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Sample records for giant pulmonary hydatid

  1. Atypical pulmonary giant hydatid cyst as bilaterally symmetrical solitary cysts.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Saadia; Fatimi, Saulat Hasnain

    2004-09-01

    A pulmonary giant hydatid cyst, a special clinical entity, is rare. Our case involves a young patient who presented with a bilaterally symmetrical solitary cyst in each lung, a feature consistent with congenital lung cysts. The radiological and immunological findings were equivocal. A diagnosis of giant hydatid cyst was made intraoperatively and both cysts were removed conservatively. A follow-up showed complete recovery.

  2. [Giant retroperitoneal hydatid cyst].

    PubMed

    Massoud, W; Saheb, N; Iliescu, B; Kreitmann, L; Chabenne, J; Campeggi, A; Molinie, V; Baumert, H

    2009-06-01

    Hydatidosis is an endemic, widely distributed anthropozoonosis, which involves the liver, lung and other organs [Int J Urol 13 (2006) 76-9]. We reported the case of a large retroperitoneal hydatid cyst, which is a rare situation [Hepatogastroenterology 48 (2001) 1037-9; Int Urol Nephrol 32 (2000) 41-6; J Urol (Paris) 94 (1988) 445-8]. Diagnosis was suspected with blood tests and radiological examinations. A wide incision in the right iliac fossa (such in renal graft) was performed. The cyst wall was excised partially. Before, during and following the operation, the patient was given albendazole tablets (15mg/kg per day) for 3 weeks (1 week before and 2 weeks after the surgery) with blood count and liver enzyme monitorization. Especially in the endemic areas, hydatid cyst should be remembered when evaluating cystic masses in the retroperitoneum. It can be treated successfully with surgery.

  3. Imaging in pulmonary hydatid cysts

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Mandeep K; Sharma, Madhurima; Gulati, Ajay; Gorsi, Ujjwal; Aggarwal, Ashutosh N; Agarwal, Ritesh; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid disease is a zoonosis that can involve almost any organ in the human body. After the liver, the lungs are the most common site for hydatid disease in adults. Imaging plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis of the disease, as clinical features are often nonspecific. Classical radiological signs of pulmonary hydatid cysts have been described in the literature, aiding in the diagnosis of the disease. However, complicated hydatid cysts can prove to be a diagnostic challenge at times due to their atypical imaging features. Radiography is the initial imaging modality. Computed tomography can provide a specific diagnosis in complicated cases. Ultrasound is particularly useful in peripheral lung lesions. The role of magnetic resonance imaging largely remains unexplored. PMID:27358685

  4. [Isolated giant hydatid in kidney].

    PubMed

    Ozgör, Faruk; Erbin, Akif; Berberoğlu, Ahmet Yalçın; Binbay, Murat; Sarılar, Omer; Müslümanoğlu, Ahmet Yaser

    2014-06-01

    Cyst hydatid of the kidney is parasitic condition caused by Echinococcus granulosus and identified in many countries, especially associated with sheep farming. Echinococcal larvae enter the bloodstream using the digestive system and invade any organs in the human body. The urinary system is the third most common area affected by parasitic infection after liver and lungs, but isolated renal involvement is a very rare situation, even in endemic areas. İn our case, we aimed to report a 57-year-old female patient with an 18-centimeter isolated renal cyst hydatid treated by retroperitoneal nephrectomy. The diagnosis was based on imaging findings and confirmed by histopathologically.

  5. A giant splenic hydatid cyst

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Karamjot Singh; Mittal, Amit; Gupta, Samita; Jindal, Gunjan

    2016-01-01

    A 16-year-old girl presented with pain in the left hypochondrium, which had been progressing for 5 months. Examination revealed large splenomegaly, and ultrasonography showed a huge hydatid cyst in the spleen. Preoperative planning and postoperative care lead to successful management of this entity. Radiological investigations also play a major role in diagnosis and decrease morbidity. PMID:26722171

  6. Multi-vesicular pulmonary hydatid cyst, the potent underestimated factor in the formation of daughter cysts of pulmonary hydatid disease.

    PubMed

    Sokouti, Mohsen; Sokouti, Babak; Shokouhi, Behrooz; Rahimi-Rad, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary multi-vesicular hydatid disease (HD) with Echinococcus granulosus is rare. A 28-year-old woman presented to our center with cough and respiratory distress. Chest x-ray and computerized tomography scan revealed bilateral giant cysts with water-lily sign (ruptured hydatid cysts). The left cyst was in vicinity of heart. With thoracotomy cysts of both lungs were removed. Thousands of translucent, homogenized small daughter cysts were discovered from the left side cyst. Pathologic examinations revealed the ruptured hydatid cysts of both lungs with daughter cysts on the left lung cyst. To best of our knowledge probably this is the first report of multi-vesicular HD in lung. We suppose that the heart pulsation was effective in the formation of daughter cysts.

  7. Conservative Surgical Management for Pulmonary Hydatid Cyst: Analysis and Outcome of 148 Cases.

    PubMed

    Aldahmashi, Mohammed; Alassal, Mohamed; Kasb, Ibrahim; Elrakhawy, Hany

    2016-01-01

    Background. Hydatid cyst (HC) disease is endemic in many developing countries, like Yemen, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia, especially in the rural regions. The disease has a variable clinical courses and even might be asymptomatic for many years. Objectives. In giant and large pulmonary hydatid cysts, pulmonary resection is the usual method of surgical treatment. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the lung conservative surgery in treatment of cases with giant and large hydatid lung cysts, as an effective method of management. Patients and Methods. Between January 2009 and August 2014, a total of 148 patients with pulmonary hydatid cysts were operated and their data was reviewed retrospectively and analyzed. Out of these cases, 52 (35.14%) cysts with more than 10 cm in diameter and 36 (24.32%) cysts with 5-9 cm were regarded as giant and large hydatid lung cysts, respectively. The small cysts less than 5 cm were presented in 8 (5.4%) cases only; other cases had ruptured cysts. Preservation of the lung tissues during surgery by cystotomy and Capitonnage was our conservative surgical methods of choice. Results. Eight patients developed bronchopleural fistula (BPF); of them, 4 BPFs have healed with chest tube and physiotherapy, but in the other 4 patients reoperation was done for the closure of persistent BPF. No mortality was observed in the present study. Conclusion. We conclude that conservative surgical procedure can achieve complete removal of the pulmonary hydatid cyst. Enucleation of the intact huge cysts is safe. Careful and secured closure of the bronchial communication should be done by purse string or figure-of-8 sutures, with or without Teflon pledgets. These simple procedures are safe, reliable, and successful. PMID:27642249

  8. Conservative Surgical Management for Pulmonary Hydatid Cyst: Analysis and Outcome of 148 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Aldahmashi, Mohammed; Kasb, Ibrahim; Elrakhawy, Hany

    2016-01-01

    Background. Hydatid cyst (HC) disease is endemic in many developing countries, like Yemen, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia, especially in the rural regions. The disease has a variable clinical courses and even might be asymptomatic for many years. Objectives. In giant and large pulmonary hydatid cysts, pulmonary resection is the usual method of surgical treatment. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the lung conservative surgery in treatment of cases with giant and large hydatid lung cysts, as an effective method of management. Patients and Methods. Between January 2009 and August 2014, a total of 148 patients with pulmonary hydatid cysts were operated and their data was reviewed retrospectively and analyzed. Out of these cases, 52 (35.14%) cysts with more than 10 cm in diameter and 36 (24.32%) cysts with 5–9 cm were regarded as giant and large hydatid lung cysts, respectively. The small cysts less than 5 cm were presented in 8 (5.4%) cases only; other cases had ruptured cysts. Preservation of the lung tissues during surgery by cystotomy and Capitonnage was our conservative surgical methods of choice. Results. Eight patients developed bronchopleural fistula (BPF); of them, 4 BPFs have healed with chest tube and physiotherapy, but in the other 4 patients reoperation was done for the closure of persistent BPF. No mortality was observed in the present study. Conclusion. We conclude that conservative surgical procedure can achieve complete removal of the pulmonary hydatid cyst. Enucleation of the intact huge cysts is safe. Careful and secured closure of the bronchial communication should be done by purse string or figure-of-8 sutures, with or without Teflon pledgets. These simple procedures are safe, reliable, and successful.

  9. Conservative Surgical Management for Pulmonary Hydatid Cyst: Analysis and Outcome of 148 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Aldahmashi, Mohammed; Kasb, Ibrahim; Elrakhawy, Hany

    2016-01-01

    Background. Hydatid cyst (HC) disease is endemic in many developing countries, like Yemen, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia, especially in the rural regions. The disease has a variable clinical courses and even might be asymptomatic for many years. Objectives. In giant and large pulmonary hydatid cysts, pulmonary resection is the usual method of surgical treatment. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the lung conservative surgery in treatment of cases with giant and large hydatid lung cysts, as an effective method of management. Patients and Methods. Between January 2009 and August 2014, a total of 148 patients with pulmonary hydatid cysts were operated and their data was reviewed retrospectively and analyzed. Out of these cases, 52 (35.14%) cysts with more than 10 cm in diameter and 36 (24.32%) cysts with 5–9 cm were regarded as giant and large hydatid lung cysts, respectively. The small cysts less than 5 cm were presented in 8 (5.4%) cases only; other cases had ruptured cysts. Preservation of the lung tissues during surgery by cystotomy and Capitonnage was our conservative surgical methods of choice. Results. Eight patients developed bronchopleural fistula (BPF); of them, 4 BPFs have healed with chest tube and physiotherapy, but in the other 4 patients reoperation was done for the closure of persistent BPF. No mortality was observed in the present study. Conclusion. We conclude that conservative surgical procedure can achieve complete removal of the pulmonary hydatid cyst. Enucleation of the intact huge cysts is safe. Careful and secured closure of the bronchial communication should be done by purse string or figure-of-8 sutures, with or without Teflon pledgets. These simple procedures are safe, reliable, and successful. PMID:27642249

  10. Giant intradural extramedullary spinal hydatid cyst--a rare presentation.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Muddassir; Kirmani, Sanna; Rashid, Mubashir

    2012-01-01

    The hydatidosis, or echinococcosis, has a characteristic geographic distribution, occurring most frequently in sheep-raising regions in Mediterranean, Central Asian, and South American countries and in Australia. Spinal hydatidosis is very rare, and intradural location is a rarer category of spinal hydatidosis. We report a case of intradural extramedullary spinal hydatid cyst in a 9-year-old boy. On magnetic resonance imaging, an intradural extramedullary giant cystic lesion was seen mimicking an arachnoid cyst. However, endemic origin of the patient and positive serology helped to make the diagnosis of hydatid cyst, which was confirmed on postoperative histopathology.

  11. A Case of Giant Hepatic Hydatid Cyst Infected with Morganella morganii and the Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Hakyemez, Ismail Necati; Sit, Mustafa; Aktas, Gulali; Tas, Tekin; Mengeloglu, Fırat Zafer; Kucukbayrak, Abdulkadir

    2012-01-01

    Hydatid cyst disease is a common worldwide zoonosis. Most of the cysts are located in the liver. Abscess formation due to infection of the cyst is an important complication. M. morganii, a Gram-negative Bacillus, is a quite rare cause of liver abscess. A 77-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with complaints of fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and abdominal pain located in the right-upper quadrant. Her history was positive for hepatic hydatid cyst disease ten years ago. Physical examination revealed a painful mass filling the right-upper quadrant and extending down to umbilicus. Indirect hemagglutinin test for hydatid cyst was positive at a titer of 1/320. Giant liver abscess due to infected hydatid cyst was found in computed tomography scan. Surgeons performed cystectomy and cholecystectomy. Cefazoline, cefuroxime, and metronidazole were administered empirically, but all the three agents were replaced with intravenous ceftriaxone after M. morganii was isolated from the cultures of the abscess material. Clinical signs of the patient resolved at the second week of treatment, and she was discharged.

  12. Comparative pathology of pulmonary hydatid cysts in macropods and sheep.

    PubMed

    Barnes, T S; Hinds, L A; Jenkins, D J; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, H; Lightowlers, M W; Coleman, G T

    2011-01-01

    The development and appearance of hydatid cysts of Echinococcus granulosus in experimentally infected tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii) and sheep during the period 9-17 months post-infection (mpi) were studied. Cysts of unknown age were also examined from mature, naturally infected sheep. The cysts grew more rapidly and became fertile within a shorter period in wallabies compared with sheep. Cysts from the wallabies were larger in absolute size and were larger relative to the size of the lungs. Microscopical examination revealed that wallaby hydatid cysts developed in small bronchioles. Hydatid cysts in the wallabies had a thicker germinal membrane, with more nuclei and a thicker laminated layer (LL), than hydatid cysts of similar age found in sheep. In contrast, the adventitial layer was thicker in the ovine cysts, comprising a hyalinized layer of degenerate collagen and necrotic cellular debris surrounded by a layer of granulation tissue that was largely absent from lesions in the wallabies. Multilocular cysts were present in sheep, but not in wallabies. The greater thickness of the germinal membrane in wallaby cysts suggests greater parasite activity, which may explain the more rapid growth rate in this host, whereas the thicker adventitial layer in sheep cysts may be restrictive to growth while simultaneously protecting the hydatid from the host immune response. These differences in the parasite-host relationship between macropods and sheep may reflect the relatively recent introduction of the parasite into Australia. PMID:20846666

  13. Cetrimide-chlorhexidine-induced multiorgan failure in surgery of pulmonary hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, Swagata; Sasmal, Prakash; Rao, P Bhaskar; Mishra, Tushar S; Nayak, Sukdev

    2016-01-01

    Savlon (0.5% cetrimide/0.05% chlorhexidine) is used as a scolicidal during surgery of hydatid cysts. It is considered a safe and effective agent. However, there are no recommendations for the appropriate concentration or dosage of these agents. Previously reported to cause severe metabolic acidosis, its effects on the pulmonary system have not been explored. We present a case of acute lung injury and respiratory distress along with acute cardiopulmonary distress, severe metabolic acidosis, and renal failure following its use during surgical removal of pulmonary hydatid cyst. The agent may act as a chemical sclerosant causing pulmonary parenchymal damage through bronchial openings present in the pericyst. Till safe dose limits are known, use of this agent should be limited, especially in large or multiple cyst surgery. PMID:27397471

  14. Cetrimide-chlorhexidine-induced multiorgan failure in surgery of pulmonary hydatid cyst

    PubMed Central

    Tripathy, Swagata; Sasmal, Prakash; Rao, P. Bhaskar; Mishra, Tushar S.; Nayak, Sukdev

    2016-01-01

    Savlon (0.5% cetrimide/0.05% chlorhexidine) is used as a scolicidal during surgery of hydatid cysts. It is considered a safe and effective agent. However, there are no recommendations for the appropriate concentration or dosage of these agents. Previously reported to cause severe metabolic acidosis, its effects on the pulmonary system have not been explored. We present a case of acute lung injury and respiratory distress along with acute cardiopulmonary distress, severe metabolic acidosis, and renal failure following its use during surgical removal of pulmonary hydatid cyst. The agent may act as a chemical sclerosant causing pulmonary parenchymal damage through bronchial openings present in the pericyst. Till safe dose limits are known, use of this agent should be limited, especially in large or multiple cyst surgery. PMID:27397471

  15. Evaluation of the effect of pulmonary hydatid cyst location on the surgical technique approaches

    PubMed Central

    Sadrizadeh, Ali; Haghi, Seyed Ziaollah; Masuom, Seyed Hossein Fattahi; Bagheri, Reza; Dalouee, Marziyeh Nouri

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: A hydatid cyst is the most common lung parasitic disease and is endemic in Iran. A hydatid cyst is more common in the right lung and lower lobes. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess surgical treatment of pulmonary hydatid cysts and whether the location of cyst affects surgical technique approaches. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on 87 patients with a pulmonary hydatid cyst who were referred to Qaem Hospital from 2010 to 2012. Selection of surgical technique was according to size, location, and the number of cysts. Patients were divided into two groups: (1) surgery with preserving lung parenchyma and (2) lobectomy. Afterward, the relationship between the location of cyst and surgical technique approaches was evaluated. Data was analyzed by Chi-square and Fisher exact tests. Results: In this study, no significant relation was found between the size (P = 0.682) and number (P = 0.344) of cysts and lobectomy necessity. But, there was a significant relation between the occurrence of cyst in middle lobe and lobectomy necessity (P = 0.016). Conclusions: According to the results, type of surgical technique does not depend on the size and number of cysts, but it may be related to the location of the cyst and the ratio of lung destruction. PMID:25378844

  16. Our eight-year surgical experience in patients with pulmonary cyst hydatid

    PubMed Central

    Sayir, Fuat; Çobanoğlu, Ufuk; Şehitoğulları, Abidin; Bilici, Salim

    2012-01-01

    Background In this clinical retrospective study, we aimed to investigate our experinces and whether capitonnage is an effective therapy method for a pulmonary hydatid cyst or not. Material and methods A total of 412 patients with hydatid cyst operated in our hospitals were evaluated retrospectively between January 2003 and January 2011. In order to create a study group to compare the hydatid cyst operations with and without capitonnage in our department, 60 uncomplicated patients with the diagnosis of hydatid cyst who had undergone operations in the previous two years, were divided into two groups; while no capitonnage was performed and bronchial leaks were closed in one group, standard cystotomy plus the capitonnage operation was performed in the second group. All patients underwent surgery. Results In many patients, one or more symptoms were present on admission (339 cases, 82%). Perforated cysts/ nonperfore cysts rate was statistically significant (p = 0.001). There was no statistical difference between patients with or without capitonnage in terms of morbidity rates between patients with or without capitonnage (p = 0.041). However, morbidity rates were higher in the group without capitonnage. There were found statistically significant between capitonnage and non capitonnage groups in terms of length of hospital stay (p=0.001). Conclusions In the surgical treatment, resection should be avoided as much as possible. An average time of 3-5 minutes should be allocated and capitonnage should be performed. Capitonnage should always be performed in the surgical treatment of hydatid cyst. We believe that povidone iodine per se provides sufficient disinfection. PMID:22328950

  17. Giant cardiac hydatid cyst in children: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Fiengo, Leslie; Bucci, Federico; Giannotti, Domenico; Patrizi, Gregorio; Redler, Adriano; Kucukaksu, Denis Suha

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac echinococcus is a rare affliction of the heart caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. Primary echinococcosis of the heart represents 0.5-2% of all hydatid disease cases in endemic regions. It evolves slowly, explaining its rarity in children. We report the case of a 11-year-old child affected by a giant cardiac cyst of the left ventricle (LV). The patient underwent cardiac surgery and medical treatment. A retrospective review of the current literature was realized. We found 18 cases: the mean age was 11-years old. Nine cysts were localized in the LV, four in the interventricular septum, three in the right ventricle, and two in the right atrium. All underwent surgery except six patients. Routine echocardiographic screening may be useful in endemic regions where infestation is common. Cardiac echinococcus should be diagnosed in the early and uncomplicated stages and be removed surgically even in asymptomatic patients. PMID:25249763

  18. Giant Cardiac Hydatid Cyst in Children: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Fiengo, Leslie; Bucci, Federico; Giannotti, Domenico; Patrizi, Gregorio; Redler, Adriano; Kucukaksu, Denis Suha

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac echinococcus is a rare affliction of the heart caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. Primary echinococcosis of the heart represents 0.5–2% of all hydatid disease cases in endemic regions. It evolves slowly, explaining its rarity in children. We report the case of a 11-year-old child affected by a giant cardiac cyst of the left ventricle (LV). The patient underwent cardiac surgery and medical treatment. A retrospective review of the current literature was realized. We found 18 cases: the mean age was 11-years old. Nine cysts were localized in the LV, four in the interventricular septum, three in the right ventricle, and two in the right atrium. All underwent surgery except six patients. Routine echocardiographic screening may be useful in endemic regions where infestation is common. Cardiac echinococcus should be diagnosed in the early and uncomplicated stages and be removed surgically even in asymptomatic patients. PMID:25249763

  19. Coinfection of Pulmonary Hydatid Cyst and Aspergilloma: Case Report and Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Aliyali, Masoud; Badali, Hamid; Shokohi, Tahereh; Moazeni, Maryam; Nosrati, Anahita; Godazandeh, Gholamali; Dolatabadi, Somayeh; Nabili, Mojtaba

    2016-04-01

    Aspergilloma infection consists of a mass of fungal hyphae, inflammatory cells, fibrin, mucus, and tissue debris and can colonize lung cavities due to underlying diseases such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, bronchiectasis, cavitary lung cancer, neoplasms, ankylosing spondylitis, bronchial cysts, and pulmonary infarction. Here we report coinfection of pulmonary hydatid cyst and aspergilloma in a 34-year-old female who had had history of minor thalassemia and suffered from chest pain, dyspnea, non-productive cough for at least five months, and hemoptysis for 20 days. Radiographic sign showed a large cavitary lesion (5 × 6 × 6 cm) involving left lower lobe (LLL). Dichotomous septate hyphae were observed in bronchoalveolar lavage and biopsy specimens from LLL. The patient subsequently improved after combined anti-helminth therapies with albendazole (400 mg/bd) and lobectomy. According to morphological and molecular characterization, Aspergillus niger was confirmed. In vitro antifungal susceptibility tests revealed that the MIC values for the antifungals used in this case in increasing order were posaconazole (0.125 µg/ml), itraconazole and voriconazole (0.5 µg/ml), and amphotericin B (1 µg/ml). The minimum effective concentration for caspofungin was 0.125 µg/ml. Subsequently, we systematically reviewed 22 confirmed cases of pulmonary hydatid cyst and aspergilloma during a period of 19 years (1995-2014) and discussed the epidemiology, clinical features, and treatment of this disease. PMID:26666549

  20. Giant cardiac hydatid cyst in the interventricular septum protruding to right ventricular epicardium☆

    PubMed Central

    Besir, Yuksel; Gucu, Arif; Surer, Suleyman; Rodoplu, Orhan; Melek, Mehmet; Tetik, Omer

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac hydatid cyst is a rare condition, and the location of a hydatid cyst in the interventricular septum is exceptional. A 54-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with complaints of chest pain, shortness of breath and malaise. Transthoracic echocardiography defined a cystic mass lesion of 50 × 59 mm originating from apex of the heart protruding into and compressing the interventricular septum. The cyst was excised surgically and the patient was discharged on the 8th postoperative day without symptoms. In our case, localization of the cystic mass was within interventricular septum which is an uncommon site. It limited both ventricular volumes significantly. In addition, this cyst was extensively protruding to the right ventricular epicardium. PMID:23438618

  1. Giant hydatid cyst of the pelvis, femur and retroperitoneal space: surgical treatment with extended hemipelvectomy.

    PubMed

    Tsagozis, Panagiotis; Brosjö, Otte

    2015-01-01

    Hydatid disease of the bone is a very rare manifestation of the disease, and is often associated with debilitating symptoms. We present a rare case of skeletal hydatidosis in a 56-year-old man who had been misdiagnosed for many years. Massive involvement of the pelvic bones and soft tissues was evident. An extended hemipelvectomy was performed in order to achieve resection of the affected segments with a clear surgical margin. The patient recovered uneventfully and there are no signs of recurrence of the disease.

  2. Giant pulmonary hamartoma causing acute right heart failure.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Heman M N; Page, Richard D

    2014-01-01

    Giant pulmonary hamartomas are rare. We describe a case of a 59-year-old female patient with a giant chondroid hamartoma in the lower lobe of the right lung presenting with acute right heart failure. To the best of our knowledge such a unique presentation has not been previously described in the literature. PMID:24384217

  3. Pulmonary metastasis of giant cell tumor of bones.

    PubMed

    Muheremu, Aikeremujiang; Niu, Xiaohui

    2014-08-20

    Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) accounts for 5% of primary skeletal tumors. Although it is considered to be a benign lesion, there are still incidences of pulmonary metastasis. Pulmonary metastasis of GCTB may be affected by tumor grading and localization as well as the age, gender and overall health status of the patient. Patients with local recurrence are more likely to develop pulmonary metastasis of GCTB. High expression of some genes, cytokines and chemokines may also be closely related to the metastatic potential and prognosis of GCTB. The treatment of the primary GCTB is key to the final outcome of the disease, as intralesional curettage has a significantly higher local recurrence and pulmonary metastasis rate than wide resection. However, even patients with pulmonary metastasis seem to have a good prognosis after timely and appropriate surgical resection. It is hoped that with the development of novel surgical methods and drugs, pulmonary metastasis of GCTB can be prevented and treated more effectively.

  4. Giant high-pressure pulmonary artery aneurysm in an elderly patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Morais, Sandra A; Oliveira, Hugo M; de Almeida, José R; Eiras, Eduardo; Silva, Ana Catarina; Gavina, Cristina

    2016-03-01

    The authors report the case of a 74-year-old man, with a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), GOLD grade 3, stable for the past two decades, who was admitted to our center with severe right heart failure. The chest radiograph showed moderate heart enlargement mainly of the right atrium and pulmonary artery, similar to previous chest radiographs in the previous 20 years. The transthoracic echocardiogram showed a pulmonary artery aneurysm (PAA), dilatation of the right chambers with pulmonary artery systolic pressure of 52 mmHg, and preserved right ventricular systolic function. A thoracic computed tomography scan confirmed the presence of a giant PAA 72 mm in diameter. The patient was started on high-dose diuretics, with significant clinical improvement. After optimization of medical therapy right heart catheterization was carried out with the patient in optimal clinical condition, which revealed mild precapillary pulmonary hypertension with a mean pulmonary artery pressure of 26 mmHg. On the basis of the clinical and imaging findings a stable, giant, high-pressure, PAA was diagnosed secondary to pulmonary hypertension induced by COPD, with a 20-year follow-up without need for surgical repair, which helped in our decision to maintain medical surveillance. The recent onset of heart failure is explained by the unfavorable evolution of COPD. This case may change the attitude expressed in previous studies favoring the choice of an invasive approach to treat giant high-pressure PAAs, instead supporting the maintenance of medical treatment.

  5. Successful removal of a giant pulmonary hamartoma coexisting with an anomalous common pulmonary venous trunk

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Hui; Niu, Zhong-Xi; Peng, Jun; Yang, Yu-Shang

    2015-01-01

    We present an extremely rare case of a giant pulmonary hamartoma (PH) coexisting with an anomalous common pulmonary venous trunk (ACPVT). An asymptomatic 39-year-old man was referred for evaluation of a giant pulmonary lesion in his left thorax detected on chest X-ray during a routine medical examination. After clinical work-up, the patient underwent left exploratory thoracotomy. Since the extent of the tumor and coexistence of an ACPVT, a left pneumonectomy was performed. The specimen measured 28 cm × 18 cm × 17 cm and weighted for 2.1 kg. Histology revealed a blend of pieces of rounded cartilage separated by fibrous bands in which mature adipose tissue and cleft-like structures lined. The features were consistent with those of a chondromatous hamartoma. The patient made a satisfactory recovery and 10 months after the operation was asymptomatic. PMID:25922744

  6. Primary hydatid cyst of the retroperitoneum.

    PubMed

    Sall, Ibrahima; Ali, Abdelmounaim Ait; El Kaoui, Hakim; Bouchentouf, Sidi Mohammed; El Hjouji, Abderrahmane; El Fahssi, Mohammed; Bounaim, Ahmed; Zentar, Aziz; Sair, Khalid

    2010-02-01

    Retroperitoneal contamination may occur during the natural history of hydatid disease. Primary hydatid cyst of the retroperitoneum is extremely rare. The authors report a case of a giant retroperitoneal hydatid cyst. Clinicians and surgeons must be aware of this possibility and follow a policy of nonsystematic puncture of an abdominal cyst and avoid spillage during surgery. Symptoms are related to the size, location, or ensuing complications of a cyst. Its occurrence should be strongly suspected ahead of any abdominal cyst, especially in an endemic area, where it may act as a parasite. Total and careful surgical excision is the gold-standard therapy.

  7. Primary retroperitoneal hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Çullu, N; Karakaş, Ö; Kiliçaslan, N; Konukoğlu, O; Karakaş, E

    2013-01-01

    Hydatid cyst is formed from parasitic infestation by Echinococcus granulosus, and may involve several bodily organs, primarily the liver and lungs. In endemic regions, hydatid cyst should be borne in mind in cases of retroperitoneal cystic masses. Diagnosis of hydatid cyst is made from radiological findings and serological test positivity. Hydatid cyst diagnosis can be made from typical radiological imaging findings. This paper presents the imaging findings of a 56-year old male with retroperitoneal hydatid cyst.

  8. Case report of primary retroperitoneal hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gang; Wang, Xuejun; Mao, Yu; Liu, Wenying

    2011-09-01

    Hydatid cyst develops in retroperitoneal space without accompanied lesion in other organs is defined as primary retroperitoneal hydatid cyst. It is extremely rare though hydatid cyst may affect every organ in human body. A 15 years old boy presented with a giant retroperitoneal cyst and hydatid cyst was suspected. Thorough examination did not revealed lesions in liver, lung, kidney or other organs. The diagnosis was confirmed through laparotomy. The diagnosis is difficult, but the possibility should be considered before operation to prevent spillage or fatal anaphylactic shock. Living in an endemic area, ultrasonography, CT or serology test is helpful in the diagnosis of this disease. Total cystectomy is the ideal surgery, if not possible or at high risk, partial pericystectomy is acceptable.

  9. Determination of the pulmonary capillary wedge position in patients with giant left atrial V waves.

    PubMed

    Moore, R A; Neary, M J; Gallagher, J D; Clark, D L

    1987-04-01

    Thirteen patients with giant left atrial V waves during preoperative cardiac catheterization were admitted into the study group. While awake and breathing spontaneously, simultaneous recordings of electrocardiographic leads II and V5, radial arterial traces, and pulmonary arterial or pulmonary capillary wedge traces were obtained. Measurements were made on four consecutive cardiac cycles in the unwedged and wedged positions for the following intervals: Q wave to the radial arterial upstroke (220 +/- 20 milliseconds) and peak (360 +/- 10 milliseconds), Q wave to the pulmonary arterial upstroke (170 +/- 20 milliseconds) and peak (350 +/- 20 milliseconds), Q wave to the V wave upstroke (280 +/- 20 milliseconds) and peak (570 +/- 20 milliseconds), and QT interval (420 +/- 20 milliseconds). These findings indicate that the radial arterial and pulmonary arterial upstrokes and peaks occur nearly simultaneously. Upon wedging, the V wave upstroke occurs significantly later in the cardiac cycle (P less than .05) compared with the pulmonary arterial upstroke, and the V wave peak occurs significantly later compared with both the pulmonary arterial and the radial arterial peak (P less than .05). A rapid, simple beat-to-beat method for differentiating pulmonary arterial from pulmonary capillary wedge positions in the presence of giant left atrial V waves is the superimposition of the pulmonary arterial trace on the radial arterial trace. When a wedge position is attained, there is an immediate rightward shift in the upstroke and peak of the pulmonary arterial pressure trace, which can be easily identified by observing the relationship between the pulmonary arterial and systemic arterial traces.

  10. The use of an electrothermal bipolar tissue sealing system in the management of lung hydatid disease.

    PubMed

    Santini, Mario; Fiorelli, Alfonso; Milione, Roberta; Vicidomini, Giovanni; Accardo, Marina

    2014-10-01

    Surgery is the treatment of choice for management of pulmonary hydatid cysts. Total pericystectomy provided the best results concerning the recurrence of the disease, but haemorrhagia and air leak during dissection of the pericystic space are the main disadvantages of such a method. To avoid these complications, we proposed the use of an electrothermal bipolar tissue sealing system. After the extraction of the hydatid cyst, a small space is created between the pericyst and normal lung, and the separation between the two zones is joined using the electrothermal bipolar tissue sealing system. This procedure reduces the risk of bleeding and of air leaks because the bronchi and the vessels encountered during dissection are sealed by the electrothermal bipolar tissue sealing system. When the pericystic membrane (inflammatory host reaction) is intimately adherent to the lung, total pericystectomy demands greater technical training because the bronchovascular axes of the healthy segments are situated in the pericyst. In such cases, the electrothermal bipolar tissue sealing system allowed creation of an appropriate plane through the parenchyma close to the pericyst, minimizing the normal lung exposed to resection as much as possible and reducing the resulting bleeding and air leak. This procedure was successfully applied in 4 consecutive patients each with a giant hydatid cyst. PMID:24994701

  11. [Primary Retroperitoneal Hydatid Cyst].

    PubMed

    Tali, Servet; Aksu, Ali; Bozdağ, Pınar Gündoğan; Bozdağ, Ahmet

    2015-09-01

    Hydatid disease is a parasitosis which is created by Echinococcus granulosus. Hydatid cysts most of ten settled in the liver and lungs. Hydatid cyst is rarely seen in retroperitoneal. Sixty-three year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital with complaints of abdominal distention and with back pain in the Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography images, on the posterior of the left kidney, in paravertebral area approximately 15 x 10 cm in size septal cystic lesion was observed retroperitoneally. At laparotomy, partial excision of the retroperitoneal cyst was performed and drainage of the cyst pouch was provided by suction drain. Suction drain was removed 5 days after surgery. Histopathological diagnosis is was reported as hydatid cyst. Hydatid disease is a endemic disease in our country and it should be known that has a typical placements.

  12. [Primary retroperitoneal hydatid cyst].

    PubMed

    Gündeş, Ebubekir; Küçükkartallar, Tevfik; Çakır, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Hydatid cysts cause diseases most frequently by localizing in the liver and the lungs. Hydatid cysts with retroperitoneal localization are very rare. A 45-year-old female patient presented to our hospital with complaints of back pain, weight loss, and fatigue. The computerized tomography (CT) revealed that the patient had a septated cystic lesion of about 8x7x6 cm localized in the posterior of the left kidney, in the paravertebral site causing destruction of the neighboring costa. During laparotomy, the wall of the cyst with retroperitoneal localization was partially excised and the remaining cavity was drained. The drain was removed on post-op day 5. The histopathological diagnosis was reported to be a hydatid cyst. No problems were seen during the follow-ups of the patient who was administered post-op albendazole. Hydatid cysts are an endemic disease in our country and it should be kept in mind that they also have atypical localizations.

  13. Cystic pulmonary hydatidosis

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Malay; Pathania, Rajnish; Jhobta, Anupam; Thakur, Babu Ram; Chopra, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by the larval stages of the cestode Echinococcus granulosus. Worldwide, pulmonary hydatid cyst is a significant problem medically, socially, and economically. Surgery is the definitive therapy of pulmonary hydatidosis. Benzimidazoles may be considered in patients with a surgical contraindication. This review will focus on pathogenesis, lifecycle, clinical features, and management of pulmonary hydatid disease. PMID:27051107

  14. Synchronous Multicentric Giant Cell Tumour of Distal Radius and Sacrum with Pulmonary Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Tandra, Varun Sharma; Kotha, Krishna Mohan Reddy; Satyanarayana, Moorthy Gadisetti Venkata; Vadlamani, Kali Varaprasad; Yerravalli, Vyjayanthi

    2015-01-01

    Giant cell tumour (GCT) is an uncommon primary bone tumour, and its multicentric presentation is exceedingly rare. We report a case of a 45-year-old female who presented to us with GCT of left distal radius. On the skeletal survey, osteolytic lesion was noted in her right sacral ala. Biopsy confirmed both lesions as GCT. Pulmonary metastasis was also present. Resection-reconstruction arthroplasty for distal radius and thorough curettage and bone grafting of the sacral lesion were done. Multicentric GCT involving distal radius and sacrum with primary sacral involvement is not reported so far to our knowledge. PMID:26106496

  15. Synchronous Multicentric Giant Cell Tumour of Distal Radius and Sacrum with Pulmonary Metastases.

    PubMed

    Tandra, Varun Sharma; Kotha, Krishna Mohan Reddy; Satyanarayana, Moorthy Gadisetti Venkata; Vadlamani, Kali Varaprasad; Yerravalli, Vyjayanthi

    2015-01-01

    Giant cell tumour (GCT) is an uncommon primary bone tumour, and its multicentric presentation is exceedingly rare. We report a case of a 45-year-old female who presented to us with GCT of left distal radius. On the skeletal survey, osteolytic lesion was noted in her right sacral ala. Biopsy confirmed both lesions as GCT. Pulmonary metastasis was also present. Resection-reconstruction arthroplasty for distal radius and thorough curettage and bone grafting of the sacral lesion were done. Multicentric GCT involving distal radius and sacrum with primary sacral involvement is not reported so far to our knowledge. PMID:26106496

  16. Incidental isolated pancreatic hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Kısaoğlu, Abdullah; Özoğul, Bünyami; Atamanalp, Sabri Selçuk; Pirimoğlu, Berhan; Aydınlı, Bülent; Korkut, Ercan

    2015-03-01

    Isolated pancreatic hydatid cysts are a rare parasitic disease even in endemic areas. It is difficult to discriminate primary pancreatic hydatid cysts from other cystic and solid lesions of the pancreas. This is a case report of an incidental isolated pancreatic hydatid cyst. A heterogeneous cystic lesion in the body of the pancreas was identified on magnetic resonance imaging of a patient previously diagnosed patient with cholelithiasis, and because of the malignant possibility of the lesion, splenectomy with distal pancreatectomy and cholecystectomy was performed. The histopathologic diagnosis was reported as a hydatid cyst. Pancreatic hydatid cysts should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic pseudocysts and cystic malignancies.

  17. Transformation of a Ruptured Giant Pulmonary Artery Aneurysm into an Air Cavity After Transcatheter Embolization in a Behcet's Patient

    SciTech Connect

    Cil, Barbaros E. Turkbey, Baris; Canyigit, Murat; Kumbasar, Ozlem O.; Celik, Gokhan; Demirkazik, Figen B.

    2006-02-15

    Pulmonary artery aneurysms due to Behcet's disease are mainly seen in young males and very rarely in females. To our knowledge there are only 10 cases reported in the related literature. Emergent transcatheter embolization was performed in a female patient with a known history of Behcet's disease in whom massive hemoptysis developed because of rupture of a giant pulmonary artery aneurysm. At 6-month follow-up, transformation of the aneurysm sac into an air cavity was detected. To our knowledge, such a transformation has never been reported in the literature before. Embolization of the pulmonary artery aneurysm and the mechanism of cavity transformation are reviewed and discussed.

  18. GIANT CELL TUMOR IN THE PROXIMAL PHALANX WITH PULMONARY METASTASIS: CASE REPORT AND LITERATURE REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    de Medeiros, Frederico Carvalho; de Medeiros, Fernando Carvalho; de Campos Carvalho Lopes, Izabella; de Medeiros, Guilherme Carvalho; de Medeiros, Eduardo Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    This is a case report on a giant cell tumor (GCT) in the proximal phalanx of the third finger of the left hand, with pulmonary metastasis. The patient presented pain in the finger without any previous history of trauma. Clinical examination, radiographic imaging and magnetic resonance imaging were carried out. A histological evaluation was carried out from an incisional biopsy, taking the hypothesis of GCT. The patient underwent amputation of the finger and the diagnosis was confirmed by means of microscopy on the specimen. The patient was followed up because of the risk of lung metastasis, which was shown by radiographic examination and computed tomography on the chest, and thoracotomy was performed. Since then, there has been an improvement in the symptoms that had been reported preoperatively, and no local recurrence or new metastasis has been found. PMID:27027012

  19. Splenic hydatid cyst attacking retroperitoneum.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Bülent; Uçtum, Yalım; Kutanış, Rıza

    2010-01-01

    Hydatid disease most commonly affects the liver and lungs but no organ is immune. Splenic hydatid cyst is a rare clinical entity. Although the patients are usually asymptomatic, the disease may present with secondary infection, adhesion to adjacent organs with fistulisation or rupture into abdominal cavity. We present a 67 year old women with splenic hydatid cyst. Severe adhesions and tumorlike growth were found in the retroperitoneal region. To our knowledge, retroperitoneal invasion with a splenic hydatid cyst is a very rare clinical condition. Total splenectomy was performed without complication.

  20. Surgical management of primary retroperitoneal hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Singh, Hardev; Walia, Darshanjit Singh; Samra, Navdeep Singh; Kaur, Sarbarinder; Gill, Daljit Singh; Mahna, Vijay Kumar

    2005-06-01

    Hydatid disease is caused by the cystic stage of infestation by Echinococcus granulosus. Most hydatid cysts occur in the liver followed in frequency by the lung but no site is immune. Hydatid disease of the retroperitoneum is a rare condition. A case study is described here of a 30-year-old female with diagnosis of hydatid cyst of retroperitoneum which was treated surgically.

  1. Echinococcus granulosus: specific quantification of the two most immunoreactive antigens in hydatid fluids

    PubMed Central

    Musiani, P.; Piantelli, M.; Lauriola, L.; Arru, E.; Pozzuoli, R.

    1978-01-01

    Preparations of the two most immunoreactive Echinococcus granulosus antigens (antigens 4 and 5) from sheep hydatid fluid, purified by a simplified method, and monospecific antisera against antigens 4 and 5, prepared by a new procedure, were used to measure the antigenic concentrations of antigens 4 and 5 in swine, sheep, and human hydatid fluids from pulmonary or hepatic cysts. Two bovine samples and two commercial preparations were also tested. The concentration of both antigens was significantly higher in sheep and human hydatid fluids than in swine hydatid fluid. The antigenic content of the two bovine samples and of the two commercial preparations was below the sensitivity level of the method employed. Independently of the species tested, the amount of Echinococcus antigens was greater in hepatic than in pulmonary cysts. The ratio between the concentrations of antigens 4 and 5 was constant at about 1:10 in the samples from various organs and from different species. When there were enough samples for statistical analysis a linear correlation was found between the contents of these two antigenic components but there was none between the amounts of proteins and the antigenic concentrations in the single cysts. Sheep hydatid fluid must therefore be considered the best source of antigenic material for diagnostic purposes even though in human cysts the antigenic fraction is less contaminated by serum proteins. We describe a reliable method of standardising antigenic material for the immunodiagnosis of hydatid disease. Imagesp476-a PMID:649773

  2. Atypical Localizations of Hydatid Disease: Experience from a Single Institute

    PubMed Central

    Mushtaque, Majid; Mir, Mohammad F; Malik, Ajaz A; Arif, Sajad H; Khanday, Samina A; Dar, Rayees A

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The hydatid disease most often involves the liver and the lungs. The disease can involve any part of the body except the hair, teeth and nails. Primary extrahepatico-pulmonary hydatid cysts are rare and only a few sporadic cases have been reported. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and forty-four patients with hydatid cysts managed surgically from January 2005 to December 2009 were evaluated retrospectively. Fourteen (5.7%) patients had isolated involvement of the atypical sites, while six (2.4%) also had a primary involvement of liver. Results: The cysts were present in gall bladder (0.4%), peritoneum (1.6%), spleen (1.6%), ovary (0.4%), subcutaneous (0.8%), seminal vesicle (0.4%), spinal (0.4%), pancreas (0.4%), kidney (0.4%), mediastinal (0.4%), muscle (0.4%), and brain (0.8%). Discussion and Conclusions: Involvement of sites other than liver and lungs by hydatid disease is rare. Symptoms are related to size, location or possible complication of the cyst. It should be strongly suspected in differential diagnosis of all abdominal cysts especially in an endemic area. Proper surgical and medical management to avoid any recurrences, and a regular follow-up, are of utmost importance to detect any late complications such as local recurrence of the disease and development of hydatidosis at the primary sites. PMID:24027383

  3. Endoscopic management of a retroperitoneal hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Chowbey, Pradeep K; Wadhwa, Atul; Shah, Sumeet; Sharma, Anil; Khullar, Rajesh; Soni, Vandana; Baijal, Manish

    2004-08-01

    Hydatid cyst is a significant health problem in endemic regions. Although progress has been made in medical treatment and interventional radiology techniques, surgery is currently the treatment of choice. The hydatid cysts are known to occur at several unusual sites in the body. With increasing experience in laparoscopy and retroperitoneoscopy, attempts have been made to offer the advantages of minimal access procedures to hydatid disease patients. We present a case report of such a patient whose retroperitoneal hydatid cyst was removed endoscopically.

  4. [Hydatid cyst disease mimicking metastatic lung disease: a case report].

    PubMed

    Yiyit, Nurettin; Görür, Rauf; Candaş, Fatih Hikmet; Yıldızhan, Akın; Turhan, Vedat; Işıtmangil, Turgut

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary hydatid cysts usually present as a single lesion, whereas multiple cases are rare. It is not easy to distinguish hydatid cyst and nodular lesions radiologically. Chest radiograph of a 22 years-old male patient who was admitted due to right sided chest pain, revealed bilateral pulmonary nodules. His computerized tomography (CT) showed 34 nodular densities in the right lung and 21 nodular densities in the left lung. At that time, metastatic lung disease was suggested . Tru-cut lung biopsy was non-diagnostic. Anti-E. granulosus IgG (ELISA) was positive and hydatid cyst disease (HCD) was set as a prediagnosis. A right thoracotomy was performed and more cysts in number than those in tomography were observed intraoperatively. Postoperatively, 800 mg per day albendazole treatment was started. CT at the second month of medical therapy revealed that the lesions were stable in number but their sizes were smaller. CT of the fourth month showed that some of the lesions became cavitary. HCD should be kept in to mind in case of doubtful radiological findings. Although main treatment modality is surgery for HCD, when all cysts can not remove with the surgical treatment in patient with multiple cysts, medical treatment can be administered. PMID:21776601

  5. Laparoscopic management of hydatid cyst in the lesser sac

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Manash Ranjan; Kumar, Saurabh; Panda, Srikanta; Shameel, P. Ahammed

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid cyst is a disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus. Various anatomical location of hydatid cyst has been described in literature. Liver is the most common site of hydatid cyst and lungs are the second most common site. Hydatid cyst of lesser sac is a rare entity. Here we present a rare case report of laparoscopic management of hydatid cyst in lesser sac. PMID:27073313

  6. Hyalinizing Spindle Cell Tumor with Giant Rosettes with Pulmonary Metastasis After a Long Hiatus: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Eundeok; Lee, Eunjung; Shin, Okran; Kang, Changsuk; Kim, Joon Mee; Chu, Young Chae

    2004-01-01

    "Hyalinizing spindle cell tumor with giant rosettes" (HSCTGR) is a recently described tumor, which is regarded as an unusual variant of low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma. Proof of a metastatic potential was lacking. The patient in the report was a 35-yr-old woman who showed multiple bilateral pulmonary nodules with massive pleural effusion in the right side. She had a history of a mass excision in the right thigh 11 yrs ago at another hospital, which was reported as a "leiomyoma". Two years before this presentation, the patient received a routine chest radiograph which demonstrated bilateral multiple pulmonary nodules. A lobectomy of the left upper lung was performed. The histological findings revealed a well-circumscribed nodule that was characterized by a spindle-shaped fibrous to hyalinized stroma with criss-crossing short fascicles and giant collagen rosettes surrounded by a rim of spindle-shaped cells. Electron microscopy confirmed the fibroblastic nature of the tumor. This case, in addition to at least two other cases reported in the literature, demonstrates that the HSCTGR is a malignant neoplasm with the capacity to metastasize after a long hiatus. PMID:15308860

  7. [Rare locations of hydatid disease].

    PubMed

    Tocchi, A; Mazzoni, G; Lepre, L; Liotta, G; Costa, G; Maggiolini, F; Miccini, M

    1999-04-01

    The authors report their experience with uncommon hydatid cyst locations. Between 1970 and 1995 a total of 16 patients suffering from hydatid cysts located in various organs other than liver and lungs were observed. There were 7 women and 9 men with a mean of 53.3 years. In 10 cases uncommon locations were found to be isolated and in 6 associated to contemporary or previously treated hepatic cystic disease. Pathogenesis of these uncommon locations, whether being primary or secondary, as well as specific items of diagnosis and surgery are discussed.

  8. A Giant Mesenteric Desmoid Tumor Revealed by Acute Pulmonary Embolism due to Compression of the Inferior Vena Cava

    PubMed Central

    Palladino, Elisa; Nsenda, Joseph; Siboni, Renaud; Lechner, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Male, 69 Final Diagnosis: Mesenteric desmoid tumor Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Surgery Objective: Rare disease Background: Intra-abdominal fibromatosis is a benign rare tumor of fibrous origin with a significant potential for local invasion and no ability to metastasize, but it can recur. The etiology of desmoid tumors is unknown. It is often associated with conditions such as familial adenomatous polyposis and Gardner syndrome. Case Report: We report the case of a 69-year-old man who presented to our hospital with an acute pulmonary embolism. The patient had a past history of colic surgery for a polyp with a high-grade dysplasia. Pulmonary angiography showed partial occlusion of the right superior lobe artery and partial occlusion of the middle lobe artery. The patient was given thrombolytic therapy. Abdominal computerized tomography revealed a mesenterial giant mass with compression of the inferior vena cava (IVC). A biopsy of the mass, confirming aggressive fibromatosis. A laparotomy was performed, which revealed a massive growth occupying the abdomen and attached to the previous ileocolic anastomosis. One day after surgery, his condition deteriorated. Conclusions: This report underlines the potential of imaging investigations of abdomen and vena cava if pulmonary embolism is suspected, especially when there is no evidence of peripheral venous thrombosis or other predisposing factors. Unfortunately, data on the surgical management of desmoid tumor is scarce. Therefore, the standard of treatment is a surgical resection for resectable tumors. PMID:25180474

  9. Unusual localization of hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Türkyilmaz, Z; Sönmez, K; Karabulut, R; Göl, I H; Başaklar, A C; Kale, N

    2006-01-01

    We report a case of a single large echinococcal cyst that originated from the retroperitoneal space. Diagnosis was confirmed with serologic test and radiological examinations. Especially in the endemic areas hydatid cyst should be considered when evaluating cystic masses and it can be treated by extraperitoneal operation.

  10. Giant pulmonary bulla with mediastinal shift in a 12 1/2 year old girl.

    PubMed

    Fatimi, Saulat Hasnain; Jafferani, Asif; Ashfaq, Awais

    2012-05-01

    Pulmonary bulla in children represent interesting entities. Mostly congenital bronchopulmonary foregut malformations and acquired cysts like pneumatocoeles have also been described. We present a case of a 12 1/2 years old girl with acute onset respiratory distress symptoms harbouring a huge pulmonary cyst exhibiting mass effects, resulting in mediastinal deviation. Following initial workup, cyst excision was carried out which revealed presence of fungal hyphae that was susceptible to Fluconazole therapy post operatively. The case points out how a pulmonary cyst can present in older children with symptoms of respiratory distress and mass effects.

  11. Epidemiological Studies on Echinococcosis and Characterization of Human and Livestock Hydatid Cysts in Mauritania

    PubMed Central

    Salem, CB Ould Ahmed; Schneegans, F; Chollet, JY; Jemli, MH et

    2011-01-01

    Background Echinococcosis/hydatidosis is considered endemic in Mauritania. The aim of this study is to present an epidemiological study on the echinococcosis in man and animals in the Nouakchott region. Methods The internal organs from livestock carcasses were inspected for research of hydatid cysts. The hydatid fluid was examined for research of the protoscoleces. Dogs were necropsied for the collect of Echinococcus granulosus. Results In the Nouakchott Hospital, 24 surgical operation of human hydatid cysts have been performed, out of which 50% were localised in the lung, 33% in the liver and 17% elsewhere. Then, the incidence rate would be of 1.2% per 100 000 inhabitants in Mauritania. In the dog, the prevalence rate is 14%. The average number of E. granulosus on the whole dogs is 172 and 1227 on the positive dogs. Concerning the livestock, hydatid cysts found in 30.1% of the dromedary, 5.5% of the cattle and 6.5 of the sheep. The fertility rate of hydatid cysts in humans (75%) and camels (76%) was significantly higher than that of sheep (24%) and cattle (23%) (P<0.0001). Hydatid infestation is characterized globally by the dominance of pulmonary localizations in humans (50%) and camels (72.7%) and in the liver in sheep (76.1%) and cattle (82.3%). Conclusion The differences between prevalence rates, the fertility of hydatid cysts and diversity sites localization observed in humans and camels of one hand and the sheep and cattle on the other hand, depends possibly the strain(s) diversity of E. granulosus. PMID:22347274

  12. [Perioperative Multiple Pulmonary Embolism in a Patient with Giant Right Atrial Myxoma: Report of a Case].

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Koki; Hanayama, Naoji; Kitamura, Tadashi; Sakaki, Kenjiro; Nie, Masaki; Miyaji, Kagami

    2016-02-01

    It is reported that 20% of cardiac myxomas are located in the right atrium. An 81-year-old man presented with dyspnea, general fatigue and leg edema lasting for a year. Echocardiography revealed an 80 mm tumor occupying the right atrium and the right ventricle. At surgery, the tumor attached to the atrial septum was removed with the surrounding septal wall. As the tricuspid annulus was dilated, tricuspid annuloplasty with an artificial ring was also carried out. After coming off cardiopulmonary bypass, the patient developed pulmonary hypertension with the pulmonary arterial pressure being 80% of the systemic pressure, which subsided gradually day by day. Histopathological diagnosis was cardiac myxoma. Postoperative lung perfusion scintigraphy revealed postoperative multiple defects. It was considered that multiple tumor embolisms in the distal pulmonary artery caused postoperative pulmonary hypertension. Careful follow-up for remote recurrence would be essential. PMID:27075159

  13. ISOLATED HYDATID DISEASE OF THE ILIAC BONE.

    PubMed

    Baf, Morteza Mazloum Farsi; Baf, Mostafa Mazloum Farsi; Sasannejad, Payman

    2015-01-01

    Hydatid disease of the bone usually is asymptomatic and is found as an accidental finding during unrelated imaging. However, they can become symptomatic due to enlargement and pressure effect or being infected by bacteria. Hydatid disease usually involves multiple organs (such as liver, lungs and brain). In our case, hydatid disease had involved bone and the patient presented only with a chronic hip pain without other symptom or sign. Here, a case of isolated ilium hydatidosis is reported. PMID:27004362

  14. [Renal hydatid cyst: radiologic features and therapy].

    PubMed

    Bentani, N; Basraoui, D; Wakrim, B; Hiroual, M R; Cherif Idrissi Ganouni, N; Dahami, Z; Moudouni, M S; Sarf, I

    2012-12-01

    Hydatid disease is endemic in some Mediterranean countries. Kidney is a relatively rare site, representing 2 to 3 % of all visceral sites. The diagnosis of hydatid cyst of the kidney is suspected in epidemiological, clinical, radiological and biological arguments. It remains clinically silent for a long time and only presents at the stage of complications. Ultrasound can suspect the hydatid nature of the lesion in 50 % of cases. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are helpful in the event of problem of differential diagnosis. The standard treatment for renal hydatid cyst is resection of the prominent dome and nephrectomy is indicated in cases of destroyed kidney.

  15. Common antigens between hydatid cyst and cancers

    PubMed Central

    Daneshpour, Shima; Bahadoran, Mehran; Hejazi, Seyed Hossein; Eskandarian, Abas Ali; Mahmoudzadeh, Mehdi; Darani, Hossein Yousofi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Different research groups reported a negative correlation between cancers and parasitical infections. As an example, the prevalence of a hydatid cyst among patients with cancer was significantly lower than its prevalence among normal population. Tn antigens exist both in cancer and hydatid cyst. This common antigen may be involved in the effect of parasite on cancer growth. So in this work, common antigens between hydatid cyst and cancers have been investigated. Materials and Methods: Different hydatid cyst antigens including hydatid fluid, laminated and germinal layer antigens, and excretory secretory antigens of protoscolices were run in SDS PAGE and transferred to NCP paper. In western immunoblotting, those antigens were probed with sera of patients with different cancer and also sera of non-cancer patients. Also, cross reaction among excretory secretory products of cancer cells and antisera raised against different hydatid cyst antigen was investigated. Results: In western immunoblotting, antisera raised against laminated and germinal layers of hydatid cyst reacted with excretory secretory products of cancer cells. Also, a reaction was detected between hydatid cyst antigens and sera of patients with some cancers. Conclusion: Results of this work emphasize existence of common antigens between hydatid cyst and cancers. More investigation about these common antigens is recommended. PMID:26962511

  16. Lone, Mobile Left Atrial Hydatid Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Ugurlu, Mehmet; Baktir, Ahmet Oguz; Tekin, Ali Ihsan; Tok, Ahmet; Yagmur, Bayram

    2016-01-01

    Echinococcosis is endemic in various regions of Turkey. Cardiac involvement in echinococcosis is rare, and lone cardiac hydatid cysts are even more unusual. Because cardiac hydatid disease can be fatal, even asymptomatic patients are optimally referred for surgical treatment. We present a rare case of a lone, primary, mobile hydatid cyst in the left atrium of a 62-year-old woman. The cyst caused dyspnea from left ventricular inflow obstruction. In addition to reporting the patient's fatal case, we discuss cardiac hydatid cysts in terms of the scant medical literature. PMID:27303247

  17. Hydatid disease of the genitourinary tract.

    PubMed

    Halim, A; Vaezzadeh, K

    1980-04-01

    Seventeen patients were treated surgically for hydatid disease of the genitourinary tract. The diagnosis of echinococcosis was facilitated by a positive Casoni test with evidence suggestive of a cystic tumour following intravenous urography, angiography, ultrasound or renal scan. Barium enemas, cystography and cystoscopy were of great help in cases of lower urinary tract hydatid disease. Seven patients with hydatid disease of the kidney underwent nephrectomy. The other 6 patients with renal involvement had excision of the cysts only. Treatment of the 4 patients with lower genitourinary tract hydatid disease was on an individual basis. There was no mortality and no significant morbidity.

  18. Primary retroperitoneal hydatid cyst: a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Yusuf Sherwani, Afak; Sarmast, ArifHussain; Malik, AjazAhmad; Shah, Mubashir; Q-Parray, Fazl; A-Wani, Muneer; Dangroo, Sajad

    2015-07-01

    Hydatid disease is a parasitic tapeworm infestation that usually involves liver and lungs. Primary retroperitoneal hydatid without liver and lung involvement is very rare. Surgery is the principle method of treatment for large retroperitoneal hydatid, whenever feasible. We report a case of primary retroperitoneal hydatid cyst in 29-year-old male patient.

