 2, which was associated with the positive energy metabolism, and returned to normal levels on Day 3 and Day 4, which was associated with the negative energy metabolism; this expression pattern was similar to that of NPY. Infusion with a GHSR1a antagonist or an NPY antisense into the brain enhanced the decrease in NPY and AG/GOAT/GHSR1a expression and the increase in MC3R expression compared to the AMPH-treated group. Peripheral ghrelin and the central ghrelin system participated in the regulation in AMPH-induced appetite control. These results shed light on the involvement of ghrelin signalling in reciprocal regulation of NPY/POMC-mediated appetite control and may prove useful for the development of anti-obesity drugs.

  13. Ghrelin and the Cardiovascular System.

    PubMed

    Lilleness, Brian M; Frishman, William H

    Ghrelin is a small peptide released primarily from the stomach. It is a potent stimulator of growth hormone secretion from the pituitary gland and is well known for its regulation of metabolism and appetite. There is also a strong relationship between ghrelin and the cardiovascular system. Ghrelin receptors are present throughout the heart and vasculature and have been linked with molecular pathways, including, but not limited to, the regulation of intracellular calcium concentration, inhibition of proapoptotic cascades, and protection against oxidative damage. Ghrelin shows robust cardioprotective effects including enhancing endothelial and vascular function, preventing atherosclerosis, inhibiting sympathetic drive, and decreasing blood pressure. After myocardial infarction, exogenous administration of ghrelin preserves cardiac function, reduces the incidence of fatal arrhythmias, and attenuates apoptosis and ventricular remodeling, leading to improvements in heart failure. It ameliorates cachexia in end-stage congestive heart failure patients and has shown clinical benefit in pulmonary hypertension. Nonetheless, since ghrelin's discovery is relatively recent, there remains a substantial amount of research needed to fully understand its clinical significance in cardiovascular disease.

  14. The Amygdala as a Neurobiological Target for Ghrelin in Rats: Neuroanatomical, Electrophysiological and Behavioral Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Crespo, Mayte; Skibicka, Karolina P.; Farkas, Imre; Molnár, Csilla S.; Egecioglu, Emil; Hrabovszky, Erik; Liposits, Zsolt; Dickson, Suzanne L.

    2012-01-01

    Here, we sought to demonstrate that the orexigenic circulating hormone, ghrelin, is able to exert neurobiological effects (including those linked to feeding control) at the level of the amygdala, involving neuroanatomical, electrophysiological and behavioural studies. We found that ghrelin receptors (GHS-R) are densely expressed in several subnuclei of the amygdala, notably in ventrolateral (LaVL) and ventromedial (LaVM) parts of the lateral amygdaloid nucleus. Using whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology to record from cells in the lateral amygdaloid nucleus, we found that ghrelin reduced the frequency of mEPSCs recorded from large pyramidal-like neurons, an effect that could be blocked by co-application of a ghrelin receptor antagonist. In ad libitum fed rats, intra-amygdala administration of ghrelin produced a large orexigenic response that lasted throughout the 4 hr of testing. Conversely, in hungry, fasted rats ghrelin receptor blockade in the amygdala significantly reduced food intake. Finally, we investigated a possible interaction between ghrelin's effects on feeding control and emotional reactivity exerted at the level of the amygdala. In rats allowed to feed during a 1-hour period between ghrelin injection and anxiety testing (elevated plus maze and open field), intra-amygdala ghrelin had no effect on anxiety-like behavior. By contrast, if the rats were not given access to food during this 1-hour period, a decrease in anxiety-like behavior was observed in both tests. Collectively, these data indicate that the amygdala is a valid target brain area for ghrelin where its neurobiological effects are important for food intake and for the suppression of emotional (anxiety-like) behaviors if food is not available. PMID:23071554

  15. Ghrelin-AMPK Signaling Mediates the Neuroprotective Effects of Calorie Restriction in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bayliss, Jacqueline A.; Lemus, Moyra B.; Stark, Romana; Santos, Vanessa V.; Thompson, Aiysha; Rees, Daniel J.; Galic, Sandra; Elsworth, John D.; Kemp, Bruce E.; Davies, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is neuroprotective in Parkinson's disease (PD) although the mechanisms are unknown. In this study we hypothesized that elevated ghrelin, a gut hormone with neuroprotective properties, during CR prevents neurodegeneration in an 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of PD. CR attenuated the MPTP-induced loss of substantia nigra (SN) dopamine neurons and striatal dopamine turnover in ghrelin WT but not KO mice, demonstrating that ghrelin mediates CR's neuroprotective effect. CR elevated phosphorylated AMPK and ACC levels in the striatum of WT but not KO mice suggesting that AMPK is a target for ghrelin-induced neuroprotection. Indeed, exogenous ghrelin significantly increased pAMPK in the SN. Genetic deletion of AMPKβ1 and 2 subunits only in dopamine neurons prevented ghrelin-induced AMPK phosphorylation and neuroprotection. Hence, ghrelin signaling through AMPK in SN dopamine neurons mediates CR's neuroprotective effects. We consider targeting AMPK in dopamine neurons may recapitulate neuroprotective effects of CR without requiring dietary intervention. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The neuroprotective mechanisms of calorie restriction (CR) in Parkinson's disease are unknown. Indeed, the difficulty to adhere to CR necessitates an alternative method to recapitulate the neuroprotective benefits of CR while bypassing dietary constraints. Here we show that CR increases plasma ghrelin, which targets substantia nigra dopamine to maintain neuronal survival. Selective deletion on AMPK beta1 and beta2 subunits only in DAT cre-expressing neurons shows that the ghrelin-induced neuroprotection requires activation of AMPK in substantia nigra dopamine neurons. We have discovered ghrelin as a key metabolic signal, and AMPK in dopamine neurons as its target, which links calorie restriction with neuroprotection in Parkinson's disease. Thus, targeting AMPK in dopamine neurons may provide novel neuroprotective benefits in Parkinson's disease. PMID

  16. Digital gene expression signatures for maize development.

    PubMed

    Eveland, Andrea L; Satoh-Nagasawa, Namiko; Goldshmidt, Alexander; Meyer, Sandra; Beatty, Mary; Sakai, Hajime; Ware, Doreen; Jackson, David

    2010-11-01

    Genome-wide expression signatures detect specific perturbations in developmental programs and contribute to functional resolution of key regulatory networks. In maize (Zea mays) inflorescences, mutations in the RAMOSA (RA) genes affect the determinacy of axillary meristems and thus alter branching patterns, an important agronomic trait. In this work, we developed and tested a framework for analysis of tag-based, digital gene expression profiles using Illumina's high-throughput sequencing technology and the newly assembled B73 maize reference genome. We also used a mutation in the RA3 gene to identify putative expression signatures specific to stem cell fate in axillary meristem determinacy. The RA3 gene encodes a trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase and may act at the interface between developmental and metabolic processes. Deep sequencing of digital gene expression libraries, representing three biological replicate ear samples from wild-type and ra3 plants, generated 27 million 20- to 21-nucleotide reads with frequencies spanning 4 orders of magnitude. Unique sequence tags were anchored to 3'-ends of individual transcripts by DpnII and NlaIII digests, which were multiplexed during sequencing. We mapped 86% of nonredundant signature tags to the maize genome, which associated with 37,117 gene models and unannotated regions of expression. In total, 66% of genes were detected by at least nine reads in immature maize ears. We used comparative genomics to leverage existing information from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and rice (Oryza sativa) in functional analyses of differentially expressed maize genes. Results from this study provide a basis for the analysis of short-read expression data in maize and resolved specific expression signatures that will help define mechanisms of action for the RA3 gene.

  17. Sexual differences of imprinted genes' expression levels.

    PubMed

    Faisal, Mohammad; Kim, Hana; Kim, Joomyeong

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, genomic imprinting has evolved as a dosage-controlling mechanism for a subset of genes that play critical roles in their unusual reproduction scheme involving viviparity and placentation. As such, many imprinted genes are highly expressed in sex-specific reproductive organs. In the current study, we sought to test whether imprinted genes are differentially expressed between the two sexes. According to the results, the expression levels of the following genes differ between the two sexes of mice: Peg3, Zim1, Igf2, H19 and Zac1. The expression levels of these imprinted genes are usually greater in males than in females. This bias is most obvious in the developing brains of 14.5-dpc embryos, but also detected in the brains of postnatal-stage mice. However, this sexual bias is not obvious in 10.5-dpc embryos, a developmental stage before the sexual differentiation. Thus, the sexual bias observed in the imprinted genes is most likely attributable by gonadal hormones rather than by sex chromosome complement. Overall, the results indicate that several imprinted genes are sexually different in terms of their expression levels, and further suggest that the transcriptional regulation of these imprinted genes may be influenced by unknown mechanisms associated with sexual differentiation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Gene expression studies in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Tajouri, Lotti; Fernandez, Francesca; Griffiths, Lyn R

    2007-05-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a serious neurological disorder affecting young Caucasian individuals, usually with an age of onset at 18 to 40 years old. Females account for approximately 60x of MS cases and the manifestation and course of the disease is highly variable from patient to patient. The disorder is characterised by the development of plaques within the central nervous system (CNS). Many gene expression studies have been undertaken to look at the specific patterns of gene transcript levels in MS. Human tissues and experimental mice were used in these gene-profiling studies and a very valuable and interesting set of data has resulted from these various expression studies. In general, genes showing variable expression include mainly immunological and inflammatory genes, stress and antioxidant genes, as well as metabolic and central nervous system markers. Of particular interest are a number of genes localised to susceptible loci previously shown to be in linkage with MS. However due to the clinical complexity of the disease, the heterogeneity of the tissues used in expression studies, as well as the variable DNA chips/membranes used for the gene profiling, it is difficult to interpret the available information. Although this information is essential for the understanding of the pathogenesis of MS, it is difficult to decipher and define the gene pathways involved in the disorder. Experiments in gene expression profiling in MS have been numerous and lists of candidates are now available for analysis. Researchers have investigated gene expression in peripheral mononuclear white blood cells (PBMCs), in MS animal models Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis (EAE) and post mortem MS brain tissues. This review will focus on the results of these studies.

  19. Unmasking ultradian rhythms in gene expression

    PubMed Central

    van der Veen, Daan R.; Gerkema, Menno P.

    2017-01-01

    Biological oscillations with an ultradian time scale of 1 to several hours include cycles in behavioral arousal, episodic glucocorticoid release, and gene expression. Ultradian rhythms are thought to have an extrinsic origin because of a perceived absence of ultradian rhythmicity in vitro and a lack of known molecular ultradian oscillators. We designed a novel, non–spectral-analysis method of separating ultradian from circadian components and applied it to a published gene expression dataset with an ultradian sampling resolution. Ultradian rhythms in mouse hepatocytes in vivo have been published, and we validated our approach using this control by confirming 175 of 323 ultradian genes identified in a prior study and found 862 additional ultradian genes. For the first time, we now report ultradian expression of >900 genes in vitro. Sixty genes exhibited ultradian transcriptional rhythmicity, both in vivo and in vitro, including 5 genes involved in the cell cycle. Within these 60 genes, we identified significant enrichment of specific DNA motifs in the 1000 bp proximal promotor, some of which associate with known transcriptional factors. These findings are in strong support of instrinsically driven ultradian rhythms and expose potential molecular mechanisms and functions underlying ultradian rhythms that remain unknown.—Van der Veen, D. R., Gerkema, M. P. Unmasking ultradian rhythms in gene expression. PMID:27871062

  20. Gene expression homeostasis and chromosome architecture

    PubMed Central

    Seshasayee, Aswin Sai Narain

    2014-01-01

    In rapidly growing populations of bacterial cells, including those of the model organism Escherichia coli, genes essential for growth - such as those involved in protein synthesis - are expressed at high levels; this is in contrast to many horizontally-acquired genes, which are maintained at low transcriptional levels.1 This balance in gene expression states between 2 distinct classes of genes is established by a galaxy of transcriptional regulators, including the so-called nucleoid associated proteins (NAP) that contribute to shaping the chromosome.2 Besides these active players in gene regulation, it is not too far-fetched to anticipate that genome organization in terms of how genes are arranged on the chromosome,3 which is the result of long-drawn transactions among genome rearrangement processes and selection, and the manner in which it is structured inside the cell, plays a role in establishing this balance. A recent study from our group has contributed to the literature investigating the interplay between global transcriptional regulators and genome organization in establishing gene expression homeostasis.4 In particular, we address a triangle of functional interactions among genome organization, gene expression homeostasis and horizontal gene transfer. PMID:25997086

