Science.gov

Sample records for giant pulmonary hydatid

  1. Imaging in pulmonary hydatid cysts

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Mandeep K; Sharma, Madhurima; Gulati, Ajay; Gorsi, Ujjwal; Aggarwal, Ashutosh N; Agarwal, Ritesh; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid disease is a zoonosis that can involve almost any organ in the human body. After the liver, the lungs are the most common site for hydatid disease in adults. Imaging plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis of the disease, as clinical features are often nonspecific. Classical radiological signs of pulmonary hydatid cysts have been described in the literature, aiding in the diagnosis of the disease. However, complicated hydatid cysts can prove to be a diagnostic challenge at times due to their atypical imaging features. Radiography is the initial imaging modality. Computed tomography can provide a specific diagnosis in complicated cases. Ultrasound is particularly useful in peripheral lung lesions. The role of magnetic resonance imaging largely remains unexplored. PMID:27358685

  2. [Isolated giant hydatid in kidney].

    PubMed

    Ozgör, Faruk; Erbin, Akif; Berberoğlu, Ahmet Yalçın; Binbay, Murat; Sarılar, Omer; Müslümanoğlu, Ahmet Yaser

    2014-06-01

    Cyst hydatid of the kidney is parasitic condition caused by Echinococcus granulosus and identified in many countries, especially associated with sheep farming. Echinococcal larvae enter the bloodstream using the digestive system and invade any organs in the human body. The urinary system is the third most common area affected by parasitic infection after liver and lungs, but isolated renal involvement is a very rare situation, even in endemic areas. İn our case, we aimed to report a 57-year-old female patient with an 18-centimeter isolated renal cyst hydatid treated by retroperitoneal nephrectomy. The diagnosis was based on imaging findings and confirmed by histopathologically.

  3. [Pulmonary hydatid cyst: unusual double apical location. About a case].

    PubMed

    Sajiai, Hafsa; Rachidi, Mariam; Aitbatahar, Salma; Serhane, Hind; Amro, Lamyae

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid cyst (KH) is still endemic in several areas of Morocco. Pulmonary involvement is a consequence of liver disease. Hydatid cyst is characterized by diverse anatomical and clinical presentations and by the possibility of multiple locations within the lung parenchyma, predominantly involving pulmonary bases. We report the case of Mr J. M, 54 years old, admitted with suspected pulmonary hydatid cyst based on chest pain lasting for six months and an episode of hydatidoptysis. Chest x-ray objectified a double apical location suggesting different stages of evolution for pulmonary hydatid cyst. The diagnosis was confirmed by thoracic CTscan and hydatid serology. Multiple pulmonary hydatid cyst is not rare in areas in which hydatid disease is highly endemic. Our study reports an unusual double apical location of hydatid cyst at various stages of evolution.

  4. Anaphylactic shock during pulmonary hydatid cyst surgery.

    PubMed

    Marashi, Shaqayeq; Hosseini, Vahideh Sadat; Saliminia, Alireza; Yaghooti, Amirabbas

    2014-08-01

    Hydatid cyst is a parasitic disease caused by a tapeworm Echinococcusgranulosus. Humans are accidental hosts and infected after digestion of foods contaminated to fecal matter of definite hosts. The most affected organs are liver and lungs. Rupture of cyst (spontaneous rupture or rupture due to trauma or surgery) can cause anaphylactic reactions. Even considered as a rare event during anesthesia, it can be life threatening with the manifestations of severe hypotension and circulatory shock. Thus, immediate and proper treatment is necessary . We report a case of anaphylactic shock during surgery of pulmonary Hydatid cyst in a 42 year old woman and its management. During the surgery of hydatid cyst, any hemodynamic instability should raise the suspension of anaphylaxis and early resuscitation should be instituted.

  5. Conservative Surgical Management for Pulmonary Hydatid Cyst: Analysis and Outcome of 148 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Aldahmashi, Mohammed; Kasb, Ibrahim; Elrakhawy, Hany

    2016-01-01

    Background. Hydatid cyst (HC) disease is endemic in many developing countries, like Yemen, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia, especially in the rural regions. The disease has a variable clinical courses and even might be asymptomatic for many years. Objectives. In giant and large pulmonary hydatid cysts, pulmonary resection is the usual method of surgical treatment. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the lung conservative surgery in treatment of cases with giant and large hydatid lung cysts, as an effective method of management. Patients and Methods. Between January 2009 and August 2014, a total of 148 patients with pulmonary hydatid cysts were operated and their data was reviewed retrospectively and analyzed. Out of these cases, 52 (35.14%) cysts with more than 10 cm in diameter and 36 (24.32%) cysts with 5–9 cm were regarded as giant and large hydatid lung cysts, respectively. The small cysts less than 5 cm were presented in 8 (5.4%) cases only; other cases had ruptured cysts. Preservation of the lung tissues during surgery by cystotomy and Capitonnage was our conservative surgical methods of choice. Results. Eight patients developed bronchopleural fistula (BPF); of them, 4 BPFs have healed with chest tube and physiotherapy, but in the other 4 patients reoperation was done for the closure of persistent BPF. No mortality was observed in the present study. Conclusion. We conclude that conservative surgical procedure can achieve complete removal of the pulmonary hydatid cyst. Enucleation of the intact huge cysts is safe. Careful and secured closure of the bronchial communication should be done by purse string or figure-of-8 sutures, with or without Teflon pledgets. These simple procedures are safe, reliable, and successful. PMID:27642249

  6. Giant intradural extramedullary spinal hydatid cyst--a rare presentation.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Muddassir; Kirmani, Sanna; Rashid, Mubashir

    2012-01-01

    The hydatidosis, or echinococcosis, has a characteristic geographic distribution, occurring most frequently in sheep-raising regions in Mediterranean, Central Asian, and South American countries and in Australia. Spinal hydatidosis is very rare, and intradural location is a rarer category of spinal hydatidosis. We report a case of intradural extramedullary spinal hydatid cyst in a 9-year-old boy. On magnetic resonance imaging, an intradural extramedullary giant cystic lesion was seen mimicking an arachnoid cyst. However, endemic origin of the patient and positive serology helped to make the diagnosis of hydatid cyst, which was confirmed on postoperative histopathology. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An undiagnosed giant right renal hydatid cyst treated laparoscopically: Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Elsawi; Khan, Ziauddin; Abualsel, Abdulmenem; Bhatty, Tanweer

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid disease caused by the tape worm Echinococcus granulosus is a rare occurrence in the urinary system in general. We are hereby presenting a case of a gentleman in his fourth decade with a giant right renal hydatid cyst. The clinical manifestations, radiological features, and serology were all not suggestive of hydatid disease; however, typical Echinococcus scolices were detected histologically following cyst aspiration. The giant cyst was successfully treated laparoscopically. PMID:28057995

  8. Biliobronchial Fistula after Liver Surgery for Giant Hydatid Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Loinaz, Carmelo; Hernández, Teresa; Mitjavila, Mercedes; Martín, Jaime; Ochando, Federico; Madariaga, Maria Lucia; Fernández, Beatriz; Hernández, Pilar; Rueda, José; Ramos, María; Jiménez, Pedro; Vorwald, Peter; Fernández, José María; Quintáns, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Background. Biliobronchial fistula (BBF) is a rare complication in the natural history of liver hydatid disease by Echinococcus granulosus. We present a case of BBF after resection of a giant liver hydatid cyst in a 72-year-old woman. Case Report. A total cystpericystectomy was done, leaving the left lateral section of the liver that was fixed to the diaphragm. Postoperatively, the patient developed obstructive jaundice. An ERCP showed an obstruction at the junction of the left biliary duct and the main biliary duct and contrast leak. At reoperation, the main duct was ischemic, likely due to torsion along its longitudinal axis. A hepatotomy was done at the hilar plate, and the biliary duct was dissected and anastomosed to a Roux-en-Y jejunal loop. She was discharged without complications. Five months later, the patient developed cholangitis and was successfully treated with antibiotics. However, she suffered repeated respiratory infections, and four months later she was admitted to the hospital with fever, cough, bilioptysis, and right lower lobe pneumonia. The diagnosis of BBF was confirmed with 99mTc Mebrofenin scintigraphy. At transhepatic cholangiography, bile duct dilation was seen, with a biliothoracic leak. She underwent dilatation of cholangiojejunostomy stricture with placement of an external-internal catheter. The catheter was removed 3.5 months later, and two years later the patient remains in very good condition. Conclusion. An indirect treatment of the BBF by percutaneous transhepatic dilation of the biliary stenosis avoided a more invasive treatment, with satisfactory outcome. PMID:21960731

  9. Liver hydatid cyst leading to bilateral pulmonary artery embolism and bilateral multiple pulmonar echinococcosis via inferior vena cava: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Bayaroğullari, Hanifi; Davran, Ramazan; Cavuş, Yeliz; Yetim, Tülin Durgun; Evirgen, Ömer

    2013-01-01

    Hydatid disease (HD) is a worldwide parasitic disease. Echinococcosis may involve many organs but affect most commonly liver and lungs. The location of echinococcal cysts inside pulmonary artery is extremely rare. Radiologic findings range from purely cystic lesions to a completely solid appearance. Hydatid cysts (HC) can be solitary or multiple and varies size. Pulmonary artery embolism of HC can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. When symptomatic, we see the chest pain, dyspnea, cough, hemoptysis and sometimes acute cor pulmonale or sudden death secondary to massive giant pulmonary artery embolism of HC. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Surgical management of pulmonary hydatid cysts in children.

    PubMed Central

    Elburjo, M.; Gani, E. A.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Hydatid disease is common in Libya with a prevalence of 2%. Surgery of pulmonary hydatid disease remains the best treatment and aims to remove the cyst or its remnants and obliterate the residual cavity. METHODS--Forty three consecutive patients under 15 years of age were investigated by plain chest radiography, ultrasonography of the abdomen, and indirect haemagglutination tests. At thoracotomy the parasite or its remnants were removed and the bronchial fistula sutured. RESULTS--All but four of the patients were discharged within 12 days. These four had had their large cavities obliterated by purse string sutures and developed air fluid levels with cavity reformation at the cyst site. They were treated conservatively by physiotherapy and antibiotics and remained in hospital for 2-3 weeks. There was only one recurrence after three years of follow up. CONCLUSIONS--Pulmonary hydatid cysts in children can be treated successfully by evacuation and obliteration. The methods described can also be applied to adults. Images PMID:7785014

  11. A Case of Pulmonary Artery Hydatid Cyst Observed on Endobronchial Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Senturk, Aysegul; Er, Mukremin; Karalezli, Aysegul; Yakut, Zeynep Ilerisoy; Soyturk, Ayse Nur; Cetin, Huseyin; Canan Hasanoglu, Hatice

    2015-01-01

    Hydatid cyst (HC) is a parasitic disease that may involve many organs, especially the lung and the liver. Pulmonary artery location of the hydatid cyst is extremely rare, but it may cause life-threatening complications. We report a case of a hydatid cyst that completely filled the left main pulmonary artery and its distal part without cardiac involvement. Thoracic computed tomography showed filling defects in the pulmonary arteries. Endobronchial ultrasound was performed for differential diagnosis and it showed a cystic lesion. Hydatid cyst-specific IgE and hem agglutination test results were positive. In the literature, cases like this in which the diagnosis of pulmonary hydatid cyst is made by endobronchial ultrasound are not usually seen. Although many imaging modalities such as plain chest radiography, cross-sectional imaging (MDCT and MRI), echocardiography and conventional pulmonary angiography have been used in the diagnostic approach, we recommend endobronchial ultrasound for the differential diagnosis of cases with cystic formation. PMID:25793087

  12. A case of Horner's syndrome after the surgical treatment of pulmonary hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Bayhan, Gülsüm İclal; Karaca, Meryem; Yazici, Ülkü; Tanir, Gönül

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of right-sided iatrogenic Horner's syndrome developed after surgical treatment for pulmonary hydatid cyst. This occurred in a 10 year old girl who had been diagnosed as having a ruptured lung hydatid cyst on the basis of clinical, radiological, serological, histopathological and perioperative findings. The patient underwent right thoracotomy and the cystotomy-capitonnage for the cyst. Right upper lid ptosis, right miosis and anisocoria were recognized on the first postoperative day. Findings of Horner's syndrome were ameliorated completely at the 6th month. In conclusion, iatrogenic transient Horner's syndrome may develop after surgery for pulmonary hydatid cyst, especially if the cyst is located at the lung apex.

  13. Spontaneous giant splenic hydatid cyst rupture causing fatal anaphylactic shock: a case report and brief literature review.

    PubMed

    Belli, Sedat; Akbulut, Sami; Erbay, Gürcan; Koçer, Nazım Emrah

    2014-02-01

    Hydatid disease is a parasitic infection characterized by cyst formation in any organ, although the liver and lungs are most commonly involved. Hydatid disease of the spleen is uncommon, representing <8% of all human hydatid diseases. Splenic hydatid cysts usually coexist with liver hydatid cysts (secondary form), although the spleen is the primary location (primary form) in some cases. The clinical signs and symptoms of splenic hydatid cysts depend on their size, relationship with adjacent organs, and complications. One of the complications of splenic hydatid cysts is cyst rupture either after trauma or spontaneously as a result of increased intracystic pressure. These cysts may rupture into a hollow organ, through the diaphragm into the pleural cavity, or directly into the peritoneal cavity. A splenic hydatid cyst that ruptures into the peritoneal cavity may cause complications, including signs of peritoneal irritation, urticaria, anaphylaxis, and death, as in our case. Therefore, a hydatid cyst rupture requires both emergency surgery and careful postoperative care. In this study, we present a case of a giant splenic hydatid cyst that ruptured into the peritoneal cavity without any trauma. A review of cases reported in the English literature about splenic hydatid cyst perforation is also discussed.

  14. Giant isolated mesenteric hydatid cyst case report without organ involvement.

    PubMed

    Velioğlu, Murat; Diktaş, Hüsrev; Kabalak, Bilal; Tüfekçi, Hamdi; Cermik, Hakan; Akar, Ilker; Yalçin, Bariş; Coşar, Alparslan

    2014-01-01

    A 21-year-old man presented with a 1-year history of intermittent attacks of abdominal distention and abdominal pain. Abdominal ultrasonography (USG) and abdominal computed tomography (CT) showed a large multicystic mass. After the operation, histopathological findings revealed a lamellated ectocyst and germinal layer with a thick outer, non-cellular membrane in the wall of the cyst, making a diagnosis of primary hydatid cyst for sure. He was discharged on the 10th postoperative day with albendazole 800 mg/day treatment. Herein, we report an unusual case of an isolated primary hydatid cyst of the mesenterium. As a conclusion, in endemic areas, hydatid cysts should be considered for the diagnosis of a patient with cystic mass lesions.

  15. [Primary disseminated pulmonary hydatid cyst manifesting with right-side cardiac failure: case report].

    PubMed

    Çakın, Özlem; Üstün, Cemal; Akçay, Selahattin; İnci, Mehmet Fatih; Altınsoy, Hasan Baki

    2011-01-01

    Hydatid disease is a parasitic infection caused by a tapeworm of the genus Echinococcus. There are three known species of Echinococcus that lead to the disease among humans. E. granulosus is the most common of the three. A 26-year-old man admitted to emergency room with a cough, dyspnea, tachycardia, and chest pain was hospitalized with suspected pneumonia. The patient was in poor general condition and was conscious. On physical examination, fever: 37.3°C/axillary, blood pressure: 165/100 mmHg, cardiac pulse: 114/min, remarkable bilateral pretibial edema, peripheral cyanosis, and disseminated rales and rhonchi were found. Chest radiography showed the multiple disseminated cystic formations, and thorax computed tomography showed remarkable dilatation in the ring of pulmonary artery, and multiple cystic formations in the lung area. The disseminated pulmonary hydatid cyst disease was diagnosed according to clinical and laboratory findings. Albendazole 800 mg/kg daily was administered to the patient for three months. The patient recovered markedly after this treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first case of primary disseminated pulmonary hydatid cyst to manifest with right-side cardiac failure. In endemic areas, the morbidity and mortality due to hydatid cyst may be decreased if hydatid cyst is considered among patients with suspected radiologic findings.

  16. Cetrimide-chlorhexidine-induced multiorgan failure in surgery of pulmonary hydatid cyst

    PubMed Central

    Tripathy, Swagata; Sasmal, Prakash; Rao, P. Bhaskar; Mishra, Tushar S.; Nayak, Sukdev

    2016-01-01

    Savlon (0.5% cetrimide/0.05% chlorhexidine) is used as a scolicidal during surgery of hydatid cysts. It is considered a safe and effective agent. However, there are no recommendations for the appropriate concentration or dosage of these agents. Previously reported to cause severe metabolic acidosis, its effects on the pulmonary system have not been explored. We present a case of acute lung injury and respiratory distress along with acute cardiopulmonary distress, severe metabolic acidosis, and renal failure following its use during surgical removal of pulmonary hydatid cyst. The agent may act as a chemical sclerosant causing pulmonary parenchymal damage through bronchial openings present in the pericyst. Till safe dose limits are known, use of this agent should be limited, especially in large or multiple cyst surgery. PMID:27397471

  17. Evaluation of the effect of pulmonary hydatid cyst location on the surgical technique approaches

    PubMed Central

    Sadrizadeh, Ali; Haghi, Seyed Ziaollah; Masuom, Seyed Hossein Fattahi; Bagheri, Reza; Dalouee, Marziyeh Nouri

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: A hydatid cyst is the most common lung parasitic disease and is endemic in Iran. A hydatid cyst is more common in the right lung and lower lobes. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess surgical treatment of pulmonary hydatid cysts and whether the location of cyst affects surgical technique approaches. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on 87 patients with a pulmonary hydatid cyst who were referred to Qaem Hospital from 2010 to 2012. Selection of surgical technique was according to size, location, and the number of cysts. Patients were divided into two groups: (1) surgery with preserving lung parenchyma and (2) lobectomy. Afterward, the relationship between the location of cyst and surgical technique approaches was evaluated. Data was analyzed by Chi-square and Fisher exact tests. Results: In this study, no significant relation was found between the size (P = 0.682) and number (P = 0.344) of cysts and lobectomy necessity. But, there was a significant relation between the occurrence of cyst in middle lobe and lobectomy necessity (P = 0.016). Conclusions: According to the results, type of surgical technique does not depend on the size and number of cysts, but it may be related to the location of the cyst and the ratio of lung destruction. PMID:25378844

  18. Our eight-year surgical experience in patients with pulmonary cyst hydatid

    PubMed Central

    Sayir, Fuat; Çobanoğlu, Ufuk; Şehitoğulları, Abidin; Bilici, Salim

    2012-01-01

    Background In this clinical retrospective study, we aimed to investigate our experinces and whether capitonnage is an effective therapy method for a pulmonary hydatid cyst or not. Material and methods A total of 412 patients with hydatid cyst operated in our hospitals were evaluated retrospectively between January 2003 and January 2011. In order to create a study group to compare the hydatid cyst operations with and without capitonnage in our department, 60 uncomplicated patients with the diagnosis of hydatid cyst who had undergone operations in the previous two years, were divided into two groups; while no capitonnage was performed and bronchial leaks were closed in one group, standard cystotomy plus the capitonnage operation was performed in the second group. All patients underwent surgery. Results In many patients, one or more symptoms were present on admission (339 cases, 82%). Perforated cysts/ nonperfore cysts rate was statistically significant (p = 0.001). There was no statistical difference between patients with or without capitonnage in terms of morbidity rates between patients with or without capitonnage (p = 0.041). However, morbidity rates were higher in the group without capitonnage. There were found statistically significant between capitonnage and non capitonnage groups in terms of length of hospital stay (p=0.001). Conclusions In the surgical treatment, resection should be avoided as much as possible. An average time of 3-5 minutes should be allocated and capitonnage should be performed. Capitonnage should always be performed in the surgical treatment of hydatid cyst. We believe that povidone iodine per se provides sufficient disinfection. PMID:22328950

  19. Giant Cardiac Hydatid Cyst in Children: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Fiengo, Leslie; Bucci, Federico; Giannotti, Domenico; Patrizi, Gregorio; Redler, Adriano; Kucukaksu, Denis Suha

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac echinococcus is a rare affliction of the heart caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. Primary echinococcosis of the heart represents 0.5–2% of all hydatid disease cases in endemic regions. It evolves slowly, explaining its rarity in children. We report the case of a 11-year-old child affected by a giant cardiac cyst of the left ventricle (LV). The patient underwent cardiac surgery and medical treatment. A retrospective review of the current literature was realized. We found 18 cases: the mean age was 11-years old. Nine cysts were localized in the LV, four in the interventricular septum, three in the right ventricle, and two in the right atrium. All underwent surgery except six patients. Routine echocardiographic screening may be useful in endemic regions where infestation is common. Cardiac echinococcus should be diagnosed in the early and uncomplicated stages and be removed surgically even in asymptomatic patients. PMID:25249763

  20. Coinfection of Pulmonary Hydatid Cyst and Aspergilloma: Case Report and Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Aliyali, Masoud; Badali, Hamid; Shokohi, Tahereh; Moazeni, Maryam; Nosrati, Anahita; Godazandeh, Gholamali; Dolatabadi, Somayeh; Nabili, Mojtaba

    2016-04-01

    Aspergilloma infection consists of a mass of fungal hyphae, inflammatory cells, fibrin, mucus, and tissue debris and can colonize lung cavities due to underlying diseases such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, bronchiectasis, cavitary lung cancer, neoplasms, ankylosing spondylitis, bronchial cysts, and pulmonary infarction. Here we report coinfection of pulmonary hydatid cyst and aspergilloma in a 34-year-old female who had had history of minor thalassemia and suffered from chest pain, dyspnea, non-productive cough for at least five months, and hemoptysis for 20 days. Radiographic sign showed a large cavitary lesion (5 × 6 × 6 cm) involving left lower lobe (LLL). Dichotomous septate hyphae were observed in bronchoalveolar lavage and biopsy specimens from LLL. The patient subsequently improved after combined anti-helminth therapies with albendazole (400 mg/bd) and lobectomy. According to morphological and molecular characterization, Aspergillus niger was confirmed. In vitro antifungal susceptibility tests revealed that the MIC values for the antifungals used in this case in increasing order were posaconazole (0.125 µg/ml), itraconazole and voriconazole (0.5 µg/ml), and amphotericin B (1 µg/ml). The minimum effective concentration for caspofungin was 0.125 µg/ml. Subsequently, we systematically reviewed 22 confirmed cases of pulmonary hydatid cyst and aspergilloma during a period of 19 years (1995-2014) and discussed the epidemiology, clinical features, and treatment of this disease.

  1. Evaluation of two ELISA and two indirect hemagglutination tests for serodiagnosis of pulmonary hydatid disease.

    PubMed

    Eris, Fatma Nur; Akisu, Ciler; Aksoy, Umit

    2009-12-01

    To establish a definite diagnosis for pulmonary hydatid disease, combination of radiology and serology is useful. In this study, 19 preoperative sera from patients with surgically confirmed pulmonary hydatidosis, 40 sera from patients with other parasitosis and pulmonary diseases, and 20 sera from healthy donors were evaluated using 4 different serological tests, i.e., the commercial ELISA (ELISA-kit) test, the ELISA (ELISA-lab) test prepared in our laboratory, the commercial indirect hemagglutination assay kit (IHA-kit) test, and the IHA test using sensitized sheep red blood cells with tannic acid (IHA-TA). The ELISA-kit was the most sensitive (84.2%) and the most specific test (100.0%). The ELISA-kit also demonstrated the highest positive (100.0%) and negative (95.2%) predictive values. The sensitivity of the ELISA-lab test, that we prepared, was found to be 73.6%, whereas the IHA-kit test and the IHA-TA test were found to be 73.6% and 68.4%, respectively. The specificity of these tests was 96.6%, 98.3%, and 83.3%, respectively. When all 4 tests were assessed together, it was found that the sensitivity had risen to 94.7%. When the ELISA-kit was assessed with the IHA-kit and IHA-TA together, it was found that the sensitivity was 89.5% and 84.2%, respectively. Likewise, the combination of the ELISA-lab and IHA-kit or IHA-TA allowed us to achieve a sensitivity of 84.2% in cases of pulmonary echinococcosis. In conclusion, the diagnosis would be imminent if least 2 tests were applied together.

  2. Recurrent pulmonary embolism due to hydatid disease of heart. Study of 3 cases, one with intermittent tricuspid valve obstruction (atrial pseudomyxoma).

    PubMed Central

    Gilsanz, V; Campo, C; Cue, R; Estella, J; Estrada, R V; Perez-oteiza, C; Rabago, G; Rebollar, J L; Zarco, P

    1977-01-01

    Three cases of pulmonary hypertension caused by hydatid emboli from the right side of the heart are described; cardiac catheterisation was performed in 2. One case was confirmed at operation and 2 at necropsy. The pulmonary emboli were caused by hydatid vesicles in all 3 cases and in none was there pulmonary thrombosis; free scolices were found in the pulmonary alveoli in 2. In 1 patient with repeated syncopal attacks there was a pedunculated cyst in the right atrium which was though to have intermittently obstructed the tricuspid valve. Gamma radiography, angiocardiography, and necropsy suggested a mechanical cause for the pulmonary hypertenion with no vasoconstrictive element. The surgical patient was alive and well 18 months later. Images PMID:861098

  3. Effect of octenidine dihydrochloride on viability of protoscoleces in hepatic and pulmonary hydatid diseases.

    PubMed

    Ciftci, Ihsan Hakki; Esme, Hidir; Sahin, Dursun Ali; Solak, Okan; Sezer, Murat; Dilek, Osman Nuri

    2007-06-01

    Use of effective scolicidal agents during puncture, aspiration or injection of a scolicidal agent and reaspiration (PAIR) and surgery for hydatid cysts are essential to reduce the recurrence rate. In this in vitro study, we tried to determine the scolicidal property of a new agent, octenidine dihydrochloride, and of various agents in different concentrations and exposure times. Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces were obtained from six patients with liver (n=3) and lung (n=3) hydatid cysts. Various concentrations of octenidine dihydrochloride (0.1%, 0.01% and 0.001% diluted form), povidone iodine (10%, 1% and 0.1% diluted) and 20% saline were used in this study. Viability of protoscoleces was determined with dye-uptake (0.1% eosin) and flame cell activity. Octenidine dihydrochloride 0.1% had strong scolicidal effect in 15 min and octenidine dihydrochloride 0.01% in 30 min. Sixty percent of protoscoleces lost viability at 5 min with octenidine dihydrochloride 0.1%. Viability ratio decreased to 20% at 10 min, and all of them died at 15 min. Povidone iodine 10% and 1% had strong scolicidal effects after 15- and 30 min of exposure, respectively. Saline 20% killed all the protoscoleces in 30-min exposure. Because of the rapid and strong scolocidal effectiveness of octenidine dihydrochloride on protoscoleces, it may be used as a scolocidal agent during both perioperative and in the PAIR method.

  4. Effect of octenidine dihydrochloride on viability of protoscoleces in hepatic and pulmonary hydatid diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Ciftci, Ihsan Hakki; Esme, Hidir; Sahin, Dursun Ali; Solak, Okan; Sezer, Murat; Dilek, Osman Nuri

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Use of effective scolicidal agents during puncture, aspiration or injection of a scolicidal agent and reaspiration (PAIR) and surgery for hydatid cysts are essential to reduce the recurrence rate. In this in vitro study, we tried to determine the scolicidal property of a new agent, octenidine dihydrochloride, and of various agents in different concentrations and exposure times. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces were obtained from six patients with liver (n=3) and lung (n=3) hydatid cysts. Various concentrations of octenidine dihydrochloride (0.1%, 0.01% and 0.001% diluted form), povidone iodine (10%, 1% and 0.1% diluted) and 20% saline were used in this study. Viability of protoscoleces was determined with dye-uptake (0.1% eosin) and flame cell activity. RESULTS: Octenidine dihydrochloride 0.1% had strong scolicidal effect in 15 min and octenidine dihydrochloride 0.01% in 30 min. Sixty percent of protoscoleces lost viability at 5 min with octenidine dihydrochloride 0.1%. Viability ratio decreased to 20% at 10 min, and all of them died at 15 min. Povidone iodine 10% and 1% had strong scolicidal effects after 15- and 30 min of exposure, respectively. Saline 20% killed all the protoscoleces in 30-min exposure. CONCLUSION: Because of the rapid and strong scolocidal effectiveness of octenidine dihydrochloride on protoscoleces, it may be used as a scolocidal agent during both perioperative and in the PAIR method. PMID:17595938

  5. Giant primary adrenal hydatid cyst presenting with arterial hypertension: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction A primary hydatid cyst of the adrenal gland is still an exceptional localization. The adrenal gland is an uncommon site even in Morocco, where echinococcal disease is endemic. Case presentation We report the case of a 64-year-old Moroccan man who presented with the unusual symptom of arterial hypertension associated with left flank pain. Computed tomography showed a cystic mass of his left adrenal gland with daughter cysts filing the lesion (Type III). Despite his negative serology tests, the diagnosis of a hydatid cyst was confirmed on surgical examination. Our patient underwent surgical excision of his left adrenal gland with normalization of blood pressure. No recurrence has occurred after 36 months of follow-up. Conclusion There are two remarkable characteristics of this case report; the first is the unusual location of the cyst, the second is the association of an adrenal hydatid cyst with arterial hypertension, which has rarely been reported in the literature. PMID:22297078

  6. Percutaneous nephroscopic management of an isolated giant renal hydatid cyst guided by single-incision laparoscopy using conventional instruments: the Santosh-PGI technique.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santosh; Choudhary, Gautam R; Pushkarna, Arawat; Najjapa, Bhuvnesh; Ht, Vatasla

    2013-11-01

    Isolated renal hydatid rarely presents, but when it does occur, it requires surgical treatment. We report our experience with a novel technique involving percutaneous management of a giant renal hydatid cyst with single-incision laparoscopic assistance. First we performed retrograde ureteropyelogram, which did not show any communication between the cyst and the calyceal. A Veress needle was used for pneumoperitoneum. Three conventional laparoscopic trocars used. Under laparoscopic guidance, we punctured the cyst. The scolicidal solution used was 10% povidone-iodine. The endocyst was removed under vision with grasping forceps through the nephroscope. A Portex drain was placed into the cyst cavity. Percutaneous aspiration and instillation of scolicidal agents followed by re-aspiration have been previously reported. This is an attractive procedure because of its acceptable success rates and reduced morbidity. In our case, simple aspiration of the cyst would not have been successful because the cyst was full of daughter cysts. Also, a blind percutaneous puncture of the cyst and dilatation could have perforated the colon or the mesocolon, which is often wrapped over the surface of such giant cysts thereby making laparoscopic guidance and mobilization of the colon imperative. We devised this unique treatment method for this patient involving three conventional ports at a single umbilical site. We believe this is the first reported case of its kind in the world. Not only this technique is minimally invasive, it is also cost-effective, as only conventional laparoscopic ports and instruments are used during the procedure. © 2013 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Giant high-pressure pulmonary artery aneurysm in an elderly patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Morais, Sandra A; Oliveira, Hugo M; de Almeida, José R; Eiras, Eduardo; Silva, Ana Catarina; Gavina, Cristina

    2016-03-01

    The authors report the case of a 74-year-old man, with a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), GOLD grade 3, stable for the past two decades, who was admitted to our center with severe right heart failure. The chest radiograph showed moderate heart enlargement mainly of the right atrium and pulmonary artery, similar to previous chest radiographs in the previous 20 years. The transthoracic echocardiogram showed a pulmonary artery aneurysm (PAA), dilatation of the right chambers with pulmonary artery systolic pressure of 52 mmHg, and preserved right ventricular systolic function. A thoracic computed tomography scan confirmed the presence of a giant PAA 72 mm in diameter. The patient was started on high-dose diuretics, with significant clinical improvement. After optimization of medical therapy right heart catheterization was carried out with the patient in optimal clinical condition, which revealed mild precapillary pulmonary hypertension with a mean pulmonary artery pressure of 26 mmHg. On the basis of the clinical and imaging findings a stable, giant, high-pressure, PAA was diagnosed secondary to pulmonary hypertension induced by COPD, with a 20-year follow-up without need for surgical repair, which helped in our decision to maintain medical surveillance. The recent onset of heart failure is explained by the unfavorable evolution of COPD. This case may change the attitude expressed in previous studies favoring the choice of an invasive approach to treat giant high-pressure PAAs, instead supporting the maintenance of medical treatment.

  8. Giant, Dissecting, High-Pressure Pulmonary Artery Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Smalcelj, Anton; Brida, Vojtjeh; Samarzija, Miroslav; Matana, Ante; Margetic, Eduard; Drinkovic, Niksa

    2005-01-01

    We report the rare subchronic clinical course of a giant, dissecting pulmonary artery aneurysm in an oligosymptomatic middle-aged woman who had idiopathic pulmonary hypertension. Diagnosis was simple with the use of echocardiography and multislice computed tomography. Conversely, deciding on the treatment was difficult, because prominent surgeons declined to perform surgical repair of the aneurysm and recommended heart–lung transplantation. Therefore, we were forced to treat our patient medically. She survived for 1 year, including 8 months of treatment with sildenafil, and then died suddenly while awaiting transplantation. Our patient, who had a dissecting, high-pressure pulmonary artery aneurysm, had an unexpectedly stable and uneventful clinical course for 1 year, which, under more favorable circumstances, might have provided enough time for heart–lung transplantation to be performed. PMID:16429912

  9. Primary mesenteric hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, Jitendra Kumar; Gupta, Rajni; Mohanti, Satyabrot; Kumar, Surender

    2012-07-09

    Hydatid disease mostly caused by Echinococcus granulosus is a common parasitic infestation of the liver. Most common sites are liver (70%) and lungs (25%). Intraperitoneal hydatid cyst is found in 13% and it is usually secondary to rupture of primary hepatic cyst. Primary intraperitoeal hydatid cyst is rare (2%). Primary hydatid cyst in mesentery is very rare. In this article, the author presents a case of primary mesenteric hydatid cyst with chronic pain in lower abdomen.

  10. Primary mesenteric hydatid cyst

    PubMed Central

    Kushwaha, Jitendra Kumar; Gupta, Rajni; Mohanti, Satyabrot; Kumar, Surender

    2012-01-01

    Hydatid disease mostly caused by Echinococcus granulosus is a common parasitic infestation of the liver. Most common sites are liver (70%) and lungs (25%). Intraperitoneal hydatid cyst is found in 13% and it is usually secondary to rupture of primary hepatic cyst. Primary intraperitoeal hydatid cyst is rare (2%). Primary hydatid cyst in mesentery is very rare. In this article, the author presents a case of primary mesenteric hydatid cyst with chronic pain in lower abdomen. PMID:22778458

  11. The use of an electrothermal bipolar tissue sealing system in the management of lung hydatid disease.

    PubMed

    Santini, Mario; Fiorelli, Alfonso; Milione, Roberta; Vicidomini, Giovanni; Accardo, Marina

    2014-10-01

    Surgery is the treatment of choice for management of pulmonary hydatid cysts. Total pericystectomy provided the best results concerning the recurrence of the disease, but haemorrhagia and air leak during dissection of the pericystic space are the main disadvantages of such a method. To avoid these complications, we proposed the use of an electrothermal bipolar tissue sealing system. After the extraction of the hydatid cyst, a small space is created between the pericyst and normal lung, and the separation between the two zones is joined using the electrothermal bipolar tissue sealing system. This procedure reduces the risk of bleeding and of air leaks because the bronchi and the vessels encountered during dissection are sealed by the electrothermal bipolar tissue sealing system. When the pericystic membrane (inflammatory host reaction) is intimately adherent to the lung, total pericystectomy demands greater technical training because the bronchovascular axes of the healthy segments are situated in the pericyst. In such cases, the electrothermal bipolar tissue sealing system allowed creation of an appropriate plane through the parenchyma close to the pericyst, minimizing the normal lung exposed to resection as much as possible and reducing the resulting bleeding and air leak. This procedure was successfully applied in 4 consecutive patients each with a giant hydatid cyst.

  12. Hydatid disease of the chest

    PubMed Central

    Xanthakis, D.; Efthimiadis, M.; Papadakis, G.; Primikirios, N.; Chassapakis, G.; Roussaki, A.; Veranis, N.; Akrivakis, A.; Aligizakis, C. J.

    1972-01-01

    Ninety-one cases of hydatid disease of the chest are reported. Eighty-eight were involving the lung, two the chest wall, and one the mediastinum. All the patients were treated surgically. Conservative operations (simple removal of the parasite and closure of the remaining cavity) were performed in 78 patients, 37 unruptured and 41 ruptured cysts. Late postoperative complications occurred in eleven. In 10 patients, recurrent haemoptysis was the main symptom due to residual cavity in four, bronchiectatic changes in two, and unknown aetiology in four. In one patient, recurrence of multiple cysts occurred in the affected lobe. Radical operations were carried out in 10 patients, including segmental resection in four and lobectomy in six. Conservative operations were performed in all cases of unruptured cysts, with the exception of a giant cyst in which resection was the operation of choice. For ruptured cysts with mild infection conservative operation was also performed. Resection was necessary only in patients with ruptured cysts with suppuration, bronchiectatic changes, and giant cysts replacing a whole lobe. There was no mortality. We believe that conservative operation is the treatment of choice for hydatid disease of the lung. Indications for resection are very limited. Images

  13. Primary intradural extramedullary hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Kahilogullari, Gokmen; Tuna, Hakan; Aydin, Zafer; Colpan, Efkan; Egemen, Nihat

    2005-04-01

    Spinal hydatid cysts account for 1% of all cases of hydatid disease; primary intradural hydatid cysts are uncommon. We present a case of pathologically confirmed intradural spinal cyst hydatid in an otherwise healthy patient who showed no other evidence of systemic hydatid cyst disease. The patient presented with back pain, paraparesis, and weakness. An intradural extramedullary cystic lesion was identified with magnetic resonance imaging and was shown to be a hydatid cyst by histopathologic examination after surgical removal. To our knowledge, this is the 25th case of hydatid cyst at an intradural extramedullary location reported in the literature.

  14. Giant aorto-pulmonary collaterals in pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect: long-term survival in unoperated adults.

    PubMed

    Spaziani, Gaia; Favilli, Silvia; Fonda, Claudio; Chiappa, Enrico

    2013-08-01

    The association of pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect (PA/VSD) can be considered the most severe form of tetralogy of Fallot. The main feature of this congenital heart disease is represented by discontinuity between the right ventricle and pulmonary trunk or its branches; the anatomy of central pulmonary arteries is often abnormal, consequently the type and the amount of sources of pulmonary blood flow are variable. Due to evolution in surgical techniques, definitive correction is now also considered in more complex cases. A small rate of unoperated patients with PA/VSD can survive until adulthood and the arterial blood supply to the lungs, provided by major aorto-pulmonary collateral arteries (MAPCAs), is one of the main determinants of survival. We report two unoperated cases of PA/VSD and MAPCAs with long-term survival. Giant MAPCAs can occasionally be found by chest radiography in adults with unrepaired PA/VSD. Moreover, non-invasive assessment of the pulmonary arterial bed with computer tomography or MRI is helpful in these patients during follow-up. Finally, we discuss the use of oral anticoagulants and/or 5-phosphodiesterase inhibitors in these patients.

  15. Giant Pulmonary Artery Aneurysm Secondary To Patent Ductus Arteriosus: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bezgin, Tahir; Demircan, Hacer C; Kaymaz, Cihangir

    2015-01-01

    Aneurysms involving the main pulmonary artery and its branches are rare. Clinical experience is limited, and their management is not well established. We present the case of a 35-year-old male patient with dyspnea and hemoptysis in whom subsequent imaging studies revealed a giant pulmonary artery aneurysm associated with an uncorrected patent ductus arteriosus and Eisenmenger’s syndrome. We chose to treat the patient conservatively with medical management due to the development of Eisenmenger’s physiology while waiting for heart-lung transplantation. PMID:25545802

  16. Cardiac Cavernous Hemangioma Coexisting With Pulmonary Cavernous Hemangiomas and Giant Hepatic Hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunping; Chen, Hao; Sun, Lin; Mei, Yunqing

    2017-02-01

    We describe a case of cardiac cavernous hemangioma with coexisting pulmonary cavernous hemangiomas and hepatic hemangioma. A 35-year-old woman who had previously received a living donor liver transplant to cure giant hepatic hemangioma was seen because of chest pain. A cardiac neoplasm and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected. The tumor was surgically removed, and biopsy specimens were taken from the lung nodules. Histopathologic examination confirmed that both lesions were cavernous hemangiomas. The patient was discharged without adverse events postoperatively. Cardiac hemangioma is an extremely rare entity; the present case is unique for its multiorgan involvement. Suspicion of this entity should be aroused if the imaging manifestation suggests a vascular nature.

  17. Incidental isolated pancreatic hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Kısaoğlu, Abdullah; Özoğul, Bünyami; Atamanalp, Sabri Selçuk; Pirimoğlu, Berhan; Aydınlı, Bülent; Korkut, Ercan

    2015-03-01

    Isolated pancreatic hydatid cysts are a rare parasitic disease even in endemic areas. It is difficult to discriminate primary pancreatic hydatid cysts from other cystic and solid lesions of the pancreas. This is a case report of an incidental isolated pancreatic hydatid cyst. A heterogeneous cystic lesion in the body of the pancreas was identified on magnetic resonance imaging of a patient previously diagnosed patient with cholelithiasis, and because of the malignant possibility of the lesion, splenectomy with distal pancreatectomy and cholecystectomy was performed. The histopathologic diagnosis was reported as a hydatid cyst. Pancreatic hydatid cysts should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic pseudocysts and cystic malignancies.

  18. Giant, dissecting, high-pressure pulmonary artery aneurysm: case report of a 1-year natural course.

    PubMed

    Smalcelj, Anton; Brida, Vojtjeh; Samarzija, Miroslav; Matana, Ante; Margetic, Eduard; Drinkovic, Niksa

    2005-01-01

    We report the rare subchronic clinical course of a giant, dissecting pulmonary artery aneurysm in an oligosymptomatic middle-aged woman who had idiopathic pulmonary hypertension. Diagnosis was simple with the use of echocardiography and multislice computed tomography. Conversely, deciding on the treatment was difficult, because prominent surgeons declined to perform surgical repair of the aneurysm and recommended heart-lung transplantation. Therefore, we were forced to treat our patient medically. She survived for 1 year, including 8 months of treatment with sildenafil, and then died suddenly while awaiting transplantation. Our patient, who had a dissecting, high-pressure pulmonary artery aneurysm, had an unexpectedly stable and uneventful clinical course for 1 year, which, under more favorable circumstances, might have provided enough time for heart-lung transplantation to be performed.

  19. Surgical treatment of hydatid cysts of the heart: a report of 3 cases and a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Salih, Orhan Kemal; Çelik, Şekip Kazim; Topcuoğlu, Mehmet Şah; Kisacikoğlu, Bülent; Tokcan, Acar

    1998-01-01

    Because the clinical signs and symptoms of cardiac hydatid cyst are nonspecific and highly variable, this disease may be difficult to diagnose. In this report, the cases of 3 patients with cardiac hydatid cysts located in the subepicardium are presented. In 2 of the patients the diagnosis was erroneous, and they were operated on for pulmonary hydatid cyst and acute abdomen in provincial hospitals before transfer to our institution. One patient who had an intrapericardially ruptured cardiac hydatid cyst presented with the clinical features of an acute abdomen. A patient with 4 subepicardial cysts had undergone surgery for a cardiac hydatid cyst 10 years before presenting at our hospital. The perforated cyst in this patient was excised while the heart was beating; the 2 other patients were operated on with extracorporeal circulation. The epidemiologic and pathologic features, clinical presentation, complications, diagnostic methods and treatment of cardiac hydatid cyst are discussed in detail in the light of pertinent literature. PMID:9711167

  20. Thrombosis secondary to acute hypernatraemia after liver hydatid cyst surgery.

    PubMed

    Conde, María Pilar Sánchez; Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel Palomero; López, José María Rodríguez; González-Porras, José Ramón

    2015-09-01

    Hypernatraemia after hypertonic saline irrigation of a hepatitic hydatid cyst is a rare but serious complication. Neurological symptoms and signs are frequently seen in hypernatraemia. However, other symptoms, such as fever, acute pulmonary oedema, congestive cardiac failure and muscular alterations, may appear. It has recently been suggested that hypernatraemia increases the risk of thrombosis.We present the first report of an adult patient who survived a severe acute iatrogenic hypernatraemia and hyper-coagulability resulting from hypertonic saline irrigation of intra-abdominal hydatid cysts.

  1. Cystic pulmonary hydatidosis

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Malay; Pathania, Rajnish; Jhobta, Anupam; Thakur, Babu Ram; Chopra, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by the larval stages of the cestode Echinococcus granulosus. Worldwide, pulmonary hydatid cyst is a significant problem medically, socially, and economically. Surgery is the definitive therapy of pulmonary hydatidosis. Benzimidazoles may be considered in patients with a surgical contraindication. This review will focus on pathogenesis, lifecycle, clinical features, and management of pulmonary hydatid disease. PMID:27051107

  2. Giant cell arteritis and polymyalgia rheumatica as first manifestation of typical pulmonary carcinoid tumor.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, T; Vincent, M B

    2015-12-23

    Giant cell arteritis (GCA), a systemic vasculitis of unknown origin, may appear rarely as a paraneoplastic syndrome. Cases secondary to pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors have not been reported. A 75-year-old female developed prednisone-responsive GCA/polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) shortly followed by syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. An 8 mm carcinoid lung tumor with positron emission tomography normal uptake was found. After a thoracoscopic tumor resection the patient experienced complete clinical and laboratory remission. This is the first report of GCA with PMR in the context of carcinoid lung tumor. It emphasizes the role of paraneoplastic vasculitis as a possible cause of GCA.

  3. [Rupture of a chronic dissecting giant aneurysm into the pulmonary artery; report of a case].

    PubMed

    Gon, Shigeyoshi; Shioguchi, Soichi; Cho, Mamiko; Chiba, Tomoshi; Tanaka, Koyu; Hata, Ichikatsu; Irie, Yoshihito; Imazeki, Takao

    2006-08-01

    Aortopulmonary fistula is an extremely rare complication of aortic dissection. We report a case of a chronic dissecting giant aneurysm with an aortopulmonary fistula. A 78-year-old woman experienced sudden onset chest pain and oppression. Chest X-ray showed ascending aortic and left ventricular enlargement and pulmonary congestion. Computed tomography (CT) confirmed the 100 mm ascending aortic aneurysm with dissection and aortopulmonary fistula. Operative repair was performed under profound hypothermic circulatory arrest with selective cerebral perfusion. The proximal and distal end were obliterated using a gelatin-resorcin-formaldehyde tissue glue and reinforced with a Teflon felt circumferential strip. The ascending aorta was replaced by a 30 mm coated Dacron vascular graft and the aortopulmonary fistula was closed with pledgeted vertical mattress suture. Postoperative CT showed a normally functioning vascular implant without any sign of aortopulmonary shunt or pulmonary artery stenosis.

  4. Seronegative, complicated hydatid cyst of the lung: A case report.

    PubMed

    Engström, Eva Letty Susanne; Salih, Goran Nadir; Wiese, Lothar

    2017-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an important helminthic zoonotic disease that commonly affects the liver and lungs. Imaging methods and serology establish the diagnosis in most cases. Chest x-ray can diagnose uncomplicated pulmonary hydatid cysts, whereas superinfection and/or rupture of the hydatid cyst (complicated cysts) may change the radiographic appearance and lead to delayed diagnosis and treatment. We report the case of a patient with hemoptysis and chest pain, where computer tomography scan of the lung suggested a large, ruptured hydatid cyst. However, serological tests with indirect hemagglutination (IHA)for Echinococcus granulosus antibodies were negative, and there was massive growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae in sputum. Based on this, we concluded that the patient had a bacterial lung abscess. The diagnosis of CE was only made after surgical removal of the cyst followed by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction.

  5. Disappearance of giant cells and presence of newly formed bone in the pulmonary metastasis of a sacral giant-cell tumor following denosumab treatment: A case report.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Tetsuro; Kawashima, Hiroyuki; Ogose, Akira; Sasaki, Taro; Hotta, Tetsuo; Inagawa, Shoichi; Umezu, Hajime; Endo, Naoto

    2016-01-01

    A giant-cell tumor of the bone (GCTB) is a benign but locally aggressive bone tumor. Recently, the receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK) ligand inhibitor, denosumab, has demonstrated activity against giant-cell tumors. The current study reports a case of a sacral GCTB with lung metastasis. A 19-year-old male patient presented with right buttock pain and right lower leg pain, and a sacral GCTB was diagnosed based on the histological analysis of a biopsy specimen. The patient was successfully treated with neoadjuvant denosumab therapy, which allowed curettage. In addition, the pulmonary nodule reduced in size following denosumab administration, and surgical resection was performed. Since the operation, the patient has been managed with the continued use of denosumab with no sign of recurrence. Microscopic findings from the surgical specimen following denosumab treatment revealed that the giant cells had disappeared and woven bone had formed. The specimen from the pulmonary nodule exhibited similar findings to the surgical specimen. It was reported that denosumab treatment was able to reduce the number of giant cells and RANK-positive stromal cells, and cause the formation of new bone in the primary lesion. The present study reports the first case to demonstrate the efficiency of denosumab in treating pulmonary metastasis of GCTB.

  6. Unusually located primary hydatid cysts

    PubMed Central

    Aksakal, Nihat; Kement, Metin; Okkabaz, Nuri; Altuntaş, Yunus Emre; Öncel, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The hydatid disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus is an endemic parasitic disease affecting several Mediterranean countries. Echinococcal cysts are mostly located in the liver and the lung, but the disease can be detected anywhere in the body. In this study, we present uncommon extrahepatic localizations of primary hydatid disease. Patients who were operated on for hydatid disease or cystic lesions, which were later diagnosed as hydatid disease, between 2004 and 2010 were retrieved retrospectively. Patients with lesions localized outside the liver and the lung were enrolled in the study. Eight patients with extrahepatic primary hydatid disease were treated surgically at our clinic. The cysts were located in the scapular region, spleen, pancreas, lumbosacral region and gluteal muscle. Surgical techniques were partial or total cystectomy with or without tube drainage. Splenectomy was performed for splenic hydatid disease and partial pericystectomy, Roux-en-Y cystojejunostomy, cholecystectomy and T-tube drainage for pancreatic hydatid disease. There were no complications or mortality in the postoperative period. Hydatid cyst should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic lesions, especially in endemic areas. Surgical technique should be planned according to the location of the cyst. PMID:27436938

  7. Albendazole in the treatment of pulmonary echinococcosis.

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, P; Wali, J P

    1991-01-01

    Ten patients with pulmonary hydatid disease diagnosed on the basis of a chest radiograph and a positive response to the indirect haemagglutination test for hydatid disease were treated with albendazole 10 mg/kg/day for eight weeks. None of the 10 patients showed any radiological or serological improvement with this treatment regimen. Albendazole in these doses appears to have little role in the treatment of pulmonary hydatid disease. PMID:1926033

  8. Transformation of a Ruptured Giant Pulmonary Artery Aneurysm into an Air Cavity After Transcatheter Embolization in a Behcet's Patient

    SciTech Connect

    Cil, Barbaros E. Turkbey, Baris; Canyigit, Murat; Kumbasar, Ozlem O.; Celik, Gokhan; Demirkazik, Figen B.

    2006-02-15

    Pulmonary artery aneurysms due to Behcet's disease are mainly seen in young males and very rarely in females. To our knowledge there are only 10 cases reported in the related literature. Emergent transcatheter embolization was performed in a female patient with a known history of Behcet's disease in whom massive hemoptysis developed because of rupture of a giant pulmonary artery aneurysm. At 6-month follow-up, transformation of the aneurysm sac into an air cavity was detected. To our knowledge, such a transformation has never been reported in the literature before. Embolization of the pulmonary artery aneurysm and the mechanism of cavity transformation are reviewed and discussed.

  9. Giant pulmonary teratoma with huge splenic lymphangiomatosis: a very rare case.

    PubMed

    Alsubaie, Hemail M; Alsubaie, Khaled M; Mahfouz, Mohammed Eid

    2017-09-01

    Teratomas are tumors composed of tissues derived from more than one germ cell line. They manifested with a great variety of clinical and radiological features. We report a case of a giant left hemithorax teratoma in a female with huge spleen tumor and review the relevant literature. A 38-year-old female with progressively aggravating dyspnea at rest from a mild trauma. Absent breath sounds on the left side. There was splenomegaly. Computed tomography scan revealed a huge mass (20 × 15 × 18 cm), containing elements of heterogeneous density in the left hemithorax. The spleen tumor was occupying most of the spleen without any other abdominal manifestations. The patient underwent left thoracotomy and laparoscopic splenectomy. Histopathological examination revealed a benign mature teratoma and cystic lymphangiomatosis of the spleen. To the best of our knowledge and after reviewing the available literature this is the first case of huge mature pulmonary teratoma with large cystic spleen lymphangiomatosis.

  10. GIANT CELL TUMOR IN THE PROXIMAL PHALANX WITH PULMONARY METASTASIS: CASE REPORT AND LITERATURE REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    de Medeiros, Frederico Carvalho; de Medeiros, Fernando Carvalho; de Campos Carvalho Lopes, Izabella; de Medeiros, Guilherme Carvalho; de Medeiros, Eduardo Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    This is a case report on a giant cell tumor (GCT) in the proximal phalanx of the third finger of the left hand, with pulmonary metastasis. The patient presented pain in the finger without any previous history of trauma. Clinical examination, radiographic imaging and magnetic resonance imaging were carried out. A histological evaluation was carried out from an incisional biopsy, taking the hypothesis of GCT. The patient underwent amputation of the finger and the diagnosis was confirmed by means of microscopy on the specimen. The patient was followed up because of the risk of lung metastasis, which was shown by radiographic examination and computed tomography on the chest, and thoracotomy was performed. Since then, there has been an improvement in the symptoms that had been reported preoperatively, and no local recurrence or new metastasis has been found. PMID:27027012

  11. Unusual Location of Hydatid Cysts: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Yagmur, Yusuf; Akbulut, Sami

    2012-01-01

    Hydatid cysts develop most frequently in the liver and lungs, but they are occasionally found in other organs. Hydatid cysts in the axillary space are an extremely rare event in areas where the disease is endemic, and are still common in many countries, including Turkey. A 73-year-old man presented to our clinic with a painful axillary mass. Thoracoabdominal computed tomography revealed multilocular cystic masses localized in the left axillary space, with minimal invasion of the peripheral soft tissue and no pulmonary or hepatic involvement. An echinococcal indirect hemagglutination test was negative. The masses were dissected through their stalks and removed completely. Macroscopic and microscopic examination of the specimens confirmed hydatid cysts. This case report demonstrates that hydatid cysts should be considered as a possible cause for palpable lesions in the axillary region or chest wall, especially in endemic locations. PMID:23101997

  12. Cerebral hydatid disease in Britain

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Milne; Bickerstaff, Edwin R.; Hamilton, J. G.

    1975-01-01

    Two cases of cerebral hydatid disease are described. This condition, acquired by Britons in Britain, is extremely rare as only two similar cases have been reported before. Details of clinical presentation, investigation and treatment are described. Images PMID:1206419

  13. Atypical Localizations of Hydatid Disease: Experience from a Single Institute

    PubMed Central

    Mushtaque, Majid; Mir, Mohammad F; Malik, Ajaz A; Arif, Sajad H; Khanday, Samina A; Dar, Rayees A

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The hydatid disease most often involves the liver and the lungs. The disease can involve any part of the body except the hair, teeth and nails. Primary extrahepatico-pulmonary hydatid cysts are rare and only a few sporadic cases have been reported. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and forty-four patients with hydatid cysts managed surgically from January 2005 to December 2009 were evaluated retrospectively. Fourteen (5.7%) patients had isolated involvement of the atypical sites, while six (2.4%) also had a primary involvement of liver. Results: The cysts were present in gall bladder (0.4%), peritoneum (1.6%), spleen (1.6%), ovary (0.4%), subcutaneous (0.8%), seminal vesicle (0.4%), spinal (0.4%), pancreas (0.4%), kidney (0.4%), mediastinal (0.4%), muscle (0.4%), and brain (0.8%). Discussion and Conclusions: Involvement of sites other than liver and lungs by hydatid disease is rare. Symptoms are related to size, location or possible complication of the cyst. It should be strongly suspected in differential diagnosis of all abdominal cysts especially in an endemic area. Proper surgical and medical management to avoid any recurrences, and a regular follow-up, are of utmost importance to detect any late complications such as local recurrence of the disease and development of hydatidosis at the primary sites. PMID:24027383

  14. Coexistence of liver hydatid cyst and brucellosis in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Timur, Ozge Metin; Tanır, Gönül; Afşarlar, Cağatay Evrim; Bayhan, Gülsüm Iclal; Ozgüner, Ismet Faruk

    2013-01-01

    A 15-year-old girl, who was evaluated for arthralgia of knees, was diagnosed as having brucellosis by serum agglutination and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay tests. Physical examination of the patient revealed massive hepatomegaly. Abdominal ultrasonography and computerised tomography showed a single large cystic lesion of the liver. The echinococcus indirect haemagglutination was positive at a titre of 1/1280. A giant hydatid cyst was removed with surgical intervention; in addition, she was treated with albendazole and antibrucellosis drug combination with success. Here, an immunocompetent adolescent case with brucellosis and concomitant hydatid cyst disease was reported to emphasise that the coexistence of both entities are infrequent but may occur due to increased prevalence of the diseases.

  15. Congenital Giant Right Coronary Artery to Pulmonary Artery Fistula and Congenital Left Main Coronary Artery Atresia: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ya-Hui; Zou, Hai

    2016-02-01

    Both of congenital giant RCA, RCA to PA fistula, and CLMCA-A are one of exceedingly rare vascular abnormalities. We present the case of a 34-year-old man with multiple congenital coronary anomalies above, and a successful surgical intervention was proceeded for our patient.This is a case of a 34-year-old man presented with apical systolic murmur and exertional chest pain. Furthermore, a dilated left heart and abnormal pulmonary blood flow was observed in this patient. Coronary CTA and selective CAG showed a 15-mm diameter RCA with a fistula to pulmonary trunk and CLMCA-A. During cardiac surgery, the coronary abnormalities were confirmed and the outlet of the fistula was closed. After surgery, less chest pain, respiratory infection, and left heart failure were observed in this patient.This case illustrates that the surgery of closing the fistula between the giant RCA and pulmonary trunk could improve the symptoms and signs for this patient. It could be predicted that simplified operation could be a promising therapy for patient with giant RCA to PA fistula and CLMCA-A. Moreover, CABG should be taken full account of when myocardial ischemia was found in the blood-supply area of LAD.

  16. Hydatid cyst of the uterus.

    PubMed Central

    Başgül, A; Kavak, Z N; Gökaslan, H; Küllü, S

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hydatidosis is a common zoonosis that affects a large number of humans and animals, especially in poorly developed countries. The infesting parasite has four forms named Echinococcus granulosis, E. multilocularis, E. vogeli and E. oligarthrus (very rare in humans). The most frequently involved organs are liver followed by the lung. The involvement of the genital tract is rare and the occurrence in the uterus is an extreme rarity. We report a case of hydatid cyst in the uterus. CASE: A 70-year-old female with a history of hydatid cysts of the liver, was admitted to hospital after complaining of low abdominal pains. On physical and gynecological examinations, no pathological finding was detected. However, the uterus was significantly large for a postmenopausal patient. Transvaginal sonography (TS) revealed a cystic mass in the uterus with a size of 7 x 6 cm. After further examinations a subtotal hysterectomy was performed. Microscopic examination showed scolices of Echinococcus granulosis. CONCLUSION: Hydatid cysts in the genital tract are rare and the occurrence in the uterus is an extreme rarity. Differentiation between hydatid cyst and malignant disease of the related organ is difficult. To avoid misdiagnosis, a careful examination of pelvic masses should be carried out in endemic areas for detection of hydatid cysts. PMID:12530482

  17. Liver Hydatid Cyst Rupture Into the Peritoneal Cavity After Abdominal Trauma: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Mehmet; Akbulut, Sami; Kahraman, Aysegul; Yilmaz, Sezai

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the literature regarding the rupture of hydatid cysts into the abdominal cavity after trauma. We present both a new case of hydatid cyst rupture that occurred after blunt abdominal trauma and a literature review of studies published in the English language about hydatid cyst rupture after trauma; studies were accessed from PubMed, Google Scholar, EBSCO, EMBASE, and MEDLINE databases. We identified 22 articles published between 2000 and 2011 about hydatid cyst rupture after trauma. Of these, 5 articles were excluded because of insufficient data, duplication, or absence of intra-abdominal dissemination. The other 17 studies included 68 patients (38 males and 30 females) aged 8 to 76 years who had a ruptured hydatid cyst detected after trauma. The most common trauma included traffic accidents and falls. Despite optimal surgical and antihelmintic therapy, 7 patients developed recurrence. Complications included biliary fistula in 5 patients, incisional hernia in 2 patients, and gastrocutaneous fistula in 1 patient. Death occurred from intraoperative anaphylactic shock in 1 patient and gastrointestinal bleeding and pulmonary failure in 1 patient. Rupture of a hydatid cyst into the peritoneal cavity is rare and challenging for the surgeon. This condition is included in the differential diagnosis of the acute abdomen in endemic areas, especially in young patients. PMID:23113853

  18. Primary Sacral Hydatid Cyst Mimicking a Neurogenic Tumor in Chronic Low Back Pain: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Segura-Trepichio, Manuel; Montoza-Nuñez, Jose Manuel; Candela-Zaplana, David; Herrero-Santacruz, Josefa; Pla-Mingorance, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid disease is caused by infection of Echinococcus granulosus. Bone hydatid cyst presentation without hepatic affectation is infrequent and occurs in 0,5-2% of cases. This rare condition makes clinicians not always aware of the disease, and as a result, misdiagnosis of spinal echinococcosis is common. We present a case of a 48-year-old female patient with primary sacral hydatidosis. Chronic low back pain radiating to the left buttock was the only symptom. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested a neurogenic tumor versus giant cell tumor. Biopsy and pathological study revealed a hydatid cyst. Anthelmintic and surgical treatment was performed. At 12 months after surgery, the patient is free of recurrence. In patients with chronic low back pain and a MR suggestive of neurogenic tumor, spinal hydatid cyst should be considered in the differential diagnosis. It is recommended the assistance of an anesthesiologist during biopsy to avoid an anaphylactic shock. PMID:28163523

  19. Primary Sacral Hydatid Cyst Mimicking a Neurogenic Tumor in Chronic Low Back Pain: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Segura-Trepichio, Manuel; Montoza-Nuñez, Jose Manuel; Candela-Zaplana, David; Herrero-Santacruz, Josefa; Pla-Mingorance, Fernando

    2016-12-01

    Hydatid disease is caused by infection of Echinococcus granulosus. Bone hydatid cyst presentation without hepatic affectation is infrequent and occurs in 0,5-2% of cases. This rare condition makes clinicians not always aware of the disease, and as a result, misdiagnosis of spinal echinococcosis is common. We present a case of a 48-year-old female patient with primary sacral hydatidosis. Chronic low back pain radiating to the left buttock was the only symptom. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested a neurogenic tumor versus giant cell tumor. Biopsy and pathological study revealed a hydatid cyst. Anthelmintic and surgical treatment was performed. At 12 months after surgery, the patient is free of recurrence. In patients with chronic low back pain and a MR suggestive of neurogenic tumor, spinal hydatid cyst should be considered in the differential diagnosis. It is recommended the assistance of an anesthesiologist during biopsy to avoid an anaphylactic shock.

  20. Left Main Coronary Artery Stenting to Relieve Extrinsic Compression by a Giant Pulmonary Artery Aneurysm in a Patient with Idiopathic Pulmonary Artery Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hung-Chih; Wang, Kuo-Yang; Liang, Kae-Woei

    2016-10-01

    Pulmonary artery aneurysm (PAA) is a rare but lethal disease. We present a female patient with idiopathic pulmonary artery hypertension (IPAH)-related PAA, who suffered from unstable angina pectoris. Multi-detector computed tomography and coronary angiogram revealed extrinsic compression of the left main coronary artery (LMCA) caused by a giant PAA with severe ostial stenosis. Intravascular ultrasound showed an oval-shaped ostium of the LMCA, indicating extrinsic compression. After successful LMCA stent implantation, chest pain was greatly relieved. This case illustrates that beyond right ventricle ischaemia and coronary atherosclerotic disease, LMCA compression by PAA should be considered in the differential diagnosis of angina in patients with IPAH related PAA. In addition, intravascular ultrasound can be used to confirm the diagnosis and guide the stent implantation safely. Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Octenidine hydrochloride in hydatid disease.