  19. Imaging diagnosis-pulmonary-tracheobronchial prolapse in a new Caledonian giant gecko (Rhacodactylus leachianus).

    PubMed

    Hoey, Seamus; Keller, Dominique; Chamberlin, Tamara; Pinkerton, Marie; Waller, Kenneth; Drees, Randi

    2013-01-01

    A 3-year-old male New Caledonian giant gecko, or Leach's gecko (Rhacodactylus leachianus) presented with acute lethargy and coelomic distention. Findings from survey radiographs and an upper gastrointestinal tract contrast study were consistent with severe aerophagia, a collapsed left lung, and hyperinflation of the right lung due to suspected bronchial obstruction. The gecko was treated with conservative medical management, but was found dead 5 days after presentation. Necropsy findings showed intussusception of the proximal left lung into the left mainstem bronchus and trachea.

  20. Evaluation of Giant African Pouched Rats for Detection of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Patients from a High-Endemic Setting

    PubMed Central

    Reither, Klaus; Jugheli, Levan; Glass, Tracy R.; Sasamalo, Mohamed; Mhimbira, Francis A.; Weetjens, Bart J.; Cox, Christophe; Edwards, Timothy L.; Mulder, Christiaan; Beyene, Negussie W.; Mahoney, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Background This study established evidence about the diagnostic performance of trained giant African pouched rats for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum of well-characterised patients with presumptive tuberculosis (TB) in a high-burden setting. Methods The TB detection rats were evaluated using sputum samples of patients with presumptive TB enrolled in two prospective cohort studies in Bagamoyo, Tanzania. The patients were characterised by sputum smear microscopy and culture, including subsequent antigen or molecular confirmation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and by clinical data at enrolment and for at least 5-months of follow-up to determine the reference standard. Seven trained giant African pouched rats were used for the detection of TB in the sputum samples after shipment to the APOPO project in Morogoro, Tanzania. Results Of 469 eligible patients, 109 (23.2%) were culture-positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 128 (27.3%) were non-TB controls with sustained recovery after 5 months without anti-TB treatment. The HIV prevalence was 46%. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the seven rats for the detection of culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis was 0.72 (95% CI 0.66–0.78). An optimal threshold could be defined at ≥2 indications by rats in either sample with a corresponding sensitivity of 56.9% (95% CI 47.0–66.3), specificity of 80.5% (95% CI 72.5–86.9), positive and negative predictive value of 71.3% (95% CI 60.6–80.5) and 68.7% (95% CI 60.6–76.0), and an accuracy for TB diagnosis of 69.6%. The diagnostic performance was negatively influenced by low burden of bacilli, and independent of the HIV status. Conclusion Giant African pouched rats have potential for detection of tuberculosis in sputum samples. However, the diagnostic performance characteristics of TB detection rats do not currently meet the requirements for high-priority, rapid sputum-based TB diagnostics as defined by the World Health

  1. Pelvic and retroperitoneal hydatid cysts superinfected with Brucella sp. and review of infected hydatid cysts.

    PubMed

    Arslan, F; Zengin, K; Mert, A; Ozaras, R; Tabak, F

    2013-03-01

    Hydatid disease is a zoonotic infection resulting from the tissue infestation of the larval stage of the parasite Echinococcus granulosus. Hydatid cysts superinfected with pyogenic organisms have been reported previously. Brucellosis is more prevalent in people with close contact to animals and those consuming fresh milk or fresh milk products. Although these two disorders have some similar epidemiological features, we did not encounter any hydatid cyst cases superinfected with Brucella species (sp.) in a search of medical literature (Pubmed). Here, we present a case of hydatid cyst disease superinfected with Brucella and review the literature on other hydatid cyst cases superinfected with pyogenic organisms. We conclude that in regions where brucellosis and hydatid cysts are endemic, cysts may be infected with Brucella sp.

  2. Giant pulmonary artery aneurysm in a 6-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Garg, Gaurav; Tyagi, Himanshu; Agrawal, Gaurav; Anil, S R

    2014-01-01

    A 6-year-old female child was admitted with complaints of progressive dyspnea on exertion since last 3 years. She was saturating 100% on room air with stable vitals. On clinical examination, left precordial bulge was seen with prominent epigastric pulsations. Chest X-ray showed rightward shift of mediastinum and huge homogenous opacity occupying almost entire left lung field. On two-dimensional echocardiography, a large aneurysmal mass was seen occupying left hemithorax which was suspected to be arising from pulmonary artery but its exact site of origin could not be determined. A small patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) was also seen. PDA could be seen directly supplying the aneurysm (Fig. 1). CT angiography was done to confirm the diagnosis. It showed a huge aneurysmal sac measuring 12 cm × 8.9 cm × 14 cm, arising from left pulmonary artery (LPA) opposite to the site of insertion of PDA. Sac was occupying most of the left lung and pushing down the left diaphragm (Fig. 2). Cause of formation of such a huge aneurysm could not be found out. Surgery was performed and mouth of the sac was closed along with ligation of duct, repair of LPA and drainage of the sac. After surgery, lung expansion was good. Patient was discharged and she is doing well.

  3. Primary Hydatid Cyst of the Thyroid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Azendour, Imen; Boulaich, Mohamed; Ayoubi, Ali; Oujilal, Abdelilah; Essakalli, Leila; Kzadri, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Primary hydatid cyst of thyroid gland is an exceptional localization even in Morocco where echinococcal disease is endemic. A 23-year-old woman presented with multiples cystic lesions of the thyroid revealed by neck mass and dyspnea. She underwent a subtotal thyroidectomy. The diagnosis of hydatid cyst was made preoperatively and was confirmed by histological studies. Further investigation failed to identify any other evidence of systemic hydatidosis. The patient has remained asymptomatic for 24 months after surgery. The possibility of hydatid disease, though rare, should be always kept in mind, for patients with cystic lesions of the thyroid, because a needle aspiration biopsy is a potentially harmful procedure. PMID:23008718

  4. Primary hydatid cyst of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Azendour, Imen; Boulaich, Mohamed; Ayoubi, Ali; Oujilal, Abdelilah; Essakalli, Leila; Kzadri, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Primary hydatid cyst of thyroid gland is an exceptional localization even in Morocco where echinococcal disease is endemic. A 23-year-old woman presented with multiples cystic lesions of the thyroid revealed by neck mass and dyspnea. She underwent a subtotal thyroidectomy. The diagnosis of hydatid cyst was made preoperatively and was confirmed by histological studies. Further investigation failed to identify any other evidence of systemic hydatidosis. The patient has remained asymptomatic for 24 months after surgery. The possibility of hydatid disease, though rare, should be always kept in mind, for patients with cystic lesions of the thyroid, because a needle aspiration biopsy is a potentially harmful procedure. PMID:23008718

  5. Laparoscopic treatment for renal hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Rabii, Redouane; Mezzour, Mohamed Hicham; Essaki, Hicham; Fekak, Hamid; Joual, Abdenbi; Meziane, Fethi

    2006-03-01

    A multivesicular hydatid cyst was removed from the left kidney of a 26-year-old woman by retroperitoneal laparoscopy to avoid contamination of the abdominal cavity. A scolicidal agent (20% hypertonic saline) was injected around the kidney initially and then instilled into the cyst after the contents had been evacuated. There were no complications and no anaphylactic shock. This appears to be the first reported case of treatment of renal hydatid cyst by laparoscopy.

  6. Computed tomographic localization of pelvic hydatid disease.

    PubMed

    Kotoulas, G; Gouliamos, A; Kalovidouris, A; Vlahos, L; Papavasiliou, C

    1990-01-01

    Nine patients with history of hydatid disease have been examined by CT. Localization of the hydatid cysts in the pelvis was established by anatomical criteria. Occasionally, the transverse plane can be confusing for the precise localization of a lesion. A central location, close to the boundaries of the bladder and rectum, can define peritoneal location. Further posterolateral retrovesical location can be considered retroperitoneal. Using these criteria, 8 cysts were situated within the peritoneum and 1 within the retroperitoneum.

  7. [Hydatid cyst of the psoas muscle. Apropos of a case].

    PubMed

    el Moussaoui, A; Rabii, R; Rais, H; Aboutaieb, R; Meziane, F; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    1997-01-01

    The authors report a rare case of hydatid cyst of the psoas muscle in a 28-year-old woman, operated for vertebrospinal hydatid cyst. The patient presented with a left iliac fossa mass. Ultrasonography and computed tomography contributed to the preoperative diagnosis, despite negative hydatid serology. A retroperitoneal approach by left lumbotomy with partial pericystectomy was performed. In the light of this case, the authors discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic problems raised by hydatid cyst of the psoas muscle.

  8. Primary Intraosseous Hydatid Cyst of Femur

    PubMed Central

    Arik, Hasan Onur; Arican, Mehmet; Cetin, Nesibe Kahraman; Sarp, Umit

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Echinococcosis is a parasitic and zoonotic disease of animals and humans. The cause is Echinococcus granulosus and occasionally, Echinococcus multilocularis. Hydatid cysts are mostly seen in the liver and lungs, although almost all organs and systemscan be involvement. Hydatid cysts seen with bone involvement comprise approximately 3% of all hydatid cysts. Even if a long period of survey is possible, it is still difficult to eradicate the disease and effect a cure. Case Presentation: In this study, an evaluation was made of a patient referred at Yozgat State Hospital Orthopedics and Traumatology Polyclinic with complaints of pain in her left thigh close to the knee. After examinations of plain radiographs, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance images, and blood parameters, a diagnosis was made of left femoral intramedullary hydatid cyst from excised intraoperative material. Throughout a 6-month follow-up period, there was no recurrence and functional results were good. Conclusions: Based on this report (of a patient presented with an intramedullary cyst in the long bones), the primary bone hydatid cyst disease should be kept in mind and be investigated in the differential diagnosis. PMID:25838934

  9. Retroperitoneal laparoscopic approach for renal hydatid cyst in children. A technical report.

    PubMed

    De Carli, Claudio; Viale, Alejandro; Perez Lau, Fabricio; Campaña, Ricardo

    2013-02-01

    Renal hydatid disease is a rare pathological condition in children. Hydatid cyst of the kidney corresponds to 2-4% of all hydatid disease cases. Minimally invasive techniques have been used in the treatment of renal hydatid cysts but surgical experience is limited. We report a 10-year-old patient with a left renal hydatid cyst treated using a retroperitoneal laparoscopic technique.

  10. Retroperitoneal localization of hydatid cyst disease.

    PubMed

    Hatipoglu, A R; Coskun, I; Karakaya, K; Ibis, C

    2001-01-01

    In this study we discuss a rare case; hydatid cyst disease that is located in the retroperitoneum. Two cases were treated in our department with hydatid cyst disease located in the retroperitoneum; one of the cysts was in the minor pelvis and the other was on the left psoas muscle. Diagnosis was confirmed with blood tests, and radiological examinations. The cyst wall was excised partially and was oversewn. Following the operation both of the patients were given albendasole tablets for 10 weeks with blood count and liver enzyme monitorization. Hydatic cysts located in retroperitoneum were treated successfully. Especially in the endemic areas hydatid cyst should be remembered when evaluating cystic masses in the retroperitoneum. It can be treated successfully with surgery.

  11. Uncommon sites of hydatid disease.

    PubMed

    Prousalidis, J; Tzardinoglou, K; Sgouradis, L; Katsohis, C; Aletras, H

    1998-01-01

    Echinococcosis remains an endemic surgical problem in many Mediterranean countries. We report our experience with such cases when the disease is located in uncommon sites, outside the liver and lungs. This study was an effort similar to a previous one but with more cases and additional information. Between 1967 and 1994 a total of 49 patients suffering from hydatid cysts located in various organs other than the liver and lungs presented to our clinic. There were 28 men and 21 women, with their ages ranging from 10 to 66 years and 22 to 80 years, respectively. Among these patients, 25 had the parasitic cyst in the peritoneal cavity, 10 in the spleen, 5 in the kidney, 3 in the spinal column, 2 in the retroperitoneal space, 1 in the abdominal wall, 1 in the myocardium, 1 in the thoracic wall, and 1 in the thigh. Their hospital stay was 9 to 88 days (average 27 days). Only two patients--one with cardiac hydatidosis and one with spinal hydatidosis--died postoperatively. Three patients with multiple cysts in the peritoneum and one with cysts in the thigh had recurrences of the disease and were reoperated successfully.

  12. Hydatid cyst fistula into the aorta.

    PubMed

    Viver, E; Bianchi, L; Callejas, J M; Martorell, A

    1989-01-01

    A case is presented of fistula formation between a primary hydatid cyst and the abdominal aorta which we believe is the first in the world literature. The patient underwent surgery with a diagnosis of aneurysm of the coeliac trunk. During the operation the presence was discovered of a hydatid cyst opening into the aorta. It was dealt with by partial resection and closing of the communication. Three months later the patient was readmitted with a new bleeding episode which resulted in a fatal outcome.

  13. [Retrovesical hydatid cyst. Apropos of 6 cases].

    PubMed

    Ameur, A; Boumadian, H; Aqira, A; Draoui, D

    1998-09-01

    The retrovesical hydatid cyst is a very rare site. The authors have observed six cases over a 12-year period. The diagnosis is often delayed. The clinical features are dominated by pain and compression of adjacent organs. Clinical examination sometimes reveals a hypogastric mass. The topographic diagnosis is based on ultrasonography and IVU. Treatment is surgical: retroperitoneal cystopericystectomy. The course is often favourable.

  14. Isolated retroperitoneal hydatid cyst invading splenic hilum.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Safak; Unver, Mutlu; Kibar Ozturk, Burcin; Kebapci, Eyup; Bozbiyik, Osman; Erol, Varlık; Zalluhoglu, Nihat; Olmez, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Hydatid disease (HD) is an infestation that is caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. The liver is affected in approximately two-thirds of patients, the lungs in 25%, and other organs in a small proportion. Primary retroperitoneal hydatid cyst is extremely rare. The most common complaint is abdominal pain; however, the clinical features of HD may be generally dependent on the location of the cyst. Case Presentation. A 43-year-old female was admitted with the complaint of abdominal pain. Her physical examination was normal. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a 17 × 11 cm cystic lesion, with a thick and smooth wall that is located among the left liver lobe, diaphragm, spleen, tail of the pancreas, and transverse colon and invading the splenic hilum. Total cystectomy and splenectomy were performed. Pathological examination was reported as cyst hydatid. Discussion. Cysts in the peritoneal cavity are mainly the result of the spontaneous or traumatic rupture of concomitant hepatic cysts or surgical inoculation of a hepatic cyst. Serological tests contribute to diagnosis. In symptomatic and large hydatid peritoneal cysts, surgical resection is the only curative treatment. Total cystectomy is the gold standard. Albendazole or praziquantel is indicated for inoperable and disseminated cases. Percutaneous aspiration, injection, and reaspiration (PAIR) technique is another nonsurgical option.

  15. Dumbbell hydatid cyst of the spine.

    PubMed

    Parvaresh, M; Moin, H; Miles, J B

    1996-04-01

    We describe a case of dumbbell hydatid cyst of the T(10) pedicle. This cyst had both extradural and retroperitoneal components,leading to spinal cord compression and abdominal pain. Following surgical excision and irrigation with hypertonic saline the patient made a full recovery, and is recurrence-free after 18 months follow-up.

  16. Hydatid cyst of the adrenal gland: a clinical study of six cases.

    PubMed

    Horchani, Ali; Nouira, Yassine; Nouira, Kais; Bedioui, Haikel; Menif, Emna; Safta, Zoubeir Ben

    2006-01-01

    Hydatid cyst of the adrenal gland (HCAG) is an exceptional occurrence. We report our experience of six cases of HCAG and discuss the diagnosis and treatment of this hydatid localization. We retrospectively reviewed and analyzed the clinical files of six patients admitted to our institution from January 1990 to December 2000 for HCAG. Patients varied in age from 24-59 years. They were five males and one female. One patient had a history of pulmonary hydatidosis treated surgically 10 years previously. Five patients presented with lumbar pain and one patient had bouts of hypertension, headache, and palpitation. Physical examination was normal except in one patient who was hypertensive. Preoperative diagnosis was highly suggested by ultrasonography. CT scan performed in all cases clearly showed the relationship of the cyst with adjacent organs. Serology tests were positive in two cases. One patient had elevated urine VMA and was operated on with the diagnosis of cystic phaeochromocytoma. All six patients were operated on and had either an adrenalectomy (two cases) or partial pericystectomy (four cases). In one case, partial pericystectomy was conducted through a retroperitoneal laparoscopic approach. The hydatid nature of the cyst was confirmed pathologically. All patients had a smooth postoperative course with no cystic recurrence on follow-up. The diagnosis of HCAG is based mainly on ultrasonography and CT scan. Surgery with either partial or total excision of the cyst, with or without preservation of the adrenal gland, is the treatment of choice.

  17. Liver Hydatid Cyst with Transdiaphragmatic Rupture and Lung Hydatid Cyst Ruptured into Bronchi and Pleural Space

    SciTech Connect

    Ar Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I bas, Bilgin Kadri Dingil, Guerbuez; Koeroglu, Mert; Uenguel, Uemit; Zaral Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I , Aliye Ceylan

    2011-02-15

    The aim of this case study is to present effectiveness of percutaneous drainage as a treatment option of ruptured lung and liver hydatid cysts. A 65-year-old male patient was admitted with complicated liver and lung hydatid cysts. A liver hydatid cyst had ruptured transdiaphragmatically, and a lung hydatid cyst had ruptured both into bronchi and pleural space. The patient could not undergo surgery because of decreased respiratory function. Both cysts were drained percutaneously using oral albendazole. Povidone-iodine was used to treat the liver cyst after closure of the diaphragmatic rupture. The drainage was considered successful, and the patient had no recurrence of signs and symptoms. Clinical, laboratory, and radiologic recovery was observed during 2.5 months of catheterization. The patient was asymptomatic after catheter drainage. No recurrence was detected during 86 months of follow-up. For inoperable patients with ruptured liver and lung hydatid cysts, percutaneous drainage with oral albendazole is an alternative treatment option to surgery. The percutaneous approach can be life-saving in such cases.

  18. Vaccination against cysticercosis and hydatid disease.

    PubMed

    Lightowlers, M W; Flisser, A; Gauci, C G; Heath, D D; Jensen, O; Rolfe, R

    2000-05-01

    Infections with the larval stages of taeniid cestode parasites cause substantial human morbidity as well as economic losses in domestic livestock species. Despite ongoing efforts around the world, few countries have been able substantially to reduce or eradicate these infections through the use of anthelmintics and lifestyle changes. Vaccines offer an additional potential tool to assist with the control of parasite transmission. Here, Marshall Lightowlers and colleagues review the substantial progress that has been made towards developing practical vaccines against hydatid disease in sheep and cysticercosis in sheep and cattle. Recombinant antigens have been used to induce more than 90% protection against challenge infections. Such success in animals encourages investigation of the potential use of vaccines in humans to prevent hydatid disease arising from infection with Echinococcus granulosus and cysticercosis from infection with Taenia solium.

  19. Cutaneous fistulization of the hydatid disease

    PubMed Central

    Bahce, Zeynep Sener; Akbulut, Sami; Aday, Ulas; Demircan, Firat; Senol, Ayhan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aim: To provide an overview of the medical literature on cutaneous fistulization in patients with hydatid disease (HD). Methods: According to PRISMA guidelines a literature search was made in PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and Google databases were searched using keywords to identify articles related to cutaneous fistulization of the HD. Keywords used were hydatid disease, hydatid cyst, cutaneous fistulization, cysto-cutaneous fistulization, external rupture, and external fistulization. The literature search included case reports, review articles, original articles, and meeting presentations published until July 2016 without restrictions on language, journal, or country. Articles and abstracts containing adequate information, such as age, sex, cyst size, cyst location, clinical presentation, fistula opening location, and management, were included in the study, whereas articles with insufficient clinical and demographic data were excluded. We also present a new case of cysto-cutaneous fistulization of a liver hydatid cyst. Results: The literature review included 38 articles (32 full text, 2 abstracts, and 4 unavailable) on cutaneous fistulization in patients with HD. Among the 38 articles included in the study, 22 were written in English, 13 in French, 1 in German, 1 in Italian, and 1 in Spanish. Forty patients (21 males and 19 females; mean age ± standard deviation, 54.0 ± 21.5 years; range, 7–93 years) were involved in the study. Twenty-four patients had cysto-cutaneous fistulization (Echinococcus granulosus); 10 had cutaneous fistulization (E multilocularis), 3 had cysto-cutaneo-bronchio-biliary fistulization, 2 had cysto-cutaneo-bronchial fistulization; and 1 had cutaneo-bronchial fistulization (E multilocularis). Twenty-nine patients were diagnosed with E granulosis and 11 had E multilocularis detected by clinical, radiological, and/or histopathological examinations. Conclusion: Cutaneous fistulization is a rare complication of HD

  20. Subdural hydatid cyst presenting as recurrent subdural hygroma

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Abrar A.; Ramzan, Altaf U.; Nizami, Furqan A.; Malik, Nayil K.; Dar, Bashir; Kumar, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial hydatid disease is an uncommon entity that usually is parenchymal in location. Presence of hydatid cyst in subdural location is being reported for the first time in the literature. A 13-year-old female child with the diagnosis of hydatid disease of brain was operated. She was advised to take albendazole which she did not take. In postoperative period she developed recurrent subdural hygroma for which multiple surgical interventions were done and finally cause of recurrent subdural hygroma was found to be hydatid cyst in the subdural space. The patient had initially undergone craniotomy for the excision of hydatid cyst. Later on she developed subdural hygroma for which the burr hole drainage was done twice. At time of third recurrence subduro-peritoneal (SDP) shunt was done. When she had recurrence again along with hydrocephalus, than VP shunt and revision of the SDP shunt was planned. While doing revision of SDP shunt, hydatid cyst was seen emerging from the burr hole site. A craniotomy was done to remove the hydatid cyst from the subdural space. Since then there has been no recurrent collection. Complete surgical excision is the best treatment modality to treat hydatid cyst of brain. Accidental spillage of the contents can have lead to recurrence, so every effort must be taken to prevent spillage of contents. Postoperatively all the patients must be put on antihelminthics. PMID:27366285

  1. Retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst mimicking hydatid liver: a case report.

    PubMed

    Parray, Fazl Q; Sherwani, Afak Yusuf; Dangroo, Sajad Ahmad; Bisati, Rafia Aziz; Malik, Nighat Shaffi

    2012-01-01

    Bronchogenic cysts frequently occur in the mediastinum. They may be rarely encountered in the abdomen and retroperitoneum. Bronchogenic cysts can in fact mimic hydatid cysts. We report a case of retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst below the right hemidiaphragm mimicking a hydatid cyst of the liver in a 30-year-old female.

  2. Laparoscopic Management of a Hydatid Cyst of the Adrenal Gland

    PubMed Central

    Nanjappa, Bhuvanesh; Gowda, Kiran Krishne

    2014-01-01

    Hydatid disease is endemic in parts of India, yet genitourinary involvement is rare. Laparoscopic management of such cases is uncommonly reported. We present a case of an adrenal hydatid and its management by laparoscopic aspiration, instillation of scolicidal solution, and partial excision of the cyst. PMID:25045450

  3. Liver Hydatid Cyst and Acute Cholangitis: a Case Report.

    PubMed

    Nemati Honar, Behzad; Hayatollah, Gholamhossein; Nikshoar, Mohammadreza; Forootan, Mojgan; Feizi, Ali Mohammad

    2016-04-01

    Amongst the cause of cystic hepatic disease, hydatid cyst is common in the Asia, South America, and Africa. The definitive therapy for hepatic hydatid disease is surgical resection. Rupture of the hydatid cyst into the biliary tree can lead to serious cholangitis. In this report, a 22-year-old man is presented with the signs and symptoms of obstructive jaundice and cholangitis. Ultrasonography reported dilated common bile duct (CBD) with sludge and stones, a hydatid cyst adjacent to the gall bladder and mild thickening of gallbladder wall without a stone. MRCP revealed dilated CBD with a cyst in segment fifth of liver. Due to signs and symptoms of obstructive jaundice in addition to lab data and imaging modalities, the ruptured hydatid cyst into a biliary tree was considered, and surgical intervention was performed to extract daughter vesicles from the CBD. Post intervention, signs and symptoms and cholestasis enzymes were subsided. PMID:27309273

  4. Renal hydatid cyst treatment: retroperitoneoscopic "closed cyst" pericystectomy.

    PubMed

    Ozden, Ender; Bostanci, Yakup; Mercimek, Mehmet Necmettin; Yakupoglu, Yarkin Kamil; Yilmaz, Ali Faik; Sarıkaya, Saban

    2011-03-01

    Cystic hydatid disease is an endemic disease caused by the larval form of Echinococcus spp. Isolated renal involvement is extremely rare. The treatment methods for renal hydatid disease require some form of intervention, ranging from traditional open techniques to laparoscopic techniques. Herein, we present a large hydatid cyst in the lower pole of the left kidney in a 43-year-old male patient who was treated by the "closed cyst" method via the retroperitoneal laparoscopic approach to prevent soiling of the peritoneal cavity. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a renal hydatid cyst treated by preserving the renal parenchyma by pericystectomy via the retroperitoneoscopic laparoscopic approach in an adult patient. No complications occurred during the perioperative and postoperative periods. After 9 months of follow up, the patient was asymptomatic with no evidence of clinical recurrence. Retroperitoneoscopic laparoscopic closed cyst pericystectomy can be an alternative minimally invasive treatment technique for the treatment of renal hydatid disease.

  5. Surgical treatment of hydatid cysts of the lung: analysis of 405 patients

    PubMed Central

    Salih, Orhan Kemal; Topcuoğlu, Memet Şah; Çelik, Şekip Kazim; Ulus, Tümer; Tokcan, Acar

    1998-01-01

    Objective The choice of operation, postoperative success and complications of surgery in patients with pulmonary hydatid cysts. Design A series of patients seen over 15 years. Setting A university clinic. Patients Four hundred and five patients (209 male, 196 female) ranging in age from 4 to 72 years (mean 29 years). Most (367 patients) had isolated lung cysts; 38 had both liver and lung cysts. Interventions A variety of procedures to remove cysts, including enucleation and capitonnage, wedge resection, segmentectomy, lobectomy and pneumonectomy. Six patients with bilateral cysts were operated on through a median sternotomy approach. Others underwent posterolateral thoracotomy. Main outcome measures Value of diagnostic tests, the most efficacious approach for cyst removal and recurrence and death rates. Results Chest radiography gave a correct diagnosis in 99% of patients. The Casoni and Weinberg tests were discontinued because of high false-negative rates (up to 35%). Hospital mortality was 1.2% and postoperative complications occurred in 5.2%. The recurrence rate was 1.5%. Conclusions Lung-preserving surgical interventions are the treatment of choice for pulmonary hydatid disease. In patients with bilateral cysts, the median sternotomy approach is preferred, and in the patients with right lung disease and coexisting liver cysts the transdiaphragmatic approach is the one of choice to remove cysts in 1 stage. PMID:9575996

  6. [Unusual localizations of hydatid cysts].

    PubMed

    Lazăr, C; Chifan, M; Strat, V; Dolinescu, C; Tircoveanu, E; Niculescu, D; Boingeanu, A

    1978-01-01

    In a total of 448 hydatic cysts that have been treated in the I-st Surgery Clinic of Jassy between 1947 and 1977 rare localizations were noted in 61 cases. Of these 47 were primary echinococcoses and 14 were secondary. The clinical and therapeutic aspects are discussed for each particular localization: the splenic localization was encountered in 16 cases, the peritoneal one in 10 cases, the diaphragmatic in 6 cases. There were also 2 renal localizations, 3 retro-peritoneal ones, 3 ovarian and salpyngean localizations, 3 thyroid, 7 endo-thoracic but extra-pulmonary, 5 muscular and 6 subcutaneous localizations. Radical surgery had immediate and late results that were quite satisfactory. No deaths or recidives were noted.

  7. Primary subcutaneous hydatid cyst in the left distal thigh.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi, Abdelhalim; Rachidi, Charifa Alaoui; Khattala, Khalid; Chater, Lamiae; Bouabdallah, Youssef; Afifi, My Abderrahmane

    2012-11-01

    Human cystic echinococcosis, a zoonotic infection caused by Echinococcus granulosus, remains a largely extended public health problem in endemic regions. Hydatid cyst disease can occur in all viscera and soft tissues, although the liver and the lungs are the most commonly involved organs. Primary hydatid disease of the soft tissue is extremely rare, even in endemic areas, and accounts for 0.5-5.4 % of all hydatid disease cases, with very little data on the incidence of subcutaneous echinococcosis. The paper will be focused on analyzing this extremely rare disease. A 14-year-old girl came to our Department of pediatric Surgery with a painless, round, palpable mass in the subcutaneous tissue of the distal anteromedial side of the left thigh. Based on clinical and laboratory findings and imaging techniques, we suspected a hydatid cyst. She was treated successfully with complete cyst excision. The macroscopic appearance suggested a hydatid cyst. Histopathologic examination of the specimen revealed a hydatid cyst. No other organ involvement has been detected. Hydatid disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of all cystic masses in all anatomic locations, especially in regions where the disease is endemic.

  8. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in ruptured liver hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Borahma, Mohamed; Afifi, Rajaa; Benelbarhdadi, Imane; Ajana, Fatima Zahra; Essamri, Wafaa; Essaid, Abdellah

    2015-07-01

    One of the most common and serious complications of hepatic hydatid cyst disease is communication between the cyst and the biliary tree. Surgical management of biliary fistula is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We retrospectively reviewed the effectiveness of endoscopic treatment of ruptured hydatid cyst into intrahepatic bile ducts. Diagnosis of intrabiliary rupture of hydatid cyst was mostly suspected by acute cholangitis, jaundice, pain, and/or persistent external biliary fistula after surgery. The diagnosis was confirmed by radiology and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) findings. We retrospectively reviewed clinical, laboratory, imagery, and ERCP findings for all patients. The therapeutic methods performed were endoscopic sphincterotomy, extraction by balloon or Dormia basket, stenting, or nasobiliary drainage. Sixteen patients with ruptured hepatic hydatid cyst into bile ducts were seen in 9 years. Nine of 16 patients had a surgical history of hepatic hydatid cyst and three patients had a percutanous treatment history. We carried out ERCP with sphincterotomy and extraction of hydatid materials (extraction balloon n = 11; Dormia basket n = 5) or biliary drainage (nasobiliary drainage n = 1; biliary stenting n = 1). The fistula healed in 80 % of patients with a median time of 6 weeks [range, 1-12] after endoscopic treatment. ERCP was an effective method of treatment for hepatic hydatid cyst with biliary fistula. PMID:26345677

  9. Simultaneous right retroperitoneal schwannoma and left renal hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Kamalati, Ali; Tabrizchi, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Retroperitoneal schwannomas are quite rare tumors. Isolated renal hydatid cyst is also rare, and it forms 2-4% of hydatid disease. Because of their infrequent occurrence, nonspecific signs and symptoms, and lack of distinguishing radiologic features, we report herein a case of right retroperitoneal mass in a 26-year-old woman which was found to be benign schwannoma following a percutaneous core needle biopsy and a large cortical cyst in the lower pole of the left kidney which was diagnosed as isolated renal hydatid cyst following exploration.

  10. Primary Peritoneal Hydatid Cyst Presenting as Ovarian Cyst Torsion: A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Gandhiraman, Kavitha; Balakrishnan, Renukadevi; Ramamoorthy, Rathna; Rajeshwari, Raja

    2015-08-01

    Hydatid cyst disease is a zoonotic disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus, E.multilocularis or E.Vogli. The most common primary site is liver (75%) followed by lungs (5-15%) and other organs constitute 10-20%. Peritoneal hydatid cysts are very rare especially primary peritoneal hydatid. Secondary peritoneal hydatid cysts are relatively common, which usually occurs due to rupture of primary hepatic hydatid cyst. We present a rare case of large primary peritoneal hydatid cyst misdiagnosed as torsion of ovarian cyst that underwent Laparotomy with cyst excision and postoperative Albendazole therapy. PMID:26436004

  11. Hydatid Cyst Diagnosed by Endoscopic Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Poças, F.; Araújo, Tarcísio; Coelho, André; Silva, Donzilia; Pedroto, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    A 69-year-old female with unremarkable past history underwent endoscopy for dyspepsia. She denied weight loss or anorexia. Upper endoscopy revealed a bulge in the lesser curvature and posterior wall of the stomach with 4-5 cm. Endoscopic ultrasound was performed which showed a heterogeneous lesion, anechogenic in the major part, with a floating membrane inside, the greatest diameter of 90.8 × 17.2 mm, originated in the left liver lobe. Surgical resection was performed. Pathologic examination revealed a cystic lesion with an acellular thick fibrous wall, surrounded by a conspicuous inflammatory reaction. The cyst wall revealed a characteristic lamellar pattern of the fibers. In the internal surface of the lesion, there were remains of membranous structures, amidst which a vestigial Protoscolex was noted. In the presented case, a floating membrane was observed, which is a pathognomonic feature, establishing the diagnosis of hydatid cyst type 3. Fine needle aspiration guided by ultrasound was not performed due to the certainty in the diagnosis. To the authors' knowledge, these are the first images by endoscopic ultrasound of hydatid cyst of liver presented as a bulge in the stomach with pathognomonic features, which allowed the definitive diagnosis with no need for further diagnostic tests. PMID:27446863

  12. Hydatid Cyst Diagnosed by Endoscopic Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Castro-Poças, F; Araújo, Tarcísio; Coelho, André; Silva, Donzilia; Pedroto, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    A 69-year-old female with unremarkable past history underwent endoscopy for dyspepsia. She denied weight loss or anorexia. Upper endoscopy revealed a bulge in the lesser curvature and posterior wall of the stomach with 4-5 cm. Endoscopic ultrasound was performed which showed a heterogeneous lesion, anechogenic in the major part, with a floating membrane inside, the greatest diameter of 90.8 × 17.2 mm, originated in the left liver lobe. Surgical resection was performed. Pathologic examination revealed a cystic lesion with an acellular thick fibrous wall, surrounded by a conspicuous inflammatory reaction. The cyst wall revealed a characteristic lamellar pattern of the fibers. In the internal surface of the lesion, there were remains of membranous structures, amidst which a vestigial Protoscolex was noted. In the presented case, a floating membrane was observed, which is a pathognomonic feature, establishing the diagnosis of hydatid cyst type 3. Fine needle aspiration guided by ultrasound was not performed due to the certainty in the diagnosis. To the authors' knowledge, these are the first images by endoscopic ultrasound of hydatid cyst of liver presented as a bulge in the stomach with pathognomonic features, which allowed the definitive diagnosis with no need for further diagnostic tests. PMID:27446863

  13. Chronic Hydatid Cyst in Malaysia: A Rare Occurence

    PubMed Central

    SURIA HAYATI, Md Pauzi; BOON TECK EUGENE, Chan; JAN JIN, Bong; MOHD ROSE, Isa

    2015-01-01

    Hydatid cysts are not endemic in Malaysia and are rarely seen. We hereby report a case of hydatid cyst of the liver in a 55-year-old Chinese-Australian lady who presented with a calcified liver cyst and negative hydatid serology. A liver segmentectomy was performed and revealed a well-circumscribed, calcified liver cyst containing only creamy whitish material without the typical daughter cyst. A histological examination revealed different layers of the cyst wall and the presence of loose, calcified scolices without a daughter cyst. The case highlights the importance of considering hydatid cyst in the differential diagnosis of liver cyst even in non-endemic areas, as the ease of travelling and migration allows the condition to be seen outside the endemic region. PMID:25892954

  14. Imaging Spectrum of Hydatid Disease: Usual and Unusual Locations

    PubMed Central

    Srinivas, Maskal Revanna; Deepashri, Basavalingu; Lakshmeesha, Mogenahalli Thimmaiah

    2016-01-01

    Summary Hydatid disease is a parasitic infection caused by Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis. It is common in endemic regions and can demonstrate a variety of imaging features that differ according to the affected organ and the stage of the disease. Liver and lungs are the most commonly affected organs. The classic features of hepatic hydatid disease are well known. However, diagnosing hydatid disease at unusual locations may be challenging because of myriad imaging features in each of these locations. Knowledge of the imaging spectrum in systemic hydatidoses in various organs is very valuable in improving the accuracy of radiological interpretation. The purpose of this article is to review the imaging features of hydatid disease at its varied locations. PMID:27231490

  15. Primary hydatid cyst in the retroperitoneal space: role of CT.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Sevda; Baydar, Senol; Guney, Sefik; Hoser, Abdurrahman; Celik, Betül

    2002-09-01

    Localization of hydatid disease in the retroperitoneal space is extremely rare. We present the CT findings in a patient with echinococcal disease (E. Granulosus) in whom the cyst was localized to the retroperitoneum.

  16. Imaging Spectrum of Hydatid Disease: Usual and Unusual Locations.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, Maskal Revanna; Deepashri, Basavalingu; Lakshmeesha, Mogenahalli Thimmaiah

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid disease is a parasitic infection caused by Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis. It is common in endemic regions and can demonstrate a variety of imaging features that differ according to the affected organ and the stage of the disease. Liver and lungs are the most commonly affected organs. The classic features of hepatic hydatid disease are well known. However, diagnosing hydatid disease at unusual locations may be challenging because of myriad imaging features in each of these locations. Knowledge of the imaging spectrum in systemic hydatidoses in various organs is very valuable in improving the accuracy of radiological interpretation. The purpose of this article is to review the imaging features of hydatid disease at its varied locations. PMID:27231490

  17. A Rare Case of Isolated Cystic Hydatid of Thyroid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Eken, Huseyin; Isik, Arda; Balci, Gulhan; Firat, Deniz; Cimen, Orhan; Soyturk, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hydatid cysts are most frequently localized within the liver and lungs, although they can also be found in highly vascularized tissues such as the brain, muscle, heart, pancreas, adrenal, and thyroid glands. A 65-year-old female patient was admitted to our clinic with complaints of a progressively growing mass that was compressing the surrounding tissues and causing respiratory distress. The pathological result was obtained as cytic hydatid. In patients with diagnosed hydatid cysts in the liver, systemic evaluation is necessary to rule out involvement of other organs. Among patients presenting with growths located in the neck, primary hydatid cyst of the thyroid gland must be considered in endemic regions. PMID:26962790

  18. [Isolated retroperitoneal hydatid cyst. CT study. Apropos of a case].

    PubMed

    Ménor Serrano, F; Marti-Bonmati, L; Garcia Aguayo, F; Gordo Roman, G; Ballesta Cunat, A

    1987-03-01

    A 30 year old patient with isolated retroperitoneal hydatid cyst was the first case of this type to be studied by CT scanning. Isolated retroperitoneal hydatid cyst is defined as any zone of hydatidosis occurring in the fatty tissue of the spaces lying behind posterior parietal peritoneum, without any parasitic foci in other organs. Differential diagnosis from other primary retroperitoneal cysts has been improved by the availability of modern imaging procedures: ultrasonography and CT scan.

  19. [Hydatid cyst of the psoas. Report of a case].

    PubMed

    Benchekroun, A; Jira, H; Cheikhani, O J; Kasmaoui, E H; Zannoud, M; Faik, M

    2001-03-01

    The authors report a case of hydatid cyst of the psoas muscle in 23 years old woman who presented a left lumboiliac mass. Ultrasonography and computed tomography contributed to the preoperative diagnosis. The cyst was removed by retroperitoneal approach by left lumbotomy. In the light of this case and the literature data, the authors discuss the diagnosis and therapeutic problems raised by hydatid cyst of the psoas muscle.

  20. Primary retroperitoneal hydatid cyst with unusual clinical manifestation.

    PubMed

    Gürdal, Mesut; Kireççi, Sinan; Yücebaş, Ergin; Karaman, M Ihsan

    2004-01-01

    Although hydatid disease may affect any organ of the body, there are only a limited number of cases where the primary lesion is in the retroperitoneal region. Since the clinical and laboratory findings are nonspecific, the correct preoperative diagnosis may be difficult. A primary retroperitoneal hydatid cyst that was given a preoperative diagnosis of adrenal mass and treated by adrenalectomy and partial nephrectomy is presented and discussed with the relevant literature.

  1. Unusual primary locations of hydatid disease. Case report.

    PubMed

    Manouras, A J; Tzardis, P J; Katergiannakis, V A; Apostolidis, N S

    1989-03-01

    Two unusual cases of primary hydatid disease are described. In one of them a retroperitoneal cyst, presenting as a palpable abdominal mass, was strongly adherent to the inferior vena cava and dislocated the right kidney. Partial cystectomy and drainage were performed. The other cyst, of the right ischiorectal fossa, was initially misinterpreted as a perineal of sciatic hernia. It was completely removed. No other site of hydatid disease was found and the patients remain well 3 and 4 years postoperatively.

  2. [Isolated retrovesical and retroperitoneal hydatid cysts. 5 case reports].

    PubMed

    Bennani, S; el Mrini, M; Raji, A; Méziane, F; Benjelloun, S

    1992-01-01

    In the light of five cases of isolated retrovesical and retroperitoneal hydatid cysts, the characteristics of these rare locations are reviewed and the hypotheses of pathogenesis are discussed. An abdominal or abdomino-pelvic mass is the most frequent sign. Ultrasonography and computed tomography are valuable in the diagnosis of these lesions. Partial cysto-pericystectomy via an extraperitoneal approach is the treatment of choice for these hydatid cysts.

  3. [Isolated retrovesical and retroperitoneal hydatid cysts. 5 case reports].

    PubMed

    Bennani, S; el Mrini, M; Raji, A; Méziane, F; Benjelloun, S

    1992-01-01

    In the light of five cases of isolated retrovesical and retroperitoneal hydatid cysts, the characteristics of these rare locations are reviewed and the hypotheses of pathogenesis are discussed. An abdominal or abdomino-pelvic mass is the most frequent sign. Ultrasonography and computed tomography are valuable in the diagnosis of these lesions. Partial cysto-pericystectomy via an extraperitoneal approach is the treatment of choice for these hydatid cysts. PMID:1489169

  4. A Comprehensive Prospective Clinical Study of Hydatid Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kayal, Ankit; Hussain, Akhlak

    2014-01-01

    The actual prevalence of hydatid disease in northern part of India is found more than usually interpreted. The present study has been done on 25 patients suffering from hydatid disease of various sites and treated during June 2009 to November 2011 at JLN Medical College and Hospital, Ajmer, with the aim of studying the clinical manifestations of hydatid disease of different sites and/or organ system and of analysing the morbidity and mortality of hydatid disease. The age, sex, h/o dog contact, duration of hospital stay, clinical presentation, treatment advised, findings and difficulties encountered during operation, and postoperative management of patients as well as morbidity and mortality were recorded and analysed. We observed that the mean age was 40 years. The sex incidence revealed female preponderance in the study (M : F: 1 : 2). Duration of illness in the present study varied from 1 month to 6 years in case of liver hydatid disease. Majority of patients were from rural areas (21) and the remaining (4) from urban areas. Swelling was the most common presenting feature. Incidence of hydatid disease at unusual sites in India is higher than in other parts of the world. PMID:24734188

  5. Spontaneous rupture of a splenic hydatid cyst with anaphylaxis in a patient with multi-organ hydatid disease.

    PubMed

    Constantin, V; Popa, F; Socea, B; Carâp, A; Bălălău, C; Motofei, I; Banu, P; Costea, D

    2014-01-01

    Hidatid cysts of the spleen are a rare occurrence, the spleen being the third most common organ for the development of Echinococcus Granulosus. Splenic hydatid cysts are commonly part of multi-organ hydatid disease. Diagnosis is often established when investigating a splenomegaly or by chance during an unrelated consult. It can also be diagnosed after rupture, be it following trauma (the most common occurrence)or spontaneous. Splenic hydatid cyst rupture requires immediate action and is a life-threatening condition. It results, most often, in splenectomy. We present the case of a patient with multi-organ hydatid disease that presented with a ruptured splenic cyst and developed anaphylaxis. The case was resolved by splenectomy and recovered well. PMID:24956347

  6. TRUS, CT and MRI findings of hydatid disease of seminal vesicles.

    PubMed

    Sağlam, M; Taşar, M; Bulakbaşi, N; Tayfun, C; Somuncu, I

    1998-01-01

    Hydatid disease of the urogenital system, especially seminal vesicles and prostate, or retroperitoneum is a very rare condition. Secondary dissemination of seminal vesicles has not been described before. We describe the transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS), CT and MRI findings of a secondary solitary hydatid cyst of the left seminal vesicle, in a patient with disseminated hydatid disease involving all abdominal organs except for right kidney. We obtained typical findings of hydatid cyst at all modalities. PMID:9683695

  7. [Retroperitoneal hydatidosis secondary to hepatic hydatid cyst].

    PubMed

    Vizcaychipi, Katherina A; Sosa, Sonia; Camicia, Federico; Santillán, Graciela; Casalins, María; Nigro, María Del Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Hydatid disease is a worldwide zoonosis. It is caused by a parasitic platyhelminth of the genus Echinococcus. We present a patient with a fluctuating lumbar tumor in the retroperitoneal space, secondary to a hepatic cyst. the initial diagnosis was made by identification of rostellar hooks from protoscoleces in the fluid aspirated from the abscess. We herein describe the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and medical and surgical treatment of this unusual case and conclude that the development of an accurate diagnosis requires a proper analysis of the patient's epidemiological history, clinical manifestations, imaging studies and laboratory tests. a multidisciplinary approach and differential diagnosis is paramount to be able to establish a cause of the disease to deliver appropriate treatment.

  8. Isolated renal and retroperitoneal hydatid cysts.

    PubMed

    Tan, M O; Emir, L; Germiyanoğlu, C; Uygur, C; Altuğ, U; Erol, D

    2000-01-01

    Four patients (3 male, 1 female) with isolated renal and 1 female patient with isolated retroperitoneal cysts were reviewed. The mean age of the patients was 46 (25-64). The most common presenting symptom was pain. Two cases were discovered incidentally by the observance of renal calcification on abdominal x-ray. Indirect hemagglutination test was positive in all cases but eosinophilia was present only in 1 (20%) case. Nephrectomy was performed to 1 patient who presented with hydaturia and had a large communicating cyst involving most of the kidney. Total cystectomy was performed in other renal cysts. Total cystectomy with wide excision of the involved muscle was performed to the retroperitoneal hydatid cyst. Patients were followed by an average of 23.8 (9-50) months with indirect hemagglutination test and USG. No evidence for recurrence was found up to date.

  9. Nontuberculous pulmonary cavitary diseases of childhood.

    PubMed

    Cakir, Erkan; Gedik, Ahmet Hakan; Ari, Engin; Ozdemir, Ali; Cakir, Fatma Betul; Uzuner, Selcuk; Bilgin, Mehmet; Ziyade, Sedat

    2015-03-01

    We describe the demographic, clinic and radiologic features of nontuberculous cavitary pulmonary diseases in 42 patients with a mean age of 91.1±6.8 months. Infectious etiology was the most common cause (64%), including necrotizing pneumonia (n=15), ruptured hydatid cyst (n=5), lung abscess (n=5) and fungal infection (n=2). Other causes were bronchiectasis, congenital anomalies, foreign body aspiration, sarcoidosis and tumor. PMID:25191850

  10. Intracranial hydatid cyst: imaging findings of a rare disease.

    PubMed

    Taslakian, Bedros; Darwish, Houssein

    2016-09-12

    Hydatid disease (echinococcosis) is a worldwide zoonosis produced by the larval stage of the Echinococcus tapeworm. The disease is endemic in many parts of the world, particularly in the Middle East, Australia, New Zealand, South America and central and south Europe. Intracranial hydatid disease is considered a rare disease and may be sometimes very difficult to diagnose based on the clinical and laboratory findings. Therefore, it is important to be aware of the condition and the imaging findings even in the non-endemic parts of the world. We report the case of a 12-year-old boy who presented with headache and vomiting for a few months. The mass was totally excised, with no postoperative complications. We present MR spectroscopy (MRS) findings in this operatively proven case of hydatid cyst of the brain. We discuss imaging findings, in particular the findings on MRS, which is rarely reported in the literature.

  11. Intracranial hydatid cyst: imaging findings of a rare disease.

    PubMed

    Taslakian, Bedros; Darwish, Houssein

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid disease (echinococcosis) is a worldwide zoonosis produced by the larval stage of the Echinococcus tapeworm. The disease is endemic in many parts of the world, particularly in the Middle East, Australia, New Zealand, South America and central and south Europe. Intracranial hydatid disease is considered a rare disease and may be sometimes very difficult to diagnose based on the clinical and laboratory findings. Therefore, it is important to be aware of the condition and the imaging findings even in the non-endemic parts of the world. We report the case of a 12-year-old boy who presented with headache and vomiting for a few months. The mass was totally excised, with no postoperative complications. We present MR spectroscopy (MRS) findings in this operatively proven case of hydatid cyst of the brain. We discuss imaging findings, in particular the findings on MRS, which is rarely reported in the literature. PMID:27620198

  12. Clinical image: Hydatid disease of the chest wall

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.J.; Berlin, J.W.; Ghahremani, G.G.

    1996-05-01

    Hydatid disease is rarely encountered among the population of the United States, but it affects several million people in sheep-raising regions of the world. Human infestation with Echinococcus granulosus begins following ingestion of its ova, which are excreted into the contaminated water during the usual dog-sheep cycle. Hydatid cysts will then develop most frequently in the liver (75% of cases) and lungs (15%) of the human host. Skeletal involvement has been reported to occur in only 0.5-4.0% of patients in the endemic areas. Because of the rarity and perplexing imaging features of hydatid disease involving the chest wall, we wish herein to present a case evaluated recently at our institution. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Laparoscopic management of a large primary retroperitoneal hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Marwah, Sanjay; Kamal, Hemant; Marwah, Nisha

    2010-10-01

    Hydatid cysts usually involve the liver and lungs, but any other organ can potentially be involved and these can mimic numerous pathologies; however, primary involvement of the retroperitoneum and presentation as a left-sided abdominal mass is quite unusual. A 30-year-old male presented with a large cystic lump in the left side of the abdomen that was diagnosed as a primary retroperitoneal hydatid cyst by a computed tomography scan and serology. The patient was managed successfully by minimal access surgery. This report highlights that a primary retroperitoneal hydatid cyst is a rare clinical entity and should be considered as one of the differential diagnoses in patients presenting with a cystic mass in the retroperitoneum. In the present era of minimal access surgery, it can be safely managed with a laparoscopic approach.

  14. [Hydatid cyst of the adrenal gland. A case report].

    PubMed

    el Idrissi Dafali, A; Dahami, Z; Zerouali, N O

    2002-03-01

    The hydatid cyst of the adrenal gland is still an exceptional localization. Only eleven cases have been described in the literature. A new case of isolate suprarenal hydatidosis is reported in one 28 years old patient, that the signs consisted in pains of the right flank and vomiting. The diagnosis has been based on the imagery, particularly the computed tomography associated to the hydatid serology, confirmed during the operation and by the pathologic examination of the resected piece. The treatment consisted in a simple cystectomy with conservancy of the gland, the operative sequelae have been simple. The interest of this cases lies in the rare feature of this hydatid localization that the diagnosis is difficult. Among the various suggested surgical methods, the simple resection of the cyst is still the best treatment that permits to keep the gland.

  15. Laparoscopy or open surgery for the treatment of hydatid cyst?

    PubMed

    Ahumada, Vanessa; Moraga, Felipe; Rada, Gabriel

    2016-03-22

    The laparoscopic approach has taken a prominent role in the last decades for various surgical conditions, including liver hydatid cyst. However there is controversy about whether it can replace open surgery. Using Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified three systematic reviews which together include four relevant studies, all nonrandomized. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We concluded it is unclear whether laparoscopy for hepatic hydatid cyst reduces mortality, morbidity or recurrence compared with open surgery because the certainty of the evidence is very low.

  16. Laparoscopy or open surgery for the treatment of hydatid cyst?

    PubMed

    Ahumada, Vanessa; Moraga, Felipe; Rada, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    The laparoscopic approach has taken a prominent role in the last decades for various surgical conditions, including liver hydatid cyst. However there is controversy about whether it can replace open surgery. Using Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified three systematic reviews which together include four relevant studies, all nonrandomized. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We concluded it is unclear whether laparoscopy for hepatic hydatid cyst reduces mortality, morbidity or recurrence compared with open surgery because the certainty of the evidence is very low. PMID:27028137

  17. Prevalence of hydatid cysts in livestock animals in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Qingling, Meng; Guanglei, Wang; Jun, Qiao; Xinquan, Zhu; Tianli, Liu; Xuemei, Song; Jinsheng, Zhang; Huisheng, Wang; Kuojun, Cai; Chuangfu, Chen

    2014-06-01

    Hydatid worms, hosted by humans and animals, impose serious human health risk and cause significant livestock production loss. To better understand the disease infection status in Xinjiang, China, we investigated the disease epidemics in 4 livestock animals, i.e., cattle, sheep (both sheep and goat), camels, and horses, slaughtered at the abattoirs in Urumqi, Yining, Tacheng, and Altay areas. The results showed that the animals were infected at different rates, in the order of sheep (9.8%), cattle (8.4%), camels (6.8%), and horses (4.3%). The infection rates were found to be different between the abattoirs in various regions even for the same animals. For sheep, the rates increased significantly as the animals grew older. It was 1.9% before 1 year of age and increased to 8.2% in the age of 1-2 years, and further increased to 12.3% when the animals were 3-4 years old, and reached 17.2% when they were 5-6 year old. Sheep older than 6 years had an infection rate of 19.5%. This study demonstrates that the 4 livestock animals in the pastoral areas in Xinjiang were infected by the parasites to various extend. This study is the first systematic investigation of the hydatid worms in various livestock animals in Xinjiang, China, which provides epidemiological information about the infection of hydatid worms in livestock, and is valuable in developing strategies for prevention and control of the hydatid disease.

  18. Common bile duct obstruction caused by the hydatid daughter cysts.

    PubMed

    Busić, Zeljko; Amić, Enio; Servis, Draien; Predrijevac, Mladen; Stipancić, Igor; Busić, Dubravka

    2004-06-01

    Echinococcosis is a human parasitary disease. In 2002, 29 new cases of liver echinococcosis were recorded in Croatia. Liver is the most common site of hydatid cysts. Nine patients with echinoccocal liver disease were operated in our department in 2002. Here we present a case where a patient with verified hydatid cyst in the left liver lobe developed high fever, jaundice, nausea, vomiting and pain in the upper abdomen. The symptoms were initially ascribed to the acute cholangitis. After unsuccessful antibiotic treatment, computerized tomography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) were performed, demonstrating daughter cysts in the common bile duct. During ERCP, papilotomy was made and daughter cysts were extracted. Hydatid cyst was surgically removed, and a communication between the cyst and left hepatic duct was noted during surgery. Pericystectomy, choledochotomy, removal of remaining daughter cysts from the common bile duct, and sutures of left hepatic duct were performed. The patient recovered fully after the surgery. One of the possible complications of the liver hydatid cysts is the communication between cyst and the biliary tree. Such communications are usually asymptomatic, but symptoms can also mimic acute cholangitis and jaundice, which may lead to the misdiagnosis of the patient's condition.

  19. Diagnosis and Percutaneous Treatment of Soft-Tissue Hydatid Cysts

    SciTech Connect

    Akhan, Okan Gumus, Burcak; Akinci, Devrim; Karcaaltincaba, Musturay; Ozmen, Mustafa

    2007-06-15

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate and discuss the radiological features of four patients with muscular hydatid disease and to evaluate the results of percutaneous treatment in these patients. Four patients (three female and one male) with six muscular hydatid cysts underwent percutaneous treatment and were followed up. The mean age of patients was 35 years (range: 12-60 years). Type I (n = 2), type II (n = 1), and type III (n = 3) hydatid cysts were observed in the thigh (n = 3) and gluteal (n = 1) region on radiologic examination. All interventions were performed under sonographic and fluoroscopic guidance. According to the type of the cyst, the procedure was carried out by either a 'catheterization technique with hypertonic saline and alcohol' or a 'modified catheterization technique.' The mean cathaterization time was 13.7 days, ranging from 1 to 54 days. The dimensions of the residual cavity were noted at every sonographic control, and an average of 96.1% volume reduction was obtained in six cysts of four patients. No sign of viability was observed during the follow-up period. Cavity infection and cellulitis were observed as complications, which resolved after medical therapy. Percutaneous treatment is a safe and effective procedure in patients with soft-tissue hydatid cysts and should be considered as a serious alternative to surgery.

  20. Blindness following rupture of hepatic hydatid cyst: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yucel, N; Kayaalp, C; Liceli, A; Baysal, T; Yilmaz, M

    2009-01-01

    A 19 year-old woman admitted to Emergency Department with hypotension, sudden loss of vision and acute abdominal pain. Ultrasound and computed tomography demonstrated an occipital infarct in brain and ruptured intraperitoneal cyst of hydatid liver disease. Urgent laparotomy was performed and it included aspiration of cyst contents, peritoneal washing and drainage. Her vision loss improved by 15 hours postoperatively but generalized seizures were started. Weakness in all extremities was present. Cranial MRI demonstrated ischemia in the areas of middle, posterior and anterior cerebral arteries. She was discharged from the hospital with severe neurological deficits (unable to walk, not able to eat herself). Neurological deficits were improved with physiotherapy after two years. There was no recurrence of hydatid cysts in the follow-up of three years. We assumed that anaphylaxis after intraperitoneal rupture of hydatid liver cyst resulted with hypotension and reduced cerebral perfusion, caused the acute vision loss and other neurological symptoms. This unusual presentation of intraperitoneal rupture should be kept in mind particularly in endemic areas of hydatid disease. PMID:19808164

  1. [Isolated retroperitoneal hydatid cyst. Apropos of a case].

