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Sample records for gil-vernet trigonoplasty technique

  1. Urinary infection and stone formation as complications of Gil-Vernet's antireflux procedure.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, J J; Guzman, A; Cortadellas, R

    1992-01-01

    The authors describe two cases of urinary infection and stone formation as late complications of Gil-Vernet's antireflux treatment. The immediate cause of these complications was the migration to the mucosal surface of the nonabsorbable sutures employed in this technique.

  2. [The anatomic lobulation of the prostate, a controversial description].

    PubMed

    Dauge, M C; Delmas, V; Potier, M

    1999-03-01

    Vésalius, in 1543, described, for the first time, the prostate as an unique organ. But, in the 19th century, two schools confronted; for Cruveilhier and Testut, the prostate was made of several lobes, when Cloquet and Sappey thought it as a unique zone. Albarran, in 1902, described the sub-uretral glands. Thereafter, Cuneo, in 1911 and Franks, in 1954, described two zones, one, internal, formed by the Albarran's glands, and the other, external, concerning the whole prostatic gland. On the contrary, Lowsley, in 1912, and Gil Vernet, in 1953, described several lobes, 5 for Lowsley, 3 for Gil Vernet. Recently, in 1968, and 1978, McNeal had made the proof that the prostate is histologically and anatomically heterogeneous, with three zones, transitional, central and peripheral ones.

  3. Sterile technique

    MedlinePlus

    ... technique. In: Perry AG, Potter PA, eds. Clinical Nursing Skills and Techniques . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2014:chap 8. Read More Stress urinary incontinence Urge incontinence Urinary incontinence Patient Instructions ...

  4. Modulation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schilling, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    Bandwidth efficient digital modulation techniques, proposed for use on and/or applied to satellite channels, are reviewed. In a survey of recent works on digital modulation techniques, the performance of several schemes operating in various environments are compared. Topics covered include: (1) quadrature phase shift keying; (2) offset - QPSK and MSK; (3) combined modulation and coding; and (4) spectrally efficient modulation techniques.

  5. Dismantling techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Wiese, E.

    1998-03-13

    Most of the dismantling techniques used in a Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) project are taken from conventional demolition practices. Some modifications to the techniques are made to limit exposure to the workers or to lessen the spread of contamination to the work area. When working on a D and D project, it is best to keep the dismantling techniques and tools as simple as possible. The workers will be more efficient and safer using techniques that are familiar to them. Prior experience with the technique or use of mock-ups is the best way to keep workers safe and to keep the project on schedule.

  6. Fiber Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nalle, Leona

    1976-01-01

    Describes a course in fiber techniques, which covers design methods involving fibers and fabric, that students in the Art Department at Sleeping Giant Junior High School had the opportunity to learn. (Author/RK)

  7. Stapedectomy technique.

    PubMed

    House, J W

    1993-06-01

    This article reviews the evolution of the author's stapedectomy technique from total footplate removal with single loop wire prosthesis and Gelfoam seal to small fenestra stapedectomy with platinum ribbon piston prosthesis and blood seal. The author concludes that the microdrill is effective, safe, and cost effective for performing this procedure. Since using this technique, the author has had no cases of sensorineural hearing loss and few complaints of dizziness or vertigo.

  8. Decomposition techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Sample decomposition is a fundamental and integral step in the procedure of geochemical analysis. It is often the limiting factor to sample throughput, especially with the recent application of the fast and modern multi-element measurement instrumentation. The complexity of geological materials makes it necessary to choose the sample decomposition technique that is compatible with the specific objective of the analysis. When selecting a decomposition technique, consideration should be given to the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the sample, elements to be determined, precision and accuracy requirements, sample throughput, technical capability of personnel, and time constraints. This paper addresses these concerns and discusses the attributes and limitations of many techniques of sample decomposition along with examples of their application to geochemical analysis. The chemical properties of reagents as to their function as decomposition agents are also reviewed. The section on acid dissolution techniques addresses the various inorganic acids that are used individually or in combination in both open and closed systems. Fluxes used in sample fusion are discussed. The promising microwave-oven technology and the emerging field of automation are also examined. A section on applications highlights the use of decomposition techniques for the determination of Au, platinum group elements (PGEs), Hg, U, hydride-forming elements, rare earth elements (REEs), and multi-elements in geological materials. Partial dissolution techniques used for geochemical exploration which have been treated in detail elsewhere are not discussed here; nor are fire-assaying for noble metals and decomposition techniques for X-ray fluorescence or nuclear methods be discussed. ?? 1992.

  9. Immunochemical techniques.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    The scope of this book does not allow a complete description of the many techniques available for purification and treatment of reagents for facilitating immunoassays in general. There is a large amount of literature covering techniques, and this can be consulted for specific problems. The examination of many of the catalogs produced by commercial companies is useful as they often include good technical sections describing methods using their products. This chapter contains the practical basics of conjugation (a large field in itself), and details other immediately useful techniques that might be first desired in starting an ELISA. The book Antibodies: A Laboratory Manual (1) should be regarded as definitive in the laboratory because it is extremely "digestible" and covers a large field of methods, all of which are relevant to ELISA.

  10. Titration Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Jerrold J.; Houston Jetzer, Kelly; Patani, Néha; Zimmerman, John; Zweerink, Gerald

    1995-07-01

    Significant attention is paid to the proper technique for reading a meniscus. Video shows meniscus-viewing techniques for colorless and dark liquids and the consequences of not reading a meniscus at eye level. Lessons are provided on approaching the end point, focusing on end point colors produced via different commonly used indicators. The concept of a titration curve is illustrated by means of a pH meter. Carefully recorded images of the entire range of meniscus values in a buret, pipet, and graduated cylinder are included so that you can show your students, in lecture or pre-lab discussion, any meniscus and discuss how to read the buret properly. These buret meniscus values are very carefully recorded at the rate of one video frame per hundredth of a milliliter, so that an image showing any given meniscus value can be obtained. These images can be easily incorporated into a computer-based multimedia environment for testing or meniscus-reading exercises. Two of the authors have used this technique and found the exercise to be very well received by their students. Video on side two shows nearly 100 "bloopers", demonstrating both the right way and wrong ways to do tasks associated with titration. This material can be used in a variety of situations: to show students the correct way to do something; to test students by asking them "What is this person doing wrong?"; or to develop multimedia, computer-based lessons. The contents of Titration Techniques are listed below: Side 1 Titration: what it is. A simple titration; Acid-base titration animation; A brief redox titration; Redox titration animation; A complete acid-base titration. Titration techniques. Hand technique variations; Stopcock; Using a buret to measure liquid volumes; Wait before reading meniscus; Dirty and clean burets; Read meniscus at eye level (see Fig. 1); Meniscus viewing techniques--light colored liquids; Meniscus viewing techniques--dark liquids; Using a magnetic stirrer; Rough titration

  11. Electrochemical Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-07-20

    Sensitive and selective detection techniques are of crucial importance for capillary electrophoresis (CE), microfluidic chips, and other microfluidic systems. Electrochemical detectors have attracted considerable interest for microfluidic systems with features that include high sensitivity, inherent miniaturization of both the detection and control instrumentation, low cost and power demands, and high compatibility with microfabrication technology. The commonly used electrochemical detectors can be classified into three general modes: conductimetry, potentiometry, and amperometry.

  12. Aseptic technique.

    PubMed

    Bykowski, Tomasz; Stevenson, Brian

    2008-11-01

    This chapter describes common laboratory procedures that can reduce the risk of culture contaminations (sepsis), collectively referred as "aseptic technique." Two major strategies of aseptic work are described: using a Bunsen burner and a laminar flow hood. Both methods are presented in the form of general protocols applicable to a variety of laboratory tasks such as pipetting and dispensing aliquots, preparing growth media, and inoculating, passaging, and spreading microorganisms on petri dishes.

  13. Management Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Ball Aerospace Systems Division developed a highly efficient management method known as the "total integrated systems approach" a technique developed of necessity for managing extremely complex aerospace programs involving integration of a great many individual systems. These systems, developed at different times by many different companies, must not only work perfectly when separately tested, they must also perform compatibly when integrated into the complete prime system. Systems approach is essentially a carefully considered, painstakingly executed master plan for coordinated design, development and assembly of the multitude of elements that constitute the end product. Intent is to eliminate problems that may occur when specific parts of total functioning system fail to come together to provide the requisite performance of the prime system.

  14. Analytical techniques: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A compilation, containing articles on a number of analytical techniques for quality control engineers and laboratory workers, is presented. Data cover techniques for testing electronic, mechanical, and optical systems, nondestructive testing techniques, and gas analysis techniques.

  15. Aerodynamic measurement techniques. [laser based diagnostic techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, W. W., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Laser characteristics of intensity, monochromatic, spatial coherence, and temporal coherence were developed to advance laser based diagnostic techniques for aerodynamic related research. Two broad categories of visualization and optical measurements were considered, and three techniques received significant attention. These are holography, laser velocimetry, and Raman scattering. Examples of the quantitative laser velocimeter and Raman scattering measurements of velocity, temperature, and density indicated the potential of these nonintrusive techniques.

  16. Radiologic imaging technique

    SciTech Connect

    Bushong, S.C. ); Eastman, T.R. )

    1990-01-01

    The authors focus on the subject of clinical radiographic technique. Emphasizing correct radiographic technique, it's heavily illustrated with radiographs that demonstrate proper exposure and show what happens when exposure variables are changed. A key feature is a discussion and evaluation of radiographic technique charts. Basic technique charts are provided for every body part examined.

  17. Data analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Steve

    1990-01-01

    A large and diverse number of computational techniques are routinely used to process and analyze remotely sensed data. These techniques include: univariate statistics; multivariate statistics; principal component analysis; pattern recognition and classification; other multivariate techniques; geometric correction; registration and resampling; radiometric correction; enhancement; restoration; Fourier analysis; and filtering. Each of these techniques will be considered, in order.

  18. Tools & techniques--statistics: propensity score techniques.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Bruno R; Gahl, Brigitta; Jüni, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Propensity score (PS) techniques are useful if the number of potential confounding pretreatment variables is large and the number of analysed outcome events is rather small so that conventional multivariable adjustment is hardly feasible. Only pretreatment characteristics should be chosen to derive PS, and only when they are probably associated with outcome. A careful visual inspection of PS will help to identify areas of no or minimal overlap, which suggests residual confounding, and trimming of the data according to the distribution of PS will help to minimise residual confounding. Standardised differences in pretreatment characteristics provide a useful check of the success of the PS technique employed. As with conventional multivariable adjustment, PS techniques cannot account for confounding variables that are not or are only imperfectly measured, and no PS technique is a substitute for an adequately designed randomised trial.

  19. The radiocarbon hydroxyl technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Malcolm J.; Sheppard, John C.

    1994-01-01

    The Radiocarbon Technique depends upon measuring the rate of oxidation of CO in an essentially unperturbed sample of air. The airborne technique is slightly different. Hydroxyl concentrations can be calculated directly; peroxyl concentrations can be obtained by NO doping.

  20. Seals and Sealing Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Developments by the aerospace industry in seals and sealing techniques are announced for possible use in other areas. The announcements presented are grouped as: sealing techniques for cryogenic fluids, high pressure applications, and modification for improved performance.

  1. Nondestructive evaluation technique guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1973-01-01

    A total of 70 individual nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are described. Information is presented that permits ease of comparison of the merits and limitations of each technique with respect to various NDE problems. An NDE technique classification system is presented. It is based on the system that was adopted by the National Materials Advisory Board (NMAB). The classification system presented follows the NMAB system closely with the exception of additional categories that have been added to cover more advanced techniques presently in use. The rationale of the technique is explained. The format provides for a concise description of each technique, the physical principles involved, objectives of interrogation, example applications, limitations of each technique, a schematic illustration, and key reference material. Cross-index tabulations are also provided so that particular NDE problems can be referred to appropriate techniques.

  2. The radiocarbon hydroxyl technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Malcolm J.; Sheppard, John C.

    1994-01-01

    The Radiocarbon Technique depends upon measuring the rate of oxidation of CO in an essentially unperturbed sample of air. The airborne technique is slightly different. Hydroxyl concentrations can be calculated directly; peroxyl concentrations can be obtained by NO doping.

  3. Corrective Primary Impression Technique

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Aquaviva; Dua, Neha; Herekar, Manisha

    2010-01-01

    The article describes a simple, quick and corrective technique for making the preliminary impression. It records the extensions better as compared to the impressions made using only impression compound. This technique is accurate and gives properly extended custom tray. Any deficiencies seen in the compound primary impression are corrected using this technique hence, this technique is called as a “corrective primary impression technique”. PMID:20502648

  4. Infarction of middle third posterior cortex of kidney: a complication of extended pyelolithotomy, intra-operative electrohydraulic lithotripsy and extraction of calyceal stones under vision using stone basket and flexible cystoscope in a spinal cord injury patient – a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Spinal cord injury produces multiple systemic and metabolic alterations. A decrease in micro vascular blood flow to liver, spleen and muscle has been described following spinal cord injury. Case presentation We present a 46-year-old male patient with C-4 complete tetraplegia, who developed a large stag horn calculus with branches in upper, middle and lower calyces of left kidney. This patient underwent Gil-Vernet extended pyelolithotomy and required intra-operative electrohydraulic lithotripsy and retrieval of stones from upper, middle and lower calyces using flexible cystoscope and stone basket. Computed tomography, performed eighteen days after surgery, showed multiple areas of non-enhancing cortex posteriorly and in the upper pole, suggestive of focal infarction. Magnetic resonance imaging of left kidney confirmed the presence of an area of infarction in middle third of posterior cortex, but there was no evidence of trauma to posterior division of renal artery. Therefore, we postulate that compression of renal parenchyma by Gil-Vernet retractors during surgery, and firm pressure that was applied over the middle of kidney for prolonged periods while several attempts were being made to retrieve fragments of calculi from renal calyces, led to ischaemia and subsequently, infarction of mid-third posterior cortex of left kidney. Conclusion This case illustrates importance of gentle handling of kidney during extended pyelolithotomy in order to prevent subtle renal trauma, which may be detected only by advanced imaging studies. Further, spinal cord physicians should take a pragmatic approach to management of stones located inside renal calyces. Both spinal cord injury patients and their physicians should remember that in our enthusiasm to achieve complete clearance of stones embedded deeply within renal calyces, we could produce irreversible injury to kidney, as indeed happened in this patient. Therefore, emphasis should be placed on prevention of struvite

  5. Drilling technique for crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, T.; Miyagawa, I.

    1977-01-01

    Hole-drilling technique uses special crystal driller in which drill bit rotates at fixed position at speed of 30 rpm while crystal slowly advances toward drill. Technique has been successfully applied to crystal of Rochell salt, Triglycine sulfate, and N-acetyglycine. Technique limits heat buildup and reduces strain on crystal.

  6. The backcross sterility technique

    Treesearch

    V. C. Mastro; A. Pellegrini-Toole

    1991-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) and the induced inherited (F1) sterility technique have been investigated for a number of lepidopterous pests, including the gypsy moths. Another technique, backcross sterility, which could potentially prove as or more useful for control of pest species has been developed for the control of only one lepidopteran...

  7. Techniques for characterizing lignin

    Treesearch

    Nicole M. Stark; Daniel J. Yelle; Umesh P. Agarwal

    2016-01-01

    Many techniques are available to characterize lignin. The techniques presented in this chapter are considered nondegradative, which are commonly applied to lignin. A brief discussion of lignin structure is included with this chapter to aid the reader in understanding why the discussed characterization techniques are appropriate for the study of lignin. Because the...

  8. Imaging technologies and techniques.

    PubMed

    Rafter, Patrick; Phillips, Patrick; Vannan, Mani A

    2004-05-01

    Equipment manufacturers provide contrast-specific detection techniques that have excellent sensitivity and excellent agent-to-tissue specificity along with helpful tools that improve workflow efficiency dramatically. Excellent contrast agents have been approved for LV opacification and are available worldwide. Techniques designed for low-MI imaging offer real-time acquisition capabilities and lead to faster examinations. Techniques designed for medium-MI imaging offer better sensitivity than low-MI techniques while maintaining the benefit of rapid image acquisition. Techniques designed for high-MI imaging offer the best sensitivity with longer acquisition times. These techniques are viable means for imaging contrast agents tailored to clinical needs. Progress by contrast agent manufacturers, equipment manufacturers, and physicians will continue to drive improvements in the areas of detection and clinical workflow for improved patient care.

  9. Hot techniques for tonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Scott, A

    2006-11-01

    (1) Some patients experience pain and bleeding after a standard or extracapsular tonsillectomy. (2) Evidence suggests that none of the hot tonsillectomy techniques offers concurrent reductions in intra- and post-operative bleeding and pain, compared with traditional cold-steel dissection with packs or ties. (3) Little information is available on the cost effectiveness of the hot techniques. (4) Diathermy is likely to remain the most commonly practised hot tonsillectomy technique.

  10. Rocket performance prediction technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgenthaler, J. H.; Stepien, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    Attention is given to a semiempirical correlation technique based on the rational assumption that the turbulent mixing of reactants is the rate controlling process in combustors employing diffusion flames. Questions of performance computation are considered along with the flow conditions. Predictions of combustion efficiency are obtained with the aid of a standard finite-difference computational technique.-

  11. Techniques for Teachers Section

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tait, A., Ed.