  1. Ghrelin ameliorates intestinal barrier dysfunction in experimental colitis by inhibiting the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Jian; Zhang, Lin; Dai, Weiqi; Mao, Yuqing; Li, Sainan; Wang, Jingjie; Li, Huanqing; Guo, Chuanyong; Fan, Xiaoming

    2015-02-27

    Aim: This study aimed to investigate the effect and underlying mechanism of ghrelin on intestinal barrier dysfunction in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Methods and results: Acute colitis was induced in C57BL/6J mice by administering 2.5% DSS. Saline or 25, 125, 250 μg/kg ghrelin was administrated intraperitoneally (IP) to mice 1 day before colitis induction and on days 4, 5, and 6 after DSS administration. IP injection of a ghrelin receptor antagonist, [D-lys{sup 3}]-GHRP-6, was performed immediately prior to ghrelin injection. Ghrelin (125 or 250 μg/kg) could reduce the disease activity index, histological score, and myeloperoxidase activities in experimental colitis, and also prevented shortening of the colon. Ghrelin could prevent the reduction of transepithelial electrical resistance and tight junction expression, and bolstered tight junction structural integrity and regulated cytokine secretion. Ultimately, ghrelin inhibited nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), inhibitory κB-α, myosin light chain kinase, and phosphorylated myosin light chain 2 activation. Conclusions: Ghrelin prevented the breakdown of intestinal barrier function in DSS-induced colitis. The protective effects of ghrelin on intestinal barrier function were mediated by its receptor GHSR-1a. The inhibition of NF-κB activation might be part of the mechanism underlying the effects of ghrelin that protect against barrier dysfunction. - Highlights: • Ghrelin ameliorates intestinal barrier dysfunction in experimental colitis. • The effect of ghrelin is mediated by GHSR-1a. • Inhibition of NF-κB activation.

  2. Ghrelin and obestatin modulate growth hormone-releasing hormone release and synaptic inputs onto growth hormone-releasing hormone neurons.

    PubMed

    Feng, Dan D; Yang, Seung-Kwon; Loudes, Catherine; Simon, Axelle; Al-Sarraf, Tamara; Culler, Michael; Alvear-Perez, Rodrigo; Llorens-Cortes, Catherine; Chen, Chen; Epelbaum, Jacques; Gardette, Robert

    2011-09-01

    Ghrelin, a natural ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), is synthesized in the stomach but may also be expressed in lesser quantity in the hypothalamus where the GHS-R is located on growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) neurons. Obestatin, a peptide derived from the same precursor as ghrelin, is able to antagonize the ghrelin-induced increase of growth hormone (GH) secretion in vivo but not from pituitary explants in vitro. Thus, the blockade of ghrelin-induced GH release by obestatin could be mediated at the hypothalamic level by the neuronal network that controls pituitary GH secretion. Ghrelin increased GHRH and decreased somatostatin (somatotropin-releasing inhibitory factor) release from hypothalamic explants, whereas obestatin only reduced the ghrelin-induced increase of GHRH release, thus indicating that the effect of ghrelin and obestatin is targeted to GHRH neurons. Patch-clamp recordings on mouse GHRH-enhanced green fluorescent protein neurons indicated that ghrelin and obestatin had no significant effects on glutamatergic synaptic transmission. Ghrelin decreased GABAergic synaptic transmission in 44% of the recorded neurons, an effect blocked in the presence of the GHS-R antagonist BIM28163, and stimulated the firing rate of 78% of GHRH neurons. Obestatin blocked the effects of ghrelin by acting on a receptor different from the GHS-R. These data suggest that: (i) ghrelin increases GHRH neuron excitability by increasing their action potential firing rate and decreasing the strength of GABA inhibitory inputs, thereby leading to an enhanced GHRH release; and (ii) obestatin counteracts ghrelin actions. Such interactions on GHRH neurons probably participate in the control of GH secretion.

  3. Expression of polarity genes in human cancer.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wan-Hsin; Asmann, Yan W; Anastasiadis, Panos Z

    2015-01-01

    Polarity protein complexes are crucial for epithelial apical-basal polarity and directed cell migration. Since alterations of these processes are common in cancer, polarity proteins have been proposed to function as tumor suppressors or oncogenic promoters. Here, we review the current understanding of polarity protein functions in epithelial homeostasis, as well as tumor formation and progression. As most previous studies focused on the function of single polarity proteins in simplified model systems, we used a genomics approach to systematically examine and identify the expression profiles of polarity genes in human cancer. The expression profiles of polarity genes were distinct in different human tissues and classified cancer types. Additionally, polarity expression profiles correlated with disease progression and aggressiveness, as well as with identified cancer types, where specific polarity genes were commonly altered. In the case of Scribble, gene expression analysis indicated its common amplification and upregulation in human cancer, suggesting a tumor promoting function.

  4. Regulation of Gene Expression in Protozoa Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Consuelo; Esther Ramirez, M.; Calixto-Galvez, Mercedes; Medel, Olivia; Rodríguez, Mario A.

    2010-01-01

    Infections with protozoa parasites are associated with high burdens of morbidity and mortality across the developing world. Despite extensive efforts to control the transmission of these parasites, the spread of populations resistant to drugs and the lack of effective vaccines against them contribute to their persistence as major public health problems. Parasites should perform a strict control on the expression of genes involved in their pathogenicity, differentiation, immune evasion, or drug resistance, and the comprehension of the mechanisms implicated in that control could help to develop novel therapeutic strategies. However, until now these mechanisms are poorly understood in protozoa. Recent investigations into gene expression in protozoa parasites suggest that they possess many of the canonical machineries employed by higher eukaryotes for the control of gene expression at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and epigenetic levels, but they also contain exclusive mechanisms. Here, we review the current understanding about the regulation of gene expression in Plasmodium sp., Trypanosomatids, Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis. PMID:20204171

  5. Expression of Polarity Genes in Human Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wan-Hsin; Asmann, Yan W; Anastasiadis, Panos Z

    2015-01-01

    Polarity protein complexes are crucial for epithelial apical–basal polarity and directed cell migration. Since alterations of these processes are common in cancer, polarity proteins have been proposed to function as tumor suppressors or oncogenic promoters. Here, we review the current understanding of polarity protein functions in epithelial homeostasis, as well as tumor formation and progression. As most previous studies focused on the function of single polarity proteins in simplified model systems, we used a genomics approach to systematically examine and identify the expression profiles of polarity genes in human cancer. The expression profiles of polarity genes were distinct in different human tissues and classified cancer types. Additionally, polarity expression profiles correlated with disease progression and aggressiveness, as well as with identified cancer types, where specific polarity genes were commonly altered. In the case of Scribble, gene expression analysis indicated its common amplification and upregulation in human cancer, suggesting a tumor promoting function. PMID:25991909

  6. Dynamic modeling of gene expression data

    PubMed Central

    Holter, Neal S.; Maritan, Amos; Cieplak, Marek; Fedoroff, Nina V.; Banavar, Jayanth R.

    2001-01-01

    We describe the time evolution of gene expression levels by using a time translational matrix to predict future expression levels of genes based on their expression levels at some initial time. We deduce the time translational matrix for previously published DNA microarray gene expression data sets by modeling them within a linear framework by using the characteristic modes obtained by singular value decomposition. The resulting time translation matrix provides a measure of the relationships among the modes and governs their time evolution. We show that a truncated matrix linking just a few modes is a good approximation of the full time translation matrix. This finding suggests that the number of essential connections among the genes is small. PMID:11172013

  7. Dynamic modeling of gene expression data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holter, N. S.; Maritan, A.; Cieplak, M.; Fedoroff, N. V.; Banavar, J. R.

    2001-01-01

    We describe the time evolution of gene expression levels by using a time translational matrix to predict future expression levels of genes based on their expression levels at some initial time. We deduce the time translational matrix for previously published DNA microarray gene expression data sets by modeling them within a linear framework by using the characteristic modes obtained by singular value decomposition. The resulting time translation matrix provides a measure of the relationships among the modes and governs their time evolution. We show that a truncated matrix linking just a few modes is a good approximation of the full time translation matrix. This finding suggests that the number of essential connections among the genes is small.

  8. Dynamic modeling of gene expression data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holter, N. S.; Maritan, A.; Cieplak, M.; Fedoroff, N. V.; Banavar, J. R.

    2001-01-01

    We describe the time evolution of gene expression levels by using a time translational matrix to predict future expression levels of genes based on their expression levels at some initial time. We deduce the time translational matrix for previously published DNA microarray gene expression data sets by modeling them within a linear framework by using the characteristic modes obtained by singular value decomposition. The resulting time translation matrix provides a measure of the relationships among the modes and governs their time evolution. We show that a truncated matrix linking just a few modes is a good approximation of the full time translation matrix. This finding suggests that the number of essential connections among the genes is small.

  9. A comparison of Affymetrix gene expression arrays.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Mark D; Speed, Terence P

    2007-11-15

    Affymetrix GeneChips are an important tool in many facets of biological research. Recently, notable design changes to the chips have been made. In this study, we use publicly available data from Affymetrix to gauge the performance of three human gene expression arrays: Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 (U133), Human Exon 1.0 ST (HuEx) and Human Gene 1.0 ST (HuGene). We studied probe-, exon- and gene-level reproducibility of technical and biological replicates from each of the 3 platforms. The U133 array has larger feature sizes so it is no surprise that probe-level variances are smaller, however the larger number of probes per gene on the HuGene array seems to produce gene-level summaries that have similar variances. The gene-level summaries of the HuEx array are less reproducible than the other two, despite having the largest average number of probes per gene. Greater than 80% of the content on the HuEx arrays is expressed at or near background. Biological variation seems to have a smaller effect on U133 data. Comparing the overlap of differentially expressed genes, we see a high overall concordance among all 3 platforms, with HuEx and HuGene having greater overlap, as expected given their design. We performed an analysis of detection rates and area under ROC curves using an experiment made up of several mixtures of 2 human tissues. Though it appears that the HuEx array has worse performance in terms of detection rates, all arrays have similar ability to separate differentially expressed and non-differentially expressed genes. Despite noticeable differences in the probe-level reproducibility, gene-level reproducibility and differential expression detection are quite similar across the three platforms. The HuEx array, an all-encompassing array, has the flexibility of measuring all known or predicted exonic content. However, the HuEx array induces poorer reproducibility for genes with fewer exons. The HuGene measures just the well-annotated genome content and appears to

  10. Mucin gene expression in hypertrophic adenoids.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mahmoud S; Wilson, J A; Bennett, M; Pearson, Jeffrey P

    2007-10-01

    Membrane-bound mucin MUC4 represents the predominant mucin expressed in the adenoid epithelium followed by MUC5AC (gel-forming mucin). This may suggest that membrane-bound mucins could be involved in pathogen binding and immunological stimulation. The aim of this study was to investigate mucin expression in hypertrophic adenoids. Adenoidal samples were obtained from 12 children. The expression of eight mucin genes, MUC1-4, MUC5AC, 5B, 6 and 7 was studied by in situ hybridization utilizing digoxigenin-labelled oligonucleotide probes. The dominant mucin genes were MUC4, 3 and 5AC, while MUC1, 2, 5B and 7 were sparsely expressed and MUC6 was not expressed. Expression patterns were very different from those in the upper airways. Most samples expressed two membrane-bound mucins (MUC4 and 3) and one secretory mucin (MUC5AC).