    PubMed

    Ouadfel, J; Assem, A; Errougani, A; Jalil, A; Belkacem, R; Balafrej, S

    1990-01-01

    This is a report of a rarely observed localisation of hydatid cyst: the retroperitoneal space. The hypotheses of pathogenesis advanced are reviewed and the interest of intravenous urography and ultrasonography in the diagnosis is emphasized. Surgery the only treatment, consists of partial resection of the cyst.

  2. Primary Hydatid Cyst of Umbilicus, Mimicking an Umbilical Hernia.

    PubMed

    Tarahomi, Mohammadreza; Alizadeh Otaghvar, Hamidreza; Ghavifekr, Nazila Hasanzadeh; Shojaei, Daryanaz; Goravanchi, Farhood; Molaei, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid cyst caused by Echinococcus granulosus demonstrates an endemic infection in several countries such as Middle Eastern countries. Liver is the most frequently involved organ, followed by the lung. The case we present is solitary primary localization of cyst in abdominal wall which is extremely rare. A 57-year-old woman presented with an abdominal wall lesion in umbilical area that had been evolving for about 2 years with recent complaint of pain and discomfort. We detected a midline abdominal mass 12⁎13 centimeters in diameter which was bulged out in umbilicus. Preoperative clinical diagnosis of incarcerated umbilical hernia was made due to its physical examination while surgical exploration disproved the primary diagnosis and we found cystic mass adherent to superficial fascia without any communication to peritoneal space. The cyst was excised completely without any injury or perforation of containing capsule. The diagnosis of hydatid cyst was confirmed by histopathological examination of specimen. The retrograde evaluation showed no involvement of other organs. The patient was followed for two years and no recurrence of hydatid disease has been observed. Hydatid cyst should be considered as a differential diagnosis of abdominal wall and umbilical lesions especially in endemic regions. PMID:27190669

  3. Hydatid cyst in the duct of the submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Georgopoulos, S; Korres, S; Riga, M; Kouvidou, Ch; Balatsouras, D; Ferekidis, E

    2007-02-01

    The case of a hydatid cyst located in the duct of Wharton of a 56-year-old farmer is reported not only because of the unusual location of the disease, but also because the clinical manifestations and surgical findings of the hydatid cyst strongly resembled those of a salivary calculus in the duct of Wharton. The patient presented with a non-painful swelling of the right submandibular region. The mass, which appeared 5 years before seeking medical advice, augmented progressively during the first year after its onset and remained stable during the next 4 years. The subsequent surgical excision of the mass was uneventful and a round mass, which was palpated intraoperatively in the duct of Wharton was assumed to be a sialolith. The diagnosis for a hydatid cyst of the duct of Wharton was made by histological examination. Although salivary calculus is the most common finding in cases of obliteration of the duct of Wharton, histological examination of the surgically excised submandibular gland may reveal benign tumours. In extremely rare cases where hydatid cysts are located in the cervicofacial area, a detailed further diagnostic procedure is required in order to diagnose possible involvement of other organs.

  4. Therapeutic strategies for complications secondary to hydatid cyst rupture

    PubMed Central

    Cobanoglu, Ufuk; Sayır, Fuat; Şehitoğlu, Abidin; Bilici, Salim; Melek, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Clinical approach and therapeutic methods are important in cases with complicated hydatid cysts of the lung. This study was designed to retrospectively investigate cases with hydatid cysts, thereby discussing diagnostic methods, treatment modalities, and rates of morbidity and mortality in line with the literature. Methods: 176 cases with perforated hydatid cysts, who presented to our clinic and underwent surgery between 2003 and 2011, were included in the study. There were 71 (40.34%) females and 105 males (59.66%) with a mean age of 27.80±14.07. The most common symptom was dyspnea (44.31%) and the most common radiological finding was the water lily sign (21.02%). 88.06% of the cases were surgically treated by Cystotomy+closure of bronchial opening+ capitonnage, 3.97% by wedge resection, 4.54% by segmentectomy and 3.40% by lobectomy. Results: The cysts exhibited multiple localization in 24 cases (13.63%), bilateral localization in 14 cases (7.95%), with the most common localization (43.75%) being the right lower lobe. While the hydatid cyst rupture occurred due to delivery in three (1.70%), trauma in 11 (6.25%), and iatrogenic causes in seven (3.97%) cases, it occurred spontaneously in the rest of the cases (88.08%). Fourteen of the cases with spontaneously occurring rupture (7.95%) were detected to have received anthelmintic treatment for hydatid cyst during the preoperative period (albendazole). The rate of morbidity was 27.27% and the rate of mortality was 1.13% in our study. Two cases recurred during a one-year follow-up (1.13%). Conclusion: Hydatid cyst rupture should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cases with pleural effusion, empyema, pneumothorax and pneumonia occurring in endemic regions. Symptoms occurring during and after perforation lead to errors in differential diagnosis. Performing the surgery without delay favorably affects postoperative morbidity and mortality. While parenchyma-preserving surgery is preferential, there

  5. Primary subcutaneous inguinal hydatid cyst: diagnosis by fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Bagga, Permeet Kaur; Bhargava, Satish Kumar; Aggarwal, Neema; Chander, Yogesh

    2014-08-01

    Hydatid disease or human cystic echinococcosis, recognized by ancient scholars such as Hippocrates, Galen and Rhazes, is one of the oldest diseases known to man. Though hydatid cyst may develop in almost any part of the body, a solitary primary subcutaneous localization is an extremely rare entity. We herein report a case of primary subcutaneous inguinal hydatid cyst which was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology. Radiological examination done subsequently corroborated with the cytodiagnosis of Hydatid cyst and did not show involvement of any other organ or site. Histopathological examination of surgically removed cyst confirmed the diagnosis of Hydatid cyst. Hydatid disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of all unusual swellings in soft tissues, especially in regions where the disease is endemic. PMID:25302206

  6. Tailgut Cyst and Perineal Hydatid Cyst: A Case Report with Multimodality Imaging Findings

    PubMed Central

    Alghofaily, Khalefa Ali

    2016-01-01

    A tailgut cyst is a rare developmental lesion and usually is located in the retrorectal or presacral space. Extrahepatic hydatid disease has been reported in several locations including the pelvis and it often poses a diagnostic challenge. There are very few reported cases of primary perineal hydatid cysts. We present the multimodality imaging findings of a tailgut cyst and concurrent perineal hydatid disease in a 32-year-old male patient. PMID:27630782

  7. Tailgut Cyst and Perineal Hydatid Cyst: A Case Report with Multimodality Imaging Findings

    PubMed Central

    Alghofaily, Khalefa Ali

    2016-01-01

    A tailgut cyst is a rare developmental lesion and usually is located in the retrorectal or presacral space. Extrahepatic hydatid disease has been reported in several locations including the pelvis and it often poses a diagnostic challenge. There are very few reported cases of primary perineal hydatid cysts. We present the multimodality imaging findings of a tailgut cyst and concurrent perineal hydatid disease in a 32-year-old male patient.

  8. Orbital hydatid cyst of Echinococcus oligarthrus in a human in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Lopera, R D; Meléndez, R D; Fernandez, I; Sirit, J; Perera, M P

    1989-06-01

    This study reports the first known case of human hydatid disease caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus oligarthrus. The patient, a native Venezuelan female, presented a single cyst localized intraorbitally behind the left eye (retroocular), which was discovered by computed tomography. The cyst was removed by surgery, and after parasitological studies it was identified as an E. oligarthrus hydatid cyst. This is also the first case of intraorbital hydatid cyst in humans in Venezuela.

  9. Tailgut Cyst and Perineal Hydatid Cyst: A Case Report with Multimodality Imaging Findings.

    PubMed

    Aljohani, Ibtisam Musallam; Alghofaily, Khalefa Ali; McWilliams, Sebastian R; Bin Saeedan, Mnahi

    2016-01-01

    A tailgut cyst is a rare developmental lesion and usually is located in the retrorectal or presacral space. Extrahepatic hydatid disease has been reported in several locations including the pelvis and it often poses a diagnostic challenge. There are very few reported cases of primary perineal hydatid cysts. We present the multimodality imaging findings of a tailgut cyst and concurrent perineal hydatid disease in a 32-year-old male patient. PMID:27630782

  10. Primary Hydatid Cyst of the Small Intestine: A Rare Case Report and Brief Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Ozmen, Tolga

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid disease is an endemic disease especially in underdeveloped and developing countries affecting mostly the liver and lungs. The hydatid cysts located in other sites are mostly due to rupture of primary liver or splenic cysts. We present a primary small intestine hydatid cyst resected laparoscopically with the affected intestinal segment. As far as we know, this is the first report of a primary small intestine hydatid disease in the literature.

  11. Primary Hydatid Cyst of the Small Intestine: A Rare Case Report and Brief Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Ozmen, Tolga

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid disease is an endemic disease especially in underdeveloped and developing countries affecting mostly the liver and lungs. The hydatid cysts located in other sites are mostly due to rupture of primary liver or splenic cysts. We present a primary small intestine hydatid cyst resected laparoscopically with the affected intestinal segment. As far as we know, this is the first report of a primary small intestine hydatid disease in the literature. PMID:27610288

  12. Primary Hydatid Cyst of the Small Intestine: A Rare Case Report and Brief Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Ertekin, Suleyman Caglar; Ozmen, Tolga

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid disease is an endemic disease especially in underdeveloped and developing countries affecting mostly the liver and lungs. The hydatid cysts located in other sites are mostly due to rupture of primary liver or splenic cysts. We present a primary small intestine hydatid cyst resected laparoscopically with the affected intestinal segment. As far as we know, this is the first report of a primary small intestine hydatid disease in the literature. PMID:27610288

  13. Multidetector-row computed tomography in cerebral hydatid cyst

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Nisar A; Kosar, Tasleem L; Khan, Abdul Qayum; Ahmad, Sheikh Shahnawaz

    2010-01-01

    Intracranial localization is a rare manifestation of hydatid cyst disease (Echinococcosis). It comprises only 2% of cases of Echinococcosis infection even in endemic areas and is predominantly seen in children. Clinical manifestations resulting from raised intracranial tension are nonspecific. Imaging with computed tomography (CT) may suggest the diagnosis preoperatively with reasonable accuracy. Multidetector-row CT (MDCT) with its high resolution multiplanar reformations can demonstrate the relationship of the cyst with adjacent brain structures and thus help in planning surgery. This has a practical utility in places where magnetic resonance imaging is not available. We describe a case of cerebral hydatid cyst in a 13-year-old boy who was diagnosed with MDCT, which helped in planning its surgical removal. PMID:21808517

  14. Radiological manifestations of hydatid disease and its complications

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Pooja; Prakash, Mahesh; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid disease (HD) is endemic in many parts of the world. HD can affect virtually any organ system in body and should be kept as differential diagnosis of cystic lesion. HD is mostly asymptomatic; however, it demonstrates a variety of characteristic imaging findings depending on the site of involvement, stage of growth, mass effect, complications, or hematogenous spread, which helps in diagnosis. Radiography, ultrasonography (USG), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are commonly used imaging modalities. Radiography is helpful in chest and for demonstrating calcification. USG demonstrates characteristic findings such as cystic nature, daughter vesicles, membranes, septa, and hydatid sand. CT and MRI are modalities of choice for number, size, anatomic location, identification of local complications, and systemic spread. CT is, especially helpful for osseous involvement, and MRI is better for biliary and neurological involvement. Knowledge of these imaging findings helps in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. PMID:27722098

  15. Retroperitoneal malignant fibrous histiocytoma can mimic a hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Erbay, Gurcan; Ulusan, Serife; Koc, Zafer; Canpolat, Emine Tuba; Calıskan, Kenan

    2011-01-01

    Malignant fibrous histiocytoma is the second most common soft-tissue sarcoma in adults. After the extremities, the retroperitoneal space is the second most common site of this tumor. A 50-year-old man presented with a right retroperitoneal, thick-walled, cystic multilocular mass measuring 10 × 10 cm that was thought to be a type CE 5 hydatid cyst preoperatively. However, the postoperative histopathology did not agree with the radiological findings and instead showed a malignant fibrous histiocytoma. The computed tomography and ultrasound/Doppler ultrasound findings of this retroperitoneal mass mimicked a type CE 5 hydatid cyst. We present this case because the surgical management of these two lesions differs and misdiagnosis can be problematic.

  16. [Isolated retroperitoneal hydatid cyst. Apropos of 4 cases].

    PubMed

    el Ouakdi, M; Ben Fadhel, S; Ayed, M; Zmerli, S

    1988-01-01

    The isolated retroperitoneal cyst is rare. The hydatid cyst grow behind the posterior parietal peritoneum and have no connection with organs normally located within that space and lying next to them. Out of the 31 retroperitoneal tumors files collected over a five-year period, 25 are authentic primitive retroperitoneal tumors and 6 retroperitoneal hydatid cysts; 4 of which are isolated retroperitoneal localisations (neither pelvic subperitoneal localisation, nor multiple hydatic localisation are covered in this work). The abdominal mass is the most frequent sign, unfrequently concomitant with compressive syndrome. Diagnosis is based on urographic and echographic data. These data enabled a diagnosis to be reached in two cases and helped the diagnosis in one case. Surgery is the only treatment.

  17. [Laparoscopic surgery for hepatic hydatid cyst--possibilities and limitations].

    PubMed

    Sabău, D; Coman, A; Bratu, D; Smarandache, G; Dumitra, Anca; Sabău, Al

    2007-01-01

    Laparoscopy in hydatid liver disease, is not addressing only to simple but to complicated cases, although the rate of complications registered a significant decrease because of the modem means (ultrasonography, TC) and the precocity of the diagnostic. We made a retrospective study on 76 patients with liver hydatid cysts admitted and operated in two Surgery Clinics of Sibiu and Braila, between January 2002 and January 2007. On 52 cases we performed laparoscopic interventions and 24 where operated in open surgery, decided by the option and the experience of the surgeon. Our laparoscopic technique is based on specific and original instruments, two patented inventions which increase the security of the primary approach of the liver hydatid cyst. This specific set of instruments, uses extraperitoneal work tunnels for treatment and exploration inside the cyst. The limits of laparoscopy are represented by the cases which presume difficulties and require the conversion. We had one patient who needed conversion to open surgery with a "mercedes" incision, because of the huges dimensions of the liver cyst (25 cm), which did not allowed the induction of a suitable work camera, and because of it's central position (IV-V-VI segments) and numerous adherences to adjacent organs. At three or our cases, the cyst position and the peri-cystic adherences, required the cysto-phrenic dissection, ended with diaphragm perforation, solved by laparoscopic suture without thoracic drainage, but with intra-operatory aspiration of the pneumothorax. The advantages of the laparoscopy are numerous, from the excellent visibility inside abdomen and inside the hydatid cyst cavity, the protection of the abdominal wall and peritoneal cavity, to a relevant shortening of hospitalisation period and convalescence. PMID:18018354

  18. [Hydrogen peroxide in the surgery of hydatid cyst].

    PubMed

    Djilali, G; Mahrour, A; Oussedik, T; Abad, M; Bouguerra, T; Nekrouf, G; Belkaid, M; Souilamas, F

    1983-01-29

    Discouraged by the dangers and drawbacks of the usual scolicidal agents (formalin or strongly hypertonic saline), the authors have tried and adopted hydrogen peroxide in surgery of hydatid cysts. Liberal applications of this product on the operative field seem to be devoid of harmful effects. This, together with constant and rapid effectiveness, easy handling, low cost and wide availability should recommend hydrogen peroxide as the sole scolicidal agent in general surgery units.

  19. [Magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of nonorganic hydatid disease].

    PubMed

    Dombrovskiĭ, V I; Mineev, N I; Dombrovskaia, E A

    2005-01-01

    This article evaluates MRI diagnostic value in discovering of the non-organic hydatid disease. MRI data of 21 patients, suffering from parasite pathology of liver (n = 12), liver and peritoneum cavity (n = 2), liver and retroperitoneal space (n = 2), liver and thigh's muscles (n = 1), peritoneum cavity (n = 2), retroperitoneal space (n = 1), spine and paravertebral area (n = 1) were analyzed. Based on histopathological results, features of unusually localized hydatid cysts (HC) MRI- semiotics are described in detail and compared with liver echinococcosis. MRI technique for identification of some hydatid cyst's structures is shown. The authors discuss the MRI reliability in differential diagnosis of non-organic HC and several disorders (non-parasite congenital and acquired cysts, hematoma, abscess, metastasis) of the same anatomical region. They underline some MRI advantages in GD disclosing comparing with ultrasonography and computed tomography. However, serological tests are needed for diagnosis verification. The authors also postulate the importance of clinical data being taken into account for radiological conclusion.

  20. Budd-Chiari Syndrome Complicating Hydatid Cyst of the Liver Managed by Venoplasty and Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Sarawagi, Radha Keshava, Shyamkumar N. Surendrababu, Narayanam R. S.; Zachariah, Uday G. Eapen, Eapen C.

    2011-02-15

    Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) and portal hypertension is an uncommon complication of hydatid cyst of the liver. Previous reports describe cyst excision or portosystemic shunt surgery for such patients. Here we present a case of hydatid cyst of the liver with BCS that was treated successfully with hepatic venoplasty and transjugular stent placement.

  1. Acute uremia and intestinal obstruction due to a retroperitoneal hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Mehmet; Ugraş, Murat; Işik, Burak; Yilmaz, Sezai; Kirimlioğlu, Vedat

    2007-12-01

    Hydatid disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any cystic mass in endemic areas. The symptoms due to bulk effect, usually occurring over a certain period of time, depend on the site and size of the cyst. We report an unusual presentation of retroperitoneal hydatid cyst with rapidly developing uremia and acute intestinal obstruction.

  2. Communicating (Open) Renal Hydatid Cyst Managed Successfully with Renal Sparing Approach

    PubMed Central

    Alpana; Sharma, Vijay; Srivastava, Devarshi; Hiralal

    2016-01-01

    Renal hydatid disease accounts for 2% of all cases of hydatid cysts. With the majority of isolated renal hydatid disease patients being asymptomatic, hydatid cysts grow slowly for several years. They may be associated with pressure symptoms or flank pain, depending on their size and location. Hydatiduria occurs in less than one-fifth of the patients. In the absence of hydatiduria, diagnosis is usually radiological. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment which is usually renal sparing surgery as most cysts are non-communicating. In cases of cyst communicating with the collecting system, nephrectomy remains the mainstay of treatment. We report a case of hydatiduria due to a communicating hydatid cyst diagnosed on CT urography, where a renal sparing approach was followed and the patient was managed with cystopericystectomy, closure of Pelvicalyceal System (PCS) and double J (DJ) stenting with an excellent result.

  3. Isolated hydatid cyst of the breast that developed after breast feeding.

    PubMed

    Moazeni-Bistgani, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    A hydatid cyst of the breast is extremely rare, even in endemic areas. There are few reports of breast hydatid cysts. We report a case of an isolated hydatid cyst of the breast that was identified as a painless breast lump that had increased in size just after completion of breast feeding and was present with a painful breast mass after 25 years. This may indicate the possibility of retrograde passage of an Echinococcus granulosus egg through lactating ducts during breast feeding, liberation of an embryo that penetrates ductal mucus and enters the breast tissue and then develops into a hydatid cyst. When a patient comes from an area with little healthcare and where hydatid cysts are epidemic, and if this disease was indicated by radiologic or serologic examination, total mass excision without spillage is the best diagnostic and treatment.

  4. Communicating (Open) Renal Hydatid Cyst Managed Successfully with Renal Sparing Approach.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Priyank; Alpana; Sharma, Vijay; Srivastava, Devarshi; Hiralal

    2016-07-01

    Renal hydatid disease accounts for 2% of all cases of hydatid cysts. With the majority of isolated renal hydatid disease patients being asymptomatic, hydatid cysts grow slowly for several years. They may be associated with pressure symptoms or flank pain, depending on their size and location. Hydatiduria occurs in less than one-fifth of the patients. In the absence of hydatiduria, diagnosis is usually radiological. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment which is usually renal sparing surgery as most cysts are non-communicating. In cases of cyst communicating with the collecting system, nephrectomy remains the mainstay of treatment. We report a case of hydatiduria due to a communicating hydatid cyst diagnosed on CT urography, where a renal sparing approach was followed and the patient was managed with cystopericystectomy, closure of Pelvicalyceal System (PCS) and double J (DJ) stenting with an excellent result. PMID:27630903

  5. Communicating (Open) Renal Hydatid Cyst Managed Successfully with Renal Sparing Approach

    PubMed Central

    Alpana; Sharma, Vijay; Srivastava, Devarshi; Hiralal

    2016-01-01

    Renal hydatid disease accounts for 2% of all cases of hydatid cysts. With the majority of isolated renal hydatid disease patients being asymptomatic, hydatid cysts grow slowly for several years. They may be associated with pressure symptoms or flank pain, depending on their size and location. Hydatiduria occurs in less than one-fifth of the patients. In the absence of hydatiduria, diagnosis is usually radiological. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment which is usually renal sparing surgery as most cysts are non-communicating. In cases of cyst communicating with the collecting system, nephrectomy remains the mainstay of treatment. We report a case of hydatiduria due to a communicating hydatid cyst diagnosed on CT urography, where a renal sparing approach was followed and the patient was managed with cystopericystectomy, closure of Pelvicalyceal System (PCS) and double J (DJ) stenting with an excellent result. PMID:27630903

  6. Isolated hydatid cyst of the breast that developed after breast feeding

    PubMed Central

    Moazeni-Bistgani, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    A hydatid cyst of the breast is extremely rare, even in endemic areas. There are few reports of breast hydatid cysts. We report a case of an isolated hydatid cyst of the breast that was identified as a painless breast lump that had increased in size just after completion of breast feeding and was present with a painful breast mass after 25 years. This may indicate the possibility of retrograde passage of an Echinococcus granulosus egg through lactating ducts during breast feeding, liberation of an embryo that penetrates ductal mucus and enters the breast tissue and then develops into a hydatid cyst. When a patient comes from an area with little healthcare and where hydatid cysts are epidemic, and if this disease was indicated by radiologic or serologic examination, total mass excision without spillage is the best diagnostic and treatment. PMID:27194680

  7. [MRI findings in the diagnosis of pseudotumoral humeral hydatid].

    PubMed

    Khadraoui, M B; Arifa-Achour, N; Mhiri-Souei, M; Elouni, F; Jemni, H; Mrad-Dali, K; Mokni, M; Ben Ayeche, M A; Tlili-Graiess, K

    2005-06-01

    Hydatidosis of bone is rare. Vertebral localizations predominate. Standard imaging may be misleading, suggestive of a malignant tumor or infection. We present the case of a patient with a humeral hydatid. This localization is very rare and presents an unusual radiographic aspect. Computed tomography produces an image suggestive of a tumor. The correct diagnosis can be established with MRI, particularly with the STIR sequence. In our patient, MRI enabled us to establish the diagnosis preoperatively and evaluate extension. MRI has been found to be highly contributive to the diagnosis of hydatidosis of bone and for assessment of intra- and peri-osseous extension.

  8. Prevalence of hydatid cysts in slaughtered animals in Sirte, Libya.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Hamed H; Abdel-Kader, Abdel-Kader M; Nass, Sedigh Ahmed

    2013-04-01

    The prevalence of cystic echinococcosis was studied among the livestock slaughtered in abattoir of Sirte, Libya during the period July 2004 to May 2005. The overall infection rate of 4.9% in sheep, 2.4% in goats, 2.7% in camels and 15% in cattle were observed. The increase in prevalence with age of the animals was statistically significant in the four species. In female goats, examined infection was higher in the male. Liver had higher hydatid cysts than lungs in sheep, goat while infected lungs had higher in camel.

  9. Retroperitoneoscopic laparoscopic treatment of renal hydatid cyst in a child.

    PubMed

    Divarci, Emre; Ulman, Ibrahim; Avanoğlu, Ali

    2010-01-01

    A 17-year-old girl with the diagnosis of right renal hydatid disease was treated by retroperitoneoscopic technique. No complications occurred at peroperative and postoperative periods. There were no clinical symptoms and radiologic pathologic causes to show recurrence at postoperative second year. This is the first case that is reported via retroperitoneoscopic laparoscopic approach at the treatment of renal hydatidosis in children. We prefer retroperitoneoscopic approach to avoid intraperitoneal contamination. Retroperitoneoscopic laparoscopic treatment can be an alternative treatment technique at renal hydatidosis therapy because of its advantages to conventional surgery, Although further reports of its long-term outcomes and additional experiences are necessary.

  10. Rupture of retroperitoneal hydatid cyst into the abdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Hadjiat, N; Graba, A; Mansouri, H

    1987-05-01

    We report the case of a retroperitoneal hydatid cyst ruptured into the infrarenal abdominal aorta. Initial treatment consisted of marsupialization of the cyst with patch angioplasty of the aorta. Formation of a false aneurysm led to reoperation for placement of an aortobifemoral bypass, but the patient died postoperatively. In spite of the exceptional character of this location, diagnosis should be suggested routinely in endemic areas when a retroperitoneal mass is discovered. Treatment should be either in situ prosthetic replacement or extra-anatomic exclusion bypass.

  11. [Isolated retroperitoneal hydatid cyst. Apropos of 2 new cases].

    PubMed

    Amar, J; Garnier, J; Faraj, A; Taobane, H; Aovame, H; Oukheira, H; Moulay, I

    1983-01-01

    Hydatid disease in endemic countries is common but an isolated retroperitoneal localisation is rare. After a review of the aetiopathogenesis and clinical aspects, the authors express the opinion that safe, rapid and reliable technique of echotomography is the key investigation in obtaining a positive diagnosis. In terms of its course, the histopathological appearances are those of a locally malignant tumour which as a preferential and severe effect on renal function. Surgery is the only valid method for eradication of the parasite and freeing the urinary tract.

  12. Incidentally detected hydatid cyst of the adrenal gland: A case report.

    PubMed

    Akbulut, Sami

    2016-09-16

    Hydatid cysts are a zoonotic disease that can involve many organs and tissues in the human body but primarily involve the liver and lungs. Of the main organs, adrenal glands are those seldom affected by hydatid cysts. The purpose of this study was to present a case with an incidentally detected hydatid cyst of the right adrenal gland on computed tomography, and a positive echincoccus IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test on top of a toxic multinodular thyroid goiter for which thyroidectomy was indicated. PMID:27672642

  13. Incidentally detected hydatid cyst of the adrenal gland: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Akbulut, Sami

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid cysts are a zoonotic disease that can involve many organs and tissues in the human body but primarily involve the liver and lungs. Of the main organs, adrenal glands are those seldom affected by hydatid cysts. The purpose of this study was to present a case with an incidentally detected hydatid cyst of the right adrenal gland on computed tomography, and a positive echincoccus IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test on top of a toxic multinodular thyroid goiter for which thyroidectomy was indicated. PMID:27672642

  14. Isolated renal and retroperitoneal hydatid cysts: a report of 23 cases.

    PubMed

    Kaya, K; Gokce, G; Kaya, S; Kilicarslan, H; Ayan, S; Gultekin, E Y

    2006-10-01

    Isolated extrarenal retroperitoneal and renal echinococcal cysts are rare manifestations of hydatid disease. We report 23 cases of renal and other retroperitoneal hydatid cysts diagnosed and treated in our clinic. Flank pain, abdominal mass and non-specific symptoms such as nausea and vomiting were the major symptoms. Indirect haemagglutination test was positive in 18 cases and eosinophilia in four cases. Among imaging studies computerized tomography was the most valuable diagnostic examination. A high index of suspicion is needed for preoperative diagnosis of hydatid disease of kidney and retroperitoneum.

  15. An unusual retroperitoneal sero-negative hydatid cyst presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Mehmet Remzi; Akbaş, Alpaslan; Onol, Fikret Fatih; Tanidir, Yilören; Onol, Sinasi Yavuz

    2009-01-01

    Hydatid cysts can be found in almost every structure in human body. Thus they can mimic numerous pathologies. Serological analyses are the best assistants in the diagnosis of hydatid cysts. But as serological investigations have limited sensitivity and specificity, they might misdirect our diagnosis. Lungs are the most common involved organ in this parasitic infection. But the brain, muscles, kidneys, bones, heart, pancreas, and rarely the retroperitoneum have also been reported to be involved. An unusual case of a sero-negative hydatid cyst located in the retroperitoneum presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms is reported in this paper.

  16. Pulmonary edema

    MedlinePlus

    ... congestion; Lung water; Pulmonary congestion; Heart failure - pulmonary edema ... Pulmonary edema is often caused by congestive heart failure . When the heart is not able to pump efficiently, blood ...

  17. Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunine, J. I.

    Beyond the inner solar system's terrestrial planets, with their compact orbits and rock -metal compositions, lies the realm of the outer solar system and the giant planets. Here the distance between planets jumps by an order of magnitude relative to the spacing of the terrestrial planets, and the masses of the giants are one to two orders of magnitude greater than Venus and Earth - the largest terrestrial bodies. Composition changes as well, since the giant planets are largely gaseous, with inferred admixtures of ice, rock, and metal, while the terrestrial planets are essentially pure rock and metal. The giant planets have many more moons than do the terrestrial planets, and the range of magnetic field strengths is larger in the outer solar system. It is the giant planets that sport rings, ranging from the magnificent ones around Saturn to the variable ring arcs of Neptune. Were it not for the fact that only Earth supports abundant life (with life possibly existing, but not proved to exist, in the martian crust and liquid water regions underneath the ice of Jupiter's moon Europa), the terrestrial planets would pale in interest next to the giant planets for any extraterrestrial visitor.

  18. Oxfendazole treatment for cystic hydatid disease in naturally infected animals.

    PubMed

    Blanton, R E; Wachira, T M; Zeyhle, E E; Njoroge, E M; Magambo, J K; Schantz, P M

    1998-03-01

    Few chemotherapeutic agents are available for the medical management of hydatid disease caused by the parasite Echinococcus granulosus. In order to test the potential of oxfendazole for the treatment of infection with this parasite, nine infected goats and four sheep were given oxfendazole twice weekly at a dose of 30 mg/kg of body weight for 4 weeks and monitored by ultrasound for an additional 4 weeks. Efficacy was finally evaluated by postmortem examination, including determination of protoscolex viability and cyst wall histology. In treated animals, protoscolices were dead or absent in 97% of cysts from oxfendazole-treated animals compared to 28% of cysts from untreated control animals. On postmortem examination, 53% of cysts from treated animals were found to be grossly degenerate. A sample of those cysts that appeared potentially viable all demonstrated evidence of severe damage to the cyst wall. By light microscopy, cysts showed severe disorganization of the adventitial layer with invasion of inflammatory cells and in some cases frank necrosis with no apparent adventitial layer. The follow-up period for assessment of the drug's ability to cause complete degeneration and resorption of cysts was relatively short. This study, however, indicates that oxfendazole is at least as effective as and is easier to administer than albendazole for the treatment of hydatid disease.

  19. Retroperitoneal laparoscopy for the management of renal hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muneer; Sajjad Nazir, Syed; Ahangar, Shahnawaz; Farooq Qadri, Syed Javid; Ahmad Salroo, Nazir

    2010-01-01

    Hydatid disease is one of the common parasitic afflictions seen in sheep rearing areas of world, with certain areas in northern India showing a very high incidence. It is caused by the larval/cyst stage of Echinococcus granulosus, in which humans are an intermediate host. The cysts are located in liver 75% times, lungs 15%, other organs 10%. Isolated involvement of kidneys is rare and forms 2-4% of cases. The treatment usually requires some form of intervention ranging from minimally invasive percutaneous aspiration techniques to laparoscopic and the maximally invasive, open techniques. Herein, we describe two cases of isolated renal hydatid cysts that were treated successfully by retroperitoneal laparoscopic approach to prevent the soiling of peritoneal cavity. One of the cases had a preoperative diagnosis of simple renal cyst. No complications occurred at peroperative and postoperative periods. The patients were given 3 cycles of Albendazole (10 mg/kg in two divided doses), each for a period of four weeks followed by a weeks rest. The patients are under strict follow-up and no recurrence has been documented yet.

  20. Hydatid cyst of parotid: Report of unusual cytological findings extending the cytomorphological spectrum.

    PubMed

    Arora, Vinod Kumar; Chopra, Neha; Singh, Poorva; Venugopal, Vasantha Kumar; Narang, Salil

    2016-09-01

    Hydatid disease is a zoonotic infestation caused by larval cestode of genus Echinococcus. Cystic form of this infection mostly involves liver and lung. Hydatid disease of the parotid gland is very rare even in endemic areas and is often clinically mistaken for parotid tumors or cysts. The presence of protoscolices, laminated membranes, and isolated hooklets are characteristic cytological features observed on fine-needle aspirate from hydatid cysts. We report unusual cytological features from a hydatid cyst of parotid in a 13-year-old girl. She presented with a slowly enlarging hard mass in left parotid. Fine-needle aspiration yielded slightly turbid fluid. Smears from the sediment revealed naked parasitic micronuclei, fragments of germinative layer (endocyst), and abortive brood capsules (buds from endocyst) seen as spherical structures with multiple parasitic nuclei. Some of these spherical structures were degenerated with recognizable nuclei and others were completely necrotic. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:770-773. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27324277

  1. Hydatid cyst of parotid: Report of unusual cytological findings extending the cytomorphological spectrum.

    PubMed

    Arora, Vinod Kumar; Chopra, Neha; Singh, Poorva; Venugopal, Vasantha Kumar; Narang, Salil

    2016-09-01

    Hydatid disease is a zoonotic infestation caused by larval cestode of genus Echinococcus. Cystic form of this infection mostly involves liver and lung. Hydatid disease of the parotid gland is very rare even in endemic areas and is often clinically mistaken for parotid tumors or cysts. The presence of protoscolices, laminated membranes, and isolated hooklets are characteristic cytological features observed on fine-needle aspirate from hydatid cysts. We report unusual cytological features from a hydatid cyst of parotid in a 13-year-old girl. She presented with a slowly enlarging hard mass in left parotid. Fine-needle aspiration yielded slightly turbid fluid. Smears from the sediment revealed naked parasitic micronuclei, fragments of germinative layer (endocyst), and abortive brood capsules (buds from endocyst) seen as spherical structures with multiple parasitic nuclei. Some of these spherical structures were degenerated with recognizable nuclei and others were completely necrotic. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:770-773. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Pelvic bone and hip joint hydatid disease revealing a retroperitoneal location.

    PubMed

    El Ibrahimi, Abdelhalim; Ankouz, Amal; Daoudi, Abdelkrim; Elmrini, Abdelmayid

    2009-06-30

    Echinococcosis is a parasitic disease produced by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. Hydatid disease of bone is rarely seen in humans and it has been reported in only 1-2% of cases of echinococcosis. We present a patient who developed hydatid disease of the left pelvic and femoral bones with cartilage destruction of the ipsilateral hip joint revealing a retroperitoneal location of hydatid cyst. Hydatid bone must be present in the differential diagnosis of chronic monoarthritis. Skeletal involvement is usually secondary to visceral hydatidosis that we must research. Early diagnosis allows eradication and salvage of the bone and the hip joint. Delayed diagnosis is always fraught with the risk of recurrence and sepsis.

  3. A Con A- purified hydatid glycoprotein fraction effectively diagnoses human hydatidosis.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Manal M; Maher, Kesmat M; Rabia, Ibrahim; Helmy, Ahmed H; El-Adawi, Azza I; Mousa, Mousa A; Mahgoub, Abeer M

    2006-12-01

    Diagnosis and quantification of Echinococcus granulosus infection in man and animal hosts are centralized to feasible control. This study included 93 serum samples, 25 sure positive hydatid cases confirmed surgically, 7 suspected cases diagnosed by indirect haemagglutination IHA and 41 cases other parasitic infections (15 S. mansoni, 8 Fasciola, 7 Ascaris, 5 H. nana & 6 Ancylostoma) diagnosed by microscopic examination and were negative by ELISA and/or IHA for anti-hydatid antibody. Twenty negative serum samples served as healthy controls. Six types of hydatid fluid antigens (crude, host-free & Con-A purified) of human and camel origin were subjected to electrophoretic separation (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting (EITB). The anti-hydatid IgG was detected in sera of the different groups for evaluation of sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic efficacy of each type of antigens. Detection of circulating hydatid antigen (CAg) was performed using anti rabbit hyperimmune sera raised against Con-A purified either human or camel hydatid antigen. SDS-PAGE revealed several bands ranging from 55-185 kDa with 10 kDa band shared by all antigens. The specific bands revealed by EITB for Con-A purified camel and human antigens were at 80, 110 & 55, 110 kDa respectively. ELISA highest sensitivity (96.9%) was by using host-free Con-A purified glycoprotein fraction of human hydatid antigen. Highest specificity (98.4%) was recorded upon use of either Con-A purified camel or human antigen with 94.5% & 97.7% diagnostic efficacy respectively. Detection of circulating antigen by polyclonal antibodies against Con-A purified human hydatid antigen revealed 91.8% specificity.

  4. A 13-year-old girl with a cystic cerebellar lesion: consider the hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Is, Merih; Gezen, Ferruh; Akyuz, Fevzullah; Aytekin, Hikmet; Dosoglu, Murat

    2009-05-01

    We report a 13-year-old girl with a hydatid cyst located in the posterior fossa. The pre-operative diagnosis was a cerebellar tumour; the cyst was operated on using puncture, aspiration, irrigation and resection. Sixteen months post-operatively, the patient is in a good health. A hydatid cyst must always be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic lesions of the cranium, especially for those children living in rural areas.

  5. A difficult surgical approach for primary orbital hydatid cyst: transconjunctival medial orbitotomy

    PubMed Central

    Sendul, Selam Yekta; Ucgul, Cemile; Dirim, Burcu; Demir, Mehmet; Acar, Zeynep; Guven, Dilek

    2015-01-01

    Hydatid cysts rarely appear isolated in the orbital cavity without involvement of other organs. The cysts are usually located in the retrobulbar region, and may be extraconal or intraconal. Herein we present a case of primary orbital cyst hydatid that is adjacent to the medial rectus muscle and optic nerve in the intraconal space and the difficulties during the surgical and medical treatment period. PMID:26655075

  6. [Bone echinococcosis. Apropos of a case of hydatid cyst of the spine].

    PubMed

    Psomopoulos, N; Vlachakis, T; Balaroutsos, C; Voulgaris, J; Delikaris, P; Vlachakis, M

    1976-02-01

    The authors report a case of hydatid cyst of the vertebral column (L2-L3) simulating an acute abdominal syndrome with pain in the right iliac fossa. On exploration of the abdominal cavity, they detected the presence of a fluctuating retroperitoneal collection of fluid due to the migration of a hydatid abscess into the sheath of the right psoas muscle. Three surgical operations of curetage followed by wide drainage were carried out with simple operative sequelae.

  7. Isolated retrovesical cyst hydatid in a child: an unusual presentation of echinococcosis.

    PubMed

    Bakiler, Ali Rahmi; Ozer, Esra Arun; Kara, Orhan; Yavascan, Onder; Bag, Ozlem Ince; Aksu, Nejat; Dogan, Hasan

    2004-06-01

    Echinococcosis is the most widespread, serious human cestode infection in the world. Isolated retrovesical cyst hydatid is extremely rare in children and mostly causes symptoms because of its pressure on adjacent organs. We report on the case of an 8-year-old girl with an isolated retrovesical cyst hydatid. Final diagnosis was established after histological examination, whereas imaging techniques failed to establish the diagnosis.

  8. Hydatid cyst of the abdominal aorta and common iliac arteries complicated by a false aneurysm: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pulathan, Zerrin; Cay, Ali; Güven, Yaşar; Sarihan, Haluk

    2004-04-01

    The rupture of hydatid cysts into the abdominal aorta is an unusual and serious complication of the hydatid disease. The authors describe a case of a 12-year-old girl with hydatid disease presenting as a retroperitoneal mass invading the wall of the abdominal aortic bifurcation and complicated by a false aneurysm. Difficulties of preoperative diagnosis and operative management were discussed, and the literature was reviewed.

  9. Minimal access surgery for hydatid cyst disease: laparoscopic, thoracoscopic, and retroperitoneoscopic approach.

    PubMed

    Chowbey, P K; Shah, S; Khullar, R; Sharma, A; Soni, V; Baijal, M; Vashistha, A; Dhir, A

    2003-06-01

    Surgery has remained the mainstay for the treatment of hydatid cyst. The rapid development of laparoscopic techniques has encouraged surgeons to replicate principles of conventional hydatid surgery using a minimally invasive approach. Several reports have confirmed the feasibility of laparoscopic hepatic hydatid surgery. We report the use of a laparoscopic approach for cysts located in the liver, lung, and retroperitoneum. Fifteen patients with hydatid cysts, including one patient with a recurrent cyst, of various organs, including the liver, lung, and retroperitoneum, were operated on laparoscopically. Sixteen hydatid cysts were drained in a total of 15 patients. The mean operative time was 84 +/- 6 minutes (60-125 minutes). The mean duration of the hospital stay was 2.3 days (1-6 days). The mean cyst diameter was 9.2 cm (6.4-13.5 cm). No conversions to open surgery were required. One complication, a trocar-induced bowel perforation, occurred, and there was no mortality. During 3 to 44 months (mean, 27 months) of follow-up, no recurrences developed. Minimal access surgery is a safe, effective, and viable option for the management of selected patients with hydatid cysts in various locations, such as the liver, lung, and retroperitoneum.

  10. Combined anterior and posterior approach for sacral/retroperitoneal hydatid cyst disease: case report.

    PubMed

    Senoglu, Mehmet; Bulbuloglu, Ertan; Demirpolat, Gulen; Altun, Idris; Celik, Mustafa

    2009-10-01

    Achieving complete resolution of spinal hydatid cyst disease is quite challenging when bone is involved. Many authors reported the poor outcome of posterior decompression and laminectomy for intraosseous spinal hydatid disease. In an attempt to avoid a similar poor outcome, hydatid cysts were reached via both anterior and posterior surgical approaches in our patient. A 73-year-old man presented with complaints of low back and right leg pain. Symptoms or signs of systemic hydatid cyst disease were absent. MRI demonstrated a cystic lesion in the presacral/retroperitoneal region, involving the body of the sacrum and sacral canal. Computed tomography images showed enlargement of the sacral foraminae. The multiseptated cysts and their contents were isodense with cerebrospinal fluid. The cysts were removed via an anterior extraperitoneal approach, using a paramedian vertical incision, and then were also approached posteriorly via bilateral S1 hemilaminectomy. No neurological deficits occurred following surgery. The patient's symptoms completely disappeared after this combination of aggressive surgery and antihelminthic therapy. The application of both anterior and posterior approaches to intraosseous sacral hydatid cysts may be preferred when faced with hydatid disease in this location.

  11. Hydatid Cyst Disease of the Thyroid Gland: Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Akbulut, Sami; Demircan, Firat; Sogutcu, Nilgun

    2015-01-01

    Hydatid cyst disease may develop in any organ of the body, most frequently in the liver and lung, but occasionally can affect other organs such as the thyroid gland. Although the prevalence of thyroidal cyst disease varies by region, literature data suggest that it ranges between 0% and 3.4%. The aim of this report was to share 2 cases with thyroid hydatid cyst. Two female patients aged 26 and 57 years were admitted to our outpatient clinic with different complaints. While the first case presented with front of the neck swelling and pain, the second case presented with hoarseness, sore throat, and neck swelling. Both patients were living in a rural area in the southeastern region of Turkey and had had a long history of animal contact. Both patients had undergone previous surgeries for hydatid cyst disease. Both patients presented with a clinical picture consistent with typical multinodular goiter, and both underwent total thyroidectomy after detailed examinations and tests. The exact diagnosis was made after histopathologic examination in both patients. They both had a negative indirect hemagglutination test studied from blood samples. They both have had no recurrences during a 4-year follow-up. In conclusion, although thyroid gland is rarely affected, hydatid cyst disease should not be overlooked in differential diagnosis of cystic lesions of thyroid gland in patients who live in regions where hydatid cyst disease is endemic and who had hydatid cysts in other regions of their body. PMID:25598424

  12. Extragenitourinary retroperitoneal primary hydatid cyst: a rare cause of bilateral lower ureteric obstruction and unilateral limb edema.

    PubMed

    Goel, Amit; Tiwari, Punit; Sharma, Pramod Kumar; Kumar, Suresh; Kundu, Anup Kumar

    2013-09-01

    Hydatid cyst is an endemic disease in our country. Most commonly, it occurs in the liver and lungs. Bilateral hydroureteronephrosis is one of the rare presentations of hydatid disease. Herein, we are reporting an unusual case of hydatid disease where the primary mode of presentation was external iliac vein compression with chronic renal failure because of bilateral ureteric involvement. The patient was treated with bilateral double-J stenting to improve the renal function and operated later for removal of hydatid cyst under albendazole drug treatment.

  13. Long-Term Follow-Up of the Percutaneous Treatment of Hydatid Cyst in the Adrenal Gland: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    SciTech Connect

    Akhan, Okan; Canyigit, Murat; Kaya, Diana; Koksal, Ali; Akgoz, Ayca; Yucesoy, Cuneyt; Akinci, Devrim

    2011-02-15

    Although the most involved organs are liver and lung, hydatid cysts occur in adrenal glands, rarely, and constitute only 0.5% of hydatid cysts. Herein, we demonstrate and discuss, for the first time in the literature to the best of our knowledge, the radiological features of adrenal hydatid disease and evaluate the long-term results (57 months of follow-up) of the percutaneous treatment of hydatid cyst in the adrenal gland in a patient.

  14. Surgical treatment of hydatid cysts of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Ismail, K; Haluk, G I; Necati, O

    1991-01-01

    This series consists of seven patients with hydatid cysts of the pancreas; five females and two males, with an average age of 31 years. In a follow-up extending up to 33 years, about a 50% rate of correct preoperative diagnosis was recorded. The most sensitive and effective diagnostic modalities such as latex agglutination, ultrasonic, radionuclide, computerized tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging techniques were not available till the late seventies and therefore were only used during diagnosis of the latter 3 cases. Four patients had cysts located in the head of the pancreas. Three cysts were situated in the body and tail. Two distal pancreatectomies, two cystectomies and three marsupialization and external drainage procedures were performed for the surgical management of these cases. Two of the marsupialized and externally drained patients had fistulas which eventually dried up within a month leading to a total morbidity of 29% and a mortality rate of nil. PMID:1938210

  15. Molecular technology: improving strategies for controlling hydatid disease and cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    McManus, D P

    1990-06-01

    Recombinant DNA and related technologies are providing valuable, novel reagents for application in control strategies against the major parasitic diseases, including hydatid disease and cysticercosis. The impact of these powerful techniques for improving diagnosis and identification of various life cycle stages of Echinococcus spp. and Taenia solium, essential pre-requisites for epidemiological studies and for evaluating control programs, is beyond question. Furthermore, the use of molecular technology for characterizing sub-specific variants of strains of both Echinococcus and T. solium has led to important revisions of our understanding of the diseases they cause. In light of the recent remarkable development of a recombinant vaccine against T. ovis, the first practical parasite vaccine to be produced, the prospects for rapid development of similar vaccines against the medically important taeniids appear to be very encouraging.

  16. [Retroperitoneal hydatid cyst: a common disease in a rare location].

    PubMed

    Subercaseaux V, Stephanie; Besa C, Cecilia; Burdiles O, Alvaro; Huete G, Alvaro; Contreras O, Oscar

    2010-12-01

    Echinococcal disease remains a major problem within some endemic areas. We report a case of a single primary echinococcal cyst located in the retroperitoneal space. A 54-year-old woman, born in a rural area of southern Chile, was admitted with a 3-month history of right hip pain and painful swelling of the gluteal region. Hidatid disease was confirmed with serologic test, radiological examinations and histo-pathology. There were no cysts in any other location. A percutaneous drainage was performed and antihelminthics were administered for 12 weeks and is now being closely followed up, with good response to therapy. Especially in the endemic areas hydatid cyst should be considered when evaluating retroperitoneal cystic masses.

  17. Primary retroperitoneal hydatid cyst: report of 2 cases and review of 41 published cases.

    PubMed

    Akbulut, Sami; Senol, Ayhan; Ekin, Abdulselam; Bakir, Sule; Bayan, Kadim; Dursun, Mehmet

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the literature between 2000 and 2010 on primary retroperitoneal hydatid cyst. We reported 2 cases of primary retroperitoneal hydatid cyst, and studies published in English literature on hydatid cyst developing in the retroperitoneal space were accessed via Pubmed and Google Scholar databases. Forty-one published primary retroperitoneal hydatid cyst cases were evaluated, and 2 patients (1 man, 78 years old; 1 woman, 75 years old) who presented with abdominal mass caused by retroperitoneal hydatid cyst were reported. Twenty-five of the patients were men (including our patient), and 18 were women; patients ranged in age from 3 to 80 years, and the median +/- standard deviation age was 41.37 +/- 20.4 years. On presentation, 72% of the patients complained of back or abdominal pain; 13.9% had urinary tract symptoms, and 65.1% were determined as having a palpable mass. Ultrasonography was performed on 93% of the patients, computed tomography was performed on 81.4%, magnetic resonance imaging was performed on 18.6%, and intravenous pyelography test was performed on 13.9%. The results of these tests showed a cystoid mass located on the left in 32.5% of the patients, on the right in 37.2%, and in the retrovesical area in 16.2%. Serologic tests determined 67.8% of the patients were indirect hemagglutination positive, and 71.4% were positive on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. As a surgical approach, total exision was performed on 55.8% of patients, partial cystectomy was performed on 39.5%, and 4.6% of patients underwent unroofing. If a cystic lesion is determined in the retroperitoneal area in a patient living in an area of endemic hydatid disease, a differential diagnosis of hydatid cyst should be considered. Clinical, radiologic, serologic, and histopathologic evaluations should be made for a differential diagnosis.

  18. Prevalence of human hydatid disease in northwestern Libya: a cross-sectional ultrasound study.

    PubMed

    Shambesh, M K; Macpherson, C N; Beesley, W N; Gusbi, A; Elsonosi, T

    1992-08-01

    A total of 4103 people were screened in an ultrasound survey of the prevalence of hydatid disease (Echinococcus granulosus) in five areas of northwestern Libya; hydatid cysts were seen in 57 (1.4%), an overall prevalence of approximately 2.0% when adjusted for the likelihood of the occurrence of cysts in other sites in the body. All ultrasound-positive cases were confirmed by dot-blot ELISA. The prevalence of hydatid cysts increased with age, and differed between the sexes except in the five to 14 age group. All diagnosed cases, even those with large cysts, were asymptomatic. This study demonstrates the value of ultrasonography for screening field populations for hydatid disease. The technique was well received locally, facilitating the rapid collection of prevalence data from all ages and both sexes. Libyan people keep guard dogs, but there is little direct human:dog contact. Many people own a single dog, invariably kept outside and often chained up. Stray dogs are common, roaming the countryside to scavenge sheep carcases etc., and such dogs could be the main reservoir of E. granulosus in Libya. Because of the minimal direct human:dog contact, transmission of hydatid disease in Libya is probably indirect by ingestion of eggs from contaminated vegetables or drinking water.

  19. Echinococcus granulosus pig strain (G7 genotype) protoscoleces did not develop secondary hydatid cysts in mice.

    PubMed

    Cucher, M; Mourglia-Ettlin, G; Prada, L; Costa, H; Kamenetzky, L; Poncini, C; Dematteis, S; Rosenzvit, M C

    2013-03-31

    Echinococcus granulosus, the aetiological agent of cystic hydatid disease, exists as a series of strains or genotypes which differ in biological features. Pig strain (G7 genotype) has been shown to differ from sheep strain (G1 genotype) in phenotypical characters such as intermediate host range, geographical distribution and rate of development of the adult worm. Since in vivo studies of different parasite genotypes can provide insights into host-parasite relationship we analysed for the first time the behaviour of E. granulosus G7 genotype protoscoleces in the murine experimental model. Our results show that G7 protoscoleces were unable to establish a regular infection in mice in contrast to G1 protoscoleces which developed intraperitoneal hydatid cysts. This inability was observed in co-infection experiments, i.e. even in the presence of a controlled immune response that allows G1 genotype protoscoleces establishment. In addition, the implantation of in vitro obtained E. granulosus G7 genotype microcysts resulted in a low percentage of hydatid cysts establishment. These results show a difference in the biological ability of both E. granulosus strains to develop secondary hydatid cysts in mice. We suggest that the comparison of infective and non infective genotypes of E. granulosus in the experimental host can be regarded as a new model to study the mechanisms of infection of Echinococcus spp. This knowledge could provide helpful information for the development of therapies, drugs and/or vaccines against cystic hydatid disease.

  20. Complications of Hydatid Cysts of the Liver: Spiral Computed Tomography Findings

    PubMed Central

    Alexiou, Konstantinos; Mitsos, Sofoklis; Fotopoulos, Athanasios; Karanikas, Ioannis; Tavernaraki, Kiriaki; Konstantinidis, Fotis; Antonopoulos, Peter; Ekonomou, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the role of Spiral Computed Tomography (CT) in the detection of the complications of hepatic hydatid cysts. Methods During a period of 8 years and after establishing the diagnosis of numerous hydatid cysts, 7 patients with complications of hydatid cysts were found. These 7 patients (5 females, 2 males, mean age 74.2 years, range 63 - 92 years) were studied. Four of them had a known medical history of hydatid disease, while all of them presented to our department as emergency cases. Results They underwent Spiral CT which revealed the following complications of hydatid cysts: intrabiliary rupture in 2 patients, rupture into the peritoneal cavity resulting to peritonitis in 1 patient, contained rupture and secondary transdiaphragmatic thoracic rupture in 1 patient, rupture into both biliary tract and hepatic subcapsular space in 1 patient, rupture into the subcapsular hepatic space in 1 patient and secondary bacterial infection of the cyst resulting to abscess formation in 1 patient. All of these CT findings were surgically confirmed. Conclusions CT provided a rapid and accurate diagnosis in all of these cases and proved to be a very useful preoperative imaging method.

  1. Pulmonary atresia

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease - pulmonary atresia; Cyanotic heart disease - pulmonary atresia; Valve - disorder pulmonary atresia ... septum may also have a poorly developed tricuspid valve. They may also have an underdeveloped right ventricle ...

  2. Pulmonary Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topics Bronchitis COPD Cystic Fibrosis Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Sarcoidosis Send a link to NHLBI to someone by ... people who have COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), sarcoidosis (sar-koy-DOE-sis), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis , or ...

  3. The Adventitia Resection in Treatment of Liver Hydatid Cyst: A Case Report of a 15-Year-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhenhua; Yang, Wei; Yao, Yingmin; Liu, Qingguang

    2014-01-01

    Human hydatid disease is a significant health problem in endemic regions caused by the larval form of Echinococcus granulosus. In this paper, we report a case of liver hydatid cyst. The patient, a 15-year-old boy, presented with a history of intermittent upper abdominal pain of a few-month duration was referred to our hospital for investigation. Computed tomographic scan and laboratory test suggested a hydatid cyst in the right lobe of liver. The adventitia resection of hydatid cyst was smoothly performed as there was a less bloody virtual space between adventitia and outer membrane. Our diagnosis was made using an imaging approach and was confirmed during surgery. We proposed the adventitia resection of hydatid cyst could be safe and easy to perform with low risk of bleeding and bile leakage. PMID:24782939

  4. Aneurysm of the pulmonary vein: an unusual cause of stroke.

    PubMed

    Emmert, Alexander; Jebran, Ahmad Fawad; Schmidt, Karsten; Hinterthaner, Marc; Bohnenberger, Hanibal; Bähr, Mathias; Schöndube, Friedrich A; Danner, Bernhard C

    2014-11-01

    This clinical report deals with a giant true pulmonary venous aneurysm, which was partially thrombosed. The overall incidence of pulmonary venous aneurysms is unknown, and they are reported only occasionally. We present the case of a previously healthy man with acute onset of ischemic cerebral stroke. The cause was a thrombus in a huge aneurysm of the left superior pulmonary vein. The patient subsequently underwent uncomplicated therapy for stroke, including thrombolysis followed by excision of the giant pulmonary venous aneurysm. As curative therapy we recommend complete resection of this rare entity.

  5. Giant Axonal Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Giant Axonal Neuropathy Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump ... done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Giant Axonal Neuropathy? Giant axonal neuropathy (GAN) is a rare inherited ...

  6. Isolated renal hydatid presenting as a complex renal lesion followed by spontaneous hydatiduria.

    PubMed

    Bhaya, Anil; Shinde, Archana P

    2015-07-28

    Echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease. Liver is the most common site of involvement. Renal involvement is seen in 2% to 3% of patients. Computed tomography findings in renal hydatid typically include: a cyst with thick or calcified wall, unilocular cyst with detached membrane, a multiloculated cyst with mixed internal density and daughter cysts with lower density than maternal matrix. Rarely type IV hydatid cysts may mimic hypovascular renal cell carcinoma. We report a case of previously asymptomatic middle aged female who presented with mild intermittent pain and a complex renal lesion on imaging which was considered to be a hypovascular renal carcinoma or urothelial neoplasm. However, by serendipity, the patient had spontaneous hydatiduria and later was definitively diagnosed and stented. Hydatid disease should always be considered amongst the top differential diagnosis of an isolated "complex" renal lesion which remains indeterminate on imaging. PMID:26217457

  7. Primary Renal Hydatid Cyst: Mis-Interpretation as a Renal Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hoon; Park, Jae Young; Kim, Jae-Heon; Moon, Du Geon; Lee, Jeong-Gu

    2014-01-01

    Primary renal echinococcosis, a rare disease involving the kidney, accounts for 2-3% of human echinococcosis. A 64-year-old female patient from Uzbekistan presented with complaints of left flank pain. A CT scan revealed a cystic mass in the upper to midpole of the left kidney. We regarded this lesion as a renal malignancy and hand-assisted laparoscopic radical nephrectomy was performed to remove the renal mass. The mass consisted of a large unilocular cyst and multiple smaller cysts without any grossly visible renal tissue. The final pathologic diagnosis was a renal hydatid cyst. For patients from endemic areas, hydatid cyst should be included in the differential diagnosis. Here, we present a case of renal hydatid cyst in a female patient who relocated from Uzbekistan to Korea. PMID:25031471

  8. An insect growth inhibitor--lufenuron--enhances albendazole activity against hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Breijo, Martín; Isnardi, Fernanda; Brauer, Mónica; Schenker, Rudolf; Ferrari, Mariana; Ferreira, Ana M

    2011-09-27

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of lufenuron, a benzylphenylurea with ability to interfere with the formation of insect exoskeleton, as a therapeutic drug for larval echinococcosis (hydatid disease). For this purpose lufenuron, alone or in combination with albendazole, was administered to CD1 mice bearing Echinococcus granulosus hydatid cysts in the peritoneal cavity. Neither of the drugs alone was able to exert parasiticidal effects. However, in combination with albendazole, lufenuron reduced the growth of cysts (30-40% in cyst diameter respect to control, p<0.05). This effect was associated with ultrastructural alterations of the hydatid cyst wall and a reduction of the content of myo-inositol-hexakisphosphate, the major component of the electron dense granules of the laminated layer. Overall, this work provides evidence that lufenuron could represent a useful compound for the use in chemotherapy against larval echinococcosis, by enhancing albendazole parasiticidal activity. PMID:21592667

  9. [The role of computerized tomography in the diagnosis of hydatid disease].

