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Sample records for gigas purification crystallization

  1. Cobalt-, zinc- and iron-bound forms of adenylate kinase (AK) from the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio gigas: purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kladova, A. V.; Gavel, O. Yu.; Mukhopaadhyay, A.; Boer, D. R.; Teixeira, S.; Shnyrov, V. L.; Moura, I.; Moura, J. J. G.; Romão, M. J.; Trincão, J.; Bursakov, S. A.

    2009-01-01

    Adenylate kinase (AK; ATP:AMP phosphotransferase; EC 2.7.4.3) is involved in the reversible transfer of the terminal phosphate group from ATP to AMP. AKs contribute to the maintenance of a constant level of cellular adenine nucleotides, which is necessary for the energetic metabolism of the cell. Three metal ions, cobalt, zinc and iron(II), have been reported to be present in AKs from some Gram-negative bacteria. Native zinc-containing AK from Desulfo­vibrio gigas was purified to homogeneity and crystallized. The crystals diffracted to beyond 1.8 Å resolution. Furthermore, cobalt- and iron-containing crystal forms of recombinant AK were also obtained and diffracted to 2.0 and 3.0 Å resolution, respectively. Zn2+–AK and Fe2+–AK crystallized in space group I222 with similar unit-cell parameters, whereas Co2+–AK crystallized in space group C2; a monomer was present in the asymmetric unit for both the Zn2+–AK and Fe2+–AK forms and a dimer was present for the Co2+–AK form. The structures of the three metal-bound forms of AK will provide new insights into the role and selectivity of the metal in these enzymes. PMID:19724135

  2. Cobalt-, zinc- and iron-bound forms of adenylate kinase (AK) from the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio gigas: purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis.

    PubMed

    Kladova, A V; Gavel, O Yu; Mukhopaadhyay, A; Boer, D R; Teixeira, S; Shnyrov, V L; Moura, I; Moura, J J G; Romão, M J; Trincão, J; Bursakov, S A

    2009-09-01

    Adenylate kinase (AK; ATP:AMP phosphotransferase; EC 2.7.4.3) is involved in the reversible transfer of the terminal phosphate group from ATP to AMP. AKs contribute to the maintenance of a constant level of cellular adenine nucleotides, which is necessary for the energetic metabolism of the cell. Three metal ions, cobalt, zinc and iron(II), have been reported to be present in AKs from some Gram-negative bacteria. Native zinc-containing AK from Desulfovibrio gigas was purified to homogeneity and crystallized. The crystals diffracted to beyond 1.8 A resolution. Furthermore, cobalt- and iron-containing crystal forms of recombinant AK were also obtained and diffracted to 2.0 and 3.0 A resolution, respectively. Zn(2+)-AK and Fe(2+)-AK crystallized in space group I222 with similar unit-cell parameters, whereas Co(2+)-AK crystallized in space group C2; a monomer was present in the asymmetric unit for both the Zn(2+)-AK and Fe(2+)-AK forms and a dimer was present for the Co(2+)-AK form. The structures of the three metal-bound forms of AK will provide new insights into the role and selectivity of the metal in these enzymes.

  3. Purification and characterization of trimethylamine-N-oxide demethylase from jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas).

    PubMed

    Fu, Xue-Yan; Xue, Chang-Hu; Miao, Ben-Chun; Liang, Jun-Ni; Li, Zhao-Jie; Cui, Feng-Xia

    2006-02-08

    Trimethylamine-N-oxide demethylase (TMAOase) was purified from Jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) and characterized in detail herein. The TMAOase was extracted from squid with 20 mM Tris-acetate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 1.0 M NaCl, followed by acid treatment and heat treatment. Then it was purified by deithylaminoethyl-cellulose and Sephacryl S-300 chromatography, subsequently resulting in an 839-fold purification. The molecular mass of the TMAOase was defined to be 17.5 kDa. The optimum pH of the purified TMAOase was 7.0, and its optimum temperature was confirmed to be 55 degrees C. The TMAOase was stable to heat treatment up to 50 degrees C and stable at pH 7.0-9.0. Reducing agents such as DTT, Na2SO3, and NADH were effective at activating TMAOase, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, as well as Mg2+ and Ca2+, could also enhance the activity of TMAOase remarkably, whereas the TMAOase could be significantly inhibited by tea polyphenol, phytic acid and acetic acid. In addition, the TMAOase converted TMAO to dimethylamine and formaldehyde stoichiometrically with a K(m) of 26.2 mM.

  4. Crystal Structure of Dimeric Flavodoxin from Desulfovibrio gigas Suggests a Potential Binding Region for the Electron-Transferring Partner

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Yin-Cheng; Chia, Tze Shyang; Fun, Hoong-Kun; Chen, Chun-Jung

    2013-01-01

    Flavodoxins, which exist widely in microorganisms, have been found in various pathways with multiple physiological functions. The flavodoxin (Fld) containing the cofactor flavin mononucleotide (FMN) from sulfur-reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio gigas (D. gigas) is a short-chain enzyme that comprises 146 residues with a molecular mass of 15 kDa and plays important roles in the electron-transfer chain. To investigate its structure, we purified this Fld directly from anaerobically grown D. gigas cells. The crystal structure of Fld, determined at resolution 1.3 Å, is a dimer with two FMN packing in an orientation head to head at a distance of 17 Å, which generates a long and connected negatively charged region. Two loops, Thr59–Asp63 and Asp95–Tyr100, are located in the negatively charged region and between two FMN, and are structurally dynamic. An analysis of each monomer shows that the structure of Fld is in a semiquinone state; the positions of FMN and the surrounding residues in the active site deviate. The crystal structure of Fld from D. gigas agrees with a dimeric form in the solution state. The dimerization area, dynamic characteristics and structure variations between monomers enable us to identify a possible binding area for its functional partners. PMID:23322018

  5. Renaissance of protein crystallization and precipitation in biopharmaceuticals purification.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Raquel; Carvalho, Ana Luísa; Roque, A Cecília A

    The current chromatographic approaches used in protein purification are not keeping pace with the increasing biopharmaceutical market demand. With the upstream improvements, the bottleneck shifted towards the downstream process. New approaches rely in Anything But Chromatography methodologies and revisiting former techniques with a bioprocess perspective. Protein crystallization and precipitation methods are already implemented in the downstream process of diverse therapeutic biological macromolecules, overcoming the current chromatographic bottlenecks. Promising work is being developed in order to implement crystallization and precipitation in the purification pipeline of high value therapeutic molecules. This review focuses in the role of these two methodologies in current industrial purification processes, and highlights their potential implementation in the purification pipeline of high value therapeutic molecules, overcoming chromatographic holdups.

  6. Protein Purification and Its Application to Crystallization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-30

    4-1 4.1.2.2 Microcystin ...............................4-5 4.1.2.3 Aequorin.........................4-5 4.1.2.4 Staphylococcal...analyzing these crystals by HPLC to determine crystal composition. Crystals of microcystin , which did not diffract, were isolated from a hanging drop...standard curve was prepared to correlate peak height to micrograms of microcystin injected. The results of this experiment showed that the crystals did

  7. Purification of a Multidrug Resistance Transporter for Crystallization Studies

    PubMed Central

    Alegre, Kamela O.; Law, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Crystallization of integral membrane proteins is a challenging field and much effort has been invested in optimizing the overexpression and purification steps needed to obtain milligram amounts of pure, stable, monodisperse protein sample for crystallography studies. Our current work involves the structural and functional characterization of the Escherichia coli multidrug resistance transporter MdtM, a member of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS). Here we present a protocol for isolation of MdtM to increase yields of recombinant protein to the milligram quantities necessary for pursuit of structural studies using X-ray crystallography. Purification of MdtM was enhanced by introduction of an elongated His-tag, followed by identification and subsequent removal of chaperonin contamination. For crystallization trials of MdtM, detergent screening using size exclusion chromatography determined that decylmaltoside (DM) was the shortest-chain detergent that maintained the protein in a stable, monodispersed state. Crystallization trials of MdtM performed using the hanging-drop diffusion method with commercially available crystallization screens yielded 3D protein crystals under several different conditions. We contend that the purification protocol described here may be employed for production of high-quality protein of other multidrug efflux members of the MFS, a ubiquitous, physiologically and clinically important class of membrane transporters. PMID:27025617

  8. Large-scale crystallization of proteins for purification and formulation.

    PubMed

    Hekmat, Dariusch

    2015-07-01

    Since about 170 years, salts were used to create supersaturated solutions and crystallize proteins. The dehydrating effect of salts as well as their kosmotropic or chaotropic character was revealed. Even the suitability of organic solvents for crystallization was already recognized. Interestingly, what was performed during the early times is still practiced today. A lot of effort was put into understanding the underlying physico-chemical interaction mechanisms leading to protein crystallization. However, it was understood that already the solvation of proteins is a highly complex process not to mention the intricate interrelation of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions taking place. Although many basic questions are still unanswered, preparative protein crystallization was attempted as illustrated in the presented case studies. Due to the highly variable nature of crystallization, individual design of the crystallization process is needed in every single case. It was shown that preparative crystallization from impure protein solutions as a capture step is possible after applying adequate pre-treatment procedures like precipitation or extraction. Protein crystallization can replace one or more chromatography steps. It was further shown that crystallization can serve as an attractive alternative means for formulation of therapeutic proteins. Crystalline proteins can offer enhanced purity and enable highly concentrated doses of the active ingredient. Easy scalability of the proposed protein crystallization processes was shown using the maximum local energy dissipation as a suitable scale-up criterion. Molecular modeling and target-oriented protein engineering may allow protein crystallization to become part of a platform purification process in the near future.

  9. Protein purification and crystallization artifacts: The tale usually not told.

    PubMed

    Niedzialkowska, Ewa; Gasiorowska, Olga; Handing, Katarzyna B; Majorek, Karolina A; Porebski, Przemyslaw J; Shabalin, Ivan G; Zasadzinska, Ewelina; Cymborowski, Marcin; Minor, Wladek

    2016-03-01

    The misidentification of a protein sample, or contamination of a sample with the wrong protein, may be a potential reason for the non-reproducibility of experiments. This problem may occur in the process of heterologous overexpression and purification of recombinant proteins, as well as purification of proteins from natural sources. If the contaminated or misidentified sample is used for crystallization, in many cases the problem may not be detected until structures are determined. In the case of functional studies, the problem may not be detected for years. Here several procedures that can be successfully used for the identification of crystallized protein contaminants, including: (i) a lattice parameter search against known structures, (ii) sequence or fold identification from partially built models, and (iii) molecular replacement with common contaminants as search templates have been presented. A list of common contaminant structures to be used as alternative search models was provided. These methods were used to identify four cases of purification and crystallization artifacts. This report provides troubleshooting pointers for researchers facing difficulties in phasing or model building.

  10. Expression, purification and crystallization of a lyssavirus matrix (M) protein

    SciTech Connect

    Assenberg, René; Delmas, Olivier; Graham, Stephen C.; Verma, Anil; Berrow, Nick; Stuart, David I.; Owens, Raymond J.; Bourhy, Hervé; Grimes, Jonathan M.

    2008-04-01

    The expression, purification and crystallization of the full-length matrix protein from three lyssaviruses is described. The matrix (M) proteins of lyssaviruses (family Rhabdoviridae) are crucial to viral morphogenesis as well as in modulating replication and transcription of the viral genome. To date, no high-resolution structural information has been obtained for full-length rhabdovirus M. Here, the cloning, expression and purification of the matrix proteins from three lyssaviruses, Lagos bat virus (LAG), Mokola virus and Thailand dog virus, are described. Crystals have been obtained for the full-length M protein from Lagos bat virus (LAG M). Successful crystallization depended on a number of factors, in particular the addition of an N-terminal SUMO fusion tag to increase protein solubility. Diffraction data have been recorded from crystals of native and selenomethionine-labelled LAG M to 2.75 and 3.0 Å resolution, respectively. Preliminary analysis indicates that these crystals belong to space group P6{sub 1}22 or P6{sub 5}22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 56.9–57.2, c = 187.9–188.6 Å, consistent with the presence of one molecule per asymmetric unit, and structure determination is currently in progress.

  11. Purification and crystallization of Kokobera virus helicase

    SciTech Connect

    De Colibus, Luigi; Speroni, Silvia; Coutard, Bruno; Forrester, Naomi L.; Gould, Ernest; Canard, Bruno; Mattevi, Andrea

    2007-03-01

    Kokobera virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus belonging, like West Nile virus, to the Japanese encephalitis virus serocomplex. Crystals of the Kokobera virus helicase domain were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and exhibit a diffraction limit of 2.3 Å. Kokobera virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus belonging, like West Nile virus, to the Japanese encephalitis virus serocomplex. The flavivirus genus is characterized by a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome. The unique open reading frame of the viral RNA is transcribed and translated as a single polyprotein which is post-translationally cleaved to yield three structural and seven nonstructural proteins, one of which is the NS3 gene that encodes a C-terminal helicase domain consisting of 431 amino acids. Helicase inhibitors are potential antiviral drugs as the helicase is essential to viral replication. Crystals of the Kokobera virus helicase domain were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to space group P3{sub 1}21 (or P3{sub 2}21), with unit-cell parameters a = 88.6, c = 138.6 Å, and exhibit a diffraction limit of 2.3 Å.

  12. Purification and crystallization of oxygen-evolving photosystem II core complex from thermophilic cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jian-Ren; Kawakami, Keisuke; Koike, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes the purification and crystallization of oxygen-evolving photosystem II core dimer complex from a thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus vulcanus. Procedures used for purification of photosystem II from the cyanobacterium involves cultivation of cells, isolation of thylakoid membranes, purification of crude and pure photosystem II core complexes by detergent solubilization, followed by differential centrifugation and column chromatography. The purified core dimer particles were successfully used for crystallization, and the methods and conditions used for crystallization are presented. These purification and crystallization procedures can be applied for another thermophilic cyanobacterium T. elongatus.

  13. Purification of Germanium Crystals by Zone Refining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooi, Kyler; Yang, Gang; Mei, Dongming

    2016-09-01

    Germanium zone refining is one of the most important techniques used to produce high purity germanium (HPGe) single crystals for the fabrication of nuclear radiation detectors. During zone refining the impurities are isolated to different parts of the ingot. In practice, the effective isolation of an impurity is dependent on many parameters, including molten zone travel speed, the ratio of ingot length to molten zone width, and number of passes. By studying the theory of these influential factors, perfecting our cleaning and preparation procedures, and analyzing the origin and distribution of our impurities (aluminum, boron, gallium, and phosphorous) identified using photothermal ionization spectroscopy (PTIS), we have optimized these parameters to produce HPGe. We have achieved a net impurity level of 1010 /cm3 for our zone-refined ingots, measured with van der Pauw and Hall-effect methods. Zone-refined ingots of this purity can be processed into a detector grade HPGe single crystal, which can be used to fabricate detectors for dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay detection. This project was financially supported by DOE Grant (DE-FG02-10ER46709) and the State Governor's Research Center.

  14. Cloning, purification and crystallization of Thermus thermophilus proline dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    White, Tommi A.; Tanner, John J.

    2005-08-01

    Cloning, purification and crystallization of T. thermophilus proline dehydrogenase is reported. The detergent n-octyl β-d-glucopyranoside was used to reduce polydispersity, which enabled crystallization. Nature recycles l-proline by converting it to l-glutamate. This four-electron oxidation process is catalyzed by the two enzymes: proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and Δ{sup 1}-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase. This note reports the cloning, purification and crystallization of Thermus thermophilus PRODH, which is the prototype of a newly discovered superfamily of bacterial monofunctional PRODHs. The results presented here include production of a monodisperse protein solution through use of the detergent n-octyl β-d-glucopyranoside and the growth of native crystals that diffracted to 2.3 Å resolution at Advanced Light Source beamline 4.2.2. The space group is P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 82.2, b = 89.6, c = 94.3 Å. The asymmetric unit is predicted to contain two protein molecules and 46% solvent. Molecular-replacement trials using a fragment of the PRODH domain of the multifunctional Escherichia coli PutA protein as the search model (24% amino-acid sequence identity) did not produce a satisfactory solution. Therefore, the structure of T. thermophilus PRODH will be determined by multiwavelength anomalous dispersion phasing using a selenomethionyl derivative.

  15. Large-scale purification and crystallization of adenovirus hexon.

    PubMed

    Rux, John J; Burnett, Roger M

    2007-01-01

    This chapter provides a protocol for the large-scale purification of adenovirus type 2 and 5 virions and the soluble major coat protein hexon. The purified virus particles remain intact and are suitable for vector, vaccine, or structural studies and can also be used as seed stock for further rounds of infection. The hexon may be used to produce crystals suitable for high-resolution X-ray crystallographic studies. Briefly, virus is propagated in HeLa cell suspension cultures. The infected cells are lysed, virions and hexon are separated by centrifugation, and the protein is then further purified by anion exchange chromatography. The entire purification procedure takes approx 1 wk and typically yields 10(13) virus particles and 10-20 mg of highly purified hexon.

  16. Purification and two-dimensional crystallization of bacterial cytochrome oxidases.

    PubMed

    Warne, A; Wang, D N; Saraste, M

    1995-12-01

    A novel strategy which employes chromatography on an immobilized metal ion has been developed for the purification of bacterial cytochrome c and quinol oxidases. Many bacterial oxidase complexes appear to have a natural affinity to bind to the chelated copper ion. A combination of three different chromatographic principles (anion exchange, metal-affinity and gel filtration) makes an effective tool chest for the preparation of homogeneous and protein-chemically pure bacterial oxidases. These preparations have been used for two-dimensional crystallization. Until now, crystals have been obtained using the Paracococcus denitrificans and Rhodobacter sphaeroides cytochrome aa3 and the Escherichia coli cytochrome bo. The crystals diffract to approximately 2.5 nm in negative stain and have potential for further structural studies.

  17. From Egg to Crystal: A Practical on Purification, Characterization, and Crystallization of Lysozyme for Bachelor Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olieric, Vincent; Schreiber, Angelique; Lorber, Bernard; Putz, Joern

    2007-01-01

    A practical hands-on course encompassing enzyme purification, biochemical characterization, and crystallization that completed the course work of 350 second-year bachelor students enrolled in molecular biology/biochemistry was given at the Universite Louis Pasteur of Strasbourg (France). The experimental part of the practical dealt entirely with…

  18. From Egg to Crystal: A Practical on Purification, Characterization, and Crystallization of Lysozyme for Bachelor Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olieric, Vincent; Schreiber, Angelique; Lorber, Bernard; Putz, Joern

    2007-01-01

    A practical hands-on course encompassing enzyme purification, biochemical characterization, and crystallization that completed the course work of 350 second-year bachelor students enrolled in molecular biology/biochemistry was given at the Universite Louis Pasteur of Strasbourg (France). The experimental part of the practical dealt entirely with…

  19. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of struthiocalcin 1 from ostrich (Struthio camelus) eggshell

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes-Grajeda, Juan Pablo; Marín-García, Liliana; Stojanoff, Vivian; Moreno, Abel

    2007-11-01

    The purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction data of the protein struthiocalcin 1 isolated from ostrich eggshell are reported. The purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of struthiocalcin 1 (SCA-1), a protein obtained from the intramineral part of ostrich (Struthio camelus) eggshell, is reported.

  20. Over-Expression, Purification and Crystallization of Human Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Y. S.; Ciszak, Ewa; Patel, Mulchand

    2000-01-01

    Dehydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3; dihydrolipoan-tide:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.8.1.4) is a common catalytic component found in pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, and branched-chain cc-keto acid dehydrogenase complex. E3 is also a component (referred to as L protein) of the glycine cleavage system in bacterial metabolism (2). Active E3 forms a homodimer with four distinctive subdomain structures (FAD binding, NAD+ binding, central and interface domains) with non-covalently but tightly bound FAD in the holoenzyme. Deduced amino acids from cloned full-length human E3 gene showed a total of 509 amino acids with a leader sequence (N-terminal 35 amino acids) that is excised (mature form) during transportation of expressed E3 into mitochondria membrane. So far, three-dimensional structure of human E3 has not been reported. Our effort to achieve the elucidation of the X-ray crystal structure of human E3 will be presented. Recombinant pPROEX-1 expression vector (from GIBCO BRL Life Technologies) having the human E3 gene without leader sequence was constructed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and subsequent ligation, and cloned in E.coli XL1-Blue by transformation. Since pPROEX-1 vector has an internal His-tag (six histidine peptide) located at the upstream region of a multicloning site, one-step affinity purification of E3 using nickelnitriloacetic acid (Ni-NTA) agarose resin, which has a strong affinity to His-tag, was feasible. Also a seven-amino-acid spacer peptide and a recombinant tobacco etch virus protease recognition site (seven amino acids peptide) found between His-tag and first amino acid of expressed E3 facilitated the cleavage of His-tag from E3 after the affinity purification. By IPTG induction, ca. 15 mg of human E3 (mature form) was obtained from 1L LB culture with overnight incubation at 25C. Over 98% of purity of E3 from one-step Ni-NTA agarose affinity purification was confirmed by SDS-PAGE analysis. For

  1. Over-Expression, Purification and Crystallization of Human Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Y. S.; Ciszak, Ewa; Patel, Mulchand

    2000-01-01

    Dehydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3; dihydrolipoan-tide:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.8.1.4) is a common catalytic component found in pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, and branched-chain cc-keto acid dehydrogenase complex. E3 is also a component (referred to as L protein) of the glycine cleavage system in bacterial metabolism (2). Active E3 forms a homodimer with four distinctive subdomain structures (FAD binding, NAD+ binding, central and interface domains) with non-covalently but tightly bound FAD in the holoenzyme. Deduced amino acids from cloned full-length human E3 gene showed a total of 509 amino acids with a leader sequence (N-terminal 35 amino acids) that is excised (mature form) during transportation of expressed E3 into mitochondria membrane. So far, three-dimensional structure of human E3 has not been reported. Our effort to achieve the elucidation of the X-ray crystal structure of human E3 will be presented. Recombinant pPROEX-1 expression vector (from GIBCO BRL Life Technologies) having the human E3 gene without leader sequence was constructed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and subsequent ligation, and cloned in E.coli XL1-Blue by transformation. Since pPROEX-1 vector has an internal His-tag (six histidine peptide) located at the upstream region of a multicloning site, one-step affinity purification of E3 using nickelnitriloacetic acid (Ni-NTA) agarose resin, which has a strong affinity to His-tag, was feasible. Also a seven-amino-acid spacer peptide and a recombinant tobacco etch virus protease recognition site (seven amino acids peptide) found between His-tag and first amino acid of expressed E3 facilitated the cleavage of His-tag from E3 after the affinity purification. By IPTG induction, ca. 15 mg of human E3 (mature form) was obtained from 1L LB culture with overnight incubation at 25C. Over 98% of purity of E3 from one-step Ni-NTA agarose affinity purification was confirmed by SDS-PAGE analysis. For

  2. Process of electrolysis and fractional crystallization for aluminum purification

    DOEpatents

    Dawless, R.K.; Bowman, K.A.; Mazgaj, R.M.; Cochran, C.N.

    1983-10-25

    A method is described for purifying aluminum that contains impurities, the method including the step of introducing such aluminum containing impurities to a charging and melting chamber located in an electrolytic cell of the type having a porous diaphragm permeable by the electrolyte of the cell and impermeable to molten aluminum. The method includes further the steps of supplying impure aluminum from the chamber to the anode area of the cell and electrolytically transferring aluminum from the anode area to the cathode through the diaphragm while leaving impurities in the anode area, thereby purifying the aluminum introduced into the chamber. The method includes the further steps of collecting the purified aluminum at the cathode, and lowering the level of impurities concentrated in the anode area by subjecting molten aluminum and impurities in said chamber to a fractional crystallization treatment wherein eutectic-type impurities crystallize and precipitate out of the aluminum. The eutectic impurities that have crystallized are physically removed from the chamber. The aluminum in the chamber is now suited for further purification as provided in the above step of electrolytically transferring aluminum through the diaphragm. 2 figs.

  3. Process of electrolysis and fractional crystallization for aluminum purification

    DOEpatents

    Dawless, Robert K.; Bowman, Kenneth A.; Mazgaj, Robert M.; Cochran, C. Norman

    1983-10-25

    A method for purifying aluminum that contains impurities, the method including the step of introducing such aluminum containing impurities to a charging and melting chamber located in an electrolytic cell of the type having a porous diaphragm permeable by the electrolyte of the cell and impermeable to molten aluminum. The method includes further the steps of supplying impure aluminum from the chamber to the anode area of the cell and electrolytically transferring aluminum from the anode area to the cathode through the diaphragm while leaving impurities in the anode area, thereby purifying the aluminum introduced into the chamber. The method includes the further steps of collecting the purified aluminum at the cathode, and lowering the level of impurities concentrated in the anode area by subjecting molten aluminum and impurities in said chamber to a fractional crystallization treatment wherein eutectic-type impurities crystallize and precipitate out of the aluminum. The eutectic impurities that have crystallized are physically removed from the chamber. The aluminum in the chamber is now suited for further purification as provided in the above step of electrolytically transferring aluminum through the diaphragm.

  4. Gigas Sulci

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-03

    Today's VIS image shows a small portion of Gigas Sulci. Located in the Tharsis region, these small linear ridges follow two trends at angle to each other, one toward the upper left corner and the other generally across from right to left. Small dunes are located between the ridges. The ridges were most likely formed by tectonic activity. Orbit Number: 65422 Latitude: 9.32915 Longitude: 231.265 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2016-09-12 16:56 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21157

  5. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the Hermes transposase

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, Zhanita N.; Musingarimi, Primrose; Craig, Nancy L.; Dyda, Fred; Hickman, Alison Burgess

    2005-06-01

    Upon purification, an N-terminally deleted version of the Hermes transposase exists in solution as a mixture of two species that are approximately hexameric and dimeric. Crystals have been obtained of the smaller species that diffract to 2.1 Å resolution. DNA transposition is the movement of a defined segment of DNA from one location to another. Although the enzymes that catalyze transposition in bacterial systems have been well characterized, much less is known about the families of transposase enzymes that function in higher organisms. Active transposons have been identified in many insect species, providing tools for gene identification and offering the possibility of altering the genotypes of natural insect populations. One of these active transposons is Hermes, a 2749-base-pair element from Musca domestica that encodes its own transposase. An N-terminally deleted version of the Hermes transposase (residues 79–612) has been overexpressed and purified, and crystals that diffract to 2.1 Å resolution have been obtained at 277 K by the hanging-drop method.

  6. The Feasibility of Bulk Crystallization as an Industrial Purification and Production Technique for Proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judge, Russell A.; Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Johns, Michael R.; Pusey, Marc L.; White, Edward T.

    1998-01-01

    Bulk crystallization in stirred vessels is used industrially for the recovery and purification of many inorganic and organic materials. Although much has been written on the crystallization of proteins for X-ray diffraction analysis, very little has been reported on the application of bulk crystallization in stirred vessels. In this study, a 1-liter, seeded, stirred, batch crystallizer was used with ovalbumin as a model protein to test the feasibility of this crystallization method as a recovery and purification process for proteins. Results were obtained for ovalbumin solubility, nucleation thresholds, crystal breakage and crystal growth kinetics in bulk solution under a range of operating conditions of pH and ammonium sulphate concentration (Judge et al., 1996). Experiments were also performed to determine the degree of purification that can be achieved by the crystallization of ovalbumin from a mixture of proteins. The effect of the presence of these proteins upon the ovalbumin crystal growth kinetics was also investigated (Judge et al., 1995). All of these aspects are essential for the design of bulk crystallization processes which have not previously been reported for proteins. Results from a second study that investigated the effect of structurally different proteins on the solubility, crystal growth rates and crystal purity of chicken egg white lysozyme are also presented (Judge et al., 1997). In this case face growth rates were measured using lysozyme purified by liquid chromatography and the effect of the addition of specific protein impurities were observed on the (110) and (101) crystal faces. In these two studies the results are presented to show the feasibility and purifying ability of crystallization as a production process for proteins.

  7. The Feasibility of Bulk Crystallization as an Industrial Purification and Production Technique for Proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judge, Russell A.; Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Johns, Michael R.; Pusey, Marc L.; White, Edward T.

    1998-01-01

    Bulk crystallization in stirred vessels is used industrially for the recovery and purification of many inorganic and organic materials. Although much has been written on the crystallization of proteins for X-ray diffraction analysis, very little has been reported on the application of bulk crystallization in stirred vessels. In this study, a 1-liter, seeded, stirred, batch crystallizer was used with ovalbumin as a model protein to test the feasibility of this crystallization method as a recovery and purification process for proteins. Results were obtained for ovalbumin solubility, nucleation thresholds, crystal breakage and crystal growth kinetics in bulk solution under a range of operating conditions of pH and ammonium sulphate concentration (Judge et al., 1996). Experiments were also performed to determine the degree of purification that can be achieved by the crystallization of ovalbumin from a mixture of proteins. The effect of the presence of these proteins upon the ovalbumin crystal growth kinetics was also investigated (Judge et al., 1995). All of these aspects are essential for the design of bulk crystallization processes which have not previously been reported for proteins. Results from a second study that investigated the effect of structurally different proteins on the solubility, crystal growth rates and crystal purity of chicken egg white lysozyme are also presented (Judge et al., 1997). In this case face growth rates were measured using lysozyme purified by liquid chromatography and the effect of the addition of specific protein impurities were observed on the (110) and (101) crystal faces. In these two studies the results are presented to show the feasibility and purifying ability of crystallization as a production process for proteins.

  8. Purification, sequence and crystallization of an anti-tissue factor Fab and its use for the crystallization of tissue factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruf, Wolfram; Stura, Enrico A.; LaPolla, Robert J.; Syed, Rashid; Edgington, Thomas S.; Wilson, Ian A.

    1992-08-01

    The crystallization of proteins as Fab-antigen complexes may be advantageous in the crystallization of biologically important proteins, since many different monoclonal antibodies are often available against a given protein. From each of these, Fab fragments can be generated providing new opportunities for crystallization of the protein as a complex. Here we report the screening and identification of a suitable Fab for the crystallization of the soluble extracellular domain of tissue factor, the receptor responsible for the cellular initiation of the coagulation protease cascade. From six specific Fabs, three have been identified that crystallize readily as free Fabs. The refinement of the purification procedure for one of these Fabs (TF8-5G9) was required to provide material which reliably formed complex crystals with the tissue factor extracellular domain. A further improvement in the quality of the complex crystals was achieved by enzymatic removal of sialic acid from tissue factor resulting in a significant reduction of its charge heterogeneity.

  9. High-throughput Protein Purification and Quality Assessment for Crystallization

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngchang; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Jedrzejczak, Robert; Eschenfeldt, William H.; Li, Hui; Maltseva, Natalia; Hatzos-Skintges, Catherine; Gu, Minyi; Makowska-Grzyska, Magdalena; Wu, Ruiying; An, Hao; Chhor, Gekleng; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    The ultimate goal of structural biology is to understand the structural basis of proteins in cellular processes. In structural biology, the most critical issue is the availability of high-quality samples. “Structural biology-grade” proteins must be generated in the quantity and quality suitable for structure determination using X-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The purification procedures must reproducibly yield homogeneous proteins or their derivatives containing marker atom(s) in milligram quantities. The choice of protein purification and handling procedures plays a critical role in obtaining high-quality protein samples. With structural genomics emphasizing a genome-based approach in understanding protein structure and function, a number of unique structures covering most of the protein folding space have been determined and new technologies with high efficiency have been developed. At the Midwest Center for Structural Genomics (MCSG), we have developed semi-automated protocols for high-throughput parallel protein expression and purification. A protein, expressed as a fusion with a cleavable affinity tag, is purified in two consecutive immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) steps: (i) the first step is an IMAC coupled with buffer-exchange, or size exclusion chromatography (IMAC-I), followed by the cleavage of the affinity tag using the highly specific Tobacco Etch Virus (TEV) protease; [1] the second step is IMAC and buffer exchange (IMAC-II) to remove the cleaved tag and tagged TEV protease. These protocols have been implemented on multidimensional chromatography workstations and, as we have shown, many proteins can be successfully produced in large-scale. All methods and protocols used for purification, some developed by MCSG, others adopted and integrated into the MCSG purification pipeline and more recently the Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases (CSGID) purification pipeline, are

  10. Fast and scalable purification of a therapeutic full-length antibody based on process crystallization.

    PubMed

    Smejkal, Benjamin; Agrawal, Neeraj J; Helk, Bernhard; Schulz, Henk; Giffard, Marion; Mechelke, Matthias; Ortner, Franziska; Heckmeier, Philipp; Trout, Bernhardt L; Hekmat, Dariusch

    2013-09-01

    The potential of process crystallization for purification of a therapeutic monoclonal IgG1 antibody was studied. The purified antibody was crystallized in non-agitated micro-batch experiments for the first time. A direct crystallization from clarified CHO cell culture harvest was inhibited by high salt concentrations. The salt concentration of the harvest was reduced by a simple pretreatment step. The crystallization process from pretreated harvest was successfully transferred to stirred tanks and scaled-up from the mL-scale to the 1 L-scale for the first time. The crystallization yield after 24 h was 88-90%. A high purity of 98.5% was reached after a single recrystallization step. A 17-fold host cell protein reduction was achieved and DNA content was reduced below the detection limit. High biological activity of the therapeutic antibody was maintained during the crystallization, dissolving, and recrystallization steps. Crystallization was also performed with impure solutions from intermediate steps of a standard monoclonal antibody purification process. It was shown that process crystallization has a strong potential to replace Protein A chromatography. Fast dissolution of the crystals was possible. Furthermore, it was shown that crystallization can be used as a concentrating step and can replace several ultra-/diafiltration steps. Molecular modeling suggested that a negative electrostatic region with interspersed exposed hydrophobic residues on the Fv domain of this antibody is responsible for the high crystallization propensity. As a result, process crystallization, following the identification of highly crystallizable antibodies using molecular modeling tools, can be recognized as an efficient, scalable, fast, and inexpensive alternative to key steps of a standard purification process for therapeutic antibodies. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Purification, growth, and characterization of Zn(x)Cd(1-x)Se crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silberman, E.; Burger, A.; Chen, W.; Henderson, D. O.; Morgan, S. H.; Springer, John M.; Yao, Y.

    1989-01-01

    The purification of starting materials which were used in the growth of Zn(x)Cd(1-x)Se (x = 0.2) single crystals using the traveling solution method (TSM) is reported. Up to 13 cm long single crystals and as grown resistivities of 6 x 10(exp 12) ohm/cm could be achieved. Infrared and Raman spectra of Zn(0.2)Cd(0.8)Se are also presented and discussed.

  12. Using Green and Red Fluorescent Proteins to Teach Protein Expression, Purification, and Crystallization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yifeng; Zhou, Yangbin; Song, Jiaping; Hu, Xiaojian; Ding, Yu; Zhang, Zhihong

    2008-01-01

    We have designed a laboratory curriculum using the green and red fluorescent proteins (GFP and RFP) to visualize the cloning, expression, chromatography purification, crystallization, and protease-cleavage experiments of protein science. The EGFP and DsRed monomer (mDsRed)-coding sequences were amplified by PCR and cloned into pMAL (MBP-EGFP) or…

  13. Using Green and Red Fluorescent Proteins to Teach Protein Expression, Purification, and Crystallization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yifeng; Zhou, Yangbin; Song, Jiaping; Hu, Xiaojian; Ding, Yu; Zhang, Zhihong

    2008-01-01

    We have designed a laboratory curriculum using the green and red fluorescent proteins (GFP and RFP) to visualize the cloning, expression, chromatography purification, crystallization, and protease-cleavage experiments of protein science. The EGFP and DsRed monomer (mDsRed)-coding sequences were amplified by PCR and cloned into pMAL (MBP-EGFP) or…

  14. Urate Oxidase Purification by Salting-in Crystallization: Towards an Alternative to Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Giffard, Marion; Ferté, Natalie; Ragot, François; El Hajji, Mohamed; Castro, Bertrand; Bonneté, Françoise

    2011-01-01

    Background Rasburicase (Fasturtec® or Elitek®, Sanofi-Aventis), the recombinant form of urate oxidase from Aspergillus flavus, is a therapeutic enzyme used to prevent or decrease the high levels of uric acid in blood that can occur as a result of chemotherapy. It is produced by Sanofi-Aventis and currently purified via several standard steps of chromatography. This work explores the feasibility of replacing one or more chromatography steps in the downstream process by a crystallization step. It compares the efficacy of two crystallization techniques that have proven successful on pure urate oxidase, testing them on impure urate oxidase solutions. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we investigate the possibility of purifying urate oxidase directly by crystallization from the fermentation broth. Based on attractive interaction potentials which are known to drive urate oxidase crystallization, two crystallization routes are compared: a) by increased polymer concentration, which induces a depletion attraction and b) by decreased salt concentration, which induces attractive interactions via a salting-in effect. We observe that adding polymer, a very efficient way to crystallize pure urate oxidase through the depletion effect, is not an efficient way to grow crystals from impure solution. On the other hand, we show that dialysis, which decreases salt concentration through its strong salting-in effect, makes purification of urate oxidase from the fermentation broth possible. Conclusions The aim of this study is to compare purification efficacy of two crystallization methods. Our findings show that crystallization of urate oxidase from the fermentation broth provides purity comparable to what can be achieved with one chromatography step. This suggests that, in the case of urate oxidase, crystallization could be implemented not only for polishing or concentration during the last steps of purification, but also as an initial capture step, with minimal changes to the

  15. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of Rv3705c from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Feifei; Gao, Feng; Li, Honglin; Gong, Weimin; Zhou, Lin; Bi, Lijun

    2014-07-23

    The cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of Rv3705c from M. tuberculosis are described. The conserved protein Rv3705c from Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as a precipitant. The Rv3705c crystals exhibited space group P6{sub 1}22 or P6{sub 5}22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 198.0, c = 364.1 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°, and diffracted to a resolution of 3.3 Å.

  16. Frq2 from Drosophila melanogaster: cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis.

    PubMed

    Baños-Mateos, Soledad; Chaves-Sanjuán, Antonio; Mansilla, Alicia; Ferrús, Alberto; Sánchez-Barrena, María José

    2014-04-01

    Drosophila melanogaster contains two calcium-binding proteins, Frq1 and Frq2, in the nervous system that control the number of synapses and the probability of release. To understand the differential function of the two proteins, whose sequence is only 5% dissimilar, the crystal structures of Frq1 and Frq2 are needed. Here, the cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of Frq2 are presented. The full-length protein was purified using a two-step chromatographic procedure. Two different diffracting crystal forms were obtained using a progressive streak-seeding method and detergents.

  17. Effects of Purification on the Crystallization of Lysozyme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewing, Felecia L.; Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Van Der Woerd, Mark; Pusey, Marc L.

    1996-01-01

    We have additionally purified a commercial lysozyme preparation by cation exchange chromatography, followed by recrystallization. This material is 99.96% pure with respect to macromolecular impurities. At basic pH, the purified lysozyme gave only tetragonal crystals at 20 C. Protein used directly from the bottle, prepared by dialysis against distilled water, or which did not bind to the cation exchange column had considerably altered crystallization behavior. Lysozyme which did not bind to the cation exchange column was subsequently purified by size exclusion chromatography. This material gave predominately bundles of rod-shaped crystals with some small tetragonal crystals at lower pHs. The origin of the bundled rod habit was postulated to be a thermally dependent tetragonal- orthorhombic change in the protein structure. This was subsequently ruled out on the basis of crystallization behavior and growth rate experiments. This suggests that heterogeneous forms of lysozyme may be responsible. These results demonstrate three classes of impurities: (1) small molecules, which may be removed by dialysis; (2) macromolecules, which are removable by chromatographic techniques; and (3) heterogeneous forms of the protein, which can be removed in this case by cation exchange chromatography. Of these, heterogeneous forms of the lysozyme apparently have the greatest affect on its crystallization behavior.

  18. Improvements in G protein-coupled receptor purification yield light stable rhodopsin crystals.

    PubMed

    Salom, David; Le Trong, Isolde; Pohl, Ehmke; Ballesteros, Juan A; Stenkamp, Ronald E; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Lodowski, David T

    2006-12-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent the largest family of transmembrane signaling proteins and are the target of approximately half of all therapeutic agents. Agonist ligands bind their cognate GPCRs stabilizing the active conformation that is competent to bind G proteins, thus initiating a cascade of intracellular signaling events leading to modification of the cell activity. Despite their biomedical importance, the only known GPCR crystal structures are those of inactive rhodopsin forms. In order to understand how GPCRs are able to transduce extracellular signals across the plasma membrane, it is critical to determine the structure of these receptors in their ligand-bound, active state. Here, we report a novel combination of purification procedures that allowed the crystallization of rhodopsin in two new crystal forms and can be applicable to the purification and crystallization of other membrane proteins. Importantly, these new crystals are stable upon photoactivation and the preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of both photoactivated and ground state rhodopsin crystals are also reported.

  19. Expression, purification and crystallization of Streptococcus dysgalactiae-derived mitogen

    SciTech Connect

    Papageorgiou, Anastassios C. Saarinen, Susanna; Ramirez-Bartutis, Rosa; Kato, Hidehito; Uchiyama, Takehiko; Kirikae, Teruo; Miyoshi-Akiyama, Toru

    2006-03-01

    S. dysgalactiae-derived mitogen, a superantigen, was crystallized. Crystals diffract to 2.4 Å at a synchrotron-radiation source and belong to space group P3/P3{sub 1}/P3{sub 2}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 52.7, c = 62.4 Å, γ = 120° and one molecule in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. Superantigens are bacterial or viral toxins with potent immunostimulatory properties. Streptococcus dysgalactiae-derived mitogen, a 25 kDa protein, is a recently discovered superantigen isolated from S. dysgalactiae culture supernatant. Sequence considerations suggest that it belongs to a new superantigen family distinct from other superantigens. The protein was expressed in Escherichia coli cells and purified to homogeneity. Crystals were grown at pH 4.2–4.4 in the presence of 18–20%(w/v) PEG 3350 and 0.4 M lithium nitrate. A complete data set to 2.4 Å resolution was collected from a single crystal at liquid-nitrogen temperatures using synchrotron radiation. The crystals belong to space group P3/P3{sub 1}/P3{sub 2}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 52.7, c = 62.4 Å, γ = 120° and one molecule in the crystallographic asymmetric unit.

  20. Expression, purification and crystallization of Helicobacter pyloril-asparaginase

    SciTech Connect

    Dhavala, Prathusha; Krasotkina, Julya; Dubreuil, Christine; Papageorgiou, Anastassios C.

    2008-08-01

    l-Asparaginase from H. pylori was overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. The crystals belonged to space group I222, with unit-cell parameters a = 63.6, b = 94.9, c = 100.2 Å and one molecule in the asymmetric unit. A complete data set to 1.6 Å resolution was collected using synchrotron radiation. The l-asparaginases from Escherichia coli and Erwinia chrysanthemi are effective drugs that have been used in the treatment of acute childhood lymphoblastic leukaemia for over 30 years. However, despite their therapeutic potential, they can cause serious side effects as a consequence of their intrinsic glutaminase activity, which leads to l-glutamine depletion in the blood. Consequently, new asparaginases with low glutaminase activity, fewer side effects and high activity towards l-asparagine are highly desirable as better alternatives in cancer therapy. l-Asparaginase from Helicobacter pylori was overexpressed in E. coli and purified for structural studies. The enzyme was crystallized at pH 7.0 in the presence of 16–19%(w/v) PEG 4000 and 0.1 M magnesium formate. Data were collected to 1.6 Å resolution at 100 K from a single crystal at a synchrotron-radiation source. The crystals belong to space group I222, with unit-cell parameters a = 63.6, b = 94.9, c = 100.2 Å and one molecule of l-asparaginase in the asymmetric unit. Elucidation of the crystal structure will provide insight into the active site of the enzyme and a better understanding of the structure–activity relationship in l-asparaginases.

  1. The purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of dihydrodipicolinate synthase from Clostridium botulinum

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, Renwick C. J. Atkinson, Sarah C.; Gorman, Michael A.; Newman, Janet M.; Parker, Michael W.; Perugini, Matthew A.

    2008-03-01

    Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS), an enzyme in the lysine-biosynthetic pathway, is a promising target for antibiotic development against pathogenic bacteria. Here, the expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary diffraction analysis of DHDPS from C. botulinum are reported. In recent years, dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS; EC 4.2.1.52) has received considerable attention from both mechanistic and structural viewpoints. This enzyme, which is part of the diaminopimelate pathway leading to lysine, couples (S)-aspartate-β-semialdehyde with pyruvate via a Schiff base to a conserved active-site lysine. In this paper, the expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of DHDPS from Clostridium botulinum, an important bacterial pathogen, are presented. The enzyme was crystallized in a number of forms, predominantly using PEG precipitants, with the best crystal diffracting to beyond 1.9 Å resolution and displaying P4{sub 2}2{sub 1}2 symmetry. The unit-cell parameters were a = b = 92.9, c = 60.4 Å. The crystal volume per protein weight (V{sub M}) was 2.07 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}, with an estimated solvent content of 41%. The structure of the enzyme will help guide the design of novel therapeutics against the C. botulinum pathogen.

  2. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of the human GTP fucose pyrophosphorylase

    SciTech Connect

    Quirk, Stephen; Seley-Radtke, Katherine L.

    2006-04-01

    The human GTP fucose pyrophosphohydrolase protein has been crystallized via the hanging-drop technique over a reservoir of polyethylene glycol (MW 8000) and ethylene glycol. The orthorhombic crystals diffract to 2.8 Å resolution. The human nucleotide-sugar metabolizing enzyme GTP fucose pyrophosphorylase (GFPP) has been purified to homogeneity by an affinity chromatographic procedure that utilizes a novel nucleoside analog. This new purification regime results in a protein preparation that produces significantly better crystals than traditional purification methods. The purified 66.6 kDa monomeric protein has been crystallized via hanging-drop vapor diffusion at 293 K. Crystals of the native enzyme diffract to 2.8 Å and belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}. There is a single GFPP monomer in the asymmetric unit, giving a Matthews coefficient of 2.38 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of 48.2%. A complete native data set has been collected as a first step in determining the three-dimensional structure of this enzyme.

  3. Cloning, Expression, Purification, Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Analysis of Mycoplasma Genitalium Protein MG289

    SciTech Connect

    Sippel, K.; Boehlein, S; Sakai, Y; Quirit, J; Agbandje-McKenna, M; Rosser, C; McKenna, R

    2009-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is a human pathogen that is associated with nongonococcal urethritis in men and cervicitis in women. The cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of the protein MG289 from M. genitalium strain G37 are reported here. Crystals of MG289 diffracted X-rays to 2.8 {angstrom} resolution. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 49.7, b = 90.9, c = 176.1 {angstrom}. The diffraction data after processing had an overall R{sub merge} of 8.7%. The crystal structure of Cypl, the ortholog of MG289 from M. hyorhinis, has recently been determined, providing a reasonable phasing model; molecular replacement is currently under way.

  4. Expression, purification and crystallization of pecan (Carya illinoinensis) vicilin.

    PubMed

    Lee, BoRam; Zhang, Renhao; Du, Wen-Xian; Grauke, Larry J; McHugh, Tara H; Zhang, Yu-Zhu

    2014-08-01

    Tree nuts are responsible for many cases of severe food allergies. The 7S seed storage protein vicilin has been identified as a food allergen in many kinds of tree nuts. The vicilin protein consists of an N-terminal low-complexity region with antimicrobial activity and a C-terminal domain that forms a trimeric structure that belongs to the cupin superfamily. In this study, vicilin from pecan (Carya illinoinensis) was isolated and was expressed in bacteria for the first time. The cupin structural core of the protein, residues 369-792, was purified by metal-affinity and gel-filtration chromatography to high purity. Vicilin crystals were obtained and the best crystal diffracted to 2.65 Å resolution in space group P212121.

  5. Expression, purification and crystallization of pecan (Carya illinoinensis) vicilin

    PubMed Central

    Lee, BoRam; Zhang, Renhao; Du, Wen-Xian; Grauke, Larry J.; McHugh, Tara H.; Zhang, Yu-Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Tree nuts are responsible for many cases of severe food allergies. The 7S seed storage protein vicilin has been identified as a food allergen in many kinds of tree nuts. The vicilin protein consists of an N-terminal low-complexity region with antimicrobial activity and a C-terminal domain that forms a trimeric structure that belongs to the cupin superfamily. In this study, vicilin from pecan (Carya illinoinensis) was isolated and was expressed in bacteria for the first time. The cupin structural core of the protein, residues 369–792, was purified by metal-affinity and gel-filtration chromatography to high purity. Vicilin crystals were obtained and the best crystal diffracted to 2.65 Å resolution in space group P212121. PMID:25084379

  6. Electromigration process for the purification of molten silicon during crystal growth

    DOEpatents

    Lovelace, Alan M. Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space; Shlichta, Paul J.

    1982-01-01

    A process for the purification of molten materials during crystal growth by electromigration of impurities to localized dirty zones. The process has particular applications for silicon crystal growth according to Czochralski techniques and edge-defined film-fed growth (EFG) conditions. In the Czochralski crystal growing process, the impurities are electromigrated away from the crystallization interface by applying a direct electrical current to the molten silicon for electromigrating the charged impurities away from the crystal growth interface. In the EFG crystal growth process, a direct electrical current is applied between the two faces which are used in forming the molten silicon into a ribbon. The impurities are thereby migrated to one side only of the crystal ribbon. The impurities may be removed or left in place. If left in place, they will not adversely affect the ribbon when used in solar collectors. The migration of the impurity to one side only of the silicon ribbon is especially suitable for use with asymmetric dies which preferentially crystallize uncharged impurities along one side or face of the ribbon.

  7. Purification, characterization, and crystallization of Crocodylus siamensis hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Jandaruang, Jinda; Siritapetawee, Jaruwan; Songsiriritthigul, Chomphunuch; Preecharram, Sutthidech; Azuma, Taoka; Dhiravisit, Apisak; Fukumori, Yoshihiro; Thammasirirak, Sompong

    2014-08-01

    Crocodylus siamensis hemoglobin was purified by a size exclusion chromatography, Sephacryl S-100 with buffer containing dithiothreitol. The purified Hb was dissociated to be two forms (α chain and β chain) which observed by SDS-PAGE, indicated that the C. siamensis Hb was an unpolymerized form. The unpolymerized Hb (composed of two α chains and two β chains) showed high oxygen affinity at 3.13 mmHg (P(50)) and 1.96 (n value), and a small Bohr effect (δH(+) = -0.29) at a pH of 6.9-8.4. Adenosine triphosphate did not affect the oxygenation properties, whereas bicarbonate ions strongly depressed oxygen affinity. Crude C. siamensis Hb solutions were showed high O(2) affinity at P(50) of 2.5 mmHg which may assure efficient utilization of the lung O(2) reserve during breath holding and diving. The purified Hbs were changed to cyanmethemoglobin forms prior crystallization. Rod- and plate-shaped crystals were obtained by the sitting-drop vapor-diffusion method at 5 °C using equal volumes of protein solution (37 mg/ml) and reservoir [10-13 % (w/v) PEG 4000, with 0.1 M Tris buffer in present of 0.2 M MgCl(2)·6H(2)O] solution at a pH of 7.0-8.5.

  8. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of royal palm tree (Roystonea regia) peroxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Leandra; Nascimento, Alessandro S.; Zamorano, Laura S.; Shnyrov, Valery L.; Polikarpov, Igor

    2007-09-01

    The purification, crystallization, X-ray diffraction data acquisition and molecular-replacement results of royal palm tree (R. regia) peroxidase are described. Royal palm tree peroxidase (RPTP), which was isolated from Roystonea regia leaves, has an unusually high stability that makes it a promising candidate for diverse applications in industry and analytical chemistry [Caramyshev et al. (2005 ▶), Biomacromolecules, 6, 1360–1366]. Here, the purification and crystallization of this plant peroxidase and its X-ray diffraction data collection are described. RPTP crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.8 Å. The crystals belong to the trigonal space group P3{sub 1}21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 116.83, c = 92.24 Å, and contain one protein molecule per asymmetric unit. The V{sub M} value and solvent content are 4.07 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and 69.8%, respectively.

  9. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of royal palm tree (Roystonea regia) peroxidase

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Leandra; Nascimento, Alessandro S.; Zamorano, Laura S.; Shnyrov, Valery L.; Polikarpov, Igor

    2007-01-01

    Royal palm tree peroxidase (RPTP), which was isolated from Roystonea regia leaves, has an unusually high stability that makes it a promising candidate for diverse applications in industry and analytical chemistry [Caramyshev et al. (2005 ▶), Biomacromolecules, 6, 1360–1366]. Here, the purification and crystallization of this plant peroxidase and its X-ray diffraction data collection are described. RPTP crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.8 Å. The crystals belong to the trigonal space group P3121, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 116.83, c = 92.24 Å, and contain one protein molecule per asymmetric unit. The V M value and solvent content are 4.07 Å3 Da−1 and 69.8%, respectively. PMID:17768354

  10. Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a hypothetical acetyltransferase from Pyrococcus furiosus

    PubMed Central

    Biarrotte-Sorin, Sabrina; Mayer, Claudine

    2005-01-01

    The GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) superfamily has a primordial role in cellular processes such as transcription initiation and regulation by histone acetylation, aminoglycoside resistance and melatonin metabolism. To date, no acetyltransferase from the archaeal domain of life has been studied. This paper describes the cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of a Pyrococcus furiosus hypothetical acetyltransferase PfGNAT (MW = 22 007 Da). The crystals belong to space group P622, with one molecule in the asymmetric unit and unit-cell parameters a = b = 82.6, c = 105.92 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°. Crystals diffract X-rays to 3.0 Å resolution on a synchrotron-radiation source. Determination of this structure will provide new insights into the substrate-specificity of this acetyltransferase and the thermal stability of the N-acetyltransferase domain. PMID:16511014

  11. Expression, purification and crystallization of a novel nonstructural protein VP9 from white spot syndrome virus.

    SciTech Connect

    Liu,Y.; Sivaraman, J.; Hew, C.

    2006-01-01

    The nonstructural protein VP9 from white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has been identified and expressed in Escherichia coli. To facilitate purification, a cleavable His{sub 6} tag was introduced at the N-terminus. The native protein was purified and crystallized by vapor diffusion against mother liquor containing 2 M sodium acetate, 100 mM MES pH 6.3, 25 mM cadmium sulfate and 3% glycerol. Crystals were obtained within 7 d and diffracted to 2.2 Angstroms; they belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 74.13, b = 78.21, c = 78.98 Angstroms and four molecules in the asymmetric unit. The selenomethionine-labeled protein produced isomorphous crystals that diffracted to approximately 3.3 Angstroms.

  12. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of royal palm tree (Roystonea regia) peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Leandra; Nascimento, Alessandro S; Zamorano, Laura S; Shnyrov, Valery L; Polikarpov, Igor

    2007-09-01

    Royal palm tree peroxidase (RPTP), which was isolated from Roystonea regia leaves, has an unusually high stability that makes it a promising candidate for diverse applications in industry and analytical chemistry [Caramyshev et al. (2005), Biomacromolecules, 6, 1360-1366]. Here, the purification and crystallization of this plant peroxidase and its X-ray diffraction data collection are described. RPTP crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.8 A. The crystals belong to the trigonal space group P3(1)21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 116.83, c = 92.24 A, and contain one protein molecule per asymmetric unit. The V(M) value and solvent content are 4.07 A3 Da(-1) and 69.8%, respectively.

  13. Production, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of adeno-associated virus serotype 8

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, Michael Douglas; Nam, Hyun-Joo; Padron, Eric; Gurda-Whitaker, Brittney; Kohlbrenner, Eric; Aslanidi, George; Byrne, Barry; McKenna, Robert; Muzyczka, Nicholas; Zolotukhin, Sergei; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis

    2005-06-01

    The production, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of adeno-associated virus serotype 8 is reported. Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) are actively being developed for clinical gene-therapy applications and the efficiencies of the vectors could be significantly improved by a detailed understanding of their viral capsid structures and the structural determinants of their tissue-transduction interactions. AAV8 is ∼80% identical to the more widely studied AAV2, but its liver-transduction efficiency is significantly greater than that of AAV2 and other serotypes. The production, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of AAV8 viral capsids are reported. The crystals diffract X-rays to 3.0 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation and belong to the hexagonal space group P6{sub 3}22, with unit-cell parameters a = 257.5, c = 443.5 Å. The unit cell contains two viral particles, with ten capsid viral protein monomers per crystallographic asymmetric unit.

  14. Cloning, purification and crystallization of Bacillus anthracis class C acid phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Felts, Richard L.; Reilly, Thomas J.; Calcutt, Michael J.; Tanner, John J.

    2006-07-01

    Crystallization of a surface-localized acid phosphatase from Bacillus anthracis is reported. Flash annealing increased the high-resolution limit of usable data from 1.8 to 1.6 Å. Cloning, expression, purification and crystallization studies of a recombinant class C acid phosphatase from the Category A pathogen Bacillus anthracis are reported. Large diffraction-quality crystals were grown in the presence of HEPES and Jeffamine ED-2001 at pH 7.0. The crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 53.4, b = 90.1, c = 104.2 Å. The asymmetric unit is predicted to contain two protein molecules with a solvent content of 38%. Two native data sets were collected from the same crystal before and after flash-annealing. The first data set had a mosaicity of 1.6° and a high-resolution limit of 1.8 Å. After flash-annealing, the apparent mosaicity decreased to 0.9° and the high-resolution limit of usable data increased to 1.6 Å. This crystal form is currently being used to determine the structure of B. anthracis class C acid phosphatase with experimental phasing techniques.

  15. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of parakeet (Psittacula krameri) haemoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Jaimohan, S. M.; Naresh, M. D.; Arumugam, V.; Mandal, A. B.

    2009-01-01

    Birds often show efficient oxygen management in order to meet the special demands of their metabolism. However, the structural studies of avian haemo­globins (Hbs) are inadequate for complete understanding of the mechanism involved. Towards this end, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies have been carried out for parakeet Hb. Parakeet Hb was crystallized as the met form in low-salt buffered conditions after extracting haemoglobin from crude blood by microcentrifugation and purifying the sample by column chromatography. Good-quality crystals were grown from 10% PEG 3350 and a crystal diffracted to about 2.8 Å resolution. Preliminary diffraction data showed that the Hb crystal belonged to the monoclinic system (space group C2), with unit-cell parameters a = 110.68, b = 64.27, c = 56.40 Å, β = 109.35°. Matthews volume analysis indicated that the crystals contained a half-tetramer in the asymmetric unit. PMID:19851014

  16. Expression, purification and crystallization of CTB-MPR, a candidate mucosal vaccine component against HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho-Hsien; Cherni, Irene; Yu, HongQi; Fromme, Raimund; Doran, Jeffrey D.; Grotjohann, Ingo; Mittman, Michele; Basu, Shibom; Deb, Arpan; Dörner, Katerina; Aquila, Andrew; Barty, Anton; Boutet, Sébastien; Chapman, Henry N.; Doak, R. Bruce; Hunter, Mark S.; James, Daniel; Kirian, Richard A.; Kupitz, Christopher; Lawrence, Robert M.; Liu, Haiguang; Nass, Karol; Schlichting, Ilme; Schmidt, Kevin E.; Seibert, M. Marvin; Shoeman, Robert L.; Spence, John C. H.; Stellato, Francesco; Weierstall, Uwe; Williams, Garth J.; Yoon, Chunhong; Wang, Dingjie; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Hogue, Brenda G.; Matoba, Nobuyuki; Fromme, Petra; Mor, Tsafrir S.

    2014-01-01

    CTB-MPR is a fusion protein between the B subunit of cholera toxin (CTB) and the membrane-proximal region of gp41 (MPR), the transmembrane envelope protein of Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1), and has previously been shown to induce the production of anti-HIV-1 antibodies with antiviral functions. To further improve the design of this candidate vaccine, X-ray crystallography experiments were performed to obtain structural information about this fusion protein. Several variants of CTB-MPR were designed, constructed and recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli. The first variant contained a flexible GPGP linker between CTB and MPR, and yielded crystals that diffracted to a resolution of 2.3 Å, but only the CTB region was detected in the electron-density map. A second variant, in which the CTB was directly attached to MPR, was shown to destabilize pentamer formation. A third construct containing a polyalanine linker between CTB and MPR proved to stabilize the pentameric form of the protein during purification. The purification procedure was shown to produce a homogeneously pure and monodisperse sample for crystallization. Initial crystallization experiments led to pseudo-crystals which were ordered in only two dimensions and were disordered in the third dimension. Nanocrystals obtained using the same precipitant showed promising X-ray diffraction to 5 Å resolution in femtosecond nanocrystallography experiments at the Linac Coherent Light Source at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The results demonstrate the utility of femtosecond X-ray crystallography to enable structural analysis based on nano/microcrystals of a protein for which no macroscopic crystals ordered in three dimensions have been observed before. PMID:25295172

  17. Expression, purification and crystallization of CTB-MPR, a candidate mucosal vaccine component against HIV-1

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Ho-Hsien; Cherni, Irene; Yu, HongQi; ...

    2014-08-20

    CTB-MPR is a fusion protein between the B subunit of cholera toxin (CTB) and the membrane-proximal region of gp41 (MPR), the transmembrane envelope protein of Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1), and has previously been shown to induce the production of anti-HIV-1 antibodies with antiviral functions. To further improve the design of this candidate vaccine, X-ray crystallography experiments were performed to obtain structural information about this fusion protein. Several variants of CTB-MPR were designed, constructed and recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli . The first variant contained a flexible GPGP linker between CTB and MPR, and yielded crystals that diffracted tomore » a resolution of 2.3 Å, but only the CTB region was detected in the electron-density map. A second variant, in which the CTB was directly attached to MPR, was shown to destabilize pentamer formation. A third construct containing a polyalanine linker between CTB and MPR proved to stabilize the pentameric form of the protein during purification. The purification procedure was shown to produce a homogeneously pure and monodisperse sample for crystallization. Initial crystallization experiments led to pseudo-crystals which were ordered in only two dimensions and were disordered in the third dimension. Nanocrystals obtained using the same precipitant showed promising X-ray diffraction to 5 Å resolution in femtosecond nanocrystallography experiments at the Linac Coherent Light Source at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The results demonstrate the utility of femtosecond X-ray crystallography to enable structural analysis based on nano/microcrystals of a protein for which no macroscopic crystals ordered in three dimensions have been observed before.« less

  18. Expression, purification and crystallization of CTB-MPR, a candidate mucosal vaccine component against HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho-Hsien; Cherni, Irene; Yu, HongQi; Fromme, Raimund; Doran, Jeffrey D; Grotjohann, Ingo; Mittman, Michele; Basu, Shibom; Deb, Arpan; Dörner, Katerina; Aquila, Andrew; Barty, Anton; Boutet, Sébastien; Chapman, Henry N; Doak, R Bruce; Hunter, Mark S; James, Daniel; Kirian, Richard A; Kupitz, Christopher; Lawrence, Robert M; Liu, Haiguang; Nass, Karol; Schlichting, Ilme; Schmidt, Kevin E; Seibert, M Marvin; Shoeman, Robert L; Spence, John C H; Stellato, Francesco; Weierstall, Uwe; Williams, Garth J; Yoon, Chunhong; Wang, Dingjie; Zatsepin, Nadia A; Hogue, Brenda G; Matoba, Nobuyuki; Fromme, Petra; Mor, Tsafrir S

    2014-09-01

    CTB-MPR is a fusion protein between the B subunit of cholera toxin (CTB) and the membrane-proximal region of gp41 (MPR), the transmembrane envelope protein of Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1), and has previously been shown to induce the production of anti-HIV-1 antibodies with antiviral functions. To further improve the design of this candidate vaccine, X-ray crystallography experiments were performed to obtain structural information about this fusion protein. Several variants of CTB-MPR were designed, constructed and recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli. The first variant contained a flexible GPGP linker between CTB and MPR, and yielded crystals that diffracted to a resolution of 2.3 Å, but only the CTB region was detected in the electron-density map. A second variant, in which the CTB was directly attached to MPR, was shown to destabilize pentamer formation. A third construct containing a polyalanine linker between CTB and MPR proved to stabilize the pentameric form of the protein during purification. The purification procedure was shown to produce a homogeneously pure and monodisperse sample for crystallization. Initial crystallization experiments led to pseudo-crystals which were ordered in only two dimensions and were disordered in the third dimension. Nanocrystals obtained using the same precipitant showed promising X-ray diffraction to 5 Å resolution in femtosecond nanocrystallography experiments at the Linac Coherent Light Source at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The results demonstrate the utility of femtosecond X-ray crystallography to enable structural analysis based on nano/microcrystals of a protein for which no macroscopic crystals ordered in three dimensions have been observed before.

  19. Envelope protein VP24 from White spot syndrome virus: expression, purification and crystallization.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lifang; Wu, Yunkun

    2016-08-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major shrimp pathogen known to infect penaeid shrimp and other crustaceans. VP24 is one of the major envelope proteins of WSSV. In order to facilitate purification, crystallization and structure determination, the predicted N-terminal transmembrane region of approximately 26 amino acids was truncated from VP24 and several mutants were prepared to increase the proportion of selenomethionine (SeMet) residues for subsequent structural determination using the SAD method. Truncated VP24, its mutants and the corresponding SeMet-labelled proteins were purified, and the native and SeMet proteins were crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Crystals of VP24 were obtained using a reservoir consisting of 0.1 M Tris-HCl pH 8.5, 2.75 M ammonium acetate with a drop volume ratio of two parts protein solution to one part reservoir solution. Notably, ATP was added as a critical additive to the drop with a final concentration of 10 mM. Crystals of SeMet-labelled VP24 mutant diffracted to 3.0 Å resolution and those of the native diffracted to 2.4 Å resolution; the crystals belonged to space group I213, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 140 Å.

  20. Purification and crystallization of yeast hexokinase isoenzymes. Characterization of different forms by chromatofocusing.

    PubMed

    Jacob, L; Beecken, V; Bartunik, L J; Rose, M; Bartunik, H D

    1991-11-29

    The yeast hexokinase isoenzymes PI and PII have been purified in large amounts (20 mg) from overproducing yeast strains. The purification procedures of hexokinase PI and PII include anion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel and chromatofocusing on PBE 94, hydrophobic interaction chromatography on phenyl-Sepharose (necessary for the isolation of the isoenzyme PI); in the final step either a Mono Q HR 5/5 or a Fractogel EMD TMAE 650(S) column was used. Hexokinase preparations were characterized before crystallization by chromatofocusing on a Mono P HR 5/20 FPLC column, where different forms of hexokinase can be rapidly distinguished by their elution behaviour. From both purified hexokinase PI and PII, large crystals were grown that diffract X-rays to high resolution.