    PubMed

    Altindis, Mustafa; Arikan, Yuksel; Cetinkaya, Zafer; Polat, Coskun; Yilmaz, Sezgin; Akbulut, Gökhan; Dilek, Osman Nuri; Gokce, Ozcan

    2004-01-01

    Hydatid disease is still endemic in many devoloping countries and continues to be an important cause of morbidity. The objective of this study was to determine the in vitro scolicidal effects of octenidine hydrochloride in different concentrations using different exposure times. After hydatid cyst liquid was left to precipitate for 1 h to obtain cystic sand, various concentrations of octenidine (undiluted, 1% and 0.1% diluted) were added to concentrated hydatid cyst sediments for 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, and 60 min, and scolicidal effects of octenidine were compared with 20% saline and control group for the same times. It was found that undiluted octenidine had a strong scolicidal effect at 15 min compared to saline at 20%. One percent octenidine had a scolicidal effect at 30 min. However, 0.1% octenidine did not have enough scolicidal effect in 1 h. It was concluded that undiluted and 1% diluted octenidine might be used for scolicidal purpose in the treatment of hydatid disease.

  2. Splenic Hydatid Cysts: 17 Cases.

    PubMed

    Ozogul, Bunyami; Kisaoglu, Abdullah; Atamanalp, Sabri Selcuk; Ozturk, Gurkan; Aydinli, Bulent; Yıldırgan, Mehmet İlhan; Kantarcı, A Mecit

    2015-12-01

    Hydatid cyst disease, which is endemically observed and an important health problem in our country, involves the spleen at a frequency ranking third following the liver and the lungs. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy and results of management in splenic hydatid cysts. The demographic data, localization, diagnosis, treatment methods, and the length of postoperative hospital stay of patients with splenic hydatid cysts in a 12-year period were evaluated retrospectively. Seventeen cases were evaluated. Among these, 13 were females and four were males. Seven had solitary splenic involvement, eight had involvement of both the spleen and the liver, and two had multiple organ involvement. Ten had undergone splenectomy, one had undergone distal splenectomy, and the remaining cases had undergone different surgical procedures. The patients had received albendazole treatment in the pre- and postoperative period. One patient had died secondary to hypernatremia on the first postoperative day. The clinical picture in splenic hydatid cysts, which is seen rarely, is usually asymptomatic. The diagnosis is established by ultrasonography and abdominal CT. Although splenectomy is the standard mode of treatment, spleen-preserving methods may be used.

  3. Isolated Pericardial Hydatid Cyst: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Cece, Hasan; Yildiz, Sema; Sogut, Ozgur; Hazar, Abdussamet; Sezen, Yusuf

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac echinococcosis is extremely rare, and cysts are found mostly within the myocardium. Most cardiac hydatid cysts are located in the left ventricular wall. Only a few cases of isolated pericardial hydatid cysts have been reported. Echocardiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are important diagnostic tools for the diagnosis of echinococcosis. Herein, we report a rare case of isolated pericardial hydatid cyst who presented to our emergency department with complaints of mid-sternal chest pain and shortness of breath.

  4. Lone, Mobile Left Atrial Hydatid Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Ugurlu, Mehmet; Baktir, Ahmet Oguz; Tekin, Ali Ihsan; Tok, Ahmet; Yagmur, Bayram

    2016-01-01

    Echinococcosis is endemic in various regions of Turkey. Cardiac involvement in echinococcosis is rare, and lone cardiac hydatid cysts are even more unusual. Because cardiac hydatid disease can be fatal, even asymptomatic patients are optimally referred for surgical treatment. We present a rare case of a lone, primary, mobile hydatid cyst in the left atrium of a 62-year-old woman. The cyst caused dyspnea from left ventricular inflow obstruction. In addition to reporting the patient's fatal case, we discuss cardiac hydatid cysts in terms of the scant medical literature. PMID:27303247

  5. Common antigens between hydatid cyst and cancers

    PubMed Central

    Daneshpour, Shima; Bahadoran, Mehran; Hejazi, Seyed Hossein; Eskandarian, Abas Ali; Mahmoudzadeh, Mehdi; Darani, Hossein Yousofi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Different research groups reported a negative correlation between cancers and parasitical infections. As an example, the prevalence of a hydatid cyst among patients with cancer was significantly lower than its prevalence among normal population. Tn antigens exist both in cancer and hydatid cyst. This common antigen may be involved in the effect of parasite on cancer growth. So in this work, common antigens between hydatid cyst and cancers have been investigated. Materials and Methods: Different hydatid cyst antigens including hydatid fluid, laminated and germinal layer antigens, and excretory secretory antigens of protoscolices were run in SDS PAGE and transferred to NCP paper. In western immunoblotting, those antigens were probed with sera of patients with different cancer and also sera of non-cancer patients. Also, cross reaction among excretory secretory products of cancer cells and antisera raised against different hydatid cyst antigen was investigated. Results: In western immunoblotting, antisera raised against laminated and germinal layers of hydatid cyst reacted with excretory secretory products of cancer cells. Also, a reaction was detected between hydatid cyst antigens and sera of patients with some cancers. Conclusion: Results of this work emphasize existence of common antigens between hydatid cyst and cancers. More investigation about these common antigens is recommended. PMID:26962511

  6. Epidemiological Studies on Echinococcosis and Characterization of Human and Livestock Hydatid Cysts in Mauritania

    PubMed Central

    Salem, CB Ould Ahmed; Schneegans, F; Chollet, JY; Jemli, MH et

    2011-01-01

    Background Echinococcosis/hydatidosis is considered endemic in Mauritania. The aim of this study is to present an epidemiological study on the echinococcosis in man and animals in the Nouakchott region. Methods The internal organs from livestock carcasses were inspected for research of hydatid cysts. The hydatid fluid was examined for research of the protoscoleces. Dogs were necropsied for the collect of Echinococcus granulosus. Results In the Nouakchott Hospital, 24 surgical operation of human hydatid cysts have been performed, out of which 50% were localised in the lung, 33% in the liver and 17% elsewhere. Then, the incidence rate would be of 1.2% per 100 000 inhabitants in Mauritania. In the dog, the prevalence rate is 14%. The average number of E. granulosus on the whole dogs is 172 and 1227 on the positive dogs. Concerning the livestock, hydatid cysts found in 30.1% of the dromedary, 5.5% of the cattle and 6.5 of the sheep. The fertility rate of hydatid cysts in humans (75%) and camels (76%) was significantly higher than that of sheep (24%) and cattle (23%) (P<0.0001). Hydatid infestation is characterized globally by the dominance of pulmonary localizations in humans (50%) and camels (72.7%) and in the liver in sheep (76.1%) and cattle (82.3%). Conclusion The differences between prevalence rates, the fertility of hydatid cysts and diversity sites localization observed in humans and camels of one hand and the sheep and cattle on the other hand, depends possibly the strain(s) diversity of E. granulosus. PMID:22347274

  7. Hydatid Disease Involved in the Heart, Liver, and Kidney That Caused Sudden Death: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Daş, Taner; Özer, Mehmet; Yağmur, Gülhan; Yildirim, Muzaffer; Özgün, Ayşe; Demirel, Hüsrev

    2015-12-01

    Hydatid disease is a parasitic infestation caused by ingestion of eggs of echinococcal species. For Echinococcus granulosus, the definitive host is the dog, and sheeps are the usual intermediate hosts. Humans are accidental intermediate hosts, infected by ingestion of food contaminated with eggs shed by dogs or foxes. The most common organs that hydatid disease encountered are the liver and lungs. Involvement of the kidney is rare and usually accompanies the other organ involvements. Cardiac involvement of echinococcosis is also very rare. We report the case of a 31-year-old woman with a 6-year history of asthma who collapsed after strenuous activity and died despite the interventions carried out. At autopsy, cystic masses were detected in the apex of the heart, in the right kidney, and in the liver. There were no macroscopic pathologic findings in the other organs. Microscopic examination revealed the diagnosis of hydatid cyst in the heart, right kidney, and liver besides medial hypertrophy of the lung vessels. Cause of death was attributed to hydatid cyst and its complications. Patients who have symptoms akin to asthma at clinical presentation have to be further investigated for organic cardiac and pulmonary diseases such as hydatid cyst, especially in endemic countries.

  8. Hydatid disease of the heart

    PubMed Central

    Calamai, G.; Perna, A. M.; Venturini, A.

    1974-01-01

    Calamai, G., Perna, A. M., and Venturini, A. (1974).Thorax, 29, 451-458. Hydatid disease of the heart: report of five cases and review of the literature. The world literature on the surgical treatment of echinococcosis of the heart is reviewed. Few cases are surgically treated, although the disease has been known for a long time. Localization to the liver and lungs is the most frequent. Cardiopulmonary bypass techniques make possible surgical treatment of hydatid cyst of the heart. The present paper is concerned with five cases operated upon between 1959 and 1969, three males and two females, their ages ranging from 13 to 46 years. A preoperative diagnosis was made in each case. One case was operated upon under cardiopulmonary bypass. The need for cardiopulmonary bypass on a stand-by basis is emphasized. The localization of the hydatid cyst was in the left ventricular wall (three cases), right ventricular wall (one case), and multiple (one case). The frequency of cardiac echinococcosis ranges between 0·5% and 2% according to various authors. Diagnosis is achieved with the aid of laboratory tests, radiology, and angiography; but the presence of the disease must be suspected in all patients who come from endemic areas. Surgical therapy is mandatory. Due to the growth characteristics of the cyst itself, the danger of damaging the ventricular wall at operation is increased; thus it is essential to have cardiopulmonary bypass facilities immediately available. Images PMID:4277513

  9. Anaphylactic shock during hydatid cyst surgery.

    PubMed

    Bensghir, Mustapha; Fjouji, Salaheddine; Bouhabba, Najib; Ahtil, Redouane; Traore, Alain; Azendour, Hicham; Kamili, Nordine Drissi

    2012-04-01

    Intraoperative anaphylactic shock is an unusual complication. Different causes can be involved. Surgery of hydatid cyst is rarely responsible. About a case report of anaphylactic shock due to hydatid cyst surgery, the authors discuss the mechanisms, principles of treatment, and prevention measures of this complication.

  10. Primer hydatid cyst of the deltoid muscle

    PubMed Central

    Boyaci, Nurefsan; Boyaci, Ahmet; Karakas, Ekrem; Altay, Mehmet Akif

    2013-01-01

    A primary intramuscular hydatid cyst should be considered for the differential diagnosis of cystic soft tissue masses especially in endemic areas, although primary muscular hydatidosis is a rare clinical entity. A case of a 48-year-old male patient with a primary intramuscular hydatid cyst located in the deltoid muscle is reported. PMID:23986127

  11. Migration to the pulmonary artery of nine metallic coils placed in the internal iliac vein for treatment of giant rectal varices.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Wataru; Kakizawa, Hideaki; Ishikawa, Masaki; Date, Shuji; Tatsugami, Fuminari; Terada, Hiroaki; Masaki, Keiichi; Kawaoka, Tomokazu; Tsuge, Masataka; Aikata, Hiroshi; Chayama, Kazuaki; Awai, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Transcatheter venous embolization with metallic coils is a safe and reliable method for the treatment of pelvic congestion syndrome and pelvic varicocele. While rare, coil migration to the pulmonary arteries is potentially fatal. We report the migration to the pulmonary artery of a cluster of nine metallic microcoils placed in the internal iliac vein to obliterate giant rectal varices. Our patient suffered no severe sequelae. To avoid coil migration to the pulmonary arteries, the coils chosen for placement must take into consideration the characteristics of the target vessels, particularly of larger veins.

  12. Giant pulmonary bulla with mediastinal shift in a 12 1/2 year old girl.

    PubMed

    Fatimi, Saulat Hasnain; Jafferani, Asif; Ashfaq, Awais

    2012-05-01

    Pulmonary bulla in children represent interesting entities. Mostly congenital bronchopulmonary foregut malformations and acquired cysts like pneumatocoeles have also been described. We present a case of a 12 1/2 years old girl with acute onset respiratory distress symptoms harbouring a huge pulmonary cyst exhibiting mass effects, resulting in mediastinal deviation. Following initial workup, cyst excision was carried out which revealed presence of fungal hyphae that was susceptible to Fluconazole therapy post operatively. The case points out how a pulmonary cyst can present in older children with symptoms of respiratory distress and mass effects.

  13. [A case of ANCA negative Wegener's granulomatosis with pulmonary giant bulla showing high level of soluble ICAM-1].

    PubMed

    Motoya, S; Tsujisaki, M; Ibayashi, Y; Bekki, E; Kusumoto, K; Sawada, Y; Hashimoto, I; Hinoda, Y; Imai, K

    1995-06-01

    This paper reports a rare case of the limited form of Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) with pulmonary giant bulla, which was pathologically identified only in the lung and showed a high level of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) but not anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA). A 46 year-old male was admitted for the further examination of right anterior chest pain and dyspnea. Chest X-ray and CT examination showed giant bulla accompanied with the invasive lesions in upper lobe of right lung. Partial lobectomy was done. Granulomatous and necrotizing vasculitis characteristics of WG were confirmed by the histopathology of resected tissues. Immunological analysis on admission showed a high level of soluble ICAM-1 and ANCA negative, but that of soluble ICAM-1 was reduced after surgical operation and remained within normal range during an administration of prednisolone and cyclophosphamide. These results suggest that soluble ICAM-1 may be one of the useful parameters for a diagnosis of WG and for an estimation of its treatments, especially in the cases of ANCA negative WG.

  14. Everolimus in the treatment of subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, angiomyolipomas, and pulmonary and skin lesions associated with tuberous sclerosis complex

    PubMed Central

    Franz, David Neal

    2013-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder caused by inactivating mutations in either the TSC1 or TSC2 genes. It is characterized by the development of multiple, benign tumors in several organs throughout the body. Lesions occur in the brain, kidneys, heart, liver, lungs, and skin and result in seizures and epilepsy, mental retardation, autism, and renal and pulmonary organ system dysfunction, as well as other complications. Elucidation of the molecular pathways and etiological factors responsible for causing TSC has led to a paradigm shift in the management and treatment of the disease. TSC1 or TSC2 mutations lead to constitutive upregulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, which affects many cellular processes involved in tumor growth. By targeting mammalian target of rapamycin with everolimus, an orally active rapamycin derivative, clinically meaningful and statistically significant reductions in tumor burden have been achieved for the main brain (subependymal giant cell astrocytoma) and renal manifestations (angiomyolipoma) associated with TSC. This review provides an overview of TSC, everolimus, and the clinical trials that led to its approval for the treatment of TSC-associated subependymal giant cell astrocytoma and renal angiomyolipoma. PMID:24143074

  15. [Cerebral hydatid disease: imaging features].

    PubMed

    Tlili-Graiess, K; El-Ouni, F; Gharbi-Jemni, H; Arifa, N; Moulahi, H; Mrad-Dali, K; Guesmi, H; Abroug, S; Yacoub, M; Krifa, H

    2006-12-01

    Cerebral hytatid cysts (HC) are extremely rare, forming 2% of all intra cranial space occupying lesions even in counties where the disease is endemic. HC diagnosis is usually based on a pathognomonic computed tomography (CT) pattern. In order to assess the value of MR we reviewed the CT (n=25) and magnetic resonance (MR, n=4 including diffusion and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 1) imaging of 25 patients with pathologically confirmed cerebral hydatid disease. 19 HC were seen in children under 16 years. All were supra tentorial with 22 in the middle cerebral artery territory. HC was solitary in 18 cases, unilocular in 23 and multi-vesicular in 2 with heavily calcified pericyst in 1. 2 cysts were intra ventricular and 1 intra aqueducal. The most typical features were well defined, smooth thin walled spherical or oval cystic lesions of CSF density and/or signal with considerable mass effect (20/25). Surrounding oedema with complete or incomplete rim enhancement was seen in 3 cases which were labelled as complicated and/or infected cysts. Although CT is diagnostic of hydatid disease in almost all cases (22/25), MRI including diffusion and spectroscopy precisely demonstrate location, number, cyst capsule, type of signal and enhancement and allows diagnosis of atypical or complicated HC and appears more helpful in surgical planning.

  16. Laparoscopic treatment for renal hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Rabii, Redouane; Mezzour, Mohamed Hicham; Essaki, Hicham; Fekak, Hamid; Joual, Abdenbi; Meziane, Fethi

    2006-03-01

    A multivesicular hydatid cyst was removed from the left kidney of a 26-year-old woman by retroperitoneal laparoscopy to avoid contamination of the abdominal cavity. A scolicidal agent (20% hypertonic saline) was injected around the kidney initially and then instilled into the cyst after the contents had been evacuated. There were no complications and no anaphylactic shock. This appears to be the first reported case of treatment of renal hydatid cyst by laparoscopy.

  17. [The clinicopathological analysis of pulmonary parenchymal involvement of multicentric giant lymph node hyperplasia (Castleman's disease)].

    PubMed

    Tian, Xinlun; Ge, Li; Feng, Rui'e; Liu, Tao; Huang, Hui; Xu, Zuojun; Xu, Wenbing; Liu, Hongrui

    2014-05-01

    To observe the clinicopathological features of pulmonary parenchymal involvement of multicentric Castleman's disease(MCD). Retrospective analysis was carried out for 6 patients of MCD with pulmonary parenchymal involvement who had been admitted to Peking Union Medical College Hospital from July 2008 to March 2013. Relevant literatures were reviewed. The diagnosis was established by surgical lung biopsy and all specimens were fixed in neutral formalin and embedded in paraffin. Sections were cut for HE and immunohistochemical stain. B cell and T cell gene rearrangement were tested in 3 cases. These 6 patients (all females) aged 31-68 years, with a median of 49.5 years. The presenting symptoms were fever (4/6), cough (3/6), and lymphadenopathy (6/6). Laboratory study showed elevated ESR (5/6) and CRP (4/6), and hypergammaglobulinaemia (2/6). Chest CT showed multiple nodules with perilymphatic distribution and ground-glass opacity (GGO). Pathologically, there were 5 cases of plasma cell type and 1 case of hyaline vascular type. The plasma cell variant showed dense mature plasma cell infiltration in pulmonary interstitium. The hyaline vascular variant was characterized by the presence of regressed germinal centers and broad concentric mantle zones. The gene arrangement tests were all negative. During the follow-up period (range: 2-60 months; mean: 31 months), 2 cases with plasma cell type received CHOP chemotherapy and then remained stable. One case with hyaline vascular type received CHOP chemotherapy but died due to deterioration of the disease. In the thorax, Castleman's disease usually manifests as hilar and mediastinal lymph node enlargement. Pulmonary parenchymal involvement by MCD is very rare. It is mostly seen in the elderly female, and can manifest with systemic symptoms. Chest CT usually reveals multiple nodules and GGO. It shows similar morphological characteristics to those found in lymph nodes. Immunohistochemistry and gene rearrangement test can help to

  18. Isolated primary hydatid cyst of small intestinal mesentery: an exceptional location of hydatid disease.

    PubMed

    Najih, Mohammed; Chabni, Ali; Attoulou, Gilles; Yamoul, Rajae; Yakka, Mbarek; Ehirchiou, Abdelkader; Alkandry, Siffedine

    2012-01-01

    Hydatid disease is an endemic problem in some areas of the world. Common sites include liver and lungs. We report an unusual case of isolated primary Hydatid cyst of small gut mesentery. Characteristics of this uncommon location, mechanism, diagnostic difficulties, and treatment are discussed.

  19. Isolated primary hydatid cyst of small intestinal mesentery: an exceptional location of hydatid disease

    PubMed Central

    Najih, Mohammed; Chabni, Ali; Attoulou, Gilles; Yamoul, Rajae; Yakka, Mbarek; Ehirchiou, Abdelkader; AlKandry, Siffedine

    2012-01-01

    Hydatid disease is an endemic problem in some areas of the world. Common sites include liver and lungs. We report an unusual case of isolated primary Hydatid cyst of small gut mesentery. Characteristics of this uncommon location, mechanism, diagnostic difficulties, and treatment are discussed. PMID:23308322

  20. Imaging diagnosis-pulmonary-tracheobronchial prolapse in a new Caledonian giant gecko (Rhacodactylus leachianus).

    PubMed

    Hoey, Seamus; Keller, Dominique; Chamberlin, Tamara; Pinkerton, Marie; Waller, Kenneth; Drees, Randi

    2013-01-01

    A 3-year-old male New Caledonian giant gecko, or Leach's gecko (Rhacodactylus leachianus) presented with acute lethargy and coelomic distention. Findings from survey radiographs and an upper gastrointestinal tract contrast study were consistent with severe aerophagia, a collapsed left lung, and hyperinflation of the right lung due to suspected bronchial obstruction. The gecko was treated with conservative medical management, but was found dead 5 days after presentation. Necropsy findings showed intussusception of the proximal left lung into the left mainstem bronchus and trachea.

  1. Evaluation of Giant African Pouched Rats for Detection of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Patients from a High-Endemic Setting

    PubMed Central

    Reither, Klaus; Jugheli, Levan; Glass, Tracy R.; Sasamalo, Mohamed; Mhimbira, Francis A.; Weetjens, Bart J.; Cox, Christophe; Edwards, Timothy L.; Mulder, Christiaan; Beyene, Negussie W.; Mahoney, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Background This study established evidence about the diagnostic performance of trained giant African pouched rats for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum of well-characterised patients with presumptive tuberculosis (TB) in a high-burden setting. Methods The TB detection rats were evaluated using sputum samples of patients with presumptive TB enrolled in two prospective cohort studies in Bagamoyo, Tanzania. The patients were characterised by sputum smear microscopy and culture, including subsequent antigen or molecular confirmation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and by clinical data at enrolment and for at least 5-months of follow-up to determine the reference standard. Seven trained giant African pouched rats were used for the detection of TB in the sputum samples after shipment to the APOPO project in Morogoro, Tanzania. Results Of 469 eligible patients, 109 (23.2%) were culture-positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 128 (27.3%) were non-TB controls with sustained recovery after 5 months without anti-TB treatment. The HIV prevalence was 46%. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the seven rats for the detection of culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis was 0.72 (95% CI 0.66–0.78). An optimal threshold could be defined at ≥2 indications by rats in either sample with a corresponding sensitivity of 56.9% (95% CI 47.0–66.3), specificity of 80.5% (95% CI 72.5–86.9), positive and negative predictive value of 71.3% (95% CI 60.6–80.5) and 68.7% (95% CI 60.6–76.0), and an accuracy for TB diagnosis of 69.6%. The diagnostic performance was negatively influenced by low burden of bacilli, and independent of the HIV status. Conclusion Giant African pouched rats have potential for detection of tuberculosis in sputum samples. However, the diagnostic performance characteristics of TB detection rats do not currently meet the requirements for high-priority, rapid sputum-based TB diagnostics as defined by the World Health

  2. Orbital Hydatid Cyst Causing Papilledema and Proptosis in an Adult.

    PubMed

    Taghipour, Mousa; Derakhshan, Nima; Saffarian, Arash; Dehghanian, Amirreza

    2017-03-16

    Hydatid cyst is an infectious disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus, primarily involving the liver and lungs. The orbit is an extremely rare site for involvement with hydatid cyst. We present a 36-year-old man with unilateral visual loss, proptosis, and papilledema caused by an orbital hydatid cyst.

  3. Giant pulmonary artery aneurysm in a 6-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Garg, Gaurav; Tyagi, Himanshu; Agrawal, Gaurav; Anil, S R

    2014-01-01

    A 6-year-old female child was admitted with complaints of progressive dyspnea on exertion since last 3 years. She was saturating 100% on room air with stable vitals. On clinical examination, left precordial bulge was seen with prominent epigastric pulsations. Chest X-ray showed rightward shift of mediastinum and huge homogenous opacity occupying almost entire left lung field. On two-dimensional echocardiography, a large aneurysmal mass was seen occupying left hemithorax which was suspected to be arising from pulmonary artery but its exact site of origin could not be determined. A small patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) was also seen. PDA could be seen directly supplying the aneurysm (Fig. 1). CT angiography was done to confirm the diagnosis. It showed a huge aneurysmal sac measuring 12 cm × 8.9 cm × 14 cm, arising from left pulmonary artery (LPA) opposite to the site of insertion of PDA. Sac was occupying most of the left lung and pushing down the left diaphragm (Fig. 2). Cause of formation of such a huge aneurysm could not be found out. Surgery was performed and mouth of the sac was closed along with ligation of duct, repair of LPA and drainage of the sac. After surgery, lung expansion was good. Patient was discharged and she is doing well. Copyright © 2014 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Renal injury due to hepatic hydatid disease.

    PubMed

    Altay, Mustafa; Unverdi, Selman; Altay, Fatma Aybala; Ceri, Mevlüt; Akay, Hatice; Ozer, Hüseyin; Kiraç, Halil; Denizli, Nazim; Yilmaz, Bilal; Güvence, Necmettin; Duranay, Murat

    2010-08-01

    Many studies on renal hydatid disease have been reported in the literature, and the disease process appears to be well defined. However, renal injury without direct renal invasion remains poorly understood. The present study aims to define the frequency and the property of the renal involvement in hydatid disease. Eighty patients older than 18 years and diagnosed with liver echinococcosis were included in the study. The echinococcosis was diagnosed by the haemagglutination test and abdominal ultrasonography. Twenty-four-hour protein excretion was measured for patients who had elevated serum creatinine levels or whose urinalyses were positive for haematuria or proteinuria. Subsequently, renal biopsy was performed, and the specimens were examined by light microscopy and immunofluorescence staining. Haematuria was detected in 11 patients (13.75%), and proteinuria was detected in nine patients (11.25%). Percutaneous renal biopsy was applied to nine patients who gave signed consents to undergo the test. We detected four immunoglobulin A nephritis (together with tubulointerstitial nephritis in one patient), one membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, one immunoglobulin M nephritis together with mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis, one membranous glomerulonephritis, one amyloidosis and one tubulointerstitial nephritis. Renal hydatid cyst was detected only in four patients (5%). Hydatid disease, which affects the kidney, is not rare, and we suggest that urinalysis and, if indicated, renal biopsy should be performed for hepatic hydatid disease diagnosis.

  5. A hydatid cyst of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Capoğlu, I; Unüvar, N; Erdogan, F; Yilmaz, O; Caydere, M

    2002-01-01

    Echinococcosis, although eradicated in many countries, is still widespread in communities in which agriculture is dominant, and cystic hydatidosis is a significant public health problem in regions where echinococcosis is endemic. Hydatid cysts may be found in almost any part of the body, but most often in the liver and lungs. Other organs affected occasionally include the brain, muscle, kidney, bone, heart and pancreas. This report documents a rare case with a cystic nodule in the thyroid detected by ultrasonography. The patient was a 40-year-old woman with an euthyroid multinodular goitre. Ultrasonography revealed a cystic nodule, and the ultrasonic appearance of the cyst liquid showed multiple echoes, suggesting that the nodule could be a hydatid cyst. Bilateral subtotal thyroidectomy was performed. Postoperative examination of the nodule showed it to be a solitary primary thyroid hydatid cyst.

  6. Cardiac Hydatid Cyst: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    SHOJAEI, Esfandiar; YASSIN, Zeynab; REZAHOSSEINI, Omid

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid disease commonly involves liver but in rare cases, it can involve cardiac structures. A 75-yr-old farmer from Parsabad-Moghan, northwestern Iran was presented to the Emergency Room of Tehran Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran with dyspnea and without chest pain in 2014. A lesion compatible with hydatid cyst was found in echocardiography and confirmed by serology and MRI. Surgical treatment was done but the patient was died in recovery room because of cardiac arrhythmia. In endemic areas, hydatid cyst should be considered in differential diagnosis of heterogeneous echogenic lesions even if the serologic tests are negative. Physician can use cardiac MRI to earn valuable information about the lesion and its relation to other structures. However, with all of these assessments, surgical removal of cardiac cysts may have some complications. PMID:28028503

  7. Endoscopic management of biliary hydatid disease

    PubMed Central

    Akkiz, Hikmet; Akinoglu, Alper; Çolakoglu, Salih; Demiryürek, Haluk; Yagmur, Özgür

    1996-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of endoscopic sphincterotomy in the management of biliary hydatid disease. Design A case study between January 1992 and December 1994. Setting A university-affiliated hospital in Adana, Turkey. Patients Five patients with biliary hydatid disease, in which the cyst had ruptured into the biliary tree. The follow-up ranged from 3 to 12 months. Intervention Endoscopic sphincterotomy. Main Outcome Measures Morbidity, mortality and recurrence of the disease. Results All patients underwent successful endoscopic sphincterotomy, including removal of daughter cysts. During the follow-up period, ultrasonography and laboratory investigations showed complete cure in all patients. There were no complications due to endoscopic sphincterotomy. Conclusion Endoscopic sphincterotomy is the treatment of choice for the management of hydatid cysts that have ruptured into the biliary tract causing obstructive jaundice. PMID:8697318

  8. Primary pelvic hydatid cyst: a case report.

    PubMed

    Parray, Fazl Q; Wani, Shadab Nabi; Bazaz, Sajid; Khan, Shakeel-Ur Rehman; Malik, Nighat Shaffi

    2011-01-01

    This is a case report of a young man who presented to us as a case of hypogastric pain and frequency of micturation. General physical examination and radiological evaluation confirmed a multiloculated pelvic swelling. Patient was subjected to laparotomy which confirmed the diagnosis of a primary pelvic hydatid disease. Patient was put on chemotherapy after surgery and is doing well on follow up.

  9. [Primary and isolated phrenic hydatid cyst in Tunisia].

    PubMed

    Makni, A; Fetirich, F; Jouini, M; Kacem, M; Ben Safta, Z

    2012-10-01

    The hydatid cyst of the diaphragm is defined as the development of a hydatid cyst in the diaphragm muscle. The purpose of this study is to identify the specific pathogenic, clinical and therapeutic aspects of this hydatid cyst. It is important to confirm the diagnosis of the location before surgery. We report the case of a patient aged 40 years, in whom the diagnosis of hydatid cyst of the diaphragm was made incidentally in the course of a gastric stromal tumour. The patient was operated by a midline laparotomy. Resection of the protruding dome of hydatid cyst of the diaphragm was carried out along with total gastrectomy. The postoperative course was uneventful. After 12 months, the results were negative. The diagnosis of hydatid cyst of the diaphragm is based on the thoraco-abdominal CT scan. The treatment is surgical based on the topographic features of the cyst.

  10. Nephrotic presentation in hydatid cyst disease with predominant tubulointerstital disease

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Feroz; Pandya, Tanmay; Patel, Himanshu V; Ramakrishna, Paladugu; Goplani, Kamal R; Gumber, Manoj; Vanikar, Aruna V; Kanodia, Kamal; Shah, Pankaj R; Trivedi, Hargovind L

    2009-01-01

    Renal involvement, which can rarely occur in echinococcosis, more commonly manifests as hydatid cyst of the kidney. Scattered case reports of nephrotic syndrome secondary to hydatid cyst in the liver or lung have been reported for over two decades. The glomerular picture varied from minimal change lesion to mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis. We report a case of predominantly tubulointerstitial nephritis with mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis in a patient with hepatic hydatid cyst which responded to cyst resection alone. PMID:21694917

  11. Liver Hydatid Cyst with Transdiaphragmatic Rupture and Lung Hydatid Cyst Ruptured into Bronchi and Pleural Space

    SciTech Connect

    Ar Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I bas, Bilgin Kadri Dingil, Guerbuez; Koeroglu, Mert; Uenguel, Uemit; Zaral Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I , Aliye Ceylan

    2011-02-15

    The aim of this case study is to present effectiveness of percutaneous drainage as a treatment option of ruptured lung and liver hydatid cysts. A 65-year-old male patient was admitted with complicated liver and lung hydatid cysts. A liver hydatid cyst had ruptured transdiaphragmatically, and a lung hydatid cyst had ruptured both into bronchi and pleural space. The patient could not undergo surgery because of decreased respiratory function. Both cysts were drained percutaneously using oral albendazole. Povidone-iodine was used to treat the liver cyst after closure of the diaphragmatic rupture. The drainage was considered successful, and the patient had no recurrence of signs and symptoms. Clinical, laboratory, and radiologic recovery was observed during 2.5 months of catheterization. The patient was asymptomatic after catheter drainage. No recurrence was detected during 86 months of follow-up. For inoperable patients with ruptured liver and lung hydatid cysts, percutaneous drainage with oral albendazole is an alternative treatment option to surgery. The percutaneous approach can be life-saving in such cases.

  12. The specific immunoglobulin in hydatid disease

    PubMed Central

    Matossian, R. M.; Kane, G. J.; Chantler, S. M.; Batty, I.; Sarhadian, H.

    1972-01-01

    The variation in the serum level of specific IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies during different stages of hydatid disease has been demonstrated by a technique of fluorescent microscopy that uses monospecific anti-human immunoglobulin conjugates and freeze-dried antigens. The technique is easy to perform and our results suggest that the test is sensitive and specific. Specific IgG antibodies are present in patients with either current or past infections. IgM antibodies, detected during periods of antigenic activity, disappear soon after removal of the cyst. In many cases IgA antibodies also disappear soon after removal of the cyst. Cross-reactions between the antigens and antibodies of hydatid disease and schistosomiasis are shown to be present mainly in the IgG immunoglobulin and only to a much smaller extent in the IgA. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:4554745

  13. [Malignant hydatid disease--clinical case].

    PubMed

    Ionescu, Simona Daniela; Ouatu, Anca; Manea, Paloma; Tănase, Daniela Maria

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of a 79-year-old woman admitted for sepsis from a hepatic hydatid cyst with multiple disseminations diagnosed one month earlier who refused the surgical treatment. Her family history was irrelevant with regard to the circumstances leading to Taenia Echinococcus infestation, and given her poor health status and absence of previous medical documents no useful information was obtained from her medical history. The patient also presented chronic ischemic heart disease and anemia secondary to a bleeding duodenal ulcer, found at necropsy, which worsened the already unfavorable course by the acute hepatic and renal failure secondary to toxic and septic shock. Despite the complex treatment, death occurred 6 days later, following a second episode of upper digestive hemorrhage. Particular to this case is the absence in patient's history of the anaphylactic/allergic reactions suggestive of hepatic hydatid cyst dissemination.

  14. Hepatic hydatid cyst presenting as cutaneous abscess.

    PubMed

    Islam, M N; Khan, N A; Haque, S S; Hossain, M; Ahad, M A

    2012-01-01

    Hydatidosis is a parasitic zoonotic echinococcal infection that affects both humans and other mammals. These diseases are common worldwide but particularly common in sheep and cattle farming regions. Anaphylaxis mediated by IgE is a serious complication of surgery or trauma which necessitates more aware of its clinical features, diagnosis and management. It is important to make a preoperative diagnosis based on the typical image findings, so that particular precaution can be taken not to rupture the lesion. A woman presented with a right upper quadrant cutaneous abscess. USG reveals multiple cystic lesions in the liver arranged in cartwheel appearance, CT disclosed a cystic lesions having daughter cysts, marginal calcifications, marginal enhancement and contiguous abdominal wall abscess, which led to a diagnosis of complicated hepatic hydatid cysts with abdominal wall abscess formation. FNAC showed scolices surrounded by chronic inflammatory cells. Abdominal wall abscess may be a presentation of hydatid liver disease.

  15. Primary Pelvic Hydatid Cyst: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Parray, Fazl Q.; Wani, Shadab Nabi; Bazaz, Sajid; Khan, Shakeel-ur Rehman; Malik, Nighat Shaffi

    2011-01-01

    This is a case report of a young man who presented to us as a case of hypogastric pain and frequency of micturation. General physical examination and radiological evaluation confirmed a multiloculated pelvic swelling. Patient was subjected to laparotomy which confirmed the diagnosis of a primary pelvic hydatid disease. Patient was put on chemotherapy after surgery and is doing well on follow up. PMID:22606594

  16. Cutaneous fistulization of the hydatid disease

    PubMed Central

    Bahce, Zeynep Sener; Akbulut, Sami; Aday, Ulas; Demircan, Firat; Senol, Ayhan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aim: To provide an overview of the medical literature on cutaneous fistulization in patients with hydatid disease (HD). Methods: According to PRISMA guidelines a literature search was made in PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and Google databases were searched using keywords to identify articles related to cutaneous fistulization of the HD. Keywords used were hydatid disease, hydatid cyst, cutaneous fistulization, cysto-cutaneous fistulization, external rupture, and external fistulization. The literature search included case reports, review articles, original articles, and meeting presentations published until July 2016 without restrictions on language, journal, or country. Articles and abstracts containing adequate information, such as age, sex, cyst size, cyst location, clinical presentation, fistula opening location, and management, were included in the study, whereas articles with insufficient clinical and demographic data were excluded. We also present a new case of cysto-cutaneous fistulization of a liver hydatid cyst. Results: The literature review included 38 articles (32 full text, 2 abstracts, and 4 unavailable) on cutaneous fistulization in patients with HD. Among the 38 articles included in the study, 22 were written in English, 13 in French, 1 in German, 1 in Italian, and 1 in Spanish. Forty patients (21 males and 19 females; mean age ± standard deviation, 54.0 ± 21.5 years; range, 7–93 years) were involved in the study. Twenty-four patients had cysto-cutaneous fistulization (Echinococcus granulosus); 10 had cutaneous fistulization (E multilocularis), 3 had cysto-cutaneo-bronchio-biliary fistulization, 2 had cysto-cutaneo-bronchial fistulization; and 1 had cutaneo-bronchial fistulization (E multilocularis). Twenty-nine patients were diagnosed with E granulosis and 11 had E multilocularis detected by clinical, radiological, and/or histopathological examinations. Conclusion: Cutaneous fistulization is a rare complication of HD

  17. Pregnancy complicated by abdominopelvic hydatid disease

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Shakun; Singh, Chanchal; Tripathi, Reva; Mala, Yedla

    2012-01-01

    A 22-year-old second gravida presented with asymptomatic abdominal and pelvic hydatid disease at 16 weeks gestation. She opted for conservative management and was treated with oral Albendazole. She underwent elective caesarean along with cyst excision at term as the large pelvic cyst precluded vaginal delivery. A healthy baby girl weighing 2600 g with Apgar of 9, 9 at 1 and 5 min was delivered. PMID:23230263

  18. Primary hydatid cyst in the adrenal gland.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Afshin; Ghasemi-Rad, Mohammad; Oklu, Rahmi

    2014-10-23

    An elderly man presented with a 2-year history of refractory hypertension. His medical history, physical examination and laboratory findings were unremarkable. On subsequent ultrasound study for the evaluation of renal artery stenosis, a large mass obliterating the adrenal gland containing internal cystic structures was identified. A CT study confirmed the diagnosis of primary adrenal gland hydatid cyst. Following surgical resection, the patient's hypertension resolved and medications to control blood pressure were discontinued.

  19. [Pelvic hydatid yst: apropos of 8 cases].

    PubMed

    Laghzaoui Boukaidi, M; Bouhya, S; Soummani, A; Hermas, S; Bennan, O; Sefrioui, O; Aderdour, M

    2001-05-01

    The hydatidosis fisues in the endemic state in Morocco, its pelvigenital localization is rare and doubtful. The objective of this study is to examine the epidemio-clinic appearance, the diagnosis means and the therapeutic flow of the pelvigenital hydatid cyst in Morocco. This retrospective study is about eight patients hospitalized and cured for pelvigenital hydatid cyst in lalla Meryem maternity of Casablanca during a period of six years (1992-1997). The hydatid cyst diagnosis was confirmed by anatomopathology. This affection represented 0.80% of the pelvic mass operated during the same periode. The majority of our patients was from rural origin, their age varies between 22 and 70 years old. The discovery circumstances were dominated by abdomino-pelvic mass. The diagnosis was nearly certain prior to the surgery for half of the cases. The genital organs were the most reached by the pelvic hydatidosis (75%). The treatment was purely surgical, adapted to each case in according to the localization, the volume and the contribution of the cyst. The medical treatment has been prescribed in one case in post surgery. The evolution was good in all the cases. The hydatidos cyst must always be present in mind when dealing with cyst pelvic formation in an endemic country like Morocco. The prophylaxia preserves its important value and must constitute a hinder against this disease in endemic countries.

  20. Retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst mimicking hydatid liver: a case report.

    PubMed

    Parray, Fazl Q; Sherwani, Afak Yusuf; Dangroo, Sajad Ahmad; Bisati, Rafia Aziz; Malik, Nighat Shaffi

    2012-01-01

    Bronchogenic cysts frequently occur in the mediastinum. They may be rarely encountered in the abdomen and retroperitoneum. Bronchogenic cysts can in fact mimic hydatid cysts. We report a case of retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst below the right hemidiaphragm mimicking a hydatid cyst of the liver in a 30-year-old female.

  1. Retroperitoneal Bronchogenic Cyst Mimicking Hydatid Liver: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Parray, Fazl Q.; Sherwani, Afak Yusuf; Dangroo, Sajad Ahmad; Bisati, Rafia Aziz; Malik, Nighat Shaffi

    2012-01-01

    Bronchogenic cysts frequently occur in the mediastinum. They may be rarely encountered in the abdomen and retroperitoneum. Bronchogenic cysts can in fact mimic hydatid cysts. We report a case of retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst below the right hemidiaphragm mimicking a hydatid cyst of the liver in a 30-year-old female. PMID:22606600

  2. Surgical management of Aspergillus colonization associated with lung hydatid disease.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Julio C; Montesinos, Efrain; Rojas, Luis; Peralta, Julio; Delarosa, Jacob; Leon, Juan J

    2008-04-01

    Colonization with Aspergillus sp. usually occurs in previously formed lung cavities. Cystectomy is a widely used surgical technique for hydatid lung disease that can also leave residual cavities and potentially result in aspergilloma. We present two cases of this rare entity and a case with Aspergillus sp. colonization of an existing ruptured hydatid cyst.

  3. Primary subcutaneous cyst hydatid of abdominal wall: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Gulmez, Mehmet; Celik, Aysun Simsek; Alkan, Sevcan; Koban, Bugu Usanma; Onal, Rumeysa Soyalan; Uzun, Mehmet Ali

    2015-01-01

    Human body is an intermediate host for Echinococcus granulosus which is a cestode causing hydatid disease. The most common type is E. Granulosus. E. Granulosus most often affects the liver and the lung. Primary subcutaneous cyst hydatid without involving other organs is extremely rare. A 60-year-old Turkish woman came to our hospital with a growing mass in the left periumblical region of the abdominal wall. In the superficial tissue ultrasonography a cystic mass measuring 3×2 cm was detected in the subcutaneous tissue of left periumblical region of the abdominal wall and it was doubtful for hydatid cyst. The patient had no history of surgery for a hydatid cyst in any other organ and the hydatid serology was negative. The cyst was surgically, and carefully excised. Macroscopic exploration suggested a hydatid cyst with its germinative membrane and the histopathological examination of the specimen was reported as a hydatid cyst. Hydatid cyst should be considered when a subcutaneous cytic mass is detected in a patient living in the region where the disease is endemic. The best treatment is complete removal of the cysts. PMID:28058357

  4. Immunological diagnosis of human hydatid cyst using Western immunoblotting technique

    PubMed Central

    Hadipour, Mahboubeh; Nazari, Mohammad; Sanei, Behnam; Ghayour, Zahra; Sharafi, Seyedeh Maryam; Yazdani, Hajar; Darani, Hossein Yousofi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Echinococcosis is a parasitic disease with worldwide distribution which is caused by the tapeworms Echinococcus granulosus. Diagnosis of the disease relies on imaging techniques, but the techniques are not able to differentiate the cyst from benign or malignant tumors; hence, appropriate serologic methods are required for the differential diagnosis of the infection. Materials and Methods: In this investigation, different sheep hydatid cyst antigens probed with thirty sera of patients with hydatid cyst and also thirty human normal sera using Western immunoblotting technique. Considering results of surgery as gold standard, sensitivity and specificity of Western blotting was estimated. Results: Sera of 29, 26, and 16 patients with hydatid cyst reacted with specific bands of hydatid cyst fluid (HCF), protoscolex crude antigen, and cyst wall crude antigen, respectively. However, none of the normal human sera reacted with those specific bands. Conclusion: A 20 kDa band of sheep HCF is an appropriate antigen for serodiagnosis of hydatid cyst infection. PMID:28331516

  5. Liver Hydatid Cyst and Acute Cholangitis: a Case Report.

    PubMed

    Nemati Honar, Behzad; Hayatollah, Gholamhossein; Nikshoar, Mohammadreza; Forootan, Mojgan; Feizi, Ali Mohammad

    2016-04-01

    Amongst the cause of cystic hepatic disease, hydatid cyst is common in the Asia, South America, and Africa. The definitive therapy for hepatic hydatid disease is surgical resection. Rupture of the hydatid cyst into the biliary tree can lead to serious cholangitis. In this report, a 22-year-old man is presented with the signs and symptoms of obstructive jaundice and cholangitis. Ultrasonography reported dilated common bile duct (CBD) with sludge and stones, a hydatid cyst adjacent to the gall bladder and mild thickening of gallbladder wall without a stone. MRCP revealed dilated CBD with a cyst in segment fifth of liver. Due to signs and symptoms of obstructive jaundice in addition to lab data and imaging modalities, the ruptured hydatid cyst into a biliary tree was considered, and surgical intervention was performed to extract daughter vesicles from the CBD. Post intervention, signs and symptoms and cholestasis enzymes were subsided.

  6. Isolated hydatid cyst of uterine cervix: A case report.

    PubMed

    Küçük, Zahide; Karcaaltincaba, Deniz; Ergün, Yusuf; Doğan, Ayşe Çitil; Çaydere, Muzaffer; Küçük, Hamit

    2014-04-01

    Hydatid disease is an endemic infection which can affect any organ, mainly the liver and lungs. Peritoneal echinococcosis is usually known to occur secondary to hepatic hydatid cyst rupture into the peritoneal cavity. An isolated cyst in the pelvic cavity is considered as primary only when there are no other hydatid cysts. Herein, we report an isolated pelvic-cervical hydatid cyst which presented without any involvement of the other abdominal organs or lungs. Our patient, a 27-year-old woman with the primary complaints of dyspareunia and chronic pelvic pain, had thin-walled large cystic mass originating from the cervix, diagnosed by ultrasonography. She underwent surgery with the most likely initial diagnosis of exophytic fibroid with cystic degeneration. Gynecologists should be aware of the possibility of isolated primary hydatid cyst of the pelvic cavity and should consider this condition in the differential diagnosis of cystic pelvic masses, especially in areas where the disease is endemic.

  7. Surgical treatment of hydatid cysts of the lung: analysis of 405 patients

    PubMed Central

    Salih, Orhan Kemal; Topcuoğlu, Memet Şah; Çelik, Şekip Kazim; Ulus, Tümer; Tokcan, Acar

    1998-01-01

    Objective The choice of operation, postoperative success and complications of surgery in patients with pulmonary hydatid cysts. Design A series of patients seen over 15 years. Setting A university clinic. Patients Four hundred and five patients (209 male, 196 female) ranging in age from 4 to 72 years (mean 29 years). Most (367 patients) had isolated lung cysts; 38 had both liver and lung cysts. Interventions A variety of procedures to remove cysts, including enucleation and capitonnage, wedge resection, segmentectomy, lobectomy and pneumonectomy. Six patients with bilateral cysts were operated on through a median sternotomy approach. Others underwent posterolateral thoracotomy. Main outcome measures Value of diagnostic tests, the most efficacious approach for cyst removal and recurrence and death rates. Results Chest radiography gave a correct diagnosis in 99% of patients. The Casoni and Weinberg tests were discontinued because of high false-negative rates (up to 35%). Hospital mortality was 1.2% and postoperative complications occurred in 5.2%. The recurrence rate was 1.5%. Conclusions Lung-preserving surgical interventions are the treatment of choice for pulmonary hydatid disease. In patients with bilateral cysts, the median sternotomy approach is preferred, and in the patients with right lung disease and coexisting liver cysts the transdiaphragmatic approach is the one of choice to remove cysts in 1 stage. PMID:9575996

  8. Surgical treatment of hydatid cysts of the lung: report on 1055 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Doğan, R; Yüksel, M; Cetin, G; Süzer, K; Alp, M; Kaya, S; Unlü, M; Moldibi, B

    1989-01-01

    Of 1055 patients treated surgically for pulmonary hydatid disease, most (950) had isolated lung cysts, the other 105 having both liver and lung cysts. The chest radiograph was most valuable in diagnosis; the Casoni and Weinberg tests and blood eosinophil counts were found to be diagnostically unreliable. One thousand and seventy seven primary operations were performed. Cystotomy and capitonnage were carried out in 906 patients, 40 of whom also had decortication of the pleura. Other procedures included cystotomy with wedge resection of locally damaged lung (29 patients) and cyst removal with capitonnage by Ugon's method (33) or the Perez-Fontana procedure (8) and with costal resection for osteomyelitis in two cases. More radical surgery was carried out in 99 patients for longstanding infection or severe lung destruction. Postoperative complications occurred in 37 patients (3.5%) and the 30 day mortality rate was 1.7%. It is concluded that a lung conserving surgical operation is the treatment of choice for most patients with pulmonary hydatid disease. In patients with coexisting liver cysts the thoracic transpleural approach allowed the lung and liver cysts to be removed at the same session. Images PMID:2705149

  9. [Nonthrombotic pulmonary embolisms].

    PubMed

    Bach, A G; Schramm, D; Surov, A

    2017-03-01

    The term nonthrombotic pulmonary embolism (NTPE) is defined as embolization of pulmonary arteries caused by foreign bodies (e. g. detached catheter fragments), biological substances (e. g. septic thrombus) or exogenous substances (e. g. gas). The frequency of NTPE is underestimated. Symptoms can cover the spectrum from undetectable to sudden death. In addition to mechanical obstruction of the pulmonary arteries, some NTPEs trigger an inflammatory cascade that causes deterioration of vascular, pulmonary and cardiac function. Radiological imaging in combination with the medical history of patients is sufficient to identify most NTPEs with certainty. The aim of this article is to make readers aware of the symptoms, frequency, relevance, classification, pathophysiology, laboratory findings and radiological findings of the most frequent forms of NTPE. The spectrum of forms presented here includes pulmonary embolisms due to foreign bodies (intravascular, intracorporeal and extracorporeal), amniotic fluid, endogenous tissue, fat, tumors, septic thrombi, hydatids, cement, metallic mercury, gas, silicone and particles.

  10. Treatment of a giant pulmonary emphysematous cyst with primary bronchoalveolar papillary carcinoma in a Shih Tzu dog.

    PubMed

    Park, Jiyoung; Lee, Hae-Beom; Jeong, Seong Mok

    2017-01-01

    To report the surgical treatment of a pulmonary emphysematous cyst concurrent with primary pulmonary bronchoalveolar papillary carcinoma in a dog. Clinical case report. 12-year-old 6.4 kg spayed female Shih Tzu dog. The dog presented for surgical treatment of pulmonary emphysema. Radiography revealed that more than half of the left caudal lung lobe was enlarged and hyperlucent and computed tomography (CT) confirmed the presence of an emphysematous space. Thoracoscopic lung lobectomy was attempted but was converted to an intercostal thoracotomy due to poor visualization and pleural adhesions. A left caudal total lung lobectomy was performed using a self-cutting endoscopic stapler. The dog recovered uneventfully and a postoperative histopathologic diagnosis of pulmonary cystic bronchoalveolar papillary carcinoma was made. Re-evaluation using a CT scan with contrast study on postoperative days 27 and 177 revealed no evidence of residual, metastatic, or recurrent lesions. The dog has been doing well since surgery during the 11 month follow-up period. This case report suggests a potential relationship between pulmonary emphysematous diseases and primary lung tumors in dogs. © 2016 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  11. [Cerebral hydatid cyst: Clinical case and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Acha-Sánchez, José Luis; Yaya-Loo, Héctor José; Chipana-Sotomayor, Marco Enrique

    2016-12-13

    Hydatid disease is an accidental parasitosis, with brain location being rare. The case is reported of a 33year-old male, with no history of note, who was admitted to hospital with intracranial hypertension syndrome and right hemiparesis. Computed tomography showed a cystic lesion in the left frontal-parietal lobule. Surgery was performed by complete excision of the lesion, with a good outcome. Hydatid disease is a rare condition in the brain. Clinical suspicion is important for an early diagnosis. A review is presented on the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of cerebral hydatid disease.

  12. [Acute rupture of hydatid cysts in the peritoneum: 17 cases].

    PubMed

    Beyrouti, Mohamed Issam; Beyrouti, Ramez; Abbes, Imed; Kharrat, Madiha; Ben Amar, Mohamed; Frikha, Foued; Elleuch, Slim; Gharbi, Walid; Chaabouni, Mohamed; Ghorbel, Ali

    2004-03-27

    Specify the clinical and progressive characteristics of acute rupture of hydatid cysts in the peritoneum. We retrospectively studied patients who had undergone surgery for a hydatid cyst (HC) of the abdomen between January 1990 and December 2000 and in whom the exploration had confirmed the diagnosis of acute rupture of a hydatid cyst in the peritoneum. Over this period of 11 Years, 970 patients had undergone surgery for hydatid cysts of the liver and the spleen, 17 of whom had presented an acute rupture of the hydatid cyst in the peritoneum, that is to say 1.75% of the cases. The mean age was 30 Years and sex ratio was 0.41. Rupture was secondary to a trauma in 6 cases and to an intense physical effort in one case. The clinical table was acute peritonitis in 14 cases, acute intestinal occlusion in one case, suggested anaphylactic shock in one case, and a non-complicated hydatid cyst in one case. Ultra-sonographic diagnosis was made in all the cases, but that of rupture in 12 cases only. No scans were performed. Intervention was decided on within a delay of less than 72 hours in 16 cases. Surgical treatment consisted in the treatment of the peritonitis, the ruptured hydatid cyst, the associated hydatid cysts in the liver and the spleen, and the hydatid cyst of the right lung in two cases. Post-operative follow-up was complicated in 4 cases with two deaths through septic shock. Distant follow-up was marked by a secondary peritoneal hydatidosis in a patient whom has not benefited from medical treatment. The latter, based on albendazole, was prescribed in 6 patients with satisfying results and a mean follow-up of 32 months. The therapeutic progress has improved the prognosis of ruptured hydatid cysts in the peritoneum. Secondary peritoneal hydatidosis is fundamentally enhanced by the delay in diagnosis and treatment and the absence of medical treatment. The optimal strategy is to treat the patients at the non-complicated stage of the hydatid cyst and, above all

  13. Hydatid of Morgagni: a possible underestimated cause of unexplained infertility.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Salah M; Abdelmonem, Allam M

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the possible role of hydatid of Morgagni in patients with unexplained infertility. This was a non-randomized controlled trial conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Sohag University, Egypt. Two hundred and thirteen patients with unexplained infertility and hydatid of Morgagni diagnosed at laparoscopy were included. The laterality (bilateral vs unilateral), location (fimbrial vs juxta-fimbrial), number (single vs multiple) and diameter of the hydatids of Morgagni were recorded. Patients were allocated to a study group (n=127) who underwent laparoscopic excision of hydatid of Morgagni and a control group (n=86) who underwent no intervention. Patients were followed for six months without any infertility or hormonal treatment to detect spontaneous pregnancy. Patients missed during the follow-up or who received infertility treatment were excluded. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test and Student's t-test. To find the most important character of hydatid of Morgagni which impedes pregnancy, logistic regression analysis of the dependent variable (no pregnancy) and independent variables (different characters of hydatid of Morgagni) was carried out in the control group. Hydatid of Morgagni was detected in 52.1% of patients with unexplained infertility compared to 25.6% of those with explained infertility (p<0.001). The pregnancy rate was higher in the study group than the control group (58.7% vs 20.6%, p<0.001). The pregnancy rate was significantly higher in the study group than the control group if the hydatid cyst was bilateral (85.7% vs 5.3%, p<0.001), fimbrial (85.6% and 9.1%, p<0.001), single (57.6% and 30.3%, p<0.001) or 1-2 cm in diameter (58.1% and 25.5%, p<0.001). Logistic analysis showed that the bilaterality and fimbrial location of the hydatid of Morgagni were the most significant characteristics impeding pregnancy (odds ratio=7.27 and 3.67 respectively). Hydatid of Morgagni is a possible underestimated cause of

  14. Hydatid Cyst Diagnosed by Endoscopic Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Castro-Poças, F; Araújo, Tarcísio; Coelho, André; Silva, Donzilia; Pedroto, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    A 69-year-old female with unremarkable past history underwent endoscopy for dyspepsia. She denied weight loss or anorexia. Upper endoscopy revealed a bulge in the lesser curvature and posterior wall of the stomach with 4-5 cm. Endoscopic ultrasound was performed which showed a heterogeneous lesion, anechogenic in the major part, with a floating membrane inside, the greatest diameter of 90.8 × 17.2 mm, originated in the left liver lobe. Surgical resection was performed. Pathologic examination revealed a cystic lesion with an acellular thick fibrous wall, surrounded by a conspicuous inflammatory reaction. The cyst wall revealed a characteristic lamellar pattern of the fibers. In the internal surface of the lesion, there were remains of membranous structures, amidst which a vestigial Protoscolex was noted. In the presented case, a floating membrane was observed, which is a pathognomonic feature, establishing the diagnosis of hydatid cyst type 3. Fine needle aspiration guided by ultrasound was not performed due to the certainty in the diagnosis. To the authors' knowledge, these are the first images by endoscopic ultrasound of hydatid cyst of liver presented as a bulge in the stomach with pathognomonic features, which allowed the definitive diagnosis with no need for further diagnostic tests.

  15. Imaging Spectrum of Hydatid Disease: Usual and Unusual Locations

    PubMed Central

    Srinivas, Maskal Revanna; Deepashri, Basavalingu; Lakshmeesha, Mogenahalli Thimmaiah

    2016-01-01

    Summary Hydatid disease is a parasitic infection caused by Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis. It is common in endemic regions and can demonstrate a variety of imaging features that differ according to the affected organ and the stage of the disease. Liver and lungs are the most commonly affected organs. The classic features of hepatic hydatid disease are well known. However, diagnosing hydatid disease at unusual locations may be challenging because of myriad imaging features in each of these locations. Knowledge of the imaging spectrum in systemic hydatidoses in various organs is very valuable in improving the accuracy of radiological interpretation. The purpose of this article is to review the imaging features of hydatid disease at its varied locations. PMID:27231490

  16. Pelvic hydatid disease: CT and MRI findings causing sciatica.

    PubMed

    Sanal, Hatice Tuba; Kocaoglu, Murat; Bulakbasi, Nail; Yildirim, Duzgun

    2007-01-01

    Pelvic masses, especially hydatid disease, rarely present with sciatica (1, 2). We present the computed tomography (CT) and the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of a 49-year-old female patient with presacral hydatid disease, who was evaluated for her sciatica. We also want to emphasize the importance of assessing the pelvis of patients with symptoms and clinical findings that are inconsistent and that cannot be satisfactorily explained by the spinal imaging findings.

  17. Macroscopic Hydatiduria: An Uncommon Pathognomonic Presentation of Renal Hydatid Disease

    PubMed Central

    HAMIDI MADANI, Ali; ENSHAEI, Ahmad; POURREZA, Farshid; ESMAEILI, Samaneh; HAMIDI MADANI, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Isolated renal hydatid disease is a rare endemic infestation caused by larval form of Echinococcus granulosus. Hydatiduria is an uncommon presentation of renal hydatid disease. In 2012 a 34-year-old female referred to Razi Hospital, Rasht, Iran with complaints of right flank pain and grape-like material in urine. Diagnosis was made by ultrasonography and CT scan. The patient was treated surgically with nephrectomy in combination with perioperative chemotherapy with albendazol. PMID:26587504

  18. Pelvic Hydatid Disease: CT and MRI Findings Causing Sciatica

    PubMed Central

    Kocaoglu, Murat; Bulakbasi, Nail; Yildirim, Duzgun

    2007-01-01

    Pelvic masses, especially hydatid disease, rarely present with sciatica (1, 2). We present the computed tomography (CT) and the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of a 49-year-old female patient with presacral hydatid disease, who was evaluated for her sciatica. We also want to emphasize the importance of assessing the pelvis of patients with symptoms and clinical findings that are inconsistent and that cannot be satisfactorily explained by the spinal imaging findings. PMID:18071287

  19. [Hydatid Cyst Cases with Different Localization: Region of Erzurum].

    PubMed

    Demirci, Elif; Altun, Eren; Çalık, Muhammet; Durur Subaşı, Irmak; Şipal, Sare; Gündoğdu, Özge Beyza

    2015-06-01

    In this study it is aimed to contribute in determination of geographic distribution of Hydatid Cysts in Turkey and to emphasize the clinic chaos of Hydatid Cysts cases found in various localizations, by indicating the prevalence of Hydatid Cysts in our region. It is evaluated that the cases diagnosed as Hydatid Cysts in Atatürk University Medical Faculty Pathology Depatment/Erzurum laboratories between 2003-2013; in terms of their age, gender, organ involvement and histopathologic detail. In our study, 459 Hydatid Cysts cases are defined. The most common localizations of cases are determined as liver (n:280, 61%) and lung (n:86, 18,7%). Those are followed by the kidney (n:12, 2,6%), brain (n:12, 2,6%) and spleen (n:9, 2.3%). Multi-organ involvement is observed in 31 cases (6.7%), in 10 (2.2%) cases co-occurence of liver and lung is determined. Unusual organ involvement is observed in 64 cases (13.9%) while the liver and lung is not involved. Hydatid Cysts is an important health issue which is endemically seen in our region. It can be observed in various localizations of human body, other than the liver and lung. Those various localizations lie behind the serious diagnostic problems in endemic regions.

  20. A relevant enzyme in granulomatous reaction, active matrix metalloproteinase-9, found in bovine Echinococcus granulosus hydatid cyst wall and fluid.

    PubMed

    Marco, M; Baz, A; Fernandez, C; Gonzalez, G; Hellman, U; Salinas, G; Nieto, A

    2006-12-01

    In addition to the ability of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) to degrade components of the extracellular matrix and their involvement in pathology-related processes of tissue remodeling, they were recently reported to enhance inflammation by activation of proinflammatory cytokines, or their release from the cell surface. In the work reported here, proteolytic activity previously found for hydatid cysts was further characterized as MMP-9. Active host MMP-9 was found in walls and fluids of bovine hydatid cysts of Echinococcus granulosus in the environment of granulomatous reaction. Pooled walls and fluids of hydatid cysts obtained from infected cattle were processed. Strong proteolytic activity was detected by zymography. The proteolytic fraction was purified by anion exchange and gelatin-agarose affinity chromatography. Major proteinases of the purified fraction were subjected to mass spectrometry and their identities were further confirmed by Western blotting using commercial anti-human MMP-9 monoclonal antibodies. Two proteinases were characterized as latent and active forms of host MMP-9. Using the same antibody for immunoblot, activity was localized, in paraffin-embedded sections of the parasite and the local host environment, to epithelioid and giant multinucleated cells. It is proposed here that MMP-9 is secreted by specialized host cells of monocytic lineage (epithelioid/giant cells) as an effector, in an attempt to digest the persistent foreign body. In vivo activation of MMP-9 suggests its involvement in inflammatory reaction and in the chemotaxis of inflammatory cells to the cyst. However, E. granulosus can deal efficiently with MMP-9. Research is suggested into possible immune evasion mechanisms, including the secretion of an inhibitory molecule.