    1973-01-01

    Includes a simple technique to demonstrate Millikan's oil drop experiment, an environmental studies experiment to measure dissolved oxygen in water samples, and a technique to demonstrate action-reaction. Science materials described are the Pol-A-Star Tomiscope, Nuffield chemistry film loops, air pucks and pH meters. (JR)

  12. Techniques for Teachers Section

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tait, A., Ed.

    1973-01-01

    Includes a simple technique to demonstrate Millikan's oil drop experiment, an environmental studies experiment to measure dissolved oxygen in water samples, and a technique to demonstrate action-reaction. Science materials described are the Pol-A-Star Tomiscope, Nuffield chemistry film loops, air pucks and pH meters. (JR)

  13. Contamination Control Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    EBY, J.L.

    2000-05-16

    Welcome to a workshop on contamination Control techniques. This work shop is designed for about two hours. Attendee participation is encouraged during the workshop. We will address different topics within contamination control techniques; present processes, products and equipment used here at Hanford and then open the floor to you, the attendees for your input on the topics.

  14. Flight Test Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    Fort Rucker, AL 36362-5276 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER TOP 7-4-020 9. SPONSORING/ MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...2 3. REQUIRED TEST CONDITIONS ............................................. 3 3.1...3. REQUIRED TEST CONDITIONS . 3.1 Air Vehicle Flight Test Techniques. Many different flight test techniques are in existence. As technology

  15. Offshore hydraulic fracturing technique

    SciTech Connect

    Meese, C.A. ); Mullen, M.E. ); Barree, R.D. )

    1994-03-01

    This paper describes the frac-and-pack completion technique currently being used in the Gulf of Mexico, and elsewhere, for stimulation and sand control. The paper describes process applications and concerns that arise during implementation of the technique and discusses the completion procedure, treatment design, and execution.

  16. TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE TEACHING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HASTINGS, GERALDINE; AND OTHERS

    A COMPENDIUM OF WORKABLE AND REASONABLE TECHNIQUES TO PROVIDE TEACHERS WITH ALTERNATIVES IN SELECTING LEARNING EXPERIENCES IS PRESENTED. MATERIALS ARE DESIGNED TO AID TEACHERS AND LEARNERS IN ALL SUBJECT MATTER AREAS. TEACHING TECHNIQUES DESCRIBED ARE (1) THE CASE STUDY, (2) DISCUSSIONS SUCH AS SYMPOSIUM, COLLOQUIUM, BUZZ SESSIONS, AND…

  17. The Schlieren Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, Andreas; Jordan, Martin

    Introduction Basic Principle Optical and Thermodynamic Interrelations Refraction Index and Temperature Field The Deflection of Light in an Inhomogeneous Medium Application of the Schlieren Technique Application to Transient Combustion Research The Schlieren Cinematography The Color Schlieren Technique Application to Fuel-Injection Systems

  18. UIAGM Ropehandling Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloutier, K. Ross

    The Union Internationale des Associations des Guides de Montagne's (UIAGM) rope handling techniques are intended to form the standard for guiding ropework worldwide. These techniques have become the legal standard for instructional institutions and commercial guiding organizations in UIAGM member countries: Austria, Canada, France, Germany, Great…

  19. Emerging optical nanoscopy techniques

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Paul C; Leong-Hoi, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    To face the challenges of modern health care, new imaging techniques with subcellular resolution or detection over wide fields are required. Far field optical nanoscopy presents many new solutions, providing high resolution or detection at high speed. We present a new classification scheme to help appreciate the growing number of optical nanoscopy techniques. We underline an important distinction between superresolution techniques that provide improved resolving power and nanodetection techniques for characterizing unresolved nanostructures. Some of the emerging techniques within these two categories are highlighted with applications in biophysics and medicine. Recent techniques employing wider angle imaging by digital holography and scattering lens microscopy allow superresolution to be achieved for subcellular and even in vivo, imaging without labeling. Nanodetection techniques are divided into four subcategories using contrast, phase, deconvolution, and nanomarkers. Contrast enhancement is illustrated by means of a polarized light-based technique and with strobed phase-contrast microscopy to reveal nanostructures. Very high sensitivity phase measurement using interference microscopy is shown to provide nanometric surface roughness measurement or to reveal internal nanometric structures. Finally, the use of nanomarkers is illustrated with stochastic fluorescence microscopy for mapping intracellular structures. We also present some of the future perspectives of optical nanoscopy. PMID:26491270

  20. Techniques for Learning Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weatherford, H. Jarold

    A variety of classroom techniques for second language vocabulary learning are described, based on the principle that different approaches work with different students under varying conditions. The techniques include: rote rehearsal; the use of visual aids, including items that are acted out by students for the benefit of the class; role-playing;…

  1. Simulation verification techniques study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoonmaker, P. B.; Wenglinski, T. H.

    1975-01-01

    Results are summarized of the simulation verification techniques study which consisted of two tasks: to develop techniques for simulator hardware checkout and to develop techniques for simulation performance verification (validation). The hardware verification task involved definition of simulation hardware (hardware units and integrated simulator configurations), survey of current hardware self-test techniques, and definition of hardware and software techniques for checkout of simulator subsystems. The performance verification task included definition of simulation performance parameters (and critical performance parameters), definition of methods for establishing standards of performance (sources of reference data or validation), and definition of methods for validating performance. Both major tasks included definition of verification software and assessment of verification data base impact. An annotated bibliography of all documents generated during this study is provided.

  2. Techniques of hepatic resection

    PubMed Central

    Aragon, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Liver resections are high risk procedures performed by experienced surgeons. The role of liver resection in malignant disease has changed over the last 100 years with great improvement in morbidity, mortality and long term survival. New understanding in liver anatomy, improved perioperative care, anesthesia techniques, and technological advances has improved this aspect of patient care. With improved techniques, patients previously considered unresectable have an opportunity to undergo curative surgery. This review article describes the various approaches and techniques for liver resection. The relevant anatomy and terminology of hepatic resections is discussed, as well as the role of anatomic vs. nonanatomic resection. Methods of vascular control are examined and the multiple strategies of parenchymal transection are compared, as well as minimally-invasive techniques. Finally, a brief review of the authors’ practice in terms of surgical technique is offered. PMID:22811867

  3. [New microbiological techniques].

    PubMed

    Schubert, S; Wieser, A; Bonkat, G

    2017-06-01

    Microbiological diagnostic procedures have changed rapidly in recent years. This is especially true in the field of molecular diagnostics. Classical culture-based techniques are still the gold standard in many areas; however, they are already complemented by automated and also molecular techniques to guarantee faster and better quality results. The most commonly used techniques include real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based systems and nucleic acid hybridization. These procedures are used most powerfully from direct patient samples or in assays to detect the presence of nonculturable or fastidious organisms. Further techniques such as DNA sequencing are not yet used routinely for urological samples and can be considered experimental. However, in conjunction with dropping prices and further technical developments, these techniques promise to be used much more in the near future. Regarding bacterial identification from culture, mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has become the technique of choice in recent years especially in Europe. It has tremendously shortened the time to result. This is now going to be extended to antibiotic susceptibility testing. This is of paramount importance in view of ever rising antimicrobial resistance rates. Techniques described in this review offer a faster and better microbiological diagnosis. Such continuous improvements are critical especially in times of cost pressure and rising antimicrobial resistance rates. It is in our interest to provide the best possible care for patients and in this regard a good and effective communication between the laboratory and the clinician is of vital importance.

  4. Separation techniques: Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Coskun, Ozlem

    2016-01-01

    Chromatography is an important biophysical technique that enables the separation, identification, and purification of the components of a mixture for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Proteins can be purified based on characteristics such as size and shape, total charge, hydrophobic groups present on the surface, and binding capacity with the stationary phase. Four separation techniques based on molecular characteristics and interaction type use mechanisms of ion exchange, surface adsorption, partition, and size exclusion. Other chromatography techniques are based on the stationary bed, including column, thin layer, and paper chromatography. Column chromatography is one of the most common methods of protein purification. PMID:28058406

  5. Electrical termination techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oakey, W. E.; Schleicher, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    A technical review of high reliability electrical terminations for electronic equipment was made. Seven techniques were selected from this review for further investigation, experimental work, and preliminary testing. From the preliminary test results, four techniques were selected for final testing and evaluation. These four were: (1) induction soldering, (2) wire wrap, (3) percussive arc welding, and (4) resistance welding. Of these four, induction soldering was selected as the best technique in terms of minimizing operator errors, controlling temperature and time, minimizing joint contamination, and ultimately producing a reliable, uniform, and reusable electrical termination.

  6. Adaptive algebraic reconstruction technique

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Wenkai; Yin Fangfang

    2004-12-01

    Algebraic reconstruction techniques (ART) are iterative procedures for reconstructing objects from their projections. It is proven that ART can be computationally efficient by carefully arranging the order in which the collected data are accessed during the reconstruction procedure and adaptively adjusting the relaxation parameters. In this paper, an adaptive algebraic reconstruction technique (AART), which adopts the same projection access scheme in multilevel scheme algebraic reconstruction technique (MLS-ART), is proposed. By introducing adaptive adjustment of the relaxation parameters during the reconstruction procedure, one-iteration AART can produce reconstructions with better quality, in comparison with one-iteration MLS-ART. Furthermore, AART outperforms MLS-ART with improved computational efficiency.

  7. Active cleaning technique device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, R. L.; Gillette, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    The objective of this program was to develop a laboratory demonstration model of an active cleaning technique (ACT) device. The principle of this device is based primarily on the technique for removing contaminants from optical surfaces. This active cleaning technique involves exposing contaminated surfaces to a plasma containing atomic oxygen or combinations of other reactive gases. The ACT device laboratory demonstration model incorporates, in addition to plasma cleaning, the means to operate the device as an ion source for sputtering experiments. The overall ACT device includes a plasma generation tube, an ion accelerator, a gas supply system, a RF power supply and a high voltage dc power supply.

  8. Techniques for managing quality.

    PubMed

    Plsek, P E

    1995-01-01

    The science of quality management is an eclectic collection of concepts and methods primarily borrowed from other fields. Techniques roughly fall into three categories involving quality improvement, planning, and measurement. Improvement techniques include models to guide team-based efforts, tools for process description, and tools for data analysis. These methods are the most visible artifacts of CQI efforts in health care organizations today. Less widely known, but equally powerful, are the techniques of quality planning. There are models to guide both process design and strategic planning, methods for identifying customer needs, and tools to support these efforts. Finally, while measurement is a traditionally well-developed area in health care, industrial quality management science broadens our outlook about what is important to measure. It also provides the technique of benchmarking, which suggests that we look beyond our own organization when we measure performance.

  9. The MST Radar Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balsley, B. B.

    1985-01-01

    The past ten year have witnessed the development of a new radar technique to examine the structure and dynamics of the atmosphere between roughly 1 to 100 km on a continuous basis. The technique is known as the MST (for Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere) technique and is usable in all weather conditions, being unaffected by precipitation or cloud cover. MST radars make use of scattering from small scale structure in the atmospheric refractive index, with scales of the order of one-half the radar wavelength. Pertinent scale sizes for middle atmospheric studies typically range between a fraction of a meter and a few meters. The structure itself arises primarily from atmospheric turbulence. The technique is briefly described along with the meteorological parameters it measures.

  10. Programs, Materials and Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannatyne, Alex, Ed.

    1973-01-01

    Evaluated are four commercial programs and one technique for use with learning disabled children: the KeyMath Diagnostic Arithmetic Test, Learning by Doing, the Peabody Rebus Reading Program, Jumping Up and Down, and the use of a stopwatch. (DB)

  11. "Techniques for Teachers" Section

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tait, A.

    1972-01-01

    A series of short articles describe a method of combined developing/fixing for monochrome film, techniques for thin layer chromatography, experiments with lasers, and safety precautions to be used with lasers in school laboratories. (AL)

  12. Relaxation techniques for stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... problems such as high blood pressure, stomachaches, headaches, anxiety, and depression. Using relaxation techniques can help you feel calm. These exercises can also help you manage stress and ease ...

  13. Small Scale Organic Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horak, V.; Crist, DeLanson R.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of using small scale experimentation in the undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory. Describes small scale filtration techniques as an example of a semi-micro method applied to small quantities of material. (MLH)

  14. "Techniques for Teachers" Section

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tait, A.

    1972-01-01

    A series of short articles describe a method of combined developing/fixing for monochrome film, techniques for thin layer chromatography, experiments with lasers, and safety precautions to be used with lasers in school laboratories. (AL)

  15. Pattern recognition technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, J. P.

    1971-01-01

    Technique operates regardless of pattern rotation, translation or magnification and successfully detects out-of-register patterns. It improves accuracy and reduces cost of various optical character recognition devices and page readers and provides data input to computer.

  16. Occlusal cranial balancing technique.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gerald H

    2007-01-01

    The acronym for Occlusal Cranial Balancing Technique is OCB. The OCB concept is based on the architectural principle of a level foundation. The principles of Occlusal Cranial Balancing are a monumental discovery and if applied will enhance total body function.

  17. Monitoring by Control Technique

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Stationary source emissions monitoring is required to demonstrate that a source is meeting the requirements in Federal or state rules. This page links to different control techniques used to reduce pollutant emissions.

  18. Next generation initiation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Tom; Derber, John; Zupanski, Milija; Cohn, Steve; Verlinde, Hans

    1993-01-01

    Four-dimensional data assimilation strategies can generally be classified as either current or next generation, depending upon whether they are used operationally or not. Current-generation data-assimilation techniques are those that are presently used routinely in operational-forecasting or research applications. They can be classified into the following categories: intermittent assimilation, Newtonian relaxation, and physical initialization. It should be noted that these techniques are the subject of continued research, and their improvement will parallel the development of next generation techniques described by the other speakers. Next generation assimilation techniques are those that are under development but are not yet used operationally. Most of these procedures are derived from control theory or variational methods and primarily represent continuous assimilation approaches, in which the data and model dynamics are 'fitted' to each other in an optimal way. Another 'next generation' category is the initialization of convective-scale models. Intermittent assimilation systems use an objective analysis to combine all observations within a time window that is centered on the analysis time. Continuous first-generation assimilation systems are usually based on the Newtonian-relaxation or 'nudging' techniques. Physical initialization procedures generally involve the use of standard or nonstandard data to force some physical process in the model during an assimilation period. Under the topic of next-generation assimilation techniques, variational approaches are currently being actively developed. Variational approaches seek to minimize a cost or penalty function which measures a model's fit to observations, background fields and other imposed constraints. Alternatively, the Kalman filter technique, which is also under investigation as a data assimilation procedure for numerical weather prediction, can yield acceptable initial conditions for mesoscale models. The

  19. Nondestructive testing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, Don E.; McBride, Don

    A comprehensive reference covering a broad range of techniques in nondestructive testing is presented. Based on years of extensive research and application at NASA and other government research facilities, the book provides practical guidelines for selecting the appropriate testing methods and equipment. Topics discussed include visual inspection, penetrant and chemical testing, nuclear radiation, sonic and ultrasonic, thermal and microwave, magnetic and electromagnetic techniques, and training and human factors. (No individual items are abstracted in this volume)

  20. Percutaneous techniques versus surgical techniques for tracheostomy.

    PubMed

    Brass, Patrick; Hellmich, Martin; Ladra, Angelika; Ladra, Jürgen; Wrzosek, Anna

    2016-07-20

    Tracheostomy formation is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures in critically ill intensive care participants requiring long-term mechanical ventilation. Both surgical tracheostomies (STs) and percutaneous tracheostomies (PTs) are used in current surgical practice; but until now, the optimal method of performing tracheostomies in critically ill participants remains unclear. We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of percutaneous techniques compared to surgical techniques commonly used for elective tracheostomy in critically ill participants (adults and children) to assess whether there was a difference in complication rates between the procedures. We also assessed whether the effect varied between different groups of participants or settings (intensive care unit (ICU), operating room), different levels of operator experience, different percutaneous techniques, or whether the percutaneous techniques were carried out with or without bronchoscopic guidance. We searched the following electronic databases: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL to 28 May 2015. We also searched reference lists of articles, 'grey literature', and dissertations. We handsearched intensive care and anaesthesia journals, abstracts, and proceedings of scientific meetings. We attempted to identify unpublished or ongoing studies by contacting manufacturers and experts in the field, and searching in trial registers. We included randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials (quasi-RCTs) comparing percutaneous techniques (experimental intervention) with surgical techniques (control intervention) used for elective tracheostomy in critically ill participants (adults and children). Three authors independently checked eligibility and extracted data on methodological quality, participant characteristics, intervention details, settings, and outcomes of interest using a standardized form. We then entered data into Review Manager 5, with a double-entry procedure. Of 785 identified

  1. Techniques of male circumcision.

    PubMed

    Abdulwahab-Ahmed, Abdullahi; Mungadi, Ismaila A

    2013-01-01

    Male circumcision is a controversial subject in surgical practice. There are, however, clear surgical indications of this procedure. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends newborn male circumcision for its preventive and public health benefits that has been shown to outweigh the risks of newborn male circumcision. Many surgical techniques have been reported. The present review discusses some of these techniques with their merits and drawbacks. This is an attempt to inform the reader on surgical aspects of male circumcision aiding in making appropriate choice of a technique to offer patients. Pubmed search was done with the keywords: Circumcision, technique, complications, and history. Relevant articles on techniques of circumcision were selected for the review. Various methods of circumcision including several devices are in use for male circumcision. These methods can be grouped into three: Shield and clamp, dorsal slit, and excision. The device methods appear favored in the pediatric circumcision while the risk of complications increases with increasing age of the patient at surgery.