  1. Production, purification and crystallization of a trans-sialidase from Trypanosoma vivax.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Carole L F; Ameloot, Paul; Remaut, Han; Callewaert, Nico; Sterckx, Yann G J; Magez, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    Sialidases and trans-sialidases play important roles in the life cycles of various microorganisms. These enzymes can serve nutritional purposes, act as virulence factors or mediate cellular interactions (cell evasion and invasion). In the case of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma vivax, trans-sialidase activity has been suggested to be involved in infection-associated anaemia, which is the major pathology in the disease nagana. The physiological role of trypanosomal trans-sialidases in host-parasite interaction as well as their structures remain obscure. Here, the production, purification and crystallization of a recombinant version of T. vivax trans-sialidase 1 (rTvTS1) are described. The obtained rTvTS1 crystals diffracted to a resolution of 2.5 Å and belonged to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 57.3, b = 78.4, c = 209.0 Å.

  2. The purification, crystal growth, and spectral-luminescent properties of PbCl 2:RE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basiev, T. T.; Danileiko, Yu. K.; Dmitruk, L. N.; Galagan, B. I.; Moiseeva, L. V.; Osiko, V. V.; Sviridova, E. E.; Vinogradova, N. N.

    2004-04-01

    This paper contains some details of the PbCl 2:RECl 3 crystal growth process (RENd, Dy, Tb). The essential part of this process is the careful purification of both initial PbCl 2 and RECl 3 materials from non-isomorphic impurities, especially from O 2- and OH - ions. Method of chlorination, zone refining, and final process of PbCl 2:RECl 3 single crystals growth are described. Luminescent spectra of Nd 3+, Dy 3+, and Tb 3+ doped PbCl 2 in the 4-5.5 μm spectral range are presented and decay times of 4I 11/2 (Nd 3+), 6H 11/2 (Dy 3+), and 7F 5 (Tb 3+) levels are measured.

  3. Expression, purification and crystallization of two major envelope proteins from white spot syndrome virus

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Xuhua; Hew, Choy Leong

    2007-07-01

    The crystallization of the N-terminal transmembrane region-truncated VP26 and VP28 of white spot syndrome virus is described. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major virulent pathogen known to infect penaeid shrimp and other crustaceans. VP26 and VP28, two major envelope proteins from WSSV, have been identified and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. In order to facilitate purification and crystallization, predicted N-terminal transmembrane regions of approximately 35 amino acids have been truncated from both VP26 and VP28. Truncated VP26 and VP28 and their corresponding SeMet-labelled proteins were purified and the SeMet proteins were crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Crystals of SeMet-labelled VP26 were obtained using a reservoir consisting of 0.1 M citric acid pH 3.5, 3.0 M sodium chloride and 1%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350, whereas SeMet VP28 was crystallized using a reservoir solution consisting of 25% polyethylene glycol 8000, 0.2 M calcium acetate, 0.1 M Na HEPES pH 7.5 and 1.5%(w/v) 1,2,3-heptanetriol. Crystals of SeMet-labelled VP26 diffract to 2.2 Å resolution and belong to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 73.92, c = 199.31 Å. SeMet-labelled VP28 crystallizes in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 105.33, b = 106.71, c = 200.37 Å, and diffracts to 2.0 Å resolution.

  4. Purification and Crystallization of ZITB, A Zinc Transporter from Escherichia Coli

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, K.; Fu, D.

    2004-01-01

    Cellular zinc homeostasis is essential to human health. Zinc transporters transport zinc ions into and out of cells to maintain cellular zinc concentrations in a narrow range. Several membrane proteins have been shown to facilitate transmembrane fluxes of zinc ions, however, structures of these zinc transporters are unknown. The purpose of this work is to express, purify and crystallize a Zinc transporter, ZitB for crystallographic studies. ZitB was over-expressed as a His-tagged membrane protein using a pET15b expression vector hosted in E. coli BL21 cells. Purification of ZitB was achieved by preparation of ZitB-containing membrane vesicles, followed by detergent extraction, and completed with Ni-NTA metal affinity and size exclusion chromatography. The molecular identity of the purified ZitB was confirmed by mass spectrometry, which showed the expected molecular weight of 35.2kDa. Crystallization trials of ZitB were conducted at 20 oC, using a series of low molecular weight PEGs as precipitants. Micro-crystals were grown in 25% PEG 1K, whereas only amorphous precipitations were observed in PEG 400 and 600. In conclusion, this work yielded highly purified ZitB protein and defined an initial crystallization condition for ZitB.

  5. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PelD

    PubMed Central

    Marmont, Lindsey S.; Whitney, John C.; Robinson, Howard; Colvin, Kelly M.; Parsek, Matthew R.; Howell, P. Lynne

    2012-01-01

    The production of the PEL polysaccharide in Pseudomonas aeruginosa requires the binding of bis-(3′,5′)-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) to the cytoplasmic GGDEF domain of the inner membrane protein PelD. Here, the overexpression, purification and crystallization of a soluble construct of PelD that encompasses the GGDEF domain and a predicted GAF domain is reported. Diffraction-quality crystals were grown using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals grew as flat plates, with unit-cell parameters a = 88.3, b = 114.0, c = 61.9 Å, α = β = γ = 90.0°. The PelD crystals exhibited the symmetry of space group P21212 and diffracted to a minimum d-spacing of 2.2 Å. On the basis of the Matthews coefficient (V M = 2.29 Å3 Da−1), it was estimated that two molecules are present in the asymmetric unit. PMID:22297994

  6. Expression purification crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PelD

    SciTech Connect

    Marmont L. S.; Robinson H.; Whitney J. C.; Colvin K. M.; Parsek M. R.; Howell P. L.

    2012-02-01

    The production of the PEL polysaccharide in Pseudomonas aeruginosa requires the binding of bis-(3',5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) to the cytoplasmic GGDEF domain of the inner membrane protein PelD. Here, the overexpression, purification and crystallization of a soluble construct of PelD that encompasses the GGDEF domain and a predicted GAF domain is reported. Diffraction-quality crystals were grown using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals grew as flat plates, with unit-cell parameters a = 88.3, b = 114.0, c = 61.9 {angstrom}, {alpha} = {beta} = {gamma} = 90.0{sup o}. The PelD crystals exhibited the symmetry of space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 and diffracted to a minimum d-spacing of 2.2 {angstrom}. On the basis of the Matthews coefficient (V{sub M} = 2.29 {angstrom}{sup 3} Da{sup -1}), it was estimated that two molecules are present in the asymmetric unit.

  7. Expression, purification and crystallization of a novel nonstructural protein VP9 from white spot syndrome virus

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yang; Sivaraman, J.; Hew, Choy L.

    2006-08-01

    The nonstructural protein VP9 from white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has been identified and expressed in Escherichia coli. Native protein was purified and crystallized by vapour diffusion. The nonstructural protein VP9 from white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has been identified and expressed in Escherichia coli. To facilitate purification, a cleavable His{sub 6} tag was introduced at the N-terminus. The native protein was purified and crystallized by vapour diffusion against mother liquor containing 2 M sodium acetate, 100 mM MES pH 6.3, 25 mM cadmium sulfate and 3% glycerol. Crystals were obtained within 7 d and diffracted to 2.2 Å; they belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 74.13, b = 78.21, c = 78.98 Å and four molecules in the asymmetric unit. The selenomethionine-labelled protein produced isomorphous crystals that diffracted to approximately 3.3 Å.

  8. Switching between purification and contamination regimes governed by the ionic purity of nanoparticles dispersed in liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbovskiy, Yuriy

    2016-03-01

    This paper reports non-trivial effects of the ionic purity of nanoparticles on the concentration of ions in liquid crystals. Nanoparticles dispersed in liquid crystals can affect the concentration of mobile ions in different ways. 100% pure nanoparticles can only decrease the concentration of ions by means of adsorption/desorption processes. Liquid crystals doped with contaminated nanoparticles exhibit three regimes, namely, the purification, contamination, and no change in the concentration of ions. Switching between these regimes is governed by three dominant factors: the purity of liquid crystals, the purity of nanoparticles, and the ratio of the adsorption rate to the desorption rate.

  9. High-throughput identification of purification conditions leads to preliminary crystallization conditions for three inner membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Gabrielsen, Mads; Kroner, Frank; Black, Isobel; Isaacs, Neil W; Roe, Andrew J; McLuskey, Karen

    2011-01-01

    An important factor in the crystallization, and subsequent structural determination, of integral membrane proteins is the ability to produce a stable and monodisperse solution of the protein. Obtaining the correct purification detergent to achieve this can be laborious and is often serendipitous. In this study, high-throughput methods are used to analyze the suitability of eight different detergents on the stability of 12 inner transmembrane proteins from Escherichia coli. The best results obtained from the small-scale experiments were scaled up, the aggregation state of the proteins assessed, and all monodisperse protein solutions entered into crystallization trials. This resulted in preliminary crystallization hits for three inner membrane proteins: XylH, PgpB and YjdL and this study reports the methods, purification procedures and crystallization conditions used to achieve this.

  10. Human butyrylcholinesterase produced in insect cells: huprine-based affinity purification and crystal structure.

    PubMed

    Brazzolotto, Xavier; Wandhammer, Marielle; Ronco, Cyril; Trovaslet, Marie; Jean, Ludovic; Lockridge, Oksana; Renard, Pierre-Yves; Nachon, Florian

    2012-08-01

    Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is a serine hydrolase that is present in all mammalian tissues. It can accommodate larger substrates or inhibitors than acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the enzyme responsible for hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central nervous system and neuromuscular junctions. AChE is the specific target of organophosphorous pesticides and warfare nerve agents, and BChE is a stoichiometric bioscavenger. Conversion of BChE into a catalytic bioscavenger by rational design or designing reactivators specific to BChE required structural data obtained using a recombinant low-glycosylated human BChE expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. This expression system yields ≈ 1 mg of pure enzyme per litre of cell culture. Here, we report an improved expression system using insect cells with a fourfold higher yield for truncated human BChE with all glycosylation sites present. We developed a fast purification protocol for the recombinant protein using huprine-based affinity chromatography, which is superior to the classical procainamide-based affinity. The purified BChE crystallized under different conditions and space group than the recombinant low-glycosylated protein produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells. The crystals diffracted to 2.5 Å. The overall monomer structure is similar to the low-glycosylated structure except for the presence of the additional glycans. Remarkably, the carboxylic acid molecule systematically bound to the catalytic serine in the low-glycosylated structure is also present in this new structure, despite the different expression system, purification protocol and crystallization conditions. © 2012 The Authors Journal compilation © 2012 FEBS.

  11. Expression, Purification, Crystallization of Two Major Envelope Proteins from White Spot Syndrome Virus

    SciTech Connect

    Tang,X.; Hew, C.

    2007-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major virulent pathogen known to infect penaeid shrimp and other crustaceans. VP26 and VP28, two major envelope proteins from WSSV, have been identified and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. In order to facilitate purification and crystallization, predicted N-terminal transmembrane regions of approximately 35 amino acids have been truncated from both VP26 and VP28. Truncated VP26 and VP28 and their corresponding SeMet-labelled proteins were purified and the SeMet proteins were crystallized by the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method. Crystals of SeMet-labelled VP26 were obtained using a reservoir consisting of 0.1 M citric acid pH 3.5, 3.0 M sodium chloride and 1%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350, whereas SeMet VP28 was crystallized using a reservoir solution consisting of 25% polyethylene glycol 8000, 0.2 M calcium acetate, 0.1 M Na HEPES pH 7.5 and 1.5%(w/v) 1,2,3-heptanetriol. Crystals of SeMet-labelled VP26 diffract to 2.2 {angstrom} resolution and belong to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 73.92, c = 199.31 {angstrom}. SeMet-labelled VP28 crystallizes in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 105.33, b = 106.71, c = 200.37 {angstrom}, and diffracts to 2.0 {angstrom} resolution.

  12. Crystal Structure of the 30S Ribosomal Subunit from Thermus Thermophilus. Purification, Crystallization and Structure Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Clemons, William M.; Brodersen, Ditlev E.; McCutcheonn, John P.; May, Joanna L.C.; Carter, Andrew P.; Morgan-Warren, Robert J.; Wimberly, Brian T.; Ramakrishnan, Venki

    2009-10-07

    We describe the crystallization and structure determination of the 30 S ribosomal subunit from Thermus thermophilus. Previous reports of crystals that diffracted to 10 {angstrom} resolution were used as a starting point to improve the quality of the diffraction. Eventually, ideas such as the addition of substrates or factors to eliminate conformational heterogeneity proved less important than attention to detail in yielding crystals that diffracted beyond 3 {angstrom} resolution. Despite improvements in technology and methodology in the last decade, the structure determination of the 30 S subunit presented some very challenging technical problems because of the size of the asymmetric unit, crystal variability and sensitivity to radiation damage. Some steps that were useful for determination of the atomic structure were: the use of anomalous scattering from the LIII edges of osmium and lutetium to obtain the necessary phasing signal; the use of tunable, third-generation synchrotron sources to obtain data of reasonable quality at high resolution; collection of derivative data precisely about a mirror plane to preserve small anomalous differences between Bijvoet mates despite extensive radiation damage and multi-crystal scaling; the pre-screening of crystals to ensure quality, isomorphism and the efficient use of scarce third-generation synchrotron time; pre-incubation of crystals in cobalt hexaammine to ensure isomorphism with other derivatives; and finally, the placement of proteins whose structures had been previously solved in isolation, in conjunction with biochemical data on protein-RNA interactions, to map out the architecture of the 30 S subunit prior to the construction of a detailed atomic-resolution model.

  13. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of phycocyanin and phycoerythrin from Porphyra yezoensis Ueda

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Chuner; Wu, Lian; Li, Chunxia; He, Peimin; Li, Jie; Zhou, Jiahai

    2011-01-01

    Porphyra yezoensis is one of the most important and widely cultured seaweeds in China. Phycobiliproteins exhibit excellent spectroscopic properties and play versatile roles in the biomedical, food, cosmetics and chemical synthetic dye industries. Here, the purification and crystallization of phycoerythrin and phycocyanin, two phycobiliproteins extracted from P. yezoensis, are described. Using a novel protocol including co-precipitation with ammonium sulfate and hydroxyapatite column chromatography, both phycobiliproteins were produced on a large scale with improved quality and yield compared with those previously reported. Native PAGE analysis indicated that phycoerythrin and phycocyanin exist as (αβ)3 heterohexamers in solution. The crystals of phycoerythrin diffracted to 2.07 Å resolution and belonged to space group R3. The unit-cell parameters referred to hexagonal axes are a = b = 187.7, c = 59.7 Å, with nine (αβ)2 heterotetramers per unit cell. The crystals of phycocyanin diffracted to 2.70 Å resolution in space group P21. Matthews coefficient analysis shows that 10–19 (αβ) heterodimers of phycocyanin in the asymmetric unit would be reasonable. A self-rotation function calculation clarified this ambiguity and indicated that 12 (αβ) heterodimers of phycocyanin are assembled in the asymmetric unit. PMID:21543866

  14. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of chitinase A from Vibrio carchariae

    SciTech Connect

    Songsiriritthigul, Chomphunuch; Yuvaniyama, Jirundon; Robinson, Robert C.; Vongsuwan, Archara; Prinz, Heino; Suginta, Wipa

    2005-10-01

    This article describes the high-level expression, purification and crystallization as well as preliminary X-ray diffraction study of a family 18 chitinase, chitinase A from V. carchariae. Chitinase A of Vibrio carchariae was expressed in Escherichia coli M15 host cells as a 575-amino-acid fragment with full enzymatic activity using the pQE60 expression vector. The yield of the highly purified recombinant protein was approximately 70 mg per litre of bacterial culture. The molecular mass of the expressed protein was determined by HPLC/ESI–MS to be 63 770, including the hexahistidine tag. Crystals of recombinant chitinase A were grown to a suitable size for X-ray structure analysis in a precipitant containing 10%(v/v) PEG 400, 0.1 M sodium acetate pH 4.6 and 0.125 M CaCl{sub 2}. The crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group P422, with two molecules per asymmetric unit and unit-cell parameters a = b = 127.64, c = 171.42 Å. A complete diffraction data set was collected to 2.14 Å resolution using a Rigaku/MSC R-AXIS IV{sup ++} detector system mounted on an RU-H3R rotating-anode X-ray generator.

  15. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of phycocyanin and phycoerythrin from Porphyra yezoensis Ueda.

    PubMed

    Cai, Chuner; Wu, Lian; Li, Chunxia; He, Peimin; Li, Jie; Zhou, Jiahai

    2011-05-01

    Porphyra yezoensis is one of the most important and widely cultured seaweeds in China. Phycobiliproteins exhibit excellent spectroscopic properties and play versatile roles in the biomedical, food, cosmetics and chemical synthetic dye industries. Here, the purification and crystallization of phycoerythrin and phycocyanin, two phycobiliproteins extracted from P. yezoensis, are described. Using a novel protocol including co-precipitation with ammonium sulfate and hydroxyapatite column chromatography, both phycobiliproteins were produced on a large scale with improved quality and yield compared with those previously reported. Native PAGE analysis indicated that phycoerythrin and phycocyanin exist as (αβ)(3) heterohexamers in solution. The crystals of phycoerythrin diffracted to 2.07 Å resolution and belonged to space group R3. The unit-cell parameters referred to hexagonal axes are a = b = 187.7, c = 59.7 Å, with nine (αβ)(2) heterotetramers per unit cell. The crystals of phycocyanin diffracted to 2.70 Å resolution in space group P2(1). Matthews coefficient analysis shows that 10-19 (αβ) heterodimers of phycocyanin in the asymmetric unit would be reasonable. A self-rotation function calculation clarified this ambiguity and indicated that 12 (αβ) heterodimers of phycocyanin are assembled in the asymmetric unit.

  16. Control of crystal growth in water purification by directional freeze crystallization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conlon, William M. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A Directional Freeze Crystallization system employs an indirect contact heat exchanger to freeze a fraction of liquid to be purified. The unfrozen fraction is drained away and the purified frozen fraction is melted. The heat exchanger must be designed in accordance with a Growth Habit Index to achieve efficient separation of contaminants. If gases are dissolved in the liquid, the system must be pressurized.

  17. Soluble monomeric acetylcholinesterase from mouse: expression, purification, and crystallization in complex with fasciculin.

    PubMed Central

    Marchot, P.; Ravelli, R. B.; Raves, M. L.; Bourne, Y.; Vellom, D. C.; Kanter, J.; Camp, S.; Sussman, J. L.; Taylor, P.

    1996-01-01

    A soluble, monomeric form of acetylcholinesterase from mouse (mAChE), truncated at its carboxyl-terminal end, was generated from a cDNA encoding the glycophospholipid-linked form of the mouse enzyme by insertion of an early stop codon at position 549. Insertion of the cDNA behind a cytomegalovirus promoter and selection by aminoglycoside resistance in transfected HEK cells yielded clones secreting large quantities of mAChE into the medium. The enzyme sediments as a soluble monomer at 4.8 S. High levels of expression coupled with a one-step purification by affinity chromatography have allowed us to undertake a crystallographic study of the fasciculin-mAChE complex. Complexes of two distinct fasciculins, Fas1-mAChE and Fas2-mAChE, were formed prior to the crystallization and were characterized thoroughly. Single hexagonal crystals, up to 0.6 mm x 0.5 mm x 0.5 mm, grew spontaneously from ammonium sulfate solutions buffered in the pH 7.0 range. They were found by electrophoretic migration to consist entirely of the complex and diffracted to 2.8 A resolution. Analysis of initial X-ray data collected on Fas2-mAChE crystals identified the space group as P6(1)22 or P6(5)22 with unit cell dimensions a = b = 75.5 A, c = 556 A, giving a Vm value of 3.1 A3/Da (or 60% of solvent), consistent with a single molecule of Fas2-AChE complex (72 kDa) per asymmetric unit. The complex Fas1-mAChE crystallizes in the same space group with identical cell dimensions. PMID:8845756

  18. Purification and Crystallization of Murine Myostatin: A Negative Regulator of Muscle Mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Young S.; Adamek, Daniel; Bridge, Kristi; Malone, Christine C.; Young, Ronald B.; Miller, Teresa; Karr, Laurel

    2004-01-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) has been crystallized and its preliminary X-ray diffraction data were collected. MSTN is a negative regulator of muscle growt/differentiation and suppressor of fat accumulation. It is a member of TGF-b family of proteins. Like other members of this family, the regulation of MSTN is critically tied to its process of maturation. This process involves the formation of a homodimer followed by two proteolytic steps. The first proteolytic cleavage produces a species where the n-terminal portion of the dimer is covalently separated from, but remains non-covalently bound to, the c-terminal, functional, portion of the protein. The protein is activated upon removal of the n-terminal "pro-segment" by a second n-terminal proteolytic cut by BMP-1 in vivo, or by acid treatment in vitro. Understanding the structural nature and physical interactions involved in these regulatory processes is the objective of our studies. Murine MSTN was purified from culture media of genetically engineered Chinese Hamster Ovary cells by multicolumn purification process and crystallized using the vapor diffusion method.

  19. Purification and Crystallization of Murine Myostatin: A Negative Regulator of Muscle Mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Young S.; Adamek, Daniel; Bridge, Kristi; Malone, Christine C.; Young, Ronald B.; Miller, Teresa; Karr, Laurel

    2004-01-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) has been crystallized and its preliminary X-ray diffraction data were collected. MSTN is a negative regulator of muscle growt/differentiation and suppressor of fat accumulation. It is a member of TGF-b family of proteins. Like other members of this family, the regulation of MSTN is critically tied to its process of maturation. This process involves the formation of a homodimer followed by two proteolytic steps. The first proteolytic cleavage produces a species where the n-terminal portion of the dimer is covalently separated from, but remains non-covalently bound to, the c-terminal, functional, portion of the protein. The protein is activated upon removal of the n-terminal "pro-segment" by a second n-terminal proteolytic cut by BMP-1 in vivo, or by acid treatment in vitro. Understanding the structural nature and physical interactions involved in these regulatory processes is the objective of our studies. Murine MSTN was purified from culture media of genetically engineered Chinese Hamster Ovary cells by multicolumn purification process and crystallized using the vapor diffusion method.

  20. Expression, purification and crystallization of human kynurenine aminotransferase 2 exploiting a highly optimized codon set.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guanchen; Nematollahi, Alireza; Nadvi, Naveed A; Kwan, Ann H; Jeffries, Cy M; Church, W Bret

    2016-05-01

    Kynurenine aminotransferase (KAT) is a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) dependent enzyme that catalyses kynurenine (KYN) to kynurenic acid (KYNA), a neuroactive product in the tryptophan metabolic pathway. Evidence suggests that abnormal levels of KYNA are involved in many neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. Reducing KYNA production through inhibiting kynurenine aminotransferase 2 (KAT2) would be a promising approach to understanding and treating the related neurological and mental disorders. In this study we used an optimized codon sequence to overexpress histidine-tagged human KAT2 (hKAT2) using an Escherichia coli expression system. After a single step of Ni-NTA based purification the purified protein (>95%) was confirmed to be active by an HPLC based activity assay and was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour diffusion method. The crystal system represents a novel space group, and a complete X-ray diffraction data set was collected to 1.83 Å resolution, and higher resolution data than for any reported native human KAT2 structure. The optimised method of protein production provides a fast and reliable technique to generate large quantities of active human KAT2 suitable for future small-molecule lead compound screening and structural design work. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Recombinant expression, purification, and crystallization of the glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase from Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    van Rooyen, Jason M; Hakimi, Mohamed-Ali; Belrhali, Hassan

    2015-06-01

    Aminoacyl tRNA synthetases play a critical role in protein synthesis by providing precursor transfer-RNA molecules correctly charged with their cognate amino-acids. The essential nature of these enzymes make them attractive targets for designing new drugs against important pathogenic protozoans like Toxoplasma. Because no structural data currently exists for a protozoan glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase (QRS), an understanding of its potential as a drug target and its function in the assembly of the Toxoplasma multi-aminoacyl tRNA (MARS) complex is therefore lacking. Here we describe the optimization of expression and purification conditions that permitted the recovery and crystallization of both domains of the Toxoplasma QRS enzyme from a heterologous Escherichia coli expression system. Expression of full-length QRS was only achieved after the addition of an N-terminal histidine affinity tag and the isolated protein was active on both cellular and in vitro produced Toxoplasma tRNA. Taking advantage of the proteolytic susceptibility of QRS to cleavage into component domains, N-terminal glutathione S-transferase (GST) motif-containing domain fragments were isolated and crystallization conditions discovered. Isolation of the C-terminal catalytic domain was accomplished after subcloning the domain and optimizing expression conditions. Purified catalytic domain survived cryogenic storage and yielded large diffraction-quality crystals over-night after optimization of screening conditions. This work will form the basis of future structural studies into structural-functional relationships of both domains including potential targeted drug-design studies and investigations into the assembly of the Toxoplasma MARS complex.

  2. Synthesis, purification and bulk crystal growth of radiation detector materials using melt growth technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surabhi, Raja Rahul Reddy

    In the past decade, there has been new and increased usage of radiation-detection technologies for applications in homeland security, non-proliferation, and national defense. Most of these applications require a portable device with high gamma-ray energy resolution and detection efficiency, compact size, room-temperature operation, and low cost. Consequently, there is a renewed understanding of the material limitations for these technologies and a great demand to develop next-generation radiation-detection materials that can operate at room temperature. Mercuric iodide (HgI2), Lead iodide (PbI2), and CdZnTe (CZT) are the current leading candidates for radiation detector applications. This is because of their high atomic number and large band gap that makes them particularly well suited for fabrication of high resolution and high efficiency compact devices. PbI2 is a promising material for room temperature nuclear radiation detectors, characterized by its wide band gap (EG=2.32eV) and high-density (rho=6.2g/cm3). It has been reported that PbI2 crystal detectors are able to detect gamma-ray in the range of 1KeV-1MeV, with good energy resolution. However, PbI 2 detectors have not been studied in detail because of non-availability of high quality single crystals. This study presents the synthesis, purification, growth and characterization of PbI2 single crystals grown. In this research, solid-state synthesis technique has been utilized for obtaining PbI2 as a starting material. For the first time, a unique low-temperature purification technique has been developed to obtain high-purity starting material. The crystals were grown using 2-zone Bridgman-Stockbarger (B.S) technique wherein growth rate and temperature gradient at the solid-liquid interface were optimized. Single crystals of PbI2 were successfully grown in quartz glass ampoule under different growth conditions. Material purity was determined by measuring the elemental concentration using the Inductively

  3. Purification, crystallization, preliminary X-ray diffraction and molecular-replacement studies of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) haemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Jagadeesan, G; Malathy, P; Gunasekaran, K; Harikrishna Etti, S; Aravindhan, S

    2014-11-01

    Haemoglobin is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein that is present in the red blood cells of all vertebrates. In recent decades, there has been substantial interest in attempting to understand the structural basis and functional diversity of avian haemoglobins. Towards this end, purification, crystallization, preliminary X-ray diffraction and molecular-replacement studies have been carried out on cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) haemoglobin. Crystals were grown by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350, NaCl and glycerol as precipitants. The crystals belonged to the trigonal system P3₁21, with unit-cell parameters a=b=55.64, c=153.38 Å, β=120.00°; a complete data set was collected to a resolution of 3.5 Å. Matthews coefficient analysis indicated that the crystals contained a half-tetramer in the asymmetric unit.

  4. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of the TLDc domain of oxidation resistance protein 2 from zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Alsarraf, Husam M. A. B.; Laroche, Fabrice; Spaink, Herman; Thirup, Søren; Blaise, Mickael

    2011-01-01

    Cell metabolic processes are constantly producing reactive oxygen species (ROS), which have deleterious effects by triggering, for example, DNA damage. Numerous enzymes such as catalase, and small compounds such as vitamin C, provide protection against ROS. The TLDc domain of the human oxidation resistance protein has been shown to be able to protect DNA from oxidative stress; however, its mechanism of action is still not understood and no structural information is available on this domain. Structural information on the TLDc domain may therefore help in understanding exactly how it works. Here, the purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of the TLDc domain from zebrafish are reported. Crystals belonging to the orthorhombic space group P21212 were obtained and diffracted to 0.97 Å resolution. Selenomethionine-substituted protein could also be crystallized; these crystals diffracted to 1.1 Å resolution and the structure could be solved by SAD/MAD methods. PMID:22102041

  5. The purification, crystallization and preliminary structural characterization of human MAWDBP, a member of the phenazine biosynthesis-like protein family

    SciTech Connect

    Herde, Petra; Blankenfeldt, Wulf

    2006-06-01

    The purification, crystallization and preliminary structural characterization of human MAWD-binding protein (MAWDBP) are described. MAWDBP is the only representative of the phenazine biosynthesis-like protein family in the human genome. Its expression is elevated in several disease processes, including insulin resistance, folate deficiency and hypotension, and it may also be involved in carcinogenesis. The exact molecular function of MAWDBP is unknown. Native and seleno-l-methionine-labelled MAWDBP were expressed in Escherichia coli and crystallized at room temperature from precipitants containing 10 mM KF, 14%(w/v) PEG 3350 and 0.1 M sodium citrate pH 5.4. Crystals belong to space group H32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 187, c = 241 Å, indicative of three to five monomers per asymmetric unit. Crystals were cryoprotected with 15%(v/v) glycerol and data have been collected to 2.7 Å resolution.

  6. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of alpha-11 giardin from Giardia lamblia.

    PubMed

    Pathuri, Puja; Nguyen, Emily Tam; Luecke, Hartmut

    2006-11-01

    Alpha-11 Giardin, a protein from the annexin superfamily, is a 35.0 kDa protein from the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia which triggers a form of diarrhea called giardiasis. Here, the cloning, expression, purification and the crystallization of alpha-11 giardin under two different conditions and in two different space groups is reported. Crystals from the first condition diffracted to 1.1 A and belong to a primitive orthorhombic space group, while crystals from the second condition, which included calcium in the crystallization solution, diffracted to 2.93 A and belong to a primitive monoclinic space group. Determination of the detailed atomic structure of alpha-11 giardin will provide a better insight into its biological function and might establish whether this class of proteins is a potential drug target against giardiasis.

  7. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a nucleoside kinase from the hyperthermophile Methanocaldococcus jannaschii

    SciTech Connect

    Arnfors, Linda; Hansen, Thomas; Meining, Winfried; Schönheit, Peter; Ladenstein, Rudolf

    2005-06-01

    Nucleoside kinase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon M. jannaschii is a member of the PFK-B family which belongs to the ribokinase superfamily. Here, its expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis are described. Methanocaldococcus jannaschii nucleoside kinase (MjNK) is an ATP-dependent non-allosteric phosphotransferase that shows high catalytic activity for guanosine, inosine and cytidine. MjNK is a member of the phosphofructokinase B family, but participates in the biosynthesis of nucleoside monophosphates rather than in glycolysis. MjNK was crystallized as the apoenzyme as well as in complex with an ATP analogue and Mg{sup 2+}. The latter crystal form was also soaked with fructose-6-phosphate. Synchrotron-radiation data were collected to 1.70 Å for the apoenzyme crystals and 1.93 Å for the complex crystals. All crystals exhibit orthorhombic symmetry; however, the apoenzyme crystals contain one monomer per asymmetric unit whereas the complex crystals contain a dimer.

  8. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of α-11 giardin from Giardia lamblia

    SciTech Connect

    Pathuri, Puja; Nguyen, Emily Tam; Luecke, Hartmut

    2006-11-01

    α-11 giardin from the intestinal protozoan parasite, G. lamblia has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized under two different conditions and in two different space groups. Crystals from the first condition diffracted to 1.1 Å and belong to a primitive orthorhombic space group and crystals obtained in the second condition diffracted to 2.93 Å and belong to a primitive monoclinic space group. α-11 Giardin, a protein from the annexin superfamily, is a 35.0 kDa protein from the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia which triggers a form of diarrhea called giardiasis. Here, the cloning, expression, purification and the crystallization of α-11 giardin under two different conditions and in two different space groups is reported. Crystals from the first condition diffracted to 1.1 Å and belong to a primitive orthorhombic space group, while crystals from the second condition, which included calcium in the crystallization solution, diffracted to 2.93 Å and belong to a primitive monoclinic space group. Determination of the detailed atomic structure of α-11 giardin will provide a better insight into its biological function and might establish whether this class of proteins is a potential drug target against giardiasis.

  9. Purification and Bicelle Crystallization for Structure Determination of the E. coli Outer Membrane Protein TamA.

    PubMed

    Gruss, Fabian; Hiller, Sebastian; Maier, Timm

    2015-01-01

    TamA is an Omp85 protein involved in autotransporter assembly in the outer membrane of Escherichia coli. It comprises a C-terminal 16-stranded transmembrane β-barrel as well as three periplasmic POTRA domains, and is a challenging target for structure determination. Here, we present a method for crystal structure determination of TamA, including recombinant expression in E. coli, detergent extraction, chromatographic purification, and bicelle crystallization in combination with seeding. As a result, crystals in space group P21212 are obtained, which diffract to 2.3 Å resolution. This protocol also serves as a template for structure determination of other outer membrane proteins, in particular of the Omp85 family.

  10. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of YaeQ (XAC2396) from Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri.

    PubMed

    Guzzo, Cristiane R; Nagem, Ronaldo A P; Galvão-Botton, Leonor M P; Guimarães, Beatriz G; Medrano, Francisco J; Barbosa, João A R G; Farah, Chuck S

    2005-05-01

    Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri YaeQ (XAC2396) is a member of a family of bacterial proteins conserved in several Gram-negative pathogens. Here, the cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of the 182-residue (20.6 kDa) YaeQ protein are described. Recombinant YaeQ containing selenomethionine was crystallized in space group P2(1) and crystals diffracted to 1.9 A resolution at a synchrotron source. The unit-cell parameters are a = 39.75, b = 91.88, c = 48.03 A, beta = 108.37 degrees. The calculated Matthews coefficient suggests the presence of two YaeQ molecules in the asymmetric unit. Initial experimental phases were calculated by the multiple-wavelength anomalous dispersion technique and an interpretable electron-density map was obtained.

  11. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of YaeQ (XAC2396) from Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri

    PubMed Central

    Guzzo, Cristiane R.; Nagem, Ronaldo A. P.; Galvão-Botton, Leonor M. P.; Guimarães, Beatriz G.; Medrano, Francisco J.; Barbosa, João A. R. G.; Farah, Chuck S.

    2005-01-01

    Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri YaeQ (XAC2396) is a member of a family of bacterial proteins conserved in several Gram-negative pathogens. Here, the cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of the 182-residue (20.6 kDa) YaeQ protein are described. Recombinant YaeQ containing selenomethionine was crystallized in space group P21 and crystals diffracted to 1.9 Å resolution at a synchrotron source. The unit-cell parameters are a = 39.75, b = 91.88, c = 48.03 Å, β = 108.37°. The calculated Matthews coefficient suggests the presence of two YaeQ molecules in the asymmetric unit. Initial experimental phases were calculated by the multiple-wavelength anomalous dispersion technique and an interpretable electron-density map was obtained. PMID:16511077

  12. Purification, crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of human synaptotagmin 1 C2A-C2B

    SciTech Connect

    Montes, Miguel; Fuson, Kerry L.; Sutton, R. Bryan; Robert, J. Justin

    2006-09-01

    Human synaptotagmin C2A-C2B has been expressed as a glutathione-S-transferase fusion protein in Escherichia coli. The purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of this protein are reported here. Synaptotagmin acts as the Ca{sup 2+} sensor for neuronal exocytosis. The cytosolic domain of human synaptotagmin 1 is composed of tandem C2 domains: C2A and C2B. These C2 domains modulate the interaction of synaptotagmin with the phospholipid bilayer of the presynaptic terminus and effector proteins such as the SNARE complex. Human synaptotagmin C2A-C2B has been expressed as a glutathione-S-transferase fusion protein in Escherichia coli. The purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of this protein are reported here. The crystals diffract to 2.7 Å and belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 82.37, b = 86.31, c = 140.2 Å. From self-rotation function analysis, there are two molecules in the asymmetric unit. The structure determination of the protein using this data is ongoing.

  13. Production, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray structural studies of adeno-associated virus serotype 5

    SciTech Connect

    DiMattia, Michael; Govindasamy, Lakshmanan; Levy, Hazel C.; Gurda-Whitaker, Brittney; Kalina, Amy; Kohlbrenner, Erik; Chiorini, John A.; McKenna, Robert; Muzyczka, Nicholas; Zolotukhin, Sergei; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis

    2005-10-01

    The production, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of empty adeno-associated virus serotype 5 capsids are reported. Adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (AAV5) is under development for gene-therapy applications for the treatment of cystic fibrosis. To elucidate the structural features of AAV5 that control its enhanced transduction of the apical surface of airway epithelia compared with other AAV serotypes, X-ray crystallographic studies of the viral capsid have been initiated. The production, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of empty AAV5 viral capsids are reported. The crystals diffract X-rays to beyond 3.2 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation and belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 264.7, b = 447.9, c = 629.7 Å. There is one complete T = 1 viral capsid per asymmetric unit. The orientation and position of the viral capsid in the asymmetric unit have been determined by rotation and translation functions, respectively, and the AAV5 structure determination is in progress.

  14. Expression, purification and crystallization of a birnavirus-encoded protease, VP4, from blotched snakehead virus (BSNV)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jaeyong; Feldman, Anat R.; Delmas, Bernard; Paetzel, Mark

    2006-04-01

    The expression, purification and crystallization of a viral protease from the blotched snakehead virus (BSNV) are described and the diffraction data collected to 2.5 Å from two different crystal forms are reported. Blotched snakehead virus (BSNV) is a member of the Birnaviridae family that requires a virally encoded protease known as VP4 in order to process its polyprotein into viral capsid protein precursors (pVP2 and VP3). VP4 belongs to a family of serine proteases that utilize a serine/lysine catalytic dyad mechanism. A mutant construct of VP4 with a short C-terminal truncation was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity for crystallization. Using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method at room temperature, protein crystals with two distinct morphologies were observed. Cubic crystals grown in PEG 2000 MME and magnesium acetate at pH 8.5 belong to space group I23, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 143.8 Å. Trigonal crystals grown in ammonium sulfate and glycerol at pH 8.5 belong to space group P321/P312, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 158.2, c = 126.4 Å.

  15. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the kinase domain of human tousled-like kinase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Garrote, Ana M.; Redondo, Pilar; Montoya, Guillermo; Muñoz, Inés G.

    2014-02-19

    The C-terminal kinase domain of TLK2 (a human tousled-like kinase) has been cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli followed by purification to homogeneity. Crystallization experiments in the presence of ATP-γ-S yielded crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction analysis belonging to two different space groups: tetragonal I4{sub 1}22 and cubic P2{sub 1}3. Tousled-like kinases (TLKs) are an evolutionarily conserved family of serine/threonine protein kinases involved in chromatin dynamics, including DNA replication and repair, transcription and chromosome segregation. The two members of the family reported in humans, namely TLK1 and TLK2, localize to the cell nucleus and are capable of forming homo- or hetero-oligomers by themselves. To characterize the role of TLK2, its C-terminal kinase domain was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli followed by purification to homogeneity. Crystallization experiments in the presence of ATP-γ-S yielded crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction analysis belonging to two different space groups: tetragonal I4{sub 1}22 and cubic P2{sub 1}3. The latter produced the best diffracting crystal (3.4 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation), with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 126.05 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. The asymmetric unit contained one protein molecule, with a Matthews coefficient of 4.59 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of 73.23%.

  16. Purification and crystallization of the ABC-type transport substrate-binding protein OppA from Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Jinlan; Li, Xiaolu; Feng, Yue; Zhang, Bo; Miao, Shiying; Wang, Linfang; Wang, Na

    2012-06-22

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We truncated the signal peptide of OppA{sub TTE0054} to make it express in Escherichia coli as a soluble protein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystals of OppA{sub TTE0054} were grown by sitting-drop vapor diffusion method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystal of OppA{sub TTE0054} diffracted to 2.25 A. -- Abstract: Di- and oligopeptide- binding protein OppAs play important roles in solute and nutrient uptake, sporulation, biofilm formation, cell wall muropeptides recycling, peptide-dependent quorum-sensing responses, adherence to host cells, and a variety of other biological processes. Soluble OppA from Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis was expressed in Escherichia coli. The protein was found to be >95% pure with SDS-PAGE after a series of purification steps and the purity was further verified by mass spectrometry. The protein was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method with PEG 400 as the precipitant. Crystal diffraction extended to 2.25 A. The crystal belonged to space group C222{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters of a = 69.395, b = 199.572, c = 131.673 A, and {alpha} = {beta} = {gamma} = 90 Degree-Sign .

  17. Purification, crystallization, preliminary X-ray diffraction and molecular-replacement studies of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) haemoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Jagadeesan, G.; Malathy, P.; Gunasekaran, K.; Harikrishna Etti, S.; Aravindhan, S.

    2014-10-25

    The great cormorant hemoglobin has been isolated, purified and crystallized and the three dimensional structure is solved using molecular replacement technique. Haemoglobin is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein that is present in the red blood cells of all vertebrates. In recent decades, there has been substantial interest in attempting to understand the structural basis and functional diversity of avian haemoglobins. Towards this end, purification, crystallization, preliminary X-ray diffraction and molecular-replacement studies have been carried out on cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) haemoglobin. Crystals were grown by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350, NaCl and glycerol as precipitants. The crystals belonged to the trigonal system P3{sub 1}21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 55.64, c = 153.38 Å, β = 120.00°; a complete data set was collected to a resolution of 3.5 Å. Matthews coefficient analysis indicated that the crystals contained a half-tetramer in the asymmetric unit.

  18. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of C-phycocyanin and allophycocyanin from Spirulina platensis.

    PubMed

    Moreno, A; Bermejo, R; Talavera, E; Alvarez-Pez, J M; Sanz-Aparicio, J; Romero-Garrido, A

    1997-05-01

    C-phycocyanin and allophycocyanin from the green alga Spirulina platensis were isolated and crystallized by gel-acupuncture techniques. A novel two-step chromatographic procedure was used for purification. Blue hexagonal crystals were obtained by diffusing magnesium chloride into the protein solution for a week, followed by diffusion of PEG 6000 in order to complete the reduction of the solubility of the protein in the capillary tube used as a growth cell. In the case of allophycocyanin, crystals with a size of 0.4 x 0.3 x 0.3 mm were characterized by X-ray diffraction. They belong to space group P6(3)22 with unit-cell parameters a = b = 102.04, c = 131.22 A. The crystals of C-phycocyanin belong to either space group P6 or P6(3) with unit-cell constants a = b = 182.38, c = 60.87 A, alpha = beta = 90, gamma = 120 degrees. The crystals diffract beyond 2.4 and 2.5 A resolution, respectively, using a rotating anode as an X-ray source.

  19. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the IgV domain of human nectin-4

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiang; Zhang, Xiaoai; Lu, Guangwen; Cai, Yongping

    2012-01-01

    Nectin-4 belongs to a family of immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecules and is highly expressed in cancer cells. Recently, nectin-4 was found to be a receptor of measles virus and the IgV domain sustains strong binding to measles virus H protein. In this study, the successful expression and purification of human nectin-4 V domain (nectin-4v) is reported. The purified protein was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffracted to 1.8 Å resolution and belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 33.1, b = 51.7, c = 56.9 Å, β = 94.7°. Preliminary analysis of the diffraction data was also performed. PMID:22869128

  20. Overexpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of the nisin resistance protein from Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Khosa, Sakshi; Hoeppner, Astrid; Kleinschrodt, Diana; Smits, Sander H J

    2015-06-01

    Nisin is a 34-amino-acid antimicrobial peptide produced by Lactococcus lactis belonging to the class of lantibiotics. Nisin displays a high bactericidal activity against various Gram-positive bacteria, including some human-pathogenic strains. However, there are some nisin-non-producing strains that are naturally resistant owing to the presence of the nsr gene within their genome. The encoded protein, NSR, cleaves off the last six amino acids of nisin, thereby reducing its bactericidal efficacy. An expression and purification protocol has been established for the NSR protein from Streptococcus agalactiae COH1. The protein was successfully crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method in hanging and sitting drops, resulting in crystals that diffracted X-rays to 2.8 and 2.2 Å, respectively.

  1. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction crystallographic study of human synaptotagmin 5 C2A domain.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xiaoting; Huang, Kai; Liu, Yiwei; Zhang, Xiao; Gao, Yongxiang

    2011-11-01

    Synaptotagmin acts as the Ca(2+) sensor for neural and endocrine exocytosis. Synaptotagmin 5 has been demonstrated to play a key role in the acquisition of cathepsin D and the vesicular proton ATPase and in Ca(2+)-dependent insulin exocytosis. The C2 domains modulate the interaction of synaptotagmin with the phospholipid bilayer of the presynaptic terminus and effector proteins such as the SNARE complex. This study reports the cloning, expression in Escherichia coli, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the C2A domain of human synaptotagmin 5 with an N-terminal His(6) tag. The crystals diffracted to 1.90 Å resolution and belonged to the hexagonal space group P6(5), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 93.97, c = 28.05 Å. A preliminary model of the protein structure has been built and refinement of the model is ongoing. © 2011 International Union of Crystallography. All rights reserved.

  2. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of adenylosuccinate synthetase from the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Blundell, Ross D; Williams, Simon J; Morrow, Carl A; Ericsson, Daniel J; Kobe, Bostjan; Fraser, James A

    2013-09-01

    With increasingly large immunocompromised populations around the world, opportunistic fungal pathogens such as Cryptococcus neoformans are a growing cause of morbidity and mortality. To combat the paucity of antifungal compounds, new drug targets must be investigated. Adenylosuccinate synthetase is a crucial enzyme in the ATP de novo biosynthetic pathway, catalyzing the formation of adenylosuccinate from inosine monophosphate and aspartate. Although the enzyme is ubiquitous and well characterized in other kingdoms, no crystallographic studies on the fungal protein have been performed. Presented here are the expression, purification, crystallization and initial crystallographic analyses of cryptococcal adenylosuccinate synthetase. The crystals had the symmetry of space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) and diffracted to 2.2 Å resolution.

  3. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of adenylosuccinate synthetase from the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Blundell, Ross D.; Williams, Simon J.; Morrow, Carl A.; Ericsson, Daniel J.; Kobe, Bostjan; Fraser, James A.

    2013-01-01

    With increasingly large immunocompromised populations around the world, opportunistic fungal pathogens such as Cryptococcus neoformans are a growing cause of morbidity and mortality. To combat the paucity of antifungal compounds, new drug targets must be investigated. Adenylosuccinate synthetase is a crucial enzyme in the ATP de novo biosynthetic pathway, catalyzing the formation of adenylosuccinate from inosine monophosphate and aspartate. Although the enzyme is ubiquitous and well characterized in other kingdoms, no crystallographic studies on the fungal protein have been performed. Presented here are the expression, purification, crystallization and initial crystallographic analyses of cryptococcal adenylosuccinate synthetase. The crystals had the symmetry of space group P212121 and diffracted to 2.2 Å resolution. PMID:23989157

  4. Optimized Purification of a Heterodimeric ABC Transporter in a Highly Stable Form Amenable to 2-D Crystallization

    PubMed Central

    Galián, Carmen; Manon, Florence; Dezi, Manuela; Torres, Cristina; Ebel, Christine; Lévy, Daniel; Jault, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    Optimized protocols for achieving high-yield expression, purification and reconstitution of membrane proteins are required to study their structure and function. We previously reported high-level expression in Escherichia coli of active BmrC and BmrD proteins from Bacillus subtilis, previously named YheI and YheH. These proteins are half-transporters which belong to the ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette) superfamily and associate in vivo to form a functional transporter able to efflux drugs. In this report, high-yield purification and functional reconstitution were achieved for the heterodimer BmrC/BmrD. In contrast to other detergents more efficient for solubilizing the transporter, dodecyl-ß-D-maltoside (DDM) maintained it in a drug-sensitive and vanadate-sensitive ATPase-competent state after purification by affinity chromatography. High amounts of pure proteins were obtained which were shown either by analytical ultracentrifugation or gel filtration to form a monodisperse heterodimer in solution, which was notably stable for more than one month at 4°C. Functional reconstitution using different lipid compositions induced an 8-fold increase of the ATPase activity (kcat∼5 s−1). We further validated that the quality of the purified BmrC/BmrD heterodimer is suitable for structural analyses, as its reconstitution at high protein densities led to the formation of 2-D crystals. Electron microscopy of negatively stained crystals allowed the calculation of a projection map at 20 Å resolution revealing that BmrC/BmrD might assemble into oligomers in a lipidic environment. PMID:21602923

  5. Extracellular lipase of Pseudomonas sp. strain ATCC 21808: purification, characterization, crystallization, and preliminary X-ray diffraction data.

    PubMed Central

    Kordel, M; Hofmann, B; Schomburg, D; Schmid, R D

    1991-01-01

    A procedure for the purification of a very hydrophobic lipase from Pseudomonas sp. strain ATCC 21808 was elaborated by avoiding the use of long-chain detergents in view of subsequent crystallization of the enzyme. The purification procedure included chromatography on Q-Sepharose in the presence of n-octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, Ca2+ precipitation of fatty acids, and Octyl-Sepharose chromatography. The enzyme was purified 260-fold to a yield of 35% and a specific activity of 3,300 U/mg. The molecular weight was determined as 35,000; a polyacrylamide gel under nondenaturing conditions revealed a band at 110,000, and the isoelectric point proved to be at 4.5 to 4.6. The lipase crystallized with different salts and ethylene glycol polymers in the presence of n-octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside and one alkyloligooxyethylene compound (CxEy) in the range from C5E2 to C8E4. The crystals diffract to a resolution of about 0.25 nm. Precession photographs revealed that they belong to space group C2 with lattice constants of a = 9.27 nm, b = 4.74 nm, c = 8.65 nm, and beta = 122.3 degrees, indicating a cell content of one molecule per asymmetric unit of the crystal. In hydrolysis of triglycerides, the lipase showed substrate specificity for saturated fatty acids from C6 to C12 and unsaturated long-chain fatty acids. Monoglycerides were hydrolyzed very slowly. The N-terminal sequence is identical to that of the lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia. Treatment with diethyl-p-nitrophenylphosphate affected the activities toward triolein and p-nitrophenylacetate to the same extent and with the same velocity. Images PMID:1856176

  6. Gigas Meets Ulysses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 9 July 2003

    Roughly halfway between the great volcanoes of Olympus Mons and Pavonis Mons, the graben (troughs) of Ulysses Fossae intersect with the furrows of Gigas (gigantic) Sulci. A clear time sequence is evident: first came the formation of the sulci terrain (to the left), which then was fractured by graben radial to Olympus Mons, followed by flooding of lava. All but the deepest graben are filled by lava in the topographic low between the two volcanic rises.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 11.8, Longitude 234.3 East (125.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  7. Large-scale purification and crystallization of the endoribonuclease XendoU: troubleshooting with His-tagged proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Renzi, Fabiana; Panetta, Gianna; Vallone, Beatrice; Brunori, Maurizio; Arceci, Massimo; Bozzoni, Irene; Laneve, Pietro; Caffarelli, Elisa

    2006-03-01

    Recombinant His-tagged XendoU, a eukaryotic endoribonuclease, appeared to aggregate in the presence of divalent cations. Monodisperse protein which yielded crystals diffracting to 2.2 Å was obtained by addition of EDTA. XendoU is the first endoribonuclease described in higher eukaryotes as being involved in the endonucleolytic processing of intron-encoded small nucleolar RNAs. It is conserved among eukaryotes and its viral homologue is essential in SARS replication and transcription. The large-scale purification and crystallization of recombinant XendoU are reported. The tendency of the recombinant enzyme to aggregate could be reversed upon the addition of chelating agents (EDTA, imidazole): aggregation is a potential drawback when purifying and crystallizing His-tagged proteins, which are widely used, especially in high-throughput structural studies. Purified monodisperse XendoU crystallized in two different space groups: trigonal P3{sub 1}21, diffracting to low resolution, and monoclinic C2, diffracting to higher resolution.

  8. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of a novel acetylcitrulline deacetylase from Xanthomonas campestris

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Dashuang Yu, Xiaolin; Roth, Lauren; Morizono, Hiroki; Hathout, Yetrib; Allewell, Norma M.; Tuchman, Mendel

    2005-07-01

    The expression, purification and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of a novel N-acetyl-l-citrulline deacetylase from X. campestris are reported. A novel N-acetyl-l-citrulline deacetylase that is able to catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acetyl-l-citrulline to acetate and citrulline was identified from Xanthomonas campestris. The protein was overexpressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2 and diffract to 1.75 Å resolution, with unit-cell parameters a = 94.13, b = 95.23, c = 43.61 Å, β = 93.76°. Since attempts to use homologous structural models to solve the structure via molecular replacement were unsuccessful, the selenomethionine-substituted protein was prepared using an overnight auto-induction overexpression system. Selenomethionine incorporation into the protein was verified by MALDI–TOF/TOF mass-spectroscopic analysis after trypsin digestion. The crystals of the selenomethionine-substituted protein were prepared using crystallization conditions similar to those for the native protein. Multiple anomalous dispersion (MAD) data were collected at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Structure determination is under way using the MAD phasing method.

  9. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray structure analysis of Vibrio cholerae uridine phosphorylase in complex with thymidine

    PubMed Central

    Lashkov, Alexander A.; Gabdulkhakov, Azat G.; Prokofev, Igor I.; Seregina, Tatyana A.; Sotnichenko, Sergey E.; Lyashenko, Andrey V.; Shtil, Alexander A.; Mironov, Alexander S.; Betzel, Christian; Mikhailov, Al’bert M.

    2012-01-01

    A high-resolution structure of the complex of Vibrio cholerae uridine phosphorylase (VchUPh) with its physiological ligand thymidine is important in order to determine the mechanism of the substrate specificity of the enzyme and for the rational design of pharmacological modulators. Here, the expression and purification of VchUPh and the crystallization of its complex with thymidine are reported. Conditions for crystallization were determined with an automated Cartesian Dispensing System using The Classics, MbClass and MbClass II Suites crystallization kits. Crystals of the VchUPh–thymidine complex (of dimensions ∼200–350 µm) were grown by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method in ∼7 d at 291 K. The crystallization solution consisted of 1.5 µl VchUPh (15 mg ml−1), 1 µl 0.1 M thymidine and 1.5 µl reservoir solution [15%(w/v) PEG 4000, 0.2 M MgCl2.6H2O in 0.1 M Tris–HCl pH 8.5]. The crystals diffracted to 2.12 Å resolution and belonged to space group P21 (No. 4), with unit-cell parameters a = 91.80, b = 95.91, c = 91.89 Å, β = 119.96°. The Matthews coefficient was calculated as 2.18 Å3 Da−1; the corresponding solvent content was 43.74%. PMID:23143257

  10. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of a human mitochondrial phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, Inna; Kessler, Naama; Moor, Nina; Klipcan, Liron; Koc, Emine; Templeton, Paul; Spremulli, Linda; Safro, Mark

    2007-09-01

    The expression, purification and crystallization of recombinant human mitochondrial phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (mitPheRS) are reported. Diffraction data were collected to 2.2 Å resolution and the mitPheRS structure was solved using the molecular-replacement method. Human monomeric mitochondrial phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (mitPheRS) is an enzyme that catalyzes the charging of tRNA with the cognate amino acid phenylalanine. Human mitPheRS is a chimera of the bacterial α-subunit of PheRS and the B8 domain of its β-subunit. Together, the α-subunit and the ‘RNP-domain’ (B8 domain) at the C-terminus form the minimal structural set to construct an enzyme with phenylalanylation activity. The recombinant human mitPheRS was purified to homogeneity and crystallized in complex with phenylalanine and ATP. The crystals diffracted to 2.2 Å resolution and belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 55, b = 90, c = 96 Å.

  11. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the full-length cystathionine β-synthase from Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Oyenarte, Iker; Majtan, Tomas; Ereño, June; Corral-Rodríguez, María Angeles; Klaudiny, Jaroslav; Majtan, Juraj; Kraus, Jan P; Martínez-Cruz, Luis Alfonso

    2012-11-01

    Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) is a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the transsulfuration pathway, namely the condensation of serine with homocysteine to form cystathionine. Mutations in the CBS gene are the single most common cause of hereditary homocystinuria, a multisystemic disease affecting to various extents the vasculature, connective tissues and central nervous system. At present, the crystal structure of CBS from Drosophila melanogaster is the only available structure of the full-length enzyme. Here we describe a cloning, overexpression, purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a full-length CBS from Apis mellifera (AmCBS) which maintains 51 and 46% sequence identity with its Drosophila and human homologs, respectively. The AmCBS yielded crystals belonging to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a=85.90, b=95.87, c=180.33 Å. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 3.0 Å. The crystal structure contained two molecules in the asymmetric unit which presumably correspond to the dimeric species observed in solution.

  12. Purification, crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of human dynamin-related protein 1 GTPase-GED fusion protein

    PubMed Central

    Klinglmayr, Eva; Wenger, Julia; Mayr, Sandra; Bossy-Wetzel, Ella; Puehringer, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The mechano-enzyme dynamin-related protein 1 plays an important role in mitochondrial fission and is implicated in cell physiology. Dysregulation of Drp1 is associated with abnormal mitochondrial dynamics and neuronal damage. Drp1 shares structural and functional similarities with dynamin 1 with respect to domain organization, ability to self-assemble into spiral-like oligomers and GTP-cycle-dependent membrane scission. Structural studies of human dynamin-1 have greatly improved the understanding of this prototypical member of the dynamin superfamily. However, high-resolution structural information for full-length human Drp1 covering the GTPase domain, the middle domain and the GTPase effector domain (GED) is still lacking. In order to obtain mechanistic insights into the catalytic activity, a nucleotide-free GTPase-GED fusion protein of human Drp1 was expressed, purified and crystallized. Initial X-ray diffraction experiments yielded data to 2.67 Å resolution. The hexagonal-shaped crystals belonged to space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 53.59, b = 151.65, c = 43.53 Å, one molecule per asymmetric unit and a solvent content of 42%. Expression of selenomethionine-labelled protein is currently in progress. Here, the expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of the Drp1 GTPase-GED fusion protein are presented, which form a basis for more detailed structural and biophysical analysis. PMID:23027751

  13. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the kinase domain of human tousled-like kinase 2

    PubMed Central

    Garrote, Ana M.; Redondo, Pilar; Montoya, Guillermo; Muñoz, Inés G.

    2014-01-01

    Tousled-like kinases (TLKs) are an evolutionarily conserved family of serine/threonine protein kinases involved in chromatin dynamics, including DNA replication and repair, transcription and chromosome segregation. The two members of the family reported in humans, namely TLK1 and TLK2, localize to the cell nucleus and are capable of forming homo- or hetero-oligomers by themselves. To characterize the role of TLK2, its C-terminal kinase domain was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli followed by purification to homogeneity. Crystallization experiments in the presence of ATP-γ-S yielded crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction analysis belonging to two different space groups: tetragonal I4122 and cubic P213. The latter produced the best diffracting crystal (3.4 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation), with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 126.05 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. The asymmetric unit contained one protein molecule, with a Matthews coefficient of 4.59 Å3 Da−1 and a solvent content of 73.23%. PMID:24598926

  14. Improved purification, crystallization and crystallographic study of Hyd-2-type [NiFe]-hydrogenase from Citrobacter sp. S-77.

    PubMed

    Muhd Noor, Noor Dina; Nishikawa, Koji; Nishihara, Hirofumi; Yoon, Ki Seok; Ogo, Seiji; Higuchi, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    The purification procedure of Hyd-2-type [NiFe]-hydrogenase from Citrobacter sp. S-77 was improved by applying treatment with trypsin before chromatography. Purified protein samples both with and without trypsin treatment were successfully crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method with polyethylene glycol as a precipitant. Both crystals belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 63.90, b = 118.89, c = 96.70 Å, β = 100.61° for the protein subjected to trypsin treatment and a = 65.38, b = 121.45, c = 98.63 Å, β = 102.29° for the sample not treated with trypsin. The crystal obtained from the trypsin-treated protein diffracted to 1.60 Å resolution, which is considerably better than the 2.00 Å resolution obtained without trypsin treatment. The [NiFe]-hydrogenase from Citrobacter sp. S-77 retained catalytic activity with some amount of O2, indicating that it has clear O2 tolerance.

  15. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the mannose 6-phosphate isomerase from Salmonella typhimurium

    SciTech Connect

    Gowda, Giri; Sagurthi, Someswar Rao; Savithri, H. S.; Murthy, M. R. N.

    2008-02-01

    The cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of mannose 6-phosphate isomerase from S. typhimurium are reported. Mannose 6-phosphate isomerase (MPI; EC 5.3.1.8) catalyzes the reversible isomerization of d-mannose 6-phosphate (M6P) and d-fructose 6-phosphate (F6P). In the eukaryotes and prokaryotes investigated to date, the enzyme has been reported to play a crucial role in d-mannose metabolism and supply of the activated mannose donor guanosine diphosphate d-mannose (GDP-d-mannose). In the present study, MPI was cloned from Salmonella typhimurium, overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified using Ni–NTA affinity column chromatography. Purified MPI crystallized in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 36.03, b = 92.2, c = 111.01 Å. A data set extending to 1.66 Å resolution was collected with 98.8% completeness using an image-plate detector system mounted on a rotating-anode X-ray generator. The asymmetric unit of the crystal cell was compatible with the presence of a monomer of MPI. A preliminary structure solution of the enzyme has been obtained by molecular replacement using Candida albicans MPI as the phasing model and the program Phaser. Further refinement and model building are in progress.

  16. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the full-length cystathionine β-synthase from Apis mellifera

    PubMed Central

    Oyenarte, Iker; Majtan, Tomas; Ereño, June; Corral-Rodríguez, María Angeles; Klaudiny, Jaroslav; Majtan, Juraj; Kraus, Jan P.; Martínez-Cruz, Luis Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) is a pyridoxal-5′-phosphate-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the transsulfuration pathway, namely the condensation of serine with homocysteine to form cystathionine. Mutations in the CBS gene are the single most common cause of hereditary homocystinuria, a multisystemic disease affecting to various extents the vasculature, connective tissues and central nervous system. At present, the crystal structure of CBS from Drosophila melanogaster is the only available structure of the full-length enzyme. Here we describe a cloning, overexpression, purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a full-length CBS from Apis mellifera (AmCBS) which maintains 51 and 46% sequence identity with its Drosophila and human homologs, respectively. The AmCBS yielded crystals belonging to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 85.90, b = 95.87, c = 180.33 Å. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 3.0 Å. The crystal structure contained two molecules in the asymmetric unit which presumably correspond to the dimeric species observed in solution. PMID:23143241

  17. Purification, crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of human dynamin-related protein 1 GTPase-GED fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Klinglmayr, Eva; Wenger, Julia; Mayr, Sandra; Bossy-Wetzel, Ella; Puehringer, Sandra

    2012-10-01

    The mechano-enzyme dynamin-related protein 1 plays an important role in mitochondrial fission and is implicated in cell physiology. Dysregulation of Drp1 is associated with abnormal mitochondrial dynamics and neuronal damage. Drp1 shares structural and functional similarities with dynamin 1 with respect to domain organization, ability to self-assemble into spiral-like oligomers and GTP-cycle-dependent membrane scission. Structural studies of human dynamin-1 have greatly improved the understanding of this prototypical member of the dynamin superfamily. However, high-resolution structural information for full-length human Drp1 covering the GTPase domain, the middle domain and the GTPase effector domain (GED) is still lacking. In order to obtain mechanistic insights into the catalytic activity, a nucleotide-free GTPase-GED fusion protein of human Drp1 was expressed, purified and crystallized. Initial X-ray diffraction experiments yielded data to 2.67 Å resolution. The hexagonal-shaped crystals belonged to space group P2(1)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = 53.59, b = 151.65, c = 43.53 Å, one molecule per asymmetric unit and a solvent content of 42%. Expression of selenomethionine-labelled protein is currently in progress. Here, the expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of the Drp1 GTPase-GED fusion protein are presented, which form a basis for more detailed structural and biophysical analysis.

  18. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of YaeQ (XAC2396) from Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri

    SciTech Connect

    Guzzo, Cristiane R.; Nagem, Ronaldo A. P.; Galvão-Botton, Leonor M. P.; Guimarães, Beatriz G.; Medrano, Francisco J.; Barbosa, João A. R. G.; Farah, Chuck S.

    2005-05-01

    The first crystallographic study of a member of the YaeQ family of proteins, which are conserved in a small group of Gram-negative bacteria, most of which are animal or plant pathogens, is reported. Diffraction data were collected to 1.9 Å resolution and an interpretable electron-density map was obtained. Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri YaeQ (XAC2396) is a member of a family of bacterial proteins conserved in several Gram-negative pathogens. Here, the cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of the 182-residue (20.6 kDa) YaeQ protein are described. Recombinant YaeQ containing selenomethionine was crystallized in space group P2{sub 1} and crystals diffracted to 1.9 Å resolution at a synchrotron source. The unit-cell parameters are a = 39.75, b = 91.88, c = 48.03 Å, β = 108.37°. The calculated Matthews coefficient suggests the presence of two YaeQ molecules in the asymmetric unit. Initial experimental phases were calculated by the multiple-wavelength anomalous dispersion technique and an interpretable electron-density map was obtained.

  19. Cloning Expression Purification Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Diffractino Studies of a 12R-LOX-chaperone Complex

    SciTech Connect

    G Deb; K Boeshanes; W Idler; B Ahvazi

    2011-12-31

    Lipoxygenases are a family of nonheme iron-containing dioxygenases. An Escherichia coli expression system producing the bacterial chaperones GroES and GroEL was engineered and successfully used to produce large quantities of recombinant human 12R-LOX (LOXR; MW 80.34 kDa; 701 amino-acid residues). The co-overproduction of the two chaperones with 12R-LOX resulted in increased solubility of 12R-LOX and allowed the purification of milligram amounts of active enzyme for structural studies by X-ray diffraction. The lipoxygenase protein was purified on an affinity column and a gel-filtration column with chaperone protein (MW 57.16 kDa). The LOXR-chaperone complex was crystallized with ligand by the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method using 1.5 M ammonium hydrogen phosphate as precipitant. The crystals belonged to the monoclinic system, space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 138.97, b = 266.11, c = 152.26 {angstrom}, {beta} = 101.07{sup o}. Based on the calculated Matthews coefficient (3.1 {angstrom}3 Da{sup -1}), it is estimated that one molecule of LOXR complexed with two molecules of chaperone is present in the asymmetric unit of the crystal lattice. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 4 {angstrom} resolution using synchrotron radiation.

  20. Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of SecA from Enterococcus faecalis

    SciTech Connect

    Meining, Winfried; Scheuring, Johannes; Fischer, Markus; Weinkauf, Sevil

    2006-06-01

    SecA ATPase from E. faecalis has been cloned, overexpressed, purified and crystallized. Crystals belong to space group C2 and diffract to 2.4 Å resolution. The gene coding for SecA from Enterococcus faecalis was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. In this protein, the lysine at position 6 was replaced by an asparagine in order to reduce sensitivity towards proteases. The modified protein was purified and crystallized. Crystals diffracting to 2.4 Å resolution were obtained using the vapour-diffusion technique. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 203.4, b = 49.8, c = 100.8 Å, α = γ = 90.0, β = 119.1°. A selenomethionine derivative was prepared and is currently being tested in crystallization trials.