  1. A rare combination of hepatic and pericardial hydatid cyst and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Dasbaksi, Kallol; Haldar, Suranjan; Mukherjee, Kaushik; Mukherjee, Plaban

    2015-01-01

    Hydatid disease in human beings, as in all intermediate hosts, manifest as hydatid cyst (HC). It is an important cyclozoonotic disease, endemic in various sheep and cattle raising areas of the world, including India. The tapeworm commonly involved is Echinococcus granulosus. HC can occur almost anywhere in the body, most common organs being liver and lungs, and are usually solitary. In 25% of cases combination of liver HC with HC in other extra pulmonary locations are found. Cardiac HCs comprise of 0.5-2% of all HC cases. Within the heart, HCs are usually situated in the left or right ventricle and rarely found in the peri-cardium. Pericardial HC does not produce symptoms and is often painless and silent, until the cysts grow to a large size over the years, when the usual complications develop, such as cyst rupture, cardiac compression, atrial fibrillation, and even sudden death. We describe the case of a 39 year old house wife, of rural origin, with proximity to livestock, who had an asymptomatic pericardial HC along with a symptomatic hepatic HC. She clinically presented with an abdominal lump for one year with recent onset of abdominal pain for 1 month, when radiological imaging confirmed the diagnosis of an unruptured hepatic HC and a pericardial HC. The patient recovered after pericardiectomy along with excision of the HC over the left ventricle and enucleation of hepatic HC, by thoracoabdominal approach. She is doing well after 5 years of followup without recurrence.

  2. Video-assisted surgery in the management of hydatid renal cyst in children.

    PubMed

    Ksiaa, Amine; Zitouni, Hayet; Zrig, Ahmad; Kerkeni, Yosra; Sahnoun, Lassaad; Chahed, Jamila; Laamiri, Rachida; Maazoun, Kais; Krichéne, Imed; Mekki, Mongi; Belguith, Mohsen; Nouri, Abdelletif

    2013-05-01

    Renal hydatid disease is rare in children. Open surgery is the traditional method of treatment, but minimally invasive techniques are being increasingly used. Herein, we report our experience with laparoscopic management of renal hydatid cyst in four children via a transperitoneal approach in three cases and a retroperitoneoscopy in one. We conclude that transperitoneal laparoscopy can be offered for the management of hydatid renal cyst associated with other intraperitoneal localizations, whereas the retroperitoneoscopy is limited for the treatment of isolated hydatid renal cysts.

  3. [Primary heterotopic pleural hydatid cyst presenting as a pneumothorax].

    PubMed

    Marghli, A; Ayadi-Kaddour, A; Ouerghi, S; Boudaya, M S; Zairi, S; Smati, B; Mestiri, T; Kilani, T

    2011-03-01

    Hydatid cyst is a parasitic disease that is endemic in many countries. Pneumothorax may be a presentation of this disease that presents urgent problems of diagnosis and treatment. We report the case of a 23-year-old woman, amenorrheic for 22 weeks, who presented with chest pain and dyspnoea. Chest x-ray revealed a right-sided tension pneumothorax. A check x-ray after drainage showed a homogeneous opacity of water density occupying the lower 2/3 of the right hemithorax. Thoracic ultrasound suggested an uncomplicated hydatid cyst at the right base. Surgical exploration revealed a hydatid cyst 14cm in diameter in the pleural space, and a cavity in the right lower lobe with two bronchial fistulae. Treatment consisted of removal of the cyst intact, closure of the bronchial fistulae and capitonnage of the residual cavity. The postoperative course was uncomplicated. Primary heterotopic pleural hydatid cyst is an exceptional cause of pneumothorax that should considered in countries where hydatid disease is endemic. Treatment is surgical following drainage of the pneumothorax. Copyright © 2011 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. PAIR as percutaneous treatment of hydatid liver cysts.

    PubMed

    Peláez, V; Kugler, C; Correa, D; Del Carpio, M; Guangiroli, M; Molina, J; Marcos, B; Lopez, E

    2000-03-25

    Hydatid disease of the liver remains an important and challenging problem in rural areas; although, surgery is considered the treatment of choice, percutaneous treatment of hydatid cysts is relatively new, and the data related to it are limited. The purpose of the study was to present the results of percutaneous treatment of liver hydatid cysts. Thirty-four patients (13 male and 21 female), ranging in age between 14 and 80 years, with 55 liver hydatid cysts underwent percutaneous treatment with albendazole prophylaxis. Cysts were treated with a one-stage procedure that consisted of puncture of the cysts under guidance with computed tomography, aspiration of fluid, injection of hypertonic saline solution as scolicidal agent and reaspiration. Follow-up examinations showed progressive reduction and solidification of the cysts. The mean reduction in volume was 72%. No mortality, abdominal dissemination, or tract seeding occurred. Minor complications were urticaria with pruritus in two patients. One patient had a subcapusular hematoma without problem. Hospitalization courses varied from ambulatory procedures to 15 days of in-patient, mean hospital stay was 1.82 days. The results of percutaneous liver hydatid cyst treatment, indicating that the procedure is efficient and safe and offers complete cure in selected patients with a short hospitalization and that this technique should be considered an alternative to surgery.

  5. Serological diagnosis of lung cystic hydatid disease using the synthetic p176 peptide.

    PubMed

    Santivañez, Saul J; Arias, Patricia; Portocarrero, Milagrytos; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gonzalez, Armando E; Gilman, Robert H; Gavidia, Cesar M; Garcia, Hector H

    2012-06-01

    Cystic hydatid disease (CHD) is a worldwide zoonosis caused by the larval stage of the dog tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. Diagnosis is based on imagenological tools (abdominal ultrasound, chest X-rays, or computed tomography [CT] scan). Serological antibody-detecting assays, using diverse native antigens, have been used as a supportive diagnostic tool, but their sensitivities and specificities differ greatly. The use of synthetic peptides as antigens should provide more reliability and allow better assessment and comparison of test formats and case series. The synthetic peptide p176, corresponding to the N-terminal extreme of the subunit of antigen B (AgB8/1), has shown promising performances for diagnosis of CHD. We evaluated the performance of the synthetic peptide p176 for the diagnosis of pulmonary hydatid disease in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) format. Sixty-one serum samples from patients with a diagnosis of pulmonary hydatidosis confirmed by surgery and 128 from healthy volunteers were tested. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the p176 ELISA for lung CHD were 78.69% and 96.88%, respectively. On bivariate analysis, positive serum antibody reactions were associated with the presence of complications and with the number of cysts (single/multiple). Only the presence of persistent complications significantly associated with seropositivity on multivariate logistic regression analysis (odds ratio [OR], 9.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.15 to 42.6; P = 0.003). The p176 ELISA performs well for the diagnosis of lung CHD and adds an easily reproducible diagnostic assay to the existing diagnostic tools.

  6. Serological Diagnosis of Lung Cystic Hydatid Disease Using the Synthetic p176 Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Patricia; Portocarrero, Milagrytos; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Garcia, Hector H.

    2012-01-01

    Cystic hydatid disease (CHD) is a worldwide zoonosis caused by the larval stage of the dog tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. Diagnosis is based on imagenological tools (abdominal ultrasound, chest X-rays, or computed tomography [CT] scan). Serological antibody-detecting assays, using diverse native antigens, have been used as a supportive diagnostic tool, but their sensitivities and specificities differ greatly. The use of synthetic peptides as antigens should provide more reliability and allow better assessment and comparison of test formats and case series. The synthetic peptide p176, corresponding to the N-terminal extreme of the subunit of antigen B (AgB8/1), has shown promising performances for diagnosis of CHD. We evaluated the performance of the synthetic peptide p176 for the diagnosis of pulmonary hydatid disease in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) format. Sixty-one serum samples from patients with a diagnosis of pulmonary hydatidosis confirmed by surgery and 128 from healthy volunteers were tested. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the p176 ELISA for lung CHD were 78.69% and 96.88%, respectively. On bivariate analysis, positive serum antibody reactions were associated with the presence of complications and with the number of cysts (single/multiple). Only the presence of persistent complications significantly associated with seropositivity on multivariate logistic regression analysis (odds ratio [OR], 9.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.15 to 42.6; P = 0.003). The p176 ELISA performs well for the diagnosis of lung CHD and adds an easily reproducible diagnostic assay to the existing diagnostic tools. PMID:22518012

  7. Successful treatment of hydatid cyst of lesser sac with PAIR therapy.

    PubMed

    Fayyaz, Afshan; Ghani, Umar Fayyaz

    2013-12-01

    Hydatid disease has varied presentations and may involve any part of the body with hydatid disease of the liver being the most common site. Hydatid disease of lesser sac is a rare entity. Different treatment options of hydatid liver disease are available which include surgical, medical and radiological management. Surgical management has its limitations in terms of cost, morbidity, mortality, rate of recurrence and patient fitness to undergo surgery. Medical management alone carries a low chance of cure. Radiological management with PAIR therapy (percutaneous aspiration, injection and re-aspiration) of hydatid liver disease has been well described in literature. However, hydatid disease of lesser sac in itself is a rare entity and its treatment with PAIR procedure has not been described before. We describe a case of hydatid disease of lesser sac treated with the PAIR procedure.

  8. Giant bulla mimicking tension pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Gökçe, Mertol; Saydam, Ozkan; Altin, Remzi; Kart, Levent

    2009-01-01

    In the chest X-ray, we observe tension pneumothorax (TPX) as wide radiolucent view in a hemithorax and pushing the mediastinal structures contralateral. Giant bulla may mimic TPX with wide radiolucent view and mediastinal shift. The present report includes giant pulmonary bulla in 35-year-old woman. The giant bulla was diagnosed as a TPX in emergency, and chest tube was performed. The differentiation between TPX and a giant bulla may be very difficult. The therapies of these two similar entities are completely different. So that, we must be careful about anamnesis, physical examination and radiology for true diagnosis.

  9. Spontaneous external fistula: the rarest presentation of hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Jayant, Kumar; Agrawal, Swati; Agarwal, Rajendra; Dayama, Krishna Gopal

    2014-05-14

    A 65-year-old man with hydatid disease of the liver presented with a spontaneous cutaneous rupture draining about 10 L of fluid with daughter cysts. Contrast-enhanced CT showed multiple hypodense areas in the residual right lobe of the liver and abdominal wall with compensatory hypertrophy of the left lobe, confirming the diagnosis of a hydatid cyst presenting as external fistulisation which represents a very advanced stage of hydatid disease. Once the patient's nutritional status improved he was taken for surgery. On laparotomy there were multiple cysts seen in the residual right lobe of the liver and inflammatory changes in the abdominal wall with an external fistulous opening. Right-lobe hepatectomy was carried out along with excision of the fistulous tract. The specimen showed multiple degenerated contents of the cyst with numerous daughter cysts along the fistulous tract and examination of cyst fluid demonstrated protoscolices. The postoperative period was uneventful. He was regularly followed and was doing well.

  10. Laparoscopy or open surgery for the treatment of hydatid cyst?

    PubMed

    Ahumada, Vanessa; Moraga, Felipe; Rada, Gabriel

    2016-03-22

    The laparoscopic approach has taken a prominent role in the last decades for various surgical conditions, including liver hydatid cyst. However there is controversy about whether it can replace open surgery. Using Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified three systematic reviews which together include four relevant studies, all nonrandomized. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We concluded it is unclear whether laparoscopy for hepatic hydatid cyst reduces mortality, morbidity or recurrence compared with open surgery because the certainty of the evidence is very low.

  11. Multivesicular cysts in cattle: characterisation of unusual hydatid cyst morphology caused by Echinococcus granulosus.

    PubMed

    Kul, Oguz; Yildiz, Kader

    2010-05-28

    Echinococcus granulosus, the causative agent of cystic echinococcosis, not only often causes unilocular cysts in intermediate hosts, but also in rare cases induces formation of multivesicular cysts which have similar morphology to alveolar cysts. The aim of the present study was to characterise multivesicular and unilocular hydatid cysts in cattle using morphologic and molecular diagnostic tools. Multivesicular cysts were detected in 4 out of 1255 slaughtered cows. Four unilocular cysts were also included in the study to compare with multivesicular cyst morphology. For histopathological evaluation, tissues were fixed in 10% neutral formalin. Following a routine histological tissue-processing procedure, samples were embedded in paraffin blocks and serial sections were cut at a thickness of 4-5 microm. For polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cyst walls and/or protoscolices recovered from six materials were preserved in 70% alcohol. Histopathologically, severity of calcification, fibrous capsule formation and giant cell layer were similar for multivesicular and unilocular cysts. However, the severity of subcapsular inflammation, inflammatory cell infiltration into adjacent organ parenchyma and eosinophil leucocyte infiltration into the cyst lumen was higher in multivesicular cysts. PCR analyses revealed that all unilocular hydatid cysts as well as two out of four multivesicular cysts were G1 genotype of E. granulosus. Molecular diagnosis of the other two multivesicular structures remained inconclusive as DNAs obtained from paraffin-embedded cyst walls were fragmented to small parts, as short as 100 bp, which were not suitable for PCR analyses. In conclusion, molecular analysis concomitant to histopathological examinations is useful in differential diagnosis of multivesicular echinococcosis.

  12. Prevalence of hydatid cysts in livestock animals in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Qingling, Meng; Guanglei, Wang; Jun, Qiao; Xinquan, Zhu; Tianli, Liu; Xuemei, Song; Jinsheng, Zhang; Huisheng, Wang; Kuojun, Cai; Chuangfu, Chen

    2014-06-01

    Hydatid worms, hosted by humans and animals, impose serious human health risk and cause significant livestock production loss. To better understand the disease infection status in Xinjiang, China, we investigated the disease epidemics in 4 livestock animals, i.e., cattle, sheep (both sheep and goat), camels, and horses, slaughtered at the abattoirs in Urumqi, Yining, Tacheng, and Altay areas. The results showed that the animals were infected at different rates, in the order of sheep (9.8%), cattle (8.4%), camels (6.8%), and horses (4.3%). The infection rates were found to be different between the abattoirs in various regions even for the same animals. For sheep, the rates increased significantly as the animals grew older. It was 1.9% before 1 year of age and increased to 8.2% in the age of 1-2 years, and further increased to 12.3% when the animals were 3-4 years old, and reached 17.2% when they were 5-6 year old. Sheep older than 6 years had an infection rate of 19.5%. This study demonstrates that the 4 livestock animals in the pastoral areas in Xinjiang were infected by the parasites to various extend. This study is the first systematic investigation of the hydatid worms in various livestock animals in Xinjiang, China, which provides epidemiological information about the infection of hydatid worms in livestock, and is valuable in developing strategies for prevention and control of the hydatid disease.

  13. Epilepsy: unusual presentation of cerebral hydatid disease in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hajhouji, Farouk; Aniba, Khalid; Laghmari, Mehdi; Lmejjati, Mohammed; Ghannane, Houssine; Benali, Said Ait

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral hydatid disease is very rare, representing only 2% of all cerebral space occupying lesions even in the countries where the disease is endemic. Intracranial hydatid cysts are more common in children and occur more frequently in the supratentorial space. The aim of this paper is to describe the characteristic features of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to determine the clinical presentation and surgical outcome of cerebral hydatid disease. A 7-year-old girl was admitted to the emergency department because of an epileptic attack. On radiological examination a round, cystic lesion appeared in the parietal lobe and caused shift of the midline structures. The cyst was successfully removed using the dowling technique. The postoperative period was uneventful and seizures were not seen during follow up. Hydatid cyst of the brain presents clinically as intracranial space occupying lesion and is more common in children, it is well demonstrated by CT and MR examinations, and Surgery is the treatment option with affordable morbidity and low mortality.

  14. Hydatid cyst of the thyroid gland: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Mehmet; Akbulut, Sami; Sogutlu, Gokhan; Arabaci, Ebru; Kayaalp, Cuneyt

    2013-08-01

    Cystic Echinococcosis is a parasitic infestation that is distributed world-wide. It may be found in nearly any part of the body, most often in the liver and the lungs, but occasionally in other structures such as the thyroid gland. The present study reports three cases of hydatid cysts of the thyroid gland, in patient ranging from 18 to 25 years of age. Two patients had concomitant hydatid disease involving organs other than the thyroid gland (secondary disease), and one had, sole, involvement of the thyroid gland itself (primary disease). Moreover, an occult papillary thyroid carcinoma was detected incidentally in one case, involving the unilateral thyroid lobe as the hydatid cyst. While several surgical procedures including left lobectomy and isthmectomy were undertaken in one patient, two patients underwent total thyroidectomy. No disease recurrence was observed in any of the three patients during the postoperative follow-up period. No study reporting the concomitance of hydatid cyst and neoplasia of the thyroid gland has been previously published. This concomitance indicates the importance of the differential diagnosis of lesions characterized by calcifications in the thyroid gland, especially in endemic regions.

  15. Unusual Locations of the Hydatid Cyst: A Review from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Geramizadeh, Bita

    2013-01-01

    Hydatid disease is caused by Echinococcus granulosus and is endemic in many parts of the world, including Iran. This parasitic tapeworm can produce cysts in almost every organ of the body, with the liver and lung being the most frequently targeted organs. However, the cyst tends to appear in different and sometimes unusual body sites in various geographical areas of the world. This review provides information on the reported cases of the unusual body sites of the hydatid cyst from Iran in the last 20 years. A literature search was performed through PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, IranMedex, Society Information Display (SID), Magiran, and Irandoc using the keywords of “hydatid cyst and Iran” and “Echinococcus granulosus and Iran”, and 463 published cases of the hydatid cyst in unusual body sites from Iran were reviewed, evaluated, and discussed. The most common locations were the central nervous system (brain, spinal cord, and orbit), musculoskeletal system, heart, and kidney, while some less common locations were the spleen, pancreas, appendix, thyroid, salivary gland, adrenal gland, breast, and ovary. PMID:23645952

  16. Diagnosis and Percutaneous Treatment of Soft-Tissue Hydatid Cysts

    SciTech Connect

    Akhan, Okan Gumus, Burcak; Akinci, Devrim; Karcaaltincaba, Musturay; Ozmen, Mustafa

    2007-06-15

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate and discuss the radiological features of four patients with muscular hydatid disease and to evaluate the results of percutaneous treatment in these patients. Four patients (three female and one male) with six muscular hydatid cysts underwent percutaneous treatment and were followed up. The mean age of patients was 35 years (range: 12-60 years). Type I (n = 2), type II (n = 1), and type III (n = 3) hydatid cysts were observed in the thigh (n = 3) and gluteal (n = 1) region on radiologic examination. All interventions were performed under sonographic and fluoroscopic guidance. According to the type of the cyst, the procedure was carried out by either a 'catheterization technique with hypertonic saline and alcohol' or a 'modified catheterization technique.' The mean cathaterization time was 13.7 days, ranging from 1 to 54 days. The dimensions of the residual cavity were noted at every sonographic control, and an average of 96.1% volume reduction was obtained in six cysts of four patients. No sign of viability was observed during the follow-up period. Cavity infection and cellulitis were observed as complications, which resolved after medical therapy. Percutaneous treatment is a safe and effective procedure in patients with soft-tissue hydatid cysts and should be considered as a serious alternative to surgery.

  17. Therapeutic strategies for complications secondary to hydatid cyst rupture

    PubMed Central

    Cobanoglu, Ufuk; Sayır, Fuat; Şehitoğlu, Abidin; Bilici, Salim; Melek, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Clinical approach and therapeutic methods are important in cases with complicated hydatid cysts of the lung. This study was designed to retrospectively investigate cases with hydatid cysts, thereby discussing diagnostic methods, treatment modalities, and rates of morbidity and mortality in line with the literature. Methods: 176 cases with perforated hydatid cysts, who presented to our clinic and underwent surgery between 2003 and 2011, were included in the study. There were 71 (40.34%) females and 105 males (59.66%) with a mean age of 27.80±14.07. The most common symptom was dyspnea (44.31%) and the most common radiological finding was the water lily sign (21.02%). 88.06% of the cases were surgically treated by Cystotomy+closure of bronchial opening+ capitonnage, 3.97% by wedge resection, 4.54% by segmentectomy and 3.40% by lobectomy. Results: The cysts exhibited multiple localization in 24 cases (13.63%), bilateral localization in 14 cases (7.95%), with the most common localization (43.75%) being the right lower lobe. While the hydatid cyst rupture occurred due to delivery in three (1.70%), trauma in 11 (6.25%), and iatrogenic causes in seven (3.97%) cases, it occurred spontaneously in the rest of the cases (88.08%). Fourteen of the cases with spontaneously occurring rupture (7.95%) were detected to have received anthelmintic treatment for hydatid cyst during the preoperative period (albendazole). The rate of morbidity was 27.27% and the rate of mortality was 1.13% in our study. Two cases recurred during a one-year follow-up (1.13%). Conclusion: Hydatid cyst rupture should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cases with pleural effusion, empyema, pneumothorax and pneumonia occurring in endemic regions. Symptoms occurring during and after perforation lead to errors in differential diagnosis. Performing the surgery without delay favorably affects postoperative morbidity and mortality. While parenchyma-preserving surgery is preferential, there

  18. Surgical management of brainstem hydatid cyst--an unusual site.

    PubMed

    Muthusubramanian, Vikram; Pande, Anil; Vasudevan, Madhabushi Chakravarthy; Ravi, Ramamurthi

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe their surgical experience of a hydatid cyst in the brainstem, which is an unusual site. The cyst was internally decompressed and totally excised. Although the Dowling technique has been described to be the ideal method for removal of hydatid cysts, it may not be possible when the cyst is in a deep-seated, vital, and eloquent location. We report the use of internal decompression by aspiration followed by total excision as an alternative method when the cyst is located in vital areas of the brain. A 40-year-old female presented with headache, progressive right-sided weakness, double vision, and unsteadiness of gait of 1-month duration. On examination, she had left one-and-a-half syndrome, right hemiparesis of 3/5, and left cerebellar signs. Computed tomographic and MRI scans of the brain revealed a solitary, stenciled-out cystic lesion in the brainstem more toward the left side with features suggestive of hydatid cyst. A left retromastoid craniectomy followed by left middle cerebellar peduncle approach, aspiration of the cyst, and total excision of the cyst was performed. Postoperatively, the patient improved progressively and was asymptomatic with minimal left cerebellar signs at 1-year follow-up. Hydatid cyst is a benign lesion. Appropriate management is mandatory for reducing the morbidity. Although the Dowling technique with its modifications is appropriate for cerebral parenchymal surfacing or superficial hydatid cysts, in deep-seated cysts located in eloquent and vital areas such as the brainstem, management by internal decompression by aspiration followed by extirpation of the cyst wall, protecting the surrounding cisterns and CSF spaces, is an alternative option.

  19. Primary subcutaneous inguinal hydatid cyst: diagnosis by fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Bagga, Permeet Kaur; Bhargava, Satish Kumar; Aggarwal, Neema; Chander, Yogesh

    2014-08-01

    Hydatid disease or human cystic echinococcosis, recognized by ancient scholars such as Hippocrates, Galen and Rhazes, is one of the oldest diseases known to man. Though hydatid cyst may develop in almost any part of the body, a solitary primary subcutaneous localization is an extremely rare entity. We herein report a case of primary subcutaneous inguinal hydatid cyst which was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology. Radiological examination done subsequently corroborated with the cytodiagnosis of Hydatid cyst and did not show involvement of any other organ or site. Histopathological examination of surgically removed cyst confirmed the diagnosis of Hydatid cyst. Hydatid disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of all unusual swellings in soft tissues, especially in regions where the disease is endemic.

  20. Orbital hydatid cyst of Echinococcus oligarthrus in a human in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Lopera, R D; Meléndez, R D; Fernandez, I; Sirit, J; Perera, M P

    1989-06-01

    This study reports the first known case of human hydatid disease caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus oligarthrus. The patient, a native Venezuelan female, presented a single cyst localized intraorbitally behind the left eye (retroocular), which was discovered by computed tomography. The cyst was removed by surgery, and after parasitological studies it was identified as an E. oligarthrus hydatid cyst. This is also the first case of intraorbital hydatid cyst in humans in Venezuela.

  1. An unusual cause of chest pain: An isolated huge cardiac hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Uygur, Begum; Ustabasioglu, Fethi Emre; Karakurt, Huseyin; Akinci, Okan; Celik, Omer

    2017-06-27

    Hydatid disease is a human parasitic infection caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. The most common locations for hydatid cysts are the liver and lungs. Cardiac involvement is rare, and isolated cardiac hydatid cysts are even more unusual. We report the case a 48-year-old female patient with an isolated huge cardiac hydatid cyst involving both the left ventricular free wall and the pericardium, and presenting with atypical chest pain. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. [The comparison of algorithms on the CT image retrieval of Xinjiang local liver hydatid disease].

    PubMed

    Yan, Chuanbo; Hamit, Murat; Li, Li; Chen, Jianjun; Hu, Yahting; Kong, Dewei; Zhou, Jingjing

    2013-10-01

    Xinjiang local liver hydatid disease is an infectious parasitic disease in Xinjiang pastoral areas. Based on the image features, selecting the appropriate distance algorithms to retrieve the image quickly and accurately, different distance algorithms have been induced in this area, which can greatly assist the doctors to early detect, diagnose and cure the liver hydatid disease. This paper compared the performance of different distance algorithms to retrieve the image when using the liver hydatid disease medical image texture features. The results showed that: for the liver hydatid disease medical images retrieval based on gray level cocurrence matrix (GLCM) texture features, the Mahalanobis distance algorithm is superior to other distance algorithms.

  3. [Iatrogenic gas embolism after use of hydrogen peroxide in the treatment of lung hydatid cyst: a report of 2 cases].

    PubMed

    Ouerghi, Sonia; Abdelhafidh, Khoubeib; Merghli, Adel; Smati, Belhassen; Boudaya, Mohamed Sadok; Lamine, Khaled; Mestiri, Taher; Kilani, Tarek

    2010-11-01

    Echinococcus disease is endemic in our country. Surgical resection of the hydatid cyst with the use of a protoscolicidal solution in the operative field remains the standard treatment. The degradation of hydrogen peroxide results in considerable amounts of gaseous oxygen witch has proven protoscolicidal properties. This gas can enter the circulation and determine severe embolism. We report two cases of severe oxygen embolism with neurological signs during surgical treatment of thoracic hydatid cysts. We report 2 cases of embolic events with neurological signs. The first, during a pleural cleaning with hydrogen peroxide after cystectomy of a pulmonary hydatic cyst at the right upper lobe. The second case, after a pleural washing during the treatment of hepatitic hydatidosis complicated by a ruptured cyst in the thorax. The most important diagnostic criterion is the patient's history, because the clinical suspicion of embolism is based on the initial neurologic or cardio-respiratory symptoms and the direct relation between these symptoms and the use of hydrogen peroxide and imposes appropriate treatment before further examination including brain imaging. The treatment with hyperbaric oxygen is the first line treatment, thus, transfer to a hyperbaric oxygen facility should be accomplished without delay. The possibility of such serious complication leads us to use hydrogen peroxide with great care or to use other protoscolicidal solutions.

  4. Hydatid disease: the threat within Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Alto, W A; Nettleton, L B

    1989-06-01

    Hydatid disease is a problem in those countries where man, grazing animals and dogs live in close association. The adult tapeworm of Echinococcus granulosus causes few, if any, symptoms in the dog and so its presence may be unsuspected. Transmission to man is by ingestion of eggs, which resist desiccation and may be viable for up to one year. Food or water may be directly contaminated or infection acquired by close contact with dogs carrying eggs in their saliva or hair. Though quarantine regulations exist, the introduction of the disease as the tapeworm in dogs or as the hydatid cyst in imported sheep from New Zealand has occurred and its spread is a possibility. The life cycle, clinical manifestations and significance if introduced to rural communities are discussed.

  5. Percutaneous CT-guided treatment of recurrent spinal cyst hydatid.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Ozgur; Calisaneller, Tarkan; Yildirim, Erkan; Altinors, Nur

    2011-01-01

    The involvement of spinal column in cyst hydatid disease is rare and hard to treat. The gold standard treatment is total removal of the cysts without rupture. However, recurrence after surgery is almost inevitable and reoperations carries technical difficulties and higher morbidity. We present a 69-year-old woman with two cystic masses at the T12 level, which compress the spinal cord causing severe paresis in her left leg. Under local anestesia, the cysts were aspirated and irrigated with 20% hypertonic saline solution via bilateral T12 transpedicular route. We aimed to report that percutaneous CT guided treatment should be considered as an alternative therapeutic option in case of recurrent spinal cyst hydatid.

  6. Beware! A simple renal cyst could be a hydatid cyst

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, Nidhi; Priyadarshi, Vinod

    2017-01-01

    Kidney is one of the most common sites for the cyst formation in the body, and the management of simple cysts is required entirely for its symptoms and complications. Surgical decortication is an established treatment for a large and symptomatic simple renal cyst. On the other hand, hydatid cysts of the kidney are usually multiloculated complex or calcified cysts and are quite rare. Their surgical treatment also differs and requires complete excision with pericystectomy or partial/complete nephrectomy depending upon residual functional parenchyma, using extreme caution to avoid spillage, recurrence or development of severe anaphylactic shock. A simple cyst harboring a hydatid cyst is highly uncommon and quite dangerous; as if not diagnosed preoperatively, it can create huge trouble for both the patient and the operating surgeon which happened in the present case. PMID:28794599

  7. Hydatid disease of the tarsal bones. A case report.

    PubMed

    Papanikolaou, A; Antoniou, N; Pavlakis, D; Garas, G

    2005-01-01

    Hydatid disease is caused by the larval form of the tapeworm Echinococcus. Osseous cysts are rare and very few cases of foot infestation have been reported. We present the case of a 51-year-old woman who developed a palpable mass at the medial dorsal aspect of the right midfoot. Radiological examination showed cystic lesions in the cuneiforms and the navicular. The lesion was explored and several small cysts containing clear fluid were found. They were evacuated and the bone was curetted. The diagnosis of E. granulosus infestation was made histologically. After 15 years' follow-up there were no signs of recurrence. Osseous echinococcosis is a rare disease that may present as infective or neoplastic pathology. A high index of suspicion is necessary for its diagnosis, especially in patients who live in or travel to sheep-raising areas where hydatid disease is endemic.

  8. Beware! A simple renal cyst could be a hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Nidhi; Priyadarshi, Vinod

    2017-01-01

    Kidney is one of the most common sites for the cyst formation in the body, and the management of simple cysts is required entirely for its symptoms and complications. Surgical decortication is an established treatment for a large and symptomatic simple renal cyst. On the other hand, hydatid cysts of the kidney are usually multiloculated complex or calcified cysts and are quite rare. Their surgical treatment also differs and requires complete excision with pericystectomy or partial/complete nephrectomy depending upon residual functional parenchyma, using extreme caution to avoid spillage, recurrence or development of severe anaphylactic shock. A simple cyst harboring a hydatid cyst is highly uncommon and quite dangerous; as if not diagnosed preoperatively, it can create huge trouble for both the patient and the operating surgeon which happened in the present case.

  9. Radiological manifestations of hydatid disease and its complications

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Pooja; Prakash, Mahesh; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid disease (HD) is endemic in many parts of the world. HD can affect virtually any organ system in body and should be kept as differential diagnosis of cystic lesion. HD is mostly asymptomatic; however, it demonstrates a variety of characteristic imaging findings depending on the site of involvement, stage of growth, mass effect, complications, or hematogenous spread, which helps in diagnosis. Radiography, ultrasonography (USG), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are commonly used imaging modalities. Radiography is helpful in chest and for demonstrating calcification. USG demonstrates characteristic findings such as cystic nature, daughter vesicles, membranes, septa, and hydatid sand. CT and MRI are modalities of choice for number, size, anatomic location, identification of local complications, and systemic spread. CT is, especially helpful for osseous involvement, and MRI is better for biliary and neurological involvement. Knowledge of these imaging findings helps in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. PMID:27722098

  10. Surgical management of complicated hydatid cysts of the liver

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Ajaz A; Bari, Shams UL; Amin, Ruquia; Jan, Masooda

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To review the clinical presentation and surgical management of complicated hydatid cysts of the liver and to assess whether conservative surgery is adequate in the management of complicated hydatid cysts of liver. METHODS: The study was carried out at Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Science, Srinagar, Kashmir, India. Sixty nine patients with hydatid disease of the liver were surgically managed from April 2004 to October 2005 with a follow up period of three years. It included 27 men and 42 women with a median age of 35 years. An abdominal ultrasound, computed tomography and serology established diagnosis. Patients with jaundice and high suspicion of intrabiliary rupture were subjected to preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. Cysts with infection, rupture into the biliary tract and peritoneal cavity were categorized as complicated cysts. Eighteen patients (26%) had complicated cysts and formed the basis for this study. RESULTS: Common complications were infection (14%), intrabiliary rupture (9%) and intraperitoneal rupture (3%). All the patients with infected cysts presented with pain and fever. All the patients with intrabiliary rupture had jaundice, while only four with intrabiliary rupture had pain and only two had fever. Surgical procedures performed in complicated cysts were: infection-omentoplasty in three and external drainage in seven; intrabiliary rupture-omentoplasty in two and internal drainage in four patients. Two patients with intraperitoneal rupture underwent external drainage. There was no mortality. The postoperative morbidity was 50% in complicated cysts and 16% in uncomplicated cysts. CONCLUSION: Complicated hydatid cyst of the liver can be successfully managed surgically with good long term results. PMID:21160854

  11. [Cervical hydatid disease with retropharyngeal involvement: a case report].

    PubMed

    Semlali, S; Nassar, I; Cissé, A; El-Gueddari, F Z; Imani, F

    2004-01-01

    Hydatid disease involves the bones in 0.5 to 2% of cases, with 44% of these cases at the level of the spine. The cervical spine is a rare location, with a risk of spinal cord compression and recurrences. The Authors report a case of a young male admitted for progressive quadriplegia secondary to cervical spine hydatidosis, extending towards the retropharynx that was evaluated by CT and MRI.

  12. [Isolated retrovesical hydatid cyst. Apropos of two cases].

    PubMed

    el Moussaoui, A; Aboutaieb, R; Joual, A; el Mrini, M; Meziane, F; Benjelloun, S

    1994-01-01

    Isolated retrovesical location of hydatid cyst is a very uncommon condition. Clinical patterns appear after a long course of the cyst. They are represented by hypogastric mass associated with compressive manifestations. Ultrasonography is essential for diagnosis and identification of other sites. When diagnosis is unclear, then CT scan plays a role. Cystectomy and pericystic resection, as extensive as possible, is the adequate treatment that gives successful results in most cases.

  13. [Clinical approach to hydatid disease in uremic patients].

    PubMed

    Vaccaro, F; Pagano, A; Romano, G; Romano, G

    1996-03-01

    Uremic patients in hemodialytic treatment have the same opportunity to be affected with hydatid disease as healthy people. However, because these patients usually have an immunodeficiency syndrome, it is always necessary to evaluate correctly the most common immune diagnostic procedures; furthermore the clinical approach and successive surgical treatment must evaluate carefully electrolyte and acid-base balances, the cardiovascular system, hemostasis and energy intake. Authors, in this paper, report 8 cases of hydatid disease in as many patients during a period of 27 years. At the beginning they describe diagnostic and therapeutic management; later they emphasize the necessity of a careful immunological diagnostic evaluation (which is often falsely negative), and of radiological, ultrasonographic and scintigraphic diagnosis. They conclude by emphasizing that uremic patients with hemodialytic treatment survive with disease and although a surgical approach of hydatid disease is not really different from others it could be insidious not to consider the peculiar immunological and clinical metabolic state of uremic patients also to perform a correct treatment.

  14. Abdominal hydatid disease: long-term results of percutaneous treatment.

    PubMed

    Etlik, O; Arslan, H; Bay, A; Sakarya, M E; Harman, M; Temizoz, O; Kayan, M; Bakan, V; Unal, O

    2004-07-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of percutaneous treatment under sonographic guidance in abdominal hydatid cysts. Fifty-two hydatid cysts in 33 patients were treated using a percutaneous approach under sonographic guidance. Forty-five cysts were located in the liver, 6 in the spleen, and 1 in the pancreas. Forty-nine cysts were type I, and 3 were type II. Thirty-one cysts in 15 patients were treated with puncture and aspiration of the contents, injection of hypertonic saline solution, and respiration (PAIR); 15 cysts in 14 patients were treated with puncture, aspiration of cyst contents, injection of hypertonic saline solution, drainage, and injection of sclerosing agent (PAIDS); and 6 cysts in 4 patients were treated with puncture, aspiration of cyst contents, injection of sclerosing agent, and re-aspiration (mPAIDS). Hypertonic saline or alcohol was used as a scolicidal agent. The follow-up period was between 17 and 53 months. A decrease in the dimensions of the cysts, solidification of the contents, and irregularity in the walls of cysts, all of which were considered signs of cure, were found in all patients. Recurrence was observed in one case and anaphylaxis in one. Percutaneous treatment of abdominal hydatid cysts is a safe, easily applicable, well-tolerated, and effective method.

  15. [Primary hydatid disease of the tibia. case report].

    PubMed

    Arancibia, Agustin; Bürgesser, Maria V; Albertini, Ricardo A; de Diller, Ana L; Villalba, Carlos B

    2012-03-01

    Hydatidosis is an endemic disease in different parts of the world. Its causal agent is the cestode from the genus Echinococcus. The most commonly affected organs in humans are liver and lung. Bone hydatid disease is a very rare entity, accounting for 0.5 to 4% of total cases. We report a case of a 58 year-old woman from La Rioja, Argentina, who consulted for left infapatellar pain and walking disability of eight months duration. Imaging studies showed a cystic lesion which involved metaphysis and diaphysis of left proximal tibia. Surgical resection was performed and histopathological study confirmed that it was a hydatid cyst. The patient did well and completed three cycles of treatment with albendazole. Currently, she has no evidence of disease and she recovered motility of her left leg. Primary hydatid bone disease, where there is no evidence of systemic disease, is even more unusual. Tibia involvement occurs in up to 15% of the cases. These lesions clinically manifest when they suffer any type of complications. Preoperative diagnosis is mainly made by imaging studies. Lesions are usually osteolytic and can involve cortical bone and extend to soft tissues. Differential diagnosis with inflammatory processes and bone tumors should is mandatory. Treatment is surgical and prognosis is poor due to its high morbi-mortality rate and recurrence risk from 70 to 80%.

  16. [Clustering Analysis of Hydatid Disease in Gansu Province].

    PubMed

    Yu, Da-wei; Ding, Guo-wu; Hou, Yan-dong; Feng, Yu; Li, Fan

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence of hydatid disease in human population and livestock, and the positive rate of echinococcal antigen in canine feces were analyzed with sample clustering method, according to the survey on hydatid disease in 72 counties in Gansu province in the database of the National Survey on Prevalence of Echinococcosis in 2012. The prevalence of hydatid disease in huma and livestock, and the positive rate of echinococcal antigen in canine feces were 0-1.59%, 0-15.22%, and 0-16.87% respectively. Clustering analysis revealed four types of prevalence in the 72 counties. The first type existed only in Dunhuang city, with the three indicators being 0.27%, 15.22% and 16.87%; the second in four counties, with the three indicators being 0.43%, 6.57% and 1.83%; the third in 22 counties, with the three indicators being 0.22%, 1.15% and 1035%; and the fourth in 45 counties, with the three indicators being 0.16%, 0.58% and 1.69%.

  17. Uncommon localizations of hydatid cyst. Review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    SALAMONE, G.; LICARI, L.; RANDISI, B.; FALCO, N.; TUTINO, R.; VAGLICA, A.; GULLO, R.; PORRELLO, C.; COCORULLO, G.; GULOTTA, G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hydatid disease is an endemic anthropozoonosis with usual localization in liver and lungs. Rarely it localizes in uncommon sites as spleen, skeleton, kidney, brain, cardiac muscle, peritoneum, sub cutis. Complications of uncommon localizations are the same that for usual ones. Material and methods Review of the literature on rare and atypical localization of hydatid cysts in soft tissues. Key-words used on Pub-Med [(echinococ OR hydatid) AND (soft tissue OR subcutaneous OR cutaneous)] without time limit. There were found 282 articles; 242 were excluded because of muscular or bone localizations. 40 were coherent. Results Different variables are taken into account: age, sex, geographic area, anatomic localization of the cyst, dimension, symptoms, signs, mobility, blood exams and specific serological tests, imaging techniques for diagnosis, existing of septa in the structure, treatment, anaesthesia, spillage, neo-adjuvant and adjuvant treatment, follow-up period, recurrent lesions. Conclusion It would be useful create an homogeneous and standardized collection of data of these rare and potentially life-threatening conditions in order to create guide-line of diagnostic and therapeutic process and create (or adopt) unique classification of the lesions. PMID:27938537

  18. Role of Albendazole in the Management of Hydatid Cyst Liver

    PubMed Central

    Shams-Ul-Bari; Arif, Sajad Hussain; Malik, Ajaz A.; Khaja, Abdul Rouf; Dass, Tufale A.; Naikoo, Zahoor A.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aim: Hydatidosis has a worldwide distribution and the liver is the most common organ involved. Hydatid cysts of the liver can be managed either by nonoperative or operative methods. Nonoperative methods include chemotherapy and percutaneous treatment. The study aimed at understanding the effect of albendazole therapy on the viability of protoscoleces and recurrence rate of hydatid disease of the liver. Patients and Methods: The study was conducted at Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Soura, Srinagar, Kashmir, India, over a period of 2 years from January 2002 to December 2003, with further follow-up of 5 years. The study included 72 cases in the age group of 17-66 years, comprising 39 males and 33 females. The patients were randomized into two groups of 36 patients each. In group A, patients were directly subjected to surgery, while in group B, patients were administered albendazole for 12 weeks preoperatively, followed by a further postoperative course for 12 weeks. Results: Of patients who received albendazole therapy, no patient had viable cysts at the time of surgery, as compared to 94.45% of the patients who did not receive any preoperative albendazole (P<0.01). In patients who did not receive any albendazole therapy, recurrence rate was 16.66%, while no recurrence was seen in patients who received albendazole therapy (P≤0.05). Conclusion: We conclude that albendazole is an effective adjuvant therapy in the treatment of hydatid liver disease. PMID:21912062

  19. Pulmonary hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension; Sporadic primary pulmonary hypertension; Familial primary pulmonary hypertension; Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension; Primary pulmonary hypertension; PPH; Secondary pulmonary ...

  20. Hydatid Cyst of the Rib: A New Case and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Chafik, A.; Benjelloun, A.; El Khadir, A.; El Barni, R.; Achour, A.; Ait Benasser, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    The hydatid cyst is not rare in our country, but bone lesions are less common. The disease often takes the appearance of abscess or malignant lesion. We report a case of a 35-year-old man with a hydatid cyst of the rib complicated with cutaneous fistula. The surgery allowed both diagnosis and treatment. Albendazole was then administered to prevent relapse. PMID:20182633

  1. Budd-Chiari Syndrome Complicating Hydatid Cyst of the Liver Managed by Venoplasty and Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Sarawagi, Radha Keshava, Shyamkumar N. Surendrababu, Narayanam R. S.; Zachariah, Uday G. Eapen, Eapen C.

    2011-02-15

    Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) and portal hypertension is an uncommon complication of hydatid cyst of the liver. Previous reports describe cyst excision or portosystemic shunt surgery for such patients. Here we present a case of hydatid cyst of the liver with BCS that was treated successfully with hepatic venoplasty and transjugular stent placement.

  2. Severe mitral regurgitation and hepatopulmonary hydatid cysts: what should be treated first?

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Julio C; DeLaRosa, Jacob; Montesinos, Efrain; Rojas, Luis; Peralta, Julio; Leon, Juan J

    2008-12-01

    Hydatid cyst can simultaneously affect the liver and lung. Some patients might have additional comorbidities that can make management more challenging. Here, we present a 10-year-old boy with hepatopulmonary hydatid cysts and severe mitral regurgitation, who was successfully managed with a staged surgical approach treating the lung first, followed by the liver and finally, the heart.

  3. Uneventful intraperitoneal rupture of a hepatic hydatid cyst: a case report.

    PubMed

    Abdel Hameed, A A; Abu Aisha, H

    1987-01-01

    Acute intraperitoneal rupture is a rather rare complication of hepatic hydatid cysts; anaphylaxis and sudden death have frequently been reported in such cases. In the present report we are presenting a case of acute traumatic intraperitoneal rupture of a huge hydatid cyst to which the patient showed no hypersensitivity reactions.

  4. Anaphylactic shock due to unruptured hepatic hydatid cyst complicated by multiple intrahospital infections.

    PubMed

    Popovic-Dragonjic, Lidija; Jovanovic, Maja; Vrbic, Miodrag; Kostic, Velimir; Miladinovic-Tasic, Natasa; Kocic, Biljana; Rankovic, Aleksandar; Dragonjic, Ivan

    2014-12-01

    Anaphylactic shock due to unruptured hydatid cyst is a rare complication of hepatic echinococcosis. Here, we present an unusual case of unruptured hydatid cyst causing anaphylactic shock followed by appendicitis, ileus, and complicated by septic condition due to multiple intrahospital infections. Decision of the surgical cyst removal at the right moment and appropriate antimicrobial treatment are key factors for a positive outcome.

  5. Complicated hydatid cyst and "air bubble" sign: a stepping-stone to correct diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Urvinderpal; Kumar, Sunil; Gour, Hitesh; Singh, Navdeep; Ramaraj, Murlidharan; Mittal, Vidhu; Jhim, Daksh

    2015-01-18

    Hydatid cyst, or Echinococcosis, is an important helminthic zoonotic disease in humans that commonly affects the liver and lungs. Uncomplicated hydatid cysts, seen as round opaque lesions on chest radiography, are easily diagnosed, whereas complicated cysts (infected and or perforated) may change the radiographic appearance of the hydatid cyst, causing an incorrect diagnosis and delayed treatment. Although in radiology many signs have been described, the "air bubble" sign, seen in the mediastinal window of CECT as a single or multiple small rounded radiolucent areas with sharp margins within the periphery of a solid mass lesion, is being recognized as a sign with high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of complicated hydatid cysts. A 32-year-old female on anti-tubercular treatment for the past 3 months without any improvement was admitted to our hospital. CECT of the chest revealed a mass-like lesion with the "air bubble" sign. After 15 days the patient had a vigorous bout of coughing, leading to expectoration of pieces of whitish yellowish gelatinous membrane for the next 3 days. The ELISA result for Echinococcus was highly positive. On the basis of the "air bubble" sign, positive serology, and expectorated pieces of the membrane, the patient was diagnosed as having a complicated hydatid cyst. Due to the varied presentations of complicated hydatid cyst, the knowledge and awareness of various signs in radiology associated with the hydatid cyst, in particular the "air bubble" sign, is imperative in making a prompt and accurate diagnosis of a complicated hydatid cyst.

  6. Sudden death due to anaphylactic shock in a patient with an intact hepatic hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Marzieh; Hedjazi, Arya; Bahrami, Ramin

    2014-12-01

    Hydatid disease of the liver is a parasitic infection primarily caused by the larvae of Echinococcus granulosus. Hydatid cysts may remain clinically silent for many years and are often an incidental finding on ultrasonography performed for unrelated reasons. Sudden death due to unrecognized hydatid cysts can occur, and rare case reports of this kind are present in the literature. We present a sudden death due to an intact hydatid cyst in a 13-year-old girl, who had a sudden onset of anaphylactic shock after a blunt abdominal trauma. Sudden death in this case was attributed to anaphylactic shock caused by intravascular spread of the cyst contents. We believe that high intracystic pressure coupled with blunt trauma was the cause of leakage of cystic fluid into the bloodstream. In cases of sudden death in endemic areas, the possibility of a hydatid disease should be taken into consideration, especially if no other cause is evident.

  7. Focal Biliary System Obstruction and Atypical Liver Mass: Intrabiliary Ruptured Cyst Hydatid Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mermi, Esra Ummuhan; Fidan, Nurdan; Murat, Muammer

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Hydatid disease can involve any part of the body, but the liver is the most frequently affected organ. Intrabiliary rupture is one of the most serious complications of a hepatic hydatid cyst. Radiological findings, especially magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRI/MRCP), are helpful in the diagnosis of hydatid disease. Case Report We present a 48-year-old female patient with complaints of abdominal pain and jaundice. Radiological examination showed a heterogeneous lesion that contained cystic-solid components and millimetric calcifications in the liver. Adjacent intrahepatic bile ducts were dilated. Conclusions In geographical areas endemic for hydatid disease, cyst rapture into the bile ducts should be included in the differential diagnosis even in seronegative cases, although it is not typical for hydatid cyst to be found as a mass lesion in the liver on US in patients with right upper quadrant pain and jaundice.Detailed imaging by MRI/MRCP should be done. PMID:28344685

  8. Total rupture of hydatid cyst of liver in to common bile duct: a case report.

    PubMed

    Robleh, Hassan; Yassine, Fahmi; Driss, Khaiz; Khalid, Elhattabi; Fatima-Zahra, Bensardi; Saad, Berrada; Rachid, Lefriyekh; Abdalaziz, Fadil; Najib, Zerouali Ouariti

    2014-01-01

    Rupture of hydatid liver cyst into biliary tree is frequent complications that involve the common hepatic duct, lobar biliary branches, the small intrahepatic bile ducts,but rarely rupture into common bile duct. The rupture of hydatid cyst is serious life threating event. The authors are reporting a case of total rupture of hydatid cyst of liver into common bile duct. A 50-year-old male patient who presented with acute cholangitis was diagnosed as a case of totally rupture of hydatid cyst on Abdominal CT Scan. Rupture of hydatid cyst of liver into common bile duct and the gallbladder was confirmed on surgery. Treated by cholecystectomy and T-tube drainage of Common bile duct.

  9. Primary hydatid cyst of the kidney and ureter with hydatiduria in a laboratory worker: a case report.

    PubMed

    Seetharam, Venkatesh; Khanna, Vinay; Jaiprakash, Padmapriya; Kosaraju, Kranthi; Thomas, Joseph; Mukhopadhayay, Chiranjay

    2012-01-01

    Hydatid disease is frequent in endemic regions and sheep farming areas. Most common localization of hydatid cyst occurs in liver followed by lungs. Renal hydatid cyst constitutes about 2-4% of all locations. We report a case of left renal hydatid from a laboratory technician admitted in a tertiary care hospital. There were few cases of renal hydatid disease reported in India among general population but to the best of our knowledge never reported from laboratory worker. The possibility of laboratory-acquired infection cannot be ruled out in this case due to lack of precautionary measures and containment facilities in resource-constrained setting.

  10. Primary Giant Splenic Echinococcal Cyst Treated by Laparoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Arce, Maira A.; Limaylla, Himerón; Valcarcel, Maria; Garcia, Hector H.; Santivañez, Saul J.

    2016-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonosis caused by the larval stage of the dog tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. Liver and lungs are the most commonly affected organs whereas splenic infection is rarer and its primary involvement occurs in less than 2% of abdominal CE. We report a case of primary giant splenic hydatid cyst in a 75-year-old Peruvian woman that was laparoscopically removed without any complications, perioperative prophylactic chemotherapy with albendazole 400 mg twice a day 5 days before, and 7 days after the surgical procedure was administered, postoperative recovery was uneventful, and; at her 3-month follow-up the patient remains asymptomatic and an abdominal computed tomography scan demonstrated a cystic cavity of 15 cm diameter with no daughter vesicles, neither other abdominal organ involvement. This case is in line with the existing literature on laparoscopical treatment of splenic cystic hydatid disease, suggesting that laparoscopical treatment is a safe and effective approach for large splenic hydatid cysts to be preferred to open surgical techniques. PMID:26556833

  11. Primary Giant Splenic Echinococcal Cyst Treated by Laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Arce, Maira A; Limaylla, Himerón; Valcarcel, Maria; Garcia, Hector H; Santivañez, Saul J

    2016-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonosis caused by the larval stage of the dog tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. Liver and lungs are the most commonly affected organs whereas splenic infection is rarer and its primary involvement occurs in less than 2% of abdominal CE. We report a case of primary giant splenic hydatid cyst in a 75-year-old Peruvian woman that was laparoscopically removed without any complications, perioperative prophylactic chemotherapy with albendazole 400 mg twice a day 5 days before, and 7 days after the surgical procedure was administered, postoperative recovery was uneventful, and; at her 3-month follow-up the patient remains asymptomatic and an abdominal computed tomography scan demonstrated a cystic cavity of 15 cm diameter with no daughter vesicles, neither other abdominal organ involvement. This case is in line with the existing literature on laparoscopical treatment of splenic cystic hydatid disease, suggesting that laparoscopical treatment is a safe and effective approach for large splenic hydatid cysts to be preferred to open surgical techniques.

  12. Congenital giant right atrium in an elderly woman.

    PubMed

    Santra, Gouranga; Paul, Rudrajit; Das, Shubhabrata; Datta, Arnab; Pradhan, Sourav; Sarkar, R N

    2014-07-01

    Enlargement of right atrium is usually secondary to pulmonary hypertension due to valvular heart diseases or obstructive pulmonary disorders, atrial septal defect, tricuspid atresia or stenosis, pulmonary stenosis, primary pulmonary hypertension, Ebstein's anomaly. Congenital enlargement of right atrium is rare and it commonly presents in children. Our patient presented with congenital giant right atrium at 65 years of age, other cardiac diseases being excluded. Patient developed tricuspid regurgitation, but pulmonary hypertension was absent till the date. Congenital giant right atrium has rarely been reported from India.

  13. [Intrabiliary rupture of hepatic hydatid cysts: results of 17 years' experience].

    PubMed

    Tomuş, C; Iancu, C; Pop, F; Al Hajjar, N; Puia, C; Munteanu, D; Bălă, O; Graur, F; Furcea, L; Vlad, L

    2009-01-01

    Between 1990 and 2006 in the III-rd Surgical Clinic Cluj-Napoca, 366 pacients with hepatic hydatid cyst were admitted and underwent surgery; 81 (22.13%) of them, who had a cyst-biliary comunication, were retrospectively reviewed: 52 (64.2%) had an occult communications and 29 (35.8%) had a frank intrabiliary rupture. The sex ratio was M/F=46/35 with a mean age of 44.5 years and with ages between 17 and 73 years. Choledochotomy, evacuation of parasitic material and lavage of the CBP were performed in all patients with frank intrabiliary rupture. In 25 patients, partial pericystectomy and choledochoduodenostomy/T-tube drainage of CBP was performed. Internal drainage by a Roux-en-Y pericystectojejunostomy and biliodigestive anastomosis was carried out in 2 patients, while other two patients underwent external drainage of cystic cavity and T-tube drainage of CBP. 15 patients (51.7%) had postoperative external bile leaks (fistulas). Occult communications were managed by partial pericystectomy +/- narrowing of the residual cavity (capitonage with an omentum flap or invagination of the fibrosis capsule margins into the cavity) in 35 patients (67.3%) while in 10 patients (19.2%) internal drainage by a Roux-en-Y pericystectojejunostomy was carried out. Regional resection of the liver was performed in 4 cases (7.7%) and external drainage of residual cavity in 3 patients (5.7%). 13 patients (25%) had postoperative external bile leaks (fistulas). The mean postoperative hospitalisation was 20 days with the range 5-85 days. The mortality rate was 2.4% (2 patients): one died due to septicemia and MOFS and the other due to pulmonary thromboembolism. Postoperative bile leaks (fistulas) fallowing conservative surgery of ruptured hydatid hepatic cyst into the biliary tract are not rare regardless of the type of rupture (frank or occult). Although the opening of the biliary duct is sutured, the risk of biliary fistulas is not clearly corelated with this approach; in such cases

  14. Hydatid liver cyst causing portal vein thrombosis and cavernous transformation: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Kirmizi, Serdar; Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Yilmaz, Sezai

    2016-01-01

    A 33-year-old male with abdominal distention after meals was admitted to the hospital. He had a history of surgery for hydatid liver cyst. The cyst was located at the liver hilum and there were portal venous thrombosis and cavernous transformation. It had been treated with partial cystectomy, omentoplasty and albendazole. Two years later at the admission to our center, his laboratory tests were in normal ranges. Abdominal imaging methods revealed splenomegaly, portal vein thrombosis, cavernous transformation and the previously operated hydatid liver cyst. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy demonstrated esophageal and gastric fundal varices. Due to his young age and low risk for surgery, the patient was planned for surgical treatment of both pathologies at the same time. At laparotomy, hydatid liver cyst was obliterated with omentum and there was no sign of active viable hydatid disease. A meso-caval shunt with an 8 mm in-diameter graft was created. In the postoperative period, his symptoms and endoscopic varices were regressed. There were four similar cases reported in the literature. This one was the youngest and the only one treated by a surgical shunt. Hydatid liver cysts that located around the hilum can lead to portal vein thrombosis and cavernous thrombosis. Treatment should consist of both hydatid liver cyst and portal hypertension. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first case of surgically treated portal vein thrombosis that was originated from a hydatid liver cyst. PMID:27895860

  15. Hydatid liver cyst causing portal vein thrombosis and cavernous transformation: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Kirmizi, Serdar; Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Yilmaz, Sezai

    2016-01-01

    A 33-year-old male with abdominal distention after meals was admitted to the hospital. He had a history of surgery for hydatid liver cyst. The cyst was located at the liver hilum and there were portal venous thrombosis and cavernous transformation. It had been treated with partial cystectomy, omentoplasty and albendazole. Two years later at the admission to our center, his laboratory tests were in normal ranges. Abdominal imaging methods revealed splenomegaly, portal vein thrombosis, cavernous transformation and the previously operated hydatid liver cyst. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy demonstrated esophageal and gastric fundal varices. Due to his young age and low risk for surgery, the patient was planned for surgical treatment of both pathologies at the same time. At laparotomy, hydatid liver cyst was obliterated with omentum and there was no sign of active viable hydatid disease. A meso-caval shunt with an 8 mm in-diameter graft was created. In the postoperative period, his symptoms and endoscopic varices were regressed. There were four similar cases reported in the literature. This one was the youngest and the only one treated by a surgical shunt. Hydatid liver cysts that located around the hilum can lead to portal vein thrombosis and cavernous thrombosis. Treatment should consist of both hydatid liver cyst and portal hypertension. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first case of surgically treated portal vein thrombosis that was originated from a hydatid liver cyst.

  16. Predisposing factors and surgical outcome of complicated liver hydatid cysts

    PubMed Central

    Akcan, Alper; Sozuer, Erdogan; Akyildiz, Hizir; Ozturk, Ahmet; Atalay, Altay; Yilmaz, Zeki

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the predisposing factors for peritoneal perforation and intrabiliary rupture and the effects of these complications on surgical outcome in liver hydatid disease. METHODS: A total of 372 patients with liver hydatid cysts who had undergone surgical treatment were evaluated retrospectively. Twenty eight patients with peritoneal perforation, 93 patients with spontaneous intrabiliary perforation, and 251 patients with noncomplicated hydatid cysts were treated in our clinics. RESULTS: When the predisposing factors for complications were evaluated, younger age, superficial position, and larger cyst dimensions (P < 0.05; range, 0.001-0.017) increased peritoneal perforation rates. It was shown that older age increased cyst dimensions, and presence of multiple and bilobar cysts increased intrabiliary rupture rates (P < 0.05; range, 0.001-0.028). Partial pericystectomy and drainage was the most frequent surgical procedure in all groups (71.6%). The incidence of post-operative complications in the peritoneal perforated group, in the intrabiliary ruptured group, and in the noncomplicated group was 25%, 16.1% and 5.5%, respectively. When compared, complication rates were significantly different (P = 0.002). When length of hospital stay was compared, there was no significant difference between the groups (P > 0.05). The overall recurrence rate was 3.8% (14 patients), but there was not any statistical difference among the patient groups (P = 0.13). The early postoperative mortality rate was 1.1%. CONCLUSION: In peritoneally perforated and intrabiliary ruptured cases, the most important steps are irrigation of the peritoneal cavity and clearance of the cystic material from the biliary tree. PMID:20572308

  17. Veterinary public health activities at FAO: echinococcosis/hydatid disease.

    PubMed

    Eddi, C; de Balogh, K; Lubroth, J; Amanfu, W; Speedy, A; Battaglia, D

    2004-12-01

    Cystic hydatidosis is a zoonotic disease that remain as a significant cause of human morbidity and mortality in many parts of the world. The disease has veterinary public health implications. FAO is involved with some activities in the control of echinococcosis/hydatid disease: within the Animal Production and Health Division the Veterinary Public Health (VHP) Programme is constituted by members of the different Services (Animal Health, Animal Production, and Livestock Policy) within the Division. FAO regular programme has also established a global network of professionals directly involved in VPH. Furthermore FAO's Technical Cooperation Projects (TCP) is a tool to assist member countries in responding to urgent and unforeseen demands.

  18. Prevalence of hydatid cysts in slaughtered animals in Sirte, Libya.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Hamed H; Abdel-Kader, Abdel-Kader M; Nass, Sedigh Ahmed

    2013-04-01

    The prevalence of cystic echinococcosis was studied among the livestock slaughtered in abattoir of Sirte, Libya during the period July 2004 to May 2005. The overall infection rate of 4.9% in sheep, 2.4% in goats, 2.7% in camels and 15% in cattle were observed. The increase in prevalence with age of the animals was statistically significant in the four species. In female goats, examined infection was higher in the male. Liver had higher hydatid cysts than lungs in sheep, goat while infected lungs had higher in camel.

  19. Removal of large hydatid cysts with balloon-assisted modification of Dowling's method: technical report.

    PubMed

    Ulutas, Murat; Cinar, Kadir; Secer, Mehmet

    2015-07-01

    Delivery of hydatid cysts, especially large ones, without rupture is very important and there is still no 100% successful method. After the hydatid cyst was reached, starting near the surface working around the cyst toward the base, a Foley probe was advanced and, in the region of desired dissection, the balloon of the Foley probe was inflated, and adhesion bands were freed to allow dissection. We believe our balloon-aided dissection technique is a method that increases the chances of delivering hydatid cysts, with no calcification and secondary infection, without rupture.

  20. Incidentally detected hydatid cyst of the adrenal gland: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Akbulut, Sami

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid cysts are a zoonotic disease that can involve many organs and tissues in the human body but primarily involve the liver and lungs. Of the main organs, adrenal glands are those seldom affected by hydatid cysts. The purpose of this study was to present a case with an incidentally detected hydatid cyst of the right adrenal gland on computed tomography, and a positive echincoccus IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test on top of a toxic multinodular thyroid goiter for which thyroidectomy was indicated. PMID:27672642

  1. Incidentally detected hydatid cyst of the adrenal gland: A case report.

    PubMed

    Akbulut, Sami

    2016-09-16

    Hydatid cysts are a zoonotic disease that can involve many organs and tissues in the human body but primarily involve the liver and lungs. Of the main organs, adrenal glands are those seldom affected by hydatid cysts. The purpose of this study was to present a case with an incidentally detected hydatid cyst of the right adrenal gland on computed tomography, and a positive echincoccus IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test on top of a toxic multinodular thyroid goiter for which thyroidectomy was indicated.

  2. Echinococcus granulosus: DNA extraction from germinal layers allows strain determination in fertile and nonfertile hydatid cysts.

    PubMed

    Kamenetzky, L; Canova, S G; Guarnera, E A; Rosenzvit, M C

    2000-06-01

    A method for the isolation of Echinococcus granulosus DNA from germinal layers of hydatid cysts is described. The method includes a hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide/chloroform extraction and an adsorption to diatomaceous earth suspension. DNA suitable for polymerase chain reaction was obtained and used for parasite strain determination by mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene sequencing. Fertile and nonfertile cyst isolates from sheep, cattle, pigs, and humans were characterized. Hitherto, no direct parasite strain characterization has been made on nonfertile hydatid cysts, whereas here we report that nonfertile hydatid cysts were produced by sheep strain (G1 genotype) in sheep, cattle, and humans and by pig strain (G7 genotype) in pigs.

  3. Fluoxetin-induced pulmonary granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    de Kerviler, E; Trédaniel, J; Revlon, G; Groussard, O; Zalcman, G; Ortoli, J M; Espié, M; Hirsch, A; Frija, J

    1996-03-01

    A patient treated with fluoxetin for a manic depressive disorder developed pulmonary inflammatory nodules with noncaseating giant cell granulomas, interstitial pneumonia and non-necrotizing vasculitis, whilst remaining asymptomatic. A progressive resolution of pulmonary nodules occurred after withdrawal of the offending agent, and the chest radiograph returned to normal in 9 months. The diagnosis was assessed by an open lung biopsy.