  2. Renal imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Hierholzer, K; Hierholzer, J

    1997-01-01

    The ancient approach to obtain an image of the kidneys (and other internal organs) was 'section-inspection-imaging' by drawing, painting, sculpturing, and modelling. The present study follows chronologically the development and use of sectioning techniques from ancient (often forbidden) methods to modern microdissection and maceration of silicone-rubber-injected tubules. Inspection evolved from the use of the naked eye to magnifying lenses, microscopes and finally electron microscopy. Pertinent examples such as the description of the kidneys as the site of urine formation, the visualization of loop structures in the renal medulla and the imaging of tight junction strands are discussed. Inspection or visualization of renal structure and function has been revolutionized by modern noninvasive techniques, such as X-ray imaging, imaging by radioisotopes, ultrasound, computer tomography and nuclear magnetic resonance. Pertinent examples are given demonstrating the potency of the various techniques. The contribution of computerized data evaluation is discussed. The development of micropuncture and microperfusion techniques has opened the field for direct imaging not only of renal (sub)structural details but also of functional parameters such as transtubular reabsorption rates, single glomerular capillary filtration and conductance of the paracellular pathway. We focus particularly on techniques specifically designed to visualize renal hemodynamic and transport parameters.

  3. Sensorimotor System Measurement Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Riemann, Bryan L.; Myers, Joseph B.; Lephart, Scott M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To provide an overview of currently available sensorimotor assessment techniques. Data Sources: We drew information from an extensive review of the scientific literature conducted in the areas of proprioception, neuromuscular control, and motor control measurement. Literature searches were conducted using MEDLINE for the years 1965 to 1999 with the key words proprioception, somatosensory evoked potentials, nerve conduction testing, electromyography, muscle dynamometry, isometric, isokinetic, kinetic, kinematic, posture, equilibrium, balance, stiffness, neuromuscular, sensorimotor, and measurement. Additional sources were collected using the reference lists of identified articles. Data Synthesis: Sensorimotor measurement techniques are discussed with reference to the underlying physiologic mechanisms, influential factors and locations of the variable within the system, clinical research questions, limitations of the measurement technique, and directions for future research. Conclusions/Recommendations: The complex interactions and relationships among the individual components of the sensorimotor system make measuring and analyzing specific characteristics and functions difficult. Additionally, the specific assessment techniques used to measure a variable can influence attained results. Optimizing the application of sensorimotor research to clinical settings can, therefore, be best accomplished through the use of common nomenclature to describe underlying physiologic mechanisms and specific measurement techniques. PMID:16558672

  4. Relaxation Techniques for Trauma.

    PubMed

    Scotland-Coogan, Diane; Davis, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Physiological symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) manifest as increased arousal and reactivity seen as anger outburst, irritability, reckless behavior with no concern for consequences, hypervigilance, sleep disturbance, and problems with focus (American Psychiatric Association, 2013 ). In seeking the most beneficial treatment for PTSD, consideration must be given to the anxiety response. Relaxation techniques are shown to help address the physiological manifestations of prolonged stress. The techniques addressed by the authors in this article include mindfulness, deep breathing, yoga, and meditation. By utilizing these techniques traditional therapies can be complemented. In addition, those who are averse to the traditional evidence-based practices or for those who have tried traditional therapies without success; these alternative interventions may assist in lessening physiological manifestations of PTSD. Future research studies assessing the benefits of these treatment modalities are warranted to provide empirical evidence to support the efficacy of these treatments.

  5. Mathematical Optimization Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellman, R. (Editor)

    1963-01-01

    The papers collected in this volume were presented at the Symposium on Mathematical Optimization Techniques held in the Santa Monica Civic Auditorium, Santa Monica, California, on October 18-20, 1960. The objective of the symposium was to bring together, for the purpose of mutual education, mathematicians, scientists, and engineers interested in modern optimization techniques. Some 250 persons attended. The techniques discussed included recent developments in linear, integer, convex, and dynamic programming as well as the variational processes surrounding optimal guidance, flight trajectories, statistical decisions, structural configurations, and adaptive control systems. The symposium was sponsored jointly by the University of California, with assistance from the National Science Foundation, the Office of Naval Research, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and The RAND Corporation, through Air Force Project RAND.

  6. [Foetal sampling techniques].

    PubMed

    Levy, R; Arfi, J-S; Daffos, F

    2003-06-01

    This article describes the current techniques of foetal sampling. All of them are actually ultrasound guided, and therefore generally very safe. Nevertheless, an elaborate learning process remains indispensable, in addition to a particular attention to the quality of the physician-patient dialogue. The choice of a technique depends on the indication and on the term of the pregnancy. The most frequently used technique is amniocentesis which presents a low risk of foetal loss, estimated between 0.2 and 0.5 percent. The interest of chorionic villus sampling is the possibility to obtain results at an earlier stage of pregnancy, with a lower risk taking when compared to early amniocentesis. We prefer the transabdominal chorionic villus sampling to the transvaginal. Foetal blood sampling is still required in some cases, but the risk of complications is higher--around 1 percent.

  7. Radiation techniques for acromegaly

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) remains an effective treatment in patients with acromegaly refractory to medical and/or surgical interventions, with durable tumor control and biochemical remission; however, there are still concerns about delayed biochemical effect and potential late toxicity of radiation treatment, especially high rates of hypopituitarism. Stereotactic radiotherapy has been developed as a more accurate technique of irradiation with more precise tumour localization and consequently a reduction in the volume of normal tissue, particularly the brain, irradiated to high radiation doses. Radiation can be delivered in a single fraction by stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) or as fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) in which smaller doses are delivered over 5-6 weeks in 25-30 treatments. A review of the recent literature suggests that pituitary irradiation is an effective treatment for acromegaly. Stereotactic techniques for GH-secreting pituitary tumors are discussed with the aim to define the efficacy and potential adverse effects of each of these techniques. PMID:22136376

  8. Remote Raman measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The use of laser Raman measurement techniques in remote sensing applications is surveyed. A feasibility index is defined as a means to characterize the practicality of a given remote Raman measurement application. Specific applications of Raman scattering to the measurement of atmospheric water vapor profiles, methane plumes from liquid natural gas spills, and subsurface ocean temperature profiles are described. This paper will survey the use of laser Raman measurement techniques in remote sensing applications using as examples specific systems that the Computer Genetics Corporation (CGC) group has developed and engineered.

  9. Effective Frequency Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, C. Laurence; Weng, Chi Y.

    2002-01-01

    An effective monochromatic frequency technique is described to represent the effects of finite spectral bandwidth for active and passive measurements centered on an absorption line, a trough region, or a slowly varying spectral feature. For Gaussian and rectangular laser line shapes, the effective frequency is shown to have a simple form which depends only on the instrumental line shape and bandwidth and not on the absorption line profile. The technique yields accuracies better than 0.1% for bandwidths less than 0.2 times the atmospheric line width.

  10. Craniospinal irradiation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Scarlatescu, Ioana Avram, Calin N.; Virag, Vasile

    2015-12-07

    In this paper we present one treatment plan for irradiation cases which involve a complex technique with multiple beams, using the 3D conformational technique. As the main purpose of radiotherapy is to administrate a precise dose into the tumor volume and protect as much as possible all the healthy tissues around it, for a case diagnosed with a primitive neuro ectoderm tumor, we have developed a new treatment plan, by controlling one of the two adjacent fields used at spinal field, in a way that avoids the fields superposition. Therefore, the risk of overdose is reduced by eliminating the field divergence.

  11. Techniques for Vocal Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiest, Lori

    1997-01-01

    Outlines a series of simple yet effective practices, techniques, and tips for improving the singing voice and minimizing stress on the vocal chords. Describes the four components for producing vocal sound: respiration, phonation, resonation, and articulation. Provides exercises for each and lists symptoms of sickness and vocal strain. (MJP)

  12. Merchandising Techniques and Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Sylvie A.

    1981-01-01

    Proposes that libraries employ modern booksellers' merchandising techniques to improve circulation of library materials. Using displays in various ways, the methods and reasons for weeding out books, replacing worn book jackets, and selecting new books are discussed. Suggestions for learning how to market and 11 references are provided. (RBF)

  13. Assessing Classroom Assessment Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson-Beck, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Classroom assessment techniques (CATs) are teaching strategies that provide formative assessments of student learning. It has been argued that the use of CATs enhances and improves student learning. Although the various types of CATs have been extensively documented and qualitatively studied, there appears to be little quantitative research…

  14. Multisensor Data Integration Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D. L.; Blake, P. L.; Conel, J. E.; Lang, H. R.; Logan, T. L.; Mcguffie, B. A.; Paylor, E. D.; Singer, R. B.; Schenck, L. R.

    1985-01-01

    The availability of data from sensors operating in several different wavelength regions had led to the development of new techniques and strategies for both data management and image analysis. Work is ongoing to develop computer techniques for analysis of integrated data sets. These techniques include coregistration of multisensor images, rectification of radar images in areas of topographic relief to ensure pixel to pixel registration with planimetric data sets, calibration of data so that signatures can be applied to remote areas, normalization of data acquired with disparate sensors and determination of extended spectral signatures of surface units. In addition, software is being developed to analyze coregistrated digital terrain and image data so that automated stratigraphic and structural analyses can be performed. These software procedures include: strike and dip determination, terrain profile generation, stratigraphic column generation, stratigraphic thickness measurements, structural cross-section generation, and creation of 3-D block diagrams. These techniques were applied to coregistered LANDSAT 4 Thematic Mapper (TM), Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS), and multipolarization synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data of the Wind River Basin in Wyoming.

  15. Blood Typing--Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnstone, W. T., Jr.

    This instructional packet deals with the study of hematology. It is recommended for all high school students of biology. A general understanding of antigen-antibody reactions is necessary before attempting this learning activity. Behavioral objectives place emphasis on the techniques of and understanding of blood typing. The equipment and…

  16. Super Techniques for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Michael K.

    A variety of techniques can help a teacher create the atmosphere of a "quality circle," a Japanese management method in which each member of a group shares and contributes to the learning experience. "Creating a Commercial" allows students to create original oratory for presentation to the class. In "The Good News First," students improve their…

  17. Study of coronagraphic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolls, Volker; Aziz, Michael; Gonsalves, Robert A.; Korzennik, Sylvain; Labeyrie, Antoine; Lyon, Richard; Melnick, Gary; Schlitz, Ruth; Somerstein, Steve; Vasudevan, Gopal; Woodruff, Robert

    2006-06-01

    Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) has set up a program to study coronagraphic techniques. The program consists of the development of new fabrication methods of occulter masks, characterization of the manufactured masks, and application of the masks to study speckle reduction technique. Our occulter mask fabrication development utilizes a focused ion beam system to directly shape mask profiles from absorber material. Initial milling trials show that we can shape nearly Gaussian-shaped mask profiles. Part of this development is the characterization of absorber materials, poly(methyl methacrylate) doped with light-stable chromophores. For the characterization of the masks we have built a mask scanner enabling us to scan the transmission function of occulter masks. The real mask transmission profile is retrieved applying the maximum entropy method to deconvolve the mask transmission function from the beam profile of the test laser. Finally, our test bed for studying coronagraphic techniques is nearing completion. The optical setup is currently configured as a classical coronagraph and can easily be re-configured for studying speckle reduction techniques. The development of the test bed control software is under way. This paper we will give an update of the status of the individual program elements.

  18. Computational techniques in bioelectromagnetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iskander, Magdy F.

    1991-11-01

    Computer modeling and numerical techniques played an important role, found a wide variety of applications, and provided valuable results in the area of bioelectromagnetics. These techniques were used to calculate electromagnetic specific absorption rates (SARs) in various biological models, including humans, and to evaluate a wide variety of applicators used to administer microwave hyperthermia for cancer treatment both noninvasively and interstitially. Computational methods were also used to examine the feasibility of using microwaves in medical diagnosis and imaging. In these biomedical applications, both near- and far-field radiations were modeled and incident radiation from single and phased array antennas were utilized. In this paper, we review some of the computational techniques used in bioelectromagnetics. Example results are presented to illustrate the wide variety of applications involved in the area of bioelectromagnetics research. Advantages, limitations, and the complementary nature of three numerical techniques based on the method of moments, finite-difference time-domain, and the spherical-wave expansion methods are discussed. Tradeoffs involved in selecting a specific solution procedure to analyze the highly diverse applications in bioelectromagnetics are discussed and future needs in bioelectromagnetics research are briefly described.

  19. New Teaching Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Education (Washington D.C.), 1985

    1985-01-01

    Health educators have consistently shown creativity in using innovative teaching techniques. Three articles from the past discuss "new" teaching methods: (1) "A Radio Project Teaches Your Class" (Miller); (2) "An Activity Program in Alcohol Education" (Breg); and (3) "Teaching Health Through Pictures" (Haviland). (CB)

  20. Art Appreciation and Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Diane R.; Milam, Debora

    1985-01-01

    Presents examples of independent study units for gifted high school students in a resource room setting. Both art appreciation and technique are covered in activities concerned with media (basics of pencil, India ink, pastels, crayons, oil, acrylics, and watercolors), subject matter (landscapes, animals, the human figure), design and illustration…

  1. Mathematical techniques: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Articles on theoretical and applied mathematics are introduced. The articles cover information that might be of interest to workers in statistics and information theory, computational aids that could be used by scientists and engineers, and mathematical techniques for design and control.

  2. Techniques in Teaching Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raimes, Ann

    A manual of techniques for teaching writing in classes of English as a second language (ESL) encourages composition beyond elementary-level sentence exercises. The objectives include communicating to a reader, expressing ideas without the pressure of face-to-face communication, exploring a subject, recording experiences, and becoming familiar with…

  3. Merchandising Techniques and Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Sylvie A.

    1981-01-01

    Proposes that libraries employ modern booksellers' merchandising techniques to improve circulation of library materials. Using displays in various ways, the methods and reasons for weeding out books, replacing worn book jackets, and selecting new books are discussed. Suggestions for learning how to market and 11 references are provided. (RBF)

  4. Techniques in Adlerian Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jon, Ed.; Slavik, Steven, Ed.

    This book is a collection of classic and recent papers (published between 1964 and 1994) reprinted from the "Journal of Juvenile Psychology""Individual Psychologist," and "Individual Psychology." Each of the five sections is introduced by the editor's comments. "General Techniques" contains the following…

  5. Values Concepts and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    This book contains 29 articles for elementary and secondary teachers dealing with fundamental concepts and teaching techniques in values education. Part one of the book deals with concepts. Louis E. Raths examines valuing and its relationship to freedom and intelligence. The cognitive developmental approach to moral education is discussed by…

  6. RFI Mitigation / Excision techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roshi, D. A.

    2004-06-01

    Radio frequency interference (RFI) is increasingly affecting radio astronomy research. A few years ago, active research to investigate the possibility of observing in the presence of interference using RFI mitigation techniques was initiated. In this paper, I briefly discuss four RFI mitigation/excision projects. These projects are:- (1) A technique to suppress double sideband amplitude modulated interference in which I show that an astronomical signal in the presence of a DSB interference can be observed with a signal-to-noise ratio factor of 2 less compared to observations if the RFI were not present. (2) Techniques to suppress interference due to synchronization signals in composite video signals are presented. A combination of noise-free modelling of the synchronization signals and adaptive filtering is used for suppressing the interference. (3) Design techniques to minimize spurious pick-up at the analog input of an analog-to-digital converter are discussed. (4) Spectral RFI excision using a spectral channel weighted scheme and its application to Green Bank telescope observations are also presented.

  7. Creative Job Search Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Vocational Journal, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Creative Job Search Technique is based on the premise that most people have never learned how to systematically look for a job. A person who is unemployed can be helped to take a hard look at his acquired skills and relate those skills to an employer's needs. (Author)

  8. The Symbolic Identity Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goud, Nelson H.

    2001-01-01

    Explains the role of symbols in attaining total psychic growth by applying concepts of C. Jung, R. Assagiolo, and L. Kubie. Describes a new strategy, the symbolic identity technique, which involves environmental exploration in a relaxed, receptive manner in order to discover something in the outer environment that reflects one's inner nature.…

  9. Techniques in Language Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, I. A.; Gibson, Christine

    This book attempts to introduce the reader to techniques of communication control, in listening and speaking as well as reading and writing. To this end, the use of a simplified vocabulary called Every Man's English is advocated. Section 2 presents some principles of Every Man's English. The contribution of Ogden's Basic English, a core vocabulary…

  10. Oral surgery. Basic techniques.

    PubMed

    Ross, D L; Goldstein, G S

    1986-09-01

    Some of the clinical problems most frequently seen in veterinary dentistry and their surgical solutions are discussed. Extraction of teeth, surgical repositioning of teeth, tooth transplant, oral abscesses of tooth origin, impaction of teeth, repair of maxillary canine oronasal fistula, and simple techniques for oral wiring are among the issues considered.