    PubMed

    Di Palma, A; Ettorre, G C; Scapati, C

    1991-10-01

    The Echinococcus granulosus disease, or hydatidosis, is endemic in Italy; it has high incidence in Sardinia, Latium and Apulia. The CT findings were examined of 120 patients with hydatid cysts in the liver, lungs, kidney, spleen, peritoneal cavity, retroperitoneal space, and spine. The smallest cyst demonstrated by CT had diameter = 1 cm; CT was also more sensitive than conventional radiology and US in demonstrating unusual localizations of hydatid cysts. CT findings alone allowed a correct diagnosis of the nature of the cyst to be made in 61.5% of cases and, when combined with immunodiagnostic tests for hydatid disease, in 94.5% of patients. Moreover, CT is essential not only for a correct treatment planning, but also during follow-up.

  10. IL-4 gene expression in adventitial layer (fibrous layer) of hepatic ovine and bovine hydatid cysts.

    PubMed

    Dorosti, Zahra; Tolouei, Sepideh; Khanahmad, Hossein; Jafari, Rasool; Jafaee, Fereshteh; Sharafi, Seyedeh Marayam; Darani, Hossein Yousofi

    2016-09-01

    Cystic Echinococcosis is a parasitic disease with cosmopolitan distribution caused by the tape worm Echinococcus granulosus. Fibrous layer is developed around the cyst as a host immune response reaction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of IL-4 gene expression in fibrous layer of bovine and ovine hepatic hydatid cysts using quantitative technique of Real-Time PCR. In this descriptive study the samples of hydatid cyst fibrous layer were taken from 6 bovine and 6 ovine hepatic hydatid cysts. Samples of normal liver tissue close to the cyst were also taken as controls. Total RNA from each sample was extracted and then converted to cDNA. Afterward, the rate of IL-4 gene expression for each sample was evaluated using real-time PCR technique. Data were analyzed by REST software (version 2.0.13, 2009). In sheep the rate of IL-4 gene expression in the fibrous layer of hepatic hydatid cysts was 1.98 times more than the rate of IL4 gene expression in control samples, but the difference was not significant (P = 0.561). In cattle the rate of IL-4 gene expression in the fibrous layer of hepatic hydatid cysts was 9.84 times more than that of control samples which was statistically significant (P < 0.001). With high rate of IL4 expression especially in fibrous layer of bovine hydatid cyst, it can be concluded that this interleukin may play an important role in host parasite relationship. PMID:27605798

  11. Oxfendazole treatment of sheep with naturally acquired hydatid disease.

    PubMed

    Dueger, E L; Moro, P L; Gilman, R H

    1999-09-01

    A blinded, randomized placebo-controlled trial assessed the efficacy and safety of oxfendazole for the treatment of ovine hydatid disease. Cyst fertility and parasite viability were measured following daily, weekly, and monthly treatment schedules with 30 mg of oxfendazole per kg of body weight. The 12-week trial was conducted in 215 adult sheep in the central Peruvian Andes and was masked for both treatment group and scheduling. In this trial oxfendazole significantly reduced protoscolex viability relative to controls in all treatment groups. In the daily, weekly, and monthly groups, 100, 97, and 78% of sheep, respectively, were either cured or improved following treatment, compared to 35% cured or improved animals in the control group. However, daily dosing at 30 mg of oxfendazole per kg proved highly toxic to sheep, resulting in a 24% death rate in the daily group as compared to a 4 to 6% mortality rate in all other groups. If found safe in humans, oxfendazole may prove to be a useful and inexpensive treatment for cestode infections in humans. This study suggests that a staggered dosing regimen of oxfendazole, and possibly other benzimidazoles, may be as efficacious as daily treatment regimens for hydatidosis while decreasing both the cost and adverse effects associated with daily dosing.

  12. Musculoskeletal Hydatid Cysts Resembling Tumors: A Report of Five Cases.

    PubMed

    Toğral, Güray; Arıkan, Şefik M; Ekiz, Timur; Kekeç, Ahmet F; Ekşioğlu, Mehmet F

    2016-05-01

    Although challenges in treatment of musculoskeletal hydatid cysts (HC) lesions have been documented, data regarding the musculoskeletal HC lesions resembling tumor is scarce. This paper presented 5 patients (3 males, 2 females) with a mean age of 41.6 years with tumor-like lesions of HC. Three of them had left ilium and acetabulum involvement, one involved left femur, and one involved left thigh muscle compartments. Pain was the main symptom and was seen in all patients. Clinical examination, radiologic evaluation, and histologic analysis were performed for diagnosis. Patients were treated through different surgical options, including simple debridement, bone cement filling with or without internal fixation, hip arthrodesis, reconstruction using hemipelvic replantation with femoral prosthesis and distal femur endoprosthetic replacement. After surgery, the operation region was washed by 20% hypertonic saline, and debridement was performed carefully without contamination. All patients received albendazole treatment. Cases were followed up 1 to 9 years for the recurrence. Walking difficulty and pain were the main symptoms during the follow-up. One patient was symptom-free. A reoccurrence in the perioperative soft tissue was detected in only one patient and control visits with antihelmintic treatment were recommended. We would like to emphasize that HC should be kept in mind for the differential diagnosis of the cystic or tumoral lesions of the musculoskeletal system, particularly in the endemic regions. Prompt diagnosis is of paramount importance for preventing destruction and complications. PMID:27384735

  13. Surgical Management of Calcified Hydatid Cysts of the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Tzardinoglou, E.; Kosmidis, Ch.; Katsohis, K.; Aletras, O.

    1999-01-01

    Hydatid disease of the liver is still a major cause of morbidity in Greece. Beside the common complications of rupture and suppuration, calcification of the hepatic cysts represent a not well studied, less frequent and sometimes difficult surgical problem. In the present study 75 cases with calcified symptomatic liver echinococcosis were operated on in the 1st Propedeutic Surgical Clinic between 1964 to 1996. Twenty-eight patients were male and 47 female with ages from 23 to 78 years. The diagnosis was based mainly on the clinical picture and radiological studies. In 5 cases the operative method was cystopericystectomy. We performed evacuation of the cystic cavity and partial pericystectomy and primary closure of the residual cavity in 6 cases, omentoplasty or filling of the residual cavity with a piece of muscle of the diaphragm in 4 cases and external drainage by closed tube, in 60 cases. In 12 of those with drainage, after a period of time, a second operation with easy, removal of most of the calcareous wall plaques was performed. The mortality rate was 2%. Our results could be considered satisfactory. In the calcified parasitic cysts of the liver the proposed technique is cystopericystectomy. An alternative procedure is pericystectomy and drainage with a “planned” reoperation with a bloodless, due to intervening inflammation, chiseling of the calcification. PMID:10468117

  14. Treatment of Bifocal Cyst Hydatid Involvement in Right Femur with Teicoplanin Added Bone Cement and Albendazole

    PubMed Central

    Pazarci, Ozhan; Oztemur, Zekeriya; Bulut, Okay

    2015-01-01

    Although bone involvement associated with cyst hydatid is rarely seen, it can cause unintended results such as high recurrence rate, infection, sepsis, or amputation of relevant extremity. Because of this reason, its treatment is difficult and disputed. In the case of bifocal bone cyst hydatid in right femur, along with albendazole treatment, result of resecting cyst surgically and its treatment with teicoplanin with added bone cement is given. In conclusion, since the offered treatment method both supports bone in terms of mechanical aspect and also can prevent secondary infection, the method is thought to be a good and safe treatment approach. PMID:26236523

  15. Sudden death due to an unrecognized cardiac hydatid cyst: three medicolegal autopsy cases.

    PubMed

    Pakis, Isil; Akyildiz, Elif Ulker; Karayel, Ferah; Turan, Arzu Akcay; Senel, Berna; Ozbay, Mehmet; Cetin, Gursel

    2006-03-01

    Echinococcosis is a human infection caused by the larval stage of Echinococcocus granulosus. The most common sites of infection are the liver and the lungs. Cardiac hydatid cysts are very rare, even in regions where hydatic cysts are endemic (the Mediterranean, South America, Africa, and Australia). It has been reported that cardiac involvement is seen in about 0.5-3% of human echinococcosis cases. Three cases of cardiac hydatid disease that caused sudden death and which were histopathologically diagnosed are reported. Cardiac echinococcosis is rare, but due to its insidious presentation and affinity to cause sudden death, it is important that it be identified in the histopathological examination.

  16. Innovative use of the octopus stabilizer in the excision of a cardiac hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Musleh, Mohammud; Abuhussein, Nadia; Musleh, Ghassan; Waterworth, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid disease is caused through Echinococcus granulosus infection. Hydatid disease remains endemic in developing countries. The majority of cases involve the lungs or liver. We report the case of a patient diagnosed with concurrent mediastinal and cardiac cysts. In this patient, the Octopus IV cardiac stabilizer was used to rotate the heart after the excision of the mediastinal cyst, enabling the excision of a cyst adherent to left ventricle through a single median sternotomy incision. To date, there have been no reports of the application of the Octopus IV cardiac stabilizer in such a way. PMID:26921611

  17. Swollen eyelid reveals multiple intracranial hydatid cysts associated with a palpebral cyst.

    PubMed

    Tzili, N; Ahbeddou, S; Ahmimech, J; Abboud, H; Boutarbouch, M; El Hassan, A; Berraho, A

    2016-02-01

    We report a case of a hydatid cyst of the eyelid in a 12-year-old boy associated with cerebral involvement. The patient was initially treated by neurosurgeons for brain cysts. The course after an interval of two months was marked by regression of the palpebral cyst on albendazole.

  18. Assessment of in vivo complement activation on the Echinococcus granulosus hydatid cyst wall.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, A M; Diaz, A; Fernandez, C; Sim, R B

    2001-12-01

    The larval stage of the parasite Echinococcus granulosus causes hydatid disease. The hydatid cyst is potentially capable of activating host complement, since it is a large, persistent, carbohydrate-rich structure, coated with host immunoglobulins, and localized in the host's internal organs. Nonetheless, in vitro studies have suggested that the cyst surface, the hydatid cyst wall (HCW), is a poor complement activator. In this study, we assessed the occurrence of in vivo complement activation on the hydatid cyst by measuring the levels of two complement activation products, C3d and complexes bearing a C9 activation neoepitope (TCC/MAC), in extracts from HCW of human origin. Low amounts of C3d and TCC/MAC were found in HCW in comparison with their levels in normal human plasma and activated human sera, suggesting that in vivo complement activation on HCW is efficiently down-regulated. This regulation may contribute to limit host inflammation which has been observed to correlate with parasite degeneration and death.

  19. Hydatid cyst of the gallbaldder: A systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Roberto; Allaoua, Yousef; Colmenares, Rafael; Gil, Sergio; Roquero, Pilar; Ramia, José M

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate all the references about primary gallbladder hidatidosis looking for best treatment evidence. METHODS Search: 1966-2015 in MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, SciELO, and Tripdatabase. Key words: “gallabladder hydatid disease” and “gallbladder hydatid cyst”. We found 124 papers in our searches but only 14 papers including 16 cases were about hydatid cyst of the gallbladder (GBHC). RESULTS Eight cases of GBHC were women and seven men. One not mentioned. Median age was 48.3 years. The most frequent clinical symptom was abdominal pain (94%) usually in the right upper quadrant. Ultrasound was performed in ten patients (62.5%) but in most cases a combination of several techniques was performed. The location of the cysts was intravesicular in five patients. Five patients presented GBHC and liver hydatid cysts. Two patients presented cholelithiasis and one choledocholithiasis. The most frequent surgical technique was cholecystectomy by laparotomy (81.25%). Simultaneous surgery of liver cysts was carried out in five cases. Eleven patients did not present postoperative complications, but one died. The mean hospital stay was seven days. No recurrence of GBHC was recorded. CONCLUSION In GBHC, the most frequent symptom is right hypocondrium pain (evidence level V). Best diagnostic methods are ultrasound and computed tomography (level V, grade D). Suggested treatment is open cholecystectomy and postoperative albendazole (level V, grade D) obtaining good clinical results and none relapses.

  20. Assessment of in vivo complement activation on the Echinococcus granulosus hydatid cyst wall.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, A M; Diaz, A; Fernandez, C; Sim, R B

    2001-12-01

    The larval stage of the parasite Echinococcus granulosus causes hydatid disease. The hydatid cyst is potentially capable of activating host complement, since it is a large, persistent, carbohydrate-rich structure, coated with host immunoglobulins, and localized in the host's internal organs. Nonetheless, in vitro studies have suggested that the cyst surface, the hydatid cyst wall (HCW), is a poor complement activator. In this study, we assessed the occurrence of in vivo complement activation on the hydatid cyst by measuring the levels of two complement activation products, C3d and complexes bearing a C9 activation neoepitope (TCC/MAC), in extracts from HCW of human origin. Low amounts of C3d and TCC/MAC were found in HCW in comparison with their levels in normal human plasma and activated human sera, suggesting that in vivo complement activation on HCW is efficiently down-regulated. This regulation may contribute to limit host inflammation which has been observed to correlate with parasite degeneration and death. PMID:11737668

  1. Hydatid cyst of the gallbaldder: A systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Roberto; Allaoua, Yousef; Colmenares, Rafael; Gil, Sergio; Roquero, Pilar; Ramia, José M

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate all the references about primary gallbladder hidatidosis looking for best treatment evidence. METHODS Search: 1966-2015 in MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, SciELO, and Tripdatabase. Key words: “gallabladder hydatid disease” and “gallbladder hydatid cyst”. We found 124 papers in our searches but only 14 papers including 16 cases were about hydatid cyst of the gallbladder (GBHC). RESULTS Eight cases of GBHC were women and seven men. One not mentioned. Median age was 48.3 years. The most frequent clinical symptom was abdominal pain (94%) usually in the right upper quadrant. Ultrasound was performed in ten patients (62.5%) but in most cases a combination of several techniques was performed. The location of the cysts was intravesicular in five patients. Five patients presented GBHC and liver hydatid cysts. Two patients presented cholelithiasis and one choledocholithiasis. The most frequent surgical technique was cholecystectomy by laparotomy (81.25%). Simultaneous surgery of liver cysts was carried out in five cases. Eleven patients did not present postoperative complications, but one died. The mean hospital stay was seven days. No recurrence of GBHC was recorded. CONCLUSION In GBHC, the most frequent symptom is right hypocondrium pain (evidence level V). Best diagnostic methods are ultrasound and computed tomography (level V, grade D). Suggested treatment is open cholecystectomy and postoperative albendazole (level V, grade D) obtaining good clinical results and none relapses. PMID:27660675

  2. Sero-epidemiological value of some hydatid cyst antigen in diagnosis of human cystic echinococcosis.

    PubMed

    Hassanain, Mohey Abdelhafez; Shaapan, Raafat Mohamed; Khalil, Fathia Abdelrazik M

    2016-03-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a severe zoonotic disease which affects both human and animals. The disease has a considerable economic and social impact, because it has numerous complications leading to important disabilities and even death. CE is a widespread chronic endemic helminthic disease caused by infection with metacestodes of tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. This study was conducted to diagnosis human CE by hydatid cyst antigens from camels and sheep. Hydatid fluid and protoscoleces crude antigens corresponding to camel and sheep were resolute by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) under reducing conditions and the protein bands of different antigens were exposed to infected patients serum CE through western blot (WB) assay. The camel hydatid fluid antigen revealed five polypeptide bands of 18-98.8 kDa by SDS-PAGE while sheep hydatid fluid antigen revealed four polypeptide bands of 20-100 kDa. Immune reactive bands were obtained through WB ranged from 25 to 125 kDa. The study showed prominent immune reactive bands of 92, 52.2 and 35.7 kDa which may helpful in diagnosis of human CE. PMID:27065597

  3. Spinal hydatid with meralgia paresthetica in a female: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Lonkar, Yeshwant; Amale, Amar; Acharya, Sourya; Banode, Pankaj; Yeola, Meenakshi

    2012-01-01

    Meralgia paresthetica presents as tingling sensation in the antero-lateral aspect of thigh. It occurs due to compression of the lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh. Proximal spinal lesions may present as meralgia paresthetica due to radiculopathy. We present a rare case of spinal hydatid with meralgia paresthetica. PMID:24082690

  4. In vitro lethal effects of various extracts of Nigella sativa seed on hydatid cyst protoscoleces

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Asadi, Arash; Harandi, Majid Fasihi; Sharififar, Fariba; Jahanbakhsh, Sareh; Dezaki, Ebrahimm Saedi

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): There are several scolicidal agents for inactivation of hydatid cyst protoscolices during surgery, but most of them are associated with adverse side effects such as sclerosing cholangitis and liver necrosis. The present study was aimed to evaluate scolicidal effects of various extracts of Nigella sativa seeds against protoscoleces of hydatid cyst in an in vitro model. Materials and Methods: Protoscoleces were aseptically aspirated from naturally infected livers of sheep and goats. Various concentrations of the different extracts of N. sativa (5 to 50 mg/ml) were used for 5 to 60 min. Viability of protoscoleces was confirmed by 0.1% eosin staining. Results: The findings exhibited that methanolic extract at the concentration of 50 mg/ml after 10 min of incubation, and aqueous extract at the concentration of 50 mg/ml after 30 min of incubation can kill 100% of protoscoleces. In addition, all of experiments revealed dose-dependent and also time-dependent scolicidal effect of various extracts of N. sativa on the protoscoleces of hydatid cyst. Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrated that N. sativa may be a natural source for the production of new scolicidal agent for use in hydatid cyst surgery. However, further studies will be required to evaluate scolicidal effects of N. sativa in the in vivo model. PMID:25859304

  5. Immunodiagnosis of human hydatid disease: Where do we stand?

    PubMed Central

    Sarkari, Bahador; Rezaei, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonotic parasitic infection caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. Diagnosis of CE mainly relies on a combination of serological testing along with imaging approaches. A variety of serological methods, mainly based on hydatid cyst fluid, antigen B (AgB) and antigen 5, have been developed and used for immunodiagnosis of CE, yet their performances are not satisfactory. Although utilizing of recombinant or synthetic antigens, improved the performance of serological tests, it has not applicably overcome the problem of low sensitivity and cross reactivity, seen in the diagnosis of CE. Performances of immunodiagnostic tests based on AgB subunits are promising. The 8 kDa subunit of AgB is the most studied antigen in native, synthetic or recombinant form for diagnosis of CE. From the 5 subunits of AgB, antigen B8/1 and B8/2 provided the highest diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. Moreover, detecting of specific antibodies of IgG subclasses has improved the efficacy of immunodiagnostic tests. Among the IgG subclasses, both IgG2 and IgG4 are considered as good markers for diagnosis and IgG4 as a suitable marker for follow up of the patients. In this review an overview of immunodiagnostic methods, related antigens and their performances in the diagnosis of CE are given. The paper highlights pitfall and challenges in the serological diagnosis of CE. Moreover, limitation of currently available immunodiagnostic tests and the most recent development in the designing and application of serological assays for diagnosis of CE in human are addressed. PMID:26713278

  6. Infected Hydatid Cysts Bacteria in Slaughtered Livestock and Their Effects on Protoscoleces Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Fallah, Mohammad; Kavand, Abdollah; Yousefi Mashouf, Rasoul

    2014-01-01

    Background: The protoscoleces of fertile hydatid cysts are considered as major risks in surgery and producing secondary cysts if rupture the cyst during operation and, cause infecting the dogs with adult worm if eaten by this animal. Bacterial infection of the hydatid fluid can lead to sterilization of the cyst. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the bacterial infection rate of livestock hydatid cysts in Hamedan, Iran, and test the isolated bacteria effects on viable protoscoleces, in vitro. Materials and Methods: A total of 5709 slaughtered livestock were inspected to detect the presence of hydatid cysts. The hydatid fluid of all cysts was cultured separately to isolate and identify the bacteria. The effect of isolated bacteria was tested on viable protoscoleces in culture tubes, in vitro. The culture tubes were observed and examined under a light microscope every two hours for 24 hours, and then, after 36 and 48 hours. Results: Infected cysts were found in 74% of animals in Hamedan (46% were calcified and the bacteria was isolated from 52%) and 62% in Borujerd. The isolated bacteria in the infected cysts were as follows: Escherichia coli, E. blattae, Klebsiella pnoumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter aerogenes, coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative Staphylococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Edwardsiella tarda. The protoscoleces incubated with the isolated bacteria totally degenerated, but 55% of the protoscoleces in the control groups were intact and viable even after one week. Conclusions: This study indicated a high percentage of cysts bacterial infections in two provinces of Iran. The common isolated bacteria were E. coli and Klebsiella. The isolated bacteria degenerated the protoscoleces during short-time incubation, in vitro. PMID:25371792

  7. Giant Magnons Meet Giant Gravitons

    SciTech Connect

    Hofman, Diego M.

    2008-07-28

    We study the worldsheet reflection matrix of a string attached to a D-brane in AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5}. The D-brane corresponds to a maximal giant graviton that wraps an S{sup 3} inside S{sup 5}. In the gauge theory, the open string is described by a spin chain with boundaries. We focus on open strings with a large SO(6) charge and define an asymptotic boundary reflection matrix. Using the symmetries of the problem, we review the computation of the boundary reflection matrix, up to a phase. We also discuss weak and strong coupling computations where we obtain the overall phase factor and test our exact results.

  8. [Hydatid fertility and protoscolex viability in humans: study of 78 hydatid samples collected between 2005 and 2012 and analyzed at the parasitology laboratory of the Mustapha University Hospital Center of Algiers].

    PubMed

    Zait, H; Boulahbel, M; Zait, F; Achir, I; Guerchani, M T; Chaouche, H; Ladjadje, Y; Hamrioui, B

    2013-05-01

    An analysis at the Mustapha University Hospital Center of Algiers examined 78 hydatid samples collected between 2005 and 2012 to determine the fertility rate of metacestodes and the viability of protoscolices. The fertility rate of the hydatid cysts in humans was 88.4% and the protoscolex viability rate 74.5%. The fertility and viability rates found here are high, despite the use of scolicides.

  9. Boiling sheep liver or lung for 30 minutes is necessary and sufficient to kill Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces in hydatid cysts.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Wu, Chuanchuan; Wang, Hui; Liu, Huanyuan; Vuitton, Dominique A; Wen, Hao; Zhang, Wenbao

    2014-01-01

    Proper disposal of carcasses and offal after home slaughter is difficult in poor and remote communities and therefore dogs readily have access to hydatid cysts containing offal from livestock, thus completing the parasite cycle of Echinococcus granulosus and putting communities at risk of cystic echinococcosis. Boiling livers and lungs which contain hydatid cysts could be a simple, efficient and energy- and time-saving way to kill the infectious protoscoleces. The aim of this study was to provide precise practical recommendations to livestock owners. Our results show that boiling the whole sheep liver and/or lung, with single or multiple hydatid cysts, for 30 min is necessary and sufficient to kill E. granulosus protoscoleces in hydatid cysts. Advertising on this simple rule in at-risk communities would be an efficient and cheap complement to other veterinary public health operations to control cystic echinococcosis.

  10. Primary hydatid cyst masquerading as pseudocyst of the pancreas with concomitant small gut obstruction--an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Usha; Dalal, Ashwani Kumar; Singal, Rikki; Naredi, Bikash; Gupta, Samita

    2011-01-01

    Isolated retroperitoneal hydatid cyst is an exceptionally rare entity. Owing to vague and varied symptomatology, it is seldom diagnosed without puncture cytology or surgery. We report an unusual presentation of primary retroperitoneal hydatid cyst with concomitant small gut obstruction. Ultrasonography and computed tomography of the abdomen showed localized abscess or pseudocyst of pancreas. Preoperatively, ultrasound-guided puncture cytology of the lesion revealed suspicious hydatid pathology. The patient was examined and, peroperatively, the cyst masqueraded as hydatid cyst of pancreas along with an inflammatory band, and the diagnostic dilemma about its exact site of origin was solved by histopathology only. Complete excision of the cyst along with the tail of pancreas was done with concomitant excision of inflammatory band, causing small intestinal obstruction. The patient was discharged in satisfactory condition on albendazole. In follow-up of 8 months, there was no recurrence.

  11. Pulmonary Embolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... pulmonary embolism is a sudden blockage in a lung artery. The cause is usually a blood clot ... loose and travels through the bloodstream to the lung. Pulmonary embolism is a serious condition that can ...

  12. Pulmonary Fibrosis

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a condition in which the tissue deep in your lungs becomes scarred over time. This tissue ... may not get enough oxygen. Causes of pulmonary fibrosis include environmental pollutants, some medicines, some connective tissue ...

  13. Pulmonary Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary Rehabilitation If you have shortness of breath because of lung problems, you may have asked yourself: • Can I ... medications do I really need to take? Pulmonary rehabilitation can help answer these and other questions. Enrolling ...

  14. Simultaneous Removal of Right Lung Hydatid Cyst and Repair of Atrial Septal Defect in a Single Session.

    PubMed

    Tong, Guang; Lin, Xi; Ma, Tao; Wang, Xiaowu; Zhang, Weida

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid cyst is the larval stage of echinococcosis caused by the canine tapeworm Echinococcus species, and the lung is the most common site of occurrence. Atrial septal defect is a common congenital heart disease with an incidence of 100 per 100,000 live births. To our knowledge, we report for the first time a case of coexistence of right lung hydatid cyst and atrial septal defect that were both treated with one-stage surgery. PMID:26694269

  15. [Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Antoine, Martine; Vieira, Thibault; Fallet, Vincent; Hamard, Cécile; Duruisseaux, Michael; Cadranel, Jacques; Wislez, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinomas are a rare group of tumors accounting for about one percent of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). In 2015, the World Health Organization classification united under this name all the carcinomas with sarcomatous-like component with spindle cell or giant cell appearance, or associated with a sarcomatous component sometimes heterologous. There are five subtypes: pleomorphic carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, giant cell carcinoma, carcinosarcoma and pulmonary blastoma. Clinical characteristics are not specific from the other subtypes of NSCLC. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition pathway may play a key role. Patients, usually tobacco smokers, are frequently symptomatic. Tumors are voluminous more often peripherical than central, with strong fixation on FDG TEP CT. Distant metastases are frequent with atypical visceral locations. These tumors have poorer prognosis than the other NSCLC subtypes because of great aggressivity, and frequent chemoresistance. Here we present pathological description and a review of literature with molecular features in order to better describe these tumors and perhaps introduce new therapeutics.

  16. Transforming giants.

    PubMed

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2008-01-01

    Large corporations have long been seen as lumbering, inflexible, bureaucratic--and clueless about global developments. But recently some multinationals seem to be transforming themselves: They're engaging employees, moving quickly, and introducing innovations that show true connection with the world. Harvard Business School's Kanter ventured with a research team inside a dozen global giants--including IBM, Procter & Gamble, Omron, CEMEX, Cisco, and Banco Real--to discover what has been driving the change. After conducting more than 350 interviews on five continents, she and her colleagues came away with a strong sense that we are witnessing the dawn of a new model of corporate power: The coordination of actions and decisions on the front lines now appears to stem from widely shared values and a sturdy platform of common processes and technology, not from top-down decrees. In particular, the values that engage the passions of far-flung workforces stress openness, inclusion, and making the world a better place. Through this shift in what might be called their guidance systems, the companies have become as creative and nimble as much smaller ones, even while taking on social and environmental challenges of a scale that only large enterprises could attempt. IBM, for instance, has created a nonprofit partnership, World Community Grid, through which any organization or individual can donate unused computing power to research projects and see what is being done with the donation in real time. IBM has gained an inspiring showcase for its new technology, helped business partners connect with the company in a positive way, and offered individuals all over the globe the chance to contribute to something big.

  17. Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Newman, John H.

    2005-01-01

    The modern era in cardiopulmonary medicine began in the 1940s, when Cournand and Richards pioneered right-heart catheterization. Until that time, no direct measurement of central vascular pressure had been performed in humans. Right-heart catheterization ignited an explosion of insights into function and dysfunction of the pulmonary circulation, cardiac performance, ventilation–perfusion relationships, lung–heart interactions, valvular function, and congenital heart disease. It marked the beginnings of angiocardiography with its diagnostic implications for diseases of the left heart and peripheral circulation. Pulmonary hypertension was discovered to be the consequence of a large variety of diseases that either raised pressure downstream of the pulmonary capillaries, induced vasoconstriction, increased blood flow to the lung, or obstructed the pulmonary vessels, either by embolism or in situ fibrosis. Hypoxic vasoconstriction was found to be a major cause of acute and chronic pulmonary hypertension, and surprising vasoreactivity of the pulmonary vascular bed was discovered to be present in many cases of severe pulmonary hypertension, initially in mitral stenosis. Diseases as disparate as scleroderma, cystic fibrosis, kyphoscoliosis, sleep apnea, and sickle cell disease were found to have shared consequences in the pulmonary circulation. Some of the achievements of Cournand and Richards and their scientific descendents are discussed in this article, including success in the diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, and management of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. PMID:15994464

  18. Giant congenital nevus

    MedlinePlus

    ... pigmented nevus; Giant hairy nevus; Giant pigmented nevus; Bathing trunk nevus; Congenital melanocytic nevus - large ... baby grows in the womb. In some families bathing trunk nevi may be inherited. The condition may ...

  19. Giant Cell Arteritis

    MedlinePlus

    Giant cell arteritis is a disorder that causes inflammation of your arteries, usually in the scalp, neck, and arms. ... arteries, which keeps blood from flowing well. Giant cell arteritis often occurs with another disorder called polymyalgia ...

  20. Imaging findings in pulmonary vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Castañer, Eva; Alguersuari, Anna; Andreu, Marta; Gallardo, Xavier; Spinu, Cristina; Mata, Josep M

    2012-12-01

    Vasculitis is a destructive inflammatory process affecting blood vessels. Pulmonary vasculitis may develop secondary to other conditions or constitute a primary idiopathic disorder. Thoracic involvement is most common in primary idiopathic large-vessel vasculitides (Takayasu arteritis, giant cell arteritis, Behçet disease) and primary antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated small-vessel vasculitides (Wegener granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis, Churg-Strauss syndrome). Primary pulmonary vasculitides are rare, and their signs and symptoms are nonspecific, overlapping with those of infections, connective tissue diseases, and malignancies. The radiologic findings in primary pulmonary vasculitis vary widely and can include vessel wall thickening, nodular or cavitary lesions, ground-glass opacities, and consolidations, among others. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage usually results from primary small-vessel vasculitis in the lungs. To diagnose vasculitis, medical teams must recognize characteristic combinations of clinical, radiologic, laboratory, and histopathologic features. PMID:23168065

  1. Giant impacts on giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pater, Imke

    2014-10-01

    The 2009 impact and recent superbolides on Jupiter caught the world by surprise and cast doubt on impactor flux estimates for the outer solar system. Enhanced amateur planetary imaging techniques yield both high spatial resolution (enabling the 2009 impact debris field detection) and rapid frame rates (enabling the 2010/2012 impact flash detections and lightcurve measurements).We propose a ToO program to image future impacts on Jupiter and Saturn. To remove the possibility of impact cloud non-detections, the program will be triggered only if an existing impact debris field is seen, an object on a collision course with Jupiter or Saturn is discovered, or an impact light curve is measured with an estimated total energy large enough to generate an impact cloud in a giant planet atmosphere (10^20 J).HST provides the only way to image these events in the ultraviolet, providing information on aerosol altitudes and on smaller particles that are less visible to ground-based infrared observations. High-resolution imaging with proper timing (not achievable from the ground) is required to measure precisely both the velocity fields of impact sites and the optical spectrum of impact debris. HST observations of past impacts on Jupiter have also served both as cornerstones of science investigations at other wavelengths and as vehicles for effective public outreach.Large outer solar system impacts are governed by the same physics as in the terrestrial events that dominate the impact threat to humans. Studying the behavior of impactors of various sizes and compositions, as they enter the atmosphere at varying angles and speeds, will better quantify terrestrial impact hazards.

  2. Giant impacts on giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pater, Imke

    2013-10-01

    The 2009 impact and recent superbolides on Jupiter caught the world by surprise and cast doubt on impactor flux estimates for the outer solar system. Enhanced amateur planetary imaging techniques yield both high spatial resolution {enabling the 2009 impact debris field detection} and rapid frame rates {enabling the 2010/2012 impact flash detections and lightcurve measurements}.We propose a ToO program to image future impacts on Jupiter and Saturn. To remove the possibility of impact cloud non-detections, the program will be triggered only if an existing impact debris field is seen, an object on a collision course with Jupiter or Saturn is discovered, or an impact light curve is measured with an estimated total energy large enough to generate an impact cloud in a giant planet atmosphere {10^20 J}.HST provides the only way to image these events in the ultraviolet, providing information on aerosol altitudes and on smaller particles that are less visible to ground-based infrared observations. High-resolution imaging with proper timing {not achievable from the ground} is required to measure precisely both the velocity fields of impact sites and the optical spectrum of impact debris. HST observations of past impacts on Jupiter have also served both as cornerstones of science investigations at other wavelengths and as vehicles for effective public outreach.Large outer solar system impacts are governed by the same physics as in the terrestrial events that dominate the impact threat to humans. Studying the behavior of impactors of various sizes and compositions, as they enter the atmosphere at varying angles and speeds, will better quantify terrestrial impact hazards.

  3. Evidence that a hydatid cyst is seldom "as old as the patient".

    PubMed

    Beard, T C

    1978-07-01

    Human hydatid disease caused by the strain of Echinococcus granulosus endemic in Australia and New Zeland has been regarded as a very lonstanding condition, and most cysts diagnosed in adults were believed to have resulted from infection in childhood. A significant drop in the number of new cases among people and 25 and over (P less than 0.05) in two hydatid-control programmes makes it necessary to revise this view. In both Tasmania (P greater than 0.50) and New Zealand (0.50 greater than P greater than 0.10) the incidence was halved without significantly altering the age-distribution. These findings indicate that adults are relatively susceptible and that the latent period between infection and diagnosis in many cases is only a few years.

  4. Retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix mimicking hydatid cyst: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Sikar, Hasan Ediz; Çetin, Kenan; Gündoğan, Ersin; Gündoğan, Gökçen Alinak; Kaptanoğlu, Levent

    2016-01-01

    Appendiceal mucocele is a cystic dilatation of the appendix due to abnormal appendiceal mucinous secretion. Cystadenoma of the appendix is one of the most common causes and is encountered in 0.6% of all appendectomy specimens. The diagnosis may be difficult due to the asymptomatic nature of the disease; pain in the right lower quadrant may be the only symptom. Complex ovarian cyst, urolithiasis or cystic hydatid disease of the liver have been reported as mimicking appendiceal mucocele in the literature. In this study, we present a case of mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix mimicking retroperitoneal hydatid cyst in a 59-year-old woman. The patient was treated with laparoscopic appendectomy with partial resection of the caecum following laparoscopic exploration. PMID:27446577

  5. Scolicidal effects of black cumin seed (Nigella sativa) essential oil on hydatid cysts.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Dezaki, Ebrahim Saedi; Kheirandish, Farnaz; Ezatpour, Behrouz; Jahanbakhsh, Sareh; Harandi, Majid Fasihi

    2014-12-01

    Surgery remains the preferred treatment for hydatid cyst (cystic echinococcosis, CE). Various scolicidal agents have been used for inactivation of protoscolices during surgery, but most of them are associated with adverse side effects. The present study aimed to evaluate the in vitro scolicidal effect of Nigella sativa (Ranunculaceae) essential oil and also its active principle, thymoquinone, against protoscolices of hydatid cysts. Protoscolices were aseptically aspirated from sheep livers having hydatid cysts. Various concentrations of the essential oil (0.01-10 mg/ml) and thymoquinone (0.125-1.0 mg/ml) were used for 5 to 60 min. Viability of protoscolices was confirmed by 0.1% eosin staining. Furthermore, the components of the N. sativa essential oil were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Our study revealed that the essential oil of N. sativa at the concentration of 10 mg/ml and its main component, thymoquinone, at the concentration of 1 mg/ml had potent scolicidal activities against protoscolices of Echinococcus granulosus after 10 min exposure. Moreover, thymoquinone (42.4%), p-cymene (14.1%), carvacrol (10.3%), and longifolene (6.1%) were found to be the major components of N. sativa essential oil by GC/MS analysis. The results of this study indicated the potential of N. sativa as a natural source for production of a new scolicidal agent for use in hydatid cyst surgery. However, further studies will be needed to confirm these results by checking the essential oil and its active component in in vivo models.

  6. In Vivo Study of the Efficacy of the Aromatic Water of Zataria multiflora on Hydatid Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Larki, Sara; Saharkhiz, Mohammad Jamal; Oryan, Ahmad; Ansary Lari, Maryam; Mootabi Alavi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were employed to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil (EO) from aromatic water (AW) of Zataria multiflora. Thymol (66.9%), carvacrol (15.2%), and carvone (7.3%) were found to be the major EO constituents. Eighty laboratory BALB/c mice were infected intraperitoneally by injection of 1,500 viable protoscolices and were divided into prevention (40 mice) and therapeutic (40 mice) groups. To prove the preventive effect of the Z. multiflora AW on development of hydatid cysts, the 40 infected mice were allocated into three treatment groups, including the albendazole group (10 mice that received 150 mg/kg body weight/day for 10 days), the Z. multiflora AW group (15 mice that received 20 ml/liter in drinking water for 8 months), and a control group (15 mice that received no treatment). To estimate the therapeutic effect of the Z. multiflora AW on the hydatid cyst, after 8 months of infection, the 15 remaining mice were allocated into three experimental treatment groups of five animals each, including the albendazole group (300 mg/kg/day for 20 days), Z. multiflora AW group (40 ml/liter in drinking water for 30 days), and control group (no treatment). All mice were then euthanized, and the sizes and weights of the cysts as well as their ultrastructural changes were investigated. The weights and sizes of the hydatid cysts significantly decreased upon treatment with the Z. multiflora AW in both the preventive and therapeutic groups (P < 0.05). The results of scanning electron microscopy also showed considerable damage in the germinal layer of the hydatid cysts recovered from the treated animals. PMID:25070113

  7. Scolicidal Effects of Black Cumin Seed (Nigella sativa) Essential Oil on Hydatid Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Dezaki, Ebrahim Saedi; Kheirandish, Farnaz; Ezatpour, Behrouz; Jahanbakhsh, Sareh

    2014-01-01

    Surgery remains the preferred treatment for hydatid cyst (cystic echinococcosis, CE). Various scolicidal agents have been used for inactivation of protoscolices during surgery, but most of them are associated with adverse side effects. The present study aimed to evaluate the in vitro scolicidal effect of Nigella sativa (Ranunculaceae) essential oil and also its active principle, thymoquinone, against protoscolices of hydatid cysts. Protoscolices were aseptically aspirated from sheep livers having hydatid cysts. Various concentrations of the essential oil (0.01-10 mg/ml) and thymoquinone (0.125-1.0 mg/ml) were used for 5 to 60 min. Viability of protoscolices was confirmed by 0.1% eosin staining. Furthermore, the components of the N. sativa essential oil were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Our study revealed that the essential oil of N. sativa at the concentration of 10 mg/ml and its main component, thymoquinone, at the concentration of 1 mg/ml had potent scolicidal activities against protoscolices of Echinococcus granulosus after 10 min exposure. Moreover, thymoquinone (42.4%), p-cymene (14.1%), carvacrol (10.3%), and longifolene (6.1%) were found to be the major components of N. sativa essential oil by GC/MS analysis. The results of this study indicated the potential of N. sativa as a natural source for production of a new scolicidal agent for use in hydatid cyst surgery. However, further studies will be needed to confirm these results by checking the essential oil and its active component in in vivo models. PMID:25548417

  8. [A retroperitoneal hydatid cyst--a rare manifestation of Echinococcus granulosus].

    PubMed

    Gutermuth, L; Corvin, S; Bauer, H

    1995-01-01

    A rare case of a retroperitoneal cyst of Echinococcus granulosus in a male adult is presented. Due to its extension and infiltration of important anatomical structures the hydatid cyst could not be completely removed by operation. Therefore the patient was treated with albendazole for 10 months after surgery. The efficiency of this combined therapy was documented by CT-scan, specific blood tests and histopathological findings.

  9. Isolated retroperitoneal hydatid cyst in a child: a rare cause of acute scrotal swelling?

    PubMed

    Khan, Rizwan Ahmad; Wahab, Shagufta; Chana, Rajendra Singh; Fareed, Rehan

    2010-08-01

    Hydatidosis affects almost every region of the body. Although adults are mostly affected, children also suffer from the disease especially in endemic areas. The usual affected location is the liver, lung, spleen, brain, and kidney. We report a hydatid cyst located in a retroperitoneal location presenting with a sudden scrotal extension in a 7-year-old child. The finding presented a diagnostic dilemma vis-à-vis obstructed inguinal hernia.

  10. [Uncommon abdominal sites of hydatid disease. Our experience with the surgical treatment of 15 cases].

    PubMed

    Mosca, Francesco; Portale, Teresa Rosanna; Persi, Achille; Stracqualursi, Antonio; Puleo, Stefano

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study is to report on a series of 15 patients with abdominal hydatid disease in uncommon sites submitted to surgery in our unit over the period 1974-2003. Eight women and 7 men (mean age: 48.4 years) were included in the study. The hydatid cysts were located in the peritoneum in 8 patients, in the spleen in 5, in the kidney in 1 and in the retroperitoneum in 1. In 4 cases the peritoneal cysts were solitary, while 4 patients in this subgroup presented multiple cysts and 2 had concomitant liver hydatidosis. The splenic cysts were solitary in 2 cases, associated with a hepatic cyst in 2 and with a lung cyst in 1. The renal and retroperitoneal cysts were both solitary. The diagnosis was made at operation in 3 cases, while in 12 patients it was made by serological tests, ultrasonography and/or CT. All patients were operated on: we performed a total cystectomy in 7 patients with peritoneal cysts and in the patient with a retroperitoneal location, splenectomy in the 5 splenic cysts and a partial cystectomy with external drainage of the residual cavity in 1 peritoneal cyst and in the renal location. The postoperative course was regular with no mortality and no major morbidity in 14 patients, while 1 patient submitted to splenectomy developed a subphrenic abscess that required surgical drainage. Two recurrences occurred in patients with peritoneal cysts 71 and 20 months, respectively, after the first operation and these were managed by total cystectomy. The diagnosis of uncommon abdominal sites of hydatid disease is more accurate today because of the new imaging techniques, which are often able to show specific radiological signs of hydatid disease. The treatment of choice is surgical and complete removal of the cyst is the gold standard, but its feasibility is related to the location of the cyst.

  11. Scolicidal effects of black cumin seed (Nigella sativa) essential oil on hydatid cysts.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Dezaki, Ebrahim Saedi; Kheirandish, Farnaz; Ezatpour, Behrouz; Jahanbakhsh, Sareh; Harandi, Majid Fasihi

    2014-12-01

    Surgery remains the preferred treatment for hydatid cyst (cystic echinococcosis, CE). Various scolicidal agents have been used for inactivation of protoscolices during surgery, but most of them are associated with adverse side effects. The present study aimed to evaluate the in vitro scolicidal effect of Nigella sativa (Ranunculaceae) essential oil and also its active principle, thymoquinone, against protoscolices of hydatid cysts. Protoscolices were aseptically aspirated from sheep livers having hydatid cysts. Various concentrations of the essential oil (0.01-10 mg/ml) and thymoquinone (0.125-1.0 mg/ml) were used for 5 to 60 min. Viability of protoscolices was confirmed by 0.1% eosin staining. Furthermore, the components of the N. sativa essential oil were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Our study revealed that the essential oil of N. sativa at the concentration of 10 mg/ml and its main component, thymoquinone, at the concentration of 1 mg/ml had potent scolicidal activities against protoscolices of Echinococcus granulosus after 10 min exposure. Moreover, thymoquinone (42.4%), p-cymene (14.1%), carvacrol (10.3%), and longifolene (6.1%) were found to be the major components of N. sativa essential oil by GC/MS analysis. The results of this study indicated the potential of N. sativa as a natural source for production of a new scolicidal agent for use in hydatid cyst surgery. However, further studies will be needed to confirm these results by checking the essential oil and its active component in in vivo models. PMID:25548417

  12. Acute Urinary Retention due to Primary Pelvic Hydatid Cyst: A Rare Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Sanyal, Priyanka; Das, Mohan Kumar; Kumar, Sandeep; Panja, Soumyajyoti

    2016-01-01

    Causes of urinary retention in old men include benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatitis, prostate cancer, Scarring of the urethra or bladder neck as a result of injury or surgery, use of certain medicines particularly NSAIDs and opioid analgesics, constipation and neurogenic bladder. When the above common causes are not quite obvious by clinical examination and relevant investigations, then it is necessary to think of other rare diseases. It is with the above in our mind that a case of bladder outflow obstruction due to a large primary retrovesical hydatid cyst is herein reported in a 58-year-old man. Ultrasonography (USG) and Contrast Enhanced Computed Tomography (CECT) scan of the abdomen and pelvis of the patient revealed a large, multilocular, nonenhancing, cystic lesion in the rectovesical pouch having typical cartwheel appearance without any other intraabdominal organ involvement. These typical radiological characteristics led us to suspect the presence of a hydatid cyst. He underwent exploratory laparotomy where cystopericycstectomy was done. Pre-operative and post-operative albendazole prophylaxis was also given. In conclusion, hydatid cyst should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of pelvic cystic masses, specially in endemic regions. PMID:27190883

  13. Value of cyst localization to predict cystobiliary communication in patients undergoing conservative surgery with hydatid cyst

    PubMed Central

    Alan, Bircan; Kapan, Murat; Teke, Memik; Hattapoğlu, Salih; Arıkanoğlu, Zülfü

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between the segmental localization of liver hydatid cyst by computed tomography (CT) and the presence of cystobiliary communication (CBC) and to identify the risk factors for CBC. Patients and methods One hundred and eleven of 163 patients who underwent liver hydatid surgery between January 2011 and September 2014 were included in this study and analyzed retrospectively. The size, number, stage, and segmental and lobar localization of the cysts were investigated by CT. The presence of CBC and preoperative laboratory findings were recorded from operation notes. Results CBC was more frequent in single large cysts. CBC was most commonly detected in segment 1 (50%), 8 (48.3%), 7 (41.2%), and 4 (40%). CBC was more frequent in the right lobe (40.4%) and Gharbi stage 3 (41.8%) and 4 (55.6%) lesions. There were no differences in CBC according to distance from the hilus. In addition, preoperative total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) elevations were associated with higher CBC frequency (P<0.05). Cyst diameter, number of cysts, and ALP and GGT elevations were independent predictors of CBC presence. Conclusion The evaluation of hydatid cyst diameter, morphological stage, and segmental and lobar localization by abdominal CT and measurement of preoperative cyst diameter, number of cysts, and ALP and GGT values may predict the presence of CBC. PMID:27366078

  14. Surgical and Molecular Evaluation of Pediatric Hydatid Cyst Cases in Eastern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Bakal, Unal; Simsek, Sami; Kazez, Ahmet

    2015-12-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus is a major public health problem worldwide, including Turkey. The aim of the current study was to identify the strains and to estimate the potential risk factors of E. granulosus in operated pediatric cases in eastern Turkey. Ten pediatric patients (7 boys and 3 girls) living in rural areas, with ages ranging from 3 to 15 years old and various clinical histories, were included in this study. Eight patients had only liver hydatid cyst, while 1 patient had liver and lung hydatid cyst and the other liver, lung, and spleen, together. There were 2 ruptured liver cysts. After surgery, during follow-up, no increase was observed in hemagglutination levels, there were no mortalities, and there was no evidence of recurrence at 2 years post operation in all patients. Molecular analysis was performed on hydatid cyst samples obtained from the 10 pediatric cases. According to mt-12S rRNA PCR results, all cases were found to be G1/G3 cluster of E. granulosus sensu stricto.

  15. Pulmonary rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Troosters, Thierry; Demeyer, Heleen; Hornikx, Miek; Camillo, Carlos Augusto; Janssens, Wim

    2014-03-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation is a therapy that offers benefits to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that are complementary to those obtained by pharmacotherapy. The main objective of pulmonary rehabilitation is to restore muscle function and exercise tolerance, reverse other nonrespiratory consequences of the disease, and help patients to self-manage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its exacerbations and symptoms. To do so, a multidisciplinary program tailored to the patient in terms of program content, exercise prescription, and setting must be offered. Several settings and programs have shown to spin off in significant immediate results. The challenge lies in maintaining the benefits outside the program. PMID:24507849

  16. Vaccination trials in Australia and Argentina confirm the effectiveness of the EG95 hydatid vaccine in sheep.

    PubMed

    Lightowlers, M W; Jensen, O; Fernandez, E; Iriarte, J A; Woollard, D J; Gauci, C G; Jenkins, D J; Heath, D D

    1999-04-01

    Experimental vaccine trials against hydatid disease have been undertaken in sheep using the EG95 recombinant vaccine. Challenge infection was with viable Echinococcus granulosus eggs obtained from a New Zealand isolate (dog/sheep cycle), an Australian isolate (dingo/wallaby cycle) and an Argentine isolate (dog/sheep cycle). Vaccination with EG95 conferred a high degree of protection against challenge with all three parasite isolates (protection range 96-100%). Taken together, the trials demonstrated that 86% of vaccinated sheep were completely free of viable hydatid cysts when examined approximately 1 year after challenge infection. Vaccination reduced the number of viable cysts by 99.3% compared with unvaccinated controls. These results suggest that the EG95 vaccine could have wide applicability as a new tool for use in hydatid control campaigns. PMID:10428628

  17. Presence of an Isolated Hydatid Cyst in the Left Kidney: Report of a Case of This Rare Condition Managed Surgically

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulos, Vassileios; Michalopoulos, Antonios

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Hydatid cyst disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus is rarely presented in the kidneys, whereas isolated renal occurrence is estimated to be about as low as 2–4% of all cases. We present a case of a female patient suffering from this condition that was treated successfully in our department. Case Presentation. A 44-year-old woman was incidentally diagnosed with a 14 cm left renal cystic mass through ultrasound imaging performed during upper abdominal pain investigation. Laboratory examinations were normal and CT imaging set the diagnosis of an isolated left renal hydatid cyst. The cyst was excised and the postoperative period was uneventful. Discussion. Isolated renal hydatid cyst is a very rare condition and could possibly be misdiagnosed with other renal masses. The clinical history, laboratory tests, and thorough radiologic imaging are crucial for the accurate preoperative diagnosis. PMID:27429832

  18. Presence of an Isolated Hydatid Cyst in the Left Kidney: Report of a Case of This Rare Condition Managed Surgically.

    PubMed

    Paramythiotis, Daniel; Bangeas, Petros; Kofina, Konstantinia; Papadopoulos, Vassileios; Michalopoulos, Antonios

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Hydatid cyst disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus is rarely presented in the kidneys, whereas isolated renal occurrence is estimated to be about as low as 2-4% of all cases. We present a case of a female patient suffering from this condition that was treated successfully in our department. Case Presentation. A 44-year-old woman was incidentally diagnosed with a 14 cm left renal cystic mass through ultrasound imaging performed during upper abdominal pain investigation. Laboratory examinations were normal and CT imaging set the diagnosis of an isolated left renal hydatid cyst. The cyst was excised and the postoperative period was uneventful. Discussion. Isolated renal hydatid cyst is a very rare condition and could possibly be misdiagnosed with other renal masses. The clinical history, laboratory tests, and thorough radiologic imaging are crucial for the accurate preoperative diagnosis. PMID:27429832

  19. Sudden death due to hydatid disease: a six-year study in the northern part of Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ben Khelil, Mehdi; Allouche, Mohamed; Banasr, Ahmed; Gloulou, Fatma; Benzarti, Anis; Zhioua, Mongi; Haouet, Slim; Hamdoun, Moncef

    2013-09-01

    Human ecchinococcosis also known as hydatid disease is a zoonotic infection caused by the tapeworm Ecchinococcus with 2-3 Million cases worldwide. We hereby report a 6 years period study of Sudden death due to hydatidosis aiming to analyze the epidemiological criteria, death circumstances, and autopsy observations attributed to hydatid disease. During the past 6 years, 26 death cases were due to hydatid disease. Our analysis shows that the sex ratio (M/F) was 1.6, the mean age was 31-year old, and 65% of the subjects lived in rural places. In 17 cases, death occurred in the victim's place, five victims died after a heavy exercise, and in two cases, death occurred immediately after trauma. At autopsy, 91% of the cysts were found in the liver. In three cases, death followed a septic state, and in two cases, it followed an acute respiratory failure. Death was attributed to anaphylaxis in 17 cases.

  20. [Pulmonary rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Senjyu, Hideaki

    2016-05-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation commenced in Japan in 1957. However, the development of pulmonary rehabilitation took a long time due to the lack of the necessary health and medical services. Pulmonary rehabilitation is a comprehensive intervention based on a thorough patient assessment followed by patient-tailored therapies that include, but are not limited to, exercise training, education, and behavior change, designed to improve the physical and psychological condition of people with chronic respiratory disease and to promote the long-term adherence to health-enhancing behaviors. The benefits of pulmonary rehabilitation include a decrease in breathlessness and an improvement in exercise tolerance. It is important that the gains in exercise tolerance lead to an increase in daily physical activity. PMID:27254948

  1. Pulmonary hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... that damage the lungs, such as scleroderma and rheumatoid arthritis Birth defects of the heart Blood clots in the lung ( pulmonary embolism ) Heart failure Heart valve disease HIV infection Low oxygen levels in the blood ...

  2. Pulmonary aspergilloma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Coccidioidomycosis Cystic fibrosis Histoplasmosis Lung abscess Lung cancer Sarcoidosis See also: Aspergillosis Symptoms You may not have ... fibrosis Histoplasmosis Lung cancer - small cell Pulmonary tuberculosis Sarcoidosis Update Date 8/31/2014 Updated by: Jatin ...

  3. Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is high blood pressure in the arteries to your lungs. It is a serious condition. If you have ... and you can develop heart failure. Symptoms of PH include Shortness of breath during routine activity, such ...

  4. Hydatid disease of spine: Multiple meticulous surgeries and a long term followup

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Akshay; Prasad, Gautam; Rustagi, Tarush; Bhojraj, Shekhar Y

    2014-01-01

    We present a long term followup (13 years) of spinal hydatid disease with multiple recurrences and intradural dissemination of the disease at the last followup. Intradural extension of the disease in our case was supposedly through the dural rent which has not been reported in English literature. An early followup of the same case has been reported previously by the authors. A 53 year-old female came with progressive left leg pain and difficulty in walking since 2 months. On examination, she had grade four power of ankle and digit dorsiflexors (L4 and L5 myotomes) on the left side (Medical Research Council grade). There was no sensory loss, no myelopathy and sphincters were intact. Plain radiographs showed consolidation at D10-D11 (old operated levels) with stable anterior column and there were no implant related problems. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a cystic lesion at L3-L4, signal intensity same as of cerebrospinal fluid in T2 and T1, displacing the cauda equina roots. The proximal extent of the lesion could not be identified because of artifacts from previous stainless steel instrumentation. Computed tomography myelogram showed complete block at L3-L4 junction with “meniscus sign”. This is the longest followup of hydatid disease of the spine that has ever been reported. Hydatid disease should always be included in the differential diagnosis of destructive or infectious lesions of the spine. Aggressive radical resection whenever possible and chemotherapy is the key to good results. Recurrence is known to occur even after that. Disease can have long remission periods. Possibility of intradural dissemination through dural injury is highly likely. Hence, it should always be repaired whenever possible. PMID:25298565

  5. Hydatid disease of spine: Multiple meticulous surgeries and a long term followup.

    PubMed

    Jain, Akshay; Prasad, Gautam; Rustagi, Tarush; Bhojraj, Shekhar Y

    2014-09-01

    We present a long term followup (13 years) of spinal hydatid disease with multiple recurrences and intradural dissemination of the disease at the last followup. Intradural extension of the disease in our case was supposedly through the dural rent which has not been reported in English literature. An early followup of the same case has been reported previously by the authors. A 53 year-old female came with progressive left leg pain and difficulty in walking since 2 months. On examination, she had grade four power of ankle and digit dorsiflexors (L4 and L5 myotomes) on the left side (Medical Research Council grade). There was no sensory loss, no myelopathy and sphincters were intact. Plain radiographs showed consolidation at D10-D11 (old operated levels) with stable anterior column and there were no implant related problems. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a cystic lesion at L3-L4, signal intensity same as of cerebrospinal fluid in T2 and T1, displacing the cauda equina roots. The proximal extent of the lesion could not be identified because of artifacts from previous stainless steel instrumentation. Computed tomography myelogram showed complete block at L3-L4 junction with "meniscus sign". This is the longest followup of hydatid disease of the spine that has ever been reported. Hydatid disease should always be included in the differential diagnosis of destructive or infectious lesions of the spine. Aggressive radical resection whenever possible and chemotherapy is the key to good results. Recurrence is known to occur even after that. Disease can have long remission periods. Possibility of intradural dissemination through dural injury is highly likely. Hence, it should always be repaired whenever possible.