  4. Suppression of E. multilocularis Hydatid Cysts after Ionizing Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Rong; Zhang, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Background Heavy-ion therapy has an advantage over conventional radiotherapy due to its superb biological effectiveness and dose conformity in cancer therapy. It could be a potential alternate approach for hydatid cyst treatment. However, there is no information currently available on the cellular and molecular basis for heavy-ion irradiation induced cell death in cystic echinococcosis. Methododology/Principal Findings LD50 was scored by protoscolex death. Cellular and ultrastructural changes within the parasite were studied by light and electron microscopy, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and copy number were measured by QPCR, and apoptosis was determined by caspase 3 expression and caspase 3 activity. Ionizing radiation induced sparse cytoplasm, disorganized and clumped organelles, large vacuoles and devoid of villi. The initial mtDNA damage caused by ionizing radiation increased in a dose-dependent manner. The kinetic of DNA repair was slower after carbon-ion radiation than that after X-rays radiation. High dose carbon-ion radiation caused irreversible mtDNA degradation. Cysts apoptosis was pronounced after radiation. Carbon-ion radiation was more effective to suppress hydatid cysts than X-rays. Conclusions These studies provide a framework to the evaluation of attenuation effect of heavy-ion radiation on cystic echinococcosis in vitro. Carbon-ion radiation is more effective to suppress E. multilocularis than X-rays. PMID:24205427

  5. Anesthetic management in hydatid disease: a review of 435 cases.

    PubMed

    Altay, N; Yüce, H H; Küçük, A; Aydoğan, H; Yalçin, S; Yildirim, Z B

    2014-01-01

    Hydatid cyst diseases are still a problem in Turkey, especially in the east and southeast of Anatolian Region, as well as in many other places in the world. In this study a retrospective review was made of the anesthetic management for surgical and interventional treatment of 435 patients with hydatid cysts. The study data were collected between January 1997 and December 2012 at Harran University Hospital, Sanliurfa, Turkey. Patients' demographics and localization of the cysts were recorded. Suitable anesthetic and surgical management were performed to the cysts according to their locations. Four hundred thirty-five patients had general anesthesia with a midazolam premedication and one of them was treated by sedation. Of the 435 patients, 251 were females (57.7%) and 184 males (42.3%) and ages ranged from 1 to 74 years (mean: 36.3 ± 25.4). These include; preoperative using of steroids and antihistamines to prevent the allergy possibility, intraoperative hypotension and tachycardia and administration of colloids, and improvement of postoperative anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis was observed in only two patients who undertook percutaneous aspiration. Also bronchospasm was developed in four patients during the postoperative period and successfully treated with standard bronchodilatators. Anaphylactic reaction during operation is a serious complication, but a very rare one. Prophylactic use of antihistamine and steroid drugs were reduced allergy and anaphylaxis.

  6. [Cardiac hydatid cyst. Which imaging modality for an accurate diagnosis?

    PubMed

    Ben Khalfallah, A; Ben Slima, H

    2017-04-01

    Cardiac echinococcosis is rare. Its spontaneous course is serious because of the risk of rupture. Its clinical manifestations are variable, often latent and misleading. The diagnosis is sometimes referred to by chest radiography. It is much facilitated by non-invasive imaging techniques in particular transesophageal and transthoracic echocardiography, CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging. The latter through a morphological and topographical analysis accurate diagnosis of hydatid cyst and its relationship to cardiac muscle and surrounding tissue. Through functional analysis in cine cyst movements relative to the heart wall, it confirms its free or fixed character in the heart chambers, determines its insertion area, its deformability, the risk of rupture and its impact on myocardial contraction. Our case illustrates the relative contribution of these different imaging techniques and their respective contributions to the identification of hydatid cyst of its wall, its contents, its relationship with the various tunics and heart chambers and its relations with the lungs and mediastinum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Treatment of chronic osteomyelitis secondary to hydatid disease of bone using gentamycin beads.

    PubMed

    Obeidat, Moutasem M; Mustafa, Ziad

    2012-09-01

    Hydatid disease of bone is rare. It remains asymptomatic over a long period. It is usually detected after a pathological fracture or secondary infection or following the onset of compressive myelopathy in cases of vertebral lesions. Secondary infection of hydatid disease of bone could be difficult to treat. The authors present a case of chronic osteomyelitis of the proximal aspect of the left femur in a 37-year-old male patient secondary to hydatid disease of bone. It was treated by aggressive debridement, gentamycin beads, and bone graft to fill the defect. No recurrence of the hydatid lesion or infection was detected after 2 years. This case showed that in addition to aggressive debridement, gentamycin beads may be valuable in eradicating the infection in such a case.

  8. [Bone hydatid cyst: a rare localization at the level of the hip bone].

    PubMed

    Nhamoucha, Yassine; Alaoui, Othmane; Doumbia, Aliou; Oukhoya, Mohammed; Abdellaoui, Hicham; Tazi, Mohammed; Chater, Lamyae; Atarraf, Karima; Arroud, Mounir; Afifi, Abderahman

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid disease is a parasitic disease caused by the development in humans of the larval form of a tapeworm, namely a very small tænia called Echinococcus Granulosus. This anthropozoonosis is characterized by the presence of different types of anatomo-radiologic variants associated with various topographic and evolutionary aspects of the cysts. Bone hydatid disease is a rare condition, it accounts for only 0.9-2.5% of all locations. We report the case of a 9 year old child, who was admitted with febrile lameness and with a mass in the right iliac fossa, revealing a hydatid cyst at the level of the hip bone. Lesion assessment objectified a hydatid cyst of the hip bone with extension into adjacent soft tissues. An infected cyst was detected during surgery, hence the performance of a surgical excision of the cyst with drainage. Hydatic osteopathy is infiltrating, diffuse, slow and gradual, causing delays in diagnosis and compromising the quality of care.

  9. Hydatid cyst of parotid: Report of unusual cytological findings extending the cytomorphological spectrum.

    PubMed

    Arora, Vinod Kumar; Chopra, Neha; Singh, Poorva; Venugopal, Vasantha Kumar; Narang, Salil

    2016-09-01

    Hydatid disease is a zoonotic infestation caused by larval cestode of genus Echinococcus. Cystic form of this infection mostly involves liver and lung. Hydatid disease of the parotid gland is very rare even in endemic areas and is often clinically mistaken for parotid tumors or cysts. The presence of protoscolices, laminated membranes, and isolated hooklets are characteristic cytological features observed on fine-needle aspirate from hydatid cysts. We report unusual cytological features from a hydatid cyst of parotid in a 13-year-old girl. She presented with a slowly enlarging hard mass in left parotid. Fine-needle aspiration yielded slightly turbid fluid. Smears from the sediment revealed naked parasitic micronuclei, fragments of germinative layer (endocyst), and abortive brood capsules (buds from endocyst) seen as spherical structures with multiple parasitic nuclei. Some of these spherical structures were degenerated with recognizable nuclei and others were completely necrotic. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:770-773. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Effect of two hydatid cyst antigens on the growth of melanoma cancer in C57/black mice.

    PubMed

    Chookami, Milad Badri; Sharafi, Seyedeh Maryam; Sefiddashti, Raheleh Rafiei; Jafari, Rasool; Bahadoran, Mehran; Pestechian, Nader; Yousofi Darani, Hossein

    2016-12-01

    Hydatid cyst is the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. In previous studies inhibitory effect of this parasite on cancer cell growth in culture medium has been shown. In this study effect of hydatid cyst antigens on tumor growth in experimental animals has been investigated. Two antigens of hydatid cyst including protoscolices excretory secretory antigen and hydatid fluid absorbed on alum as adjuvant were injected to two groups of C57/black mice as case groups. Control groups were injected with only saline and alum. All mice then were injected with melanoma cells. Both antigens reduced the tumor size in mice in case groups. The difference of tumor size in mice in case groups and control group was statistically significant. In conclusion, anti-tumor effect of hydatid cyst antigens may be related to antigenic similarities which exist between hydatid cyst and cancer cells.

  11. Delayed diagnosis of traumatic rupture of hydatid cyst of the liver--a case report.

    PubMed

    Bari, Shamsul; Malik, Ajaz A; Parray, Fazul Q; Samoon, Hamid; Munfat, Malik; Bakshi, Iftikhar H

    2008-12-01

    We present a patient with slow rupture of hydatid cyst into the peritoneal cavity, presenting as massive abdominal distension and respiratory embarrassment. On paracentesis, no fluid could be drained. A small lateral incision was made under local anaesthesia to drain the 'ascites', but daughter cysts typical of hydatid came out. On laparotomy, there was a cyst in the right lobe of liver which had ruptured into the peritoneal cavity leading to secondary echinococcosis.

  12. A Con A- purified hydatid glycoprotein fraction effectively diagnoses human hydatidosis.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Manal M; Maher, Kesmat M; Rabia, Ibrahim; Helmy, Ahmed H; El-Adawi, Azza I; Mousa, Mousa A; Mahgoub, Abeer M

    2006-12-01

    Diagnosis and quantification of Echinococcus granulosus infection in man and animal hosts are centralized to feasible control. This study included 93 serum samples, 25 sure positive hydatid cases confirmed surgically, 7 suspected cases diagnosed by indirect haemagglutination IHA and 41 cases other parasitic infections (15 S. mansoni, 8 Fasciola, 7 Ascaris, 5 H. nana & 6 Ancylostoma) diagnosed by microscopic examination and were negative by ELISA and/or IHA for anti-hydatid antibody. Twenty negative serum samples served as healthy controls. Six types of hydatid fluid antigens (crude, host-free & Con-A purified) of human and camel origin were subjected to electrophoretic separation (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting (EITB). The anti-hydatid IgG was detected in sera of the different groups for evaluation of sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic efficacy of each type of antigens. Detection of circulating hydatid antigen (CAg) was performed using anti rabbit hyperimmune sera raised against Con-A purified either human or camel hydatid antigen. SDS-PAGE revealed several bands ranging from 55-185 kDa with 10 kDa band shared by all antigens. The specific bands revealed by EITB for Con-A purified camel and human antigens were at 80, 110 & 55, 110 kDa respectively. ELISA highest sensitivity (96.9%) was by using host-free Con-A purified glycoprotein fraction of human hydatid antigen. Highest specificity (98.4%) was recorded upon use of either Con-A purified camel or human antigen with 94.5% & 97.7% diagnostic efficacy respectively. Detection of circulating antigen by polyclonal antibodies against Con-A purified human hydatid antigen revealed 91.8% specificity.

  13. Interventricular septal hydatid cyst: Transesophageal echocardiography as a therapeutic tool during bypass

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Pawan Kumar; Malik, Vishwas; Divya, Abha; Narula, Jitin; Hote, Milind

    2015-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (hydatid disease) arising from infestation with a larval or adult form of the Echinococcus granulosus tapeworm is endemic in certain states of India, but affecting interventricular septum (IVS) solitarily is a scarce phenomenon. We present a rare case of transesophageal echocardiography guided management of IVS hydatid cyst even during cardiopulmonary bypass, which presented with a rather unusual complaint of repeated syncope. PMID:26139754

  14. Unusual Presentation of Hydatid Cyst in Breast with Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings

    PubMed Central

    Koc, Ali; Vurdem, Umit Erkan; Karabiyik, Ozgur; Gumus, Ummugulsum Ozgul

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of 59-year-old woman with a painful left breast mass, compatible with types II-III hydatid cyst. Lesion was evaluated with mammography, ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging modalities. Magnetic resonance imaging had important diagnostic role with demonstrating characteristic features of the lesion and had capability of showing complications. Surgery also confirmed the diagnosis of a hydatid cyst. PMID:28167966

  15. Unusual case of pelvic hydatid cyst of broad ligament mimicking an ovarian tumour

    PubMed Central

    Alsafi, Reema; Iqbal, Jamshaid; Rotimi, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The diagnosis of hydatid cyst in female genital tract is rare and difficult. A high degree of clinical suspicion is needed for pre-operative investigations to exclude hydatid cyst of female pelvis. The objective of this presentation is to highlight a pelvic hydatid cyst that presented as an ovarian tumour. Case presentation: A 22-year-old female, presented with constipation and haematuria with acute urinary retention. On examination, a mass measuring 15×13 cm was palpable in the left iliac region reaching up to the umbilicus. It was smooth, movable and non-tender and a provisional diagnosis of ovarian teratoma was made pre-operatively. At laparotomy, a cystic mass was found attached to the broad ligament, excised, and a frozen section was sent for histopathology. Gross features were consistent with hydatid cyst; the cystic wall was white and there were multiple small thin-wall daughter cysts. Microscopic diagnosis with paraffin sections showed cystic lesions with laminated wall and scolices in the daughter cyst. Indirect haemagglutination test for specific antibodies was positive (128 IU). The patient responded well to surgical excision followed by albendazole administration. Conclusion: This case highlights the fact that a pelvic hydatid disease may resemble neoplastic ovarian cyst, clinically and radiologically. The possibility of pelvic hydatid disease should be included, in endemic areas where differential diagnosis of cystic ovarian lesions is needed, so that the patient can be managed accordingly. PMID:28348779

  16. Metabolic changes during successful medical therapy for brain hydatid cyst: case report.

    PubMed

    Seckin, Hakan; Yagmurlu, Banu; Yigitkanli, Kazim; Kars, H Zafer

    2008-08-01

    Medical therapy for hydatid disease of the brain has been reported with encouraging results especially in small or medium-sized cysts. To date, no other case correlating the metabolite levels of the cyst with albendazole treatment has been reported. A 52-year-old woman presented with left hemiparesis and seizure. Cranial magnetic resonance revealed a right frontal cystic mass lesion. A diagnosis of hydatid cyst was made, and she was put on medical therapy with albendazole. An MRS before the medical therapy was begun revealed the typical findings of a hydatid cyst with resonance of alanine, acetate, and succinate that were specific for hydatid disease, and additional nonspecific lactate peaks with an additional small peak of choline. Comparison between the multiple MRS examinations was made by comparing the metabolite ratios specific for hydatid disease to choline, which seemed stable from the beginning. Two sequential MRS imaging revealed a prominent decrease of the succinate and acetate resonance, accompanied by a smaller decline of the alanine resonance progressively, correlated with the conventional MRI findings of the cyst, which had a smaller size with blurred margins in the meantime. After 5 months of medical treatment, the cyst had completely disappeared. The patient has been monitored for 5 years and remains well without recurrence. This case provides additional proof that the brain hydatid cyst is a medically treatable disease in appropriate cases. Furthermore, the changes in the metabolic profile of the cyst, especially those regarding succinate and acetate may represent the efficacy of the medical treatment.

  17. Hydatid cyst disease of the thyroid gland: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Akbulut, Sami; Demircan, Firat; Sogutcu, Nilgun

    2015-04-01

    Hydatid cyst disease may develop in any organ of the body, most frequently in the liver and lung, but occasionally can affect other organs such as the thyroid gland. Although the prevalence of thyroidal cyst disease varies by region, literature data suggest that it ranges between 0% and 3.4%. The aim of this report was to share 2 cases with thyroid hydatid cyst. Two female patients aged 26 and 57 years were admitted to our outpatient clinic with different complaints. While the first case presented with front of the neck swelling and pain, the second case presented with hoarseness, sore throat, and neck swelling. Both patients were living in a rural area in the southeastern region of Turkey and had had a long history of animal contact. Both patients had undergone previous surgeries for hydatid cyst disease. Both patients presented with a clinical picture consistent with typical multinodular goiter, and both underwent total thyroidectomy after detailed examinations and tests. The exact diagnosis was made after histopathologic examination in both patients. They both had a negative indirect hemagglutination test studied from blood samples. They both have had no recurrences during a 4-year follow-up. In conclusion, although thyroid gland is rarely affected, hydatid cyst disease should not be overlooked in differential diagnosis of cystic lesions of thyroid gland in patients who live in regions where hydatid cyst disease is endemic and who had hydatid cysts in other regions of their body.

  18. Surgical Management of Liver Hydatid Cyst Related Non-traumatic Emergencies: Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    DINC, Tolga; KAYILIOGLU, Selami Ilgaz; AKTURK, Okan Murat; COSKUN, Faruk

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vast majority of complaints and physical examination findings of hydatid disease are common in emergency room patients. Different emergency presentations of hydatid cyst disease and their treatment are evaluated. We studied preoperative laboratory findings of these patients to identify any parameters to predict hydatid cyst-biliary system communication. Methods: We reviewed the files of patients who underwent emergency surgery due to liver hydatid cysts and related conditions between March 2010 and March 2014 in Ankara Numune Research and Training Hospital, Turkey, retrospectively. Patients were grouped, regarding to the presence of biliary system involvement. Results: Twelve patients (9 males, 3 females) were included. We identified two groups. Biliary system involved group (n=9) had significantly higher pre-operative gamma glutamine transferase and alkaline phosphatase levels (P=0.036). No significant difference was noted regarding other pre-operative laboratory findings. Mortality rate was 17%. Conclusion: Medical literature lacks sufficient information about hydatid disease related non-traumatic emergency surgeries. Preoperative elevated gamma glutamyl transferase and alkaline phosphatase levels may be questioned as a warning about cyst-biliary communication in hydatid cyst patients with abdominal pain in the emergency room. Future studies with larger sample sizes are needed. In addition, prolongation of the time before diagnosis in these patients may result in life threatening complications. PMID:28127370

  19. Severe anaphylactic choc revealing vascular rupture of a liver hydatid cyst observed in an emergency unit in Tunis (Tunisia).

    PubMed

    Daldoul, S

    2014-12-01

    Anaphylactic shock is an exceptional mode of revelation of a liver hydatid cyst and it is in almost all cases secondary to an intraperitoneal rupture. The spread of hydatid cyst content into the bloodstream is even more exceptional. We report the case of a 36 years-an old woman who presented a severe anaphylactic shock preceded by abdominal pain. Abdominal CT showed a liver hydatid cyst with a vascular communication. Operative findings confirmed the imaging data. The spread of hydatid cyst content into the bloodstream poses a double challenge as regards the management of the anaphylactic shock, and for the perioperative precautions.

  20. Giant Cell Arteritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Giant Cell Arteritis Giant Cell Arteritis Fast Facts Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is ... polymyalgia rheumatica (also called PMR). What is giant cell arteritis? GCA is a type of vasculitis or ...

  1. Long-Term Follow-Up of the Percutaneous Treatment of Hydatid Cyst in the Adrenal Gland: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    SciTech Connect

    Akhan, Okan; Canyigit, Murat; Kaya, Diana; Koksal, Ali; Akgoz, Ayca; Yucesoy, Cuneyt; Akinci, Devrim

    2011-02-15

    Although the most involved organs are liver and lung, hydatid cysts occur in adrenal glands, rarely, and constitute only 0.5% of hydatid cysts. Herein, we demonstrate and discuss, for the first time in the literature to the best of our knowledge, the radiological features of adrenal hydatid disease and evaluate the long-term results (57 months of follow-up) of the percutaneous treatment of hydatid cyst in the adrenal gland in a patient.

  2. Surgical approach to splenic hydatid cyst: single center experience.

    PubMed

    Eris, Cengiz; Akbulut, Sami; Yildiz, Mehmet Kamil; Abuoglu, Hasan; Odabasi, Mehmet; Ozkan, Erkan; Atalay, Suleyman; Gunay, Emre

    2013-01-01

    The benefits and risks of surgery for splenic hydatid cyst (SHC) remain controversial. We aimed to share our experience about a surgical approach for SHC. Sixteen consecutive patients with SHC disease who underwent open splenectomy at our hospital between January 2006 and July 2012 were retrospectively evaluated. Data on the patients' demographic features, clinical findings, radiological and serological diagnostic methods, and surgical and medicinal treatment options were collected and used to generate descriptive profiles of diagnosis, treatment course, and outcome. The patient population was composed of 6 females and 10 males, with an age range of 18 to 79 years (mean age: 47.0 ± 18.0). Radiological examinations detected hydatid cysts in spleen alone (n = 7) or both spleen and liver (n = 9). Preoperative serological testing identified 13 of the patients as IHA positive. All except 1 patient received a 10- to 21-day preoperative course of albendazole therapy and all patients received vaccination 1 week prior to surgery. Seven patients underwent splenectomy. The remaining patients underwent splenectomy with partial cystectomy and omentopexy (n = 6), partial cystectomy and unroofing (n = 1), pericystectomy (n = 1), or pericystectomy with partial nephrectomy (n = 1). All except one patient received a 10- to 45-day postoperative course of albendazole. No patients developed serious complications or signs of recurrence during the follow-up. The clinical profile of SHC disease at our hospital includes diagnosis by radiological methods, splenectomy treatment by simple or concomitant procedures according to the patient's symptoms, cyst size, number and localization, and compression of adjacent organs, and adjunct vaccination to decrease risk of postoperative septic complications. This profile is associated with low risk of complications and high therapeutic efficacy.

  3. DNA damage, RAD9 and fertility/infertility of Echinococcus granulosus hydatid cysts.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Gonzalo; Cabrejos, María Eugenia; Morassutti, Alessandra Loureiro; Cabezón, Carolina; Orellana, Juana; Hellman, Ulf; Zaha, Arnaldo; Galanti, Norbel

    2008-08-01

    Hydatidosis, caused by the larval stage of the platyhelminth parasite Echinococcus granulosus, affects human and animal health. Hydatid fertile cysts are formed in intermediate hosts (human and herbivores) producing protoscoleces, the infective form to canines, at their germinal layers. Infertile cysts are also formed, but they are unable to produce protoscoleces. The molecular mechanisms involved in hydatid cysts fertility/infertility are unknown. Nevertheless, previous work from our laboratory has suggested that apoptosis is involved in hydatid cyst infertility and death. On the other hand, fertile hydatid cysts can resist oxidative damage due to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. On these foundations, we have postulated that when oxidative damage of DNA in the germinal layers exceeds the capability of DNA repair mechanisms, apoptosis is triggered and hydatid cysts infertility occurs. We describe a much higher percentage of nuclei with oxidative DNA damage in dead protoscoleces and in the germinal layer of infertile cysts than in fertile cysts, suggesting that DNA repair mechanisms are active in fertile cysts. rad9, a conserved gene, plays a key role in cell cycle checkpoint modulation and DNA repair. We found that RAD9 of E. granulosus (EgRAD9) is expressed at the mRNA and protein levels. As it was found in other eukaryotes, EgRAD9 is hyperphosphorylated in response to DNA damage. Our results suggest that molecules involved in DNA repair in the germinal layer of fertile hydatid cysts and in protoscoleces, such as EgRAD9, may allow preserving the fertility of hydatid cysts in the presence of ROS and RNS.

  4. Fatal hypernatraemia after laparoscopic treatment of hydatid liver cyst: medical and legal concerns of a rare complication.

    PubMed

    Michalodimitrakis, Manolis; Nathena, Despoina; Mavroforou, Anna; Papavdi, Asteria; Kranioti, Elena F

    2012-06-10

    A case of fatal hypernatraemia after laparoscopic treatment of hydatid livers cysts is presented in order to highlight the risks associated with the implementation of newer techniques and the use of hypertonic saline as a scolecocidal agent in hydatid disease. Additionally this case raises some concerns on the importance of obtaining a patient's informed consent. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bovine IgG subclasses and fertility of Echinococcus granulosus hydatid cysts.

    PubMed

    Riesle, Silke; García, María Pía; Hidalgo, Christian; Galanti, Norbel; Saenz, Leonardo; Paredes, Rodolfo

    2014-09-15

    Hydatidosis is an important zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution, causing important health problems to humans and major economical losses in infected livestock. Echinococcus granulosus, the etiological agent of hydatid disease, induces a humoral immune response in the intermediate host (human and herbivorous) against hydatid cyst antigens. Specifically, IgGs are found in the laminar and germinal layers and inside the lumen of fertile and infertile hydatid cysts. In the germinal layer of infertile cysts IgGs are found in an order of magnitude greater than in the germinal layer of fertile cysts; a fraction of those IgGs are associated with high affinity to germinal layer proteins, suggesting their binding to specific parasite antigens. We have previously shown that those immunoglobulins, bound with high affinity to the germinal layer of hydatid cysts, induce apoptosis leading to cyst infertility. In the present work the presence of IgG1 and IgG2 subclasses in the germinal layer of both fertile and infertile hydatid cysts is reported. IgG1 is the most relevant immunoglobulin subclass present in the germinal layer of infertile cysts and bound with high affinity to that parasite structure. Contrarily, though the IgG2 subclass was also found in the germinal and adventitial layers, those immunoglobulins show low affinity to parasite antigens. We propose that the binding of an IgG1 subclass to parasite antigens present in the germinal layer is involved in the mechanism of cyst infertility.

  6. Liver transplant with a marginal donor graft containing a hydatid cyst--a case report.

    PubMed

    Eris, C; Akbulut, S; Sakcak, I; Kayaalp, C; Ara, C; Yilmaz, S

    2013-03-01

    Liver transplantation has become the standard treatment for acute failure and end-stage liver disease, but there are fewer donor organs available than patients on the waiting list. The donor pool may be increased by using marginal donor candidates. Some infectious and metabolic diseases have been transmitted to the recipient via marginal donor grafts. Hydatid cyst disease is rarely transmitted to a recipient from the donor graft. A literature search showed only 2 previous cases of liver transplantation using a donor graft that contains a hydatid cyst. We treated a 19-year-old woman who experienced acute on chronic end-stage liver failure secondary to cryptogenic cirrhosis. The liver graft from a 97-year-old marginal cadaveric donor contained a calcified hydatid cyst. No complication was associated with the hydatid cyst at 3 years after transplantation. The present case shows that donor livers with an inactive, calcified hydatid cyst may be used for emergency liver transplantation after considering the location, size, and relation of the cyst to vascular and biliary structures. The cyst may be resected on the back table with a successful treatment outcome.

  7. Surgical management of symptomatic hydatid liver disease: experience from a Western centre

    PubMed Central

    Martel, Guillaume; Ismail, Salima; Bégin, André; Vandenbroucke-Menu, Franck; Lapointe, Réal

    2014-01-01

    Background Hydatid liver cysts are rare in North America. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal surgical management for hydatid liver cysts treated outside endemic areas. Methods We reviewed the cases of consecutive patients who underwent management of hydatid liver cysts. Radical liver resections were compared with other types of procedures. Clinical presentation, investigations, perioperative outcomes and long-term follow-up were evaluated. We evaluated disease recurrence using the Kaplan–Meier method. Results Forty patients underwent surgery for hydatid liver cysts. Most patients had single (68%) right-sided (46%) cysts with a median size of 10 cm. Most (83%) underwent liver resection with or without drainage/marsupialization. Radical liver resection was carried out in 60% (19 major, 5 minor). Additional procedures were required in 50% (biliary fistulization 30%, diaphragmatic fistulization 20% or paracaval location/ fusion 8%). Postoperative complications occurred in 48%. The median follow-up was 39 months. The 3-year recurrence-free survival was significantly different between patients who had radical resection and those who had other procedures (100% v. 71%, p = 0.002). Conclusion The surgical management of hydatid liver cysts in North America remains rare and challenging and is frequently associated with fistulizing complications. Excellent long-term outcomes are best achieved using principles of radical liver resection that are familiar to North American surgeons. PMID:25265105

  8. Modulation of dendritic cell differentiation and cytokine secretion by the hydatid cyst fluid of Echinococcus granulosus

    PubMed Central

    Kanan, João H C; Chain, Benjamin M

    2006-01-01

    Chronic infection by Echinococcus granulosus results in establishment of fluid-filled cysts (hydatid cysts) in liver or lungs of infected hosts, which can escape destruction by the host immune system for long periods. This study explores the modulation by hydatid cyst fluid of the in vitro human monocyte to dendritic cell (DC) transition induced by granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-4 (IL-4). Addition of the fluid to adherent peripheral blood monocytes cultured in GM-CSF/IL-4 stimulates release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and IL-6. Exposure of differentiating DC to the fluid during the 7-day culture in GM-CSF/IL-4 impairs their subsequent ability to secrete IL-12, IL-6 or PGE2 in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. This inhibition is not dependent on the initial release of PGE2. The presence of hydatid cyst fluid also modulates the phenotype of the cells generated during culture, resulting in increased CD14 expression and decreased expression of CD1a. Finally, hydatid fluid can stimulate predifferentiated DC to mature, as evidenced by release of IL-12 and IL-6, and by up-regulation of class II major histocompatibility complex and CD86. The possible role of dendritic cell modulation in regulating the host immune response to hydatid cysts is discussed. PMID:16771863

  9. Comparative proteomics of hydatid fluids from two Echinococcus multilocularis isolates.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Karina M; Lorenzatto, Karina R; de Lima, Jeferson C; Dos Santos, Guilherme B; Förster, Sabine; Paludo, Gabriela P; Carvalho, Paulo C; Brehm, Klaus; Ferreira, Henrique B

    2017-06-06

    The hydatid fluid (HF) that fills Echinococcus multilocularis metacestode vesicles is a complex mixture of proteins from both parasite and host origin. Here, a LC-MS/MS approach was used to compare the HF composition of E. multilocularis H95 and G8065 isolates (EmH95 and EmG8065, respectively), which present differences in terms of growth and fertility. Overall, 446 unique proteins were identified, 392 of which (88%) were from parasite origin and 54 from culture medium. At least 256 of parasite proteins were sample exclusive, and 82 of the 136 shared proteins presented differential abundance between E. multilocularis isolates. The parasite's protein repertoires in EmH95 and EmG8065 HF samples presented qualitative and quantitative differences involving antigens, signaling proteins, proteolytic enzymes, protease inhibitors and chaperones, highlighting intraspecific singularities that could be correlated to biological features of each isolate. The repertoire of medium proteins found in the HF was also differential between isolates, and the relevance of the HF exogenous protein content for the parasite's biology is discussed. The repertoires of identified proteins also provided potential molecular markers for important biological features, such as parasite growth rate and fertility, as well potential protein targets for the development of novel diagnostic and treatment strategies for alveolar echinococcosis. E. multilocularis metacestode infection of mammal hosts involve complex interactions mediated by excretory/secretory (ES) products. The hydatid fluid (HF) that fills the E. multilocularis metacestode vesicles contains complex repertoires of parasite ES products and host proteins that mediate important molecular interactions determinant for parasite survival and development, and, consequently, to the infection outcome. HF has been also extensively reported as the main source of proteins for the immunodiagnosis of echinococcosis. The performed proteomic analysis

  10. Primary extrahepatic hydatid cyst of the soft tissue: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Hydatid disease of the soft tissue is an exceedingly uncommon site to be affected by the tapeworm Echinococcus. The presentation is often vague and misleading. The diagnostic armamentarium has to be supplemented by a meticulously taken history and clinical examination. Case presentation The present case report describes a 33-year-old Saudi male with a painless swelling in the right buttock which turned out to be a primary hydatid disease of the soft tissue. The lump was successfully excised surgically and the patient had an uneventful discharge. Conclusion Surgical excision of the extrahepatic hydatid disease remains the mainstay of treatment; although medical treatment is available for the recurrent and disseminated disease. PMID:23181425

  11. Laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy for a primary hydatid cyst mimicking a mucinous cystic neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Tezcaner, Tugan; Ekici, Yahya; Aydın, Onur Huseyin; Barit, Gonca; Moray, Gökhan

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic hydatid cysts are fairly rare. The disease can be encountered concurrently with systemic involvement or as an isolated pancreatic involvement. We report the first case of spleen-preserving laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy for a pancreatic hydatid cyst. There was no complication or recurrence. A 55-year-old woman was admitted to our centre with epigastric and back pain. Upper abdominal magnetic resonance imaging revealed a solitary cystic lesion with septations at the pancreatic tail level measuring 24 mm × 18 mm, which was initially thought to be a pancreatic mucinous cystic neoplasia. She underwent laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy and cholecystectomy. Her post-operative course was uneventful and histopathological examination revealed a hydatid cyst in the pancreatic tail. PMID:28281482

  12. [Hydatid disease of the first rib treated surgically by the Roos approach].

    PubMed

    Marghli, A; Smati, B; Abdelmalek, M; Attia, S; Djilani, H; Kilani, T

    2008-12-01

    Hydatid disease is a parasitic infection due to Echinococcus granulosus. Since involvement of the ribs and in particular the first rib is rare, diagnosis and treatment in these locations can pose special problems. The purpose of this report is to describe the case of a 27-year-old man in whom an apical left opacity was discovered by chance. Clinical examination was normal. Thoracic ultrasound demonstrated multilocular cyst in the left apical region of the thorax. Thoracic computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a hydatid cyst originating from the first rib. The patient was operated using the technique known as the Roos approach. The procedure consisted of cystectomy with resection of the first rib. The multiloculated appearance of the lesion and erosion at the first rib was consistent with hydatid cyst. The Roos approach is the technique of choice for the treatment of the first rib.

  13. An insect growth inhibitor--lufenuron--enhances albendazole activity against hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Breijo, Martín; Isnardi, Fernanda; Brauer, Mónica; Schenker, Rudolf; Ferrari, Mariana; Ferreira, Ana M

    2011-09-27

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of lufenuron, a benzylphenylurea with ability to interfere with the formation of insect exoskeleton, as a therapeutic drug for larval echinococcosis (hydatid disease). For this purpose lufenuron, alone or in combination with albendazole, was administered to CD1 mice bearing Echinococcus granulosus hydatid cysts in the peritoneal cavity. Neither of the drugs alone was able to exert parasiticidal effects. However, in combination with albendazole, lufenuron reduced the growth of cysts (30-40% in cyst diameter respect to control, p<0.05). This effect was associated with ultrastructural alterations of the hydatid cyst wall and a reduction of the content of myo-inositol-hexakisphosphate, the major component of the electron dense granules of the laminated layer. Overall, this work provides evidence that lufenuron could represent a useful compound for the use in chemotherapy against larval echinococcosis, by enhancing albendazole parasiticidal activity.

  14. The Mandibular Angle Hydatid Cyst Mimicking Branchial Cleft Cyst: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    SOOSARAEI, Masoud; ALIZADEH, Shahriar; FAKHAR, Mahdi; BANIMOSTAFAVI, Elham Sadat

    2016-01-01

    We report an unusual case of primary hydatid cyst of the mandibular angle without glands involvement, in the left supraclavicular region of the neck with no involvement of any other regions of the body. In July 2012, a 25-yr old woman, from Golestan Province, Northeast Iran was admitted to our ENT Clinic, with one-year history of a progressively increasing swelling, pain and gradually growing mass located in the left side of neck region. The patient was diagnosed by Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FANC) and histopathology examination. Hydatid cyst should be considered in differential diagnosis of soft tissue mass such as branchial cleft cyst (BCC) and or dermoid cyst in the cervical region especially in endemic areas. Moreover, FANC could be recommended as a valuable, rapid, simple, and safe procedure to diagnose hydatid cyst especially in unusual locations. PMID:28127373

  15. Primary Renal Hydatid Cyst: Mis-Interpretation as a Renal Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hoon; Park, Jae Young; Kim, Jae-Heon; Moon, Du Geon; Lee, Jeong-Gu

    2014-01-01

    Primary renal echinococcosis, a rare disease involving the kidney, accounts for 2-3% of human echinococcosis. A 64-year-old female patient from Uzbekistan presented with complaints of left flank pain. A CT scan revealed a cystic mass in the upper to midpole of the left kidney. We regarded this lesion as a renal malignancy and hand-assisted laparoscopic radical nephrectomy was performed to remove the renal mass. The mass consisted of a large unilocular cyst and multiple smaller cysts without any grossly visible renal tissue. The final pathologic diagnosis was a renal hydatid cyst. For patients from endemic areas, hydatid cyst should be included in the differential diagnosis. Here, we present a case of renal hydatid cyst in a female patient who relocated from Uzbekistan to Korea. PMID:25031471

  16. Unilateral primitive hydatid cyst with surgical resection of the scrotum: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Hydatid disease remains a public health problem in many Mediterranean countries. Liver and lung localizations are the most common. Renal hydatid cysts represent 2 percent to 4 percent of the visceral forms of this disease. To the best of our knowledge a scrotal location has only previously been described in five papers in the literature, all being secondary localizations. In this paper, we report a case of a primitive scrotal hydatid cyst. Case presentation A Moroccan man aged 29 years old presented to our facility with scrotal pain. A clinical examination identified a painless scrotal mass. The results of a scrotal ultrasound showed intra-scrotal cystic formations with different sizes associated with scrotal effusion of average abundance. Chest cavity and abdominal computed tomography scans did not reveal any other localizations. Our patient benefited from surgical protruding dome resection. A partial cysto-pericystectomy was realized. The first stage consisted of injecting a scolicide solution; hydrogen peroxide is the most commonly used agent. This is injected into the cystic cavity and retained for 10 minutes. This process allows for sterilization of the cyst while avoiding the risk of rupture and transmission of the hydatid liquid into the circulation. After 10 minutes, the cystic contents are removed by suction. The cyst is then opened, and the endocyst containing the hydatid membrane and daughter vesicles are removed. It is of note that our patient did not receive any additional medical treatment. Our diagnosis was made using an imaging approach and was confirmed during surgery. Conclusions Ultrasound is often the key diagnostic approach for cases of a scrotal hydatid cyst. Treatment is primarily surgical, aiming for resection of the protruding dome via a longitudinal scrotectomy. PMID:23601913

  17. Morphological variability and degenerative evolution of human hepatic hydatid cysts.

    PubMed

    Bortoletti, G; Cagetti, M; Gabriele, F; Conchedda, M

    2002-12-01

    The findings are presented of a macro and microscopic investigation of 89 hydatid hepatic cysts removed intact from 59 patients by total pericystectomy. Detailed analysis revealed significant morphostructural variability and cysts grouped into 10 types were characterized, providing useful clinical indications. Only 30 cysts resulted fertile (33.7%), probably due to mean age of sample; 7 of these were "classic" cysts, 1 "septated" and 22 "multivesicular" packed with daughter cysts (DC), of varying turgidity or collapsed. Among the remaining 59 sterile cysts, 52 were degenerated and classified as "hyperlaminated" cysts due to the presence of large convoluted sheets of laminar tissue (SLT) surrounded by varying amounts of caseous (40 specimens), granular (6) or gelatinous (6) matrix. Moreover, "multivesicular", "acephalocyst", "caseous" and "serous" cysts were also recovered among the sterile specimens. Some "multivesicular" cysts (14) appeared as "transitional forms" towards the various types of "hyperlaminated" cysts containing all different forms of DC and large SLT intermingled with a variously degenerated matrix. The comprehensive study allows to hypothesize the train of events leading, over the years, to the gradual transformation and degeneration of the larval form Echinococcus granulosus in the human liver.

  18. Surgical Management of Calcified Hydatid Cysts of the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Tzardinoglou, E.; Kosmidis, Ch.; Katsohis, K.; Aletras, O.

    1999-01-01

    Hydatid disease of the liver is still a major cause of morbidity in Greece. Beside the common complications of rupture and suppuration, calcification of the hepatic cysts represent a not well studied, less frequent and sometimes difficult surgical problem. In the present study 75 cases with calcified symptomatic liver echinococcosis were operated on in the 1st Propedeutic Surgical Clinic between 1964 to 1996. Twenty-eight patients were male and 47 female with ages from 23 to 78 years. The diagnosis was based mainly on the clinical picture and radiological studies. In 5 cases the operative method was cystopericystectomy. We performed evacuation of the cystic cavity and partial pericystectomy and primary closure of the residual cavity in 6 cases, omentoplasty or filling of the residual cavity with a piece of muscle of the diaphragm in 4 cases and external drainage by closed tube, in 60 cases. In 12 of those with drainage, after a period of time, a second operation with easy, removal of most of the calcareous wall plaques was performed. The mortality rate was 2%. Our results could be considered satisfactory. In the calcified parasitic cysts of the liver the proposed technique is cystopericystectomy. An alternative procedure is pericystectomy and drainage with a “planned” reoperation with a bloodless, due to intervening inflammation, chiseling of the calcification. PMID:10468117

  19. Huge Renal Hydatid Cyst-an Unusual Presentation: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Jafari Nodoushan, Jamal; Zare, Samad; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mostafa; Babaei Zarch, Mojtaba; Imani, Fatemeh; Ehsani, Fatemeh

    2017-03-16

    Isolated renal hydatid cyst is a rare entity accounting for only 2-4% of cases. A 60-year-old male presented to our clinic complaining of pain in right flank. He had a history of eating raw sheep liver. Imaging revealed an expansive cystic mass measuring approximately300×180 mm in the right side of abdomen. The patient was treated by open surgery in combination with perioperative chemotherapy with albendazol. In this case, we reported an unusual presentation of hydatid cyst disease. Physicians should be aware of its clinical presentations and complications.

  20. Human Hydatid Disease in Peru Is Basically Restricted to Echinococcus granulosus Genotype G1

    PubMed Central

    Santivañez, Saul J.; Gutierrez, Ariana M.; Rosenzvit, Mara C.; Muzulin, Patricia M.; Rodriguez, Mary L.; Vasquez, Julio C.; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Garcia, Hector H.

    2009-01-01

    A molecular PCR study using DNA from 21 hydatid cysts was performed to determine which strain type is responsible for human infection in Peru. The mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene was amplified in 20 out of 21 samples, revealing that all but 1 sample (19/20, 95%) belonged to the common sheep strain (G1). The remaining samples belonged to the camel strain (G6). The G1 genotype was most frequently found in human cases of cystic hydatid disease (CHD) in Peru. Local control measures should focus primarily on decreasing dog and sheep infection rather than intermediate reservoirs. PMID:18606769

  1. A rare cause of pleural effusion: ruptured primary pleural hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Erkoç, Mustafa Fatih; Öztoprak, Bilge; Alkan, Sevil; Okur, Aylin

    2014-03-06

    Hydatidosis is an endemic parasitic disease in Mediterranean countries, often caused by the dog tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. The disease predominantly affects the liver (60-70%) and lungs (30%), and the surgical management is considered as the gold standard for treatment. Besides anaphylactic reactions, the most frequent complication of the hydatid disease is rupture into neighbouring structures, often affecting the bronchi, gastrointestinal tract and peritoneal/pleural cavities, according to its location. Primary pleural hydatidosis is an extremely rare entity and we present a ruptured pleural hydatid cyst with unusual location.

  2. Immunodiagnosis of human hydatid disease: Where do we stand?

    PubMed Central

    Sarkari, Bahador; Rezaei, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonotic parasitic infection caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. Diagnosis of CE mainly relies on a combination of serological testing along with imaging approaches. A variety of serological methods, mainly based on hydatid cyst fluid, antigen B (AgB) and antigen 5, have been developed and used for immunodiagnosis of CE, yet their performances are not satisfactory. Although utilizing of recombinant or synthetic antigens, improved the performance of serological tests, it has not applicably overcome the problem of low sensitivity and cross reactivity, seen in the diagnosis of CE. Performances of immunodiagnostic tests based on AgB subunits are promising. The 8 kDa subunit of AgB is the most studied antigen in native, synthetic or recombinant form for diagnosis of CE. From the 5 subunits of AgB, antigen B8/1 and B8/2 provided the highest diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. Moreover, detecting of specific antibodies of IgG subclasses has improved the efficacy of immunodiagnostic tests. Among the IgG subclasses, both IgG2 and IgG4 are considered as good markers for diagnosis and IgG4 as a suitable marker for follow up of the patients. In this review an overview of immunodiagnostic methods, related antigens and their performances in the diagnosis of CE are given. The paper highlights pitfall and challenges in the serological diagnosis of CE. Moreover, limitation of currently available immunodiagnostic tests and the most recent development in the designing and application of serological assays for diagnosis of CE in human are addressed. PMID:26713278

  3. Spinal hydatid with meralgia paresthetica in a female: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Lonkar, Yeshwant; Amale, Amar; Acharya, Sourya; Banode, Pankaj; Yeola, Meenakshi

    2012-01-01

    Meralgia paresthetica presents as tingling sensation in the antero-lateral aspect of thigh. It occurs due to compression of the lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh. Proximal spinal lesions may present as meralgia paresthetica due to radiculopathy. We present a rare case of spinal hydatid with meralgia paresthetica. PMID:24082690

  4. Spinal hydatid with meralgia paresthetica in a female: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Lonkar, Yeshwant; Amale, Amar; Acharya, Sourya; Banode, Pankaj; Yeola, Meenakshi

    2012-07-01

    Meralgia paresthetica presents as tingling sensation in the antero-lateral aspect of thigh. It occurs due to compression of the lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh. Proximal spinal lesions may present as meralgia paresthetica due to radiculopathy. We present a rare case of spinal hydatid with meralgia paresthetica.

  5. Primary Super-Infection of Hydatid Cyst—Clinical Setting and Microbiology in 37 Cases

    PubMed Central

    García, Moncef Belhassen; Lledías, Javier Pardo; Pérez, Inmaculada Galindo; Tirado, Virginia Velasco; Pardo, Lucia Fuentes; Bellvís, Luis Muñoz; Varela, Gonzalo; Sánchez, Miguel Cordero

    2010-01-01

    The clinical and microbiological characteristics of super-infected hydatid cysts are described. In our cohort, 7.3% of 503 patients had a super-infected cyst. Four patients developed severe sepsis, and two of them died. Escherichia coli, viridans group streptococci, and Enterococcus species in liver cysts and Aspergillus fumigatus in lung cysts were the microorganisms most frequent involved. PMID:20207859

  6. [Treatment of hydatid cyst in sheep. Assay of a new scolicide].

    PubMed

    Hammou, Azza; Sarciron, Marie-Elisabeth; Lahmar, Samia; Ben Chehida, Férid; Ghérardi, Arnaud; Lahmar, Jamil; Hassen, A Gharbi; Pétavy, Anne-Françoise

    2006-09-01

    The main of this study was to show the rapidity of the protoscolicide action of a synthetic compound, dipeptide methyl ester when it is injected under echographic control into hydatid cyst of sheep. Fourthty sheep with hydatid cysts, repaired at echography and punctionable are treated by dipeptide methyl ester injection at the dose of 110 mM. In vitro tests have allowed to define the efficacy dose of dipeptide methyl ester which is 110 mM. At echography, after injection of the drug, from the first minutes, a detachment of the inner membrane, a diminution of the size of the treated cyst were observed. The cyst content is modified. The sheep autopsy was realized after 4.6.12 and 17 weeks after the injection and showed a size reduction, a treated cyst calcification. The dipeptide methyl ester injection into hydatid cyst induces rapidly a morphological alteration, they are calcified. The advantage of this compound is its very rapidity action, this could decrease dissemination risks of hydatid liquid in the organism during operation. Also, this drug permits to reduce the operation time.

  7. Acute intrahepatic biliary obstruction caused by hydatid cysts. Correlation between various imaging techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Bahar, R.H.; Al-Mohannadi, S.; Wafai, I.; Al-Suhaili, A.R.; Abdel-Dayem, H.M.

    1988-05-01

    An 18-year-old male was evaluated for recurrent attacks of right abdominal pain and intermittent jaundice caused by hydatid cysts of the liver. The case illustrates the value of dynamic functional information provided by Tc-99m-HIDA imaging over noninvasive modalities that demonstrate structural changes, such as ultrasound, computed tomography, and tin colloid liver imaging.

  8. In vitro lethal effects of various extracts of Nigella sativa seed on hydatid cyst protoscoleces

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Asadi, Arash; Harandi, Majid Fasihi; Sharififar, Fariba; Jahanbakhsh, Sareh; Dezaki, Ebrahimm Saedi

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): There are several scolicidal agents for inactivation of hydatid cyst protoscolices during surgery, but most of them are associated with adverse side effects such as sclerosing cholangitis and liver necrosis. The present study was aimed to evaluate scolicidal effects of various extracts of Nigella sativa seeds against protoscoleces of hydatid cyst in an in vitro model. Materials and Methods: Protoscoleces were aseptically aspirated from naturally infected livers of sheep and goats. Various concentrations of the different extracts of N. sativa (5 to 50 mg/ml) were used for 5 to 60 min. Viability of protoscoleces was confirmed by 0.1% eosin staining. Results: The findings exhibited that methanolic extract at the concentration of 50 mg/ml after 10 min of incubation, and aqueous extract at the concentration of 50 mg/ml after 30 min of incubation can kill 100% of protoscoleces. In addition, all of experiments revealed dose-dependent and also time-dependent scolicidal effect of various extracts of N. sativa on the protoscoleces of hydatid cyst. Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrated that N. sativa may be a natural source for the production of new scolicidal agent for use in hydatid cyst surgery. However, further studies will be required to evaluate scolicidal effects of N. sativa in the in vivo model. PMID:25859304

  9. Hydatid cyst of the gallbaldder: A systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Roberto; Allaoua, Yousef; Colmenares, Rafael; Gil, Sergio; Roquero, Pilar; Ramia, José M

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate all the references about primary gallbladder hidatidosis looking for best treatment evidence. METHODS Search: 1966-2015 in MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, SciELO, and Tripdatabase. Key words: “gallabladder hydatid disease” and “gallbladder hydatid cyst”. We found 124 papers in our searches but only 14 papers including 16 cases were about hydatid cyst of the gallbladder (GBHC). RESULTS Eight cases of GBHC were women and seven men. One not mentioned. Median age was 48.3 years. The most frequent clinical symptom was abdominal pain (94%) usually in the right upper quadrant. Ultrasound was performed in ten patients (62.5%) but in most cases a combination of several techniques was performed. The location of the cysts was intravesicular in five patients. Five patients presented GBHC and liver hydatid cysts. Two patients presented cholelithiasis and one choledocholithiasis. The most frequent surgical technique was cholecystectomy by laparotomy (81.25%). Simultaneous surgery of liver cysts was carried out in five cases. Eleven patients did not present postoperative complications, but one died. The mean hospital stay was seven days. No recurrence of GBHC was recorded. CONCLUSION In GBHC, the most frequent symptom is right hypocondrium pain (evidence level V). Best diagnostic methods are ultrasound and computed tomography (level V, grade D). Suggested treatment is open cholecystectomy and postoperative albendazole (level V, grade D) obtaining good clinical results and none relapses. PMID:27660675

  10. Coexistence of borderline ovarian epithelial tumor, primary pelvic hydatid cyst, and lymphoepithelioma-like gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gungor, Tayfun; Altinkaya, Sunduz Ozlem; Sirvan, Levent; Lafuente, Roberto Alvarez; Ceylaner, Serdar

    2011-06-01

    Borderline ovarian tumors (BOTs) represent a heterogeneous group of ovarian epithelial neoplasms. Despite a favorable prognosis, 10-20% of BOTs exhibit progressively worsening clinic. Primary involvement of pelvic organs with echinococcus is very rare. Lymphoepithelioma-like gastric carcinoma is a rare neoplasm of the stomach. A 58-year-old woman referred with abdominal swelling and gastric complaints. Imaging studies revealed a huge cystic mass with multiple septations and solid component, another cystic mass with an appearance of cyst hydatid in the pelvis, and thickening of the small curvature of stomach. Gastroscopy revealed an ulcer with a suspicious malignant appearance, and histology of the endoscopic specimen showed severe chronic inflammation and lymphocytic infiltration. No other involvement of hydatid cyst was detected. In the exploration, there was a 25cm cystic lesion with solid components arising from right ovary, another 6cm cyst over the former, 7cm cystic lesion arising from left ovary, and 10cm mass near the small curvature of the stomach. Excision of the masses; total gastrectomy with esophagojejunal anastomosis; total abdominal hysterectomy; bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy; omentectomy; appendectomy; splenectomy; and pelvic, paraaortic, and coeliac lympadenectomy were performed. Final pathology revealed lymphoepithelioma-like gastric carcinoma, bilateral serous BOT, and hydatid cyst. Hydatid cyst should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of abdominopelvic masses in endemic regions of the world. Preoperative diagnosis of primary pelvic hydatid disease is difficult and awareness of its possibility is very important especially in patients residing in or coming from endemic areas. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. [Hydatid fertility and protoscolex viability in humans: study of 78 hydatid samples collected between 2005 and 2012 and analyzed at the parasitology laboratory of the Mustapha University Hospital Center of Algiers].

    PubMed

    Zait, H; Boulahbel, M; Zait, F; Achir, I; Guerchani, M T; Chaouche, H; Ladjadje, Y; Hamrioui, B

    2013-05-01

    An analysis at the Mustapha University Hospital Center of Algiers examined 78 hydatid samples collected between 2005 and 2012 to determine the fertility rate of metacestodes and the viability of protoscolices. The fertility rate of the hydatid cysts in humans was 88.4% and the protoscolex viability rate 74.5%. The fertility and viability rates found here are high, despite the use of scolicides.

  12. Boiling sheep liver or lung for 30 minutes is necessary and sufficient to kill Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces in hydatid cysts

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Wu, Chuanchuan; Wang, Hui; Liu, Huanyuan; Vuitton, Dominique A.; Wen, Hao; Zhang, Wenbao

    2014-01-01

    Proper disposal of carcasses and offal after home slaughter is difficult in poor and remote communities and therefore dogs readily have access to hydatid cysts containing offal from livestock, thus completing the parasite cycle of Echinococcus granulosus and putting communities at risk of cystic echinococcosis. Boiling livers and lungs which contain hydatid cysts could be a simple, efficient and energy- and time-saving way to kill the infectious protoscoleces. The aim of this study was to provide precise practical recommendations to livestock owners. Our results show that boiling the whole sheep liver and/or lung, with single or multiple hydatid cysts, for 30 min is necessary and sufficient to kill E. granulosus protoscoleces in hydatid cysts. Advertising on this simple rule in at-risk communities would be an efficient and cheap complement to other veterinary public health operations to control cystic echinococcosis. PMID:25456565

  13. Simultaneous Removal of Right Lung Hydatid Cyst and Repair of Atrial Septal Defect in a Single Session.

    PubMed

    Tong, Guang; Lin, Xi; Ma, Tao; Wang, Xiaowu; Zhang, Weida

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid cyst is the larval stage of echinococcosis caused by the canine tapeworm Echinococcus species, and the lung is the most common site of occurrence. Atrial septal defect is a common congenital heart disease with an incidence of 100 per 100,000 live births. To our knowledge, we report for the first time a case of coexistence of right lung hydatid cyst and atrial septal defect that were both treated with one-stage surgery.

  14. Pulmonary giant bulla in Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Mouly, S; Brillet, G; Stern, M; Lesavre, P; Guillevin, L

    2000-01-01

    The association of lung emphysema with severe systemic antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA)-positive vasculitis, such as Wegener's granulomatosis is unusual since only four cases have been described previously. We report the first case of a 30 year-old smoker man presenting with biopsy-proven Wegener's granulomatosis, who developed a bullous emphysema during severe active lung vasculitis, in association with positive ANCA disclosing an anti-myeloperoxydase pattern. Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency, a known risk factor of lung emphysema recently found to be associated with anti-proteinase 3-positive vasculitis, was not present in this patient. Cigarette smoking, in association with severe lung vasculitis, might have contributed to the development of this emphysematous lesion.

  15. Giant Magnons Meet Giant Gravitons

    SciTech Connect

    Hofman, Diego M.

    2008-07-28

    We study the worldsheet reflection matrix of a string attached to a D-brane in AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5}. The D-brane corresponds to a maximal giant graviton that wraps an S{sup 3} inside S{sup 5}. In the gauge theory, the open string is described by a spin chain with boundaries. We focus on open strings with a large SO(6) charge and define an asymptotic boundary reflection matrix. Using the symmetries of the problem, we review the computation of the boundary reflection matrix, up to a phase. We also discuss weak and strong coupling computations where we obtain the overall phase factor and test our exact results.

  16. Pulmonary angiography

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pulmonary arteriography; Pulmonary angiogram; Angiogram of the lungs Images Pulmonary arteries References Jackson JE, Meaney JFM. Angiography. ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  17. Pulmonary Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topics Bronchitis COPD Cystic Fibrosis Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Sarcoidosis Send a link to NHLBI to someone by ... people who have COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), sarcoidosis (sar-koy-DOE-sis), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis , or ...

  18. Transforming giants.

    PubMed

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2008-01-01

    Large corporations have long been seen as lumbering, inflexible, bureaucratic--and clueless about global developments. But recently some multinationals seem to be transforming themselves: They're engaging employees, moving quickly, and introducing innovations that show true connection with the world. Harvard Business School's Kanter ventured with a research team inside a dozen global giants--including IBM, Procter & Gamble, Omron, CEMEX, Cisco, and Banco Real--to discover what has been driving the change. After conducting more than 350 interviews on five continents, she and her colleagues came away with a strong sense that we are witnessing the dawn of a new model of corporate power: The coordination of actions and decisions on the front lines now appears to stem from widely shared values and a sturdy platform of common processes and technology, not from top-down decrees. In particular, the values that engage the passions of far-flung workforces stress openness, inclusion, and making the world a better place. Through this shift in what might be called their guidance systems, the companies have become as creative and nimble as much smaller ones, even while taking on social and environmental challenges of a scale that only large enterprises could attempt. IBM, for instance, has created a nonprofit partnership, World Community Grid, through which any organization or individual can donate unused computing power to research projects and see what is being done with the donation in real time. IBM has gained an inspiring showcase for its new technology, helped business partners connect with the company in a positive way, and offered individuals all over the globe the chance to contribute to something big.

  19. Hydatid detection using the near-infrared transmission angular spectra of porous silicon microcavity biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Jia, Zhenhong; Lü, Guodong

    2017-01-01

    Hydatid, which is a parasitic disease, occurs today in many regions worldwide. Because it can present a serious threat to people’s health, finding a fast, convenient, and economical means of detection is important. This paper proposes a label- and spectrophotometer-free apparatus that uses optical biological detection based on porous silicon microcavities. In this approach, the refractive index change induced by the biological reactions of a sample in a porous silicon microcavity is detected by measuring the change in the incidence angle corresponding to the maximum transmitted intensity of a near-infrared probe laser. This paper reports that the proposed method can achieve the label-free detection of 43 kDa molecular weight hydatid disease antigens with high sensitivity. PMID:28317861

  20. [An adolescent with lumbosacral instability due to the presence of a hydatid cyst: a case report].

    PubMed

    Vizcarra, Miguel; Mujica, Mijaíl; Sánchez, Vladimir; Méndez, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Hydatidosis, caused by Echinococcus granulosus, affects the spinal column in 0.5-2% of all cases, with the sacral column being a rare location typically observed only in adults. The case is reported of a 14-year-old boy from Juliaca (Puno, Peru) who presented with chronic lower back pain and cauda equina syndrome. He was initially attended to in Juliaca, and then transferred to the Hospital Edgardo Rebagliati Martins (Lima, Peru) with a diagnosis of sacral tumor. In magnetic resonance imaging, a multicystic tumor was seen with L5 and S1 lysis and instability. The surgical treatment was an L5- S2 laminectomy and extraction of multiple hydatid cysts followed by lumbopelvic stabilization with transpedicular screws. Post-operatively, he was prescribed albendazol (15 mg/kg/d) for six months. Hydatid cysts should be considered within the differential diagnosis when there are cystic lesions in the spinal column, particularly in endemic areas such as Peru.

  1. Hydatid detection using the near-infrared transmission angular spectra of porous silicon microcavity biosensors.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Jia, Zhenhong; Lü, Guodong

    2017-03-20

    Hydatid, which is a parasitic disease, occurs today in many regions worldwide. Because it can present a serious threat to people's health, finding a fast, convenient, and economical means of detection is important. This paper proposes a label- and spectrophotometer-free apparatus that uses optical biological detection based on porous silicon microcavities. In this approach, the refractive index change induced by the biological reactions of a sample in a porous silicon microcavity is detected by measuring the change in the incidence angle corresponding to the maximum transmitted intensity of a near-infrared probe laser. This paper reports that the proposed method can achieve the label-free detection of 43 kDa molecular weight hydatid disease antigens with high sensitivity.

  2. Hydatid detection using the near-infrared transmission angular spectra of porous silicon microcavity biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng; Jia, Zhenhong; Lü, Guodong

    2017-03-01

    Hydatid, which is a parasitic disease, occurs today in many regions worldwide. Because it can present a serious threat to people’s health, finding a fast, convenient, and economical means of detection is important. This paper proposes a label- and spectrophotometer-free apparatus that uses optical biological detection based on porous silicon microcavities. In this approach, the refractive index change induced by the biological reactions of a sample in a porous silicon microcavity is detected by measuring the change in the incidence angle corresponding to the maximum transmitted intensity of a near-infrared probe laser. This paper reports that the proposed method can achieve the label-free detection of 43 kDa molecular weight hydatid disease antigens with high sensitivity.

  3. Scolicidal effects of black cumin seed (Nigella sativa) essential oil on hydatid cysts.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Dezaki, Ebrahim Saedi; Kheirandish, Farnaz; Ezatpour, Behrouz; Jahanbakhsh, Sareh; Harandi, Majid Fasihi

    2014-12-01

    Surgery remains the preferred treatment for hydatid cyst (cystic echinococcosis, CE). Various scolicidal agents have been used for inactivation of protoscolices during surgery, but most of them are associated with adverse side effects. The present study aimed to evaluate the in vitro scolicidal effect of Nigella sativa (Ranunculaceae) essential oil and also its active principle, thymoquinone, against protoscolices of hydatid cysts. Protoscolices were aseptically aspirated from sheep livers having hydatid cysts. Various concentrations of the essential oil (0.01-10 mg/ml) and thymoquinone (0.125-1.0 mg/ml) were used for 5 to 60 min. Viability of protoscolices was confirmed by 0.1% eosin staining. Furthermore, the components of the N. sativa essential oil were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Our study revealed that the essential oil of N. sativa at the concentration of 10 mg/ml and its main component, thymoquinone, at the concentration of 1 mg/ml had potent scolicidal activities against protoscolices of Echinococcus granulosus after 10 min exposure. Moreover, thymoquinone (42.4%), p-cymene (14.1%), carvacrol (10.3%), and longifolene (6.1%) were found to be the major components of N. sativa essential oil by GC/MS analysis. The results of this study indicated the potential of N. sativa as a natural source for production of a new scolicidal agent for use in hydatid cyst surgery. However, further studies will be needed to confirm these results by checking the essential oil and its active component in in vivo models.

  4. Alveolar hydatid disease of the liver: computed tomography and transabdominal ultrasound with histopathological correlation.

    PubMed

    Choji, K; Fujita, N; Chen, M; Spiers, A S; Morita, Y; Shinohara, M; Nojima, T; Irie, G

    1992-08-01

    The appearances of alveolar hydatid disease of the liver (AHDL) on computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US) were retrospectively compared with histopathological appearances in 67 patients with 100 separate lesions. The radiological features were correlated directly with the pathological specimens obtained from each patient. We conclude that the CT appearances are more specific, but that US has a role to play in mass screening in endemic areas, and intraoperatively.