  11. Mining Gene Expression Data of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhenli; Huang, Zhengliang; Li, Ke

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Microarray produces a large amount of gene expression data, containing various biological implications. The challenge is to detect a panel of discriminative genes associated with disease. This study proposed a robust classification model for gene selection using gene expression data, and performed an analysis to identify disease-related genes using multiple sclerosis as an example. Materials and methods Gene expression profiles based on the transcriptome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a total of 44 samples from 26 multiple sclerosis patients and 18 individuals with other neurological diseases (control) were analyzed. Feature selection algorithms including Support Vector Machine based on Recursive Feature Elimination, Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve, and Boruta algorithms were jointly performed to select candidate genes associating with multiple sclerosis. Multiple classification models categorized samples into two different groups based on the identified genes. Models’ performance was evaluated using cross-validation methods, and an optimal classifier for gene selection was determined. Results An overlapping feature set was identified consisting of 8 genes that were differentially expressed between the two phenotype groups. The genes were significantly associated with the pathways of apoptosis and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction. TNFSF10 was significantly associated with multiple sclerosis. A Support Vector Machine model was established based on the featured genes and gave a practical accuracy of ∼86%. This binary classification model also outperformed the other models in terms of Sensitivity, Specificity and F1 score. Conclusions The combined analytical framework integrating feature ranking algorithms and Support Vector Machine model could be used for selecting genes for other diseases. PMID:24932510

  12. Ghrelin Facilitates GLUT2-, SGLT1- and SGLT2-mediated Intestinal Glucose Transport in Goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Ayelén Melisa; Bertucci, Juan Ignacio; Ramesh, Naresh; Delgado, María Jesús; Valenciano, Ana Isabel; Unniappan, Suraj

    2017-01-01

    Glucose homeostasis is an important biological process that involves a variety of regulatory mechanisms. This study aimed to determine whether ghrelin, a multifunctional gut-brain hormone, modulates intestinal glucose transport in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Three intestinal glucose transporters, the facilitative glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), and the sodium/glucose co-transporters 1 (SGLT1) and 2 (SGLT2), were studied. Immunostaining of intestinal sections found colocalization of ghrelin and GLUT2 and SGLT2 in mucosal cells. Some cells containing GLUT2, SGLT1 and SGLT2 coexpressed the ghrelin/growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a). Intraperitoneal glucose administration led to a significant increase in serum ghrelin levels, as well as an upregulation of intestinal preproghrelin, ghrelin O-acyltransferase and ghs-r1 expression. In vivo and in vitro ghrelin treatment caused a concentration- and time-dependent modulation (mainly stimulatory) of GLUT2, SGLT1 and SGLT2. These effects were abolished by the GHS-R1a antagonist [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 and the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122, suggesting that ghrelin actions on glucose transporters are mediated by GHS-R1a via the PLC/PKC signaling pathway. Finally, ghrelin stimulated the translocation of GLUT2 into the plasma membrane of goldfish primary intestinal cells. Overall, data reported here indicate an important role for ghrelin in the modulation of glucoregulatory machinery and glucose homeostasis in fish. PMID:28338019

  13. Ghrelin Facilitates GLUT2-, SGLT1- and SGLT2-mediated Intestinal Glucose Transport in Goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Blanco, Ayelén Melisa; Bertucci, Juan Ignacio; Ramesh, Naresh; Delgado, María Jesús; Valenciano, Ana Isabel; Unniappan, Suraj

    2017-03-24

    Glucose homeostasis is an important biological process that involves a variety of regulatory mechanisms. This study aimed to determine whether ghrelin, a multifunctional gut-brain hormone, modulates intestinal glucose transport in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Three intestinal glucose transporters, the facilitative glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), and the sodium/glucose co-transporters 1 (SGLT1) and 2 (SGLT2), were studied. Immunostaining of intestinal sections found colocalization of ghrelin and GLUT2 and SGLT2 in mucosal cells. Some cells containing GLUT2, SGLT1 and SGLT2 coexpressed the ghrelin/growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a). Intraperitoneal glucose administration led to a significant increase in serum ghrelin levels, as well as an upregulation of intestinal preproghrelin, ghrelin O-acyltransferase and ghs-r1 expression. In vivo and in vitro ghrelin treatment caused a concentration- and time-dependent modulation (mainly stimulatory) of GLUT2, SGLT1 and SGLT2. These effects were abolished by the GHS-R1a antagonist [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 and the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122, suggesting that ghrelin actions on glucose transporters are mediated by GHS-R1a via the PLC/PKC signaling pathway. Finally, ghrelin stimulated the translocation of GLUT2 into the plasma membrane of goldfish primary intestinal cells. Overall, data reported here indicate an important role for ghrelin in the modulation of glucoregulatory machinery and glucose homeostasis in fish.

  14. Peripheral ghrelin participates in glucostatic feeding mechanisms and in the anorexigenic signalling mediated by CART and CRF neurons.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Andrew; De Fanti, Brant A; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    Ghrelin is upregulated under negative energy balance conditions, including starvation and hypoglycemia, while it is downregulated under situations of positive energy balance, such as feeding, hyperglycemia and obesity. The aims of this study were to assess potential ghrelin interactions with glucose levels in appetite control and to identify potential mechanisms involving orexigenic and anorexigenic ghrelin mediated signals by using a specific anti-ghrelin antibody. Our results confirm that peripheral ghrelin is an important signal in meal initiation and food intake stimulation. C-fos positive neurons in the PVN increased after insulin or 2-deoxyglucose administration. Moreover, we also demonstrate that peripheral ghrelin blockade with a specific anti-ghrelin antibody reduces, in part, the orexigenic signal induced by insulin and 2-DG administration. Furthermore, when we blocked peripheral ghrelin, c-fos positive CRF neurons and CART expression increased in the PVN, both under hypoglycemia or cytoglycopenia conditions, suggesting a neuronal activation (anorexigenic signalling) in this hypothalamic region. In summary, our findings imply that peripheral ghrelin plays an important role in regulatory "glucostatic" feeding mechanisms due to its role as a "hunger" signal affecting the PVN area, which may contribute to energy homeostasis through both orexigenic/anorexigenic pathways.

  15. Ghrelin receptor (GHS-R)-like receptor and its genomic organisation in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Mori, Tsukasa; Miyazato, Mikiya; Kangawa, Kenji

    2009-08-01

    Ghrelin, a GH-releasing and appetite-regulating peptide that is released from the stomach is an endogenous ligand for growth hormone secretagogue-receptor (GHS-R). Two types of GHS-R are accepted to be present, a functional GHS-R1a and GHS-R1b with unknown function. In this study, we identified cDNA that encodes protein with close sequence similarity to GHS-R and exon-intron organization of the GHS-R genes in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Two variants of GHS-R1a proteins with 387-amino acids, namely DQTA/LN-type and ERAT/IS-type, were identified. In 3'-RACE PCR and genomic PCR, we also identified three GHS-R1b orthologs that are consisted of 297- or 300-amino acids with different amino acid sequence at the C-terminus, in addition to the DQTA/LN-type and ERAT/IS-type variations. Genomic PCR revealed that the genes are composed of two exons separated by an intron, and that two GHS-R1a and three GHS-R1b variants are generated by three distinct genes. GHS-R1a and GHSR-1b mRNA were predominantly expressed in the pituitary, followed by the brain. Identified DQTA/LN-type or ERAT/IS-type GHS-R1a cDNA was transfected into mammalian cells, and intracellular calcium ion mobilization assay was carried out. However, we did not find any response to rat ghrelin and a homologous ligand, des-VRQ trout ghrelin, of either receptor in vitro. We found that unexpected mRNA splicing had occurred in the transfected cells, suggesting that the full-length, functional receptor protein might not be generated in the cells. Gene structure and characterization of protein sequence identified in this study were closely similar to other GHS-R, but to conclude that it is a GHS-R for rainbow trout, further study is required to confirm activation of GHS-R1a by ghrelin or GHS. Thus we designated the identified receptor proteins in this study as GHS-R-like receptor (GHSR-LR).

  16. Amino acid regulation of gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Fafournoux, P; Bruhat, A; Jousse, C

    2000-01-01

    The impact of nutrients on gene expression in mammals has become an important area of research. Nevertheless, the current understanding of the amino acid-dependent control of gene expression is limited. Because amino acids have multiple and important functions, their homoeostasis has to be finely maintained. However, amino-acidaemia can be affected by certain nutritional conditions or various forms of stress. It follows that mammals have to adjust several of their physiological functions involved in the adaptation to amino acid availability by regulating the expression of numerous genes. The aim of the present review is to examine the role of amino acids in regulating mammalian gene expression and protein turnover. It has been reported that some genes involved in the control of growth or amino acid metabolism are regulated by amino acid availability. For instance, limitation of several amino acids greatly increases the expression of the genes encoding insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1, CHOP (C/EBP homologous protein, where C/EBP is CCAAT/enhancer binding protein) and asparagine synthetase. Elevated mRNA levels result from both an increase in the rate of transcription and an increase in mRNA stability. Several observations suggest that the amino acid regulation of gene expression observed in mammalian cells and the general control process described in yeast share common features. Moreover, amino acid response elements have been characterized in the promoters of the CHOP and asparagine synthetase genes. Taken together, the results discussed in the present review demonstrate that amino acids, by themselves, can, in concert with hormones, play an important role in the control of gene expression. PMID:10998343

  17. Ghrelin inhibits the apoptosis of MC3T3-E1 cells through ERK and AKT signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Qiu-Hua; Liu, Yuan; Wu, Shan-Shan; Cui, Rong-Rong; Yuan, Ling-Qing Liao, Er-Yuan

    2013-11-01

    Ghrelin is a 28-amino-acid peptide that acts as a natural endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) and strongly stimulates the release of growth hormone from the hypothalamus–pituitary axis. Previous studies have identified the important physiological effects of ghrelin on bone metabolism, such as regulating proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts, independent of GH/IGF-1 axis. However, research on effects and mechanisms of ghrelin on osteoblast apoptosis is still rare. In this study, we identified expression of GHSR in MC3T3-E1 cells and determined the effects of ghrelin on the apoptosis of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and the mechanism involved. Our data demonstrated that ghrelin inhibited the apoptosis of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells induced by serum deprivation, as determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyribonucleotide triphosphate nick end-labeling (TUNEL) and ELISA assays. Moreover, ghrelin upregulated Bcl-2 expression and downregulated Bax expression in a dose-dependent manner. Our study also showed decreased activated caspase-3 activity under the treatment of ghrelin. Further study suggested that ghrelin stimulated the phosphorylation of ERK and AKT. Pretreatment of cells with the ERK inhibitor PD98059, PI3K inhibitor LY294002, and GHSR-siRNA blocked the ghrelin-induced activation of ERK and AKT, respectively; however, ghrelin did not stimulate the phosphorylation of p38 or JNK. PD90859, LY294002 and GHSR-siRNA attenuated the anti-apoptosis effect of ghrelin in MC3T3-E1 cells. In conclusion, ghrelin inhibits the apoptosis of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells induced by serum deprivation, which may be mediated by activating the GHSR/ERK and GHSR/PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. - Highlights: • We explored the effects of ghrelin on serum deprivation-induced MC3T3-E1 cells apoptosis. • Both ELISA and TUNEL were used to detect the apoptosis. • The receptor of ghrelin, GHSR, was expressed in MC3T3-E1

  18. Characteristics associated with fasting appetite hormones (obestatin, ghrelin, and leptin).

    PubMed

    Beasley, Jeannette M; Ange, Brett A; Anderson, Cheryl A M; Miller Iii, Edgar R; Holbrook, Janet T; Appel, Lawrence J

    2009-02-01

    Obestatin, derived from the same gene as the hunger hormone ghrelin, may reduce food intake in animals. The role of obestatin in human physiology is unclear. We evaluated cross-sectional associations between participant characteristics and fasting levels of obestatin as well two other hormones associated with energy balance, ghrelin and leptin. Data are from the baseline visit of the Optimal Macronutrient Intake Trial to Prevent Heart Disease (OMNI-Heart) Trial that enrolled adults with elevated blood pressure (systolic 120-159 mm Hg or a diastolic of 80-99 mm Hg) but who were otherwise healthy. Partial Spearman's correlations and linear regression models estimated the association between age, gender, BMI, physical activity, and smoking with fasting hormones. Obestatin was directly associated with ghrelin (r = 0.45, P < 0.05). On average, overweight (BMI 25-30) and obese (BMI > 30) individuals had obestatin concentrations that were 12.6 (s.d. 8.8) and 25.4 (s.d. 8.4) pg/ml lower compared to normal weight (BMI < 25) individuals, respectively (P for trend = 0.002). Overweight (BMI 25-30) and obese (BMI > 30) individuals had ghrelin concentrations that were 161.7 (s.d. 69.6) and 284.7 (s.d. 66.5) pg/ml lower compared to normal weight (BMI < 25) individuals, respectively (P for trend <0.0001). A 5 unit increase in BMI was associated with 41.3% (s.d. 4.3%) (P < 0.0001) higher leptin. Obestatin and ghrelin are directly correlated and share the same patterns of association with participant characteristics. Modifiable risk factors for chronic diseases, such as BMI, are associated with fasting levels of leptin, obestatin, and ghrelin.