  1. High-level expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of the receptor-binding domain of botulinum neurotoxin serotype D

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Robinson, H.; Gao, X.; Qin, L.; Buchko, G. W.; Varnum, S. M.

    2010-12-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are highly toxic proteins for humans and animals that are responsible for the deadly neuroparalytic disease botulism. Here, details of the expression and purification of the receptor-binding domain (HCR) of BoNT/D in Escherichia coli are presented. Using a codon-optimized cDNA, BoNT/D{_}HCR was expressed at a high level (150-200 mg per litre of culture) in the soluble fraction. Following a three-step purification protocol, very pure (>98%) BoNT/D{_}HCR was obtained. The recombinant BoNT/D{_}HCR was crystallized and the crystals diffracted to 1.65 {angstrom} resolution. The crystals belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 60.8, b = 89.7, c = 93.9 {angstrom}. Preliminary crystallographic data analysis revealed the presence of one molecule in the asymmetric unit.

  2. High-level Expression Purification Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Crystallographic Studies of the Receptor Binding Domain of botulinum neurotoxin Serotype D

    SciTech Connect

    Y Zhang; X Gao; G Buchko; H Robinson; S Varnum

    2011-12-31

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are highly toxic proteins for humans and animals that are responsible for the deadly neuroparalytic disease botulism. Here, details of the expression and purification of the receptor-binding domain (HCR) of BoNT/D in Escherichia coli are presented. Using a codon-optimized cDNA, BoNT/D{_}HCR was expressed at a high level (150-200 mg per litre of culture) in the soluble fraction. Following a three-step purification protocol, very pure (>98%) BoNT/D{_}HCR was obtained. The recombinant BoNT/D{_}HCR was crystallized and the crystals diffracted to 1.65 {angstrom} resolution. The crystals belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 60.8, b = 89.7, c = 93.9 {angstrom}. Preliminary crystallographic data analysis revealed the presence of one molecule in the asymmetric unit.

  3. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray studies of two isoforms of Rubisco from Alcaligenes eutrophus.

    PubMed

    Hansen, S; Hough, E; Andersen, K

    1999-01-01

    Two different isoforms of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) from Alcaligenes eutrophus have been purified and crystallized. Both isoforms crystallize in space group P43212. Crystals of isoform I (unit-cell dimensions a = 112.0 and c = 402.7 A) diffract to 2.7 A, whereas isoform II (unit-cell dimensions a = 111.8 and c = 400.0 A) presently diffract to 3.2 A, using synchrotron radiation in both cases.

  4. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase homologue from Esherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Kyung Hye; Supangat; Kim, Hye Lim; Park, Young Shik; Jeon, Che Ok; Lee, Kon Ho

    2008-02-01

    The 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase from E. coli has been crystallized in two crystal forms. Diffraction data were collected from hexagonal- and rectangular-shaped crystals to 3.0 and 2.3 Å, respectively. 6-Pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase from E. coli (ePTPS) has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Hexagonal- and rectangular-shaped crystals were obtained. Diffraction data were collected from the hexagonal and rectangular crystals to 3.0 and 2.3 Å resolution, respectively. The hexagonal plate-shaped crystals belonged to space group P321, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 112.59, c = 68.82 Å, and contained two molecules in the asymmetric unit. The rectangular crystals belonged to space group I222, with unit-cell parameters a = 112.76, b = 117.66, c = 153.57 Å, and contained six molecules in the asymmetric unit. The structure of ePTPS in both crystal forms has been determined by molecular replacement.

  5. The role of purification in the crystallization of proteins and nucleic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giegé, R.; Dock, A. C.; Kern, D.; Lorber, B.; Thierry, J. C.; Moras, D.

    1986-08-01

    In structural biology, the crystallization of the macromolecules often represents the most challenging step. Beside classical factors which determine the solubility of macromolecules, purity of compounds is another major parameter governing crystal growth. With aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and transfer ribonucleic acids as examples, it will be shown that molecules to be crystallized not only have to be pure in terms of contaminating molecules, but also in terms of sequence integrity and conformational homogeneity. A chromatographic method based on salting-out of proteins or nucleic acids on Sepharose 4B gels and back-solubilization with inverse salt gradients will be discussed in the light of crystal growth experiments.

  6. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray structure analysis of the banana lectin from Musa paradisiaca.

    PubMed

    Singh, D D; Saikrishnan, K; Kumar, Prashant; Dauter, Z; Sekar, K; Surolia, A; Vijayan, M

    2004-11-01

    The banana lectin from Musa paradisiaca, MW 29.4 kDa, has been isolated, purified and crystallized. The trigonal crystals contain one dimeric molecule in the asymmetric unit. The structure has been solved using molecular replacement to a resolution of 3 A. The structure of the subunit is similar to that of jacalin-like lectins.

  7. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of human Rad GTPase

    SciTech Connect

    Yanuar, Arry; Sakurai, Shigeru; Kitano, Ken; Hakoshima, Toshio

    2005-11-01

    Human Rad has been crystallized. A diffraction data set was collected to a resolution of 1.8 Å. Human Rad is a new member of the Ras GTPase superfamily and is overexpressed in human skeletal muscle of individuals with type II diabetes. The GTPase core domain was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified for crystallization. Crystals were obtained at 293 K by vapour diffusion using a crystallization robot. The crystals were found to belong to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 52.2, b = 58.6, c = 53.4 Å, β = 97.9°, and contained two Rad molecules in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. A diffraction data set was collected to a resolution of 1.8 Å using synchrotron radiation at SPring-8.

  8. Purification, crystallization and preliminary characterization of a putative LmbE-like deacetylase from Bacillus cereus

    SciTech Connect

    Fadouloglou, Vasiliki E.; Kotsifaki, Dina; Gazi, Anastasia D.; Fellas, Georgios; Meramveliotaki, Chrysi; Deli, Alexandra; Psylinakis, Emmanuel; Bouriotis, Vassilis; Kokkinidis, Michael

    2006-03-01

    The BC1534 protein from B. cereus was purified and crystallized and a native X-ray diffraction data set was collected to 2.5 Å using synchrotron radiation. The Bacillus cereus BC1534 protein, a putative deacetylase from the LmbE family, has been purified to homogeneity and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Crystals of the 26 kDa protein grown from MPD and acetate buffer belong to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 76.7, c = 410.5 Å (in the hexagonal setting). A complete native data set was collected to a resolution of 2.5 Å from a single cryoprotected crystal using synchrotron radiation. As BC1534 shows significant sequence homology with an LmbE-like protein of known structure from Thermus thermophilus, molecular replacement will be used for crystal structure determination.

  9. Isolation, purification, crystallization, and preliminary X-ray diffraction study of the crystals of HU protein from M. gallisepticum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaeva, A. Yu.; Timofeev, V. I.; Boiko, K. M.; Korzhenevskii, D. A.; Rakitina, T. V.; Dorovatovskii, P. V.; Lipkin, A. V.

    2015-11-01

    HU proteins are involved in bacterial DNA and RNA repair. Since these proteins are absent in cells of higher organisms, inhibitors of HU proteins can be used as effective and safe antibiotics. The crystallization conditions for the M. gallisepticum HU protein were found and optimized by the vapor-diffusion method. The X-ray diffraction data set was collected to 2.91 Å resolution from the crystals grown by the vapor-diffusion method on a synchrotron source. The crystals of the HU protein belong to sp. gr. P41212 and have the following unit-cell parameters: a = b = 97.94 Å, c = 77.92 Å, α = β = γ = 90°.

  10. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the CBS-domain pair of cyclin M2 (CNNM2)

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-García, Inmaculada; Stuiver, Marchel; Ereño, June; Oyenarte, Iker; Corral-Rodríguez, María Angeles; Müller, Dominik; Martínez-Cruz, Luis Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    This work describes the purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the CBS-domain pair of the murine CNNM2 magnesium transporter (formerly known as ancient domain protein 2; ACDP2), which consists of a pair of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) motifs and has 100% sequence identity to its human homologue. CNNM proteins represent the least-studied members of the eight different types of magnesium transporters identified to date in mammals. In humans, the CNNM family is encoded by four genes: CNNM1–4. CNNM1 acts as a cytosolic copper chaperone, whereas CNNM2 and CNNM4 have been associated with magnesium handling. Interestingly, mutations in the CNNM2 gene cause familial dominant hypomagnesaemia (MIM:607803), a rare human disorder characterized by renal and intestinal magnesium (Mg2+) wasting, which may lead to symptoms of Mg2+ depletion such as tetany, seizures and cardiac arrhythmias. This manuscript describes the preliminary crystallographic analysis of two different crystal habits of a truncated form of the protein containing its regulatory CBS-domain pair, which has been reported to host the pathological mutation T568I in humans. The crystals belonged to space groups P21212 and I222 (or I212121) and diffracted X-­rays to 2.0 and 3.6 Å resolution, respectively, using synchrotron radiation. PMID:23027747

  11. Production, Purification, Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Structural Studies of Adeno-Associated Virus Serotype 5

    SciTech Connect

    DiMattia,M.; Govindasamy, L.; Levy, H.; Whitaker-Gurda, B.; Kohlbrenner, E.; Chiorini, J.; McKenna, R.; Muzyczka, N.; Zolotukhin, S.; Agbandje-McKenna, M.

    2005-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (AAV5) is under development for gene-therapy applications for the treatment of cystic fibrosis. To elucidate the structural features of AAV5 that control its enhanced transduction of the apical surface of airway epithelia compared with other AAV serotypes, X-ray crystallographic studies of the viral capsid have been initiated. The production, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of empty AAV5 viral capsids are reported. The crystals diffract X-rays to beyond 3.2 Angstroms resolution using synchrotron radiation and belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 264.7, b = 447.9, c = 629.7 Angstroms. There is one complete T = 1 viral capsid per asymmetric unit. The orientation and position of the viral capsid in the asymmetric unit have been determined by rotation and translation functions, respectively, and the AAV5 structure determination is in progress.

  12. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the catalytic core of cystathionine β-synthase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Ereño-Orbea, June; Majtan, Tomas; Oyenarte, Iker; Kraus, Jan P.; Martínez-Cruz, Luis Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS; EC 4.2.1.22) catalyzes the condensation of homocysteine and serine to form cystathionine, with the release of water. In humans, deficiency in CBS activity is the most common cause of hyperhomocysteinaemia and homocystinuria. More than 160 pathogenic mutations in the human CBS gene have been described to date. Here, the purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the catalytic core of CBS from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ScCBS) is described which, in contrast to other eukaryotic CBSs, lacks the N-terminal haem-binding domain and is considered to be a useful model for investigation of the pyridoxal-5′-phosphate-mediated reactions of human CBS (hCBS). The purified protein yielded two different crystal forms belonging to space groups P41212 and P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 72.390, c = 386.794 Å and a = 58.156, b = 89.988, c = 121.687 Å, respectively. Diffraction data were collected to 2.7 and 3.1 Å resolution, respectively, using synchrotron radiation. Preliminary analysis of the X-ray data suggests the presence of ScCBS homodimers in both types of crystals. PMID:24598918

  13. Purification, crystallization and initial crystallographic characterization of peanut major allergen Ara h 3

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Tengchuan; Howard, Andrew; Zhang, Yu-Zhu

    2007-10-01

    The crystallization of peanut allergen Ara h 3 is reported. The peanut is a significant food source, but is responsible for many cases of anaphylaxis. The peanut 11S legumin-like seed storage protein Ara h 3 is one of the best characterized allergens. In this study, Ara h 3 was extracted from peanut kernels and purified by sequential anion-exchange, hydrophobic interaction and gel-filtration chromatography to very high purity to facilitate crystallization and structural studies. Well diffracting single crystals were obtained by the vapor-diffusion method. A molecular-replacement structural solution has been obtained and refinement of the structure is currently under way.

  14. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the plant Rho protein ROP5

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Christoph Berken, Antje

    2007-12-01

    Crystals of the plant Rho protein ROP5 from A. thaliana have been obtained that diffract to 1.53 Å resolution. The small G protein ROP5 from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana was purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. ROP5 crystals were obtained using PEG 3000 as precipitant and belong to space group P2{sub 1}. A data set was collected to 1.53 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation at 100 K. A clear molecular-replacement solution was found using ROP4–GDP of the ROP4–GDP–PRONE8 complex as the search model.

  15. Expression, purification and crystallization of the cell-division protein YgfE from Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Addinall, Stephen G.; Johnson, Kenneth A.; Dafforn, Timothy; Smith, Corinne; Rodger, Alison; Gomez, Raul Paco; Sloan, Katherine; Blewett, Anne; Scott, David J.; Roper, David I.

    2005-03-01

    An open reading frame from E. coli MG1655 has been cloned, expressed and purified. Crystals obtained from the purified recombinant protein have been obtained in a variety of different forms diffracting to 1.8 Å resolution.

  16. Purification, crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of dihydropyrimidinase from Dictyostelium discoideum

    SciTech Connect

    Lohkamp, Bernhard; Andersen, Birgit; Piškur, Jure; Dobritzsch, Doreen

    2006-01-01

    Dihydropyrimidinase from the slime mould D. discoideum was crystallized. A single crystal was shown to belong to space group I222 and diffracted anisotropically to better than 1.8 Å. Dihydropyrimidinase (EC 3.5.2.2) is the second enzyme in the reductive pyrimidine-degradation pathway and catalyses the hydrolysis of 5,6-dihydrouracil and 5,6-dihydrothymine to the corresponding N-carbamylated β-amino acids. The recombinant enzyme from the slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum was overexpressed, purified and crystallized by the vapour-diffusion method. One crystal diffracted to better than 1.8 Å resolution on a synchrotron source and was shown to belong to space group I222, with unit-cell parameters a = 84.6, b = 89.6, c = 134.9 Å and one molecule in the asymmetric unit.

  17. Purification and crystallization of α-amylases from mucoid and non-mucoid B. amyloliquefaciens strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarikaya, Elif; Mikami, Bunzo

    2001-11-01

    The purified α-amylases from mucoid and non-mucoid B. amyloliquefaciens strains were crystallized in forms suitable for X-ray diffraction analysis. Crystals were grown by the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method. Very thin crystals of α-amylase of non-mucoid strain were obtained in the presence 15% propanol, 12% PEG 6000 and 0.1 M PIPES (pH: 7.1) at the end of 3 months and these were not suitable for X-ray diffraction analysis. Crystals of the mucoid strain of B. amyloliquefaciens α-amylase were obtained with 30% PEG 6000, 0.2 M (NH 4) 2SO 4 and 0.1 M PIPES (pH: 6.5) at the end of 3 months and these were suitable for X-ray diffraction analysis.

  18. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of deoxyuridine triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase from Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Bajaj, Mamta; Moriyama, Hideaki

    2007-05-01

    The first crystallization of deoxyuridine triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase from plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, has been performed. An additive, taurine, was effective in producing the single crystal. The deoxyuridine triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase gene from Arabidopsis thaliana was expressed and the gene product was purified. Crystallization was performed by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 298 K using 2 M ammonium sulfate as the precipitant. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.2 Å resolution using Cu Kα radiation. The crystal belongs to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 69.90, b = 70.86 Å, c = 75.55 Å. Assuming the presence of a trimer in the asymmetric unit, the solvent content was 30%, with a V{sub M} of 1.8 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}.

  19. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of urease from pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan)

    SciTech Connect

    Balasubramanian, Anuradha; Ponnuraj, Karthe

    2008-07-01

    Urease from pigeon pea was purified and crystallized and X-ray diffraction data were collected at 2.5 Å resolution. Urease is a seed protein that is common to most Leguminosae. It also occurs in many bacteria, fungi and several species of yeast. Urease catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide, thus allowing organisms to use exogenous and internally generated urea as a nitrogen source. Urease from pigeon pea seeds has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity using a series of steps involving ammonium sulfate fractionation, acid precipitation, ion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography techniques. The pigeon pea urease was crystallized and the resulting crystals diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution. The crystals belong to the rhombohedral space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 176.29, c = 346.44 Å.

  20. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of chitinase from Bacillus cereus NCTU2

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, Chueh-Yuan; Wu, Yue-Jin; Hsieh, Yin-Cheng; Guan, Hong-Hsiang; Tsai, Huei-Ju; Lin, Yi-Hung; Huang, Yen-Chieh; Liu, Ming-Yih; Li, Yaw-Kuen; Chen, Chun-Jung

    2006-09-01

    The crystallization of B. cereus chitinase is reported. Chitinases (EC 3.2.1.14) are found in a broad range of organisms, including bacteria, fungi and higher plants, and play different roles depending on their origin. A chitinase from Bacillus cereus NCTU2 (ChiNCTU2) capable of hydrolyzing chitin as a carbon and nitrogen nutrient has been identified as a member of the family 18 glycoside hydrolases. ChiNCTU2 of molecular weight 36 kDa has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. According to the diffraction of chitinase crystals at 1.10 Å resolution, the crystal belongs to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 50.79, b = 48.79, c = 66.87 Å, β = 99.31°. Preliminary analysis indicates there is one chitinase molecule in the asymmetric unit, with a solvent content of 43.4%.

  1. Purification, crystallization and preliminary characterization of a putative LmbE-like deacetylase from Bacillus cereus

    PubMed Central

    Fadouloglou, Vasiliki E.; Kotsifaki, Dina; Gazi, Anastasia D.; Fellas, Georgios; Meramveliotaki, Chrysi; Deli, Alexandra; Psylinakis, Emmanuel; Bouriotis, Vassilis; Kokkinidis, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The Bacillus cereus BC1534 protein, a putative deacetylase from the LmbE family, has been purified to homogeneity and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Crystals of the 26 kDa protein grown from MPD and acetate buffer belong to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 76.7, c = 410.5 Å (in the hexagonal setting). A complete native data set was collected to a resolution of 2.5 Å from a single cryoprotected crystal using synchrotron radiation. As BC1534 shows significant sequence homology with an LmbE-like protein of known structure from Thermus thermophilus, molecular replacement will be used for crystal structure determination. PMID:16511317

  2. Purification, crystallization, and preliminary X-ray diffraction study of purine nucleoside phosphorylase from E. coli

    SciTech Connect

    Abramchik, Yu. A. Timofeev, V. I. Zhukhlistova, N. E.; Muravieva, T. I.; Esipov, R. S.; Kuranova, I. P.

    2015-07-15

    Crystals of E. coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase were grown in microgravity by the capillary counter-diffusion method through a gel layer. The X-ray diffraction data set suitable for the determination of the three-dimensional structure at atomic resolution was collected from one crystal at the Spring-8 synchrotron facility to 0.99 Å resolution. The crystals belong to sp. gr. P2{sub 1} and have the following unit-cell parameters: a = 74.1 Å, b = 110.2 Å, c = 88.2 Å, α = γ = 90°, β = 111.08°. The crystal contains six subunits of the enzyme comprising a hexamer per asymmetric unit. The hexamer is the biological active form of E. coli. purine nucleoside phosphorylase.

  3. Purification, crystallization, and preliminary X-ray diffraction study of purine nucleoside phosphorylase from E. coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramchik, Yu. A.; Timofeev, V. I.; Zhukhlistova, N. E.; Muravieva, T. I.; Esipov, R. S.; Kuranova, I. P.

    2015-07-01

    Crystals of E. coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase were grown in microgravity by the capillary counter-diffusion method through a gel layer. The X-ray diffraction data set suitable for the determination of the three-dimensional structure at atomic resolution was collected from one crystal at the Spring-8 synchrotron facility to 0.99 Å resolution. The crystals belong to sp. gr. P21 and have the following unit-cell parameters: a = 74.1 Å, b = 110.2 Å, c = 88.2 Å, α = γ = 90°, β = 111.08°. The crystal contains six subunits of the enzyme comprising a hexamer per asymmetric unit. The hexamer is the biological active form of E. coli. purine nucleoside phosphorylase.

  4. Overexpression, purification and crystallization of the tetrameric form of SorC sorbitol operon regulator

    SciTech Connect

    Sanctis, Daniele de; Rêgo, Ana T.; Marçal, David; McVey, Colin E.; Carrondo, Maria A.; Enguita, Francisco J.

    2008-01-01

    The sorbitol operon regulator from K. pneumoniae has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 3.2 Å. The sorbitol operon regulator (SorC) regulates the metabolism of l-sorbose in Klebsiella pneumonia. SorC was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified, and crystals were obtained of a tetrameric form. A single crystal showed X-ray diffraction to 3.20 Å. The crystal belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 91.6, b = 113.3, c = 184.1 Å. Analysis of the molecular-replacement solution indicates the presence of four SorC molecules in the asymmetric unit.

  5. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a plant subtilase.

    PubMed

    Rose, Rolf; Huttenlocher, Franziska; Cedzich, Anna; Kaiser, Markus; Schaller, Andreas; Ottmann, Christian

    2009-05-01

    The subtilase SBT3 from Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) was purified from a tomato cell culture and crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. A native data set was collected to 2.5 A resolution at 100 K using synchrotron radiation. For experimental phasing, CsCl-derivative and tetrakis(acetoxymercuri)methane (TAMM) derivative crystals were employed for MIRAS phasing. Three caesium sites and one TAMM site were identified, which allowed solution of the structure.

  6. Solutal Convection Around Growing Protein Crystal and Diffusional Purification in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chun P.; Chernov, Alexander A.

    2004-01-01

    At least some protein crystals were found to preferentially trap microheterogeneous impurities. The latter are, for example, dimmer molecules of the crystallizing proteines (e.g. ferritin, lysozyme), or the regular molecules on which surfaces small molecules or ions are adsorbed (e.g. acetilated lysozyme) and modi@ molecular charge. Impurities may induce lattice defects and deteriorate structural resolution. Distribution of impurities between mother solution and gorwing crystal is defined by two interrelated distribution coefficients: kappa = rho(sup c, sub 2) and K = (rho(sup c, sub 2)/rho(sup c, sub 1)/rho(sub 2)/rho(sub 1). Here, rho(sub 2), rho(sub 1) and rho(sup c, sub 2) are densities of impurity (2) and regular protein (1) in solution at the growing interface and within the crystal ("c"). For the microheterogeneous impurities studied, K approx. = 2 - 4, so that kappa approx. - 10(exp 2) - 10(exp 3), since K = kappa (rho(sub 1)/rho(sup c, sub 1) and protein solubility ratio rho(sub 1)/rho(sub=p c, sub 2) much less than 1. Therefore, a crystal growing in absence of convection purifies mother solution around itself, grows cleaner and, probably, more perfect. If convection is present, the solution flow permanently brings new impurities to the crystal. This work theoretically addressed two subjects: 1) onset of convection, 2) distribution of impurities.

  7. Solutal Convection Around Growing Protein Crystal and Diffusional Purification in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chun P.; Chernov, Alexander A.

    2004-01-01

    At least some protein crystals were found to preferentially trap microheterogeneous impurities. The latter are, for example, dimmer molecules of the crystallizing proteines (e.g. ferritin, lysozyme), or the regular molecules on which surfaces small molecules or ions are adsorbed (e.g. acetilated lysozyme) and modi@ molecular charge. Impurities may induce lattice defects and deteriorate structural resolution. Distribution of impurities between mother solution and gorwing crystal is defined by two interrelated distribution coefficients: kappa = rho(sup c, sub 2) and K = (rho(sup c, sub 2)/rho(sup c, sub 1)/rho(sub 2)/rho(sub 1). Here, rho(sub 2), rho(sub 1) and rho(sup c, sub 2) are densities of impurity (2) and regular protein (1) in solution at the growing interface and within the crystal ("c"). For the microheterogeneous impurities studied, K approx. = 2 - 4, so that kappa approx. - 10(exp 2) - 10(exp 3), since K = kappa (rho(sub 1)/rho(sup c, sub 1) and protein solubility ratio rho(sub 1)/rho(sub=p c, sub 2) much less than 1. Therefore, a crystal growing in absence of convection purifies mother solution around itself, grows cleaner and, probably, more perfect. If convection is present, the solution flow permanently brings new impurities to the crystal. This work theoretically addressed two subjects: 1) onset of convection, 2) distribution of impurities.

  8. Expression, purification, characterization and crystallization of non- and phosphorylated states of JAK2 and JAK3 kinase domain

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Troii; Emmons, Thomas L.; Chrencik, Jill E.; Gormley, Jennifer A.; Weinberg, Robin A.; Leone, Joseph W.; Hirsch, Jeffrey L.; Saabye, Matthew J.; Schindler, John F.; Day, Jacqueline E.; Williams, Jennifer M.; Kiefer, James R.; Lightle, Sandra A.; Harris, Melissa S.; Guru, Siradanahalli; Fischer, H. David; Tomasselli, Alfredo G.

    2012-05-29

    Janus-associated kinases (JAKs) play critical roles in cytokine signaling, and have emerged as viable therapeutic targets in inflammation and oncology related diseases. To date, targeting JAK proteins with highly selective inhibitor compounds have remained elusive. We have expressed the active kinase domains for both JAK2 and JAK3 and devised purification protocols to resolve the non-, mono- (Y1007) and diphosphorylated (Y1007 and Y1008) states of JAK2 and non- and monophosphorylated states of JAK3 (Y980). An optimal purified protein yield of 20, 29 and 69 mg per 20 L cell culture was obtained for the three JAK2 forms, respectively, and 12.2 and 2.3 mg per 10 L fermentation for the two JAK3 forms allowing detailed biochemical and biophysical studies. To monitor the purification process we developed a novel HPLC activity assay where a sequential order of phosphorylation was observed whereby the first tyrosine residue was completely phosphorylated prior to phosphorylation of the tandem tyrosine residue. A Caliper-based microfluidics assay was used to determine the kinetic parameters (K{sub m} and k{sub cat}) for each phosphorylated state, showing that monophosphorylated (Y1007) JAK2 enzyme activity increased 9-fold over that of the nonphosphorylated species, and increased an additional 6-fold for the diphosphorylated (Y1007/Y1008) species, while phosphorylation of JAK3 resulted in a negligible increase in activity. Moreover, crystal structures have been generated for each isolated state of JAK2 and JAK3 with resolutions better than 2.4 {angstrom}. The generation of these reagents has enabled kinetic and structural characterization to inform the design of potent and selective inhibitors of the JAK family.

  9. Overexpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystal analysis of Bacillus pallidus d-arabinose isomerase

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Kosei; Yoshida, Hiromi; Takada, Goro; Izumori, Ken; Kamitori, Shigehiro

    2008-01-01

    d-Arabinose isomerase catalyzes the isomerization of d-arabinose to d-ribulose. Bacillus pallidus d-arabinose isomerase has broad substrate specificity and can catalyze the isomerization of d-arabinose, l-fucose, l-xylose, l-galactose and d-­altrose. Recombinant B. pallidus d-arabinose isomerase was overexpressed, purified and crystallized. A crystal of the enzyme was obtained by the sitting-drop method at room temperature and belonged to the orthorhombic space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 144.9, b = 127.9, c = 109.5 Å. Diffraction data were collected to 2.3 Å resolution. PMID:18931442

  10. Purification, Crystallization, and Preliminary X-ray Analysis of Native Canavalin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pusey, Marc; Dowell, Jennifer; Ng, Joseph; Gavira, Jose A.

    2003-01-01

    The protein canavalin is a 7S vicilin, from the Jack Bean, Canavalis ensfomis. Canavalin is described as a seed storage protein, an energy source for a developing seed, as no other known activity or function has been found. The protein was first isolated and crystallized by Sumner and Howell (J. Biol. Chem. 113, 607-610, 1936). Canavalin spontaneously crystallizes after proteolytic cleavage at neutral pH, which removes residues 1-46, 224-245, and 325-330 and produces peptides of approximately 25, 13, and 12 kDa. Preliminary gel filtration experiments indicated the presence of nucleic acid with the uncleaved protein. We developed a dual column procedure, ion exchange followed by hydroxy apatite chromatography, that effectively removes the nucleic acid and yields an essentially pure uncut canavalin preparation with an OD 280/260 ratio of approximately 1.9-2.0. Standard crystallization screens using this material gave a number of positive results having a common requirement for alcohols and Mg(2+) ion, with crystals typically appearing within a day or less. Optimization experiments to date have shown that we can obtain crystals from pH 6.5 to pH 8.2, using MPD from 5 to 20% and 0.05 to 0.2M Mg(2+) (sulfate or acetate). The crystals are of space group P2(sub 1)2(sub 1)2(sub 1), unit cell dimensions, and a complete data set to 1.5 Angstroms, resolution has now been collected at a synchrotron source. Most importantly, the crystals are not twinned, a persistent problem with the most commonly obtained rhombohedral form of proteolytically cleaved canavalin.

  11. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of galactokinase from Pyrococcus horikoshii

    SciTech Connect

    Inagaki, Eiji; Sakamoto, Keiko; Obayashi, Naomi; Terada, Takaho; Shirouzu, Mikako; Bessho, Yoshitaka; Kuroishi, Chizu; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Shinkai, Akeo; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2006-02-01

    Galactokinase from P. horikoshii has been crystallized in both the apo form and as a ternary complex with α-d-galactose and an ATP analogue. The crystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction. The kinetic parameters of the enzyme were determined. Galactokinase (EC 2.7.1.6) catalyzes the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of α-d-galactose to α-d-galactose-1-phosphate, in an additional metabolic branch of glycolysis. The apo-form crystal structure of the enzyme has not yet been elucidated. Crystals of galactokinase from Pyrococcus horikoshii were prepared in both the apo form and as a ternary complex with α-d-galactose and an ATP analogue. Diffraction data sets were collected to 1.24 Å resolution for the apo form and to 1.7 Å for the ternary complex form using synchrotron radiation. The apo-form crystals belong to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 108.08, b = 38.91, c = 81.57 Å, β = 109.8°. The ternary complex form was isomorphous with the apo form, except for the length of the a axis. The galactokinase activity of the enzyme was confirmed and the kinetic parameters at 323 K were determined.

  12. Expression, purification and crystallization of Trypanosoma cruzi dihydroorotate dehydrogenase complexed with orotate

    SciTech Connect

    Inaoka, Daniel Ken; Takashima, Eizo; Osanai, Arihiro; Shimizu, Hironari; Nara, Takeshi; Aoki, Takashi; Harada, Shigeharu; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2005-10-01

    The Trypanosoma cruzi dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, a key enzyme in pyrimidine de novo biosynthesis and redox homeostasis, was crystallized in complex with its first reaction product, orotate. Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHOD) catalyzes the oxidation of dihydroorotate to orotate, the fourth step and the only redox reaction in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidine. DHOD from Trypanosoma cruzi (TcDHOD) has been expressed as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Crystals of the TcDHOD–orotate complex were grown at 277 K by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion technique using polyethylene glycol 3350 as a precipitant. The crystals diffract to better than 1.8 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation (λ = 0.900 Å). X-ray diffraction data were collected at 100 K and processed to 1.9 Å resolution with 98.2% completeness and an overall R{sub merge} of 7.8%. The TcDHOD crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 67.87, b = 71.89, c = 123.27 Å. The presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit (2 × 34 kDa) gives a crystal volume per protein weight (V{sub M}) of 2.2 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of 44%.

  13. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of pantothenate kinase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Satyabrata; Kumar, Parimal; Bhor, Vikrant; Surolia, A. Vijayan, M.

    2005-01-01

    Pantothenate kinase, the first enzyme of the universal coenzyme A biosynthetic pathway, from M. tuberculosis H37Rv has been cloned, expressed, purified and X-ray analysed in two different crystal forms. Pantothenate kinase is an essential enzyme in the bacterial life cycle. It catalyzes the phosphorylation of pantothenate (vitamin B{sub 5}) to 4′-phosphopantothenate, the first step in the coenzyme A biosynthetic pathway. The enzyme from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, MW 35.7 kDa, has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized in two different trigonal crystal forms, both belonging to space group P3{sub 1}21. Two complete data sets of resolution 2.5 Å (form I) and 2.9 Å (form II) from crystals with unit-cell parameters a = b = 78.3, c = 115.45 Å and a = b = 107.63, c = 89.85 Å, respectively, were collected at room temperature on a home X-ray source. Structures of both crystal forms were solved for one subunit in the asymmetric unit by molecular replacement.

  14. Expression, purification and crystallization of the SARS-CoV macro domain

    SciTech Connect

    Malet, Hélène; Dalle, Karen; Brémond, Nicolas; Tocque, Fabienne; Blangy, Stéphanie; Campanacci, Valérie; Coutard, Bruno; Grisel, Sacha; Lichière, Julie; Lantez, Violaine; Cambillau, Christian; Canard, Bruno; Egloff, Marie-Pierre

    2006-04-01

    The SARS-CoV macro domain was expressed, purified and crystallized. Selenomethionine-labelled crystals diffracted to 1.8 Å resolution. Macro domains or X domains are found as modules of multidomain proteins, but can also constitute a protein on their own. Recently, biochemical and structural studies of cellular macro domains have been performed, showing that they are active as ADP-ribose-1′′-phosphatases. Macro domains are also present in a number of positive-stranded RNA viruses, but their precise function in viral replication is still unknown. The major human pathogen severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) encodes 16 non-structural proteins (nsps), one of which (nsp3) encompasses a macro domain. The SARS-CoV nsp3 gene region corresponding to amino acids 182–355 has been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. The crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 37.5, b = 55.6, c = 108.9 Å, β = 91.4°, and the asymmetric unit contains either two or three molecules. Both native and selenomethionine-labelled crystals diffract to 1.8 Å.

  15. Cloning, purification and crystallization of a Walker-type Pyrococcus abyssi ATPase family member

    SciTech Connect

    Uhring, Muriel; Bey, Gilbert; Lecompte, Odile; Cavarelli, Jean; Moras, Dino; Poch, Olivier

    2005-10-01

    The Walker-type ATPase PABY2304 of P. abyssi has been cloned, overexpressed, purified and crystallized. X-ray diffraction data from selenomethionine-derivative crystals have been collected to 2.6 Å. The structure has been solved by MAD techniques. Several ATPase proteins play essential roles in the initiation of chromosomal DNA replication in archaea. Walker-type ATPases are defined by their conserved Walker A and B motifs, which are associated with nucleotide binding and ATP hydrolysis. A family of 28 ATPase proteins with non-canonical Walker A sequences has been identified by a bioinformatics study of comparative genomics in Pyrococcus genomes. A high-throughput structural study on P. abyssi has been started in order to establish the structure of these proteins. 16 genes have been cloned and characterized. Six out of the seven soluble constructs were purified in Escherichia coli and one of them, PABY2304, has been crystallized. X-ray diffraction data were collected from selenomethionine-derivative crystals using synchrotron radiation. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 79.41, b = 48.63, c = 108.77 Å, and diffract to beyond 2.6 Å resolution.

  16. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa AlgX

    SciTech Connect

    Weadge, J.T.; Robinson, H.; Yip, P. P.; Arnett, K.; Tipton, P. A.; Howell, P. L.

    2010-05-01

    AlgX is a periplasmic protein required for the production of the exopolysaccharide alginate in Pseudomonas sp. and Azotobacter vinelandii. AlgX has been overexpressed and purified and diffraction-quality crystals have been grown using iterative seeding and the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method. The crystals grew as flat plates with unit-cell parameters a = 46.4, b = 120.6, c = 86.9 {angstrom}, {beta} = 95.7{sup o}. The crystals exhibited the symmetry of space group P2{sub 1} and diffracted to a minimum d-spacing of 2.1 {angstrom}. On the basis of the Matthews coefficient (V{sub M} = 2.25 {angstrom}{sup 3} Da{sup -1}), two molecules were estimated to be present in the asymmetric unit.

  17. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction experiment of nattokinase from Bacillus subtilis natto.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Yasuhide; Chatake, Toshiyuki; Chiba-Kamoshida, Kaori; Naito, Sawa; Ohsugi, Tadanori; Sumi, Hiroyuki; Yasuda, Ichiro; Morimoto, Yukio

    2010-12-01

    Nattokinase is a single polypeptide chain composed of 275 amino acids (molecular weight 27,724) which displays strong fibrinolytic activity. Moreover, it can activate other fibrinolytic enzymes such as pro-urokinase and tissue plasminogen activator. In the present study, native nattokinase from Bacillus subtilis natto was purified using gel-filtration chromatography and crystallized to give needle-like crystals which could be used for X-ray diffraction experiments. The crystals belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a=74.3, b=49.9, c=56.3 Å, β=95.2°. Diffraction images were processed to a resolution of 1.74 Å with an Rmerge of 5.2% (15.3% in the highest resolution shell) and a completeness of 69.8% (30.0% in the highest resolution shell). This study reports the first X-ray diffraction analysis of nattokinase.

  18. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of rice lectin from Oryza sativa

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yen-Chieh; Lin, Yi-Hung; Shih, Chia-Hao; Shih, Chun-Liang; Chang, Tschining; Chen, Chun-Jung

    2006-02-01

    Rice lectin was crystallized and analyzed by X-ray crystallography. Lectins with sugar-binding specificity are widely distributed in higher plants and various other species. The expression of rice lectin from Oryza sativa is up-regulated in the growing coleoptile when anaerobic stress persists. A rice lectin of molecular weight 15.2 kDa has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. From the diffraction of the lectin crystals at 1.93 Å resolution, the unit cell belongs to space group P3{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 98.58, b = 98.58, c = 44.72 Å. Preliminary analysis indicates that there are two lectin molecules in an asymmetric unit with a large solvent content, 70.1%.

  19. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of Streptococcus pyogenes laminin-binding protein Lbp

    SciTech Connect

    Linke, Christian; Caradoc-Davies, Tom T.; Proft, Thomas; Baker, Edward N.

    2008-02-01

    The S. pyogenes laminin-binding protein Lbp, which is essential for adhesion to human laminin, has been expressed, purified and crystallized. The laminin-binding protein Lbp (Spy2007) from Streptococcus pyogenes (a group A streptococcus) mediates adhesion to the human basal lamina glycoprotein laminin. Accordingly, Lbp is essential in in vitro models of cell adhesion and invasion. However, the molecular and structural basis of laminin binding by bacteria remains unknown. Therefore, the lbp gene has been cloned for recombinant expression in Escherichia coli. Lbp has been purified and crystallized from 30%(w/v) PEG 1500 by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 42.62, b = 92.16, c = 70.61 Å, β = 106.27°, and diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution.

  20. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the glyoxalase II from Leishmania infantum

    SciTech Connect

    Trincão, José; Sousa Silva, Marta; Barata, Lídia; Bonifácio, Cecília; Carvalho, Sandra; Tomás, Ana Maria; Ferreira, António E. N.; Cordeiro, Carlos; Ponces Freire, Ana; Romão, Maria João

    2006-08-01

    A glyoxalase II from L. infantum was cloned, purified and crystallized and its structure was solved by X-ray crystallography. In trypanosomatids, trypanothione replaces glutathione in all glutathione-dependent processes. Of the two enzymes involved in the glyoxalase pathway, glyoxalase I and glyoxalase II, the latter shows absolute specificity towards trypanothione thioester, making this enzyme an excellent model to understand the molecular basis of trypanothione binding. Cloned glyoxalase II from Leishmania infantum was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. Crystals belong to space group C222{sub 1} (unit-cell parameters a = 65.6, b = 88.3, c = 85.2 Å) and diffract beyond 2.15 Å using synchrotron radiation. The structure was solved by molecular replacement using the human glyoxalase II structure as a search model. These results, together with future detailed kinetic characterization using lactoyltrypanothione, should shed light on the evolutionary selection of trypanothione instead of glutathione by trypano-somatids.

  1. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic characterization of the caspase-recruitment domain of human Nod1

    SciTech Connect

    Srimathi, Thiagarajan; Robbins, Sheila L.; Dubas, Rachel L.; Seo, Jang-Hoon; Park, Young Chul

    2007-01-01

    The caspase-recruitment domain of the cytosolic pathogen receptor Nod1 was crystallized. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.9 Å resolution. The caspase-recruitment domain (CARD) is known to play an important role in apoptosis and inflammation as an essential protein–protein interaction domain. The CARD of the cytosolic pathogen receptor Nod1 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography and gel filtration. The purified CARD was crystallized at 277 K using the microseeding method. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.9 Å resolution. The crystals belong to space group P3{sub 1} or P3{sub 2}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 79.1, c = 80.9 Å. Preliminary analysis indicates that there is one dimeric CARD molecule in the asymmetric unit.

  2. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa AlgL

    PubMed Central

    Wolfram, Francis; Arora, Kritica; Robinson, Howard; Neculai, Ana Mirela; Yip, Patrick; Howell, P. Lynne

    2012-01-01

    The periplasmic alginate lyase AlgL is essential for the synthesis and export of the exopolysaccharide alginate in Pseudomonas sp. and also plays a role in its depolymerization. P. aeruginosa PAO1 AlgL has been overexpressed and purified and diffraction-quality crystals were grown using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals grew as thin plates, with unit-cell parameters a = 56.4, b = 59.6, c = 102.1 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. The AlgL crystals exhibited the symmetry of space group P212121 and diffracted to a minimum d-­spacing of 1.64 Å. Based on the Matthews coefficient (V M = 2.20 Å3 Da−1), one molecule is estimated to be present in the asymmetric unit. PMID:22691793

  3. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa AlgX

    PubMed Central

    Weadge, Joel T.; Yip, Patrick P.; Robinson, Howard; Arnett, Krista; Tipton, Peter A.; Howell, P. Lynne

    2010-01-01

    AlgX is a periplasmic protein required for the production of the exopoly­saccharide alginate in Pseudomonas sp. and Azotobacter vinelandii. AlgX has been overexpressed and purified and diffraction-quality crystals have been grown using iterative seeding and the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method. The crystals grew as flat plates with unit-cell parameters a = 46.4, b = 120.6, c = 86.9 Å, β = 95.7°. The crystals exhibited the symmetry of space group P21 and diffracted to a minimum d-spacing of 2.1 Å. On the basis of the Matthews coefficient (V M = 2.25 Å3 Da−1), two molecules were estimated to be present in the asymmetric unit. PMID:20445266

  4. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of human chondroadherin

    PubMed Central

    Pramhed, Anna; Addis, Laura; Tillgren, Viveka; Wenglén, Christina; Heinegård, Dick; Logan, Derek T.

    2008-01-01

    Chondroadherin is a cartilage matrix protein that is known to mediate the adhesion of isolated chondrocytes. Its protein core is composed of 11 leucine-rich repeats flanked by cysteine-rich domains at the N- and C-terminal ends. Recombinant human chondroadherin was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 56.4, b = 111.3, c = 128.5 Å, β = 92.2, and are most likely to contain four molecules in the asymmetric unit. The crystals diffracted to at least 2.3 Å using synchrotron radiation, but structure determination using molecular replacement has so far been unsuccessful. PMID:18540064

  5. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of inositol dehydrogenase (IDH) from Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Van Straaten, K. E.; Hoffort, A.; Palmer, D. R. J.; Sanders, D. A. R.

    2008-01-01

    Inositol dehydrogenase (IDH) is an enzyme that catalyses the NAD+-dependent oxidation of myo-inositol to scyllo-inosose. The enzyme has been purified to homogeneity by means of Ni2+-affinity chromatography and was crystallized in both native and selenomethionine (SeMet) labelled forms using the microbatch method. SAD X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.0 Å resolution from a SeMet-labelled crystal at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) and a MAD data set was collected to 1.75 Å resolution at the Canadian Light Source (CLS); this is the first reported anomalous diffraction experiment from the CLS. The crystals belong to space group I222 and contain one molecule per asymmetric unit. PMID:18259059

  6. Expression, Purification and Crystallization of the Herpesvirus Nuclear Egress Complex (NEC)

    PubMed Central

    Bigalke, Janna M.; Heldwein, Ekaterina E.

    2016-01-01

    The protocol describes the production and crystallization of the soluble form of the nuclear egress complex (NEC) from Herpes simplex virus 1 and Pseudorabies virus. The NEC is a heterodimer that consists of conserved proteins UL31 and UL34. NEC oligomerization deforms the inner nuclear membrane around the capsid in infected cells, thereby mediating capsid budding into the perinuclear space during nuclear egress. We have successfully developed a protocol for large-scale preparation of highly pure NEC from two different viruses in a prokaryotic expression system, which enabled us to crystallize these viral protein complexes and determine their structures. This procedure may be adapted to purify and crystallize other soluble protein complexes. PMID:28042595

  7. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of uridine phosphorylase from Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Dontsova, Mariya V; Savochkina, Yulia A; Gabdoulkhakov, Azat G; Baidakov, Sergey N; Lyashenko, Andrey V; Zolotukhina, Maria; Errais Lopes, Liubov; Garber, Mariya B; Morgunova, Ekaterina Yu; Nikonov, Stanislav V; Mironov, Alexandr S; Ealick, Steven E; Mikhailov, Al 'Bert M

    2004-04-01

    The structural udp gene encoding uridine phosphorylase (UPh) was cloned from the Salmonella typhimurium chromosome and overexpressed in Escherichia coli cells. S. typhimurium UPh (StUPh) was purified to apparent homogeneity and crystallized. The primary structure of StUPh has high homology to the UPh from E. coli, but the enzymes differ substantially in substrate specificity and sensitivity to the polarity of the medium. Single crystals of StUPh were grown using hanging-drop vapor diffusion with PEG 8000 as the precipitant. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.9 A resolution. Preliminary analysis of the diffraction data indicated that the crystal belonged to space group P6(1(5)), with unit-cell parameters a = 92.3, c = 267.5 A. The solvent content is 37.7% assuming the presence of one StUPh hexamer per asymmetric unit.

  8. Expression, purification, crystallization and structure of human adipocyte lipid-binding protein (aP2)

    SciTech Connect

    Marr, Eric; Tardie, Mark; Carty, Maynard; Brown Phillips, Tracy; Wang, Ing-Kae; Soeller, Walt; Qiu, Xiayang Karam, George

    2006-11-01

    The crystal structure of human adipocyte lipid-binding protein (aP2) with a bound palmitate is reported at 1.5 Å resolution. Human adipocyte lipid-binding protein (aP2) belongs to a family of intracellular lipid-binding proteins involved in the transport and storage of lipids. Here, the crystal structure of human aP2 with a bound palmitate is described at 1.5 Å resolution. Unlike the known crystal structure of murine aP2 in complex with palmitate, this structure shows that the fatty acid is in a folded conformation and that the loop containing Phe57 acts as a lid to regulate ligand binding by excluding solvent exposure to the central binding cavity.

  9. Purification, crystallization and initial crystallographic characterization of the Ginkgo biloba 11S seed globulin ginnacin

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Tengchuan; Chen, Yu-Wei; Howard, Andrew; Zhang, Yu-Zhu

    2008-07-01

    The crystallization of ginnacin, the 11S seed storage protein from G. biloba, is reported. Ginkgo biloba, a well known ‘living fossil’ native to China, is grown worldwide as an ornamental shade plant. Medicinal and nutritional uses of G. biloba in Asia have a long history. However, ginkgo seed proteins have not been well studied at the biochemical and molecular level. In this study, the G. biloba 11S seed storage protein ginnacin was purified by sequential anion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. A crystallization screen was performed and well diffracting single crystals were obtained by the vapor-diffusion method. A molecular-replacement structural solution has been obtained. There are six protomers in an asymmetric unit. Structure refinement is currently in progress.

  10. Eukaryotic expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of murine Manic Fringe

    SciTech Connect

    Jinek, Martin; Conti, Elena

    2006-08-01

    The catalytic domain of the murine glycosyltransferase Manic Fringe was expressed in insect cells. Removal by site-directed mutagenesis of two N-glycosylation sites present in the protein was essential to obtain crystals that diffracted to 1.8 Å resolution. Fringe proteins are Golgi-resident β1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases that regulate development in metazoa through glycosylation of the Notch receptor and its ligands. The catalytic domain of murine Manic Fringe was expressed in the baculovirus/insect-cell system as a secreted protein. Mass-spectrometric analysis of the purified protein indicated the presence of two N-linked glycans. Abolishing the glycosylation sites by site-directed mutagenesis was necessary in order to obtain orthorhombic crystals that diffracted to 1.8 Å resolution. For phasing, a highly redundant data set was collected using a crystal soaked with halide salts.

  11. Purification, crystallization and preliminary diffraction studies of an ectromelia virus glutaredoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Bacik, John-Paul; Brigley, Angela M.; Channon, Lisa D.; Audette, Gerald F.; Hazes, Bart

    2005-06-01

    Ectromelia virus glutaredoxin has been crystallized in the presence of the reducing agent DTT. A diffraction data set has been collected and processed to 1.8 Å resolution. Ectromelia, vaccinia, smallpox and other closely related viruses of the orthopoxvirus genus encode a glutaredoxin gene that is not present in poxviruses outside of this genus. The vaccinia glutaredoxin O2L has been implicated as the reducing agent for ribonucleotide reductase and may thus play an important role in viral deoxyribonucleotide synthesis. As part of an effort to understand nucleotide metabolism by poxviruses, EVM053, the O2L ortholog of the ectromelia virus, has been crystallized. EVM053 crystallizes in space group C222{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 61.98, b = 67.57, c = 108.55 Å. Diffraction data have been processed to 1.8 Å resolution and a self-rotation function indicates that there are two molecules per asymmetric unit.

  12. Purification, crystallization and preliminary structural analysis of nucleoside diphosphate kinase from Bacillus anthracis

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, Gauri; Aggarwal, Anita; Mittal, Sonia; Singh, Yogendra; Ramachandran, Ravishankar

    2007-12-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinase from B. anthracis has been crystallized. Preliminary crystallographic analysis shows that there is one monomer in the asymmetric unit of the crystal. Bacillus anthracis nucleoside diphosphate kinase (BaNdk) is an enzyme whose primary function is to maintain deoxynucleotide triphosphate (dNTP) pools by converting deoxynucleotide diphosphates to triphosphates using ATP as the major phosphate donor. Although the structures of Ndks from a variety of organisms have been elucidated, the enzyme from sporulating bacteria has not been structurally characterized to date. Crystals of the B. anthracis enzyme were grown using the vapour-diffusion method from a hanging drop consisting of 2 µl 10 mg ml{sup −1} protein in 50 mM Tris–HCl pH 8.0, 50 mM NaCl, 5 mM EDTA equilibrated against 500 µl reservoir solution consisting of 2.25 M ammonium formate and 0.1 M HEPES buffer pH 7.25. Diffraction data extending to 2.0 Å were collected at room temperature from a single crystal with unit-cell parameters a = b = 107.53, c = 52.3 Å. The crystals are hexagonal in shape and belong to space group P6{sub 3}22. The crystals contain a monomer in the asymmetric unit, which corresponds to a Matthews coefficient (V{sub M}) of 2.1 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of about 36.9%.

  13. Purification of Restriction Endonuclease EcoRII and its Co-Crystallization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpova, E. A.; Chen, L.; Meehan, E.; Pusey, M.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Restriction endonuclease EcoRII (EcoRII) is a homodimeric DNA-binding protein. It belongs to the type II family of restriction-modification enzymes (subclass IIe). EcoRII recognizes the nucleotide sequence 5'-CCWGG (W=A or T) and cleaves the phosphodiester bond preceding the first cytosine. Methylation at C5 of the second cytosine inhibits cleavage. The enzyme has a unique ability to search for the presence of two substrate sites before cleavage. To the best of our knowledge no other subclass IIe restriction endonuclease has been crystallized yet, without or with a DNA-substrate. We have recently grown and characterized the crystals of this enzyme (1) Here we report on the result of co-crystallization experiments of EcoRII with an 11 b.p. oligonucleotide substrate. The dissociation constant (Kd) EcoRII: 11 b.p. was determined earlier (unpublished results). The needle-like crystals of oligonucleotide-EcoRII protein complex were obtained with this substrate by the technique of vapor diffusion hanging drops. The crystals obtained were washed and dissolved in an aliquot of 10 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH=7.5. Running a portion of this solution on the SDS-get indicated the presence of endonuclease in the solution. A UV-spectrophotometric test of a second portion confirmed the presence of DNA. We are now working on improvement of the DNA-EcoRII protein crystals. Results obtained from these and ongoing efforts will be reported.

  14. Purification and crystallization of dengue and West Nile virus NS2B–NS3 complexes

    SciTech Connect

    D’Arcy, Allan Chaillet, Maxime; Schiering, Nikolaus; Villard, Frederic; Lim, Siew Pheng; Lefeuvre, Peggy; Erbel, Paul

    2006-02-01

    Crystals of dengue serotype 2 and West Nile virus NS2B–NS3 protease complexes have been obtained and the crystals of both diffract to useful resolution. Sample homogeneity was essential for obtaining X-ray-quality crystals of the dengue protease. Controlled proteolysis produced a crystallizable fragment of the apo West Nile virus NS2B–NS3 and crystals were also obtained in the presence of a peptidic inhibitor. Both dengue and West Nile virus infections are an increasing risk to humans, not only in tropical and subtropical areas, but also in North America and parts of Europe. These viral infections are generally transmitted by mosquitoes, but may also be tick-borne. Infection usually results in mild flu-like symptoms, but can also cause encephalitis and fatalities. Approximately 2799 severe West Nile virus cases were reported this year in the United States, resulting in 102 fatalities. With this alarming increase in the number of West Nile virus infections in western countries and the fact that dengue virus already affects millions of people per year in tropical and subtropical climates, there is a real need for effective medicines. A possible therapeutic target to combat these viruses is the protease, which is essential for virus replication. In order to provide structural information to help to guide a lead identification and optimization program, crystallizations of the NS2B–NS3 protease complexes from both dengue and West Nile viruses have been initiated. Crystals that diffract to high resolution, suitable for three-dimensional structure determinations, have been obtained.

  15. Purification, crystallization and initial crystallographic characterization of peanut major allergen Ara h 3

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Tengchuan; Howard, Andrew; Zhang, Yu-Zhu

    2007-01-01

    The peanut is a significant food source, but is responsible for many cases of anaphylaxis. The peanut 11S legumin-like seed storage protein Ara h 3 is one of the best characterized allergens. In this study, Ara h 3 was extracted from peanut kernels and purified by sequential anion-exchange, hydrophobic interaction and gel-filtration chromatography to very high purity to facilitate crystallization and structural studies. Well diffracting single crystals were obtained by the vapor-diffusion method. A molecular-replacement structural solution has been obtained and refinement of the structure is currently under way. PMID:17909286

  16. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of peroxidase from the palm tree Chamaerops excelsa

    PubMed Central

    Textor, Larissa C.; Santos, Jademilson C.; Hidalgo Cuadrado, Nazaret; Roig, Manuel G.; Zhadan, Galina G.; Shnyrov, Valery L.; Polikarpov, Igor

    2011-01-01

    Plant peroxidases are presently used extensively in a wide range of bio­technological applications owing to their high environmental and thermal stability. As part of efforts towards the discovery of appealing new biotechnological enzymes, the peroxidase from leaves of the palm tree Chamaerops excelsa (CEP) was extracted, purified and crystallized in its native form. An X-­ray diffraction data set was collected at a synchrotron source and data analysis showed that the CEP crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 70.2, b = 100.7, c = 132.3 Å. PMID:22139187

  17. Isolation, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of chitinase from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Dipak N.; Datta, Manali; Chaudhary, Anshul; Tomar, Shailly; Kumar Sharma, Ashwani; Kumar, Pravindra

    2009-01-01

    A protein with chitinase activity has been isolated and purified from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds. N-terminal amino-acid sequence analysis of this protein confirmed it to be an ∼34 kDa endochitinase which belongs to the acidic class III chitinase family. The protein was crystallized by the vapour-diffusion method using PEG 4000. The crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group P41, with two molecules per asymmetric unit. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.6 Å. PMID:19342775

  18. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray studies of Lactobacillus jensenii enolase

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Paul T.; Raghunathan, Kannan; Spurbeck, Rachel R.; Arvidson, Cindy G.; Arvidson, Dennis N.

    2010-09-02

    Recombinant Lactobacillus jensenii enolase fused to a C-terminal noncleavable His tag was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized by sitting-drop vapor diffusion. A complete data set was collected to 3.25 {angstrom} resolution. The crystals belonged to space group I4, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 145.31, c = 99.79 {angstrom}. There were two protein subunits in the asymmetric unit, which gave a Matthews coefficient V{sub M} of 2.8 {angstrom}{sup 3} Da{sup -1}, corresponding to 55.2% solvent content.

  19. Cloning, overproduction, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of yeast glutaredoxin Grx5.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; He, Yong Xing; Yu, Jiang; Zhou, Cong Zhao

    2009-06-01

    Grx5 from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a monothiol glutaredoxin that is involved in iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis. Here, yeast Grx5 was cloned and overproduced in Escherichia coli. The purified protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Diffraction data for Grx5 were collected to 1.67 A resolution. The crystal of Grx5 belonged to space group R3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 85.12, c = 48.95 A, alpha = beta = 90.00, gamma = 120.00 degrees .

  20. Protein purification in multicompartment electrolyzers for crystal growth of r-DNA products in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Casale, Elena; Carter, Daniel; Snyder, Robert S.; Wenisch, Elisabeth; Faupel, Michel

    1990-01-01

    Recombinant-DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) (r-DNA) proteins, produced in large quantities for human consumption, are now available in sufficient amounts for crystal growth. Crystallographic analysis is the only method now available for defining the atomic arrangements within complex biological molecules and decoding, e.g., the structure of the active site. Growing protein crystals in microgravity has become an important aspect of biology in space, since crystals that are large enough and of sufficient quality to permit complete structure determinations are usually obtained. However even small amounts of impurities in a protein preparation are anathema for the growth of a regular crystal lattice. A multicompartment electrolyzer with isoelectric, immobiline membranes, able to purify large quantities of r-DNA proteins is described. The electrolyzer consists of a stack of flow cells, delimited by membranes of very precise isoelectric point (pI, consisting of polyacrylamide supported by glass fiber filters containing Immobiline buffers and titrants to uniquely define a pI value) and very high buffering power, able to titrate all proteins tangent or crossing such membranes. By properly selecting the pI values of two membranes delimiting a flow chamber, a single protein can be kept isoelectric in a single flow chamber and thus, be purified to homogeneity (by the most stringent criterion, charge homogeneity).

  1. Overexpression, purification and crystallization of a choline-binding protein CbpI from Streptococcus pneumoniae

    SciTech Connect

    Paterson, Neil G. Riboldi-Tunicliffe, Alan; Mitchell, Timothy J.; Isaacs, Neil W.

    2006-07-01

    The choline-binding protein CbpI from S. pneumoniae has been purified and crystallized and diffraction data have been collected to 3.5 Å resolution. The choline-binding protein CbpI from Streptococcus pneumoniae is a 23.4 kDa protein with no known function. The protein has been successfully purified initially using Ni–NTA chromatography and to homogeneity using Q-Sepharose ion-exchange resin as an affinity column. CbpI was crystallized using PEG 3350 as a precipitant and X-ray crystallographic analysis showed that the crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group P4, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 83.31, c = 80.29 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. The crystal contains two molecules in the asymmetric unit with a solvent content of 55.7% (V{sub M} = 2.77 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}) and shows a diffraction limit of 3.5 Å.

  2. Expression, purification, crystallization and crystallographic study of Lutzomyia longipalpis LJL143

    SciTech Connect

    Kelleher, Alan; Liu, Zhuyun; Seid, Christopher A.; Zhan, Bin; Asojo, Oluwatoyin A.

    2015-06-27

    LJL143, a salivary protein from L. longipalpis, was produced using P. pastoris and crystallized in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}. Leishmaniasis is a neglected vector-borne disease with a global prevalence of over 12 million cases and 59 000 annual deaths. Transmission of the parasite requires salivary proteins, including LJL143 from the New World sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis. LJL143 is a known marker of sandfly exposure in zoonotic hosts. LJL143 was crystallized from soluble protein expressed using Pichia pastoris. X-ray data were collected to 2.6 Å resolution from orthorhombic crystals belonging to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with average unit-cell parameters a = 57.39, b = 70.24, c = 79.58 Å. The crystals are predicted to have a monomer in the asymmetric unit, with an estimated solvent content of 48.5%. LJL143 has negligible homology to any reported structures, so the phases could not be determined by molecular replacement. All attempts at S-SAD failed and future studies include experimental phase determination using heavy-atom derivatives.

  3. RESEARCH IN PURIFICATION AND SINGLE CRYSTAL GROWTH OF II-VI COMPOUNDS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    on the zoning of a doped cadmium test bar is presented. The syntheses of high purity cadmium sulfide, cadmium selenide , zinc sulfide, and zinc...ray characterization of this material are presented. Crystal growth of cadmium sulfide, zinc sulfide, cadmium selenide , zinc selenide, and mixed

  4. The purification, crystallization and preliminary diffraction of a glycerophosphodiesterase from Enterobacter aerogenes

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Colin J.; Carr, Paul D.; Kim, Hye-Kyung; Liu, Jian-Wei; Ollis, David L.

    2006-07-01

    The metallo-glycerophosphodiesterase from E. aerogenes (GpdQ) has been cloned, expressed in E. coli and purified. Initial screening of crystallization conditions for this enzyme resulted in the identification of needles from one condition in a sodium malonate grid screen. Removal of the metals from the enzyme and subsequent optimization of these conditions led to crystals. The metallo-glycerophosphodiesterase from Enterobacter aerogenes (GpdQ) has been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Initial screening of crystallization conditions for this enzyme resulted in the identification of needles from one condition in a sodium malonate grid screen. Removal of the metals from the enzyme and subsequent optimization of these conditions led to crystals that diffracted to 2.9 Å and belonged to space group P2{sub 1}3, with unit-cell parameter a = 164.1 Å. Self-rotation function analysis and V{sub M} calculations indicated that the asymmetric unit contains two copies of the monomeric enzyme, corresponding to a solvent content of 79%. It is intended to determine the structure of this protein utilizing SAD phasing from transition metals or molecular replacement.

  5. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies on 2-dehydro-3-deoxygalactarate aldolase from Leptospira interrogans

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xu; Huang, Hua; Song, Xiaomin; Wang, Yanli; Xu, Hang; Teng, Maikun; Gong, Weimin

    2006-01-01

    2-Dehydro-3-deoxygalactarate (DDG) aldolase is a member of the class II aldolase family and plays an important role in the pyruvate-metabolism pathway, catalyzing the reversible aldol cleavage of DDG to pyruvate and tartronic semialdehyde. As it is a potential novel antibiotic target, it is necessary to elucidate the catalytic mechanism of DDG aldolase. To determine the crystal structure, crystals of DDG aldolase from Leptospira interrogans were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffracted to 2.2 Å resolution using a Cu Kα rotating-anode X-ray source. The crystal belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 293.5, b = 125.6, c = 87.6 Å, β = 100.9°. The V M is calculated to be 2.4 Å3 Da−1, assuming there to be 12 protein molecules in the asymmetric unit. PMID:17142914

  6. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of glutathione peroxidase Gpx3 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhu; Zhou, Cong-Zhao

    2006-06-01

    The glutathione peroxidase Gpx3 from the yeast S. cerevisiae has been overexpressed, purified, crystallized and diffracted to 2.6 Å resolution. Gpx3 is a monomer in solution which is different from its counterparts in mammals. The glutathione peroxidase Gpx3 from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been overexpressed, purified and crystallized. Both gel-filtration and dynamic light-scattering (DLS) results indicate that Gpx3 is a monomer in solution at a concentration of about 2 mg ml{sup −1}, whereas glutathione peroxidases are normally tetrameric or dimeric. X-ray diffraction data from a single crystal of Gpx3 have been collected to 2.6 Å resolution. The crystals are triclinic and belong to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 38.187, b = 43.372, c = 56.870 Å, α = 71.405, β = 73.376, γ = 89.633°. There are two Gpx3 monomers in a crystallographic asymmetric unit. Preliminary analyses show that the yeast Gpx3 is quite different from those of mammals.

  7. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of cytochrome P450 203A1 from Rhodopseudomonas palustris

    SciTech Connect

    Pang, Xiaoyun; Xu, Feng; Bell, Stephen G.; Guo, Delin; Wong, Luet-Lok; Rao, Zihe

    2007-04-01

    The cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP203A1 from Rhodopseudomonas palustris binds a wide range of highly substituted aromatic compounds and may play an important role in the astonishing metabolic diversity of this organism. Crystals of CYP203A1 that diffract to 2.0 Å resolution have been obtained. Cytochrome P450 enzymes constitute a large family of haemoproteins that catalyze the monooxygenation of a great variety of endogenous and exogenous organic compounds. Cytochrome P450 203A1 (CYP203A1, RPA1009) from the metabolically versatile organism Rhodopseudomonas palustris binds a broad range of substrates, in particular substituted aromatic compounds. Crystals of CYP203A1 suitable for X-ray crystallography have been obtained and diffraction data were collected in-house to 2.0 Å resolution from a single crystal. The crystals belong to space group P222, with unit-cell parameters a = 40.1, b = 95.1, c = 99.0 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. There is one protein molecule per asymmetric unit.

  8. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of plant S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase (Lupinus luteus)

    SciTech Connect

    Brzezinski, Krzysztof; Bujacz, Grzegorz; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2008-07-01

    Single crystals of recombinant S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase from L. luteus in complex with adenosine diffract X-rays to 1.17 Å resolution at 100 K. The crystals are tetragonal, space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, and contain one copy of the dimeric enzyme in the asymmetric unit. By degrading S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine, which is a byproduct of S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent methylation reactions, S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase (SAHase) acts as a regulator of cellular methylation processes. S-Adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase from the leguminose plant yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus), LlSAHase, which is composed of 485 amino acids and has a molecular weight of 55 kDa, has been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Crystals of LlSAHase in complex with adenosine were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using 20%(w/v) PEG 4000 and 10%(v/v) 2-propanol as precipitants in 0.1 M Tris–HCl buffer pH 8.0. The crystals were tetragonal, space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 122.4, c = 126.5 Å and contained two protein molecules in the asymmetric unit, corresponding to the functional dimeric form of the enzyme. Atomic resolution (1.17 Å) X-ray diffraction data have been collected using synchrotron radiation.

  9. Purification and crystallization of the human EF-hand tumour suppressor protein S100A2

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Michael; Diez, Joachim; Fritz, Günter

    2006-11-01

    Human recombinant tumour suppressor S100A2 and a mutant lacking cysteine residues have been purified and crystallized. Only the crystals of the mutant protein diffracted to appropriate resolution and a complete data set was recorded at 1.7 Å. S100A2 is a Ca{sup 2+}-binding EF-hand protein that is mainly localized in the nucleus. There, it acts as a tumour suppressor by binding and activating p53. Wild-type S100A2 and a S100A2 variant lacking cysteines have been purified. CD spectroscopy showed that there are no changes in secondary-structure composition. The S100A2 mutant was crystallized in a calcium-free form. The crystals, with dimensions 30 × 30 × 70 µm, diffract to 1.7 Å and belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 43.5, b = 57.8, c = 59.8 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. Preliminary analysis of the X-ray data indicates that there are two subunits per asymmetric unit.