  11. Techniques in Adlerian Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jon, Ed.; Slavik, Steven, Ed.

    This book is a collection of classic and recent papers (published between 1964 and 1994) reprinted from the "Journal of Juvenile Psychology""Individual Psychologist," and "Individual Psychology." Each of the five sections is introduced by the editor's comments. "General Techniques" contains the following…

  12. Super Techniques for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Michael K.

    A variety of techniques can help a teacher create the atmosphere of a "quality circle," a Japanese management method in which each member of a group shares and contributes to the learning experience. "Creating a Commercial" allows students to create original oratory for presentation to the class. In "The Good News First," students improve their…

  13. The attribute measurement technique

    SciTech Connect

    Macarthur, Duncan W; Langner, Diana; Smith, Morag; Thron, Jonathan; Razinkov, Sergey; Livke, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Any verification measurement performed on potentially classified nuclear material must satisfy two seemingly contradictory constraints. First and foremost, no classified information can be released. At the same time, the monitoring party must have confidence in the veracity of the measurement. An information barrier (IB) is included in the measurement system to protect the potentially classified information while allowing sufficient information transfer to occur for the monitoring party to gain confidence that the material being measured is consistent with the host's declarations, concerning that material. The attribute measurement technique incorporates an IB and addresses both concerns by measuring several attributes of the nuclear material and displaying unclassified results through green (indicating that the material does possess the specified attribute) and red (indicating that the material does not possess the specified attribute) lights. The attribute measurement technique has been implemented in the AVNG, an attribute measuring system described in other presentations at this conference. In this presentation, we will discuss four techniques used in the AVNG: (1) the 1B, (2) the attribute measurement technique, (3) the use of open and secure modes to increase confidence in the displayed results, and (4) the joint design as a method for addressing both host and monitor needs.

  14. Correlative Techniques in Microscopy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Imaging is an important component in basic research, product development and understanding structure/function relationships in agricultural commodities and products. An array of microscopes and techniques can be used illustrate the structure and microchemistry of diverse samples. Examples of the var...

  15. Assessing Classroom Assessment Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson-Beck, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Classroom assessment techniques (CATs) are teaching strategies that provide formative assessments of student learning. It has been argued that the use of CATs enhances and improves student learning. Although the various types of CATs have been extensively documented and qualitatively studied, there appears to be little quantitative research…

  16. Problem Solving Techniques Seminar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. Six problem-solving techniques are developed in the booklet to assist individuals and groups in making better decisions: problem identification, data gathering, data analysis, solution analysis,…

  17. New Etch Monitoring Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Christina; Adamcyk, Martin; Levy, Yuval; Tiedje, Tom; Young, Jeff F.; Kelson, Itzhak

    2000-05-01

    Plasma etching is an important tool for the development of various types of nanostructures. The development of specific plasma etching procedures is often time-consuming. We will describe an new technique for IN-SITU monitoring of the etch rate and sidewall profile of 1D GRATINGS in a remote plasma etcher. The technique involves monitoring the energy loss of alpha particles that propagate through the layer being etched. Samples to be etched are impregnated by a thin near-surface layer of 224Ra nuclei that decay by alpha particle emission. The energy spectrum of the alpha particles is acquired at intervals in the etch process. The etch rate on flat surfaces can be determined quite simply by measuring the change in the peak energy of the transmitted particles. By using a simple geometric model that employs the Bethe Bloch formula for energy loss of charges particles the etch profile of masked samples can also be inferred.

  18. Network acceleration techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, Patricia (Inventor); Awrach, James Michael (Inventor); Maccabe, Arthur Barney (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Splintered offloading techniques with receive batch processing are described for network acceleration. Such techniques offload specific functionality to a NIC while maintaining the bulk of the protocol processing in the host operating system ("OS"). The resulting protocol implementation allows the application to bypass the protocol processing of the received data. Such can be accomplished this by moving data from the NIC directly to the application through direct memory access ("DMA") and batch processing the receive headers in the host OS when the host OS is interrupted to perform other work. Batch processing receive headers allows the data path to be separated from the control path. Unlike operating system bypass, however, the operating system still fully manages the network resource and has relevant feedback about traffic and flows. Embodiments of the present disclosure can therefore address the challenges of networks with extreme bandwidth delay products (BWDP).

  19. Oberst beam test technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasana, Alessandro; Garibaldi, Luigi; Giorcelli, Ermanno; Ruzzene, Massimo

    1998-06-01

    The definition of the mechanical properties of viscoelastic materials, i.e. the elastic modulus and the loss factor, is carried out, according to many national and international standards, with many different techniques, both of the resonant and non-resonant type. In this paper we focus our attention on the pros and cons of the resonant technique based on the classical Oberst beam method. When the damping material to be tested is not self-supporting, its properties are determined taking start from the measured modal frequencies and loss factors of a laminated beam, constituted by one or two metallic strips, ideally undamped, and one or two viscoelastic layers. The formulae specified on the standards hold valid under the assumptions of the theory developed by Kerwin, Ungar and Ross and we try in this paper to quantify witch deviation of the results should be expected when moving away from their ideal hypotheses.

  20. Nozzle fabrication technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Dennis L. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    This invention relates to techniques for fabricating hour glass throat or convergent divergent nozzle shapes, and more particularly to new and improved techniques for forming rocket nozzles from electrically conductive material and forming cooling channels in the wall thereof. The concept of positioning a block of electrically conductive material so that its axis is set at a predetermined skew angle with relation to a travelling electron discharge machine electrode and thereafter revolving the body about its own axis to generate a hyperbolic surface of revolution, either internal or external is novel. The method will generate a rocket nozzle which may be provided with cooling channels using the same control and positioning system. The configuration of the cooling channels so produced are unique and novel. Also the method is adaptable to nonmetallic material using analogous cutting tools, such as, water jet, laser, abrasive wire and hot wire.

  1. [Molecular techniques in mycology].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan Luis; Cuesta, Isabel; Gómez-López, Alicia; Alastruey-Izquierdo, Ana; Bernal-Martínez, Leticia; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel

    2008-11-01

    An increasing number of molecular techniques for the diagnosis of fungal infections have been developed in the last few years, due to the growing prevalence of mycoses and the length of time required for diagnosis when classical microbiological methods are used. These methods are designed to resolve the following aspects of mycological diagnosis: a) Identification of fungi to species level by means of sequencing relevant taxonomic targets; b) early clinical diagnosis of invasive fungal infections; c) detection of molecular mechanisms of resistance to antifungal agents; and d) molecular typing of fungi. Currently, these methods are restricted to highly developed laboratories. However, some of these techniques will probably be available in daily clinical practice in the near future.

  2. Instrument techniques for rheometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Ying Y.; Kassim, Hamida O.

    2005-10-01

    This article presents a review of some latest advances in rheology measuring techniques. Consideration is given to the modification and approaches in conventional measuring techniques and also to the development of specialty instruments. A number of sensing technologies such as nuclear-magnetic-resonance imaging and ultrasonic pulse Doppler mapping have recently been adopted to produce viscoelastic measurements for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian materials. The working principles of these technologies and their applications are described. Other recent developments in modifications of conventional rheometers for performance enhancement and for complex material characterizations have been thoroughly discussed. Some instrument designs and their special applications, such as interfacial rheometers, extensional rheometers, and high-pressure rheometers, have also been evaluated in detail.

  3. CTV rendezvous techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Jerry L.; Anderson, Robert L.

    The cargo transfer vehicle (CTV) requires the capability to perform automated rendezvous with Space Station Freedom (SSF) using onboard sensors and algorithms. The current approach to CTV rendezvous applies techniques developed during the orbital maneuvering vehicle (OMV) program which have been mechanized for automatic, onboard execution. The initial catch up sequence can be described as a passive rendezvous without explicit time of arrival control. The ultimate requirement for this rendezvous technique is to place the CTV on the SSF V-bar axis at some specified downrange distance. The launch vehicle will use yaw steering during orbit injection to achieve the proper phantom plane for nodal biasing. This presentation describes the primary components of the CTV rendezvous scheme.

  4. CTV rendezvous techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Jerry L.; Anderson, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    The cargo transfer vehicle (CTV) requires the capability to perform automated rendezvous with Space Station Freedom (SSF) using onboard sensors and algorithms. The current approach to CTV rendezvous applies techniques developed during the orbital maneuvering vehicle (OMV) program which have been mechanized for automatic, onboard execution. The initial catch up sequence can be described as a passive rendezvous without explicit time of arrival control. The ultimate requirement for this rendezvous technique is to place the CTV on the SSF V-bar axis at some specified downrange distance. The launch vehicle will use yaw steering during orbit injection to achieve the proper phantom plane for nodal biasing. This presentation describes the primary components of the CTV rendezvous scheme.

  5. Whole cell entrapment techniques.

    PubMed

    Trelles, Jorge A; Rivero, Cintia W

    2013-01-01

    Microbial whole cells are efficient, ecological, and low-cost catalysts that have been successfully applied in the pharmaceutical, environmental, and alimentary industries, among others. Microorganism immobilization is a good way to carry out the bioprocess under preparative conditions. The main advantages of this methodology lie in their high operational stability, easy upstream separation and bioprocess scale-up feasibility. Cell entrapment is the most widely used technique for whole cell immobilization. This technique-in which the cells are included within a rigid network-is porous enough to allow the diffusion of substrates and products, protects the selected microorganism from the reaction medium, and has high immobilization efficiency (100 % in most cases).

  6. Data collection techniques.

    PubMed

    Morgan, G A; Harmon, R J

    2001-08-01

    We have provided an overview of techniques used to assess variables in the applied behavioral sciences. Most of the methods are used by both quantitative/positivist and qualitative/constructivist researchers but to different extents. Qualitative researchers prefer more open-ended, less structured data collection techniques than do quantitative researchers. Direct observation of participants is common in experimental and qualitative research; it is less common in so-called survey research, which tends to use self-report questionnaires. It is important that investigators use instruments that are reliable and valid for the population and purpose for which they will be used. Standardized instruments have manuals that provide norms and indexes of reliability and validity. However, if the populations and purpose on which these data are based are different from yours, it may be necessary for you to develop your own instrument or provide new evidence of reliability and validity.

  7. Brain Vascular Imaging Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Laviña, Bàrbara

    2016-01-01

    Recent major improvements in a number of imaging techniques now allow for the study of the brain in ways that could not be considered previously. Researchers today have well-developed tools to specifically examine the dynamic nature of the blood vessels in the brain during development and adulthood; as well as to observe the vascular responses in disease situations in vivo. This review offers a concise summary and brief historical reference of different imaging techniques and how these tools can be applied to study the brain vasculature and the blood-brain barrier integrity in both healthy and disease states. Moreover, it offers an overview on available transgenic animal models to study vascular biology and a description of useful online brain atlases. PMID:28042833

  8. Novel Diffusivity Measurement Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashidnia, Nasser

    2001-01-01

    A common-path interferometer (CPI) system was developed to measure the diffusivity of liquid pairs. The CPI is an optical technique that can be used to measure changes in the gradient of the refraction index of transparent materials. This system uses a shearing interferometer that shares the same optical path from a laser light source to the final imaging plane. Hence, the molecular diffusion coefficient of liquids can be determined using the physical relations between changes in the optical path length and the liquid phase properties. The data obtained with this interferometer were compared with similar results from other techniques and demonstrated that the instrument is superior in measuring the diffusivity of miscible liquids while keeping the system very compact and robust. CPI can also be used for studies in interface dynamics and other diffusion-dominated-process applications.

  9. Particle-mesh techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macneice, Peter

    1995-01-01

    This is an introduction to numerical Particle-Mesh techniques, which are commonly used to model plasmas, gravitational N-body systems, and both compressible and incompressible fluids. The theory behind this approach is presented, and its practical implementation, both for serial and parallel machines, is discussed. This document is based on a four-hour lecture course presented by the author at the NASA Summer School for High Performance Computational Physics, held at Goddard Space Flight Center.

  10. Colorimetric protein assay techniques.

    PubMed

    Sapan, C V; Lundblad, R L; Price, N C

    1999-04-01

    There has been an increase in the number of colorimetric assay techniques for the determination of protein concentration over the past 20 years. This has resulted in a perceived increase in sensitivity and accuracy with the advent of new techniques. The present review considers these advances with emphasis on the potential use of such technologies in the assay of biopharmaceuticals. The techniques reviewed include Coomassie Blue G-250 dye binding (the Bradford assay), the Lowry assay, the bicinchoninic acid assay and the biuret assay. It is shown that each assay has advantages and disadvantages relative to sensitivity, ease of performance, acceptance in the literature, accuracy and reproducibility/coefficient of variation/laboratory-to-laboratory variation. A comparison of the use of several assays with the same sample population is presented. It is suggested that the most critical issue in the use of a chromogenic protein assay for the characterization of a biopharmaceutical is the selection of a standard for the calibration of the assay; it is crucial that the standard be representative of the sample. If it is not possible to match the standard with the sample from the perspective of protein composition, then it is preferable to use an assay that is not sensitive to the composition of the protein such as a micro-Kjeldahl technique, quantitative amino acid analysis or the biuret assay. In a complex mixture it might be inappropriate to focus on a general method of protein determination and much more informative to use specific methods relating to the protein(s) of particular interest, using either specific assays or antibody-based methods. The key point is that whatever method is adopted as the 'gold standard' for a given protein, this method needs to be used routinely for calibration.

  11. Electronic Packaging Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A characteristic of aerospace system design is that equipment size and weight must always be kept to a minimum, even in small components such as electronic packages. The dictates of spacecraft design have spawned a number of high-density packaging techniques, among them methods of connecting circuits in printed wiring boards by processes called stitchbond welding and parallel gap welding. These processes help designers compress more components into less space; they also afford weight savings and lower production costs.

  12. Numerical Techniques in Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    This is the compilation of abstracts of the Numerical Techniques in Acoustics Forum held at the ASME's Winter Annual Meeting. This forum was for informal presentation and information exchange of ongoing acoustic work in finite elements, finite difference, boundary elements and other numerical approaches. As part of this forum, it was intended to allow the participants time to raise questions on unresolved problems and to generate discussions on possible approaches and methods of solution.

  13. Resin infiltration transfer technique

    DOEpatents

    Miller, David V.; Baranwal, Rita

    2009-12-08

    A process has been developed for fabricating composite structures using either reaction forming or polymer infiltration and pyrolysis techniques to densify the composite matrix. The matrix and reinforcement materials of choice can include, but are not limited to, silicon carbide (SiC) and zirconium carbide (ZrC). The novel process can be used to fabricate complex, net-shape or near-net shape, high-quality ceramic composites with a crack-free matrix.

  14. Materials Coating Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    properties of the coating layers and their interaction with the bulk material will be considered. Lectures will also cover the behaviour of coated parts...stability etc. Finally, available techniques for the analysis and non-destructive evaluation of the composition. properties and soundness of the...provide stiffness or flexibility, and to carry the applied loads without macroscopic failure. Such properties are associated with the bulk material of

  15. Diagnostic techniques for dermatophytosis.

    PubMed

    Moriello, K A

    2001-11-01

    This article reviews the use of common diagnostic tools for the identification and isolation of dermatophyte infections in small animals. The use of the Wood's lamp as a screening tool is discussed, along with its usefulness as an aid in the microscopic examination of hairs for fungal elements. Tests for the definitive diagnosis of dermatophytosis are highlighted and include: direct examination of hair for ectothrix spores, fungal cultures, and skin biopsy. Sampling techniques, procedures, and interpretation of test results are also detailed.

  16. Advancement on Visualization Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    Aeroa and As ronautics Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA 02139 USA I !ii 1 I This AGARDograph was prepared at the request of the...the fields of science § and technology relating to aerospace for the following purposes: - Exchanging of scientific and technical information...Techniques for providing the pilot visualization have grown rapidly. Technology has developed fron mechanical gauges through electro-mechanical

  17. The Plate Overlap Technique.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-07-31

    INTRODUCTION 1 II. NOTATION 2 III. THE GNOMONIC PROJECTION 4 IV . THE PLATE OVERLAP TECHNIQUE 6 A. MOTIVATION 6 B. FORNULATION 9 C. ON STATISTICAL RIGOR 14 D...and new hardware. Since this aim was clearly recognized long ago, wherever possible in earlier documents or software development flexibility was...reader should see 1, 2, and 3. The procedures one should use to update stellar positions are discussed in 4 with applica- tions to the SAOC in 5. Non

  18. Weld braze technique

    DOEpatents

    Kanne, Jr., William R.; Kelker, Jr., John W.; Alexander, Robert J.

    1982-01-01

    High-strength metal joints are formed by a combined weld-braze technique. A hollow cylindrical metal member is forced into an undersized counterbore in another metal member with a suitable braze metal disposed along the bottom of the counterbore. Force and current applied to the members in an evacuated chamber results in the concurrent formation of the weld along the sides of the counterbore and a braze along the bottom of the counterbore in one continuous operation.

  19. Synthetic battery cycling techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibecki, H.; Thaller, L. H.

    1982-01-01

    The group of techniques that as a class are referred to as synthetic battery cycling are described with reference to spacecraft battery systems. Synthetic battery cycling makes use of the capability of computer graphics to illustrate some of the basic characteristics of operation of individual electrodes within an operating electrochemical cell. It can also simulate the operation of an entire string of cells that are used as the energy storage subsystem of a power system.

  20. Forming techniques and procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronde-Oustau, F.

    1980-09-01

    Several forming techniques are discussed including: (1) cooling stamping and swaging tools by the "Caloduc' methods; (2) non-burr stamping (stamping in a closed die); (3) continuous casting; (4) orbital forging; and (5) plastic deformation and spheroidal graphite iron. In addition, the subject of superplasticity is discussed in some detail, and brief consideration is given to precision forging, forging die castings, sintered forging, squeeze casting, ausforming, magnetoforming, and ultrasonic forming.