  19. Imputing gene expression to maximize platform compatibility.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Weizhuang; Han, Lichy; Altman, Russ B

    2017-02-15

    Microarray measurements of gene expression constitute a large fraction of publicly shared biological data, and are available in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). Many studies use GEO data to shape hypotheses and improve statistical power. Within GEO, the Affymetrix HG-U133A and HG-U133 Plus 2.0 are the two most commonly used microarray platforms for human samples; the HG-U133 Plus 2.0 platform contains 54 220 probes and the HG-U133A array contains a proper subset (21 722 probes). When different platforms are involved, the subset of common genes is most easily compared. This approach results in the exclusion of substantial measured data and can limit downstream analysis. To predict the expression values for the genes unique to the HG-U133 Plus 2.0 platform, we constructed a series of gene expression inference models based on genes common to both platforms. Our model predicts gene expression values that are within the variability observed in controlled replicate studies and are highly correlated with measured data. Using six previously published studies, we also demonstrate the improved performance of the enlarged feature space generated by our model in downstream analysis.

  20. Optimal Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization in Trichomonas vaginalis

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Odelta; de Vargas Rigo, Graziela; Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiologic agent of trichomonosis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. This infection is associated with several health consequences, including cervical and prostate cancers and HIV acquisition. Gene expression analysis has been facilitated because of available genome sequences and large-scale transcriptomes in T. vaginalis, particularly using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), one of the most used methods for molecular studies. Reference genes for normalization are crucial to ensure the accuracy of this method. However, to the best of our knowledge, a systematic validation of reference genes has not been performed for T. vaginalis. In this study, the transcripts of nine candidate reference genes were quantified using qRT-PCR under different cultivation conditions, and the stability of these genes was compared using the geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. The most stable reference genes were α-tubulin, actin and DNATopII, and, conversely, the widely used T. vaginalis reference genes GAPDH and β-tubulin were less stable. The PFOR gene was used to validate the reliability of the use of these candidate reference genes. As expected, the PFOR gene was upregulated when the trophozoites were cultivated with ferrous ammonium sulfate when the DNATopII, α-tubulin and actin genes were used as normalizing gene. By contrast, the PFOR gene was downregulated when the GAPDH gene was used as an internal control, leading to misinterpretation of the data. These results provide an important starting point for reference gene selection and gene expression analysis with qRT-PCR studies of T. vaginalis. PMID:26393928

  1. Optimal Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Odelta; de Vargas Rigo, Graziela; Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiologic agent of trichomonosis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. This infection is associated with several health consequences, including cervical and prostate cancers and HIV acquisition. Gene expression analysis has been facilitated because of available genome sequences and large-scale transcriptomes in T. vaginalis, particularly using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), one of the most used methods for molecular studies. Reference genes for normalization are crucial to ensure the accuracy of this method. However, to the best of our knowledge, a systematic validation of reference genes has not been performed for T. vaginalis. In this study, the transcripts of nine candidate reference genes were quantified using qRT-PCR under different cultivation conditions, and the stability of these genes was compared using the geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. The most stable reference genes were α-tubulin, actin and DNATopII, and, conversely, the widely used T. vaginalis reference genes GAPDH and β-tubulin were less stable. The PFOR gene was used to validate the reliability of the use of these candidate reference genes. As expected, the PFOR gene was upregulated when the trophozoites were cultivated with ferrous ammonium sulfate when the DNATopII, α-tubulin and actin genes were used as normalizing gene. By contrast, the PFOR gene was downregulated when the GAPDH gene was used as an internal control, leading to misinterpretation of the data. These results provide an important starting point for reference gene selection and gene expression analysis with qRT-PCR studies of T. vaginalis.

  2. TRP genes family expression in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Sozucan, Y; Kalender, M E; Sari, I; Suner, A; Oztuzcu, S; Arman, K; Yumrutas, O; Bozgeyik, I; Cengiz, B; Igci, Y Z; Balakan, O; Camci, C

    2015-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most common cancer of the gastrointestinal tract. Different factors are responsible for the development of CRC. Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) which is an important component of calcium channel is associated with several pathological conditions like cancer, neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. Thirty members of the family of TRP ion channel in mammals have been determined till now. The aim of this study is to investigate TRPM, TRPV and TRPC gene expression levels in tumor tissues of CRC patients and to analyze the relationship of expression in tumor tissue of CRC with other known prognostic factors. In this study, 93 CRC patients were included. The level of TRP gene expression in paraffin blocks of normal and cancerous colorectal tissue samples were studied at the level of mRNA with Real-time PCR. The mRNA expression level of TRPV3, TRPV4, TRPV5, TRPM4 and TRPC6 genes in 37 female and 56 male patients diagnosed with CRC was revealed lower in tumor tissue as compared to normal tissue (p < 0.05). No statistically significant differences of mRNA expression levels of other TRP genes were found. TRP gene family like TRPV3, TRPV4, TRPV5, TRPM4 and TRPC6 may be thought as potential genes contributing to tumorigenesis as their expression decreases in CRC as compared to normal tissues.

  3. Perspectives: Gene Expression in Fisheries Management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Pavey, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    Functional genes and gene expression have been connected to physiological traits linked to effective production and broodstock selection in aquaculture, selective implications of commercial fish harvest, and adaptive changes reflected in non-commercial fish populations subject to human disturbance and climate change. Gene mapping using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to identify functional genes, gene expression (analogue microarrays and real-time PCR), and digital sequencing technologies looking at RNA transcripts present new concepts and opportunities in support of effective and sustainable fisheries. Genomic tools have been rapidly growing in aquaculture research addressing aspects of fish health, toxicology, and early development. Genomic technologies linking effects in functional genes involved in growth, maturation and life history development have been tied to selection resulting from harvest practices. Incorporating new and ever-increasing knowledge of fish genomes is opening a different perspective on local adaptation that will prove invaluable in wild fish conservation and management. Conservation of fish stocks is rapidly incorporating research on critical adaptive responses directed at the effects of human disturbance and climate change through gene expression studies. Genomic studies of fish populations can be generally grouped into three broad categories: 1) evolutionary genomics and biodiversity; 2) adaptive physiological responses to a changing environment; and 3) adaptive behavioral genomics and life history diversity. We review current genomic research in fisheries focusing on those that use microarrays to explore differences in gene expression among phenotypes and within or across populations, information that is critically important to the conservation of fish and their relationship to humans.

  4. Bayesian modeling of differential gene expression.

    PubMed

    Lewin, Alex; Richardson, Sylvia; Marshall, Clare; Glazier, Anne; Aitman, Tim

    2006-03-01

    We present a Bayesian hierarchical model for detecting differentially expressing genes that includes simultaneous estimation of array effects, and show how to use the output for choosing lists of genes for further investigation. We give empirical evidence that expression-level dependent array effects are needed, and explore different nonlinear functions as part of our model-based approach to normalization. The model includes gene-specific variances but imposes some necessary shrinkage through a hierarchical structure. Model criticism via posterior predictive checks is discussed. Modeling the array effects (normalization) simultaneously with differential expression gives fewer false positive results. To choose a list of genes, we propose to combine various criteria (for instance, fold change and overall expression) into a single indicator variable for each gene. The posterior distribution of these variables is used to pick the list of genes, thereby taking into account uncertainty in parameter estimates. In an application to mouse knockout data, Gene Ontology annotations over- and underrepresented among the genes on the chosen list are consistent with biological expectations.

  5. Gene expression changes in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Gregg, Jeffrey P; Lit, Lisa; Baron, Colin A; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Walker, Wynn; Davis, Ryan A; Croen, Lisa A; Ozonoff, Sally; Hansen, Robin; Pessah, Isaac N; Sharp, Frank R

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify gene expression differences in blood differences in children with autism (AU) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to general population controls. Transcriptional profiles were compared with age- and gender-matched, typically developing children from the general population (GP). The AU group was subdivided based on a history of developmental regression (A-R) or a history of early onset (A-E without regression). Total RNA from blood was processed on human Affymetrix microarrays. Thirty-five children with AU (17 with early onset autism and 18 with autism with regression) and 14 ASD children (who did not meet criteria for AU) were compared to 12 GP children. Unpaired t tests (corrected for multiple comparisons with a false discovery rate of 0.05) detected a number of genes that were regulated more than 1.5-fold for AU versus GP (n=55 genes), for A-E versus GP (n=140 genes), for A-R versus GP (n=20 genes), and for A-R versus A-E (n=494 genes). No genes were significantly regulated for ASD versus GP. There were 11 genes shared between the comparisons of all autism subgroups to GP (AU, A-E, and A-R versus GP) and these genes were all expressed in natural killer cells and many belonged to the KEGG natural killer cytotoxicity pathway (p=0.02). A subset of these genes (n=7) was tested with qRT-PCR and all genes were found to be differentially expressed (p<0.05). We conclude that the gene expression data support emerging evidence for abnormalities in peripheral blood leukocytes in autism that could represent a genetic and/or environmental predisposition to the disorder.

  6. Ghrelin: much more than a hunger hormone

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ghrelin is a multifaceted gut hormone that activates its receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). Ghrelin's hallmark functions are its stimulatory effects on growth hormone release, food intake and fat deposition. Ghrelin is famously known as the 'hunger hormone'. However, ample recen...

  7. Thermogenic characterization of ghrelin receptor null mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ghrelin is the only known circulating orexigenic hormone that increases food intake and promotes adiposity, and these physiological functions of ghrelin are mediated through its receptor growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). Ghrelin/GHS-R signaling plays a crucial role in energy homeostasis....

  8. Update on ghrelin biology in birds.

    PubMed

    Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Kangawa, Kenji; Miyazato, Mikiya

    2013-09-01

    Ghrelin is a peptide found in the mucosal layer of the rat stomach that exhibits growth hormone-releasing and appetite-stimulating activities. Since the discovery of ghrelin in chicken in 2002, information on its structure, distribution, function, and receptors has been accumulated, mainly in poultry. Here, we summarize the following findings since 2008 in birds: (1) central ghrelin acts as an anorexigenic neuropeptide, but the effect of peripheral ghrelin differs depending on the chicken strain and light conditions the birds are kept in; (2) central ghrelin inhibits not only food intake but also water drinking, and it may be mediated by urocortin, a member of the corticotropin-releasing factor family; (3) peripheral ghrelin acts as an anti-lipogenic factor in broiler chickens but not in rats; (4) the enzyme involved in ghrelin acylation (ghrelin-O-acyltransferase [GOAT]) has been identified in chickens; (5) dietary lipids are used for ghrelin acylation; (6) des-acyl ghrelin administered alone or with ghrelin does not affect feeding behavior; (7) the existence and physiological function of obestatin must now be carefully examined in birds; (8) other than the growth hormone secretagogue receptors (GHS) R1a and 1b, GHS-R variants not found in mammals have been found in chicken and Japanese quail; and finally (9) little is known about the involvement of the ghrelin system in wild birds and in avian-specific behavior such as brooding and migration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Control of gene expression in trypanosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Vanhamme, L; Pays, E

    1995-01-01

    Trypanosomes are protozoan agents of major parasitic diseases such as Chagas' disease in South America and sleeping sickness of humans and nagana disease of cattle in Africa. They are transmitted to mammalian hosts by specific insect vectors. Their life cycle consists of a succession of differentiation and growth phases requiring regulated gene expression to adapt to the changing extracellular environment. Typical of such stage-specific expression is that of the major surface antigens of Trypanosoma brucei, procyclin in the procyclic (insect) form and the variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) in the bloodstream (mammalian) form. In trypanosomes, the regulation of gene expression is effected mainly at posttranscriptional levels, since primary transcription of most of the genes occurs in long polycistronic units and is constitutive. The transcripts are processed by transsplicing and polyadenylation under the influence of intergenic polypyrimidine tracts. These events show some developmental regulation. Untranslated sequences of the mRNAs seem to play a prominent role in the stage-specific control of individual gene expression, through a modulation of mRNA abundance. The VSG and procyclin transcription units exhibit particular features that are probably related to the need for a high level of expression. The promoters and RNA polymerase driving the expression of these units resemble those of the ribosomal genes. Their mutually exclusive expression is ensured by controls operating at several levels, including RNA elongation. Antigenic variation in the bloodstream is achieved through DNA rearrangements or alternative activation of the telomeric VSG gene expression sites. Recent discoveries, such as the existence of a novel nucleotide in telomeric DNA and the generation of point mutations in VSG genes, have shed new light on the mechanisms and consequences of antigenic variation. PMID:7603410

  10. Resource Sharing Controls Gene Expression Bursting.

    PubMed

    Caveney, Patrick M; Norred, S Elizabeth; Chin, Charles W; Boreyko, Jonathan B; Razooky, Brandon S; Retterer, Scott T; Collier, C Patrick; Simpson, Michael L

    2017-02-17

    Episodic gene expression, with periods of high expression separated by periods of no expression, is a pervasive biological phenomenon. This bursty pattern of expression draws from a finite reservoir of expression machinery in a highly time variant way, i.e., requiring no resources most of the time but drawing heavily on them during short intense bursts, that intimately links expression bursting and resource sharing. Yet, most recent investigations have focused on specific molecular mechanisms intrinsic to the bursty behavior of individual genes, while little is known about the interplay between resource sharing and global expression bursting behavior. Here, we confine Escherichia coli cell extract in both cell-sized microfluidic chambers and lipid-based vesicles to explore how resource sharing influences expression bursting. Interestingly, expression burst size, but not burst frequency, is highly sensitive to the size of the shared transcription and translation resource pools. The intriguing implication of these results is that expression bursts are more readily amplified than initiated, suggesting that burst formation occurs through positive feedback or cooperativity. When extrapolated to prokaryotic cells, these results suggest that large translational bursts may be correlated with large transcriptional bursts. This correlation is supported by recently reported transcription and translation bursting studies in E. coli. The results reported here demonstrate a strong intimate link between global expression burst patterns and resource sharing, and they suggest that bursting plays an important role in optimizing the use of limited, shared expression resources.