  5. In Vivo Study of the Efficacy of the Aromatic Water of Zataria multiflora on Hydatid Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Larki, Sara; Saharkhiz, Mohammad Jamal; Oryan, Ahmad; Ansary Lari, Maryam; Mootabi Alavi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were employed to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil (EO) from aromatic water (AW) of Zataria multiflora. Thymol (66.9%), carvacrol (15.2%), and carvone (7.3%) were found to be the major EO constituents. Eighty laboratory BALB/c mice were infected intraperitoneally by injection of 1,500 viable protoscolices and were divided into prevention (40 mice) and therapeutic (40 mice) groups. To prove the preventive effect of the Z. multiflora AW on development of hydatid cysts, the 40 infected mice were allocated into three treatment groups, including the albendazole group (10 mice that received 150 mg/kg body weight/day for 10 days), the Z. multiflora AW group (15 mice that received 20 ml/liter in drinking water for 8 months), and a control group (15 mice that received no treatment). To estimate the therapeutic effect of the Z. multiflora AW on the hydatid cyst, after 8 months of infection, the 15 remaining mice were allocated into three experimental treatment groups of five animals each, including the albendazole group (300 mg/kg/day for 20 days), Z. multiflora AW group (40 ml/liter in drinking water for 30 days), and control group (no treatment). All mice were then euthanized, and the sizes and weights of the cysts as well as their ultrastructural changes were investigated. The weights and sizes of the hydatid cysts significantly decreased upon treatment with the Z. multiflora AW in both the preventive and therapeutic groups (P < 0.05). The results of scanning electron microscopy also showed considerable damage in the germinal layer of the hydatid cysts recovered from the treated animals. PMID:25070113

  6. Cutaneous fistulization of the hydatid disease: A PRISMA-compliant systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bahce, Zeynep Sener; Akbulut, Sami; Aday, Ulas; Demircan, Firat; Senol, Ayhan

    2016-09-01

    To provide an overview of the medical literature on cutaneous fistulization in patients with hydatid disease (HD). According to PRISMA guidelines a literature search was made in PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and Google databases were searched using keywords to identify articles related to cutaneous fistulization of the HD. Keywords used were hydatid disease, hydatid cyst, cutaneous fistulization, cysto-cutaneous fistulization, external rupture, and external fistulization. The literature search included case reports, review articles, original articles, and meeting presentations published until July 2016 without restrictions on language, journal, or country. Articles and abstracts containing adequate information, such as age, sex, cyst size, cyst location, clinical presentation, fistula opening location, and management, were included in the study, whereas articles with insufficient clinical and demographic data were excluded. We also present a new case of cysto-cutaneous fistulization of a liver hydatid cyst. The literature review included 38 articles (32 full text, 2 abstracts, and 4 unavailable) on cutaneous fistulization in patients with HD. Among the 38 articles included in the study, 22 were written in English, 13 in French, 1 in German, 1 in Italian, and 1 in Spanish. Forty patients (21 males and 19 females; mean age ± standard deviation, 54.0 ± 21.5 years; range, 7-93 years) were involved in the study. Twenty-four patients had cysto-cutaneous fistulization (Echinococcus granulosus); 10 had cutaneous fistulization (E multilocularis), 3 had cysto-cutaneo-bronchio-biliary fistulization, 2 had cysto-cutaneo-bronchial fistulization; and 1 had cutaneo-bronchial fistulization (E multilocularis). Twenty-nine patients were diagnosed with E granulosis and 11 had E multilocularis detected by clinical, radiological, and/or histopathological examinations. Cutaneous fistulization is a rare complication of HD. Complicated HD should be considered in the

  7. Giant Cell Arteritis

    MedlinePlus

    Giant cell arteritis is a disorder that causes inflammation of your arteries, usually in the scalp, neck, and arms. ... arteries, which keeps blood from flowing well. Giant cell arteritis often occurs with another disorder called polymyalgia ...

  8. Natural products applied against hydatid cyst protoscolices: A review of past to present.

    PubMed

    Kohansal, Mohammad Hasan; Nourian, Abbasali; Rahimi, Mohammad Taghi; Daryani, Ahmad; Spotin, Adel; Ahmadpour, Ehsan

    2017-09-19

    Echinococcus granulosus is the causative agent of cystic echinococcosis (CE), which is distributed all around the world. CE is one of the most important global parasitic infectious diseases, both in humans and animals. This parasite causes hydatid cysts that can be lodge at different organs of host such as liver, lung even in heart and brain which may lead to death. Presently, numerous scolicidal chemical agents have been administrated for inactivation of the hydatid cyst contents. Because of increasing resistance and adverse effects of medications include abnormalities of liver function, abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and headache; there is a need to find alternative therapies either with the least or without side effects. Recently, there is a high tendency among researchers to evaluate and present herbal plants as alternative option due to being inexpensive, easy available, low side effects and toxicity. Till now, many efforts have been conducted on herbal extracts against protoscolices of hydatid cysts throughout the world. Therefore, the current review systematically searched the following electronic databases: PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, and Google Scholar on published papers according to the keywords. In addition, a comprehensive list of medicinal plants was prepared and some of these herbal plants which showed the best efficacy and promising results are discussed elaborately. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Isolation and characterization of exosomes derived from fertile sheep hydatid cysts.

    PubMed

    Siles-Lucas, Mar; Sánchez-Ovejero, Carlos; González-Sánchez, María; González, Esperanza; Falcón-Pérez, Juan Manuel; Boufana, Belgees; Fratini, Federica; Casulli, Adriano; Manzano-Román, Raúl

    2017-03-15

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a chronic and complex zoonotic disease. Information on the mechanisms involved in parasite establishment, growth and persistence remain limited. These may be modulated by a crosstalk between extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs including exosomes and microvesicles are able to carry developmental signaling proteins which coordinate growth and establishment of several parasites. Here, an exosome enriched EV fraction was isolated from hydatid fluid (HF) of fertile sheep cysts. A proteomic analysis of this fraction identified a number of parasite-derived vesicle-membrane associated proteins as well as cytosolic proteins. Additionally, the exosomal enriched fraction contained proteins of host origin. Specific proteins -antigen B2 and TSPAN14- in the exosomal fraction were further assayed by immunoblot and transmission electron microscopy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the presence of parasite exosomes in fertile hydatid cyst fluid. Further characterization of the exosome cargo will allow the discovery of new markers for the detection of CE in humans and animals, and the treatment of CE patients, and provide new insights regarding the role of these EVs in the establishment and persistence of hydatid cysts.

  10. Surgical and Molecular Evaluation of Pediatric Hydatid Cyst Cases in Eastern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Bakal, Unal; Simsek, Sami; Kazez, Ahmet

    2015-12-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus is a major public health problem worldwide, including Turkey. The aim of the current study was to identify the strains and to estimate the potential risk factors of E. granulosus in operated pediatric cases in eastern Turkey. Ten pediatric patients (7 boys and 3 girls) living in rural areas, with ages ranging from 3 to 15 years old and various clinical histories, were included in this study. Eight patients had only liver hydatid cyst, while 1 patient had liver and lung hydatid cyst and the other liver, lung, and spleen, together. There were 2 ruptured liver cysts. After surgery, during follow-up, no increase was observed in hemagglutination levels, there were no mortalities, and there was no evidence of recurrence at 2 years post operation in all patients. Molecular analysis was performed on hydatid cyst samples obtained from the 10 pediatric cases. According to mt-12S rRNA PCR results, all cases were found to be G1/G3 cluster of E. granulosus sensu stricto.

  11. Acute Urinary Retention due to Primary Pelvic Hydatid Cyst: A Rare Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Sanyal, Priyanka; Das, Mohan Kumar; Kumar, Sandeep; Panja, Soumyajyoti

    2016-01-01

    Causes of urinary retention in old men include benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatitis, prostate cancer, Scarring of the urethra or bladder neck as a result of injury or surgery, use of certain medicines particularly NSAIDs and opioid analgesics, constipation and neurogenic bladder. When the above common causes are not quite obvious by clinical examination and relevant investigations, then it is necessary to think of other rare diseases. It is with the above in our mind that a case of bladder outflow obstruction due to a large primary retrovesical hydatid cyst is herein reported in a 58-year-old man. Ultrasonography (USG) and Contrast Enhanced Computed Tomography (CECT) scan of the abdomen and pelvis of the patient revealed a large, multilocular, nonenhancing, cystic lesion in the rectovesical pouch having typical cartwheel appearance without any other intraabdominal organ involvement. These typical radiological characteristics led us to suspect the presence of a hydatid cyst. He underwent exploratory laparotomy where cystopericycstectomy was done. Pre-operative and post-operative albendazole prophylaxis was also given. In conclusion, hydatid cyst should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of pelvic cystic masses, specially in endemic regions. PMID:27190883

  12. Giant impacts on giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pater, Imke

    2013-10-01

    The 2009 impact and recent superbolides on Jupiter caught the world by surprise and cast doubt on impactor flux estimates for the outer solar system. Enhanced amateur planetary imaging techniques yield both high spatial resolution {enabling the 2009 impact debris field detection} and rapid frame rates {enabling the 2010/2012 impact flash detections and lightcurve measurements}.We propose a ToO program to image future impacts on Jupiter and Saturn. To remove the possibility of impact cloud non-detections, the program will be triggered only if an existing impact debris field is seen, an object on a collision course with Jupiter or Saturn is discovered, or an impact light curve is measured with an estimated total energy large enough to generate an impact cloud in a giant planet atmosphere {10^20 J}.HST provides the only way to image these events in the ultraviolet, providing information on aerosol altitudes and on smaller particles that are less visible to ground-based infrared observations. High-resolution imaging with proper timing {not achievable from the ground} is required to measure precisely both the velocity fields of impact sites and the optical spectrum of impact debris. HST observations of past impacts on Jupiter have also served both as cornerstones of science investigations at other wavelengths and as vehicles for effective public outreach.Large outer solar system impacts are governed by the same physics as in the terrestrial events that dominate the impact threat to humans. Studying the behavior of impactors of various sizes and compositions, as they enter the atmosphere at varying angles and speeds, will better quantify terrestrial impact hazards.

  13. Giant impacts on giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pater, Imke

    2014-10-01

    The 2009 impact and recent superbolides on Jupiter caught the world by surprise and cast doubt on impactor flux estimates for the outer solar system. Enhanced amateur planetary imaging techniques yield both high spatial resolution (enabling the 2009 impact debris field detection) and rapid frame rates (enabling the 2010/2012 impact flash detections and lightcurve measurements).We propose a ToO program to image future impacts on Jupiter and Saturn. To remove the possibility of impact cloud non-detections, the program will be triggered only if an existing impact debris field is seen, an object on a collision course with Jupiter or Saturn is discovered, or an impact light curve is measured with an estimated total energy large enough to generate an impact cloud in a giant planet atmosphere (10^20 J).HST provides the only way to image these events in the ultraviolet, providing information on aerosol altitudes and on smaller particles that are less visible to ground-based infrared observations. High-resolution imaging with proper timing (not achievable from the ground) is required to measure precisely both the velocity fields of impact sites and the optical spectrum of impact debris. HST observations of past impacts on Jupiter have also served both as cornerstones of science investigations at other wavelengths and as vehicles for effective public outreach.Large outer solar system impacts are governed by the same physics as in the terrestrial events that dominate the impact threat to humans. Studying the behavior of impactors of various sizes and compositions, as they enter the atmosphere at varying angles and speeds, will better quantify terrestrial impact hazards.

  14. Giant impacts on giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pater, Imke

    2012-10-01

    The 2009 impact on Jupiter caught the world by surprise and cast doubt on impactor flux estimates for the outer solar system. Enhanced amateur planetary imaging techniques yield both high spatial resolution {enabling the 2009 impact debris field detection} and rapid frame rates {enabling the 2010 impact flash detections and lightcurve measurements}.We propose a Target of Opportunity program to image future impacts on Jupiter and Saturn. To remove the possibility of impact cloud non-detections, the program will be triggered only if an existing impact debris field is seen, an object on a collision course with Jupiter or Saturn is discovered, or an impact light curve is measured with an estimated total energy large enough to generate an impact cloud in a giant planet atmosphere.HST provides the only way to image these events in the ultraviolet, providing information on aerosol altitudes and on smaller particles that are less visible to ground-based infrared observations. High-resolution imaging with proper timing {not achievable from the ground} is required to measure precisely both the velocity fields of impact sites and the optical spectrum of impact debris. HST observations of past impacts on Jupiter have also served both as cornerstones of science investigations at other wavelengths and as vehicles for effective public outreach.Large outer solar system impacts are governed by the same physics as in the terrestrial events that dominate the impact threat to humans. Studying the behavior of impactors of various sizes and compositions, as they enter the atmosphere at varying angles and speeds, will better quantify terrestrial impact hazards.

  15. Mediastinal hydatid cyst rupturing into the pleural cavity associated with pneumothorax: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Shameem, Mohd; Bhargava, Rakesh; Ahmad, Zuber; Fatima, Nazish; Nazir Shah, Naveed

    2006-01-01

    Hydatid disease remains a serious health problem in Mediterranean countries. Living in a rural area is an important risk factor for the disease. Hydatid cysts are usually located in the liver, lungs and brain. Mediastinal hydatid disease is very rare and has been noted only anecdotally in the literature. The present article reports a case of a mediastinal hydatid cyst rupturing into the pleural cavity, which was associated with pneumothorax of the same side. The patient's previous chest x-rays (posteroanterior and left lateral views) showed a well-defined mediastinal mass on the left side, and contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the thorax (taken a few days after the chest x-ray) showed multiple round-to-oval soft tissue opacities with partial collapse of the left lung. An indirect hemagglutination test for echinococcus was positive. Even after two weeks of intercostal tube drainage, the patient's condition did not improve. During thoracotomy, multiple daughter cysts were found in the pleural cavity, and the diagnosis of a hydatid cyst was confirmed after histopathological examination.

  16. [Giant liver abscess due to nearly asymptomatic choledocholithiasis].

    PubMed

    Colović, Radoje; Grubor, Nikica; Colović, Natasa

    2002-01-01

    Solitary pyogenic liver abscess is usually caused by a metastatic infection through the portal blood flow or through the hepatic arterial blood flow from extra-abdominal pyogenic foci. Besides, it may be the result of local inflammatory diseases, such as cholecystitis, hydatid cyst, haematomas particularly with retained foreign bodies, etc. Suppurative cholangitis usually causes multiple pyogenic liver abscesses. Solitary pyogenic abscess is rarely caused by cholangitis, but practically always by suppurative cholangitis. Giant pyogenic liver abscess due to asymptomatic or mild cholangitis is a rarity. We present on a 63 year old man who developed a giant solitary pyogenic liver abscess in whom no other possible cause could be found or anticipated except practically almost asymptomatic choledocholithiasis accompanied with mild elevation of bilirubin content, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-GT. The patient was successfully treated operatively. Over 1800 ml. of pus was aspirated from the abscess cavity. Operative cholangiography performed in spite of the absence of gall bladder stones undilated and noninflamed common bile duct stone showed a small nonobstructing distal common bile duct stone. The duct was not dilated, the bile was clear and there were no signs of cholangitis in the inside of the common bile duct. Cholecystectomy and abscess cavity drainage led to uneventful recovery. The patient has been symptom-free for more than 3.5 years.

  17. Rare causes of pulmonary hypertension: spectrum of radiological findings and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Alice; Zompatori, Maurizio; Tchouante Tchouanhou, Patrick; Amadori, Michele; Palazzini, Massimiliano; Conficoni, Elisa; Galiè, Nazzareno; Poletti, Venerino; Gavelli, Giampaolo

    2014-01-01

    Following a brief introduction covering the clinical signs and symptoms of pulmonary hypertension (PH), its most recent classification into six groups, and the computed tomography (CT) features common to all forms of PH, this paper illustrates the typical patterns that can be found on chest radiography and CT in rare causes of PH. We present and compare with the existing literature our personal series of cases of rare forms of PH, found in the following diseases: veno-occlusive disease, pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis, non-thrombotic pulmonary embolism (tumour embolism and carcinomatous lymphangitis, talcosis, hydatid disease), pulmonary artery sarcoma, neurofibromatosis, sarcoidosis, and Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Rare forms of PH show low incidence and prevalence, and are, therefore, poorly recognised. Their diagnosis is a challenge for clinicians, pathologists, and radiologists, and any additional knowledge about the CT findings may help the diagnosis in the case of patients affected by PH of unknown origin.

  18. [Fatal pulmonary mycosis in a diabetic and cirrhotic patient].

    PubMed

    Ayadi-Kaddour, Aïda; Braham, Emna; Marghli, Adel; Ismail, Olfa; Helal, Imen; Mlika, Mona; Kilani, Tarak; El Mezni, Faouzi

    2015-04-01

    Pulmonary mucormycosis is a rare, devastating, opportunistic fungal infection, caused by the ubiquitous filamentous fungi of the Mucorales order of the class of Zygomycetes. This infection occurs principally in some particular conditions, specially in diabetic patients and immunocompromised host, and rarely in cirrhotic patients. The diagnosis of mucormycosis can only be confirmed by pathological and mycological examination of biopsy specimens. We report a case of pulmonary mucormycosis in a 68-year-old woman with underlying liver cirrhosis and diabetes mellitus. Endoscopic and radiologic findings supported the diagnosis of hydatid cyst of the lung. The patient underwent surgical resection and was started on amphotericin B, after pathological examination. Unfortunately, she succumbed to the infection within one month of surgery.

  19. The association of hypernatremia and hypertonic saline irrigation in hepatic hydatid cysts: A case report and retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Rujun; Wu, Renhua; Lv, Qingguo; Tong, Nanwei; Zhang, Yuwei

    2017-09-01

    Hypernatremia is a rare but fatal complication of hypertonic saline (HS) irrigation in hepatic hydatid disease. It needs careful monitoring and treatment. A 28-year-old woman with hepatic hydatid cysts who received operation treatment developed electrolyte disturbances. We also conducted a retrospective study about influence of HS application on electrolytes in patients with hepatic hydatid disease receiving surgery. Hypernatremia, developed after HS irrigation. Normal saline, 5% dextrose and other supportive treatment were administered. In the retrospective study, a comparison of electrolyte and glucose fluctuation was made among different HS application groups. The patient developed hypernatremia after irrigation with HS and died from severe complications. Although some cases of complications are found, no significant relationship between HS irrigation and hypernatremia was reported according to the retrospective study. Hypernatremia after HS irrigation remains rare but might cause severe complications. Monitoring and appropriate treatment are needed to improve prognosis.

  20. The Electric Giant Resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Woude, A.

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Experimental Methods to Study Giant Resonances * Introduction * The Tools * Introduction * Tools for Isoscalar Scattering * INELASTIC α-SCATTERING * INELASTIC PROTON SCATTERING * Tools for Isovector Excitations * γ-ABSORPTION AND PARTICLE CAPTURE REACTIONS * CHARGE EXCHANGE REACTIONS - THE (π+, π0) REACTION * Tools For Isoscalar And Isovector Excitations * INELASTIC ELECTRON SCATTERING * GIANT RESONANCE EXCITATION BY FAST HEAVY IONS * From Multipole Cross Section To Multipole Strength * The Electric Isoscalar Resonances * The Isoscalar Giant Monopole Resonance * Systematics on the GMR * Compressibility and the Giant Monopole Resonance * Introduction * The Compressibility of nuclear matter from the GMR energies * Discussion * The Isoscalar Giant Quadrupole Resonance * General Trends In Medium-Heavy and Heavy Nuclei * The GQR In Light Nuclei * The Isoscalar 3- Strength, LEOR and HEOR * Isoscalar 4+ Strength * Miscellaneous; Isoscalar 1- and L > 4-Strength * The Electric Isovector Giant Resonances * The Isovector Giant Dipole Resonance: GDR * The Isovector Giant Monopole Resonances: IVGMR * The Isovector Quadrupole Resonance: IVGQR * The Effect of Ground State Deformation on the Shape of Giant Resonance: Microscopic Picture * Giant Resonances Built on Excited States * Introduction * Capture Reactions on Light Nuclei * Statistical decay of GDR γ Emission in Heavy Compound Systems * Introduction * Theoretical Predictions * Some Experimental Results * Summary and Outlook * Acknowledgements * General References * References

  1. Sensory ecology: giant eyes for giant predators?

    PubMed

    Partridge, Julian C

    2012-04-24

    Mathematical models suggest the enormous eyes of giant and colossal squid evolved to see the bioluminescence induced by the approach of predatory whales. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hepatic Alveolar Hydatid Cyst: A Brief Review of Published Cases from Iran in the Last 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Geramizadeh, Bita; Baghernezhad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Context Echinococcus multilocularis is the cause of alveolar hydatid disease, which most commonly involves the liver in more than 90% of cases. This disease is endemic in northern Iran. However, there are very few published cases from Iran. In this article, we will review all of the published cases of hepatic alveolar echinococcosis from Iran regarding all aspects, including clinical, paraclinical, and treatment protocols. Evidence Acquisition In this brief review, the published cases of hepatic Alveolar Echinococcosis (AE) from Iran were retrieved for review via a search in PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, IranMedex, scientific information database (SID), Magiran, and Irandoc (1995 - 2015) using the keywords Echinococcus multilocularis and Iran, Alveolar hydatid cyst and Iran, liver and Alveolar hydatid cyst and Iran, and Hepatic alveolar hydatid cyst and Iran. The following inclusion criteria were employed: 1, articles must be written in English or Farsi; 2, articles must have been published between 1995 and 2015; 3) cases must have been confirmed by pathological diagnosis. Results There were 24 published cases of liver-involved alveolar hydatid cyst from Iran. The disease was more common in young- to middle-aged women in northeast Iran. The most common presenting signs and symptoms were abdominal pain with hepatomegaly and liver mass. Most of the patients were treated by surgery and albendazole. The few unresectable liver masses were treated by medical therapy. No liver transplantation for this disease was reported from Iran. Conclusions Hepatic alveolar hydatid cyst should be considered one of the important differential diagnoses of liver masses, especially in endemic areas of the world. PMID:27882065

  3. Pulmonary talcosis: imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Marchiori, Edson; Lourenço, Sílvia; Gasparetto, Taisa Davaus; Zanetti, Gláucia; Mano, Cláudia Mauro; Nobre, Luiz Felipe

    2010-04-01

    Talc is a mineral widely used in the ceramic, paper, plastics, rubber, paint, and cosmetic industries. Four distinct forms of pulmonary disease caused by talc have been defined. Three of them (talcosilicosis, talcoasbestosis, and pure talcosis) are associated with aspiration and differ in the composition of the inhaled substance. The fourth form, a result of intravenous administration of talc, is seen in drug users who inject medications intended for oral use. The disease most commonly affects men, with a mean age in the fourth decade of life. Presentation of patients with talc granulomatosis can range from asymptomatic to fulminant disease. Symptomatic patients typically present with nonspecific complaints, including progressive exertional dyspnea, and cough. Late complications include chronic respiratory failure, emphysema, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and cor pulmonale. History of occupational exposure or of drug addiction is the major clue to the diagnosis. The high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) finding of small centrilobular nodules associated with heterogeneous conglomerate masses containing high-density amorphous areas, with or without panlobular emphysema in the lower lobes, is highly suggestive of pulmonary talcosis. The characteristic histopathologic feature in talc pneumoconiosis is the striking appearance of birefringent, needle-shaped particles of talc seen within the giant cells and in the areas of pulmonary fibrosis with the use of polarized light. In conclusion, computed tomography can play an important role in the diagnosis of pulmonary talcosis, since suggestive patterns may be observed. The presence of these patterns in drug abusers or in patients with an occupational history of exposure to talc is highly suggestive of pulmonary talcosis.

  4. Percutaneous Transhepatic Endobiliary Drainage of Hepatic Hydatid Cyst with Rupture into the Biliary System: An Unusual Route for Drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Inal, Mehmet; Soyupak, Suereyya; Akguel, Erol; Ezici, Hueseyin

    2002-10-15

    The most common and serious complication of hydatid cyst of the liver is rupture into the biliary tract causing obstructive jaundice, cholangitis and abscess. The traditional treatment of biliary-cystic fistula is surgery and recently endoscopic sphincterotomy. We report a case of complex heterogeneous cyst rupture into the biliary tract causing biliary obstruction in which the obstruction and cyst were treated successfully by percutaneous transhepatic endobiliary drainage. Our case is the second report of percutaneous transbiliary internal drainage of hydatid cyst with rupture into the biliary duct in which the puncture and drainage were not performed through the cyst cavity.

  5. VIDEO PLENARY 2: VID-HPB-01: An unusual appearance of space-occupying lesion in pancreas: Hydatid cyst

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Narendra Singh; Puri, Rajesh; Bansal, Rinkesh; Sarin, Haimanti; Guleria, Mridula; Sud, Randhir

    2017-01-01

    A 57-year-old male underwent ultrasound abdomen for nonspecific pain. The ultrasound abdomen showed a lesion in the body of pancreas. The patient was referred for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) evaluation of a pancreatic lesion. EUS showed a 3.3 cm solid lesion in the body of pancreas with alternating thin hypoechoic and thick hyperechoic irregular layers giving it an appearance-like sulci and gyri of the brain. EUS-guided fine needle aspiration was done; the aspirate was positive for numerous hydatid scolices, thus confirming the diagnosis of pancreatic hydatid disease.

  6. Disseminated Alveolar Hydatid Disease Resembling a Metastatic Malignancy: A Diagnostic Challenge—A Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Bulakci, Mesut; Cengel, Ferhat; Gocmez, Ahmet; Kartal, Merve Gulbiz; Isik, Emine Goknur; Celenk, Erhan

    2014-01-01

    Alveolar hydatid disease or alveolar echinococcosis is a disease of the parasite Echinococcus multilocularis that is potentially fatal if left untreated. It primarily involves the liver but can be disseminated to other organs like the lungs and the brain by hematogenous route. Multiorgan involvement and the aggressive appearance of lesions make alveolar hydatid disease easy to confuse with a metastatic malignancy. For this reason, histopathological confirmation is essential for definite diagnosis. We present the imaging features of this disease in two patients in order to emphasize that these lesions can be easily misdiagnosed as malignancies. PMID:25374743

  7. [Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Antoine, Martine; Vieira, Thibault; Fallet, Vincent; Hamard, Cécile; Duruisseaux, Michael; Cadranel, Jacques; Wislez, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinomas are a rare group of tumors accounting for about one percent of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). In 2015, the World Health Organization classification united under this name all the carcinomas with sarcomatous-like component with spindle cell or giant cell appearance, or associated with a sarcomatous component sometimes heterologous. There are five subtypes: pleomorphic carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, giant cell carcinoma, carcinosarcoma and pulmonary blastoma. Clinical characteristics are not specific from the other subtypes of NSCLC. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition pathway may play a key role. Patients, usually tobacco smokers, are frequently symptomatic. Tumors are voluminous more often peripherical than central, with strong fixation on FDG TEP CT. Distant metastases are frequent with atypical visceral locations. These tumors have poorer prognosis than the other NSCLC subtypes because of great aggressivity, and frequent chemoresistance. Here we present pathological description and a review of literature with molecular features in order to better describe these tumors and perhaps introduce new therapeutics.

  8. Efficacy and Safety of Bunium Persicum (Boiss) to Inactivate Protoscoleces during Hydatid Cyst Operations.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Tavakoli Oliaei, Razieh; Mirbadie, Seyed Reza; Kheirandish, Farnaz; Tavakoli Kareshk, Amir; Ezatpour, Behrouz; Mahmoudvand, Hormoz

    2016-12-01

    Current scolicidal agents, which have been used for inactivation of protoscoleces during surgical procedures, are associated with adverse side effects including sclerosing cholangitis. This investigation aimed to evaluate the scolicidal effects of Bunium persicum (Boiss) essential oil against protoscoleces of hydatid cysts and also its toxicity in a mice model. Protoscoleces were aseptically aspirated from sheep livers having hydatid cysts. Various concentrations of the essential oil (3.125-50 mcL/mL) were used for 5-30 min. The viability of protoscoleces was confirmed using the eosin exclusion test (0.1% eosin staining). Further, 48 male NMRI mice were used to determine the acute and sub-acute toxicity of B. persicum essential oil. The obtained results revealed that the B. persicum essential oil at the concentrations of 25 and 50 mcL/mL after 5 min of exposure killed 100% protoscoleces. The mean mortality rate of protoscoleces after 10 min of exposure to the concentration of 12.5 mcL/mL was 100%. Lower concentrations (6.25 and 3.125 mcL/mL) of B. persicum essential oil, however, indicated a delayed protoscolicidal effects. The LD50 value of intra-peritoneal injection of the B. persicum essential oil was 1.96 mL/kg body wt. No significant difference (p > 0.05) was observed in the clinical chemistry and hematologic parameters after oral administrations of B. persicum essential oil at the doses 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 4 mL/kg for 14 d. Our findings demonstrated the potent scolicidal activity of B. persicum with no significant toxicity; it might be used as a natural scolicidal agent in hydatid cyst surgery.

  9. Subadventitial cystectomy in the management of biliary fistula with liver hydatid disease.

    PubMed

    Lv, Hailong; Jiang, Yufeng; Peng, Xinyu; Zhang, Shijie; Wu, Xiangwei; Yang, Hongqiang; Zhang, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    Biliary fistulas are the most common morbidity (8.2-26%) following hydatid liver surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of subadventitial cystectomy in the treatment of liver hydatid cyst associated with a biliocystic fistula. The medical records of 153 patients who underwent subadventitial cystectomy for a liver hydatid cyst between January 2006 and December 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Cysts were located in the right lobe anterior segment 37 (24.2%) patients, right lobe posterior segment 59 (38.6%) patients, the left lobe in 26 (17.0%) patients, and both lobes in 6 (3.9%) patients. The surgical procedures performed were closed (non-incised) subadventitial total cystectomy in 74 patients (48.4%), open (incised) subadventitial total cystectomy in 30 patients (19.6%), and subadventitial subtotal cystectomy in 49 patients (32.0%). Biliocystic communication was found in 52 patients (34.0%), and 21 patients (13.7%) were treated with T-tube drainage. Two patients had performed biliodigestive anastomosis. Biliary fistula was detected in 9 patients after subtotal subadventitial cystectomy. Biliary fistulas closed spontaneously within 10 days and 61 days respectively and the amount of drainage varying between 50 and 400ml after the procedure. Postoperative complication and recurrence rates were 19.0% and 0.7%, respectively. The mortality rate was 0%. Subadventitial cystectomy should be the surgical treatment of choice for this disease because of its feasibility and low rates of recurrence, complications of the residual cavity, and incidence of associated biliary fistula.

  10. Pulmonary Hypertension and Pulmonary Vasodilators.

    PubMed

    Keller, Roberta L

    2016-03-01

    Pulmonary hypertension in the perinatal period can present acutely (persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn) or chronically. Clinical and echocardiographic diagnosis of acute pulmonary hypertension is well accepted but there are no broadly validated criteria for echocardiographic diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension later in the clinical course, although there are significant populations of infants with lung disease at risk for this diagnosis. Contributing cardiovascular comorbidities are common in infants with pulmonary hypertension and lung disease. It is not clear who should be treated without confirmation of pulmonary vascular disease by cardiac catheterization, with concurrent evaluation of any contributing cardiovascular comorbidities.

  11. Pulmonary Fibrosis

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a condition in which the tissue deep in your lungs becomes scarred over time. This tissue ... may not get enough oxygen. Causes of pulmonary fibrosis include environmental pollutants, some medicines, some connective tissue ...

  12. Pulmonary Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary Rehabilitation If you have shortness of breath because of lung problems, you may have asked yourself: • Can I ... medications do I really need to take? Pulmonary rehabilitation can help answer these and other questions. Enrolling ...

  13. Abdominal wall Hydatid cyst: A review a literature with a case report.

    PubMed

    Salih, Abdulwahid M; Kakamad, F H; Hammood, Zuhair D; Yasin, Bzhwen; Ahmed, Dilshad M

    2017-01-01

    Hydatid cyst (HC) disease is a serious health problem in endemic areas. It is a parasitic infection that commonly involves liver and lungs while muscular HC is rare. HC of abdominal wall was reported only six times. We reported a 39-year-old male presented with HC of the right loin who was managed surgically with brief literature review. HC should be put in the differential diagnosis of the abdominal wall masses. Its pre-operative diagnosis is important to prevent rupture with subsequent anaphylaxis and recurrence. Surgery is the main modality of treatment. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Acute intraperitoneal rupture of hydatid cysts: a surgical experience with 14 cases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Hydatidosis is endemic in the Mediterranean region including morrocco, the Middle and Far East, Australia, New Zealand, and South America—all areas where animal husbandry is common. Rupture into the abdominal cavity is a rare but serious complication of hydatid disease. The cysts may be ruptured after a trauma, or spontaneously as a result of increased intracystic pressure. Rupture of the hydatid cyst requires emergency surgical intervention. Methods Fourteen patients received surgical treatment for intraperitoneal rupture of the cysts over a period of 5 years. Age, gender, time to surgery from the onset of the symptoms, laboratory findings, diagnostic procedures, surgical treatment modalities, in-hospital stay, morbidity, mortality and recurrence were evaluated retrospectively. Results Eight of the patients were men and six were women. All of the patients had signs of peritoneal irritation. One patient (7,14%) had a history of blunt abdominal trauma. Ultrasonography scans revealed intra-abdominal fluid in all cases, intraperitoneal multiple cysts in 11 cases and heterogeneous cavity or cystic structures in the liver in 12 cases. Computed tomography showed multiple cystic lesions in the liver and peritoneum with intra-abdominal free fluid. The ruptured cysts were located in the right lobe of the liver in seven patients, in the left lobe in six patients and in both lobes in one patients. Procedures to fill the cystic cavities were applied after removal of the intraperitoneal fluid. Partial pericystectomy and drainage was the most frequent surgical procedure. No patients died in the early postoperative period. A total of seven morbidities developed in six patients (35.3%). Median hospital stay was 08 days and median follow-up was 12 months. Intra-abdominal recurrence occurred in one case (7.7%). Conclusions Rupture of hydatid cysts into the peritoneal cavity, although rare, presents a challenge for surgeons. This pathology should be included in the

  15. Primary hydatid disease of brachialis and biceps brachii muscles: a case report.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Bahattin Kerem; Acar, Mehmet Ali; Sumer, Sua; Demir, Nazlim Aktug; Erkocak, Omer Faruk; Ural, Onur

    2014-01-01

    Primary hydatid cyst of the skeletal muscle is very rare and accounts for less than 1% of all cases. It is often asymptomatic and can pose diagnostic problems. Accurate diagnosis should be made using ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. Proper treatment should be a wide surgical resection of the localized muscle with the aid of antihelmintic chemotherapy pre- and postoperatively. We report a case of primary hydatic cyst located simultaneously in both the biceps brachii and brachialis muscles, treated with wide resection surgery and pre- and postoperative anthelmintic chemotherapy.

  16. The damages of high intensity focused ultrasound to transplanted hydatid cysts in abdominal cavities of rabbits with aids of ultrasound contrast agent and superabsorbent polymer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ai-Bo; Cai, Hui; Ye, Bin; Chen, Lu-Lu; Wang, Meng-Ying; Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Yi-Feng

    2013-05-01

    The present study investigates the damages of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) to transplanted hydatid cysts in abdominal cavities of rabbits with aids of ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) and superabsorbent polymer (SAP) alone or in combination. A rabbit model with transplanted hydatid cyst was established by implanting hydatid cyst isolated from infected sheep liver, and HIFU was used to ablate the transplanted cysts with the aid of UCA and SAP alone or in combination. The hydatid cyst with thin wall, good elasticity, approximately spherical, and a diameter of approximately 30 mm was selected for the following experiments. According to our previous studies, a mixture of 0.1 g SAP and 0.5 ml anhydrous ethanol, and the solution of 0.1 ml UCA SonoVue, or both materials were injected into different cyst before HIFU ablation, respectively. The cyst inoculated with the SAP and UCA alone or in combination was immediately implanted into the abdominal cavity of rabbit for HIFU ablation at a dosage of 100 W acoustic powers. The ablation mode was spot scanning at the speed of 3 mm/s. Every target point was scanned three times; every ablating time lasted 3 s. The distance of each ablated layer was 5 mm. The total ablation time depended on the volume of cyst. The comparison of ultrasound image for each layer of hydatid cyst was made before and after HIFU ablation. The protoscolices in ablated cysts were stained by trypan blue exclusion assay, and their structures were observed by light microscopy. To estimate ablation effects of HIFU to the walls of hydatid cysts, the ultrastructure changes of cyst walls were examined by electron microscopy. The pathological changes of rabbits' skins through which ultrasound penetrated were observed to investigate the side effects of HIFU ablation. The results demonstrated that HIFU had some lethal effects to hydatid cysts in vivo, namely, echo enhancements of ultrasound images of cysts, increases in mortality rate of

  17. Imaging findings in pulmonary vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Castañer, Eva; Alguersuari, Anna; Andreu, Marta; Gallardo, Xavier; Spinu, Cristina; Mata, Josep M

    2012-12-01

    Vasculitis is a destructive inflammatory process affecting blood vessels. Pulmonary vasculitis may develop secondary to other conditions or constitute a primary idiopathic disorder. Thoracic involvement is most common in primary idiopathic large-vessel vasculitides (Takayasu arteritis, giant cell arteritis, Behçet disease) and primary antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated small-vessel vasculitides (Wegener granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis, Churg-Strauss syndrome). Primary pulmonary vasculitides are rare, and their signs and symptoms are nonspecific, overlapping with those of infections, connective tissue diseases, and malignancies. The radiologic findings in primary pulmonary vasculitis vary widely and can include vessel wall thickening, nodular or cavitary lesions, ground-glass opacities, and consolidations, among others. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage usually results from primary small-vessel vasculitis in the lungs. To diagnose vasculitis, medical teams must recognize characteristic combinations of clinical, radiologic, laboratory, and histopathologic features.

  18. Uncommon primary hydatid cyst occupying the adrenal gland space, treated with laparoscopic surgical approach in an old patient

    PubMed Central

    Aprea, Giovanni; Aloia, Sergio; Quarto, Gennaro; Furino, Ermenegildo; Amato, Maurizio; Bianco, Tommaso; Di Domenico, Lorenza; Maurea, Simone; Sivero, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hydatid disease (HD) is caused by Echinococcus Granulosus (EG), which is a larva endemic in many undeveloped areas. The most common target is the liver (59%–75%). The retroperitoneal space is considered as a rare localization. We report an uncommon case of HD located in the adrenal gland space. Presentation of case. This is a 78-year-old Moroccan woman, with right flank pain for eight months previously. She denied contact with dogs or sheep. Her physical examination was normal. There was no pathological alteration of laboratory exams. CT scan measuring 5 cm without clear signs for a sure diagnosis found a round lesion in the right adrenal gland. An abdominal MRI showed a round mass of 34 x 27 mm with fluid component without a clear plane of dissection from kidney and liver. A laparoscopic procedure was performed to obtain a histological diagnosis. We reached a conclusive diagnosis of Hydatid cyst of right adrenal gland space. Hydatid cysts often develop in the liver. The location in the adrenal bed is rare without clinical signs related to alteration of the gland’s secretion. Hydatid cyst identification in the adrenal gland space is based on ultrasonography, CT or MRI scans. The differential diagnosis includes various benign and malignant lesions. Laparoscopic procedure is the best approach available to obtain a histological diagnosis and a curative treatment. The best treatment for HD is the pericystectomy. Laparoscopic surgery can guarantee a radical resection of these lesions when it performed by an expert surgeon.

  19. Modified PAIR Technique for Percutaneous Treatment of High-Risk Hydatid Cysts

    SciTech Connect

    Gabal, Abdelwahab M.; Khawaja, Fazal I.; Mohammad, Ghanem A.

    2005-04-15

    Purpose: This paper presents a modification of the known method for percutaneous treatment of hydatid cyst, the PAIR technique. It aimed to achieve safe aspiration of large symptomatic cysts and cysts with a danger of impending rupture. Methods: We designed a coaxial catheter system to achieve concomitant evacuation of cyst contents while infusing scolicidal agent. Hypertonic saline is used to wash out cyst contents and to kill protoscolices. This was followed by injection of a sclerosant (ethyl alcohol 95%) into the residual cyst cavity to prevent formation of a cyst collection after the procedure. Seventeen cysts in 14 patients were successfully aspirated. Follow-up plain radiographs, ultrasonography and CT were performed weekly in the first 4 weeks and then at 3, 6 and 12 months for all patients. Seven patients (9 drained cysts) were followed up for 2 years and 1 patient for 3 years. Results: All cysts were successfully aspirated. The following morphologic changes were noticed: a gradual decrease in cyst size (17 cysts, 100%), thickening and irregularity of the cyst wall due to separation of endocyst from pericyst (7 cysts, 41%), development of a heterogeneous appearance of the cyst components (8 cysts, 47%) and development of pseudotumor (2 cysts, 12%). None of the treated cysts disappeared completely. No significant procedure-related complications were encountered. Conclusion: This modified PAIR technique is a reliable method for percutaneous treatment of risky and symptomatic hydatid cysts.

  20. Modified PAIR Technique for Percutaneous Treatment of High-Risk Hydatid Cysts

    SciTech Connect

    Gabal, Abdelwahab M. Khawaja, Fazal I.; Mohammad, Ghanem A.

    2005-04-15

    Purpose. This paper presents a modification of the known method for percutaneous treatment of hydatid cyst, the PAIR technique. It aimed to achieve safe aspiration of large symptomatic cysts and cysts with a danger of impending rupture. Methods. We designed a coaxial catheter system to achieve concomitant evacuation of cyst contents while infusing scolicidal agent. Hypertonic saline is used to wash out cyst contents and to kill protoscolices. This was followed by injection of a sclerosant (ethyl alcohol 95%) into the residual cyst cavity to prevent formation of a cyst collection after the procedure. Seventeen cysts in 14 patients were successfully aspirated. Follow-up plain radiographs, ultrasonography and CT were performed weekly in the first 4 weeks and then at 3, 6 and 12 months for all patients. Seven patients (9 drained cysts) were followed up for 2 years and 1 patient for 3 years. Results. All cysts were successfully aspirated. The following morphologic changes were noticed: a gradual decrease in cyst size (17 cysts, 100%), thickening and irregularity of the cyst wall due to separation of endocyst from pericyst (7 cysts, 41%), development of a heterogeneous appearance of the cyst components (8 cysts, 47%) and development of pseudotumor (2 cysts, 12%). None of the treated cysts disappeared completely. No significant procedure-related complications were encountered. Conclusion. This modified PAIR technique is a reliable method for percutaneous treatment of risky and symptomatic hydatid cysts.

  1. Primary Hydatid Cyst of the Brain in a Child: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Imperato, Alessia; Consales, Alessandro; Ravegnani, Marcello; Castagnola, Elio; Bandettini, Roberto; Rossi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Primary intracranial hydatid cyst is a rare location of human echinococcosis whose spontaneous, traumatic or even iatrogenic rupture, as in case of misdiagnosis, may cause anaphylactic reactions and dissemination. Case Report We discuss the management of a 9-year-old boy who was admitted to our Emergency Department with an intracranial hypertension syndrome. Head CT scan and brain MRI showed a huge intra-axial right temporo-parieto-occipital cyst with a marginal calcification, associated with left ventricular uncompensated hydrocephalus. DTI showed displacement of the ipsilateral corticospinal tract, whereas MR spectroscopy showed absence of normal brain metabolites and presence of succinate and lactate within the cyst. A diagnosis of hydatid cyst was then presumed on the basis of the neuroradiological findings. Empiric chemotherapy with albendazole was instituted and surgical en bloc removal of the cyst was obtained, allowing the patient to recover without complications. Diagnosis of brain echinococcosis was confirmed by laboratory tests. Conclusions HE is still an endemic manifestation in some rural areas of the world, and it should be included in the differential diagnosis of children living in or coming from an endemic country who present with an intracerebral cyst. Early diagnosis and complete surgical removal of the intact cyst are the main factors that determine a favourable outcome. PMID:27994696

  2. Treatment of hepatic hydatid disease complications using endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography procedures

    PubMed Central

    Akaydin, Murat; Erozgen, Fazilet; Ersoy, Yeliz E.; Birol, Selim; Kaplan, Rafet

    2012-01-01

    Background Liver hydatidosis may lead to serious morbidity due to biliary complications, the management for which endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) and biliary drainage are very efficient. We evaluated the effectiveness of endoscopic treatment for complications of hepatic hydatid disease. Methods We retrospectively reviewed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) procedures performed between January 2000 and December 2009 and compared laboratory findings, localization of the lesions and ERCP procedures applied between patients with and without jaundice. Results In all, 70 ERCP procedures were performed in 54 patients (24 men, 30 women). Of the 70 procedures, 24 were performed to treat jaundice. All patients with biliary fistulas and jaundice were managed with endoscopic procedures. The 70 ERCP procedures included sphincterotomy only (n = 40); sphincterotomy and stent placement (n = 7); stent placement only (n = 4); sphincterotomy and membrane extraction (n = 9); sphincterotomy, membrane extraction and pus drainage (n = 5); and sphincterotomy and pus drainage (n = 5). Laboratory results improved in 3–7 days, and bile leakage ceased in 2–21 days. Conclusion Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is a safe and effective way to manage biliary complications of hepatic echinococcal disease. In most patients, ES is the most efficient treatment of postoperative external biliary fistulas, jaundice and accompanying cholangitis, as it enables clearing the bile ducts of hydatid remnants; ES should be performed since it accelerates the healing process by decreasing pressure in the choledochus. PMID:22617539

  3. Sudden death due to hydatid cyst: thirty-four medicolegal autopsy cases.

    PubMed

    Jedidi, Maher; Mlayeh, Souheil; Masmoudi, Tasnim; Souguir, Mohamed Kamel; Zemni, Majed

    2014-03-01

    The natural history of the echinococcosis can be studded with multiple complications; the most formidable is sudden death. We studied the epidemiological, pathological, and thanatological features of 34 sudden deaths due to hydatid cyst. The mean age was 33.2 years. A male predominance was observed with a sex ratio of 1.8. Most of our victims were from rural areas (79.4%). Sudden death was preceded by prodromal symptoms in 61.7% of cases. The most common was dyspnea (23.5%), followed by hemoptysis (11.8%). In 85.3% of cases, the cyst location was liver. It was cracked in 25 cases and broken in 6 cases. The rupture was spontaneous in 25 cases (73%). It was preceded by trauma in 7 cases. Death was related to an anaphylactic shock in 82.3% of cases, infection in 14.7%, and respiratory distress in 3% of cases. Sudden death is a serious and not exceptional complication of hydatid cyst. Several mechanisms may explain the sudden death.

  4. [Hydatid cysts of the liver ruptured into the thorax (about five cases)].

    PubMed

    Msaad, S; Yangui, I; Ketata, W; Abid, N; Feki, W; Abid, H; Hentati, A; Kammoun, S

    2015-10-01

    Hydatid cyst of the liver remains a serious public health problem in Tunisia. This benign affection can sometimes cause fatal complications such as cyst rupture into the thorax. We report 5 cases of patients who experienced intrathoracic rupture of hydatic cyst of liver. There were four rural women and an urban man. Patients were between 60 and 75 years of age. We present 2 cases of cyst rupture into pleura, 3 cases of hydatid bronchial fistula and 3 cases of biliothoracic fistulas. Surgical treatment was performed by laparotomy in 3 cases, thoracic approach in one case and by thoracoabdominal approach in the other case. We deplore one case of early death by hemorrhagic shock. Authors emphasize the complexity of the management of hydatic cyst of liver ruptured into the thorax. Surgical treatment remains responsible of high perioperative morbidity and mortality. Early diagnostic and improvement of reanimation measures are important to improve the prognosis of this serious complication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Hydatid disease in New Zealand: an epidemiological study of transmission among Maoris.

    PubMed

    Burridge, M J; Schwabe, C W

    1977-03-01

    An epidemiological study was designed to determine the factors placing the Maori people of New Zealand at an unusually high risk of infection with Echinococcus granulosus. Using stepwise multiple regression techniques, it was shown that the most important determinant of the incidence rate of human hydatid disease was the proportion of Maoris in the local population. It was found that the Maori system of land tenure, based on the Maori land laws led to the formation of many small fragmented properties under multiple ownership, decreasing the incentive of individual Maori farmers to improve their farming methods. In addition, long-standing behavioral patterns, such as an easy familiarity with working dogs and the feeding of dogs on raw offal, were practices that changed slowly, thus contributing to the maintenance of high E. granulosus prevalence in dogs owned by Maoris. Those cultural and behavioral factors, together with poor dog control, exposed all members of the rural Maori community to an increased risk of infection with E. granulosus, with the result that the incidence rate of hydatid disease for all age-groups and for both sexes was strikingly higher in Maoris than in non-Maoris.

  6. Vest-over-Pant Method for Closure of Residual Cavity of Liver Hydatid Cyst.

    PubMed

    Behdad, Saba; Behdad, Akbar; Behdad, Samin; Hosseinpour, Mehrdad

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Although several therapeutic strategies have proven to be effective for hydatid cyst of liver, but surgery is still the most common therapy despite its morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, a variety of technique has been recommended for managing the residual cavity after cystectomy. We report here a new technical method for the reconstruction of hydatid cyst residual cavity with using overlapping flaps of liver edges (Vest over Pant). Methods. In this technique after removing the cyst, the edges of one side of cyst cavity were sutured to the base of the cavity using three to four mattress sutures), and edges of other side of liver was overlapped on the dorsal part of previous layer using four to five mattress sutures. Therefore residual cavity dead space was obliterated with two surfaces of cavity. Results. Fifty males were treated by our method. The average cyst volume was 423 ± 110 mL. There was no intraabdominal sepsis, bile leakage, or hepatic necrosis. In follow-up ultrasound study, residual cavities were disappeared one month after operation. Conclusion. Overlapping flaps of liver edges (Vest over Pant) provides easy, safe closure of cyst with preservation of the liver anatomy.

  7. Giant prostatic calculi

    PubMed Central

    Najoui, Mohammed; Qarro, Abdelmounaim; Ammani, Abdelghani; Alami, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Prostatic parenchymal calculi are common, usually incidental, findings on morphological examinations. They are typically asymptomatic and may be present in association with normal glands, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and prostate cancer. However giant prostatic calculi are rare. Less than 20 cases have been reported in the literature. We present the case of a 35-year-old man with two giant prostatic calculi that replaced the entire gland. He underwent an open cystolithotomy, two giant stones were removed from the prostate, and we used a lithotripsy in situ for extraction of stone fragments. PMID:23565316

  8. Unstable giant gravitons

    SciTech Connect

    Mello Koch, Robert de; Ives, Norman; Smolic, Jelena; Smolic, Milena

    2006-03-15

    We find giant graviton solutions in Frolov's three parameter generalization of the Lunin-Maldacena background. The background we study has {gamma}-tilde{sub 1}=0 and {gamma}-tilde{sub 2}={gamma}-tilde{sub 3}={gamma}-tilde. This class of backgrounds provides a nonsupersymmetric example of the gauge theory/gravity correspondence that can be tested quantitatively, as recently shown by Frolov, Roiban, and Tseytlin. The giant graviton solutions we find have a greater energy than the point gravitons, making them unstable states. Despite this, we find striking quantitative agreement between the gauge theory and gravity descriptions of open strings attached to the giant.

  9. Tracks of a Giant

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-08-25

    The giant, 70-meter-wide antenna at NASA Deep Space Network complex in Goldstone, Calif., tracks a spacecraft on Nov. 17, 2009. This antenna, officially known as Deep Space Station 14, is also nicknamed the Mars antenna.

  10. The Next Giant Step

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Artist Robert McCall painted "The Next Giant Step" in 1979 to commemorate the heroism and courage of spaceflight pioneers. Located in the lobby of Johnson's building 2, the mural depicts America's ...

  11. Silvics of Giant Sequoia

    Treesearch

    C. Phillip Weatherspoon

    1986-01-01

    Ecological relationships-including habitat and life history---of giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum [Lindl.] Buchholz) in natural stands are summarized. Such silvical information provides an important foundation for sound management of the species.

  12. The Giant Cell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockdale, Dennis

    1998-01-01

    Provides directions for the construction of giant plastic cells, including details for building and installing the organelles. Also contains instructions for preparing the ribosomes, nucleolus, nucleus, and mitochondria. (DDR)

  13. Giant Earlobe Epidermoid Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Guisado, Joaquín; Scilletta, Alessandra; Cabrera-Sánchez, Emilio; Rioja, Luis F; Perrotta, Rosario

    2012-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts represent the most common cutaneous cysts. They are usually small and benign; however, sometimes they can grow to giant epidermoid cists, and occasionally malignancies develop. Giant epidermoid cysts at the earlobe have never been described but in other locations. We describe a case of a giant epidermoid cyst at the earlobe, a location where such a large cyst has never been reported before. The mass was completely resected and the wound of the pedunculated base was sutured with four stitches of nylon 5/0. Histopathology confirmed the presumptive diagnosis of an epidermoid cyst. Six months after the resection, the patient did not have any relapse of the epidermoid cyst. The earlobe is a potential location for giant epidermoid cysts. Although the clinical diagnosis could be enough, due to the possibility of malignancy and to ensure appropriate diagnosis, we consider that all cysts should be sent to the anatomic pathology laboratory for histological evaluation. PMID:22557855

  14. The Giant Cell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockdale, Dennis

    1998-01-01

    Provides directions for the construction of giant plastic cells, including details for building and installing the organelles. Also contains instructions for preparing the ribosomes, nucleolus, nucleus, and mitochondria. (DDR)

  15. Giant Cell Arteritis and Polymyalgia Rheumatica

    MedlinePlus

    ... Controlfamilydoctor.org editorial staff Home Diseases and Conditions Giant Cell Arteritis and Polymyalgia Rheumatica Condition Giant Cell Arteritis and Polymyalgia Rheumatica Share Print Giant ...

  16. Capella: Separating the Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, P. R.; Dupree, A. K.

    2002-01-01

    Images from the Faint Object Camera (FOC) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are used to spatially separate the two giants of Capella (α Aurigae; HD 34029) for the first time at ultraviolet wavelengths. The images were obtained with broadband filters that isolate the wavelength regions 2500-3000 Å and 1300-1500 Å. The cool G8 giant is found to be weaker than the hot G1 giant by factors of around 4 and 17, respectively, in these bands. The latter factor is largely due to the much stronger G1 continuum at short wavelengths. No evidence is found for material lying between the two stars in the images. In addition, the objective prisms of the FOC were used to obtain low-resolution spectra from 1200 to 3000 Å, allowing individual emission lines from each star to be spatially separated. Cool-to-hot star ratios for the emission lines H I Lyα, O I λ1305, Si II λ1816, C II λ1335, He II λ1640, and Si IV λ1393 are presented, showing that the cool giant is weaker than the hot giant by factors of 5-10 in these lines. The O I emission is only a factor of 2.5 weaker in the cool giant, most probably resulting from fluorescence in the extended atmosphere of the cool giant. The line ratios are compared with values derived from International Ultraviolet Explorer and HST/Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph spectra, which could separate the stars spectrally but not spatially. Reasonable agreement is found although the FOC ratios generally imply lower contributions from the cool giant. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  17. Giant cell tumor of soft tissue arising in breast.

    PubMed

    May, Steve A; Deavers, Michael T; Resetkova, Erika; Johnson, Deborah; Albarracin, Constance T

    2007-10-01

    Primary giant cell tumor of soft tissue (GCT-ST) arising in breast is exceedingly rare. We report a case of a 60-year-old woman with a primary breast giant cell tumor that appeared histologically identical to giant cell tumor of bone and had a clinically malignant course. The patient presented with a cystic mass of the breast, suspected on imaging to be an organizing hematoma, possibly related to previous injury. Histopathological evaluation revealed a neoplasm composed of mononuclear cells admixed with osteoclast-like giant cells resembling giant cell tumor of bone. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for CD68, smooth muscle actin, and vimentin, but was negative for a panel of epithelial and additional muscle markers. These features were most consistent with GCT-ST, an uncommon neoplasm of low malignant potential. Despite aggressive surgical treatment achieving clear surgical margins, the patient expired with pulmonary metastases within a year of her initial presentation. This case demonstrates the difficulty of predicting clinical behavior of GCT-ST of breast on the basis of histological features and depth of tumor alone. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a GCT-ST arising in the breast associated with a fatal outcome. The distinction of this entity from other more common primary breast tumors with giant cell morphology is also emphasized.

  18. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-producing undifferentiated carcinoma of the colon mimicking a pulmonary giant cell carcinoma: a case showing overexpression of CD44 along with highly proliferating nestin-positive tumor vessels.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Shogo; Waki, Michihiko; Tsuchiya, Tomonori; Hoshi, Shoji

    2014-01-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-producing tumors are known for their aggressive behavior. Only four cases of G-CSF-producing colorectal carcinoma have been previously reported. Herein, we present a case of an undifferentiated carcinoma of the descending colon showing G-CSF production and giant cell carcinoma morphology in a 93-year-old woman. A tumor with a diameter of 80 mm was identified in the descending colon via computed tomography. Descending colectomy was performed involving the abdominal wall where tumor invasion was observed. The white blood cell count, which was elevated before resection, decreased to normal levels after intervention. However, local recurrence at the resected site was detected 39 days after surgery. Upon recurrence, increased white blood cell counts and serum G-CSF were seen. The patient died because of respiratory failure 98 days after colectomy. By using immunohistochemistry, G-CSF expression was detected in tumor cells in the resected specimen, along with overexpression of CD44 and highly proliferating nestin-positive tumor vessels. The poor clinical outcome of this patient is consistent with previous reports that the expression of these three molecules predict poor prognosis. While G-CSF can be a therapeutic target considering its auto/paracrine function to induce tumor growth via the G-CSF receptor, CD44 and nestin may also be possible candidate therapeutic targets. Further studies are required to assess the efficacy of treatments targeting these three molecules.

  19. Locally recurrent subcutaneous and muscular hydatid cysts of the leg: an unusual case report

    PubMed Central

    Ouakrim, Redouane; Amziane, Zouhir; younes, Ouchrif; Eloukili, Issam; Kharmaz, Mohammed; Lamrani, Moulay Omar; Elbardouni, Ahmed; Mahfoud, Mustapha; Saleh, Berrada Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of 50-year-old Moroccan woman with local recurrence of a subcutaneous hydatid cyst in proximity to the medial surface of the tibia and another cyst at the tibialis posterior muscle in the absence of liver, lung und spleen involvement. The first surgery was done in another hospital three years ago; no adjuvant treatment was performed after surgery. Recurrence was diagnosed according to the MRI appearance, serological and pathological findings. The patient underwent complete excision of the subcutaneous cyst with two centimeters of the medial gastrocnemius muscle; the tibialis posterior muscle cyst was intraoperatively drained and irrigated with scolicidal agent as it was next to the posterior tibial pedicle. A periopertive anthelmintic chemotherapy was administered. Two years after the patient showed no recurrence. This case report and literature review describe an approach to the diagnosis and management of this pathological entity. PMID:26587132

  20. The case of a cyst hydatid localized within the interatrial septum.

    PubMed

    Karabay, Ozalp; Onen, Ahmet; Yildiz, Fidan; Yilmaz, Erkan; Erdal, Cenk A; Sanli, Aydin; Kilci, Göksel; Algin, Ibrahim; Itil, Oya; Açikel, Unal

    2004-07-01

    The ratio of cardiac involvement of Echinoccocus granulosus is 0.02-2% and although seen rarely, involvement of the interatrial septum has also been reported in the published literature. The present case was a 19-year-old male university student admitted to hospital with complaints of headache and dizziness. Computerized tomography of the cranium revealed a cystic mass located at the frontal region and enucleation of the cyst was performed during surgery. A cystic lesion 5 x 4 cm in size was detected within the interatrial septum on two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography during the postoperative period and the patient was referred to our clinic. Open heart surgery was performed and a hydatid cyst that involved the interatrial septum was enucleated. The cyst wall was sutured to the interatrial septum. No complications developed during the postoperative period. The patient was discharged on the fifth day of hospitalization and medical therapy was started with albendazole.

  1. Imaging Findings of an Unusually Located Hydatid Cyst Presented as a Sacrococcygeal Mass

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Guliz; Halil Akpinar, Suha

    2015-01-01

    Hydatid disease (HD) is a parasitic infection that is most commonly caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. Unusual location for this disease can cause diagnostic and therapeutic problems. We herein report a case of sacrococcygeal HD at an unusual location in a 30-year-old woman. She was evaluated using computed tomography (CT) imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after the demonstration of the lucent bone lesion on plain pelvic radiography. There was an expansile lytic mass without contrast enhancement suggesting a cystic mass in the sacrococcygeal region. Medical history revealed that she had undergone surgery for liver HD and the serological test results were diagnostic for HD. In light of this, no surgery was carried out for this cystic mass and she was followed with the diagnosis of sacrococcygeal HD. PMID:25901257

  2. Hydatid disease involving some rare locations in the body: a pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Yuksel, Murvet; Demirpolat, Gulen; Sever, Ahmet; Bakaris, Sevgi; Bulbuloglu, Ertan; Elmas, Nevra

    2007-01-01

    Hydatid disease (HD) is an endemic illness in many countries, and it poses an important public health problem that's influenced by peoples' socioeconomic status and migration that spreads this disease. Although rare, it may occur in any organ or tissue. The most common site is the liver (59-75%), followed in frequency by lung (27%), kidney (3%), bone (1-4%) and brain (1-2%). Other sites such as the heart, spleen, pancreas and muscles are very rarely affected. Unusual sites for this disease can cause diagnostic problems. This pictorial essay illustrates various radiological findings of HD in the liver, spleen, kidney, pancreas, peritoneal cavity, omentum, adrenal, ovary, lung, mediastinum and retroperitoneum. Familiarity with the imaging findings of HD may be helpful in making an accurate diagnosis and preventing potential complications.

  3. Safety of the Combined Use of Praziquantel and Albendazole in the Treatment of Human Hydatid Disease

    PubMed Central

    Alvela-Suárez, Lucía; Velasco-Tirado, Virginia; Belhassen-Garcia, Moncef; Novo-Veleiro, Ignacio; Pardo-Lledías, Javier; Romero-Alegría, Angela; Pérez del Villar, Luis; Valverde-Merino, María Paz; Cordero-Sánchez, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    There is still no well-established consensus about the clinical management of hydatidosis. Currently, surgery continues to be the first therapeutic option, although treatment with anti-parasitic drugs is indicated as an adjuvant to surgery to decrease the number of relapses and hydatid cyst size. When surgery is not possible, medical treatment is indicated. Traditionally, albendazole was used in monotherapy as the standard treatment. However, combined therapy with albendazole plus praziquantel appears to improve anti-parasitic effectiveness. To date, no safety studies focusing on such combined therapy have been published for the treatment of hydatidosis. In this work, we analyze the adverse effects seen in 57 patients diagnosed with hydatidosis who were treated with praziquantel plus albendazole combined therapy between 2006 and 2010. PMID:24615131

  4. [Hydatid cysts of the brain. Diagnostic and therapeutic problems apropos of 100 cases].

    PubMed

    Abada, M; Galli, I; Bousallah, A; Lehmann, G

    1977-01-01

    The authors report 100 cases of hydatid cysts of the brain operated in the Neurosurgical Department (C.H.U. of Algier). They compars their data with those of the litterature. It appears once more that cerebral hydatidosis affects the children living in endemic countries and looks like a quite pure increased intracranial pressure. Supratentorial situation of the mass can be approached many times by the E.E.G. A right diagnosis is possible in almost all cases (6/7) by angiographic examination. Surgical technique is simple but one must keep a great attention in removing these "virulent" cysts. As a rule, the results are good, as far as the patients are not in a bad status before the operation. Unfortunately becalse of a late diagnosis, one patient among three is blind after the operation as he was before.

  5. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of acute pancreatitis caused by ruptured hydatid disease to the biliary system.

    PubMed

    Ozcaglayan, O; Halefoglu, A M; Ozcaglayan, T; Sumbul, H A

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a rare complication of hydatic disease which occurs following the rupture of a cyst to the intrahepatic bile ducts. Herein, we report a case of a 34-year-old Turkish man, who presented with upper abdominal pain. In laboratory examination, amylase and lipase levels were elevated. Ultrasound examination showed a cystic hypoechoic mass lesion located in the right lobe of the liver with dilated intrahepatic bile ducts, and germinative membranes were detected originating from the ruptured hydatid cyst to the common bile duct. The pancreas was found to be diffusely hypoechoic, consistent with acute pancreatitis. Contrast enhanced CT and MRI were also performed for further evaluation of the primary lesion and its complications.

  6. Pulmonary Embolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... for the Public » Health Topics » Pulmonary Embolism Explore Pulmonary Embolism What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Arrhythmia Deep Vein Thrombosis Lung VQ Scan Overweight and Obesity Send a ...

  7. Pulmonary blastomycosis.

    PubMed

    Bariola, J Ryan; Vyas, Keyur S

    2011-12-01

    Blastomyces dermatitidis is acquired in almost all cases via inhalation, and pulmonary disease is the most frequent clinical manifestation of blastomycosis. Pulmonary disease can range from asymptomatic infection to rapidly severe and fatal disease. Most cases will present as pneumonia, either acute or chronic, or as a lung mass. In rare cases pulmonary blastomycosis is associated with the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Blastomycosis can present as isolated pulmonary disease or along with coexisting extrapulmonary disease that usually will involve the skin, bony structures, genitourinary tract, or central nervous system. Diagnosis is largely based on isolation of the organism via culture or visualization of the organism in clinical specimens. Detection of urinary Blastomyces antigen is a recent addition to diagnostic options. Itraconazole is the drug of choice for most forms of the disease; amphotericin B is reserved for the more severe forms. Newer azoles such as voriconazole and posaconazole have a limited role in the treatment of pulmonary blastomycosis. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  8. [A case of Echinococcus granulosus hydatid cyst in a zoo born dromedary in the Berlin-Fridrichsfelde zoo].