  1. Emerging technology and techniques.

    PubMed

    Chander, Gopi Naveen; Mutukumar, B; Sasikala, C; Dhanasekar, N

    2015-01-01

    A technique of fabricating feldspathic porcelain pressable ingots was proposed. A 5 ml disposable syringe was used to condense the powder slurry. The condensed porcelain was sintered at 900΀C to produce porcelain ingots. The fabricated porcelain ingots were used in pressable ceramic machines. The technological advantages of pressable system improve the properties, and the fabricated ingot enhances the application of feldspathic porcelain.

  2. Endovascular extraction techniques

    PubMed Central

    Bracke, F.A.; Meijer, A.; van Gelder, B.

    2001-01-01

    The use of lead extraction is expanding with the introduction of new endovascular extraction techniques. Indications for extraction of chronically implanted pacemaker leads have been classified as mandatory, necessary or discretionary, but their rationale is often based on clinical judgement without corresponding support from the literature. We reviewed the literature of pacemaker lead-related complications as a starting point for discussing the indications for lead extraction. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:25696699

  3. Endoscopic ultrasound hemostasis techniques.

    PubMed

    Artifon, Everson L A; Aparicio, Dayse P S; Otoch, Jose P; Carvalho, Paulo B; Marson, Fernando P; Fernandes, Kaie; Tchekmedyian, Asadur J

    2014-04-01

    Since its development, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has evolved from a simple diagnostic technique to an important therapeutic tool for interventional endoscopy. EUS analysis provides real-time imaging of most major thoracic and abdominal vessels, and the possibility to use needle puncture with a curved linear array echoendoscope as a vascular intervention. In this review, we describe the endoscopic ultrasound approach to vascular therapy outside of the gastrointestinal wall.

  4. Synthetic battery cycling techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Leibecki, H.; Thaller, L.H.

    1982-09-01

    The group of techniques that as a class are referred to as synthetic battery cycling are described with reference to spacecraft battery systems. Synthetic battery cycling makes use of the capability of computer graphics to illustrate some of the basic characteristics of operation of individual electrodes within an operating electrochemical cell. It can also simulate the operation of an entire string of cells that are used as the energy storage subsystem of a power system.

  5. Advanced echocardiographic techniques

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Echocardiography has advanced significantly since its first clinical use. The move towards more accurate imaging and quantification has driven this advancement. In this review, we will briefly focus on three distinct but important recent advances, three‐dimensional (3D) echocardiography, contrast echocardiography and myocardial tissue imaging. The basic principles of these techniques will be discussed as well as current and future clinical applications. PMID:28191159

  6. Dynamic Environmental Qualification Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    ORGANISATION DU TRAITE DE L’ATLANTIQUE NORD) AGARD Report No.682 DYNAMIC ENVIRONMENTAL QUALIFICATION TECHNIQUES II¥ ,n . r-,, q - .j, i ~Papers present d at...better the knowledge of sources of excitation, transmission paths, dynamic system behaviour , the better the understanding and establishment of appropriate...featuring resonance dwell have poor similarity to the dynamic equipment behaviour in the A/C. As a specific example, a vibration test with a

  7. Image compression technique

    DOEpatents

    Fu, C.Y.; Petrich, L.I.

    1997-03-25

    An image is compressed by identifying edge pixels of the image; creating a filled edge array of pixels each of the pixels in the filled edge array which corresponds to an edge pixel having a value equal to the value of a pixel of the image array selected in response to the edge pixel, and each of the pixels in the filled edge array which does not correspond to an edge pixel having a value which is a weighted average of the values of surrounding pixels in the filled edge array which do correspond to edge pixels; and subtracting the filled edge array from the image array to create a difference array. The edge file and the difference array are then separately compressed and transmitted or stored. The original image is later reconstructed by creating a preliminary array in response to the received edge file, and adding the preliminary array to the received difference array. Filling is accomplished by solving Laplace`s equation using a multi-grid technique. Contour and difference file coding techniques also are described. The techniques can be used in a method for processing a plurality of images by selecting a respective compression approach for each image, compressing each of the images according to the compression approach selected, and transmitting each of the images as compressed, in correspondence with an indication of the approach selected for the image. 16 figs.

  8. Scalp imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otberg, Nina; Shapiro, Jerry; Lui, Harvey; Wu, Wen-Yu; Alzolibani, Abdullateef; Kang, Hoon; Richter, Heike; Lademann, Jürgen

    2017-05-01

    Scalp imaging techniques are necessary tools for the trichological practice and for visualization of permeation, penetration and absorption processes into and through the scalp and for the research on drug delivery and toxicology. The present letter reviews different scalp imaging techniques and discusses their utility. Moreover, two different studies on scalp imaging techniques are presented in this letter: (1) scalp imaging with phototrichograms in combination with laser scanning microscopy, and (2) follicular measurements with cyanoacrylate surface replicas and light microscopy in combination with laser scanning microscopy. The experiments compare different methods for the determination of hair density on the scalp and different follicular measures. An average terminal hair density of 132 hairs cm-2 was found in 6 Caucasian volunteers and 135 hairs cm-2 in 6 Asian volunteers. The area of the follicular orifices accounts to 16.3% of the skin surface on average measured with laser scanning microscopy images. The potential volume of the follicular infundibulum was calculated based on the laser scanning measurements and is found to be 4.63 mm3 per cm2 skin on average. The experiments show that hair follicles are quantitatively relevant pathways and potential reservoirs for topically applied drugs and cosmetics.

  9. Conchomeatoplasty: a new technique.

    PubMed

    Giacomarra, Vittorio; Spinato, Giacomo; Bullo, Federica; Da Mosto, Maria Cristina; Boscolo-Rizzo, Paolo; Tirelli, Giancarlo; Tirelli, Gianfranco

    2013-11-01

    Stenosis of the cartilaginous auditory canal is still difficult to resolve and many techniques of plastic surgery have been proposed. Our experience was first built up in treatment of stenosis of the tracheostomy in patients who had undergone laryngectomy. Since it is simple and effective, we have transferred and modified the technique to the treatment of stenosis of the external auditory canal and of the concha. Fourteen patients with stenosis of the cartilaginous auditory canal (diameters of the stenosis prior to surgery varied from 19 to 78.5 mm(2)) underwent day-surgery conchomeatoplasty under local anaesthesia. Eight months after the operation, the results are good. Following surgery, the surface of the auditory canal, measured at the narrowest point of the external auditory meatus, varied from a minimum of 113 mm(2) to a maximum of 254 mm(2). The technique we propose to correct the stenosis of the external auditory canal is easy to carry out, short, and may be performed under local anaesthesia. Lastly, the auditory canal and the ear auricle have a good blood supply, thus ensuring the flaps will survive.

  10. Safe monsplasty technique.

    PubMed

    Patoué, Audrey; De Runz, Antoine; Carloni, Raphael; Aillet, Sylvie; Watier, Eric; Bertheuil, Nicolas

    2017-07-14

    To improve their health and quality of life, obese patients undergo consultation after weight loss. In these patients, the sub-umbilical abdominal and pubic regions are often characterized by redundant skin, creating aesthetic and functional discomfort. Monsplasty is an important step in abdominoplasty or bodylift procedures. We report on an original technique used to correct deformity in the pubic region following weight loss. All interventions were performed by the same surgeon between April and December 2015. On stretched skin, we drew two lines 5 cm lateral to the median line on both sides and connected them with the arc of a circle placed 7 cm from the vulvar fork. Then, monsplasty marks extend to abdominal fold. During lower abdominal contouring, we performed monsplasty with three separate stitches between the camper fascia and aponeurosis of the abdominal muscle. The aim was to bring tension to the pubic region without additional surgical procedure. We report on 21 consecutive cases of monsplasty following lower trunk contouring. No reoperation was performed due to complication or aesthetic demand (no under- or over-correction occurred). No complication (e.g. edema, seroma, disturbance of sensibility) was observed in the pubic area. The results were stable 1 year after surgery. We report on a simple, rapid, and reproducible monsplasty technique for all stages of Pittsburgh classifications, which achieved favorable results with no complication. We recommend performance of this effective technique simultaneously with abdominoplasty or bodylift procedures. IV.

  11. Image compression technique

    DOEpatents

    Fu, Chi-Yung; Petrich, Loren I.

    1997-01-01

    An image is compressed by identifying edge pixels of the image; creating a filled edge array of pixels each of the pixels in the filled edge array which corresponds to an edge pixel having a value equal to the value of a pixel of the image array selected in response to the edge pixel, and each of the pixels in the filled edge array which does not correspond to an edge pixel having a value which is a weighted average of the values of surrounding pixels in the filled edge array which do correspond to edge pixels; and subtracting the filled edge array from the image array to create a difference array. The edge file and the difference array are then separately compressed and transmitted or stored. The original image is later reconstructed by creating a preliminary array in response to the received edge file, and adding the preliminary array to the received difference array. Filling is accomplished by solving Laplace's equation using a multi-grid technique. Contour and difference file coding techniques also are described. The techniques can be used in a method for processing a plurality of images by selecting a respective compression approach for each image, compressing each of the images according to the compression approach selected, and transmitting each of the images as compressed, in correspondence with an indication of the approach selected for the image.

  12. [Progress in imaging techniques].

    PubMed

    Mishima, Kazuaki; Otsuka, Tsukasa

    2013-05-01

    Today it is common to perform real-time diagnosis and treatment via live broadcast as a method of education and to spread new technology for diagnosis and therapy in medical fields. Live medical broadcasts have developed along with broadcast technology. In the early days, live video feeds were sent from operating rooms to classrooms and lecture halls in universities and hospitals. However, the development of imaging techniques and communication networks enabled live broadcasts that bi-directionally link operating rooms and meeting halls during scientific meetings and live demonstration courses. Live broadcasts therefore became an important method for education and the dissemination of new medical technologies. The development of imaging techniques has contributed to more realistic live broadcasts through such innovative techniques as three-dimensional viewing and higher-definition 4K technology. In the future, live broadcasts will be transmitted on personal computers using regular Internet connections. In addition to the enhancement of image delivery technology, it will also be necessary to examine the entire image delivery environment carefully, including issues of security and privacy of personal information.

  13. Covariance mapping techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frasinski, Leszek J.

    2016-08-01

    Recent technological advances in the generation of intense femtosecond pulses have made covariance mapping an attractive analytical technique. The laser pulses available are so intense that often thousands of ionisation and Coulomb explosion events will occur within each pulse. To understand the physics of these processes the photoelectrons and photoions need to be correlated, and covariance mapping is well suited for operating at the high counting rates of these laser sources. Partial covariance is particularly useful in experiments with x-ray free electron lasers, because it is capable of suppressing pulse fluctuation effects. A variety of covariance mapping methods is described: simple, partial (single- and multi-parameter), sliced, contingent and multi-dimensional. The relationship to coincidence techniques is discussed. Covariance mapping has been used in many areas of science and technology: inner-shell excitation and Auger decay, multiphoton and multielectron ionisation, time-of-flight and angle-resolved spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, stimulated Raman scattering, directional gamma ray sensing, welding diagnostics and brain connectivity studies (connectomics). This review gives practical advice for implementing the technique and interpreting the results, including its limitations and instrumental constraints. It also summarises recent theoretical studies, highlights unsolved problems and outlines a personal view on the most promising research directions.

  14. Applied ALARA techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Waggoner, L.O.

    1998-02-05

    The presentation focuses on some of the time-proven and new technologies being used to accomplish radiological work. These techniques can be applied at nuclear facilities to reduce radiation doses and protect the environment. The last reactor plants and processing facilities were shutdown and Hanford was given a new mission to put the facilities in a safe condition, decontaminate, and prepare them for decommissioning. The skills that were necessary to operate these facilities were different than the skills needed today to clean up Hanford. Workers were not familiar with many of the tools, equipment, and materials needed to accomplish:the new mission, which includes clean up of contaminated areas in and around all the facilities, recovery of reactor fuel from spent fuel pools, and the removal of millions of gallons of highly radioactive waste from 177 underground tanks. In addition, this work has to be done with a reduced number of workers and a smaller budget. At Hanford, facilities contain a myriad of radioactive isotopes that are 2048 located inside plant systems, underground tanks, and the soil. As cleanup work at Hanford began, it became obvious early that in order to get workers to apply ALARA and use hew tools and equipment to accomplish the radiological work it was necessary to plan the work in advance and get radiological control and/or ALARA committee personnel involved early in the planning process. Emphasis was placed on applying,ALARA techniques to reduce dose, limit contamination spread and minimize the amount of radioactive waste generated. Progress on the cleanup has,b6en steady and Hanford workers have learned to use different types of engineered controls and ALARA techniques to perform radiological work. The purpose of this presentation is to share the lessons learned on how Hanford is accomplishing radiological work.

  15. Multimodality imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Sopena, Ramón; Bartumeus, Paula; Sopena, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    In multimodality imaging, the need to combine morphofunctional information can be approached by either acquiring images at different times (asynchronous), and fused them through digital image manipulation techniques or simultaneously acquiring images (synchronous) and merging them automatically. The asynchronous post-processing solution presents various constraints, mainly conditioned by the different positioning of the patient in the two scans acquired at different times in separated machines. The best solution to achieve consistency in time and space is obtained by the synchronous image acquisition. There are many multimodal technologies in molecular imaging. In this review we will focus on those multimodality image techniques more commonly used in the field of diagnostic imaging (SPECT-CT, PET-CT) and new developments (as PET-MR). The technological innovations and development of new tracers and smart probes are the main key points that will condition multimodality image and diagnostic imaging professionals' future. Although SPECT-CT and PET-CT are standard in most clinical scenarios, MR imaging has some advantages, providing excellent soft-tissue contrast and multidimensional functional, structural and morphological information. The next frontier is to develop efficient detectors and electronics systems capable of detecting two modality signals at the same time. Not only PET-MR but also MR-US or optic-PET will be introduced in clinical scenarios. Even more, MR diffusion-weighted, pharmacokinetic imaging, spectroscopy or functional BOLD imaging will merge with PET tracers to further increase molecular imaging as a relevant medical discipline. Multimodality imaging techniques will play a leading role in relevant clinical applications. The development of new diagnostic imaging research areas, mainly in the field of oncology, cardiology and neuropsychiatry, will impact the way medicine is performed today. Both clinical and experimental multimodality studies, in

  16. RFI emitter location techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. L. J.

    1973-01-01

    The possibility is discussed of using Doppler techniques for determining the location of ground based emitters causing radio frequency interference with low orbiting satellites. An error analysis indicates that it is possible to find the emitter location within an error range of 2 n.mi. The parameters which determine the required satellite receiver characteristic are discussed briefly along with the non-real time signal processing which may by used in obtaining the Doppler curve. Finally, the required characteristics of the satellite antenna are analyzed.

  17. Formulation techniques for nanofluids.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Solorio, Carlos I; Payán-Rodríguez, Luis A; García-Cuéllar, Alejandro J; Ramón-Raygoza, E D; L Cadena-de-la-Peña, Natalia; Medina-Carreón, David

    2013-11-01

    Fluids with suspended nanoparticles, commonly known as nanofluids, may be formulated to improve the thermal performance of industrial heat transfer systems and applications. Nanofluids may show enhanced thermal and electrical properties such as thermal conductivity, viscosity, heat transfer coefficient, dielectric strength, etc. However, stability problems may arise as nanoparticles usually have the tendency to agglomerate and sediment producing deterioration in the increment of these properties. In this review, we discuss patents that report advances in the formulation of nanofluids including: production methods, selection of components (nanoparticles, base fluid and surfactants), their chemical compositions and morphologies, and characterization techniques. Finally, current and future directions in the development of nanofluid formulation are discussed.

  18. Monovision techniques for telerobots

    SciTech Connect

    Goode, P.W.; Cornils, K.

    1987-01-01

    The primary task of the vision sensor in a telerobotic system is to provide information about the position of the system's effector relative to objects of interest in its environment. The subtasks required to perform the primary task include image segmentation, object recognition, and object location and orientation in some coordinate system. The accomplishment of the vision task requires the appropriate processing tools and the system methodology to effectively apply the tools to the subtasks. This paper describes the functional structure of the telerobotic vision system used in the Langley Research Center's (LaRC) Intelligent Systems Research Laboratory (ISRL) and discusses two monovision techniques for accomplishing the vision subtasks. 11 references.

  19. Optical Techniques in Optogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Samarendra K.; Lakshminarayananan, Vasudevan

    2015-01-01

    Optogenetics is an innovative technique for optical control of cells. This field has exploded over the past decade or so and has given rise to great advances in neuroscience. A variety of applications both from the basic and applied research have emerged, turning the early ideas into a powerful paradigm for cell biology, neuroscience and medical research. This review aims at highlighting the basic concepts that are essential for a comprehensive understanding of optogenetics and some important biological/biomedical applications. Further, emphasis is placed on advancement in optogenetics-associated light-based methods for controlling gene expression, spatially-controlled optogenetic stimulation and detection of cellular activities. PMID:26412943

  20. Western Blot Techniques.

    PubMed

    Kim, Brianna

    2017-01-01

    The Western blot is an important laboratory technique that allows for specific identification and characterization of proteins. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)-separated proteins are electophoretically transferred to a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane which is then incubated with specific antibodies, then developed to show the protein of interest. Here, we describe the transfer and detection of Outer surface protein A (OspA), a protein only found on the surface of Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacteria responsible for Lyme disease.