  11. Application of multidisciplinary analysis to gene expression.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xuefel; Kang, Huining; Fields, Chris; Cowie, Jim R.; Davidson, George S.; Haaland, David Michael; Sibirtsev, Valeriy; Mosquera-Caro, Monica P.; Xu, Yuexian; Martin, Shawn Bryan; Helman, Paul; Andries, Erik; Ar, Kerem; Potter, Jeffrey; Willman, Cheryl L.; Murphy, Maurice H.

    2004-01-01

    Molecular analysis of cancer, at the genomic level, could lead to individualized patient diagnostics and treatments. The developments to follow will signal a significant paradigm shift in the clinical management of human cancer. Despite our initial hopes, however, it seems that simple analysis of microarray data cannot elucidate clinically significant gene functions and mechanisms. Extracting biological information from microarray data requires a complicated path involving multidisciplinary teams of biomedical researchers, computer scientists, mathematicians, statisticians, and computational linguists. The integration of the diverse outputs of each team is the limiting factor in the progress to discover candidate genes and pathways associated with the molecular biology of cancer. Specifically, one must deal with sets of significant genes identified by each method and extract whatever useful information may be found by comparing these different gene lists. Here we present our experience with such comparisons, and share methods developed in the analysis of an infant leukemia cohort studied on Affymetrix HG-U95A arrays. In particular, spatial gene clustering, hyper-dimensional projections, and computational linguistics were used to compare different gene lists. In spatial gene clustering, different gene lists are grouped together and visualized on a three-dimensional expression map, where genes with similar expressions are co-located. In another approach, projections from gene expression space onto a sphere clarify how groups of genes can jointly have more predictive power than groups of individually selected genes. Finally, online literature is automatically rearranged to present information about genes common to multiple groups, or to contrast the differences between the lists. The combination of these methods has improved our understanding of infant leukemia. While the complicated reality of the biology dashed our initial, optimistic hopes for simple answers from

  12. Ghrelin counteracts salt-induced hypertension via promoting diuresis and renal nitric oxide production in Dahl rats.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Hirotaka; Nakata, Masanori; Dezaki, Katsuya; Lu, Ming; Gantulga, Darambazar; Yamamoto, Keiji; Shimada, Kazuyuki; Kario, Kazuomi; Yada, Toshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Ghrelin is the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone-secretagogue receptor expressed in various tissues including the heart, blood vessels and kidney. This study sought to determine the effects of long-term treatment with ghrelin (10 nmol/kg, twice a day, intraperitoneally) on the hypertension induced by high salt (8.0% NaCl) diet in Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive (DS) rats. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured by a tail cuff method. During the treatment period for 3 weeks, high salt diet increased blood pressure compared to normal salt (0.3% NaCl) diet, and this hypertension was partly but significantly (P<0.01) attenuated by simultaneous treatment with ghrelin. Ghrelin significantly increased urine volume and tended to increase urine Na⁺ excretion. Furthermore, ghrelin increased urine nitric oxide (NO) excretion and tended to increase renal neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) mRNA expression. Ghrelin did not alter the plasma angiotensin II level and renin activity, nor urine catecholamine levels. Furthermore, ghrelin prevented the high salt-induced increases in heart thickness and plasma ANP mRNA expression. These results demonstrate that long-term ghrelin treatment counteracts salt-induced hypertension in DS rats primarily through diuretic action associated with increased renal NO production, thereby exerting cardio-protective effects.

  13. Ghrelin accelerates synapse formation and activity development in cultured cortical networks

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While ghrelin was initially related to appetite stimulation and growth hormone secretion, it also has a neuroprotective effect in neurodegenerative diseases and regulates cognitive function. The cellular basis of those processes is related to synaptic efficacy and plasticity. Previous studies have shown that ghrelin not only stimulates synapse formation in cultured cortical neurons and hippocampal slices, but also alters some of the electrophysiological properties of neurons in the hypothalamus, amygdala and other subcortical areas. However, direct evidence for ghrelin’s ability to modulate the activity in cortical neurons is not available yet. In this study, we investigated the effect of acylated ghrelin on the development of the activity level and activity patterns in cortical neurons, in relation to its effect on synaptogenesis. Additionally, we quantitatively evaluated the expression of the receptor for acylated ghrelin – growth hormone secretagogue receptor-1a (GHSR-1a) during development. Results We performed electrophysiology and immunohistochemistry on dissociated cortical cultures from neonates, treated chronically with acylated ghrelin. On average 76 ± 4.6% of the cortical neurons expressed GHSR-1a. Synapse density was found to be much higher in ghrelin treated cultures than in controls across all age groups (1, 2 or 3 weeks). In all cultures (control and ghrelin treated), network activity gradually increased until it reached a maximum after approximately 3 weeks, followed by a slight decrease towards a plateau. During early developmental stages (1–2 weeks), the activity was much higher in ghrelin treated cultures and consequently, they reached the plateau value almost a week earlier than controls. Conclusions Acylated ghrelin leads to earlier network formation and activation in cultured cortical neuronal networks, the latter being a possibly consequence of accelerated synaptogenesis. PMID:24742241

  14. A link between FTO, ghrelin, and impaired brain food-cue responsivity

    PubMed Central

    Karra, Efthimia; O’Daly, Owen G.; Choudhury, Agharul I.; Yousseif, Ahmed; Millership, Steven; Neary, Marianne T.; Scott, William R.; Chandarana, Keval; Manning, Sean; Hess, Martin E.; Iwakura, Hiroshi; Akamizu, Takashi; Millet, Queensta; Gelegen, Cigdem; Drew, Megan E.; Rahman, Sofia; Emmanuel, Julian J.; Williams, Steven C.R.; Rüther, Ulrich U.; Brüning, Jens C.; Withers, Dominic J.; Zelaya, Fernando O.; Batterham, Rachel L.

    2013-01-01

    Polymorphisms in the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) are associated with human obesity and obesity-prone behaviors, including increased food intake and a preference for energy-dense foods. FTO demethylates N6-methyladenosine, a potential regulatory RNA modification, but the mechanisms by which FTO predisposes humans to obesity remain unclear. In adiposity-matched, normal-weight humans, we showed that subjects homozygous for the FTO “obesity-risk” rs9939609 A allele have dysregulated circulating levels of the orexigenic hormone acyl-ghrelin and attenuated postprandial appetite reduction. Using functional MRI (fMRI) in normal-weight AA and TT humans, we found that the FTO genotype modulates the neural responses to food images in homeostatic and brain reward regions. Furthermore, AA and TT subjects exhibited divergent neural responsiveness to circulating acyl-ghrelin within brain regions that regulate appetite, reward processing, and incentive motivation. In cell models, FTO overexpression reduced ghrelin mRNA N6-methyladenosine methylation, concomitantly increasing ghrelin mRNA and peptide levels. Furthermore, peripheral blood cells from AA human subjects exhibited increased FTO mRNA, reduced ghrelin mRNA N6-methyladenosine methylation, and increased ghrelin mRNA abundance compared with TT subjects. Our findings show that FTO regulates ghrelin, a key mediator of ingestive behavior, and offer insight into how FTO obesity-risk alleles predispose to increased energy intake and obesity in humans. PMID:23867619

  15. A link between FTO, ghrelin, and impaired brain food-cue responsivity.

    PubMed

    Karra, Efthimia; O'Daly, Owen G; Choudhury, Agharul I; Yousseif, Ahmed; Millership, Steven; Neary, Marianne T; Scott, William R; Chandarana, Keval; Manning, Sean; Hess, Martin E; Iwakura, Hiroshi; Akamizu, Takashi; Millet, Queensta; Gelegen, Cigdem; Drew, Megan E; Rahman, Sofia; Emmanuel, Julian J; Williams, Steven C R; Rüther, Ulrich U; Brüning, Jens C; Withers, Dominic J; Zelaya, Fernando O; Batterham, Rachel L

    2013-08-01

    Polymorphisms in the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) are associated with human obesity and obesity-prone behaviors, including increased food intake and a preference for energy-dense foods. FTO demethylates N6-methyladenosine, a potential regulatory RNA modification, but the mechanisms by which FTO predisposes humans to obesity remain unclear. In adiposity-matched, normal-weight humans, we showed that subjects homozygous for the FTO "obesity-risk" rs9939609 A allele have dysregulated circulating levels of the orexigenic hormone acyl-ghrelin and attenuated postprandial appetite reduction. Using functional MRI (fMRI) in normal-weight AA and TT humans, we found that the FTO genotype modulates the neural responses to food images in homeostatic and brain reward regions. Furthermore, AA and TT subjects exhibited divergent neural responsiveness to circulating acyl-ghrelin within brain regions that regulate appetite, reward processing, and incentive motivation. In cell models, FTO overexpression reduced ghrelin mRNA N6-methyladenosine methylation, concomitantly increasing ghrelin mRNA and peptide levels. Furthermore, peripheral blood cells from AA human subjects exhibited increased FTO mRNA, reduced ghrelin mRNA N6-methyladenosine methylation, and increased ghrelin mRNA abundance compared with TT subjects. Our findings show that FTO regulates ghrelin, a key mediator of ingestive behavior, and offer insight into how FTO obesity-risk alleles predispose to increased energy intake and obesity in humans.

  16. Tonicity-regulated gene expression.

    PubMed

    Ferraris, Joan D; Burg, Maurice B

    2007-01-01

    Hypertonicity activates several different transcription factors, including TonEBP/OREBP, that in turn increase transcription of numerous genes. Hypertonicity elevates TonEBP/OREBP transcriptional activity by moving it into the nucleus, where it binds to its cognate DNA element (ORE), and by increasing its transactivational activity. This chapter presents protocols for measuring the transcriptional activity of TonEBP/OREBP and determining its subcellular localization, its binding to OREs, and activity of its transactivation domain.

  17. Modulation of imprinted gene expression following superovulation.

    PubMed

    Fortier, Amanda L; McGraw, Serge; Lopes, Flavia L; Niles, Kirsten M; Landry, Mylène; Trasler, Jacquetta M

    2014-05-05

    Although assisted reproductive technologies increase the risk of low birth weight and genomic imprinting disorders, the precise underlying causes remain unclear. Using a mouse model, we previously showed that superovulation alters the expression of imprinted genes in the placenta at 9.5days (E9.5) of gestation. Here, we investigate whether effects of superovulation on genomic imprinting persisted at later stages of development and assess the surviving fetuses for growth and morphological abnormalities. Superovulation, followed by embryo transfer at E3.5, as compared to spontaneous ovulation (controls), resulted in embryos of normal size and weight at 14.5 and 18.5days of gestation. The normal monoallelic expression of the imprinted genes H19, Snrpn and Kcnq1ot1 was unaffected in either the placentae or the embryos from the superovulated females at E14.5 or E18.5. However, for the paternally expressed imprinted gene Igf2, superovulation generated placentae with reduced production of the mature protein at E9.5 and significantly more variable mRNA levels at E14.5. We propose that superovulation results in the ovulation of abnormal oocytes with altered expression of imprinted genes, but that the coregulated genes of the imprinted gene network result in modulated expression. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Vitamin D-mediated gene expression.