    PubMed

    Priemer, J; Jakob, W

    1998-03-01

    In Germany, the threat to human health by the small fox tapeworm (Echinococcus multilocularis) has been increasingly discussed in the last few years. On the other hand, the hydatid worm of the dog (Echinococcus granulosus) became more and more rare in Germany and was often declared to be eradicated. This paper presents a case of hydatid infection of the lung in an adult dromedary (Camelus dromedarius), which was born and kept all its life at Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde. Questions connected with E. granulosus infection are discussed from an ecological point of view: history, urbanisation, biology, clinical signs, potential threat to man, prophylaxis and treatment. In view of the extensive and sometimes uncontrolled dog keeping in urban households it must be stressed that careful documentation and surveillance of this life-threatening zoonosis, which was the main reason for its decline in the past, has not yet lost its importance.

  9. Comparison of Scolicidal Effects of Amphotricin B, Silver Nanoparticles,_and Foeniculum vulgare Mill on Hydatid Cysts Protoscoleces

    PubMed Central

    LASHKARIZADEH, Mohammad Reza; ASGARIPOUR, Keivan; SAEDI DEZAKI, Ebrahim; FASIHI HARANDI, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Surgery is the preferred treatment for hydatid cyst (cystic echinococcosis, CE). At present, various scolicidal agents have been used for inactivation of protoscoleces during surgery, but they are associated with adverse side effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the scolicidal effects of amphotricin B, Silver nano particles, Foeniculum vulgare Mill, essential oil and hypertonic saline against protoscoleces of hydatid cyst on an in vitro model. Methods: Protoscoleces were aseptically aspirated from the naturally infected livers of sheep and goats. Various concentrations of AmB (2.5–20 mg/ml), Ag-NPs (0.5–4 mg/ml), F. vulgare essential oil (0.125–1 mg/ml) and hypertonic saline (10–20%) were used for 5–60 min. Eosin exclusion test was used to determine the viability of protoscoleces. Results: Maximum protoscolicidal effect of AmB and Ag-NPs was found at concentrations of 20 and 4 mg/mL, resulting in only 82.3% and 71.6% of the protoscoleces after 60 min of incubation, respectively. In contrast, F. vulgare essential oil at concentration of 1 mg/ml and hypertonic saline 20% killed 100% protoscoleces after 5 and 10 min of exposure, respectively. Conclusion: The results indicated weak scolicidal activity of AmB and Ag-NPs; whereas F. vulgare essential oil had potent scolicidal activity against protoscoleces of hydatid cyst that revealed the potential of F. vulgare as a natural source for the production of new scolicidal agent for use in hydatid cyst surgery. However, further studies will be needed to confirm these results by checking the essential oil and its active component in the in vivo model. PMID:26246818

  10. Alveolar hydatid disease. Review of the surgical experience in 42 cases of active disease among Alaskan Eskimos.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, J F; Rausch, R L; Wilson, F R

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors reviewed the pathophysiology and clinical management of endemic alveolar hydatid disease in Alaskan Eskimos, incorporating recent developments in diagnosis and treatment. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Alveolar hydatid disease is a highly lethal zoonotic infection caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus multilocularis. This cestode is restricted geographically to northern climates, where foxes and small rodents represent the natural hosts. Domestic dogs also may serve as definitive hosts, and thus, transmit the parasite to humans. Human infection is characterized by the development of a cancer-like hepatic mass, which may extend to adjacent structures or metastasize to distant sites. If the infection goes untreated, mortality reaches 80%. METHODS: The medical records of all patients with alveolar hydatid disease diagnosed or treated at the Alaska Native Medical Center between 1951 and 1993 were reviewed. Forty-two cases of active disease are presented. RESULTS: Nine patients underwent resection of hepatic lesions with intent to cure, and each had a favorable result. Average post-diagnosis survival of those patients was 22 years; six still are living and free of disease. Partial resections or drainage procedures were performed in ten patients. Chemotherapy was used to augment the surgical treatment of eight patients, and four received chemotherapy alone, resulting in improved outcomes compared with historic controls. Late complications included hepatic abscess, biliary obstruction, and portal venous hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: Whereas alveolar hydatid disease rarely is encountered in other areas of North America, the biologic potential for spread of the disease may be increasing because of illegal importation of infected foxes to the Eastern seaboard. Therefore, the surgical community should maintain an awareness of the diagnosis and management of this potentially devastating parasitic infection. Images Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:7717785

  11. Giant congenital melanocytic nevus.

    PubMed

    Viana, Ana Carolina Leite; Gontijo, Bernardo; Bittencourt, Flávia Vasques

    2013-01-01

    Giant congenital melanocytic nevus is usually defined as a melanocytic lesion present at birth that will reach a diameter ≥ 20 cm in adulthood. Its incidence is estimated in <1:20,000 newborns. Despite its rarity, this lesion is important because it may associate with severe complications such as malignant melanoma, affect the central nervous system (neurocutaneous melanosis), and have major psychosocial impact on the patient and his family due to its unsightly appearance. Giant congenital melanocytic nevus generally presents as a brown lesion, with flat or mammilated surface, well-demarcated borders and hypertrichosis. Congenital melanocytic nevus is primarily a clinical diagnosis. However, congenital nevi are histologically distinguished from acquired nevi mainly by their larger size, the spread of the nevus cells to the deep layers of the skin and by their more varied architecture and morphology. Although giant congenital melanocytic nevus is recognized as a risk factor for the development of melanoma, the precise magnitude of this risk is still controversial. The estimated lifetime risk of developing melanoma varies from 5 to 10%. On account of these uncertainties and the size of the lesions, the management of giant congenital melanocytic nevus needs individualization. Treatment may include surgical and non-surgical procedures, psychological intervention and/or clinical follow-up, with special attention to changes in color, texture or on the surface of the lesion. The only absolute indication for surgery in giant congenital melanocytic nevus is the development of a malignant neoplasm on the lesion.

  12. Giant congenital melanocytic nevus*

    PubMed Central

    Viana, Ana Carolina Leite; Gontijo, Bernardo; Bittencourt, Flávia Vasques

    2013-01-01

    Giant congenital melanocytic nevus is usually defined as a melanocytic lesion present at birth that will reach a diameter ≥ 20 cm in adulthood. Its incidence is estimated in <1:20,000 newborns. Despite its rarity, this lesion is important because it may associate with severe complications such as malignant melanoma, affect the central nervous system (neurocutaneous melanosis), and have major psychosocial impact on the patient and his family due to its unsightly appearance. Giant congenital melanocytic nevus generally presents as a brown lesion, with flat or mammilated surface, well-demarcated borders and hypertrichosis. Congenital melanocytic nevus is primarily a clinical diagnosis. However, congenital nevi are histologically distinguished from acquired nevi mainly by their larger size, the spread of the nevus cells to the deep layers of the skin and by their more varied architecture and morphology. Although giant congenital melanocytic nevus is recognized as a risk factor for the development of melanoma, the precise magnitude of this risk is still controversial. The estimated lifetime risk of developing melanoma varies from 5 to 10%. On account of these uncertainties and the size of the lesions, the management of giant congenital melanocytic nevus needs individualization. Treatment may include surgical and non-surgical procedures, psychological intervention and/or clinical follow-up, with special attention to changes in color, texture or on the surface of the lesion. The only absolute indication for surgery in giant congenital melanocytic nevus is the development of a malignant neoplasm on the lesion. PMID:24474093

  13. Scolicidal effects of squash (Corylus spp) seeds, hazel (Curcurbia spp) nut and garlic (Allium sativum) extracts on hydatid cyst protoscolices

    PubMed Central

    Eskandarian, Abbas Ali

    2012-01-01

    Background: Because there is no effective drug therapy for hydatid cyst yet, assessment and finding of some new agents especially from herbal origin with a desired scolicidal effect attracts great attention for treatment and pre-surgical use to prevent the hydatid cyst recurrence. Hazelnut, squash seeds and garlic chloroformic and hydro-alcoholic extracts’ scolicidal effects were examined. Materials and Methods: Suspension of protoscolices was obtained from infected liver and or lung of sheep and goats from Ziyaran abattoir. The chloroformic and hydro-alcoholic extracts from hazelnut, squash seeds and garlic were extracted using the succilate method. Scolicidal effect of each extract assessed in different concentrations and effected time using microscopy and 0.1% eosin solution stained only killed protoscolices. Results: Present study showed that garlic had more potent scolicidal effects among all the 3 plants and the chloroformic extract of garlic was the most potent protoscolicid among all of the extracts and killed 98% of protoscolices in 50 mg/ml on a minimum of 20 minutes exposure. Conclusion: Garlic chloroformic extract is a safe and potent protoscolicid and might be used in hydatid cyst treatment and pre-surgery to prevent secondary cyst recurrence. PMID:23833573

  14. Hydatid disease of the central nervous system: a review of literature with an emphasis on Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Nourbakhsh, Ali; Vannemreddy, Prasad; Minagar, Alireza; Toledo, Eduardo González; Palacios, Enrique; Nanda, Anil

    2010-04-01

    To provide an up to date review of the epidemiology, etiology, treatment and prevention of hydatid cyst of the central nervous system, with an emphasis in South American countries. We searched the PubMed databases for articles containing the terms 'hydatid cyst' and 'nervous system'. We found and reviewed 303 articles and their related references. We provide the available information on the pathology, life cycle and diagnostic modalities (laboratory tests and imaging) along with possible complications of the disease. Current treatment methods of hydatid cyst in the brain and spine are also being discussed. Echinococcosis is a rare parasitic disease, endemic in some parts of South America. The epidemiology of echinococcosis is influenced by agricultural, educational, economic, medical and cultural factors. Human infestation occurs through the fecal-oral route. Infection of the central nervous system is rare, and the mainstay of treatment is surgical excision of the intracranial or spinal cyst, when present. Preventive programs should break the parasite life cycle and also educate the farmers in endemic areas.

  15. Characterization and optimization of bovine Echinococcus granulosus cyst fluid to be used in immunodiagnosis of hydatid disease by ELISA.

    PubMed

    Irabuena, O; Nieto, A; Ferreira, A M; Battistoni, J; Ferragut, G

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the influence in the diagnostic value for human hydatid disease of the composition of bovine hydatid cyst fluid (BHCF) obtained from fertile (FC) and non-fertile cysts (NFC). Eight batches from FC and 5 from NFC were prepared and analysed with respect to chemical composition: total protein, host-derived protein, carbohydrate and lipid contents. No differences were observed in the first two parameters but carbohydrate and lipid contents were shown to be higher in batches from FC than in those from NFC. Bands of 38 and 116 kD in SDS-PAGE profiles were observed to be present in BHCF from FC only. Two pools were prepared from BHCF batches obtained from FC (PFC) and NFC (PNFC), respectively. Antigen recognition patterns were analysed by immunoblot. Physicochemical conditions for adsorption of antigens to the polystyrene surface (ELISA plates) were optimized. The diagnostic value of both types of BHCF as well as the diagnostic relevance of oxidation of their carbohydrate moieties with periodate were assessed by ELISA using 42 serum samples from hydatid patients, 41 from patients with other disorders, and 15 from healthy donors. Reactivity of all sera against native antigen were tested with and without free phosphorylcholine. The best diagnostic efficiency was observed using BHCF from periodate-treated PFC using glycine buffer with strong ionic strength to coat ELISA plates.

  16. Scolicidal effects of squash (Corylus spp) seeds, hazel (Curcurbia spp) nut and garlic (Allium sativum) extracts on hydatid cyst protoscolices.

    PubMed

    Eskandarian, Abbas Ali

    2012-11-01

    Because there is no effective drug therapy for hydatid cyst yet, assessment and finding of some new agents especially from herbal origin with a desired scolicidal effect attracts great attention for treatment and pre-surgical use to prevent the hydatid cyst recurrence. Hazelnut, squash seeds and garlic chloroformic and hydro-alcoholic extracts' scolicidal effects were examined. Suspension of protoscolices was obtained from infected liver and or lung of sheep and goats from Ziyaran abattoir. The chloroformic and hydro-alcoholic extracts from hazelnut, squash seeds and garlic were extracted using the succilate method. Scolicidal effect of each extract assessed in different concentrations and effected time using microscopy and 0.1% eosin solution stained only killed protoscolices. Present study showed that garlic had more potent scolicidal effects among all the 3 plants and the chloroformic extract of garlic was the most potent protoscolicid among all of the extracts and killed 98% of protoscolices in 50 mg/ml on a minimum of 20 minutes exposure. Garlic chloroformic extract is a safe and potent protoscolicid and might be used in hydatid cyst treatment and pre-surgery to prevent secondary cyst recurrence.

  17. Giant star seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hekker, S.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.

    2017-06-01

    The internal properties of stars in the red-giant phase undergo significant changes on relatively short timescales. Long near-uninterrupted high-precision photometric timeseries observations from dedicated space missions such as CoRoT and Kepler have provided seismic inferences of the global and internal properties of a large number of evolved stars, including red giants. These inferences are confronted with predictions from theoretical models to improve our understanding of stellar structure and evolution. Our knowledge and understanding of red giants have indeed increased tremendously using these seismic inferences, and we anticipate that more information is still hidden in the data. Unraveling this will further improve our understanding of stellar evolution. This will also have significant impact on our knowledge of the Milky Way Galaxy as well as on exo-planet host stars. The latter is important for our understanding of the formation and structure of planetary systems.

  18. [Hydatidosis simulating a cardiac tumour with pulmonary metastases].

    PubMed

    Martín-Izquierdo, Marta; Martín-Trenor, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    The presence of multiple symptomatic pulmonary nodules and one cardiac tumour in a child requires urgent diagnosis and treatment. Until a few decades ago, the diagnosis of a cardiac tumour was difficult and was based on a high index of suspicion from indirect signs, and required angiocardiography for confirmation. Echocardiography and other imaging techniques have also helped in the detection of cardiac neoplasms. However, it is not always easy to make the correct diagnosis. The case is presented of a 12 year-old boy with pulmonary symptoms, and diagnosed with a cardiac tumour with lung metastases. The presence of numerous pulmonary nodules was confirmed in our hospital. The echocardiogram detected a solid cardiac nodule in the right ventricle. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the findings and the diagnosis. Puncture-aspiration of a lung nodule gave the diagnosis of hydatidosis. He underwent open-heart surgery with cardiac cyst resection and treated with anthelmintics. The lung cysts were then excised, and he recovered uneventfully. This child had multiple pulmonary nodules and a solid cardiac nodule, and was suspected of having a cardiac tumour with pulmonary metastases. However, given the clinical history, background and morphology of pulmonary nodules, another possible aetiology for consideration is echinococcosis. The clinical picture of cardiac hydatidosis and its complications is highly variable. The clinical history is essential in these cases, as well as having a high index of suspicion. Hydatidosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of a solid, echogenic, cardiac nodule. The treatment for cardiopulmonary hydatid cysts is surgical, followed by anthelmintics. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  19. An Innocent Giant

    PubMed Central

    Solanki, Lakhan Singh; Dhingra, Mandeep; Raghubanshi, Gunjan; Thami, Gurvinder Pal

    2014-01-01

    A cutaneous horn (cornu cutaneum) is a protrusion from the skin composed of a cornified material. It may be associated with a benign, premalignant, or malignant lesion at the base, masking numerous dermatoses. In a 24-year-old female, a giant cutaneous horn arising from a seborrheic keratosis located on the leg is presented. This case has been reported to emphasize that a giant cutaneous horn may also occur in young patients, even in photoprotected areas, and are not always associated with malignancy. PMID:25484426

  20. Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is high blood pressure in the arteries to your lungs. It is a serious condition. If you have ... and you can develop heart failure. Symptoms of PH include Shortness of breath during routine activity, such ...

  1. Pulmonary edema

    MedlinePlus

    ... Saunders; 2015:chap 23. Matthay MA, Martin TR, Murray JF. Pulmonary edema. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray & Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  2. Pulmonary Embolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a sudden blockage in a lung artery. The cause is usually a blood clot in the leg called a deep vein thrombosis that breaks loose and travels through the bloodstream to the lung. Pulmonary embolism is a ...

  3. Pulmonary atresia

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood flow from the right ventricle (right side pumping chamber) to the lungs. In pulmonary atresia, a ... Reconstructing the heart as a single ventricle (1 pumping chamber instead of 2) Heart transplant Outlook (Prognosis) ...

  4. Pulmonary aspergilloma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Coccidioidomycosis Cystic fibrosis Histoplasmosis Lung abscess Lung cancer Sarcoidosis The most common species of fungus that causes ... fibrosis Histoplasmosis Lung cancer - small cell Pulmonary tuberculosis Sarcoidosis Review Date 7/31/2016 Updated by: Jatin ...

  5. Pulmonary ceroidosis.

    PubMed

    Sastre, J; Renedo, G; González Mangado, N; Cabrera, P; Lahoz, F

    1987-02-01

    We describe a patient with pulmonary ceroid histiocytosis. Skin pigmentation, chest x-ray film and laboratory findings were normal. Only pulmonary function tests were abnormal (TLC = 63 percent, DLco = 52 percent). Based on these functional data, the patient was submitted to a lung biopsy by thoracotomy. Brown pigmented histiocytes were shown occupying alveolar spaces. Similar brown pigmented hepatocytes were seen in the liver biopsy.

  6. Pulmonary Agenesis.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Rakesh K; Madan, Arun; Chawla, Aditya; Arora, Harsh Nandini; Chawla, Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Unilateral opaque lung with ipsilateral mediastinal shift is an uncommon cause of respiratory distress in newborn which can be found on simple radiograph of the chest. Pulmonary agenesis is a rare cause of unilateral opaque lung in the newborn. Nearly 50% cases of pulmonary agenesis are associated with other congenital defects including cardiovascular, skeletal, gastrointestinal or genitourinary systems. We report an infant with agenesis of the right lung associated with other congenital anomalies.

  7. [Epidemiological update of hydatid disease in hospitals in the public health system of Extremadura (2003-2012)].

    PubMed

    López-Bernús, Amparo; Belhassen-García, Moncef; Prieto-Vicente, Antonio José; Alonso-Sardón, Montserrat; Carpio-Perez, Adela; Velasco-Tirado, Virginia; Pardo-Lledias, Javier

    2016-04-01

    Echinococcosis is a zoonotic infection with a worldwide distribution, and is still an important health problem in many areas of the world, including the Mediterranean basin. At present the epidemiological situation is unclear in certain regions of Spain. The aim of this study was to update the epidemiological situation in Extremadura through an analysis of hospitalised patients in the public health system diagnosed with hydatid disease. A longitudinal retrospective study was conducted between 2003 and 2012 on hospitalised patients with a diagnosis of hydatidosis (ICD 122.0-122.9) in hospitals of the public health service of Extremadura. During the period of study, 876 patients were diagnosed with hydatid disease. Of these 536 (61%) of cases were male, with a mean age of 65.53±17.8 years. More importantly, 19 (2.2%) of patients were 19 years old, with 17 cases between 2003-2007 versus 2 cases between 2008-2012 (OR=7.83; 95%CI: 1.79-34.11; P=.001). A total of 141 (16.0%) were younger than 45 years. The primary diagnosis was most frequently reported in the younger population <45 years, whereas the secondary diagnosis was usually found in the elderly population >70 years (P<.05). The incidence rate of hydatid disease obtained from Hospital Discharge Records (HDRs) was significantly higher compared to the incidence that was declared in the Notifiable Disease System of Extremadura (8.02 cases per 10(5) person-years vs. 1.88 cases per 10(5) person-years [P<.05]). In Extremadura hydatid disease is still frequent. With a clear decrease in the number of paediatric cases. The number of cases obtained from HDRs regarding Notification System Diseases Extremadura suggests the need for modifications to improve surveillance and control of hydatid disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  8. Shadows on a Giant

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-07-02

    Saturn rings cast wide shadows on the planet, and the shadow of a moon also graces the gas giant in this scene from NASA Cassini spacecraft. The moon Enceladus is not shown in this view, but it does cast a small, elongated shadow.

  9. Giant scrotal elephantiasis.

    PubMed

    Kuepper, Daniel

    2005-02-01

    How much can a man carry? Penoscrotal elephantiasis is a debilitating syndrome. This is a case report of a patient with giant genital elephantiasis secondary to long-standing lymphogranuloma venereum infection in Ethiopia. Complete surgical resection of the pathologic tissue and penile reconstruction was undertaken with good cosmetic and functional results.

  10. [Giant retroperitoneal liposarcoma].

    PubMed

    Mezzour, Mohamed Hicham; El Messaoudi, Yasser Arafat; Fekak, Hamid; Rabii, Redouane; Marnissi, Farida; Karkouri, Mehdi; Salam, Siham; Iraki, Moulay Ahmed; Joual, Abdenbi; Meziane, Fathi

    2006-02-01

    The authors report a case of giant retroperitoneal liposarcoma. The diagnosis was suspected after scanography and magnetic resonance imaging and confirmed by the histological analysis of the extracted piece after surgical treatment. Postoperative evolution was favourable after one year without recurrence or distant metastasis. The authors discuss the pathologic and therapeutic aspects and the prognosis of retroperitoneal liposarcoma.

  11. Electroluminescence of Giant Stretchability.

    PubMed

    Yang, Can Hui; Chen, Baohong; Zhou, Jinxiong; Chen, Yong Mei; Suo, Zhigang

    2016-06-01

    A new type of electroluminescent device achieves giant stretchability by integrating electronic and ionic components. The device uses phosphor powders as electroluminescent materials, and hydrogels as stretchable and transparent ionic conductors. Subject to cyclic voltage, the phosphor powders luminesce, but the ionic conductors do not electrolyze. The device produces constant luminance when stretched up to an area strain of 1500%.

  12. Pulmonary embolism

    SciTech Connect

    Dunnick, N.R.; Newman, G.E.; Perlmutt, L.M.; Braun, S.D.

    1988-11-01

    Pulmonary embolism is a common medical problem whose incidence is likely to increase in our aging population. Although it is life-threatening, effective therapy exists. The treatment is not, however, without significant complications. Thus, accurate diagnosis is important. Unfortunately, the clinical manifestations of pulmonary embolism are nonspecific. Furthermore, in many patients the symptoms of an acute embolism are superimposed on underlying chronic heart or lung disease. Thus, a high index of suspicion is needed to identify pulmonary emboli. Laboratory parameters, including arterial oxygen tensions and electrocardiography, are as nonspecific as the clinical signs. They may be more useful in excluding another process than in diagnosing pulmonary embolism. The first radiologic examination is the chest radiograph, but the clinical symptoms are frequently out of proportion to the findings on the chest films. Classic manifestations of pulmonary embolism on the chest radiograph include a wedge-shaped peripheral opacity and a segmental or lobar diminution in vascularity with prominent central arteries. However, these findings are not commonly seen and, even when present, are not specific. Even less specific findings include cardiomegaly, pulmonary infiltrate, elevation of a hemidiaphragm, and pleural effusion. Many patients with pulmonary embolism may have a normal chest radiograph. The chest radiograph is essential, however, for two purposes. First, it may identify another cause of the patient's symptoms, such as a rib fracture, dissecting aortic aneurysm, or pneumothorax. Second, a chest radiograph is essential to interpretation of the radionuclide V/Q scan. The perfusion scan accurately reflects the perfusion of the lung. However, a perfusion defect may result from a variety of etiologies. Any process such as vascular stenosis or compression by tumor may restrict blood flow. 84 references.

  13. Pulmonary Cryptococcosis.

    PubMed

    Chang, C C; Sorrell, T C; Chen, S C-A

    2015-10-01

    Inhalation of Cryptococcus into the respiratory system is the main route of acquisition of human infection, yet pulmonary cryptococcosis goes mostly unrecognized by many clinicians. This delay in diagnosis, or misdiagnosis, of lung infections is due in part to frequently subtle clinical manifestations such as a subacute or chronic cough, a broad differential of diagnostic possibilities for associated pulmonary masses (cryptococcomas) and, on occasion, negative respiratory tract cultures. Hematogenous dissemination from the lung can result in protean manifestations, the most severe of which is meningoencephalitis. There are few clinical studies of pulmonary cryptococcosis and its pathogenesis is poorly understood. The main purpose of this review is to describe the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of pulmonary cryptococcosis to increase clinician's awareness of this diagnostic possibility and to enhance clinical management. Useful pointers to the approach and management of pulmonary cryptococcosis and the implications of disseminated disease are included, together with recommendations for future research. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. Pulmonary Vascular Impedance in Chronic Pulmonary Hypertension.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    PULMONARY HYPERTENSION , *PULMONARY BLOOD CIRCULATION, BLOOD CIRCULATION, LUNG, PATHOLOGY, VASCULAR DISEASES, ARTERIES, OBSTRUCTION(PHYSIOLOGY...EMBOLISM, HISTOLOGY, DOGS, LABORATORY ANIMALS, BLOOD PRESSURE , EXPERIMENTAL DATA, PHYSIOLOGY.

  15. Recurrent pancreatic fistula occurring after nephrectomy in patients with a renal hydatid cyst: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Ceylan, Cavit; Odabaş, Öner; Doğan, Serkan; Yığman, Metin

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic fistula (PF) is an important complication that may develop during intra-abdominal surgeries and following distal pancreas trauma. In the early period, drainage from the surgical site and increased amylase production based on the biochemical examination of the drainage fluid are the factors for diagnosis. In contrast, in association with fluid collected from the surgical site, intra-abdominal abscess and high fever may lead to the diagnosis in the late period. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for the treatment of intra-abdominal fluid collection after PF and intra-abdominal percutaneous stent placement as well as the placement of a pancreatic stent in the pancreatic channel may be alternative methods to stop drainage. However, the complete resolution of fluid drainage may take months. In our case, drainage from the pancreatic fistula area took longer to resolve than the periods previously reported in the English literature. The tail of the pancreas can be injured during the extraction of especially aggressive and metastatic masses from organs near to the distal pancreas. Injury to the tail of the pancreas can also occur during the extraction of benign-like renal hydatid cysts and/or malignant left kidney masses. However, PF can be treated with noninvasive methods, such as percutaneous treatment and ERCP. PMID:26328082

  16. Anaesthetic Management of Anaphylactic Shock Caused by Nonruptured Hydatid Cyst of the Liver.

    PubMed

    Davarci, I; Tuzcu, K; Karcioglu, M; Yetim, I; Aydogan, A; Turhanoglu, S

    2014-09-01

    Hepatic hydatid cyst (HC) caused by Echinococcus granulosus is still endemic in many parts of the world, and it is a common health problem, especially in developing countries. The rupture of the HC can cause anaphylactic shock or even death during surgical treatment. We present a case report regarding anaphylactic reaction due to surgery to the liver for HC which has an aberrant venous drainage incidentally detected during surgical operation in a 50-year old female patient. She was successfully treated with adrenaline, antihistamines, steroids, colloid or crystalloid fluids. After the surgery, she was transferred from the intensive care unit to the surgical ward on the first postoperative day. The possibility of anaphylaxis should be kept in mind; despite all the precautionary measures, nonrupture of the hydatic cyst and absence of spillage of the cyst to the circulation or into the surrounding tissues, anaphylaxis can still occur. Therefore, close monitoring for early diagnosis and appropriate management of anaphylaxis are essential to stabilize the patient and produce the best outcome.

  17. Histochemistry and histoenzymology of the hydatid cyst (Echinococcus granulosus Batsch, 1786). II. Scolices and brood capsules.

    PubMed

    Reissenweber, N J; Vercelli-Retta, J; Siri, A M; Lozano, W

    1975-12-11

    Scolices and brood capsules of healthy hydatid cysts from lungs of human patients were studied with histochemical and histoenzymatic methods. The subtegumental and flame cells were sepcially rich in glycogen, RNA and some dehydrogenases such as SDH, MDH, NADH-reductase and G-6-PDH. The rostellar zone or invaginated pole, an area of marked contractile movements, showed intense activity in ATP'ase and simple esterase. The so-called excretory pole shows strong activity in simple esterases, lipase, beta-HBH, alpha-GDH and NADPH-reductase. Lipids are also abundant in this zone implying the important role of this metabolic path in the development of the parasite. Intense activity in alkaline phosphatase was observed in cells associated to the calcereous corpuscles. The largest corpuscles were devoid of enzymatic activity. The enzyme could play some role in the calcification of the corpuscles. Wide enzymatic variations are described according to morphology being orthoscolices the most rich in enzyme activity. Accumulations of small cells surrounded by specialized cells on the germinal membrane are interpreted as the origin or "embryo" of brood capsules. Some enzymes detected in the wall of mature brood capsules depicted alternating types of cells. Some of them are positive for ATP'ase that may be related to active transport of substances across the brood capsule wall. The intenst ATP'ase activity at the stalks of scolices may be similarly interpreted. However, a miosine-like activity is a more feasible explanation since this area showed striking contractile movements in vivo.

  18. Osmoregulatory and tegumental ultrastructural damages to protoscoleces of hydatid cysts Echinococcus granulosus induced by fungal endophytes.

    PubMed

    Verma, Vijay C; Gangwar, Mayank; Nath, Gopal

    2014-12-01

    Characteristic ultrastructural changes were observed when protoscoleces of hydatid cysts Echinococcus granulosus was treated with extract of endophytic fungi Eupenicillium and Chaetomium sp. isolated from Azadirachta indica and Piper longum plants respectively. A sharp decrease in viability of protoscoleces was observed after 6 h of incubation with fungal extracts. The ultrastructural changes included rosteller disorganization, loss of hooks and shedding of the microtriches of scolex region. The formation of digitiform projections on tegument layer which, increased in size as prolong incubation with extract and get burst, leading to a osmoregulatory damage into tegumental layers of parasite. This osmoregulatory damages caused the loss of turgidity due to leakage of cell contents, which might be the major cause of the mortality in treated parasites. It is remarkable, since very similar type of ultrastructural changes were observed with some pyrazinoisoquinoline derivatives, as praziquantel. Our initial results indicate that extract of endophytic Eupenicillium and Chaetomium spp. are having significant anti-cestodal activity and have selective activity on tegument layer. Further chemical prospection is required through rigorous bioassay guided fractionation coupled with robust high resolution mass spectrometric analysis to get final stereo-structures responsible for the parasiticidal activity. This initial strain selection outcome will serve a platform for isolation and characterization of new drug lead that can be useful in tailoring novel, safe and effective anthelmintics.

  19. Ice Giant Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rymer, A. M.; Arridge, C. S.; Masters, A.; Turtle, E. P.; Simon, A. A.; Hofstadter, M. D.; Turrini, D.; Politi, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Ice Giants in our solar system, Uranus and Neptune, are fundamentally different from their Gas Giant siblings Jupiter and Saturn, from the different proportions of rock and ice to the configuration of their planetary magnetic fields. Kepler space telescope discoveries of exo-planets indicate that planets of this type are among the most ubiquitous universally and therefore a future mission to explore the nature of the Ice Giants in our own solar system will provide insights into the nature of extra-solar system objects in general. Uranus has the smallest self- luminosity of all the planets, potentially related to catastrophic events early in the planet's history, which also may explain Uranus' large obliquity. Uranus' atmosphere is subject to extreme seasonal forcing making it unique in the Solar System. Neptune is also unique in a number of ways, notably its large moon Triton which is likely a captured Kuiper Belt Object and one of only two moons in the solar system with a robustly collisional atmosphere. Similar to Uranus, the angle between the solar wind and the magnetic dipole axis is subject to large-amplitude variations on both diurnal and seasonal timescales, but peculiarly it has one of the quietest magnetospheres of the solar system, at least according to Voyager 2, the only spacecraft to encounter Neptune to date. A comprehensive mission, as advocated in the Decadal Survey, would provide enormous science return but is also challenging and expensive. In this presentation we will discuss mission scenarios and suggest how collaboration between disciplines and internationally can help us to pursue a mission that includes Ice Giant exploration.

  20. Giant cell arteritis

    PubMed Central

    Calvo-Romero, J

    2003-01-01

    Giant cell arteritis (GCA), temporal arteritis or Horton's arteritis, is a systemic vasculitis which involves large and medium sized vessels, especially the extracranial branches of the carotid arteries, in persons usually older than 50 years. Permanent visual loss, ischaemic strokes, and thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms are feared complications of GCA. The treatment consists of high dose steroids. Mortality, with a correct treatment, in patients with GCA seems to be similar that of controls. PMID:13679546

  1. Giant Cell Arteritis.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Gary S

    2016-11-01

    This issue provides a clinical overview of giant cell arteritis, focusing on diagnosis, treatment, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.

  2. Isolated pulmonary vasculitis: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Riancho-Zarrabeitia, Leyre; Zurbano, Felipe; Gómez-Román, Javier; Martínez-Meñaca, Amaya; López, Marta; Hernández, Miguel A; Pina, Trinitario; González-Gay, Miguel A

    2015-04-01

    Single-organ vasculitis has been reported to affect the skin, kidneys, central nervous system, peripheral nerves, genitourinary tract, calf muscles, aorta, coronary arteries, retina, or gastrointestinal tract. However, isolated pulmonary vasculitis is a very rare entity. Our aims were to describe a case of localized pulmonary vasculitis affecting medium-sized vessels and review the literature. A patient with localized pulmonary vasculitis affecting medium-sized vessels that presented as pulmonary arterial hypertension is described. A MEDLINE database search of cases with localized pulmonary vasculitis was also conducted. A 30-year-old man presented with pulmonary hypertension due to isolated pulmonary medium-sized vessel vasculitis that was confirmed histologically. Initially he responded to corticosteroids and vasodilator treatment, but therapy eventually lost efficacy. Treatment with rituximab was not effective, and as the clinical situation worsened, lung transplant was performed. Isolated large pulmonary vessel disease, often related to Takayasu disease or giant cell arteritis, may present as pulmonary artery hypertension, thus mimicking chronic thromboembolic disease. Medium- and small-vessel pulmonary vasculitis usually develops in the context of a systemic disease. Some cases of isolated small-vessel vasculitis have been reported presenting as diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. In contrast, our case developed pulmonary artery hypertension secondary to medium-sized vessels vasculitis. To our knowledge, this is the first case of lung transplantation in isolated pulmonary vasculitis. Pulmonary isolated vasculitis is a rare cause of pulmonary hypertension but it must be taken into consideration after more common disorders are excluded. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. PULMONARY TOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pulmonary disease and dysfunction exact a tremendous health burden on society. In a recent survey of lung disease published by the American Lung Association in 2012, upwards of 10 million Americans were diagnosed with chronic bronchitis while over 4 million Americans had emphysem...

  4. PULMONARY TOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pulmonary disease and dysfunction exact a tremendous health burden on society. In a recent survey of lung disease published by the American Lung Association in 2012, upwards of 10 million Americans were diagnosed with chronic bronchitis while over 4 million Americans had emphysem...

  5. Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Hydatid Cysts in Khorasan Razavi Province, from 2011 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    KHAZAEI, Salman; REZAEIAN, Shahab; KHAZAEI, Zaher; GOODARZI, Elham; KHAZAEI, Somayeh; MOHAMMADIAN, Mahdi; SALEHINIYA, Hamid; AYUBI, Erfan; MOHAMMADIAN-HAFSHEJANI, Abdollah

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological and clinical aspects of patients with hydatid cyst during 2011 to 2014. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Khorasan Razavi Province, the Northeast of Iran, from 2011 to 2014. The study population was all cases with hydatid cyst who diagnosed in governmental and private laboratories, hospitals and health centers (HC) in Khorasan Razavi Province during 2011–14. Results: The prevalence rate of hydatidosis was 1.44 per 100000 individuals. Of 357 cases, 54.9% were women, 40.3% rural, 45.8% housewives, and 3.4% were Afghan. The mean age of women was higher than that of men (39.13±18.9 compared to 34.7±17.9 yr, respectively, P-value=0.025). The highest proportion of cases (39.2%) was in the age group of 21–40 yr old. Abdominal pain was reported in 42.3% of cases. Liver involvement was the most common localization of hydatid cyst reported in 59.4% of patients, and 8.4% had multiple organ involvement. The common diagnosis methods of the disease were radiology (42.3%) followed by CT scan (37.8%). 45.9% of patients had domestic dog and hygiene principles of washing the vegetables was adhered by 6.7% of patients. Conclusion: The prevalence of human hydatidosis, as a most important neglected disease, should be considered by health policy-makers in public health domain. In addition, educational programs to better recognition of the disease symptoms, and to identify the infection sources are needed in high risk group of population. PMID:28127342

  6. Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Hydatid Cysts in Khorasan Razavi Province, from 2011 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Khazaei, Salman; Rezaeian, Shahab; Khazaei, Zaher; Goodarzi, Elham; Khazaei, Somayeh; Mohammadian, Mahdi; Salehiniya, Hamid; Ayubi, Erfan; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological and clinical aspects of patients with hydatid cyst during 2011 to 2014. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Khorasan Razavi Province, the Northeast of Iran, from 2011 to 2014. The study population was all cases with hydatid cyst who diagnosed in governmental and private laboratories, hospitals and health centers (HC) in Khorasan Razavi Province during 2011-14. The prevalence rate of hydatidosis was 1.44 per 100000 individuals. Of 357 cases, 54.9% were women, 40.3% rural, 45.8% housewives, and 3.4% were Afghan. The mean age of women was higher than that of men (39.13±18.9 compared to 34.7±17.9 yr, respectively, P-value=0.025). The highest proportion of cases (39.2%) was in the age group of 21-40 yr old. Abdominal pain was reported in 42.3% of cases. Liver involvement was the most common localization of hydatid cyst reported in 59.4% of patients, and 8.4% had multiple organ involvement. The common diagnosis methods of the disease were radiology (42.3%) followed by CT scan (37.8%). 45.9% of patients had domestic dog and hygiene principles of washing the vegetables was adhered by 6.7% of patients. The prevalence of human hydatidosis, as a most important neglected disease, should be considered by health policy-makers in public health domain. In addition, educational programs to better recognition of the disease symptoms, and to identify the infection sources are needed in high risk group of population.

  7. Unusual Giant Prostatic Urethral Calculus

    PubMed Central

    Bello, A.; Maitama, H. Y.; Mbibu, N. H.; Kalayi, G. D.; Ahmed, A.

    2010-01-01

    Giant vesico-prostatic urethral calculus is uncommon. Urethral stones rarely form primarily in the urethra, and they are usually associated with urethral strictures, posterior urethral valve or diverticula. We report a case of a 32-year-old man with giant vesico-prostatic (collar-stud) urethral stone presenting with sepsis and bladder outlet obstruction. The clinical presentation, management, and outcome of the giant prostatic urethral calculus are reviewed. PMID:22091328

  8. Disease awareness and knowledge in caregivers of children who had surgery for cystic hydatid disease in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Maria M; Taramona, Claudia; Saire-Mendoza, Mardeli; Guevara, Carlos; Garcia, Héctor H

    2010-12-01

    Cystic hydatid disease (CHD) is a common cause of lung and liver disease worldwide. Despite Peru being highly endemic, information about the level of knowledge is scarce and poor. A telephone survey was applied to assess the knowledge in the caregivers of patients treated for CHD at a paediatric hospital at Lima, Peru. Of the 26 contacted families, only 5 (20%) answered correctly all seven questions. A higher education degree was associated with correct answers (P = 0.002). Most respondents (17, 65%) incorrectly identified the etiologic agent and mode of transmission. Lact of knowledge is likely a major contributor to maintain the endemicity of disease in Peru.

  9. Chemical composition, efficacy and safety of Pistacia vera (var. Fandoghi) to inactivate protoscoleces during hydatid cyst surgery.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Kheirandish, Farnaz; Dezaki, Ebrahim Saedi; Shamsaddini, Saeedeh; Harandi, Majid Fasihi

    2016-08-01

    At present, various scolicidal agents have been used for inactivation of protoscoleces during hydatid cyst surgery, however, they are associated with serious adverse side effects including sclerosing colangititis (biliary tract fibrosis), liver necrosis and methaemoglobinaemia. This investigation was designed to evaluate the chemical composition and in vitro scolicidal effects of Pistacia vera (var. Fandoghi) essential oil against protoscoleces of hydatid cysts and also its toxicity in mice model. The components of the P. vera essential oil were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analysis. Protoscoleces were aseptically aspirated from sheep livers having hydatid cysts. Various concentrations of the essential oil (25-200μl/mL) were used for 5-30min. Viability of protoscoleces was confirmed using eosin exclusion test (0.1% eosin staining). In addition, forty male NIH mice were used to determine the acute and sub-acute toxicity of P. vera essential oil for 2 and 14 days, respectively. The main components of P. vera essential oil were limonene (26.21%), α-pinene (18.07%), α-thujene (9.31%) and α-terpinolene (9.28%). Findings of the present study demonstrated that the P. vera essential oil at the concentrations of 100 and 200μl/mL killed 100% protoscoleces after 10 and 5min of exposure, respectively. The LD50 values of intraperitoneal injection of the P. vera essential oil was 2.69ml/kg body weight, and the maximum nonfatal doses were 1.94ml/kg body weight. No significant difference (P>0.05) was observed in the clinical chemistry and hematological parameters following oral administrations of P. vera essential oil at the doses 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4ml/kg for 14 days. The obtained findings demonstrated new chemical composition and promising scolicidal activity of the P. vera with no significant toxicity which might be used as a natural scolicidal agent in hydatid cyst surgery.

  10. Fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of primary hydatid disease of the thyroid; first reported case in the USA.

    PubMed

    Dissanayake, Pavithra Irushi; Chennuri, Rohini; Tarjan, Gabor

    2016-04-01

    Echinococcosis or hydatid disease (HD) is a parasitic disease caused by species of the Echinococcus genus. Since the incidence of HD in the USA is very low and the primary HD of the thyroid is extremely rare even in endemic regions, the occurrence of primary thyroid HD is exceptional in the USA. Thyroid HD is rarely diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration (FNA). Our literature review revealed less than ten cases of primary HD of thyroid diagnosed by FNA worldwide. Hereby, we report the first case of a primary thyroid HD diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration in the USA.

  11. Contribution of C5-mediated mechanisms to host defence against Echinococcus granulosus hydatid infection.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, A M; Breijo, M; Sim, R B; Nieto, A

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the contribution of complement C5-mediated mechanisms, with an emphasis on inflammation, to host defences against Echinococcus granulosus hydatid disease. Thus, we compared the systemic and local inflammatory responses induced by the parasite, and the outcome of infection, between congenic C5-sufficient (B10.D2 n/SnJ) and C5-deficient (B10.D2 o/SnJ) mice challenged with protoscoleces. Indirect evidence of in-vivo complement activation during the establishment phase was obtained; infection induced serum amyloid P and eosinophil responses which were dependent on C5. Early recruitment of polymorphonuclear cells was not dependent on the presence of C5. The higher capacity of C5-sufficient mice to recruit eosinophils was also observed during the cystic phase of infection, and mice recruiting more eosinophils developed lower parasite masses. Analysis of the outcome of infection after 8 months showed that C5-sufficient mice were more resistant to infection than C5-deficient mice in terms of individuals with no cysts; this trend was not statistically significant. In addition, C5-deficient mice developed higher numbers of large (> 5 mm in diameter) cysts and higher cyst weights than C5-sufficient mice indicating that C5-mediated mechanisms are detrimental for parasite growth. Taken together, our results suggest that complement, through C5-mediated effectors, contributes to host defences by both restricting the establishment of infection and controlling the growth of established cysts. This contribution may, at least partially, be associated with the ability of C5a to promote eosinophil infiltration.

  12. Ossifying fibromyxoid tumor of the trunk mimicking hydatid cyst: A case report.

    PubMed

    Abdessayed, Nihed; Mestiri, Sarra; Ammar, Houssem; Bdioui, Ahlem; Chhaidar, Amine; Toumi, Omar; Mhamdi, Nozha; Gupta, Rahul; Guerfela, Marwa; Mokni, Moncef

    2017-07-22

    Ossifying fibromyxoid tumor (OFMT) is a rare lesion that generally occurs in the soft tissues of proximal limbs, head or neck and presents as a slowly growing mass. Abdominal or trunk locations are extremely rare. We report a case of 50-year-old man who presented with a painless, slow growing epigastric mass for 5 years. Radiologic assessment revealed a well circumscribed median subcutaneous parietal mass lesion present in front of the xiphoid process suspicious of a calcified hydatid cyst. Diagnosis of OFMT was made on histopathological examination of the resected specimen. OFMT most often presents as a single swelling arising from the subcutaneous soft tissues or skeletal muscles of the extremities. Multifocal presentation is exceedingly rare. Radiologically, a peripheral shell of bone is seen in more than 50% cases. On MRI, myxofibrous stroma appears isointense to muscle on T1 and of intermediate to high signal intensity on T2. Surgical excision is the mainstay of treatment. Histologically, the tumor has a thick fibrous capsule with a complete or partial underlying layer of metaplastic woven or lamellar bone. Tumor is composed of uniform round, ovoid, or spindle-shaped cells arranged in nests and cords embedded in a variably myxoid and collagenous Alcian blue-positive stroma. On immunochemistry, the tumor cells are positive for S100 protein and desmin in 90% and 50% cases respectively. OFMT is a rare soft tissue tumor with malignant potential often misdiagnosed as a benign lesion. Complete surgical excision should be performed to prevent local recurrence. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Imaging Extrasolar Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowler, Brendan P.

    2016-10-01

    High-contrast adaptive optics (AO) imaging is a powerful technique to probe the architectures of planetary systems from the outside-in and survey the atmospheres of self-luminous giant planets. Direct imaging has rapidly matured over the past decade and especially the last few years with the advent of high-order AO systems, dedicated planet-finding instruments with specialized coronagraphs, and innovative observing and post-processing strategies to suppress speckle noise. This review summarizes recent progress in high-contrast imaging with particular emphasis on observational results, discoveries near and below the deuterium-burning limit, and a practical overview of large-scale surveys and dedicated instruments. I conclude with a statistical meta-analysis of deep imaging surveys in the literature. Based on observations of 384 unique and single young (≈5-300 Myr) stars spanning stellar masses between 0.1 and 3.0 M ⊙, the overall occurrence rate of 5-13 M Jup companions at orbital distances of 30-300 au is {0.6}-0.5+0.7 % assuming hot-start evolutionary models. The most massive giant planets regularly accessible to direct imaging are about as rare as hot Jupiters are around Sun-like stars. Dividing this sample into individual stellar mass bins does not reveal any statistically significant trend in planet frequency with host mass: giant planets are found around {2.8}-2.3+3.7 % of BA stars, <4.1% of FGK stars, and <3.9% of M dwarfs. Looking forward, extreme AO systems and the next generation of ground- and space-based telescopes with smaller inner working angles and deeper detection limits will increase the pace of discovery to ultimately map the demographics, composition, evolution, and origin of planets spanning a broad range of masses and ages.

  14. Giant left ventricular pseudoaneurysm.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Sumi; Garg, Nadish; Xie, Gong-Yuan; Dellsperger, Kevin C

    2010-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) pseudoaneurysm (PS) is an uncommon, often fatal complication associated with myocardial infarction, cardiothoracic surgery, trauma, and, rarely, infective endocarditis. A 28-year-old man with prior history of bioprosthetic mitral valve replacement presented with congestive heart failure and bacteremia with Abiotrophia granulitica. Transesophageal echocardiogram showed bioprosthesis dysfunction, large vegetations, mitral regurgitation, and probable PS. Cardiac and chest CT confirmed a PS communicating with the left ventricle Patient had pulseless electrical activity and died. Autopsy showed a giant PS with layered thrombus and pseudo-endothelialized cavity. Our case highlights the importance of multimodality imaging as an important tool in management of PS.

  15. Giant mesenteric cyst

    PubMed Central

    Guraya, Salman Yousuf; Salman, Shaista; Almaramhy, Hamdi H.

    2011-01-01

    Mesenteric cysts are uncommon benign abdominal lesions with no classical clinical features. The preoperative diagnosis requires the common imaging modalities but the final diagnosis is established only during surgery or histological analysis. The treatment of choice is complete surgical excision. We report an 18-year-old female with a non-specific abdominal pain and discomfort since 3 weeks. Her CT scan showed a huge cystic swelling, which necessitated surgical exploration. Preoperatively, a giant cyst was encountered with displacement of bowel loops. The cyst was completely removed and histology report confirmed mesenteric cyst without evidence of malignancy. PMID:24765349

  16. Giant mesenteric cyst.

    PubMed

    Guraya, Salman Yousuf; Salman, Shaista; Almaramhy, Hamdi H

    2011-09-28

    Mesenteric cysts are uncommon benign abdominal lesions with no classical clinical features. The preoperative diagnosis requires the common imaging modalities but the final diagnosis is established only during surgery or histological analysis. The treatment of choice is complete surgical excision. We report an 18-year-old female with a non-specific abdominal pain and discomfort since 3 weeks. Her CT scan showed a huge cystic swelling, which necessitated surgical exploration. Preoperatively, a giant cyst was encountered with displacement of bowel loops. The cyst was completely removed and histology report confirmed mesenteric cyst without evidence of malignancy.

  17. A Giant Urethral Calculus.

    PubMed

    Sigdel, G; Agarwal, A; Keshaw, B W

    2014-01-01

    Urethral calculi are rare forms of urolithiasis. Majority of the calculi are migratory from urinary bladder or upper urinary tract. Primary urethral calculi usually occur in presence of urethral stricture or diverticulum. In this article we report a case of a giant posterior urethral calculus measuring 7x3x2 cm in a 47 years old male. Patient presented with acute retention of urine which was preceded by burning micturition and dribbling of urine for one week. The calculus was pushed in to the bladder through the cystoscope and was removed by suprapubic cystolithotomy.

  18. Efficacy of Pistacia khinjuk Fruits on Viability of Hydatid Cyst Protoscoleces and Its Acute Toxicity in Mice Model

    PubMed Central

    MAHMOUDVAND, Hossein; MIRBADIE, Seyed Reza; GHASEMI KIA, Mehdi; BADPARVA, Ebrahim; SHAMSADINI LORI, Saeedeh; FASIHI HARANDI, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Background: This investigation aimed to evaluate the in vitro scolicidal effects of Pistacia khinjuk methanolic extract against protoscoleces of hydatid cysts and its acute toxicity in mice NMRI model. Methods: Protoscoleces were aseptically extracted from sheep livers having hydatid cysts. Various concentrations of the essential oil (12.5–100 mg/mL) were used for 10 to 60 min. Viability of protoscoleces was confirmed using eosin exclusion test (0.1% eosin staining). Twenty-four male NMRI mice were used to assess the acute toxicity of P. khinjuk. Results: P. khinjuk extract at the concentrations of 100 mg/mL after 10 min of exposure killed 100% of protoscoleces. Similarly, the mean of mortality rate of protoscoleces after 20 min of exposure to the concentration of 50 mg/mL was 100%. The LD50 of the intraperitoneal injection of the P. khinjuk methanolic extract was 2.8 g/kg and the maximum non-fatal dose was 1.7 g/kg. Conclusion: The findings demonstrated effective scolicidal effects of P. khinjuk extract with no considerable toxicity that might be a natural source for the producing of new scolicidal agent. PMID:28127345

  19. [Some biochemical parameters in sheep infected with endoparasites (Fasciola spp., Dicrocoelium dendriticum, hydatid cysts, Trichostrongylidae and Protostrongylidae)].

    PubMed

    Ayaz, Erol; Ertekin, Ali; Ozdal, Nalan; Taş, Zeynep

    2007-01-01

    This study was performed in order to investigate the variations of some blood biochemical parameters as well as the levels of Vitamin. B(12) and some macro elements in sheep infected with endoparasites. The blood samples were taken from the sheep that were to be slaughtered in the Van Municipality Slaughterhouse while the stool samples were taken after the slaughtering of the same animals. The postmortem examinations were made to investigate for the presence of Fasciola spp., D. dendriticum and cyst hydatid infections. The stool samples were examined helminthologically using native, sedimentation, flotation and Baermann-Wetzel methods. The control group was composed of animals not showing any internal organ parasites or parasites in the stool examination. Following the macroscopic and the stool examination, the animals found to have the same type of parasites were considered to be the study group. According to the analyses performed on the animals, the levels of total protein (in Trichostrongylidae, hydatid cysts), globulin, amylase, chlorine, and Vit.B(12) were found to be increased significantly, while the levels of albumin, magnesium, and phosphorus were found to be decreased significantly. The other parameters analyzed were not significant statistically between the groups.

  20. Radiofrequency Energy in Hepatic Bed during Partial Cystectomy for Hydatid Liver Disease: Standing Out from the Usual Conservative Surgical Management

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrokallis, Nikolaos; Sakarellos, Panagiotis; Griniatsos, John

    2016-01-01

    Background. Surgical treatment of hydatid liver disease (HLD) is divided into conservative and radical procedures. While conservative techniques are easier and faster to perform, there is an emerging need to reduce their morbidity and recurrence rates. Our aim was to present and evaluate the efficiency and safety of the application of radiofrequency energy (TissueLink® and Aquamantys® systems) in hepatic bed during partial cystectomy. Materials and Methods. Eighteen consecutive patients with hydatid liver cysts were referred to our department between April 2006 and June 2014. Data about demographics, mortality, morbidity, and recurrence rate were obtained and analyzed retrospectively. Results. The mean follow-up was 38 months (range: 4–84 months). The postoperative course of most patients was uneventful. One case of recurrence was found in our series in a patient with 4 cysts in the right lobe, 3 years after initial treatment. He was reoperated on with the same method. Conclusions. Saline-linked RF energy seems to be an effective means to be employed in conservative surgical procedures of HLD, with satisfactory postoperative morbidity. Recurrence rates appear to be low, but further follow-up is needed in order to draw safer conclusions. PMID:27525000

  1. Radiofrequency Energy in Hepatic Bed during Partial Cystectomy for Hydatid Liver Disease: Standing Out from the Usual Conservative Surgical Management.

    PubMed

    Mantonakis, Eleftherios; Papalampros, Alexandros; Moris, Demetrios; Dimitrokallis, Nikolaos; Sakarellos, Panagiotis; Griniatsos, John; Felekouras, Evangelos

    2016-01-01

    Background. Surgical treatment of hydatid liver disease (HLD) is divided into conservative and radical procedures. While conservative techniques are easier and faster to perform, there is an emerging need to reduce their morbidity and recurrence rates. Our aim was to present and evaluate the efficiency and safety of the application of radiofrequency energy (TissueLink® and Aquamantys® systems) in hepatic bed during partial cystectomy. Materials and Methods. Eighteen consecutive patients with hydatid liver cysts were referred to our department between April 2006 and June 2014. Data about demographics, mortality, morbidity, and recurrence rate were obtained and analyzed retrospectively. Results. The mean follow-up was 38 months (range: 4-84 months). The postoperative course of most patients was uneventful. One case of recurrence was found in our series in a patient with 4 cysts in the right lobe, 3 years after initial treatment. He was reoperated on with the same method. Conclusions. Saline-linked RF energy seems to be an effective means to be employed in conservative surgical procedures of HLD, with satisfactory postoperative morbidity. Recurrence rates appear to be low, but further follow-up is needed in order to draw safer conclusions.

  2. Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kim, John S.; McSweeney, Julia; Lee, Joanne; Ivy, Dunbar

    2015-01-01

    Objective Review the pharmacologic treatment options for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in the cardiac intensive care setting and summarize the most-recent literature supporting these therapies. Data Sources and Study Selection Literature search for prospective studies, retrospective analyses, and case reports evaluating the safety and efficacy of PAH therapies. Data Extraction Mechanisms of action and pharmacokinetics, treatment recommendations, safety considerations, and outcomes for specific medical therapies. Data Synthesis Specific targeted therapies developed for the treatment of adult patients with PAH have been applied for the benefit of children with PAH. With the exception of inhaled nitric oxide, there are no PAH medications approved for children in the US by the FDA. Unfortunately, data on treatment strategies in children with PAH are limited by the small number of randomized controlled clinical trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of specific treatments. The treatment options for PAH in children focus on endothelial-based pathways. Calcium channel blockers are recommended for use in a very small, select group of children who are responsive to vasoreactivity testing at cardiac catheterization. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor therapy is the most-commonly recommended oral treatment option in children with PAH. Prostacyclins provide adjunctive therapy for the treatment of PAH as infusions (intravenous and subcutaneous) and inhalation agents. Inhaled nitric oxide is the first line vasodilator therapy in persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, and is commonly used in the treatment of PAH in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Endothelin receptor antagonists have been shown to improve exercise tolerance and survival in adult patients with PAH. Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Stimulators are the first drug class to be FDA approved for the treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Conclusions Literature and data supporting the

  3. The Silent Giant.

    PubMed

    Necek, Magdalena; Biskup, Ewelina

    2015-11-25

    SFT is a rare spindle cell neoplasm arising mostly at pleural and in rare cases at extrapleural sites. Histology and immunohistology are diagnostic tools. It is crucial to consider SFT as differential diagnosis in pulmonary nodules since they often remain clinically silent until they reach large dimension and to proceed with curative resection without delay. It is essential to follow up patients for a long period of time as recurrence may occur.

  4. A systematic review and meta-analysis on the treatment of liver hydatid cyst: Comparing laparoscopic and open surgeries.

    PubMed

    Sokouti, Massoud; Sadeghi, Ramin; Pashazadeh, Saeid; Abadi, Saeed Eslami Hasan; Sokouti, Mohsen; Rezaei-Hachesu, Peyman; Ghojazadeh, Morteza; Sokouti, Babak

    2017-10-04

    There is an academic debate regarding surgical interventions for liver hydatid cyst disease. The purpose of the current systematic review and meta-analysis study was to analyse the pros and cons of open surgery and laparoscopic techniques, considering the outcomes of liver hydatid cysts. Descriptive Boolean queries were used to search PubMed and Scopus for articles published between January 2000 and December 2016 to evaluate the outcomes of liver hydatid cyst in terms of mortality, post-operative complications, cure rate and recurrences. The data related to the four outcomes of liver hydatid cyst were extracted, assessed and then used as their corresponding effect sizes in the meta-analysis process. Six studies totally consisting of 1028 patients [open surgery group=816 (+7 converted to lap) and laparoscopic group=212] were analysed. In this meta-analysis study, random effects models of outcomes (i.e. post-operative complications, mortalities, recurrences and cure rate) of the two procedures were OR=0.852, LL=0.469, UL=1.546, Z=-0.526, p=0.599 (for post-operative complications); OR=0.849, LL=0.141, UL=5.105, Z=-0.179, p=0.858 (for mortality); OR=0.903, LL=0.166, UL=4.906, Z=-0.119, p=0.906 (for recurrence); and OR=0.459, LL=0.129, UL=1.637, Z=-1.201, p=0.230 (for cure rate). Meta-analysis and illustrated forest plots showed that there are no superiorities between the two approaches. The results of heterogeneity tests of the above mentioned outcomes were Q=8.083, df=5, p=0.152, I(2)=38.142% for post-operative complications; Q=0.127, df=2, p=0.938, I(2)=0% for mortality; Q=4.984, df=2, p=0.083, I(2)=59.874% for recurrence; and Q=10.639, df=5, p=0.059, I(2)=53.001% for cure rate. The results of regression tests based on Egger's, smoothed variance based on Egger (SVE) and smoothed variance based on Thomson (SVT) showed that the p values are not significant, and there are neither significant statistical differences nor publication bias between the outcomes of the two

  5. Pulmonary Hypertension Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... pulmonary hypertension usually limit a person’s ability to exercise and do other activities. CausesWhat causes pulmonary hypertension?Many things can cause pulmonary hypertension. However, sometimes ...

  6. [Completion pneumonectomy for pulmonary aspergillosis with hyper immunoglobulin-E syndrome].

    PubMed

    Arai, H; Rino, Y; Nishii, T; Andou, K; Kurosawa, R; Kuroki, F; Imagawa, T; Mori, M; Yokota, S; Oshiro, H; Takanashi, Y

    2006-03-01

    A 22-year-old man was admitted to the department of pediatrics of our institute in February 2005, because of pulmonary aspergillosis. He had been diagnosed as hyper immunoglobulin-E syndrome in infancy, and repeated pulmonary infectious desease, such as pulmonary aspergillosis. He received art of right upper lobectomy by pulmonary aspergillosis at the age of 17. In February 2005, he had hemosputum and the chest X-ray showed a giant cavity with niveau in the right lung. In spite of medical treatment by antibiotics and antimycotics, the lesion rapidly increased in size. Therefore, right completion pneumonectomy and omentopexy around the bronchial stump was done. His postoperative course was uneventful.

  7. Giant extragenital Bowen's disease.

    PubMed

    Bakardzhiev, Ilko; Chokoeva, Anastasiya Atanasova; Tchernev, Georgi

    2015-12-01

    Giant extragenital forms of Morbus Bowen are extremely rare. The already described cases in the word literature are most commonly with periungual localization, as well as located on the foot and neck area. The clinical manifestation is presented most commonly by non-specific erythematous to erythematous-squamous plaques or papules, which is confusing to the clinician. From the pathogenic point of view, it is important to be confirmed or rejected the presence of human papilloma viruses (HPVs) in each case of affected patient, as this information is mandatory in respect to the adequate selection of the subsequent regimen. If HPVs are detected, systemic antiviral therapy could be initiated to reduce the size of the lesions before subsequent surgical eradication. A postoperative prevention through vaccination could be also considered additionally. In cases of HPV-negative giant extragenital forms of Morbus Bowen (as in the described patient), the focus should be on local immunomodulation by substances such as imiquimod, which reduce the size of the lesions, thereby creating optimal opportunities for their future surgical eradication. Other possible options described in the literature include topical application of 5-fluorouracil, photodynamic therapy, cryotherapy, and laser therapy (carbon dioxide laser). The choice of the most appropriate regimen should have been an individual decision of the clinician, considering also the location and the extent of the lesion.

  8. Gas Giants Form Quickly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This is an artist's concept of a hypothetical 10-million-year-old star system. The bright blur at the center is a star much like our sun. The other orb in the image is a gas-giant planet like Jupiter. Wisps of white throughout the image represent traces of gas.

    Astronomers using NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope have found evidence showing that gas-giant planets either form within the first 10 million years of a sun-like star's life, or not at all. The lifespan for sun-like stars is about 10 billion years.

    The scientists came to this conclusion after searching for traces of gas around 15 different sun-like stars, most with ages ranging from 3 million to 30 million years. With the help of Spitzer's Infrared Spectrometer instrument, they were able to search for relatively warm gas in the inner regions of these star systems, an area comparable to the zone between Earth and Jupiter in our own solar system. They also used ground-based radio telescopes to search for cooler gas in the outer regions of these systems, an area comparable to the zone around Saturn and beyond.

  9. Giant papillary conjunctivitis.

    PubMed Central

    Donshik, P C

    1994-01-01

    Giant papillary conjunctivitis is a syndrome found frequently as a complication of contact lenses. Many variables can affect the onset and severity of the presenting signs and symptoms. Rigid gas permeable contact lenses appear to result in less severe signs and symptoms, with a longer time before the development of giant papillary conjunctivitis. Nonionic, low-water-content soft contact lenses tend to produce less severe signs and symptoms than ionic, low-water-content soft contact lenses. Enzymatic treatment appears to lessen the severity of signs and symptoms. The association of an allergy appears to play a role in the onset of the severity of the signs and symptoms but does not appear to affect the final ability of the individual to wear contact lenses. Using multiple treatment options, such as changing the polymer to a glyceryl methyl methacrylate or a rigid lens, or utilizing a soft lens on a frequent-replacement basis, can result in a success rate of over 90%. In individuals who still have a return of symptoms, the use of topical mast cell stabilizers or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug as an adjunctive therapy offers the added possibility of keeping these patients in contact lenses. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 11 A FIGURE 11 B FIGURE 11 C FIGURE 11 D PMID:7886881

  10. Gas Giants Form Quickly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This is an artist's concept of a hypothetical 10-million-year-old star system. The bright blur at the center is a star much like our sun. The other orb in the image is a gas-giant planet like Jupiter. Wisps of white throughout the image represent traces of gas.

    Astronomers using NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope have found evidence showing that gas-giant planets either form within the first 10 million years of a sun-like star's life, or not at all. The lifespan for sun-like stars is about 10 billion years.

    The scientists came to this conclusion after searching for traces of gas around 15 different sun-like stars, most with ages ranging from 3 million to 30 million years. With the help of Spitzer's Infrared Spectrometer instrument, they were able to search for relatively warm gas in the inner regions of these star systems, an area comparable to the zone between Earth and Jupiter in our own solar system. They also used ground-based radio telescopes to search for cooler gas in the outer regions of these systems, an area comparable to the zone around Saturn and beyond.