  6. Albendazole therapy of hydatid disease: 2-year follow-up of 40 cases.

    PubMed

    el-Mufti, M; Kamag, A; Ibrahim, H; Taktuk, S; Swaisi, I; Zaidan, A; Sameen, A; Shimbish, F; Bouzghaiba, W; Haasi, S

    1993-06-01

    Forty patients with 63 Echinococcus granulosus cysts affecting different sites were treated with albendazole and have been followed up for at least 24 months from completion of therapy. Twenty-one patients (53%) with 37 cysts (59%) showed evidence of healing. The criteria and pattern of healing are outlined. The most serious complication of albendazole therapy was hepatoxic jaundice, which occurred in 5% of patients. Recurrence during the observation period was encountered in 9.5% of patients with a positive response. It is suggested that patients suffering from uncomplicated hydatid disease should be given the benefit of a trial course of albendazole therapy, before surgery is undertaken.

  7. [The surgical treatment of hydatid disease of liver and lungs: the state of art].

    PubMed

    Chernousov, A F; Musaev, G Kh; Abarshalina, M V

    2012-01-01

    Results of surgical treatment of 65 patients with the combined hydatid disease were analyzed. Lung invasion was combind with liver cysts in 57 patients, spleen -- in 2 patients, soft tissues of the thorax - in 2 patients and retroperitoneal cysts were found in 3 patients. Lung echinococcectomy with the use of minithoracotomy proved to be a method of choice. The access permits early recovery and shorter rehabilitation period, allowing to perform the second liver surgery on the 3--7th day after the first operation.

  8. The Postoperative Appearance of the Liver on Ultrasonography Following Hydatid Cyst Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ilter, Tankut

    1990-01-01

    The postoperative ultrasound pattern in 33 patients with previous surgery for unilocular hydatid disease of the liver was investigated. Each patient was submitted to liver scanning with 99mTc pertecnatate, as well as to real time ultrasound examination. The patients were divided into three groups according to the type of surgery performed, namely; omentopexy, introflexion and omentoplexy with introflexion. Postoperative liver scans revealed defects similar to those detected during initial diagnosis in 88% of the patients, regardless of the surgical procedure performed. On the contrary, ultrasonography gave separate specific patterns for each surgical procedure. PMID:2278923

  9. Types of Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Pulmonary Hypertension The World Health Organization divides pulmonary hypertension (PH) ... are called pulmonary hypertension.) Group 1 Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Group 1 PAH includes: PAH that has no ...

  10. Pulmonary embolism

    SciTech Connect

    Dunnick, N.R.; Newman, G.E.; Perlmutt, L.M.; Braun, S.D.

    1988-11-01

    Pulmonary embolism is a common medical problem whose incidence is likely to increase in our aging population. Although it is life-threatening, effective therapy exists. The treatment is not, however, without significant complications. Thus, accurate diagnosis is important. Unfortunately, the clinical manifestations of pulmonary embolism are nonspecific. Furthermore, in many patients the symptoms of an acute embolism are superimposed on underlying chronic heart or lung disease. Thus, a high index of suspicion is needed to identify pulmonary emboli. Laboratory parameters, including arterial oxygen tensions and electrocardiography, are as nonspecific as the clinical signs. They may be more useful in excluding another process than in diagnosing pulmonary embolism. The first radiologic examination is the chest radiograph, but the clinical symptoms are frequently out of proportion to the findings on the chest films. Classic manifestations of pulmonary embolism on the chest radiograph include a wedge-shaped peripheral opacity and a segmental or lobar diminution in vascularity with prominent central arteries. However, these findings are not commonly seen and, even when present, are not specific. Even less specific findings include cardiomegaly, pulmonary infiltrate, elevation of a hemidiaphragm, and pleural effusion. Many patients with pulmonary embolism may have a normal chest radiograph. The chest radiograph is essential, however, for two purposes. First, it may identify another cause of the patient's symptoms, such as a rib fracture, dissecting aortic aneurysm, or pneumothorax. Second, a chest radiograph is essential to interpretation of the radionuclide V/Q scan. The perfusion scan accurately reflects the perfusion of the lung. However, a perfusion defect may result from a variety of etiologies. Any process such as vascular stenosis or compression by tumor may restrict blood flow. 84 references.

  11. 9 CFR 311.25 - Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms. 311.25 Section 311.25 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY...

  12. 9 CFR 311.25 - Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms. 311.25 Section 311.25 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY...

  13. 9 CFR 311.25 - Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms. 311.25 Section 311.25 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY...

  14. Unstable giant gravitons

    SciTech Connect

    Mello Koch, Robert de; Ives, Norman; Smolic, Jelena; Smolic, Milena

    2006-03-15

    We find giant graviton solutions in Frolov's three parameter generalization of the Lunin-Maldacena background. The background we study has {gamma}-tilde{sub 1}=0 and {gamma}-tilde{sub 2}={gamma}-tilde{sub 3}={gamma}-tilde. This class of backgrounds provides a nonsupersymmetric example of the gauge theory/gravity correspondence that can be tested quantitatively, as recently shown by Frolov, Roiban, and Tseytlin. The giant graviton solutions we find have a greater energy than the point gravitons, making them unstable states. Despite this, we find striking quantitative agreement between the gauge theory and gravity descriptions of open strings attached to the giant.

  15. Modified PAIR Technique for Percutaneous Treatment of High-Risk Hydatid Cysts

    SciTech Connect

    Gabal, Abdelwahab M.; Khawaja, Fazal I.; Mohammad, Ghanem A.

    2005-04-15

    Purpose: This paper presents a modification of the known method for percutaneous treatment of hydatid cyst, the PAIR technique. It aimed to achieve safe aspiration of large symptomatic cysts and cysts with a danger of impending rupture. Methods: We designed a coaxial catheter system to achieve concomitant evacuation of cyst contents while infusing scolicidal agent. Hypertonic saline is used to wash out cyst contents and to kill protoscolices. This was followed by injection of a sclerosant (ethyl alcohol 95%) into the residual cyst cavity to prevent formation of a cyst collection after the procedure. Seventeen cysts in 14 patients were successfully aspirated. Follow-up plain radiographs, ultrasonography and CT were performed weekly in the first 4 weeks and then at 3, 6 and 12 months for all patients. Seven patients (9 drained cysts) were followed up for 2 years and 1 patient for 3 years. Results: All cysts were successfully aspirated. The following morphologic changes were noticed: a gradual decrease in cyst size (17 cysts, 100%), thickening and irregularity of the cyst wall due to separation of endocyst from pericyst (7 cysts, 41%), development of a heterogeneous appearance of the cyst components (8 cysts, 47%) and development of pseudotumor (2 cysts, 12%). None of the treated cysts disappeared completely. No significant procedure-related complications were encountered. Conclusion: This modified PAIR technique is a reliable method for percutaneous treatment of risky and symptomatic hydatid cysts.

  16. Modified PAIR Technique for Percutaneous Treatment of High-Risk Hydatid Cysts

    SciTech Connect

    Gabal, Abdelwahab M. Khawaja, Fazal I.; Mohammad, Ghanem A.

    2005-04-15

    Purpose. This paper presents a modification of the known method for percutaneous treatment of hydatid cyst, the PAIR technique. It aimed to achieve safe aspiration of large symptomatic cysts and cysts with a danger of impending rupture. Methods. We designed a coaxial catheter system to achieve concomitant evacuation of cyst contents while infusing scolicidal agent. Hypertonic saline is used to wash out cyst contents and to kill protoscolices. This was followed by injection of a sclerosant (ethyl alcohol 95%) into the residual cyst cavity to prevent formation of a cyst collection after the procedure. Seventeen cysts in 14 patients were successfully aspirated. Follow-up plain radiographs, ultrasonography and CT were performed weekly in the first 4 weeks and then at 3, 6 and 12 months for all patients. Seven patients (9 drained cysts) were followed up for 2 years and 1 patient for 3 years. Results. All cysts were successfully aspirated. The following morphologic changes were noticed: a gradual decrease in cyst size (17 cysts, 100%), thickening and irregularity of the cyst wall due to separation of endocyst from pericyst (7 cysts, 41%), development of a heterogeneous appearance of the cyst components (8 cysts, 47%) and development of pseudotumor (2 cysts, 12%). None of the treated cysts disappeared completely. No significant procedure-related complications were encountered. Conclusion. This modified PAIR technique is a reliable method for percutaneous treatment of risky and symptomatic hydatid cysts.

  17. Sudden death due to hydatid cyst: thirty-four medicolegal autopsy cases.

    PubMed

    Jedidi, Maher; Mlayeh, Souheil; Masmoudi, Tasnim; Souguir, Mohamed Kamel; Zemni, Majed

    2014-03-01

    The natural history of the echinococcosis can be studded with multiple complications; the most formidable is sudden death. We studied the epidemiological, pathological, and thanatological features of 34 sudden deaths due to hydatid cyst. The mean age was 33.2 years. A male predominance was observed with a sex ratio of 1.8. Most of our victims were from rural areas (79.4%). Sudden death was preceded by prodromal symptoms in 61.7% of cases. The most common was dyspnea (23.5%), followed by hemoptysis (11.8%). In 85.3% of cases, the cyst location was liver. It was cracked in 25 cases and broken in 6 cases. The rupture was spontaneous in 25 cases (73%). It was preceded by trauma in 7 cases. Death was related to an anaphylactic shock in 82.3% of cases, infection in 14.7%, and respiratory distress in 3% of cases. Sudden death is a serious and not exceptional complication of hydatid cyst. Several mechanisms may explain the sudden death. PMID:24317095

  18. [Hydatic pulmonary embolism complicating a cardiac hydatic cyst. A case report].

    PubMed

    Kammoun, Ikram; Ben Halima, Afef; Ammar, Jamel; Chine, Samira; Chaabane, Olfa; Zouaoui, Walid; Rebeh, Balsam; Keskes, Hend; Gargouri, Sami; Lefi, Abdellatif; Hamzaoui, Agnès; Kachboura, Salem

    2004-08-01

    Hydatic pulmonary embolism: complication of a cardiac hydatic cyst:a case report hydatic cardiac cyst is a rare condition and represents only 0.5 to 2% of all visceral localisations of the hydatid disease. We reported a 28 year old patient with a multiple hydatic pulmonary embolism caused by the rupture of a hydatic cyst of the interventricular septum. The diagnosis was established by transthoracic echocardiography and CT Scan. Surgery was performed without delay and the outcome was good after a five month follow-up. This case illustrates the diagnostic value of the non invasive imaging means in hydatic cyst of the heart and underlines the importance of surgery realized before complications occur.

  19. The Giant Cell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockdale, Dennis

    1998-01-01

    Provides directions for the construction of giant plastic cells, including details for building and installing the organelles. Also contains instructions for preparing the ribosomes, nucleolus, nucleus, and mitochondria. (DDR)

  20. The Next Giant Step

    NASA Video Gallery

    Artist Robert McCall painted "The Next Giant Step" in 1979 to commemorate the heroism and courage of spaceflight pioneers. Located in the lobby of Johnson's building 2, the mural depicts America's ...

  1. PULMONARY TOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pulmonary disease and dysfunction exact a tremendous health burden on society. In a recent survey of lung disease published by the American Lung Association in 2012, upwards of 10 million Americans were diagnosed with chronic bronchitis while over 4 million Americans had emphysem...

  2. Pulmonary ascariasis.

    PubMed

    Mukerjee, C M; Thompson, J E

    1979-07-28

    A case of pulmonary ascariasis is reported for the first time in Australia. Because of increasing immigration from countries which have a high incidence of ascariasis (especially those of South-East Asia), and increasing travel to Asian countries, the awareness of this infestation as a cause of respiratory disease may be of great importance. PMID:40103

  3. Pulmonary schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Hill, I R; Turk, E P

    1980-09-01

    Two cases are reported of the incidental finding of pulmonary schistosomiasis in the victims of a fatal aircraft accident. The presence of this disease had no bearing on the causation of the accident, but it gives insight into the potential hazards of dissemination of diseases by travellers. The finding also emphasises the value of routine postmortems and histology in all aircraft accident victims.

  4. Giant congenital melanocytic nevus.

    PubMed

    Viana, Ana Carolina Leite; Gontijo, Bernardo; Bittencourt, Flávia Vasques

    2013-01-01

    Giant congenital melanocytic nevus is usually defined as a melanocytic lesion present at birth that will reach a diameter ≥ 20 cm in adulthood. Its incidence is estimated in <1:20,000 newborns. Despite its rarity, this lesion is important because it may associate with severe complications such as malignant melanoma, affect the central nervous system (neurocutaneous melanosis), and have major psychosocial impact on the patient and his family due to its unsightly appearance. Giant congenital melanocytic nevus generally presents as a brown lesion, with flat or mammilated surface, well-demarcated borders and hypertrichosis. Congenital melanocytic nevus is primarily a clinical diagnosis. However, congenital nevi are histologically distinguished from acquired nevi mainly by their larger size, the spread of the nevus cells to the deep layers of the skin and by their more varied architecture and morphology. Although giant congenital melanocytic nevus is recognized as a risk factor for the development of melanoma, the precise magnitude of this risk is still controversial. The estimated lifetime risk of developing melanoma varies from 5 to 10%. On account of these uncertainties and the size of the lesions, the management of giant congenital melanocytic nevus needs individualization. Treatment may include surgical and non-surgical procedures, psychological intervention and/or clinical follow-up, with special attention to changes in color, texture or on the surface of the lesion. The only absolute indication for surgery in giant congenital melanocytic nevus is the development of a malignant neoplasm on the lesion.

  5. Safety of the Combined Use of Praziquantel and Albendazole in the Treatment of Human Hydatid Disease

    PubMed Central

    Alvela-Suárez, Lucía; Velasco-Tirado, Virginia; Belhassen-Garcia, Moncef; Novo-Veleiro, Ignacio; Pardo-Lledías, Javier; Romero-Alegría, Angela; Pérez del Villar, Luis; Valverde-Merino, María Paz; Cordero-Sánchez, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    There is still no well-established consensus about the clinical management of hydatidosis. Currently, surgery continues to be the first therapeutic option, although treatment with anti-parasitic drugs is indicated as an adjuvant to surgery to decrease the number of relapses and hydatid cyst size. When surgery is not possible, medical treatment is indicated. Traditionally, albendazole was used in monotherapy as the standard treatment. However, combined therapy with albendazole plus praziquantel appears to improve anti-parasitic effectiveness. To date, no safety studies focusing on such combined therapy have been published for the treatment of hydatidosis. In this work, we analyze the adverse effects seen in 57 patients diagnosed with hydatidosis who were treated with praziquantel plus albendazole combined therapy between 2006 and 2010. PMID:24615131

  6. Assessment of liver hydatid cyst cases--10 years experience in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Mergen, Haluk; Genç, Hüdai; Tavusbay, Cengiz

    2007-01-01

    We analysed 73 hydatid cyst patients according to their age, gender, localization, number of cysts, infectivity, symptoms, physical examination findings, presence of accompanying diseases, and diagnostic methods. Female/male ratio was 1.6/1. In total, 69% of cases had a single cyst and 31% multiple cysts. Of the cysts, 61% were in form of "eau de roche" and the rest infective. The mean age was 42.3 years, ranging from 18 to 85 years. The most common symptom was abdominal pain in 74% of patients. Right lobe involvement was encountered in 65% of cases, left lobe in 13%, and left and right in 8%. In 27% of patients, cholelithiasis was the most common accompanying disease. As an imaging technique ultrasound was the most commonly used diagnostic technique. PMID:17326896

  7. [Pelvic hydatid cyst: differential diagnosis with a bacterial abscess with cutaneous fistula].

    PubMed

    de Lavaissiere, M; Voronca, C; Ranz, I; Pirame, M; Hounieu, H; Carreiro, M

    2012-10-01

    The genus Echinococcus is a worldwide tapeworm with a two host mammalian cycle. Among the six described species, Echinococcus granulosus (EG) and Echinococcus multilocularis are the most important in respect to their public health importance. Infected human, as an intermediate accidental host, presents single to several cysts, mainly located in the liver. We are describing the clinical, radiological and histological findings of a woman born in Morocco, recently arrived in France and presenting a pelvic hydatid cyst. The misknowledge of such a diagnosis conducted to initial surgery and thus a risk of further metastasised lesions. We are suggesting that any hypoechogenic pelvic lesion in a patient originated from a Mediterranean country should be considered as a pelvic localization of EG.

  8. The case of a cyst hydatid localized within the interatrial septum.

    PubMed

    Karabay, Ozalp; Onen, Ahmet; Yildiz, Fidan; Yilmaz, Erkan; Erdal, Cenk A; Sanli, Aydin; Kilci, Göksel; Algin, Ibrahim; Itil, Oya; Açikel, Unal

    2004-07-01

    The ratio of cardiac involvement of Echinoccocus granulosus is 0.02-2% and although seen rarely, involvement of the interatrial septum has also been reported in the published literature. The present case was a 19-year-old male university student admitted to hospital with complaints of headache and dizziness. Computerized tomography of the cranium revealed a cystic mass located at the frontal region and enucleation of the cyst was performed during surgery. A cystic lesion 5 x 4 cm in size was detected within the interatrial septum on two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography during the postoperative period and the patient was referred to our clinic. Open heart surgery was performed and a hydatid cyst that involved the interatrial septum was enucleated. The cyst wall was sutured to the interatrial septum. No complications developed during the postoperative period. The patient was discharged on the fifth day of hospitalization and medical therapy was started with albendazole. PMID:15353883

  9. The case of a cyst hydatid localized within the interatrial septum.

    PubMed

    Karabay, Ozalp; Onen, Ahmet; Yildiz, Fidan; Yilmaz, Erkan; Erdal, Cenk A; Sanli, Aydin; Kilci, Göksel; Algin, Ibrahim; Itil, Oya; Açikel, Unal

    2004-07-01

    The ratio of cardiac involvement of Echinoccocus granulosus is 0.02-2% and although seen rarely, involvement of the interatrial septum has also been reported in the published literature. The present case was a 19-year-old male university student admitted to hospital with complaints of headache and dizziness. Computerized tomography of the cranium revealed a cystic mass located at the frontal region and enucleation of the cyst was performed during surgery. A cystic lesion 5 x 4 cm in size was detected within the interatrial septum on two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography during the postoperative period and the patient was referred to our clinic. Open heart surgery was performed and a hydatid cyst that involved the interatrial septum was enucleated. The cyst wall was sutured to the interatrial septum. No complications developed during the postoperative period. The patient was discharged on the fifth day of hospitalization and medical therapy was started with albendazole.

  10. In Vitro Study of Nitric Oxide Metabolites Effects on Human Hydatid of Echinococcus granulosus.

    PubMed

    Zeghir-Bouteldja, Razika; Amri, Manel; Aitaissa, Saliha; Bouaziz, Samia; Mezioug, Dalila; Touil-Boukoffa, Chafia

    2009-01-01

    Hydatidosis is characterized by the long-term coexistence of larva Echinococcus granulosus and its host without effective rejection. Previous studies demonstrated nitric oxide (NO) production (in vivo and in vitro) during hydatidosis. In this study, we investigated the direct in vitro effects of NO species: nitrite (NO(2) (-)), nitrate (NO(3) (-)) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) on protoscolices (PSCs) viability and hydatid cyst layers integrity for 24 hours and 48 hours. Our results showed protoscolicidal activity of NO(2) (-) and ONOO(-) 24 hours and 3 hours after treatment with 320 muM and 80 muM respectively. Degenerative effects were observed on germinal and laminated layers. The comparison of the in vitro effects of NO species on the PSCs viability indicated that ONOO(-) is more cytotoxic than NO(2) (-). In contrast, NO(3) (-) has no effect. These results suggest possible involvement of NO(2) (-) and ONOO(-) in antihydatic action and point the efficacy of these metabolites as scolicidal agents.

  11. Locally recurrent subcutaneous and muscular hydatid cysts of the leg: an unusual case report.

    PubMed

    Ouakrim, Redouane; Amziane, Zouhir; Younes, Ouchrif; Eloukili, Issam; Kharmaz, Mohammed; Lamrani, Moulay Omar; Elbardouni, Ahmed; Mahfoud, Mustapha; Saleh, Berrada Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of 50-year-old Moroccan woman with local recurrence of a subcutaneous hydatid cyst in proximity to the medial surface of the tibia and another cyst at the tibialis posterior muscle in the absence of liver, lung und spleen involvement. The first surgery was done in another hospital three years ago; no adjuvant treatment was performed after surgery. Recurrence was diagnosed according to the MRI appearance, serological and pathological findings. The patient underwent complete excision of the subcutaneous cyst with two centimeters of the medial gastrocnemius muscle; the tibialis posterior muscle cyst was intraoperatively drained and irrigated with scolicidal agent as it was next to the posterior tibial pedicle. A periopertive anthelmintic chemotherapy was administered. Two years after the patient showed no recurrence. This case report and literature review describe an approach to the diagnosis and management of this pathological entity. PMID:26587132

  12. Safety of the combined use of praziquantel and albendazole in the treatment of human hydatid disease.

    PubMed

    Alvela-Suárez, Lucía; Velasco-Tirado, Virginia; Belhassen-Garcia, Moncef; Novo-Veleiro, Ignacio; Pardo-Lledías, Javier; Romero-Alegría, Angela; Pérez del Villar, Luis; Valverde-Merino, María Paz; Cordero-Sánchez, Miguel

    2014-05-01

    There is still no well-established consensus about the clinical management of hydatidosis. Currently, surgery continues to be the first therapeutic option, although treatment with anti-parasitic drugs is indicated as an adjuvant to surgery to decrease the number of relapses and hydatid cyst size. When surgery is not possible, medical treatment is indicated. Traditionally, albendazole was used in monotherapy as the standard treatment. However, combined therapy with albendazole plus praziquantel appears to improve anti-parasitic effectiveness. To date, no safety studies focusing on such combined therapy have been published for the treatment of hydatidosis. In this work, we analyze the adverse effects seen in 57 patients diagnosed with hydatidosis who were treated with praziquantel plus albendazole combined therapy between 2006 and 2010. PMID:24615131

  13. Predictive model of biliocystic communication in liver hydatid cysts using classification and regression tree analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Incidence of liver hydatid cyst (LHC) rupture ranged 15%-40% of all cases and most of them concern the bile duct tree. Patients with biliocystic communication (BCC) had specific clinic and therapeutic aspect. The purpose of this study was to determine witch patients with LHC may develop BCC using classification and regression tree (CART) analysis Methods A retrospective study of 672 patients with liver hydatid cyst treated at the surgery department "A" at Ibn Sina University Hospital, Rabat Morocco. Four-teen risk factors for BCC occurrence were entered into CART analysis to build an algorithm that can predict at the best way the occurrence of BCC. Results Incidence of BCC was 24.5%. Subgroups with high risk were patients with jaundice and thick pericyst risk at 73.2% and patients with thick pericyst, with no jaundice 36.5 years and younger with no past history of LHC risk at 40.5%. Our developed CART model has sensitivity at 39.6%, specificity at 93.3%, positive predictive value at 65.6%, a negative predictive value at 82.6% and accuracy of good classification at 80.1%. Discriminating ability of the model was good 82%. Conclusion we developed a simple classification tool to identify LHC patients with high risk BCC during a routine clinic visit (only on clinical history and examination followed by an ultrasonography). Predictive factors were based on pericyst aspect, jaundice, age, past history of liver hydatidosis and morphological Gharbi cyst aspect. We think that this classification can be useful with efficacy to direct patients at appropriated medical struct's. PMID:20398342

  14. Major liver resection for recurrent hydatid cyst of the liver after suboptimal treatment.

    PubMed

    Vennarecci, Giovanni; Manfredelli, Simone; Guglielmo, Nicola; Laurenzi, Andrea; Goletti, Delia; Ettorre, Giuseppe Maria

    2016-06-01

    Recurrent hydatid disease (HD) of the liver after a previous suboptimal invasive treatment is a clinical situation not well codified in terms of management and surgical treatment. Between June 2001 and July 2015, 1525 liver resection were performed at our unit, of whom 217 were with a laparoscopic and 20 with a robotic approach. The most common indications were hepatocellular carcinoma grown on a cirrhotic liver and colorectal metastasis. During the same period, we performed liver surgery for HD in 34 patients (21 females, 13 males). This retrospective study focused on the management and surgical treatment of three unusual cases of recurrent hydatid cyst. All patients had a course of perioperative albendazole. Thirty-four patients had a surgical treatment [open surgery in 30 (88 %) and laparoscopic in four (12 %)]. Surgical procedures were classified as radical resections in 33 patients [total cystopericystectomy (10), left lateral hepatectomy (5), left hepatectomy (2), right hepatectomy (7), segmentectomy/bisegmentectomy (9)]. One patient underwent subtotal pericystectomy as the cyst was close to a major vascular pedicle in a cirrhotic liver. Post operative complications of grade I-II occurred in 11 (32 %) patients, of grade III-IV in one (3 %). Three patients had HD recurrence after a previous suboptimal invasive treatment [PAIR (2), unroofing (1)] and all had to undergo a major liver resection for the complete removal of parasites. The HD first relapse rate for the whole surgical series was 3 %. The second relapse rate was 33 %. The overall survival rate was 100 %. Operations for recurrent HD of the liver represent a surgical challenge due to volume of the cyst, presence of adhesions related to previous invasive treatments and proximity to major vascular structures of the liver. In such instances, pericystectomy can be difficultly achieved making necessary a formal major liver resection.

  15. Major liver resection for recurrent hydatid cyst of the liver after suboptimal treatment.

    PubMed

    Vennarecci, Giovanni; Manfredelli, Simone; Guglielmo, Nicola; Laurenzi, Andrea; Goletti, Delia; Ettorre, Giuseppe Maria

    2016-06-01

    Recurrent hydatid disease (HD) of the liver after a previous suboptimal invasive treatment is a clinical situation not well codified in terms of management and surgical treatment. Between June 2001 and July 2015, 1525 liver resection were performed at our unit, of whom 217 were with a laparoscopic and 20 with a robotic approach. The most common indications were hepatocellular carcinoma grown on a cirrhotic liver and colorectal metastasis. During the same period, we performed liver surgery for HD in 34 patients (21 females, 13 males). This retrospective study focused on the management and surgical treatment of three unusual cases of recurrent hydatid cyst. All patients had a course of perioperative albendazole. Thirty-four patients had a surgical treatment [open surgery in 30 (88 %) and laparoscopic in four (12 %)]. Surgical procedures were classified as radical resections in 33 patients [total cystopericystectomy (10), left lateral hepatectomy (5), left hepatectomy (2), right hepatectomy (7), segmentectomy/bisegmentectomy (9)]. One patient underwent subtotal pericystectomy as the cyst was close to a major vascular pedicle in a cirrhotic liver. Post operative complications of grade I-II occurred in 11 (32 %) patients, of grade III-IV in one (3 %). Three patients had HD recurrence after a previous suboptimal invasive treatment [PAIR (2), unroofing (1)] and all had to undergo a major liver resection for the complete removal of parasites. The HD first relapse rate for the whole surgical series was 3 %. The second relapse rate was 33 %. The overall survival rate was 100 %. Operations for recurrent HD of the liver represent a surgical challenge due to volume of the cyst, presence of adhesions related to previous invasive treatments and proximity to major vascular structures of the liver. In such instances, pericystectomy can be difficultly achieved making necessary a formal major liver resection. PMID:27126358

  16. [Pulmonary melioidosis].

    PubMed

    Perret, J L; Vidal, D; Thibault, F

    1998-12-01

    Melioidosis is most frequently encountered in pulmonary localization. Melioidosis is an infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei first described by Whitmore in 1912 in Burma. B. pseudomallei is a Gram negative rod belonging to the Pseudomonadaceae family. Soil and water are the natural reservoirs for the germ which is a specific pathogen for several mammal species. Long endemic in Southeast Asia and several tropical zones, B. pseudomallei has recently been found in temperate zones, including France. Human contamination occurs via the transcutaneous route and often leads to dormant inapparent infection. Many conditions, such as diabetes, renal lithiasis, various circumstances of immunodepression or stress, facilitate clinical manifestations which vary greatly. Pulmonary manifestations may be acute and extensive, producing a torpid pseudo-tuberculous condition or a variety of clinical and radiological features mimicking other diseases. Bacteriological and serological tests may be negative. Exposure in an endemic zone, the notion of a favorable context, weight loss, cavitary images on successive chest x-rays and the presence of extra-pulmonary localizations may be suggestive. Ceftazidime or the amoxicillin-clavulanic acid combination are indicated, but mortality in acute forms still reaches 40%. Relapse can be expected if the treatment duration is too short. PMID:10100350

  17. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Is Pulmonary Hypertension? To understand pulmonary hypertension (PH) it helps to understand how blood ows throughout ... is too high, it is called pulmonary hypertension (PH). How the pressure in the right side of ...

  18. What Causes Pulmonary Hypertension?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Pulmonary Hypertension? Pulmonary hypertension (PH) begins with inflammation and changes in the ... different types of PH. Group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) may have no known cause, or the ...

  19. Giant colon diverticulum.

    PubMed

    Chater, C; Saudemont, A; Zerbib, P

    2015-11-01

    Giant colonic diverticulum is defined by a diverticulum whose diameter is greater than 4 cm. This is a rare entity, arising mainly in the sigmoid colon. The diagnosis is based on abdominal computed tomography that shows a gas-filled structure communicating with the adjacent colon, with a smooth, thin diverticular wall that does not enhance after injection of contrast. Surgical treatment is recommended even in asymptomatic diverticula, due to the high prevalence and severity of complications. The gold standard treatment is segmental colectomy. Some authors propose a diverticulectomy when the giant diverticulum is unique.

  20. Clinical Outcome and Immune Follow-Up of Different Surgical Approaches for Human Cyst Hydatid Disease in Liver

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xinhua; Chen, Xinmei; Shao, Yingmei; Zhao, Jingming; Li, Haitao; Wen, Hao

    2014-01-01

    A new surgical approach (subadventitial cystectomy) has been developed for liver hydatid disease. We retrospectively compared clinical outcomes and immune status 24 months after a subadventitial cystectomy with traditional surgical approaches. Patients with liver hydatid cysts were treated with a subadventitial cystectomy (N = 11), pericystectomy (N = 16), partial pericystectomy (N = 18), or hepatic resection (N = 12). By the end of the follow-up period, the subadventitial cystectomy group had the fewest post-operative complications and shortest hospital stays. Two recurrences occurred: one recurrence after partial pericystectomy and one recurrence after pericystectomy. The total immunoglobulin E (IgE) level decreased significantly in the subadventitial cystectomy group. The post-surgery IgG level was lower in the subadventitial cystectomy than the pericystectomy and partial pericystectomy groups. In conclusion, subadventitial cystectomy completely removes the parasite, causing lower complication rates and lower immune reactions. PMID:25070996

  1. [Primary hydatid cyst of the adrenal gland in a patient with situs inversus. A one-case report].

    PubMed

    Baraket, O; Zribi, R; Berriche, A; Chokki, A

    2010-12-01

    Primary hydatid cyst of the adrenal gland remains an exceptional localization. The adrenal gland is an uncommon site even in our country in which echinococcal disease is endemic. We report the case of a 38-year-old woman who consulted for left back pain. The CT scan showed a cystic mass in the left retroperitoneal area with a calcified wall. The patient underwent surgery which confirmed a diagnosis of hydatid cyst of the left adrenal gland. The surgical treatment consisted on a total resection of the cyst, without rupture of the cystic wall and preserving the gland. The diagnosis was confirmed on macroscopic and histological examination of the resected piece. The postoperative course was uneventful. No recurrence had occurred after 36 months of follow-up.

  2. Molecular Characterization of Echinococcus granulosus from Hydatid Cysts Isolated from Human and Animals in Golestan Province, North of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Gholami, Sh; Sosari, M; Fakhar, M; Sharif, M; Daryani, A; Hashemi, MB; Vahadi, M

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to determine the molecular characteristics of Echinococcus granulosus from paraffin-embedded tissues of hydatid cysts isolated from human and protoscoleces of hydatid cysts from sheep, cattle and camel isolates using PCR- RFLP of ITS1- rDNA analysis in Golestan Province, northern Iran. Methods E. granulosus isolates from human patients infected with hydatid cyst and protoscoleces from hydatid cysts of sheep, cattle and camel isolates were collected from different hospitals and the abattoir throughout the Golestan Province. In all, 60 E. granulosus genomic DNA were extracted and examined by PCR - ITS1 of rDNA and amplified using BD1 / 4S and EGF1 / EGR2 primers, followed by RFLP using Alu1, Msp1 and TaqI restriction enzymes. Results The PCR-ITS1 products obtained from sheep, cattle and human isolates were similar to sheep strain (1000 bp and 391 bp). Majority of the camel samples yielded 295 bp DNA bands. RFLP -ITS1 of E. granulosus with Taq1 in human, sheep and cattle isolates showed similar patterns in the number and size of DNA. RFLP methods in camel isolates showed a different genotype, using Taq1, whereas no DNA bands were observed using Alu1 in camel and human isolates. Therefore, two clearly distinguishable banding patterns of E. granulosus were obtained with the three enzymes, which separating human, sheep and cattle isolates from the camel origin. Conclusion The results indicate the possible of transmission of the G1 and G6 genotypes of E. granulosus between livestock animals and human in Golestan Province. PMID:23323086

  3. Comparison of Scolicidal Effects of Amphotricin B, Silver Nanoparticles,_and Foeniculum vulgare Mill on Hydatid Cysts Protoscoleces

    PubMed Central

    LASHKARIZADEH, Mohammad Reza; ASGARIPOUR, Keivan; SAEDI DEZAKI, Ebrahim; FASIHI HARANDI, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Surgery is the preferred treatment for hydatid cyst (cystic echinococcosis, CE). At present, various scolicidal agents have been used for inactivation of protoscoleces during surgery, but they are associated with adverse side effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the scolicidal effects of amphotricin B, Silver nano particles, Foeniculum vulgare Mill, essential oil and hypertonic saline against protoscoleces of hydatid cyst on an in vitro model. Methods: Protoscoleces were aseptically aspirated from the naturally infected livers of sheep and goats. Various concentrations of AmB (2.5–20 mg/ml), Ag-NPs (0.5–4 mg/ml), F. vulgare essential oil (0.125–1 mg/ml) and hypertonic saline (10–20%) were used for 5–60 min. Eosin exclusion test was used to determine the viability of protoscoleces. Results: Maximum protoscolicidal effect of AmB and Ag-NPs was found at concentrations of 20 and 4 mg/mL, resulting in only 82.3% and 71.6% of the protoscoleces after 60 min of incubation, respectively. In contrast, F. vulgare essential oil at concentration of 1 mg/ml and hypertonic saline 20% killed 100% protoscoleces after 5 and 10 min of exposure, respectively. Conclusion: The results indicated weak scolicidal activity of AmB and Ag-NPs; whereas F. vulgare essential oil had potent scolicidal activity against protoscoleces of hydatid cyst that revealed the potential of F. vulgare as a natural source for the production of new scolicidal agent for use in hydatid cyst surgery. However, further studies will be needed to confirm these results by checking the essential oil and its active component in the in vivo model. PMID:26246818

  4. Simple pulmonary eosinophilia

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary infiltrates with eosinophilia; Loffler syndrome; Eosinophilic pneumonia; Pneumonia - eosinophilic ... simple pulmonary eosinophilia is a severe type of pneumonia called acute idiopathic eosinophilic pneumonia.

  5. Outcome of minimal surgery for hydatid cysts of the liver in children with reference to post-operative biliary leakage.

    PubMed

    Gahukamble, D B; Khamage, A S; Gahukamble, L D

    2000-06-01

    Analysis of 30 children with hydatid cysts of the liver who were treated by partial pericystectomy and external tube drainage showed that five (21%) of 24 cases in whom clear hydatid fluid was observed during surgery developed biliary leakage. The cysts in the remaining six contained bile-stained fluid, indicating the presence of cystobiliary communications, and five of these children continued to drain bile post-operatively, in spite of appropriate precautions taken during surgery. Histological examination of the pericyst wall confirmed the presence of openings of small bile ducts in the cyst which probably caused the biliary leak. It is possible that some larger openings were overlooked during surgery. It is concluded from this study that biliary leakage during the post-operative period should be expected in a significant number of patients subjected to surgery for hydatid cysts of the liver. However, the leak is likely to cease spontaneously, providing distal biliary duct obstruction is ruled out and external tube drainage is used to prevent accumulation of bile in the pericyst cavity. PMID:10945067

  6. Pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary artery dissection

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa, Ricardo de Amorim; Silva, Luciana Cristina dos Santos; Rezende, Cláudia Juliana; Bernardes, Rodrigo Castro; Prata, Tarciane Aline; Silva, Henrique Lima

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary artery dissection is a fatal complication of long-standing pulmonary hypertension, manifesting as acute, stabbing chest pain, progressive dyspnea, cardiogenic shock, or sudden death. Its incidence has been underestimated, and therapeutic options are still scarce. In patients with pulmonary hypertension, new chest pain, acute chest pain, or cardiogenic shock should raise the suspicion of pulmonary artery dissection, which can result in sudden death. PMID:23670510

  7. [Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma mimicking pulmonary carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Uçvet, Ahmet; Tözüm, Halil; Gürsoy, Soner; Gülle, Ali Alper; Yaldiz, Sadik; Aydoğdu Dinç, Zekiye

    2006-01-01

    Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma is a rare fibrosing nodular disease of the lung characterized by solitary or multiple pulmonary nodules. They can occur after inflammatory or post-inflammatory changes. A 60 years old asymptomatic patient admitted to our clinic because of a solid mass of 6 cm in his routine chest radiography. A lobectomy was performed and the histological diagnosis was reported as pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma. This case, mimicking pulmonary carcinoma, is rarely found in the literature. PMID:16615022

  8. Multiple bilateral pulmonary nodules masquerading as pulmonary metastasis; a case of nodular sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Jafari, Mostafa; Farrokh, Donya; Mohammadpanah, Najmeh

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multi-system inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology that is manifested by the presence of non-caseating granulomas. Multiple pulmonary nodules are rare presentations of sarcoidosis. We report a case of nodular sarcoidosis in a young male of Middle-East origin who had initially presented with bilateral painful ankle edema. His chest X-ray showed multiple bilateral pulmonary nodules. A high resolution computed tomography scan of the chest demonstrated multiple pulmonary nodular lesions and also mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy. Subsequent biopsies revealed non-necrotizing granuloma with multi-nucleated giant cells indicative of sarcoidosis. An appropriate work-up was done to confirm the true nature of the nodules and facilitate treatment. PMID:27757192

  9. Postoperative Acute Pulmonary Embolism Following Pulmonary Resections

    PubMed Central

    Shonyela, Felix Samuel; Liu, Bo; Jiao, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative acute pulmonary embolism after pulmonary resections is highly fatal complication. Many literatures have documented cancer to be the highest risk factor for acute pulmonary embolism after pulmonary resections. Early diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism is highly recommended and computed tomographic pulmonary angiography is the gold standard in diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism. Anticoagulants and thrombolytic therapy have shown a great success in treatment of acute pulmonary embolism. Surgical therapies (embolectomy and inferior vena cava filter replacement) proved to be lifesaving but many literatures favored medical therapy as the first choice. Prophylaxis pre and post operation is highly recommended, because there were statistical significant results in different studies which supported the use of prophylaxis in prevention of acute pulmonary embolism. Having reviewed satisfactory number of literatures, it is suggested that thoroughly preoperative assessment of patient conditions, determining their risk factors complicating to pulmonary embolism and the use of appropriate prophylaxis measures are the key options to the successful minimization or eradication of acute pulmonary embolism after lung resections. PMID:26354232

  10. Giant intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Vilallonga, Ramon; Zafón, Carlos; Migone, Raul; Baena, Juan Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is not an uncommon endocrine disorder. However, acute primary hyperparathyroidism, or parathyroid crisis (PC), is a rare clinical entity characterized by life-threatening hypercalcemia of a sudden onset in patients with PHPT. We describe a patient with PC who presented with acute worsening of depressive symptoms, nausea and vomiting, and required emergency surgery. Serum calcium, alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone were elevated and serum phosphorus was low. An emergency hemithyroidectomy was performed because of none medical control of hypercalcemia. A giant intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma was diagnosed. PHTP can be a life-threatening situation for patients, requiring immediate surgical treatment. A giant intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma is an uncommon cause of PC. PMID:22787355

  11. Giant cell arteritis

    PubMed Central

    Calvo-Romero, J

    2003-01-01

    Giant cell arteritis (GCA), temporal arteritis or Horton's arteritis, is a systemic vasculitis which involves large and medium sized vessels, especially the extracranial branches of the carotid arteries, in persons usually older than 50 years. Permanent visual loss, ischaemic strokes, and thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms are feared complications of GCA. The treatment consists of high dose steroids. Mortality, with a correct treatment, in patients with GCA seems to be similar that of controls. PMID:13679546

  12. Giant thymic carcinoid.

    PubMed

    John, L C; Hornick, P; Lang, S; Wallis, J; Edmondson, S J

    1991-05-01

    Thymic carcinoid is a rare tumour. It may present with ectopic endocrine secretion or with symptoms of compression as a result of its size. A case is reported which presented with symptoms of compression where the size of the tumour was uniquely large such as to warrant the term giant thymic carcinoid. The typical histological features are described, together with its possible origin and its likely prognosis.

  13. Ice Giant Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rymer, A. M.; Arridge, C. S.; Masters, A.; Turtle, E. P.; Simon, A. A.; Hofstadter, M. D.; Turrini, D.; Politi, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Ice Giants in our solar system, Uranus and Neptune, are fundamentally different from their Gas Giant siblings Jupiter and Saturn, from the different proportions of rock and ice to the configuration of their planetary magnetic fields. Kepler space telescope discoveries of exo-planets indicate that planets of this type are among the most ubiquitous universally and therefore a future mission to explore the nature of the Ice Giants in our own solar system will provide insights into the nature of extra-solar system objects in general. Uranus has the smallest self- luminosity of all the planets, potentially related to catastrophic events early in the planet's history, which also may explain Uranus' large obliquity. Uranus' atmosphere is subject to extreme seasonal forcing making it unique in the Solar System. Neptune is also unique in a number of ways, notably its large moon Triton which is likely a captured Kuiper Belt Object and one of only two moons in the solar system with a robustly collisional atmosphere. Similar to Uranus, the angle between the solar wind and the magnetic dipole axis is subject to large-amplitude variations on both diurnal and seasonal timescales, but peculiarly it has one of the quietest magnetospheres of the solar system, at least according to Voyager 2, the only spacecraft to encounter Neptune to date. A comprehensive mission, as advocated in the Decadal Survey, would provide enormous science return but is also challenging and expensive. In this presentation we will discuss mission scenarios and suggest how collaboration between disciplines and internationally can help us to pursue a mission that includes Ice Giant exploration.

  14. Anticestodal Activity of Endophytic Pestalotiopsis sp. on Protoscoleces of Hydatid Cyst Echinococcus granulosus

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Vijay C.; Yashpal, Madhu; Nath, Gopal

    2013-01-01

    Surgery is still the main treatment in hydatidosis caused by Echinococcus, which is a global health problem in human and animals. So, there is need for some natural protoscolicidal agents for instillation to prevent their reoccurrence at therapeutic doses. In this present investigation, anticestodal activity of one of the endophytic fungi Pestalotiopsis sp. from Neem plant was observed on protoscoleces of hydatid cysts of Echinococcus granulosus. Viability of protoscoleces was confirmed by 0.1% aqueous eosin red stain method, where mortality was observed at different concentrations with respect to time. An average anticestodal activity was observed with different endophytic fungal strains, that is, Nigrospora (479 ± 2.9), Colletotrichum (469 ± 25.8), Fusarium (355 ± 14.5), and Chaetomium (332 ± 28.3) showing 64 to 70% protoscolicidal activity, except Pestalotiopsis sp. (581 ± 15.0), which showed promising scolicidal activity up to 97% mortality just within 30 min of incubation. These species showed significant reduction in viability of protoscoleces. This is the first report on the scolicidal activity of endophytic Pestalotiopsis sp. We conclude that ultrastructural changes in protoscoleces were due to endophytic extract suggesting that there may be some bioactive compounds that have selective action on the tegument layer of protoscoleces. As compared with that of standard drug used, endophytic species of Neem plant shows significant anticestodal activity. PMID:24063003

  15. The Avaibility of Strain Elastography in a Hydatid Cyst – Interobserver Study

    PubMed Central

    Duymuş, Mahmut; Menzilcioğlu, Mehmet Sait; Gök, Mustafa; Erdem, Ahmet; Avcu, Serhat; Kırış, Adem

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background To differentiate the hydatid cyst (HC) types by ultrasound elastography using two different sizes (4 mm and 8 mm) of the region of interest (ROI) and asking two different radiologists (interobserver) for their opinion. Material/Methods Patients with HC were evaluated by USG elastography. The statistical anayses were performed using Strain index (SI) which is the unit of strain elastography. Results A total of 26 out of 33 patients were female, and 7 were male. The mean age was 38.85±17.62 (range from 10 to 72 years). Type I: 6, Type 2: 6, Type III: 6, Type IV: 11, Type V: 4. There was no significant difference in HC SI (regardless of types) between O1 and O2, and 4-mm and 8-mm ROI (p>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between SI of HC types of interobservers (O1–O2) and ROI sizes (4–8 mm) (p>0.05 for all parameters). The highest correlation between HC types and ROI sizes was in ROI size of 4 mm. Conclusions The correlation between SI and types was reliable in standard-applied 4-mm ROI. There was no statistically significant difference between interobservers in SI values. Thus, elastography tecnhnique is objective for HC but not appropriate to differentiate the types. PMID:27429674

  16. A case of pulmonary acariasis in lung of Japanese macaque.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, E; Sato, T; Shirai, W; Kimura, J; Nogami, S; Itou, M; Shimizu, K

    2001-01-01

    A 20-year-old female Japanese macaque, weighing 8.7 kg, developed severe pulmonary acariasis. Numerous whitish nodules, 2-4 mm, were scattered throughout the lungs. Histologically multifocal granulomatous lesions consisting of a large number of eosinophils, epithelioid cells, foreign body type giant cells, and collagen fibers were aggregated around the mait bodies. Numerous mast cells were also detected in the lesions by toluidine blue staining, and tested positive for tryptase by immunohistochemistry. This may be the first reported case of severe pulmonary acariasis in a Japanese macaque.

  17. Pulmonary endarterectomy after pulmonary infectious embolisms

    PubMed Central

    Heiberg, Johan; Ilkjær, Lars B.

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) is a well-established procedure in the treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTPH). The procedure is known to increase functional outcome and to raise the 5-year survival rate. We report 2 cases of pulmonary valve endocarditis and secondary embolisms causing sustained pulmonary hypertension. Both were treated with PEA. In none of the cases, a cleavage between the thrombotic masses and the vessel wall was obtainable, and both attempts were therefore inadequate. Based on our reports, we recommend not attempting PEA in cases of CTPH after infectious embolisms. PMID:23248168

  18. The Silent Giant.

    PubMed

    Necek, Magdalena; Biskup, Ewelina

    2015-11-25

    SFT is a rare spindle cell neoplasm arising mostly at pleural and in rare cases at extrapleural sites. Histology and immunohistology are diagnostic tools. It is crucial to consider SFT as differential diagnosis in pulmonary nodules since they often remain clinically silent until they reach large dimension and to proceed with curative resection without delay. It is essential to follow up patients for a long period of time as recurrence may occur.

  19. The Silent Giant.

    PubMed

    Necek, Magdalena; Biskup, Ewelina

    2015-11-25

    SFT is a rare spindle cell neoplasm arising mostly at pleural and in rare cases at extrapleural sites. Histology and immunohistology are diagnostic tools. It is crucial to consider SFT as differential diagnosis in pulmonary nodules since they often remain clinically silent until they reach large dimension and to proceed with curative resection without delay. It is essential to follow up patients for a long period of time as recurrence may occur. PMID:26602852

  20. Imaging Extrasolar Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowler, Brendan P.

    2016-10-01

    High-contrast adaptive optics (AO) imaging is a powerful technique to probe the architectures of planetary systems from the outside-in and survey the atmospheres of self-luminous giant planets. Direct imaging has rapidly matured over the past decade and especially the last few years with the advent of high-order AO systems, dedicated planet-finding instruments with specialized coronagraphs, and innovative observing and post-processing strategies to suppress speckle noise. This review summarizes recent progress in high-contrast imaging with particular emphasis on observational results, discoveries near and below the deuterium-burning limit, and a practical overview of large-scale surveys and dedicated instruments. I conclude with a statistical meta-analysis of deep imaging surveys in the literature. Based on observations of 384 unique and single young (≈5-300 Myr) stars spanning stellar masses between 0.1 and 3.0 M ⊙, the overall occurrence rate of 5-13 M Jup companions at orbital distances of 30-300 au is {0.6}-0.5+0.7 % assuming hot-start evolutionary models. The most massive giant planets regularly accessible to direct imaging are about as rare as hot Jupiters are around Sun-like stars. Dividing this sample into individual stellar mass bins does not reveal any statistically significant trend in planet frequency with host mass: giant planets are found around {2.8}-2.3+3.7 % of BA stars, <4.1% of FGK stars, and <3.9% of M dwarfs. Looking forward, extreme AO systems and the next generation of ground- and space-based telescopes with smaller inner working angles and deeper detection limits will increase the pace of discovery to ultimately map the demographics, composition, evolution, and origin of planets spanning a broad range of masses and ages.

  1. Fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of primary hydatid disease of the thyroid; first reported case in the USA.

    PubMed

    Dissanayake, Pavithra Irushi; Chennuri, Rohini; Tarjan, Gabor

    2016-04-01

    Echinococcosis or hydatid disease (HD) is a parasitic disease caused by species of the Echinococcus genus. Since the incidence of HD in the USA is very low and the primary HD of the thyroid is extremely rare even in endemic regions, the occurrence of primary thyroid HD is exceptional in the USA. Thyroid HD is rarely diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration (FNA). Our literature review revealed less than ten cases of primary HD of thyroid diagnosed by FNA worldwide. Hereby, we report the first case of a primary thyroid HD diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration in the USA.

  2. Chemical composition, efficacy and safety of Pistacia vera (var. Fandoghi) to inactivate protoscoleces during hydatid cyst surgery.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Kheirandish, Farnaz; Dezaki, Ebrahim Saedi; Shamsaddini, Saeedeh; Harandi, Majid Fasihi

    2016-08-01

    At present, various scolicidal agents have been used for inactivation of protoscoleces during hydatid cyst surgery, however, they are associated with serious adverse side effects including sclerosing colangititis (biliary tract fibrosis), liver necrosis and methaemoglobinaemia. This investigation was designed to evaluate the chemical composition and in vitro scolicidal effects of Pistacia vera (var. Fandoghi) essential oil against protoscoleces of hydatid cysts and also its toxicity in mice model. The components of the P. vera essential oil were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analysis. Protoscoleces were aseptically aspirated from sheep livers having hydatid cysts. Various concentrations of the essential oil (25-200μl/mL) were used for 5-30min. Viability of protoscoleces was confirmed using eosin exclusion test (0.1% eosin staining). In addition, forty male NIH mice were used to determine the acute and sub-acute toxicity of P. vera essential oil for 2 and 14 days, respectively. The main components of P. vera essential oil were limonene (26.21%), α-pinene (18.07%), α-thujene (9.31%) and α-terpinolene (9.28%). Findings of the present study demonstrated that the P. vera essential oil at the concentrations of 100 and 200μl/mL killed 100% protoscoleces after 10 and 5min of exposure, respectively. The LD50 values of intraperitoneal injection of the P. vera essential oil was 2.69ml/kg body weight, and the maximum nonfatal doses were 1.94ml/kg body weight. No significant difference (P>0.05) was observed in the clinical chemistry and hematological parameters following oral administrations of P. vera essential oil at the doses 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4ml/kg for 14 days. The obtained findings demonstrated new chemical composition and promising scolicidal activity of the P. vera with no significant toxicity which might be used as a natural scolicidal agent in hydatid cyst surgery. PMID:27470377

  3. Chemical composition, efficacy and safety of Pistacia vera (var. Fandoghi) to inactivate protoscoleces during hydatid cyst surgery.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Kheirandish, Farnaz; Dezaki, Ebrahim Saedi; Shamsaddini, Saeedeh; Harandi, Majid Fasihi

    2016-08-01

    At present, various scolicidal agents have been used for inactivation of protoscoleces during hydatid cyst surgery, however, they are associated with serious adverse side effects including sclerosing colangititis (biliary tract fibrosis), liver necrosis and methaemoglobinaemia. This investigation was designed to evaluate the chemical composition and in vitro scolicidal effects of Pistacia vera (var. Fandoghi) essential oil against protoscoleces of hydatid cysts and also its toxicity in mice model. The components of the P. vera essential oil were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analysis. Protoscoleces were aseptically aspirated from sheep livers having hydatid cysts. Various concentrations of the essential oil (25-200μl/mL) were used for 5-30min. Viability of protoscoleces was confirmed using eosin exclusion test (0.1% eosin staining). In addition, forty male NIH mice were used to determine the acute and sub-acute toxicity of P. vera essential oil for 2 and 14 days, respectively. The main components of P. vera essential oil were limonene (26.21%), α-pinene (18.07%), α-thujene (9.31%) and α-terpinolene (9.28%). Findings of the present study demonstrated that the P. vera essential oil at the concentrations of 100 and 200μl/mL killed 100% protoscoleces after 10 and 5min of exposure, respectively. The LD50 values of intraperitoneal injection of the P. vera essential oil was 2.69ml/kg body weight, and the maximum nonfatal doses were 1.94ml/kg body weight. No significant difference (P>0.05) was observed in the clinical chemistry and hematological parameters following oral administrations of P. vera essential oil at the doses 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4ml/kg for 14 days. The obtained findings demonstrated new chemical composition and promising scolicidal activity of the P. vera with no significant toxicity which might be used as a natural scolicidal agent in hydatid cyst surgery.

  4. [A case of concomitant hepatic lesion in a child with cystic hydatid disease and Arthropoda larva (nymph)].

    PubMed

    Lukmanova, G I; Gumerov, A A

    2007-01-01

    A 15-year-old patient living in Bashkortostan was admitted as having a diagnosis of hydatid cyst of the left hepatic lobe for surgical treatment. He had the following concomitant diseases: neurodermatitis, bronchial asthma, and acute respiratory disease. After surgery (laparoscopic echinococcectomy), a portion was taken from the parent vesicle wall for a histological study. The parasite was detected on the inner membrane surface. It is suggested that this is a Pentastoma sp. (Arthropoda, Maxillopoda, Pentastomida, and Cephalobaenida). Thus, the observed patient has a combined hepatic invasion with Echinococcus and Pentastoma).

  5. GIANT INTRACANALICULAR FIBROADENOMA

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Clyn; Parsons, Robert J.; Bogart, William M.

    1951-01-01

    Five cases of giant intracanalicular fibroadenoma (“cystosarcoma phylloides”) were observed at one hospital in a period of three years. In a search of the literature, additional reports of breast tumors of this kind, not included in previous reviews, were noted. As there is record of 229 cases, it would appear that this rapidly growing benign tumor should be kept in mind in the diagnosis of masses in the breast. If removal is incomplete, there may be recurrence. Simple mastectomy is the treatment of choice. Radical mastectomy should be avoided. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2.Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:14848732

  6. Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... are here: Health Information > Condition Information Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis: Overview When two or more members within the ... Associate Professor View full profile More Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis Information Forms Causes Genetic Counseling Print Page Email ...

  7. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis? Pulmonary fibrosis (PULL-mun-ary fi-BRO-sis) is a ... time. The formation of scar tissue is called fibrosis. As the lung tissue thickens, your lungs can' ...

  8. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . Hantavirus Share Compartir Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Severe HPS. Image courtesy D. ... the workers showed evidence of infection or illness. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Topics Transmission Where HPS is ...

  9. Who Needs Pulmonary Rehabilitation?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topics Bronchitis COPD Cystic Fibrosis Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Sarcoidosis Send a link to NHLBI to someone by ... other symptoms. Examples of interstitial lung diseases include sarcoidosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis . Cystic fibrosis (CF). CF ...

  10. Physiological mechanisms of pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    MacIver, David H; Adeniran, Ismail; MacIver, Iain R; Revell, Alistair; Zhang, Henggui

    2016-10-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is usually related to obstruction of pulmonary blood flow at the level of the pulmonary arteries (eg, pulmonary embolus), pulmonary arterioles (idiopathic pulmonary hypertension), pulmonary veins (pulmonary venoocclusive disease) or mitral valve (mitral stenosis and regurgitation). Pulmonary hypertension is also observed in heart failure due to left ventricle myocardial diseases regardless of the ejection fraction. Pulmonary hypertension is often regarded as a passive response to the obstruction to pulmonary flow. We review established fluid dynamics and physiology and discuss the mechanisms underlying pulmonary hypertension. The important role that the right ventricle plays in the development and maintenance of pulmonary hypertension is discussed. We use principles of thermodynamics and discuss a potential common mechanism for a number of disease states, including pulmonary edema, through adding pressure energy to the pulmonary circulation. PMID:27659877

  11. Gas Giants Form Quickly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This is an artist's concept of a hypothetical 10-million-year-old star system. The bright blur at the center is a star much like our sun. The other orb in the image is a gas-giant planet like Jupiter. Wisps of white throughout the image represent traces of gas.

    Astronomers using NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope have found evidence showing that gas-giant planets either form within the first 10 million years of a sun-like star's life, or not at all. The lifespan for sun-like stars is about 10 billion years.