    PubMed

    Lowe, K E; Maiyar, A C; Norman, A W

    1992-01-01

    The steroid hormone 1,25(OH)2D3 modulates the expression of a wide variety of genes in a tissue- and developmentally specific manner. It is well established that 1,25(OH)2D3 can up- or downregulate the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and mineral homeostasis. The hormone exerts its genomic effects via interactions with the vitamin D receptor or VDR, a member of the superfamily of hormone-activated nuclear receptors which can regulate eukaryotic gene expression. The ligand-bound receptor acts as a transcription factor that binds to specific DNA sequences, HREs, in target gene promoters. The DNA-binding domains of the steroid hormone receptors are highly conserved and contain two zinc-finger motifs that recognize the HREs. The spacing and orientation of the HRE half-sites, as well as the HRE sequence, are critical for proper discrimination by the various receptors. Other nuclear factors such as fos and jun can influence vitamin D-mediated gene expression. A wide range of experimental techniques has been used to increase our understanding of how 1,25(OH)2D3 and its receptor play a central role in gene expression.

  19. Gene Expression Analysis of Breast Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    representation of the retroviral vectors SFG-tdRFP-cmvFLuc, constitutively expressing tdRFP and firefly luciferase; and Cis-TGFD1-Smads- HSV1 - tk/GFP...AD Award Number: DAMD 17-02-1-0484 TITLE: Gene Expression Analysis of Breast Cancer Progression PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: William L. Gerald, M.D., Ph.D...CONTRACT NUMBER Gene Expression Analysis of Breast Cancer Progression 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-02-1-0484 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 6d

  20. Gene Expression in Leishmania Is Regulated Predominantly by Gene Dosage.

    PubMed

    Iantorno, Stefano A; Durrant, Caroline; Khan, Asis; Sanders, Mandy J; Beverley, Stephen M; Warren, Wesley C; Berriman, Matthew; Sacks, David L; Cotton, James A; Grigg, Michael E

    2017-09-12

    Leishmania tropica, a unicellular eukaryotic parasite present in North and East Africa, the Middle East, and the Indian subcontinent, has been linked to large outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis in displaced populations in Iraq, Jordan, and Syria. Here, we report the genome sequence of this pathogen and 7,863 identified protein-coding genes, and we show that the majority of clinical isolates possess high levels of allelic diversity, genetic admixture, heterozygosity, and extensive aneuploidy. By utilizing paired genome-wide high-throughput DNA sequencing (DNA-seq) with RNA-seq, we found that gene dosage, at the level of individual genes or chromosomal "somy" (a general term covering disomy, trisomy, tetrasomy, etc.), accounted for greater than 85% of total gene expression variation in genes with a 2-fold or greater change in expression. High gene copy number variation (CNV) among membrane-bound transporters, a class of proteins previously implicated in drug resistance, was found for the most highly differentially expressed genes. Our results suggest that gene dosage is an adaptive trait that confers phenotypic plasticity among natural Leishmania populations by rapid down- or upregulation of transporter proteins to limit the effects of environmental stresses, such as drug selection.IMPORTANCELeishmania is a genus of unicellular eukaryotic parasites that is responsible for a spectrum of human diseases that range from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) to life-threatening visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Developmental and strain-specific gene expression is largely thought to be due to mRNA message stability or posttranscriptional regulatory networks for this species, whose genome is organized into polycistronic gene clusters in the absence of promoter-mediated regulation of transcription initiation of nuclear genes. Genetic hybridization has been demonstrated to yield dramatic structural genomic variation, but whether such changes in gene

  1. Chemically regulated gene expression in plants.

    PubMed

    Padidam, Malla

    2003-04-01

    Chemically inducible systems that activate or inactivate gene expression have many potential applications in the determination of gene function and in plant biotechnology. The precise timing and control of gene expression are important aspects of chemically inducible systems. Several systems have been developed and used to analyze gene function, marker-free plant transformation, site-specific DNA excision, activation tagging, conditional genetic complementation, and restoration of male fertility. Chemicals that are used to regulate transgene expression include the antibiotic tetracycline, the steroids dexamethasone and estradiol, copper, ethanol, the inducer of pathogen-related proteins benzothiadiazol, herbicide safeners, and the insecticide methoxyfenozide. Systems that are suitable for field application are particularly useful for experimental systems and have potential applications in biotechnology.

  2. Gene expression of the endolymphatic sac.

    PubMed

    Friis, Morten; Martin-Bertelsen, Tomas; Friis-Hansen, Lennart; Winther, Ole; Henao, Ricardo; Sørensen, Mads Sølvsten; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2011-12-01

    The endolymphatic sac is part of the membranous inner ear and is thought to play a role in the fluid homeostasis and immune defense of the inner ear; however, the exact function of the endolymphatic sac is not fully known. Many of the detected mRNAs in this study suggest that the endolymphatic sac has multiple and diverse functions in the inner ear. The objective of this study was to provide a comprehensive review of the genes expressed in the endolymphatic sac in the rat and perform a functional characterization based on measured mRNA abundance. Microarray technology was used to investigate the gene expression of the endolymphatic sac with the surrounding dura. Characteristic and novel endolymphatic sac genes were determined by comparing with expressions in pure dura. In all, 463 genes were identified specific for the endolymphatic sac. Functional annotation clustering revealed 29 functional clusters.

  3. Modeling gene expression in time and space.

    PubMed

    Rué, Pau; Garcia-Ojalvo, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Cell populations rarely exhibit gene-expression profiles that are homogeneous in time and space. In the temporal domain, dynamical behaviors such as oscillations and pulses of protein production pervade cell biology, underlying phenomena as diverse as circadian rhythmicity, cell cycle control, stress and damage responses, and stem-cell pluripotency. In multicellular populations, spatial heterogeneities are crucial for decision making and development, among many other functions. Cells need to exquisitely coordinate this temporal and spatial variation to survive. Although the spatiotemporal character of gene expression is challenging to quantify experimentally at the level of individual cells, it is beneficial from the modeling viewpoint, because it provides strong constraints that can be probed by theoretically analyzing mathematical models of candidate gene and protein circuits. Here, we review recent examples of temporal dynamics and spatial patterning in gene expression to show how modeling such phenomenology can help us unravel the molecular mechanisms of cellular function.

  4. Protein structure protection commits gene expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianping; Liang, Han; Fernández, Ariel

    2008-01-01

    Gene co-expressions often determine module-defining spatial and temporal concurrences of proteins. Yet, little effort has been devoted to tracing coordinating signals for expression correlations to the three-dimensional structures of gene products. We performed a global structure-based analysis of the yeast and human proteomes and contrasted this information against their respective transcriptome organizations obtained from comprehensive microarray data. We show that protein vulnerability quantifies dosage sensitivity for metabolic adaptation phases and tissue-specific patterns of mRNA expression, determining the extent of co-expression similarity of binding partners. The role of protein intrinsic disorder in transcriptome organization is also delineated by interrelating vulnerability, disorder propensity and co-expression patterns. Extremely vulnerable human proteins are shown to be subject to severe post-transcriptional regulation of their expression through significant micro-RNA targeting, making mRNA levels poor surrogates for protein-expression levels. By contrast, in yeast the expression of extremely under-wrapped proteins is likely regulated through protein aggregation. Thus, the 85 most vulnerable proteins in yeast include the five confirmed prions, while in human, the genes encoding extremely vulnerable proteins are predicted to be targeted by microRNAs. Hence, in both vastly different organisms protein vulnerability emerges as a structure-encoded signal for post-transcriptional regulation. Vulnerability of protein structure and the concurrent need to maintain structural integrity are shown to quantify dosage sensitivity, compelling gene expression patterns across tissue types and temporal adaptation phases in a quantifiable manner. Extremely vulnerable proteins impose additional constraints on gene expression: They are subject to high levels of regulation at the post-transcriptional level.

  5. CIRCADIAN CLOCK AND CELL CYCLE GENE EXPRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Metz, Richard P.; Qu, Xiaoyu; Laffin, Brian; Earnest, David; Porter, Weston W.

    2009-01-01

    Mouse mammary epithelial cells (HC-11) and mammary tissues were analyzed for developmental changes in circadian clock, cellular proliferation and differentiation marker genes. Expression of the clock genes, Per1 and Bmal1, were elevated in differentiated HC-11 cells whereas Per2 mRNA levels were higher in undifferentiated cells. This differentiation-dependent profile of clock gene expression was consistent with that observed in mouse mammary glands as Per1 and Bmal1 mRNA levels were elevated in late pregnant and lactating mammary tissues, while Per2 expression was higher in proliferating virgin and early pregnant glands. In both HC-11 cells and mammary glands, elevated Per2 expression was positively correlated with c-Myc and Cyclin D1 mRNA levels while Per1 and Bmal1 expression changed in conjunction with ß-casein mRNA levels. Interestingly, developmental stage had differential effects on rhythms of clock gene expression in the mammary gland. These data suggest that circadian clock genes may play a role in mouse mammary gland development and differentiation. PMID:16261617

  6. Differential gene expression during multistage carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bowden, G.T. ); Krieg, P. )

    1991-06-01

    The use of the mouse skin multistage model of carcinogenesis has aided our understanding of critical target genes in chemical carcinogenesis. The mutagenic activation of the Harvey-ras proto-oncogene has been found to be an early event associated with the initiation of mouse skin tumors by the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 7,12 dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and the pure initiator ethyl carbamate (urethane). In contrast to chemical initiation of mouse skin tumors, ionizing radiation-initiated malignant skin tumors have been shown to possess distinct non-ras transforming gene(s). Differential screening of cDNA libraries made from chemically initiated malignant skin tumors has been used to identify a number of cellular gene transcripts that are overexpressed during mouse skin tumor progression. These differentially expressed genes include {beta}-actin, ubiquitin, a hyperproliferative keratin (K6), a gene whose product is a member of a fatty acid or lipid-binding protein family, and a gene called transin or stromelysin. The overexpression of the stromelysin gene, which encodes a metalloproteinase that degrades proteins in the basement membrane, is hypothesized to play a functional role in malignant tumor cell invasion and metastasis. The authors believe that the cloning, identification, and characterization of gene sequences that are differentially expressed during tumor progression could lead to the discovery of gene products that either play functional roles in skin tumor progression or in the maintenance of various progressive tumor phenotypes.

  7. Gene Expression in Leishmania Is Regulated Predominantly by Gene Dosage

    PubMed Central

    Iantorno, Stefano A.; Durrant, Caroline; Khan, Asis; Sanders, Mandy J.; Warren, Wesley C.; Berriman, Matthew; Sacks, David L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Leishmania tropica, a unicellular eukaryotic parasite present in North and East Africa, the Middle East, and the Indian subcontinent, has been linked to large outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis in displaced populations in Iraq, Jordan, and Syria. Here, we report the genome sequence of this pathogen and 7,863 identified protein-coding genes, and we show that the majority of clinical isolates possess high levels of allelic diversity, genetic admixture, heterozygosity, and extensive aneuploidy. By utilizing paired genome-wide high-throughput DNA sequencing (DNA-seq) with RNA-seq, we found that gene dosage, at the level of individual genes or chromosomal “somy” (a general term covering disomy, trisomy, tetrasomy, etc.), accounted for greater than 85% of total gene expression variation in genes with a 2-fold or greater change in expression. High gene copy number variation (CNV) among membrane-bound transporters, a class of proteins previously implicated in drug resistance, was found for the most highly differentially expressed genes. Our results suggest that gene dosage is an adaptive trait that confers phenotypic plasticity among natural Leishmania populations by rapid down- or upregulation of transporter proteins to limit the effects of environmental stresses, such as drug selection. PMID:28900023

  8. Regulation of gene expression in human tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Chronic tendon injuries, also known as tendinopathies, are common among professional and recreational athletes. These injuries result in a significant amount of morbidity and health care expenditure, yet little is known about the molecular mechanisms leading to tendinopathy. Methods We have used histological evaluation and molecular profiling to determine gene expression changes in 23 human patients undergoing surgical procedures for the treatment of chronic tendinopathy. Results Diseased tendons exhibit altered extracellular matrix, fiber disorientation, increased cellular content and vasculature, and the absence of inflammatory cells. Global gene expression profiling identified 983 transcripts with significantly different expression patterns in the diseased tendons. Global pathway analysis further suggested altered expression of extracellular matrix proteins and the lack of an appreciable inflammatory response. Conclusions Identification of the pathways and genes that are differentially regulated in tendinopathy samples will contribute to our understanding of the disease and the development of novel therapeutics. PMID:21539748