  10. Protein purification in multicompartment electrolyzers for crystal growth of r-DNA products in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Casale, Elena; Carter, Daniel; Snyder, Robert S.; Wenisch, Elisabeth; Faupel, Michel

    1990-01-01

    Recombinant-DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) (r-DNA) proteins, produced in large quantities for human consumption, are now available in sufficient amounts for crystal growth. Crystallographic analysis is the only method now available for defining the atomic arrangements within complex biological molecules and decoding, e.g., the structure of the active site. Growing protein crystals in microgravity has become an important aspect of biology in space, since crystals that are large enough and of sufficient quality to permit complete structure determinations are usually obtained. However even small amounts of impurities in a protein preparation are anathema for the growth of a regular crystal lattice. A multicompartment electrolyzer with isoelectric, immobiline membranes, able to purify large quantities of r-DNA proteins is described. The electrolyzer consists of a stack of flow cells, delimited by membranes of very precise isoelectric point (pI, consisting of polyacrylamide supported by glass fiber filters containing Immobiline buffers and titrants to uniquely define a pI value) and very high buffering power, able to titrate all proteins tangent or crossing such membranes. By properly selecting the pI values of two membranes delimiting a flow chamber, a single protein can be kept isoelectric in a single flow chamber and thus, be purified to homogeneity (by the most stringent criterion, charge homogeneity).

  11. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana imidazoleglycerol-phosphate dehydratase

    SciTech Connect

    Glynn, Steven E.; Baker, Patrick J.; Sedelnikova, Svetlana E.; Levy, Colin W.; Rodgers, H. Fiona; Blank, Jutta; Hawkes, Timothy R.; Rice, David W.

    2005-08-01

    Imidazoleglycerol-phosphate dehydratase from A. thaliana has been overexpressed, purified and crystallized and data have been collected to 3 Å resolution. Imidazoleglycerol-phosphate dehydratase catalyses the sixth step of the histidine-biosynthesis pathway in plants and microorganisms and has been identified as a possible target for the development of novel herbicides. Arabidopsis thaliana IGPD has been cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and subsequently crystallized in the presence of manganese. Under these conditions, the inactive trimeric form of the metal-free enzyme is assembled into a fully active species consisting of a 24-mer exhibiting 432 symmetry. X-ray diffraction data have been collected to 3.0 Å resolution from a single crystal at 293 K. The crystal belongs to space group R3, with approximate unit-cell parameters a = b = 157.9, c = 480.0 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120° and with either 16 or 24 subunits in the asymmetric unit. A full structure determination is under way in order to provide insights into the mode of subunit assembly and to initiate a programme of rational herbicide design.

  12. The complex between SOS3 and SOS2 regulatory domain from Arabidopsis thaliana: cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Barrena, María José; Moreno-Pérez, Sandra; Angulo, Iván; Martínez-Ripoll, Martín; Albert, Armando

    2007-01-01

    The salt-tolerance genes SOS3 (salt overly sensitive 3) and SOS2 (salt overly sensitive 2) regulatory domain of Arabidopsis thaliana were cloned into a polycistronic plasmid and the protein complex was expressed in Escherichia coli, allowing purification to homogeneity in three chromatographic steps. Crystals were grown using vapour-diffusion techniques. The crystals belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 44.14, b = 57.39, c = 141.90 Å. PMID:17620712

  13. Overexpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary structural studies of catabolic ornithine transcarbamylase from Lactobacillus hilgardii

    PubMed Central

    de las Rivas, Blanca; Rodríguez, Héctor; Angulo, Iván; Muñoz, Rosario; Mancheño, José M.

    2007-01-01

    The catabolic ornithine transcarbamylase (cOTC; EC 2.1.3.3) from the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus hilgardii is a key protein involved in the degradation of arginine during malolactic fermentation. cOTC containing an N-terminal His6 tag has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized under two different experimental conditions using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Crystals obtained from a solution containing 8%(w/v) PEG 4000, 75 mM sodium acetate pH 4.6 belong to the trigonal space group P321 and have unit-cell parameters a = b = 157.04, c = 79.28 Å. Conversely, crystals grown in 20%(v/v) 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol, 7.5%(w/v) PEG 4000, 100 mM HEPES pH 7.8 belong to the monoclinic space group C2 and have unit-cell parameters a = 80.06, b = 148.90, c = 91.67 Å, β = 100.25°. Diffraction data were collected in-house to 3.00 and 2.91 Å resolution for trigonal and monoclinic crystals, respectively. The estimated Matthews coefficient for the crystal forms were 2.36 and 2.24 Å3 Da−1, respectively, corresponding to 48% and 45% solvent content. In both cases, the results are consistent with the presence of three protein subunits in the asymmetric unit. The structure of cOTC has been determined by the molecular-replacement method using the atomic coordinates of cOTC from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PDB code 1dxh) as the search model. PMID:17620711

  14. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies to near-atomic resolution of dihydrodipicolinate synthase from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, Benjamin R.; Dobson, Renwick C. J. Dogovski, Con; Jameson, Geoffrey B.; Parker, Michael W.; Perugini, Matthew A.

    2008-07-01

    Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS), an enzyme of the lysine-biosynthetic pathway, is a promising target for antibiotic development against pathogenic bacteria. Here, the expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary diffraction analysis to 1.45 Å resolution of DHDPS from methicillin-resistant S. aureus is reported. In recent years, dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS; EC 4.2.1.52) has received considerable attention from both mechanistic and structural viewpoints. DHDPS is part of the diaminopimelate pathway leading to lysine, coupling (S)-aspartate-β-semialdehyde with pyruvate via a Schiff base to a conserved active-site lysine. In this paper, the cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of DHDPS from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, an important bacterial pathogen, are reported. The enzyme was crystallized in a number of forms, predominantly from PEG precipitants, with the best crystal diffracting to beyond 1.45 Å resolution. The space group was P1 and the unit-cell parameters were a = 65.4, b = 67.6, c = 78.0 Å, α = 90.1, β = 68.9, γ = 72.3°. The crystal volume per protein weight (V{sub M}) was 2.34 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}, with an estimated solvent content of 47% for four monomers per asymmetric unit. The structure of the enzyme will help to guide the design of novel therapeutics against the methicillin-resistant S. aureus pathogen.

  15. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of human S100A15

    SciTech Connect

    Boeshans, Karen M.; Wolf, Ronald; Voscopoulos, Christopher; Gillette, William; Esposito, Dominic; Mueser, Timothy C.; Yuspa, Stuart H.; Ahvazi, Bijan

    2006-05-01

    S100 proteins are differentially expressed during epithelial cell maturation, tumorigenesis and inflammation. The novel human S100A15 protein has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized in two crystal forms, a triclinic and a monoclinic form, which diffract to 1.7 and 2.0 Å, respectively. Human S100A15 is a novel member of the S100 family of EF-hand calcium-binding proteins and was recently identified in psoriasis, where it is significantly upregulated in lesional skin. The protein is implicated as an effector in calcium-mediated signal transduction pathways. Although its biological function is unclear, the association of the 11.2 kDa S100A15 with psoriasis suggests that it contributes to the pathogenesis of the disease and could provide a molecular target for therapy. To provide insight into the function of S100A15, the protein was crystallized to visualize its structure and to further the understanding of how the many similar calcium-binding mediator proteins in the cell distinguish their cognate target molecules. The S100A15 protein has been cloned, expressed and purified to homogeneity and produced two crystal forms. Crystals of form I are triclinic, with unit-cell parameters a = 33.5, b = 44.3, c = 44.8 Å, α = 71.2, β = 68.1, γ = 67.8° and an estimated two molecules in the asymmetric unit, and diffract to 1.7 Å resolution. Crystals of form II are monoclinic, with unit-cell parameters a = 82.1, b = 33.6, c = 52.2 Å, β = 128.2° and an estimated one molecule in the asymmetric unit, and diffract to 2.0 Å resolution. This structural analysis of the human S100A15 will further aid in the phylogenic comparison between the other members of the S100 protein family, especially the highly homologous paralog S100A7.

  16. Overexpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary structural studies of catabolic ornithine transcarbamylase from Lactobacillus hilgardii

    SciTech Connect

    Rivas, Blanca de las; Rodríguez, Héctor; Angulo, Iván; Muñoz, Rosario; Mancheño, José M.

    2007-07-01

    The catabolic ornithine transcarbamylase (cOTC) from L. hilgardii has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized under two different experimental conditions. The structure has been solved by the molecular-replacement method using the atomic coordinates of catabolic ornithine transcarbamylase from P. aeruginosa as the search model. The catabolic ornithine transcarbamylase (cOTC; EC 2.1.3.3) from the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus hilgardii is a key protein involved in the degradation of arginine during malolactic fermentation. cOTC containing an N-terminal His{sub 6} tag has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized under two different experimental conditions using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Crystals obtained from a solution containing 8%(w/v) PEG 4000, 75 mM sodium acetate pH 4.6 belong to the trigonal space group P321 and have unit-cell parameters a = b = 157.04, c = 79.28 Å. Conversely, crystals grown in 20%(v/v) 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol, 7.5%(w/v) PEG 4000, 100 mM HEPES pH 7.8 belong to the monoclinic space group C2 and have unit-cell parameters a = 80.06, b = 148.90, c = 91.67 Å, β = 100.25°. Diffraction data were collected in-house to 3.00 and 2.91 Å resolution for trigonal and monoclinic crystals, respectively. The estimated Matthews coefficient for the crystal forms were 2.36 and 2.24 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}, respectively, corresponding to 48% and 45% solvent content. In both cases, the results are consistent with the presence of three protein subunits in the asymmetric unit. The structure of cOTC has been determined by the molecular-replacement method using the atomic coordinates of cOTC from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PDB code) as the search model.

  17. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of an NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Helicobacter pylori

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Paul R.; Evans, Daniel; Greenwood, Jacqueline A.; Moody, Peter C. E.

    2008-08-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase A has been cloned, expressed and purified. Apoprotein crystals have been grown which diffracted to 1.75 Å resolution and belonged to space group P2{sub 1}; holo crystals were grown in the presence of NADP, diffracted to 2.6 Å resolution and belonged to space group P3{sub 2}. The classical glycolytic pathway contains an NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, with NADP-dependent forms reserved for photosynthetic organisms and archaea. Here, the cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of an NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Helicobacter pylori is reported; crystals of the protein were grown both in the presence and the absence of NADP.

  18. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary structure determination of glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (UgpG) from Sphingomonas elodea ATCC 31461 bound to glucose-1-phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Aragão, D.; Marques, A. R.; Frazão, C.; Enguita, F. J.; Carrondo, M. A.; Fialho, A. M.; Sá-Correia, I.; Mitchell, E. P.

    2006-01-01

    The cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (UgpG) from Sphingomonas elodea ATCC 31461 bound to glucose-1-phosphate are reported. Diffraction data sets were obtained from seven crystal forms in five different space groups, with highest resolutions ranging from 4.20 to 2.65 Å. The phase problem was solved for a P21 crystal form using multiple isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering from an osmium derivative and a SeMet derivative. The best native crystal in space group P21 has unit-cell parameters a = 105.5, b = 85.7, c = 151.8 Å, β = 105.2°. Model building and refinement are currently under way. PMID:16946483

  19. Studies on the "Aerobic" Acetyl-Coenzyme A Synthetase of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae: Purification, Crystallization, and Physical Properties of the Enzyme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satyanarayana, T.; Klein, Harold P.

    1976-01-01

    A procedure for the purification of a stable acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase (ACS) from aerobic cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is presented. The steps include differential centrifugation, solubilization of the bound enzyme from the crude mitochondrial fraction, ammonium sulfate fractionation, crystallization to constant specific activity from ammonium sulfate solutions followed by Bio-Gel A-1.5 m column chromatography. The resulting enzyme preparation is homogeneous as judged by chromatography on Bio-Gel columns, QAE-Sephadex A-50 anion exchange columns, analytical ultracentrifugal studies, and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Sedimentation velocity runs revealed a single symmetric peak with an s(sub (20,w)) value of 10.6. The molecular weight of the native enzyme, as determined by gel filtration and analytical ultracentrifugation, is 250,000 +/- 500. In polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate, the molecular weight of the single polypeptide chain is 83,000 +/- 500. The purified enzyme is inhibited by palmityl-coenzyme A with a Hill interaction coefficient, n, of 2.88. These studies indicate that the ACS of aerobic Saccharomyces cerevisiae is composed of three subunits of identical or nearly identical size.

  20. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the human mismatch repair protein MutS[beta

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, Quincy; Orans, Jillian; Hast, Michael A.; Iyer, Ravi R.; Changela, Anita; Modrich, Paul L.; Beese, Lorena S.

    2012-03-16

    MutS{beta} is a eukaryotic mismatch repair protein that preferentially targets extrahelical unpaired nucleotides and shares partial functional redundancy with MutS{alpha} (MSH2-MSH6). Although mismatch recognition by MutS{alpha} has been shown to involve a conserved Phe-X-Glu motif, little is known about the lesion-binding mechanism of MutS{beta}. Combined MSH3/MSH6 deficiency triggers a strong predisposition to cancer in mice and defects in msh2 and msh6 account for roughly half of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer mutations. These three MutS homologs are also believed to play a role in trinucleotide repeat instability, which is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative disorders. The baculovirus overexpression and purification of recombinant human MutS{beta} and three truncation mutants are presented here. Binding assays with heteroduplex DNA were carried out for biochemical characterization. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the protein bound to a heteroduplex DNA substrate are also reported.

  1. Expression, purification, enzymatic characterization and crystallization of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Naegleria gruberi, the first one from phylum Percolozoa.

    PubMed

    Machado, Agnes Thiane Pereira; Silva, Marcio; Iulek, Jorge

    2016-11-01

    Naegleria gruberi had its genome sequenced by Fritz-Laylin and collaborators in 2010. It is not pathogenic, but has characteristics similar to those of Naegleria fowleri, opportunistic pathogen that can cause fatal encephalitis in humans. N. gruberi genome has contributed to a better understanding of the primitive eukaryotic metabolism and revealed the complexity of several metabolic pathways. In this paper we describe the expression, purification, enzyme characterization and crystallization of N. gruberi GAPDH, the first one for an organism belonging to phylum Percolozoa. The results indicated that 10 mM, 8.0 and 25 °C are the optimum arsenate concentration, pH and temperature, respectively. The enzyme presents allosteric positive cooperativity for substrates NAD(+) and G3P as indicated by the Hill coefficients. The phylogenetic proximity between N. fowleri and N. gruberi suggests that contributions from the study of the latter might provide information to assist the search for treatments of Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis, especially, in this work, taking into account that GAPDH is identified as a therapeutic target.

  2. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray studies of Vibrio cholerae pseudopilin EpsH

    SciTech Connect

    Raghunathan, Kannan; Vago, Frank S.; Ball, Terry; Yakubova, Nafissa; Grindem, David; Wedemeyer, William J.; Arvidson, Dennis N.

    2010-01-12

    EpsH is a minor pseudopilin protein of the Vibrio cholerae type II secretion system. A truncated form of EpsH with a C-terminal noncleavable His tag was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized by sitting-drop vapor diffusion. A complete data set was collected to 1.71 {angstrom} resolution. The crystals belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 53.39, b = 71.11, c = 84.64 {angstrom}. There were two protein molecules in the asymmetric unit, which gave a Matthews coefficient V{sub M} of 2.1 {angstrom}{sup 3} Da{sup -1}, corresponding to 41.5% solvent content.

  3. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the glyoxalase II from Leishmania infantum

    PubMed Central

    Trincão, José; Sousa Silva, Marta; Barata, Lídia; Bonifácio, Cecília; Carvalho, Sandra; Tomás, Ana Maria; Ferreira, António E. N.; Cordeiro, Carlos; Ponces Freire, Ana; Romão, Maria João

    2006-01-01

    In trypanosomatids, trypanothione replaces glutathione in all glutathione-dependent processes. Of the two enzymes involved in the glyoxalase pathway, glyoxalase I and glyoxalase II, the latter shows absolute specificity towards trypanothione thioester, making this enzyme an excellent model to understand the molecular basis of trypanothione binding. Cloned glyoxalase II from Leishmania infantum was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. Crystals belong to space group C2221 (unit-cell parameters a = 65.6, b = 88.3, c = 85.2 Å) and diffract beyond 2.15 Å using synchrotron radiation. The structure was solved by molecular replacement using the human glyoxalase II structure as a search model. These results, together with future detailed kinetic characterization using lactoyltrypanothione, should shed light on the evolutionary selection of trypanothione instead of glutathione by trypano­somatids. PMID:16880563

  4. Expression, purification and crystallization of a dye-decolourizing peroxidase from Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Rai, Amrita; Fedorov, Roman; Manstein, Dietmar J

    2014-02-01

    Dye-decolourizing peroxidases are haem-containing peroxidases with broad substrate specificity. Using H2O2 as an electron acceptor, they efficiently decolourize various dyes that are of industrial and environmental relevance, such as anthraquninone- and azo-based dyes. In this study, the dye-decolourizing peroxidase DdDyP from Dictyostelium discoideum was overexpressed in Escherichia coli strain Rosetta(DE3)pLysS, purified and crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method. A native crystal diffracted to 1.65 Å resolution and belonged to space group P4(1)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 141.03, c = 95.56 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. The asymmetric unit contains two molecules.

  5. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of Bifidobacterium adolescentis xylose isomerase

    PubMed Central

    dos Reis, Caio Vinicius; Bernardes, Amanda; Polikarpov, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Xylose isomerase (EC 5.3.1.5) is a key enzyme in xylose metabolism which is industrially important for the transformation of glucose and xylose into fructose and xylulose, respectively. The Bifidobacterium adolescentis xylA gene (NC_008618.1) encoding xylose isomerase (XI) was cloned and the enzyme was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Purified recombinant XI was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method with polyethylene glycol 3350 as the precipitating agent. A complete native data set was collected to 1.7 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 88.78, b = 123.98, c = 78.63 Å. PMID:23695585

  6. Purification, crystallization and initial crystallographic characterization of brazil-nut allergen Ber e 2

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Feng; Jin, Tengchuan; Howard, Andrew; Zhang, Yu-Zhu

    2007-11-01

    The crystallization of the brazil nut allergen Ber e 2 is reported. Peanut and tree-nut allergies have attracted considerable attention because of their frequency and their lifelong persistence. Brazil-nut (Bertholletia excelsa) allergies have been well documented and the 11S legumin-like seed storage protein Ber e 2 (excelsin) is one of the two known brazil-nut allergens. In this study, Ber e 2 was extracted from brazil-nut kernels and purified to high purity by crystalline precipitation and gel-filtration chromatography. Well diffracting single crystals were obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A molecular-replacement structural solution has been obtained. Refinement of the structure is currently under way.

  7. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of Streptococcus pyogenes laminin-binding protein Lbp

    PubMed Central

    Linke, Christian; Caradoc-Davies, Tom T.; Proft, Thomas; Baker, Edward N.

    2008-01-01

    The laminin-binding protein Lbp (Spy2007) from Streptococcus pyogenes (a group A streptococcus) mediates adhesion to the human basal lamina glycoprotein laminin. Accordingly, Lbp is essential in in vitro models of cell adhesion and invasion. However, the molecular and structural basis of laminin binding by bacteria remains unknown. Therefore, the lbp gene has been cloned for recombinant expression in Escherichia coli. Lbp has been purified and crystallized from 30%(w/v) PEG 1500 by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 42.62, b = 92.16, c = 70.61 Å, β = 106.27°, and diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution. PMID:18259070

  8. Expression, Purification, Crystallization And Preliminary X-Ray Studies of Histamine Dehydrogenase From Nocardioides Simplex

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, T.M.; Hirakawa, H.; Mure, M.; Scott, E.E.; Limburg, J.

    2009-05-21

    Histamine dehydrogenase (HADH) from Nocardioides simplex catalyzes the oxidative deamination of histamine to produce imidazole acetaldehyde and an ammonium ion. HADH is functionally related to trimethylamine dehydrogenase (TMADH), but HADH has strict substrate specificity towards histamine. HADH is a homodimer, with each 76 kDa subunit containing two redox cofactors: a [4Fe-4S] cluster and an unusual covalently bound flavin mononucleotide, 6-S-cysteinyl-FMN. In order to understand the substrate specificity of HADH, it was sought to determine its structure by X-ray crystallography. This enzyme has been expressed recombinantly in Escherichia coli and successfully crystallized in two forms. Diffraction data were collected to 2.7 {angstrom} resolution at the SSRL synchrotron with 99.7% completeness. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 101.14, b = 107.03, c = 153.35 {angstrom}.

  9. Overexpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray studies of Vibrio cholerae EpsG

    SciTech Connect

    Jens, Jason; Raghunathan, Kannan; Vago, Frank; Arvidson, Dennis

    2010-01-12

    EpsG is the major pseudopilin protein of the Vibrio cholerae type II secretion system. An expression plasmid that encodes an N-terminally truncated form of EpsG with a C-terminal noncleavable His tag was constructed. Recombinant EpsG was expressed in Escherichia coli; the truncated protein was purified and crystallized by hanging-drop vapor diffusion against a reservoir containing 6 mM zinc sulfate, 60 mM MES pH 6.5, 15% PEG MME 550. The crystals diffracted X-rays to a resolution of 2.26 {angstrom} and belonged to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 88.61, b = 70.02, c = 131.54 {angstrom}.

  10. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of biotin protein ligase from Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Pendini, Nicole R.; Polyak, Steve W.; Booker, Grant W.; Wallace, John C.; Wilce, Matthew C. J.

    2008-01-01

    Biotin protein ligase from Staphylococcus aureus catalyses the biotinylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and pyruvate carboxylase. Recombinant biotin protein ligase from S. aureus has been cloned, expressed and purified. Crystals were grown using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 8000 as the precipitant at 295 K. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.3 Å resolution from crystals using synchrotron X-ray radiation at 100 K. The diffraction was consistent with the tetragonal space group P42212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 93.665, c = 131.95. PMID:18540065

  11. Expression, purification and crystallization of the ammonium transporter Amt-1 from Archaeoglobus fulgidus

    SciTech Connect

    Andrade, Susana L. A. Dickmanns, Antje; Ficner, Ralf; Einsle, Oliver

    2005-09-01

    The ammonium transporter Amt-1 from the cytoplasmic membrane of the hyperthermophilic archaeon A. fulgidus has been purified and crystallized. Ammonium transporters (Amts) are a class of membrane-integral transport proteins found in organisms from all kingdoms of life. Their key function is the transport of nitrogen in its reduced bioavailable form, ammonia, across cellular membranes, a crucial step in nitrogen assimilation for biosynthetic purposes. The genome of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus has been annotated with three individual genes for ammonium transporters, amt1–3, the roles of which are as yet unknown. The amt1 gene product has been produced by heterologous overexpression in Escherichia coli and the resulting protein has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. Crystals of Amt-1 have been obtained by sitting-drop vapour diffusion and diffraction data have been collected.

  12. The Myb domain of LUX ARRHYTHMO in complex with DNA: expression, purification and crystallization.

    PubMed

    Silva, Catarina S; Lai, Xuelei; Nanao, Max; Zubieta, Chloe

    2016-05-01

    LUX ARRHYTHMO (LUX) is a Myb-domain transcription factor that plays an important role in regulating the circadian clock. Lux mutations cause severe clock defects and arrhythmia in constant light and dark. In order to examine the molecular mechanisms underlying the function of LUX, the DNA-binding Myb domain was cloned, expressed and purified. The DNA-binding activity of the Myb domain was confirmed using electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs), demonstrating that the LUX Myb domain is able to bind to DNA with nanomolar affinity. In order to investigate the specificity determinants of protein-DNA interactions, the protein was co-crystallized with a 10-mer cognate DNA. Initial crystallization results for the selenomethionine-derivatized protein and data-set collection statistics are reported. Data collection was performed using the MeshAndCollect workflow available at the ESRF.

  13. Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic study of calcium-binding protein 5 from Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Zaidi, Rana; Gourinath, Samudrala

    2012-12-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of human amoebiasis. Phagocytosis is the major route of food intake by this parasite and is responsible for its virulence. Calcium and calcium-binding proteins play major roles in its phagocytosis. Calcium-binding protein 5 from E. histolytica (EhCaBP5) is a cytoplasmic protein; its expression is very sensitive to serum starvation and it seems to be involved in binding to myosin I. In this study, EhCaBP5 was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using affinity and size-exclusion chromatography. The purified protein crystallized in space group C222 and the crystals diffracted to 2 Å resolution. The Matthews coefficient indicated the presence of one molecule in the asymmetric unit, with a VM of 2.35 Å3 Da(-1) and a solvent content of 47.7%.

  14. Expression, purification, crystallization, and preliminary X-Ray analysis of the human UDP-glucose dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jae Wan; Robinson, Robert Charles; Lee, Han Sam; Lee, Jae Il; Heo, Yong Seok; Kim, Hyun Tae; Lee, Hyun Ju; Cho, Sung Woo; Choe, Han

    2006-01-01

    UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (UGDH) catalyzes the synthesis of UDP-glucuronic acid from UDP-glucose resulting in the formation of proteoglycans that are involved in promoting normal cellular growth and migration. Overproduction of proteoglycans has been implicated in the progression of certain epithelial cancers. Here, human UGDH (hUGDH) was purified and crystallized from a solution of 0.2 M ammonium sulfate, 0.1 M Na cacodylate, pH 6.5, and 21% PEG 8000. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.8 A. The crystal belongs to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) with unit-cell parameters a = 173.25, b = 191.16, c = 225.94 A, and alpha = beta = gamma = 90.0 degrees. Based on preliminary analysis of the diffraction data, we propose that the biological unit of hUGDH is a tetramer.

  15. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of xylose reductase from Candida tropicalis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li-Chun; Huang, Sheng-Cih; Chuankhayan, Phimonphan; Chen, Chung-Der; Huang, Yen-Chieh; Jeyakanthan, Jeyaraman; Pang, Hsiao-Fang; Men, Lee-Chung; Chen, Yu-Ching; Wang, Yu-Kuo; Liu, Ming-Yih; Wu, Tung-Kung; Chen, Chun-Jung

    2009-01-01

    Xylose reductase (XR), which requires NADPH as a co-substrate, catalyzes the reduction of d-xylose to xylitol, which is the first step in the metabolism of d-­xylose. The detailed three-dimensional structure of XR will provide a better understanding of the biological significance of XR in the efficient production of xylitol from biomass. XR of molecular mass 36.6 kDa from Candida tropicalis was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. According to X-ray diffraction data from C. tropicalis XR crystals at 2.91 Å resolution, the unit cell belongs to space group P31 or P32. Preliminary analysis indicated the presence of four XR molecules in the asymmetric unit, with 68.0% solvent content. PMID:19342796

  16. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of Zucchini from Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Fukuhara, Satoshi; Nishimasu, Hiroshi; Bonnefond, Luc; Matsumoto, Naoki; Ishitani, Ryuichiro; Nureki, Osamu

    2012-11-01

    PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) bind PIWI proteins and silence transposons to maintain the genomic integrity of germ cells. Zucchini (Zuc), a phospholipase D superfamily member, is conserved among animals and is implicated in piRNA biogenesis. However, the underlying mechanism by which Zuc participates in piRNA biogenesis remains elusive. Drosophila melanogaster Zuc (DmZuc) was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.75 Å resolution. The crystal belonged to space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a=55.0, b=71.2, c=56.3 Å, β=107.9°.

  17. Purification, crystallization and data collection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sar2676, a pantothenate synthetase

    PubMed Central

    Seetharamappa, Jaldappagari; Oke, Muse; Liu, Huanting; McMahon, Stephen A.; Johnson, Kenneth A.; Carter, Lester; Dorward, Mark; Zawadzki, Michal; Overton, Ian M.; van Niekirk, C. A. Johannes; Graham, Shirley; Botting, Catherine H.; Taylor, Garry L.; White, Malcolm F.; Barton, Geoffrey J.; Coote, Peter J.; Naismith, James H.

    2007-01-01

    Sar2676, a pantothenate synthetase with a molecular weight of 31 419 Da from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, has been expressed, purified and crystallized at 293 K. The protein crystallizes in a primitive triclinic lattice, with unit-cell parameters a = 45.3, b = 60.5, c = 117.6 Å, α = 87.2, β = 81.2, γ = 68.4°. A complete data set has been collected to 2.3 Å resolution at the ESRF. Consideration of the likely solvent content suggested the asymmetric unit to contain four molecules. This has been confirmed by molecular-replacement phasing calculations, which give a solution with four monomers using a monomer of pantothenate synthetase from Escherichia coli (PDB code 1iho), which is 41% identical to Sar2676, as a search model. PMID:17554169

  18. Cloning, Sequencing, Purification, and Crystal Structure of Grenache (Vitis vinifera) Polyphenol Oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Virador, V.; Reyes Grajeda, J; Blanco-Labra, A; Mendiola-Olaya, E; Smith, G; Moreno, A; Whitaker, J

    2010-01-01

    The full-length cDNA sequence (P93622{_}VITVI) of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) cDNA from grape Vitis vinifera L., cv Grenache, was found to encode a translated protein of 607 amino acids with an expected molecular weight of ca. 67 kDa and a predicted pI of 6.83. The translated amino acid sequence was 99%, identical to that of a white grape berry PPO (1) (5 out of 607 amino acid potential sequence differences). The protein was purified from Grenache grape berries by using traditional methods, and it was crystallized with ammonium acetate by the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method. The crystals were orthorhombic, space group C2221. The structure was obtained at 2.2 {angstrom} resolution using synchrotron radiation using the 39 kDa isozyme of sweet potato PPO (PDB code: 1BT1) as a phase donor. The basic symmetry of the cell parameters (a, b, and c and {alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma}) as well as in the number of asymmetric units in the unit cell of the crystals of PPO, differed between the two proteins. The structures of the two enzymes are quite similar in overall fold, the location of the helix bundles at the core, and the active site in which three histidines bind each of the two catalytic copper ions, and one of the histidines is engaged in a thioether linkage with a cysteine residue. The possibility that the formation of the Cys-His thioether linkage constitutes the activation step is proposed. No evidence of phosphorylation or glycoslyation was found in the electron density map. The mass of the crystallized protein appears to be only 38.4 kDa, and the processing that occurs in the grape berry that leads to this smaller size is discussed.

  19. Solutal Convection Around Growing Protein Crystal and Diffusional Purification in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernov, A. A.; Lee, C. P.

    2002-01-01

    This work theoretically addressed two subjects: 1) onset of convection, 2) distribution of impurities. Onset of convection was considered analytically and numerically. Crystal growth was characterized by slow surface incorporation kinetics, i.e. growth kinetic coefficient beta (cm/s) small as compared to the typical bulk diffusion rate, D(sub 1)/h, where D(sub 1) is diffusivity of major crystallizing protein and h is the crystal size. Scaling type analysis predicted two laws on how the convection rate, v, essentially the Peclet number, Pe exactly equal to vh/D(sub 1), depends on dimensionless kinetic coefficient a exactly equal to beta h/D(sub 1). Namely: Pe = C(sub 2/5)(aRa(sup 2/5)) and Pe = C(sub 1) aRa. Here, Reynolds number Ra = rho(sub 1)(sup 0)gh(sup 3)(rho(sub p) - rho(sub w))/rho(sup p)rho(sub 1)vD(sub 1), v being solution viscosity. The constants C(sub 2/5), exactly equal to 0.28 and C(sub 1) exactly equal to 10(exp -2) found from the full scale computer simulation for a cylindrical crystal inside big cylindrical vessel. The linear boundary conditions connecting protein and impurity concentration at the interface with the flux to/from the interface was applied. No-slip condition for Navier-Shocker equations was employed. With these conditions, flow and concentration distributions were calculated. Validity of the Pe(Ra) dependencies follows for wide range of parameters for which numerical calculations have been accomplished and presented by various points.

  20. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray study of the fungal laccase from Cerrena maxima

    PubMed Central

    Lyashenko, Andrey V.; Zhukhlistova, Nadegda E.; Gabdoulkhakov, Azat G.; Zhukova, Yuliya N.; Voelter, Wolfang; Zaitsev, Viatcheslav N.; Bento, Isabel; Stepanova, Elena V.; Kachalova, Galina S.; Koroleva, Ol’ga V.; Cherkashyn, Evgeniy A.; Tishkov, Vladimir I.; Lamzin, Victor S.; Schirwitz, Katja; Morgunova, Ekaterina Yu.; Betzel, Christian; Lindley, Peter F.; Mikhailov, Al’bert M.

    2006-01-01

    Laccases are members of the blue multi-copper oxidase family that oxidize substrate molecules by accepting electrons at a mononuclear copper centre and transferring them to a trinuclear centre. Dioxygen binds to the trinuclear centre and, following the transfer of four electrons, is reduced to two molecules of water. Crystals of the laccase from Cerrena maxima have been obtained and X-­ray data were collected to 1.9 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. A preliminary analysis shows that the enzyme has the typical laccase structure and several carbohydrate sites have been identified. The carbohydrate chains appear to be involved in stabilization of the intermolecular contacts in the crystal structure, thus promoting the formation of well ordered crystals of the enzyme. Here, the results of an X-ray crystallographic study on the laccase from the fungus Cerrena maxima are reported. Crystals that diffract well to a resolution of at least 1.9 Å (R factor = 18.953%; R free = 23.835; r.m.s.d. bond lengths, 0.06 Å; r.m.s.d. bond angles, 1.07°) have been obtained despite the presence of glycan moieties. The overall spatial organization of C. maxima laccase and the structure of its copper-containing active centre have been determined by the molecular-replacement method using the laccase from Trametes versicolor (Piontek et al., 2002 ▶) as a structural template. In addition, four glycan-binding sites were identified and the 1.9 Å X-ray data were used to determine the previously unknown primary structure of this protein. The identity (calculated from sequence alignment) between the C. maxima laccase and the T. versicolor laccase is about 87%. Tyr196 and Tyr372 show significant extra density at the ortho positions and this has been interpreted in terms of NO2 substituents. PMID:17012782

  1. Expression, purification and crystallization of l-methionine γ-lyase 2 from Entamoeba histolytica

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Dan; Yamagata, Wataru; Kamei, Kaeko; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Harada, Shigeharu

    2006-10-01

    l-Methionine γ-lyase 2 from E. histolytica, a key enzyme in sulfur-containing amino-acid degradation in this protozoan parasite, has been crystallized in a form suitable for X-ray structure analysis. l-Methionine γ-lyase (MGL) is considered to be an attractive target for rational drug development because the enzyme is absent in mammalian hosts. To enable structure-based design of drugs targeting MGL, one of the two MGL isoenzymes (EhMGL2) was crystallized in the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 88.89, b = 102.68, c = 169.87 Å. The crystal diffracted to a resolution of 2.0 Å. The presence of a tetramer in the asymmetric unit (4 × 43.1 kDa) gives a Matthews coefficient of 2.2 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}. The structure was solved by the molecular-replacement method and structure refinement is now in progress.

  2. Overexpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary structural studies of p-coumaric acid decarboxylase from Lactobacillus plantarum

    SciTech Connect

    Rodríguez, Héctor; Rivas, Blanca de las; Muñoz, Rosario; Mancheño, José M.

    2007-04-01

    The enzyme p-coumaric acid decarboxylase (PDC) from L. plantarum has been recombinantly expressed, purified and crystallized. The structure has been solved at 2.04 Å resolution by the molecular-replacement method. The substrate-inducible p-coumaric acid decarboxylase (PDC) from Lactobacillus plantarum has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and confirmed to possess decarboxylase activity. The recombinant His{sub 6}-tagged enzyme was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method from a solution containing 20%(w/v) PEG 4000, 12%(w/v) 2-propanol, 0.2 M sodium acetate, 0.1 M Tris–HCl pH 8.0 with 0.1 M barium chloride as an additive. Diffraction data were collected in-house to 2.04 Å resolution. Crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group P4{sub 3}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 43.15, c = 231.86 Å. The estimated Matthews coefficient was 2.36 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}, corresponding to 48% solvent content, which is consistent with the presence of two protein molecules in the asymmetric unit. The structure of PDC has been determined by the molecular-replacement method. Currently, the structure of PDC complexed with substrate analogues is in progress, with the aim of elucidating the structural basis of the catalytic mechanism.

  3. Expression, purification, crystallization and crystallographic study of Lutzomyia longipalpis LJL143

    PubMed Central

    Kelleher, Alan; Liu, Zhuyun; Seid, Christopher A.; Zhan, Bin; Asojo, Oluwatoyin A.

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected vector-borne disease with a global prevalence of over 12 million cases and 59 000 annual deaths. Transmission of the parasite requires salivary proteins, including LJL143 from the New World sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis. LJL143 is a known marker of sandfly exposure in zoonotic hosts. LJL143 was crystallized from soluble protein expressed using Pichia pastoris. X-ray data were collected to 2.6 Å resolution from ortho­rhombic crystals belonging to space group P212121, with average unit-cell parameters a = 57.39, b = 70.24, c = 79.58 Å. The crystals are predicted to have a monomer in the asymmetric unit, with an estimated solvent content of 48.5%. LJL143 has negligible homology to any reported structures, so the phases could not be determined by molecular replacement. All attempts at S-SAD failed and future studies include experimental phase determination using heavy-atom derivatives. PMID:26144240

  4. Purification and Crystal Growth of Lead Iodide by Physical Vapor Transport Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, G. W.; Cole, M.; Chen, Y.-F.; Chen, K.-T.; Chen, H.; Chattopadhyay, K.; Burger, A.

    1998-01-01

    Lead iodide (PbI2) is a layered compound semiconductor being developed as room temperature x- and gamma-ray detector. Compared to the more studied material, mercuric iodide, PbI2 has a higher melting temperature and no phase transition until liquid phase which are indications of better mechanical properties. In this study, the source material was purified by the zone-refining process, and the purest section was extracted from center of the the zone-refined ingot to be grown by physical vapor transport (PVT) method. The zone-refined material and as-grown crystals were characterized by optical microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to reveal the surface morphology, purity and stoichiometry. The results shows that both materials are near-stoichiometric composition, with the purity of the as-grown crystals higher than zone-refined materials. The resistivity of the as-grown crystal (10" Omega-cm) was derived from current-voltage (I-V) measurement, and is 10 times higher than the zone-refined materials. Detail results will be presented and discussed.

  5. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction experiment of nattokinase from Bacillus subtilis natto

    PubMed Central

    Yanagisawa, Yasuhide; Chatake, Toshiyuki; Chiba-Kamoshida, Kaori; Naito, Sawa; Ohsugi, Tadanori; Sumi, Hiroyuki; Yasuda, Ichiro; Morimoto, Yukio

    2010-01-01

    Nattokinase is a single polypeptide chain composed of 275 amino acids (molecular weight 27 724) which displays strong fibrinolytic activity. Moreover, it can activate other fibrinolytic enzymes such as pro-urokinase and tissue plasminogen activator. In the present study, native nattokinase from Bacillus subtilis natto was purified using gel-filtration chromatography and crystallized to give needle-like crystals which could be used for X-ray diffraction experiments. The crystals belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 74.3, b = 49.9, c = 56.3 Å, β = 95.2°. Diffraction images were processed to a resolution of 1.74 Å with an R merge of 5.2% (15.3% in the highest resolution shell) and a completeness of 69.8% (30.0% in the highest resolution shell). This study reports the first X-ray diffraction analysis of nattokinase. PMID:21139221

  6. Expression, Purification, Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Analysis of Pseudomonas fluorescens AlgK

    SciTech Connect

    Keiski,C.; Yip, P.; Robinson, H.; Burrows, L.; Howell, P.

    2007-01-01

    AlgK is an outer-membrane lipoprotein involved in the biosynthesis of alginate in Pseudomonads and Azotobacter vinelandii. A recombinant form of Pseudomonas fluorescens AlgK with a C-terminal polyhistidine affinity tag has been expressed and purified from the periplasm of Escherichia coli cells and diffraction-quality crystals of AlgK have been grown using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals grow as flat plates with unit-cell parameters a = 79.09, b = 107.85, c = 119.15 {angstrom}, = 96.97{sup o}. The crystals exhibit the symmetry of space group P2{sub 1} and diffract to a minimum d-spacing of 2.5 {angstrom} at Station X29 of the National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory. On the basis of the Matthews coefficient (V{sub M} = 2.53 {angstrom}{sup 3} Da{sup -1}), four protein molecules are estimated to be present in the asymmetric unit.

  7. Purification, Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Crystallographic Studies of RAIDD Death-Domain (DD)

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, T.; Park, H

    2009-01-01

    Caspase-2 activation by formation of PIDDosome is critical for genotoxic stress induced apoptosis. PIDDosome is composed of three proteins, RAIDD, PIDD, and Caspase-2. RAIDD is an adaptor protein containing an N-terminal Caspase-Recruiting-Domain (CARD) and a C-terminal Death-Domain (DD). Its interactions with Caspase-2 and PIDD through CARD and DD respectively and formation of PIDDosome are important for the activation of Caspase-2. RAIDD DD cloned into pET26b vector was expressed in E. coli cells and purified by nickel affinity chromatography and gel filtration. Although it has been known that the most DDs are not soluble in physiological condition, RAIDD DD was soluble and interacts tightly with PIDD DD in physiological condition. The purified RAIDD DD alone has been crystallized. Crystals are trigonal and belong to space group P3121 (or its enantiomorph P3221) with unit-cell parameters a = 56.3, b = 56.3, c = 64.9 and ? = 120 degrees. The crystals were obtained at room temperature and diffracted to 2.0 A resolution.

  8. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of mouse myo-inositol oxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Peter M. Caradoc-Davies, Tom T.; Dickson, James M.; Cooper, Garth J. S.; Loomes, Kerry M.; Baker, Edward N.

    2006-08-01

    Mouse myo-inositol oxygenase, a key enzyme involved in inositol catabolism, has been expressed, purified and crystallized in a form suitable for structure determination by X-ray crystallography. Myo-inositol oxygenase (MIOX) catalyzes the novel oxidative cleavage of myo-inositol (MI) and its epimer d-chiro inositol (DCI) to d-glucuronate. MIOX utilizes an Fe{sup II}/Fe{sup III} binuclear iron centre for the dioxygen-dependent cleavage of the C1—C6 bond in MI. Despite its key role in inositol metabolism, the structural basis of its unique four-electron oxidation mechanism and its substrate specificity remain unknown. In order to answer these questions and to facilitate the use of this key enzyme for the development of new therapeutic strategies for diabetes, the mouse enzyme has been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized from 4.4 M sodium formate. The crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 44.87, b = 77.26, c = 84.84 Å, and diffract to 2.8 Å resolution.

  9. Overexpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary diffraction studies of the Protaminobacter rubrum sucrose isomerase SmuA

    SciTech Connect

    Ravaud, Stéphanie; Watzlawick, Hildegard; Haser, Richard; Mattes, Ralf; Aghajari, Nushin

    2006-01-01

    The P. rubrum sucrose isomerase SmuA, a key enzyme in the industrial production of isomaltulose, was crystallized and diffraction data were collected to 1.95 Å resolution. Palatinose (isomaltulose, α-d-glucosylpyranosyl-1,6-d-fructofuranose), a nutritional and acariogenic reducing sugar, is industrially obtained from sucrose by using immobilized cells of Protaminobacter rubrum that produce the sucrose isomerase SmuA. The isomerization of sucrose catalyzed by this enzyme also results in the formation of trehalulose (α-d-glucosylpyranosyl-1,1-d-fructofuranose) in smaller amounts and glucose, fructose and eventually isomaltose as by-products, which lower the yield of the reaction and complicate the recovery of palatinose. The determination of the three-dimensional structure of SmuA will provide a basis for rational protein-engineering studies in order to optimize the industrial production of palatinose. A recombinant form of the 67.3 kDa SmuA enzyme has been crystallized in the native state by the vapour-diffusion method. Crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 61.6, b = 81.4, c = 135.6 Å, and diffract to 1.95 Å resolution on a synchrotron-radiation source.

  10. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of human cystathionine β-synthase

    PubMed Central

    Oyenarte, Iker; Majtan, Tomas; Ereño, June; Corral-Rodríguez, María Angeles; Kraus, Jan P.; Martínez-Cruz, Luis Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    Human cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) is a pyridoxal-5′-phosphate-dependent hemeprotein, whose catalytic activity is regulated by S-adenosylmethionine. CBS catalyzes the β-replacement reaction of homocysteine (Hcy) with serine to yield cystathionine. CBS is a key regulator of plasma levels of the thrombogenic Hcy and deficiency in CBS is the single most common cause of homocystinuria, an inherited metabolic disorder of sulfur amino acids. The properties of CBS enzymes, such as domain organization, oligomerization degree or regulatory mechanisms, are not conserved across the eukaryotes. The current body of knowledge is insufficient to understand these differences and their impact on CBS function and physiology. To overcome this deficiency, we have addressed the crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a protein construct (hCBS516–525) that contains the full-length CBS from Homo sapiens (hCBS) and just lacks amino-acid residues 516–525, which are located in a disordered loop. The human enzyme yielded crystals belonging to space group I222, with unit-cell parameters a = 124.98, b = 136.33, c = 169.83 Å and diffracting X-rays to a resolution of 3.0 Å. The crystal structure appears to contain two molecules in the asymmetric unit which presumably correspond to a dimeric form of the enzyme. PMID:23143240

  11. Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary structural studies of penicillin V acylase from Bacillus subtilis

    SciTech Connect

    Rathinaswamy, Priya; Pundle, Archana V.; Prabhune, Asmita A.; SivaRaman, Hepzibah; Brannigan, James A. Dodson, Guy G.; Suresh, C. G.

    2005-07-01

    An unannotated protein reported from B. subtilis has been expressed in E. coli and identified as possessing penicillin V acylase activity. The crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of this penicillin V acylase is presented. Penicillin acylase proteins are amidohydrolase enzymes that cleave penicillins at the amide bond connecting the side chain to their β-lactam nucleus. An unannotated protein from Bacillus subtilis has been expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and confirmed to possess penicillin V acylase activity. The protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method from a solution containing 4 M sodium formate in 100 mM Tris–HCl buffer pH 8.2. Diffraction data were collected under cryogenic conditions to a spacing of 2.5 Å. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group C222{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 111.0, b = 308.0, c = 56.0 Å. The estimated Matthews coefficient was 3.23 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}, corresponding to 62% solvent content. The structure has been solved using molecular-replacement methods with B. sphaericus penicillin V acylase (PDB code 2pva) as the search model.

  12. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray study of the fungal laccase from Cerrena maxima

    SciTech Connect

    Lyashenko, Andrey V.; Zhukhlistova, Nadegda E.; Gabdoulkhakov, Azat G.; Zhukova, Yuliya N.; Voelter, Wolfang; Zaitsev, Viatcheslav N.; Bento, Isabel; Stepanova, Elena V.; Kachalova, Galina S.; Koroleva, Ol’ga V.; Cherkashyn, Evgeniy A.; Tishkov, Vladimir I.; Lamzin, Victor S.; Schirwitz, Katja; Betzel, Christian; Mikhailov, Al’bert M.

    2006-10-01

    The crystallization and preliminary X-ray structure at 1.9 Å resolution of the fungal laccase from C. maxima are presented. Laccases are members of the blue multi-copper oxidase family that oxidize substrate molecules by accepting electrons at a mononuclear copper centre and transferring them to a trinuclear centre. Dioxygen binds to the trinuclear centre and, following the transfer of four electrons, is reduced to two molecules of water. Crystals of the laccase from Cerrena maxima have been obtained and X-ray data were collected to 1.9 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. A preliminary analysis shows that the enzyme has the typical laccase structure and several carbohydrate sites have been identified. The carbohydrate chains appear to be involved in stabilization of the intermolecular contacts in the crystal structure, thus promoting the formation of well ordered crystals of the enzyme. Here, the results of an X-ray crystallographic study on the laccase from the fungus Cerrena maxima are reported. Crystals that diffract well to a resolution of at least 1.9 Å (R factor = 18.953%; R{sub free} = 23.835; r.m.s.d. bond lengths, 0.06 Å; r.m.s.d. bond angles, 1.07°) have been obtained despite the presence of glycan moieties. The overall spatial organization of C. maxima laccase and the structure of its copper-containing active centre have been determined by the molecular-replacement method using the laccase from Trametes versicolor (Piontek et al., 2002 ▶) as a structural template. In addition, four glycan-binding sites were identified and the 1.9 Å X-ray data were used to determine the previously unknown primary structure of this protein. The identity (calculated from sequence alignment) between the C. maxima laccase and the T. versicolor laccase is about 87%. Tyr196 and Tyr372 show significant extra density at the ortho positions and this has been interpreted in terms of NO{sub 2} substituents.

  13. Identification of succinic semialdehyde reductases from Geobacter: expression, purification, crystallization, preliminary functional, and crystallographic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Gao, Xiaoli; Zheng, Yi; Garavito, R. Michael

    2012-04-30

    Succinic semialdehyde reductase (SSAR) is an important enzyme involved in {gamma}-aminobutyrate (GABA) metabolism. By converting succinic semialdehyde (SSA) to {gamma}-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), the SSAR facilitates an alternative pathway for GABA degradation. In this study, we identified SSARs from Geobacter sulfurreducens and Geobacter metallireducens (GsSSAR and GmSSAR, respectively). The enzymes were over-expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to near homogeneity. Both GsSSAR and GmSSAR showed the activity of reducing SSA using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate as a co-factor. The oligomeric sizes of GsSSAR and GmSSAR, as determined by analytical size exclusion chromatography, suggest that the enzymes presumably exist as tetramers in solution. The recombinant GsSSAR and GmSSAR crystallized in the presence of NADP{sup +}, and the resulting crystals diffracted to 1.89 {angstrom} (GsSSAR) and 2.25 {angstrom} (GmSSAR) resolution. The GsSSAR and GmSSAR crystals belong to the space groups P2{sub 1}22{sub 1} (a = 99.61 {angstrom}, b = 147.49 {angstrom}, c = 182.47 {angstrom}) and P1 (a = 75.97 {angstrom}, b = 79.14 {angstrom}, c = 95.47 {angstrom}, {alpha} = 82.15{sup o}, {beta} = 88.80{sup o}, {gamma} = 87.66{sup o}), respectively. Preliminary crystallographic data analysis suggests the presence of eight protein monomers in the asymmetric units for both GsSSAR and GmSSAR.

  14. Purification, crystallization and initial crystallographic characterization of brazil-nut allergen Ber e 2.

    PubMed

    Guo, Feng; Jin, Tengchuan; Howard, Andrew; Zhang, Yu Zhu

    2007-11-01

    Peanut and tree-nut allergies have attracted considerable attention because of their frequency and their lifelong persistence. Brazil-nut (Bertholletia excelsa) allergies have been well documented and the 11S legumin-like seed storage protein Ber e 2 (excelsin) is one of the two known brazil-nut allergens. In this study, Ber e 2 was extracted from brazil-nut kernels and purified to high purity by crystalline precipitation and gel-filtration chromatography. Well diffracting single crystals were obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A molecular-replacement structural solution has been obtained. Refinement of the structure is currently under way.

  15. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the archaeal virus resolvase SIRV2

    SciTech Connect

    Ennifar, Eric; Basquin, Jerôme; Birkenbihl, Rainer; Suck, Dietrich

    2005-05-01

    The Holliday junction resolvase of the archaeal virus SIRV2 infecting the archaeon Sulfolobus islandicus has been crystallized and a full data set has been collected at 3.4 Å resolution. Analysis of the self-rotation function suggests the presence of two dimers in the asymmetric unit with a solvent content of 77%. The Holliday junction (or four-way junction) is the universal DNA intermediate whose interaction with resolving proteins is one of the major events in the recombinational process. These proteins, called DNA junction-resolving enzymes or resolvases, bind to the junction and catalyse DNA cleavage, promoting the release of two DNA duplexes. SIRV2 Hjc, a viral resolvase infecting a thermophylic archaeon, has been cloned, expressed and purified. Crystals have been obtained in space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 147.8, b = 99.9, c = 87.6, β = 109.46°, and a full data set has been collected at 3.4 Å resolution. The self-rotation function indicates the presence of two dimers in the asymmetric unit and a high solvent content (77%). Molecular-replacement trials using known similar resolvase structures have so far been unsuccessful, indicating possible significant structural rearrangements.

  16. MraZ from Escherichia coli: cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Melanie A.; Udell, Christian M.; Pal, Gour Pada; Jia, Zongchao

    2005-04-01

    The crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of MraZ, formerly known as hypothetical protein YabB, from Escherichia coli K-12 is presented. The MraZ family of proteins, also referred to as the UPF0040 family, are highly conserved in bacteria and are thought to play a role in cell-wall biosynthesis and cell division. The murein region A (mra) gene cluster encodes MraZ proteins along with a number of other proteins involved in this complex process. To date, there has been no clear functional assignment provided for MraZ proteins and the structure of a homologue from Mycoplasma pneumoniae, MPN314, failed to suggest a molecular function. The b0081 gene from Escherichia coli that encodes the MraZ protein was cloned and the protein was overexpressed, purified and crystallized. This data is presented along with evidence that the E. coli homologue exists in a different oligomeric state to the MPN314 protein.

  17. Purification, Refolding, and Crystallization of the Outer Membrane Protein OmpG from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Köster, Stefan; van Pee, Katharina; Yildiz, Özkan

    2015-01-01

    OmpG is a pore-forming protein from E. coli outer membranes. Unlike the classical outer membrane porins, which are trimers, the OmpG channel is a monomeric β-barrel made of 14 antiparallel β-strands with short periplasmic turns and longer extracellular loops. The channel activity of OmpG is pH dependent and the channel is gated by the extracellular loop L6. At neutral/high pH, the channel is open and permeable for substrate molecules with a size up to 900 Da. At acidic pH, loop L6 folds across the channel and blocks the pore. The channel blockage at acidic pH appears to be triggered by the protonation of a histidine pair on neighboring β-strands, which repel one another, resulting in the rearrangement of loop L6 and channel closure. OmpG was purified by refolding from inclusion bodies and crystallized in two and three dimensions. Crystallization and analysis by electron microscopy and X-ray crystallography revealed the fundamental mechanisms essential for the channel activity.

  18. Overexpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary diffraction studies of the Protaminobacter rubrum sucrose isomerase SmuA.

    PubMed

    Ravaud, Stéphanie; Watzlawick, Hildegard; Haser, Richard; Mattes, Ralf; Aghajari, Nushin

    2006-01-01

    Palatinose (isomaltulose, alpha-D-glucosylpyranosyl-1,6-D-fructofuranose), a nutritional and acariogenic reducing sugar, is industrially obtained from sucrose by using immobilized cells of Protaminobacter rubrum that produce the sucrose isomerase SmuA. The isomerization of sucrose catalyzed by this enzyme also results in the formation of trehalulose (alpha-D-glucosylpyranosyl-1,1-D-fructofuranose) in smaller amounts and glucose, fructose and eventually isomaltose as by-products, which lower the yield of the reaction and complicate the recovery of palatinose. The determination of the three-dimensional structure of SmuA will provide a basis for rational protein-engineering studies in order to optimize the industrial production of palatinose. A recombinant form of the 67.3 kDa SmuA enzyme has been crystallized in the native state by the vapour-diffusion method. Crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 61.6, b = 81.4, c = 135.6 A, and diffract to 1.95 A resolution on a synchrotron-radiation source.

  19. Overexpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary structural studies of p-coumaric acid decarboxylase from Lactobacillus plantarum

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Héctor; de las Rivas, Blanca; Muñoz, Rosario; Mancheño, José M.

    2007-01-01

    The substrate-inducible p-coumaric acid decarboxylase (PDC) from Lactobacillus plantarum has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and confirmed to possess decarboxylase activity. The recombinant His6-tagged enzyme was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method from a solution containing 20%(w/v) PEG 4000, 12%(w/v) 2-propanol, 0.2 M sodium acetate, 0.1 M Tris–HCl pH 8.0 with 0.1 M barium chloride as an additive. Diffraction data were collected in-house to 2.04 Å resolution. Crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group P43, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 43.15, c = 231.86 Å. The estimated Matthews coefficient was 2.36 Å3 Da−1, corresponding to 48% solvent content, which is consistent with the presence of two protein molecules in the asymmetric unit. The structure of PDC has been determined by the molecular-replacement method. Currently, the structure of PDC complexed with substrate analogues is in progress, with the aim of elucidating the structural basis of the catalytic mechanism. PMID:17401200

  20. Overexpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary diffraction studies of the Protaminobacter rubrum sucrose isomerase SmuA

    PubMed Central

    Ravaud, Stéphanie; Watzlawick, Hildegard; Haser, Richard; Mattes, Ralf; Aghajari, Nushin

    2006-01-01

    Palatinose (isomaltulose, α-d-glucosylpyranosyl-1,6-d-fructofuranose), a nutritional and acariogenic reducing sugar, is industrially obtained from sucrose by using immobilized cells of Protaminobacter rubrum that produce the sucrose isomerase SmuA. The isomerization of sucrose catalyzed by this enzyme also results in the formation of trehalulose (α-d-glucosylpyranosyl-1,1-d-fructofuranose) in smaller amounts and glucose, fructose and eventually isomaltose as by-products, which lower the yield of the reaction and complicate the recovery of palatinose. The determination of the three-dimensional structure of SmuA will provide a basis for rational protein-engineering studies in order to optimize the industrial production of palatinose. A recombinant form of the 67.3 kDa SmuA enzyme has been crystallized in the native state by the vapour-diffusion method. Crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 61.6, b = 81.4, c = 135.6 Å, and diffract to 1.95 Å resolution on a synchrotron-radiation source. PMID:16511267

  1. Thermostabilization, Expression, Purification, and Crystallization of the Human Serotonin Transporter Bound to S-citalopram

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Jonathan A.; Green, Evan M.; Gouaux, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The serotonin transporter is a sodium and chloride-coupled transporter that "pumps" extracellular serotonin into cells. S-citalopram is a drug used to treat depression and anxiety by binding to the serotonin transporter with high-affinity, blocking serotonin reuptake. Here we report an efficient procedure and a set of tools to stabilize, express, purify, and crystallize serotonin transporter-antibody complexes bound to S-citalopram and other antidepressants. Mutations which stabilize the serotonin transporter were identified using an S-citalopram binding assay. Serotonin transporter expressed in baculovirus-transduced HEK293S GnTI- cells, was reconstituted into proteoliposomes and used to raise high-affinity antibodies. We have developed a strategy to discover antibodies that are useful for structural studies. A straightforward approach for the expression of antibody fragments in Sf9 cells has also been established. Transporter-antibody complexes purified using this procedure are well-behaved and readily crystallize, producing complexes with S-citalopram that diffract X-rays to 3-4 Å resolution. The strategies developed here can be utilized to determine the structure of other challenging membrane proteins. PMID:27929454

  2. Expression, Purification, Assay, and Crystal Structure of Perdeuterated Human Arginase I

    SciTech Connect

    Di Costanzo,L.; Moulin, M.; Haertlein, M.; Meilleur, F.; Christianson, D.

    2007-01-01

    Arginase is a manganese metalloenzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of L-arginine to yield L-ornithine and urea. In order to establish a foundation for future neutron diffraction studies that will provide conclusive structural information regarding proton/deuteron positions in enzyme-inhibitor complexes, we have expressed, purified, assayed, and determined the X-ray crystal structure of perdeuterated (i.e., fully deuterated) human arginase I complexed with 2(S)-amino-6-boronohexanoic acid (ABH) at 1.90 {angstrom} resolution. Prior to the neutron diffraction experiment, it is important to establish that perdeuteration does not cause any unanticipated structural or functional changes. Accordingly, we find that perdeuterated human arginase I exhibits catalytic activity essentially identical to that of the unlabeled enzyme. Additionally, the structure of the perdeuterated human arginase I-ABH complex is identical to that of the corresponding complex with the unlabeled enzyme. Therefore, we conclude that crystals of the perdeuterated human arginase I-ABH complex are suitable for neutron crystallographic study.

  3. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of tomato β-galactosidase 4.

    PubMed

    Eda, Masahiro; Ishimaru, Megumi; Tada, Toshiji

    2015-02-01

    Plant β-galactosidases play important roles in carbohydrate-reserve mobilization, cell-wall expansion and degradation, and turnover of signalling molecules during ripening. Tomato β-galactosidase 4 (TBG4) not only has β-galactosidase activity but also has exo-β-(1,4)-galactanase activity, and prefers β-(1,4)-galactans longer than pentamers as its substrates; most other β-galactosidases only have the former activity. Recombinant TBG4 protein expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris was crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 10,000 as a precipitant. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-parameters a = 92.82, b = 96.30, c = 159.26 Å, and diffracted to 1.65 Å resolution. Calculation of the Matthews coefficient suggested the presence of two monomers per asymmetric unit (VM = 2.2 Å(3) Da(-1)), with a solvent content of 45%.

  4. Expression, purification and crystallization of the ammonium transporter Amt-1 from Archaeoglobus fulgidus.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Susana L A; Dickmanns, Antje; Ficner, Ralf; Einsle, Oliver

    2005-09-01

    Ammonium transporters (Amts) are a class of membrane-integral transport proteins found in organisms from all kingdoms of life. Their key function is the transport of nitrogen in its reduced bioavailable form, ammonia, across cellular membranes, a crucial step in nitrogen assimilation for biosynthetic purposes. The genome of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus has been annotated with three individual genes for ammonium transporters, amt1-3, the roles of which are as yet unknown. The amt1 gene product has been produced by heterologous overexpression in Escherichia coli and the resulting protein has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. Crystals of Amt-1 have been obtained by sitting-drop vapour diffusion and diffraction data have been collected.

  5. Remedial Strategies in Structural Proteomics: Expression, Purification and Crystallization of the Vav1/Rac1 Complex

    PubMed Central

    Brooun, Alexei; Foster, Scott A.; Chrencik, Jill E.; Chien, Ellen Y.T.; Kolatkar, Anand R.; Streiff, Markus; Ramage, Paul; Widmer, Hans; Weckbecker, Gisbert; Kuhn, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The signal transduction pathway involving the Vav1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) and the Rac1 GTPase plays several key roles in the immune response mediated by the T cell receptor. Vav1 is also a unique member of the GEF family in that it contains a cysteine-rich domain (CRD) that is critical for Rac1 binding and maximal guanine nucleotide exchange activity, and thus may provide a unique protein-protein interface compared to other GEF/GTPase pairs. Here we have applied a number of remedial structural proteomics strategies, such as construct and expression optimization, surface mutagenesis, limited proteolysis, and protein formulation to successfully express, purify, and crystallize the Vav1-DH-PH-CRD/Rac1 complex in an active conformation. We have also systematically characterized various Vav1 domains in a GEF assay, and Rac1 in vitro binding experiments. In the context of Vav1-DH-PH-CRD, the zinc finger motif of the CRD is required for the expression of stable Vav1, as well as for activity in both a GEF assay and in vitro formation of a Vav1/Rac1 complex suitable for biophysical and structural characterization. Our data also indicate that the isolated CRD maintains a low level of specific binding to Rac1, appears to be folded based on 1D-NMR analysis and coordinates two zinc ions based on ICP-MS analysis. The protein reagents generated here are essential tools for the determination of a three dimensional Vav1/Rac1 complex crystal structure and possibly for the identification of inhibitors of the Vav1/Rac1 protein-protein interaction with potential to inhibit lymphocyte activation. PMID:17275330

  6. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of an NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Helicobacter pylori

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Paul R.; Mohammad, Shabaz; Melrose, Helen J.; Moody, Peter C. E.

    2008-08-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase B from H. pylori has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized in the presence of NAD. Crystals of GAPDHB diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution and belonged to space group P6{sub 5}22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 166.1, c = 253.1 Å. Helicobacter pylori is a dangerous human pathogen that resides in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Little is known about its metabolism and with the onset of antibiotic resistance new treatments are required. In this study, the expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of an NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from H. pylori are reported.

  7. The quorum-quenching lactonase from Geobacillus caldoxylosilyticus : purification, characterization, crystallization and crystallographic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bergonzi, Celine; Schwab, Michael; Elias, Mikael

    2016-08-09

    Lactonases are enzymes that are capable of hydrolyzing various lactones such as aliphatic lactones or acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), with the latter being used as chemical signaling molecules by numerous Gram-negative bacteria. Lactonases therefore have the ability to quench the chemical communication, also known as quorum sensing, of numerous bacteria, and in particular to inhibit behaviors that are regulated by this system, such as the expression of virulence factors or the production of biofilms. A novel representative from the metallo-β-lactamase superfamily, dubbed GcL, was isolated from the thermophilic bacteriumGeobacillus caldoxylosilyticus. Because of its thermophilic origin, GcL may constitute an interesting candidate for the development of biocontrol agents. Here, we show that GcL is a thermostable enzyme with a half-life at 75°C of 152.5 ± 10 min. Remarkably, it is also shown that GcL is among the most active lactonases characterized to date, with catalytic efficiencies (kcat/Km) against AHLs of greater than 106 M$-$1 s$-$1. The structure of GcL is expected to shed light on the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme and the molecular determinants for the substrate specificity in this class of lactonases. Here, the expression, purification, characterization, crystallization and X-ray diffraction data collection to 1.6 Å resolution of GcL are reported.

  8. Purification, characterization, and crystallization of the components of the nitrobenzene and 2-nitrotoluene dioxygenase enzyme systems.

    PubMed

    Parales, R E; Huang, R; Yu, C-L; Parales, J V; Lee, F K N; Lessner, D J; Ivkovic-Jensen, M M; Liu, W; Friemann, R; Ramaswamy, S; Gibson, D T

    2005-07-01

    The protein components of the 2-nitrotoluene (2NT) and nitrobenzene dioxygenase enzyme systems from Acidovorax sp. strain JS42 and Comamonas sp. strain JS765, respectively, were purified and characterized. These enzymes catalyze the initial step in the degradation of 2-nitrotoluene and nitrobenzene. The identical shared reductase and ferredoxin components were monomers of 35 and 11.5 kDa, respectively. The reductase component contained 1.86 g-atoms iron, 2.01 g-atoms sulfur, and one molecule of flavin adenine dinucleotide per monomer. Spectral properties of the reductase indicated the presence of a plant-type [2Fe-2S] center and a flavin. The reductase catalyzed the reduction of cytochrome c, ferricyanide, and 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol. The ferredoxin contained 2.20 g-atoms iron and 1.99 g-atoms sulfur per monomer and had spectral properties indicative of a Rieske [2Fe-2S] center. The ferredoxin component could be effectively replaced by the ferredoxin from the Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816-4 naphthalene dioxygenase system but not by that from the Burkholderia sp. strain LB400 biphenyl or Pseudomonas putida F1 toluene dioxygenase system. The oxygenases from the 2-nitrotoluene and nitrobenzene dioxygenase systems each had spectral properties indicating the presence of a Rieske [2Fe-2S] center, and the subunit composition of each oxygenase was an alpha(3)beta(3) hexamer. The apparent K(m) of 2-nitrotoluene dioxygenase for 2NT was 20 muM, and that for naphthalene was 121 muM. The specificity constants were 7.0 muM(-1) min(-1) for 2NT and 1.2 muM(-1) min(-1) for naphthalene, indicating that the enzyme is more efficient with 2NT as a substrate. Diffraction-quality crystals of the two oxygenases were obtained.