  1. SAR antenna calibration techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carver, K. R.; Newell, A. C.

    1978-01-01

    Calibration of SAR antennas requires a measurement of gain, elevation and azimuth pattern shape, boresight error, cross-polarization levels, and phase vs. angle and frequency. For spaceborne SAR antennas of SEASAT size operating at C-band or higher, some of these measurements can become extremely difficult using conventional far-field antenna test ranges. Near-field scanning techniques offer an alternative approach and for C-band or X-band SARs, give much improved accuracy and precision as compared to that obtainable with a far-field approach.

  2. Automatic Threshold Detector Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-15

    TECHNIQUES Contract No. DAAH01-76-C-0363 ER76-4208 15 July 1976 Prepared for: HEADQUA RTERS U.S. Army Missile Command Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35809 j...rain cross section each FFT filter) a MUT, MUCL , KCL, MUN, MUCLF (2 ), MUl, MUWI= MUW2 where MUT = Target cross section (M2), MUCL = total ground...variable is currently not used by the program. Since there is yet no point clutter model, MUCL represents the fluctuating component. Until a point plus

  3. Interviewing techniques: an overview.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Taking the correct precautions, being well prepared, doing the research, and reassessing the real needs when vacancies arise will assure success in hiring the best candidate for the job(s). Job descriptions, interviewing technique, communication style,and candidate evaluations are discussed as foundations for hiring successfully. Hiring managers should trust their own instincts if they have had previous success with hiring high performance employees. Often times it will come down to making a decision using best judgment based on the facts that have been gathered through the interview process.

  4. Intelligent Tracking Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-30

    11x6 + 12x9 + 13x9 + ]. = 17.78 and,156"’ Y = YBAR = 1-’[6x6 + 7x4 + 8x12 + 9x14 + ... ] 1888/156 12.10. The variances, S( 2 = I n n tu’ a • J - (XBAR)l...8217~~5. TYPE Of REPORT a PERIOD COVERED InelgntTakn Techniques i/ Fourth Quarterly Report Y -Report-July 1, 1979 - Sept. 30, 1979 .-ERFRMIN ORO...equipment which reduces its effectiveness. Effectiveness must be maintained in spite of enem~ y tactics encountered during an attack. One tactic which

  5. Synthetic battery cycling techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Leibecki, H.F.; Thaller, L.H.

    1982-01-01

    Synthetic battery cycling makes use of the fast growing capability of computer graphics to illustrate some of the basic characteristics of operation of individual electrodes within an operating electrochemical cell. It can also simulate the operation of an entire string of cells that are used as the energy storage subsystem of a power system. The group of techniques that as a class have been referred to as Synthetic Battery Cycling is developed in part to try to bridge the gap of understanding that exists between single cell characteristics and battery system behavior.

  6. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy: technique.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Thomas; Daels, Francisco; Desai, Janak; Hoznek, Andras; Knudsen, Bodo; Montanari, Emanuele; Scoffone, Cesare; Skolarikos, Andreas; Tozawa, Keiichi

    2017-01-25

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is considered to be the first line of treatment for large renal stones. Though PCNL comes with higher morbidity, its efficacy is unbeaten by other minimally invasive modalities. However, potential complications, such as bleeding, occur. Improved skills and modifications of the procedure may reduce the probability of adverse outcomes. This article discusses the current trends and standards in PCNL technique with special focus on all important steps as positioning, access, instruments, dilation, disintegration, and exit, including outcomes, complication management, and training modalities.

  7. ECM techniques generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunez, Abel S.; Marshall, Patrick T.; McGrath, Michael; Byers, Christopher D.; Simpson, Chad; Hong, Seng M.

    2006-05-01

    The development of electronic countermeasures against target track radars is both an expensive and time-consuming process. One method of cutting development time is to use genetic algorithms to develop electronic countermeasures using integrated software models of the target track radar and the jammer. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of this idea by using a genetic algorithm to optimize the parameters of a range gate pull-off electronic countermeasure technique to break the target lock of a generic radar split gate range tracker.

  8. Optical techniques in optogenetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, Samarendra K.; Lakshminarayananan, Vasudevan

    2015-07-01

    Optogenetics is an innovative technique for optical control of cells. This field has exploded over the past decade or so and has given rise to great advances in neuroscience. A variety of applications both from the basic and applied research have emerged, turning the early ideas into a powerful paradigm for cell biology, neuroscience, and medical research. This review aims at highlighting the basic concepts that are essential for a comprehensive understanding of optogenetics and some important biological/biomedical applications. Further, emphasis is placed on advancement in optogenetics-associated light-based methods for controlling gene expression, spatially controlled optogenetic stimulation and detection of cellular activities.

  9. Diamond Anvil Cell Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piermarini, Gasper J.

    It has often been said that scientific advances are made either in a dramatic and revolutionary way, or, as in the case of the diamond anvil cell (DAC), in a slow and evolutionary manner over a period of several years. For more than 2 decades, commencing in 1958, the DAC developed stepwise from a rather crude qualitative instrument to the sophisticated quantitative research tool it is today, capable of routinely producing sustained static pressures in the multi-megabar range and readily adaptable to numerous scientific measurement techniques because of its optical accessibility, miniature size, and portability.

  10. Landing techniques in volleyball.

    PubMed

    Lobietti, Roberto; Coleman, Simon; Pizzichillo, Eduardo; Merni, Franco

    2010-11-01

    Knee injuries such as anterior cruciate ligament lesions and patellar tendonitis are very frequent in volleyball, and are often attributed to micro traumas that occur during the landing phase of airborne actions. The aim of the present study was to compare different jumping activities during official men's and women's volleyball games. Twelve top-level matches from the Italian men's and women's professional leagues were analysed. The jumps performed during the games were classified according to the landing technique used by the player (left or right foot or both feet together), court position, and ball trajectory. Chi-square analyses were performed to detect differences in landing techniques between the sexes, court positions, and trajectories when serving, attacking, blocking, and setting. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were found between the sexes for block, set, and spike but not for the jump serve. The frequency of landings on one foot was related to court position and the trajectory of the sets: when spiking faster sets, the players were more likely to use a one-footed landing. The present results should help coaches and physiotherapists to devise appropriate training and prevention programmes, and reveal the need for further detailed biomechanical investigations of the relationships between landings and knee injuries.

  11. Code Optimization Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    MAGEE,GLEN I.

    2000-08-03

    Computers transfer data in a number of different ways. Whether through a serial port, a parallel port, over a modem, over an ethernet cable, or internally from a hard disk to memory, some data will be lost. To compensate for that loss, numerous error detection and correction algorithms have been developed. One of the most common error correction codes is the Reed-Solomon code, which is a special subset of BCH (Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem) linear cyclic block codes. In the AURA project, an unmanned aircraft sends the data it collects back to earth so it can be analyzed during flight and possible flight modifications made. To counter possible data corruption during transmission, the data is encoded using a multi-block Reed-Solomon implementation with a possibly shortened final block. In order to maximize the amount of data transmitted, it was necessary to reduce the computation time of a Reed-Solomon encoding to three percent of the processor's time. To achieve such a reduction, many code optimization techniques were employed. This paper outlines the steps taken to reduce the processing time of a Reed-Solomon encoding and the insight into modern optimization techniques gained from the experience.

  12. Oxygenated kidney preservation techniques.

    PubMed

    Hosgood, Sarah A; Nicholson, Harriet F L; Nicholson, Michael L

    2012-03-15

    Improving preservation techniques to minimize injury is of particular importance in organs from marginal donors. Since the introduction of transplantation and routine use of hypothermic temperatures for kidney preservation, there has been much debate on whether it is necessary to add oxygen to support the low level of metabolism under these conditions. Supplementing the kidney with oxygen during hypothermic preservation is not common practice. However, there is evidence to support its application. Oxygen can be added by various techniques such as retrograde persufflation whereby filtered and humidified oxygen is bubbled through the vasculature; under hyperbaric conditions using specialized pressurized chambers; during hypothermic machine perfusion; with the addition of oxygen carriers; and under normothermic conditions. Evidence suggests that oxygenation is particularly beneficial in restoring cellular levels of adenosine triphosphate after kidneys have been subjected to warm or cold ischemic injury. However, under normal conditions, the benefits are less convincing, but the evidence is insufficient to draw any conclusions. This overview explores the ways in which oxygen can be administered during preservation in experimental and clinical models of kidney transplantation.

  13. Information hiding technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younger, Michael; Budulas, Peter P.; Young, Stuart H.

    2002-08-01

    Spread spectrum communication techniques have been recognized as a viable method to gain an advantage in interference environments. Many military-oriented systems have been initiated, and some civil systems have been attempted. Spread spectrum allows the ability to hide the signal of interest below or in the noise floor, so as not to be detected. A spread spectrum system is one in which the transmitted signal is spread over a wide frequency band, much wider, in fact, than the minimum bandwidth required to transmit the information being sent. We at Army Research Lab (ARL) are proposing using the same technique on the Internet with port hopping. The information would be transmitted in data packets over multiple ports. The port used would vary per packet or per session basis. This port hopping gives you and the recipients the ability to take datagram's and spread them out over a multitude of ports. This will hide information among the Internet noise. This will allow trusted communications between the transmitter and receiver because of the port coding sequence. There are 64K possible ports to span datagram. Jamming of transmission would be limiting the ability of the sniffer/listener. Also, the listener will find it difficult to use a man in the middle attach, since the data will be spread over multiple ports and only the receiver and transmitter will know the specific port sequencing for the datagram.

  14. ALMA High Frequency Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, J. D.; Mason, B.; Impellizzeri, V.; Kameno, S.; Fomalont, E.; Chibueze, J.; Takahashi, S.; Remijan, A.; Wilson, C.; ALMA Science Team

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the ALMA High Frequency Campaign is to improve the quality and efficiency of science observing in Bands 8, 9, and 10 (385-950 GHz), the highest frequencies available to the ALMA project. To this end, we outline observing modes which we have demonstrated to improve high frequency calibration for the 12m array and the ACA, and we present the calibration of the total power antennas at these frequencies. Band-to-band (B2B) transfer and bandwidth switching (BWSW), techniques which improve the speed and accuracy of calibration at the highest frequencies, are most necessary in Bands 8, 9, and 10 due to the rarity of strong calibrators. These techniques successfully enable increased signal-to-noise on the calibrator sources (and better calibration solutions) by measuring the calibrators at lower frequencies (B2B) or in wider bandwidths (BWSW) compared to the science target. We have also demonstrated the stability of the bandpass shape to better than 2.4% for 1 hour, hidden behind random noise, in Band 9. Finally, total power observing using the dual sideband receivers in Bands 9 and 10 requires the separation of the two sidebands; this procedure has been demonstrated in Band 9 and is undergoing further testing in Band 10.

  15. [Neuromodulation - new techniques].

    PubMed

    Heinze, K; van Ophoven, A

    2015-03-01

    Neuromodulative procedures have become an inherent component in the therapy of functional urinary bladder and pelvic floor function disorders. Sacral neuromodulation has been used in Germany for more than 20 years and reresents the standard neuromodulative therapy. Technical improvements in the field of test stimulation and the phasing out of the large pulse generator models represent current changes with the resulting advantages and disadvantages. Pudendal neuromodulation (PNM) has been known for many years as a procedure for treatment of chronic diseases of the urinary bladder and the lesser pelvis and is predominantly used as second-line neuromodulative therapy; however, for pelvic pain syndromes and in particular for pudendal neuralgia, it represents a promising minimally invasive first-line therapy. Due to the technically demanding puncture procedure, PNM has so far only been used in Germany in specialized centers. Through the development of new operation techniques, the prerequisites for a wider multicentric use, with the future aim of approval of the procedure, have been achieved. External transdermal pudendal neuromodulation is a promising therapeutic approach and after further testing in randomized studies could find an application as a conservative step before minimally invasive pudendal neuromodulation. Although the technique of laparoscopic electrode placement on neural structures of the lesser pelvis is technically attractive, it predominantly finds a monocentric use and must in due course be critically compared with established minimally invasive procedures.

  16. Advanced Coating Removal Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seibert, Jon

    2006-01-01

    An important step in the repair and protection against corrosion damage is the safe removal of the oxidation and protective coatings without further damaging the integrity of the substrate. Two such methods that are proving to be safe and effective in this task are liquid nitrogen and laser removal operations. Laser technology used for the removal of protective coatings is currently being researched and implemented in various areas of the aerospace industry. Delivering thousands of focused energy pulses, the laser ablates the coating surface by heating and dissolving the material applied to the substrate. The metal substrate will reflect the laser and redirect the energy to any remaining protective coating, thus preventing any collateral damage the substrate may suffer throughout the process. Liquid nitrogen jets are comparable to blasting with an ultra high-pressure water jet but without the residual liquid that requires collection and removal .As the liquid nitrogen reaches the surface it is transformed into gaseous nitrogen and reenters the atmosphere without any contamination to surrounding hardware. These innovative technologies simplify corrosion repair by eliminating hazardous chemicals and repetitive manual labor from the coating removal process. One very significant advantage is the reduction of particulate contamination exposure to personnel. With the removal of coatings adjacent to sensitive flight hardware, a benefit of each technique for the space program is that no contamination such as beads, water, or sanding residue is left behind when the job is finished. One primary concern is the safe removal of coatings from thin aluminum honeycomb face sheet. NASA recently conducted thermal testing on liquid nitrogen systems and found that no damage occurred on 1/6", aluminum substrates. Wright Patterson Air Force Base in conjunction with Boeing and NASA is currently testing the laser remOval technique for process qualification. Other applications of liquid

  17. [Survival analysis techniques].

    PubMed

    Bustamante-Teixeira, Maria Teresa; Faerstein, Eduardo; Latorre, Maria do Rosário

    2002-01-01

    Statistical methods known as survival analyses are useful for analyzing time-related events, in which time from a benchmark event to an endpoint is the focus of interest. Survival analysis describes not only patient survival statistics (as suggested by the name), but also other dichotomous outcomes such as time of remission, time of breastfeeding, etc. This paper discusses survival analysis techniques, commenting and comparing their utilization, especially in the field of oncology. It also presents and discusses types of epidemiological studies and data sources to which this type of analysis is applied. The authors take into account the difference between hospital-based or clinical series and population-based approaches. Interpretation of results is also discussed.

  18. Extended Ewald summation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kylänpää, Ilkka; Räsänen, Esa

    2016-09-01

    We present a technique to improve the accuracy and to reduce the computational labor in the calculation of long-range interactions in systems with periodic boundary conditions. We extend the well-known Ewald method by using a linear combination of screening Gaussian charge distributions instead of only one. This enables us to find faster converging real-space and reciprocal space summations. The combined simplicity and efficiency of our method is demonstrated, and the scheme is readily applicable to large-scale periodic simulations, classical as well as quantum. Moreover, apart from the required a priori optimization the method is straightforward to include in most routines based on the Ewald method within, e.g., density-functional, molecular dynamics, and quantum Monte Carlo calculations.

  19. Data flow modeling techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavi, K. M.

    1984-01-01

    There have been a number of simulation packages developed for the purpose of designing, testing and validating computer systems, digital systems and software systems. Complex analytical tools based on Markov and semi-Markov processes have been designed to estimate the reliability and performance of simulated systems. Petri nets have received wide acceptance for modeling complex and highly parallel computers. In this research data flow models for computer systems are investigated. Data flow models can be used to simulate both software and hardware in a uniform manner. Data flow simulation techniques provide the computer systems designer with a CAD environment which enables highly parallel complex systems to be defined, evaluated at all levels and finally implemented in either hardware or software. Inherent in data flow concept is the hierarchical handling of complex systems. In this paper we will describe how data flow can be used to model computer system.

  20. DNA Vaccination Techniques.

    PubMed

    Fissolo, Nicolás; Montalban, Xavier; Comabella, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common inflammatory, demyelinating, and neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) in humans. Although the etiology of MS remains unknown, several lines of evidence support the notion that autoimmunity against components of the myelin sheath plays a major role in susceptibility to and development of the disease. At present, there are no approved MS therapies aimed specifically toward downregulating antigen-specific autoreactive immune cells. One antigen-specific approach that appears promising for the treatment of MS is DNA vaccination. This technique has demonstrated efficacy in clinical trials while maintaining safety.Here, we describe the generation of DNA vaccines containing immunologically relevant antigens of MS. Moreover, we present a detailed protocol for the prophylactic and therapeutic administration of DNA vaccines via intramuscular injection targeting on the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model resembling MS.

  1. Techniques for fire detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bukowski, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    An overview is given of the basis for an analysis of combustable materials and potential ignition sources in a spacecraft. First, the burning process is discussed in terms of the production of the fire signatures normally associated with detection devices. These include convected and radiated thermal energy, particulates, and gases. Second, the transport processes associated with the movement of these from the fire to the detector, along with the important phenomena which cause the level of these signatures to be reduced, are described. Third, the operating characteristics of the individual types of detectors which influence their response to signals, are presented. Finally, vulnerability analysis using predictive fire modeling techniques is discussed as a means to establish the necessary response of the detection system to provide the level of protection required in the application.