  11. Giant Intradiverticular Bladder Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Mohamad Syafeeq Faeez Md; Aziz, Ahmad Fuad Abdul; Ghani, Khairul Asri Mohd; Siang, Christopher Lee Kheng; Yunus, Rosna; Yusof, Mubarak Mohd

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Male, 74 Final Diagnosis: Giant intradiverticular bladder tumor with metastasis Symptoms: Hematuria Medication:— Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Urology Objective: Rare disease Background: Intradiverticular bladder tumors are rare. This renders diagnosis of an intradiverticular bladder tumor difficult. Imaging plays a vital role in achieving the diagnosis, and subsequently staging of the disease. Case Report: A 74-year-old male presented to our center with a few months history of constitutional symptoms. Upon further history, he reported hematuria two months prior to presentation, which stopped temporarily, only to recur a few days prior to coming to the hospital. The patient admitted to having lower urinary tract symptoms. However, there was no dysuria, no sandy urine, and no fever. Palpation of his abdomen revealed a vague mass at the suprapubic region, which was non tender. In view of his history and the clinical examination findings, an ultrasound of the abdomen and computed tomography (CT) was arranged. These investigations revealed a giant tumor that seemed to be arising from a bladder diverticulum, with a mass effect and hydronephrosis. He later underwent operative intervention. Conclusions: Intradiverticular bladder tumors may present a challenge to the treating physician in an atypical presentation; thus requiring a high index of suspicion and knowledge of tumor pathophysiology. As illustrated in our case, CT with its wide availability and multiplanar imaging capabilities offers a useful means for diagnosis, disease staging, operative planning, and follow-up. PMID:28246375

  12. Reinflating Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    Two new, large gas-giant exoplanets have been discovered orbiting close to their host stars. A recent study examining these planets and others like them may help us to better understand what happens to close-in hot Jupiters as their host stars reach the end of their main-sequence lives.OversizedGiantsUnbinned transit light curves for HAT-P-65b. [Adapted from Hartman et al. 2016]The discovery of HAT-P-65b and HAT-P-66b, two new transiting hot Jupiters, is intriguing. These planets have periods of just under 3 days and masses of roughly 0.5 and 0.8 times that of Jupiter, but their sizes are whats really interesting: they have inflated radii of 1.89 and 1.59 times that of Jupiter.These two planets, discovered using the Hungarian-made Automated Telescope Network (HATNet) in Arizona and Hawaii, mark the latest in an ever-growing sample of gas-giant exoplanets with radii larger than expected based on theoretical planetary structure models.What causes this discrepancy? Did the planets just fail to contract to the expected size when they were initially formed, or were they reinflated later in their lifetimes? If the latter, how? These are questions that scientists are only now starting to be able to address using statistics of the sample of close-in, transiting planets.Unbinned transit light curves for HAT-P-66b. [Hartman et al. 2016]Exploring Other PlanetsLed by Joel Hartman (Princeton University), the team that discovered HAT-P-65b and HAT-P-66b has examined these planets observed parameters and those of dozens of other known close-in, transiting exoplanets discovered with a variety of transiting exoplanet missions: HAT, WASP, Kepler, TrES, and KELT. Hartman and collaborators used this sample to draw conclusions about what causes some of these planets to have such large radii.The team found that there is a statistically significant correlation between the radii of close-in giant planets and the fractional ages of their host stars (i.e., the stars age divided by its full

  13. Allometry indicates giant eyes of giant squid are not exceptional.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Lars; Motani, Ryosuke; Oufiero, Christopher E; Martin, Christopher H; McGee, Matthew D; Gamarra, Ashlee R; Lee, Johanna J; Wainwright, Peter C

    2013-02-18

    The eyes of giant and colossal squid are among the largest eyes in the history of life. It was recently proposed that sperm whale predation is the main driver of eye size evolution in giant squid, on the basis of an optical model that suggested optimal performance in detecting large luminous visual targets such as whales in the deep sea. However, it is poorly understood how the eye size of giant and colossal squid compares to that of other aquatic organisms when scaling effects are considered. We performed a large-scale comparative study that included 87 squid species and 237 species of acanthomorph fish. While squid have larger eyes than most acanthomorphs, a comparison of relative eye size among squid suggests that giant and colossal squid do not have unusually large eyes. After revising constants used in a previous model we found that large eyes perform equally well in detecting point targets and large luminous targets in the deep sea. The eyes of giant and colossal squid do not appear exceptionally large when allometric effects are considered. It is probable that the giant eyes of giant squid result from a phylogenetically conserved developmental pattern manifested in very large animals. Whatever the cause of large eyes, they appear to have several advantages for vision in the reduced light of the deep mesopelagic zone.

  14. Allometry indicates giant eyes of giant squid are not exceptional

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The eyes of giant and colossal squid are among the largest eyes in the history of life. It was recently proposed that sperm whale predation is the main driver of eye size evolution in giant squid, on the basis of an optical model that suggested optimal performance in detecting large luminous visual targets such as whales in the deep sea. However, it is poorly understood how the eye size of giant and colossal squid compares to that of other aquatic organisms when scaling effects are considered. Results We performed a large-scale comparative study that included 87 squid species and 237 species of acanthomorph fish. While squid have larger eyes than most acanthomorphs, a comparison of relative eye size among squid suggests that giant and colossal squid do not have unusually large eyes. After revising constants used in a previous model we found that large eyes perform equally well in detecting point targets and large luminous targets in the deep sea. Conclusions The eyes of giant and colossal squid do not appear exceptionally large when allometric effects are considered. It is probable that the giant eyes of giant squid result from a phylogenetically conserved developmental pattern manifested in very large animals. Whatever the cause of large eyes, they appear to have several advantages for vision in the reduced light of the deep mesopelagic zone. PMID:23418818

  15. Teflon strip pneumostasis for excision of giant emphysematous bullae.

    PubMed Central

    Parmar, J M; Hubbard, W G; Matthews, H R

    1987-01-01

    Excision of giant emphysematous bullae commonly results in a persistent air leak that requires prolonged intercostal drainage and delays recovery. To minimise this we have used Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene) strips to buttress the suture line and secure pneumostasis. During 1976-84 eight bullae were excised in seven patients. One patient had bilateral staged thoracotomies. All chest drains were removed within eight days (mean 4.5 days) and no patient developed pulmonary complications. At long term follow up (1-9 years, mean 5.5 years) no complications attributable to the Teflon felt have been identified. Images PMID:3324378

  16. Multiple bilateral pulmonary nodules masquerading as pulmonary metastasis; a case of nodular sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Jafari, Mostafa; Farrokh, Donya; Mohammadpanah, Najmeh

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multi-system inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology that is manifested by the presence of non-caseating granulomas. Multiple pulmonary nodules are rare presentations of sarcoidosis. We report a case of nodular sarcoidosis in a young male of Middle-East origin who had initially presented with bilateral painful ankle edema. His chest X-ray showed multiple bilateral pulmonary nodules. A high resolution computed tomography scan of the chest demonstrated multiple pulmonary nodular lesions and also mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy. Subsequent biopsies revealed non-necrotizing granuloma with multi-nucleated giant cells indicative of sarcoidosis. An appropriate work-up was done to confirm the true nature of the nodules and facilitate treatment. PMID:27757192

  17. Pulmonary artery sarcoma mimicking pulmonary thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Celik, Gökhan; Ciledağ, Aydin; Yüksel, Cabir; Yenigün, Bülent Mustafa; Kutlay, Hakan; Yazicıoğlu, Levent; Perçinel, Sibel; Kaya, Akin

    2011-01-01

    A 30 years old male patient was referred to our hospital with a diagnosis of pulmonary thromboembolism due to thorax-computerized tomography (CT) angiography, revealing a thrombus totally occluding left main pulmonary artery. The lesion was evaluated as tumoural mass. Positron emission tomography (PET)-CT revealed pathologic uptake at pulmonary artery mass. Due to localization of tumour, left pneumonectomy was performed. The pathological diagnosis revealed to be pulmonary artery sarcoma. The patient was presented because pulmonary artery sarcomas are very rare tumors and can mimick pulmonary thromboembolism. The true prevalence is underestimated as many pulmonary artery sarcomas are misdiagnosed as pulmonary thromboembolism. PET-CT may help to make a differential diagnosis.

  18. Giant magnetostrictive composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duenas, Terrisa Ann

    The limitation of magnetostrictive composites has been in their low magnetostrictive response when compared to their monolithic counterparts. In this dissertation research is presented describing the methods and analysis used to create a giant magnetostrictive composite (GMC) producing giant strains at low fields, exhibiting magnetization ``jumping'' and the ΔE effect. This composite combines the giant magnetostrictive material, Terfenol-D (Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe2) in particle form, with a nonmetallic binder and is capable of producing strains (at room temperature) exceeding 1000 ppm at a nominal field of 1.5 kOe mechanically unloaded and 1200 ppm at 8 MPa preload (2.5 kOe). Several studies leading to the high response of this composite are presented. A connectivity study shows that a [1-3] connected composite produces 50% more strain than a [0-3] composite. A resin study indicates that the lower the viscosity of the resin, the greater the magnetostrictive response; this is attributed to the removal of voids during degassing. A void study correlates the increase in voids to the decrease in strain response. A model is used to correlate analysis with experimental results within 10% accuracy and shows that an optimal volume fraction exists based on the properties of the binder. Using a Polyscience Spurr low- viscosity (60 cps) binder this volume fraction is nominally 20%; this optimum is attributed to the balance of epoxy contracting on the particle (built-in preload) and the actuation delivered by the magnetostrictive material. In addition to the connectivity, resin, void, and volume-fraction study, particle size and gradation studies are presented. Widely dispersed (<106, <212, <300 μm), narrowly dispersed (<45, (90-106), (275-300) μm), and an optimized bimodal (18.7% of (45-90) μm with 81.3% of (250-300) μm) particle distributions are studied. Results show that the larger the particle size, the higher the magnetostrictive response; this is attributed to the reduction of

  19. [Pulmonary strongyloidiasis].

    PubMed

    Lozada, Heiler; Daza, Jorge E

    2016-10-01

    Strongyloidiasis is an infection caused by the parasite Strongyloides stercoralis, which can be asymptomatic and means a high morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts, severe malnutrition and coinfection with HTLV-1 virus. The parasite has the potential to produce and multiply internal autoinfection in humans, thus an hyperinfection can be developed. A case of pulmonary infection by this parasite is presented in this study, infection which advanced into a respiratory failure and required mechanical ventilation and hemodynamic support in an intensive care unit. The standard treatment combined with ivermectin and albendazole was provided, achieving an appropriate response.

  20. On to the Ice Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reh, Kim; Hofstdater, Mark; Simon, Amy; Elliott, John

    2017-04-01

    Voyager 2 mission flew by Uranus in 1986 and Neptune in 1989 resulting in stunning remote observations not previously accessible from the ground. There have been no follow-up space flight missions to examine ice giants and, as a result there are significant gaps in our understanding of planetary formation and evolution. This gap not only affects our understanding of our own solar system but also our understanding of exoplanets; the majority of planets discovered around other stars are thought to be ice giants. Ice Giants are likely to be far more abundant in our galaxy than previously thought. The U.S. 2011 Planetary Science Decadal Survey committee recognized the importance of Uranus and Neptune, and prioritized the exploration of the Ice Giants. Following from this, NASA and ESA have recently completed a study of candidate missions to Uranus and Neptune, the so-called ice giant planets. The intent was to examine what could be accomplished within the budget realities of the predictable future. This "Pre-Decadal Study," focused on opportunities for missions launching in the 2020's and early 2030's. This paper presents results from the Ice Giants study (science, architectures and technologies) and concludes that compelling and affordable missions to the Ice Giants are within our reach.

  1. Giant magnetofossils and hyperthermal events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Liao; Roberts, Andrew P.; Williams, Wyn; Fitz Gerald, John D.; Larrasoaña, Juan C.; Jovane, Luigi; Muxworthy, Adrian R.

    2012-10-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria biomineralize magnetic minerals with precisely controlled size, morphology, and stoichiometry. These cosmopolitan bacteria are widely observed in aquatic environments. If preserved after burial, the inorganic remains of magnetotactic bacteria act as magnetofossils that record ancient geomagnetic field variations. They also have potential to provide paleoenvironmental information. In contrast to conventional magnetofossils, giant magnetofossils (most likely produced by eukaryotic organisms) have only been reported once before from Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; 55.8 Ma) sediments on the New Jersey coastal plain. Here, using transmission electron microscopic observations, we present evidence for abundant giant magnetofossils, including previously reported elongated prisms and spindles, and new giant bullet-shaped magnetite crystals, in the Southern Ocean near Antarctica, not only during the PETM, but also shortly before and after the PETM. Moreover, we have discovered giant bullet-shaped magnetite crystals from the equatorial Indian Ocean during the Mid-Eocene Climatic Optimum (˜40 Ma). Our results indicate a more widespread geographic, environmental, and temporal distribution of giant magnetofossils in the geological record with a link to "hyperthermal" events. Enhanced global weathering during hyperthermals, and expanded suboxic diagenetic environments, probably provided more bioavailable iron that enabled biomineralization of giant magnetofossils. Our micromagnetic modelling indicates the presence of magnetic multi-domain (i.e., not ideal for navigation) and single domain (i.e., ideal for navigation) structures in the giant magnetite particles depending on their size, morphology and spatial arrangement. Different giant magnetite crystal morphologies appear to have had different biological functions, including magnetotaxis and other non-navigational purposes. Our observations suggest that hyperthermals provided ideal conditions for

  2. [Giant esophageal fibrovascular polyp].

    PubMed

    Palacios, Fernando; Contardo, Carlos; Guevara, Jorge; Vera, Augusto; Aguilar, Luis; Huamán, Manuel; Palomino, Américo; Yabar, Alejandro

    2003-01-01

    Fibrovascular polyps are extremely rare benign neoplasias of the esophagus, which usually originate in the lower cricoid area. They do not produce any discomfort in the patient for a long time, however it may make itself evident by the patient's regurgitation of the polyp, producing asphyxia or, more frequently, dysphagia. The case of a 58 year old male patient is presented herein, with a 9 month record of dysphagia, weight loss and intermittent melena. The barium x-ray showed a distended esophagus, with a tumor running from the upper esophageal sphincter to the cardia. The endoscopy confirmed the presence of a pediculated tumor, implanted in the cervical esophagus. Surgeons suspected the potential malignancy of the tumor and performed a transhiatal esophagectomy. The final pathologic diagnosis was giant fibrovascular esophageal polyp.

  3. [Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis with dendriform pulmonary ossification].

    PubMed

    Barrera, Ana Madeleine; Vargas, Leslie

    2016-12-01

    Pulmonary ossification is a rare and usually asymptomatic finding reported as incidental in lung biopsies. Similarly, idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis is a rare cause of pulmonary infiltrates. We report the case of a 64-year old man with chronic respiratory symptoms in whom these two histopathological findings converged.

  4. A giant Ordovician anomalocaridid.

    PubMed

    Van Roy, Peter; Briggs, Derek E G

    2011-05-26

    Anomalocaridids, giant lightly sclerotized invertebrate predators, occur in a number of exceptionally preserved early and middle Cambrian (542-501 million years ago) biotas and have come to symbolize the unfamiliar morphologies displayed by stem organisms in faunas of the Burgess Shale type. They are characterized by a pair of anterior, segmented appendages, a circlet of plates around the mouth, and an elongate segmented trunk lacking true tergites with a pair of flexible lateral lobes per segment. Disarticulated body parts, such as the anterior appendages and oral circlet, had been assigned to a range of taxonomic groups--but the discovery of complete specimens from the middle Cambrian Burgess Shale showed that these disparate elements all belong to a single kind of animal. Phylogenetic analyses support a position of anomalocaridids in the arthropod stem, as a sister group to the euarthropods. The anomalocaridids were the largest animals in Cambrian communities. The youngest unequivocal examples occur in the middle Cambrian Marjum Formation of Utah but an arthropod retaining some anomalocaridid characteristics is present in the Devonian of Germany. Here we report the post-Cambrian occurrence of anomalocaridids, from the Early Ordovician (488-472 million years ago) Fezouata Biota in southeastern Morocco, including specimens larger than any in Cambrian biotas. These giant animals were an important element of some marine communities for about 30 million years longer than previously realized. The Moroccan specimens confirm the presence of a dorsal array of flexible blades attached to a transverse rachis on the trunk segments; these blades probably functioned as gills.

  5. Giant Hedge-Hogs: Spikes on Giant Gravitons

    SciTech Connect

    Sadri, D

    2004-01-28

    We consider giant gravitons on the maximally supersymmetric plane-wave background of type IIB string theory. Fixing the light-cone gauge, we work out the low energy effective light-cone Hamiltonian of the three-sphere giant graviton. At first order, this is a U(1) gauge theory on R x S{sup 3}. We place sources in this effective gauge theory. Although non-vanishing net electric charge configurations are disallowed by Gauss' law, electric dipoles can be formed. From the string theory point of view these dipoles can be understood as open strings piercing the three-sphere, generalizing the usual BIons to the giant gravitons, BIGGons. Our results can be used to give a two dimensional (worldsheet) description of giant gravitons, similar to Polchinski's description for the usual D-branes, in agreement with the discussions of hep-th/0204196.

  6. Giant resonances: Progress, new directions, new challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Bertrand, J.R.; Beene, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    A review of some recent developments in the field of giant multipole resonances is presented. Particular emphasis is placed on directions that the authors feel will be followed in this field during the next several years. In particular, the use of high-energy heavy ions to excite the giant resonances is shown to provide exciting new capabilities for giant resonance studies. Among subjects covered are: Coulomb excitation of giant resonances, photon decay of giant resonances, the recent controversy over the identity of the giant monopole resonance, the most recent value for incompressibility of nuclear matter from analysis of giant monopole data, the isospin character of the 63 A/sup /minus/1/3/ GQR, agreement between (e,e/prime/) and (hadron, hadron/prime/) excitation of the giant quadrupole resonance, prospects for multiphonon giant resonance observation, and isolation of the isovector giant quadrupole resonance. 55 refs., 23 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Theories of Giant Planet Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Young, Richard E. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    An overview of current theories of planetary formation, with emphasis on giant planets, is presented. The most detailed models are based upon observations of our own Solar System and of young stars and their environments. While these models predict that rocky planets should form around most single stars, the frequency of formation of gas giant planets is more difficult to predict theoretically. Terrestrial planets are believed to grow via pairwise accretion until the spacing of planetary orbits becomes large enough that the configuration is stable for the age of the system. Giant planets begin their growth as do terrestrial planets, but they become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates. Most models for extrasolar giant planets suggest that they formed as did Jupiter and Saturn (in nearly circular orbits, far enough from the star that ice could), and subsequently migrated to their current positions, although some models suggest in situ formation.

  8. Lichens On Galapagos Giant Tortoises.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, J R; Weber, W A

    1964-06-19

    The association of Physcia picta with the giant Galdpagos tortoise is believed to be the first reported occurrence of lichens on land animals. The habitat is restricted to specific sites on the carapace of male tortoises.

  9. Landscape of the lost giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-09-01

    The Pleistocene megafauna extinction erased a group of remarkable animals. Whether humans had a prominent role in the extinction remains controversial, but it is emerging that the disappearance of the giants has markedly affected the environment.

  10. What Is Giant Cell Arteritis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... 01, 2017 Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is an inflammation (swelling) of the arteries, which are the blood ... help nourish your eyes, reduced blood flow can cause sudden, painless vision loss. This condition is called ...

  11. Pharma giants swap research programs.

    PubMed

    2014-07-01

    Pharmaceutical giants Novartis and GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) agreed in late April to swap some assets, with Novartis handing off its vaccine business to GSK and getting most of the British company's cancer portfolio in return.

  12. Giant sacrolumbar meningioma. Case report.

    PubMed

    Feldenzer, J A; McGillicuddy, J E; Hopkins, J W

    1990-06-01

    A case of giant sacral meningioma with presacral and lumbar extension is presented. The difficulties in diagnosis and management are emphasized including the staged multidisciplinary surgical approaches and preoperative tumor embolization.

  13. Atmospheres of Extrasolar Giant Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The next decade will almost certainly see the direct imaging of extrasolar giant planets around nearby stars. Unlike purely radial velocity detections, direct imaging will open the door to characterizing the atmosphere and interiors of extrasola planets and ultimately provide clues on their formation and evolution through time. This process has already begun for the transiting planets, placing new constraints on their atmospheric structure, composition, and evolution. Indeed the key to understanding giant planet detectability, interpreting spectra, and constraining effective temperature and hence evolution-is the atmosphere. I will review the universe of extrasolar giant planet models, focusing on what we have already learned from modeling and what we will likely be able to learn from the first generation of direct detection data. In addition to these theoretical considerations, I will review the observations and interpretation of the - transiting hot Jupiters. These objects provide a test of our ability to model exotic atmospheres and challenge our current understanding of giant planet evolution.

  14. Theories of Giant Planet Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Young, Richard E. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    An overview of current theories of planetary formation, with emphasis on giant planets, is presented. The most detailed models are based upon observations of our own Solar System and of young stars and their environments. While these models predict that rocky planets should form around most single stars, the frequency of formation of gas giant planets is more difficult to predict theoretically. Terrestrial planets are believed to grow via pairwise accretion until the spacing of planetary orbits becomes large enough that the configuration is stable for the age of the system. Giant planets begin their growth as do terrestrial planets, but they become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates. Most models for extrasolar giant planets suggest that they formed as did Jupiter and Saturn (in nearly circular orbits, far enough from the star that ice could), and subsequently migrated to their current positions, although some models suggest in situ formation.

  15. Postoperative Acute Pulmonary Embolism Following Pulmonary Resections.

    PubMed

    Shonyela, Felix Samuel; Yang, Shuangqiang; Liu, Bo; Jiao, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative acute pulmonary embolism after pulmonary resections is highly fatal complication. Many literatures have documented cancer to be the highest risk factor for acute pulmonary embolism after pulmonary resections. Early diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism is highly recommended and computed tomographic pulmonary angiography is the gold standard in diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism. Anticoagulants and thrombolytic therapy have shown a great success in treatment of acute pulmonary embolism. Surgical therapies (embolectomy and inferior vena cava filter replacement) proved to be lifesaving but many literatures favored medical therapy as the first choice. Prophylaxis pre and post operation is highly recommended, because there were statistical significant results in different studies which supported the use of prophylaxis in prevention of acute pulmonary embolism. Having reviewed satisfactory number of literatures, it is suggested that thoroughly preoperative assessment of patient conditions, determining their risk factors complicating to pulmonary embolism and the use of appropriate prophylaxis measures are the key options to the successful minimization or eradication of acute pulmonary embolism after lung resections.

  16. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Schölzel, B E; Snijder, R J; Mager, J J; van Es, H W; Plokker, H W M; Reesink, H J; Morshuis, W J; Post, M C

    2014-12-01

    Chronic pulmonary thromboembolic disease is an important cause of severe pulmonary hypertension, and as such is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis of this condition reflects the degree of associated right ventricular dysfunction, with predictable mortality related to the severity of the underlying pulmonary hypertension. Left untreated, the prognosis is poor. Pulmonary endarterectomy is the treatment of choice to relieve pulmonary artery obstruction in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and has been remarkably successful. Advances in surgical techniques along with the introduction of pulmonary hypertension-specific medication provide therapeutic options for the majority of patients afflicted with the disease. However, a substantial number of patients are not candidates for pulmonary endarterectomy due to either distal pulmonary vascular obstruction or significant comorbidities. Therefore, careful selection of surgical candidates in expert centres is paramount. The current review focuses on the diagnostic approach to chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and the available surgical and medical therapeutic options.

  17. Giant cell arteritis: a review

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Pravin; Karia, Niral; Jain, Shaifali; Dasgupta, Bhaskar

    2013-01-01

    Giant cell arteritis is the most common vasculitis in Caucasians. Acute visual loss in one or both eyes is by far the most feared and irreversible complication of giant cell arteritis. This article reviews recent guidelines on early recognition of systemic, cranial, and ophthalmic manifestations, and current management and diagnostic strategies and advances in imaging. We share our experience of the fast track pathway and imaging in associated disorders, such as large-vessel vasculitis. PMID:28539785

  18. Pulmonary Vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Kevin K.

    2006-01-01

    Pulmonary vasculitis describes a number of distinct disorders that are pathologically characterized by the destruction of blood vessels. The clinical manifestations of each disorder are defined by the size, type, and location of the affected vasculature. The clinical approach to these disorders rests upon an astute clinician considering the diagnosis and identifying the specific patterns of clinical, radiologic, laboratory, and pathologic abnormalities. Lung involvement is most commonly seen with the primary, idiopathic, small-vessel, or antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody–associated vasculitides; Wegener's granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis, and Churg-Strauss syndrome. However, primary, idiopathic medium and large-vessel vasculitis, primary immune complex–mediated vasculitis, and secondary vasculitis are all capable of presenting with lung involvement. In this article, we focus on the more common, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody–associated disorder, vasculitides. PMID:16493151

  19. Pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Tarbox, Abigail K.; Swaroop, Mamta

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is responsible for approximately 100,000 to 200,000 deaths in the United States each year. With a diverse range of clinical presentations from asymptomatic to death, diagnosing PE can be challenging. Various resources are available, such as clinical scoring systems, laboratory data, and imaging studies which help guide clinicians in their work-up of PE. Prompt recognition and treatment are essential for minimizing the mortality and morbidity associated with PE. Advances in recognition and treatment have also enabled treatment of some patients in the home setting and limited the amount of time spent in the hospital. This article will review the risk factors, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, evaluation, and treatment of PE. PMID:23724389

  20. Giants in the Local Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luck, R. Earle; Heiter, Ulrike

    2007-06-01

    We present parameter and abundance data for a sample of 298 nearby giants. The spectroscopic data for this work have a resolution of R~60,000, S/N>150, and spectral coverage from 475 to 685 nm. Overall trends in the Z>10 abundances are dominated by Galactic chemical evolution, while the light-element abundances are influenced by stellar evolution, as well as Galactic evolution. We find several super-Li stars in our sample and confirm that Li abundances in the first giant branch are related to mixing depths. Once astration of lithium on the main sequence along with the overall range of main-sequence lithium abundances are taken into account, the lithium abundances of the giants are not dramatically at odds with the predictions of standard stellar evolution. We find the giants to be carbon-diluted in accord with standard stellar evolution and that the carbon and oxygen abundances determined for the local giants are consistent with those found in local field dwarfs. We find that there is evidence for systematic carbon variations in the red giant clump in the sense that the blue side of the clump is carbon-poor (more diluted) than the red side.

  1. Kuiper Prize: Giant Planet Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    2007-10-01

    The study of giant planet atmospheres is near and dear to me, for several reasons. First, the giant planets are photogenic; the colored clouds are great tracers, and one can make fantastic movies of the atmosphere in motion. Second, the giant planets challenge us with storms that last for hundreds of years and winds that blow faster the farther you go from the sun. Third, they remind us of Earth with their hurricanes, auroras, and lightning, but they also are the link to the 200 giant planets that have been discovered around other stars. This talk will cover the past, present, and future (one hopes) of giant planet research. I will review the surprises of the Voyager and Galileo eras, and will discuss what we are learning now from the Cassini orbiter. I will review the prospects for answering the outstanding questions like: Where's the water? What is providing the colors of the clouds? How deep do the features extend? Where do the winds get their energy? What is the role of the magnetic field? Finally, I will briefly discuss how extrasolar giant planets compare with objects in our own solar system.

  2. Refractory Cystobiliary Fistula Secondary to Percutaneous Treatment of Hydatid Cyst: Treatment with N-Butyl 2-Cyanoacrylate Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Canyigit, Murat Gumus, Mehmet; Cay, Nurdan; Erol, Bekir; Karaoglanoglu, Mustafa; Akhan, Okan

    2011-02-15

    A 27-year-old female with a type 2 hydatid cystic lesion in the liver according to the Gharbi classification (CE 3A according to the WHO classification) was referred for percutaneous treatment after albendazole treatment for 1 year. A catheterization technique was performed but hypertonic saline and alcohol were not given into the cavity due to cystobiliary leakage. During the 4-month follow-up period, sequential cavitography revealed biliary fistula, and bile-stained drainage had not been ceased despite the sphincterotomy, nasobiliary drainage catheter, and plastic stent. Since the patient refused to surgery, we embolized the biliary fistula using N-butyl 2-cyanoacrylate for the first time in the literature. At the 3-month follow-up, the patient's course was uneventful and ultrasound, multidetector-row CT, and MRI examinations revealed no collection in or adjacent to the cavity.

  3. Effects of pneumoperitoneum on severe hypernatremia in an adult patient who underwent laparoscopic surgery of hydatid cysts.

    PubMed

    Anta, Diego; Beleña, José M; Álvarez, Raquel; Núñez, Mónica

    2017-02-01

    We describe the first case of severe hypernatremia associated to laparoscopic surgery for hydatid cyst in an adult patient after the use of hypertonic saline solution with complete resolution. Severe hypernatremia is an unusual fact at the immediate postoperative period but may have fatal consequences for the patient and need immediate action. The patient reached a serum sodium concentration of 179 mmol/L without adverse effects after 6 days of treatment. Laparoscopy could play a crucial role in Na(+) absorption due to high intraabdominal pressure caused by the pneumoperitoneum and its limitations to avoid peritoneal absorption of hypertonic saline solution. The relation between this surgical technique and the severe complication is discussed. More experience is needed in terms of safety for the patient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Giant Magnetocaloric Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecharsky, Vitalij K.

    1998-03-01

    Since the discovery of the magnetocaloric effect in pure iron by E.Warburg in 1881, it has been measured experimentally on many magnetic metals and compounds. The majority of the materials studied order magnetically undergoing a second order phase transformation. The magnetocaloric effect, typically peaking near the Curie or the Néel temperature, generally ranges from 0.5 to 2 K (in terms of adiabatic temperature change) or at 1 to 4 J/kg K (in terms of isothermal magnetic entropy change) per 1 T magnetic field change. The giant magnetocaloric effect recently discovered in Gd_5(Si_xGe_1-x)4 alloys, where x <= 0.5, is associated with a first order magnetic phase transition and it reaches values of 3 to 4 K and 6 to 10 J/kg K per 1 T field change, respectively. The refrigerant capacity, which is the measure of how much heat can be transferred from a cold to a hot reservoir in one ideal thermodynamic cycle, is larger than that of the best second order phase transition materials by 25 to 100%. When the Gd_5(Si_xGe_1-x)4 alloys are compared with other known materials, which show first order magnetic phase transition, such as Dy, Ho, Er, HoCo_2, NdMn_2Si_2, Fe_0.49Rh_0.51, and (Hf_0.83Ta_0.17)Fe_2+x, only Fe_0.49Rh_0.51 has comparable magnetocaloric properties. However, the first order magnetic phase transition in Fe_0.49Rh_0.51 is irreversible, and the magnetocaloric effect disappears after one magnetizing/demagnetizing cycle. A study of the crystal structure, thermodynamics, and magnetism of the Gd_5(Si_xGe_1-x)4 alloys, where 0 <= x <= 1 allowed us to obtain a qualitative understanding of the basic relations between the composition, the crystal structure, and the change in thermodynamics and magnetocaloric properties, which occur in the Gd_5(Si_xGe_1-x)4 system, and which brings about the giant magnetocaloric effect when x <= 0.5.

  5. Effect of different concentrations of hypertonic saline at different times on protoscoleces of hydatid cyst isolated from liver and lung.

    PubMed

    Tappeh, Khosrow Hazreti; Einshaei, Ali; Mahmudloo, Rahim; Mohammadzadeh, Habib; Tahermaram, Mansoor; Mousavi, Seyed Javad

    2011-01-01

    Most surgeons inject scoloidal materials into the cyst before or after its removal, since any contamination to normal sites will cause re-growth of the same cyst. The aim of this study was to determine the lethal effect of hypertonic saline at different doses and different times on protoscolexes of lung and liver. The livers and lungs of killed animals with hydatid cyst disease were gathered from Urmia Industrial Abattoirs. They were transferred to the university parasitological lab immediately. The hydatid cyst fluid was aspirated with a 10 mm syringe and poured into a 15 cc tubes. The movement of protoscoleces and staining with 0.1% eosin was the test to determine viability of protoscoleces. Those with color absorption were those which were not viable. Different concentrations of hypertonic saline were given at different time. The results showed that in 20% of hypertonic saline in the 4th minute, 80% of protoscoleces were alive while in the 5th minute 50% were alive, in the 7th minute 20% and 8th minute 5%, 9th minute all of them were dead. In the 10% concentration, at up to 9 minutes 50% were alive, in the 18th minute 20% and in 30 minutes 10% of protoscoleces were alive. In the 5% concentration at up to 10 minutes 90% were alive while in the 22nd minute 80% and in 30 minutes 70% of protoscoleces were alive. When we inject 20% hypertonic saline into the cyst cavity there is aprobability that the cyst contaminates the bile duct and liver through the small hole we made. This material may cause widespread necrosis of the liver. We should use 10% hypertonic saline minimally for 45 minute before surgery and after cyst removal, since the hypertonic saline itself may cause injury to the biliary system.

  6. Giant necrotic pituitary apoplexy.

    PubMed

    Fanous, Andrew A; Quigley, Edward P; Chin, Steven S; Couldwell, William T

    2013-10-01

    Apoplexy of the pituitary gland is a rare complication of pituitary adenomas, involving hemorrhage with or without necrosis within the tumor. This condition may be either asymptomatic or may present with severe headache, visual impairment, ophthalmoplegia, and pituitary failure. Transsphenoidal surgery is the treatment of choice, and early intervention is usually required to ensure reversal of visual impairment. Reports of pituitary apoplectic lesions exceeding 60.0mm in diameter are very rare. A 39-year-old man with long-standing history of nasal congestion, decreased libido and infertility presented with a sudden onset of severe headache and diplopia. MRI of the head demonstrated a massive skull base lesion of 70.0 × 60.0 × 25.0mm, compatible with a giant pituitary macroadenoma. The lesion failed to enhance after administration of a contrast agent, suggesting complete necrotic apoplexy. Urgent surgical decompression was performed, and the lesion was resected via a transnasal transsphenoidal approach. Pathological analysis revealed evidence of necrotic pituitary apoplexy. At the 2 month follow-up, the patient had near-complete to complete resolution of his visual impairment. To the authors' knowledge, this report is unique as the patient demonstrated complete necrotic apoplexy and it underlines the diagnostic dilemma in such a case. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Recurrent renal giant leiomyosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Öziş, Salih Erpulat; Gülpınar, Kamil; Şahlı, Zafer; Konak, Baha Burak; Keskin, Mete; Özdemir, Süleyman; Ataoğlu, Ömür

    2016-01-01

    Primary renal leiomyosarcomas are rare, aggressive tumors. They constitute 1–2% of adult malignant renal tumors. Although leiomyosarcomas are the most common histological type (50–60%) of renal sarcomas, information on renal leiomyosarcoma is limited. Local or systemic recurrences are common. The radiological appearance of renal leiomyosarcomas is not specific, therefore renal leiomyosarcoma cannot be distinguished from renal cell carcinoma by imaging methods in all patients. A 74-year-old female patient presented to our clinic complaining of a palpable mass on the right side of her abdomen in November 2012. The abdominal magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass, 25 × 24 × 23 cm in size. Her past medical history revealed that she has undergone right radical nephrectomy in 2007, due to a 11 × 12 × 13 cm renal mass that was then reported as renal cell carcinoma on abdominal magnetic resonance imaging, but the pathological diagnosis was low-grade renal leiomyosarcoma. The most recent follow-up of the patient was in 2011, with no signs of local recurrence or distant metastases within this four-year period. The patient underwent laparotomy on November 2012, and a 35 cm retroperitoneal mass was excised. The pathological examination of the mass was reported as high-grade leiomyosarcoma. The formation of this giant retroperitoneal mass in 1 year can be explained by the transformation of the lesion’s pathology from low-grade to a high-grade tumor. PMID:27436926

  8. Giant cell arteritis.

    PubMed

    Ninan, Jem; Lester, Susan; Hill, Catherine

    2016-02-01

    Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is the most common vasculitis of the elderly. The diagnosis can be challenging at times because of the limitation of the American Rheumatology Association (ARA) classification criteria and the significant proportion of biopsy-negative patients with GCA. We discuss the role of advanced imaging techniques, including positron emission tomography (PET) scanning, in establishing diagnosis and improved histopathology techniques to improve the sensitivity of temporal artery biopsy. There have been significant advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of GCA, particularly the role of cytokine pathways such as the interleukins, IL-6-IL-17 axis, and the IL-12-interferon-γ axis and their implication for new therapies. We highlight that glucocorticoids remain the primary treatment for GCA, but recognize the risk of steroid-induced side effects. A number of pharmacotherapies to enable glucocorticoid dose reduction and prevent relapse have been studied. Early diagnosis and fast-track pathways have improved outcomes by encouraging adherence to evidence-based practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A unique advantage for giant eyes in giant squid.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Dan-Eric; Warrant, Eric J; Johnsen, Sönke; Hanlon, Roger; Shashar, Nadav

    2012-04-24

    Giant and colossal deep-sea squid (Architeuthis and Mesonychoteuthis) have the largest eyes in the animal kingdom [1, 2], but there is no explanation for why they would need eyes that are nearly three times the diameter of those of any other extant animal. Here we develop a theory for visual detection in pelagic habitats, which predicts that such giant eyes are unlikely to evolve for detecting mates or prey at long distance but are instead uniquely suited for detecting very large predators, such as sperm whales. We also provide photographic documentation of an eyeball of about 27 cm with a 9 cm pupil in a giant squid, and we predict that, below 600 m depth, it would allow detection of sperm whales at distances exceeding 120 m. With this long range of vision, giant squid get an early warning of approaching sperm whales. Because the sonar range of sperm whales exceeds 120 m [3-5], we hypothesize that a well-prepared and powerful evasive response to hunting sperm whales may have driven the evolution of huge dimensions in both eyes and bodies of giant and colossal squid. Our theory also provides insights into the vision of Mesozoic ichthyosaurs with unusually large eyes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Clump Giants in the Hyades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, Richard F. (Technical Monitor); Brickhouse, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    The project is entitled 'Clump Giants in the Hyades.' This observation of one of the late-type Hyades giants (Gamma Tau) has implications for understanding the formation of late-type stellar coronae as a function of the evolutionary state of the star. The Hyades giants are interesting because they are all clump giants in the Helium burning phase, similar to the cool primary of Capella. The Hyades giants show significantly more magnetic activity than expected from their state of evolution (and slowed-down rotation). Thus these systems provide an important clue to dynamo action. The data were obtained by the satellite on 13 March 2001 for a total RGS exposure of 58220 seconds. These data were delivered to the PI on 7 August 2001. The data could not be reprocessed until SAS Version 5.3.3 which became available 7 June 2002. Although the guidelines for assessing background rates suggested that half the data were contaminated, it does not appear that the spectral region of the RGS was adversely affected by unusually high background. The spectra show strong lines of Fe XVII and XVIII, O VII and VIII, Ne IX and X, along with numerous weaker lines. The emission measure distribution is highly reminiscent of Capella; if anything, the emission measure distribution is steeper at 6 million K than for Capella. Gamma Tau is the second brightest of the Hyades clump giants. Pallavicini et al. have shown that the luminosity of the brightest Hyades giant (Theta Tau) is remarkably similar to its luminosity as measured by Einstein. Short-term variability is also modest. We are addressing the variability issue now for Gamma Tau. Initial results were reported at the 2003 Seattle AAS meeting. A paper is in preparation for submission to the Astrophysical Journal.

  11. Formation of the giant planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    2006-01-01

    The observed properties of giant planets, models of their evolution and observations of protoplanetary disks provide constraints on the formation of gas giant planets. The four largest planets in our Solar System contain considerable quantities of hydrogen and helium, which could not have condensed into solid planetesimals within the protoplanetary disk. All three (transiting) extrasolar giant planets with well determined masses and radii also must contain substantial amounts of these light gases. Jupiter and Saturn are mostly hydrogen and helium, but have larger abundances of heavier elements than does the Sun. Neptune and Uranus are primarily composed of heavier elements. HD 149026 b, which is slightly more massive than is Saturn, appears to have comparable quantities of light gases and heavy elements. HD 209458 b and TrES-1 are primarily hydrogen and helium, but may contain supersolar abundances of heavy elements. Spacecraft flybys and observations of satellite orbits provide estimates of the gravitational moments of the giant planets in our Solar System, which in turn provide information on the internal distribution of matter within Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Atmospheric thermal structure and heat flow measurements constrain the interior temperatures of planets. Internal processes may cause giant planets to become more compositionally differentiated or alternatively more homogeneous; high-pressure laboratory .experiments provide data useful for modeling these processes. The preponderance of evidence supports the core nucleated gas accretion model. According to this model, giant planets begin their growth by the accumulation of small solid bodies, as do terrestrial planets. However, unlike terrestrial planets, the growing giant planet cores become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates. The primary questions regarding the core nucleated growth model is under what conditions

  12. Clump Giants in the Hyades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, Richard F. (Technical Monitor); Brickhouse, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    The project is entitled 'Clump Giants in the Hyades.' This observation of one of the late-type Hyades giants (Gamma Tau) has implications for understanding the formation of late-type stellar coronae as a function of the evolutionary state of the star. The Hyades giants are interesting because they are all clump giants in the Helium burning phase, similar to the cool primary of Capella. The Hyades giants show significantly more magnetic activity than expected from their state of evolution (and slowed-down rotation). Thus these systems provide an important clue to dynamo action. The data were obtained by the satellite on 13 March 2001 for a total RGS exposure of 58220 seconds. These data were delivered to the PI on 7 August 2001. The data could not be reprocessed until SAS Version 5.3.3 which became available 7 June 2002. Although the guidelines for assessing background rates suggested that half the data were contaminated, it does not appear that the spectral region of the RGS was adversely affected by unusually high background. The spectra show strong lines of Fe XVII and XVIII, O VII and VIII, Ne IX and X, along with numerous weaker lines. The emission measure distribution is highly reminiscent of Capella; if anything, the emission measure distribution is steeper at 6 million K than for Capella. Gamma Tau is the second brightest of the Hyades clump giants. Pallavicini et al. have shown that the luminosity of the brightest Hyades giant (Theta Tau) is remarkably similar to its luminosity as measured by Einstein. Short-term variability is also modest. We are addressing the variability issue now for Gamma Tau. Initial results were reported at the 2003 Seattle AAS meeting. A paper is in preparation for submission to the Astrophysical Journal.

  13. Formation of the giant planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    2006-01-01

    The observed properties of giant planets, models of their evolution and observations of protoplanetary disks provide constraints on the formation of gas giant planets. The four largest planets in our Solar System contain considerable quantities of hydrogen and helium, which could not have condensed into solid planetesimals within the protoplanetary disk. All three (transiting) extrasolar giant planets with well determined masses and radii also must contain substantial amounts of these light gases. Jupiter and Saturn are mostly hydrogen and helium, but have larger abundances of heavier elements than does the Sun. Neptune and Uranus are primarily composed of heavier elements. HD 149026 b, which is slightly more massive than is Saturn, appears to have comparable quantities of light gases and heavy elements. HD 209458 b and TrES-1 are primarily hydrogen and helium, but may contain supersolar abundances of heavy elements. Spacecraft flybys and observations of satellite orbits provide estimates of the gravitational moments of the giant planets in our Solar System, which in turn provide information on the internal distribution of matter within Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Atmospheric thermal structure and heat flow measurements constrain the interior temperatures of planets. Internal processes may cause giant planets to become more compositionally differentiated or alternatively more homogeneous; high-pressure laboratory .experiments provide data useful for modeling these processes. The preponderance of evidence supports the core nucleated gas accretion model. According to this model, giant planets begin their growth by the accumulation of small solid bodies, as do terrestrial planets. However, unlike terrestrial planets, the growing giant planet cores become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates. The primary questions regarding the core nucleated growth model is under what conditions

  14. Green chemical synthesis of gold nanoparticles by using Penicillium aculeatum and their scolicidal activity against hydatid cyst protoscolices of Echinococcus granulosus.

    PubMed

    Barabadi, Hamed; Honary, Soheila; Ali Mohammadi, Milad; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Rahimi, Mohammad Taghi; Alizadeh, Ahad; Naghibi, Farzaneh; Saravanan, Muthupandian

    2017-02-01

    Hydatid disease is a helminth infection with various clinical complications caused by the larval stage of the dog tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. The scolicidal agents have been broadly applied for inactivation of the fertile cysts up to now, but these scolicidal agents have several side effects on patients. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the scolicidal activity of green synthesized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) utilizing mycelia-free culture filtrate of Penicillium aculeatum against hydatid cyst protoscolices of E. granulosus. The size and morphology of AuNPs were affirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis of AuNPs showed the presence of possible functional groups responsible for the bioreduction and capping. The AuNPs were formed relatively uniform with spherical shape and superior monodispersity with the average diameter of 60 nm. Consequently, various concentrations (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mg/mL) of green synthesized AuNPs and different exposure times (10, 30, 60, and 120 min) were used against hydatid cyst protoscolices. Statistically, the difference between the scolicidal effects of AuNPs were seen extremely significant for all four concentrations and at various exposure times in comparison to the control group (P < 0.0001). The most mean protoscolex elimination ratio was 94% (0.3 mg/mL AuNPs and 120-min exposure time). The current investigation indicated that applying biogenic AuNPs may be considered as a potential scolicidal agent for cystic hydatid disease. However, further studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of AuNPs in vivo.

  15. Giant cell tumors of the axial skeleton.

    PubMed

    Balke, Maurice; Henrichs, Marcel P; Gosheger, Georg; Ahrens, Helmut; Streitbuerger, Arne; Koehler, Michael; Bullmann, Viola; Hardes, Jendrik

    2012-01-01

    Background. We report on 19 cases of giant cell tumor of bone (GCT) affecting the spine or sacrum and evaluate the outcome of different treatment modalities. Methods. Nineteen patients with GCT of the spine (n = 6) or sacrum (n = 13) have been included in this study. The mean followup was 51.6 months. Ten sacral GCT were treated by intralesional procedures of which 4 also received embolization, and 3 with irradiation only. All spinal GCT were surgically treated. Results. Two (15.4%) patients with sacral and 4 (66.7%) with spinal tumors had a local recurrence, two of the letter developed pulmonary metastases. One local recurrence of the spine was successfully treated by serial arterial embolization, a procedure previously described only for sacral tumors. At last followup, 9 patients had no evidence of disease, 8 had stable disease, 1 had progressive disease, 1 died due to disease. Six patients had neurological deficits. Conclusions. GCT of the axial skeleton have a high local recurrence rate. Neurological deficits are common. En-bloc spondylectomy combined with embolization is the treatment of choice. In case of inoperability, serial arterial embolization seems to be an alternative not only for sacral but also for spinal tumors.

  16. Giant Cell Tumors of the Axial Skeleton

    PubMed Central

    Balke, Maurice; Henrichs, Marcel P.; Gosheger, Georg; Ahrens, Helmut; Streitbuerger, Arne; Koehler, Michael; Bullmann, Viola; Hardes, Jendrik

    2012-01-01

    Background. We report on 19 cases of giant cell tumor of bone (GCT) affecting the spine or sacrum and evaluate the outcome of different treatment modalities. Methods. Nineteen patients with GCT of the spine (n = 6) or sacrum (n = 13) have been included in this study. The mean followup was 51.6 months. Ten sacral GCT were treated by intralesional procedures of which 4 also received embolization, and 3 with irradiation only. All spinal GCT were surgically treated. Results. Two (15.4%) patients with sacral and 4 (66.7%) with spinal tumors had a local recurrence, two of the letter developed pulmonary metastases. One local recurrence of the spine was successfully treated by serial arterial embolization, a procedure previously described only for sacral tumors. At last followup, 9 patients had no evidence of disease, 8 had stable disease, 1 had progressive disease, 1 died due to disease. Six patients had neurological deficits. Conclusions. GCT of the axial skeleton have a high local recurrence rate. Neurological deficits are common. En-bloc spondylectomy combined with embolization is the treatment of choice. In case of inoperability, serial arterial embolization seems to be an alternative not only for sacral but also for spinal tumors. PMID:22448122

  17. [Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis. Study of pulmonary circulation].

    PubMed

    Orea Tejeda, A; Atencio, C; Sandoval, J; Lupi Herrera, E

    1982-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is a rare disease of unknown etiology which consists of alveolar deposit of calcium microspheres. We report the procedures for the diagnosis of this disease, as well as the hemodynamic features of the pulmonary circulation. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), and cor pulmonale were documented. The active and passive factors involved in PAH are analyzed. We conclude that alveolar hypoxia and estructural vascular changes play a major role in the genesis of PAH.

  18. Pulmonary Hypertension in Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Baughman, Robert P; Engel, Peter J; Nathan, Steven

    2015-12-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a complication of sarcoidosis leading to dyspnea and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Sarcoidosis-associated pulmonary hypertension (SAPH) can be due to several factors, including vascular involvement by the granulomatous inflammation, compression of the pulmonary arteries by adenopathy, fibrotic changes within the lung, and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Several case series have suggested that some patients with SAPH benefit from specific therapy for pulmonary hypertension. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial found 16 weeks' bosentan therapy to be associated with significant improvement in pulmonary artery pressure. Future studies may better define who would respond to treatment of pulmonary hypertension.

  19. Open questions about giant viruses.

    PubMed

    Claverie, Jean-Michel; Abergel, Chantal

    2013-01-01

    The recent discovery of giant viruses exhibiting double-stranded DNA genomes larger than a million base pairs, encoding more than a thousand proteins and packed in near micron-sized icosahedral particles, opened a new and unexpected chapter in virology. As of today, these giant viruses and their closest relatives of lesser dimensions infect unicellular eukaryotes found in aquatic environments, but belonging to a wide diversity of early branching phyla. This broad phylogenetic distribution of hosts is consistent with the hypothesis that giant viruses originated prior to the radiation of the eukaryotic domain and/or might have been involved in the partition of nuclear versus cytoplasmic functions in ancestral cells. The distinctive features of the known giant viruses, in particular the recurrent presence of components of the translation apparatus in their proteome, raise a number of fundamental questions about their origin, their mode of evolution, and the relationship they may entertain with other dsDNA viruses, the genome size of which exhibits the widest distribution among all biological entities, from less than 5 kb to more than 1.25 Mb (a ratio of 1:250). At a more conceptual level, the convergence between the discovery of increasingly reduced parasitic cellular organisms and that of giant viruses exhibiting a widening array of cellular-like functions may ultimately abolish the historical discontinuity between the viral and the cellular world. 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved

  20. Gravitational scattering by giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, T.; Rantala, J.; Kaasalainen, M.

    2006-09-01

    We seek to characterize giant-planet systems by their gravitational scattering properties. We do this to a given system by integrating it numerically along with a large number of hypothetical small bodies that are initially in eccentric habitable zone (HZ)-crossing orbits. Our analysis produces a single number, the escape rate, which represents the rate at which the small-body flux is perturbed away by the giant planets into orbits that no longer pose a threat to terrestrial planets inside the HZ. Obtaining the escape rate this way is similar to computing the largest Liapunov exponent as the exponential rate of divergence of two nearby orbits. For a terrestrial planet inside the HZ, the escape rate value quantifies the "protective" effect that the studied giant-planet system offers. Therefore, escape rates could provide information on whether certain giant-planet configurations produce a more desirable environment for life than the others. We present some computed escape rates on selected planetary systems, focusing on effects of varying the masses and semi-major axes of the giant planets. In the case of our Solar System we find rather surprisingly that Jupiter, in its current orbit, may provide a minimal amount of protection to the Earth.

  1. Giant Magellan Telescope: overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johns, Matt; McCarthy, Patrick; Raybould, Keith; Bouchez, Antonin; Farahani, Arash; Filgueira, Jose; Jacoby, George; Shectman, Steve; Sheehan, Michael

    2012-09-01

    The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) is a 25-meter optical/infrared extremely large telescope that is being built by an international consortium of universities and research institutions. It will be located at the Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. The GMT primary mirror consists of seven 8.4-m borosilicate honeycomb mirror segments made at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab (SOML). Six identical off-axis segments and one on-axis segment are arranged on a single nearly-paraboloidal parent surface having an overall focal ratio of f/0.7. The fabrication, testing and verification procedures required to produce the closely-matched off-axis mirror segments were developed during the production of the first mirror. Production of the second and third off-axis segments is underway. GMT incorporates a seven-segment Gregorian adaptive secondary to implement three modes of adaptive-optics operation: natural-guide star AO, laser-tomography AO, and ground-layer AO. A wide-field corrector/ADC is available for use in seeing-limited mode over a 20-arcmin diameter field of view. Up to seven instruments can be mounted simultaneously on the telescope in a large Gregorian Instrument Rotator. Conceptual design studies were completed for six AO and seeing-limited instruments, plus a multi-object fiber feed, and a roadmap for phased deployment of the GMT instrument suite is being developed. The partner institutions have made firm commitments for approximately 45% of the funds required to build the telescope. Project Office efforts are currently focused on advancing the telescope and enclosure design in preparation for subsystem- and system-level preliminary design reviews which are scheduled to be completed in the first half of 2013.

  2. Rotation of Giant Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissin, Yevgeni; Thompson, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    The internal rotation of post-main sequence stars is investigated, in response to the convective pumping of angular momentum toward the stellar core, combined with a tight magnetic coupling between core and envelope. The spin evolution is calculated using model stars of initial mass 1, 1.5, and 5 {M}⊙ , taking into account mass loss on the giant branches. We also include the deposition of orbital angular momentum from a sub-stellar companion, as influenced by tidal drag along with the excitation of orbital eccentricity by a fluctuating gravitational quadrupole moment. A range of angular velocity profiles {{Ω }}(r) is considered in the envelope, extending from solid rotation to constant specific angular momentum. We focus on the backreaction of the Coriolis force, and the threshold for dynamo action in the inner envelope. Quantitative agreement with measurements of core rotation in subgiants and post-He core flash stars by Kepler is obtained with a two-layer angular velocity profile: uniform specific angular momentum where the Coriolis parameter {Co}\\equiv {{Ω }}{τ }{con}≲ 1 (here {τ }{con} is the convective time), and {{Ω }}(r)\\propto {r}-1 where {Co}≳ 1. The inner profile is interpreted in terms of a balance between the Coriolis force and angular pressure gradients driven by radially extended convective plumes. Inward angular momentum pumping reduces the surface rotation of subgiants, and the need for a rejuvenated magnetic wind torque. The co-evolution of internal magnetic fields and rotation is considered in Kissin & Thompson, along with the breaking of the rotational coupling between core and envelope due to heavy mass loss.

  3. Pulmonary function in advanced pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Burke, C M; Glanville, A R; Morris, A J; Rubin, D; Harvey, J A; Theodore, J; Robin, E D

    1987-01-01

    Pulmonary mechanical function and gas exchange were studied in 33 patients with advanced pulmonary vascular disease, resulting from primary pulmonary hypertension in 18 cases and from Eisenmenger physiology in 15 cases. Evidence of airway obstruction was found in most patients. In addition, mean total lung capacity (TLC) was only 81.5% of predicted and 27% of our subjects had values of TLC less than one standard deviation below the mean predicted value. The mean value for transfer factor (TLCO) was 71.8% of predicted and appreciable arterial hypoxaemia was present, which was disproportionate to the mild derangements in pulmonary mechanics. Patients with Eisenmenger physiology had significantly lower values of arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) (p less than 0.05) and of maximum mid expiratory flow (p less than 0.05) and significantly higher pulmonary arterial pressure (p less than 0.05) than those with primary pulmonary hypertension, but no other variables were significantly different between the two subpopulations. It is concluded that advanced pulmonary vascular disease in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension and Eisenmenger physiology is associated not only with severe hypoxaemia but also with altered pulmonary mechanical function. PMID:3433237

  4. Polymyalgia Rheumatica and Giant Cell Arteritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical Trial Journal Articles Polymyalgia Rheumatica and Giant Cell Arteritis May 2016 Questions and Answers about Polymyalgia Rheumatica and Giant Cell Arteritis This publication contains general information about polymyalgia ...

  5. Giant cell tumour of the mandibular condyle.

    PubMed

    Della Sala, S W; Recla, M; Campolongo, F; Bortot, G; Bauer, M; Peterlongo, P

    1996-01-01

    The authors report a case of giant cell tumour of the mandibular condyle, which is a rare finding. This tumour, studied using the main three radiological modalities (plain radiography, CT and MRI) showed characteristic radiological features of "giant cell tumour".

  6. Giant lobelias exemplify convergent evolution.

    PubMed

    Givnish, Thomas J

    2010-01-14

    Giant lobeliads on tropical mountains in East Africa and Hawaii have highly unusual, giant-rosette growth forms that appear to be convergent on each other and on those of several independently evolved groups of Asteraceae and other families. A recent phylogenetic analysis by Antonelli, based on sequencing the widest selection of lobeliads to date, raises doubts about this paradigmatic example of convergent evolution. Here I address the kinds of evidence needed to test for convergent evolution and argue that the analysis by Antonelli fails on four points. Antonelli's analysis makes several important contributions to our understanding of lobeliad evolution and geographic spread, but his claim regarding convergence appears to be invalid. Giant lobeliads in Hawaii and Africa represent paradigmatic examples of convergent evolution.

  7. Structure of giant muscle proteins

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Logan C.; Wright, Nathan T.

    2013-01-01

    Giant muscle proteins (e.g., titin, nebulin, and obscurin) play a seminal role in muscle elasticity, stretch response, and sarcomeric organization. Each giant protein consists of multiple tandem structural domains, usually arranged in a modular fashion spanning 500 kDa to 4 MDa. Although many of the domains are similar in structure, subtle differences create a unique function of each domain. Recent high and low resolution structural and dynamic studies now suggest more nuanced overall protein structures than previously realized. These findings show that atomic structure, interactions between tandem domains, and intrasarcomeric environment all influence the shape, motion, and therefore function of giant proteins. In this article we will review the current understanding of titin, obscurin, and nebulin structure, from the atomic level through the molecular level. PMID:24376425

  8. CMB lensing and giant rings

    SciTech Connect

    Rathaus, Ben; Itzhaki, Nissan E-mail: ben.rathaus@gmail.com

    2012-05-01

    We study the CMB lensing signature of a pre-inationary particle (PIP), assuming it is responsible for the giant rings anomaly that was found recently in the WMAP data. Simulating Planck-like data we find that generically the CMB lensing signal to noise ratio associated with such a PIP is quite small and it would be difficult to cross correlate the temperature giant rings with the CMB lensing signal. However, if the pre-inationary particle is also responsible for the bulk flow measured from the local large scale structure, which happens to point roughly at the same direction as the giant rings, then the CMB lensing signal to noise ratio is fairly significant.

  9. Giant lobelias exemplify convergent evolution

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Giant lobeliads on tropical mountains in East Africa and Hawaii have highly unusual, giant-rosette growth forms that appear to be convergent on each other and on those of several independently evolved groups of Asteraceae and other families. A recent phylogenetic analysis by Antonelli, based on sequencing the widest selection of lobeliads to date, raises doubts about this paradigmatic example of convergent evolution. Here I address the kinds of evidence needed to test for convergent evolution and argue that the analysis by Antonelli fails on four points. Antonelli's analysis makes several important contributions to our understanding of lobeliad evolution and geographic spread, but his claim regarding convergence appears to be invalid. Giant lobeliads in Hawaii and Africa represent paradigmatic examples of convergent evolution. PMID:20074322

  10. Atmospheres of Extrasolar Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marley, M. S.; Fortney, J.; Seager, S.; Barman, T.

    The key to understanding an extrasolar giant planet's spectrum - and hence its detectability and evolution - lies with its atmosphere. Now that direct observations of thermal emission from extrasolar giant planets (EGPs) are in hand, atmosphere models can be used to constrain atmospheric composition, thermal structure, and ultimately the formation and evolution of detected planets. We review the important physical processes that influence the atmospheric structure and evolution of EGPs and consider what has already been learned from the first generation of observations and modeling. We pay particular attention to the roles of cloud structure, metallicity, and atmospheric chemistry in affecting detectable properties through Spitzer Space Telescope observations of the transiting giant planets. Our review stresses the uncertainties that ultimately limit our ability to interpret EGP observations. Finally we will conclude with a look to the future as characterization of multiple individual planets in a single stellar system leads to the study of comparative planetary architectures.

  11. Types of Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hypertension The World Health Organization divides pulmonary hypertension (PH) into five groups. These groups are organized based ... lungs. Group 2 Pulmonary Hypertension Group 2 includes PH with left heart disease. Conditions that affect the ...

  12. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis? Pulmonary fibrosis (PULL-mun-ary fi-BRO-sis) is a ... time. The formation of scar tissue is called fibrosis. As the lung tissue thickens, your lungs can' ...

  13. Who Needs Pulmonary Rehabilitation?

    MedlinePlus

    ... recommend pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) if you have a chronic (ongoing) lung disease. He or she also may ... may benefit from PR if you have: COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). COPD includes emphysema (em-fi- ...

  14. HIV and Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... 03-13T18:29:11+00:00 PH and HIV Print PH and HIV Brochure (PDF) Order Copies ... to know about pulmonary hypertension in connection with HIV? Although pulmonary hypertension and HIV are two separate ...

  15. Living with Pulmonary Embolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Twitter. Living With Pulmonary Embolism Pulmonary embolism (PE) usually is treated in a hospital. After leaving ... you're taking medicine. Medicines used to treat PE can thin your blood too much. This can ...

  16. What Causes Pulmonary Embolism?

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Pulmonary Embolism? Major Causes Pulmonary embolism (PE) usually begins as a blood ... from surgery or injured in other ways. Other Causes Rarely, an air bubble, part of a tumor, ...

  17. Living with Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Pulmonary Hypertension Pulmonary hypertension (PH) has no ... seek care right away. Emotional Issues and Support Living with PH may cause fear, anxiety, depression, and ...

  18. Review of Giant cell arteritis

    PubMed Central

    Chacko, Joseph G.; Chacko, J. Anthony; Salter, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Giant-cell arteritis (GCA) is a systemic autoimmune disease affecting primarily the elderly. Giant cell arteritis can cause sudden and potentially bilateral sequential vision loss in the elderly. Therefore, it is considered a medical emergency in ophthalmology and a significant cause of morbidity in an increasingly aging population. Ophthalmologists need to be able to recognize the classic symptoms and signs of this disease, and then be able to work-up and treat these patients in an efficient manner. An in-depth review of GCA from the literature as well as personal clinical experience follows. PMID:25859139

  19. Comparison of three-view thoracic radiography and computed tomography for detection of pulmonary nodules in dogs with neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Armbrust, Laura J; Biller, David S; Bamford, Aubrey; Chun, Ruthanne; Garrett, Laura D; Sanderson, Michael W

    2012-05-01

    To compare the detection of pulmonary nodules by use of 3-view thoracic radiography and CT in dogs with confirmed neoplasia. Prospective case series. 33 dogs of various breeds. 3 interpreters independently evaluated 3-view thoracic radiography images. The location and size of pulmonary nodules were recorded. Computed tomographic scans of the thorax were obtained and evaluated by a single interpreter. The location, size, margin, internal architecture, and density of pulmonary nodules were recorded. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were calculated for thoracic radiography (with CT as the gold standard). 21 of 33 (64%) dogs had pulmonary nodules or masses detected on CT. Of the dogs that had positive CT findings, 17 of 21 (81%) had pulmonary nodules or masses detected on radiographs by at least 1 interpreter. Sensitivity of radiography ranged from 71% to 95%, and specificity ranged from 67% to 92%. Radiography had a positive predictive value of 83% to 94% and a negative predictive value of 65% to 89%. The 4 dogs that were negative for nodules on thoracic radiography but positive on CT were all large-breed to giant-breed dogs with osteosarcoma. CT was more sensitive than radiography for detection of pulmonary nodules. This was particularly evident in large-breed to giant-breed dogs. Thoracic CT is recommended in large-breed to giant-breed dogs with osteosarcoma if the detection of pulmonary nodules will change treatment.