  9. Purification, Characterization, and Crystallization of the Components of the Nitrobenzene and 2-Nitrotoluene Dioxygenase Enzyme Systems

    PubMed Central

    Parales, R. E.; Huang, R.; Yu, C.-L.; Parales, J. V.; Lee, F. K. N.; Lessner, D. J.; Ivkovic-Jensen, M. M.; Liu, W.; Friemann, R.; Ramaswamy, S.; Gibson, D. T.

    2005-01-01

    The protein components of the 2-nitrotoluene (2NT) and nitrobenzene dioxygenase enzyme systems from Acidovorax sp. strain JS42 and Comamonas sp. strain JS765, respectively, were purified and characterized. These enzymes catalyze the initial step in the degradation of 2-nitrotoluene and nitrobenzene. The identical shared reductase and ferredoxin components were monomers of 35 and 11.5 kDa, respectively. The reductase component contained 1.86 g-atoms iron, 2.01 g-atoms sulfur, and one molecule of flavin adenine dinucleotide per monomer. Spectral properties of the reductase indicated the presence of a plant-type [2Fe-2S] center and a flavin. The reductase catalyzed the reduction of cytochrome c, ferricyanide, and 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol. The ferredoxin contained 2.20 g-atoms iron and 1.99 g-atoms sulfur per monomer and had spectral properties indicative of a Rieske [2Fe-2S] center. The ferredoxin component could be effectively replaced by the ferredoxin from the Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816-4 naphthalene dioxygenase system but not by that from the Burkholderia sp. strain LB400 biphenyl or Pseudomonas putida F1 toluene dioxygenase system. The oxygenases from the 2-nitrotoluene and nitrobenzene dioxygenase systems each had spectral properties indicating the presence of a Rieske [2Fe-2S] center, and the subunit composition of each oxygenase was an α3β3 hexamer. The apparent Km of 2-nitrotoluene dioxygenase for 2NT was 20 μM, and that for naphthalene was 121 μM. The specificity constants were 7.0 μM−1 min−1 for 2NT and 1.2 μM−1 min−1 for naphthalene, indicating that the enzyme is more efficient with 2NT as a substrate. Diffraction-quality crystals of the two oxygenases were obtained. PMID:16000792

  10. A putative siderophore-interacting protein from the marine bacterium Shewanella frigidimarina NCIMB 400: cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Trindade, Inês B.; Fonseca, Bruno M.; Matias, Pedro M.; Louro, Ricardo O.; Moe, Elin

    2016-08-09

    The gene encoding a putative siderophore-interacting protein from the marine bacterium S. frigidimarina was successfully cloned, followed by expression and purification of the gene product. Optimized crystals diffracted to 1.35 Å resolution and preliminary crystallographic analysis is promising with respect to structure determination and increased insight into the poorly understood molecular mechanisms underlying iron acquisition. Siderophore-binding proteins (SIPs) perform a key role in iron acquisition in multiple organisms. In the genome of the marine bacterium Shewanella frigidimarina NCIMB 400, the gene tagged as SFRI-RS12295 encodes a protein from this family. Here, the cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of this protein are reported, together with its preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis to 1.35 Å resolution. The SIP crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 48.04, b = 78.31, c = 67.71 Å, α = 90, β = 99.94, γ = 90°, and are predicted to contain two molecules per asymmetric unit. Structure determination by molecular replacement and the use of previously determined ∼2 Å resolution SIP structures with ∼30% sequence identity as templates are ongoing.

  11. A putative siderophore-interacting protein from the marine bacterium Shewanella frigidimarina NCIMB 400: cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis

    PubMed Central

    Trindade, Inês B.; Fonseca, Bruno M.; Matias, Pedro M.; Louro, Ricardo O.; Moe, Elin

    2016-01-01

    Siderophore-binding proteins (SIPs) perform a key role in iron acquisition in multiple organisms. In the genome of the marine bacterium Shewanella frigidimarina NCIMB 400, the gene tagged as SFRI_RS12295 encodes a protein from this family. Here, the cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of this protein are reported, together with its preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis to 1.35 Å resolution. The SIP crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 48.04, b = 78.31, c = 67.71 Å, α = 90, β = 99.94, γ = 90°, and are predicted to contain two molecules per asymmetric unit. Structure determination by molecular replacement and the use of previously determined ∼2 Å resolution SIP structures with ∼30% sequence identity as templates are ongoing. PMID:27599855

  12. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the olfactomedin domain from the sea urchin cell-adhesion protein amassin

    SciTech Connect

    Hillier, Brian J.; Sundaresan, Vidyasankar; Stout, C. David; Vacquier, Victor D.

    2006-01-01

    The olfactomedin (OLF) domain from the sea urchin cell-adhesion protein amassin has been crystallized. A native data set extending to 2.7 Å has been collected using an in-house X-ray source. A family of animal proteins is emerging which contain a conserved protein motif known as an olfactomedin (OLF) domain. Novel extracellular protein–protein interactions occur through this domain. The OLF-family member amassin, from the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, has previously been identified to mediate a rapid cell-adhesion event resulting in a large aggregation of coelomocytes, the circulating immune cells. In this work, heterologous expression and purification of the OLF domain from amassin was carried out and initial crystallization trials were performed. A native data set has been collected, extending to 2.7 Å under preliminary cryoconditions, using an in-house generator. This work leads the way to the determination of the first structure of an OLF domain.

  13. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the VP8* carbohydrate-binding protein of the human rotavirus strain Wa

    SciTech Connect

    Kraschnefski, Mark J.; Scott, Stacy A.; Holloway, Gavan; Coulson, Barbara S.; Itzstein, Mark von; Blanchard, Helen

    2005-11-01

    The carbohydrate-binding component (VP8*{sub 64–223}) of the human Wa rotavirus spike protein has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized in two different crystal forms. X-ray diffraction data have been collected that have enabled determination of the Wa VP8*{sub 64–223} structure by molecular replacement. Rotaviruses exhibit host-specificity and the first crystallographic information on a rotavirus strain that infects humans is reported here. Recognition and attachment to host cells, leading to invasion and infection, is critically linked to the function of the outer capsid spike protein of the rotavirus particle. In some strains the VP8* component of the spike protein is implicated in recognition and binding of sialic-acid-containing cell-surface carbohydrates, thereby enabling infection by the virus. The cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and initial X-ray diffraction analysis of the VP8* core from human Wa rotavirus is reported. Two crystal forms (trigonal P3{sub 2}21 and monoclinic P2{sub 1}) have been obtained and X-ray diffraction data have been collected, enabling determination of the VP8*{sub 64–223} structure by molecular replacement.

  14. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (Rv3708c) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, Rajan; Panjikar, Santosh; Kishan, K. V. Radha; Tewari, Rupinder; Weiss, Manfred S.

    2008-03-01

    The enzyme aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase from M. tuberculosis has been expressed, purified and crystallized in two different crystal forms. Aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Asd, ASADH, Rv3708c), which is the second enzyme in the lysine/homoserine-biosynthetic pathways, has been expressed heterologously in Escherichia coli. The enzyme was purified using affinity and gel-filtration chromatographic techniques and crystallized in two different crystal forms. Preliminary diffraction data analysis suggested the presence of up to four monomers in the asymmetric unit of the orthorhombic crystal form A and of one or two monomers in the cubic crystal form B.

  15. Purification and crystal growth of InI and alloys IN1-x TLxI and IN1-xGAxI for application in X-ray and gamma-ray detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riabov, Volodymyr

    The present work is focused on developing new semiconductor materials based on Indium Monoiodide (InI) for application in room temperature X-ray and gamma-ray detectors. During past two decades InI was studied as room a temperature detector material due to suitable value of the energy gap and high atomic number of its constituents. The most recent studies include investigations at laboratories of Prof. A. Ostrogorsky at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) and Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) during period 2009-2013. The present work was focused on (i) purification of starting InI material and (ii) crystal growth of InI and InI based alloys with objective to investigate effects of purification and alloying on crystal structure, electrical and mechanical properties. Purification was performed at Radiation Monitoring Devices (RMD) Inc. by innovative techniques combined with well established methods, such as Zone Refining Under Reactive Atmosphere. At RMD, purification was followed by crystal growth of InI by the travelling molten zone method. Crystal growth of InI and alloys In0.99Ga0.01I, In0.99Tl0.01I, In0.95Tl0.05I was performed by Vertical Gradient Freeze (VGF) Method at IIT. The microstructure of produced crystals was analyzed, and their Knoop micro-hardness was measured. The concentration of the dopants as a function of position along the crystals was analyzed by Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry (GDMS) technique. Band gap of produced materials was estimated as a function of composition by Near-UV-Visible range spectroscopy. Radiation detectors were manufactured from produced crystals. Their electrical properties, such as resistivity, photosensitivity and charge carrier mobility, were measured and, finally, detection performance was estimated.

  16. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT) from Coffea canephora involved in chlorogenic acid biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Lallemand, Laura A.; McCarthy, James G.; McSweeney, Sean; McCarthy, Andrew A.

    2012-01-01

    Chlorogenic acids (CGAs) are a group of soluble phenolic compounds that are produced by a variety of plants, including Coffea canephora (robusta coffee). The last step in CGA biosynthesis is generally catalysed by a specific hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA quinate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HQT), but it can also be catalysed by the more widely distributed hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT). Here, the cloning and overexpression of HCT from C. canephora in Escherichia coli as well as its purification and crystallization are presented. Crystals were obtained by the sitting-drop technique at 293 K and X-ray diffraction data were collected on the microfocus beamline ID23-2 at the ESRF. The HCT crystals diffracted to better than 3.0 Å resolution, belonged to space group P42212 with unit-cell parameters a = b = 116.1, c = 158.9 Å and contained two molecules in the asymmetric unit. The structure was solved by molecular replacement and is currently under refinement. Such structural data are needed to decipher the molecular basis of the substrate specifities of this key enzyme, which belongs to the large plant acyl-CoA-dependent BAHD acyltransferase superfamily. PMID:22750875

  17. Crystallization using reverse micelles and water-in-oil microemulsion systems: the highly selective tool for the purification of organic compounds from complex mixtures.

    PubMed

    Kljajic, Alen; Bester-Rogac, Marija; Klobcar, Andrej; Zupet, Rok; Pejovnik, Stane

    2013-02-01

    The active pharmaceutical ingredient orlistat is usually manufactured using a semi-synthetic procedure, producing crude product and complex mixtures of highly related impurities with minimal side-chain structure variability. It is therefore crucial for the overall success of industrial/pharmaceutical application to develop an effective purification process. In this communication, we present the newly developed water-in-oil reversed micelles and microemulsion system-based crystallization process. Physiochemical properties of the presented crystallization media were varied through surfactants and water composition, and the impact on efficiency was measured through final variation of these two parameters. Using precisely defined properties of the dispersed water phase in crystallization media, a highly efficient separation process in terms of selectivity and yield was developed. Small-angle X-ray scattering, high-performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy were used to monitor and analyze the separation processes and orlistat products obtained. Typical process characteristics, especially selectivity and yield in regard to reference examples, were compared and discussed. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of universal stress protein F (YnaF) from Salmonella typhimurium

    SciTech Connect

    Sagurthi, Someswar Rao; Panigrahi, Rashmi Rekha; Gowda, Giri; Savithri, H. S.; Murthy, M. R. N.

    2007-11-01

    The cloning, purification and crystallization of YnaF from S. typhimurium are reported along with preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies. The universal stress protein UspF (YnaF) is a small cytoplasmic bacterial protein. The expression of stress proteins is enhanced when cells are exposed to heat shock, nutrition starvation and certain other stress-inducing agents. YnaF promotes cell survival during prolonged exposure to stress and may activate a general mechanism for stress endurance. This manuscript reports preliminary crystallographic studies on YnaF from Salmonella typhimurium. The gene coding for YnaF was cloned and overexpressed and the protein was purified by Ni–NTA affinity chromatography. Purified YnaF was crystallized using vapour-diffusion and microbatch methods. The crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 37.51, b = 77.18, c = 56.34 Å, β = 101.8°. A data set was collected to 2.5 Å resolution with 94.6% completeness using an image-plate detector system mounted on a rotating-anode X-ray generator. Attempts to determine the structure are in progress.

  19. High-level expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of the receptor binding domain of botulinum neurotoxin serotype D

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Gao, Xiaoli; Qin, Lin; Buchko, Garry W.; Robinson, Howard; Varnum, Susan M.

    2010-12-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are highly toxic proteins for humans and can cause neuroparalytic disease botulism. Due to the limitations of production and manipulation of holoenzymes, expressing non-toxic heavy chain receptor binding domains (HCR) has become a common strategy for vaccine and antibody development. Meanwhile, large quantities and highly purified soluble proteins are required for research areas such as antibody maturation and structural biology. We present high level expression and purification of the BoNT serotype D HCR in E. coli using a codon-optimized cDNA. By varying expression conditions, especially at low temperature, the protein was expressed at a high level with high solubility. About 150-200 mg protein was purified to >90% purity from 1 L cell culture. The recombinant D_HCR was crystallized and the crystals diffracted to 1.65 Å resolution. The crystals belong to space group P212121 with unit cell dimensions a = 60.8 Å, b = 89.7 Å, c = 93.9 Å. Preliminary crystallographic data analysis revealed one molecule in asymmetric unit.

  20. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the outer membrane complex HasA–HasR from Serratia marcescens

    SciTech Connect

    Huché, Frédéric; Delepelaire, Philippe; Wandersman, Cécile; Welte, Wolfram

    2006-01-01

    The expression, purification, and crystallization in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} of the complex HasA-HasR from S. marcescens are reported. Diffraction data have been collected and processed to 6.8 Å. Serratia marcescens is able to acquire iron using its haem-acquisition system (‘has’), which contains an outer membrane receptor HasR and a soluble haemophore HasA. After secretion, HasA binds free haem in the extracellular medium or extracts it from haemoproteins and delivers it to the receptor. Here, the crystallization of a HasA–HasR complex is reported. HasA and HasR have been overexpressed in Escherichia coli and the complex formed and crystallized. Small platelets and bunches of needles of dimensions 0.01 × 0.1 × 1 mm were obtained. A native data set has been collected to 6.8 Å.

  1. Purification, partial characterization, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of a novel cardiotoxin-like basic protein from Naja naja atra (South Anhui) venom

    SciTech Connect

    Rong, Hui; Li, Yan; Lou, Xiao-hua; Zhang, Xio; Gao, Yong-xiang; Teng, Mai-kun Niu, Li-wen

    2007-02-01

    A novel cardiotoxin-like basic protein from Naja naja atra was crystallized and diffraction data were collected to 2.35 Å resolution. A novel cardiotoxin-like basic protein was isolated from the venom of the Chinese cobra (Naja naja atra) from the south of Anhui in China. The protein inhibits the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor in human lung cancer cell line H1299 and induces the haemolysis of rabbit erythrocytes under low-lecithin conditions. After a two-step chromatographic purification, the resultant 7 kDa protein was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at room temperature. A complete data set was collected to 2.35 Å resolution using an in-house X-ray diffraction system. The crystal belongs to space group P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 43.2, c = 147.9 Å. There are two molecules in the crystallographic asymmetric unit.

  2. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of wild-type and mutant recombinant human transforming growth factor β-induced protein (TGFBIp)

    PubMed Central

    Runager, Kasper; García-Castellanos, Raquel; Valnickova, Zuzana; Kristensen, Torsten; Nielsen, Niels Chr.; Klintworth, Gordon K.; Gomis-Rüth, F. Xavier; Enghild, Jan J.

    2009-01-01

    Transforming growth factor β-induced protein (TGFBIp) has been linked to several corneal dystrophies as certain point mutations in the protein may give rise to a progressive accumulation of insoluble protein material in the human cornea. Little is known about the biological functions of this extracellular protein, which is expressed in various tissues throughout the human body. However, it has been found to interact with a number of extracellular matrix macromolecules such as collagens and proteoglycans. Structural information about TGFBIp might prove to be a valuable tool in the elucidation of its function and its role in corneal dystrophies caused by mutations in the TGFBI gene. A simple method for the purification of wild-type and mutant forms of recombinant human TGFBIp from human cells under native conditions is presented here. Moreover, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of TGFBIp are reported. PMID:19255489

  3. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of Rv2827c from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Janowski, Robert

    2006-08-01

    M. tuberculosis hypothetical protein Rv2827c was cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized. Preliminary X-ray diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 1.93 Å. The hypothetical protein Rv2827c from Mycobacterium tuberculosis was cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. It was purified using affinity and size-exclusion chromatographic techniques and then crystallized. Preliminary X-ray diffraction data analysis suggests the presence of two translationally related molecules in the asymmetric unit of the orthorhombic crystals.

  4. Antihypertensive activity of polysaccharide from Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Ding, Jie; Li, Haibo; Xiang, Jingjing; Wen, Ping; Zhang, Qin; Yin, Linliang; Jiang, Wei; Shen, Caie

    2016-02-01

    Water-soluble polysaccharide was extracted from Crassostrea gigas by hydrolysis with flavourzyme and filtered, ultrafiltered and precipitated using absolute ethanol. Sugar composition analysis performed on the C. gigas polysaccharide (CGP) by high performance liquid chromatography indicated that it was comprised primarily of glucose, and its molecular weight was determined using a TSK-GEL G5000PW column to be ∼3.413×10(6) Da. Next, the antihypertensive activity of CGP was evaluated in rats. Hypertension model Wistar rats were divided into three groups and intragastrically treated with physiological saline (negative control group), CGP (treatment group), and captopril (positive control group). CGP treatment led to significant decrease in both systolic and diastolic pressures in the hypertension model Wistar rats. Furthermore, the antihypertensive effect of CGP was comparable with that of captopril. Thus, CGP has antihypertensive effects and can potentially be used as a therapeutic agent for hypertension. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the catalytic domain of human receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase [gamma] in three different crystal forms

    SciTech Connect

    Kish, Kevin; McDonnell, Patricia A.; Goldfarb, Valentina; Gao, Mian; Metzler, William J.; Langley, David R.; Bryson, James W.; Kiefer, Susan E.; Carpenter, Brian; Kostich, Walter A.; Westphal, Ryan S.; Sheriff, Steven

    2013-03-07

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase {gamma} is a membrane-bound receptor and is designated RPTP{gamma}. RPTP{gamma} and two mutants, RPTP{gamma}(V948I, S970T) and RPTP{gamma}(C858S, S970T), were recombinantly expressed and purified for X-ray crystallographic studies. The purified enzymes were crystallized using the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method. Crystallographic data were obtained from several different crystal forms in the absence and the presence of inhibitor. In this paper, a description is given of how three different crystal forms were obtained that were used with various ligands. An orthorhombic crystal form and a trigonal crystal form were obtained both with and without ligand, and a monoclinic crystal form was only obtained in the presence of a particularly elaborated inhibitor.

  6. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of an oomycete-derived Nep1-like protein.

    PubMed

    Luberacki, Borries; Weyand, Michael; Seitz, Ulrich; Koch, Wolfgang; Oecking, Claudia; Ottmann, Christian

    2008-12-01

    The elicitor protein Nep1-like protein from the plant pathogen Pythium aphanidermatum was purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A native data set was collected to 1.35 A resolution at 100 K using synchrotron radiation. Since selenomethionine-labelled protein did not crystallize under the original conditions, a second crystal form was identified that yielded crystals that diffracted to 2.1 A resolution. A multiple-wavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) experiment was performed at 100 K and all four selenium sites were identified, which allowed solution of the structure.

  7. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of an oomycete-derived Nep1-­like protein

    PubMed Central

    Luberacki, Borries; Weyand, Michael; Seitz, Ulrich; Koch, Wolfgang; Oecking, Claudia; Ottmann, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The elicitor protein Nep1-like protein from the plant pathogen Pythium aphanidermatum was purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A native data set was collected to 1.35 Å resolution at 100 K using synchrotron radiation. Since selenomethionine-labelled protein did not crystallize under the original conditions, a second crystal form was identified that yielded crystals that diffracted to 2.1 Å resolution. A multiple-wavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) experiment was performed at 100 K and all four selenium sites were identified, which allowed solution of the structure. PMID:19052381

  8. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the biotin–protein ligase from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3

    SciTech Connect

    Bagautdinov, Bagautdin; Kuroishi, Chizu; Sugahara, Mitsuaki; Kunishima, Naoki

    2005-02-01

    The biotin–protein ligase from P. horikoshii OT3 was overexpressed, purified, crystallized and cocrystallized with biotin, ADP and biotinyl-5′-AMP. The crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1} and diffract to beyond 1.6 Å resolution.

  9. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of water-soluble chlorophyll-binding protein from Chenopodium album

    SciTech Connect

    Ohtsuki, Takayuki; Ohshima, Shigeru; Uchida, Akira

    2007-09-01

    A water-soluble chlorophyll-binding protein with photoconvertibility from C. album was extracted, purified and crystallized in a darkroom. The crystal diffracted to around 2.0 Å resolution. A water-soluble chlorophyll-binding protein (WSCP) with photoconvertibility from Chenopodium album was extracted, purified and crystallized in a darkroom. Green crystals suitable for data collection appeared in about 10 d. A native data set was collected to 2.0 Å resolution at 100 K. The space group of the crystal was determined to be orthorhombic I222 or I2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 48.13, b = 60.59, c = 107.21 Å. Preliminary analysis of the X-ray data indicated that there is one molecule per asymmetric unit.

  10. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of DsrEFH from Allochromatium vinosum

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, Christiane; Schulte, Andrea; Shin, Dong Hae

    2007-10-01

    DsrEFH from Allochromatium vinosum has been cloned, expressed, purified, and crystallized. A preliminary X-ray study of DsrEFH has been performed with a good quality crystal. In purple sulfur bacteria, the proteins encoded by dsr genes play an essential role in the oxidation of intracellular sulfur, which is an obligate intermediate during the oxidation of sulfide and thiosulfate. One such gene product, DsrEFH from Allochromatium vinosum, has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized. Synchrotron data were collected to 2.5 Å from a crystal of selenomethionine-substituted DsrEFH. The crystal belongs to the primitive monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 56.6, b = 183.1, c = 107.8 Å, β = 99.6°. A full structure determination is under way in order to provide insight into the structure–function relationships of this protein.

  11. Overexpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Rv2780 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, Sarvind Mani; Ramachandran, Ravishankar

    2008-05-01

    Rv2780, an alanine dehydrogenase from M. tuberculosis, has been crystallized in apo and NAD/pyruvate-bound forms. Preliminary crystallographic analysis shows that there is a hexamer and trimer in the asymmetric units of the apo and ternary complex forms, respectively. Rv2780, an alanine dehydrogenase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtAlaDH), catalyzes the NAD-dependent interconversion of alanine and pyruvate. Alanine dehydrogenase is released into the culture medium in substantial amounts by virulent strains of mycobacteria and is not found in the vaccine strain of tuberculosis. Crystals of recombinant MtAlaDH were grown from 2 M ammonium sulfate solution at ∼12 mg ml{sup −1} protein concentration in two crystal forms which occur in the presence and absence of NAD/pyruvate, respectively. Diffraction data extending to 2.6 Å were collected at room temperature from both apo and ternary complex crystals. Crystals of the apoenzyme have unit-cell parameters a = 173.89, b = 127.07, c = 135.95 Å. They are rod-like in shape and belong to space group C2. They contain a hexamer in the asymmetric unit. Crystals of the ternary complex belong to space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2 and have unit-cell parameters a = b = 88.99, c = 373.85 Å. There are three subunits in the asymmetric unit of the holoenzyme crystals.

  12. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the TIR domain from the Brucella melitensis TIR-domain-containing protein TcpB.

    PubMed

    Alaidarous, Mohammed; Ve, Thomas; Ullah, M Obayed; Valkov, Eugene; Mansell, Ashley; Schembri, Mark A; Sweet, Matthew J; Kobe, Bostjan

    2013-10-01

    In mammals, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize conserved microbial molecular signatures and induce an early innate immune response in the host. TLR signalling is mediated by interactions between the cytosolic TIR (Toll/interleukin-1 receptor) domains of the receptor and the adaptor proteins. Increasingly, it is apparent that pathogens target this interaction via pathogen-expressed TIR-domain-containing proteins to modulate immune responses. A TIR-domain-containing protein TcpB has been reported in the pathogenic bacterium Brucella melitensis. Studies have shown that TcpB interferes with the TLR2 and TLR4 signalling pathways to inhibit TLR-mediated inflammatory responses. Such interference may involve TIR-TIR-domain interactions between bacterial and mammalian proteins, but there is a lack of information about these interactions at the molecular level. In this study, the cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the protein construct corresponding to the TIR domain of TcpB (residues 120-250) are reported. The crystals diffracted to 2.6 Å resolution, have the symmetry of the monoclinic space group P2₁ and are most likely to contain four molecules in the asymmetric unit. The structure should help in understanding the molecular basis of how TcpB affects the innate immunity of the host.

  13. A novel noncovalent complex of chorismate mutase and DAHP synthase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis: protein purification, crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis.

    PubMed

    Okvist, Mats; Sasso, Severin; Roderer, Kathrin; Kast, Peter; Krengel, Ute

    2009-10-01

    Chorismate mutase catalyzes a key step in the shikimate-biosynthetic pathway and hence is an essential enzyme in bacteria, plants and fungi. Mycobacterium tuberculosis contains two chorismate mutases, a secreted and an intracellular one, the latter of which (MtCM; Rv0948c; 90 amino-acid residues; 10 kDa) is the subject of this work. Here are reported the gene expression, purification and crystallization of MtCM alone and of its complex with another shikimate-pathway enzyme, DAHP synthase (MtDS; Rv2178c; 472 amino-acid residues; 52 kDa), which has been shown to enhance the catalytic efficiency of MtCM. The MtCM-MtDS complex represents the first noncovalent enzyme complex from the common shikimate pathway to be structurally characterized. Soaking experiments with a transition-state analogue are also reported. The crystals of MtCM and the MtCM-MtDS complex diffracted to 1.6 and 2.1 A resolution, respectively.

  14. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA gyrase ATPase domain.

    PubMed

    Roué, Mélanie; Agrawal, Alka; Volker, Craig; Mossakowska, Danuta; Mayer, Claudine; Bax, Benjamin D

    2013-06-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA gyrase, a nanomachine involved in the regulation of DNA topology, is the only type II topoisomerase present in this organism and hence is the sole target of fluoroquinolones in the treatment of tuberculosis. The ATPase domain provides the energy required for catalysis by ATP hydrolysis. Two constructs corresponding to this 43 kDa domain, Mtb-GyrB47(C1) and Mtb-GyrB47(C2), have been overproduced, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected from three crystal forms. The crystals belonged to space groups P1 and P21 and diffracted to resolutions of 2.9 and 3.3 Å, respectively.

  15. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of rice bifunctional α-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor from Oryza sativa

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yi-Hung; Peng, Wen-Yan; Huang, Yen-Chieh; Guan, Hong-Hsiang; Hsieh, Ying-Cheng; Liu, Ming-Yih; Chang, Tschining; Chen, Chun-Jung

    2006-08-01

    The crystallization of rice α-amylase/subtilisin bifunctional inhibitor is reported. Rice bifunctional α-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (RASI) can inhibit both α-amylase from larvae of the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) and subtilisin from Bacillus subtilis. The synthesis of RASI is up-regulated during the late milky stage in developing seeds. The 8.9 kDa molecular-weight RASI from rice has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. According to 1.81 Å resolution X-ray diffraction data from rice RASI crystals, the crystal belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 79.99, b = 62.95, c = 66.70 Å. Preliminary analysis indicates two RASI molecules in an asymmetric unit with a solvent content of 44%.

  16. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the histone chaperone cia1 from fission yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Umehara, Takashi; Otta, Yumi; Tsuganezawa, Keiko; Matsumoto, Takehisa; Tanaka, Akiko; Horikoshi, Masami; Padmanabhan, Balasundaram; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2005-11-01

    The histone chaperone cia1 from fission yeast has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method. In fission yeast, cia1{sup +} is an essential gene that encodes a histone chaperone, a homologue of human CIA (CCG1-interacting factor A) and budding yeast Asf1p (anti-silencing function-1), which both facilitate nucleosome assembly by interacting with the core histones H3/H4. The conserved domain (residues 1–161) of the cia1{sup +}-encoded protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified to near-homogeneity and crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The protein was crystallized in the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 79.16, b = 40.53, c = 69.79 Å, β = 115.93° and one molecule per asymmetric unit. The crystal diffracted to beyond 2.10 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation.

  17. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of d-tagatose 3-epimerase from Pseudomonas cichorii

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Hiromi; Yamada, Mitsugu; Nishitani, Takeyori; Takada, Goro; Izumori, Ken; Kamitori, Shigehiro

    2007-02-01

    Recombinant d-tagatose 3-epimerase from P. cichorii was purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 2.5 Å resolution. d-Tagatose 3-epimerase (D-TE) from Pseudomonas cichorii catalyzes the epimerization of various ketohexoses at the C3 position. The epimerization of d-psicose has not been reported with epimerases other than P. cichorii D-TE and d-psicose 3-epimerase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Recombinant P. cichorii D-TE has been purified and crystallized. Crystals of P. cichorii D-TE were obtained by the sitting-drop method at room temperature. The crystal belongs to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 76.80, b = 94.92, c = 91.73 Å, β = 102.82°. Diffraction data were collected to 2.5 Å resolution. The asymmetric unit is expected to contain four molecules.

  18. Purification of molybdenum oxide, growth and characterization of medium size zinc molybdate crystals for the LUMINEU program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlegel, V. N.; Berge, L.; Boiko, R. S.; Chapellier, M.; Chernyak, D. M.; Coron, N.; Danevich, F. A.; Decourt, R.; Degoda, V. Ya.; Devoyon, L.; Drillien, A.; Dumoulin, L.; Enss, C.; Fleischmann, A.; Gastaldo, L.; Giuliani, A.; Gros, M.; Herve, S.; Ivanov, I. M.; Kobychev, V. V.; Kogut, Ya. P.; Koskas, F.; Loidl, M.; Magnier, P.; Makarov, E. P.; Mancuso, M.; de Marcillac, P.; Marnieros, S.; Marrache-Kikuchi, C.; Nasonov, S. G.; Navick, X. F.; Nones, C.; Olivieri, E.; Paul, B.; Penichot, Y.; Pessina, G.; Plantevin, O.; Poda, D. V.; Redon, T.; Rodrigues, M.; Strazzer, O.; Tenconi, M.; Torres, L.; Tretyak, V. I.; Vasiliev, Ya. V.; Velazquez, M.; Viraphong, O.; Zhdankov, V. N.

    2014-01-01

    The LUMINEU program aims at performing a pilot experiment on neutrinoless double beta decay of 100Mo using radiopure ZnMoO4 crystals operated as scintillating bolometers. Growth of high quality radiopure crystals is a complex task, since there are no commercially available molybdenum compounds with the required levels of purity and radioactive contamination. This paper discusses approaches to purify molybdenum and synthesize compound for high quality radiopure ZnMoO4 crystal growth. A combination of a double sublimation (with addition of zinc molybdate) with subsequent recrystallization in aqueous solutions (using zinc molybdate as a collector) was used. Zinc molybdate crystals up to 1.5 kg were grown by the low-thermal-gradient Czochralski technique, their optical, luminescent, diamagnetic, thermal and bolometric properties were tested.

  19. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of FliT, a bacterial flagellar substrate-specific export chaperone

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Miki; Yamane, Midori; Matsunami, Hideyuki; Minamino, Tohru; Namba, Keiichi; Imada, Katsumi

    2009-01-01

    The assembly process of the bacterial flagellum is coupled to flagellar gene expression. FliT acts not only as a flagellar type III substrate-specific export chaperone for the filament-capping protein FliD but also as a negative regulator that suppresses flagellar gene expression through its specific interaction with the master regulator FlhD4C2 complex. In this study, FliT of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was expressed, purified and crystallized. Crystals of SeMet FliT were obtained by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion technique with potassium/sodium tartrate as the precipitant. The crystals grew in the trigonal space group P3121 or P3221 and diffracted to 3.2 Å resolution. The anomalous difference Patterson map of the SeMet FliT crystal showed significant peaks in its Harker sections, indicating the usefulness of the derivative data for structure determination. PMID:19652350

  20. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction study on pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase TTHA1771 from Thermus thermophilus HB8

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, Katsumi; Kunishima, Naoki

    2007-04-01

    The pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase TTHA1771 from T. thermophilus HB8 has been overexpressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals diffract X-rays to 1.8 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. Pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase (PYNP) catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of pyrimidines in the nucleotide-synthesis salvage pathway. In order to study the structure–thermostability relationship of this enzyme, PYNP from the extreme thermophile Thermus thermophilus HB8 (TTHA1771) has been cloned, overexpressed and purified. The TTHA1771 protein was crystallized at 291 K using the oil-microbatch method with PEG 4000 as a precipitant. A native data set was collected to 1.8 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystal belongs to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 58.83, b = 76.23, c = 103.86 Å, β = 91.3°.

  1. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana cyclophilin 38 (AtCyp38)

    SciTech Connect

    Vasudevan, Dileep; Gopalan, Gayathri; He, Zengyong; Luan, Sheng; Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam

    2005-12-01

    Crystallization of Arabidopsis thaliana cyclophilin 38. The crystal diffracts X-rays to 2.5 Å resolution. AtCyp38 is one of the highly divergent multidomain cyclophilins from Arabidopsis thaliana. A recombinant form of AtCyp38 (residues 83–437) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The protein was crystallized using the vapour-batch technique with PEG 6000 and t-butanol as precipitants. Crystals of recombinant AtCyp38 diffracted X-rays to better than 2.5 Å resolution at 95 K using a synchrotron-radiation source. The crystal belongs to the C-centred orthorhombic space group C222{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 58.2, b = 95.9, c = 167.5 Å, and contains one molecule in the asymmetric unit. The selenomethionine derivative of the AtCyp38 protein was overexpressed, purified and crystallized in the same space group and data were collected to 3.5 Å at the NSLS synchrotron. The structure is being solved by the MAD method.

  2. Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of MCAT from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yinghui; Zhang, Yanming; Cao, Xupeng; Xue, Song

    2013-01-01

    Malonyl-coenzymeA:acyl-carrier protein transacylase (MCAT), which catalyzes the transfer of the malonyl group from malonyl-CoA to acyl-carrier protein (ACP), is an essential enzyme in type II fatty-acid synthesis. The enzyme MCAT from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (spMCAT), the first MCAT counterpart from a cyanobacterium, was cloned, purified and crystallized in order to determine its three-dimensional crystal structure. A higher-quality crystal with better diffraction was obtained by crystallization optimization. The crystal diffracted to 1.8 Å resolution and belonged to the orthorhombic space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 43.22, b = 149.21, c = 40.59 Å. Matthews coefficient calculations indicated that the crystal contained one spMCAT molecule in the asymmetric unit with a Matthews coefficient of 2.18 Å3 Da−1 and a solvent content of 43.65%. PMID:24192363

  3. General qPCR and Plate Reader Methods for Rapid Optimization of Membrane Protein Purification and Crystallization Using Thermostability Assays.

    PubMed

    Tomasiak, Thomas M; Pedersen, Bjørn P; Chaudhary, Sarika; Rodriguez, Andrew; Colmanares, Yaneth Robles; Roe-Zurz, Zygy; Thamminana, Sobha; Tessema, Meseret; Stroud, Robert M

    2014-08-01

    This unit describes rapid and generally applicable methods to identify conditions that stabilize membrane proteins using temperature-based denaturation measurements as a proxy for target time-dependent stability. Recent developments with thiol-reactive dyes sensitive to the unmasking of cysteine residues upon protein unfolding have allowed for routine application of thermostability assays to systematically evaluate the stability of membrane protein preparations after various purification procedures. Test conditions can include different lipid cocktails, lipid-detergent micelles, pH, salts, osmolytes, and potential active-site ligands. Identification and use of conditions that stabilize the structure have proven successful in enabling the structure determination of numerous families of membrane proteins that otherwise were intractable.

  4. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Enterococcus casseliflavus aminoglycoside-2′′-phosphotransferase-IVa

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Marta; Vakulenko, Sergei; Smith, Clyde A.

    2010-01-01

    The deactivation of aminoglycoside antibiotics by chemical modification is one of the major sources of bacterial resistance to this family of therapeutic compounds, which includes the clinically relevant drugs streptomycin, kanamycin and gentamicin. The aminoglycoside phosphotransferases (APHs) form one such family of enzymes responsible for this resistance. The gene encoding one of these enzymes, aminoglycoside-2′′-phosphotransferase-IVa [APH(2′′)-IVa] from Enterococcus casseliflavus, has been cloned and the protein (comprising 306 amino-acid residues) has been expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The enzyme was crystallized in three substrate-free forms. Two of the crystal forms belonged to the orthorhombic space group P212121 with similar unit-cell parameters, although one of the crystal forms had a unit-cell volume that was approximately 13% smaller than the other and a very low solvent content of around 38%. The third crystal form belonged to the monoclinic space group P21 and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis was consistent with the presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit. The orthorhombic crystal forms of apo APH(2′′)-IVa both diffracted to 2.2 Å resolution and the monoclinic crystal form diffracted to 2.4 Å resolution; synchrotron diffraction data were collected from these crystals at SSRL (Stanford, California, USA). Structure determination by molecular replacement using the structure of the related enzyme APH(2′′)-IIa is proceeding. PMID:20057078

  5. Purification and crystallization of Vibrio fischeri CcdB and its complexes with fragments of gyrase and CcdA

    SciTech Connect

    De Jonge, Natalie Buts, Lieven; Vangelooven, Joris; Mine, Natacha; Van Melderen, Laurence; Wyns, Lode; Loris, Remy

    2007-04-01

    A CcdB homologue from V. fischeri was overexpressed in E. coli and purified. The free protein was crystallized, as were its complexes with fragments of E. coli and V. fischeri gyrase and with the F-plasmid CcdA C-terminal domain. The ccd toxin–antitoxin module from the Escherichia coli F plasmid has a homologue on the Vibrio fischeri integron. The homologue of the toxin (CcdB{sub Vfi}) was crystallized in two different crystal forms. The first form belongs to space group I23 or I2{sub 1}3, with unit-cell parameter a = 84.5 Å, and diffracts to 1.5 Å resolution. The second crystal form belongs to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 58.5, b = 43.6, c = 37.5 Å, β = 110.0°, and diffracts to 1.7 Å resolution. The complex of CcdB{sub Vfi} with the GyrA14{sub Vfi} fragment of V. fischeri gyrase crystallizes in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 53.5, b = 94.6, c = 58.1 Å, and diffracts to 2.2 Å resolution. The corresponding mixed complex with E. coli GyrA14{sub Ec} crystallizes in space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 130.1, b = 90.8, c = 58.1 Å, β = 102.6°, and diffracts to 1.95 Å. Finally, a complex between CcdB{sub Vfi} and part of the F-plasmid antitoxin CcdA{sub F} crystallizes in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 46.9, b = 62.6, c = 82.0 Å, and diffracts to 1.9 Å resolution.

  6. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of RecA superfamily ATPase PH0284 from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3

    SciTech Connect

    Bagautdinov, Bagautdin; Kunishima, Naoki

    2006-04-01

    RecA superfamily ATPase PH0284 from P. horikoshii OT3 was overexpressed, purified, crystallized and cocrystallized with ATP. Both crystal forms belong to the trigonal space group P3{sub 2}21 and diffract X-rays to 2.0 and 2.3 Å resolution, respectively. Circadian (daily) protein clocks are found in cyanobacteria, where a complex of the KaiA, KaiB and KaiC proteins generates circadian rhythms. The 28.09 kDa KaiC homologue PH0284 protein from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 was cloned and expressed and the purified protein was crystallized by the oil-microbatch method at 295 K. X-ray diffraction data from the crystal were collected to 2.0 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation at 100 K. The crystal belongs to the trigonal space group P3{sub 2}21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 96.06, c = 298.90 Å. Assuming the presence of one hexamer in the asymmetric unit gives a V{sub M} value of 2.36 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of 47.9%. A cocrystal with ATP was prepared and a diffraction data set was collected at 2.3 Å resolution.

  7. Design, expression, and purification of a Flaviviridae polymerase using a high-throughput approach to facilitate crystal structure determination

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyung H.; Groarke, James M.; Young, Dorothy C.; Rossmann, Michael G.; Pevear, Daniel C.; Kuhn, Richard J.; Smith, Janet L.

    2004-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) nonstructural protein 5B is an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, essential for viral replication. Initial attempts to crystallize a soluble form of the 695-residue BVDV polymerase did not produce any crystals. Limited proteolysis, homology modeling, and mutagenesis data were used to aid the design of polymerase constructs that might crystallize more readily. Limited proteolysis of the polymerase with trypsin identified a domain boundary within the protein. Homology modeling of the polymerase, based on the structure of hepatitis C virus polymerase, indicated that the two polymerases share a 23% identical “core,” although overall sequence identity is low. Eighty-four expression clones of the BVDV polymerase were designed by fine-sampling of chain termini at the boundaries of domain and of active truncated forms of the polymerase. The resulting constructs were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using high-throughput methods. Soluble truncated proteins were subjected to crystallization trials in a 96-well format, and two of these proteins were successfully crystallized. PMID:15388860

  8. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of 3-ketosteroid Δ1-dehydrogenase from Rhodococcus erythropolis SQ1

    PubMed Central

    Rohman, Ali; van Oosterwijk, Niels; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    2012-01-01

    3-Ketosteroid Δ1-dehydrogenase plays a crucial role in the early steps of steroid degradation by introducing a double bond between the C1 and C2 atoms of the A-ring of its 3-ketosteroid substrates. The 3-ketosteroid Δ1-dehydrogenase from Rhodococcus erythropolis SQ1, a 56 kDa flavoprotein, was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method at room temperature. The crystals grew in various buffers over a wide pH range (from pH 5.5 to 10.5), but the best crystallization condition consisted of 2%(v/v) PEG 400, 0.1 M HEPES pH 7.5, 2.0 M ammonium sulfate. A native crystal diffracted X-rays to 2.0 Å resolution. It belonged to the primitive orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 107.4, b = 131.6, c = 363.2 Å, and contained eight molecules in the asymmetric unit. The initial structure of the enzyme was solved using multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) data collected from a Pt-derivatized crystal. PMID:22691786

  9. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Hideaki; Shomura, Yasuhito; Goenka Agrawal, Aruna; Kaur, Amrit Pal; Gärtner, Wolfgang; Higuchi, Yoshiki; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    Dissimilatory sulfite reductase (Dsr) plays an important role in sulfate respiration in many sulfate-reducing bacteria. Dsr from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F has been purified and crystallized at 277 K using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method with PEG 3350 and potassium thiocyanate as precipitants. A data set was collected to 3.7 Å resolution from a single crystal at 100 K using synchrotron radiation. The Dsr crystal belonged to space group P4(1)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 163.26, c = 435.32 Å. The crystal structure of Dsr was determined by the molecular-replacement method based on the three-dimensional structure of Dsr from D. vulgaris Hildenborough. The crystal contained three α(2)β(2)γ(2) units per asymmetric unit, with a Matthews coefficient (V(M)) of 2.35 Å(3) Da(-1); the solvent content was estimated to be 47.7%.

  10. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a Nup107–Nup133 heterodimeric nucleoporin complex

    SciTech Connect

    Boehmer, Thomas; Schwartz, Thomas U.

    2007-09-01

    A heterodimeric complex consisting of the C-terminal domains of human nucleoporins Nup107 and Nup133 was purified and crystallized and complete diffraction data sets were collected. The nuclear pore complex (NPC), the sole gateway of traffic between the nucleus and the cytoplasm, is built up from multiple copies of about 30 proteins collectively termed nucleoporins (nups). Nups are organized into distinct subcomplexes. Nup107 and Nup133 are members of the essential Nup107–160 subcomplex, a component of the central NPC architecture. A dimeric complex of the C-terminal domains of human Nup107 and Nup133 was expressed from a bicistronic vector in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized in two different crystal forms. Crystals grown in the presence of 18–22% PEG 3350 belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} and diffracted to 2.9 Å. Native and seleno-l-methionine-derivative crystals grown in the presence of 1.1 M sodium malonate belong to space group C2 and diffracted to 2.55 and 2.9 Å, respectively. Structure determination of this complex will give the first insights into the protein–protein interactions within a core module of the NPC.

  11. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of archaeal 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydrobiopterin synthase homologue PH0634 from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3.

    PubMed

    Bagautdinov, Bagautdin; Sugahara, Mitsuaki; Kunishima, Naoki

    2007-01-01

    6-Pyruvoyl tetrahydrobiopterin synthase (PTPS) catalyses the conversion of dihydroneopterin triphosphate to 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydropterin, the second of the three enzymatic steps in the synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin from GTP. PH0634, a 13.51 kDa archaeal PTPS homologue from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3, was overexpressed as native and selenomethionine-substituted protein and the purified protein was crystallized by the oil-microbatch method at 295 K. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.1 A resolution from the native crystal using synchrotron radiation at 100 K. The crystal belongs to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 35.83, b = 95.71, c = 105.65 A. Threefold noncrystallographic symmetry was identified from self-rotation calculations. Assuming the presence of a trimer in the asymmetric unit, the solvent content is 45% (V(M) = 2.24 A3 Da(-1)). The selenomethionine-substituted crystal is isomorphous to the native crystal and diffracts X-rays to 2.9 A.

  12. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of archaeal 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydrobiopterin synthase homologue PH0634 from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3

    PubMed Central

    Bagautdinov, Bagautdin; Sugahara, Mitsuaki; Kunishima, Naoki

    2007-01-01

    6-Pyruvoyl tetrahydrobiopterin synthase (PTPS) catalyses the conversion of dihydroneopterin triphosphate to 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydropterin, the second of the three enzymatic steps in the synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin from GTP. PH0634, a 13.51 kDa archaeal PTPS homologue from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3, was overexpressed as native and selenomethionine-substituted protein and the purified protein was crystallized by the oil-microbatch method at 295 K. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.1 Å resolution from the native crystal using synchrotron radiation at 100 K. The crystal belongs to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 35.83, b = 95.71, c = 105.65 Å. Threefold noncrystallographic symmetry was identified from self-rotation calculations. Assuming the presence of a trimer in the asymmetric unit, the solvent content is 45% (V M = 2.24 Å3 Da−1). The selenomethionine-substituted crystal is isomorphous to the native crystal and diffracts X-rays to 2.9 Å. PMID:17183164

  13. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of two crystal forms of stationary-phase survival E protein from Campylobacter jejuni

    SciTech Connect

    Gonçalves, A. M. D.; Rêgo, A. T.; Thomaz, M.; Enguita, F. J.; Carrondo, M. A.

    2008-03-01

    Survival E (SurE) protein from Campylobacter jejuni, a Gram-negative mesophile, has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli as a soluble protein, successfully purified and crystallized in two distinct crystal forms. Survival E (SurE) protein from Campylobacter jejuni, a Gram-negative mesophile, has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli as a soluble protein, successfully purified and crystallized in two distinct crystal forms. The first form belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with a tetramer in the asymmetric unit and unit-cell parameters a = 80.5, b = 119.0, c = 135.3 Å. The second form belongs to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 121.4, b = 47.1, c = 97.8 Å, and contains a dimer in the asymmetric unit. Diffraction data have been collected from these crystal forms to 2.5 and 2.95 Å resolution, respectively.

  14. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of N-acetylglucosamine-phosphate mutase from Candida albicans

    SciTech Connect

    Nishitani, Yuichi; Maruyama, Daisuke; Nonaka, Tsuyoshi; Kita, Akiko; Fukami, Takaaki A.; Mio, Toshiyuki; Yamada-Okabe, Hisafumi; Yamada-Okabe, Toshiko; Miki, Kunio

    2006-04-01

    Preliminary X-ray diffraction studies on N-acetylglucosamine-phosphate mutase from C. albicans are reported. N-acetylglucosamine-phosphate mutase (AGM1) is an essential enzyme in the synthesis of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) in eukaryotes and belongs to the α-d-phosphohexomutase superfamily. AGM1 from Candida albicans (CaAGM1) was purified and crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals obtained belong to the primitive monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 60.2, b = 130.2, c = 78.0 Å, β = 106.7°. The crystals diffract X-rays to beyond 1.8 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation.

  15. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the cathelicidin motif of the protegrin-3 precursor.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, J F; Hoh, F; Strub, M P; Strub, J M; Van Dorsselaer, A; Lehrer, R; Ganz, T; Chavanieu, A; Calas, B; Dumas, C; Aumelas, A

    2001-11-01

    Numerous precursors of antibacterial peptides with unrelated sequences share a similar prosequence which belongs to the cathelicidin family of proteins. The three-dimensional structure of this cathelicidin motif, which contains two disulfide bonds, has not yet been reported. The cathelicidin motif (ProS) of the protegrin-3 precursor was overexpressed in Escherichia coli as a His-tagged protein. The His(6) tag was removed by thrombin cleavage. ProS was purified to homogeneity and single crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at pH 3-4. Preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that these crystals belong to the hexagonal space group P6(1)22 or P6(5)22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 51.42, c = 134.25 A. These crystals diffracted beyond 2.75 A (1.9 A at ESRF) and contain one molecule per asymmetric unit.

  16. Purification, crystallization, X-ray diffraction analysis and phasing of an engineered single-chain PvuII restriction endonuclease

    SciTech Connect

    Meramveliotaki, Chrysi; Kotsifaki, Dina; Androulaki, Maria; Hountas, Athanasios; Eliopoulos, Elias; Kokkinidis, Michael

    2007-10-01

    PvuII is the first type II restriction endonuclease to be converted from its wild-type homodimeric form into an enzymatically active single-chain variant. The enzyme was crystallized and phasing was successfully performed by molecular replacement. The restriction endonuclease PvuII from Proteus vulgaris has been converted from its wild-type homodimeric form into the enzymatically active single-chain variant scPvuII by tandemly joining the two subunits through the peptide linker Gly-Ser-Gly-Gly. scPvuII, which is suitable for the development of programmed restriction endonucleases for highly specific DNA cleavage, was purified and crystallized. The crystals diffract to a resolution of 2.35 Å and belong to space group P4{sub 2}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 101.92, c = 100.28 Å and two molecules per asymmetric unit. Phasing was successfully performed by molecular replacement.

  17. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of Est25: a ketoprofen-specific hormone-sensitive lipase

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, SeungBum; Joo, Sangbum; Yoon, Hyun C.; Ryu, Yeonwoo; Kim, Kyeong Kyu; Kim, T. Doohun

    2007-07-01

    Est25, a ketoprofen-specific hormone-sensitive lipase from a metagenomic library, was crystallized and diffraction data were collected to 1.49 Å resolution. Ketoprofen, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, inhibits the synthesis of prostaglandin. A novel hydrolase (Est25) with high ketoprofen specificity has previously been identified using a metagenomic library from environmental samples. Recombinant Est25 protein with a histidine tag at the N-terminus was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified in a homogenous form. Est25 was crystallized from 2.4 M sodium malonate pH 7.0 and X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.49 Å using synchrotron radiation. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 197.8, b = 95.2, c = 99.4 Å, β = 97.1°.

  18. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the arsenic repressor ArsR from Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Santha, Sangilimadan; Pandaranayaka, Eswari P. J.; Rosen, Barry P.; Thiyagarajan, Saravanamuthu

    2011-01-01

    ArsR is a member of the SmtB/ArsR family of metalloregulatory proteins that regulate prokaryotic arsenic-resistance operons. Here, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of a cysteine-free derivative of ArsR from Corynebacterium glutamicum (CgArsR-C15/16/55S) are reported. CgArsR-C15/16/55S was expressed, purified, crystallized and X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.86 Å resolution. The protein crystallized in a tetragonal space group (P4), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 41.84, c = 99.47 Å. PMID:22139180

  19. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the glutamate-1-semialdehyde aminotransferase from Bacillus subtilis

    SciTech Connect

    Lv, Xinhuai; Fan, Jun; Ge, Honghua; Gao, Yongxiang; Zhang, Xiao; Teng, Maikun Niu, Liwen

    2006-05-01

    Crystals of glutamate-1-semialdehyde aminotransferase (GSAT) from B. subtilis were obtained and diffraction data were collected to 2.0 Å resolution. 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is the first committed universal precursor in the tetrapyrrole-biosynthesis pathway. Plants, algae and many other bacteria synthesize ALA from glutamate by a C5 pathway in which the carbon skeleton of glutamate is converted into ALA by a series of enzymes. Glutamate-1-semialdehyde aminotransferase (GSAT) is the last enzyme in this pathway. The gene that codes for GSAT was amplified from the cDNA library of Bacillus subtilis and overexpressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3). The protein was purified and crystallized. Well diffracting single crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Preliminary X-ray diffraction studies yielded excellent diffraction data to a resolution of 2.0 Å.

  20. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of glyoxalase I from Leishmania infantum

    PubMed Central

    Barata, Lídia; Sousa Silva, Marta; Schuldt, Linda; da Costa, Gonçalo; Tomás, Ana M.; Ferreira, António E. N.; Weiss, Manfred S.; Ponces Freire, Ana; Cordeiro, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Glyoxalase I (GLO1) is the first of the two glyoxalase-pathway enzymes. It catalyzes the formation of S-d-lactoyltrypanothione from the non-enzymatically formed hemithioacetal of methylglyoxal and reduced trypanothione. In order to understand its substrate binding and catalytic mechanism, GLO1 from Leishmania infantum was cloned, overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. Two crystal forms were obtained: a cube-shaped form and a rod-shaped form. While the cube-shaped form did not diffract X-rays at all, the rod-­shaped form exhibited diffraction to about 2.0 Å resolution. The crystals belonged to space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 130.03, b = 148.51, c = 50.63 Å and three dimers of the enzyme per asymmetric unit. PMID:20445262

  1. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase from Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Daisuke; Nishitani, Yuichi; Nonaka, Tsuyoshi; Kita, Akiko; Fukami, Takaaki A.; Mio, Toshiyuki; Yamada-Okabe, Hisafumi; Yamada-Okabe, Toshiko; Miki, Kunio

    2006-01-01

    UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase (UAP) is an essential enzyme in the synthesis of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine. UAP from Candida albicans was purified and crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals of the substrate and product complexes both diffract X-rays to beyond 2.3 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystals of the substrate complex belong to the triclinic space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 47.77, b = 62.89, c = 90.60 Å, α = 90.01, β = 97.72, γ = 92.88°, whereas those of the product complex belong to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 61.95, b = 90.87, c = 94.88 Å. PMID:17142897

  2. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of N-acetylglucosamine-phosphate mutase from Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Nishitani, Yuichi; Maruyama, Daisuke; Nonaka, Tsuyoshi; Kita, Akiko; Fukami, Takaaki A.; Mio, Toshiyuki; Yamada-Okabe, Hisafumi; Yamada-Okabe, Toshiko; Miki, Kunio

    2006-01-01

    N-acetylglucosamine-phosphate mutase (AGM1) is an essential enzyme in the synthesis of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) in eukaryotes and belongs to the α-d-phosphohexomutase superfamily. AGM1 from Candida albicans (CaAGM1) was purified and crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals obtained belong to the primitive monoclinic space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 60.2, b = 130.2, c = 78.0 Å, β = 106.7°. The crystals diffract X-rays to beyond 1.8 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. PMID:16582501

  3. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of CMS1MS2: a cysteine proteinase from Carica candamarcensis latex

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Marco Túlio Ribeiro; Teixeira, Raphael Dias; Ribeiro, Henrique de Assis Lopes; Turchetti, Andréia Pereira; Junqueira, Caroline Furtado; Lopes, Míriam Tereza Paz; Salas, Carlos Edmundo; Nagem, Ronaldo Alves Pinto

    2008-01-01

    Cysteine proteinases from the latex of plants of the family Caricaceae are widely used industrially as well as in pharmaceutical preparations. In the present work, a 23 kDa cysteine proteinase from Carica candamarcensis latex (designated CMS1MS2) was purified for crystallization using three chromatography steps. The enzyme shows about fourfold higher activity than papain with BAPNA as substrate. Crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction experiments were obtained by the hanging-drop method in the presence of PEG and ammonium sulfate as precipitants. The crystals are monoclinic (space group P21), with unit-cell parameters a = 53.26, b = 75.71, c = 53.23 Å, β = 96.81°, and diffract X-rays to 1.8 Å resolution. PMID:18540057

  4. Isolation, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of amaryllin, a plant pathogenesis-related protein from Amaryllis belladonna.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjit; Singh, Nagendra; Sinha, Mau; Kaur, Punit; Srinivasan, A; Sharma, Sujata; Singh, T P

    2009-06-01

    A novel antifungal protein, amaryllin, has been isolated from the underground bulbs of Amaryllis belladonna, purified to homogeneity and crystallized. The protein was extracted using ammonium sulfate fractionation. The purified protein samples indicated a molecular weight of 15 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The protein showed antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium oxysporum. The N-terminal sequence of the first 15 amino-acid residues was determined using Edman degradation and did not show significant sequence identity to any known protein. The protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with 30% PEG 8000 as precipitating agent. The crystals diffracted to 2.7 A resolution and belonged to the orthorhombic space group I222 or I2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 48.6, b = 61.9, c = 79.6 A. The complete sequence and structure determination of amaryllin are in progress.

  5. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of an integral membrane protein, cytochrome bo3 ubiquinol oxidase from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Abramson, J; Larsson, G; Byrne, B; Puustinen, A; Garcia-Horsman, A; Iwata, S

    2000-08-01

    Cytochrome bo(3) ubiquinol oxidase has been successfully purified for crystallization. Single crystals of this integral membrane protein diffract X-rays to 3.5 A resolution and belong to the orthorhombic space group C222(1). From the diffraction data, the unit-cell parameters were determined to be a = 91.3, b = 370.3, c = 232.4 A. The crystals have a solvent content of 59% and contain two molecules per asymmetric unit. A search model generated from the structures of cytochrome c oxidase from Paracoccus denitrificans and the extrinsic domain of cytochrome bo(3) ubiquinol oxidase from Escherichia coli was used for molecular-replacement studies, resulting in a solution with sensible molecular packing.

  6. Isolation, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of amaryllin, a plant pathogenesis-related protein from Amaryllis belladonna

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanjit; Singh, Nagendra; Sinha, Mau; Kaur, Punit; Srinivasan, A.; Sharma, Sujata; Singh, T. P.

    2009-01-01

    A novel antifungal protein, amaryllin, has been isolated from the underground bulbs of Amaryllis belladonna, purified to homogeneity and crystallized. The protein was extracted using ammonium sulfate fractionation. The purified protein samples indicated a molecular weight of 15 kDa on SDS–PAGE. The protein showed antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium oxysporum. The N-terminal sequence of the first 15 amino-acid residues was determined using Edman degradation and did not show significant sequence identity to any known protein. The protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with 30% PEG 8000 as precipitating agent. The crystals diffracted to 2.7 Å resolution and belonged to the orthorhombic space group I222 or I212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 48.6, b = 61.9, c = 79.6 Å. The complete sequence and structure determination of amaryllin are in progress. PMID:19478451

  7. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of ribitol-5-phosphate cytidylyltransferase from Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng-Chia; Yang, Chia Shin; Lin, Ching-Ting; Chan, Nei-Li; Chang, Ming-Chung; Chen, Yeh

    2012-10-01

    TarI is a ribitol-5-phosphate cytidylyltransferase that catalyzes the formation of CDP-ribitol, which is involved in the biosynthesis of wall teichoic acids, from CTP and ribitol 5-phosphate. TarI from Bacillus subtilis (BsTarI) was purified and crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffracted to a resolution of 1.78 Å and belonged to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 103.74, b = 60.97, c = 91.80 Å, β = 113.48°. The initial structural model indicated that the crystals of BsTarI contained a dimer in the asymmetric unit.

  8. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of Cif, a virulence factor secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Bahl, Christopher D; MacEachran, Daniel P; O'Toole, George A; Madden, Dean R

    2010-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa secretes a protein that triggers the accelerated degradation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in airway epithelial cells. This protein, which is known as the CFTR inhibitory factor (Cif), acts as a virulence factor and may facilitate airway colonization by P. aeruginosa. Based on sequence similarity Cif appears to be an epoxide hydrolase (EH), but it lacks several of the conserved features found in the active sites of canonical members of the EH family. Here, the crystallization of purified recombinant Cif by vapor diffusion is reported. The crystals formed in space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 167.4, b = 83.6, c = 88.3 A, beta = 100.6 degrees . The crystals diffracted to 2.39 A resolution on a rotating-anode source. Based on the calculated Matthews coefficient (2.2 A(3) Da(-1)), it appears that the asymmetric unit contains four molecules.

  9. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of rice bifunctional alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor from Oryza sativa.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi Hung; Peng, Wen Yan; Huang, Yen Chieh; Guan, Hong Hsiang; Hsieh, Ying Cheng; Liu, Ming Yih; Chang, Tschining; Chen, Chun Jung

    2006-08-01

    Rice bifunctional alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (RASI) can inhibit both alpha-amylase from larvae of the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) and subtilisin from Bacillus subtilis. The synthesis of RASI is up-regulated during the late milky stage in developing seeds. The 8.9 kDa molecular-weight RASI from rice has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. According to 1.81 angstroms resolution X-ray diffraction data from rice RASI crystals, the crystal belongs to space group P2(1)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = 79.99, b = 62.95, c = 66.70 angstroms. Preliminary analysis indicates two RASI molecules in an asymmetric unit with a solvent content of 44%.

  10. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of d-tagatose 3-epimerase from Pseudomonas cichorii

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Hiromi; Yamada, Mitsugu; Nishitani, Takeyori; Takada, Goro; Izumori, Ken; Kamitori, Shigehiro

    2007-01-01

    d-Tagatose 3-epimerase (D-TE) from Pseudomonas cichorii catalyzes the epimerization of various ketohexoses at the C3 position. The epimerization of d-­psicose has not been reported with epimerases other than P. cichorii D-­TE and d-psicose 3-epimerase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Recombinant P. cichorii D-TE has been purified and crystallized. Crystals of P. cichorii D-TE were obtained by the sitting-drop method at room temperature. The crystal belongs to the monoclinic space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 76.80, b = 94.92, c = 91.73 Å, β = 102.82°. Diffraction data were collected to 2.5 Å resolution. The asymmetric unit is expected to contain four molecules. PMID:17277456

  11. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of D-tagatose 3-epimerase from Pseudomonas cichorii.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hiromi; Yamada, Mitsugu; Nishitani, Takeyori; Takada, Goro; Izumori, Ken; Kamitori, Shigehiro

    2007-02-01

    D-Tagatose 3-epimerase (D-TE) from Pseudomonas cichorii catalyzes the epimerization of various ketohexoses at the C3 position. The epimerization of D-psicose has not been reported with epimerases other than P. cichorii D-TE and D-psicose 3-epimerase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Recombinant P. cichorii D-TE has been purified and crystallized. Crystals of P. cichorii D-TE were obtained by the sitting-drop method at room temperature. The crystal belongs to the monoclinic space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 76.80, b = 94.92, c = 91.73 A, beta = 102.82 degrees . Diffraction data were collected to 2.5 A resolution. The asymmetric unit is expected to contain four molecules.

  12. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of mammalian MSS4–Rab8 GTPase protein complex

    SciTech Connect

    Itzen, Aymelt; Bleimling, Nathalie; Ignatev, Alexander; Pylypenko, Olena; Rak, Alexey

    2006-02-01

    The MSS4 (mammalian suppressor of Sec4) protein in complex with nucleotide-free Rab8 GTPase has been purified and crystallized in a form suitable for structure analysis and a complete data set has been collected to 2 Å resolution. Rab GTPases function as ubiquitous key regulators of membrane-vesicle transport in eukaryotic cells. MSS4 is an evolutionarily conserved protein that binds to exocytotic Rabs and facilitates nucleotide release. The MSS4 protein in complex with nucleotide-free Rab8 GTPase has been purified and crystallized in a form suitable for structure analysis. The crystals belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 40.92, b = 49.85, c = 83.48 Å, α = 102.88, β = 97.46, γ = 90.12°. A complete data set has been collected to 2 Å resolution.

  13. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of rice bifunctional α-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor from Oryza sativa

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi-Hung; Peng, Wen-Yan; Huang, Yen-Chieh; Guan, Hong-Hsiang; Hsieh, Ying-Cheng; Liu, Ming-Yih; Chang, Tschining; Chen, Chun-Jung

    2006-01-01

    Rice bifunctional α-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (RASI) can inhibit both α-­amylase from larvae of the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) and subtilisin from Bacillus subtilis. The synthesis of RASI is up-regulated during the late milky stage in developing seeds. The 8.9 kDa molecular-weight RASI from rice has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. According to 1.81 Å resolution X-ray diffraction data from rice RASI crystals, the crystal belongs to space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 79.99, b = 62.95, c = 66.70 Å. Preliminary analysis indicates two RASI molecules in an asymmetric unit with a solvent content of 44%. PMID:16880545

  14. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the RecQ helicase catalytic core from Deinococcus radiodurans.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng-Chia; Huang, Chi-Hung; Yang, Chia-Shin; Chang, Chi-Huang; Kuan, Shu-Min; Chan, Nei-Li; Chen, Yeh

    2012-10-01

    The RecQ proteins are a highly conserved group of DNA helicases which play crucial roles in the maintenance of genome stability. DrRecQ from the radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans is a special member of the RecQ family because it contains three Helicase-and-RNase-D-C-terminal (HRDC) domains at the C-terminus. The helicase catalytic core is essential for ATPase and DNA-unwinding activities. In this work, the helicase catalytic core of DrRecQ was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. Crystals were obtained using the sitting-drop vapour diffusion method and X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.9 Å resolution. The crystals belong to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 84.75, b = 95.61, c = 183.83 Å.

  15. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic study of DHNA synthetase from Geobacillus kaustophilus

    SciTech Connect

    Kanaujia, Shankar Prasad; Ranjani, Chellamuthu Vasuki; Jeyakanthan, Jeyaraman; Baba, Seiki; Kuroishi, Chizu; Ebihara, Akio; Shinkai, Akeo; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Shiro, Yoshitsugu; Sekar, Kanagaraj; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2007-02-01

    DHNA synthetase from G. kaustophilus has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized. The aerobic Gram-positive bacterium Geobacillus kaustophilus is a bacillus species that was isolated from deep-sea sediment from the Mariana Trench. 1,4-Dihydroxy-2-naphthoate (DHNA) synthetase plays a vital role in the biosynthesis of menaquinone (vitamin K{sub 2}) in this bacterium. DHNA synthetase from Geobacillus kaustophilus was crystallized in the orthorhombic space group C222{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 77.01, b = 130.66, c = 131.69 Å. The crystal diffracted to a resolution of 2.2 Å. Preliminary studies and molecular-replacement calculations reveal the presence of three monomers in the asymmetric unit.