  2. Nondestructive Acoustic Imaging Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, Volker

    Acoustic imaging techniques are used in the field of nondestructive testing of technical components to measure defects such as lack of side wall fusion or cracks in welded joints. Data acquisition is performed by a remote-controlled manipulator and a PC for the mass storage of the high-frequency time-of-flight data at each probe position. The quality of the acoustic images and the interpretation relies on the proper understanding of the transmitted wave fronts and the arrangement of the probes in pulse-echo mode or in pitch-and-catch arrangement. The use of the Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique allows the depth-dependent resolution to be replaced by a depth-independent resolution and the signal-to-noise ratio to be improved. Examples with surface-connected cracks are shown to demonstrate the improved features. The localization accuracy could be improved by entering 2-dimensional or 3-dimensional reconstructed data into the environment of a 3-dimensional CAD drawing. The propagation of ultrasonic waves through austenitic welds is disturbed by the anisotropic and inhomogeneous structure of the material. The effect is more or less severe depending upon the longitudinal or shear wave modes. To optimize the performance of an inspection software tool, a 3-dimensional CAD-Ray program has been implemented, where the shape of the inhomogeneous part of a weld can be simulated together with the grain structure based on the elastic constants. Ray-tracing results are depicted for embedded and for surface-connected defects.

  3. Programing techniques for CDC equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, J. R.; Tiffany, S. H.

    1979-01-01

    Five techniques reduce core requirements for fast batch turnaround time and interactive-terminal capability. Same techniques increase program versatility, decrease problem-configuration dependence, and facilitate interprogram communication.

  4. Programing techniques for CDC equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, J. R.; Tiffany, S. H.

    1979-01-01

    Five techniques reduce core requirements for fast batch turnaround time and interactive-terminal capability. Same techniques increase program versatility, decrease problem-configuration dependence, and facilitate interprogram communication.

  5. Technique Selectively Represses Immune System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Matters December 3, 2012 Technique Selectively Represses Immune System Myelin (green) encases and protects nerve fibers (brown). A new technique prevents the immune system from attacking myelin in a mouse model of ...

  6. A Topological Technique for Regionalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantingham, Patricia L.; Brantingham, Paul J.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a mathematical technique for building perceptual models of urban areas. Uses techniques to model perceptual neighborhoods within a city and to explore how residential burglary rates vary between the interiors and borders of the neighborhood. (Author/MA)

  7. Improved Search Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albornoz, Caleb Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Thousands of millions of documents are stored and updated daily in the World Wide Web. Most of the information is not efficiently organized to build knowledge from the stored data. Nowadays, search engines are mainly used by users who rely on their skills to look for the information needed. This paper presents different techniques search engine users can apply in Google Search to improve the relevancy of search results. According to the Pew Research Center, the average person spends eight hours a month searching for the right information. For instance, a company that employs 1000 employees wastes $2.5 million dollars on looking for nonexistent and/or not found information. The cost is very high because decisions are made based on the information that is readily available to use. Whenever the information necessary to formulate an argument is not available or found, poor decisions may be made and mistakes will be more likely to occur. Also, the survey indicates that only 56% of Google users feel confident with their current search skills. Moreover, just 76% of the information that is available on the Internet is accurate.

  8. Fenestration obscuration techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smalley, Michael

    2007-10-01

    There are situations where it is advantageous to visually obscure through glass, to an external observer, the movement of people within a well lit room. It may be that the building use has changed or existing measures which had provided obscuration such as 'Bomb-blast' curtains have been discontinued. Recognising that implemented solutions must create the minimum disruption to outward visibility and involve the least procedural effort (be simple to use), the Centre for Protection of National Infrastructure, CPNI, commissioned this study, defining key requirements including: (a) Automatic or simple manual operation (b) Obscuration of movement within the building from outside (c) Varying levels of obscuration depending on the difference in internal and external light levels. (d) Minimum disruption to outward visibility (e) Acceptable for use on heritage and iconic sites (f) Easy to retrofit (g) Low cost This report reviews earlier work carried out into the protection of Guardrooms by the use of lighting techniques coupled with the use of reflective and screen printed films. Other innovative solutions including Electrochromatic controllable glazing which may prove more appropriate to office and commercial buildings are also considered. It is seen that some measures, (window films or blinds), are cost effective and unsophisticated while more complex automatic systems using reactive glazing can offer critical design advantages. It must be noted however that some of the key requirements are mutually exclusive and any solution chosen will always be a compromise based on client needs and circumstances.

  9. Sample preparation techniques.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, W A; Hill, V A

    1993-12-01

    Evidentiary false positives are caused by passive exposure to drugs in the environment rather than by active use of drugs. The avoidance of such positives is essential for both hair and urine analysis. Hair analysis enjoys the advantage over urinalysis in having a number of approaches for making this distinction. These include: methylene blue staining of the hair specimen for selecting the appropriate wash solvent; application of hair digestion techniques for the complete release of chemically unaltered analytes; the determination of three diagnostic ratios from wash and digestion data; the measurement of metabolite:drug ratios; the use of cut-off levels setting the limits for passive endogenous drug exposure; reproducibility of results (including segmental analysis) with a newly collected hair specimen; and the reporting of results as either negative, positive, or contaminated. Our sample preparation procedures have been effectively applied to the analyses of nearly 200,000 specimens, i.e. to approximately one million drug analyses for cocaine, opiates, methamphetamine, phencyclidine or marijuana. On the basis of this experience we conclude that hair analysis is a safe and effective method for workplace drug testing.

  10. Nozzle fabrication technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Dennis L. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A block of electrically conductive material which is to be formed into a body with internal and/or external surfaces that approximate hyperboloids of one sheet is placed so that its axis is set at a predetermined skew angle with relation to a traveling EDM electrode wire. The electrode wire is then moved into cutting proximity of the body wire. Thereafter, by revolving the body about its own axis, the external and/or internal surfaces of the body will be cut into an approximate hyperbolic surface of revolution depending upon whether the body is positioned with the cutting wire outside of the body or in a previously formed longitudinal passage in the body. As an alternative technique, elongated channels can also be cut into the wall of the body by successively orienting the body to a selected number of angular positions, with the electrode wire being either outside of the body or in a previously formed passage in the body. At each of these angular positions, the electrode wire is moved orthogonally with respect to the axis of the wire, while both the body axis skew angle and the rotational position about that axis is controlled by cutting a channel or groove in the body to relieve stresses in the body material or to convey a coolant fluid.

  11. Techniques of Electrode Fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Liang; Li, Xinyong; Chen, Guohua

    Electrochemical applications using many kinds of electrode materials as an advanced oxidation/reduction technique have been a focus of research by a number of groups during the last two decades. The electrochemical approach has been adopted successfully to develop various environmental applications, mainly including water and wastewater treatment, aqueous system monitoring, and solid surface analysis. In this chapter, a number of methods for the fabrication of film-structured electrode materials were selectively reviewed. Firstly, the thermal decomposition method is briefly described, followed by introducing chemical vapor deposition (CVD) strategy. Especially, much attention was focused on introducing the methods to produce diamond novel film electrode owing to its unique physical and chemical properties. The principle and influence factors of hot filament CVD and plasma enhanced CVD preparation were interpreted by refereeing recent reports. Finally, recent developments that address electro-oxidation/reduction issues and novel electrodes such as nano-electrode and boron-doped diamond electrode (BDD) are presented in the overview.

  12. Nozzle fabrication technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Dennis L. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A block of electrically-conductive material which is to be formed into a body with internal and/or external surfaces that approximate hyperboloids of one sheet is placed so that its axis is set at a predetermined skew angle with relation to a travelling EDM electrode wire and the electrode wire is then moved into cutting proximity of the body. Thereafter, by revolving the body about its own axis, the external and/or internal surfaces of the body will be cut into an approximate hyperbolic surface of revolution depending upon whether the body is positioned with the cutting wire outside of the body or in a previously-formed longitudinal passage in the body. As an alternative technique, elongated channels can also be cut into the walls of the body by successively orienting the body to a selected number of angular positions with the electrode wire being either outside of the body or in a previously-formed passage in the body. At each of these angular positions, the electrode wire is moved orthogonally with respect to the axis of the wire while both the body axis skew angle and the rotational position about that axis are controlled for cutting a channel or groove in the body as required to relieve stresses in the material of the body or to convey a coolant fluid.

  13. Laser Scar Management Technique

    PubMed Central

    Ohshiro, Toshio; Sasaki, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims: Scars are common and cause functional problems and psychological morbidity. Recent advances in optical technologies have produced various laser systems capable of revising the appearance of scars from various etiologies to optimize their appearance. Methods: Laser treatment can commence as early as the time of the initial injury and as late as several years after the injury. Several optical technologies are currently available and combined laser/light treatments are required for treatment of scars. Since 2006, we have set up a scar management department in our clinic and more than 2000 patients have been treated by our combined laser irradiation techniques. Herein, we review several available light technologies for treatment of surgical, traumatic, and inflammatory scars, and discuss our combined laser treatment of scars, based upon our clinical experience. Results and Conclusions: Because scars have a variety of potential aetiologies and take a number of forms, no single approach can consistenty provide good scar treatment and management. The combination of laser and devices is essential, the choice of wavelength and approach being dictated by each patient as an individual. PMID:24511202

  14. Microorganism identification technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sillman, R. E.

    1985-07-02

    An identification technique for micro-organisms in which a dilute solution of a culture medium containing an unknown micro-organism has added thereto an emissive agent such as a radioactive amino acid to produce a mix of emissive products that depends on the metabolic mechanism of the micro-organism. After a predetermined incubation period, the reaction is arrested and the solution layered onto a gel plate where it is subjected to electrophoresis. The plate is then autoradiographed by exposing the gel to a sensitive photographic film for a period sufficient to produce thereon a characteristic band pattern functioning as an identifier for the micro-organism. Identification may be effected by comparing the identifier for the unknown with a collection of identifiers for known micro-organisms to find a match with one of these known identifiers. The comparison is preferably carried out by scanning the unknown identifier to produce a signal which is compared with signals representing known identifiers stored in a computer which, when a match is found, yields identification data. Alternatively, the emissive products, after separation, may be detected by direct scanning to provide an identifier signal for computer processing.

  15. COHERENT-LIGHT RECORDING TECHNIQUES.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The purpose of this report is to summarize, define and demonstrate techniques necessary for the application of coherent light to the problems of...Investigations into such areas as the coherent light source itself, modulation, deflection or scanning techniques, readout techniques and the evaluation of recording media are reported.

  16. Ethical Use of Gestalt Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Given, Jane A.

    The purpose of this paper is to engender a healthy respect for Gestalt theory and techniques and the use of the techniques in the client's best interest and in the interest of positive professional and self-development in the practitioner. An overview of Gestalt techniques is provided, concentrating on the two category divisions of experiments and…

  17. Dose Reduction Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    WAGGONER, L.O.

    2000-05-16

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program.

  18. Advanced qualification techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Winokur, P.S; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Meisenheimer, T.L.; Fleetwood, D.M.

    1993-12-01

    This paper demonstrates use of the Qualified Manufacturers List (QML) methodology to qualify commercial and military microelectronics for use in space applications. QML ``builds in`` the hardness of product through statistical process control (SPC) of technology parameters relevant to the radiation response, test structure to integrated circuit (IC) correlations, and techniques for extrapolating laboratory test results to low-dose-rate space scenarios. Each of these elements is demonstrated and shown to be a cost-effective alternative to expensive end-of-line IC testing. Several examples of test structured-IC correlations are provided and recent work on complications arising from transistor scaling and geometry is discussed. The use of a 10-keV x-ray wafer-level test system to support SPC and establish ``process capability`` is illustrated and a comparison of 10-keV x-ray and Co{sup 60} gamma irradiations is provided for a wide range of CMOS technologies. The x-ray tester is shown to be cost-effective and its use in lot acceptance/qualification is recommended. Finally, a comparison is provided between MIL-STD-883D, Test Method 1019.4, which governs the testing of packaged semiconductor microcircuits in the DoD, and ESA/SSC Basic Specification No. 22900, Europe`s Total Dose Steady-State Irradiation Test Method. Test Method 1019.4 focuses on conservative estimates of MOS hardness for space and tactical applications, while Basic Specification 22900 focuses on improved simulation of low-dose-rate space environments.

  19. Techniques in Broadband Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Erskine, D J

    2004-01-04

    This is a compilation of my patents issued from 1997 to 2002, generally describing interferometer techniques that modify the coherence properties of broad-bandwidth light and other waves, with applications to Doppler velocimetry, range finding, imaging and spectroscopy. Patents are tedious to read in their original form. In an effort to improve their readability I have embedded the Figures throughout the manuscript, put the Figure captions underneath the Figures, and added section headings. Otherwise I have resisted the temptation to modify the words, though I found many places which could use healthy editing. There may be minor differences with the official versions issued by the US Patent and Trademark Office, particularly in the claims sections. In my shock physics work I measured the velocities of targets impacted by flyer plates by illuminating them with laser light and analyzing the reflected light with an interferometer. Small wavelength changes caused by the target motion (Doppler effect) were converted into fringe shifts by the interferometer. Lasers having long coherence lengths were required for the illumination. While lasers are certainly bright sources, and their collimated beams are convenient to work with, they are expensive. Particularly if one needs to illuminate a wide surface area, then large amounts of power are needed. Orders of magnitude more power per dollar can be obtained from a simple flashlamp, or for that matter, a 50 cent light bulb. Yet these inexpensive sources cannot practically be used for Doppler velocimetry because their coherence length is extremely short, i.e. their bandwidth is much too wide. Hence the motivation for patents 1 & 2 is a method (White Light Velocimetry) for allowing use of these powerful but incoherent lamps for interferometry. The coherence of the illumination is modified by passing it through a preparatory interferometer.

  20. Fog dispersion. [charged particle technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, L. S.; Frost, W.

    1980-01-01

    The concept of using the charged particle technique to disperse warm fog at airports is investigated and compared with other techniques. The charged particle technique shows potential for warm fog dispersal, but experimental verification of several significant parameters, such as particle mobility and charge density, is needed. Seeding and helicopter downwash techniques are also effective for warm fog disperals, but presently are not believed to be viable techniques for routine airport operations. Thermal systems are currently used at a few overseas airports; however, they are expensive and pose potential environmental problems.

  1. Aseptic technique in microgravity.

    PubMed

    McCuaig, K

    1992-11-01

    Within the next decade, the United States will launch a space station into low Earth orbit as a preliminary step toward a manned mission to Mars. Provision of asepsis in the unique microgravity environment, essential in operative and invasive procedures, is addressed. An assessment of conventional terrestrial aseptic methods and possible modifications for a microgravity environment was done during the microgravity portion of parabolic flight on NASA KC-135 aircraft. During 110 parabolas on three flight days, a "surgical team" (surgeon, scrub nurse and circulating nurse) using a life size mannequin fastened to a prototype surgical "work station" (operating table), evaluated open and closed gloving (ten parabolas), skin preparation (six parabolas), surgical scrub methods (24 parabolas), gowning (22 parabolas) and draping (48 parabolas). Evaluated were povidone iodine solution, 1 percent povidone iodine detergent, Chloroxylenol with detergent, wet prep soap sponge, a water insoluble iodophor polymer (DuraPrep, 3M), disposable towels, disposable and reusable gowns, large and small disposable drapes with and without adhesive edges, disposable latex surgeon's gloves with and without packaging modifications and restraint mechanisms (tether, swiss seat, waist and foot restraint devices, fairfield and wire clamps and clips). Ease of use, provision of restraint for supplies and personnel and waste disposal were assessed. The literature was reviewed and its relevance to the space environment discussed, including risk factors, environmental contamination, immune status and microbiology. The microgravity environment, limited water supply and restricted operating area mandated that modifications of fabrication and packaging of supplies and technique be made to create and preserve asepsis. Material must meet stringent flammability and off-gassing standards. Either a chlorhexidine or povidone iodine detergent prepackaged brush and sponge would provide an adequate scrub plus

  2. PDV Probe Alignment Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Whitworth, T L; May, C M; Strand, O T

    2007-10-26

    This alignment technique was developed while performing heterodyne velocimetry measurements at LLNL. There are a few minor items needed, such as a white card with aperture in center, visible alignment laser, IR back reflection meter, and a microscope to view the bridge surface. The work was performed on KCP flyers that were 6 and 8 mils wide. The probes used were Oz Optics manufactured with focal distances of 42mm and 26mm. Both probes provide a spot size of approximately 80?m at 1550nm. The 42mm probes were specified to provide an internal back reflection of -35 to -40dB, and the probe back reflections were measured to be -37dB and -33dB. The 26mm probes were specified as -30dB and both measured -30.5dB. The probe is initially aligned normal to the flyer/bridge surface. This provides a very high return signal, up to -2dB, due to the bridge reflectivity. A white card with a hole in the center as an aperture can be used to check the reflected beam position relative to the probe and launch beam, and the alignment laser spot centered on the bridge, see Figure 1 and Figure 2. The IR back reflection meter is used to measure the dB return from the probe and surface, and a white card or similar object is inserted between the probe and surface to block surface reflection. It may take several iterations between the visible alignment laser and the IR back reflection meter to complete this alignment procedure. Once aligned normal to the surface, the probe should be tilted to position the visible alignment beam as shown in Figure 3, and the flyer should be translated in the X and Y axis to reposition the alignment beam onto the flyer as shown in Figure 4. This tilting of the probe minimizes the amount of light from the bridge reflection into the fiber within the probe while maintaining the alignment as near normal to the flyer surface as possible. When the back reflection is measured after the tilt adjustment, the level should be about -3dB to -6dB higher than the probes

  3. Ultra high speed image processing techniques. [electronic packaging techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, T.; Hoeschele, D. F.; Connery, R.; Ehland, J.; Billings, J.