    The scientists came to this conclusion after searching for traces of gas around 15 different sun-like stars, most with ages ranging from 3 million to 30 million years. With the help of Spitzer's Infrared Spectrometer instrument, they were able to search for relatively warm gas in the inner regions of these star systems, an area comparable to the zone between Earth and Jupiter in our own solar system. They also used ground-based radio telescopes to search for cooler gas in the outer regions of these systems, an area comparable to the zone around Saturn and beyond.

  12. Giant solitary trichoepithelioma

    PubMed Central

    Teli, Bhavuray; Thrishuli, P. B.; Santhosh, R.; Amar, D. N.; Rajpurohit, Shravan

    2015-01-01

    Adnexal tumors like giant solitary trichoepitheliomas are uncommon to most of us to permit a ready familiarity with them. Information regarding the genesis, clinical profile, behavior, and management options for this tumor is limited. There are 18 cases reported in the world literature till date. This review attempts to provide insight to this rare tumor. Our search included indexed literature from Pubmed, Directory of Open Access Journals, Health Inter Network Access to Research Initiative and Google databases in addition to standard dermatology texts. Giant solitary trichoepithelioma is a rare trichogenic tumor with potential for local recurrence. It has predilection for the older age, but may present at any age including at birth. It has close resemblance to basal cell carcinoma and other skin adnexal tumors - clinically, cytologically, and histologically. CD10, CD 34, PHLDA1 but not p75NTR are useful adjunct markers. Surgical excision is the standard treatment. Recurrence and possible transformation into BCC cautions follow up at regular intervals. PMID:25839021

  13. Giant papillary conjunctivitis.

    PubMed Central

    Donshik, P C

    1994-01-01

    Giant papillary conjunctivitis is a syndrome found frequently as a complication of contact lenses. Many variables can affect the onset and severity of the presenting signs and symptoms. Rigid gas permeable contact lenses appear to result in less severe signs and symptoms, with a longer time before the development of giant papillary conjunctivitis. Nonionic, low-water-content soft contact lenses tend to produce less severe signs and symptoms than ionic, low-water-content soft contact lenses. Enzymatic treatment appears to lessen the severity of signs and symptoms. The association of an allergy appears to play a role in the onset of the severity of the signs and symptoms but does not appear to affect the final ability of the individual to wear contact lenses. Using multiple treatment options, such as changing the polymer to a glyceryl methyl methacrylate or a rigid lens, or utilizing a soft lens on a frequent-replacement basis, can result in a success rate of over 90%. In individuals who still have a return of symptoms, the use of topical mast cell stabilizers or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug as an adjunctive therapy offers the added possibility of keeping these patients in contact lenses. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 11 A FIGURE 11 B FIGURE 11 C FIGURE 11 D PMID:7886881

  14. Rheology of giant micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cates, M. E.; Fielding, S. M.

    2006-12-01

    Giant micelles are elongated, polymer-like objects created by the self-assembly of amphiphilic molecules (such as detergents) in solution. Giant micelles are typically flexible, and can become highly entangled even at modest concentrations. The resulting viscoelastic solutions show fascinating flow behaviour (rheology) which we address theoretically in this article at two levels. First, we summarize advances in understanding linear viscoelastic spectra and steady-state nonlinear flows, based on microscopic constitutive models that combine the physics of polymer entanglement with the reversible kinetics of self-assembly. Such models were first introduced two decades ago, and since then have been shown to explain robustly several distinctive features of the rheology in the strongly entangled regime, including extreme shear thinning. We then turn to more complex rheological phenomena, particularly involving spatial heterogeneity, spontaneous oscillation, instability and chaos. Recent understanding of these complex flows is based largely on grossly simplified models which capture in outline just a few pertinent microscopic features, such as coupling between stresses and other order parameters such as concentration. The role of ‘structural memory’ (the dependence of structural parameters such as the micellar length distribution on the flow history) in explaining these highly nonlinear phenomena is addressed. Structural memory also plays an intriguing role in the little-understood shear thickening regime, which occurs in a concentration regime close to but below the onset of strong entanglement, and which is marked by a shear-induced transformation from an inviscid to a gelatinous state.

  15. Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma.

    PubMed

    Gans, S J; van der Elst, A M; Straks, W

    1988-04-01

    A patient with pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma (PHG) is presented. PHG is a rare disease with very specific histological characteristics. Roentgenograms display multiple bilateral pulmonary nodules which may be cavitated. Evidence exists that the nodules are the result of an exaggerated chronic immune response. The course of the disease is generally favourable. PHG should be considered in patients showing multiple bilateral pulmonary nodules. PMID:2456228

  16. Allometry indicates giant eyes of giant squid are not exceptional

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The eyes of giant and colossal squid are among the largest eyes in the history of life. It was recently proposed that sperm whale predation is the main driver of eye size evolution in giant squid, on the basis of an optical model that suggested optimal performance in detecting large luminous visual targets such as whales in the deep sea. However, it is poorly understood how the eye size of giant and colossal squid compares to that of other aquatic organisms when scaling effects are considered. Results We performed a large-scale comparative study that included 87 squid species and 237 species of acanthomorph fish. While squid have larger eyes than most acanthomorphs, a comparison of relative eye size among squid suggests that giant and colossal squid do not have unusually large eyes. After revising constants used in a previous model we found that large eyes perform equally well in detecting point targets and large luminous targets in the deep sea. Conclusions The eyes of giant and colossal squid do not appear exceptionally large when allometric effects are considered. It is probable that the giant eyes of giant squid result from a phylogenetically conserved developmental pattern manifested in very large animals. Whatever the cause of large eyes, they appear to have several advantages for vision in the reduced light of the deep mesopelagic zone. PMID:23418818

  17. Difficulties in the diagnosis and management of alveolar hydatid disease: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Maddah, Ghodratollah; Abdollahi, Abbas; Sharifi-Nooghabi, Reza; Tavassoli, Alireza; Rajabi-Mashadi, Mohammad Taghi; Jabbari-Nooghabi, Azadeh; Jabbari-Nooghabi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a chronic, rare and sometimes lethal parasitic infection in humans, caused by the larval stage of the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. This study aimed to investigate the clinical aspects and treatment outcomes of patients with alveolar hydatid disease. Methods: The medical records of patients with alveolar echinococcosis admitted between 1997 and 2012 were reviewed. Diagnosis was confirmed by physical examination, ultrasonography and CT scanning and MRI. Various treatment techniques were used such as complete liver resection in seven (38.89%) patients, biliary bypass in two (11.11%) patients, laparotomy and tumor biopsy in eight (44.44%) patients and long term medical treatment in one (5.56%) patient. After discharge, all patients were followed to determine the effect of treatment, complications, recurrences and survival. Results: A total of 18 patients with mean age of 46.11±15.14 years (range 23-74 years) were studied. The disease was more prevalent in women than men (78.9% vs 4, 21.1%, P=0.021). Fourteen (77.78%) patients live in Chenaran, a town located in Khorasan, Iran). Death occurred in (22.22%) patients after an average period of 45.70±7.50 months after disease onset. 14 remaining patients survived after a mean follow-up duration of 54.60±29.17 months. Conclusion: Diagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis should be considered in endemic area. Early diagnosis and treatment is associated with excellent outcome. PMID:26958334

  18. Radiofrequency Energy in Hepatic Bed during Partial Cystectomy for Hydatid Liver Disease: Standing Out from the Usual Conservative Surgical Management.

    PubMed

    Mantonakis, Eleftherios; Papalampros, Alexandros; Moris, Demetrios; Dimitrokallis, Nikolaos; Sakarellos, Panagiotis; Griniatsos, John; Felekouras, Evangelos

    2016-01-01

    Background. Surgical treatment of hydatid liver disease (HLD) is divided into conservative and radical procedures. While conservative techniques are easier and faster to perform, there is an emerging need to reduce their morbidity and recurrence rates. Our aim was to present and evaluate the efficiency and safety of the application of radiofrequency energy (TissueLink® and Aquamantys® systems) in hepatic bed during partial cystectomy. Materials and Methods. Eighteen consecutive patients with hydatid liver cysts were referred to our department between April 2006 and June 2014. Data about demographics, mortality, morbidity, and recurrence rate were obtained and analyzed retrospectively. Results. The mean follow-up was 38 months (range: 4-84 months). The postoperative course of most patients was uneventful. One case of recurrence was found in our series in a patient with 4 cysts in the right lobe, 3 years after initial treatment. He was reoperated on with the same method. Conclusions. Saline-linked RF energy seems to be an effective means to be employed in conservative surgical procedures of HLD, with satisfactory postoperative morbidity. Recurrence rates appear to be low, but further follow-up is needed in order to draw safer conclusions.

  19. Radiofrequency Energy in Hepatic Bed during Partial Cystectomy for Hydatid Liver Disease: Standing Out from the Usual Conservative Surgical Management

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrokallis, Nikolaos; Sakarellos, Panagiotis; Griniatsos, John

    2016-01-01

    Background. Surgical treatment of hydatid liver disease (HLD) is divided into conservative and radical procedures. While conservative techniques are easier and faster to perform, there is an emerging need to reduce their morbidity and recurrence rates. Our aim was to present and evaluate the efficiency and safety of the application of radiofrequency energy (TissueLink® and Aquamantys® systems) in hepatic bed during partial cystectomy. Materials and Methods. Eighteen consecutive patients with hydatid liver cysts were referred to our department between April 2006 and June 2014. Data about demographics, mortality, morbidity, and recurrence rate were obtained and analyzed retrospectively. Results. The mean follow-up was 38 months (range: 4–84 months). The postoperative course of most patients was uneventful. One case of recurrence was found in our series in a patient with 4 cysts in the right lobe, 3 years after initial treatment. He was reoperated on with the same method. Conclusions. Saline-linked RF energy seems to be an effective means to be employed in conservative surgical procedures of HLD, with satisfactory postoperative morbidity. Recurrence rates appear to be low, but further follow-up is needed in order to draw safer conclusions. PMID:27525000

  20. Giant magnetostrictive composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duenas, Terrisa Ann

    The limitation of magnetostrictive composites has been in their low magnetostrictive response when compared to their monolithic counterparts. In this dissertation research is presented describing the methods and analysis used to create a giant magnetostrictive composite (GMC) producing giant strains at low fields, exhibiting magnetization ``jumping'' and the ΔE effect. This composite combines the giant magnetostrictive material, Terfenol-D (Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe2) in particle form, with a nonmetallic binder and is capable of producing strains (at room temperature) exceeding 1000 ppm at a nominal field of 1.5 kOe mechanically unloaded and 1200 ppm at 8 MPa preload (2.5 kOe). Several studies leading to the high response of this composite are presented. A connectivity study shows that a [1-3] connected composite produces 50% more strain than a [0-3] composite. A resin study indicates that the lower the viscosity of the resin, the greater the magnetostrictive response; this is attributed to the removal of voids during degassing. A void study correlates the increase in voids to the decrease in strain response. A model is used to correlate analysis with experimental results within 10% accuracy and shows that an optimal volume fraction exists based on the properties of the binder. Using a Polyscience Spurr low- viscosity (60 cps) binder this volume fraction is nominally 20%; this optimum is attributed to the balance of epoxy contracting on the particle (built-in preload) and the actuation delivered by the magnetostrictive material. In addition to the connectivity, resin, void, and volume-fraction study, particle size and gradation studies are presented. Widely dispersed (<106, <212, <300 μm), narrowly dispersed (<45, (90-106), (275-300) μm), and an optimized bimodal (18.7% of (45-90) μm with 81.3% of (250-300) μm) particle distributions are studied. Results show that the larger the particle size, the higher the magnetostrictive response; this is attributed to the reduction of

  1. Percutaneous Pulmonary Valve Placement

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Lourdes R.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with congenital heart disease and pulmonary valve disease need multiple procedures over their lifetimes to replace their pulmonary valves. Chronic pulmonary stenosis, regurgitation, or both have untoward effects on ventricular function and on the clinical status of these patients. To date, all right ventricle–pulmonary artery conduits have had relatively short lifespans. Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation, although relatively new, will probably reduce the number of operative procedures that these patients will have to undergo over a lifetime. Refinement and further development of this procedure holds promise for the extension of this technology to other patient populations. PMID:26175629

  2. Giant vesicles: preparations and applications.

    PubMed

    Walde, Peter; Cosentino, Katia; Engel, Helen; Stano, Pasquale

    2010-05-01

    There is considerable interest in preparing cell-sized giant unilamellar vesicles from natural or nonnatural amphiphiles because a giant vesicle membrane resembles the self-closed lipid matrix of the plasma membrane of all biological cells. Currently, giant vesicles are applied to investigate certain aspects of biomembranes. Examples include lateral lipid heterogeneities, membrane budding and fission, activities of reconstituted membrane proteins, or membrane permeabilization caused by added chemical compounds. One of the challenging applications of giant vesicles include gene expressions inside the vesicles with the ultimate goal of constructing a dynamic artificial cell-like system that is endowed with all those essential features of living cells that distinguish them from the nonliving form of matter. Although this goal still seems to be far away and currently difficult to reach, it is expected that progress in this and other fields of giant vesicle research strongly depend on whether reliable methods for the reproducible preparation of giant vesicles are available. The key concepts of currently known methods for preparing giant unilamellar vesicles are summarized, and advantages and disadvantages of the main methods are compared and critically discussed. PMID:20336703

  3. [Giant adrenal myelolipoma].

    PubMed

    El Mejjad, Amine; Fekak, Hamid; Dakir, Mohamed; Sarf, Ismail; Manni, Ahmed; Meziane, Fethi

    2004-02-01

    Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare, benign, non-secreting tumour composed of adipose and haematopoietic tissue. The authors report a rare case of giant adrenal myelolipoma in a 53-year-old patient presenting with low back pain and a palpable flank mass on examination. CT scan suggested the diagnosis and surgical resection was indicated in view of the size and symptomatic nature of this mass. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis. The outcome was favourable without recurrence after a follow-up of one year. The diagnosis of adrenal myelolipoma is based on radiology. Conservative management is generally sufficient for small asymptomatic tumours, but resection is required for large (> 5 cm) and/or symptomatic tumours.

  4. Two giant stellar complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremov, Yu. N.; Efremov, E. Yu.

    Common star complexes are huge (0.3-1 kpc in diameter) groups of relatively young stars, associations and clusters. The complexes usually form regular chains along spiral arms of grand design galaxies, being evidently formed and supported by magneto- gravitational instability developing along an arm. Special attention is given to a few large complexes which have signatures of gravitational boundness, such as round shape and high central density. Concentrations of stars and clusters in such a complex in M51 galaxy were found in this paper; we concluded it is possible to suggest that the complex is gravitationally bound. It is also stressed that some properties of the giant complex in NGC 6946 (such as its semicircular and sharp Western edge) are still enigmatic.

  5. Atmospheres of Extrasolar Giant Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The next decade will almost certainly see the direct imaging of extrasolar giant planets around nearby stars. Unlike purely radial velocity detections, direct imaging will open the door to characterizing the atmosphere and interiors of extrasola planets and ultimately provide clues on their formation and evolution through time. This process has already begun for the transiting planets, placing new constraints on their atmospheric structure, composition, and evolution. Indeed the key to understanding giant planet detectability, interpreting spectra, and constraining effective temperature and hence evolution-is the atmosphere. I will review the universe of extrasolar giant planet models, focusing on what we have already learned from modeling and what we will likely be able to learn from the first generation of direct detection data. In addition to these theoretical considerations, I will review the observations and interpretation of the - transiting hot Jupiters. These objects provide a test of our ability to model exotic atmospheres and challenge our current understanding of giant planet evolution.

  6. Landscape of the lost giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-09-01

    The Pleistocene megafauna extinction erased a group of remarkable animals. Whether humans had a prominent role in the extinction remains controversial, but it is emerging that the disappearance of the giants has markedly affected the environment.

  7. Pharma giants swap research programs.

    PubMed

    2014-07-01

    Pharmaceutical giants Novartis and GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) agreed in late April to swap some assets, with Novartis handing off its vaccine business to GSK and getting most of the British company's cancer portfolio in return.

  8. Laparoscopic repair of giant paraesophageal hernia with synthetic mesh: 45 consecutive cases.

    PubMed

    Stavropoulos, George; Flessas, Ioannis I; Mariolis-Sapsakos, Theodoros; Zagouri, Flora; Theodoropoulos, George; Toutouzas, Konstantinos; Michalopoulos, Nikolaos V; Triantafyllopoulou, Ioanna; Tsamis, Dimitrios; Spyropoulos, Basilios G; Zografos, George C

    2012-04-01

    Giant paraesophageal hernias (PEHs) are associated with progression of symptoms in up to 45 per cent of patients. Recently, many series have reported that laparoscopic repair of PEH is technically feasible, effective, and safe. A retrospective review of the University of Athens tertiary care hospitals patient database and the patient medical records identified 45 patients who underwent elective repair of a giant PEH between 2002 and 2009. Elective laparoscopic repair of a giant PEH was attempted in 45 patients who were treated with Gore-Tex dual mesh with or without Nissen fundoplication. They all had a mesh repair. Intraoperative complications included one pulmonary embolism and one recurrent hernia. The use of a mesh seems to be effective in the treatment of large hernias. It appears to offer the benefit of a shorter hospital stay and a quicker recovery.

  9. Infantile disseminated visceral giant cell arteritis presenting as sudden infant death.

    PubMed

    Kagata, Y; Matsubara, O; Ogata, S; Lie, J T; Mark, E J

    1999-03-01

    The rare clinicopathological entity 'disseminated visceral giant cell arteritis' (DVGCA) was first described in 1978. It is characterized by widespread small-vessel giant cell angitis and extravascular granulomas. A normal and healthy 7-month-old boy who presented unexpectedly with sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is reported. Histological examination at autopsy revealed giant cell angitis of the aorta, common carotid, coronary, pulmonary, celiac, mesenteric and common iliac arteries. There were also granulomas in the tracheal wall and liver. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of DVGCA occurring in an infant younger than 12 months of age. A review of the literature on DVGCA is presented in this report, and the differential diagnosis is discussed.

  10. [Pulmonary hypertension: current aspects].

    PubMed

    Tello de Meneses, R; Gómez Sánchez, M A; Delgado Jiménez, J; Gómez Pajuelo, C; Sáenz de la Calzada, C; Zarco Gutiérrez, P

    1996-08-01

    Primary pulmonary hypertension, although less frequent than secondary forms, represents the true paradigm of this disease. The recent investigations on pulmonary vascular response mechanisms to different stimuli has increased our knowledge about the mechanism of high pulmonary pressure. Molecular biology of the endothelial cell has provided evidence that endothelial injury plus a genetic individual predisposition may be the pathogenic mainstream of this disease. The histologic findings of pulmonary hypertension are still a matter of controversy, although the clinical, epidemiological and prognostic features are better defined. Therapeutically, there has been important advances, specially with various vasodilators, like calciumantagonists, prostacyclin, adenosine and nitric oxide, as well as new routes of administration. In more advance stages of the disease, atrial septostomy (only paliative) and pulmonary or cardio-pulmonary transplantation, are other therapeutic options to consider, after an adequate selection of patients.

  11. Pulmonary Artery Sarcoma Masquerading as Chronic Pulmonary Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Coskun, Ugur; Calpar, Ilknur; Yildizeli, Bedrettin; Yanartas, Mehmet; Filinte, Deniz; Kucukoglu, Mehmet Serdar

    2014-01-01

    We describe the case of a 60-year-old woman who presented with pulmonary artery sarcoma, a very rare tumor of the cardiovascular system. Her tumor was initially misdiagnosed as chronic pulmonary thromboembolism, and she underwent pulmonary endarterectomy. Early diagnosis of primary pulmonary artery sarcoma is crucial. That alternative should always be considered before settling on a diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Suspicion should be aroused by the failure of anticoagulant treatment to alleviate pulmonary perfusion abnormalities and systemic symptoms. Surgical resection of the tumor—preferably by pulmonary endarterectomy, followed by reconstruction as needed—is currently the most promising treatment for pulmonary artery sarcoma. PMID:25425987

  12. How Is Pulmonary Hypertension Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Pulmonary Hypertension Diagnosed? Your doctor will diagnose pulmonary hypertension (PH) ... To Look for the Underlying Cause of Pulmonary Hypertension PH has many causes, so many tests may ...

  13. Recurrent renal giant leiomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Öziş, Salih Erpulat; Gülpınar, Kamil; Şahlı, Zafer; Konak, Baha Burak; Keskin, Mete; Özdemir, Süleyman; Ataoğlu, Ömür

    2016-01-01

    Primary renal leiomyosarcomas are rare, aggressive tumors. They constitute 1-2% of adult malignant renal tumors. Although leiomyosarcomas are the most common histological type (50-60%) of renal sarcomas, information on renal leiomyosarcoma is limited. Local or systemic recurrences are common. The radiological appearance of renal leiomyosarcomas is not specific, therefore renal leiomyosarcoma cannot be distinguished from renal cell carcinoma by imaging methods in all patients. A 74-year-old female patient presented to our clinic complaining of a palpable mass on the right side of her abdomen in November 2012. The abdominal magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass, 25 × 24 × 23 cm in size. Her past medical history revealed that she has undergone right radical nephrectomy in 2007, due to a 11 × 12 × 13 cm renal mass that was then reported as renal cell carcinoma on abdominal magnetic resonance imaging, but the pathological diagnosis was low-grade renal leiomyosarcoma. The most recent follow-up of the patient was in 2011, with no signs of local recurrence or distant metastases within this four-year period. The patient underwent laparotomy on November 2012, and a 35 cm retroperitoneal mass was excised. The pathological examination of the mass was reported as high-grade leiomyosarcoma. The formation of this giant retroperitoneal mass in 1 year can be explained by the transformation of the lesion's pathology from low-grade to a high-grade tumor. PMID:27436926

  14. Miliary pulmonary cryptococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Shane; Marriott, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    A 32-year-old HIV positive male presents with fevers and a non-productive cough. Initial X-ray and subsequent computerised tomography of the chest shows a bilateral miliary pattern of pulmonary infiltration highly suggestive of disseminated tuberculosis. However subsequent results were consistent with disseminated cryptococcosis, including pulmonary involvement, with cryptococcus identified on transbronchial tissue biopsy, and on blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures. Imaging features of pulmonary cryptococcosis are generally of well-defined pleural-based nodules and less commonly alveolar infiltrates, lymphadenopathy, pleural effusions or cavitating lesions. Miliary pulmonary infiltrates are an exceptionally rare presentation. PMID:25379393

  15. Improving pulmonary rehabilitation services.

    PubMed

    Beckford, Katy

    The Clinical Audit of Pulmonary Rehabilitation Services in England and Wales was the first national audit of pulmonary rehabilitation services in England and Wales. Forming part of the National Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Audit Programme, it was commissioned by Healthcare Quality Improvement Programme and conducted by the Royal College of Physicians and British Thoracic Society. The audit was undertaken to geographically map pulmonary rehabilitation services and identify how they can improve. This article summarises the key findings of the audit, and its recommendations. PMID:27400620

  16. Neostigmine and pulmonary oedema

    PubMed Central

    Nagella, Amrutha Bindu; Bijapur, Mubina Begum; Shreyavathi, Shreyavathi; R S, Raghavendra Rao

    2014-01-01

    A 1-year-old child with no pre-existing cardiac or respiratory disease developed frank pulmonary oedema after administration of a neostigmine–glycopyrrolate mixture to reverse neuromuscular blockade during general anaesthesia. Possible cardiac and extra-cardiac factors that could cause pulmonary oedema in this child were ruled out by appropriate investigations. As the pulmonary oedema manifested shortly after administration of the neostigmine–glycopyrrolate mixture, we concluded that neostigmine was the most probable cause. This article briefly reports the occurrence of events and successful management of perioperative pulmonary oedema. PMID:25199191

  17. A unique advantage for giant eyes in giant squid.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Dan-Eric; Warrant, Eric J; Johnsen, Sönke; Hanlon, Roger; Shashar, Nadav

    2012-04-24

    Giant and colossal deep-sea squid (Architeuthis and Mesonychoteuthis) have the largest eyes in the animal kingdom [1, 2], but there is no explanation for why they would need eyes that are nearly three times the diameter of those of any other extant animal. Here we develop a theory for visual detection in pelagic habitats, which predicts that such giant eyes are unlikely to evolve for detecting mates or prey at long distance but are instead uniquely suited for detecting very large predators, such as sperm whales. We also provide photographic documentation of an eyeball of about 27 cm with a 9 cm pupil in a giant squid, and we predict that, below 600 m depth, it would allow detection of sperm whales at distances exceeding 120 m. With this long range of vision, giant squid get an early warning of approaching sperm whales. Because the sonar range of sperm whales exceeds 120 m [3-5], we hypothesize that a well-prepared and powerful evasive response to hunting sperm whales may have driven the evolution of huge dimensions in both eyes and bodies of giant and colossal squid. Our theory also provides insights into the vision of Mesozoic ichthyosaurs with unusually large eyes.

  18. Refractory Cystobiliary Fistula Secondary to Percutaneous Treatment of Hydatid Cyst: Treatment with N-Butyl 2-Cyanoacrylate Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Canyigit, Murat Gumus, Mehmet; Cay, Nurdan; Erol, Bekir; Karaoglanoglu, Mustafa; Akhan, Okan

    2011-02-15

    A 27-year-old female with a type 2 hydatid cystic lesion in the liver according to the Gharbi classification (CE 3A according to the WHO classification) was referred for percutaneous treatment after albendazole treatment for 1 year. A catheterization technique was performed but hypertonic saline and alcohol were not given into the cavity due to cystobiliary leakage. During the 4-month follow-up period, sequential cavitography revealed biliary fistula, and bile-stained drainage had not been ceased despite the sphincterotomy, nasobiliary drainage catheter, and plastic stent. Since the patient refused to surgery, we embolized the biliary fistula using N-butyl 2-cyanoacrylate for the first time in the literature. At the 3-month follow-up, the patient's course was uneventful and ultrasound, multidetector-row CT, and MRI examinations revealed no collection in or adjacent to the cavity.

  19. PULMONARY CIRCULATION AT EXERCISE

    PubMed Central

    NAEIJE, R; CHESLER, N

    2012-01-01

    The pulmonary circulation is a high flow and low pressure circuit, with an average resistance of 1 mmHg.min.L−1 in young adults, increasing to 2.5 mmHg.min.L−1 over 4–6 decades of life. Pulmonary vascular mechanics at exercise are best described by distensible models. Exercise does not appear to affect the time constant of the pulmonary circulation or the longitudinal distribution of resistances. Very high flows are associated with high capillary pressures, up to a 20–25 mmHg threshold associated with interstitial lung edema and altered ventilation/perfusion relationships. Pulmonary artery pressures of 40–50 mmHg, which can be achieved at maximal exercise, may correspond to the extreme of tolerable right ventricular afterload. Distension of capillaries that decrease resistance may be of adaptative value during exercise, but this is limited by hypoxemia from altered diffusion/perfusion relationships. Exercise in hypoxia is associated with higher pulmonary vascular pressures and lower maximal cardiac output, with increased likelihood of right ventricular function limitation and altered gas exchange by interstitial lung edema. Pharmacological interventions aimed at the reduction of pulmonary vascular tone have little effect on pulmonary vascular pressure-flow relationships in normoxia, but may decrease resistance in hypoxia, unloading the right ventricle and thereby improving exercise capacity. Exercise in patients with pulmonary hypertension is associated with sharp increases in pulmonary artery pressure and a right ventricular limitation of aerobic capacity. Exercise stress testing to determine multipoint pulmonary vascular pressures-flow relationships may uncover early stage pulmonary vascular disease. PMID:23105961

  20. Formation of giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magni, G.; Coradini, A.

    2003-04-01

    In this presentation we address the problem of the formation of giant planets and their regular satellites. We study in particular the problem of formation of the Jupiter System comparing the results of the model with the present characteristics of the system, in order to identify what are those better represented by our approach. In fact here, using a 3-D hydro-dynamical code, we study the modalities of gas accretion onto a solid core, believed to be the seed from which Jupiter started. To do that we have modelled three main regions: the central planet, a turbulent accretion disk surrounding it and an extended region from which the gas is collected. In the extended region we treat the gas as a frictionless fluid. Our main goal is to identify what are the characteristics of the planet during its growth and the physical parameters affecting its growth at the expenses of the nebular gas present in the feeding zone. Moreover we want to understand what are the thermodynamical parameters characterizing the gas captured by the planet and swirling around it. Finally, we check if a disk can be formed in prograde rotation around the planet and if this disk can survive the final phases of the planet formation. Due to the interaction between the accreting planet and the disk it has been necessary to develop a complete model of the Jupiter’s structure. In fact the radiation emitted by the growing planet heats up the surrounding gas. In turn the planet’s thermodynamic structure depend on the mass accretion rate onto it. When the accretion is rapid, shock waves in the gas are formed close to the planet. This region cannot be safely treated by a numerical code; for this reason we have developed a semi-analytically model of a a turbulent accretion disk to be considered as transition between the planet and the surrounding disk.

  1. Giant Magellan Telescope: overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johns, Matt; McCarthy, Patrick; Raybould, Keith; Bouchez, Antonin; Farahani, Arash; Filgueira, Jose; Jacoby, George; Shectman, Steve; Sheehan, Michael

    2012-09-01

    The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) is a 25-meter optical/infrared extremely large telescope that is being built by an international consortium of universities and research institutions. It will be located at the Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. The GMT primary mirror consists of seven 8.4-m borosilicate honeycomb mirror segments made at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab (SOML). Six identical off-axis segments and one on-axis segment are arranged on a single nearly-paraboloidal parent surface having an overall focal ratio of f/0.7. The fabrication, testing and verification procedures required to produce the closely-matched off-axis mirror segments were developed during the production of the first mirror. Production of the second and third off-axis segments is underway. GMT incorporates a seven-segment Gregorian adaptive secondary to implement three modes of adaptive-optics operation: natural-guide star AO, laser-tomography AO, and ground-layer AO. A wide-field corrector/ADC is available for use in seeing-limited mode over a 20-arcmin diameter field of view. Up to seven instruments can be mounted simultaneously on the telescope in a large Gregorian Instrument Rotator. Conceptual design studies were completed for six AO and seeing-limited instruments, plus a multi-object fiber feed, and a roadmap for phased deployment of the GMT instrument suite is being developed. The partner institutions have made firm commitments for approximately 45% of the funds required to build the telescope. Project Office efforts are currently focused on advancing the telescope and enclosure design in preparation for subsystem- and system-level preliminary design reviews which are scheduled to be completed in the first half of 2013.

  2. Rotation of Giant Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissin, Yevgeni; Thompson, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    The internal rotation of post-main sequence stars is investigated, in response to the convective pumping of angular momentum toward the stellar core, combined with a tight magnetic coupling between core and envelope. The spin evolution is calculated using model stars of initial mass 1, 1.5, and 5 {M}ȯ , taking into account mass loss on the giant branches. We also include the deposition of orbital angular momentum from a sub-stellar companion, as influenced by tidal drag along with the excitation of orbital eccentricity by a fluctuating gravitational quadrupole moment. A range of angular velocity profiles {{Ω }}(r) is considered in the envelope, extending from solid rotation to constant specific angular momentum. We focus on the backreaction of the Coriolis force, and the threshold for dynamo action in the inner envelope. Quantitative agreement with measurements of core rotation in subgiants and post-He core flash stars by Kepler is obtained with a two-layer angular velocity profile: uniform specific angular momentum where the Coriolis parameter {Co}\\equiv {{Ω }}{τ }{con}≲ 1 (here {τ }{con} is the convective time), and {{Ω }}(r)\\propto {r}-1 where {Co}≳ 1. The inner profile is interpreted in terms of a balance between the Coriolis force and angular pressure gradients driven by radially extended convective plumes. Inward angular momentum pumping reduces the surface rotation of subgiants, and the need for a rejuvenated magnetic wind torque. The co-evolution of internal magnetic fields and rotation is considered in Kissin & Thompson, along with the breaking of the rotational coupling between core and envelope due to heavy mass loss.

  3. In-vitro susceptibility of hydatid cysts of Echinococcus granulosus to nitric oxide and the effect of the laminated layer on nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Steers, N J; Rogan, M T; Heath, S

    2001-08-01

    Murine hydatid cysts of Echinococcus granulosus were incubated in vitro in the presence of nitric oxide produced from S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) or interferon-gamma activated peritoneal macrophages. In both situations, evidence of cyst damage and death was observed by microscopy in over 77% of cysts after 3 days, indicating that intact hydatid cysts could be susceptible to a Th1 driven macrophage attack. A crude extract of the laminated layer from cysts was found to be able to reduce the production of nitric oxide from activated macrophages in vitro and in vivo and this may have been due to phagocytosis of laminated layer fragments by the macrophages. The results indicate that, although cysts may be susceptible to the effects of nitric oxide, the laminated layer may be involved in downregulating nitric oxide production.

  4. Pulmonary Function Tests

    PubMed Central

    Ranu, Harpreet; Wilde, Michael; Madden, Brendan

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary function tests are valuable investigations in the management of patients with suspected or previously diagnosed respiratory disease. They aid diagnosis, help monitor response to treatment and can guide decisions regarding further treatment and intervention. The interpretation of pulmonary functions tests requires knowledge of respiratory physiology. In this review we describe investigations routinely used and discuss their clinical implications. PMID:22347750

  5. Primary pulmonary leiomyoma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Peng; Venkatachalam, Jonathen; Lee, Victor Kwan Min; Tan, Sze Khen

    2016-05-01

    Leiomyoma is a smooth muscle neoplasm that commonly occurs in the genitourinary system and the gastrointestinal tract of the body. Primary pulmonary leiomyoma is rarely reported in literature. We report a rare case of primary pulmonary leiomyoma of a 55-year-old male patient presenting with symptoms of cough for six months. PMID:27516882

  6. [Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension].

    PubMed

    Zonzin, Pietro; Vizza, Carmine Dario; Favretto, Giuseppe

    2003-10-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is due to unresolved or recurrent pulmonary embolism. In the United States the estimated prevalence is 0.1-0.5% among survived patients with pulmonary embolism. The survival rate at 5 years was 30% among patients with a mean pulmonary artery pressure > 40 mmHg at the time of diagnosis and only 10% among those with a value > 50 mmHg. The interval between the onset of disturbances and the diagnosis may be as long as 3 years. Doppler echocardiography permits to establish the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension. Radionuclide scanning determines whether pulmonary hypertension has a thromboembolic basis. Right heart catheterization and pulmonary angiography are performed in order to establish the extension and the accessibility to surgery of thrombi and to rule out other causes. The surgical treatment is thromboendarterectomy. A dramatic reduction in the pulmonary vascular resistance can be achieved; corresponding improvements in the NYHA class--from class III or IV before surgery to class I-II after surgery--are usually observed. Patients who are not considered candidates for thromboendarterectomy may be considered candidates for lung transplantation. PMID:14664293

  7. What Is Pulmonary Hypertension?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More What is Pulmonary Hypertension? Updated:Aug 12,2014 Is pulmonary hypertension different ... content was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...

  8. Pulmonary Paragonimiasis Mimicking Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Kj; Basu, Arup; Khana, Shilpi; Wattal, Chand

    2015-08-01

    Paragonimiasis is a disease which is frequently misdiagnosed as pulmonary tuberculosis. In the areas where people eat crab/crayfish this disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis to avoid antituberculosis treatment for a non-tubercular condition. We are reporting a case of pulmonary paragonimiasis who had been treated for tuberculosis. PMID:27604443

  9. Meibomian gland function and giant papillary conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Mathers, W D; Billborough, M

    1992-08-15

    We examined 42 contact lens-wearing patients for clinical evidence of giant papillary conjunctivitis and for meibomian gland dysfunction with gland dropout. Fifteen patients were free of clinical signs and symptoms of giant papillary conjunctivitis, whereas 27 had clinical symptoms and evidence of giant papillary conjunctivitis. Patients with giant papillary conjunctivitis had significantly more gland dropout with an average of 0.6 +/- 1.2 gland absent in both lower eyelids compared with 0.2 +/- 0.4 gland absent in patients without giant papillary conjunctivitis. Additionally, the viscosity of meibomian gland excreta was greater in the giant papillary conjunctivitis group. There was no difference in tear osmolarity or in the Schirmer test results between the two groups. These results indicated patients with giant papillary conjunctivitis were more likely to have meibomian gland dysfunction with gland dropout than patients without giant papillary conjunctivitis.

  10. Giant myoma and erythrocytosis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ozsaran, A A; Itil, I M; Terek, C; Kazandi, M; Dikmen, Y

    1999-08-01

    The objective of this study is to discuss the myomatous erythrocytosis syndrome in a patient with a giant subserous uterine myoma. She presented with plethora and an abdominal mass. After venesection of 4 units of blood, the preoperative haematocrit value of 53.3% and haemoglobin value of 17.5 g/dL had decreased to 48.6% and 16.8 g/dL levels, respectively. After the operative extraction of the giant subserous myoma with attached uterus weighing 14.2 kg, the haematocrit and the haemoglobin values had regressed to 40.3% and 14.3 g/dL levels, respectively. The findings indicated that the giant subserous myoma was the cause of the myomatous erythrocytosis syndrome in this patient. PMID:10554963

  11. Structure of giant muscle proteins

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Logan C.; Wright, Nathan T.

    2013-01-01

    Giant muscle proteins (e.g., titin, nebulin, and obscurin) play a seminal role in muscle elasticity, stretch response, and sarcomeric organization. Each giant protein consists of multiple tandem structural domains, usually arranged in a modular fashion spanning 500 kDa to 4 MDa. Although many of the domains are similar in structure, subtle differences create a unique function of each domain. Recent high and low resolution structural and dynamic studies now suggest more nuanced overall protein structures than previously realized. These findings show that atomic structure, interactions between tandem domains, and intrasarcomeric environment all influence the shape, motion, and therefore function of giant proteins. In this article we will review the current understanding of titin, obscurin, and nebulin structure, from the atomic level through the molecular level. PMID:24376425

  12. [Failure of initial surgical treatment of a giant cell tumor of the capitate and its salvage: a case report].

    PubMed

    Moreel, P; Le Viet, D

    2006-12-01

    Giant Cell Tumors are rare tumors in the young adult and localisation in the hand is even more exceptional. In the absence of adjuvant treatment, the literature reports a strong potential for local recurrence of between 75 and 86%. These tumours also have a risk of sarcomatosis degeneration and pulmonary metastasis. The case report concerns a 24-year-old patient, with a Giant Cell Tumour of the capitate initially diagnosed on simple curettage, and we describe her treatment together with the treatment of a subsequent reccurrence. A literature review will also highlight the current knowledge of this disease.

  13. Pulmonary extramedullary hematopoiesis involving the pulmonary artery.

    PubMed

    Monga, Varun; Silverman, Margarida

    2015-02-24

    Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) occurs as a complication of hematologic disorders such as myelofibrosis, sickle cell anemia and thalassemia. The extramedullary tissue usually involves liver, spleen and lymph nodes, less frequently the chest. We present a recent case of a man with myeloproliferative neoplasm who developed pulmonary hemorrhage secondary to EMH in the lung and pulmonary artery. Radiation therapy was considered the best approach, but it didn't work and the patient died a week after radiation therapy was completed. We also review herein the present literature. PMID:25852851

  14. Review of Giant cell arteritis

    PubMed Central

    Chacko, Joseph G.; Chacko, J. Anthony; Salter, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Giant-cell arteritis (GCA) is a systemic autoimmune disease affecting primarily the elderly. Giant cell arteritis can cause sudden and potentially bilateral sequential vision loss in the elderly. Therefore, it is considered a medical emergency in ophthalmology and a significant cause of morbidity in an increasingly aging population. Ophthalmologists need to be able to recognize the classic symptoms and signs of this disease, and then be able to work-up and treat these patients in an efficient manner. An in-depth review of GCA from the literature as well as personal clinical experience follows. PMID:25859139

  15. Chemical Abundances of Symbiotic Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gałan, C.; Mikołajewska, J.; Hinkle, K. H.; Joyce, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    High resolution (R ˜ 50000), near-IR spectra were used to measure photospheric abundances of CNO and elements around the iron peak for 24 symbiotic giants. Spectrum synthesis was employed using local thermal equilibrium and hydrostatic model atmospheres. The metallicities are distributed in a wide range with maximum around [Fe/H] ˜-0.4 - - 0.3 dex. Enrichment in 14N indicates that all the sample giants have experienced the first dredge-up. The relative abundance of [Ti/Fe] is generally large in red symbiotic systems.

  16. Pulmonary Foreign Body Granulomatosis in Dental Technician.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sung Jun; Koo, Gun Woo; Park, Dong Won; Kwak, Hyun Jung; Yhi, Ji Young; Moon, Ji-Yong; Kim, Sang-Heon; Sohn, Jang Won; Yoon, Ho Joo; Shin, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Soo; Pyo, Ju Yeon; Oh, Young-Ha; Kim, Tae-Hyung

    2015-10-01

    Occupational lung diseases are caused by several toxic substances including heavy metals; however, the exact pathologic mechanisms remain unknown. In the workplace, dental technicians are often exposed to heavy metals such as cobalt, nickel, or beryllium and occasionally develop occupational lung diseases. We described a case of occupational lung disease in a patient who was employed as a dental technician for over a decade. A 31-year-old, non-smoking woman presented with productive cough and shortness of breath of several weeks duration. Chest computed tomography revealed a large number of scattered, bilateral small pulmonary nodules throughout the lung field, and multiple mediastinal lymph nodes enlargement. Percutaneous needle biopsy showed multifocal small granulomas with foreign body type giant cells suggestive of heavy metals inhalation. The patient's condition improved on simple avoidance strategy for several months. This case highlighted the importance of proper workplace safety. PMID:26508943

  17. Pulmonary Foreign Body Granulomatosis in Dental Technician

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sung Jun; Koo, Gun Woo; Park, Dong Won; Kwak, Hyun Jung; Yhi, Ji Young; Moon, Ji-Yong; Kim, Sang-Heon; Sohn, Jang Won; Yoon, Ho Joo; Shin, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Soo; Pyo, Ju Yeon; Oh, Young-Ha

    2015-01-01

    Occupational lung diseases are caused by several toxic substances including heavy metals; however, the exact pathologic mechanisms remain unknown. In the workplace, dental technicians are often exposed to heavy metals such as cobalt, nickel, or beryllium and occasionally develop occupational lung diseases. We described a case of occupational lung disease in a patient who was employed as a dental technician for over a decade. A 31-year-old, non-smoking woman presented with productive cough and shortness of breath of several weeks duration. Chest computed tomography revealed a large number of scattered, bilateral small pulmonary nodules throughout the lung field, and multiple mediastinal lymph nodes enlargement. Percutaneous needle biopsy showed multifocal small granulomas with foreign body type giant cells suggestive of heavy metals inhalation. The patient's condition improved on simple avoidance strategy for several months. This case highlighted the importance of proper workplace safety. PMID:26508943

  18. Charting the Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-06-01

    zero expansion asymptotically after an infinite time and has a flat geometry). All three observational tests by means of supernovae (green), the cosmic microwave background (blue) and galaxy clusters converge at a Universe around Ωm ~ 0.3 and ΩΛ ~ 0.7. The dark red region for the galaxy cluster determination corresponds to 95% certainty (2-sigma statistical deviation) when assuming good knowledge of all other cosmological parameters, and the light red region assumes a minimum knowledge. For the supernovae and WMAP results, the inner and outer regions corespond to 68% (1-sigma) and 95% certainty, respectively. References: Schuecker et al. 2003, A&A, 398, 867 (REFLEX); Tonry et al. 2003, ApJ, 594, 1 (supernovae); Riess et al. 2004, ApJ, 607, 665 (supernovae) Galaxy clusters are far from being evenly distributed in the Universe. Instead, they tend to conglomerate into even larger structures, "super-clusters". Thus, from stars which gather in galaxies, galaxies which congregate in clusters and clusters tying together in super-clusters, the Universe shows structuring on all scales, from the smallest to the largest ones. This is a relict of the very early (formation) epoch of the Universe, the so-called "inflationary" period. At that time, only a minuscule fraction of one second after the Big Bang, the tiny density fluctuations were amplified and over the eons, they gave birth to the much larger structures. Because of the link between the first fluctuations and the giant structures now observed, the unique REFLEX catalogue - the largest of its kind - allows astronomers to put considerable constraints on the content of the Universe, and in particular on the amount of dark matter that is believed to pervade it. Rather interestingly, these constraints are totally independent from all other methods so far used to assert the existence of dark matter, such as the study of very distant supernovae (see e.g. ESO PR 21/98) or the analysis of the Cosmic Microwave background (e

  19. [Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension].

    PubMed

    Kim, Nick H; Delcroix, Marion; Jenkins, David P; Channick, Richard; Dartevelle, Philippe; Jansa, Pavel; Lang, Irene; Madani, Michael M; Ogino, Hitoshi; Pengo, Vittorio; Mayer, Eckhard

    2014-10-01

    Since the last World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension in 2008, we have witnessed numerous and exciting developments in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Emerging clinical data and advances in technology have led to reinforcing and updated guidance on diagnostic approaches to pulmonary hypertension, guidelines that we hope will lead to better recognition and more timely diagnosis of CTEPH. We have new data on treatment practices across international boundaries as well as long-term outcomes for CTEPH patients treated with or without pulmonary endarterectomy. Furthermore, we have expanded data on alternative treatment options for select CTEPH patients, including data from multiple clinical trials of medical therapy, including 1 recent pivotal trial, and compelling case series of percutaneous pulmonary angioplasty. Lastly, we have garnered more experience, and on a larger international scale, with pulmonary endarterectomy, which is the treatment of choice for operable CTEPH. This report overviews and highlights these important interval developments as deliberated among our task force of CTEPH experts and presented at the 2013 World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension in Nice, France. (J Am Coil Cardiol 2013;62:D92-9) ©2013 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.

  20. The giant panda gut microbiome.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fuwen; Wang, Xiao; Wu, Qi

    2015-08-01

    Giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) are bamboo specialists that evolved from carnivores. Their gut microbiota probably aids in the digestion of cellulose and this is considered an example of gut microbiota adaptation to a bamboo diet. However, this issue remains unresolved and further functional and compositional studies are needed.

  1. Giant Serpentine Aneurysms: Multidisciplinary Management

    PubMed Central

    Anshun, W.; Feng, L.; Daming, W.

    2000-01-01

    Summary Sixty-five cases of intracranial giant serpentine aneurysms (GSΛs), including 61 cases reported in the literature and four additional cases presented in this study were reviewed. The clinical presentation, possible causes, natural history, and especially management of GSAs are discussed with emphasis on the need for aggressive intervention and multidisciplinary management. PMID:20667180

  2. The giant panda gut microbiome.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fuwen; Wang, Xiao; Wu, Qi

    2015-08-01

    Giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) are bamboo specialists that evolved from carnivores. Their gut microbiota probably aids in the digestion of cellulose and this is considered an example of gut microbiota adaptation to a bamboo diet. However, this issue remains unresolved and further functional and compositional studies are needed. PMID:26143242

  3. [A case of successful thrombolysis by recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for postoperative pulmonary thromboembolism].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Chiyo; Yano, Toshiyuki; Tashiro, Hironori; Terasaki, Hidenori

    2002-02-01

    A 52-year-old female suspected of hypercoagulability underwent modified radical hysterectomy and left oophorectomy for uterus cancer and left giant ovarian tumor under general combined with epidural anesthesia. On the day after the operation, the patient complained of dyspnea and developed tachypnea, a low Spo2, and hypotension after the intermittent external pneumatic compression of the legs. Echocardiography showed acute right cardiac failure and pulmonary angiography revealed massive pulmonary thromboembolism. The patient fell into shock with severe hypotension and unconsciousness during the catheter fragmentation and aspiration therapy for pulmonary thrombi. Bolus intravenous injection of monteplase 1.6 million units, a mutant of tissue plasminogen activator with a longer half-life, rapidly improved the shock status and stabilized the hemodynamic condition. Monteplase would be useful for life-threatening pulmonary thromboembolism although the risk of hemorrhagic complication remains.

  4. Pulmonary function tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... measured to estimate the lung volume. To measure diffusion capacity , you breathe a harmless gas, called a ... on your report after pulmonary function tests include: Diffusion capacity to carbon monoxide (DLCO) Expiratory reserve volume ( ...

  5. Percutaneous Pulmonary Valve Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyoung-Doo

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary regurgitation (PR) is a frequent sequelae after repair of tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary atresia, truncus arteriosus, Rastelli and Ross operation. Due to patient growth and conduit degeneration, these conduits have to be changed frequently due to regurgitation or stenosis. However, morbidity is significant in these repeated operations. To prolong conduit longevity, bare-metal stenting in the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) obstruction has been performed. Stenting the RVOT can reduce the right ventricular pressure and symptomatic improvement, but it causes PR with detrimental effects on the right ventricle function and risks of arrhythmia. Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation has been shown to be a safe and effective treatment for patients with pulmonary valve insufficiency, or stenotic RVOTs. PMID:23170091

  6. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF)

    MedlinePlus

    ... cough, shortness of breath, fatigue and low blood oxygen levels. Pulmonary fibrosis can be caused by an ... breath. Your health care provider may notice the oxygen levels in your blood drop when you walk. ...

  7. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Measurements of blood oxygen level (arterial blood gases) Pulmonary function tests 6-minute walk test Tests for connective tissue diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis , lupus, or scleroderma Open lung (surgical) lung biopsy

  8. Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Belts! For PFF Spend an evening with the stars on Monday, February 27, 2017. MORE PFF Moved ... Patients The Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation has a four-star rating from Charity Navigator and is a Better ...

  9. Pulmonary hyalinizing granulomas.

    PubMed

    Macedo, E V; Adolph, J

    1985-03-01

    Little has been written about pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma as a cause of nodules in the lungs. In a patient with a past history of carcinoma of the breast, the diagnosis made a significant difference in the prognosis. PMID:2984210

  10. Pulmonary rehabilitation in adults.

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation can help people with long-term lung conditions whose symptoms, such as breathlessness and being easily tired out by daily activities, seriously impact their lives. PMID:27408642

  11. Non-intubated simultaneous en bloc resection of pulmonary nodule and rib chondrosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Miao; Wang, Heng; Wu, Wenbin; Liu, Dong; Li, Min; Hu, Zhengqun

    2016-01-01

    Adequate surgical resection was required for patients with rib chondrosarcoma. A 61-year-old woman was presented with a palpable chest wall mass. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest revealed an isolated pulmonary nodule about 0.9 cm, and a giant rib tumor about 12 cm × 9 cm which penetrated through the 7th rib into thorax. CT reconstruction and simulated surgery was utilized for disease-free surgical margin (R0 resection), then a simultaneous en bloc resection of pulmonary nodule and rib tumor was performed along with chest wall reconstruction under local anesthesia and intravenous sedation without endotracheal intubation. And the recovery was encouragingly uneventful. PMID:27761448

  12. Definition and classification of pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Humbert, Marc; Montani, David; Evgenov, Oleg V; Simonneau, Gérald

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is defined as an increase of mean pulmonary arterial pressure ≥25 mmHg at rest as assessed by right heart catheterization. According to different combinations of values of pulmonary wedge pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance and cardiac output, a hemodynamic classification of pulmonary hypertension has been proposed. Of major importance is the pulmonary wedge pressure which allows to distinguish pre-capillary (pulmonary wedge pressure ≤15 mmHg) and post-capillary (pulmonary wedge pressure >15 mmHg) pulmonary hypertension. Pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension includes the clinical groups 1 (pulmonary arterial hypertension), 3 (pulmonary hypertension due to lung diseases and/or hypoxia), 4 (chronic thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension) and 5 (pulmonary hypertension with unclear and/or multifactorial mechanisms). Post-capillary pulmonary hypertension corresponds to the clinical group 2 (pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases).

  13. Patients with chronic pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Hong, Caron M; Galvagno, Samuel M

    2013-11-01

    Chronic pulmonary disease is common among the surgical population and the importance of a thorough and detailed preoperative assessment is monumental for minimizing morbidity and mortality and reducing the risk of perioperative pulmonary complications. These comorbidities contribute to pulmonary postoperative complications, including atelectasis, pneumonia, and respiratory failure, and can predict long-term mortality. The important aspects of the preoperative assessment for patients with chronic pulmonary disease, and the value of preoperative testing and smoking cessation, are discussed. Specifically discussed are preoperative pulmonary assessment and management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, restrictive lung disease, obstructive sleep apnea, and obesity. PMID:24182721

  14. Pulmonary hypertension imitating HELLP syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A case of undiagnosed pulmonary hypertension in a woman with mixed connective tissue disease presenting with microangiopathic haemolysis, thrombocytopenia and elevated liver enzymes imitating severe preeclampsia (HELLP syndrome) is described. Connective tissue disorders are associated with an increased prevalence of pulmonary hypertension. Maternal mortality rates with pulmonary hypertension in pregnancy are extremely high. All women with connective tissue disorders should have pulmonary hypertension excluded by echocardiography before attempting conception. End-stage pulmonary hypertension may be associated with haemolysis and thrombocytopenia and thus may imitate severe preeclampsia in pregnant women. There may be a role for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the peripartum management of women with severe pulmonary hypertension. PMID:27656251

  15. Pulmonary hypertension imitating HELLP syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A case of undiagnosed pulmonary hypertension in a woman with mixed connective tissue disease presenting with microangiopathic haemolysis, thrombocytopenia and elevated liver enzymes imitating severe preeclampsia (HELLP syndrome) is described. Connective tissue disorders are associated with an increased prevalence of pulmonary hypertension. Maternal mortality rates with pulmonary hypertension in pregnancy are extremely high. All women with connective tissue disorders should have pulmonary hypertension excluded by echocardiography before attempting conception. End-stage pulmonary hypertension may be associated with haemolysis and thrombocytopenia and thus may imitate severe preeclampsia in pregnant women. There may be a role for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the peripartum management of women with severe pulmonary hypertension.

  16. Asteroseismology of Red Giant stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarrant, N. J.; Chaplin, W. J.; Elsworth, Y. P.; Spreckley, S. A.; Stevens, I. R.

    2008-12-01

    Sun-like oscillations, that is p-modes excited stochastically by convective noise, have now been observed in a number of Red Giant stars. Compared to those seen in the Sun, these modes are of large amplitude and long period, making the oscillations attractive prospects for observation. However, the low Q-factor of these modes, and issues relating to the rising background at low frequencies, present some interesting challenges for identifying modes and determining the related asteroseismic parameters. We report on the analysis procedure adopted for peak-bagging by our group at Birming- ham, and the techniques used to robustly ensure these are not a product of noise. I also show results from a number of giants extracted from multi-year observations with the SMEI instrument

  17. Proteorhodopsin genes in giant viruses.

    PubMed

    Yutin, Natalya; Koonin, Eugene V

    2012-01-01

    Viruses with large genomes encode numerous proteins that do not directly participate in virus biogenesis but rather modify key functional systems of infected cells. We report that a distinct group of giant viruses infecting unicellular eukaryotes that includes Organic Lake Phycodnaviruses and Phaeocystis globosa virus encode predicted proteorhodopsins that have not been previously detected in viruses. Search of metagenomic sequence data shows that putative viral proteorhodopsins are extremely abundant in marine environments. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that giant viruses acquired proteorhodopsins via horizontal gene transfer from proteorhodopsin-encoding protists although the actual donor(s) could not be presently identified. The pattern of conservation of the predicted functionally important amino acid residues suggests that viral proteorhodopsin homologs function as sensory rhodopsins. We hypothesize that viral rhodopsins modulate light-dependent signaling, in particular phototaxis, in infected protists.

  18. Giant South Brae platform installed

    SciTech Connect

    Cranfield, J.

    1982-12-01

    During the summer 1982 another giant production platform was installed in the North Sea in Marathon's South Brae field. The complex structure of that field necessitated careful planning of the offshore producing structure design and placement. The platform has 46 well slots; 19 will be used as producing wells, 3 for gas injection, and 14 for water injection. The remainder of the well slots are reserved for future development. The platform structure design is examined.

  19. Giant magnetoresistance in silicene nanoribbons.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chengyong; Luo, Guangfu; Liu, Qihang; Zheng, Jiaxin; Zhang, Zhimeng; Nagase, Shigeru; Gao, Zhengxiang; Lu, Jing

    2012-05-21

    By performing first-principle quantum transport calculations, we predict a giant magnetoresistance in zigzag silicene nanoribbons (ZSiNRs) connecting two semi-infinite silicene electrodes through switch of the edge spin direction of ZSiNRs. Spin-filter efficiency of both the antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic ZSiNRs is sign-changeable with the bias voltage. Therefore, potential application of silicene in spintronics devices is suggested.

  20. A giant juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma.

    PubMed

    Yüce, Salim; Uysal, Ismail Önder; Doğan, Mansur; Polat, Kerem; Salk, Ismail; Müderris, Suphi

    2013-05-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas are locally growing and highly vascular tumors. They are primarily treated through surgical excision ranging from an open approach to an endoscopic approach. We presented a 20-year-old man with a giant juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma that bilaterally obliterated the pterygopalatine fossa, invaded the sphenoid bone, and extended to the left nasal passage. His complaints were epistaxis and nasal obstruction. After embolization, the patient was treated surgically using the endoscopic approach and declared cured and discharged without any complications.