  16. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the DDX3 RNA helicase domain

    SciTech Connect

    Rodamilans, Bernardo; Montoya, Guillermo

    2007-04-01

    Crystals of DDX3 RNA helicase domain have been obtained in a monoclinic form that diffract to 2.2 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation at the ID14-1 ESRF beamline. DDX3 is a human RNA helicase that is involved in RNA processing and important human diseases. This enzyme belongs to the DEAD-box protein family, the members of which are characterized by the presence of nine conserved motifs including the Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp motif that defines the family. DDX3 has two distinct domains: an ATP-binding domain in the central region of the protein and a helicase domain in the carboxy-terminal region. The helicase domain of DDX3 was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Crystallization experiments yielded crystals that were suitable for X-ray diffraction analysis. The final crystallization conditions were a reservoir solution consisting of 2 M ammonium sulfate, 0.1 M imidazole pH 6.4 plus 5 mM spermine tetrahydrochloride and a protein solution containing 10 mM HEPES, 500 mM ammonium sulfate pH 8.0. The crystals of the helicase domain belong to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 43.85, b = 60.72, c = 88.39 Å, α = γ = 90, β = 101.02°, and contained three molecules per asymmetric unit. These crystals diffracted to a resolution limit of 2.2 Å using synchrotron radiation at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) and the Swiss Light Source (SLS)

  17. Systems Harmonization and Convergence - the GIGAS Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetti, P. G.; Biancalana, A.; Coene, Y.; Uslander, T.

    2009-04-01

    0.1 Background The GIGAS1 Support Action promotes the coherent and interoperable development of the GMES, INSPIRE and GEOSS initiatives through their concerted adoption of standards, protocols, and open architectures. 0.2 Preparing for Coordinated Data Access The GMES Coordinated Data Access System is under design and implementation2. This objective has motivated the definition of the interoperability standards between the contributing missions. The following elements have been addressed with associated papers submitted to OGC: The EO Product Metadata has been based on the OGC Geographic Markup Language, addressing sensor characteristics for optical, radar and atmospheric products. Collection and service discovery: an ISO extension package for CSW ebRim has been proposed. Catalogue Service (CSW): an Earth Observation extension package of the CSW ebRim has been proposed. Feasibility Analysis and Order: an Order interface control document and an Earth Observation profile of the Sensor Planning Service have been proposed. Online Data Access: an Earth Observation profile of the Web Map Services (WMS) for visualization and evaluation purposes has been proposed. Identity (user) management: the objective in the long term is to allow for a single sign-on to the Coordinated Data Access system by users registered in the various Earth Observation ground segments by providing a federated identity across participating ground segments, exploiting OASIS standards. 0.3 The GIGAS proposed harmonization approach The approach proposed by GIGAS is based on three elements: Technology watch Comparative analysis Shaping of initiatives and standards This paper concentrates on the methodology for technology watch and comparative analysis. The complexity of the GIGAS scenario involving huge systems (i.e. GEOSS, INSPIRE, GMES etc.) entails the interaction with different heterogeneous partners, each with a specific competence, expertise and know-how. 0.3.1 Technology watch The methodology

  18. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase from Candida albicans

    SciTech Connect

    Maruyama, Daisuke; Nishitani, Yuichi; Nonaka, Tsuyoshi; Kita, Akiko; Fukami, Takaaki A.; Mio, Toshiyuki; Yamada-Okabe, Hisafumi; Yamada-Okabe, Toshiko; Miki, Kunio

    2006-12-01

    UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase was purified and crystallized and X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.3 Å resolution. UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase (UAP) is an essential enzyme in the synthesis of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine. UAP from Candida albicans was purified and crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals of the substrate and product complexes both diffract X-rays to beyond 2.3 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystals of the substrate complex belong to the triclinic space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 47.77, b = 62.89, c = 90.60 Å, α = 90.01, β = 97.72, γ = 92.88°, whereas those of the product complex belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 61.95, b = 90.87, c = 94.88 Å.

  19. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of a novel Nitrosomonas europaea cytochrome, cytochrome P460

    SciTech Connect

    Elmore, Bradley O.; Pearson, Arwen R.; Wilmot, Carrie M.; Hooper, Alan B.

    2006-04-01

    Cytochrome P460 from N. europaea, a novel mono-heme protein containing an unusual lysine cross-link to the porphyrin ring, has been recombinantly expressed and purified from E. coli and crystallized. The crystals belong to the trigonal space group P3{sub 1/2}21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 53.3, c = 127.1 Å, one monomer in the asymmetric unit and diffract to 1.7 Å on a Cu Kα rotating-anode X-ray source. Cytochrome P460 from Nitrosomonas europaea, a novel mono-heme protein containing an unusual cross-link between a conserved lysine and the porphyrin ring, has been recombinantly expressed and purified from Escherichia coli. The protein crystallizes readily and diffraction to 1.7 Å has been obtained in-house. The crystals belong to the trigonal space group P3{sub 1/2}21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 53.3, c = 127.1 Å, and contain one monomer in the asymmetric unit.

  20. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of chlorite dismutase: a detoxifying enzyme producing molecular oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Geus, Daniël C. de Thomassen, Ellen A. J.; Feltz, Clarisse L. van der; Abrahams, Jan Pieter

    2008-08-01

    Preliminary X-ray data collection and analysis for crystals of chlorite dismutase, a haem-based enzyme that very effectively reduces chlorite to chloride while producing molecular oxygen, is reported to 2.1 Å resolution. Chlorite dismutase, a homotetrameric haem-based protein, is one of the key enzymes of (per)chlorate-reducing bacteria. It is highly active (< 2 kU mg{sup −1}) in reducing the toxic compound chlorite to the innocuous chloride anion and molecular oxygen. Chlorite itself is produced as the intermediate product of (per)chlorate reduction. The chlorite dismutase gene in Azospira oryzae strain GR-1 employing degenerate primers has been identified and the active enzyme was subsequently overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Chlorite dismutase was purified, proven to be active and crystallized using sitting drops with PEG 2000 MME, KSCN and ammonium sulfate as precipitants. The crystals belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 and were most likely to contain six subunits in the asymmetric unit. The refined unit-cell parameters were a = 164.46, b = 169.34, c = 60.79 Å. The crystals diffracted X-rays to 2.1 Å resolution on a synchrotron-radiation source and a three-wavelength MAD data set has been collected. Determination of the chlorite dismutase structure will provide insights into the active site of the enzyme, for which no structures are currently available.

  1. Purification, crystallization and initial X-ray crystallographic analysis of the putative GTPase PH0525 from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3

    SciTech Connect

    Lokanath, Neratur K.; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Matsunaga, Emiko; Sugahara, Mitsuaki; Kunishima, Naoki

    2005-10-01

    The putative GTPase PH0525 from P. horikoshii OT3 was crystallized using the microbatch method. Crystals were formed under two different conditions, providing two distinct crystal forms. Diffraction data from the two forms were measured to resolution limits of 2.30 and 2.40 Å and processed in space groups P2{sub 1} and C222{sub 1}, respectively. GTPases are involved in diverse cellular functions including cell proliferation, cytoskeleton organization and intracellular traffic. The putative GTPase PH0525 from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Two distinct crystal forms were grown by the microbatch method at 291 K using a very high protein concentration (80 mg ml{sup −1}). Native data sets extending to resolutions of 2.3 and 2.4 Å have been collected and processed in space groups P2{sub 1} and C222{sub 1}, respectively. Assuming the presence of one monomer per asymmetric unit gives V{sub M} values of 2.6 and 2.4 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} for the P2{sub 1} and C222{sub 1} forms, respectively, which is consistent with dynamic light-scattering experiments, which show a monomeric state of the protein in solution.

  2. Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a penicillin-binding protein homologue from Pyrococcus abyssi

    SciTech Connect

    Delfosse, Vanessa; Hugonnet, Jean-Emmanuel; Sougakoff, Wladimir; Mayer, Claudine

    2005-11-01

    The crystallization of a hypothetical penicillin-binding protein from the archaeon P. abyssi in space group C2 by hanging-drop vapour diffusion is reported. The genome of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi contains a gene (pab0087) encoding a penicillin-binding protein (PBP) homologue. This sequence consists of 447 residues and shows significant sequence similarity to low-molecular-weight PBPs and class C β-lactamases. The Pab0087 protein was overexpressed, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data from two different crystal forms were collected to 2.7 and 2.0 Å resolution. Both crystals belong to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 160.59, b = 135.74, c = 113.02 Å, β = 117.36° and a = 166.97, b = 131.25, c = 189.39 Å, β = 113.81°, respectively. The asymmetric unit contains four and eight molecules, respectively, with fourfold non-crystallographic symmetry.

  3. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray crystallographic analysis of ScpB (Rv1710) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Soo-Young; Kang, Beom Sik; Kim, Myung Hee; Kim, Kyung Jin

    2007-12-01

    ScpB from M. tuberculosis was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method in the presence of 2 M NaCl and 10% PEG 6000 at 295 K. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a maximum resolution of 2.3 Å at a synchrotron beamline. Structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) proteins play diverse roles in cellular DNA reassembly by directly interacting with DNA. They require non-SMC proteins for their proper function; these include the conserved segregation and condensation proteins (Scps) in prokaryotes. ScpB from Mycobacterium tuberculosis was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method in the presence of 2 M NaCl and 10% PEG 6000 at 295 K. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a maximum resolution of 2.3 Å at a synchrotron beamline. The crystal belongs to the hexagonal space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 136.69, c = 78.55 Å, γ = 120°. With one molecule per asymmetric unit, the crystal volume per unit protein weight (V{sub M}) is 2.95 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}. The structure was solved by the single anomalous dispersion method and structure refinement is in progress.

  4. Heterodimeric nitrate reductase (NapAB) from Cupriavidus necator H16: purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Coelho, Catarina; González, Pablo J.; Trincão, José; Carvalho, Ana L.; Najmudin, Shabir; Moura, José J. G.; Moura, Isabel; Romão, Maria J.

    2007-06-01

    Crystals of the oxidized form of the periplasmic nitrate reductase from Cupriavidus necator were obtained using polyethylene glycol 3350 as precipitant The periplasmic nitrate reductase from Cupriavidus necator (also known as Ralstonia eutropha) is a heterodimer that is able to reduce nitrate to nitrite. It comprises a 91 kDa catalytic subunit (NapA) and a 17 kDa subunit (NapB) that is involved in electron transfer. The larger subunit contains a molybdenum active site with a bis-molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide cofactor as well as one [4Fe–4S] cluster, while the small subunit is a di-haem c-type cytochrome. Crystals of the oxidized form of this enzyme were obtained using polyethylene glycol 3350 as precipitant. A single crystal grown at the High Throughput Crystallization Laboratory of the EMBL in Grenoble diffracted to beyond 1.5 Å at the ESRF (ID14-1), which is the highest resolution reported to date for a nitrate reductase. The unit-cell parameters are a = 142.2, b = 82.4, c = 96.8 Å, β = 100.7°, space group C2, and one heterodimer is present per asymmetric unit.

  5. Expression, Purifications, Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Diffraction Analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana Cyclophilin 38 (AtCyp38)

    SciTech Connect

    Vasudevan,D.; Gopalon, G.; He, Z.; et. al.

    2005-01-01

    AtCyp38 is one of the highly divergent multidomain cyclophilins from Arabidopsis thaliana. A recombinant form of AtCyp38 (residues 83-437) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The protein was crystallized using the vapour-batch technique with PEG 6000 and t-butanol as precipitants. Crystals of recombinant AtCyp38 diffracted X-rays to better than 2.5 Angstroms resolution at 95 K using a synchrotron-radiation source. The crystal belongs to the C-centered orthorhombic space group C222{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 58.2, b = 95.9, c = 167.5 Angstroms, and contains one molecule in the asymmetric unit. The selenomethionine derivative of the AtCyp38 protein was overexpressed, purified and crystallized in the same space group and data were collected to 3.5 Angstroms at the NSLS synchrotron. The structure is being solved by the MAD method.

  6. Purification, crystal structure determination and functional characterization of type III antifreeze proteins from the European eelpout Zoarces viviparus.

    PubMed

    Wilkens, Casper; Poulsen, Jens-Christian N; Ramløv, Hans; Lo Leggio, Leila

    2014-08-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are essential components of many organisms adaptation to cold temperatures. Fish type III AFPs are divided into two groups, SP isoforms being much less active than QAE1 isoforms. Two type III AFPs from Zoarces viviparus, a QAE1 (ZvAFP13) and an SP (ZvAFP6) isoform, are here characterized and their crystal structures determined. We conclude that the higher activity of the QAE1 isoforms cannot be attributed to single residues, but rather a combination of structural effects. Furthermore both ZvAFP6 and ZvAFP13 crystal structures have water molecules around T18 equivalent to the tetrahedral-like waters previously identified in a neutron crystal structure. Interestingly, ZvAFP6 forms dimers in the crystal, with a significant dimer interface. The presence of ZvAFP6 dimers was confirmed in solution by native electrophoresis and gel filtration. To our knowledge this is the first report of dimerization of AFP type III proteins.

  7. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a GTP-binding protein from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Hao; Sun, Lei; Brouns, Stan J. J.; Fu, Sheng; Akerboom, Jasper; Li, Xuemei; Oost, John van der

    2007-03-01

    A GTP-binding protein from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus has been crystallized. Combined with biochemical analyses, it is expected that the structure of this protein will give insight in the function of a relatively unknown subfamily of the GTPase superfamily. A predicted GTP-binding protein from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus, termed SsGBP, has been cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The purified protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique in the presence of 0.05 M cadmium sulfate and 0.8 M sodium acetate pH 7.5. A single-wavelength anomalous dispersion data set was collected to a maximum resolution of 2.0 Å using a single cadmium-incorporated crystal. The crystal form belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with approximate unit-cell parameters a = 65.0, b = 72.6, c = 95.9 Å and with a monomer in the asymmetric unit.

  8. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the biotin–protein ligase from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3

    PubMed Central

    Bagautdinov, Bagautdin; Kuroishi, Chizu; Sugahara, Mitsuaki; Kunishima, Naoki

    2005-01-01

    Biotin–protein ligase is an enzyme that catalyzes the ATP-dependent biotinylation of a specific lysine residue in acetyl-CoA carboxylase. The biotin–protein ligase from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 has been cloned, overexpressed and purified. Crystallization was performed by the microbatch method or the vapour-diffusion method using PEG 2000 as a precipitant at 295 K. X-ray diffraction data have been collected to 1.6 Å resolution from a native crystal and to 1.55 Å resolution from a selenomethionine-derivative crystal for multiple anomalous dispersion phasing using synchrotron radiation at 100 K. The native crystal belongs to the monoclinic space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 38.601, b = 78.264, c  =  70.147 Å, β = 101.48°. Assuming a homodimer per asymmetric unit gives a V M value of 2.14 Å3 Da−1 and a solvent content of 42.5%. Cocrystals with biotin, ADP and biotinyl-5′-AMP were prepared and diffraction data sets were collected to 1.6, 1.6 and 1.45 Å resolution, respectively. PMID:16510991

  9. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the biotin-protein ligase from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3.

    PubMed

    Bagautdinov, Bagautdin; Kuroishi, Chizu; Sugahara, Mitsuaki; Kunishima, Naoki

    2005-02-01

    Biotin-protein ligase is an enzyme that catalyzes the ATP-dependent biotinylation of a specific lysine residue in acetyl-CoA carboxylase. The biotin-protein ligase from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 has been cloned, overexpressed and purified. Crystallization was performed by the microbatch method or the vapour-diffusion method using PEG 2000 as a precipitant at 295 K. X-ray diffraction data have been collected to 1.6 A resolution from a native crystal and to 1.55 A resolution from a selenomethionine-derivative crystal for multiple anomalous dispersion phasing using synchrotron radiation at 100 K. The native crystal belongs to the monoclinic space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 38.601, b = 78.264, c = 70.147 A, beta = 101.48 degrees. Assuming a homodimer per asymmetric unit gives a VM value of 2.14 A3 Da(-1) and a solvent content of 42.5%. Cocrystals with biotin, ADP and biotinyl-5'-AMP were prepared and diffraction data sets were collected to 1.6, 1.6 and 1.45 A resolution, respectively.

  10. The purification, crystallization and preliminary structural characterization of PhzM, a phenazine-modifying methyltransferase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Gohain, Neelakshi; Thomashow, Linda S.; Mavrodi, Dmitri V.; Blankenfeldt, Wulf

    2006-09-01

    PhzM, an S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase enzyme that catalyzes a reaction involved in the biosynthesis of pyocyanin in P. aeruginosa, was cloned, overexpressed and crystallized. Data collection from native and selenomethionine-labelled crystals is reported. Pyocyanin, phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and more than 70 related compounds collectively known as phenazines are produced by various species of Pseudomonas, including the fluorescent pseudomonad P. aeruginosa, a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen in humans and animals. P. aeruginosa synthesizes a characteristic blue water-soluble compound called pyocyanin (1-hydroxy-5-methyl-phenazine). Two enzymes designated PhzM and PhzS are involved in the terminal steps of its synthesis and very little is known about these enzymes. In this study, PhzM, a dimeric S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase, was purified and crystallized from PEG 3350/sodium cacodylate/sodium citrate pH 6.5. The crystals belong to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 46.1, b = 61.8, c = 69.6 Å, α = 96.3, β = 106.6, γ = 106.9°. They contain one dimer in the asymmetric unit and diffract to a resolution of 1.8 Å. Anomalous data to 2.3 Å resolution have been collected from seleno-l-methionine-labelled PhzM.

  11. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a variant of the ColE1 Rop protein

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrazi, Maria; Fellas, George; Kapetaniou, Evangelia G.; Kotsifaki, Dina; Providaki, Mary; Kokkinidis, Michael

    2008-05-01

    The double mutant D30P/A31G of the Rop protein was crystallized with the aim of analyzing the loop region as a possible folding-control element. The crystals belonged to space group P2{sub 1} and diffracted to 1.4 Å resolution. Rop is the paradigm of a canonical four-α-helical bundle. Its loop region has attracted considerable interest because a single alanine-to-proline substitution (A31P) in the loop is sufficient to change the topology of this small protein. In order to further analyse the loop region as a possible folding-control element, the double mutant D30P/A31G (RopPG) was produced, purified and crystallized. The crystals belonged to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 26.7, b = 38.8, c = 56.6 Å, β = 100.9° and two molecules in the asymmetric unit. A complete data set was collected at 100 K to a resolution of 1.4 Å using synchrotron radiation.

  12. Cloning, purification crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of a conserved hypothetical protein XC6422 from Xanthomonas campestris

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Chao-Yu; Chin, Ko-Hsin; Chou, Chia-Cheng; Shr, Hui-Lin; Gao, Fei Philip; Lyu, Ping-Chiang; Wang, Andrew H.-J.; Chou, Shan-Ho

    2005-07-01

    A conserved hypothetical protein XC6422 from X. campestris pv. campestris has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. Crystals obtained from the purified recombinant protein showed a variety of forms that diffracted to at least 1.6 Å resolution. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris is a Gram-negative yellow-pigmented pathogenic bacterium that causes black rot, one of the major worldwide diseases of cruciferous crops. Its genome contains approximately 4500 genes, roughly one third of which have no known structure and/or function. However, some genes of unknown function are highly conserved among several different bacterial genuses. XC6422 is one such conserved hypothetical protein and has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized in a variety of forms using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Crystals grew to approximately 2 × 1.5 × 0.4 mm in size after one week and diffracted to at least 1.6 Å resolution. They belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with one molecule per asymmetric unit and unit-cell parameters a = 75.8, b = 79.3, c = 38.2 Å, β = 109.4°. Determination of this structure may provide insights into the protein’s function.

  13. Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of XC229, a conserved hypothetical protein from Xanthomonas campestris

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, Ko-Hsin; Kuo, Wei-Tien; Chou, Chia-Cheng; Shr, Hui-Lin; Lyu, Ping-Chiang; Wang, Andrew H.-J.; Chou, Shan-Ho

    2005-07-01

    A conserved hypothetical protein XC229 from X. campestris pv. campestris has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. A crystal of the purified recombinant protein diffracted to a resolution of 1.80 Å. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris is a Gram-negative yellow-pigmented pathogenic bacterium that causes black rot, one of the major worldwide diseases of cruciferous crops. Its genome contains approximately 4500 genes, roughly one third of which have no known structure and/or function. However, some of these unknown genes are highly conserved among several different bacterial genuses. XC229 is one such protein containing 134 amino acids. It was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystal diffracted to a resolution of at least 1.80 Å. It is cubic and belongs to space group I2{sub x}3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 106.8 Å. It contains one or two molecules per asymmetric unit.

  14. Expression, Purification, Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Crystallographic Studies of a Novel Acetylcitrulline deacetylase from Xanthomonas Campestris

    SciTech Connect

    Shi,D.; Yu, X.; Roth, L.; Hiroki, M.; Hathout, Y.; Allewell, N.; Tuchman, M.

    2005-01-01

    A novel N-acetyl-{sub L}-citrulline deacetylase that is able to catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acetyl-l-citrulline to acetate and citrulline was identified from Xanthomonas campestris. The protein was overexpressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2 and diffract to 1.75 Angstrom resolution, with unit-cell parameters a = 94.13, b = 95.23, c = 43.61 Angstroms, {beta} = 93.76. Since attempts to use homologous structural models to solve the structure via molecular replacement were unsuccessful, the selenomethionine-substituted protein was prepared using an overnight auto-induction overexpression system. Selenomethionine incorporation into the protein was verified by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass-spectroscopic analysis after trypsin digestion. The crystals of the selenomethionine-substituted protein were prepared using crystallization conditions similar to those for the native protein. Multiple anomalous dispersion (MAD) data were collected at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Structure determination is under way using the MAD phasing method.

  15. Overexpression, purification and crystallization of lysine epsilon-aminotransferase (Rv3290c) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Sarvind Mani; Ramachandran, Ravishankar

    2006-06-01

    Lysine epsilon-aminotransferase (LAT) is a protein involved in lysine catabolism; it belongs to the aminotransferase family of enzymes, which use pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) as a cofactor. LAT probably plays a significant role during the persistent/latent phase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as observed by its up-regulation by approximately 40-fold during this stage. Crystals of recombinant LAT have been grown in 0.1 M trisodium citrate dihydrate solution containing 0.2 M ammonium acetate and 25% PEG 4000 in the pH range 5.4-6.0. Diffraction data extending to 1.98 A were collected at room temperature from a single crystal. Crystals are trigonal in shape and belong to space group P3(1)21, with unit-cell parameters a = 103.26, b = 103.26, c = 98.22 A. The crystals contain a monomer in the asymmetric unit, which corresponds to a Matthews coefficient (V(M)) of 3.1 A3 Da(-1).

  16. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic study of isolated modules of the mouse coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Troffer-Charlier, Nathalie; Cura, Vincent; Hassenboehler, Pierre; Moras, Dino; Cavarelli, Jean

    2007-04-01

    Isolated modules of mouse coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 encompassing the protein arginine N-methyltransferase catalytic domain have been overexpressed, purified and crystallized. X-ray diffraction data have been collected and have enabled determination of the structures by multiple isomorphous replacement using anomalous scattering. Coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1) plays a crucial role in gene expression as a coactivator of several nuclear hormone receptors and also of non-nuclear receptor systems. Its recruitment by the transcriptional machinery induces protein methylation, leading to chromatin remodelling and gene activation. CARM1{sub 28–507} and two structural states of CARM1{sub 140–480} were expressed, purified and crystallized. Crystals of CARM1{sub 28–507} belong to space group P6{sub 2}22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 136.0, c = 125.3 Å; they diffract to beyond 2.5 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation and contain one monomer in the asymmetric unit. The structure of CARM1{sub 28–507} was solved by multiple isomorphous replacement and anomalous scattering methods. Crystals of apo CARM1{sub 140–480} belong to space group I222, with unit-cell parameters a = 74.6, b = 99.0, c = 207.4 Å; they diffract to beyond 2.7 Å resolution and contain two monomers in the asymmetric unit. Crystals of CARM1{sub 140–480} in complex with S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine belong to space P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 74.6, b = 98.65, c = 206.08 Å; they diffract to beyond 2.6 Å resolution and contain four monomers in the asymmetric unit. The structures of apo and holo CARM1{sub 140–480} were solved by molecular-replacement techniques from the structure of CARM1{sub 28–507}.

  17. Purification, crystallization and characterization of the Pseudomonas outer membrane protein FapF, a functional amyloid transporter.

    PubMed

    Rouse, Sarah L; Hawthorne, Wlliam J; Lambert, Sebastian; Morgan, Marc L; Hare, Stephen A; Matthews, Stephen

    2016-12-01

    Bacteria often produce extracellular amyloid fibres via a multi-component secretion system. Aggregation-prone, unstructured subunits cross the periplasm and are secreted through the outer membrane, after which they self-assemble. Here, significant progress is presented towards solving the high-resolution crystal structure of the novel amyloid transporter FapF from Pseudomonas, which facilitates the secretion of the amyloid-forming polypeptide FapC across the bacterial outer membrane. This represents the first step towards obtaining structural insight into the products of the Pseudomonas fap operon. Initial attempts at crystallizing full-length and N-terminally truncated constructs by refolding techniques were not successful; however, after preparing FapF(106-430) from the membrane fraction, reproducible crystals were obtained using the sitting-drop method of vapour diffusion. Diffraction data have been processed to 2.5 Å resolution. These crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group C121, with unit-cell parameters a = 143.4, b = 124.6, c = 80.4 Å, α = γ = 90, β = 96.32° and three monomers in the asymmetric unit. It was found that the switch to complete detergent exchange into C8E4 was crucial for forming well diffracting crystals, and it is suggested that this combined with limited proteolysis is a potentially useful protocol for membrane β-barrel protein crystallography. The three-dimensional structure of FapF will provide invaluable information on the mechanistic differences of biogenesis between the curli and Fap functional amyloid systems.

  18. Purification, crystallization and characterization of the Pseudomonas outer membrane protein FapF, a functional amyloid transporter

    PubMed Central

    Rouse, Sarah L.; Hawthorne, Wlliam J.; Lambert, Sebastian; Morgan, Marc L.; Hare, Stephen A.; Matthews, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria often produce extracellular amyloid fibres via a multi-component secretion system. Aggregation-prone, unstructured subunits cross the periplasm and are secreted through the outer membrane, after which they self-assemble. Here, significant progress is presented towards solving the high-resolution crystal structure of the novel amyloid transporter FapF from Pseudomonas, which facilitates the secretion of the amyloid-forming polypeptide FapC across the bacterial outer membrane. This represents the first step towards obtaining structural insight into the products of the Pseudomonas fap operon. Initial attempts at crystallizing full-length and N-terminally truncated constructs by refolding techniques were not successful; however, after preparing FapF106–430 from the membrane fraction, reproducible crystals were obtained using the sitting-drop method of vapour diffusion. Diffraction data have been processed to 2.5 Å resolution. These crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group C121, with unit-cell parameters a = 143.4, b = 124.6, c = 80.4 Å, α = γ = 90, β = 96.32° and three monomers in the asymmetric unit. It was found that the switch to complete detergent exchange into C8E4 was crucial for forming well diffracting crystals, and it is suggested that this combined with limited proteolysis is a potentially useful protocol for membrane β-barrel protein crystallography. The three-dimensional structure of FapF will provide invaluable information on the mechanistic differences of biogenesis between the curli and Fap functional amyloid systems. PMID:27917837

  19. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the Escherichia coli common pilus chaperone EcpB

    SciTech Connect

    Garnett, James A.; Diallo, Mamou; Matthews, Steve J.

    2015-05-20

    In Escherichia coli, the common pilus (Ecp) belongs to an alternative chaperone–usher pathway that plays a major role in both early biofilm formation and host-cell adhesion. Initial attempts at crystallizing the chaperone EcpB using natively purified protein from the bacterial periplasm were not successful; however, after the isolation of EcpB under denaturing conditions and subsequent refolding, crystals were obtained at pH 8.0 using the sitting-drop method of vapour diffusion. This is the first time that this refolding strategy has been used to purify CU chaperones. Pili are key cell-surface components that allow the attachment of bacteria to both biological and abiotic solid surfaces, whilst also mediating interactions between themselves. In Escherichia coli, the common pilus (Ecp) belongs to an alternative chaperone–usher (CU) pathway that plays a major role in both early biofilm formation and host-cell adhesion. The chaperone EcpB is involved in the biogenesis of the filament, which is composed of EcpA and EcpD. Initial attempts at crystallizing EcpB using natively purified protein from the bacterial periplasm were not successful; however, after the isolation of EcpB under denaturing conditions and subsequent refolding, crystals were obtained at pH 8.0 using the sitting-drop method of vapour diffusion. Diffraction data have been processed to 2.4 Å resolution. These crystals belonged to the trigonal space group P3{sub 1}21 or P3{sub 2}21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 62.65, c = 121.14 Å and one monomer in the asymmetric unit. Molecular replacement was unsuccessful, but selenomethionine-substituted protein and heavy-atom derivatives are being prepared for phasing. The three-dimensional structure of EcpB will provide invaluable information on the subtle mechanistic differences in biogenesis between the alternative and classical CU pathways. Furthermore, this is the first time that this refolding strategy has been used to purify CU chaperones, and it

  20. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a fusion of the LIM domains of LMO2 and the LID domain of Ldb1.

    PubMed

    El Omari, Kamel; Porcher, Catherine; Mancini, Erika J

    2010-11-01

    LMO2 (LIM domain only 2), also known as rhombotin-2, is a transcriptional regulator that is essential for normal haematopoietic development. In malignant haematopoiesis, its ectopic expression in T cells is involved in the pathogenesis of leukaemia. LMO2 contains four zinc-finger domains and binds to the ubiquitous nuclear adaptor protein Ldb1 via the LIM-interaction domain (LID). Together, they act as scaffolding proteins and bridge important haematopoietic transcription factors such as SCL/Tal1, E2A and GATA-1. Solving the structure of the LMO2:Ldb1-LID complex would therefore be a first step towards understanding how haematopoietic specific protein complexes form and would also provide an attractive target for drug development in anticancer therapy, especially for T-cell leukaemia. Here, the expression, purification, crystallization and data collection of a fusion protein consisting of the two LIM domains of LMO2 linked to the LID domain of Ldb1 via a flexible linker is reported. The crystals belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 179.9, b = 51.5, c = 114.7 Å, β = 90.1°, and contained five molecules in the asymmetric unit. Multiple-wavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) data have been collected at the zinc X-ray absorption edge to a resolution of 2.8 Å and the data were used to solve the structure of the LMO2:Ldb1-LID complex. Refinement and analysis of the electron-density map is in progress.

  1. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of a rice Rac/Rop GTPase, OsRac1

    PubMed Central

    Kosami, Ken-ichi; Ohki, Izuru; Hayashi, Kokoro; Tabata, Ryo; Usugi, Sayaka; Kawasaki, Tsutomu; Fujiwara, Toshimichi; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Shimamoto, Ko; Kojima, Chojiro

    2014-01-01

    Small GTPases regulate a large variety of key cellular processes. Plant small Rac/Rop GTPases have recently received broad attention as it is becoming clear that these enzymes regulate various plant cellular processes. OsRac1, a rice Rac/Rop protein, is a key regulator of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and induces immune responses. Although four structures of plant small GTPases have been reported, all of these were of the inactive form. Here, OsRac1 was purified and co-crystallized with the GTP analogue 5′-guanylyl imidodiphos­phate (GMPPNP). The crystal belonged to space group P212121 and a complete data set was collected to 1.9 Å resolution. PMID:24419631

  2. Purification, crystallization and X-ray crystallographic studies on a putative methyltransferase, YtqB, from Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun Cheol; Song, Wan Seok; Wi, Jimin; Yoon, Sung-il

    2014-04-01

    S-Adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM)-dependent methyltransferases (MTases) catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from a SAM cofactor to specific substrate molecules, including small chemicals, proteins, DNAs and RNAs, and are required for various cellular functions, such as regulation of gene expression and biosynthesis of metabolites. Bacillus subtilis YtqB is a putative SAM-dependent MTase whose biological function has not been characterized. To provide biochemical and structural insights into the role of YtqB in bacteria, the recombinant YtqB protein was overexpressed in the Escherichia coli expression system and purified by chromatographic methods. YtqB crystals were obtained in PEG-containing conditions and diffracted to 1.68 Å resolution. The YtqB crystals belonged to space group P212121, with two molecules in the asymmetric unit.

  3. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of a Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Dipak N.; Preeti; Chaudhry, Anshul; Sharma, Ashwani K.; Tomar, ­Shailly; Kumar, Pravindra

    2009-01-01

    A Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor has been purified from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds. SDS–PAGE analysis of a purified sample showed a homogeneous band corresponding to a molecular weight of 21 kDa. The protein was identified as a Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor based on N-terminal amino-acid sequence analysis. It was crystallized by the vapour-diffusion method using PEG 6000. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 37.2, b = 77.1, c = 129.1 Å. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.7 Å. Preliminary crystallographic analysis indicated the presence of one proteinase inhibitor molecule in the asymmetric unit, with a solvent content of 44%. PMID:19574654

  4. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic study of FtsA from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Junso; Miyazaki, Yuma; Hirose, Mika; Nagao, Chioko; Mizohata, Eiichi; Matsumoto, Yoshimi; Mizuguchi, Kenji; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi

    2013-01-01

    FtsA from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was cloned, overexpressed and purified. The protein was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion technique. A cocrystal with β-γ-imidoadenosine 5′-phosphate (AMPPNP; a nonhydrolysable ATP analogue) was grown using PEG 3350 as a precipitant at 293 K. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.3 Å at 100 K. The crystal belonged to the monoclinic space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 75.31, b = 102.78, c = 105.90 Å, β = 96.54°. The calculated Matthews coefficient suggested that the asymmetric unit contained three or four monomers. PMID:23908037

  5. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the extracellular olfactomedin domain of gliomedin

    PubMed Central

    Han, Huijong; Kursula, Petri

    2014-01-01

    Gliomedin (GLDN) is one of the essential proteins in the development of the nodes of Ranvier in the vertebrate peripheral nervous system. An olfactomedin (OLF) domain is located at the GLDN extracellular C-terminus and is involved in the accumulation of neuronal plasma membrane voltage-gated sodium channels in the nodes by interacting with neurofascin and NrCAM. No structures of OLF domains have previously been reported. Here, the crystallization of the rat GLDN OLF domain, which was expressed in an insect-cell system, is reported. The crystal diffracted to 1.55 Å resolution and belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 37.5, b = 141.7, c = 46.0 Å, β = 110.6°, and had two molecules in the asymmetric unit. PMID:25372825

  6. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies on human Ca2+-binding protein S100B.

    PubMed

    Ostendorp, Thorsten; Heizmann, Claus W; Kroneck, Peter M H; Fritz, Günter

    2005-07-01

    S100B, a Ca2+-binding protein, acts intracellularly as a Ca2+-signalling protein but is also secreted to the extracellular space, acting in a cytokine-like manner through its receptor RAGE. Recombinant human S100B has been purified and crystallized in the Ca2+-bound state. Size-exclusion chromatography indicates that S100B can exist as a dimer and as a multimer in solution. Crystals of S100B diffract to 1.9 A and belong to space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 63.4, b = 81.6, c = 71.5 A, alpha = 90, beta = 107, gamma = 90 degrees. Preliminary analysis of the X-ray data indicate that there are four homodimers per asymmetric unit.

  7. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the extracellular olfactomedin domain of gliomedin.

    PubMed

    Han, Huijong; Kursula, Petri

    2014-11-01

    Gliomedin (GLDN) is one of the essential proteins in the development of the nodes of Ranvier in the vertebrate peripheral nervous system. An olfactomedin (OLF) domain is located at the GLDN extracellular C-terminus and is involved in the accumulation of neuronal plasma membrane voltage-gated sodium channels in the nodes by interacting with neurofascin and NrCAM. No structures of OLF domains have previously been reported. Here, the crystallization of the rat GLDN OLF domain, which was expressed in an insect-cell system, is reported. The crystal diffracted to 1.55 Å resolution and belonged to space group P2₁, with unit-cell parameters a=37.5, b=141.7, c=46.0 Å, β=110.6°, and had two molecules in the asymmetric unit.

  8. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of Est25: a ketoprofen-specific hormone-sensitive lipase

    PubMed Central

    Kim, SeungBum; Joo, Sangbum; Yoon, Hyun C.; Ryu, Yeonwoo; Kim, Kyeong Kyu; Kim, T. Doohun

    2007-01-01

    Ketoprofen, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, inhibits the synthesis of prostaglandin. A novel hydrolase (Est25) with high ketoprofen specificity has previously been identified using a metagenomic library from environmental samples. Recombinant Est25 protein with a histidine tag at the N-terminus was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified in a homogenous form. Est25 was crystallized from 2.4 M sodium malonate pH 7.0 and X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.49 Å using synchrotron radiation. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 197.8, b = 95.2, c = 99.4 Å, β = 97.1°. PMID:17620715

  9. Two-step purification of pathogenesis-related proteins from grape juice and crystallization of thaumatin-like proteins.

    PubMed

    Van Sluyter, Steven C; Marangon, Matteo; Stranks, Samuel D; Neilson, Karlie A; Hayasaka, Yoji; Haynes, Paul A; Menz, R Ian; Waters, Elizabeth J

    2009-12-09

    Grape thaumatin-like (TL) proteins and chitinases play roles in plant-pathogen interactions and can cause protein haze in white wine unless removed prior to bottling. A two-step method is described that highly purified hundreds of milligrams of TL proteins and chitinases from two juices by strong cation exchange (SCX) and hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC). The method was fast and separated isoforms of TL proteins and chitinases from within the same juice, in most cases to >97% purity. The isolated proteins were identified by peptide nanoLC-MS/MS and crystallized using a high-throughput screening method. Crystals from three protein fractions produced high-resolution X-ray crystallography data.

  10. Purification and crystallization of Bacillus subtilis NrnA, a novel enzyme involved in nanoRNA degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Nelersa, Claudiu M.; Schmier, Brad J.; Malhotra, Arun

    2012-05-08

    The final step in RNA degradation is the hydrolysis of RNA fragments five nucleotides or less in length (nanoRNA) to mononucleotides. In Escherichia coli this step is carried out by oligoribonuclease (Orn), a DEDD-family exoribonuclease that is conserved throughout eukaryotes. However, many bacteria lack Orn homologs, and an unrelated DHH-family phosphoesterase, NrnA, has recently been identified as one of the enzymes responsible for nanoRNA degradation in Bacillus subtilis. To understand its mechanism of action, B. subtilis NrnA was purified and crystallized at room temperature using the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method with PEG 4000, PEG 3350 or PEG MME 2000 as precipitant. The crystals belonged to the primitive monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 50.62, b = 121.3, c = 123.4 {angstrom}, {alpha} = 90, {beta} = 91.31, {gamma} = 90{sup o}.

  11. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of EaLsc, a levansucrase from Erwinia amylovora.

    PubMed

    Caputi, Lorenzo; Cianci, Michele; Benini, Stefano

    2013-05-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Erwinia amylovora is a destructive pathogen of Rosaceae. During infection, E. amylovora produces the exopolysaccharide levan, which contributes to the occlusion of plant vessels, causing the wilting of shoots. Levan is a fructose polymer that is synthesized by multifunctional enzymes called levansucrases. The levansucrase from E. amylovora (EaLsc) was heterologously expressed as a GST-fusion protein in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized after tag removal. The protein crystallized in space group P21212. X-ray diffraction data were acquired to 2.77 Å resolution. The structure of the enzyme was solved by molecular replacement. The asymmetric unit contains eight enzyme molecules, giving a solvent content of 58.74% and a Matthews coefficient of 2.98 Å(3) Da(-1).

  12. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic study of isolated modules of the mouse coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1

    PubMed Central

    Troffer-Charlier, Nathalie; Cura, Vincent; Hassenboehler, Pierre; Moras, Dino; Cavarelli, Jean

    2007-01-01

    Coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1) plays a crucial role in gene expression as a coactivator of several nuclear hormone receptors and also of non-nuclear receptor systems. Its recruitment by the transcriptional machinery induces protein methylation, leading to chromatin remodelling and gene activation. CARM128–507 and two structural states of CARM1140–480 were expressed, purified and crystallized. Crystals of CARM128–507 belong to space group P6222, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 136.0, c = 125.3 Å; they diffract to beyond 2.5 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation and contain one monomer in the asymmetric unit. The structure of CARM128–507 was solved by multiple isomorphous replacement and anomalous scattering methods. Crystals of apo CARM1140–480 belong to space group I222, with unit-cell parameters a = 74.6, b = 99.0, c = 207.4 Å; they diffract to beyond 2.7 Å resolution and contain two monomers in the asymmetric unit. Crystals of CARM1140–480 in complex with S-­adenosyl-l-homocysteine belong to space P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 74.6, b = 98.65, c = 206.08 Å; they diffract to beyond 2.6 Å resolution and contain four monomers in the asymmetric unit. The structures of apo and holo CARM1140–480 were solved by molecular-replacement techniques from the structure of CARM128–507. PMID:17401209

  13. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the Escherichia coli common pilus chaperone EcpB.

    PubMed

    Garnett, James A; Diallo, Mamou; Matthews, Steve J

    2015-06-01

    Pili are key cell-surface components that allow the attachment of bacteria to both biological and abiotic solid surfaces, whilst also mediating interactions between themselves. In Escherichia coli, the common pilus (Ecp) belongs to an alternative chaperone-usher (CU) pathway that plays a major role in both early biofilm formation and host-cell adhesion. The chaperone EcpB is involved in the biogenesis of the filament, which is composed of EcpA and EcpD. Initial attempts at crystallizing EcpB using natively purified protein from the bacterial periplasm were not successful; however, after the isolation of EcpB under denaturing conditions and subsequent refolding, crystals were obtained at pH 8.0 using the sitting-drop method of vapour diffusion. Diffraction data have been processed to 2.4 Å resolution. These crystals belonged to the trigonal space group P3(1)21 or P3(2)21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 62.65, c = 121.14 Å and one monomer in the asymmetric unit. Molecular replacement was unsuccessful, but selenomethionine-substituted protein and heavy-atom derivatives are being prepared for phasing. The three-dimensional structure of EcpB will provide invaluable information on the subtle mechanistic differences in biogenesis between the alternative and classical CU pathways. Furthermore, this is the first time that this refolding strategy has been used to purify CU chaperones, and it could be implemented in similar systems where it has not been possible to obtain highly ordered crystals.

  14. GigaTON: an extensive publicly searchable database providing a new reference transcriptome in the pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Riviere, Guillaume; Klopp, Christophe; Ibouniyamine, Nabihoudine; Huvet, Arnaud; Boudry, Pierre; Favrel, Pascal

    2015-12-02

    The Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, is one of the most important aquaculture shellfish resources worldwide. Important efforts have been undertaken towards a better knowledge of its genome and transcriptome, which makes now C. gigas becoming a model organism among lophotrochozoans, the under-described sister clade of ecdysozoans within protostomes. These massive sequencing efforts offer the opportunity to assemble gene expression data and make such resource accessible and exploitable for the scientific community. Therefore, we undertook this assembly into an up-to-date publicly available transcriptome database: the GigaTON (Gigas TranscriptOme pipeliNe) database. We assembled 2204 million sequences obtained from 114 publicly available RNA-seq libraries that were realized using all embryo-larval development stages, adult organs, different environmental stressors including heavy metals, temperature, salinity and exposure to air, which were mostly performed as part of the Crassostrea gigas genome project. This data was analyzed in silico and resulted into 56621 newly assembled contigs that were deposited into a publicly available database, the GigaTON database. This database also provides powerful and user-friendly request tools to browse and retrieve information about annotation, expression level, UTRs, splice and polymorphism, and gene ontology associated to all the contigs into each, and between all libraries. The GigaTON database provides a convenient, potent and versatile interface to browse, retrieve, confront and compare massive transcriptomic information in an extensive range of conditions, tissues and developmental stages in Crassostrea gigas. To our knowledge, the GigaTON database constitutes the most extensive transcriptomic database to date in marine invertebrates, thereby a new reference transcriptome in the oyster, a highly valuable resource to physiologists and evolutionary biologists.

  15. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of saxthrombin, a thrombin-like enzyme from Gloydius saxatilis venom

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Wenqing; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Xiaoping; Teng, Maikun Niu, Liwen

    2007-08-01

    The thrombin-like enzyme saxthrombin has been purified from G. saxatilis snake venom. Crystallization conditions were found and a data set was obtained to 1.43 Å. The snake-venom thrombin-like enzymes (SVTLEs) are a class of serine proteinases that show fibrinogen-clotting and esterolytic activities. Most TLEs convert fibrinogen to fibrin by releasing either fibrinopeptide A or fibrinopeptide B and cannot activate factor XIII. The enzymes hydrolyze fibrinogen to produce non-cross-linked fibrins, which are susceptible to the lytic action of plasmin. Because of these physiological properties, TLEs have important medical applications in myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke and thrombotic diseases. Here, a three-step chromatography procedure was used to purify saxthrombin (AAP20638) from Gloydius saxatilis venom to homogeneity. Its molecular weight is about 30 kDa as estimated by SDS–PAGE. A saxthrombin crystal was obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and diffracted to a resolution limit of 1.43 Å. The crystal belongs to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 97.23, b = 52.21, c = 50.10 Å, β = 96.72°, and the Matthews coefficient (V{sub M}) was calculated to be 2.13 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} with one molecule in the asymmetric unit.

  16. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray crystallographic analysis of d-lactate dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus jensenii

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangwoo; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kim, Kyung-Jin

    2014-01-01

    The thermostable d-lactate dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus jensenii (Lj d-LDH) is a key enzyme for the production of the d-form of lactic acid from pyruvate concomitant with the oxidation of NADH to NAD+. The polymers of lactic acid are used as biodegradable bioplastics. The Lj d-LDH protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method in the presence of 28%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 400, 100 mM Tris–HCl pH 9, 200 mM magnesium sulfate at 295 K. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a maximum resolution of 2.1 Å. The crystal belonged to space group P3121, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 90.5, c = 157.8 Å. With two molecules per asymmetric unit, the crystal volume per unit protein weight (V M) is 2.58 Å3 Da−1, which corresponds to a solvent content of approximately 52.3%. The structure was solved by single-wavelength anomalous dispersion using a selenomethionine derivative. PMID:25084378

  17. Purification, Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Diffraction Analysis of Cif, a Virulence Factor Secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Bahl, C.; MacEachran, D; O' Toole, G; Madden, D

    2010-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa secretes a protein that triggers the accelerated degradation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in airway epithelial cells. This protein, which is known as the CFTR inhibitory factor (Cif), acts as a virulence factor and may facilitate airway colonization by P. aeruginosa. Based on sequence similarity Cif appears to be an epoxide hydrolase (EH), but it lacks several of the conserved features found in the active sites of canonical members of the EH family. Here, the crystallization of purified recombinant Cif by vapor diffusion is reported. The crystals formed in space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 167.4, b = 83.6, c = 88.3 {angstrom}, {beta} = 100.6{sup o}. The crystals diffracted to 2.39 {angstrom} resolution on a rotating-anode source. Based on the calculated Matthews coefficient (2.2 {angstrom}{sup 3} Da{sup -1}), it appears that the asymmetric unit contains four molecules.

  18. Heterodimeric nitrate reductase (NapAB) from Cupriavidus necator H16: purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Catarina; González, Pablo J.; Trincão, José; Carvalho, Ana L.; Najmudin, Shabir; Hettman, Thomas; Dieckman, Stephan; Moura, José J. G.; Moura, Isabel; Romão, Maria J.

    2007-01-01

    The periplasmic nitrate reductase from Cupriavidus necator (also known as Ralstonia eutropha) is a heterodimer that is able to reduce nitrate to nitrite. It comprises a 91 kDa catalytic subunit (NapA) and a 17 kDa subunit (NapB) that is involved in electron transfer. The larger subunit contains a molybdenum active site with a bis-molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide cofactor as well as one [4Fe–4S] cluster, while the small subunit is a di-haem c-type cytochrome. Crystals of the oxidized form of this enzyme were obtained using polyethylene glycol 3350 as precipitant. A single crystal grown at the High Throughput Crystallization Laboratory of the EMBL in Grenoble diffracted to beyond 1.5 Å at the ESRF (ID14-1), which is the highest resolution reported to date for a nitrate reductase. The unit-cell parameters are a = 142.2, b = 82.4, c = 96.8 Å, β = 100.7°, space group C2, and one heterodimer is present per asymmetric unit. PMID:17554176

  19. Purification, Crystallization And Preliminary X-Ray Analysis of Aminoglycoside-2 ''-Phosphotransferase-Ic [APH(2 '')-Ic] From Enterococcus Gallinarum

    SciTech Connect

    Byrnes, L.J.; Badarau, A.; Vakulenko, S.B.; Smith, C.A.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2009-04-30

    Bacterial resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics is primarily the result of deactivation of the drugs. Three families of enzymes are responsible for this activity, with one such family being the aminoglycoside phosphotransferases (APHs). The gene encoding one of these enzymes, aminoglycoside-2{double_prime}-phosphotransferase-Ic [APH(2{double_prime})-Ic] from Enterococcus gallinarum, has been cloned and the wild-type protein (comprising 308 amino-acid residues) and three mutants that showed elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations towards gentamicin (F108L, H258L and a double mutant F108L/H258L) were expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently purified. All APH(2{double_prime})-Ic variants were crystallized in the presence of 14-20%(w/v) PEG 4000, 0.25 M MgCl{sub 2}, 0.1 M Tris-HCl pH 8.5 and 1 mM Mg{sub 2}GTP. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with one molecule in the asymmetric unit. The approximate unit-cell parameters are a = 82.4, b = 54.2, c = 77.0 {angstrom}, {beta} = 108.8{sup o}. X-ray diffraction data were collected to approximately 2.15 {angstrom} resolution from an F108L crystal at beamline BL9-2 at SSRL, Stanford, California, USA.

  20. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of the GRP carbohydrate-recognition domain from Homo sapiens

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Dongwen; Sun, Jianping; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Xiao; Shi, Yunyu; Teng, Maikun Niu, Liwen; Dong, Yuhui; Liu, Peng

    2006-05-01

    The CRD domain of GRP from H. sapiens has been expressed, purified and crystallized and X-ray diffraction data have been collected to a resolution of 2.0 Å. Galectins are a family of animal lectins which share similar carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) and an affinity for β-galactosides. A novel human galectin-related protein named GRP (galectin-related protein; previously known as HSPC159) comprises only one conserved CRD with 38 additional N-terminal residues. The C-terminal fragment of human GRP (GRP-C; residues 38–172) containing the CRD has been expressed and purified. The protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method from a solution containing 2% PEG 400 and 2M ammonium sulfate in 100 mM Tris–HCl buffer pH 7.5. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution limit of 2.0 Å at beamline 3W1A of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility at 100 K. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 123.07, b = 96.67, c = 61.56 Å, β = 118.72°. The estimated Matthews coefficient was 2.6 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}, corresponding to 51.8% solvent content.

  1. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of DehIVa, a dehalogenase from Burkholderia cepacia MBA4.

    PubMed

    Schmidberger, Jason W; Oakley, Aaron J; Tsang, Jimmy S H; Wilce, Matthew C J

    2005-03-01

    DehIVa is one of two dehalogenases produced by the soil- and water-borne bacterium Burkholderia cepacia MBA4. It acts to break down short-chain halogenated aliphatic acids through a nucleophilic attack and subsequent hydrolysis of an enzyme-substrate intermediate to remove the halide ions from L-enantiomers substituted at the C2 position (e.g L-2-monochloropropionic acid). Dehalogenases are an important group of enzymes that are responsible for breaking down a diverse range of halogenated environmental pollutants. The dhlIVa gene coding for DehIVa was expressed in Escherichia coli and the protein was purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop method. Crystals grown in PEG 4000 and ammonium sulfate diffracted to 3.1 A. The crystals had a primitive hexagonal unit cell, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 104.2, c = 135.8 A, alpha = beta = 90, gamma = 120 degrees. Determining this structure will provide valuable insights into the characterization of the catalytic mechanisms of this group of enzymes.

  2. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray crystallographic analysis of D-lactate dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus jensenii.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangwoo; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kim, Kyung-Jin

    2014-08-01

    The thermostable D-lactate dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus jensenii (LjD-LDH) is a key enzyme for the production of the D-form of lactic acid from pyruvate concomitant with the oxidation of NADH to NAD(+). The polymers of lactic acid are used as biodegradable bioplastics. The LjD-LDH protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method in the presence of 28%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 400, 100 mM Tris-HCl pH 9, 200 mM magnesium sulfate at 295 K. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a maximum resolution of 2.1 Å. The crystal belonged to space group P3121, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 90.5, c = 157.8 Å. With two molecules per asymmetric unit, the crystal volume per unit protein weight (VM) is 2.58 Å(3) Da(-1), which corresponds to a solvent content of approximately 52.3%. The structure was solved by single-wavelength anomalous dispersion using a selenomethionine derivative.

  3. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray crystallographic analysis of β-ketothiolase B from Ralstonia eutropha H16.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Jung; Son, Hyeoncheol Francis; Chang, Jeong Ho; Kim, Kyung-Jin

    2014-03-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates are linear polyesters that are produced by bacterial fermentation and are used as biodegradable bioplastics. β-Ketothiolase B (BktB) from Ralstonia eutropha (ReBktB) is a key enzyme for the production of various types of copolymers by catalyzing the condensation reactions of acetyl-CoA with propionyl-CoA and butyryl-CoA. The ReBktB protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method in the presence of 25% polyethylene glycol 3350, 0.1 M bis-tris pH 6.5, 0.2 M lithium sulfate at 295 K. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a maximum resolution of 2.3 Å on a synchrotron beamline. The crystal belonged to space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 106.95, b = 107.24, c = 144.14 Å. With two molecules per asymmetric unit, the crystal volume per unit protein weight (VM) is 2.54 Å(3) Da(-1), which corresponds to a solvent content of approximately 51.5%. The structure was solved by the molecular-replacement method and refinement of the structure is in progress.

  4. Expression, purification and crystallization of a membrane-associated, catalytically active type I signal peptidase from Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Ting, Yi Tian; Batot, Gaëlle; Baker, Edward N; Young, Paul G

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus infections are becoming increasingly difficult to treat as they rapidly develop resistance to existing antibiotics. Bacterial type I signal peptidases are membrane-associated, cell-surface serine proteases with a unique catalytic mechanism that differs from that of eukaryotic endoplasmic reticulum signal peptidases. They are thus potential antimicrobial targets. S. aureus has a catalytically active type I signal peptidase, SpsB, that is essential for cell viability. To elucidate its structure, the spsB gene from S. aureus Newman strain was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. After exploring many different protein-modification constructs, SpsB was expressed as a fusion protein with maltose-binding protein and crystallized by hanging-drop vapour diffusion. The crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group P2(1) and diffracted to 2.05 Å resolution. The crystal structure of SpsB is anticipated to provide structural insight into Gram-positive signal peptidases and to aid in the development of antibacterial agents that target type I signal peptidases.

  5. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of RecA superfamily ATPase PH0284 from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3

    PubMed Central

    Bagautdinov, Bagautdin; Kunishima, Naoki

    2006-01-01

    Circadian (daily) protein clocks are found in cyanobacteria, where a complex of the KaiA, KaiB and KaiC proteins generates circadian rhythms. The 28.09 kDa KaiC homologue PH0284 protein from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 was cloned and expressed and the purified protein was crystallized by the oil-microbatch method at 295 K. X-ray diffraction data from the crystal were collected to 2.0 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation at 100 K. The crystal belongs to the trigonal space group P3221, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 96.06, c = 298.90 Å. Assuming the presence of one hexamer in the asymmetric unit gives a V M value of 2.36 Å3 Da−1 and a solvent content of 47.9%. A cocrystal with ATP was prepared and a diffraction data set was collected at 2.3 Å resolution. PMID:16582499

  6. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of RecA superfamily ATPase PH0284 from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3.

    PubMed

    Bagautdinov, Bagautdin; Kunishima, Naoki

    2006-04-01

    Circadian (daily) protein clocks are found in cyanobacteria, where a complex of the KaiA, KaiB and KaiC proteins generates circadian rhythms. The 28.09 kDa KaiC homologue PH0284 protein from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 was cloned and expressed and the purified protein was crystallized by the oil-microbatch method at 295 K. X-ray diffraction data from the crystal were collected to 2.0 angstroms resolution using synchrotron radiation at 100 K. The crystal belongs to the trigonal space group P3(2)21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 96.06, c = 298.90 angstroms. Assuming the presence of one hexamer in the asymmetric unit gives a V(M) value of 2.36 angstroms3 Da(-1) and a solvent content of 47.9%. A cocrystal with ATP was prepared and a diffraction data set was collected at 2.3 angstroms resolution.

  7. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of allantoinase from Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 14580.

    PubMed

    Conejero-Muriel, Mayte; Martínez-Gómez, Ana Isabel; Martínez-Rodríguez, Sergio; Gavira, Jose A

    2014-11-01

    Allantoinase, a member of the amidohydrolase superfamily, exists in a wide variety of organisms, including bacteria, fungi, plants and a few animals, such as fishes and amphibians. Allantoinase catalyzes the reversible hydrolysis of allantoin into allantoate by hydrolytic cleavage of the N1-C2 amide bond of the five-membered hydantoin ring. Allantoinase from Bacillus licheniformis (AllBali) presents an inverted enantioselectivity towards allantoin (R-enantioselective), which is a distinguishable feature that is not observed for other allantoinases. In this work, B. licheniformis ATCC 14580 allantoinase (AllBali) containing a C-terminal His6 tag was overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Crystals of AllBali were obtained by the vapour-diffusion method using 0.1 M potassium thiocyanate, 20%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350 as a crystallization solution. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 3.5 Å with an Rmerge of 29.2% from a crystal belonging to space group P12₁1, with unit-cell parameters a=54.93, b=164.74, c=106.89 Å, β=98.49°. There are four molecules in the asymmetric unit with a solvent content of 47% as estimated from the Matthews coefficient (VM=2.34 Å3 Da(-1)).

  8. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of pathogen-inducible oxygenase (PIOX) from Oryza sativa

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, Tracy; Krol, Adam; Campanaro, Danielle; Malkowski, Michael

    2006-04-01

    The heme-containing membrane-associated fatty-acid α-dioxygenase pathogen-inducible oxygenase (PIOX) from O. sativa has been crystallized and a data set collected to 3.0 Å using a rotating-anode generator and R-AXIS IV detector. Pathogen-inducible oxygenase (PIOX) is a heme-containing membrane-associated protein found in monocotyledon and dicotyledon plants that utilizes molecular oxygen to convert polyunsaturated fatty acids into their corresponding 2R-hydroperoxides. PIOX is a member of a larger family of fatty-acid α-dioxygenases that includes the mammalian cyclooxygenase enzymes cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 (COX-1 and COX-2). Single crystals of PIOX from rice (Oryza sativa) have been grown from MPD using recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently extracted utilizing decyl maltoside as the solubilizing detergent. Crystals diffract to 3.0 Å resolution using a rotating-anode generator and R-AXIS IV detector, and belong to space group P1. Based on the Matthews coefficient and self-rotation function analyses, there are presumed to be four molecules in the asymmetric unit related by noncrystallographic 222 symmetry.

  9. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of Cif, a virulence factor secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Bahl, Christopher D.; MacEachran, Daniel P.; O’Toole, George A.; Madden, Dean R.

    2010-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa secretes a protein that triggers the accelerated degradation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in airway epithelial cells. This protein, which is known as the CFTR inhibitory factor (Cif), acts as a virulence factor and may facilitate airway colonization by P. aeruginosa. Based on sequence similarity Cif appears to be an epoxide hydrolase (EH), but it lacks several of the conserved features found in the active sites of canonical members of the EH family. Here, the crystallization of purified recombinant Cif by vapor diffusion is reported. The crystals formed in space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 167.4, b = 83.6, c = 88.3 Å, β = 100.6°. The crystals diffracted to 2.39 Å resolution on a rotating-anode source. Based on the calculated Matthews coefficient (2.2 Å3 Da−1), it appears that the asymmetric unit contains four molecules. PMID:20057063

  10. Engineering of a monomeric and low-glycosylated form of human butyrylcholinesterase: expression, purification, characterization and crystallization.

    PubMed

    Nachon, Florian; Nicolet, Yvain; Viguié, Nathalie; Masson, Patrick; Fontecilla-Camps, Juan C; Lockridge, Oksana

    2002-01-01

    Human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE; EC 3.1.1.8) is of particular interest because it hydrolyzes or scavenges a wide range of toxic compounds including cocaine, organophosphorus pesticides and nerve agents. The relative contribution of each N-linked glycan for the solubility, the stability and the secretion of the enzyme was investigated. A recombinant monomeric BChE lacking four out of nine N-glycosylation sites and the C-terminal oligomerization domain was stably expressed as a monomer in CHO cells. The purified recombinant BChE showed catalytic properties similar to those of the native enzyme. Tetragonal crystals suitable for X-ray crystallography studies were obtained; they were improved by recrystallization and found to diffract to 2.0 A resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystals belong to the tetragonal space group I422 with unit cell dimensions a = b = 154.7 A, c = 124.9 A, giving a Vm of 2.73 A3 per Da (estimated 60% solvent) for a single molecule of recombinant BChE in the asymmetric unit. The crystal structure of butyrylcholinesterase will help elucidate unsolved issues concerning cholinesterase mechanisms in general.

  11. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies on human Ca{sup 2+}-binding protein S100B

    SciTech Connect

    Ostendorp, Thorsten; Heizmann, Claus W.; Kroneck, Peter M. H.; Fritz, Günter

    2005-07-01

    Human recombinant EF-hand Ca{sup 2+}-binding protein S100B has been purified and crystallized. A complete data set was recorded to 1.9 Å. S100B, a Ca{sup 2+}-binding protein, acts intracellularly as a Ca{sup 2+}-signalling protein but is also secreted to the extracellular space, acting in a cytokine-like manner through its receptor RAGE. Recombinant human S100B has been purified and crystallized in the Ca{sup 2+}-bound state. Size-exclusion chromatography indicates that S100B can exist as a dimer and as a multimer in solution. Crystals of S100B diffract to 1.9 Å and belong to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 63.4, b = 81.6, c = 71.5 Å, α = 90, β = 107, γ = 90°. Preliminary analysis of the X-ray data indicate that there are four homodimers per asymmetric unit.

  12. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of allantoinase from Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 14580

    PubMed Central

    Conejero-Muriel, Mayte; Martínez-Gómez, Ana Isabel; Martínez-Rodríguez, Sergio; Gavira, Jose A.

    2014-01-01

    Allantoinase, a member of the amidohydrolase superfamily, exists in a wide variety of organisms, including bacteria, fungi, plants and a few animals, such as fishes and amphibians. Allantoinase catalyzes the reversible hydrolysis of allantoin into allantoate by hydrolytic cleavage of the N1—C2 amide bond of the five-membered hydantoin ring. Allantoinase from Bacillus licheniformis (AllBali) presents an inverted enantioselectivity towards allantoin (R-enantioselective), which is a distinguishable feature that is not observed for other allantoinases. In this work, B. licheniformis ATCC 14580 allantoinase (AllBali) containing a C-terminal His6 tag was overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Crystals of AllBali were obtained by the vapour-diffusion method using 0.1 M potassium thiocyanate, 20%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350 as a crystallization solution. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 3.5 Å with an R merge of 29.2% from a crystal belonging to space group P1211, with unit-cell parameters a = 54.93, b = 164.74, c = 106.89 Å, β = 98.49°. There are four molecules in the asymmetric unit with a solvent content of 47% as estimated from the Matthews coefficient (V M = 2.34 Å3 Da−1). PMID:25372819

  13. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the novel modular DNA-binding protein BurrH in its apo form and in complex with its target DNA.

    PubMed

    Stella, Stefano; Molina, Rafael; Bertonatti, Claudia; Juillerrat, Alexandre; Montoya, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Different genome-editing strategies have fuelled the development of new DNA-targeting molecular tools allowing precise gene modifications. Here, the expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of BurrH, a novel DNA-binding protein from Burkholderia rhizoxinica, are reported. Crystallization experiments of BurrH in its apo form and in complex with its target DNA yielded crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystals of the apo form belonged to the primitive hexagonal space group P3(1) or its enantiomorph P3(2), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 73.28, c = 268.02 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°. The BurrH-DNA complex crystallized in the monoclinic space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 70.15, b = 95.83, c = 76.41 Å, α = γ = 90, β = 109.51°. The self-rotation function and the Matthews coefficient suggested the presence of two protein molecules per asymmetric unit in the apo crystals and one protein-DNA complex in the monoclinic crystals. The crystals diffracted to resolution limits of 2.21 and 2.65 Å, respectively, using synchrotron radiation.

  14. GigaDB: promoting data dissemination and reproducibility

    PubMed Central

    Sneddon, Tam P.; Si Zhe, Xiao; Edmunds, Scott C.; Li, Peter; Goodman, Laurie; Hunter, Christopher I.

    2014-01-01

    Often papers are published where the underlying data supporting the research are not made available because of the limitations of making such large data sets publicly and permanently accessible. Even if the raw data are deposited in public archives, the essential analysis intermediaries, scripts or software are frequently not made available, meaning the science is not reproducible. The GigaScience journal is attempting to address this issue with the associated data storage and dissemination portal, the GigaScience database (GigaDB). Here we present the current version of GigaDB and reveal plans for the next generation of improvements. However, most importantly, we are soliciting responses from you, the users, to ensure that future developments are focused on the data storage and dissemination issues that still need resolving. Database URL: http://www.gigadb.org PMID:24622612

  15. Cloning, high level expression, purification, and crystallization of the full length Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin type E light chain.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Rakhi; Eswaramoorthy, Subramaniam; Kumaran, Desigan; Dunn, John J; Swaminathan, Subramanyam

    2004-03-01

    The catalytic activity of the highly potent botulinum neurotoxins are confined to their N-terminal light chains ( approximately 50kDa). A full-length light chain for the type E neurotoxin with a C-terminal 6x His-tag, BoNT/E-LC, has been cloned in a pET-9c vector and over-expressed in BL21 (DE3) cells. BoNT/E-LC was purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography on Ni-NTA agarose followed by exclusion chromatography using a Superdex-75 sizing column. The purified protein has very good solubility and can be stored stably at -20 degrees C; however, it seems to undergo auto-proteolysis when stored at temperature #10878;4-10 degrees C. BoNT/E-LC is active on its natural substrate, the synaptosomal associated 25kDa protein, SNAP-25, indicating that it retains a native-like conformation and therefore can be considered as a useful tool in studying the structure/function of the catalytic light chain. Recombinant BoNT/E-LC has been crystallized under five different conditions and at various pHs. Crystals diffract to better than 2.1A.