  9. Effect of Deletion of Ghrelin-O-Acyltransferase on the Pulsatile Release of Growth Hormone in Mice.

    PubMed

    Xie, T Y; Ngo, S T; Veldhuis, J D; Jeffery, P L; Chopin, L K; Tschöp, M; Waters, M J; Tolle, V; Epelbaum, J; Chen, C; Steyn, F J

    2015-12-01

    Ghrelin, a gut hormone originating from the post-translational cleavage of preproghrelin, is the endogenous ligand of growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a). Within the growth hormone (GH) axis, the biological activity of ghrelin requires octanoylation by ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT), conferring selective binding to the GHS-R1a receptor via acylated ghrelin. Complete loss of preproghrelin-derived signalling (through deletion of the Ghrl gene) contributes to a decline in peak GH release; however, the selective contribution of endogenous acyl-ghrelin to pulsatile GH release remains to be established. We assessed the pulsatile release of GH in ad lib. fed male germline goat(-/-) mice, extending measures to include mRNA for key hypothalamic regulators of GH release, and peripheral factors that are modulated relative to GH release. The amount of GH released was reduced in young goat(-/-) mice compared to age-matched wild-type mice, whereas pulse frequency and irregularity increased. Altered GH release did not coincide with alterations in hypothalamic Ghrh, Srif, Npy or Ghsr mRNA expression, or pituitary GH content, suggesting that loss of Goat does not compromise canonical mechanisms that contribute to pituitary GH production and release. Although loss of Goat resulted in an irregular pattern of GH release (characterised by an increase in the number of GH pulses observed during extended secretory events), this did not contribute to a change in the expression of sexually dimorphic GH-dependent liver genes. Of interest, circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 were elevated in goat(-/-) mice. This rise in circulating levels of IGF-1 was correlated with an increase in GH pulse frequency, suggesting that sustained or increased IGF-1 release in goat(-/-) mice may occur in response to altered GH release patterning. Our observations demonstrate that germline loss of Goat alters GH release and patterning. Although the biological relevance of

  10. Paternally expressed genes predominate in the placenta.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Miller, Donald C; Harman, Rebecca; Antczak, Douglas F; Clark, Andrew G

    2013-06-25

    The discovery of genomic imprinting through studies of manipulated mouse embryos indicated that the paternal genome has a major influence on placental development. However, previous research has not demonstrated paternal bias in imprinted genes. We applied RNA sequencing to trophoblast tissue from reciprocal hybrids of horse and donkey, where genotypic differences allowed parent-of-origin identification of most expressed genes. Using this approach, we identified a core group of 15 ancient imprinted genes, of which 10 were paternally expressed. An additional 78 candidate imprinted genes identified by RNA sequencing also showed paternal bias. Pyrosequencing was used to confirm the imprinting status of six of the genes, including the insulin receptor (INSR), which may play a role in growth regulation with its reciprocally imprinted ligand, histone acetyltransferase-1 (HAT1), a gene involved in chromatin modification, and lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus G6C, a newly identified imprinted gene in the major histocompatibility complex. The 78 candidate imprinted genes displayed parent-of-origin expression bias in placenta but not fetus, and most showed less than 100% silencing of the imprinted allele. Some displayed variability in imprinting status among individuals. This variability results in a unique epigenetic signature for each placenta that contributes to variation in the intrauterine environment and thus presents the opportunity for natural selection to operate on parent-of-origin differential regulation. Taken together, these features highlight the plasticity of imprinting in mammals and the central importance of the placenta as a target tissue for genomic imprinting.

  11. Noise minimization in eukaryotic gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, Hunter B.; Hirsh, Aaron E.; Giaever, Guri; Kumm, Jochen; Eisen, Michael B.

    2004-01-15

    All organisms have elaborate mechanisms to control rates of protein production. However, protein production is also subject to stochastic fluctuations, or noise. Several recent studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli have investigated the relationship between transcription and translation rates and stochastic fluctuations in protein levels, or more generally, how such randomness is a function of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. However, the fundamental question of whether stochasticity in protein expression is generally biologically relevant has not been addressed, and it remains unknown whether random noise in the protein production rate of most genes significantly affects the fitness of any organism. We propose that organisms should be particularly sensitive to variation in the protein levels of two classes of genes: genes whose deletion is lethal to the organism and genes that encode subunits of multiprotein complexes. Using an experimentally verified model of stochastic gene expression in S. cerevisiae, we estimate the noise in protein production for nearly every yeast gene, and confirm our prediction that the production of essential and complex-forming proteins involves lower levels of noise than does the production of most other genes. Our results support the hypothesis that noise in gene expression is a biologically important variable, is generally detrimental to organismal fitness, and is subject to natural selection.

  12. Soybean physiology and gene expression during drought.

    PubMed

    Stolf-Moreira, R; Medri, M E; Neumaier, N; Lemos, N G; Pimenta, J A; Tobita, S; Brogin, R L; Marcelino-Guimarães, F C; Oliveira, M C N; Farias, J R B; Abdelnoor, R V; Nepomuceno, A L

    2010-10-05

    Soybean genotypes MG/BR46 (Conquista) and BR16, drought-tolerant and -sensitive, respectively, were compared in terms of morphophysiological and gene-expression responses to water stress during two stages of development. Gene-expression analysis showed differential responses in Gmdreb1a and Gmpip1b mRNA expression within 30 days of water-deficit initiation in MG/BR46 (Conquista) plants. Within 45 days of initiating stress, Gmp5cs and Gmpip1b had relatively higher expression. Initially, BR16 showed increased expression only for Gmdreb1a, and later (45 days) for Gmp5cs, Gmdefensin and Gmpip1b. Only BR16 presented down-regulated expression of genes, such as Gmp5cs and Gmpip1b, 30 days after the onset of moisture stress, and Gmgols after 45 days of stress. The faster perception of water stress in MG/BR46 (Conquista) and the better maintenance of up-regulated gene expression than in the sensitive BR16 genotype imply mechanisms by which the former is better adapted to tolerate moisture deficiency.

  13. Hepatic Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme Gene Expression ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BACKGROUND: Differences in responses to environmental chemicals and drugs between life stages are likely due in part to differences in the expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and transporters (XMETs). No comprehensive analysis of the mRNA expression of XMETs has been carried out through life stages in any species. RESULTS: Using full-genome arrays, the mRNA expression of all XMETs and their regulatory proteins was examined during fetal (gestation day (GD) 19), neonatal (postnatal day (PND) 7), prepubescent (PND32), middle age (12 months), and old age (18 and 24 months) in the C57BL/6J (C57) mouse liver and compared to adults. Fetal and neonatal life stages exhibited dramatic differences in XMET mRNA expression compared to the relatively minor effects of old age. The total number of XMET probe sets that differed from adults was 636, 500, 84, 5, 43, and 102 for GD19, PND7, PND32, 12 months, 18 months and 24 months, respectively. At all life stages except PND32, under-expressed genes outnumbered over-expressed genes. The altered XMETs included those in all of the major metabolic and transport phases including introduction of reactive or polar groups (Phase I), conjugation (Phase II) and excretion (Phase III). In the fetus and neonate, parallel increases in expression were noted in the dioxin receptor, Nrf2 components and their regulated genes while nuclear receptors and regulated genes were generally down-regulated. Suppression of male-specific XMETs w

  14. Ghrelin and obestatin promote the allergic action in rat peritoneal mast cells as basic secretagogues.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Tatsuya; Kawabe, Tsutomu; Matsushima, Miyoko; Nishimura, Yuko; Kobe, Yuko; Ota, Yui; Baba, Kenji; Takagi, Kenzo

    2010-11-01

    Ghrelin is an endogenous ligand of the type 1a growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR1a) that regulates energy balance. Ghrelin and obestatin, derived from the post-translational processing of preproghrelin, are involved in a diverse range of biological activities, yet their effect on the immune system is not fully understood. In the present study, we investigated the roles of ghrelin and obestatin on mast cell degranulation and found that both ghrelin and obestatin induce the release of histamine from rat peritoneal mast cells. This induced histamine release was inhibited by the pertussis toxin, an inhibitor of Gα(i) protein, and extracellular Ca(2+). Rat peritoneal mast cells and rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells did not express the ghrelin receptor GHSR1a, suggesting that histamine release induced by ghrelin occurs via a receptor-independent mechanism. We report here that ghrelin and obestatin, belonging to the family of basic secretagogues, stimulate mast cells independent of a receptor, and this may play a crucial role at the site of allergy or inflammation.

  15. Ghrelin accelerates wound healing in combined radiation and wound injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cong; Hao, Yuhui; Huang, Jiawei; Li, Hong; Yang, Zhangyou; Zeng, Yiping; Liu, Jing; Li, Rong

    2017-02-01

    Impaired wound healing caused by radiation happens frequently in clinical practice, and the exact mechanisms remain partly unclear. Various countermeasures have been taken to tackle with this issue. Ghrelin was considered as a potent endogenous growth hormone-releasing peptide, and its role in enhancing wound repair and regeneration was firstly investigated in whole-body irradiated (γ-ray) mice in this study. Collagen deposition and neovascularization were mostly discussed. The results demonstrated that ghrelin administration promoted cutaneous wound healing in irradiated mice, followed with reduced average wound closure time, increased spleen index (SI) and improved haematopoiesis. After isolation and analysis of granulation tissues in combined radiation and wound injury (CRWI) mice treated with and without ghrelin, a phenomenon of increased DNA, hexosamine, nitrate and nitrite synthesis, elevated collagen content and enhanced neovascularization was observed after ghrelin treatment. Western blotting indicated that ghrelin also increased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), both responsible for wound healing. However, previous administration of growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a) blocker blunted these therapeutic effects of ghrelin on CRWI mice. Our results identify ghrelin as a novel peptide that could be used for radiation-induced impaired wound healing. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. SKF 83566 attenuates the effects of ghrelin on performance in the object location memory task.

    PubMed

    Jacoby, Sarah M; Currie, Paul J

    2011-10-31

    Increasing research implicates ghrelin, a metabolic signaling peptide, in memory processes including acquisition, consolidation, and retention. The present study investigated the effects of ghrelin on spatial memory acquisition by utilizing the object location memory task paradigm. Given the co-expression of ghrelin and dopamine D(1) receptors within hippocampal neurons, we examined a potential interaction between these two systems on memory performance. When injected into the dorsal third ventricle (D3V) of male Sprague-Dawley rats, proximal to hippocampal tissue, ghrelin (500 pmol) increased the amount of time spent with objects in novel locations. This effect was completely reversed by the D(1) antagonist SKF 83566 (100 μg/kg IP), although when administered alone, the antagonist had no effect on task performance (10-100 μg/kg). We also examined the feeding effects of D3V ghrelin and found that the peptide reliably increased food intake (500 pmol) but that this effect was not blocked by SKF 83566 (100 μg/kg). When given alone, SKF 83566 did not alter food intake (10-100 μg/kg). Our findings indicate that, in addition to an orexigenic effect, ghrelin improves acquisition of spatial location memories. Furthermore, D(1) receptor activation is necessary for ghrelin to improve the encoding of spatial memories but does not impact the increase in food intake elicited by the peptide.

  17. Ghrelin and ghrelin receptor modulation of psychostimulant action

    PubMed Central

    Wellman, Paul J.; Clifford, P. Shane; Rodriguez, Juan A.