  1. A Giant Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma

    PubMed Central

    Yüce, Salim; Uysal, İsmail Önder; Doğan, Mansur; Polat, Kerem; Şalk, İsmail; Müderris, Suphi

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) are locally growing highly vascular tumours. They are treated primarily by surgical excision ranging from open approach to endoscopic approach. We presented a 20-year-old male with a giant nasopharyngeal juvenile angiofibroma obliterating the pterygopalatine fossa bilaterally, invasing the sphenoid bone and extending to the left nasal passage. His complaints were epistaxis and nasal obstruction. After embolization, the patient was treated surgically with endoscopic approach and discharged as cured without any complication. PMID:23714961

  2. Predictors of Pulmonary Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Miniati, Massimo; Bottai, Matteo; Ciccotosto, Cesario; Roberto, Luca; Monti, Simonetta

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the setting of acute pulmonary embolism (PE), pulmonary infarction is deemed to occur primarily in individuals with compromised cardiac function. The current study was undertaken to establish the prevalence of pulmonary infarction in patients with acute PE, and the relationship between infarction and: age, body height, body mass index (BMI), smoking habits, clot burden, and comorbidities. The authors studied prospectively 335 patients with acute PE diagnosed by computed tomographic angiography (CT) in 18 hospitals throughout central Italy. The diagnosis of pulmonary infarction on CT was based on Hampton and Castleman's criteria (cushion-like or hemispherical consolidation lying along the visceral pleura). Multivariable logistic regression was used to model the relationship between covariates and the probability of pulmonary infarction. The prevalence of pulmonary infarction was 31%. Patients with infarction were significantly younger and with significantly lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease than those without (P < 0.001). The frequency of infarction increased linearly with increasing height, and decreased with increasing BMI. In logistic regression, the covariates significantly associated with the probability of infarction were age, body height, BMI, and current smoking. The risk of infarction grew with age, peaked at approximately age 40, and decreased afterwards. Increasing body height and current smoking were significant amplifiers of the risk of infarction, whereas increasing BMI appeared to confer some protection. Our data indicate that pulmonary infarction occurs in nearly one-third of the patients with acute PE. Those with infarction are often young and otherwise healthy. Increasing body height and active smoking are predisposing risk factors. PMID:26469892

  3. KEPLER RAPIDLY ROTATING GIANT STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, A. D.; Martins, B. L. Canto; Bravo, J. P.; Paz-Chinchón, F.; Chagas, M. L. das; Leão, I. C.; Oliveira, G. Pereira de; Silva, R. Rodrigues da; Roque, S.; Oliveira, L. L. A. de; Silva, D. Freire da; De Medeiros, J. R.

    2015-07-10

    Rapidly rotating giant stars are relatively rare and may represent important stages of stellar evolution, resulting from stellar coalescence of close binary systems or accretion of substellar companions by their hosting stars. In the present Letter, we report 17 giant stars observed in the scope of the Kepler space mission exhibiting rapid rotation behavior. For the first time, the abnormal rotational behavior for this puzzling family of stars is revealed by direct measurements of rotation, namely from photometric rotation period, exhibiting a very short rotation period with values ranging from 13 to 55 days. This finding points to remarkable surface rotation rates, up to 18 times the rotation of the Sun. These giants are combined with six others recently listed in the literature for mid-infrared (IR) diagnostics based on Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer information, from which a trend for an IR excess is revealed for at least one-half of the stars, but at a level far lower than the dust excess emission shown by planet-bearing main-sequence stars.

  4. Hairpin Furans and Giant Biaryls.

    PubMed

    Geng, Xin; Mague, Joel T; Donahue, James P; Pascal, Robert A

    2016-05-01

    The thermal reaction of two cyclopentadienones with 5,5'-binaphthoquinone or 6,6'-dimethoxy-5,5'-binaphthoquinone in refluxing nitrobenzene (210 °C) gives, in a single synthetic step that includes two Diels-Alder additions, two decarbonylations, and two dehydrogenations, giant biaryl bisquinones (compounds 13, 14, 15, 18, and 21). However, when two cyclopentadienones react with 6,6'-dimethoxy-5,5'-binaphthoquinone in nitrobenzene at higher temperatures (250-260 °C), the resulting products are molecular ribbons composed of two twisted aromatic systems fused to a heteropentahelicene (19, 20, and 22). These molecules are representatives of a new class of chiral polycyclic aromatic compounds, the "hairpin furans". Interestingly, reheating a dimethoxy-substituted giant biaryl (e.g., 21) in nitrobenzene at 260 °C does not yield the corresponding hairpin furan (22), and mechanistic studies indicate that some intermediate or byproduct of the synthesis of the giant biaryls is a reagent or catalyst necessary for the conversion of the dimethoxybiaryl to the furan.

  5. Observed Properties of Giant Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.; Upton, Lisa; Colegrove, Owen

    2014-01-01

    The existence of Giant Cells has been suggested by both theory and observation for over 45 years. We have tracked the motions of supergranules in SDO/HMI Doppler velocity data and find larger (Giant Cell) flows that persist for months. The flows in these cells are clockwise around centers of divergence in the north and counter-clockwise in the south. Equatorward flows are correlated with prograde flows - giving the transport of angular momentum toward the equator that is needed to maintain the Sun's rapid equatorial rotation. The cells are most pronounced at mid- and high-latitudes where they exhibit the rotation rates representative of those latitudes. These are clearly large, long-lived, cellular features, with the dynamical characteristics expected from the effects of the Sun's rotation, but the shapes of the cells are not well represented in numerical models. While the Giant Cell flow velocities are small (<10 m/s), their long lifetimes should nonetheless substantially impact the transport of magnetic flux in the Sun's near surface layers.

  6. Red Giants and Solar Sails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matloff, G. L.

    Our Sun will eventually leave the main sequence and expand in size and luminosity to become a giant star. For much of its ~108 year career as a giant, the Sun will reside on the horizontal branch of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, with a surface temperature of ~5000 K, a radius about 10x its present-day radius, and about 50x its current luminosity. A space-manufactured beryllium solar-photon sail could be used for emigration from the solar system during this solar phase. Space environmental effects limit the closest approach distance to the giant star to around 0.5 AU, assuming the quiet phase of the stellar activity cycle. Beryllium spectral reflectivity values are used to calculate a wavelength averaged sail spectral reflectivity. This parameter and a reasonable value of spacecraft areal mass thickness (8.87 x 10-5 kg/m2) are used to estimate the interstellar cruise velocity for a sail fully unfurled at a 0.5-1 AU perihelion from an initially parabolic orbit that is always oriented normal to the star. These will be 2-3x greater than those possible for the same craft launched from today's Sun.

  7. A set of recombinant antigens from Echinococcus granulosus with potential for use in the immunodiagnosis of human cystic hydatid disease

    PubMed Central

    VIRGINIO, V G; HERNÁNDEZ, A; ROTT, M B; MONTEIRO, K M; ZANDONAI, A F; NIETO, A; ZAHA, A; FERREIRA, H B

    2003-01-01

    Several recombinant clones expressing antigens from Echinococcus granulosus were isolated previously from a parasite cDNA library using cystic hydatid disease (CHD) patients’ sera or rabbit hyperimmune antiserum against a lipoproteic fraction from bovine cyst fluid. Six of these antigens were expressed in Escherichia coli and the purified recombinant proteins were tested in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for specific IgG with a panel of sera from patients with surgically confirmed (n = 58) or immunologically diagnosed (n = 71) CHD. Sera from clinically normal individuals (n = 203) and sera from individuals with other helminthic infections (n = 65) were assayed for the assessment of specificity. A cut-off value was determined by receiver-operating-characteristic plots for each antigen. A recombinant antigen B subunit (AgB8/2) presented the highest sensitivity (93·1%), considering the group of sera from patients with CHD surgically confirmed, and specificity (99·5%) and is proposed as the basis for an immunodiagnostic test. The other recombinant antigens tested presented sensitivities between 58·6% and 89·7%, and three of them were considered of complementary value. In subclass-specific ELISA, different IgG isotypes showed dominance in the response for each of the recombinant antigens. There was a clear predominance of IgG4 response for all antigens tested, indicating that this would be the subclass of choice to be assessed for these recombinant proteins. PMID:12699422

  8. In Vitro Effects of Some Herbs Used in Egyptian Traditional Medicine on Viability of Protoscolices of Hydatid Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Taher, Gamal A.; Ibraheim, Zedan Z.

    2011-01-01

    The present work evaluated the effects of alcoholic extracts of salvia (Salvia officinalis), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), and 2 pure compounds (thymol and menthol) on the viability of Echinococcus granulosus protoscolices in vitro. Four different concentrations of each extract (2,500, 1,500, 1,000, and 500 µg/ml) and 3 different concentrations each of thymol and menthol (50, 10, and 1 µg/ml) were used. Concentration of 2,500 µg/ml of both extracts showed a significant protoscolicidal activity on the 6th day. Complete loss of viability of protoscolices occurred with 500 µg/ml concentration of both extracts at day 6 and day 7 post-treatment (PT), respectively. Pure compounds, i.e., menthol and thymol, showed potent effects with 50 µg/ml concentration at day 2 and day 5 PT, respectively. These effects were compared with those of albendazole sulfoxide (800 µg/ml), a commonly used treatment drug for hydatidosis. Krebs-Ringer solution and the hydatid cystic fluid at a ratio of 4:1 was a good preservative solution which kept the protoscolices viable for 15 days. PMID:22072825

  9. Recombinant S3Pvac-phage anticysticercosis vaccine: Simultaneous protection against cysticercosis and hydatid disease in rural pigs.

    PubMed

    Morales, Julio; de Aluja, Aline S; Martínez, Jose Juan; Hernández, Marisela; Rosas, Gabriela; Villalobos, Nelly; Hernández, Beatriz; Blancas, Abel; Manoutcharian, Karen; Gevorkian, Goar; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Díaz, Alicia; Fleury, Agnes; Fragoso, Gladis; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

    2011-02-28

    This paper provides macroscopic and histological evidence on the statistically significant protective effects of S3Pvac-phage vaccination against porcine cysticercosis and hydatidosis. The study included 391 rustically bred pigs (187 vaccinated and 204 controls). Vaccination significantly reduced the prevalence of cysticercosis by 61.7%. Vaccination also significantly reduced by 56.1% the prevalence of hydatidosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus in pigs. The presence of the vaccine epitopes in both cestodes is probably involved in the cross-protection observed. Increased inflammation was found in 5% of cysticerci recovered from controls, versus 24% from vaccinated pigs (P<0.01). Hydatid cysts were non-inflammatory in either group. Vaccination was effective to prevent one single disease, but it failed to prevent the simultaneous infections with both parasites in a same pig. The widening of the S3Pvac-phage vaccine protective repertoire to include hydatidosis is a convenient feature that should reduce the prevalence of two frequent zoonoses that affect rustic porcine breading with a single action. Thus, the costs of two different vaccination programs would be reduced to a single one with significant reduction in both zoonoses.

  10. Giant sigmoid diverticulum with coexisting metastatic rectal carcinoma: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Giant diverticulum of the colon is a rare but clinically significant condition, usually regarded as a complication of an already existing colonic diverticular disease. This is the first report of a giant diverticulum of the colon with a co-existing rectal carcinoma. Case presentation We report a case of a 66-year-old Caucasian woman who presented with lower abdominal pain, chronic constipation and abdominal swelling. Preoperative abdominal computed tomography revealed a giant diverticulum of the colon with a coexisting rectal carcinoma and pulmonary metastasis revealed on a further thoracic computed tomography. An en bloc anterior resection of the rectum along with sigmoid colectomy, partial hysterectomy and right salpingoophorectomy was subsequently performed due to extensive adhesions. Conclusion This report shows that the presence of a co-existing distal colorectal cancer can potentially lead to progressive development of a colonic diverticulum to become a giant diverticulum by increasing colonic intra-luminal pressure and through the ball-valve mechanism. This may be of interest to practising surgeons and surgical trainees. PMID:20955549

  11. Pulmonary oedema of immersion.

    PubMed

    Koehle, Michael S; Lepawsky, Michael; McKenzie, Donald C

    2005-01-01

    Acute pulmonary oedema has been described in individuals participating in three aquatic activities: (i) scuba diving; (ii) breath-hold diving; and (iii) endurance swimming. In this review, 60 published cases have been compiled for comparison. Variables considered included: age; past medical history; activity; water depth, type (salt or fresh) and temperature; clinical presentation; investigations; management; and outcome. From these data, we conclude that a similar phenomenon is occurring among scuba, breath-hold divers and swimmers. The pathophysiology is likely a pulmonary overperfusion mechanism. High pulmonary capillary pressures lead to extravasation of fluid into the interstitium. This overperfusion is caused by the increase in ambient pressure, peripheral vasoconstriction from ambient cold, and increased pulmonary blood flow resulting from exercise. Affected individuals are typically healthy males and females. Older individuals may be at higher risk. The most common symptoms are cough and dyspnoea, with haemoptysis also a frequent occurrence. Chest pain has never been reported. Radiography is the investigation of choice, demonstrating typical findings for pulmonary oedema. Management is supportive, with oxygen the mainstay of treatment. Cases usually resolve within 24 hours. In some cases, diuretics have been used, but there are no data as to their efficacy. Nifedipine has been used to prevent recurrence, but there is only anecdotal evidence to support its use.

  12. Guiding the Giant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-08-01

    New ESO Survey Provides Targets for the VLT Giant astronomical telescopes like the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) must be used efficiently. Observing time is expensive and there are long waiting lines of excellent research programmes. Thus the work at the telescope must be very well prepared and optimized as much as possible - mistakes should be avoided and no time lost! Astronomers working with the new 8-m class optical/infrared telescopes must base their observations on detailed lists of suitable target objects if they want to perform cutting-edge science. This is particularly true for research programmes that depend on observations of large samples of comparatively rare, distant objects. This type of work requires that extensive catalogues of such objects must be prepared in advance. One such major catalogue - that will serve as a very useful basis for future VLT observations - has just become available from the new ESO Imaging Survey (EIS). The Need for Sky Surveys Astronomers have since long recognized the need to carry out preparatory observations with other telescopes in order to "guide" large telescopes. To this end, surveys of smaller or larger parts of the sky have been performed by wide-field telescopes, paving the way for subsequent work at the limits of the largest available ground-based telescopes. For instance, a complete photographic survey of the sourthern sky (declination < -17.5°) was carried out in the 1970's with the ESO 1-metre Schmidt Telescope in support of the work at the 3.6-m telescope at the ESO La Silla observatory. However, while until recently most observational programmes could rely on samples of objects found on photographic plates, this is no longer possible. New image surveys must match the fainter limiting magnitudes reached by the new and larger telescopes. Modern digital, multi-colour, deep imaging surveys have thus become an indispensable complement to the 8-m telescopes. The new generation of imaging surveys will, without

  13. Drug-induced pulmonary disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... improve. Some drug-induced lung diseases, such as pulmonary fibrosis, may never go away. ... Complications that may develop include: Diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis Hypoxemia (low blood oxygen) Respiratory failure

  14. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a preventable and treatable disease that makes it difficult to empty air out of the lungs. This difficulty in ...

  15. Red giants: then and now

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulkner, John

    Fred Hoyle's work on the structure and evolution of red giants, particularly his pathbreaking contribution with Martin Schwarzschild (Hoyle and Schwarzschild 1955), is both lauded and critically assessed. In his later lectures and work with students in the early 1960s, Hoyle presented more physical ways of understanding some of the approximations used, and results obtained, in that seminal paper. Although later ideas by other investigators will be touched upon, Hoyle's viewpoint - that low-mass red giants are essentially white dwarfs with a serious mass-storage problem - is still extremely fruitful. Over the years, I have further developed his method of attack. Relatively recently, I have been able to deepen and broaden the approach, finally extending the theory to provide a unifying treatment of the structure of low-mass stars from the main sequence though both the red-giant and horizontal-branch phases of evolution. Many aspects of these stars that had remained puzzling, even mysterious, for decades have now fallen into place, and some questions have been answered that were not even posed before. With low-mass red giants as the simplest example, this recent work emphasizes that stars, in general, may have at least two distinct but very important centres: (I) a geometrical centre, and (II) a separate nuclear centre, residing in a shell outside a zero-luminosity dense core for example. This two-centre perspective leads to an explicit, analytical, asymptotic theory of low-mass red-giant structure. It enables one to appreciate that the problem of understanding why such stars become red giants is one of anticipating a remarkable yet natural structural bifurcation that occurs in them. This bifurcation occurs because of a combination of known and understandable facts just summarized namely that, following central hydrogen exhaustion, a thin nuclear-burning shell does develop outside a more-or-less dense core. In the resulting theory, both ρsh/ρolinec and

  16. Spontaneous thrombosis in giant intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed Central

    Whittle, I R; Dorsch, N W; Besser, M

    1982-01-01

    Twelve patients in a series of 22 with giant intracranial aneurysms demonstrated neuroradiological features of partial or total spontaneous intra-aneurysmal thrombosis. The presence of this intra-aneurysmal clot significantly altered the computed tomographic appearance of the giant aneurysm. Massive intra-aneurysmal thrombosis did not protect against subarachnoid haemorrhage and the likelihood of rupture of a clot containing giant aneurysm was not significantly different from that of a non-thrombosed giant aneurysm. Although parent artery occlusion from a thrombosed giant aneurysm, and massive aneurysmal thrombosis leading to the formation of giant serpentine aneurysm were documented, these are rare epiphenomena. The risk of embolisation from a partially thrombosed giant aneurysm, which was documented in one case, would appear to be greater than that from a non-thrombosed giant aneurysm. The findings in this series, and a review of literature, suggest that the presence of intra-aneurysmal clot in giant intracranial aneurysms has little prognostic significance and does not alter the management or outcome after treatment. Images PMID:7175528

  17. Speciation and phylogeography of giant petrels Macronectes.

    PubMed

    Techow, N M S M; O'Ryan, C; Phillips, R A; Gales, R; Marin, M; Patterson-Fraser, D; Quintana, F; Ritz, M S; Thompson, D R; Wanless, R M; Weimerskirch, H; Ryan, P G

    2010-02-01

    We examine global phylogeography of the two forms of giant petrel Macronectes spp. Although previously considered to be a single taxon, and despite debate over the status of some populations and the existence of minimal genetic data (one mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence per form), the current consensus based on morphology is that there are two species, Northern Giant Petrel M. halli and Southern Giant Petrel M. giganteus. This study examined genetic variation at cytochrome b as well as six microsatellite loci in giant petrels from 22 islands, representing most island groups at which the two species breed. Both markers support separate species status, although sequence divergence in cytochrome b was only 0.42% (corrected). Divergence was estimated to have occurred approximately 0.2mya, but with some colonies apparently separated for longer (up to 0.5 my). Three clades were found within giant petrels, which separated approximately 0.7mya, with the Southern Giant Petrel paraphyletic to a monophyletic Northern Giant Petrel. There was evidence of past fragmentation during the Pleistocene, with subsequent secondary contact within Southern Giant Petrels. The analysis also suggested a period of past population expansion that corresponded roughly to the timing of speciation and the separation of an ancestral giant petrel population from the fulmar Fulmarus clade. PMID:19755164

  18. Modelling pulmonary blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Tawhai, Merryn H.; Burrowes, Kelly S.

    2008-01-01

    Computational model analysis is a method that has been used widely to understand and interpret complexity of interactions in the pulmonary system. Pulmonary blood transport is a multi-scale phenomenon that involves scale-dependent structure and function, therefore requiring different model assumptions for the microcirculation and the arterial or venous flows. The blood transport systems interact with the surrounding lung tissue, and are dependent on hydrostatic pressure gradients, control of vasoconstriction, and the topology and material composition of the vascular trees. This review focuses on computational models that have been developed to study the different mechanisms contributing to regional perfusion of the lung. Different models for the microcirculation and the pulmonary arteries are considered, including fractal approaches and anatomically-based methods. The studies that are reviewed illustrate the different complementary approaches that can be used to address the same physiological question of flow heterogeneity. PMID:18434260

  19. Aging and Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Selman, Moisés; Buendía-Roldán, Ivette; Pardo, Annie

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic, progressive, and usually fatal lung disorder of unknown etiology. The disease likely results from the interaction of genetic susceptibility architecture, environmental factors such as smoking, and an abnormal epigenetic reprogramming that leads to a complex pathogenesis. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis occurs in middle-aged and mainly elderly adults, and in this context age has emerged as its strongest risk factor. However, the mechanisms linking it to aging are uncertain. Recently, nine molecular and cellular hallmarks of aging have been proposed: genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, deregulated nutrient sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion, and altered intercellular communication. In this review, we provide an overview of these molecular mechanisms and their involvement in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, while emphasizing that the studies on this disease are few and the findings are not definitive. PMID:27103043

  20. Treatment of pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rajendrakumar; Aronow, Wilbert S.; Patel, Laxeshkumar; Gandhi, Kaushang; Desai, Harit; Kaul, Dhiraj; Sahgal, Sumir P.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic progressive disease of the pulmonary vasculature characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure and secondary right ventricular failure. PAH is considered a life-threatening condition unless treated. This article provides a comprehensive review of controlled and uncontrolled trials to define the risk-benefit for different therapeutic options of this clinical disorder. Relevant published articles were identified through searches of the National Center for Biotechnology PubMed database. All therapeutic measures for PAH were discussed. Six drugs have been approved in the United States for the treatment of PAH. Extensive medical advancement has been achieved in treatment of PAH. However, none of the approved therapies have shown ability to cure the disease. New research should be performed to develop promising new therapies. PMID:22460104

  1. Symptomatic pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, J; Mehta, J B; Taylor, R A; Byrd, R P; Roy, T M

    1998-09-01

    An otherwise healthy 37-year-old man came to the emergency room with left-sided dull chest pain of 4 weeks' duration. Physical examination, laboratory studies, and electrocardiogram were all unremarkable. A chest x-ray film revealed calcified pulmonary nodules. Computed tomography of the chest confirmed bilateral parenchymal cavitary lesions. Via limited thoracotomy, a tan nodule measuring 2.5 to 3.0 cm in diameter was excised from the left upper lobe. Histopathologic examination revealed a well circumscribed lesion and extensive lamellar hyalinization. A few foci of finely granular calcification were present within the hyalinizing areas. After surgery and short-term use of nonnarcotic analgesics, the chest pain resolved. Although pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma (PHG) is known to produce cavitating lesions, calcification at multiple sites is also consistent with this diagnosis. Clinicians should remember to include PHG in the differential diagnosis of multiple pulmonary nodules. PMID:9743062

  2. A Hydatid Cyst of the Appendix which Mimicked a Tubo-ovarian Mass: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Deepti; Huda, Farhan; N., Arathi; Awasthi, Seema

    2013-01-01

    Hydatid disease, an endemic in the cattle grazing areas, particularly in the Asian region, is a parasitic infection which is caused by the cestode tapeworm, Echinoccocus granulosus. There is involvement of the intra–abdominal organs apart from the liver, in 10-15% of the cases. We are reporting a case, wherein the appendix was involved with this parasitosis and we have discussed the review of the literature regarding the diagnostic, surgical and the newer percutaneous approaches for the management of this disease. PMID:24086887

  3. Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma.

    PubMed

    Yousem, S A; Hochholzer, L

    1987-01-01

    Pulmonary hyalinizing granulomas are distinct fibrosing lesions of lung, having central whorled deposits of lamellar collagen. Twenty-four cases of this unusual pulmonary lesion are reported herein. Hyalinizing granulomas occur in middle-aged persons and are frequently mistaken for metastatic carcinoma radiographically. More than half of the patients had autoimmune phenomena or previous exposures to mycobacterial or fungal antigens. Four patients had sclerosing mediastinitis develop. A progressive debilitating clinical course was related to increasing dyspnea and bilateral disease on chest radiographs. A discussion of the histogenesis and histologic differential diagnosis is presented. PMID:3799538

  4. [Pulmonary Echinococcosis: Surgical Aspects].

    PubMed

    Eichhorn, M E; Hoffmann, H; Dienemann, H

    2015-10-01

    Pulmonary cystic echinococcosis is a very rare disease in Germany. It is caused by the larvae of the dog tapeworm (echinococcus granulosus). The liver is the most affected organ, followed by the lungs. Surgery remains the main therapeutic approach for pulmonary CE. Whenever possible, parenchyma-preserving lung surgery should be preferred over anatomic lung resections. To ensure best therapeutic results, surgery needs to be performed under precise consideration of important infectiological aspects and patients should be treated in specialised centres based on interdisciplinary consensus. In addition to surgical aspects, this review summarises special infectiological features of this disease, which are crucial to the surgical approach. PMID:26351761

  5. Giant ductal aneurysm in an asymptomatic 4-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Ritu; Smith, Clinton; Greenberg, Bruce S; Jaquiss, Robert D B

    2009-03-01

    Ductal aneurysm is a rare but potentially fatal condition. We report the case of an asymptomatic 4-year-old girl who was noted to have a murmur and with further evaluation by echocardiography and computed tomographic angiography was diagnosed with a giant ductal aneurysm. The aneurysm occupied a large space in the mediastinum, compressed the pulmonary arteries, and was in close proximity to the sternum. At surgery, the aneurysm was successfully resected after careful separation from adjacent structures. Because the anterolateral wall of the ascending aorta was noted to be extraordinarily thinned-out, it was replaced with a patch.

  6. Pulmonary vascular resistance and compliance relationship in pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Chemla, Denis; Lau, Edmund M T; Papelier, Yves; Attal, Pierre; Hervé, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    Right ventricular adaptation to the increased pulmonary arterial load is a key determinant of outcomes in pulmonary hypertension (PH). Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and total arterial compliance (C) quantify resistive and elastic properties of pulmonary arteries that modulate the steady and pulsatile components of pulmonary arterial load, respectively. PVR is commonly calculated as transpulmonary pressure gradient over pulmonary flow and total arterial compliance as stroke volume over pulmonary arterial pulse pressure (SV/PApp). Assuming that there is an inverse, hyperbolic relationship between PVR and C, recent studies have popularised the concept that their product (RC-time of the pulmonary circulation, in seconds) is "constant" in health and diseases. However, emerging evidence suggests that this concept should be challenged, with shortened RC-times documented in post-capillary PH and normotensive subjects. Furthermore, reported RC-times in the literature have consistently demonstrated significant scatter around the mean. In precapillary PH, the true PVR can be overestimated if one uses the standard PVR equation because the zero-flow pressure may be significantly higher than pulmonary arterial wedge pressure. Furthermore, SV/PApp may also overestimate true C. Further studies are needed to clarify some of the inconsistencies of pulmonary RC-time, as this has major implications for our understanding of the arterial load in diseases of the pulmonary circulation.

  7. Warm Disks from Giant Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-10-01

    In the process of searching for exoplanetary systems, weve discovered tens of debris disks close around distant stars that are especially bright in infrared wavelengths. New research suggests that we might be looking at the late stages of terrestrial planet formation in these systems.Forming Terrestrial PlanetsAccording to the widely-accepted formation model for our solar-system, protoplanets the size of Mars formed within a protoplanetary disk around our Sun. Eventually, the depletion of the gas in the disk led the orbits of these protoplanets to become chaotically unstable. Finally, in the giant impact stage, many of the protoplanets collided with each other ultimately leading to the formation of the terrestrial planets and their moons as we know them today.If giant impact stages occur in exoplanetary systems, too leading to the formation of terrestrial exoplanets how would we detect this process? According to a study led by Hidenori Genda of the Tokyo Institute of Technology, we might be already be witnessing this stage in observations of warm debris disks around other stars. To test this, Genda and collaborators model giant impact stages and determine what we would expect to see from a system undergoing this violent evolution.Modeling CollisionsSnapshots of a giant impact in one of the authors simulations. The collision causes roughly 0.05 Earth masses of protoplanetary material to be ejected from the system. Click for a closer look! [Genda et al. 2015]The collaborators run a series of simulations evolving protoplanetary bodies in a solar system. The simulations begin 10 Myr into the lifetime of the solar system, i.e., after the gas from the protoplanetary disk has had time to be cleared and the protoplanetary orbits begin to destabilize. The simulations end when the protoplanets are done smashing into each other and have again settled into stable orbits, typically after ~100 Myr.The authors find that, over an average giant impact stage, the total amount of

  8. Pulmonary hypertension and hepatic cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Téllez Villajos, L; Martínez González, J; Moreira Vicente, V; Albillos Martínez, A

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a relatively common phenomenon in patients with hepatic cirrhosis and can appear through various mechanisms. The most characteristic scenario that binds portal and pulmonary hypertension is portopulmonary syndrome. However, hyperdynamic circulation, TIPS placement and heart failure can raise the mean pulmonary artery pressure without increasing the resistances. These conditions are not candidates for treatment with pulmonary vasodilators and require a specific therapy. A correct assessment of hemodynamic, ultrasound and clinical variables enables the differential diagnosis of each situation that produces pulmonary hypertension in patients with cirrhosis.

  9. Vibration modes of giant gravitons

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sumit R.; Jevicki, Antal; Mathur, Samir D.

    2001-01-15

    We examine the spectrum of small vibrations of giant gravitons when the gravitons expand in anti--de Sitter space and when they expand on the sphere. For any given angular harmonic, the modes are found to have frequencies related to the curvature length scale of the background; these frequencies are independent of radius (and hence angular momentum) of the brane itself. This implies that the holographic dual theory must have, in a given R charge sector, low-lying non-BPS excitations with level spacings independent of the R charge.

  10. Giant Sigmoid Diverticula: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kempczinski, Richard F.; Ferrucci, Joseph T.

    1974-01-01

    Two patients with giant sigmoid diverticula are added to 13 cases reported in the literature and the clinical features of this rare complication of diverticulosis are reviewed. These lesions probably arise as pseudodiverticula of the sigmoid colon with herniation of the mucosa through the muscle wall. They become progressively inflated by colonic gas via a ball-valve type mechanism. They are best treated by resection of the diverticulum, in continuity with the involved sigmoid, and primary anastomosis. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3. PMID:4433171

  11. Nodular pulmonary amyloidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, A; Rasmussen, S L; Campbell, T M; Lester, W M

    1984-01-01

    An elderly man had a 10-year history of multiple pulmonary nodules that he had refused to have investigated. He died of a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. At autopsy the nodules were shown to consist of amyloid. There was no evidence of systemic amyloidosis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6744167

  12. [Pulmonary involvements of sarcoidosis].

    PubMed

    Ohmichi, M; Hiraga, Y; Hirasawa, M

    1990-01-01

    We reported about intrathoracic changes and prognosis of 686 patients with sarcoidosis diagnosed in our hospital between 1963 and 1988. We evaluated CT findings in 135 patients with sarcoidosis and found pulmonary involvements in 81. We analyzed CT findings according to the classification by Tuengerthal which classified radiographic findings combining ILO classification of pneumoconiosis and characteristic findings of bronchovascular sheath with sarcoidosis. The CT findings were as follows: small opacities (44 out of 81 cases, 54.3%), large opacities (37 cases, 46.7%). Additional findings were as follows: peribronchial marking (42 cases, 51.9%), contraction (17 cases, 21.0%), pleural involvement (9 cases, 11.1%), bulla (5 cases, 6.2%). The characteristic CT findings of serious sarcoidosis were extasis of bronchus, thickening of the bronchial wall, unclearness of vascular shadow, atelectasis and thickening of pleura. Concerning the prognosis of pulmonary involvement, according to age, patients younger than 30 years old at initial diagnosis were better than those of 30 years and over in terms of disappearance of pulmonary involvements. According to stage, patients of stage I and stage II were better than those of stage III. Among the patients we were able to observe chest X-ray findings during five years according to the character of shadow, ill-defined shadow of small opacities and rounded shadows of large opacities had a higher disappearance rate of pulmonary involvements than irregular shadows of large opacities, atelectasis and contraction.

  13. [Multiple pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma].

    PubMed

    Haro, M; Ruiz, J; Vila, X; Avellanet, M; Izquierdo, J

    1994-01-01

    The causes of multiple pulmonary nodules are many, with metastasis being the most feared. A rare but possible etiology, however, is hyalinizing multiple granuloma. We present a case that allows us to review this condition and its course, as well as a variety of associated immunological changes and possible complications. PMID:8087395

  14. [Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma].

    PubMed

    Westhoff, M; Litterst, P; Albert, M; Welim, B

    2015-01-01

    Benign lesions as pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma may mimic a malign disease. A 63-year old patient complained dyspnea and a weight loss of 30 kg. CT-thorax scans showed a destructive and infiltrative pulmonary process with pleural thickening. Histologic examination of transbronchial and transthoracic biopsies as well as of biopsies taken by minithoracotomy was not conclusive. Due to further progression the patient underwent a left-sided pleuropneumonectomy despite a VO2 peak of 9 ml/kg/min. Histology revealed DIP-like infiltrations, a histiocytic reaction and hyaline granulomas. Among less than 100 published cases of pulmonary hyaline granuloma a comparable rapid progression with a total functional loss of the affected lung is not reported. Mostly hyalinizing granuloma presents with infiltrations, which may mimic lung cancer, or nodular lesions, partly with cavitations or calcifications. The etiology is unknown, a persistent immunologic response to an antigenic stimulus is discussed. Associations with infections, lymphomas, amyloidosis or IgG4-related disease are reported. Some cases have features of multifocal fibrosis. In the case reported none of these associations could be found. The prognosis of pulmonary hyaline granuloma is regarded as benign. There is no effective treatment yet. Once the diagnosis has been established a conservative approach as well as a resection of nodules and a therapeutic attempt with steroids are an option. Extensive resections as pleuropneumonectomy are an exception. PMID:25599140

  15. Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma.

    PubMed

    Maijub, A G; Giltman, L I; Verner, J L; Peace, R J

    1985-03-01

    We describe a recent case of pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma presenting classically in a young black American female. The diagnosis was made by histopathologic examination. The etiology of this entity remains elusive, however, an abnormal response involving the immune system to an undefined agent (or agents) is the most likely explanation. PMID:3977139

  16. Solitary pulmonary nodule

    MedlinePlus

    ... chest x-ray Pulmonary nodule, solitary - CT scan Respiratory system References Gotway MB, Panse PM, Gruden JF, Elicker BM. Thoracic radiology. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016: ...

  17. Primary Pulmonary Hodgkin Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Tanveer, Shumaila; El Damati, Ahmed; El Baz, Ayman; Alsayyah, Ahmed; ElSharkawy, Tarek

    2015-01-01

    Primary pulmonary Hodgkin lymphoma (PPHL) is a rare disease. Herein, we report a case of PPHL with diagnostic concerns encountered during initial evaluation which is of paramount importance to keep the differential diagnosis in cases with high index of suspicion for this rare entity. PMID:26788271

  18. Sodium in weak G-band giants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Jeremy J.; Lambert, David L.

    1994-01-01

    Sodium abundances have been determined for eight weak G-band giants whose atmospheres are greatly enriched with products of the CN-cycling H-burning reactions. Systematic errors are minimized by comparing the weak G-band giants to a sample of similar but normal giants. If, further, Ca is selected as a reference element, model atmosphere-related errors should largely be removed. For the weak-G-band stars (Na/Ca) = 0.16 +/- 0.01, which is just possibly greater than the result (Na/Ca) = 0.10 /- 0.03 from the normal giants. This result demonstrates that the atmospheres of the weak G-band giants are not seriously contaminated with products of ON cycling.

  19. Genetic characterization of livestock and human hydatid cyst isolates from northwest Iran, using the mitochondrial cox1 gene sequence.

    PubMed

    Farhadi, Mehdi; Fazaeli, Asghar; Haniloo, Ali

    2015-12-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE), caused by larval stages of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus, is one of the most important zoonoses distributed worldwide. Genotype analysis of the parasite isolates from various hosts is required to better understand the host specificity and transmission routes. The aim of this study was to identify the genotypes of E. granulosus isolated from humans and domestic animals from northwest of Iran (Zanjan Province) using the mitochondrial cox1 gene sequence. A total of 86 hydatid cysts including 49 sheep and 28 cattle isolates from the slaughterhouse and nine human isolates from surgical wards of local hospitals were collected. The isolates were subjected to DNA extraction, PCR amplification, and sequence. Eighty-two (95.35 %) isolates, including 47 sheep, 26 cattle, and all nine human isolates, were determined as G1 genotype, and the remaining four (4.65 %), including two sheep and two cattle isolates, were identified as G3 genotype. From the cox1 sequence data, 13 different haplotypes (10 G1s and three G3s) were detected and named as EGH1-EGH13 (GenBank accession numbers, KP859559-KP859571). EGH1 was the major variant among the haplotypes, and it was identified in 46 (53.49 %) isolates (31 sheep, 14 cattle, and one human). Alignment of the partial cox1 sequences showed 12 point mutations including seven (58.3 %) synonymous and five (41.7 %) non-synonymous substitutions. Based on the results, G1 was the major genotype of E. granulosus in northwest of Iran affecting sheep, cattle, and humans. In addition, a minor group of G3 genotype was found to be circulating in this region.

  20. Pulmonary function in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, J. B.; Elliott, A. R.; Guy, H. J.; Prisk, G. K.

    1997-01-01

    The lung is exquisitely sensitive to gravity, and so it is of interest to know how its function is altered in the weightlessness of space. Studies on National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Spacelabs during the last 4 years have provided the first comprehensive data on the extensive changes in pulmonary function that occur in sustained microgravity. Measurements of pulmonary function were made on astronauts during space shuttle flights lasting 9 and 14 days and were compared with extensive ground-based measurements before and after the flights. Compared with preflight measurements, cardiac output increased by 18% during space flight, and stroke volume increased by 46%. Paradoxically, the increase in stroke volume occurred in the face of reductions in central venous pressure and circulating blood volume. Diffusing capacity increased by 28%, and the increase in the diffusing capacity of the alveolar membrane was unexpectedly large based on findings in normal gravity. The change in the alveolar membrane may reflect the effects of uniform filling of the pulmonary capillary bed. Distributions of blood flow and ventilation throughout the lung were more uniform in space, but some unevenness remained, indicating the importance of nongravitational factors. A surprising finding was that airway closing volume was approximately the same in microgravity and in normal gravity, emphasizing the importance of mechanical properties of the airways in determining whether they close. Residual volume was unexpectedly reduced by 18% in microgravity, possibly because of uniform alveolar expansion. The findings indicate that pulmonary function is greatly altered in microgravity, but none of the changes observed so far will apparently limit long-term space flight. In addition, the data help to clarify how gravity affects pulmonary function in the normal gravity environment on Earth.

  1. Giant Planets in Open Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, S. N.; White, R. J.; Latham, D. W.

    2015-10-01

    Two decades after the discovery of 51 Peg b, more than 200 hot Jupiters have now been confirmed, but the details of their inward migration remain uncertain. While it is widely accepted that short period giant planets could not have formed in situ, several different mechanisms (e.g., Type II migration, planet-planet scattering, Kozai-Lidov cycles) may contribute to shrinking planetary orbits, and the relative importance of each is not well-constrained. Migration through the gas disk is expected to preserve circular, coplanar orbits and must occur quickly (within ˜ 10 Myr), whereas multi-body processes should initially excite eccentricities and inclinations and may take hundreds of millions of years. Subsequent evolution of the system (e.g., orbital circularization and inclination damping via tidal interaction with the host star) may obscure these differences, so observing hot Jupiters soon after migration occurs can constrain the importance of each mechanism. Fortunately, the well-characterized stars in young and adolescent open clusters (with known ages and compositions) provide natural laboratories for such studies, and recent surveys have begun to take advantage of this opportunity. We present a review of the discoveries in this emerging realm of exoplanet science, discuss the constraints they provide for giant planet formation and migration, and reflect on the future direction of the field.

  2. Giant magnetoresistance in silicene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chengyong; Luo, Guangfu; Liu, Qihang; Zheng, Jiaxin; Zhang, Zhimeng; Nagase, Shigeru; Gao, Zhengxiang; Lu, Jing

    2012-05-01

    By performing first-principle quantum transport calculations, we predict a giant magnetoresistance in zigzag silicene nanoribbons (ZSiNRs) connecting two semi-infinite silicene electrodes through switch of the edge spin direction of ZSiNRs. Spin-filter efficiency of both the antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic ZSiNRs is sign-changeable with the bias voltage. Therefore, potential application of silicene in spintronics devices is suggested.By performing first-principle quantum transport calculations, we predict a giant magnetoresistance in zigzag silicene nanoribbons (ZSiNRs) connecting two semi-infinite silicene electrodes through switch of the edge spin direction of ZSiNRs. Spin-filter efficiency of both the antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic ZSiNRs is sign-changeable with the bias voltage. Therefore, potential application of silicene in spintronics devices is suggested. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The total current contrasts between the AFM and FM configurations and the spin-resolved I-Vbias characteristics in the AFM and FM configurations of all the checked ZSiNRs as a function of bias voltage; the spin-resolved I-Vbias characteristics and SFEs of different-length 5-ZSiNR in the AFM and FM configurations as a function of bias voltage. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr00037g

  3. Endovascular Treatment of an Aneurysmal Aberrant Systemic Artery Supplying a Pulmonary Sequestrum

    SciTech Connect

    Kristensen, Katrine Lawaetz; Duus, Louise Aarup; Elle, Bo

    2015-10-15

    An aberrant systemic artery originating from the abdominal aorta supplying a pulmonary sequestration is a rare congenital malformation. This causes a left-to-left shunt. Symptoms include recurrent pneumonias, hemoptysis, and, in the long term, heart failure. Aneurysm of the aberrant vessel is rarely seen. Traditionally, treatment of pulmonary sequestrations includes ligation of the feeding vessel and lobectomy. A new promising treatment is an endovascular approach. Only a few cases describe endovascular treatment of pulmonary sequestration. This is the first published case of a giant aneurysmal branch from the abdominal aorta to the normal basal segments of the lung, successfully occluded with an Amplatzer Vascular Plug II (AVP II, St.Jude Medical, MN, USA) alone.

  4. A novel modified PAIR technique using a trocar catheter for percutaneous treatment of liver hydatid cysts: a six-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Nayman, Alaaddin; Guler, Ibrahim; Keskin, Suat; Erdem, Tuba Berra; Borazan, Hale; Kucukapan, Ahmet; Ozbiner, Huseyin; Batur, Abdussamed; Ertekin, Ersen; Feyzioglu, Bahadir; Koc, Osman; Kaya, Hasan Emin; Temizoz, Osman; Kartal, Adil; Ozbek, Orhan

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to demonstrate the success and reliability of a novel puncture, aspiration, injection, and reaspiration (PAIR) technique in liver hydatid cysts. METHODS Percutaneous treatment with ultrasonographic guidance was performed in 493 hepatic hydatid cysts in 374 patients. Patients were treated with a new PAIR technique by single puncture method using a 6F trocar catheter. The results of this novel technique were evaluated with regards to efficacy and safety of the procedure and complication rates. RESULTS Out of 493 cysts, 317 were Gharbi type I (WHO CE 1) and 176 were Gharbi type II (WHO CE 3A). Of all cysts, 13 were referred to surgery because of cystobiliary fistulization. Recurrence was observed in 11 cysts one month later. Therefore, the success rate of the PAIR technique was 97.7% (469/480). Minor complications (fever, urticaria-like reactions, biliary fistula) were seen in 44 treated patients (12%, 44/374); the only major complication was reversible anaphylactic shock which was observed in two patients (0.5%, 2/374). CONCLUSION This novel modified PAIR technique may be superior to catheterization by Seldinger technique due to its efficiency, easier application, lower severe complication rate, and lower cost. Further comparative studies are required to confirm our observations. PMID:26574902

  5. Usefulness of Four Different Echinococcus granulosus Recombinant Antigens for Serodiagnosis of Unilocular Hydatid Disease (UHD) and Postsurgical Follow-Up of Patients Treated for UHD▿

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-González, Ana; Muro, Antonio; Barrera, Inmaculada; Ramos, Guillermo; Orduña, Antonio; Siles-Lucas, Mar

    2008-01-01

    Four different recombinant antigens derived from Echinococcus granulosus, designated B1t, B2t, E14t, and C317, were tested with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) in patients with unilocular hydatid disease (UHD). The results were compared to those obtained with hydatid fluid and were subjected to receiver operator characteristic analysis. The diagnostic performance of the above-listed proteins was defined with respect to their specificity, sensitivity, and predictive values (PV); the influence of cyst location; and usefulness in the follow-up of surgical treatment for UHD and in the determination of whether or not patients have been surgically cured of UHD. The best diagnostic results were obtained with the anti-B2t IgG ELISA, with 91.2% sensitivity, 93% specificity, and high positive and negative PV (89.4 and 94.2, respectively). In addition, this diagnostic tool proved to be useful for the follow-up of surgically treated UHD patients. The anti-B2t IgG ELISA may find an application in the serodiagnosis of UHD in clinical laboratories. PMID:17989342

  6. Pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic and progressive disease leading to right heart failure and ultimately death if untreated. The first classification of PH was proposed in 1973. In 2008, the fourth World Symposium on PH held in Dana Point (California, USA) revised previous classifications. Currently, PH is devided into five subgroups. Group 1 includes patients suffering from idiopathic or familial PAH with or without germline mutations. Patients with a diagnosis of PAH should systematically been screened regarding to underlying mutations of BMPR2 gene (bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2) or more rarely of ACVRL1 (activine receptor-like kinase type 1), ENG (endogline) or Smad8 genes. Pulmonary veno occusive disease and pulmonary capillary hemagiomatosis are individualized and designated as clinical group 1'. Group 2 'Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases' is divided into three sub-groups: systolic dysfonction, diastolic dysfonction and valvular dysfonction. Group 3 'Pulmonary hypertension due to respiratory diseases' includes a heterogenous subgroup of respiratory diseases like PH due to pulmonary fibrosis, COPD, lung emphysema or interstitial lung disease for exemple. Group 4 includes chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension without any distinction of proximal or distal forms. Group 5 regroup PH patients with unclear multifactorial mechanisms. Invasive hemodynamic assessment with right heart catheterization is requested to confirm the definite diagnosis of PH showing a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) of ≥ 25 mmHg and a normal pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) of ≤ 15 mmHg. The assessment of PCWP may allow the distinction between pre-capillary and post-capillary PH (PCWP > 15 mmHg). Echocardiography is an important tool in the management of patients with underlying suspicion of PH. The European Society of Cardiology and the European Respiratory Society (ESC-ERS) guidelines specify its role

  7. Pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Montani, David; Günther, Sven; Dorfmüller, Peter; Perros, Frédéric; Girerd, Barbara; Garcia, Gilles; Jaïs, Xavier; Savale, Laurent; Artaud-Macari, Elise; Price, Laura C; Humbert, Marc; Simonneau, Gérald; Sitbon, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic and progressive disease leading to right heart failure and ultimately death if untreated. The first classification of PH was proposed in 1973. In 2008, the fourth World Symposium on PH held in Dana Point (California, USA) revised previous classifications. Currently, PH is devided into five subgroups. Group 1 includes patients suffering from idiopathic or familial PAH with or without germline mutations. Patients with a diagnosis of PAH should systematically been screened regarding to underlying mutations of BMPR2 gene (bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2) or more rarely of ACVRL1 (activine receptor-like kinase type 1), ENG (endogline) or Smad8 genes. Pulmonary veno occusive disease and pulmonary capillary hemagiomatosis are individualized and designated as clinical group 1'. Group 2 'Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases' is divided into three sub-groups: systolic dysfonction, diastolic dysfonction and valvular dysfonction. Group 3 'Pulmonary hypertension due to respiratory diseases' includes a heterogenous subgroup of respiratory diseases like PH due to pulmonary fibrosis, COPD, lung emphysema or interstitial lung disease for exemple. Group 4 includes chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension without any distinction of proximal or distal forms. Group 5 regroup PH patients with unclear multifactorial mechanisms. Invasive hemodynamic assessment with right heart catheterization is requested to confirm the definite diagnosis of PH showing a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) of ≥ 25 mmHg and a normal pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) of ≤ 15 mmHg. The assessment of PCWP may allow the distinction between pre-capillary and post-capillary PH (PCWP > 15 mmHg). Echocardiography is an important tool in the management of patients with underlying suspicion of PH. The European Society of Cardiology and the European Respiratory Society (ESC-ERS) guidelines specify its role

  8. THE ORBITAL EVOLUTION OF GAS GIANT PLANETS AROUND GIANT STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Villaver, Eva; Livio, Mario E-mail: mlivio@stsci.ed

    2009-11-01

    Recent surveys have revealed a lack of close-in planets around evolved stars more massive than 1.2 M{sub sun}. Such planets are common around solar-mass stars. We have calculated the orbital evolution of planets around stars with a range of initial masses, and have shown how planetary orbits are affected by the evolution of the stars all the way to the tip of the red giant branch. We find that tidal interaction can lead to the engulfment of close-in planets by evolved stars. The engulfment is more efficient for more-massive planets and less-massive stars. These results may explain the observed semimajor axis distribution of planets around evolved stars with masses larger than 1.5 M{sub sun}. Our results also suggest that massive planets may form more efficiently around intermediate-mass stars.

  9. Vascular Remodeling in Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Shimoda, Larissa A; Laurie, Steven S.

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a complex, progressive condition arising from a variety of genetic and pathogenic causes. Patients present with a spectrum of histologic and pathophysiological features, likely reflecting the diversity in underlying pathogenesis. It is widely recognized that structural alterations in the vascular wall contribute to all forms of pulmonary hypertension. Features characteristic of the remodeled vasculature in patients with pulmonary hypertension include increased stiffening of the elastic proximal pulmonary arteries, thickening of the intimal and/or medial layer of muscular arteries, development of vaso-occlusive lesions and the appearance of cells expressing smooth muscle specific markers in normally non-muscular small diameter vessels, resulting from proliferation and migration of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells and cellular trans-differentiation. The development of several animal models of pulmonary hypertension has provided the means to explore the mechanistic underpinnings of pulmonary vascular remodeling, although none of the experimental models currently used entirely replicates the pulmonary arterial hypertension observed in patients. Herein, we provide an overview of the histological abnormalities observed in humans with pulmonary hypertension and in preclinical models and discuss insights gained regarding several key signaling pathways contributing to the remodeling process. In particular, we will focus on the roles of ion homeostasis, endothelin-1, serotonin, bone morphogenetic proteins, Rho kinase and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle and endothelial cells, highlighting areas of cross-talk between these pathways and potentials for therapeutic targeting. PMID:23334338

  10. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zaki, Sherif R.; Greer, Patricia w.; Coffield, Lisa M.; Goldsmith, Cynthia S.; Nolte, Kurt B.; Foucar, Kathy; Feddersen, Richard M.; Zumwalt, Ross E.; Miller, Gayle L.; Khan, Ali S.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Mahy, Brian W.J.; Peters, Clarence J.

    1995-01-01

    A recent outbreak of a severe pulmonary disease in the southwestern United States was etiologically linked to a previously unrecognized bantavirus. The virus has been isolated from its majorreservoir, the deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus,and recently named Sin Nombre virus. Clinically, the disease has become known as the bantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Since May 1993, 44 fatal cases of HPS have been identified through clinicopathological review and immunobistochemical(IHC) testing of tissues from 273 patients who died of an unexplained noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. In 158 cases for which suitable specimens were available, serologicaltesting and/or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification of extracted RNA was also performed. IHC, serological, and PCR results were concordant for virtually all HPS and non-HPS patients when more than one assay was performed. The prodromal ilness of HPS is similar to that of many other viral diseases. Consistent bematological features include thrombocytopenia, bemoconcentration, neutropbilic leukocytosis with a left shift, and reactivel lymphocytes. Pulmonary bistopatbological features were similar in most of the fatal HPS cases (40/44) and consisted of an interstitial pneumonitis with a variable mononuclear cell infiltrate, edema, and focal byaline membranes. In four cases, bowever, pulmonary features were significantly different and included diffuse alveolar damage and variable degrees of severe air space disorganization. IHC analysis showed widespread presence of bantaviral antigens in endothelial cells of the microvasculature, particularly in the lung. Hantaviral antigens were also observed within follicular dendritic cells, macrophages, and lymphocytes. Hantaviral inclusions were observed in endothelial cells of lungs by thinsection electron microscopy, and their identity was verified by immunogold labeling. Virus-like particles were seen in pulmonary endothelial cells and macropbages. HPS is

  11. Pulmonary Strongyloidiasis Masquerading as Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Gourahari; Behera, Priyadarshini; Bhuniya, Sourin; Mohapatra, Prasanta Raghab; Turuk, Jyotirmayee; Mohanty, Srujana

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary strongyloidiasis is an uncommon presentation of Strongyloides infection, usually seen in immunocompromised hosts. The manifestations are similar to that of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Therefore, the diagnosis of pulmonary strongyloidiasis could be challenging in a COPD patient, unless a high index of suspicion is maintained. Here, we present a case of Strongyloides hyperinfection in a COPD patient mimicking acute exacerbation, who was on chronic steroid therapy. PMID:27790284

  12. Pulmonary Artery Denervation Reduces Pulmonary Artery Pressure and Induces Histological Changes in an Acute Porcine Model of Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Nadine D.; Chang, William; Watson, Oliver; Swift, Andrew J.; Condliffe, Robin; Elliot, Charlie A.; Kiely, David G.; Suvarna, S. Kim; Gunn, Julian; Lawrie, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Background— Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a devastating disease with high morbidity and mortality and limited treatment options. Recent studies have shown that pulmonary artery denervation improves pulmonary hemodynamics in an experimental model and in an early clinical trial. We aimed to evaluate the nerve distribution around the pulmonary artery, to determine the effect of radiofrequency pulmonary artery denervation on acute pulmonary hypertension induced by vasoconstriction, and to demonstrate denervation of the pulmonary artery at a histological level. Methods and Results— Histological evaluation identified a circumferential distribution of nerves around the proximal pulmonary arteries. Nerves were smaller in diameter, greater in number, and located in closer proximity to the luminal aspect of the pulmonary arterial wall beyond the pulmonary artery bifurcation. To determine the effect of pulmonary arterial denervation acute pulmonary hypertension was induced in 8 pigs by intravenous infusion of thromboxane A2 analogue. Animals were assigned to either pulmonary artery denervation, using a prototype radiofrequency catheter and generator, or a sham procedure. Pulmonary artery denervation resulted in reduced mean pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance and increased cardiac output. Ablation lesions on the luminal surface of the pulmonary artery were accompanied by histological and biochemical alteration in adventitial nerves and correlated with improved hemodynamic parameters. Conclusions— Pulmonary artery denervation offers the possibility of a new treatment option for patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Further work is required to determine the long-term efficacy and safety. PMID:26553697

  13. Molecular Mechanisms of Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Leopold, Jane A.; Maron, Bradley A.

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disease that is precipitated by hypertrophic pulmonary vascular remodeling of distal arterioles to increase pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance in the absence of left heart, lung parenchymal, or thromboembolic disease. Despite available medical therapy, pulmonary artery remodeling and its attendant hemodynamic consequences result in right ventricular dysfunction, failure, and early death. To limit morbidity and mortality, attention has focused on identifying the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying aberrant pulmonary artery remodeling to identify pathways for intervention. While there is a well-recognized heritable genetic component to PAH, there is also evidence of other genetic perturbations, including pulmonary vascular cell DNA damage, activation of the DNA damage response, and variations in microRNA expression. These findings likely contribute, in part, to dysregulation of proliferation and apoptosis signaling pathways akin to what is observed in cancer; changes in cellular metabolism, metabolic flux, and mitochondrial function; and endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition as key signaling pathways that promote pulmonary vascular remodeling. This review will highlight recent advances in the field with an emphasis on the aforementioned molecular mechanisms as contributors to the pulmonary vascular disease pathophenotype. PMID:27213345

  14. Subpleural pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma presenting as a solitary pulmonary nodule.

    PubMed

    Na, Kook Joo; Song, Sang Yun; Kim, Jo Heon; Kim, Young Chul

    2007-08-01

    We introduce a case of pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma presented as a solitary pulmonary nodule located subpleurally. The patient was a 57-year-old man who had abnormal chest roentgenograms showing a solitary pulmonary nodule in the right lower lung field. The nodule was resected for definitive diagnosis and histopathologically proved to be pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma. In previously reported cases, most patients had ill-defined margins and usually bilateral, multiple lesions radiographically. In our case, the subpleural location is an uncommon location of this rare entity. PMID:17762348

  15. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Macneil, Adam; Nichol, Stuart T; Spiropoulou, Christina F

    2011-12-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a severe disease characterized by a rapid onset of pulmonary edema followed by respiratory failure and cardiogenic shock. The HPS associated viruses are members of the genus Hantavirus, family Bunyaviridae. Hantaviruses have a worldwide distribution and are broadly split into the New World hantaviruses, which includes those causing HPS, and the Old World hantaviruses [including the prototype Hantaan virus (HTNV)], which are associated with a different disease, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). Sin Nombre virus (SNV) and Andes virus (ANDV) are the most common causes of HPS in North and South America, respectively. Case fatality of HPS is approximately 40%. Pathogenic New World hantaviruses infect the lung microvascular endothelium without causing any virus induced cytopathic effect. However, virus infection results in microvascular leakage, which is the hallmark of HPS. This article briefly reviews the knowledge on HPS-associated hantaviruses accumulated since their discovery, less than 20 years ago.

  16. [Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis].

    PubMed

    Popper, H H

    2015-09-01

    Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis is regarded as a reactive proliferation of the dendritic Langerhans cell population stimulated by chronic tobacco-derived plant proteins due to incomplete combustion but can also occur in childhood as a tumor-like systemic disease. Currently, both these forms cannot be morphologically distinguished. In the lungs a nodular proliferation of Langerhans cells occurs in the bronchial mucosa and also peripherally in the alveolar septa with an accompanying infiltration by eosinophilic granulocytes and destruction of the bronchial wall. Langerhans cells can be selectively detected with antibodies against CD1a and langerin. In the reactive isolated pulmonary form, abstinence from tobacco smoking in most patients leads to regression of infiltration and improvement of symptoms. In high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) the small star-like scars can still be detected even after complete cessation of tobacco smoking.

  17. [Neonatal pulmonary fibrosarcoma].