  16. Improved expression, purification and crystallization of a putative N-acetyl-γ-glutamyl-phosphate reductase from rice (Oryza sativa)

    SciTech Connect

    Miura-Ohnuma, Jun; Nonaka, Tsuyoshi; Katoh, Shizue; Murata, Katsuyoshi; Kita, Akiko; Miki, Kunio

    2005-12-01

    Crystals of OsAGPR were obtained using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method at 293 K and diffract X-rays to at least 1.8 Å resolution. They belong to the hexagonal space group P6{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 86.11, c = 316.3 Å. N-Acetyl-γ-glutamyl-phosphate reductase (AGPR) catalyzes the third step in an eight-step arginine-biosynthetic pathway that starts with glutamate. This enzyme converts N-acetyl-γ-glutamyl phosphate to N-acetylglutamate-γ-semialdehyde by an NADPH-dependent reductive dephosphorylation. AGPR from Oryza sativa (OsAGPR) was expressed in Escherichia coli at 291 K as a soluble fusion protein with an upstream thioredoxin-hexahistidine [Trx-(His){sub 6}] extension. OsAGPR(Ala50–Pro366) was purified and crystals were obtained using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method at 293 K and diffract X-rays to at least 1.8 Å resolution. They belong to the hexagonal space group P6{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 86.11, c = 316.3 Å.

  17. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of a lysine-specific permease from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Nji, Emmanuel; Li, Dianfan; Doyle, Declan A.; Caffrey, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The prokaryotic lysine-specific permease (LysP) belongs to the amino acid–polyamine–organocation (APC) transporter superfamily. In the cell, members of this family are responsible for the uptake and recycling of nutrients, for the maintenance of a constant internal ion concentration and for cell volume regulation. The detailed mechanism of substrate selectivity and transport of l-lysine by LysP is not understood. A high-resolution crystal structure would enormously facilitate such an understanding. To this end, LysP from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to near homogeneity by immobilized metal ion-affinity chromatography (IMAC) and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). Hexagonal- and rod-shaped crystals were obtained in the presence of l-lysine and the l-lysine analogue l-4-thialysine by vapour diffusion and diffracted to 7.5 Å resolution. The diffraction data were indexed in space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 169.53, b = 169.53, c = 290.13 Å, γ = 120°. PMID:25286940

  18. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the globular domain of the human type V myosin Myo5a.

    PubMed

    Velvarska, Hana; Niessing, Dierk

    2013-11-01

    Type V myosins constitute the main cargo-transporting class of myosin motors in higher eukaryotes. They are mainly defined by their C-terminal globular domain, which is required for cargo binding as well as for motor auto-inhibition in the absence of cargo. To date, high-resolution structures only exist for globular domains from yeast. Since the majority of cellular cargoes in yeast are very different from the cargoes in higher eukaryotes, structural insights into the domain organization of globular domains from human type V myosins are important. The globular domain of human Myo5a was cloned, expressed and crystallized and data sets were collected. The crystals belonged to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 75.04, b = 86.70, c = 131.41 Å, α = β = γ = 90°, and diffracted with data-collection quality to 2.5 Å resolution.

  19. Cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of a transcriptional regulatory protein (Rv3291c) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Tripti; Kumar, Sandeep; Ramachandran, Ravishankar

    2004-10-01

    Rv3291c, the translational product of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv3291c gene, is an 18 kDa protein. It is a putative transcriptional regulatory protein belonging to the leucine-responsive regulatory protein/asparagine synthase C (Lrp/AsnC) family, which are proteins that have been identified in archaea and bacteria. Rv3291c probably plays a significant role during the persistent/latent phase of M. tuberculosis, as supported by its up-regulation several-fold during this stage. Orthorhombic crystals of recombinant Rv3291c have been grown from trisodium citrate dihydrate-buffered solutions containing monoammonium dihydrogen phosphate. Diffraction data extending to 2.7 A have been collected from a single crystal with unit-cell parameters a = 99.6, b = 100.7, c = 100.6 A. Assuming an octamer in the asymmetric unit results in a Matthews coefficient (VM) of 1.75 A3 Da(-1), corresponding to a solvent content of about 30%.

  20. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of propionate kinase (TdcD) from Salmonella typhimurium

    SciTech Connect

    Simanshu, Dhirendra K.; Murthy, M. R. N.

    2005-01-01

    Propionate kinase (TdcD) from S. typhimurium has been expressed, purified and crystallized. A diffraction data set has been collected to 2.2 Å resolution. In the cell, propionate is mainly formed during β-oxidation of odd-numbered carbon-chain fatty acids, fermentation of carbohydrates and degradation of the amino acids threonine, valine, isoleucine and methionine. Recently, it has been shown that l-threonine is non-oxidatively cleaved to propionate via 2-ketobutyrate. The last step in this process, conversion of propionyl phosphate and ADP to propionate and ATP, is catalysed by propionate kinase (EC 2.7.1.–). Here, the cloning of propionate kinase (molecular weight 44 kDa) from Salmonella typhimurium with an N-terminal hexahistidine affinity tag and its overexpression in Escherichia coli are reported. Purified propionate kinase was found to cocrystallize with ADP in the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion and microbatch methods. Crystals belong to space group P3{sub 1}21 or P3{sub 2}21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 111.47, c = 66.52 Å. A complete data set to 2.2 Å resolution has been collected using an image-plate detector system mounted on a rotating-anode X-ray generator.

  1. Expression, purification and crystallization of a BH domain from the GTPase regulatory protein associated with focal adhesion kinase.

    PubMed

    Sheffield, P J; Derewenda, U; Taylor, J; Parsons, T J; Derewenda, Z S

    1999-01-01

    Signaling by small GTPases is down-regulated by GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) which enhance the rate of GTP hydrolysis. The activity of GAPs specific for Rho GTPases resides in the BH domain, many homologues of which are found in any mammalian genome. One of them was identified in the GTPase regulator associated with focal-adhesion kinase (GRAF). It shares approximately 20% sequence identity with p50RhoGAP. This GAP activates RhoA and Cdc42Hs, but not Rac. In order to dissect the molecular basis of this specificity, a 231-residue-long fragment corresponding to the BH domain of GRAF has been expressed, purified and crystallized. Trigonal crystals, of space group P3(1)21 or P3(2)21, with unit-cell dimensions a = b = 63.5, c = 90.38 A were grown from solutions of PEG 6000. Data to 2.15 A were collected from a flash-frozen sample on an R-AXIS IV imaging-plate detector mounted on a rotating anode X-ray generator.

  2. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of Rab11 in complex with Rab11-FIP2

    SciTech Connect

    Jagoe, William N.; Jackson, Sarah R.; Lindsay, Andrew J.; McCaffrey, Mary W.; Khan, Amir R.

    2006-07-01

    Crystals of Rab11 in complex with the Rab-binding domain (RBD) of its effector Rab11-FIP2 were grown and synchrotron diffraction data were collected at 2.8 Å resolution. The small GTPase Rab11 regulates the recycling of endosomes back to the plasma membrane. In its active GTP-bound form, Rab11 binds a novel set of effectors termed the Rab11 family of interacting proteins (Rab11-FIPs) which contain a conserved C-terminal Rab-binding domain (RBD) of unknown structure. Here, a complex of Rab11 with the RBD of Rab11-FIP2 has been purified and crystallized in the trigonal space group P3{sub 1}21, with unit-cell parameters a = 64.99, b = 64.99, c = 112.59 Å. Static light-scattering analyses of the molecular weight of the complex in solution are consistent with two copies of Rab11 and two copies of Rab11-FIP2 in the complex.

  3. Purification and characterization of a rabbit salivary protein, a potent inhibitor of crystal growth of calcium phosphate salts.

    PubMed

    Spielman, A I; Bernstein, A; Hay, D I; Blum, M; Bennick, A

    1991-01-01

    Human saliva is supersaturated with respect to basic calcium phosphate salts but is stabilized by specific macromolecules that inhibit calcium phosphate precipitation. One of the families of inhibitory proteins in human and monkey saliva is the acidic proline-rich proteins. The purpose of this study was to isolate and characterize inhibitors of calcium phosphate precipitation from rabbit parotid saliva. Saliva was fractionated by immunoaffinity chromatography and anion exchange chromatography. Individual fractions were assayed for their ability to inhibit calcium phosphate crystal growth and the fraction associated with the inhibition was purified by repeated anion exchange chromatography, preparative gel electrophoresis and electroelution. A major (APRP) and two minor proteins (AM1, AM2) that were inhibitory were purified. APRP is an acidic proline-rich phospho-glycoprotein and a very potent inhibitor of secondary crystal growth of calcium phosphate as it was active at a concentration of 2 x 10(-8) M in a standard assay. The N-terminal sequence of one APRP was EYENLDGSLAATQNDDD?Q and a clostripain fragment of APRP had the following N-terminal sequence PQHRPPRPGGH-????SPPP?GN???PPP. Although the N-terminal segment of APRP does not resemble that of proline-rich proteins, alignment of the clostripain fragment with the repeat region of such proteins from rat, mouse, monkey and man revealed a high degree of similarity, indicating a structural relationship with the proline-rich protein family.

  4. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of β-glucosidase from Kluyveromyces marxianus NBRC1777

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Erina; Hidaka, Masafumi; Fushinobu, Shinya; Koyanagi, Takashi; Minami, Hiromichi; Tamaki, Hisanori; Kitaoka, Motomitsu; Katayama, Takane; Kumagai, Hidehiko

    2009-01-01

    The intracellular β-glucosidase from Kluyveromyces marxianus NBRC1777 (KmBglI) belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 3 and has a unique domain architecture. Selenomethionine-labelled KmBglI was purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using the purified enzyme at 30 mg ml−1, 0.04 M potassium dihydrogen phosphate pH 5.1, 16%(w/v) PEG 8000 and 20%(v/v) glycerol. The crystal belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 245.8, b = 148.7, c = 119.9 Å, β = 112.9°. Multiple-wavelength anomalous dispersion data were collected at 2.4 and 2.5 Å resolution. A tetramer was assumed to be present in the asymmetric unit, which gave a Matthews coefficient of 2.6 Å3 Da−1. PMID:19923748

  5. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of the GRP carbohydrate-recognition domain from Homo sapiens

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Dongwen; Sun, Jianping; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Xiao; Shi, Yunyu; Teng, Maikun; Niu, Liwen; Dong, Yuhui; Liu, Peng

    2006-01-01

    Galectins are a family of animal lectins which share similar carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) and an affinity for β-galactosides. A novel human galectin-related protein named GRP (galectin-related protein; previously known as HSPC159) comprises only one conserved CRD with 38 additional N-terminal residues. The C-terminal fragment of human GRP (GRP-C; residues 38–172) containing the CRD has been expressed and purified. The protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method from a solution containing 2% PEG 400 and 2M ammonium sulfate in 100 mM Tris–HCl buffer pH 7.5. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution limit of 2.0 Å at beamline 3W1A of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility at 100 K. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 123.07, b = 96.67, c = 61.56 Å, β = 118.72°. The estimated Matthews coefficient was 2.6 Å3 Da−1, corresponding to 51.8% solvent content. PMID:16682780

  6. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of haemoglobin from mongoose (Helogale parvula) in two different crystal forms induced by pH variation.

    PubMed

    Mohamed Abubakkar, M; Saraboji, K; Ponnuswamy, M N

    2013-02-01

    Haemoglobin (Hb) is a respiratory pigment; it is a tetrameric protein that ferries oxygen from the lungs to tissues and transports carbon dioxide on the return journey. The oxygen affinity of haemoglobin is regulated by the concentration of oxygen surrounding it and several efforts have revealed the shapes of Hb in different states and with different functions. However, study of the molecular basis of Hbs from low-oxygen-affinity species is critically needed in order to increase the understanding of the mechanism behind oxygen adaptation. The present study reports the preliminary crystallographic study of low-oxygen-affinity haemoglobin from mongoose, a burrowing mammal. Haemoglobin from mongoose was purified by anion-exchange chromatography, crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and diffraction data sets were collected from monoclinic (2.3 Å resolution) and orthorhombic (2.9 Å resolution) crystal forms obtained by pH variation. The monoclinic and orthorhombic asymmetric units contained half and a whole biological molecule, respectively.

  7. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of haemoglobin from mongoose (Helogale parvula) in two different crystal forms induced by pH variation

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed Abubakkar, M.; Saraboji, K.; Ponnuswamy, M. N.

    2013-01-01

    Haemoglobin (Hb) is a respiratory pigment; it is a tetrameric protein that ferries oxygen from the lungs to tissues and transports carbon dioxide on the return journey. The oxygen affinity of haemoglobin is regulated by the concentration of oxygen surrounding it and several efforts have revealed the shapes of Hb in different states and with different functions. However, study of the molecular basis of Hbs from low-oxygen-affinity species is critically needed in order to increase the understanding of the mechanism behind oxygen adaptation. The present study reports the preliminary crystallographic study of low-oxygen-affinity haemoglobin from mongoose, a burrowing mammal. Haemoglobin from mongoose was purified by anion-exchange chromatography, crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and diffraction data sets were collected from monoclinic (2.3 Å resolution) and orthorhombic (2.9 Å resolution) crystal forms obtained by pH variation. The monoclinic and orthorhombic asymmetric units contained half and a whole biological molecule, respectively. PMID:23385751

  8. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the Staphylococcus epidermidis extracellular serine protease Esp.

    PubMed

    Vengadesan, Krishnan; Macon, Kevin; Sugumoto, Shinya; Mizunoe, Yoshimitsu; Iwase, Tadayuki; Narayana, Sthanam V L

    2013-01-01

    Esp, an extracellular serine protease from Staphylococcus epidermidis, has been shown to inhibit S. aureus biofilm formation and nasal colonization. The full-length 27 kDa pro-Esp was purified and digested with thermolysin to obtain mature Esp. The mature Esp containing 216 residues crystallized in space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 39.5, b = 61.2, c = 42.5 Å, β = 98.2° and one molecule in the asymmetric unit, with an estimated solvent content of 42%. A diffraction data set has been collected to 1.8 Å resolution on a rotating-anode home-source facility.

  9. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray analysis of inositol monophosphatase from Mus musculus and Homo sapiens

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nisha; Halliday, Amy C.; Knight, Matthew; Lack, Nathan A.; Lowe, Edward; Churchill, Grant C.

    2012-01-01

    Inositol monophosphatase (IMPase) catalyses the hydrolysis of inositol monophosphate to inositol and is crucial in the phosphatidylinositol (PI) signalling pathway. Lithium, which is the drug of choice for bipolar disorder, inhibits IMPase at therapeutically relevant plasma concentrations. Both mouse IMPase 1 (MmIMPase 1) and human IMPase 1 (HsIMPase 1) were cloned into pRSET5a, expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized using the sitting-drop method. The structures were solved at resolutions of 2.4 and 1.7 Å, respectively. Comparison of MmIMPase 1 and HsIMPase 1 revealed a core r.m.s. deviation of 0.516 Å. PMID:23027737

  10. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the Staphylococcus epidermidis extracellular serine protease Esp

    PubMed Central

    Vengadesan, Krishnan; Macon, Kevin; Sugumoto, Shinya; Mizunoe, Yoshimitsu; Iwase, Tadayuki; Narayana, Sthanam V. L.

    2013-01-01

    Esp, an extracellular serine protease from Staphylococcus epidermidis, has been shown to inhibit S. aureus biofilm formation and nasal colonization. The full-length 27 kDa pro-Esp was purified and digested with thermolysin to obtain mature Esp. The mature Esp containing 216 residues crystallized in space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 39.5, b = 61.2, c = 42.5 Å, β = 98.2° and one molecule in the asymmetric unit, with an estimated solvent content of 42%. A diffraction data set has been collected to 1.8 Å resolution on a rotating-anode home-source facility. PMID:23295486

  11. Production, purification, and crystallization of human interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme derived from an Escherichia coli expression system.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, J J; Grasberger, B L; Trakshel, G; Huston, E E; Helaszek, C T; Smallwood, A M; Ator, M A; Banks, T M; Brake, P G; Ciccarelli, R B

    1995-10-01

    Interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme (ICE) is a cysteine protease that catalyzes the conversion of the inactive precursor form of IL-1 beta to an active mature form. The mature form of IL-1 beta is involved in mediating inflammatory responses and in the progression of autoimmune diseases. We recently reported on the production of active human ICE in insect cells using the baculovirus expression system (Wang XM et al., 1994, Gene 145:273-277). Because the levels of expression achieved with this system were limiting for the purpose of performing detailed biochemical and biophysical studies, we examined the production of ICE in Escherichia coli. By using a tac promoter-based expression system and fusion to thioredoxin we were able to recover high levels of active ICE protein. The expressed protein, which was distributed between the soluble and insoluble fractions, was purified to homogeneity from both fractions using a combination of classical and affinity chromatography. Comparisons of ICE derived from both fractions indicated that they were comparable in their specific activities, subunit composition, and sensitivities to specific ICE inhibitors. The combined yields of ICE obtained from the soluble and insoluble fractions was close to 1 mg/L of induced culture. Recombinant human ICE was crystallized in the presence of a specific ICE inhibitor in a form suitable for X-ray crystallographic analysis. This readily available source of ICE will facilitate the further characterization of this novel and important protease.

  12. RNA Crystallization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Barbara L.; Kundrot, Craig E.

    2003-01-01

    RNA molecules may be crystallized using variations of the methods developed for protein crystallography. As the technology has become available to syntheisize and purify RNA molecules in the quantities and with the quality that is required for crystallography, the field of RNA structure has exploded. The first consideration when crystallizing an RNA is the sequence, which may be varied in a rational way to enhance crystallizability or prevent formation of alternate structures. Once a sequence has been designed, the RNA may be synthesized chemically by solid-state synthesis, or it may be produced enzymatically using RNA polymerase and an appropriate DNA template. Purification of milligram quantities of RNA can be accomplished by HPLC or gel electrophoresis. As with proteins, crystallization of RNA is usually accomplished by vapor diffusion techniques. There are several considerations that are either unique to RNA crystallization or more important for RNA crystallization. Techniques for design, synthesis, purification, and crystallization of RNAs will be reviewed here.

  13. RNA Crystallization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Barbara L.; Kundrot, Craig E.

    2003-01-01

    RNA molecules may be crystallized using variations of the methods developed for protein crystallography. As the technology has become available to syntheisize and purify RNA molecules in the quantities and with the quality that is required for crystallography, the field of RNA structure has exploded. The first consideration when crystallizing an RNA is the sequence, which may be varied in a rational way to enhance crystallizability or prevent formation of alternate structures. Once a sequence has been designed, the RNA may be synthesized chemically by solid-state synthesis, or it may be produced enzymatically using RNA polymerase and an appropriate DNA template. Purification of milligram quantities of RNA can be accomplished by HPLC or gel electrophoresis. As with proteins, crystallization of RNA is usually accomplished by vapor diffusion techniques. There are several considerations that are either unique to RNA crystallization or more important for RNA crystallization. Techniques for design, synthesis, purification, and crystallization of RNAs will be reviewed here.

  14. Population structure of the giant garter snake, Thamnophis gigas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paquin, M.M.; Wylie, G.D.; Routman, E.J.

    2006-01-01

    The giant garter snake, Thamnophis gigas, is a threatened species endemic to California's Central Valley. We tested the hypothesis that current watershed boundaries have caused genetic differentiation among populations of T. gigas. We sampled 14 populations throughout the current geographic range of T. gigas and amplified 859 bp from the mitochondrial gene ND4 and one nuclear microsatellite locus. DNA sequence variation from the mitochondrial gene indicates there is some genetic structuring of the populations, with high F ST values and unique haplotypes occurring at high frequency in several populations. We found that clustering populations by watershed boundary results in significant between-region genetic variance for mtDNA. However, analysis of allele frequencies at the microsatellite locus NSU3 reveals very low F ST values and little between-region variation in allele frequencies. The discordance found between mitochondrial and microsatellite data may be explained by aspects of molecular evolution and/or T. gigas life history characteristics. Differences in effective population size between mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, or male-biased gene flow, result in a lower migration rate of mitochondrial haplotypes relative to nuclear alleles. However, we cannot exclude homoplasy as one explanation for homogeneity found for the single microsatellite locus. The mitochondrial nucleotide sequence data supports conservation practices that identify separate management units for T. gigas. ?? Springer 2006.

  15. Water purification using organic salts

    DOEpatents

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  16. Gender determination in the Paiche or Pirarucu (Arapaima gigas) using plasma vitellogenin, 17beta-estradiol, and 11-ketotestosterone levels.

    PubMed

    Chu-Koo, F; Dugué, R; Alván Aguilar, M; Casanova Daza, A; Alcántara Bocanegra, F; Chávez Veintemilla, C; Duponchelle, F; Renno, J-F; Tello, Salvador; Nuñez, J

    2009-03-01

    Arapaima gigas is an air-breathing giant fish of Amazonian rivers. Given its great economic and cultural importance, the aquaculture development of this species represents an evident solution to face the decline of wild populations. In captivity, reproduction occurs generally in large earthen ponds where stocks of a few tens of brooders are maintained together at the beginning of the rainy season (December-March in the Peruvian Amazon). Fry production relies on the spontaneous formation of male and female pairs, which build a nest, delimit a territory and guard the offspring for at least 20 days from other congeners and predators. However, as sex determination of A. gigas is not possible by morphological criteria, it is very difficult to optimize reproduction conditions and fry production in each pond, which seriously hampers the culture of this species. This situation prompted us to develop sexing methodologies based on (1) the detection of female specific plasma Vitellogenin (Vtg) using an enzyme immuno assay (EIA), and (2) the determination of plasma 17beta-estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone levels for immature specimens. The Vtg purification was performed by electro-elution after polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) from plasma of 17beta-estradiol treated A. gigas juveniles. Two different Vtg molecules were isolated, (Vtg(1) and Vtg(2)) with 184 and 112 kDa apparent molecular masses, respectively, and two antibodies were raised in rabbits for each Vtg molecule. Adult fish were 100% accurately sexed by Vtg EIA, while 100% of immature fish and 95% of adults were accurately sexed by 17beta-Estradiol and 11-Ketestosterone ratios. We also observed different color pattern development in male and female adult fish (6-year-olds) around the reproductive period.

  17. The NA62 GigaTracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aglieri Rinella, G.; Feito, D. Alvarez; Arcidiacono, R.; Biino, C.; Bonacini, S.; Ceccucci, A.; Chiozzi, S.; Gil, E. Cortina; Ramusino, A. Cotta; Degrange, J.; Fiorini, M.; Gamberini, E.; Gianoli, A.; Kaplon, J.; Kluge, A.; Mapelli, A.; Marchetto, F.; Minucci, E.; Morel, M.; Noël, J.; Noy, M.; Perktold, L.; Perrin-Terrin, M.; Petagna, P.; Petrucci, F.; Poltorak, K.; Romagnoli, G.; Ruggiero, G.; Velghe, B.; Wahl, H.

    2017-02-01

    The GigaTracker is a hybrid silicon pixel detector built for the NA62 experiment aiming at measuring the branching fraction of the ultra-rare kaon decay K+ →π+ ν ν bar at the CERN SPS. The detector has to track particles in a beam with a flux reaching 1.3 MHz/mm2 and provide single-hit timing with 200 ps RMS resolution for a total material budget of less than 0.5% X0 per station. The tracker comprises three 60.8 mm×27 mm stations installed in vacuum (∼10-6 mbar) and cooled with liquid C6F14 circulating through micro-channels etched inside a few hundred micron thick silicon plates. Each station is composed of a 200 μm thick silicon sensor read out by 2×5 custom 100 μm thick ASICs, called TDCPix. Each chip contains 40×45 asynchronous pixels, 300 μm×300 μm each and is instrumented with 100 ps bin time-to-digital converters. In order to cope with the high rate, the TDCPix is equipped with four 3.2 Gb/s serialisers sending out the data. We will describe the detector and the results from the 2014 and 2015 NA62 runs.

  18. Towards decoding the conifer giga-genome.

    PubMed

    Mackay, John; Dean, Jeffrey F D; Plomion, Christophe; Peterson, Daniel G; Cánovas, Francisco M; Pavy, Nathalie; Ingvarsson, Pär K; Savolainen, Outi; Guevara, M Ángeles; Fluch, Silvia; Vinceti, Barbara; Abarca, Dolores; Díaz-Sala, Carmen; Cervera, María-Teresa

    2012-12-01

    Several new initiatives have been launched recently to sequence conifer genomes including pines, spruces and Douglas-fir. Owing to the very large genome sizes ranging from 18 to 35 gigabases, sequencing even a single conifer genome had been considered unattainable until the recent throughput increases and cost reductions afforded by next generation sequencers. The purpose of this review is to describe the context for these new initiatives. A knowledge foundation has been acquired in several conifers of commercial and ecological interest through large-scale cDNA analyses, construction of genetic maps and gene mapping studies aiming to link phenotype and genotype. Exploratory sequencing in pines and spruces have pointed out some of the unique properties of these giga-genomes and suggested strategies that may be needed to extract value from their sequencing. The hope is that recent and pending developments in sequencing technology will contribute to rapidly filling the knowledge vacuum surrounding their structure, contents and evolution. Researchers are also making plans to use comparative analyses that will help to turn the data into a valuable resource for enhancing and protecting the world's conifer forests.

  19. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of dihydrodipicolinate synthase from the human pathogenic bacterium Bartonella henselae strain Houston-1 at 2.1 Å resolution

    DOE PAGES

    Naqvi, Kubra F.; Staker, Bart L.; Dobson, Renwick C. J.; ...

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme dihydrodipicolinate synthase catalyzes the committed step in the synthesis of diaminopimelate and lysine to facilitate peptidoglycan and protein synthesis. Dihydrodipicolinate synthase catalyzes the condensation of L-aspartate 4-semialdehyde and pyruvate to synthesize L-2,3-dihydrodipicolinate. Here, the cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of dihydrodipicolinate synthase from the pathogenic bacteriumBartonella henselae, the causative bacterium of cat-scratch disease, are presented. Protein crystals were grown in conditions consisting of 20%(w/v) PEG 4000, 100 mMsodium citrate tribasic pH 5.5 and were shown to diffract to ~2.10 Å resolution. They belonged to space groupP212121, with unit-cell parametersa= 79.96,b= 106.33,c= 136.25 Å. The finalRvaluesmore » wereRr.i.m.= 0.098,Rwork= 0.183,Rfree= 0.233.« less

  20. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of dihydrodipicolinate synthase from the human pathogenic bacterium Bartonella henselae strain Houston-1 at 2.1 Å resolution.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, Kubra F; Staker, Bart L; Dobson, Renwick C J; Serbzhinskiy, Dmitry; Sankaran, Banumathi; Myler, Peter J; Hudson, André O

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme dihydrodipicolinate synthase catalyzes the committed step in the synthesis of diaminopimelate and lysine to facilitate peptidoglycan and protein synthesis. Dihydrodipicolinate synthase catalyzes the condensation of L-aspartate 4-semialdehyde and pyruvate to synthesize L-2,3-dihydrodipicolinate. Here, the cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of dihydrodipicolinate synthase from the pathogenic bacterium Bartonella henselae, the causative bacterium of cat-scratch disease, are presented. Protein crystals were grown in conditions consisting of 20%(w/v) PEG 4000, 100 mM sodium citrate tribasic pH 5.5 and were shown to diffract to ∼2.10 Å resolution. They belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 79.96, b = 106.33, c = 136.25 Å. The final R values were Rr.i.m. = 0.098, Rwork = 0.183, Rfree = 0.233.

  1. Hamiltonian purification

    SciTech Connect

    Orsucci, Davide; Burgarth, Daniel; Facchi, Paolo; Pascazio, Saverio; Nakazato, Hiromichi; Yuasa, Kazuya; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2015-12-15

    The problem of Hamiltonian purification introduced by Burgarth et al. [Nat. Commun. 5, 5173 (2014)] is formalized and discussed. Specifically, given a set of non-commuting Hamiltonians (h{sub 1}, …, h{sub m}) operating on a d-dimensional quantum system ℋ{sub d}, the problem consists in identifying a set of commuting Hamiltonians (H{sub 1}, …, H{sub m}) operating on a larger d{sub E}-dimensional system ℋ{sub d{sub E}} which embeds ℋ{sub d} as a proper subspace, such that h{sub j} = PH{sub j}P with P being the projection which allows one to recover ℋ{sub d} from ℋ{sub d{sub E}}. The notions of spanning-set purification and generator purification of an algebra are also introduced and optimal solutions for u(d) are provided.

  2. A biomineralization study of the Indo-Pacific giant clam Tridacna gigas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gannon, M. E.; Pérez-Huerta, A.; Aharon, P.; Street, S. C.

    2017-06-01

    The giant clam, Tridacna gigas, is an important faunal component of reef ecosystems of the Indo-Pacific region. In addition to its ecological role, shells of this bivalve species are useful bioarchives for past climate and environmental reconstructions. However, the biomineralization processes involved in shell aragonite deposition are insufficiently understood. Here, we present a study of the shell microstructure of modern specimens from Palm Island, Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia, and Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea (PNG), using a combination of petrography, scanning electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and stable carbon isotope ratios. Daily growth increments were recognizable in all specimens through ontogeny, and counting these growth lines provides a robust specimen age estimate. For the internal layers, paired increments of organized aragonitic needles and compact, oblong crystals were recognized in a specimen from PNG, whereas specimens from GBR were composed of shield-like crystals that were not definable at the microscale. The combination of nutrient availability, rainfall and solar irradiance are likely to be the most significant factors controlling shell growth and may explain the observed differences in microstructure. The external layer, identical in all specimens, was composed of dendritic microstructure that is significantly enriched in 13C compared to the internal layer, suggesting different metabolic controls on layer deposition. We propose that the mineralization of the internal and external layers is independent from each other and associated with the activity of specific mantles. Future studies using T. gigas shells as bioarchives should consider the microstructure as it reflects the environment in which the individual lived and the differences in mineralization pathways of internal and external layers.

  3. Heritability of shell pigmentation in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) is a species of considerable economic importance, with among the highest global production of any cultured aquatic animal species. In the interest of increasing the value of Pacific oysters sold as “singles” for the half-shell market, we explored the feasibili...

  4. Pool Purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Caribbean Clear, Inc. used NASA's silver ion technology as a basis for its automatic pool purifier. System offers alternative approach to conventional purification chemicals. Caribbean Clear's principal markets are swimming pool owners who want to eliminate chlorine and bromine. Purifiers in Caribbean Clear System are same silver ions used in Apollo System to kill bacteria, plus copper ions to kill algae. They produce spa or pool water that exceeds EPA Standards for drinking water.

  5. Polonium purification

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, J.D.

    1996-09-01

    Three processes for the purification of {sup 210}Po from irradiated bismuth targets are described. Safety equipment includes shielded hotcells for the initial separation from other activation products, gloveboxes for handling the volatile and highly toxic materials, and provisions for ventilation. All chemical separations must be performed under vacuum or in inerted systems. Two of the processes require large amounts of electricity; the third requires vessels made from exotic materials.

  6. Semiconductor grade, solar silicon purification project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingle, W. M.; Rosler, R. R.; Thompson, S. W.; Chaney, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental apparatus and procedures used in the development of a 3-step SiF2(x) polymer transport purification process are described. Both S.S.M.S. and E.S. analysis demonstrated that major purification had occured and some samples were indistinguishable from semiconductor grade silicon (except possibly for phosphorus). Recent electrical analysis via crystal growth reveals that the product contains compensated phosphorus and boron. The low projected product cost and short energy payback time suggest that the economics of this process will result in a cost less than the goal of $10/Kg(1975 dollars). The process appears to be readily scalable to a major silicon purification facility.

  7. Stochasticity of convection in Giga-LES data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De La Chevrotière, Michèle; Khouider, Boualem; Majda, Andrew J.

    2016-09-01

    The poor representation of tropical convection in general circulation models (GCMs) is believed to be responsible for much of the uncertainty in the predictions of weather and climate in the tropics. The stochastic multicloud model (SMCM) was recently developed by Khouider et al. (Commun Math Sci 8(1):187-216, 2010) to represent the missing variability in GCMs due to unresolved features of organized tropical convection. The SMCM is based on three cloud types (congestus, deep and stratiform), and transitions between these cloud types are formalized in terms of probability rules that are functions of the large-scale environment convective state and a set of seven arbitrary cloud timescale parameters. Here, a statistical inference method based on the Bayesian paradigm is applied to estimate these key cloud timescales from the Giga-LES dataset, a 24-h large-eddy simulation (LES) of deep tropical convection (Khairoutdinov et al. in J Adv Model Earth Syst 1(12), 2009) over a domain comparable to a GCM gridbox. A sequential learning strategy is used where the Giga-LES domain is partitioned into a few subdomains, and atmospheric time series obtained on each subdomain are used to train the Bayesian procedure incrementally. Convergence of the marginal posterior densities for all seven parameters is demonstrated for two different grid partitions, and sensitivity tests to other model parameters are also presented. A single column model simulation using the SMCM parameterization with the Giga-LES inferred parameters reproduces many important statistical features of the Giga-LES run, without any further tuning. In particular it exhibits intermittent dynamical behavior in both the stochastic cloud fractions and the large scale dynamics, with periods of dry phases followed by a coherent sequence of congestus, deep, and stratiform convection, varying on timescales of a few hours consistent with the Giga-LES time series. The chaotic variations of the cloud area fractions were

  8. Development of the analysis of fecal stanols in the oyster Crassostrea gigas and identification of fecal contamination in shellfish harvesting areas.

    PubMed

    Harrault, Loïc; Jardé, Emilie; Jeanneau, Laurent; Petitjean, Patrice

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effects of washing and purification steps on qualitative and quantitative analysis of fecal stanols in the oyster Crassostrea gigas using either single or a combination of lipid purification steps on silica gel or aminopropyl bonded silica gel (NH2) or a washing step. Among the three analytical pathways compared, the two including water extraction or NH2 purification did not lead to higher recoveries and decreased repeatabilities of extractions compared to the single purification on silica gel. This latter led to similar recoveries (ca. 80%) and repeatabilities (ca. 10%) for both spiked standards (coprostanol and sitostanol). This analytical pathway has been applied to oysters collected in a harvesting area in Brittany (France) where fecal contaminations are important and allowed to quantify eight stanols in oysters. The relative proportions of fecal stanols of these oysters were combined with principal component analysis in order to investigate the usefulness of their stanol fingerprints to record a fecal contamination and to distinguish its source between human, porcine and bovine contaminations. Oysters non-fecally contaminated by Escherichia coli did not present specific stanol fingerprints while oysters fecally contaminated had a bovine fingerprint, suggesting a contamination of these samples by bovine sources. As a consequence, the method developed here allows the use of stanol fingerprints of oysters as a microbial source tracking tool that can be applied to shellfish harvesting areas subjected to fecal contaminations in order to identify the different sources of contamination and improve watershed management.

  9. Water Purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Silver ionization water purification technology was originally developed for Apollo spacecraft. It was later used to cleanse swimming pools and has now been applied to industrial cooling towers and process coolers. Sensible Technologies, Inc. has added two other technologies to the system, which occupies only six square feet. It is manufactured in three capacities, and larger models are custom built on request. The system eliminates scale, corrosion, algae, bacteria and debris, and because of the NASA technology, viruses and waterborne bacteria are also destroyed. Applications include a General Motors cooling tower, amusement parks, ice manufacture and a closed-loop process cooling system.

  10. PURIFICATION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Wibbles, H.L.; Miller, E.I.

    1958-01-14

    This patent deals with the separation of uranium from molybdenum compounds, and in particular with their separation from ether solutions containing the molybdenum in the form of acids, such as silicomolybdic and phosphomolybdic acids. After the nitric acid leach of pitchblende, the molybdenum values present in the ore are found in the leach solution in the form of complex acids. The uranium bearing solution may be purified of this molybdenum content by comtacting it with activated charcoal. The purification is improved when the acidity of the solution is low ad agitation is also beneficial. The molybdenum may subsequently be recovered from the charcosl ad the charcoal reused.

  11. Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of the OleC protein from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia involved in head-to-head hydrocarbon biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Frias, JA; Goblirsch, BR; Wackett, LP; Wilmot, CM

    2010-08-28

    OleC, a biosynthetic enzyme involved in microbial hydrocarbon biosynthesis, has been crystallized. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction data have been collected to 3.4 A resolution. The crystals belonged to space group P3(1)21 or P3(2)21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 98.8, c = 141.0 A.

  12. The expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a subcomplex of the peripheral stalk of ATP synthase from bovine mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Silvester, Jocelyn A.; Kane Dickson, Veronica; Runswick, Michael J.; Leslie, Andrew G. W.; Walker, John E.

    2006-06-01

    A recombinant subcomplex of the peripheral stalk or stator domain of the ATP synthase from bovine mitochondria has been crystallized and a native data set has been collected to 2.8 Å resolution. A subcomplex of the peripheral stalk or stator domain of the ATP synthase from bovine mitochondria has been expressed to high levels in a soluble form in Escherichia coli. The subcomplex consists of residues 79–184 of subunit b, residues 1–124 of subunit d and the entire F{sub 6} subunit (76 residues). It has been purified and crystallized by vapour diffusion. The morphology and diffraction properties of the crystals of the subcomplex were improved by the presence of thioxane or 4-methylpyridine in the crystallization liquor. With a synchrotron-radiation source, these crystals diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution. They belong to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}.

  13. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a C-terminal fragment of the Epstein–Barr virus ZEBRA protein

    SciTech Connect

    Morand, Patrice; Budayova-Spano, Monika; Perrissin, Monique; Müller, Christoph W. Petosa, Carlo

    2006-03-01

    A C-terminal fragment of the Epstein–Barr virus lytic switch protein ZEBRA has been crystallized in complex with DNA. A C-terminal fragment of the Epstein–Barr virus immediate-early transcription factor ZEBRA has been expressed as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The fragment behaves as a dimer in solution, consistent with the presence of a basic region leucine-zipper (bZIP) domain. Crystals of the fragment in complex with a DNA duplex were grown by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique using polyethylene glycol 4000 and magnesium acetate as crystallization agents. Crystals diffract to better than 2.5 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation (λ = 0.976 Å). Crystals belong to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 94.2, b = 26.5, c = 98.1 Å, β = 103.9°.

  14. Identification of the Molecular Clockwork of the Oyster Crassostrea gigas

    PubMed Central

    Perrigault, Mickael; Tran, Damien

    2017-01-01

    Molecular clock system constitutes the origin of biological rhythms that allow organisms to anticipate cyclic environmental changes and adapt their behavior and physiology. Components of the molecular clock are largely conserved across a broad range of species but appreciable diversity in clock structure and function is also present especially in invertebrates. The present work aimed at identify and characterize molecular clockwork components in relationship with the monitoring of valve activity behavior in the oyster Crassostrea gigas. Results provided the characterization of most of canonical clock gene including clock, bmal/cycle, period, timeless, vertebrate-type cry, rev-erb, ror as well as other members of the cryptochrome/photolyase family (plant-like cry, 6–4 photolyase). Analyses of transcriptional variations of clock candidates in oysters exposed to light / dark regime and to constant darkness led to the generation of a putative and original clockwork model in C. gigas, intermediate of described systems in vertebrates and insects. This study is the first characterization of a mollusk clockwork. It constitutes essential bases to understand interactions of the different components of the molecular clock in C. gigas as well as the global mechanisms associated to the generation and the synchronization of biological rhythms in oysters. PMID:28072861

  15. Impact of atrazine on aneuploidy in pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Bouilly, Karine; Leitão, Alexandra; McCombie, Helen; Lapègue, Sylvie

    2003-01-01

    Aneuploidy has previously been described and studied in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, and has been shown to be negatively correlated with growth. The present study investigated the effect of atrazine on the level of aneuploidy in this species. Crassostrea gigas adults and juveniles were subjected to different concentrations of atrazine representing a peak value found in a polluted environment (46.5 nM) and a value 10 times higher (465 nM). Although atrazine did not show any effect on the oyster mortality, significant differences in aneuploidy level were observed between the different treatments (9% for the control, 16% for 46.5 nM and 20% for 465 nM atrazine). Moreover, the same levels of aneuploidy were observed at adult and juvenile stages. This is the first reported evidence for an environmental effect on aneuploidy in C. gigas. These results will be useful for the oyster aquaculture industry and management of resources. The lowest atrazine level in the current study represents realistic potential exposure, and the results suggest that studies should be made on other aquatic species at risk of exposure to atrazine in the wild. This widely used compound may be an important factor causing damage to genetic material.

  16. Sequence Analysis, Kinetic Constants, and Anion Inhibition Profile of the Nacrein-Like Protein (CgiNAP2X1) from the Pacific Oyster Magallana gigas (Ex-Crassostrea gigas).

    PubMed

    Perfetto, Rosa; Del Prete, Sonia; Vullo, Daniela; Sansone, Giovanni; Barone, Carmela M A; Rossi, Mosè; Supuran, Claudiu T; Capasso, Clemente

    2017-08-28

    The carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) superfamily of metalloenzymes catalyzes the hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and protons. The catalytically active form of these enzymes incorporates a metal hydroxide derivative, the formation of which is the rate-determining step of catalytic reaction, being affected by the transfer of a proton from a metal-coordinated water molecule to the environment. Here, we report the cloning, expression, and purification of a particular CA, i.e., nacrein-like protein encoded in the genome of the Pacific oyster Magallana gigas (previously known as Crassostrea gigas). Furthermore, the amino acid sequence, kinetic constants, and anion inhibition profile of the recombinant enzyme were investigated for the first time. The new protein, CgiNAP2X1, is highly effective as catalyst for the CO₂ hydration reaction, based on the measured kinetic parameters, i.e., kcat = 1.0 × 10⁶ s(-1) and kcat/KM = 1.2 × 10⁸ M(-1)·s(-1). CgiNAP2X1 has a putative signal peptide, which probably allows an extracellular localization of the protein. The inhibition data demonstrated that the best anion inhibitors of CgiNAP2X1 were diethyldithiocarbamate, sulfamide, sulfamate, phenylboronic acid and phenylarsonic acid, which showed a micromolar affinity for this enzyme, with KIs in the range of 76-87 μM. These studies may add new information on the physiological role of the molluskan CAs in the biocalcification processes.

  17. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of rice BGlu1 β-glucosidase with and without 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-β-d-glucoside

    SciTech Connect

    Chuenchor, Watchalee; Pengthaisong, Salila; Yuvaniyama, Jirundon; Opassiri, Rodjana; Svasti, Jisnuson; Ketudat Cairns, James R.

    2006-08-01

    Rice BGlu1 β-glucosidase was purified from recombinant E. coli and crystallized with and without the inhibitor 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-β-d-glucose. The crystals diffracted to 2.15 and 2.75 Å, respectively. Rice (Oryza sativa) BGlu1 β-glucosidase was expressed in Escherichia coli with N-terminal thioredoxin and hexahistidine tags and purified by immobilized metal-affinity chromatography (IMAC). After removal of the N-terminal tags, cation-exchange and S-200 gel-filtration chromatography yielded a 50 kDa BGlu1 with >95% purity. The free enzyme and a complex with 2,4-dinitrophenyl-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-β-d-glucopyranoside inhibitor were crystallized by microbatch and hanging-drop vapour diffusion. Small tetragonal crystals of BGlu1 with and without inhibitor grew in 18%(w/v) PEG 8000 with 0.1 M sodium cacodylate pH 6.5 and 0.2 M zinc acetate. Crystals of BGlu1 with inhibitor were streak-seeded into 23%(w/v) PEG MME 5000, 0.2 M ammonium sulfate, 0.1 M MES pH 6.7 to yield larger crystals. Crystals with and without inhibitor diffracted to 2.15 and 2.75 Å resolution, respectively, and had isomorphous orthorhombic unit cells belonging to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}.

  18. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of dihydrodipicolinate synthase from the human pathogenic bacterium Bartonella henselae strain Houston-1 at 2.1 Å resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Naqvi, Kubra F.; Staker, Bart L.; Dobson, Renwick C. J.; Serbzhinskiy, Dmitry; Sankaran, Banumathi; Myler, Peter J.; Hudson, André O.

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme dihydrodipicolinate synthase catalyzes the committed step in the synthesis of diaminopimelate and lysine to facilitate peptidoglycan and protein synthesis. Dihydrodipicolinate synthase catalyzes the condensation of L-aspartate 4-semialdehyde and pyruvate to synthesize L-2,3-dihydrodipicolinate. Here, the cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of dihydrodipicolinate synthase from the pathogenic bacteriumBartonella henselae, the causative bacterium of cat-scratch disease, are presented. Protein crystals were grown in conditions consisting of 20%(w/v) PEG 4000, 100 mMsodium citrate tribasic pH 5.5 and were shown to diffract to ~2.10 Å resolution. They belonged to space groupP212121, with unit-cell parametersa= 79.96,b= 106.33,c= 136.25 Å. The finalRvalues wereRr.i.m.= 0.098,Rwork= 0.183,Rfree= 0.233.

  19. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of dihydrodipicolinate synthase from the human pathogenic bacterium Bartonella henselae strain Houston-1 at 2.1 Å resolution

    PubMed Central

    Naqvi, Kubra F.; Staker, Bart L.; Dobson, Renwick C. J.; Serbzhinskiy, Dmitry; Sankaran, Banumathi; Myler, Peter J.; Hudson, André O.

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme dihydrodipicolinate synthase catalyzes the committed step in the synthesis of diaminopimelate and lysine to facilitate peptidoglycan and protein synthesis. Dihydrodipicolinate synthase catalyzes the condensation of l-aspartate 4-semialdehyde and pyruvate to synthesize l-2,3-dihydrodipico­linate. Here, the cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of dihydrodipicolinate synthase from the pathogenic bacterium Bartonella henselae, the causative bacterium of cat-scratch disease, are presented. Protein crystals were grown in conditions consisting of 20%(w/v) PEG 4000, 100 mM sodium citrate tribasic pH 5.5 and were shown to diffract to ∼2.10 Å resolution. They belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 79.96, b = 106.33, c = 136.25 Å. The final R values were R r.i.m. = 0.098, R work = 0.183, R free = 0.233. PMID:26750477

  20. SnRK2.6/OST1 from Arabidopsis thaliana: cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of K50N and D160A mutants

    PubMed Central

    Yunta, Cristina; Martinez-Ripoll, Martin; Albert, Armando

    2011-01-01

    The SnRK2.6 (SNF1-related kinase 2.6) gene from Arabidopsis thaliana encodes the serine/threonine protein kinase SnRK2.6/OST1 (OPEN STOMATA 1). It plays a central role in the drought-tolerance mechanism. OST1 is in fact the main positive effector in the hydric stress response. The SnRK2.6 gene was cloned into the pGEX4T1 plasmid, mutated and expressed in Escherichia coli, allowing purification to homogeneity in two chromatographic steps. Various OST1 mutants yielded crystals using vapour-diffusion techniques, but only one mutant showed a good diffraction pattern. Its crystals diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution and belonged to space group P2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 77.7, b = 99.4, c = 108.4 Å. A promising molecular-replacement solution was found using the structure of the kinase domain of the yeast AMP-activated protein kinase SNF1 (PDB entry 3hyh) as the search model. PMID:21393844

  1. Moderate establishment success of Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, on a sheltered intertidal mussel bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, Mark Wejlemann; Davids, Jens Kristian; Dolmer, Per; Vismann, Bent; Hansen, Benni Winding

    2015-10-01

    The Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas Thunberg 1793) is introduced into marine ecosystems worldwide. In Denmark, C. gigas was introduced into the micro tidal Limfjord, around 1972 for aquaculture. This study describes the population structure of C. gigas at Agger Tange in 2007, 2009, 2010 and 2011. Here, C. gigas use beds of Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) as primary habitat. The mean abundance (± 1 SD) of C. gigas was unchanged during our study (45 ± 2 indv. m- 2), while it increased for M. edulis from 2010 to 2011 (934 ± 610 to 1434 ± 750 indv. m- 2, respectively). In 2009, a newly settled cohort of C. gigas was present, but in the succeeding years no or negligible recruitment was recorded. However, age cohort analyses, based on individual shell size at different ages, suggest successful recruitment in three out of seven years. A comparison with the course of the bioinvasion in List Tidal Basin, suggests that the population at Agger Tange is not in the expansion phase of the bioinvasion, despite of frequent settlement, high shell growth rates and relatively high abundance. So far, C. gigas has had moderate establishment success. We conclude that C. gigas is still in the establishment phase, but that this is prolonged, presumably due to low food availability.

  2. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic study of the protein module (BIV2-Helix) in the fusion core of bovine immunodeficiency-like virus (BIV) gp40

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xiaodong; Li, Ming; Xu, Yanhui; Lou, Zhiyong; Meng, Zhaohui; Li, Shu; Tian, Bo; Gao, George F.; Rao, Zihe

    2005-02-01

    A predicted protein module BIV2-Helix of BIVgp40 has been expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by chromatography. Recombinant BIV2-Helix was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique at 291 K.

  3. Heterologous expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of raucaffricine glucosidase, a plant enzyme specifically involved in Rauvolfia alkaloid biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppert, Martin; Panjikar, Santosh; Barleben, Leif; Stöckigt, Joachim

    2006-03-01

    Raucaffricine glucosidase, an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids in the plant Rauvolfia serpentina, was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG4000 as precipitant. The crystals diffract to 2.3 Å resolution and belong to space group I222. Raucaffricine glucosidase (RG) is an enzyme that is specifically involved in the biosynthesis of indole alkaloids from the plant Rauvolfia serpentina. After heterologous expression in Escherichia coli cells, crystals of RG were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique at 293 K with 0.3 M ammonium sulfate, 0.1 M sodium acetate pH 4.6 buffer and 11% PEG 4000 as precipitant. Crystals belong to space group I222 and diffract to 2.30 Å, with unit-cell parameters a = 102.8, b = 127.3, c = 215.8 Å.

  4. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the human RuvB-like protein RuvBL1

    SciTech Connect

    Gorynia, Sabine; Gonçalves, Susana; Coelho, Ricardo; Lopes, Gonçalo; Thomaz, Mónica; Huber, Martina; Donner, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Human RuvB-like protein RuvBL1 plays important roles in essential signaling pathways like c-Myc and Wnt, in transcription, and in DNA repair and apoptosis. Crystals of both native and a Se-Met derivative were obtained and characterized. SAD data leading to the structure solution at 2.2 Å were measured from the Se-Met crystals. RuvBL1, an evolutionary highly conserved protein related to the AAA{sup +} family of ATPases, has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 293 K. The crystals are hexagonal and belong to space group P6, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 207.1, c = 60.7 Å and three molecules in the asymmetric unit.

  5. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the collagen-binding region of RspB from Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae

    PubMed Central

    Devi, Aribam Swarmistha; Ogawa, Yohsuke; Shimoji, Yoshihiro; Ponnuraj, Karthe

    2010-01-01

    RspB is a surface adhesin of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. A recombinant form of the collagen-binding region of this protein, RspB(31–348), has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli in native and selenomethionine-derivative forms and purified using affinity and gel-permeation chromatography. Thin plate-like crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using the same condition for both forms. The native crystals diffracted to a resolution of 2.5 Å using an in-house X-ray source, while the selenomethionine-derivative crystals diffracted to a resolution of 2.2 Å using synchrotron radiation. The crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 46.19, b = 66.65, c = 101.72 Å, β = 94.11°. PMID:20124711

  6. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the Whirly domain of StWhy2 in complex with single-stranded DNA.

    PubMed

    Cappadocia, Laurent; Sygusch, Jurgen; Brisson, Normand

    2008-11-01

    StWhy1 and StWhy2 are members of the Whirly family of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding proteins. To understand the mode of binding of the Whirly proteins to single-stranded DNA, crystals of the Whirly domains of both StWhy1 and StWhy2 in complex with single-stranded DNA were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The diffraction patterns of the StWhy1-ssDNA complex crystals displayed severe anisotropy and were of low resolution, making them unsuitable for structure determination. In contrast, the crystals of the StWhy2-ssDNA complex diffracted isotropically to 2.20 A resolution. The crystallization and data collection to 2.20 A resolution of StWhy2 in the free form are also reported.

  7. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of UgdG, an UDP-glucose dehydrogenase from Sphingomonas elodea ATCC 31461.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Joana; Granja, Ana Teresa; Sá-Correia, Isabel; Fialho, Arsénio; Frazão, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Gellan gum, a commercial gelling agent produced by Sphingomonas elodea ATCC 31461, is a high-value microbial exopolysaccharide. UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (UGD; EC 1.1.1.22) is responsible for the NAD-dependent twofold oxidation of UDP-glucose to UDP-glucuronic acid, one of the key components for gellan biosynthesis. S. elodea ATCC 31461 UGD, termed UgdG, was cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized in native and SeMet-derivatized forms in hexagonal and tetragonal space groups, respectively; the crystals diffracted X-rays to 2.40 and 3.40 A resolution, respectively. Experimental phases were obtained for the tetragonal SeMet-derivatized crystal form by a single-wavelength anomalous dispersion experiment. This structure was successfully used as a molecular-replacement probe for the hexagonal crystal form of the native protein.

  8. Identification of conserved proteins from diverse shell matrix proteome in Crassostrea gigas: characterization of genetic bases regulating shell formation

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Dandan; Li, Qi; Yu, Hong; Kong, Lingfeng; Du, Shaojun

    2017-01-01

    The calcifying shell is an excellent model for studying biomineralization and evolution. However, the molecular mechanisms of shell formation are only beginning to be elucidated in Mollusca. It is known that shell matrix proteins (SMPs) play important roles in shell formation. With increasing data of shell matrix proteomes from various species, we carried out a BLASTp bioinformatics analysis using the shell matrix proteome from Crassostrea gigas against 443 SMPs from nine other species. The highly conserved tyrosinase and chitin related proteins were identified in bivalve. In addition, the relatively conserved proteins containing domains of carbonic anhydrase, Sushi, Von Willebrand factor type A, and chitin binding, were identified from all the ten species. Moreover, 25 genes encoding SMPs were annotated and characterized that are involved in CaCO3 crystallization and represent chitin related or ECM related proteins. Together, data from these analyses provide new knowledge underlying the molecular mechanism of shell formation in C.gigas, supporting a refined shell formation model including chitin and ECM-related proteins. PMID:28374770

  9. Identification of conserved proteins from diverse shell matrix proteome in Crassostrea gigas: characterization of genetic bases regulating shell formation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Dandan; Li, Qi; Yu, Hong; Kong, Lingfeng; Du, Shaojun

    2017-04-04

    The calcifying shell is an excellent model for studying biomineralization and evolution. However, the molecular mechanisms of shell formation are only beginning to be elucidated in Mollusca. It is known that shell matrix proteins (SMPs) play important roles in shell formation. With increasing data of shell matrix proteomes from various species, we carried out a BLASTp bioinformatics analysis using the shell matrix proteome from Crassostrea gigas against 443 SMPs from nine other species. The highly conserved tyrosinase and chitin related proteins were identified in bivalve. In addition, the relatively conserved proteins containing domains of carbonic anhydrase, Sushi, Von Willebrand factor type A, and chitin binding, were identified from all the ten species. Moreover, 25 genes encoding SMPs were annotated and characterized that are involved in CaCO3 crystallization and represent chitin related or ECM related proteins. Together, data from these analyses provide new knowledge underlying the molecular mechanism of shell formation in C.gigas, supporting a refined shell formation model including chitin and ECM-related proteins.

  10. Purification, Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Diffraction Analysis of the Phage T4 Vertex Protein Gp24 and its Mutant Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Boeshans,K.; Liu, F.; Peng, G.; Idler, W.; Jang, S.; Marekov, L.; Black, L.; Ahvazi, B.

    2006-01-01

    The study of bacteriophage T4 assembly has revealed regulatory mechanisms pertinent not only to viruses but also to macromolecular complexes. The capsid of bacteriophage T4 is composed of the major capsid protein gp23, and a minor capsid protein gp24, which is arranged as pentamers at the vertices of the capsid. In this study the T4 capsid protein gp24 and its mutant forms were overexpressed and purified to homogeneity. The overexpression from plasmid vectors of all the constructs in Escherichia coli yields biologically active protein in vivo as determined by assembly of active virus following infection with inactivated gene 24 mutant viruses. The gp24 mutant was subjected to surface entropy reduction by mutagenesis and reductive alkylation in order to improve its crystallization properties and diffraction quality. To determine if surface mutagenesis targeting would result in diffractable crystals, two glutamate to alanine mutations (E89A,E90A) were introduced. We report here the biochemical observations and consequent mutagenesis experiment that resulted in improvements in the stability, crystallizability and crystal quality of gp24 without affecting the overall folding. Rational modification of the protein surface to achieve crystallization appears promising for improving crystallization behavior and crystal diffracting qualities. The crystal of gp24(E89A,E90A) diffracted to 2.6 {angstrom} resolution compared to wild-type gp24 at 3.80 {angstrom} resolution under the same experimental conditions. Surface mutation proved to be a better method than reductive methylation for improving diffraction quality of the gp24 crystals.

  11. Effect of additives on the purification of urease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, X.; Wang, J.; Ulrich, J.

    2015-12-01

    The effect of additives on the purification of proteins was investigated. The target protein studied here is the enzyme urease. Studies on the purification of urease from jack bean meal were carried out. 32% (v/v) acetone was utilized to extract urease from the jack bean meal. Further purification by crystallization with the addition of 2-mercaptoethanol and EDTA disodium salt dehydrate was carried out. It was found out that the presence of additives can affect the selectivity of the crystallization. Increases in both purity and yield of the urease after crystallization were observed in the presence of additives, which were proven using both SDS-PAGE and activity. Urease crystals with a yield of 69.9% and a purity of 85.1% were obtained in one crystallization step in the presence of additives. Furthermore, the effect of additives on the thermodynamics and kinetics of urease crystallization was studied.

  12. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of L-lactate dehydrogenase and its H171C mutant from Bacillus subtilis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Gao, Xiaoli

    2012-08-31

    L-Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an important enzyme involved in the last step of glycolysis that catalyzes the reversible conversion of pyruvate to L-lactate with the simultaneous oxidation of NADH to NAD{sup +}. In this study, wild-type LDH from Bacillus subtilis (BsLDH-WT) and the H171C mutant (BsLDH-H171C) were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to near-homogeneity. BsLDH-WT was crystallized in the presence of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) and NAD{sup +} and the crystal diffracted to 2.38 {angstrom} resolution. The crystal belonged to space group P3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 171.04, c = 96.27 {angstrom}. BsLDH-H171C was also crystallized as the apoenzyme and in complex with NAD{sup +}, and data sets were collected to 2.20 and 2.49 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Both BsLDH-H171C crystals belonged to space group P3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 133.41, c = 99.34 {angstrom} and a = b = 133.43, c = 99.09 {angstrom}, respectively. Tetramers were observed in the asymmetric units of all three crystals.

  13. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the carbohydrate-binding region of the Streptococcus gordonii adhesin GspB

    SciTech Connect

    Pyburn, Tasia M.; Yankovskaya, Victoria; Bensing, Barbara A.; Cecchini, Gary; Sullam, Paul M.; Iverson, T.M.

    2012-07-11

    The carbohydrate-binding region of the bacterial adhesin GspB from Streptococcus gordonii strain M99 (GspB{sub BR}) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using affinity and size-exclusion chromatography. Separate sparse-matrix screening of GspB{sub BR} buffered in either 20 mM Tris pH 7.4 or 20 mM HEPES pH 7.5 resulted in different crystallographic behavior such that different precipitants, salts and additives supported crystallization of GspB{sub BR} in each buffer. While both sets of conditions supported crystal growth in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, the crystals had distinct unit-cell parameters of a = 33.3, b = 86.7, c = 117.9 {angstrom} for crystal form 1 and a = 34.6, b = 98.3, c = 99.0 {angstrom} for crystal form 2. Additive screening improved the crystals grown in both conditions such that diffraction extended to beyond 2 {angstrom} resolution. A complete data set has been collected to 1.3 {angstrom} resolution with an overall R{sub merge} value of 0.04 and an R{sub merge} value of 0.33 in the highest resolution shell.

  14. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray crystallographic analysis of CofB, the minor pilin subunit of CFA/III from human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Kazuki; Oki, Hiroya; Fukakusa, Shunsuke; Maruno, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Yuji; Motooka, Daisuke; Taniguchi, Tooru; Honda, Takeshi; Iida, Tetsuya; Nakamura, Shota; Ohkubo, Tadayasu

    2015-06-01

    Colonization factor antigen III (CFA/III) is one of the virulence factors of human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) that forms the long, thin, proteinaceous fibres of type IV pili through assembly of its major and minor subunits CofA and CofB, respectively. The crystal structure of CofA has recently been reported; however, the lack of structural information for CofB, the largest among the known type IV pilin subunits, hampers a comprehensive understanding of CFA/III pili. In this study, constructs of wild-type CofB with an N-terminal truncation and the corresponding SeMet derivative were cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals belonged to the rhombohedral space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 103.97, c = 364.57 Å for the wild-type construct and a = b = 103.47, c = 362.08 Å for the SeMet-derivatized form. Although the diffraction quality of these crystals was initially very poor, dehydration of the crystals substantially improved the resolution limit from ∼ 4.0 to ∼ 2.0 Å. The initial phase was solved by the single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) method using a dehydrated SeMet CofB crystal, which resulted in an interpretable electron-density map.

  15. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the apo form of InsP5 2-K from Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Baños-Sanz, Jose Ignacio; Sanz-Aparicio, Julia; Brearley, Charles A.; González, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase (IP5 2-K) is a key enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of phytic acid (IP6) from inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphos­phate (IP5) and ATP. The first structure of IP5 2-K, that from Arabidopsis thaliana, has been solved previously; it only crystallized in the presence of inositol, either the substrate IP5 or the product IP6, and failed to crystallize in its free state (without inositol). Based on structural analysis, a point mutation of IP5 2-K (W129A) has been produced in order to overcome this limitation and obtain information about protein conformational changes upon substrate binding. Here, the production and crystallization of W129A IP5 2-K in its free state and with bound nucleotide is described. These crystals differed from the native crystals and belonged to the orthorhombic space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 66.00, b = 68.23, c = 105.80 Å and a = 63.06, b = 71.80, c = 100.23 Å, respectively. The crystals diffracted to resolutions of 2.22 Å (apo) and 2.05 Å (nucleotide bound) using synchrotron radiation and contained one molecule per asymmetric unit. The structures have been determined using the molecular-replacement method and refinement is being undertaken. PMID:22684075

  16. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the apo form of InsP5 2-K from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Baños-Sanz, Jose Ignacio; Sanz-Aparicio, Julia; Brearley, Charles A; González, Beatriz

    2012-06-01

    Inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase (IP(5) 2-K) is a key enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of phytic acid (IP(6)) from inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate (IP(5)) and ATP. The first structure of IP(5) 2-K, that from Arabidopsis thaliana, has been solved previously; it only crystallized in the presence of inositol, either the substrate IP(5) or the product IP(6), and failed to crystallize in its free state (without inositol). Based on structural analysis, a point mutation of IP(5) 2-K (W129A) has been produced in order to overcome this limitation and obtain information about protein conformational changes upon substrate binding. Here, the production and crystallization of W129A IP(5) 2-K in its free state and with bound nucleotide is described. These crystals differed from the native crystals and belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = 66.00, b = 68.23, c = 105.80 Å and a = 63.06, b = 71.80, c = 100.23 Å, respectively. The crystals diffracted to resolutions of 2.22 Å (apo) and 2.05 Å (nucleotide bound) using synchrotron radiation and contained one molecule per asymmetric unit. The structures have been determined using the molecular-replacement method and refinement is being undertaken.

  17. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the ligand-binding domain of human lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX-1)

    SciTech Connect

    Ishigaki, Tomoko; Ohki, Izuru; Oyama, Takuji; Machida, Sachiko; Morikawa, Kousuke; Tate, Shin-ichi

    2005-05-01

    Two different fragments of the ligand-binding domain of LOX-1, the major receptor for oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) on endothelial cells, have been crystallized in different forms. Two different fragments of the ligand-binding domain of LOX-1, the major receptor for oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) on endothelial cells, have been crystallized in different forms. One crystal form contains the disulfide-linked dimer, which is the form of the molecule present on the cell surface; the other contains a monomeric form of the receptor that lacks the cysteine residue necessary to form disulfide-linked homodimers. The crystal of the monomeric ligand-binding domain belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 56.79, b = 67.57, c = 79.02 Å. The crystal of the dimeric form belongs to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 70.86, b = 49.56, c = 76.73 Å, β = 98.59°. Data for the dimeric form of the LOX-1 ligand-binding domain have been collected to 2.4 Å. For the monomeric form of the ligand-binding domain, native, heavy-atom derivative and SeMet-derivative crystals have been obtained; their diffraction data have been measured to 3.0, 2.4 and 1.8 Å resolution, respectively.

  18. A glycoprotein in shells of conspecifics induces larval settlement of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Hebert Ely; Hashimoto, Kyotaro; Yoshida, Asami; Hara, Kenji; Imai, Chisato Chris; Kitamura, Hitoshi; Satuito, Cyril Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Settlement of larvae of Crassostrea gigas on shell chips (SC) prepared from shells of 11 different species of mollusks was investigated. Furthermore, the settlement inducing compound in the shell of C. gigas was extracted and subjected to various treatments to characterize the chemical cue. C. gigas larvae settled on SC of all species tested except on Patinopecten yessoensis and Atrina pinnata. In SC of species that induced C. gigas larvae to settle, settlement was proportionate to the amount of SC supplied to the larvae. When compared to C. gigas SC, all species except Crassostrea nippona showed lower settlement inducing activities, suggesting that the cue may be more abundant or in a more available form to the larvae in shells of conspecific and C. nippona than in other species. The settlement inducing activity of C. gigas SC remained intact after antibiotic treatment. Extraction of C. gigas SC with diethyl ether (Et2O-ex), ethanol (EtOH-ex), and water (Aq-ex) did not induce larval settlement of C. gigas larvae. However, extraction of C. gigas SC with 2N of hydrochloric acid (HCl-ex) induced larval settlement that was at the same level as the SC. The settlement inducing compound in the HCl-ex was stable at 100°C but was destroyed or degraded after pepsin, trypsin, PNGase F and trifluoromethanesulfonic acid treatments. This chemical cue eluted between the molecular mass range of 45 and 150 kDa after gel filtration and revealed a major band at 55 kDa on the SDS-PAGE gel after staining with Stains-all. Thus, a 55 kDa glycoprotein component in the organic matrix of C. gigas shells is hypothesized to be the chemical basis of larval settlement on conspecifics.