    2013-01-01

    Ghrelin (GHR) is an orexigenic gut peptide that modulates multiple homeostatic functions including gastric emptying, anxiety, stress, memory, feeding, and reinforcement. GHR is known to bind and activate growth-hormone secretagogue receptors (termed GHR-Rs). Of interest to our laboratory has been the assessment of the impact of GHR modulation of the locomotor activation and reward/reinforcement properties of psychostimulants such as cocaine and nicotine. Systemic GHR infusions augment cocaine stimulated locomotion and conditioned place preference (CPP) in rats, as does food restriction (FR) which elevates plasma ghrelin levels. Ghrelin enhancement of psychostimulant function may occur owing to a direct action on mesolimbic dopamine function or may reflect an indirect action of ghrelin on glucocorticoid pathways. Genomic or pharmacological ablation of GHR-Rs attenuates the acute locomotor-enhancing effects of nicotine, cocaine, amphetamine and alcohol and blunts the CPP induced by food, alcohol, amphetamine and cocaine in mice. The stimulant nicotine can induce CPP and like amphetamine and cocaine, repeated administration of nicotine induces locomotor sensitization in rats. Inactivation of ghrelin circuit function in rats by injection of a ghrelin receptor antagonist (e.g., JMV 2959) diminishes the development of nicotine-induced locomotor sensitization. These results suggest a key permissive role for GHR-R activity for the induction of locomotor sensitization to nicotine. Our finding that GHR-R null rats exhibit diminished patterns of responding for intracranial self-stimulation complements an emerging literature implicating central GHR circuits in drug reward/reinforcement. Finally, antagonism of GHR-Rs may represent a smoking cessation modality that not only blocks nicotine-induced reward but that also may limit weight gain after smoking cessation. PMID:24093007

  18. Three gene expression vector sets for concurrently expressing multiple genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Jun; Kondo, Takashi; Makino, Harumi; Ogura, Akira; Matsuda, Fumio; Kondo, Akihiko

    2014-05-01

    Yeast has the potential to be used in bulk-scale fermentative production of fuels and chemicals due to its tolerance for low pH and robustness for autolysis. However, expression of multiple external genes in one host yeast strain is considerably labor-intensive due to the lack of polycistronic transcription. To promote the metabolic engineering of yeast, we generated systematic and convenient genetic engineering tools to express multiple genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We constructed a series of multi-copy and integration vector sets for concurrently expressing two or three genes in S. cerevisiae by embedding three classical promoters. The comparative expression capabilities of the constructed vectors were monitored with green fluorescent protein, and the concurrent expression of genes was monitored with three different fluorescent proteins. Our multiple gene expression tool will be helpful to the advanced construction of genetically engineered yeast strains in a variety of research fields other than metabolic engineering.

  19. Regulatory mechanisms for floral homeotic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhongchi; Mara, Chloe

    2010-02-01

    Proper regulation of floral homeotic gene (or ABCE gene) expression ensures the development of floral organs in the correct number, type, and precise spatial arrangement. This review summarizes recent advances on the regulation of floral homeotic genes, highlighting the variety and the complexity of the regulatory mechanisms involved. As flower development is one of the most well characterized developmental processes in higher plants, it facilitates the discovery of novel regulatory mechanisms. To date, mechanisms for the regulation of floral homeotic genes range from transcription to post-transcription, from activators to repressors, and from microRNA- to ubiquitin-mediated post-transcriptional regulation. Region-specific activation of floral homeotic genes is dependent on the integration of a flower-specific activity provided by LEAFY (LFY) and a region- and stage-specific activating function provided by one of the LFY cofactors. Two types of regulatory loops, the feed-forward and the feedback loop, provide properly timed gene activation and subsequent maintenance and refinement in proper spatial and temporal domains of ABCE genes. Two different microRNA/target modules may have been independently recruited in different plant species to regulate C gene expression. Additionally, competition among different MADS box proteins for common interacting partners may represent a mechanism in whorl boundary demarcation. Future work using systems approaches and the development of non-model plants will provide integrated views on floral homeotic gene regulation and insights into the evolution of morphological diversity in flowering plants. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Regulation of GH secretagogue receptor gene expression in the rat nodose ganglion.

    PubMed

    Sato, Miho; Nakahara, Keiko; Miyazato, Mikiya; Kangawa, Kenji; Murakami, Noboru

    2007-07-01

    It has been shown that the ghrelin receptor, GH secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), is synthesized in neurons of the nodose ganglion and then transmitted to axon terminals, where it binds to ghrelin. The orexigenic signal of ghrelin secreted from the stomach is transmitted to the brain via the vagal afferent nerve. To explore the regulation of GHS-R synthesis in the nodose ganglion, we examined whether or not GHS-R type a mRNA expression shows circadian rhythm, and is affected by starvation, vagotomy, or i.v. administration of gastrointestinal peptides. Nodose ganglion GHS-R mRNA levels showed a diurnal rhythm, being high during periods of light and low during darkness. Although starvation tended to increase the level of GHS-R mRNA, a more significant increase was observed upon re-feeding. Vagotomy decreased the level of GHS-R mRNA significantly in comparison with animals that underwent a sham procedure. Cholecystokinin and gastrin increased the level of GHS-R mRNA after 2 h, but after 4 h, the level decreased. These results suggest that GHS-R synthesis in the nodose ganglion is regulated centrally and peripherally by neuronal and humoral information, and that these dynamic changes of GHS-R mRNA expression may be involved in the regulation of feeding by ghrelin.

  1. Influence of Helicobacter pylori infection on levels of ghrelin and obestatin in human semen.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Elena; Collodel, Giulia; Campagna, Maria Stella; Franci, Maria Beatrice; Iacoponi, Francesca; Mazzi, Lucia; Figura, Natale

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection might have negative effects on the semen parameters of infertile men. We explored the possibility that this infection can influence systemic and seminal levels of ghrelin and obestatin, hormones mainly produced by the stomach. Ghrelin and obestatin exert many activities, including the regulation of reproductive biology, and are present in many organs and fluids, including human semen. In 78 men, we determined HP infection and cytotoxin-associated gene A protein (CagA) status by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting, semen quality following World Health Organization guidelines, and ghrelin and obestatin levels in the blood stream (47 subjects) and semen by radioimmunoassay. Twenty-seven men (34.6%) were infected (HP+) and 11 out of 27 infected men (40.7%) were seropositive for CagA (CagA+). Sperm motility was significantly reduced in HP+/CagA+ men compared with HP+/CagA- men (P < .01). Ghrelin semen levels were decreased in HP+ men compared with uninfected individuals (P < .05), whereas they were increased in HP+/CagA+ men compared with HP+/CagA- subjects (P < .01). Ghrelin semen concentrations in HP+/CagA- men were lower than those measured in uninfected subjects (P < .001). Semen obestatin concentration was increased, in a nonsignificant manner, in HP+/CagA+ men. The obestatin levels were approximately 4 times higher than those of ghrelin in semen and approximately half the levels of ghrelin in serum specimens of all the analyzed groups. No significant differences were found in systemic levels of ghrelin and obestatin in HP+ to uninfected individuals. HP infection may influence the ghrelin seminal concentrations, probably as a response to a negative effect of infection on the semen quality.

  2. Expression of myriapod pair rule gene orthologs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Segmentation is a hallmark of the arthropods; most knowledge about the molecular basis of arthropod segmentation comes from work on the fly Drosophila melanogaster. In this species a hierarchic cascade of segmentation genes subdivides the blastoderm stepwise into single segment wide regions. However, segmentation in the fly is a derived feature since all segments form virtually simultaneously. Conversely, in the vast majority of arthropods the posterior segments form one at a time from a posterior pre-segmental zone. The pair rule genes (PRGs) comprise an important level of the Drosophila segmentation gene cascade and are indeed the first genes that are expressed in typical transverse stripes in the early embryo. Information on expression and function of PRGs outside the insects, however, is scarce. Results Here we present the expression of the pair rule gene orthologs in the pill millipede Glomeris marginata (Myriapoda: Diplopoda). We find evidence that these genes are involved in segmentation and that components of the hierarchic interaction of the gene network as found in insects may be conserved. We further provide evidence that segments are formed in a single-segment periodicity rather than in pairs of two like in another myriapod, the centipede Strigamia maritima. Finally we show that decoupling of dorsal and ventral segmentation in Glomeris appears already at the level of the PRGs. Conclusions Although the pair rule gene network is partially conserved among insects and myriapods, some aspects of PRG interaction are, as suggested by expression pattern analysis, convergent, even within the Myriapoda. Conserved expression patterns of PRGs in insects and myriapods, however, may represent ancestral features involved in segmenting the arthropod ancestor. PMID:21352542

  3. Structure and Physiological Actions of Ghrelin

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Ghrelin is a gastric peptide hormone, discovered as being the endogenous ligand of growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Ghrelin is a 28 amino acid peptide presenting a unique n-octanoylation modification on its serine in position 3, catalyzed by ghrelin O-acyl transferase. Ghrelin is mainly produced by a subset of stomach cells and also by the hypothalamus, the pituitary, and other tissues. Transcriptional, translational, and posttranslational processes generate ghrelin and ghrelin-related peptides. Homo- and heterodimers of growth hormone secretagogue receptor, and as yet unidentified receptors, are assumed to mediate the biological effects of acyl ghrelin and desacyl ghrelin, respectively. Ghrelin exerts wide physiological actions throughout the body, including growth hormone secretion, appetite and food intake, gastric secretion and gastrointestinal motility, glucose homeostasis, cardiovascular functions, anti-inflammatory functions, reproductive functions, and bone formation. This review focuses on presenting the current understanding of ghrelin and growth hormone secretagogue receptor biology, as well as the main physiological effects of ghrelin. PMID:24381790

  4. Human AZU-1 gene, variants thereof and expressed gene products

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Huei-Mei; Bissell, Mina

    2004-06-22

    A human AZU-1 gene, mutants, variants and fragments thereof. Protein products encoded by the AZU-1 gene and homologs encoded by the variants of AZU-1 gene acting as tumor suppressors or markers of malignancy progression and tumorigenicity reversion. Identification, isolation and characterization of AZU-1 and AZU-2 genes localized to a tumor suppressive locus at chromosome 10q26, highly expressed in nonmalignant and premalignant cells derived from a human breast tumor progression model. A recombinant full length protein sequences encoded by the AZU-1 gene and nucleotide sequences of AZU-1 and AZU-2 genes and variant and fragments thereof. Monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies specific to AZU-1, AZU-2 encoded protein and to AZU-1, or AZU-2 encoded protein homologs.

  5. Age-dependent reduction of ghrelin- and motilin-induced contractile activity in the chicken gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Kitazawa, Takio; Yoshida, Akiko; Tamano, Takuya; Teraoka, Hiroki; Kaiya, Hiroyuki

    2013-05-01

    Ghrelin is an endogenous ligand for growth hormone secretagogue-receptor 1a (GHS-R1a) and stimulates gastrointestinal (GI) motility in the chicken. Since ghrelin stimulates GH release, which regulates growth, it might be interesting to compare ghrelin-induced responses in GI tract of different-aged chickens. Motilin is a ghrelin-related gut peptide that induces strong contraction in the small intestine. Aim of this study was to clarify age-dependent changes in ghrelin- and motilin-induced contractions of the chicken GI tract and expression of their receptor mRNAs. Chicken ghrelin caused contraction of the crop and proventriculus. Ghrelin-induced contraction in the proventriculus decreased gradually up to 100 days after hatching, but the responses to ghrelin in the crop were the same during the growth period. GHS-R1a mRNA expression in the crop tended to increase, but that in the proventriculus decreased depending on the age. Chicken motilin caused contraction of the chicken GI tract. Atropine decreased the responses to motilin in the proventriculus but not in the ileum. Motilin-induced contraction in the proventriculus but not that in the ileum decreased depending on post-hatching days. On the other hand, motilin receptor mRNA expression in every region of the GI tract decreased with age, but the decrease was more marked in the proventriculus than in the ileum. In conclusion, ghrelin- and motilin-induced GI contractions selectively decreased in the chicken proventriculus depending on post-hatching days, probably due to the age-related decrease in respective receptors expression. The results suggest an age-related contribution of ghrelin and motilin to the regulation of chicken GI motility.

  6. Ghrelin plasmatic levels in patients with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Otero, Miguel; Nogueiras, Ruben; Lago, Francisca; Meijide, Juan; Amarelo, Juan; Mera, Antonio; Gomez-Reino, Juan; Gualillo, Oreste

    2005-01-01

    Ghrelin is a recently discovered 28 amino acid peptide that regulates GH secretion and energy homeostasis. In fibromyalgia (FM) there are alterations in the pituitary-hypothalamic axis, particularly in the growth hormone (GH) secretion pattern. Whether this anomalous secretion of GH pertains to abnormal levels of ghrelin is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate plasma ghrelin levels in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) compared with healthy controls. Plasmatic ghrelin concentrations were determined by a double antibody radioimmunoassay in 19 patients with FM and 14 healthy controls. Compared with controls, patients with FM did not show any significant differences of ghrelin plasmatic levels. In conclusion, FM is not associated with deviation in ghrelin concentrations. Existing alterations in FM with respect to GH are unlikely due to circulating ghrelin.