    PubMed

    Desrousseaux, B; Gourdin, C; Atat, I; Podvin, A; Vix, M; Dusol, F; Bayart, M

    1989-01-01

    The authors report a case of pulmonary fibrosarcoma in a newborn. The respiratory distress imposed an urgent thoracotomy at the fifth hour of live. A lobectomy was performed. Three months later a relapse occurred. A second thoracotomy permitted an incomplete resection. The total involution was achieved after 6 months of chemotherapy. Actually no recidive is shown after 20 months of follow up. Its an exceptional case. A unique one was published in 1977. PMID:2698289

  18. Asthma Outcomes: Pulmonary Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Tepper, Robert S.; Wise, Robert S.; Covar, Ronina; Irvin, Charles G.; Kercsmar, Carolyn M.; Kraft, Monica; Liu, Mark C.; O’Connor, George T.; Peters, Stephen P.; Sorkness, Ronald; Togias, Alkis

    2014-01-01

    Background Outcomes of pulmonary physiology have a central place in asthma clinical research. Objective At the request of National Institutes of Health (NIH) institutes and other federal agencies, an expert group was convened to provide recommendations on the use of pulmonary function measures as asthma outcomes that should be assessed in a standardized fashion in future asthma clinical trials and studies to allow for cross-study comparisons. Methods Our subcommittee conducted a comprehensive search of PubMed to identify studies that focused on the validation of various airway response tests used in asthma clinical research. The subcommittee classified the instruments as core (to be required in future studies), supplemental (to be used according to study aims and in a standardized fashion), or emerging (requiring validation and standardization). This work was discussed at an NIH-organized workshop in March 2010 and finalized in September 2011. Results A list of pulmonary physiology outcomes that applies to both adults and children older than 6 years was created. These outcomes were then categorized into core, supplemental, and emerging. Spirometric outcomes (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1], forced vital capacity [FVC], and FEV1/FVC) are proposed as core outcomes for study population characterization, for observational studies, and for prospective clinical trials. Bronchodilator reversibility and pre- and post-bronchodilator FEV1 also are core outcomes for study population characterization and observational studies. Conclusions The subcommittee considers pulmonary physiology outcomes of central importance in asthma and proposes spirometric outcomes as core outcomes for all future NIH-initiated asthma clinical research. PMID:22386510

  19. Diagnostics for pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Cudahy, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of human suffering and mortality despite decades of effective treatment being available. Accurate and timely diagnosis remains an unmet goal. The HIV epidemic has also led to new challenges in the diagnosis of TB. Several new developments in TB diagnostics have the potential to positively influence the global campaign against TB. We aim to review the performance of both established as well as new diagnostics for pulmonary TB in adults, and discuss the ongoing challenges. PMID:27005271

  20. The Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nityananda, R.

    2003-05-01

    The Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) of the National Centre of Radio Astrophysics (NCRA) of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) at Khodad, India, has been operational in the band 0.2 to 2 metres for the last two and a half years. The system characteristics and performance and recent results from the group will be presented. Details of use over the last six months by scientists from other observatories under the GMRT Time Allocation Committee (GTAC) and future plans will be also be reviewed in this paper. Areas which have been studied include observations made in the GMRT band of neutral hydrogen, nearby galaxies, supernova remnants, the Galactic Centre, pulsars, the Sun and others.

  1. Giant tunneling magnetoresistance in silicene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Lou, Yiyi

    2013-11-01

    We have theoretically studied ballistic electron transport in silicene under the manipulation of a pair of ferromagnetic gate. Transport properties like transmission and conductance have been calculated by the standard transfer matrix method for parallel and antiparallel magnetization configurations. It is demonstrated here that, due to the stray field-induced wave-vector filtering effect, remarkable difference in configuration-dependent transport gives rise to a giant tunneling magnetoresistance. In combination with the peculiar buckled structure of silicene and its electric tunable energy gap, the receiving magnetoresistance can be efficiently modulated by the externally-tunable stray field, electrostatic potential, and staggered sublattice potential, providing some flexible strategies to construct silicene-based nanoelectronic device.

  2. Giant tunneling magnetoresistance in silicene

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yu; Lou, Yiyi

    2013-11-14

    We have theoretically studied ballistic electron transport in silicene under the manipulation of a pair of ferromagnetic gate. Transport properties like transmission and conductance have been calculated by the standard transfer matrix method for parallel and antiparallel magnetization configurations. It is demonstrated here that, due to the stray field-induced wave-vector filtering effect, remarkable difference in configuration-dependent transport gives rise to a giant tunneling magnetoresistance. In combination with the peculiar buckled structure of silicene and its electric tunable energy gap, the receiving magnetoresistance can be efficiently modulated by the externally-tunable stray field, electrostatic potential, and staggered sublattice potential, providing some flexible strategies to construct silicene-based nanoelectronic device.

  3. The Metallicity of Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorngren, Daniel P.; Fortney, Jonathan

    2015-12-01

    Unique clues about the formation processes of giant planets can be found in their bulk compositions. Transiting planets provide us with bulk density determinations that can then be compared to models of planetary structure and evolution, to deduce planet bulk metallicities. At a given mass, denser planets have a higher mass fraction of metals. However, the unknown hot Jupiter "radius inflation" mechanism leads to under-dense planets that severely biases this work. Here we look at cooler transiting gas giants (Teff < 1000 K), which do not exhibit the radius inflation effect seen in their warmer cousins. We identified 40 such planets between 20 M_Earth and 20 M_Jup from the literature and used evolution models to determine their bulk heavy-element ("metal") mass. Several important trends are apparent. We see that all planets have at least ~10 M_Earth of metals, and that the mass of metal correlates strongly with the total mass of the planet. The heavy-element mass goes as the square root of the total mass. Both findings are consistent with the core accretion model. We also examined the effect of the parent star metallicity [Fe/H], finding that planets around high-metallicity stars are more likely to have large amounts of metal, but the relation appears weaker than previous studies with smaller sample sizes had suggested. We also looked for connections between bulk composition and planetary orbital parameters and stellar parameters, but saw no pattern, which is also an important result. This work can be directly compared to current and future outputs from planet formation models, including population synthesis.

  4. Direct Imaging of Giant Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Motohide

    Since the first detection of exoplanets around a Sun-like star 51 Peg in 1995, their detection and characterization are mainly led by indirect methods such as radial velocity and transit methods. However, recent progresses of observational techniques have finally enabled the direct imaging observations of giant planets of solar-system-scale orbit (with their semi-major axes less than about 50 AU) around A-type stars (e.g., Marois et al. 2008, 2010) and G-type stars (e.g., Kuzuhara et al. 2013). Direct imaging is useful to obtain the physical and atmospheric parameters of exoplanets. In fact not only colors but also a medium-resolution spectroscopy of such planets has been successfully obtained for their atmospheric characterization (Barman et al. 2013). Their masses are typically a few to ~10 Jupiter masses and they orbit at a Saturn- to-Pluto distance. Therefore, like hot-Jupiters and super-Earths they are unlike any solar-system planets, and called wide-orbit giant planets. A recent large search for planets and disk on the Subaru 8.2-m telescope (SEEDS project) has detected a 3-5 Jupiter-masses planet around a Sun-like star GJ 504 (Kuzuhara et al. 2013). It is the coolest planetary companion so far directly imaged and its near-infrared color is “bluer” than that of other directly imaged planets. In this contribution, I will review the recent progresses on direct imaging of exoplanets, highlight the results of the SEEDS project, and discuss the future developments.

  5. Nanomedicine in pulmonary delivery

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Heidi M; Rhee, Yun-Seok; Wu, Xiao

    2009-01-01

    The lung is an attractive target for drug delivery due to noninvasive administration via inhalation aerosols, avoidance of first-pass metabolism, direct delivery to the site of action for the treatment of respiratory diseases, and the availability of a huge surface area for local drug action and systemic absorption of drug. Colloidal carriers (ie, nanocarrier systems) in pulmonary drug delivery offer many advantages such as the potential to achieve relatively uniform distribution of drug dose among the alveoli, achievement of improved solubility of the drug from its own aqueous solubility, a sustained drug release which consequently reduces dosing frequency, improves patient compliance, decreases incidence of side effects, and the potential of drug internalization by cells. This review focuses on the current status and explores the potential of colloidal carriers (ie, nanocarrier systems) in pulmonary drug delivery with special attention to their pharmaceutical aspects. Manufacturing processes, in vitro/in vivo evaluation methods, and regulatory/toxicity issues of nanomedicines in pulmonary delivery are also discussed. PMID:20054434

  6. Diagnosing pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Riedel, M

    2004-01-01

    Objective testing for pulmonary embolism is necessary, because clinical assessment alone is unreliable and the consequences of misdiagnosis are serious. No single test has ideal properties (100% sensitivity and specificity, no risk, low cost). Pulmonary angiography is regarded as the final arbiter but is ill suited for diagnosing a disease present in only a third of patients in whom it is suspected. Some tests are good for confirmation and some for exclusion of embolism; others are able to do both but are often non-diagnostic. For optimal efficiency, choice of the initial test should be guided by clinical assessment of the likelihood of embolism and by patient characteristics that may influence test accuracy. Standardised clinical estimates can be used to give a pre-test probability to assess, after appropriate objective testing, the post-test probability of embolism. Multidetector computed tomography can replace both scintigraphy and angiography for the exclusion and diagnosis of this disease and should now be considered the central imaging investigation in suspected pulmonary embolism. PMID:15192162

  7. Studies on the ingestion characteristics of giant freshwater prawn, Chinese prawn and giant tiger prawn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Wei-Ling; Wang, Wei-Dong; Dai, Xi-Lin; Jiang, Min; Zhu, Zheng-Guo; Yang, Ming-Hui; Liu, Xian-Zhong; Xu, Gui-Rong; Ding, Fu-Jiang

    2000-12-01

    The ingestion of giant freshwater prawn, Chinese prawn and giant tiger prawn had continuity and the ingestion high peak occurred at night. Light and temperature had significant effects on the daily ingestion rate (DIR) of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Red light and blue light favorably induced favorable ingestion. In the adaptive range of temperature, the DIR increased with rising temperature and feeding frequency, but decreased with rising body weight.

  8. Ablative Approaches for Pulmonary Metastases.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Matthew J; Ricardi, Umberto; Ball, David; Salama, Joseph K

    2016-02-01

    Pulmonary metastases are common in patients with cancer for which surgery is considered a standard approach in appropriately selected patients. A number of patients are not candidates for surgery due to a medical comorbidities or the extent of surgery required. For these patients, noninvasive or minimally invasive approaches to ablate pulmonary metastases are potential treatment strategies. This article summarizes the rationale and outcomes for non-surgical treatment approaches, including radiotherapy, radiofrequency and microwave ablation, for pulmonary metastases.

  9. Ultrasound for the Pulmonary Consultant

    PubMed Central

    Chichra, Astha; Makaryus, Mina; Chaudhri, Parag; Narasimhan, Mangala

    2016-01-01

    Bedside ultrasonographic assessment of the lung and pleura provides rapid, noninvasive, and essential information in diagnosis and management of various pulmonary conditions. Ultrasonography helps in diagnosing common conditions, including consolidation, interstitial syndrome, pleural effusions and masses, pneumothorax, and diaphragmatic dysfunction. It provides procedural guidance for various pulmonary procedures, including thoracentesis, chest tube insertion, transthoracic aspiration, and biopsies. This article describes major applications of ultrasonography for the pulmonary consultant along with illustrative figures and videos. PMID:27398039

  10. How Is Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Treated? Doctors may prescribe medicines, oxygen therapy , pulmonary ... PR), and lung transplant to treat idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Medicines Currently, no medicines are proven to ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: pulmonary arterial hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... Primary pulmonary hypertension 2 Primary pulmonary hypertension 3 Primary pulmonary hypertension 4 ClinicalTrials.gov (1 link) ClinicalTrials.gov Scientific articles on PubMed (1 link) PubMed OMIM (4 links) ...

  12. Post splenectomy related pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Palkar, Atul V; Agrawal, Abhinav; Verma, Sameer; Iftikhar, Asma; Miller, Edmund J; Talwar, Arunabh

    2015-01-01

    Splenectomy predisposes patients to a slew of infectious and non-infectious complications including pulmonary vascular disease. Patients are at increased risk for venous thromboembolic events due to various mechanisms that may lead to chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). The development of CTEPH and pulmonary vasculopathy after splenectomy involves complex pathophysiologic mechanisms, some of which remain unclear. This review attempts congregate the current evidence behind our understanding about the etio-pathogenesis of pulmonary vascular disease related to splenectomy and highlight the controversies that surround its management. PMID:26949600

  13. Imaging of congenital pulmonary malformations.

    PubMed

    Praticò, Francesco Emanuele; Corrado, Michele; Della Casa, Giovanni; Parziale, Raffaele; Russo, Giuseppe; Gazzani, Silvia Eleonora; Rossi, Enrica; Borgia, Daniele; Mostardi, Maurizio; Bacchini, Emanuele; Cella, Simone; De Filippo, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Congenital pulmonary malformations represent a broad spectrum of anomalies that may result in varied clinical and pathologic pictures, ranging from recurrent pulmonary infections and acute respiratory distress syndrome, which require timely drug therapy, up to large space-occupying lesions needing surgical treatment. This classification includes three distinct anatomical and pathological entities, represented by Congenital Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation, Bronchopulmonary Sequestration and Congenital Lobar Emphysema. The final result in terms of embryological and fetal development of these alterations is a Congenital Lung Hypoplasia. Since even Bronchial Atresia, Pulmonary Bronchogenic Cysts and Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernias are due to Pulmonary Hypoplasia, these diseases will be discussed in this review (1, 2). PMID:27467867

  14. Chronic idiopathic pulmonary hilar fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Yacoub, Magdi H.; Thompson, Vernon C.

    1971-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary hilar fibrosis is a condition related to mediastinal fibrosis, characterized by localization of the fibrosing process to one or both pulmonary hila. This results in pulmonary hypertension and bronchial narrowing. Three patients suffering from this disease, in whom the diagnosis has been confirmed by thoracotomy, are reported. The clinical and pathological features are described and previously reported cases are reviewed. The syndrome is classified into two types, according to whether the obstruction affects mainly the pulmonary artery or veins. The disease is a self-limiting one but may lead to organic changes in the lungs causing severe disability. Images PMID:5565782

  15. Systemic and Pulmonary Vascular Remodelling in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Esquerre, Mariana; López-Sánchez, Marta; Escobar, Ignacio; Huertas, Daniel; Penín, Rosa; Molina-Molina, María; Manresa, Frederic; Dorca, Jordi; Santos, Salud

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is associated with subclinical systemic atherosclerosis and pulmonary vascular remodelling characterized by intimal hyperplasia and luminal narrowing. We aimed to determine differences in the intimal thickening of systemic and pulmonary arteries in COPD subjects and smokers. Secondary aims include comparisons with a non-smokers group; determining the clinical variables associated with systemic and pulmonary intimal thickening, and the correlations between systemic and pulmonary remodelling changes. Methods All consecutive subjects undergoing lung resection were included and divided into 3 groups: 1) COPD, 2) smokers, and 3) non-smokers. Sections of the 5th intercostal artery and muscular pulmonary arteries were measured by histo-morphometry. Four parameters of intimal thickening were evaluated: 1) percentage of intimal area (%IA), 2) percentage of luminal narrowing, 3) intimal thickness index, and 4) intima-to-media ratio. Results In the adjusted analysis, the systemic arteries of COPD subjects showed greater intimal thickening (%IA) than those of smokers (15.6±1.5% vs. 14.2±1.6%, p = 0.038). In the pulmonary arteries, significant differences were observed for %IA between the 2 groups (37.3±2.2% vs. 29.3±2.3%, p = 0.016). Among clinical factors, metabolic syndrome, gender and COPD status were associated with the systemic intimal thickening, while only COPD status was associated with pulmonary intimal thickening. A correlation between the %IA of the systemic and pulmonary arteries was observed (Spearman’s rho = 0.46, p = 0.008). Conclusions Greater intimal thickening in systemic and pulmonary arteries is observed in COPD patients than in smokers. There is a correlation between systemic and pulmonary vascular remodelling in the overall population. PMID:27046203

  16. Pulmonary Thromboembolism: Evaluation By Intravenous Angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pond, Gerald D.; Cook, Glenn C.; Woolfenden, James M.; Dodge, Russell R.

    1981-11-01

    Using perfusion lung scans as a guide, digital video subtraction angiography of the pulmonary arteries was performed in human subjects suspected of having pulmonary embolism. Dogs were employed as a pulmonary embolism model and both routine pulmonary angiography and intravenous pulmonary angiograms were obtained for comparison purposes. We have shown by our preliminary results that the technique is extremely promising as a safe and accurate alternative to routine pulmonary angiography in selected patients.

  17. Juno and Cassini Proximal: Giant Steps Towards Understanding Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    In 2016-17, Juno and Cassini Proximal will provide comparable large advances in our understanding of the interiors of Jupiter and Saturn. Both will provide high accuracy gravity and magnetic field data, while Juno will in addition determine the water abundance deep in the Jovian atmosphere, essential for understanding of giant planet formation and the density of the outer envelope (needed to construct interior models). Although Jupiter and Saturn are both gas giants, they differ in important ways (magnetic field, strength of zonal flows, enrichment in heavy elements, and probably the distribution of helium within). The opportunity to contrast and compare will be invaluable. Juno and Cassini are expected to determine the gravity field to about a part in 109 though with different spatial coverage and with less accurate determination near the poles. The determination of Jupiter's likely central concentration of heavy elements is particularly challenging because it is only a few percent at most of the total mass and yet important for understanding Jupiter's formation, which in turn likely determined the architecture of our solar system. This determination will be done from gravity, water determination and magnetic field and also aided by advances in our understanding of material properties. The corresponding determination for Saturn may prove easier (because the heavy element enrichment is a larger fraction of the mass) though complicated by lack of knowledge of water abundance and the need to identify a more precise value for the deep rotation of the planet (difficult for Saturn because of the lack of a measurable magnetic dipole tilt thus far). For both planets, the higher harmonics of gravity will likely be controlled by differential rotation (the zonal flows) and this will tell us their depth, an issue of major interest in the dynamics of these bodies. The magnetic field structure for Jupiter will be determined to higher accuracy than the Earth's core field (since

  18. Preoperative progressive pneumoperitoneum for giant inguinal hernias.

    PubMed

    Piskin, Turgut; Aydin, Cemalettin; Barut, Bora; Dirican, Abuzer; Kayaalp, Cuneyt

    2010-01-01

    Reduction of giant hernia contents into the abdominal cavity may cause intraoperative and postoperative problems such as abdominal compartment syndrome. Preoperative progressive pneumoperitoneum expands the abdominal cavity, increases the patient's tolerability to operation, and can diminish intraoperative and postoperative complications. Preoperative progressive pneumoperitoneum is recommended for giant ventral hernias, but rarely for giant inguinal hernias. We present two giant inguinal hernia patients who were prepared for hernia repair with preoperative progressive pneumoperitoneum and then treated successfully by graft hernioplasty. We observed that abdominal expansion correlated with the inflated volume and pressure during the first four days of pneumperitoneum. Although insufflated gas volume can be different among patients, we observed that the duration of insufflation may be the same for similar patients.

  19. Mass loss in red giants and supergiants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanner, F.

    1975-01-01

    The circumstellar envelopes surrounding late-type giants and supergiants were studied using high resolution, photoelectric scans of strong optical resonance lines. A method for extracting the circumstellar from the stellar components of the lines allowed a quantitative determination of the physical conditions in the envelopes and the rates of mass loss at various positions in the red giant region of the HR diagram. The observed strengthening of the circumstellar spectrum with increasing luminosity and later spectral type is probably caused by an increase in the mass of the envelopes. The mass loss rate for individual stars is proportional to the visual luminosity; high rates for the supergiants suggest that mass loss is important in their evolution. The bulk of the mass return to the interstellar medium in the red giant region comes from the normal giants, at a rate comparable to that of planetary nebulae.

  20. Giant Omphalocele in an Adolescent Boy.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Tanveer; Alladi, Anand; Siddappa, O S

    2015-04-01

    Omphalocele is a congenital abdominal wall defect that permits herniation of abdominal viscera into the umbilical cord. We here report a case of a giant omphalocele in an adolescent boy that has not been reported at this age before.

  1. Selecting M-giants with WISE photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing

    2015-08-01

    We use M-giants, M-dwarfs and QSOs identified by LAMOST to assess how well WISE & 2MASS colour-cuts can separate these populations through photometry. We find that the WISE bands are very efficient to separate M-giants from M-dwarfs, especially for the early-type stars. We derive a new photometric relation to estimate [Fe/H] for M-giants. We show that previous photometric distance relations may be biased and devise a new empirical distance relation. We detect M-giants in the Sagittarius stream from the ALLWISE Source Archive. Our detection shows good agreement with the bright stream, although the leading tail appears to be misaligned by a couple of degrees. We have measured the metallicity distribution at four locations along the stream, finding a clear metallicity offset between the leading and trailing tails.

  2. Innate predator recognition in giant pandas.

    PubMed

    Du, Yiping; Huang, Yan; Zhang, Hemin; Li, Desheng; Yang, Bo; Wei, Ming; Zhou, Yingmin; Liu, Yang

    2012-02-01

    Innate predator recognition confers a survival advantage to prey animals. We investigate whether giant pandas exhibit innate predator recognition. We analyzed behavioral responses of 56 naive adult captive giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), to urine from predators and non-predators and water control. Giant pandas performed more chemosensory investigation and displayed flehmen behaviors more frequently in response to predator urine compared to both non-predator urine and water control. Subjects also displayed certain defensive behaviors, as indicated by vigilance, and in certain cases, fleeing behaviors. Our results suggest that there is an innate component to predator recognition in captive giant pandas, although such recognition was only slight to moderate. These results have implications that may be applicable to the conservation and reintroduction of this endangered species. PMID:22303845

  3. Giant prostatic fossa with misleading radiographic features.

    PubMed

    Stenzl, A; Fuchs, G J

    1989-01-01

    The long-term complication of a perforation of the prostatic capsule during transurethral resection of the prostate is described. Calcifications in a giant prostatic fossa led to initially misleading radiologic findings.

  4. Bilateral giant abdominoscrotal hydroceles in childhood.

    PubMed

    Serels, S; Kogan, S

    1996-05-01

    There is a paucity of cases in the literature describing the abdominoscrotal hydrocele (ASH). We report the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of a rapidly expanding giant bilateral ASH in a 4-month-old boy.

  5. Tests of the Giant Impact Hypothesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. H.

    1998-01-01

    The giant impact hypothesis has gained popularity as a means of explaining a volatile-depleted Moon that still has a chemical affinity to the Earth. As Taylor's Axiom decrees, the best models of lunar origin are testable, but this is difficult with the giant impact model. The energy associated with the impact would be sufficient to totally melt and partially vaporize the Earth. And this means that there should he no geological vestige of Barber times. Accordingly, it is important to devise tests that may be used to evaluate the giant impact hypothesis. Three such tests are discussed here. None of these is supportive of the giant impact model, but neither do they disprove it.

  6. Innate predator recognition in giant pandas.

    PubMed

    Du, Yiping; Huang, Yan; Zhang, Hemin; Li, Desheng; Yang, Bo; Wei, Ming; Zhou, Yingmin; Liu, Yang

    2012-02-01

    Innate predator recognition confers a survival advantage to prey animals. We investigate whether giant pandas exhibit innate predator recognition. We analyzed behavioral responses of 56 naive adult captive giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), to urine from predators and non-predators and water control. Giant pandas performed more chemosensory investigation and displayed flehmen behaviors more frequently in response to predator urine compared to both non-predator urine and water control. Subjects also displayed certain defensive behaviors, as indicated by vigilance, and in certain cases, fleeing behaviors. Our results suggest that there is an innate component to predator recognition in captive giant pandas, although such recognition was only slight to moderate. These results have implications that may be applicable to the conservation and reintroduction of this endangered species.

  7. Severe Pulmonary Arteriopathy Is Associated with Persistent Hypoxemia after Pulmonary Endarterectomy in Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe, Nobuhiro; Sakao, Seiichiro; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Ishida, Keiichi; Naito, Akira; Kato, Fumiaki; Takeuchi, Takao; Sekine, Ayumi; Nishimura, Rintaro; Sugiura, Toshihiko; Shigeta, Ayako; Masuda, Masahisa; Tatsumi, Koichiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is characterized by occlusion of pulmonary arteries by organized chronic thrombi. Persistent hypoxemia and residual pulmonary hypertension (PH) following successful pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) are clinically important problems; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We have previously reported that residual PH is closely related to severe pulmonary vascular remodeling and hypothesize that this arteriopathy might also be involved in impaired gas exchange. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between hypoxemia and pulmonary arteriopathy after PEA. Methods and Results Between December 2011 and November 2014, 23 CTEPH patients underwent PEA and lung biopsy. The extent of pulmonary arteriopathy was quantified pathologically in lung biopsy specimens. We then analyzed the relationship between the severity of pulmonary arteriopathy and gas exchange after PEA. We observed that the severity of pulmonary arteriopathy was negatively correlated with postoperative and follow-up PaO2 (postoperative PaO2: r = -0.73, p = 0.0004; follow-up PaO2: r = -0.66, p = 0.001), but not with preoperative PaO2 (r = -0.373, p = 0.08). Multivariate analysis revealed that the obstruction ratio and patient age were determinants of PaO2 one month after PEA (R2 = 0.651, p = 0.00009). Furthermore, the obstruction ratio and improvement of pulmonary vascular resistance were determinants of PaO2 at follow-up (R2 = 0.545, p = 0.0002). Severe pulmonary arteriopathy might increase the alveolar-arterial oxygen difference and impair diffusion capacity, resulting in hypoxemia following PEA. Conclusion The severity of pulmonary arteriopathy was closely associated with postoperative and follow-up hypoxemia. PMID:27571267

  8. Giant rhinophyma: Excision with coblation assisted surgery.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Caner; Turker, Mesut; Celasun, Bulent

    2014-01-01

    An 83-year-old man presented with an unusually severe case of rhinophyma. Giant rhinopyhma is very rare in literature. The giant lesion was widely excised using sharp surgical incision and coblation assisted surgery. Using direct coblation to the nasal dorsum may cause edema in the surrounding tissue. There was minimal edema in surrounding tissue using this technique. A full thickness-skin graft was applied after excision. Cosmetic and functional postoperative results were satisfactory.

  9. Giant rhinophyma: Excision with coblation assisted surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Caner; Turker, Mesut; Celasun, Bulent

    2014-01-01

    An 83-year-old man presented with an unusually severe case of rhinophyma. Giant rhinopyhma is very rare in literature. The giant lesion was widely excised using sharp surgical incision and coblation assisted surgery. Using direct coblation to the nasal dorsum may cause edema in the surrounding tissue. There was minimal edema in surrounding tissue using this technique. A full thickness-skin graft was applied after excision. Cosmetic and functional postoperative results were satisfactory. PMID:25593440

  10. Arterial Embolization of Giant Hepatic Hemangiomas

    SciTech Connect

    Giavroglou, Constantinos; Economou, Hippolete; Ioannidis, Ioannis

    2003-02-15

    Hepatic cavernous hemangiomas are usually small and asymptomatic. They are usually discovered incidentally and only a few require treatment. However, giant hemangiomas may cause symptoms,which are indications for treatment. We describe four cases of symptomatic giant hepatic hemangiomas successfully treated with transcatheter arterial embolization, performed with polyvinyl alcohol particles. There were no complications. Follow-up with clinical and imaging examinations showed disappearance of symptoms and decrease in size of lesions.

  11. The cytology of giant solitary trichoepithelioma

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Jayashree; Divya, KN

    2010-01-01

    Giant solitary trichoepithelioma (GST) is a rare trichogenic tumor, which may present as a pigmented lesion. An 80-year-old man was diagnosed to have giant solitary trichoepithelioma on fine-needle aspiration cytology. The cytological findings represented the histological features. The recognition of GST is important because of its close resemblance to basal cell carcinoma and other skin adnexal tumors – clinically, cytologically and histologically. PMID:21187885

  12. Localised pulmonary metastatic calcification associated with pulmonary artery obstruction.

    PubMed Central

    Bloodworth, J; Tomashefski, J F

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Metastatic pulmonary calcification, a complication of uraemia and disordered calcium metabolism, may be diffuse or localised. The factors that determine calcium precipitation are complex, but tissue alkalosis is thought to be important. As obstruction of the pulmonary artery theoretically causes local alkalosis a retrospective necropsy study was carried out to examine the relation between metastatic pulmonary calcification and vascular obstruction. METHODS: Five patients with focal and two with diffuse metastatic calcification in the lungs were identified over eight years. Lungs were studied macroscopically and by light microscopy, haematoxylin and eosin and histochemical stains being used for calcium. RESULTS: Underlying risk factors for calcification in these patients included renal failure in six and disseminated malignancy in five. In the five patients with localised calcification obstruction of the pulmonary artery by thrombus or tumour was found proximal or adjacent to areas of calcium deposition. In two patients metastatic calcification was confined to a lung with unilateral pulmonary artery thromboembolic occlusion. Calcification was not specifically associated with infarction, pneumonia, or diffuse alveolar damage. Lesions of the pulmonary artery were not seen in the two patients with diffuse bilateral metastatic calcification. CONCLUSION: In this small series there was a spatial association between pulmonary artery obstruction and localised metastatic calcification. It is proposed that pulmonary artery obstruction alters the microchemical environment of the lung, favouring tissue alkalosis and thereby enhancing parenchymal calcification in patients predisposed to this condition. Images PMID:1519194

  13. Endothelial HIF signaling regulates pulmonary fibrosis-associated pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Andrew J; Carrick, Ryan P; McConaha, Melinda E; Jones, Brittany R; Shay, Sheila D; Moore, Christy S; Blackwell, Thomas R; Gladson, Santhi; Penner, Niki L; Burman, Ankita; Tanjore, Harikrishna; Hemnes, Anna R; Karwandyar, Ayub K; Polosukhin, Vasiliy V; Talati, Megha A; Dong, Hui-Jia; Gleaves, Linda A; Carrier, Erica J; Gaskill, Christa; Scott, Edward W; Majka, Susan M; Fessel, Joshua P; Haase, Volker H; West, James D; Blackwell, Timothy S; Lawson, William E

    2016-02-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) complicating chronic parenchymal lung disease, such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, results in significant morbidity and mortality. Since the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) signaling pathway is important for development of pulmonary hypertension in chronic hypoxia, we investigated whether HIF signaling in vascular endothelium regulates development of PH related to pulmonary fibrosis. We generated a transgenic model in which HIF is deleted within vascular endothelial cells and then exposed these mice to chronic intraperitoneal bleomycin to induce PH associated with lung fibrosis. Although no differences in the degree of fibrotic remodeling were observed, we found that endothelial HIF-deficient mice were protected against development of PH, including right ventricle and pulmonary vessel remodeling. Similarly, endothelial HIF-deficient mice were protected from PH after a 4-wk exposure to normobaric hypoxia. In vitro studies of pulmonary vascular endothelial cells isolated from the HIF-targeted mice and controls revealed that endothelial HIF signaling increases endothelial cell expression of connective tissue growth factor, enhances vascular permeability, and promotes pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation and wound healing ability, all of which have the potential to impact the development of PH in vivo. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that vascular endothelial cell HIF signaling is necessary for development of hypoxia and pulmonary fibrosis associated PH. As such, HIF and HIF-regulated targets represent a therapeutic target in these conditions.

  14. Formation of Giant Planets and Brown Dwarves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    2003-01-01

    According to the prevailing core instability model, giant planets begin their growth by the accumulation of small solid bodies, as do terrestrial planets. However, unlike terrestrial planets, the growing giant planet cores become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates. Models predict that rocky planets should form in orbit about most stars. It is uncertain whether or not gas giant planet formation is common, because most protoplanetary disks may dissipate before solid planetary cores can grow large enough to gravitationally trap substantial quantities of gas. Ongoing theoretical modeling of accretion of giant planet atmospheres, as well as observations of protoplanetary disks, will help decide this issue. Observations of extrasolar planets around main sequence stars can only provide a lower limit on giant planet formation frequency . This is because after giant planets form, gravitational interactions with material within the protoplanetary disk may cause them to migrat inwards and be lost to the central star. The core instability model can only produce planets greater than a few jovian masses within protoplanetary disks that are more viscous than most such disks are believed to be. Thus, few brown dwarves (objects massive enough to undergo substantial deuterium fusion, estimated to occur above approximately 13 jovian masses) are likely to be formed in this manner. Most brown dwarves, as well as an unknown number of free-floating objects of planetary mass, are probably formed as are stars, by the collapse of extended gas/dust clouds into more compact objects.

  15. Pulmonary function in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guy, H. J.; Prisk, G. K.; West, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    We report the successful collection of a large quantity of human resting pulmonary function data on the SLS-1 mission. Preliminary analysis suggests that cardiac stroke volumes are high on orbit, and that an adaptive reduction takes at least several days, and in fact may still be in progress after 9 days on orbit. It also suggests that pulmonary capillary blood volumes are high, and remain high on orbit, but that the pulmonary interstitium is not significantly impacted. The data further suggest that the known large gravitational gradients of lung function have only a modest influence on single breath tests such as the SBN washout. They account for only approximately 25% of the phase III slope of nitrogen, on vital capacity SBN washouts. These gradients are only a moderate source of the cardiogenic oscillations seen in argon (bolus gas) and nitrogen (resident gas), on such tests. They may have a greater role in generating the normal CO2 oscillations, as here the phase relationship to argon and nitrogen reverses in microgravity, at least at mid exhalation in those subjects studied to date. Microgravity may become a useful tool in establishing the nature of the non-gravitational mechanisms that can now be seen to play such a large part in the generation of intra-breath gradients and oscillations of expired gas concentration. Analysis of microgravity multibreath nitrogen washouts, single breath washouts from more physiological pre-inspiratory volumes, both using our existing SLS-1 data, and data from the upcoming D-2 and SLS-2 missions, should be very fruitful in this regard.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  16. Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations.

    PubMed

    Shovlin, Claire L

    2014-12-01

    Within the past decade, pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) have evolved from rare curiosities to not uncommon clinical states, with the latest estimates suggesting a prevalence of ~1 in 2,600. PAVMs provide anatomic right-to-left shunts, allowing systemic venous blood to bypass gas exchange and pulmonary capillary bed processing. Hypoxemia and enhanced ventilatory demands result, although both are usually asymptomatic. Paradoxical emboli lead to strokes and cerebral abscesses, and these commonly occur in individuals with previously undiagnosed PAVMs. PAVM hemorrhage is rare but is the main cause of maternal death in pregnancy. PAVM occlusion by embolization is the standard of care to reduce these risks. However, recent data demonstrate that currently recommended management protocols can result in levels of radiation exposure that would be classified as harmful. Recent publications also provide a better appreciation of the hematologic and cardiovascular demands required to maintain arterial oxygen content and oxygen consumption in hypoxemic patients, identify patient subgroups at higher risk of complications, and emphasize the proportion of radiologically visible PAVMs too small to treat by embolization. This review, therefore, outlines medical states that exacerbate the consequences of PAVMs. Chief among these is iron deficiency, which is commonly present due to concurrent hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: iron deficiency impairs hypoxemia compensations by restricting erythropoiesis and increases the risk of ischemic strokes. Management of periodontal disease, dental interventions, pulmonary hypertension, and pregnancy also requires specific consideration in the setting of PAVMs. The review concludes by discussing to what extent previously recommended protocols may benefit from modification or revision. PMID:25420112

  17. Orthotopic liver transplantation for giant liver haemangioma: A case report.

    PubMed

    Lange, Undine G; Bucher, Julian N; Schoenberg, Markus B; Benzing, Christian; Schmelzle, Moritz; Gradistanac, Tanja; Strocka, Steffen; Hau, Hans-Michael; Bartels, Michael

    2015-12-24

    In liver haemangiomas, the risk of complication rises with increasing size, and treatment can be obligatory. Here we present a case of a 46-year-old female who suffered from a giant haemangioma causing severe portal hypertension and vena cava compression, leading to therapy refractory ascites, hyponatremia and venostasis-associated thrombosis with pulmonary embolism. The patients did not experience tumour rupture or consumptive coagulopathy. Surgical resection was impossible because of steatosis of the non-affected liver. Orthotopic liver transplantation was identified as the only treatment option. The patient's renal function remained stable even though progressive morbidity and organ allocation were improbable according to the patient's lab model for end-stage liver disease (labMELD) score. Therefore, non-standard exception status was approved by the European organ allocation network "Eurotransplant". The patient underwent successful orthotopic liver transplantation 16 mo after admission to our centre. Our case report indicates the underrepresentation of morbidity associated with refractory ascites in the labMELD-based transplant allocation system, and it indicates the necessity of promptly applying for non-standard exception status to enable transplantation in patients with a severe clinical condition but low labMELD score. Our case highlights the fact that liver transplantation should be considered early in patients with non-resectable, symptomatic benign liver tumours. PMID:26722664

  18. Pulmonary emphysema and proteolysis: 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.C.; Mittman, C. )

    1987-01-01

    This book deals with the topic of pulmonary emphysema. Included are the following chapters: Abnormality of secretion of Z Alpha-1-antitrypsin, Proteases, antiproteases, and oxidants in the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema, Alveolar Leukocytes and protease responses with continuous vs. intermittent exposures to NO{sub 2}.

  19. Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorder. Alternative Names Pulmonary vaso-occlusive disease Images Respiratory system References Channick RN, Rubin LJ. Pulmonary hypertension. In: Mason RJ, Broaddus VC, Martin TR, et al., eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2010: ...

  20. Acute Intraoperative Pulmonary Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Nason, Katie S.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Acute intraoperative aspiration is a potentially fatal complication with significant associated morbidity. Patients undergoing thoracic surgery are at increased risk for anesthesia-related aspiration, largely due to the predisposing conditions associated with this complication. Awareness of the risk factors, predisposing conditions, maneuvers to decrease risk and immediate management options by both the thoracic surgeon and the anesthesia team is imperative to reducing risk and optimizing patient outcomes associated with acute intraoperative pulmonary aspiration. Based on the root-cause analyses that many of the aspiration events can be traced back to provider factors, having an experienced anesthesiologist present for high-risk cases is also critical. PMID:26210926

  1. Pulmonary Alveolar Microlithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Kevan; Dell, Sharon; Birken, Catherine; Al-Saleh, Suhail

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare autosomal recessive condition that is often asymptomatic despite significant changes in chest imaging. Diagnosis is often made when patients become symptomatic in adulthood. There are still no proven treatments, but earlier diagnosis may allow for evaluation of preventative strategies that could improve outcome. It is an important diagnosis to consider in children who have marked radiographic findings with no or very mild symptoms or physical findings. Diagnosis can be made with imaging alone but may necessitate lung biopsy for definitive diagnosis. PMID:27445543

  2. Cavitary Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gadkowski, L. Beth; Stout, Jason E.

    2008-01-01

    Summary: A pulmonary cavity is a gas-filled area of the lung in the center of a nodule or area of consolidation and may be clinically observed by use of plain chest radiography or computed tomography. Cavities are present in a wide variety of infectious and noninfectious processes. This review discusses the differential diagnosis of pathological processes associated with lung cavities, focusing on infections associated with lung cavities. The goal is to provide the clinician and clinical microbiologist with an overview of the diseases most commonly associated with lung cavities, with attention to the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of the host. PMID:18400799

  3. Primary pulmonary cryptococcosis.

    PubMed

    Asadi Gharabaghi, Mehrnaz; Allameh, Seyyed Farshad

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report a case of primary cryptococcal pneumonia in a 25-year-old woman who presented with several weeks' history of cough, dyspnoea and night sweating. These symptoms started in the third trimester of her pregnancy. She was being treated for infertility and got pregnant with in vitro fertilisation. On chest imaging, there were bilateral air space consolidation and cavitary lesions. Fungal pulmonary infection was diagnosed after surgical lung biopsy. She received fluconazole 400 mg per day orally for 6 months and recovered completely. PMID:24692384

  4. Biomass yield comparisons of giant miscanthus, giant reed, and miscane grown under irrigated and rainfed conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. Department of Energy has initiated efforts to decrease the nation’s dependence on imported oil by developing domestic renewable sources of cellulosic-derived bioenergy. In this study, giant miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus), sugarcane (complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.), and giant reed (Ar...

  5. Microarray analysis in pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Julia; Wilhelm, Jochen; Olschewski, Andrea; Kwapiszewska, Grazyna

    2016-07-01

    Microarrays are a powerful and effective tool that allows the detection of genome-wide gene expression differences between controls and disease conditions. They have been broadly applied to investigate the pathobiology of diverse forms of pulmonary hypertension, namely group 1, including patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, and group 3, including pulmonary hypertension associated with chronic lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. To date, numerous human microarray studies have been conducted to analyse global (lung homogenate samples), compartment-specific (laser capture microdissection), cell type-specific (isolated primary cells) and circulating cell (peripheral blood) expression profiles. Combined, they provide important information on development, progression and the end-stage disease. In the future, system biology approaches, expression of noncoding RNAs that regulate coding RNAs, and direct comparison between animal models and human disease might be of importance. PMID:27076594

  6. [Pulmonary manifestations in rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Morawska, Justyna; Domysławska, Izabela; Bagrowska, Magdalena; Sierakowski, Stanislaw

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by destructive cartilages, bones and other structures formed joints. RA belongs to connective tissue diseases represented by systemic nature, internal illness, extra-articular features and rapidly progress of atherosceirosis. The extra-articular complications cause the reduction of patient longevity. The frequency of symptoms in patient with RA and respiratory disorders occur in 10-20% of cases. Pulmonary complications are the second most common cause of premature of patient deaths. Respiratory disorders associated with RA are devided into 3 groups: infection, lung disease caused by drugs and pulmonary manifestation connected by RA. These last affect interstitial tissue, bronchioli, pulmonary vessels, pleura, also are presented by pulmonary rheumatoid nodules and pulmonary hypertension.

  7. Microarray analysis in pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Julia; Wilhelm, Jochen; Olschewski, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Microarrays are a powerful and effective tool that allows the detection of genome-wide gene expression differences between controls and disease conditions. They have been broadly applied to investigate the pathobiology of diverse forms of pulmonary hypertension, namely group 1, including patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, and group 3, including pulmonary hypertension associated with chronic lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. To date, numerous human microarray studies have been conducted to analyse global (lung homogenate samples), compartment-specific (laser capture microdissection), cell type-specific (isolated primary cells) and circulating cell (peripheral blood) expression profiles. Combined, they provide important information on development, progression and the end-stage disease. In the future, system biology approaches, expression of noncoding RNAs that regulate coding RNAs, and direct comparison between animal models and human disease might be of importance. PMID:27076594

  8. Obscurin: a multitasking muscle giant.

    PubMed

    Kontrogianni-Konstantopoulos, Aikaterini; Bloch, Robert J

    2005-01-01

    Obscurin (approximately 800 kDa) is the third member of a family of giant proteins expressed in vertebrate striated muscle, along with titin (3-3.7 MDa) and nebulin (approximately 800 kDa). Like its predecessors, it is a multidomain protein composed of tandem adhesion modules and signaling domains. Unlike titin and nebulin, which are integral components of sarcomeres, obscurin is concentrated at the peripheries of Z-disks and M-lines, where it is appropriately positioned to communicate with the surrounding myoplasm. This unique distribution allows obscurin to bind small ankyrin 1, an integral component of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membrane. Obscurin also associates with the contractile apparatus through its binding to titin, sarcomeric myosin and perhaps other proteins of the contractile apparatus. Overexpression of the COOH-terminus of obscurin in primary myotubes has a dramatic and specific effect on the organization of sarcomeric myosin, indicating a role in the organization and regular assembly of A-bands. Given its ability to associate tightly, selectively and periodically with the periphery of the myofibril, its high affinity for an integral membrane protein of the SR and its close association with thick filaments, we speculate that obscurin is ideally suited to play key roles in modulating the organization and assembly of both the myofibril and the SR.

  9. A giant thunderstorm on Saturn.

    PubMed

    Fischer, G; Kurth, W S; Gurnett, D A; Zarka, P; Dyudina, U A; Ingersoll, A P; Ewald, S P; Porco, C C; Wesley, A; Go, C; Delcroix, M

    2011-07-06

    Lightning discharges in Saturn's atmosphere emit radio waves with intensities about 10,000 times stronger than those of their terrestrial counterparts. These radio waves are the characteristic features of lightning from thunderstorms on Saturn, which last for days to months. Convective storms about 2,000 kilometres in size have been observed in recent years at planetocentric latitude 35° south (corresponding to a planetographic latitude of 41° south). Here we report observations of a giant thunderstorm at planetocentric latitude 35° north that reached a latitudinal extension of 10,000 kilometres-comparable in size to a 'Great White Spot'-about three weeks after it started in early December 2010. The visible plume consists of high-altitude clouds that overshoot the outermost ammonia cloud layer owing to strong vertical convection, as is typical for thunderstorms. The flash rates of this storm are about an order of magnitude higher than previous ones, and peak rates larger than ten per second were recorded. This main storm developed an elongated eastward tail with additional but weaker storm cells that wrapped around the whole planet by February 2011. Unlike storms on Earth, the total power of this storm is comparable to Saturn's total emitted power. The appearance of such storms in the northern hemisphere could be related to the change of seasons, given that Saturn experienced vernal equinox in August 2009.

  10. Red Giant Plunging Through Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version

    This image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope (left panel) shows the 'bow shock' of a dying star named R Hydrae, or R Hya, in the constellation Hydra.

    Bow shocks are formed where the stellar wind from a star are pushed into a bow shape (illustration, right panel) as the star plunges through the gas and dust between stars. Our own Sun has a bow shock, but prior to this image one had never been observed around this particular class of red giant star.

    R Hya moves through space at approximately 50 kilometers per second. As it does so, it discharges dust and gas into space. Because the star is relatively cool, that ejecta quickly assumes a solid state and collides with the interstellar medium. The resulting dusty nebula is invisible to the naked eye but can be detected using an infrared telescope. This bow shock is 16,295 astronomical units from the star to the apex and 6,188 astronomical units thick (an astronomical unit is the distance between the sun and Earth). The mass of the bow shock is about 400 times the mass of the Earth.

    The false-color Spitzer image shows infrared emissions at 70 microns. Brighter colors represent greater intensities of infrared light at that wavelength. The location of the star itself is drawn onto the picture in the black 'unobserved' region in the center.

  11. A giant thunderstorm on Saturn.

    PubMed

    Fischer, G; Kurth, W S; Gurnett, D A; Zarka, P; Dyudina, U A; Ingersoll, A P; Ewald, S P; Porco, C C; Wesley, A; Go, C; Delcroix, M

    2011-07-01

    Lightning discharges in Saturn's atmosphere emit radio waves with intensities about 10,000 times stronger than those of their terrestrial counterparts. These radio waves are the characteristic features of lightning from thunderstorms on Saturn, which last for days to months. Convective storms about 2,000 kilometres in size have been observed in recent years at planetocentric latitude 35° south (corresponding to a planetographic latitude of 41° south). Here we report observations of a giant thunderstorm at planetocentric latitude 35° north that reached a latitudinal extension of 10,000 kilometres-comparable in size to a 'Great White Spot'-about three weeks after it started in early December 2010. The visible plume consists of high-altitude clouds that overshoot the outermost ammonia cloud layer owing to strong vertical convection, as is typical for thunderstorms. The flash rates of this storm are about an order of magnitude higher than previous ones, and peak rates larger than ten per second were recorded. This main storm developed an elongated eastward tail with additional but weaker storm cells that wrapped around the whole planet by February 2011. Unlike storms on Earth, the total power of this storm is comparable to Saturn's total emitted power. The appearance of such storms in the northern hemisphere could be related to the change of seasons, given that Saturn experienced vernal equinox in August 2009. PMID:21734705

  12. The Giant Planet Satellite Exospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGrath, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Exospheres are relatively common in the outer solar system among the moons of the gas giant planets. They span the range from very tenuous, surface-bounded exospheres (e.g., Rhea, Dione) to quite robust exospheres with exobase above the surface (e.g., lo, Triton), and include many intermediate cases (e.g., Europa, Ganymede, Enceladus). The exospheres of these moons exhibit an interesting variety of sources, from surface sputtering, to frost sublimation, to active plumes, and also well illustrate another common characteristic of the outer planet satellite exospheres, namely, that the primary species often exists both as a gas in atmosphere, and a condensate (frost or ice) on the surface. As described by Yelle et al. (1995) for Triton, "The interchange of matter between gas and solid phases on these bodies has profound effects on the physical state of the surface and the structure of the atmosphere." A brief overview of the exospheres of the outer planet satellites will be presented, including an inter-comparison of these satellites exospheres with each other, and with the exospheres of the Moon and Mercury.

  13. Detection of hydatid-specific antibodies in the serum and urine for the diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis in patients from the Kashmir Valley, India.

    PubMed

    Chirag, S; Fomda, B A; Khan, A; Malik, A A; Lone, G N; Khan, B A; Zahoor, D

    2015-03-01

    Serological diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis (CE) is usually made by detecting specific antibodies in serum samples. However, collection of blood samples is difficult and may be hazardous and unsafe. Thus, it is important to assess alternative simple methods of sampling body fluids that give similar results. Saliva and urine have been suggested as possible alternatives to detect specific antibodies for the diagnosis of various diseases. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no previously published study regarding the detection of CE-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G subclass antibodies (IgG1-4) in urine. Therefore, the present study was designed to assess the value of hydatid-specific antibodies of IgG, IgM, IgE and IgG subclass in urine and serum samples for the diagnosis of CE. Serum and urine samples of 41 surgically confirmed patients of CE, 40 patients with other diseases and 16 healthy subjects were included in the study. CE-specific total IgG, IgE and IgG4 in sera and total IgG, IgG4 and IgG1 in the urine of CE patients were the most important specific antibodies for the diagnosis of CE. However, total IgG usually persists for an extended period and has a very high cross-reactivity. The diagnostic sensitivity of hydatid-specific IgM in serum and urine samples was very low and therefore cannot be used as a diagnostic marker. There was no significant difference between IgG1 and IgG4 in serum and urine and both showed the best correlation for the diagnosis of CE. These considerations suggest that detection of antibodies in urine could provide a new approach in the diagnosis of CE.

  14. Percutaneous Bullectomy in Conjunction with Endobronchial Valve Placement as an Alternative to Surgical Management of Giant Bullae.

    PubMed

    Goud, Aditya; Krimsky, William; Caldwel, Marry; Perry, Brandon; Heiraty, Pooya; Sarkar, Saiyad; Harley, Daniel P; Selinger, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    We present the first reported case of the treatment and management of a giant bulla using percutaneous bullectomy and endobronchial valve placement. A 74-year-old woman with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and a known large bulla in the left chest presented to the emergency department with acute-onset confusion after a traumatic fall. She was subsequently diagnosed with an intracranial hemorrhage in the distribution of the right basal ganglia. Chest imaging revealed a giant apical bulla occupying 80% of the left hemithorax. In addition, there was midline shift away from the affected side associated with volume loss in the right hemithorax and no radiographic evidence of aeration in the remainder of the left lung. Arterial blood gas analysis revealed significant hypercapnia. Surgical bullectomy was not an option, and thus, a novel approach was utilized to treat this patient.

  15. Prenatal management and perinatal outcome in giant placental chorioangioma complicated with hydrops fetalis, fetal anemia and maternal mirror syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Giant placental chorioangiomas have been associated with a number of severe fetal complications and high perinatal mortality. Case presentation We report a case of giant chorioangioma with fetal hydrops, additionally complicated by severe anemia, mild cardiomegaly with hyperdinamic heart circulation and maternal mirror syndrome. Intrauterine blood transfusion and amniodrainage was performed at 29 weeks. Worsening of the fetal and maternal condition prompted us to proceed with delivery at 29 + 5 weeks. The newborn died 3 hours later due to pulmonary hypoplasia and hemodynamic failure. Maternal course was favourable, mirror syndrome resolved in the second day and the patient was discharged four days following delivery. Conclusions In the case described here, fetal condition got worse despite of the anemia correction and amniodrainage. Our outcome raises the issue whether additional intrauterine clinical intervention, as intersticial laser, should have been performed to stop further deterioration of the fetal condition when progressive severe hydrops develops. PMID:22840187

  16. Purinergic dysregulation in pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Visovatti, Scott H; Hyman, Matthew C; Goonewardena, Sascha N; Anyanwu, Anuli C; Kanthi, Yogendra; Robichaud, Patrick; Wang, Jintao; Petrovic-Djergovic, Danica; Rattan, Rahul; Burant, Charles F; Pinsky, David J

    2016-07-01

    Despite the fact that nucleotides and adenosine help regulate vascular tone through purinergic signaling pathways, little is known regarding their contributions to the pathobiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension, a condition characterized by elevated pulmonary vascular resistance and remodeling. Even less is known about the potential role that alterations in CD39 (ENTPD1), the ectonucleotidase responsible for the conversion of the nucleotides ATP and ADP to AMP, may play in pulmonary arterial hypertension. In this study we identified decreased CD39 expression on the pulmonary endothelium of patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. We next determined the effects of CD39 gene deletion in mice exposed to normoxia or normobaric hypoxia (10% oxygen). Compared with controls, hypoxic CD39(-/-) mice were found to have a markedly elevated ATP-to-adenosine ratio, higher pulmonary arterial pressures, more right ventricular hypertrophy, more arterial medial hypertrophy, and a pro-thrombotic phenotype. In addition, hypoxic CD39(-/-) mice exhibited a marked increase in lung P2X1 receptors. Systemic reconstitution of ATPase and ADPase enzymatic activities through continuous administration of apyrase decreased pulmonary arterial pressures in hypoxic CD39(-/-) mice to levels found in hypoxic CD39(+/+) controls. Treatment with NF279, a potent and selective P2X1 receptor antagonist, lowered pulmonary arterial pressures even further. Our study is the first to implicate decreased CD39 and resultant alterations in circulating purinergic signaling ligands and cognate receptors in the pathobiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Reconstitution and receptor blocking experiments suggest that phosphohydrolysis of purinergic nucleotide tri- and diphosphates, or blocking of the P2X1 receptor could serve as treatment for pulmonary arterial hypertension. PMID:27208163

  17. YOUNG SOLAR SYSTEM's FIFTH GIANT PLANET?

    SciTech Connect

    Nesvorny, David

    2011-12-15

    Studies of solar system formation suggest that the solar system's giant planets formed and migrated in the protoplanetary disk to reach the resonant orbits with all planets inside {approx}15 AU from the Sun. After the gas disk's dispersal, Uranus and Neptune were likely scattered by the gas giants, and approached their current orbits while dispersing the transplanetary disk of planetesimals, whose remains survived to this time in the region known as the Kuiper Belt. Here we performed N-body integrations of the scattering phase between giant planets in an attempt to determine which initial states are plausible. We found that the dynamical simulations starting with a resonant system of four giant planets have a low success rate in matching the present orbits of giant planets and various other constraints (e.g., survival of the terrestrial planets). The dynamical evolution is typically too violent, if Jupiter and Saturn start in the 3:2 resonance, and leads to final systems with fewer than four planets. Several initial states stand out in that they show a relatively large likelihood of success in matching the constraints. Some of the statistically best results were obtained when assuming that the solar system initially had five giant planets and one ice giant, with the mass comparable to that of Uranus and Neptune, and which was ejected to interstellar space by Jupiter. This possibility appears to be conceivable in view of the recent discovery of a large number of free-floating planets in interstellar space, which indicates that planet ejection should be common.

  18. Giant elves: Lightning-generated electromagnetic pulses in giant planets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luque Estepa, Alejandro; Dubrovin, Daria; José Gordillo-Vázquez, Francisco; Ebert, Ute; Parra-Rojas, Francisco Carlos; Yair, Yoav; Price, Colin

    2015-04-01

    We currently have direct optical observations of atmospheric electricity in the two giant gaseous planets of our Solar System [1-5] as well as radio signatures that are possibly generated by lightning from the two icy planets Uranus and Neptune [6,7]. On Earth, the electrical activity of the troposphere is associated with secondary electrical phenomena called Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) that occur in the mesosphere and lower ionosphere. This led some researchers to ask if similar processes may also exist in other planets, focusing first on the quasi-static coupling mechanism [8], which on Earth is responsible for halos and sprites and then including also the induction field, which is negligible in our planet but dominant in Saturn [9]. However, one can show that, according to the best available estimation for lightning parameters, in giant planets such as Saturn and Jupiter the effect of the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) dominates the effect that a lightning discharge has on the lower ionosphere above it. Using a Finite-Differences, Time-Domain (FDTD) solver for the EMP we found [10] that electrically active storms may create a localized but long-lasting layer of enhanced ionization of up to 103 cm-3 free electrons below the ionosphere, thus extending the ionosphere downward. We also estimate that the electromagnetic pulse transports 107 J to 1010 J toward the ionosphere. There emissions of light of up to 108 J would create a transient luminous event analogous to a terrestrial elve. Although these emissions are about 10 times fainter than the emissions coming from the lightning itself, it may be possible to target them for detection by filtering the appropiate wavelengths. [1] Cook, A. F., II, T. C. Duxbury, and G. E. Hunt (1979), First results on Jovian lightning, Nature, 280, 794, doi:10.1038/280794a0. [2] Little, B., C. D. Anger, A. P. Ingersoll, A. R. Vasavada, D. A. Senske, H. H. Breneman, W. J. Borucki, and The Galileo SSI Team (1999), Galileo images of

  19. Meandering right pulmonary vein associated with severe and progressive "idiopathic-like" pulmonary hypertensive vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Cuenca, Sofia; Bret, Montserrat; del Cerro, Maria Jesus

    2016-03-01

    Congenital anomalies of the pulmonary veins are rare. Meandering right pulmonary vein, considered a part of the Scimitar syndrome spectrum, is often an incidental finding during chest imaging. We present the case of a 4-year-old girl diagnosed with meandering pulmonary vein, who developed pulmonary hypertensive disease with an aggressive course, in spite of absence of hypoxia or elevated pulmonary wedge pressure.

  20. Pulmonary Capillary Hemangiomatosis and Pulmonary Veno-occlusive Disease.

    PubMed

    Chaisson, Neal F; Dodson, Mark W; Elliott, Charles Gregory

    2016-09-01

    This article provides an overview of pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) and pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis (PCH), two disorders that challenge clinicians, radiologists, and pathologists because they often mimic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The article reviews the features that differentiate PVOD and PCH from PAH. The article also describes the overlap of PVOD and PCH, highlighted by recent reports of families diagnosed with PVOD or PCH caused by EIF2AK4 mutations. In addition, the article outlines current approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of PVOD and PCH. PMID:27514598