  19. A Glycoprotein in Shells of Conspecifics Induces Larval Settlement of the Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Hebert Ely; Hashimoto, Kyotaro; Yoshida, Asami; Hara, Kenji; Imai, Chisato Chris; Kitamura, Hitoshi; Satuito, Cyril Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Settlement of larvae of Crassostrea gigas on shell chips (SC) prepared from shells of 11 different species of mollusks was investigated. Furthermore, the settlement inducing compound in the shell of C. gigas was extracted and subjected to various treatments to characterize the chemical cue. C. gigas larvae settled on SC of all species tested except on Patinopecten yessoensis and Atrina pinnata. In SC of species that induced C. gigas larvae to settle, settlement was proportionate to the amount of SC supplied to the larvae. When compared to C. gigas SC, all species except Crassostrea nippona showed lower settlement inducing activities, suggesting that the cue may be more abundant or in a more available form to the larvae in shells of conspecific and C. nippona than in other species. The settlement inducing activity of C. gigas SC remained intact after antibiotic treatment. Extraction of C. gigas SC with diethyl ether (Et2O-ex), ethanol (EtOH-ex), and water (Aq-ex) did not induce larval settlement of C. gigas larvae. However, extraction of C. gigas SC with 2N of hydrochloric acid (HCl-ex) induced larval settlement that was at the same level as the SC. The settlement inducing compound in the HCl-ex was stable at 100°C but was destroyed or degraded after pepsin, trypsin, PNGase F and trifluoromethanesulfonic acid treatments. This chemical cue eluted between the molecular mass range of 45 and 150 kDa after gel filtration and revealed a major band at 55 kDa on the SDS-PAGE gel after staining with Stains-all. Thus, a 55 kDa glycoprotein component in the organic matrix of C. gigas shells is hypothesized to be the chemical basis of larval settlement on conspecifics. PMID:24349261

  20. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Enterococcus faecium aminoglycoside-2′′-phosphotransferase-Ib [APH(2′′)-Ib

    SciTech Connect

    Walanj, Rupa; Young, Paul; Baker, Heather M.; Baker, Edward N.; Metcalf, Peter; Chow, Joseph W.; Lerner, Stephen; Vakulenko, Sergei; Smith, Clyde A.

    2005-04-01

    APH(2′′)-Ib is an enzyme responsible for high-level gentamicin resistance in E. faecium isolates. Native crystals of this enzyme have been prepared and preliminary X-ray diffraction experiments have been undertaken. Bacterial resistance to the aminoglycoside antibiotics is primarily the result of deactivation of the drugs. Three families of enzymes are responsible for this activity, with one such family being the aminoglycoside phosphotransferases (APHs). The gene encoding one of these enzymes, APH(2′′)-Ib, has been cloned and the protein (comprising 299 amino-acid residues) expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized in the presence of 16%(w/v) PEG 3350 and gentamicin. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with approximate unit-cell parameters a = 79.7, b = 58.8, c = 81.4 Å, β = 98.4°, and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis is consistent with the presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit. Synchrotron diffraction data to approximately 2.65 Å resolution were collected from a native APH(2′′)-Ib crystal at beamline BL9-2 at SSRL (Stanford, CA, USA). Selenium-substituted crystals have also been produced and structure determination is proceeding.

  1. Purification, crystallization and crystallographic analysis of Clostridium thermocellum endo-1,4-β-d-xylanase 10B in complex with xylohexaose

    SciTech Connect

    Najmudin, Shabir; Pinheiro, Benedita A.; Romão, Maria J.; Prates, José A. M.; Fontes, Carlos M. G. A.

    2008-08-01

    The N-terminal moiety of C. thermocellum endo-1,4-β-d-xylanase 10B, comprising a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM22-1) and a GH10 E337A mutant domain, has been crystallized in complex with xylohexaose. The crystals belong to the trigonal space group P3{sub 2}21, contain a dimer in the asymmetric unit and diffract to beyond 2.0 Å resolution. The cellulosome of Clostridium thermocellum is a highly organized multi-enzyme complex of cellulases and hemicellulases involved in the hydrolysis of plant cell-wall polysaccharides. The bifunctional multi-modular xylanase Xyn10B is one of the hemicellulase components of the C. thermocellum cellulosome. The enzyme contains an internal glycoside hydrolase family 10 catalytic domain (GH10) and a C-terminal family 1 carbohydrate esterase domain (CE1). The N-terminal moiety of Xyn10B (residues 32–551), comprising a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM22-1) and the GH10 E337A mutant, was crystallized in complex with xylohexaose. The crystals belong to the trigonal space group P3{sub 2}21 and contain a dimer in the asymmetric unit. The crystals diffracted to beyond 2.0 Å resolution.

  2. Overexpression, purification and crystallization of the two C-terminal domains of the bifunctional cellulase ctCel9D-Cel44A from Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect

    Najmudin, Shabir; Guerreiro, Catarina I. P. D.; Ferreira, Luís M. A.; Romão, Maria J. C.; Fontes, Carlos M. G. A.; Prates, José A. M.

    2005-12-01

    The two C-terminal domains of the cellulase ctCel9D-Cel44A from C. thermocellum cellulosome have been crystallized in tetragonal space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2 and X-ray diffraction data have been collected to 2.1 and 2.8 Å from native and seleno-l-methionine-derivative crystals, respectively. Clostridium thermocellum produces a highly organized multi-enzyme complex of cellulases and hemicellulases for the hydrolysis of plant cell-wall polysaccharides, which is termed the cellulosome. The bifunctional multi-modular cellulase ctCel9D-Cel44A is one of the largest components of the C. thermocellum cellulosome. The enzyme contains two internal catalytic domains belonging to glycoside hydrolase families 9 and 44. The C-terminus of this cellulase, comprising a polycystic kidney-disease module (PKD) and a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM44), has been crystallized. The crystals belong to the tetragonal space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, containing a single molecule in the asymmetric unit. Native and seleno-l-methionine-derivative crystals diffracted to 2.1 and 2.8 Å, respectively.

  3. Purification, Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Characterization of Prunin-1, a Major Component of the Almond (Prunus dulcis) Allergen Amandin

    SciTech Connect

    Albillos, Silvia M.; Jin, Tengchuan; Howard, Andrew; Zhang, Yuzhu; Kothary, Mahendra H.; Fu, Tong-Jen

    2008-08-04

    The 11S globulins from plant seeds account for a number of major food allergens. Because of the interest in the structural basis underlying the allergenicity of food allergens, we sought to crystallize the main 11S seed storage protein from almond (Prunus dulcis). Prunin-1 (Pru1) was purified from defatted almond flour by water extraction, cryoprecipitation, followed by sequential anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and size exclusion chromatography. Single crystals of Pru1 were obtained in a screening with a crystal screen kit, using the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method. Diffraction quality crystals were grown after optimization. The Pru1 crystals diffracted to at least 3.0 {angstrom} and belong to the tetragonal space group P4{sub 1}22, with unit cell parameters of a = b = 150.912 {angstrom}, c = 165.248 {angstrom}. Self-rotation functions and molecular replacement calculations showed that there are three molecules in the asymmetry unit with water content of 51.41%. The three Pru1 protomers are related by a noncrystallographic 3-fold axis and they form a doughnut-shaped trimer. Two prunin trimers form a homohexamer. Elucidation of prunin structure will allow further characterization of the allergenic features of the 11S protein allergens at the molecular level.

  4. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of prunin-1, a major component of the almond (Prunus dulcis) allergen amandin.

    PubMed

    Albillos, Silvia M; Jin, Tengchuan; Howard, Andrew; Zhang, Yuzhu; Kothary, Mahendra H; Fu, Tong-Jen

    2008-07-09

    The 11S globulins from plant seeds account for a number of major food allergens. Because of the interest in the structural basis underlying the allergenicity of food allergens, we sought to crystallize the main 11S seed storage protein from almond ( Prunus dulcis). Prunin-1 (Pru1) was purified from defatted almond flour by water extraction, cryoprecipitation, followed by sequential anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and size exclusion chromatography. Single crystals of Pru1 were obtained in a screening with a crystal screen kit, using the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method. Diffraction quality crystals were grown after optimization. The Pru1 crystals diffracted to at least 3.0 A and belong to the tetragonal space group P4(1)22, with unit cell parameters of a = b = 150.912 A, c = 165.248 A. Self-rotation functions and molecular replacement calculations showed that there are three molecules in the asymmetry unit with water content of 51.41%. The three Pru1 protomers are related by a noncrystallographic 3-fold axis and they form a doughnut-shaped trimer. Two prunin trimers form a homohexamer. Elucidation of prunin structure will allow further characterization of the allergenic features of the 11S protein allergens at the molecular level.

  5. The production, purification and crystallization of a soluble form of the nonclassical MHC HLA-G: the essential role of cobalt

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, Craig S.; Kjer-Nielsen, Lars; Kostenko, Lyudmila; McCluskey, James; Rossjohn, Jamie

    2006-01-01

    X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.9 Å from crystals of HLA-G. Cobalt ions were found to be essential for the production of diffracting crystals. HLA-G is a nonclassical class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule that is primarily expressed at the foetal–maternal interface. Although the role of HLA-G has not been fully elucidated, current evidence suggests it protects the foetus from the maternal immune response. In this report, HLA-G (44 kDa) is characterized by expression in Escherichia coli. The inclusion bodies were refolded in complex with a peptide derived from histone H2A (RIIPRHLQL), purified and subsequently crystallized. Correct refolding was determined using two conformation-dependent antibodies. Cobalt ions were shown to be an essential ingredient for obtaining diffraction-quality crystals. The crystals, which diffracted to 1.9 Å resolution, belonged to space group P3{sub 2}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 77.15, c = 151.72 Å.

  6. Purification, crystallization and preliminary structural characterization of the N-terminal region of the human formin-homology protein FHOD1

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte, Antje Rak, Alexey; Pylypenko, Olena; Ludwig, Diana; Geyer, Matthias

    2007-10-01

    The N-terminal region (1–339) of the human FHOD1 protein has been crystallized in two different crystal forms. A crystal of the (C31S,C71S) mutant diffracted to around 2.3 Å resolution. Formins are key regulators of actin cytoskeletal dynamics that constitute a diverse protein family that is present in all eukaryotes examined. They typically consist of more than 1000 amino acids and are defined by the presence of two conserved regions, namely the formin homology 1 and 2 domains. Additional conserved domains comprise a GTPase-binding domain for activation, a C-terminal autoregulation motif and an N-terminal recognition domain. In this study, the N-terminal region (residues 1–339) of the human formin homology domain-containing protein 1 (FHOD1) was purified and crystallized from 20%(w/v) PEG 4000, 10%(v/v) glycerol, 0.3 M magnesium chloride and 0.1 M Tris–HCl pH 8.0. Native crystals belong to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 35.4, b = 73.9, c = 78.7 Å, α = 78.2, β = 86.2, γ = 89.7°. They contain two monomers of FHOD1 in the asymmetric unit and diffract to a resolution of 2.3 Å using a synchrotron-radiation source.

  7. The purification, crystallization and preliminary structural characterization of FAD-dependent monooxygenase PhzS, a phenazine-modifying enzyme from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Gohain, Neelakshi; Thomashow, Linda S.; Mavrodi, Dmitri V.; Blankenfeldt, Wulf

    2006-10-01

    PhzS, an FAD-dependent monooxygenase that catalyzes a reaction involved in the biosynthesis of the virulence factor pyocyanin in P. aeruginosa, was cloned, overexpressed and crystallized. Data collection from native and seleno-l-methionine-labelled crystals is reported. The blue chloroform-soluble bacterial metabolite pyocyanin (1-hydroxy-5-methyl-phenazine) contributes to the survival and virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an important Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen of humans and animals. Little is known about the two enzymes, designated PhzM and PhzS, that function in the synthesis of pyocyanin from phenazine-1-carboxylic acid. In this study, the FAD-dependent monooxygenase PhzS was purified and crystallized from lithium sulfate/ammonium sulfate/sodium citrate pH 5.5. Native crystals belong to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 144.2, b = 96.2, c = 71.7 Å, α = γ = 90, β = 110.5°. They contain two monomers of PhzS in the asymmetric unit and diffract to a resolution of 2.4 Å. Seleno-l-methionine-labelled PhzS also crystallizes in space group C2, but the unit-cell parameters change to a = 70.6, b = 76.2, c = 80.2 Å, α = γ = 90, β = 110.5° and the diffraction limit is 2.7 Å.

  8. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of truncated and mutant forms of VP4 protease from infectious pancreatic necrosis virus

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jaeyong; Feldman, Anat R.; Chiu, Elaine; Chan, Charlena; Kim, You-Na; Delmas, Bernard; Paetzel, Mark

    2006-12-01

    Various truncated and mutant forms of the protease VP4 from infectious pancreatic necrosis virus were used to generate two different crystal forms of VP4 which diffracted to beyond 2.4 Å resolution. In viruses belonging to the Birnaviridae family, virus protein 4 (VP4) is the viral protease responsible for the proteolytic maturation of the polyprotein encoding the major capsid proteins (VP2 and VP3). Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), the prototype of the aquabirnavirus genus, is the causative agent of a contagious disease in fish which has a large economic impact on aquaculture. IPNV VP4 is a 226-residue (24.0 kDa) serine protease that utilizes a Ser/Lys catalytic dyad mechanism (Ser633 and Lys674). Several truncated and mutant forms of VP4 were expressed in a recombinant expression system, purified and screened for crystallization. Two different crystal forms diffract beyond 2.4 Å resolution. A triclinic crystal derived from one mutant construct has unit-cell parameters a = 41.7, b = 69.6, c = 191.6 Å, α = 93.0, β = 95.1, γ = 97.7°. A hexagonal crystal with space group P6{sub 1}22/P6{sub 5}22 derived from another mutant construct has unit-cell parameters a = 77.4, b = 77.4, c = 136.9 Å.

  9. Overproduction, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the peroxiredoxin domain of a larger natural hybrid protein from Thermotoga maritima

    SciTech Connect

    Barbey, Carole; Rouhier, Nicolas; Haouz, Ahmed; Navaza, Alda; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Crystals of the peroxiredoxin domain of a larger natural hybrid protein from T. maritima were obtained which diffracted to 2.9 Å resolution on a synchrotron source. Thermotoga maritima contains a natural hybrid protein constituted of two moieties: a peroxiredoxin domain at the N-terminus and a nitroreductase domain at the C-terminus. The peroxiredoxin (Prx) domain has been overproduced and purified from Escherichia coli cells. The recombinant Prx domain, which is homologous to bacterial Prx BCP and plant Prx Q, folds properly into a stable protein that possesses biological activity. The recombinant protein was crystallized and synchrotron data were collected to 2.9 Å resolution. The crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group I422, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 176.67, c = 141.20 Å.

  10. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a soluble variant of the monoglyceride lipase Yju3p from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Rengachari, Srinivasan; Aschauer, Philipp; Sturm, Christian; Oberer, Monika

    2015-01-28

    A soluble variant of the monoglyceride lipase Yju3p was successfully expressed, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 2.4 Å resolution. The protein Yju3p is the orthologue of monoglyceride lipases in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A soluble variant of this lipase termed s-Yju3p (38.3 kDa) was generated and purified to homogeneity by affinity and size-exclusion chromatography. s-Yju3p was crystallized in a vapour-diffusion setup at 293 K and a complete data set was collected to 2.4 Å resolution. The crystal form was orthorhombic (space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}), with unit-cell parameters a = 77.2, b = 108.6, c = 167.7 Å. The asymmetric unit contained four molecules with a solvent content of 46.4%.

  11. Cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of a pair of novel virulence factors, SghA and SghR, from Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Fuzhou; Wang, Chao; Fu, Qinqin; Zhang, Lian-hui; Gao, Yong-gui

    2015-08-25

    The crystallization of the novel virulence factors SghA and SghR is reported. Two proteins, SghA and SghR, which were recently identified and characterized as novel bacterial virulence factors regulating the infection of plant hosts by Agrobacterium, were cloned, overexpressed and purified with high yield. Both SghA and SghR form dimers in solution. The purified SghA and SghR were crystallized and the crystals diffracted to 1.9 and 2.1 Å resolution, respectively. Data were collected and processed, and the crystallographic parameters were within acceptable ranges. These results will help in the determination of their structures in order to uncover the molecular mechanism of how these two proteins together control the release of plant defence signals against agrobacteria during pathogen–host interaction.

  12. Overproduction, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of a novel carbohydrate-binding module of endoglucanase Cel5A from Eubacterium cellulosolvens.

    PubMed

    Luís, Ana S; Alves, Victor D; Romão, Maria J; Prates, José A M; Fontes, Carlos M G A; Najmudin, Shabir

    2011-04-01

    The anaerobic cellulolytic rumen bacterium Eubacterium cellulosolvens produces a large array of cellulases and hemicellulases that are responsible for the hydrolysis of plant cell-wall polysaccharides. One of these enzymes, endoglucanase Cel5A, comprises two tandemly repeated novel carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) and two catalytic domains belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 5 joined by flexible linker sequences. The novel CBM located at the N-terminus of the endoglucanase has been crystallized. The crystals belonged to the hexagonal space group P6(1)22 and contained a single molecule in the asymmetric unit. The structure of the L-selenomethionine derivative has been solved by a MAD experiment on crystals that diffracted to 1.75 Å resolution.

  13. Expression, purification, crystallization, and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of OXA-17, an extended-spectrum {beta}-lactamase conferring severe antibiotic resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J. H. Sohn, S. G. Jung, H. I. An, Y. J. Lee, S. H.

    2013-07-15

    OXA-17, an extended-spectrum {beta}-lactamase (ESBL) conferring severe antibiotic resistance, hydrolytically inactivates {beta}-lactam antibiotics, inducing a lack of eradication of pathogenic bacteria by oxyimino {beta}-lactams and not helping hospital infection control. Thus, the enzyme is a potential target for developing antimicrobial agents against pathogens producing ESBLs. OXA-17 was purified and crystallized at 298 K. X-ray diffraction data from OXA-17 crystal have been collected to 1.85 A resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystal of OXA-17 belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 48.37, b = 101.12, and c = 126.07 A. Analysis of the packing density shows that the asymmetric unit probably contains two molecules with a solvent content of 54.6%.

  14. Expression, purification, crystallization, and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of OXA-17, an extended-spectrum β-lactamase conferring severe antibiotic resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. H.; Sohn, S. G.; Jung, H. I.; An, Y. J.; Lee, S. H.

    2013-07-01

    OXA-17, an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) conferring severe antibiotic resistance, hydrolytically inactivates β-lactam antibiotics, inducing a lack of eradication of pathogenic bacteria by oxyimino β-lactams and not helping hospital infection control. Thus, the enzyme is a potential target for developing antimicrobial agents against pathogens producing ESBLs. OXA-17 was purified and crystallized at 298 K. X-ray diffraction data from OXA-17 crystal have been collected to 1.85 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystal of OXA-17 belongs to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 48.37, b = 101.12, and c = 126.07 Å. Analysis of the packing density shows that the asymmetric unit probably contains two molecules with a solvent content of 54.6%.

  15. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of RafE, a sugar-binding lipoprotein from Streptococcus pneumoniae

    SciTech Connect

    Paterson, Neil G. Riboldi-Tunnicliffe, Alan; Mitchell, Timothy J.; Isaacs, Neil W.

    2006-07-01

    The mature form of RafE has been expressed, purified and crystallized. X-ray diffraction data have been collected to 3.65 and 2.90 Å resolution from native and selenomethionine-derivative crystals, respectively. Streptococcus pneumoniae contains a large number of sugar-transport systems and the system responsible for raffinose uptake has recently been identified. The substrate-binding protein component of this system shares strong sequence homology with the multiple sugar metabolism substrate-binding protein MsmE from S. mutans and contains a lipoprotein-attachment site at cysteine residue 23. A truncated form (residues 24–419) of RafE from S. pneumoniae was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Native and selenomethionine-labelled protein have been crystallized in the hexagonal space group P6{sub 1}22. Diffraction data have been successfully phased to 2.90 Å using Se SAD data and model building is in progress.

  16. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of adenosine triphosphate sulfurylase (ATPS) from the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774

    SciTech Connect

    Gavel, Olga Yu.; Kladova, Anna V.; Bursakov, Sergey A.; Dias, João M.; Texeira, Susana; Shnyrov, Valery L.; Moura, José J. G.; Moura, Isabel; Romão, Maria J.; Trincão, José

    2008-07-01

    Native zinc-containing ATP sulfurylase from D. desulfuricans ATCC 27774 was purified to homogeneity and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 2.5 Å resolution. Native zinc/cobalt-containing ATP sulfurylase (ATPS; EC 2.7.7.4; MgATP:sulfate adenylyltransferase) from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774 was purified to homogeneity and crystallized. The orthorhombic crystals diffracted to beyond 2.5 Å resolution and the X-ray data collected should allow the determination of the structure of the zinc-bound form of this ATPS. Although previous biochemical studies of this protein indicated the presence of a homotrimer in solution, a dimer was found in the asymmetric unit. Elucidation of this structure will permit a better understanding of the role of the metal in the activity and stability of this family of enzymes.

  17. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the LRR domain of the LePRK1 receptor-like kinase from tomato.

    PubMed

    Xu, Anbi; Huang, Laiqiang

    2014-02-01

    LePRK1 is a receptor-like kinase involved in successful fertilization in Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato). Importantly, the extracellular leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain of LePRK1 mediates transmembrane signal transduction for pollen-tube growth and pollen germination. In this study, the N-terminal extracellular LRR domain of L. esculentum-derived LePRK1 was purified using an insect-cell secretion expression system and was crystallized by the vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffracted X-rays to a resolution of 2.75 Å using synchrotron radiation. The crystals belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 136.53, b = 56.01, c = 62.93 Å, β = 108.99° and two molecules per asymmetric unit.

  18. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the soluble domain of the Na+-pumping cytochrome bo quinol oxidase from Vitreoscilla.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Jin; Kim, Youngchang; Park, Kyung Won; Webster, Dale A; Howard, Andrew J

    2002-08-01

    The 24 kDa CyoA soluble domain of Vitreoscilla cytochrome bo quinol oxidase, which pumps out Na(+) during respiration, has been crystallized from a solution of 2 M ammonium sulfate and 5% 2-propanol. The crystal belongs to cubic space group P4(3)32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 122.2 A, alpha = beta = gamma = 90 degrees and one subunit in the asymmetric unit. A 99.8% complete data set to 3.3 A has been collected at the 17-ID beamline of the Advanced Photon Source. The structure was determined by molecular replacement and refinement is in progress.

  19. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of macrophage growth locus A (MglA) protein from Francisella tularensis

    SciTech Connect

    Subburaman, P.; Austin, B.P.; Shaw, G.X.; Waugh, D.S.; Ji, X.

    2010-11-03

    Francisella tularensis, a potential bioweapon, causes a rare infectious disease called tularemia in humans and animals. The macrophage growth locus A (MglA) protein from F. tularensis associates with RNA polymerase to positively regulate the expression of multiple virulence factors that are required for its survival and replication within macrophages. The MglA protein was overproduced in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. The crystals diffracted to 7.5 {angstrom} resolution at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory and belonged to the hexagonal space group P6{sub 1} or P6{sub 5}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 125, c = 54 {angstrom}.

  20. PREPARATION AND PURIFICATION OF SILICON CARBIDE.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    the materials were divided into two parts. Part I covers problems of silicon carbide preparation and the growing of silicon carbide single crystals...and thin films for semiconductor devices. Part II treats problems of purity, including the purification and chemical analysis of silicon carbide and of starting materials for silicon carbide preparation.

  1. Purification, crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of the C-terminal protease domain of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus nsP2

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, Andrew T.; Watowich, Stanley J.

    2006-06-01

    The C-terminal protease domain of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) nsP2 has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and successfully crystallized. Native crystals diffract to beyond 2.5 Å resolution and isomorphous heavy-atom derivatives suitable for phase analysis have been identified. The C-terminal region of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) nsP2 is responsible for proteolytic processing of the VEEV polyprotein replication complex. This action regulates the activity of the replication complex and is essential for viral replication, thus making nsP2 a very attractive target for development of VEEV therapeutics. The 338-amino-acid C-terminal region of VEEV nsP2 has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. Crystals diffract to beyond 2.5 Å resolution and belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}. Isomorphous heavy-atom derivatives suitable for phase analysis have been obtained and work on building a complete structural model is under way.

  2. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Enterococcus faecium aminoglycoside-2′′-phosphotransferase-Ib [APH(2′′)-Ib

    PubMed Central

    Walanj, Rupa; Young, Paul; Baker, Heather M.; Baker, Edward N.; Metcalf, Peter; Chow, Joseph W.; Lerner, Stephen; Vakulenko, Sergei; Smith, Clyde A.

    2005-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to the aminoglycoside antibiotics is primarily the result of deactivation of the drugs. Three families of enzymes are responsible for this activity, with one such family being the aminoglycoside phosphotransferases (APHs). The gene encoding one of these enzymes, APH(2′′)-Ib, has been cloned and the protein (comprising 299 amino-acid residues) expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized in the presence of 16%(w/v) PEG 3350 and gentamicin. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group P21, with approximate unit-cell parameters a = 79.7, b = 58.8, c = 81.4 Å, β = 98.4°, and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis is consistent with the presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit. Synchrotron diffraction data to approximately 2.65 Å resolution were collected from a native APH(2′′)-Ib crystal at beamline BL9-2 at SSRL (Stanford, CA, USA). Selenium-substituted crystals have also been produced and structure determination is proceeding. PMID:16511055

  3. RARbeta ligand-binding domain bound to an SRC-1 co-activator peptide: purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis.

    PubMed

    Kammerer, Sabrina; Germain, Pierre; Flaig, Ralf; Peluso-Iltis, Carole; Mitschler, André; Rochel, Natacha; Gronemeyer, Hinrich; Moras, Dino

    2004-11-01

    Retinoids have demonstrated therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukaemia and in the chemoprevention of a large number of cancers. As the cellular signalling pathway of retinoids can be transduced by the three retinoic acid receptor (RAR) isotypes alpha, beta and gamma, the side effects of these treatments induced efforts to generate isotype-selective ligands. Despite knowledge of the crystal structures of RARalpha and RARgamma ligand-binding domains (LBDs), the rational design of such ligands has been hampered by the absence of RARbeta LBD structural data. Here, a strategy used to express a large-scale soluble fraction of the human RARbeta LBD suitable for biophysical analysis is reported, as well as a procedure for crystallizing it bound to a synthetic retinoid (TTNPB) with or without a co-activator peptide (SRC-1). Preliminary X-ray analysis revealed that both complexes crystallized in the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1). The unit-cell parameters are a = 47.81, b = 58.52, c = 92.83 A for the TTNPB-hRARbeta LBD crystal and a = 58.14, b = 84.07, c = 102.37 A when the SRC-1 peptide is also bound.

  4. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the KaiC-like protein PH0187 from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hee-Jin; Kubota, Keiko; Miyazono, Ken-ichi; Tanokura, Masaru

    2011-01-01

    KaiC is the central protein in the circadian rhythm in cyanobacteria. The 28 kDa KaiC-like protein PH0187 from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method at 293 K. Crystals of PH0187 were obtained using a reservoir solution consisting of 1.0 M ammonium phosphate monobasic and 0.1 M sodium citrate tribasic pH 5.3 (the final pH value of the reservoir solution was 4.8) and diffracted X-rays to 2.75 Å resolution. The crystal of PH0187 belonged to space group P6322, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 239.1, c = 106.5 Å. The crystal contained four PH0187 molecules in the asymmetric unit. PMID:21206047

  5. Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the biosynthetic N-acetylornithine aminotransferases from Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Rajaram, V.; Prasad, K.; Ratna Prasuna, P.; Ramachandra, N.; Bharath, S. R.; Savithri, H. S.; Murthy, M. R. N.

    2006-10-01

    Acetylornithine aminotransferases, members of the type I subgroup II family of PLP-dependent enzymes, from S. typhimurium and E. coli have been cloned, overexpressed, purified and crystallized. Acetylornithine aminotransferase (AcOAT) is a type I pyridoxal 5′-phosphate-dependent enzyme catalyzing the conversion of N-acetylglutamic semialdehyde to N-acetylornithine in the presence of α-ketoglutarate, a step involved in arginine metabolism. In Escherichia coli, the biosynthetic AcOAT also catalyzes the conversion of N-succinyl-l-2-amino-6-oxopimelate to N-succinyl-l,l-diaminopimelate, one of the steps in lysine biosynthesis. It is closely related to ornithine aminotransferase. AcOAT was cloned from Salmonella typhimurium and E. coli, overexpressed in E. coli and purified using Ni–NTA affinity column chromatography. The enzymes crystallized in the presence of gabaculine. Crystals of E. coli AcOAT (eAcOAT) only diffracted X-rays to 3.5 Å and were twinned. The crystals of S. typhimurium AcOAT (sAcOAT) diffracted to 1.9 Å and had a dimer in the asymmetric unit. The structure of sAcOAT was solved by the molecular-replacement method.

  6. Cloning, expression, purification, characterization, crystallization and X-ray crystallographic analysis of recombinant Der f 21 (rDer f 21) from Dermatophagoides farinae.

    PubMed

    Pang, Sze Lei; Ho, Kok Lian; Waterman, Jitka; Teh, Aik Hong; Chew, Fook Tim; Ng, Chyan Leong

    2015-11-01

    Dermatophagoides farinae is one of the major house dust mite (HDM) species that cause allergic diseases. N-terminally His-tagged recombinant Der f 21 (rDer f 21), a group 21 allergen, with the signal peptide truncated was successfully overexpressed in an Escherichia coli expression system. The purified rDer f 21 protein was initially crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. Well diffracting protein crystals were obtained after optimization of the crystallization conditions using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with a reservoir solution consisting of 0.19 M Tris-HCl pH 8.0, 32% PEG 400 at 293 K. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.49 Å resolution using an in-house X-ray source. The crystal belonged to the C-centered monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 123.46, b = 27.71, c = 90.25 Å, β = 125.84°. The calculated Matthews coefficient (VM) of 2.06 Å(3) Da(-1) suggests that there are two molecules per asymmetric unit, with a solvent content of 40.3%. Despite sharing high sequence identity with Blo t 5 (45%) and Blo t 21 (41%), both of which were determined to be monomeric in solution, size-exclusion chromatography, static light scattering and self-rotation function analysis indicate that rDer f 21 is likely to be a dimeric protein.

  7. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the BseCI DNA methyltransferase from Bacillus stearothermophilus in complex with its cognate DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Kapetaniou, Evangelia G.; Kotsifaki, Dina; Providaki, Mary; Rina, Maria; Bouriotis, Vassilis; Kokkinidis, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The DNA methyltransferase M.BseCI from B. stearothermophilus was crystallized as a complex with its cognate DNA. Crystals belong to space group P6 and diffract to 2.5 Å resolution at a synchrotron source. The DNA methyltransferase M.BseCI from Bacillus stearothermophilus (EC 2.1.1.72), a 579-amino-acid enzyme, methylates the N6 atom of the 3′ adenine in the sequence 5′-ATCGAT-3′. M.BseCI was crystallized in complex with its cognate DNA. The crystals were found to belong to the hexagonal space group P6, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 87.0, c = 156.1 Å, β = 120.0° and one molecule in the asymmetric unit. Two complete data sets were collected at wavelengths of 1.1 and 2.0 Å to 2.5 and 2.8 Å resolution, respectively, using synchrotron radiation at 100 K.

  8. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the VP8* sialic acid-binding domain of porcine rotavirus strain OSU

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yang-De Li, Hao; Liu, Hui; Pan, Yi-Feng

    2007-02-01

    Porcine rotavirus strain OSU VP8* domain has been expressed, purified and crystallized. X-ray diffraction data from different crystal forms of the VP8* domain have been collected to 2.65 and 2.2 Å resolution, respectively. The rotavirus outer capsid spike protein VP4 is utilized in the process of rotavirus attachment to and membrane penetration of host cells. VP4 is cleaved by trypsin into two domains: VP8* and VP5*. The VP8* domain is implicated in initial interaction with sialic acid-containing cell-surface carbohydrates and triggers subsequent virus invasion. The VP8* domain from porcine OSU rotavirus was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Different crystal forms (orthorhombic P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} and tetragonal P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2) were harvested from two distinct crystallization conditions. Diffraction data have been collected to 2.65 and 2.2 Å resolution and the VP8*{sub 65–224} structure was determined by molecular replacement.

  9. Purification and crystallization of the catalytic PRONE domain of RopGEF8 and its complex with Rop4 from Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Christoph; Weyand, Michael; Wittinghofer, Alfred; Berken, Antje

    2006-06-01

    Crystals of the catalytic PRONE domain of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor RopGEF8 and its complex with the Rho-family protein Rop4 from A. thaliana were obtained that diffract to 2.2 and 3.1 Å resolution, respectively. The PRONE domain of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor RopGEF8 (PRONE8) was purified and crystallized free and in complex with the Rho-family protein Rop4 using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. PRONE8 crystals were obtained using NaCl as precipitating agent and belong to the hexagonal space group P6{sub 5}22. Native and anomalous data sets were collected using synchrotron radiation at 100 K to 2.2 and 2.8 Å resolution, respectively. Crystals of the Rop4–PRONE8 complex belonging to space group P6{sub 3} were obtained using Tacsimate and PEG 3350 as precipitating agents and diffracted to 3.1 Å resolution.

  10. Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of XC847, a 3′-5′ oligoribonuclease from Xanthomonas campestris

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yan-You; Chin, Ko-Hsin; Chou, Chia-Cheng; Lee, Cheng-Chung; Shr, Hui-Lin; Gao, Fei Philip; Lyu, Ping-Chiang; Wang, Andrew H.-J.; Chou, Shan-Ho

    2005-10-01

    A DEDDh-type 3′-5′ oligoribonuclease from the plant pathogen X. campestris pv. campestris has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. The crystals diffracted to 2.1 Å with good quality. Oligoribonucleases are essential components of RNA and DNA metabolism and close homologues of genes encoding them are found not only in prokaryotes but also in a wide range of eukaryotes, including yeast and humans. Inactivation of the oligoribonuclease gene (orn) can result in cellular lethality. Despite their important biological function, they have been studied little from a structural point of view. In this report, the cloning, expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of XC847, a DEDDh-type 3′-5′ oligoribonuclease from the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, a Gram-negative bacterium causing major worldwide disease of cruciferous crops, is described. The XC847 crystals diffracted to a resolution of at least 2.1 Å. They are tetragonal and belong to space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 67.5, c = 89.8 Å. One molecule is present per asymmetric unit.

  11. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of MxiH, a subunit of the Shigella flexneri type III secretion system needle

    SciTech Connect

    Deane, Janet E.; Cordes, Frank S.; Roversi, Pietro; Johnson, Steven; Kenjale, Roma; Picking, William D.; Picking, Wendy L.; Lea, Susan M.; Blocker, Ariel

    2006-03-01

    A monodisperse truncation mutant of MxiH, the subunit of the S. flexneri type III secretion system needle, has been crystallized. SeMet derivatives and a uranyl derivative have undergone preliminary crystallographic analysis. A monodisperse truncation mutant of MxiH, the subunit of the needle from the Shigella flexneri type III secretion system (TTSS), has been overexpressed and purified. Crystals were grown of native and selenomethionine-labelled MxiH{sub CΔ5} and diffraction data were collected to 1.9 Å resolution. The crystals belong to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 183.4, b = 28.1, c = 27.8 Å, β = 96.5°. An anomalous difference Patterson map calculated with the data from the SeMet-labelled crystals revealed a single peak on the Harker section v = 0. Inspection of a uranyl derivative also revealed one peak in the isomorphous difference Patterson map on the Harker section v = 0. Analysis of the self-rotation function indicates the presence of a twofold non-crystallographic symmetry axis approximately along a. The calculated Matthews coefficient is 1.9 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} for two molecules per asymmetric unit, corresponding to a solvent content of 33%.

  12. Expression, purification, crystallization and structure determination of the N terminal domain of Fhb, a factor H binding protein from Streptococcus suis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Chunmao; Yu, You; Yang, Maojun; Jiang, Yongqiang

    2015-10-23

    Fhb is a surface virulence protein from Streptococcus suis, which could aid bacterial evasion of host innate immune defense by recruiting complement regulator factor H to inactivate C3b deposited on bacterial surface in blood. Here we successfully expressed and purified the N terminal domain of Fhb (N-Fhb) and obtained crystals of the N-Fhb by sitting-drop vapor diffusion method with a resolution of 1.50 Å. The crystals belong to space group C2 with unit cell parameters a = 127.1 Å, b = 77.3 Å, c = 131.6 Å, α = 90°, β = 115.9°, γ = 90°. The structure of N-Fhb was determined by SAD method and the core structure of N-Fhb is a β sandwich. We speculated that binding of Fhb to human factor H may be mainly mediated by surface amino acids with negative charges. - Highlights: • We expressed N-Fhb as the soluble protein in Escherichia coli. • Crystals of N-Fhb were grown by sitting drop vapor diffusion method. • Crystals of N-Fhb could diffracted to 1.5 Å. • The core structure of N-Fhb was a β sandwich. • A part of the surface of N-Fhb was rich with negative charges.

  13. Photothermal characterization of thermally treated shells of Strombus Gigas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Ayala, A.; Quintana, P.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.; Aldana, D.

    2005-06-01

    The thermal properties of the marine shells of the mollusk Strombus gigas are studied using photoacoustic techniques. In order to generate changes in the layered structure of the shells, they were thermally treated in the range from ambient temperature up to 400ºC. Our results show that the thermal diffusivity and conductivity have a maximum at 200ºC due to the degradation of the organic matrix. At higher temperatures the thermal diffusivity and conductivity decrease due to the calcium carbonate structural phase transition from aragonite to calcite.

  14. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of aminoglycoside-2′′-phosphotransferase-Ic [APH(2′′)-Ic] from Enterococcus gallinarum

    SciTech Connect

    Byrnes, Laura J.; Badarau, Adriana; Vakulenko, Sergei B.; Smith, Clyde A.

    2008-02-01

    APH(2′′)-Ic is an enzyme that is responsible for high-level gentamicin resistance in E. gallinarum isolates. Crystals of the wild-type enzyme and three mutants have been prepared and a complete X-ray diffraction data set was collected to 2.15 Å resolution from an F108L crystal. Bacterial resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics is primarily the result of deactivation of the drugs. Three families of enzymes are responsible for this activity, with one such family being the aminoglycoside phosphotransferases (APHs). The gene encoding one of these enzymes, aminoglycoside-2′′-phosphotransferase-Ic [APH(2′′)-Ic] from Enterococcus gallinarum, has been cloned and the wild-type protein (comprising 308 amino-acid residues) and three mutants that showed elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations towards gentamicin (F108L, H258L and a double mutant F108L/H258L) were expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently purified. All APH(2′′)-Ic variants were crystallized in the presence of 14–20%(w/v) PEG 4000, 0.25 M MgCl{sub 2}, 0.1 M Tris–HCl pH 8.5 and 1 mM Mg{sub 2}GTP. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with one molecule in the asymmetric unit. The approximate unit-cell parameters are a = 82.4, b = 54.2, c = 77.0 Å, β = 108.8°. X-ray diffraction data were collected to approximately 2.15 Å resolution from an F108L crystal at beamline BL9-2 at SSRL, Stanford, California, USA.

  15. Expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray crystallographic studies of different redox states of the active site of thioredoxin 1 from the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    PubMed Central

    Campos-Acevedo, Adam A.; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D.; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R.; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    Thioredoxin (Trx) is a 12 kDa cellular redox protein that belongs to a family of small redox proteins which undergo reversible oxidation to produce a cystine disulfide bond through the transfer of reducing equivalents from the catalytic site cysteine residues (Cys32 and Cys35) to a disulfide substrate. In this study, crystals of thioredoxin 1 from the Pacific whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LvTrx) were successfully obtained. One data set was collected from each of four crystals at 100 K and the three-dimensional structures of the catalytic cysteines in different redox states were determined: reduced and oxidized forms at 2.00 Å resolution using data collected at a synchrotron-radiation source and two partially reduced structures at 1.54 and 1.88 Å resolution using data collected using an in-house source. All of the crystals belonged to space group P3212, with unit-cell parameters a = 57.5 (4), b = 57.5 (4), c = 118.1 (8) Å. The asymmetric unit contains two subunits of LvTrx, with a Matthews coefficient (V M) of 2.31 Å3 Da−1 and a solvent content of 46%. Initial phases were determined by molecular replacement using the crystallographic model of Trx from Drosophila melanogaster as a template. In the present work, LvTrx was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. Structural analysis of the different redox states at the Trx active site highlights its reactivity and corroborates the existence of a dimer in the crystal. In the crystallographic structures the dimer is stabilized by several interactions, including a disulfide bridge between Cys73 of each LvTrx monomer, a hydrogen bond between the side chain of Asp60 of each monomer and several hydrophobic interactions, with a noncrystallographic twofold axis. PMID:23695560

  16. Expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray crystallographic studies of different redox states of the active site of thioredoxin 1 from the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Campos-Acevedo, Adam A; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique

    2013-05-01

    Thioredoxin (Trx) is a 12 kDa cellular redox protein that belongs to a family of small redox proteins which undergo reversible oxidation to produce a cystine disulfide bond through the transfer of reducing equivalents from the catalytic site cysteine residues (Cys32 and Cys35) to a disulfide substrate. In this study, crystals of thioredoxin 1 from the Pacific whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LvTrx) were successfully obtained. One data set was collected from each of four crystals at 100 K and the three-dimensional structures of the catalytic cysteines in different redox states were determined: reduced and oxidized forms at 2.00 Å resolution using data collected at a synchrotron-radiation source and two partially reduced structures at 1.54 and 1.88 Å resolution using data collected using an in-house source. All of the crystals belonged to space group P3212, with unit-cell parameters a = 57.5 (4), b = 57.5 (4), c = 118.1 (8) Å. The asymmetric unit contains two subunits of LvTrx, with a Matthews coefficient (VM) of 2.31 Å(3) Da(-1) and a solvent content of 46%. Initial phases were determined by molecular replacement using the crystallographic model of Trx from Drosophila melanogaster as a template. In the present work, LvTrx was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. Structural analysis of the different redox states at the Trx active site highlights its reactivity and corroborates the existence of a dimer in the crystal. In the crystallographic structures the dimer is stabilized by several interactions, including a disulfide bridge between Cys73 of each LvTrx monomer, a hydrogen bond between the side chain of Asp60 of each monomer and several hydrophobic interactions, with a noncrystallographic twofold axis.

  17. Purification, growth, structure, optical and electrical properties of single crystals of the π-molecular complex of phenothiazine with pyromellitic dianhydride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthonj, R.; Karl, N.; Robertson, Beverly E.; Stezowski, John J.

    1980-01-01

    Single crystals of the black phenothiazine : pyromellitic dianhydride (PTZ:PMDA) 1:1 donor-acceptor complex, have been grown by sublimation from the zone-refined components. The PTZ:PMDA complex crystalizes with P1¯ symmetry (Z=2), a=7.197(1), b=19.072(5), c=6.886(1) Å, α=84.79(1) °, β=72.98(1) °, γ=85.72(2) ° at T=23 °C. The crystal structure model was refined with 5214 data { (sin ϑ/λ)max=0.8071 Å-1} to give R=0.049 and Rw=0.089. The crystal packing consists of two polar endless ...DADA... stacks related to one another by 1¯. The packing is compared with that in the analogous anthracene : PMDA complex. The PTZ molecule displays a modest fold about the N...S axis (dihedral angle 176.4°), however, the deviation from planarity is small in comparison with that in PTZ crystals. The stack axis is nearly perpendicular to the molecular planes, consequently the CT-dichroism lies essentially in the principal axis system of the indicatrix. The absorption edge is not very sharp, even at 4.2 K; it is located at 900±25 nm. This value is compared to the ionization energy of PTZ and to the energy of the CT transition in anthracene : PMDA. No optical emission could be detected; the pathways of radiationless deactivation are discussed in terms of CT-vibron coupling. An intrinsic dark conductivity of σ˜10-12 Ω-1 cm-1 was found. It is consistent with the value of the band gap (1.7 eV) obtained both from the measured activation energy of the dark conductivity and from the estimated thermal dissociation of CT excitons. Possible implications of the polar stacking on the excitonic energy levels and energy transport are briefly discussed.

  18. Hydrogen gas purification apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Yanagihara, N.; Gamo, T.; Iwaki, T.; Moriwaki, Y.

    1984-04-24

    A hydrogen gas purification apparatus which includes at least one set of two hydrogen purification containers coupled to each other for heat exchanging therebetween, each of the hydrogen purification containers containing a hydrogen absorbing alloy. The hydrogen gas purification apparatus is so arranged as to cause hydrogen gas to be selectively desorbed from and absorbed into the hydrogen absorbing alloy by the amount of heat produced when the hydrogen gas is selectively absorbed into and desorbed from the hydrogen absorbing alloy.

  19. Exhaust gas purification device

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, H.; Hibi, T.; Sayo, S.; Sugiura, Y.; Ueda, K.

    1980-02-19

    The exhaust gas purification device includes an exhaust manifold , a purification cylinder connected with the exhaust manifold through a first honey-comb shaped catalyst, and a second honeycomb shaped catalyst positioned at the rear portion of the purification cylinder. Each catalyst is supported by steel wool rings including coarse and dense portions of steel wool. The purification device further includes a secondary air supplying arrangement.

  20. A convenient purification and preconcentration of peptides with alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid matrix crystals in a pipette tip for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rehulková, Helena; Chalupová, Jana; Sebela, Marek; Rehulka, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Peptide samples derived from enzymatic in-gel digestion of proteins resolved by gel electrophoresis often contain high amount of salts originating from reaction and separation buffers. Different methods are used for desalting prior to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS), e.g. reversed-phase pipette tip purification, on-target washing, adding co-matrices, etc. As a suitable matrix for MALDI MS of peptides, alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) is frequently used. Crystalline CHCA shows the ability to bind peptides on its surface and because it is almost insoluble in acidic water solutions, the on-target washing of peptide samples can significantly improve MALDI MS signals. Although the common on-target washing represents a simple, cheap and fast procedure, only a small portion of the available peptide solution is efficiently used for the subsequent MS analysis. The present approach is a combination of the on-target washing principle carried out in a narrow-end pipette tip (e.g. GELoader tip) and preconcentration of peptides from acidified solution by passing it through small CHCA crystals captured inside the tip on a glass microfiber frit. The results of MALDI MS analysis using CHCA-tip peptide preconcentration are comparable with the use of homemade POROS R2 pipette tip microcolumns. Advantages and limitations of this approach are discussed. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of Imp3 in complex with an Mpp10 peptide involved in yeast ribosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Sanduo; Ye, Keqiong

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic ribosome synthesis requires a vast number of transiently associated factors. Mpp10, Imp3 and Imp4 form a protein complex in the 90S pre-ribosomal particle that conducts early processing of 18S rRNA. Here, a short fragment of Mpp10 was identified to associate with and increase the solubility of Imp3. An Imp3–Mpp10 complex was co-expressed, co-purified and co-crystallized. Preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the crystal diffracted to 2.1 Å resolution and belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 51.6, b = 86.9, c = 88.7 Å. PMID:25005089

  2. Cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of a pair of novel virulence factors, SghA and SghR, from Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Ye, Fuzhou; Wang, Chao; Fu, Qinqin; Zhang, Lian-hui; Gao, Yong-gui

    2015-09-01

    Two proteins, SghA and SghR, which were recently identified and characterized as novel bacterial virulence factors regulating the infection of plant hosts by Agrobacterium, were cloned, overexpressed and purified with high yield. Both SghA and SghR form dimers in solution. The purified SghA and SghR were crystallized and the crystals diffracted to 1.9 and 2.1 Å resolution, respectively. Data were collected and processed, and the crystallographic parameters were within acceptable ranges. These results will help in the determination of their structures in order to uncover the molecular mechanism of how these two proteins together control the release of plant defence signals against agrobacteria during pathogen-host interaction.

  3. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of GatD, a glutamine amidotransferase-like protein from Staphylococcus aureus peptidoglycan.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Diana; Figueiredo, Teresa A; Verma, Anil; Sobral, Rita G; Ludovice, Ana M; de Lencastre, Hermínia; Trincao, Jose

    2014-05-01

    Amidation of peptidoglycan is an essential feature in Staphylococcus aureus that is necessary for resistance to β-lactams and lysozyme. GatD, a 27 kDa type I glutamine amidotransferase-like protein, together with MurT ligase, catalyses the amidation reaction of the glutamic acid residues of the peptidoglycan of S. aureus. The native and the selenomethionine-derivative proteins were crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method with polyethylene glycol, sodium acetate and calcium acetate. The crystals obtained diffracted beyond 1.85 and 2.25 Å, respectively, and belonged to space group P212121. X-ray diffraction data sets were collected at Diamond Light Source (on beamlines I02 and I04) and were used to obtain initial phases.

  4. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray studies of a pyridoxine 5′-phosphate oxidase from Mycobacterium smegmatis

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Colin J. Taylor, Matthew C.; Tattersall, David B.; French, Nigel G.; Carr, Paul D.; Ollis, David L.; Russell, Robyn J.; Oakeshott, John G.

    2008-05-01

    Good-quality crystals of selenomethionine-substituted Msmeg-3380 were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique and diffracted to 1.2 Å using synchrotron radiation. Pyridoxine 5′-phosphate oxidases (PNPOxs) are known to catalyse the terminal step in pyridoxal 5′-phosphate biosynthesis in a flavin mononucleotide-dependent manner in humans and Escherichia coli. Recent reports of a putative PNPOx from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Rv1155, suggest that the cofactor or catalytic mechanism may differ in Mycobacterium species. To investigate this, a putative PNPOx from M. smegmatis, Msmeg-3380, has been cloned. This enzyme has been recombinantly expressed in E. coli and purified to homogeneity. Good-quality crystals of selenomethionine-substituted Msmeg-3380 were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique and diffracted to 1.2 Å using synchrotron radiation.

  5. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a ferredoxin/flavodoxin-NADP(H) oxidoreductase (Bc0385) from Bacillus cereus.

    PubMed

    Skråmo, Silje; Hersleth, Hans Petter; Hammerstad, Marta; Andersson, K Kristoffer; Røhr, Åsmund K

    2014-06-01

    Ferredoxin/flavodoxin-NADP(H) oxidoreductases (FNRs) are key enzymes involved in catalysing electron transfer between ferredoxins/flavodoxins and NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+. In Bacillus cereus there are three genes that may encode FNRs, and the Bc0385 FNR has been cloned, overexpressed, purified and successfully crystallized in its NADPH/NADP+-free form. Diffraction data have been collected to 2.5 Å resolution from crystals belonging to the orthorhombic space group P2₁2₁2, with unit-cell parameters a=57.2, b=164.3, c=95.0 Å, containing two FNR molecules in the asymmetric unit. The structure of the Bc0385 FNR has been solved by molecular replacement, and is a member of the homodimeric thioredoxin reductase-like class of FNRs.

  6. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of human ARH3, the first eukaryotic protein-ADP-ribosylhydrolase

    SciTech Connect

    Kernstock, Stefan; Koch-Nolte, Friedrich; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen; Weiss, Manfred S.; Mueller-Dieckmann, Christoph

    2006-03-01

    Human ADP-ribosylhydrolase 3 (ARH3), which has been identified as an ARH by a sequence-similarity search and which cleaves the glycosidic bond of ADP-ribose attached to a protein, has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized in two different space groups. ADP-ribosylhydrolases catalyze the release of ADP-ribose from ADP-ribosylated proteins via hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond between ADP-ribose and a specific amino-acid residue in a target protein. Human ADP-ribosylhydrolase 3, consisting of 347 amino-acid residues, has been cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized in two different space groups. Preliminary X-ray diffraction studies yielded excellent diffraction data to a resolution of 1.6 Å.

  7. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the histone-like HU protein from Spiroplasma melliferum KC3

    PubMed Central

    Boyko, Konstantin; Gorbacheva, Marina; Rakitina, Tatiana; Korzhenevskiy, Dmitry; Vanyushkina, Anna; Kamashev, Dmitry; Lipkin, Alexey; Popov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    HU proteins belong to the nucleoid-associated proteins (NAPs) that are involved in vital processes such as DNA compaction and reparation, gene transcription etc. No data are available on the structures of HU proteins from mycoplasmas. To this end, the HU protein from the parasitic mycoplasma Spiroplasma melliferum KC3 was cloned, overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Prismatic crystals of the protein were obtained by the vapour-diffusion technique at 4°C. The crystals diffracted to 1.36 Å resolution (the best resolution ever obtained for a HU protein). The diffraction data were indexed in space group C2 and the structure of the protein was solved by the molecular-replacement method with one monomer per asymmetric unit. PMID:25615963

  8. Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray studies of a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM_E1) derived from sugarcane soil metagenome.

    PubMed

    Campos, Bruna Medeia; Alvarez, Thabata Maria; Liberato, Marcelo Vizona; Polikarpov, Igor; Gilbert, Harry J; Zeri, Ana Carolina de Mattos; Squina, Fabio Marcio

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, owing to the growing global demand for energy, dependence on fossil fuels, limited natural resources and environmental pollution, biofuels have attracted great interest as a source of renewable energy. However, the production of biofuels from plant biomass is still considered to be an expensive technology. In this context, the study of carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs), which are involved in guiding the catalytic domains of glycoside hydrolases for polysaccharide degradation, is attracting growing attention. Aiming at the identification of new CBMs, a sugarcane soil metagenomic library was analyzed and an uncharacterized CBM (CBM_E1) was identified. In this study, CBM_E1 was expressed, purified and crystallized. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.95 Å resolution. The crystals, which were obtained by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method, belonged to space group I23, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 88.07 Å.

  9. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of Aspergillus terreus endo-β-1,4-glucanase from glycoside hydrolase family 12

    PubMed Central

    Segato, Fernando; Berto, Gabriela L.; Ares de Araújo, Evandro; Muniz, João Renato; Polikarpov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Endoglucanases are important enzymes that are involved in the modification and degradation of cellulose. Filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus terreus are effective biomass degraders in nature owing to their capacity to produce an enzymatic arsenal of glycoside hydrolases, including endoglucanase from glycoside hydrolase family 12 (GH12). The A. terreus GH12 endoglucanase was cloned and overexpressed in A. nidulans, purified and crystallized. A single crystal was obtained from a solution consisting of 2 M ammonium sulfate, 5%(v/v) 2-propanol. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 1.85 Å using synchrotron radiation and a preliminary molecular-replacement solution was obtained in the trigonal space group P3221. The unit-cell parameters were a = b = 103.24, c = 48.96 Å. PMID:24637772

  10. Overproduction, purification and crystallization of a chondroitin sulfate A-binding DBL domain from a Plasmodium falciparum var2csa-encoded PfEMP1 protein

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, Matthew K.

    2008-03-01

    A chondroitin sulfate A-binding DBL important in placental malaria has been overproduced, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 1.9 Å resolution. The PfEMP1 proteins of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum are inserted into the membrane of infected red blood cells, where they mediate adhesion to a variety of human receptors. The DBL domains of the var2csa-encoded PfEMP1 protein play a critical role in malaria of pregnancy, tethering infected cells to the surface of the placenta through interactions with the glycosaminoglycan carbohydrate chondroitin sulfate A (CSA). A CSA-binding DBL domain has been overproduced in a bacterial expression system, purified and crystallized. Native data sets extending to 1.9 Å resolution have been collected and phasing is under way.

  11. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of adenosine triphosphate sulfurylase (ATPS) from the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774

    PubMed Central

    Gavel, Olga Yu.; Kladova, Anna V.; Bursakov, Sergey A.; Dias, João M.; Texeira, Susana; Shnyrov, Valery L.; Moura, José J. G.; Moura, Isabel; Romão, Maria J.; Trincão, José

    2008-01-01

    Native zinc/cobalt-containing ATP sulfurylase (ATPS; EC 2.7.7.4; MgATP:sulfate adenylyltransferase) from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774 was purified to homogeneity and crystallized. The orthorhombic crystals diffracted to beyond 2.5 Å resolution and the X-ray data collected should allow the determination of the structure of the zinc-bound form of this ATPS. Although previous biochemical studies of this protein indicated the presence of a homotrimer in solution, a dimer was found in the asymmetric unit. Elucidation of this structure will permit a better understanding of the role of the metal in the activity and stability of this family of enzymes. PMID:18607083

  12. Cloning, purification, crystallization and X-ray crystallographic analysis of the periplasmic sensing domain of Pseudomonas fluorescens chemotactic transducer of amino acids type A (CtaA).

    PubMed

    Ud-Din, Abu Iftiaf Md Salah; Roujeinikova, Anna

    2016-09-05

    Chemotaxis towards nutrients plays a crucial role in root colonization by Pseudomonas fluorescens. The P. fluorescens chemotactic transducer of amino acids type A (CtaA) mediates movement towards amino acids present in root exudates. In this study, the periplasmic sensory domain of CtaA has been crystallized by the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method using ammonium sulfate as a precipitating agent. A complete data set was collected to 1.9 Å resolution using cryocooling conditions and synchrotron radiation. The crystals belong to space group I222 or I212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 67.2, b = 76.0, c = 113.3 Å. This is an important step towards elucidation of the structural basis of how CtaA recognizes its signal molecules and transduces the signal across the membrane.

  13. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of Aspergillus terreus endo-β-1,4-glucanase from glycoside hydrolase family 12.

    PubMed

    Segato, Fernando; Berto, Gabriela L; Ares de Araújo, Evandro; Muniz, João Renato; Polikarpov, Igor

    2014-02-01

    Endoglucanases are important enzymes that are involved in the modification and degradation of cellulose. Filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus terreus are effective biomass degraders in nature owing to their capacity to produce an enzymatic arsenal of glycoside hydrolases, including endoglucanase from glycoside hydrolase family 12 (GH12). The A. terreus GH12 endoglucanase was cloned and overexpressed in A. nidulans, purified and crystallized. A single crystal was obtained from a solution consisting of 2 M ammonium sulfate, 5%(v/v) 2-propanol. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 1.85 Å using synchrotron radiation and a preliminary molecular-replacement solution was obtained in the trigonal space group P3(2)21. The unit-cell parameters were a = b = 103.24, c = 48.96 Å.

  14. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a soluble variant of the monoglyceride lipase Yju3p from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Rengachari, Srinivasan; Aschauer, Philipp; Sturm, Christian; Oberer, Monika

    2015-02-01

    The protein Yju3p is the orthologue of monoglyceride lipases in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A soluble variant of this lipase termed s-Yju3p (38.3 kDa) was generated and purified to homogeneity by affinity and size-exclusion chromatography. s-Yju3p was crystallized in a vapour-diffusion setup at 293 K and a complete data set was collected to 2.4 Å resolution. The crystal form was orthorhombic (space group P212121), with unit-cell parameters a = 77.2, b = 108.6, c = 167.7 Å. The asymmetric unit contained four molecules with a solvent content of 46.4%.

  15. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of GatD, a glutamine amidotransferase-like protein from Staphylococcus aureus peptidoglycan

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Diana; Figueiredo, Teresa A.; Verma, Anil; Sobral, Rita G.; Ludovice, Ana M.; de Lencastre, Hermínia; Trincao, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Amidation of peptidoglycan is an essential feature in Staphylococcus aureus that is necessary for resistance to β-lactams and lysozyme. GatD, a 27 kDa type I glutamine amidotransferase-like protein, together with MurT ligase, catalyses the amidation reaction of the glutamic acid residues of the peptidoglycan of S. aureus. The native and the selenomethionine-derivative proteins were crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method with polyethylene glycol, sodium acetate and calcium acetate. The crystals obtained diffracted beyond 1.85 and 2.25 Å, respectively, and belonged to space group P212121. X-ray diffraction data sets were collected at Diamond Light Source (on beamlines I02 and I04) and were used to obtain initial phases. PMID:24817726

  16. Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray studies of RFC boxes II-VIII of replication factor C from Methanococcus jannaschii.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ick; Lokanath, Neratur K; Min, Kyeongsik; Ha, Sung Chul; Kim, Dong Young; Kim, Kyeong Kyu

    2002-03-01

    Replication factor C (RFC) is the accessory protein required to load the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) onto DNA in replication process. RFC is composed of several subunits and each subunit contains the highly conserved sequences RFC boxes II-VIII. RFC boxes II-VIII of the large subunit of replication factor C from Methanococcus jannaschii has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized at 295 K using ammonium sulfate as precipitant. Crystals belong to the space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 238.23 (5), c = 73.17 (12) A. Native data were collected at 100 K to a resolution of 3.2 A using a synchrotron-radiation source.

  17. Lindbladian purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenz, Christian; Burgarth, Daniel; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Nakazato, Hiromichi; Yuasa, Kazuya

    2017-06-01

    In a recent work (Burgarth et al 2014, Nat. Commun. 5 5173), it was shown that a series of frequent measurements can project the dynamics of a quantum system onto a subspace in which the dynamics can be more complex. In this subspace, even full controllability can be achieved, although the controllability over the system before the projection is very poor since the control Hamiltonians commute with each other. We can also think of the opposite: any Hamiltonians of a quantum system, which are in general noncommutative with each other, can be made commutative by embedding them in an extended Hilbert space, thus the dynamics in the extended space becomes trivial and simple. This idea of making noncommutative Hamiltonians commutative is called ‘Hamiltonian purification.’ The original noncommutative Hamiltonians are recovered by projecting the system back onto the original Hilbert space through frequent measurements. Here, we generalise this idea to open-system dynamics by presenting a simple construction to make Lindbladians, as well as Hamiltonians, commutative on a larger space with an auxiliary system. We show that the original dynamics can be recovered through frequently measuring the auxiliary system in a non-selective way. Moreover, we provide a universal pair of Lindbladians that describe an ‘accessible’ open quantum system for generic system sizes. This allows us to conclude that through a series of frequent non-selective measurements a nonaccessible open quantum system generally becomes accessible. This sheds further light on the role of measurement backaction on the control of quantum systems.

  18. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of the trehalulose synthase MutB from Pseudomonas mesoacidophila MX-45

    SciTech Connect

    Ravaud, Stéphanie; Watzlawick, Hildegard; Haser, Richard; Mattes, Ralf; Aghajari, Nushin

    2005-01-01

    The trehalulose synthase MutB from P. mesoacidophila MX-45 has been crystallized in two different crystal forms and diffraction data have been collected to 1.6 and 1.8 Å, respectively. The trehalulose synthase (MutB) from Pseudomonas mesoacidophila MX-45, belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 13, catalyses the isomerization of sucrose to trehalulose (α-d-glucosylpyranosyl-1,1-d-fructofuranose) and isomaltulose (α-d-glucosylpyranosyl-1,6-d-fructofuranose) as main products and glucose and fructose in residual amounts from the hydrolytic reaction. To date, a three-dimensional structure of a sucrose isomerase that produces mainly trehalulose, as is the case for MutB, has been lacking. Crystallographic studies of this 64 kDa enzyme have therefore been initiated in order to contribute to the understanding of the molecular basis of sucrose decomposition, isomerization and of the selectivity of this enzyme that leads to the formation of different products. The MutB protein has been overexpressed, purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Two different crystal forms have been obtained: one diffracts X-rays to 1.6 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation and belongs to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 63.8, b = 72.0, c = 82.2 Å, α = 67.5, β = 73.1, γ = 70.8°, while the other form diffracts to 1.8 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation and belongs to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 63.7, b = 85.9, c = 119.7 Å, β = 97.7°. A molecular-replacement solution has been found using the structure of the isomaltulose synthase (PalI) from Klebsiella sp. LX3 as a search model.

  19. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of Gan1D, a GH1 6-phospho-β-galactosidase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus T1

    PubMed Central

    Lansky, Shifra; Zehavi, Arie; Dann, Roie; Dvir, Hay; Belrhali, Hassan; Shoham, Yuval; Shoham, Gil

    2014-01-01

    Geobacillus stearothermophilus T1 is a Gram-positive thermophilic soil bacterium that contains an extensive system for the utilization of plant cell-wall polysaccharides, including xylan, arabinan and galactan. The bacterium uses a number of extracellular enzymes that break down the high-molecular-weight polysaccharides into short oligosaccharides, which enter the cell and are further hydrolyzed into sugar monomers by dedicated intracellular glycoside hydrolases. The interest in the biochemical characterization and structural analysis of these proteins originates mainly from the wide range of their potential biotechnological applications. Studying the different hemicellulolytic utilization systems in G. stearothermophilus T1, a new galactan-utilization gene cluster was recently identified, which encodes a number of proteins, one of which is a GH1 putative 6-phospho-β-galactosidase (Gan1D). Gan1D has recently been cloned, overexpressed, purified and crystallized as part of its comprehensive structure–function study. The best crystals obtained for this enzyme belonged to the triclinic space group P1, with average crystallographic unit-cell parameters of a = 67.0, b = 78.1, c = 92.1 Å, α = 102.4, β = 93.5, γ = 91.7°. A full diffraction data set to 1.33 Å resolution has been collected for the wild-type enzyme, as measured from flash-cooled crystals at 100 K, using synchrotron radiation. These data are currently being used for the detailed three-dimensional crystal structure analysis of Gan1D. PMID:24637762

  20. Purification, crystal structure and antimicrobial activity of phenazine-1-carboxamide produced by a growth-promoting biocontrol bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa MML2212.

    PubMed

    Shanmugaiah, V; Mathivanan, N; Varghese, B

    2010-02-01

    To purify and characterize an antimicrobial compound produced by a biocontrol bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa MML2212, and evaluate its activity against rice pathogens, Rhizoctonia solani and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain MML2212 isolated from the rice rhizosphere with wide-spectrum antimicrobial activity was cultured in Kings'B broth using a fermentor for 36 h. The extracellular metabolites were isolated from the fermented broth using ethyl acetate extraction and purified by two-step silica-gel column chromatography. Three fractions were separated, of which a major compound was obtained in pure state as yellow needles. It was crystallized after dissolving with chloroform followed by slow evaporation. It is odourless with a melting point of 220-222 degrees C. It was soluble in most of the organic solvents and poorly soluble in water. The molecular mass of purified compound was estimated as 223.3 by mass spectral analysis. Further, it was characterized by IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectral analyses. The crystal structure of the compound was elucidated for the first time by X-ray diffraction study and deposited in the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (http://www.ccde.com.ac.uk) with the accession no. CCDC 617344. The crystal compound was undoubtedly identified as phenazine-1-carboxamide (PCN) with the empirical formula of C(13)H(9)N(3)O. As this is the first report on the crystal structure of PCN, it provides additional information to the structural chemistry. Furthermore, the present study reports the antimicrobial activity of purified PCN on major rice pathogens, R. solani and X. oryzae pv. oryzae. Therefore, the PCN can be developed as an ideal agrochemical candidate for the control of both sheath blight and bacterial leaf blight diseases of rice.