  20. Charting the Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-06-01

    zero expansion asymptotically after an infinite time and has a flat geometry). All three observational tests by means of supernovae (green), the cosmic microwave background (blue) and galaxy clusters converge at a Universe around Ωm ~ 0.3 and ΩΛ ~ 0.7. The dark red region for the galaxy cluster determination corresponds to 95% certainty (2-sigma statistical deviation) when assuming good knowledge of all other cosmological parameters, and the light red region assumes a minimum knowledge. For the supernovae and WMAP results, the inner and outer regions corespond to 68% (1-sigma) and 95% certainty, respectively. References: Schuecker et al. 2003, A&A, 398, 867 (REFLEX); Tonry et al. 2003, ApJ, 594, 1 (supernovae); Riess et al. 2004, ApJ, 607, 665 (supernovae) Galaxy clusters are far from being evenly distributed in the Universe. Instead, they tend to conglomerate into even larger structures, "super-clusters". Thus, from stars which gather in galaxies, galaxies which congregate in clusters and clusters tying together in super-clusters, the Universe shows structuring on all scales, from the smallest to the largest ones. This is a relict of the very early (formation) epoch of the Universe, the so-called "inflationary" period. At that time, only a minuscule fraction of one second after the Big Bang, the tiny density fluctuations were amplified and over the eons, they gave birth to the much larger structures. Because of the link between the first fluctuations and the giant structures now observed, the unique REFLEX catalogue - the largest of its kind - allows astronomers to put considerable constraints on the content of the Universe, and in particular on the amount of dark matter that is believed to pervade it. Rather interestingly, these constraints are totally independent from all other methods so far used to assert the existence of dark matter, such as the study of very distant supernovae (see e.g. ESO PR 21/98) or the analysis of the Cosmic Microwave background (e

  1. Giant right atrial thrombi treated with thrombolysis

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Bailén, Manuel; López-Caler, Carmen; Castillo-Rivera, Ana; Rucabado-Aguilar, Luis; Cuadra, José Ángel Ramos; Toral, Juan Lara; Cabezas, Cristobal Lozano; Guerrero, Juan Carlos Fernández

    2008-01-01

    The present report describes giant atrial thrombi that were treated with thrombolysis in a community hospital. Two patients with giant atrial thrombi whose treatment involved complications are presented. Both patients developed cardiogenic shock and were treated unsuccessfully with thrombolysis. Because thrombolysis of giant thrombi may be ineffective, patients in this situation may require surgery. PMID:18401474

  2. Cabergoline treatment in invasive giant prolactinoma.

    PubMed

    Alsubaie, Sadeem; Almalki, Mussa H

    2014-01-01

    Patients with invasive giant prolactinoma suffer from a constellation of symptoms including headache, blurred vision, lethargy, and sexual dysfunction. Cabergoline, a potent dopamine agonist, is a known medication prescribed for the treatment of invasive giant prolactinoma. Here, we report a case of invasive giant prolactinoma in a 52-year-old Saudi male with dramatic response to cabergoline treatment clinically, biochemically, and radiologically.

  3. Giant right atrial thrombi treated with thrombolysis.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Bailén, Manuel; López-Caler, Carmen; Castillo-Rivera, Ana; Rucabado-Aguilar, Luis; Ramos Cuadra, José Angel; Lara Toral, Juan; Lozano Cabezas, Cristobal; Fernández Guerrero, Juan Carlos

    2008-04-01

    The present report describes giant atrial thrombi that were treated with thrombolysis in a community hospital. Two patients with giant atrial thrombi whose treatment involved complications are presented. Both patients developed cardiogenic shock and were treated unsuccessfully with thrombolysis. Because thrombolysis of giant thrombi may be ineffective, patients in this situation may require surgery.

  4. [Pulmonary artery intimal sarcoma].

    PubMed

    Bourry, N; Chabrot, P; Jeannin, G; Filaire, M; Charpy, C; Bay, J O; Kemeny, J L; Caillaud, D; Escande, G; Boyer, L

    2008-02-01

    Pulmonary artery sarcoma is a rare tumor. We present a case of intimal sarcoma arising from right pulmonary artery and left lower pulmonary vein observed in a 44-year-old man with a non-productive cough. Computed tomographic scans and magnetic resonance imaging showing filling defect enhancement contributed early, suggesting the diagnosis of primary vascular tumor, hypothesis confirmed by pathologist findings.

  5. Giant Serpentine Aneurysms: Multidisciplinary Management

    PubMed Central

    Anshun, W.; Feng, L.; Daming, W.

    2000-01-01

    Summary Sixty-five cases of intracranial giant serpentine aneurysms (GSΛs), including 61 cases reported in the literature and four additional cases presented in this study were reviewed. The clinical presentation, possible causes, natural history, and especially management of GSAs are discussed with emphasis on the need for aggressive intervention and multidisciplinary management. PMID:20667180

  6. The giant panda gut microbiome.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fuwen; Wang, Xiao; Wu, Qi

    2015-08-01

    Giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) are bamboo specialists that evolved from carnivores. Their gut microbiota probably aids in the digestion of cellulose and this is considered an example of gut microbiota adaptation to a bamboo diet. However, this issue remains unresolved and further functional and compositional studies are needed.

  7. Controlling nucleation in giant liposomes.

    PubMed

    Tester, Chantel C; Whittaker, Michael L; Joester, Derk

    2014-05-30

    We introduce giant liposomes to investigate phase transformations in picoliter volumes. Precipitation of calcium carbonate in the confinement of DPPC liposomes leads to dramatic stabilization of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC). In contrast, amorphous strontium carbonate (ASC) is a transient species, and BaCO3 precipitation leads directly to the formation of crystalline witherite.

  8. Pulmonary Artery Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Shomaf, Maha; Obeidat, Nathir; Najjar, Saleh

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary artery sarcomas (PAS) are extremely rare sarcomas of uncertain histogenesis that often mimic pulmonary thromboemboli. This is a report of a 60-year-old female patient who presented with recurrent chest pain and cough. The patient was first diagnosed with pulmonary embolism but she did not improve on anticoagulant therapy. Follow-up imaging studies revealed a mass in the left hilar region extending into the pulmonary trunk and branches of the left pulmonary artery. The tru-cut biopsy revealed an undifferentiated sarcoma. The patient died 10 months after her initial presentation. PMID:26425600

  9. Nursery of Giants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Hidden behind a shroud of dust in the constellation Cygnus is a stellar nursery called DR21, which is giving birth to some of the most massive stars in our galaxy. Visible light images reveal no trace of this interstellar cauldron because of heavy dust obscuration. In fact, visible light is attenuated in DR21 by a factor of more than 10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 (ten thousand trillion heptillion).

    New images from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope allow us to peek behind the cosmic veil and pinpoint one of the most massive natal stars yet seen in our Milky Way galaxy. The never-before-seen star is 100,000 times as bright as the Sun. Also revealed for the first time is a powerful outflow of hot gas emanating from this star and bursting through a giant molecular cloud.

    This image is a large-scale mosaic assembled from individual photographs obtained with the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) aboard Spitzer. The image covers an area about two times that of a full moon. The mosaic is a composite of images obtained at mid-infrared wavelengths of 3.6 microns (blue), 4.5 microns (green), 5.8 microns (orange) and 8 microns (red). The brightest infrared cloud near the top center corresponds to DR21, which presumably contains a cluster of newly forming stars at a distance of 10,000 light-years.

    Protruding out from DR21 toward the bottom left of the image is a gaseous outflow (green), containing both carbon monoxide and molecular hydrogen. Data from the Spitzer spectrograph, which breaks light into its constituent individual wavelengths, indicate the presence of hot steam formed as the outflow heats the surrounding molecular gas. Outflows are physical signatures of processes that create supersonic beams, or jets, of gas. They are usually accompanied by discs of material around the new star, which likely contain the materials from which future planetary systems are formed. Additional newborn stars, depicted in green, can be seen surrounding the

  10. Nursery of Giants

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-13

    Hidden behind a shroud of dust in the constellation Cygnus is a stellar nursery called DR21, which is giving birth to some of the most massive stars in our galaxy. Visible light images reveal no trace of this interstellar cauldron because of heavy dust obscuration. In fact, visible light is attenuated in DR21 by a factor of more than 10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 (ten thousand trillion heptillion). New images from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope allow us to peek behind the cosmic veil and pinpoint one of the most massive natal stars yet seen in our Milky Way galaxy. The never-before-seen star is 100,000 times as bright as the Sun. Also revealed for the first time is a powerful outflow of hot gas emanating from this star and bursting through a giant molecular cloud. This image is a large-scale mosaic assembled from individual photographs obtained with the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) aboard Spitzer. The image covers an area about two times that of a full moon. The mosaic is a composite of images obtained at mid-infrared wavelengths of 3.6 microns (blue), 4.5 microns (green), 5.8 microns (orange) and 8 microns (red). The brightest infrared cloud near the top center corresponds to DR21, which presumably contains a cluster of newly forming stars at a distance of 10,000 light-years. Protruding out from DR21 toward the bottom left of the image is a gaseous outflow (green), containing both carbon monoxide and molecular hydrogen. Data from the Spitzer spectrograph, which breaks light into its constituent individual wavelengths, indicate the presence of hot steam formed as the outflow heats the surrounding molecular gas. Outflows are physical signatures of processes that create supersonic beams, or jets, of gas. They are usually accompanied by discs of material around the new star, which likely contain the materials from which future planetary systems are formed. Additional newborn stars, depicted in green, can be seen surrounding the DR21 region

  11. Primary pulmonary artery sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Jin, Tao; Zhang, Chong; Feng, Zhiying; Ni, Yiming

    2008-08-01

    Primary pulmonary artery sarcoma is an uncommon tumor. We report a case of a 73-year-old male patient with a two-week history of palpitations and shortness of breath, aggravated for two days and was believed to be pulmonary hypertension. Emergency heart ultrasound after admission presented a massive pulmonary embolism in the pulmonary artery. The patient's condition was successfully managed with urgent pulmonary artery embolectomy. The patient demonstrated improvement in hemodynamics after the operation. Histologic and immunohistochemical assays were performed and a diagnosis was made as primary pulmonary artery sarcoma arising from the left pulmonary artery. Resection of the tumor is recommended for the treatment of this rare malignant tumor. The corresponding chemotherapy, follow-up and prognosis are described as well in this case report.

  12. Pulmonary oedema in the emergency room: what is hidden beyond an apparently common presentation

    PubMed Central

    Patrício, Catarina; da Silva, Filipa Pais; Brotas, Vítor

    2014-01-01

    Cardiogenic flash pulmonary oedema is a common and potentially fatal cause of acute respiratory distress. Although it often results from acute decompensated heart failure, abrupt-onset aortic regurgitation can sharply rise cardiac filling pressure and, consequently, pulmonary venous pressure, leading to rapid fluid accumulation in the interstitial and alveolar spaces. We report a case of a 64-year-old woman admitted to the emergency department with a flash pulmonary oedema; a careful clinical investigation subsequently revealed a rare aetiology for this ‘common’ presentation. After a detailed auscultation that unmasked a diastolic cardiac murmur, an acute severe aortic insufficiency was further confirmed by echocardiography, showing inflammation and thickening of the entire aorta wall. The patient was submitted to valve replacement surgery, and histological examination, to our surprise, showed features of aortitis, remarkable for the presence of giant cells. A diagnosis of idiopathic aortitis versus inaugural giant cell arteritis was proposed and treatment started with corticosteroids. PMID:24792026

  13. Recombinant S3Pvac-phage anticysticercosis vaccine: Simultaneous protection against cysticercosis and hydatid disease in rural pigs.

    PubMed

    Morales, Julio; de Aluja, Aline S; Martínez, Jose Juan; Hernández, Marisela; Rosas, Gabriela; Villalobos, Nelly; Hernández, Beatriz; Blancas, Abel; Manoutcharian, Karen; Gevorkian, Goar; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Díaz, Alicia; Fleury, Agnes; Fragoso, Gladis; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

    2011-02-28

    This paper provides macroscopic and histological evidence on the statistically significant protective effects of S3Pvac-phage vaccination against porcine cysticercosis and hydatidosis. The study included 391 rustically bred pigs (187 vaccinated and 204 controls). Vaccination significantly reduced the prevalence of cysticercosis by 61.7%. Vaccination also significantly reduced by 56.1% the prevalence of hydatidosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus in pigs. The presence of the vaccine epitopes in both cestodes is probably involved in the cross-protection observed. Increased inflammation was found in 5% of cysticerci recovered from controls, versus 24% from vaccinated pigs (P<0.01). Hydatid cysts were non-inflammatory in either group. Vaccination was effective to prevent one single disease, but it failed to prevent the simultaneous infections with both parasites in a same pig. The widening of the S3Pvac-phage vaccine protective repertoire to include hydatidosis is a convenient feature that should reduce the prevalence of two frequent zoonoses that affect rustic porcine breading with a single action. Thus, the costs of two different vaccination programs would be reduced to a single one with significant reduction in both zoonoses. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A set of recombinant antigens from Echinococcus granulosus with potential for use in the immunodiagnosis of human cystic hydatid disease

    PubMed Central

    VIRGINIO, V G; HERNÁNDEZ, A; ROTT, M B; MONTEIRO, K M; ZANDONAI, A F; NIETO, A; ZAHA, A; FERREIRA, H B

    2003-01-01

    Several recombinant clones expressing antigens from Echinococcus granulosus were isolated previously from a parasite cDNA library using cystic hydatid disease (CHD) patients’ sera or rabbit hyperimmune antiserum against a lipoproteic fraction from bovine cyst fluid. Six of these antigens were expressed in Escherichia coli and the purified recombinant proteins were tested in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for specific IgG with a panel of sera from patients with surgically confirmed (n = 58) or immunologically diagnosed (n = 71) CHD. Sera from clinically normal individuals (n = 203) and sera from individuals with other helminthic infections (n = 65) were assayed for the assessment of specificity. A cut-off value was determined by receiver-operating-characteristic plots for each antigen. A recombinant antigen B subunit (AgB8/2) presented the highest sensitivity (93·1%), considering the group of sera from patients with CHD surgically confirmed, and specificity (99·5%) and is proposed as the basis for an immunodiagnostic test. The other recombinant antigens tested presented sensitivities between 58·6% and 89·7%, and three of them were considered of complementary value. In subclass-specific ELISA, different IgG isotypes showed dominance in the response for each of the recombinant antigens. There was a clear predominance of IgG4 response for all antigens tested, indicating that this would be the subclass of choice to be assessed for these recombinant proteins. PMID:12699422

  15. Percutaneous drainage as a first therapeutic step prior to surgery in liver hydatid cyst abscess: Is it worth it?

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Marcano, Aylhin J; Ramia, Jose M; Arteaga, Vladimir; De la Plaza, Roberto; Gonzales, Jhonny D; Medina, Anibal

    2017-01-01

    AIM To delay surgery until the patient is in a better condition, and thus to decrease postoperative morbidity. METHODS Using this algorithm we treated three patients aged 55, 75 and 80 years. In all three patients the clinical presentation was fever without a clear source of infection; all had nonspecific symptoms such as general malaise, dyspnea, and abdominal discomfort in the previous 15 d. They came to the emergency room at our hospital due to deterioration of their general condition. Analytical tests showed leukocytosis, neutrophilia and increased polymerase chain reaction. In all cases an abdominal computed tomography (CT) was performed and liver hydatid abscess (LHA) was detected. The mean size of the LHA was 12 cm. RESULTS All patients underwent CT-guided percutaneous drainage. The purulent material obtained was cultured, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus viridans and Streptococcus salivarius were identified. Antibiotic treatment was given adapted to antibiotic sensitivity testing. Surgery was performed two weeks after admission, once the patient’s condition had improved. All three patients underwent an almost total cystectomy, cholecystectomy and omentoplasty in the residual cavity. Complications were: Clavien I (atelectasis and pleural effusion) and Clavien II (transfusion). The average length of stay (pre and postoperative) was 23 d. At the follow-up, no relapses were recorded. CONCLUSION LHA management is not standardized. Emergency surgery offers suboptimal results. Percutaneous drainage plus antibiotics allows improving patient’s general condition. This enables treating patients in greater safety and also reduces complications. PMID:28144393

  16. Isolation of antibodies specific to a single conformation-dependant antigenic determinant on the EG95 hydatid vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Read, A.J.; Casey, J.L.; Coley, A.M.; Foley, M.; Gauci, C.G.; Jackson, D.C.; Lightowlers, M.W.

    2009-01-01

    EG95 is a recombinant vaccine protein that elicits protection against hydatid disease in sheep. Previous studies have shown that the host-protective epitopes on EG95 depend on correct conformation and cannot be represented by simple “linear” peptides. By screening random peptide phage display libraries with polyclonal antibodies directed against conformation-dependant epitopes of EG95, we have selected a number of peptides that mimic these epitopes. The selected peptides did not show sequence homology to EG95. Antigen binding assays involving these peptides have provided evidence of at least four conformationally-dependant epitope regions on EG95. One of the selected peptides, E100, has been used to purify antibodies from anti-sera raised in sheep vaccinated with EG95. This yielded monospecific antibodies capable of recognizing recombinant EG95 in ELISA and native EG95 in Western blot assays. This antibody was demonstrated to be effective in antibody-dependant complement-mediated in vitro killing of Echinococcus granulosus oncospheres. Peptide E100 may represent the basis for a quality control assay for EG95 production, and has the potential to become a component of a synthetic peptide-based vaccine against E. granulosus. PMID:19095030

  17. [A case of hydatid cyst caused by Echinococcus granulosus in Puebla, Mexico, that resulted in successful surgical treatment].

    PubMed

    Orea-Martínez, J G; Pérez-Corro, M A; Contreras-Vera, R A; Bretón-Márquez, J H

    2013-01-01

    We present herein the case of a 16-year-old female from the southern portion of the State of Puebla, Mexico. When gathering her past medical history, it was revealed that she had grown up with pet dogs and that her family raised sheep. Because the patient presented with few symptoms, a benign lesion was suspected, and after laparoscopic exploration, the possibility of surgical management for a non-parasitic cyst was considered. A dull pain in the right hypochondrium persisted and open surgical exploration was performed in which a 6cm young, active, uncomplicated hydatid cyst was discovered. Its surgical removal was successful and the pathologist provided the definitive diagnosis. The three layers characteristic of a parasitic cyst were present and it was histologically consistent with Echinococcus granulosus. Postoperative progression was unremarkable and the control ultrasound study revealed complete restitution of the hepatic parenchyma. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  18. In vitro effects of some herbs used in Egyptian traditional medicine on viability of protoscolices of hydatid cysts.

    PubMed

    Yones, Doaa A; Taher, Gamal A; Ibraheim, Zedan Z

    2011-09-01

    The present work evaluated the effects of alcoholic extracts of salvia (Salvia officinalis), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), and 2 pure compounds (thymol and menthol) on the viability of Echinococcus granulosus protoscolices in vitro. Four different concentrations of each extract (2,500, 1,500, 1,000, and 500 µg/ml) and 3 different concentrations each of thymol and menthol (50, 10, and 1 µg/ml) were used. Concentration of 2,500 µg/ml of both extracts showed a significant protoscolicidal activity on the 6th day. Complete loss of viability of protoscolices occurred with 500 µg/ml concentration of both extracts at day 6 and day 7 post-treatment (PT), respectively. Pure compounds, i.e., menthol and thymol, showed potent effects with 50 µg/ml concentration at day 2 and day 5 PT, respectively. These effects were compared with those of albendazole sulfoxide (800 µg/ml), a commonly used treatment drug for hydatidosis. Krebs-Ringer solution and the hydatid cystic fluid at a ratio of 4:1 was a good preservative solution which kept the protoscolices viable for 15 days.

  19. In Vitro Effects of Some Herbs Used in Egyptian Traditional Medicine on Viability of Protoscolices of Hydatid Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Taher, Gamal A.; Ibraheim, Zedan Z.

    2011-01-01

    The present work evaluated the effects of alcoholic extracts of salvia (Salvia officinalis), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), and 2 pure compounds (thymol and menthol) on the viability of Echinococcus granulosus protoscolices in vitro. Four different concentrations of each extract (2,500, 1,500, 1,000, and 500 µg/ml) and 3 different concentrations each of thymol and menthol (50, 10, and 1 µg/ml) were used. Concentration of 2,500 µg/ml of both extracts showed a significant protoscolicidal activity on the 6th day. Complete loss of viability of protoscolices occurred with 500 µg/ml concentration of both extracts at day 6 and day 7 post-treatment (PT), respectively. Pure compounds, i.e., menthol and thymol, showed potent effects with 50 µg/ml concentration at day 2 and day 5 PT, respectively. These effects were compared with those of albendazole sulfoxide (800 µg/ml), a commonly used treatment drug for hydatidosis. Krebs-Ringer solution and the hydatid cystic fluid at a ratio of 4:1 was a good preservative solution which kept the protoscolices viable for 15 days. PMID:22072825

  20. Giant Herbig-Haro Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reipurth, Bo; Bally, John; Devine, David

    1997-12-01

    We present the discovery of a number of Herbig-Haro flows which extend over parsec-scale distances. The largest of these is the well known HH 111 jet complex, which is shown, through CCD images and a proper motion study, to have an angular extent of almost one degree on the sky, corresponding to 7.7 pc, making it the largest known HH flow. In our imaging survey we also found that T Tauri is at the center of a huge bipolar HH flow, HH 355, with a total extent of 38 arcmin, corresponding to 1.55 pc, and aligned with the axis of the tiny HH 255 flow surrounding the infrared companion T Tau S. We additionally have found a number of other giant HH flow candidates, including HH 315 at PV Cep, HH 41/295 at Haro 5a/6a, HH 300 in Bl8w, HH 354 in Li 165, HH 376 in Li 152, and HH 114/115 and HH 243/244/245/179 in the X Orionis molecular ring. It thus appears that it is common for HH flows to attain parsec-scale dimensions. The ubiquity of parsec-scale HH flows profoundly alters our view of the impact of young stars on their environment. Giant flows have dynamical ages comparable to the duration of the accretion phase of the sources, and provide a fossil record of their mass loss and accretion history. Multiple internal working surfaces and their S-shaped point symmetry provide evidence for variability of ejection velocity and orientation of the source jets. Giant HH flows are either longer or comparable in length to associated CO outflows, providing evidence for unified models in which HH flows power CO flows. Many giant flows have burst out of their source cloud cores and are dissociating molecules and injecting momentum and kinetic energy into the interclump medium of the host clouds. They contribute to the UV radiation field, and may produce C I and C ii in cloud interiors. Giant flows may contribute to the chemical rejuvenation of clouds, the generation of turbulent motions, and the self-regulation of star formation. The terminal working surfaces of giant flows may be

  1. Giant kidney worms in a patient with renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Jemima; Lombardo, Lindsay; Janda, William M; Hollowell, Courtney M P

    2016-03-07

    Dioctophyma renale (D. renale), or giant kidney worms, are the largest nematodes that infect mammals. Approximately 20 cases of human infection have been reported. We present a case of a 71-year-old man with a recent history of unintentional weight loss and painless haematuria, passing elongated erythematous tissue via his urethra. CT revealed a left renal mass with pulmonary nodules and hepatic lesions. On microscopy, the erythematous tissue passed was identified as D. renale. On subsequent renal biopsy, pathology was consistent with renal cell carcinoma. This is the first reported case of concomitant D. renale infection and renal cell carcinoma, and the second reported case of D. renale infection of the left kidney alone.

  2. Pulmonary artery sarcoma mimicking a pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, A; Yates, T J; Kuriakose, P

    2008-01-01

    Sarcomas involving the lung are a rare occurrence, often a result of metastatic disease from primary malignancies involving the skin, liver, breast or heart. Primary pulmonary artery sarcomas are rarer still, with limited cases reported world-wide and consequently data regarding treatment modalities are sparse and largely experimental. These tumors are often mistaken for a pulmonary embolism and seemingly supported by radiological findings. Patients will often present without symptom resolution despite therapeutic anticoagulation. The following case illustrates how a soft tissue sarcoma of the pulmonary artery can mimic a pulmonary embolism, thus, resulting in both a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma. A positron emission tomography scan was an invaluable tool in this case, showing increased radiotracer uptake and placing neoplasm at the top of the differential diagnosis. This ultimately led to a biopsy that was vimentin positive, cytokeratin negative and CD117 negative, thus consistent with soft tissue sarcoma.

  3. Pulmonary artery sarcoma mimicking pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed Ahmed, Magdy M; Aftab, Muhammad; Al-Najjar, Raed M; de la Cruz, Kim I; Benjamin, Robert S; Hallman, Charles H

    2014-10-01

    Primary sarcomas that arise from major blood vessels are exceedingly rare, and some of the published cases have been autopsy reports. Most patients are adults. We report a case of pulmonary artery sarcoma in a 77-year-old man who presented with acute onset of dyspnea. Magnetic resonance imaging of the chest revealed a large mass within the pulmonary trunk and its main branches. Because massive pulmonary embolism was suspected, both anticoagulant and thrombolytic therapies were initiated. The patient responded poorly to these therapies, which then necessitated resection of both the mass and the pulmonary valve. A bioprosthetic porcine valve replaced the native valve, and we reconstructed the right ventricular outflow tract with a Dacron patch. Histopathologic examination revealed a high-grade sarcoma with focal myogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. The patient tolerated the procedure well and was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 7. He was subsequently treated with chemotherapy and radiation and continued to show no evidence of disease. The diagnosis of pulmonary artery sarcoma should be suspected in patients who present with manifestations of pulmonary embolism, especially when there is no evidence of deep venous thrombosis and poor response to anticoagulant therapy. Multimodal therapy can provide prolonged survival.

  4. Pulmonary Artery Sarcoma Mimicking Pulmonary Embolism

    PubMed Central

    Aftab, Muhammad; Al-Najjar, Raed M.; de la Cruz, Kim I.; Benjamin, Robert S.; Hallman, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    Primary sarcomas that arise from major blood vessels are exceedingly rare, and some of the published cases have been autopsy reports. Most patients are adults. We report a case of pulmonary artery sarcoma in a 77-year-old man who presented with acute onset of dyspnea. Magnetic resonance imaging of the chest revealed a large mass within the pulmonary trunk and its main branches. Because massive pulmonary embolism was suspected, both anticoagulant and thrombolytic therapies were initiated. The patient responded poorly to these therapies, which then necessitated resection of both the mass and the pulmonary valve. A bioprosthetic porcine valve replaced the native valve, and we reconstructed the right ventricular outflow tract with a Dacron patch. Histopathologic examination revealed a high-grade sarcoma with focal myogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. The patient tolerated the procedure well and was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 7. He was subsequently treated with chemotherapy and radiation and continued to show no evidence of disease. The diagnosis of pulmonary artery sarcoma should be suspected in patients who present with manifestations of pulmonary embolism, especially when there is no evidence of deep venous thrombosis and poor response to anticoagulant therapy. Multimodal therapy can provide prolonged survival. PMID:25425986

  5. Giant viruses come of age.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Matthias G

    2016-06-01

    Viruses with genomes up to a few megabases in length are a common occurrence in nature, even though they have escaped our notice until recently. These giant viruses infect mainly single-celled eukaryotes and isolation efforts concentrating on amoebal hosts alone have spawned hundreds of viral isolates, featuring viruses with previously unseen virion morphologies and the largest known viral genomes and particles. One of the challenges that lie ahead is to analyze and categorize the available data and to establish an approved classification system that reflects the evolutionary relationships and biological properties of these viruses. Extensive sampling of Acanthamoeba-infecting mimiviruses and initial characterization of their virophage parasites have provided a first blueprint of the genetic diversity and composition of a giant virus clade that will facilitate the taxonomic grouping of these fascinating microorganisms.

  6. Proteorhodopsin genes in giant viruses.

    PubMed

    Yutin, Natalya; Koonin, Eugene V

    2012-10-04

    Viruses with large genomes encode numerous proteins that do not directly participate in virus biogenesis but rather modify key functional systems of infected cells. We report that a distinct group of giant viruses infecting unicellular eukaryotes that includes Organic Lake Phycodnaviruses and Phaeocystis globosa virus encode predicted proteorhodopsins that have not been previously detected in viruses. Search of metagenomic sequence data shows that putative viral proteorhodopsins are extremely abundant in marine environments. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that giant viruses acquired proteorhodopsins via horizontal gene transfer from proteorhodopsin-encoding protists although the actual donor(s) could not be presently identified. The pattern of conservation of the predicted functionally important amino acid residues suggests that viral proteorhodopsin homologs function as sensory rhodopsins. We hypothesize that viral rhodopsins modulate light-dependent signaling, in particular phototaxis, in infected protists.

  7. Echoguided pair technique in diagnosis and treat-ment of abdominal hydatid cystic disease in Egyptian patients: clnical and ultrasonographic follow up.

    PubMed

    El Kady, Nabeel; Ramzy, Iman; Hanan, Hasan A El-Garem; Haleem, Abdel; El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M

    2011-12-01

    The introduction of the percutaneous puncture, aspiration, injection of scolecidal agent and reaspiration (PAIR) technique is gaining an increasing acceptance in diagnosis and treatment of abdominal cystic hydatid disease (CHD). Thirty-three patients (12 male & 21 female with age between 15 and 70 years) had 46 cysts in liver, spleen and kidneys (75.7%, 18.2% & 6.1% respectively). Puncture, aspiration, injection of 95% sterile alcohol for 20 minutes and reaspiration (PAIR) was used for treatment of hydatid cysts of different types and sizes. Follow up both clinically and ultrasonographically was done over a period of 2 years. The commonest ultrasound picture was type la (overall echofree) in 80.4%, commonly in the liver (75.7%) mainly in the right lobe (88%). Improvement of symptoms had occurred its 85% within 3 weeks. As regards ultrasound follow up of 41 non-complicated cysts within the 1st six months, was disappearance of 5 cysts, 34 reduced in size and 36 showed different grades of solidification. After 1.5 year 10 more cysts disappeared while the pseudotumour appearance was shown in remaining 26 cysts. Ultrasound follow up of the 5 infected cysts revealed complete cure within a period of 8-16 weeks in 4 of them. The last patient discontinued drainage therapy and was referred to surgery. This makes ultrasound cure reaching 97%. Minor complications were skin reaction only in 2 patients (6%). No fatal anaphylaxis cyst recurrence or rupture into the peritoneal cavity or bleeding from renal or splenic puncturing. PAIR technique under ultrasonographic guidance is the first choice method for treatment of abdominal CHD especially in the developing countries and inoperable hydatid cysts.

  8. Is the adjuvant albendazole treatment really needed with PAIR in the management of liver hydatid cysts? A prospective, randomized trial with short-term follow-up results.

    PubMed

    Akhan, Okan; Yildiz, Adalet Elcin; Akinci, Devrim; Yildiz, Baris Dogu; Ciftci, Turkmen

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of adjuvant albendazole medication in percutaneous liver hydatid cyst treatment with puncture, aspiration, injection, and reaspiration (PAIR) method. Between November 2007 and May 2011, total of 39 patients with newly diagnosed liver hydatid cyst (total of 77 cysts) were prospectively randomized and enrolled in 3 groups. In the first group, cysts (n = 14) were treated with PAIR without albendazole. In the second (n = 16) and third groups (n = 47), cysts were treated with PAIR with albendazole 1 week before and 1 month after the procedure, with albendazole 1 week before and 3 months after the procedure respectively. Technical and clinical success rates were 100 and 96.1% respectively. In 3 of 77 cysts (3.9%), findings of recurrence were detected on US imaging. All recurrent cysts were in group 1 and recurrence rates in this group were statistically different from cysts of second and third groups (p = 0.005). Side effects of albendazole were detected in 7 of 29 patients (24.1%), and no statistically significant difference was observed between the second (15.3%) and third (38.4%) groups (p = 0.378). Use of albendazole medication as an adjuvant to percutaneous treatment of liver hydatid cyst decreases the recurrence rate. Although there is no statistically significant difference between groups 2 and 3 in terms of efficacy and recurrence rate, patients in group 3 had a higher rate of side effect. Therefore, we conclude that albendazole treatment 1 week before and 1 month after PAIR treatment is sufficient to reduce/prevent recurrences.

  9. Crude extract of hydatid laminated layer from Echinococcus granulosus cyst attenuates mucosal intestinal damage and inflammatory responses in Dextran Sulfate Sodium induced colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Soufli, Imene; Toumi, Ryma; Rafa, Hayet; Amri, Manel; Labsi, Moussa; Khelifi, Lila; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Touil-Boukoffa, Chafia

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is an immunologically mediated disease. Notably, it is less common in countries where there is a greater risk of exposure to helminths. In our study, we examined the modulatory effect of the laminated layer extracted from the cyst wall of a helminth parasite, Echinococcus granulosus, on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. An acute colitis was induced in BALB/c mice using 2.5% w/v DSS in drinking water. The crude extract of E. granulosus laminated layer was injected intraperitoneally daily, starting 3 days before colitis induction. The Disease Activity Index was monitored daily, colon length and weight were measured and histological scores were evaluated. Nitric oxide (NO) and cytokine levels (interferon γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 10 (IL-10)) were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, the colonic expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) was examined. Statistical analyses were performed by one-way analysis of variance and the survival rate was analyzed by the long rank test. Hydatid laminated layer pretreatment significantly improved the clinical symptoms and histological scores (*** p < 0.01) observed during DSS-induced colitis and maintained mucus production by goblet cells. Furthermore, treatment with hydatid laminated layer caused a significant decrease in NO, IFN-γ (** p < 0.01) and TNF-α production (* p < 0.05) and an increase in IL-10 production. These results were associated with localized downregulation of iNOS and NF-κB expression. Our results demonstrate the potent anti-inflammatory effects of hydatid laminated layer. Furthermore, preventive treatment with the laminated layer played a beneficial role in maintaining the integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier against DSS-induced injury.

  10. Giant thermoelectric effect in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragoman, D.; Dragoman, M.

    2007-11-01

    The paper predicts a giant thermoelectric coefficient in a nanostructure consisting of metallic electrodes periodically patterned over graphene, which is deposited on a silicon dioxide substrate. The Seebeck coefficient in this device attains 30mV/K, this value being among the largest reported ever. The calculations are based on a transfer matrix approach that takes a particular form for graphene-based devices. The results are important for future nanogenerators with applications in the area of sensors, energy harvesting, and scavenging.

  11. [Treatment of giant acoustic neuromas].

    PubMed

    Samprón, Nicolás; Altuna, Xabier; Armendáriz, Mikel; Urculo, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the treatment modality and outcome of a series of patients with giant acoustic neuromas, a particular type of tumour characterised by their size (extracanalicular diameter of 4cm or more) and high morbidity and mortality. This was a retrospective unicentre study of patients with acoustic neuromas treated in a period of 12 years. In our institutional series of 108 acoustic neuromas operated on during that period, we found 13 (12%) cases of giant acoustic neuromas. We reviewed the available data of these cases, including presentation and several clinical, anatomical, and microsurgical aspects. All patients were operated on by the same neurosurgeon and senior author (EU) using the suboccipital retrosigmoid approach and complete microsurgical removal was achieved in 10 cases. In one case, near total removal was deliberately performed, in another case a CSF shunt was placed as the sole treatment measure, and in the remaining case no direct treatment was given. One patient died in the immediate postoperative period. One year after surgery, 4 patients showed facial nerve function of iii or more in the House-Brackman scale. The 4 most important prognostic characteristics of giant acoustic neuromas are size, adhesion to surrounding structures, consistency and vascularity. Only the first of these is evident in neuroimaging. Giant acoustic neuromas are characterised by high morbidity at presentation as well as after treatment. Nevertheless, the objective of complete microsurgical removal with preservation of cranial nerve function is attainable in some cases through the suboccipital retrosigmoid approach. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. Giant magnetoresistance in silicene nanoribbons.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chengyong; Luo, Guangfu; Liu, Qihang; Zheng, Jiaxin; Zhang, Zhimeng; Nagase, Shigeru; Gao, Zhengxiang; Lu, Jing

    2012-05-21

    By performing first-principle quantum transport calculations, we predict a giant magnetoresistance in zigzag silicene nanoribbons (ZSiNRs) connecting two semi-infinite silicene electrodes through switch of the edge spin direction of ZSiNRs. Spin-filter efficiency of both the antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic ZSiNRs is sign-changeable with the bias voltage. Therefore, potential application of silicene in spintronics devices is suggested.

  13. Idiopathic giant right atrial aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Uppu, Santosh C; Sachdeva, Ritu; Imamura, Michiaki

    2013-01-01

    A 2-year-old boy with an incidental finding of massive cardiomegaly on a chest X-ray was diagnosed with a giant right atrial aneurysm upon further investigation with echocardiography. The patient underwent successful surgical reduction of the right atrium and closure of the patent foramen ovale to prevent thromboembolic complications and to lower the risk of atrial arrhythmias. The resected atrium had paper-thin walls and pathological features of interstitial fibrosis with endocardial thickening. PMID:23626440

  14. Pulmonary artery sarcoma mimicking massive pulmonary embolus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Alsoufi, Bahaaldin; Slater, Matthew; Smith, Pamela P; Karamlou, Tara; Mansoor, Atiya; Ravichandran, Pasala

    2006-08-01

    Intimal sarcomas of the pulmonary artery are rare tumors that are often difficult to distinguish from pulmonary thromboembolic disease, complicating accurate diagnosis and timely therapy. We report the case of a gentleman with a primary pulmonary artery sarcoma who presented with a massive pulmonary embolism and complete right ventricular outflow tract obstruction. The patient's condition was successfully managed with urgent pulmonary artery thromboendarterectomy, pulmonary valve replacement, and tricuspid valve annuloplasty.

  15. Hairpin Furans and Giant Biaryls.

    PubMed

    Geng, Xin; Mague, Joel T; Donahue, James P; Pascal, Robert A

    2016-05-06

    The thermal reaction of two cyclopentadienones with 5,5'-binaphthoquinone or 6,6'-dimethoxy-5,5'-binaphthoquinone in refluxing nitrobenzene (210 °C) gives, in a single synthetic step that includes two Diels-Alder additions, two decarbonylations, and two dehydrogenations, giant biaryl bisquinones (compounds 13, 14, 15, 18, and 21). However, when two cyclopentadienones react with 6,6'-dimethoxy-5,5'-binaphthoquinone in nitrobenzene at higher temperatures (250-260 °C), the resulting products are molecular ribbons composed of two twisted aromatic systems fused to a heteropentahelicene (19, 20, and 22). These molecules are representatives of a new class of chiral polycyclic aromatic compounds, the "hairpin furans". Interestingly, reheating a dimethoxy-substituted giant biaryl (e.g., 21) in nitrobenzene at 260 °C does not yield the corresponding hairpin furan (22), and mechanistic studies indicate that some intermediate or byproduct of the synthesis of the giant biaryls is a reagent or catalyst necessary for the conversion of the dimethoxybiaryl to the furan.

  16. KEPLER RAPIDLY ROTATING GIANT STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, A. D.; Martins, B. L. Canto; Bravo, J. P.; Paz-Chinchón, F.; Chagas, M. L. das; Leão, I. C.; Oliveira, G. Pereira de; Silva, R. Rodrigues da; Roque, S.; Oliveira, L. L. A. de; Silva, D. Freire da; De Medeiros, J. R.

    2015-07-10

    Rapidly rotating giant stars are relatively rare and may represent important stages of stellar evolution, resulting from stellar coalescence of close binary systems or accretion of substellar companions by their hosting stars. In the present Letter, we report 17 giant stars observed in the scope of the Kepler space mission exhibiting rapid rotation behavior. For the first time, the abnormal rotational behavior for this puzzling family of stars is revealed by direct measurements of rotation, namely from photometric rotation period, exhibiting a very short rotation period with values ranging from 13 to 55 days. This finding points to remarkable surface rotation rates, up to 18 times the rotation of the Sun. These giants are combined with six others recently listed in the literature for mid-infrared (IR) diagnostics based on Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer information, from which a trend for an IR excess is revealed for at least one-half of the stars, but at a level far lower than the dust excess emission shown by planet-bearing main-sequence stars.

  17. Observed Properties of Giant Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.; Upton, Lisa; Colegrove, Owen

    2014-01-01

    The existence of Giant Cells has been suggested by both theory and observation for over 45 years. We have tracked the motions of supergranules in SDO/HMI Doppler velocity data and find larger (Giant Cell) flows that persist for months. The flows in these cells are clockwise around centers of divergence in the north and counter-clockwise in the south. Equatorward flows are correlated with prograde flows - giving the transport of angular momentum toward the equator that is needed to maintain the Sun's rapid equatorial rotation. The cells are most pronounced at mid- and high-latitudes where they exhibit the rotation rates representative of those latitudes. These are clearly large, long-lived, cellular features, with the dynamical characteristics expected from the effects of the Sun's rotation, but the shapes of the cells are not well represented in numerical models. While the Giant Cell flow velocities are small (<10 m/s), their long lifetimes should nonetheless substantially impact the transport of magnetic flux in the Sun's near surface layers.

  18. Electrodynamics in Giant Planet Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koskinen, T.; Yelle, R. V.; Lavvas, P.; Cho, J.

    2014-12-01

    The atmospheres of close-in extrasolar giant planets such as HD209458b are strongly ionized by the UV flux of their host stars. We show that photoionization on such planets creates a dayside ionosphere that extends from the thermosphere to the 100 mbar level. The resulting peak electron density near the 1 mbar level is higher than that encountered in any planetary ionosphere of the solar system, and the model conductivity is in fact comparable to the atmospheres of Sun-like stars. As a result, the momentum and energy balance in the upper atmosphere of HD209458b and similar planets can be strongly affected by ion drag and resistive heating arising from wind-driven electrodynamics. Despite much weaker ionization, electrodynamics is nevertheless also important on the giant planets of the solar system. We use a generic framework to constrain the conductivity regimes on close-in extrasolar planets, and compare the results with conductivites based on the same approach for Jupiter and Saturn. By using a generalized Ohm's law and assumed magnetic fields, we then demonstrate the basic effects of wind-driven ion drag in giant planet atmospheres. Our results show that ion drag is often significant in the upper atmosphere where it can also substantially alter the energy budget through resistive heating.

  19. Pulmonary rehabilitation and pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Varadi, Robert G; Goldstein, Roger

    2009-12-01

    Though pulmonary rehabilitation can have potent effects on exercise capacity and quality of life in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), not all patients benefit to the same degree. Enabling patients to achieve higher training intensities may improve exercise capacity. Adding pharmacological agents to target the abnormal ventilatory mechanics or skeletal muscle dysfunction may enhance the effects of exercise training. This review discusses the rationale and clinical evidence supporting the use of pharmacological adjuncts during the course of pulmonary rehabilitation.

  20. Handbook of pulmonary emergencies

    SciTech Connect

    Spaquolo, S.V.; Medinger, A

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: clinical assessment of the patient with pulmonary disease; interpretation of arterial blood gases in the emergency patient; life-threatening pneumonia; extrapulmonic ventilatory failure; acute inhalation lung disease; pulmonary edema; near drowning; chest trauma; upper airway emergencies; chronic lung disease with acute respiratory decompensation; acute respiratory failure in the patient with chronic airflow obstruction; asthma; hemoptysis; embolic pulmonary disease; superior vena cava syndrome; catastrophic pleural disease; ventilatory assistance and its complications; and ventilator emergencies.

  1. Pulmonary artery sarcoma masquerading as chronic pulmonary thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Ugur; Sinan, Umit Yasar; Calpar, Ilknur; Yildizeli, Bedrettin; Yanartas, Mehmet; Filinte, Deniz; Kucukoglu, Mehmet Serdar

    2014-10-01

    We describe the case of a 60-year-old woman who presented with pulmonary artery sarcoma, a very rare tumor of the cardiovascular system. Her tumor was initially misdiagnosed as chronic pulmonary thromboembolism, and she underwent pulmonary endarterectomy. Early diagnosis of primary pulmonary artery sarcoma is crucial. That alternative should always be considered before settling on a diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Suspicion should be aroused by the failure of anticoagulant treatment to alleviate pulmonary perfusion abnormalities and systemic symptoms. Surgical resection of the tumor-preferably by pulmonary endarterectomy, followed by reconstruction as needed-is currently the most promising treatment for pulmonary artery sarcoma.

  2. Pulmonary Artery Sarcoma Masquerading as Chronic Pulmonary Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Coskun, Ugur; Calpar, Ilknur; Yildizeli, Bedrettin; Yanartas, Mehmet; Filinte, Deniz; Kucukoglu, Mehmet Serdar

    2014-01-01

    We describe the case of a 60-year-old woman who presented with pulmonary artery sarcoma, a very rare tumor of the cardiovascular system. Her tumor was initially misdiagnosed as chronic pulmonary thromboembolism, and she underwent pulmonary endarterectomy. Early diagnosis of primary pulmonary artery sarcoma is crucial. That alternative should always be considered before settling on a diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Suspicion should be aroused by the failure of anticoagulant treatment to alleviate pulmonary perfusion abnormalities and systemic symptoms. Surgical resection of the tumor—preferably by pulmonary endarterectomy, followed by reconstruction as needed—is currently the most promising treatment for pulmonary artery sarcoma. PMID:25425987

  3. Idiopathic pulmonary artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Kotwica, Tomasz; Szumarska, Joanna; Staniszewska-Marszalek, Edyta; Mazurek, Walentyna; Kosmala, Wojciech

    2009-05-01

    Pulmonary artery aneurysm (PAA) is an uncommon lesion, which may be associated with different etiologies including congenital cardiovascular diseases, systemic vasculitis, connective tissue diseases, infections, and trauma. Idiopathic PAA is sporadically diagnosed by exclusion of concomitant major pathology. We report a case of a 56-year-old female with an idiopathic pulmonary artery dilatation identified fortuitously by echocardiography and confirmed by contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Neither significant pulmonary valve dysfunction nor pulmonary hypertension and other cardiac abnormalities which might contribute to the PAA development were found. Here, we describe echocardiographic and computed tomography findings and review the literature on PAA management.

  4. Miliary pulmonary cryptococcosis.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Shane; Marriott, Deborah

    2014-10-01

    A 32-year-old HIV positive male presents with fevers and a non-productive cough. Initial X-ray and subsequent computerised tomography of the chest shows a bilateral miliary pattern of pulmonary infiltration highly suggestive of disseminated tuberculosis. However subsequent results were consistent with disseminated cryptococcosis, including pulmonary involvement, with cryptococcus identified on transbronchial tissue biopsy, and on blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures. Imaging features of pulmonary cryptococcosis are generally of well-defined pleural-based nodules and less commonly alveolar infiltrates, lymphadenopathy, pleural effusions or cavitating lesions. Miliary pulmonary infiltrates are an exceptionally rare presentation.

  5. Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patients & Visitors Giving For Professionals Treatment & Programs Health Information Doctors & Departments Research & Science Education & Training Home Conditions Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis Familial ...

  6. Guiding the Giant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-08-01

    New ESO Survey Provides Targets for the VLT Giant astronomical telescopes like the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) must be used efficiently. Observing time is expensive and there are long waiting lines of excellent research programmes. Thus the work at the telescope must be very well prepared and optimized as much as possible - mistakes should be avoided and no time lost! Astronomers working with the new 8-m class optical/infrared telescopes must base their observations on detailed lists of suitable target objects if they want to perform cutting-edge science. This is particularly true for research programmes that depend on observations of large samples of comparatively rare, distant objects. This type of work requires that extensive catalogues of such objects must be prepared in advance. One such major catalogue - that will serve as a very useful basis for future VLT observations - has just become available from the new ESO Imaging Survey (EIS). The Need for Sky Surveys Astronomers have since long recognized the need to carry out preparatory observations with other telescopes in order to "guide" large telescopes. To this end, surveys of smaller or larger parts of the sky have been performed by wide-field telescopes, paving the way for subsequent work at the limits of the largest available ground-based telescopes. For instance, a complete photographic survey of the sourthern sky (declination < -17.5°) was carried out in the 1970's with the ESO 1-metre Schmidt Telescope in support of the work at the 3.6-m telescope at the ESO La Silla observatory. However, while until recently most observational programmes could rely on samples of objects found on photographic plates, this is no longer possible. New image surveys must match the fainter limiting magnitudes reached by the new and larger telescopes. Modern digital, multi-colour, deep imaging surveys have thus become an indispensable complement to the 8-m telescopes. The new generation of imaging surveys will, without

  7. Cabergoline Treatment in Invasive Giant Prolactinoma

    PubMed Central

    Alsubaie, Sadeem; Almalki, Mussa H

    2014-01-01

    Patients with invasive giant prolactinoma suffer from a constellation of symptoms including headache, blurred vision, lethargy, and sexual dysfunction. Cabergoline, a potent dopamine agonist, is a known medication prescribed for the treatment of invasive giant prolactinoma. Here, we report a case of invasive giant prolactinoma in a 52-year-old Saudi male with dramatic response to cabergoline treatment clinically, biochemically, and radiologically. PMID:25002819

  8. Giant-cell granuloma of the axis.

    PubMed

    González-Martínez, Emilio; Santamarta, David; Lomas-García, Jesús; Ibáñez-Plágaro, F Javier; Fernández-Fernández, J Javier; Ariño, Teresa Ribas; García-Cosamalón, José

    2012-02-01

    Giant-cell granuloma is a benign and nonneoplastic lesion with an expansive and locally destructive behavior. It typically involves the mandible and the maxilla. Only 1 case arising from the odontoid process of the axis has been reported previously. The authors report on a 64-year-old man with a giant-cell granuloma of the axis. They review this uncommon entity, emphasizing the complexity of differentiating between this lesion and other giant-cell tumors.

  9. Pulmonary hypertension management in neonates.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Kartikey A; Puligandla, Pramod S

    2015-02-01

    The management of pulmonary hypertension is multi-faceted, with therapies directed at supporting cardiovascular and pulmonary function, treating the underlying cause (if feasible), and preventing irreversible remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature. Recently, manipulation of signaling pathways and mediators contained within the pulmonary vascular endothelial cell has become a new target. This article will review the pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertension and the broad principles involved in its management, with specific emphasis on pharmacological therapies directed at the pulmonary vascular endothelium.

  10. Red giants: then and now

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulkner, John

    Fred Hoyle's work on the structure and evolution of red giants, particularly his pathbreaking contribution with Martin Schwarzschild (Hoyle and Schwarzschild 1955), is both lauded and critically assessed. In his later lectures and work with students in the early 1960s, Hoyle presented more physical ways of understanding some of the approximations used, and results obtained, in that seminal paper. Although later ideas by other investigators will be touched upon, Hoyle's viewpoint - that low-mass red giants are essentially white dwarfs with a serious mass-storage problem - is still extremely fruitful. Over the years, I have further developed his method of attack. Relatively recently, I have been able to deepen and broaden the approach, finally extending the theory to provide a unifying treatment of the structure of low-mass stars from the main sequence though both the red-giant and horizontal-branch phases of evolution. Many aspects of these stars that had remained puzzling, even mysterious, for decades have now fallen into place, and some questions have been answered that were not even posed before. With low-mass red giants as the simplest example, this recent work emphasizes that stars, in general, may have at least two distinct but very important centres: (I) a geometrical centre, and (II) a separate nuclear centre, residing in a shell outside a zero-luminosity dense core for example. This two-centre perspective leads to an explicit, analytical, asymptotic theory of low-mass red-giant structure. It enables one to appreciate that the problem of understanding why such stars become red giants is one of anticipating a remarkable yet natural structural bifurcation that occurs in them. This bifurcation occurs because of a combination of known and understandable facts just summarized namely that, following central hydrogen exhaustion, a thin nuclear-burning shell does develop outside a more-or-less dense core. In the resulting theory, both ρsh/ρolinec and

  11. Venous thrombosis in patients with giant cell arteritis: Features and outcomes in a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ly, Kim Heang; Liozon, Eric; Dalmay, François; Gondran, Guillaume; Palat, Sylvain; Bézanahary, Holy; Lapébie, François-Xavier; Cypierre, Anne; Nadalon, Sylvie; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Fauchais, Anne-Laure

    2017-05-01

    To describe the features and outcomes of patients with giant cell arteritis who developed venous thrombosis. Inception cohort study including 428 newly diagnosed patients of giant cell arteritis from 1976 to 2014. Clinical and biological data and outcomes were analysed by comparing patients with and without venous thrombosis. Twenty-six patients (6%) developed venous thrombosis, 12 of whom presented with pulmonary embolism. The mean time between the onset of giant cell arteritis symptoms and venous thrombosis occurrence was 248.8±215.0 days. No difference was observed between the two groups in clinical or laboratory data collected at diagnosis. The mean time from the start of prednisone to venous thrombosis diagnosis was 187.7±217.0 days. The average dose of prednisone at venous thrombosis onset was 21.5mg/day. The venous thrombosis group had a higher number of glucocorticoid-related adverse effects (mean, 3.1 vs 1.1; P<0.0001), a higher mortality rate (58% vs 33%, P=0.01) and a higher proportion of deaths occurring during glucocorticoid treatment (31% vs 14%, P=0.03). Death was related to venous thrombosis in four patients. The occurrence of overt venous thrombosis is more than anecdotal among patients treated for giant cell arteritis. Venous thrombosis does not rely on the active phase of giant cell arteritis, but could be associated with long-term use of glucocorticoids. Because venous thrombosis may be associated with an increased mortality risk in patients with giant cell arteritis, a high index of suspicion should be applied in appropriate settings, especially in patients experiencing multiple glucocorticoid-related adverse effects. Copyright © 2016 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. ORIGIN OF LITHIUM ENRICHMENT IN K GIANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Yerra Bharat; Reddy, Bacham E.; Lambert, David L.

    2011-03-20

    In this Letter, we report on a low-resolution spectroscopic survey for Li-rich K giants among 2000 low-mass (M {<=} 3 M{sub sun}) giants spanning the luminosity range from below to above the luminosity of the clump. Fifteen new Li-rich giants including four super Li-rich K giants (log {epsilon}(Li) {>=}3.2) were discovered. A significant finding is that there is a concentration of Li-rich K giants at the luminosity of the clump or red horizontal branch. This new finding is partly a consequence of the fact that our low-resolution survey is the first large survey to include giants well below and above the red giant branch (RGB) bump and clump locations in the H-R diagram. Origin of the lithium enrichment may be plausibly attributed to the conversion of {sup 3}He via {sup 7}Be to {sup 7}Li by the Cameron-Fowler mechanism but the location for the onset of the conversion is uncertain. Two possible opportunities to effect this conversion are discussed: the bump in the first ascent of the RGB and the He-core flash at the tip of the RGB. The finite luminosity spread of the Li-rich giants serves to reject the idea that Li enhancement is, in general, a consequence of a giant swallowing a large planet.

  13. Speciation and phylogeography of giant petrels Macronectes.

    PubMed

    Techow, N M S M; O'Ryan, C; Phillips, R A; Gales, R; Marin, M; Patterson-Fraser, D; Quintana, F; Ritz, M S; Thompson, D R; Wanless, R M; Weimerskirch, H; Ryan, P G

    2010-02-01

    We examine global phylogeography of the two forms of giant petrel Macronectes spp. Although previously considered to be a single taxon, and despite debate over the status of some populations and the existence of minimal genetic data (one mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence per form), the current consensus based on morphology is that there are two species, Northern Giant Petrel M. halli and Southern Giant Petrel M. giganteus. This study examined genetic variation at cytochrome b as well as six microsatellite loci in giant petrels from 22 islands, representing most island groups at which the two species breed. Both markers support separate species status, although sequence divergence in cytochrome b was only 0.42% (corrected). Divergence was estimated to have occurred approximately 0.2mya, but with some colonies apparently separated for longer (up to 0.5 my). Three clades were found within giant petrels, which separated approximately 0.7mya, with the Southern Giant Petrel paraphyletic to a monophyletic Northern Giant Petrel. There was evidence of past fragmentation during the Pleistocene, with subsequent secondary contact within Southern Giant Petrels. The analysis also suggested a period of past population expansion that corresponded roughly to the timing of speciation and the separation of an ancestral giant petrel population from the fulmar Fulmarus clade. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Spontaneous thrombosis in giant intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed Central

    Whittle, I R; Dorsch, N W; Besser, M

    1982-01-01

    Twelve patients in a series of 22 with giant intracranial aneurysms demonstrated neuroradiological features of partial or total spontaneous intra-aneurysmal thrombosis. The presence of this intra-aneurysmal clot significantly altered the computed tomographic appearance of the giant aneurysm. Massive intra-aneurysmal thrombosis did not protect against subarachnoid haemorrhage and the likelihood of rupture of a clot containing giant aneurysm was not significantly different from that of a non-thrombosed giant aneurysm. Although parent artery occlusion from a thrombosed giant aneurysm, and massive aneurysmal thrombosis leading to the formation of giant serpentine aneurysm were documented, these are rare epiphenomena. The risk of embolisation from a partially thrombosed giant aneurysm, which was documented in one case, would appear to be greater than that from a non-thrombosed giant aneurysm. The findings in this series, and a review of literature, suggest that the presence of intra-aneurysmal clot in giant intracranial aneurysms has little prognostic significance and does not alter the management or outcome after treatment. Images PMID:7175528

  15. What Causes Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis? Sometimes doctors can find out what is causing pulmonary fibrosis (lung scarring). For example, exposure to environmental pollutants ...

  16. Diffuse pulmonary ossification: an unusual interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Peros-Golubicić, Tatjana; Tekavec-Trkanjec, Jasna

    2008-09-01

    Diffuse pulmonary ossification is a rare disease characterized by diffuse small bone fragments in the lung tissue. It can be idiopathic or associated with underlying chronic pulmonary or heart diseases. The majority of cases had been diagnosed on autopsy. This review collects present knowledge of diffuse pulmonary ossification with the purpose of understanding and considering the entity in the differential diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases better. Diffuse pulmonary ossification is the result of multiple factors that interact enhancing each other. Tissue injury is the most important provoking factor that, in an alkaline environment, initiates precipitation of calcium salts, enables alkaline phosphatase activity, and activates profibrogenic cytokines. Alveolar bleeding is responsible for interstitial metallic deposition that attracts calcium salts and multinucleated giant cells. High-resolution computed tomography scan in the mediastinal window facilitates the detection of bone density lesions and provides diagnosis by using low-invasive method. Reports on the efficacy of bisphosphonates and warfarin in the management of heterotopic ossification encourage further investigation. Diffuse pulmonary ossification is still underrecognized during life. Its relevance concerning the increasing age of population and longer survival of patients with chronic diseases is underrated. A timely diagnosis will enable a better understanding of pathogenesis and natural course of disease thus paving the way to new therapeutic strategies.

  17. PULMONARY CIRCULATION AT EXERCISE

    PubMed Central

    NAEIJE, R; CHESLER, N

    2012-01-01

    The pulmonary circulation is a high flow and low pressure circuit, with an average resistance of 1 mmHg.min.L−1 in young adults, increasing to 2.5 mmHg.min.L−1 over 4–6 decades of life. Pulmonary vascular mechanics at exercise are best described by distensible models. Exercise does not appear to affect the time constant of the pulmonary circulation or the longitudinal distribution of resistances. Very high flows are associated with high capillary pressures, up to a 20–25 mmHg threshold associated with interstitial lung edema and altered ventilation/perfusion relationships. Pulmonary artery pressures of 40–50 mmHg, which can be achieved at maximal exercise, may correspond to the extreme of tolerable right ventricular afterload. Distension of capillaries that decrease resistance may be of adaptative value during exercise, but this is limited by hypoxemia from altered diffusion/perfusion relationships. Exercise in hypoxia is associated with higher pulmonary vascular pressures and lower maximal cardiac output, with increased likelihood of right ventricular function limitation and altered gas exchange by interstitial lung edema. Pharmacological interventions aimed at the reduction of pulmonary vascular tone have little effect on pulmonary vascular pressure-flow relationships in normoxia, but may decrease resistance in hypoxia, unloading the right ventricle and thereby improving exercise capacity. Exercise in patients with pulmonary hypertension is associated with sharp increases in pulmonary artery pressure and a right ventricular limitation of aerobic capacity. Exercise stress testing to determine multipoint pulmonary vascular pressures-flow relationships may uncover early stage pulmonary vascular disease. PMID:23105961

  18. Pulmonary circulation at exercise.

    PubMed

    Naeije, Robert; Chesler, N

    2012-01-01

    The pulmonary circulation is a high-flow and low-pressure circuit, with an average resistance of 1 mmHg/min/L in young adults, increasing to 2.5 mmHg/min/L over four to six decades of life. Pulmonary vascular mechanics at exercise are best described by distensible models. Exercise does not appear to affect the time constant of the pulmonary circulation or the longitudinal distribution of resistances. Very high flows are associated with high capillary pressures, up to a 20 to 25 mmHg threshold associated with interstitial lung edema and altered ventilation/perfusion relationships. Pulmonary artery pressures of 40 to 50 mmHg, which can be achieved at maximal exercise, may correspond to the extreme of tolerable right ventricular afterload. Distension of capillaries that decrease resistance may be of adaptative value during exercise, but this is limited by hypoxemia from altered diffusion/perfusion relationships. Exercise in hypoxia is associated with higher pulmonary vascular pressures and lower maximal cardiac output, with increased likelihood of right ventricular function limitation and altered gas exchange by interstitial lung edema. Pharmacological interventions aimed at the reduction of pulmonary vascular tone have little effect on pulmonary vascular pressure-flow relationships in normoxia, but may decrease resistance in hypoxia, unloading the right ventricle and thereby improving exercise capacity. Exercise in patients with pulmonary hypertension is associated with sharp increases in pulmonary artery pressure and a right ventricular limitation of aerobic capacity. Exercise stress testing to determine multipoint pulmonary vascular pressures-flow relationships may uncover early stage pulmonary vascular disease.

  19. Pulmonary Foreign Body Granulomatosis in Dental Technician.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sung Jun; Koo, Gun Woo; Park, Dong Won; Kwak, Hyun Jung; Yhi, Ji Young; Moon, Ji-Yong; Kim, Sang-Heon; Sohn, Jang Won; Yoon, Ho Joo; Shin, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Soo; Pyo, Ju Yeon; Oh, Young-Ha; Kim, Tae-Hyung

    2015-10-01

    Occupational lung diseases are caused by several toxic substances including heavy metals; however, the exact pathologic mechanisms remain unknown. In the workplace, dental technicians are often exposed to heavy metals such as cobalt, nickel, or beryllium and occasionally develop occupational lung diseases. We described a case of occupational lung disease in a patient who was employed as a dental technician for over a decade. A 31-year-old, non-smoking woman presented with productive cough and shortness of breath of several weeks duration. Chest computed tomography revealed a large number of scattered, bilateral small pulmonary nodules throughout the lung field, and multiple mediastinal lymph nodes enlargement. Percutaneous needle biopsy showed multifocal small granulomas with foreign body type giant cells suggestive of heavy metals inhalation. The patient's condition improved on simple avoidance strategy for several months. This case highlighted the importance of proper workplace safety.

  20. In vivo evaluation of the efficacy of albendazole sulfoxide and albendazole sulfoxide loaded solid lipid nanoparticles against hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Ahmadnia, Sara; Moazeni, Mohammad; Mohammadi-Samani, Soliman; Oryan, Ahmad

    2013-10-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus, which in this disease the metacestode develop in visceral organs especially liver and lungs. The disease is present worldwide and affects humans as well as herbivores including cattle, sheep, camels, horses and others. Benzimidazole carbamate derivatives, such as mebendazole and albendazole, are currently used for chemotherapeutic treatment of CE in inoperable patients and have to be applied in high doses for extended periods of time, and therefore adverse side effects are frequently observed. This study was designed to evaluate and compare the in vivo effects of 0.5 mg/kg, BID, albendazole sulfoxide (ricobendazole) and two different therapeutic regimens of 0.5 mg/kg BID and 2 mg/kg every 48 h of albendazole sulfoxide loaded solid lipid nanoparticles. Albendazole sulfoxide loaded solid lipid nanoparticles was prepared by solvent diffusion-evaporation method. Fifty Balb/c mice were infected by intraperitoneal injection of protoscoleces and 8 months post infection, the infected mice were treated for 15 days with the above mentioned regimens. They were then euthanized and the size and weight of the cysts as well as their ultrastructural changes were investigated. Although the cysts showed reduced size and weight in the treated animals but these reductions were not statistically significant. The cysts in the animals which received albendazole sulfoxide loaded SLN every 48 h showed more ultrastructural modification. However, these ultrastructural changes should be supported by further biochemical and molecular studies before introducing it as an efficient therapeutic regimen for treatment of human and animal hydatid disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.