    1981-01-01

    Packaging techniques for ultra high speed image processing were developed. These techniques involve the development of a signal feedthrough technique through LSI/VLSI sapphire substrates. This allows the stacking of LSI/VLSI circuit substrates in a 3 dimensional package with greatly reduced length of interconnecting lines between the LSI/VLSI circuits. The reduced parasitic capacitances results in higher LSI/VLSI computational speeds at significantly reduced power consumption levels.

  4. Theorists and Techniques: Connecting Education Theories to Lamaze Teaching Techniques.

    PubMed

    Podgurski, Mary Jo

    2016-01-01

    Should childbirth educators connect education theory to technique? Is there more to learning about theorists than memorizing facts for an assessment? Are childbirth educators uniquely poised to glean wisdom from theorists and enhance their classes with interactive techniques inspiring participant knowledge and empowerment? Yes, yes, and yes. This article will explore how an awareness of education theory can enhance retention of material through interactive learning techniques. Lamaze International childbirth classes already prepare participants for the childbearing year by using positive group dynamics; theory will empower childbirth educators to address education through well-studied avenues. Childbirth educators can provide evidence-based learning techniques in their classes and create true behavioral change.

  5. Classroom Assessment Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2003-12-01

    and the learner should be carefully observed and monitored. Forrest says that Student Portfolios, which document learning in more detail, seldom reveal how teaching contributes to students' progress. Cerbin further indicates that a course portfolio is essentially, a like a manuscript of scholarly work in progress. In this example, it is a work that explains what, how, and why students learn or do not learn in a course. In this paper, the author reports on a dozen techniques that could perhaps be used to document assessment of student learning. References : Cerbin, W. (1993). Fostering a culture of teaching as scholarship. The Teaching Professor, 7(3), 1-2. Edgerton, R., Hutchings, P., & Quinlan, P. (1991). The teaching portfolio: Capturing the scholarship in teaching. Washington, DC: American Association for Higher Education. Forrest, A. (1990). Time will tell: Portfolio-assisted assessment of general education. Washington, DC: American Association for Higher Education. Linn, R., Baker, E., & Dunbar, S. (1991). Complex, Performance-based Assessment: Expectations and Validation Criteria. Educational Researcher, 20 (8), 15-21. Narayanan, M. (2003). Assessment in Higher Education: Partnerships in Learning. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Lilly Conference on College Teaching, Miami University, Oxford, OH. Seldin, P. (1991). The teaching portfolio. Bolton, MA: Anker. Young, C. O., Sr., & Young, L. H. (1999). Assessing Learning in Interactive Courses. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching, 10 (1), 63-76.

  6. Correlation of cure monitoring techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, S. S.; Mopsik, F. I.; Hunston, D. L.

    Six different composite matrix or neat resin cure-monitoring methods are presently used to follow the cure process in a model epoxy system, and the results obtained are compared. Differential scanning calorimetry, viscosity monitoring, the ultrasonic shear wave propagation technique, dielectric spectrometry, and two different fluorescence intensity techniques are compared with a view to common traits and differences. Dielectric fluorescence and ultrasonic measurement techniques are noted to be applicable to on-line process monitoring.

  7. Hypersonic Wind Tunnel Test Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    AEDC TR-94-6 Hypersonic Wind Tunnel Test Techniques R. K. Matthcws and R. W. Rhudy Calspan CorporatioWAF_,DC Operations 4 August 1994 Final...REPORT TYPE ANn DATES COVERED I AuCluSt 1994 | Final --July 992 - May 1993 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Hypersonic Wind Tunnel Test Techniques 5 FUNDING... techniques because of the importance of defining the thermal environment of hypersonic vehicles. An overview of the materials/structures test

  8. Advanced techniques for ladar sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, William C.; Wangler, Richard J.; Condatore, Lawrence A., Jr.

    1995-06-01

    This paper discusses new techniques for providing a `FLIR like', multi-pixel range receiver for applications of control and guidance by an active LADAR system. The major tradeoffs in developing a LADAR sensor with multi-pixel high resolution capabilities using conventional techniques are large size, high cost, or a slow frame rate. SEO has conceived and is currently developing a new receiver technique using a Charge Coupled Device array element that shows great promise for overcoming all of these drawbacks. Although this technique is a new approach for LADAR sensors, it is a concept that has been used for decades in the receivers of common-module FLIR systems.

  9. Helium II level measurement techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celik, D.; Hilton, D. K.; Zhang, T.; Van Sciver, S. W.

    2001-05-01

    In this paper, a survey of cryogenic liquid level measurement techniques applicable to superfluid helium (He II) is given. The survey includes both continuous and discrete measurement techniques. A number of different probes and controlling circuits for this purpose have been described in the literature. They fall into one of the following categories: capacitive liquid level gauges, superconducting wire liquid level gauges, thermodynamic (heat transfer-based) liquid level gauges, resistive gauges, ultrasound and transmission line-based level detectors. The present paper reviews these techniques and their suitability for He II service. In addition to these methods, techniques for measuring the total liquid volume and mass gauging are also discussed.

  10. Decision Analysis Using Extended Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Joseph; Pauker, Stephen G.

    1985-01-01

    Clinical problems are often complex, repetitive and time dependent. Using only the classical decision tree formalism to model such details are often impractical if not impossible. A number of techniques are described here that could be used to reduce the complexity and to improve the representation. A case illustration describes how such techniques may be used.

  11. Field measurements involve various techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.P.; Byars, H.G. )

    1990-07-30

    A number of field techniques are available to determine the extent of corrosion on production equipment. This article on oil field corrosion explains the use of corrosion coupons, several types of probes, and various inspection techniques, and shows how to monitor iron content in water.

  12. TECHNIQUES FOR TEACHING CONSERVATION EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROWN, ROBERT E.; MOUSER, G.W.

    CONSERVATION PRINCIPLES, FIELD METHODS AND TECHNIQUES, AND SPECIFIC FIELD LEARNING ACTIVITIES ARE INCLUDED IN THIS REFERENCE VOLUME FOR TEACHERS. CONSERVATION PRINCIPLES INCLUDE STATEMENTS PERTAINING TO (1) SOIL, (2) WATER, (3) FOREST, AND (4) WILDLIFE. FIELD METHODS AND TECHNIQUES INCLUDE (1) PREPARING FOR A FIELD TRIP, (2) GETTING STUDENT…

  13. Numerical grid generation techniques. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The state of the art in topology and flow geometry is presented. Solution techniques for partial differential equations are reviewed and included developments in coordinate transformations, conformal mapping, and invariant imbeddings. Applications of these techniques in fluid mechanics, flow geometry, boundary value problems, and fluidics are presented.

  14. Visualization Techniques for Intrusion Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-01

    interactive animated 2D and 3D graphics in an Intrusion Detection (ID) Analysts Workbench prototype. Visualization techniques allow people to see and...Through the use of various types of detection tools and techniques , including signature based network intrusion detection, anomaly based network

  15. Resiliency Techniques in School Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molony, Terry; Henwood, Maureen; Gilroy, Shawn

    2010-01-01

    School psychologists can help build resilience in youth in many ways. This article offers a list of some easy techniques to use when working with individuals or groups, most based on basic cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) techniques. They include: (1) Emotional awareness; (2) Emotional Regulation; (3) Cognitive Flexibility; (4) Self-efficacy; and…

  16. Field techniques for sampling ants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ants occur in most environments and ecologists ask a diverse array of questions involving ants. Thus, a key consideration in ant studies is to match the environment and question (and associated environmental variables) to the ant sampling technique. Since each technique has distinct limitations, usi...

  17. Passage Retrieval: A Probabilistic Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melucci, Massimo

    1998-01-01

    Presents a probabilistic technique to retrieve passages from texts having a large size or heterogeneous semantic content. Results of experiments comparing the probabilistic technique to one based on a text segmentation algorithm revealed that the passage size affects passage retrieval performance; text organization and query generality may have an…

  18. Crack and flip phacoemulsification technique.

    PubMed

    Fine, I H; Maloney, W F; Dillman, D M

    1993-11-01

    The crack and flip phacoemulsification technique combines the advantages of circumferential division of the nucleus and nucleofactis techniques. As such, it adds safety and control to the procedure. We describe each of the surgical maneuvers, including machine settings, and explain the rationale for maneuvers and machine settings.

  19. TECHNIQUES FOR TEACHING CONSERVATION EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROWN, ROBERT E.; MOUSER, G.W.

    CONSERVATION PRINCIPLES, FIELD METHODS AND TECHNIQUES, AND SPECIFIC FIELD LEARNING ACTIVITIES ARE INCLUDED IN THIS REFERENCE VOLUME FOR TEACHERS. CONSERVATION PRINCIPLES INCLUDE STATEMENTS PERTAINING TO (1) SOIL, (2) WATER, (3) FOREST, AND (4) WILDLIFE. FIELD METHODS AND TECHNIQUES INCLUDE (1) PREPARING FOR A FIELD TRIP, (2) GETTING STUDENT…

  20. Selected Logistics Models and Techniques.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    Programmable Calculator LCC...Program 27 TI-59 Programmable Calculator LCC Model 30 Unmanned Spacecraft Cost Model 31 iv I: TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONT’D) (Subject Index) LOGISTICS...34"" - % - "° > - " ° .° - " .’ > -% > ]*° - LOGISTICS ANALYSIS MODEL/TECHNIQUE DATA MODEL/TECHNIQUE NAME: TI-59 Programmable Calculator LCC Model TYPE MODEL: Cost Estimating DEVELOPED BY:

  1. Precision porcelain jacket crown technique.

    PubMed

    Riley, E J; Sozio, R B; Casthely, F; Wilcko, M T; Sotera, A J

    1975-09-01

    A simple technique for construction of an aluminous porcelain crown has been described. An aluminous core is fabricated without platinum foil on a ceramic refractory die and, when retrieved, serves as a coping on the master cast. The technique and accuracy of fit are illustrated with the fabrication of an aluminous porcelain crown on the Bureau of Standards' full-crown die.

  2. Accuracy of implant impression techniques.

    PubMed

    Assif, D; Marshak, B; Schmidt, A

    1996-01-01

    Three impression techniques were assessed for accuracy in a laboratory cast that simulated clinical practice. The first technique used autopolymerizing acrylic resin to splint the transfer copings. The second involved splinting of the transfer copings directly to an acrylic resin custom tray. In the third, only impression material was used to orient the transfer copings. The accuracy of stone casts with implant analogs was measured against a master framework. The fit of the framework on the casts was tested using strain gauges. The technique using acrylic resin to splint transfer copings in the impression material was significantly more accurate than the two other techniques. Stresses observed in the framework are described and discussed with suggestions to improve clinical and laboratory techniques.

  3. Single Cell Electrical Characterization Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Mansor, Muhammad Asraf; Ahmad, Mohd Ridzuan

    2015-01-01

    Electrical properties of living cells have been proven to play significant roles in understanding of various biological activities including disease progression both at the cellular and molecular levels. Since two decades ago, many researchers have developed tools to analyze the cell’s electrical states especially in single cell analysis (SCA). In depth analysis and more fully described activities of cell differentiation and cancer can only be accomplished with single cell analysis. This growing interest was supported by the emergence of various microfluidic techniques to fulfill high precisions screening, reduced equipment cost and low analysis time for characterization of the single cell’s electrical properties, as compared to classical bulky technique. This paper presents a historical review of single cell electrical properties analysis development from classical techniques to recent advances in microfluidic techniques. Technical details of the different microfluidic techniques are highlighted, and the advantages and limitations of various microfluidic devices are discussed. PMID:26053399

  4. Single Cell Electrical Characterization Techniques.

    PubMed

    Mansor, Muhammad Asraf; Ahmad, Mohd Ridzuan

    2015-06-04

    Electrical properties of living cells have been proven to play significant roles in understanding of various biological activities including disease progression both at the cellular and molecular levels. Since two decades ago, many researchers have developed tools to analyze the cell's electrical states especially in single cell analysis (SCA). In depth analysis and more fully described activities of cell differentiation and cancer can only be accomplished with single cell analysis. This growing interest was supported by the emergence of various microfluidic techniques to fulfill high precisions screening, reduced equipment cost and low analysis time for characterization of the single cell's electrical properties, as compared to classical bulky technique. This paper presents a historical review of single cell electrical properties analysis development from classical techniques to recent advances in microfluidic techniques. Technical details of the different microfluidic techniques are highlighted, and the advantages and limitations of various microfluidic devices are discussed.

  5. Photogrammetric techniques for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tianshu; Burner, Alpheus W.; Jones, Thomas W.; Barrows, Danny A.

    2012-10-01

    Photogrammetric techniques have been used for measuring the important physical quantities in both ground and flight testing including aeroelastic deformation, attitude, position, shape and dynamics of objects such as wind tunnel models, flight vehicles, rotating blades and large space structures. The distinct advantage of photogrammetric measurement is that it is a non-contact, global measurement technique. Although the general principles of photogrammetry are well known particularly in topographic and aerial survey, photogrammetric techniques require special adaptation for aerospace applications. This review provides a comprehensive and systematic summary of photogrammetric techniques for aerospace applications based on diverse sources. It is useful mainly for aerospace engineers who want to use photogrammetric techniques, but it also gives a general introduction for photogrammetrists and computer vision scientists to new applications.

  6. Theorists and Techniques: Connecting Education Theories to Lamaze Teaching Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Podgurski, Mary Jo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Should childbirth educators connect education theory to technique? Is there more to learning about theorists than memorizing facts for an assessment? Are childbirth educators uniquely poised to glean wisdom from theorists and enhance their classes with interactive techniques inspiring participant knowledge and empowerment? Yes, yes, and yes. This article will explore how an awareness of education theory can enhance retention of material through interactive learning techniques. Lamaze International childbirth classes already prepare participants for the childbearing year by using positive group dynamics; theory will empower childbirth educators to address education through well-studied avenues. Childbirth educators can provide evidence-based learning techniques in their classes and create true behavioral change. PMID:26848246

  7. Satellite Moisture Retrieval Techniques. Volume 1. Technique Development and Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    VOLUME 2: Atmospheric Sounding Bibliography — NAVENVPREDRSCHFAC CR 83-01( b ) — for listings developed by literature search in the subject area. 19...Contractor Report CR 83-01 (a): Satellite Moisture Retrieval Techniques, Vol 1, Technique Development and Evaluation (2) CR 83-01 ( b ): Vol 2...AND EVALUATION Prepared By: A. Rosenberg, D. B . Hogan, and C. K. Bowman V /, RCA Government Systems Division, Astro-Electronics, Princeton, New

  8. Evaluation of thermophosphor temperature technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, S. W.

    1987-10-01

    For the past year the Enrichment Technology Applications Center (ETAC) of Martin Marietta Energy Systems has performed research and development on the thermographic phosphor method. The effort had two objectives: to provide a detailed error analysis for the thermal phosphor method for envisioned turbine applications; and to evaluate the technique in a laboratory environment in the 400 F to 700 F range by comparison with standard methods. This technique has the potential for solving a number of aerodynamic thermometry needs at the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC). Results place the thermophosphor technique on a firmer practical base from which to launch into more advanced aerodynamic measurement applications.

  9. Low Light Level TV Techniques.

    PubMed

    Gildea, J

    1970-10-01

    As the science of low light level sensing becomes better understood, the demand for systems with this capability has increased considerably in recent years. Low light level television systems are part of these low light sensing devices in which interest has grown. Development of low light level TV systems has, in turn, stimulated technical advances in new tube types with improved performance, development of electronic techniques which enhance the over-all performance, and design techniques which make the system more versatile and adaptable. A general look at some of these developments and techniques gives insight into the versatility and adaptability of low light level TV.

  10. MHV techniques for QED processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozeren, Kemal J.; Stirling, W. James

    2005-11-01

    Significant progress has been made in the past year in developing new `MHV' techniques for calculating multiparticle scattering amplitudes in Yang-Mills gauge theories. Most of the work so far has focussed on applications to Quantum Chromodynamics, both at tree and one-loop level. We show how such techniques can also be applied to abelian theories such as QED, by studying the simplest tree-level multiparticle process, e+e-→nγ. We compare explicit results for up to n = 5 photons using both the Cachazo, Svrcek and Witten `MHV rules' and the related Britto-Cachazo-Feng `recursion relation' approaches with those using traditional spinor techniques.

  11. Magnetic tunnel junction pattern technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Eugene; Schwarz, Benjamin; Choi, Chang Ju; Kula, Witold; Wolfman, Jerome; Ounadjela, Kamel; Geha, Sam

    2003-05-01

    We have developed a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) pattern technique that involves transforming the magnetic layer above the tunnel barrier in unwanted areas into an insulator, thus providing insulation between different MTJ devices without suffering common tunnel barrier shorting problems. With this technique, 90%-100% yielding MTJ devices have been observed. MTJ results using this process are superior to an etching based process. Switching distribution of patterned magnetic bits is also narrower using this novel technique. Process control and the ability to stop on the tunnel barrier have been demonstrated.

  12. Introduction: nanoimaging techniques in biology.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Alioscka A; Kruhlak, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    To dissect the astonishing complexity of the biomolecular machinery functioning within a cell, imaging has been an integral tool in biology, allowing researches to "view" the detailed molecular biology responsible for coordinating cellular life. To visualize the molecular components of cellular structures requires, in particular, imaging techniques capable of reaching nanoscale spatial resolutions. Such nanoimaging techniques are the focus of this volume. Chapters in the current volume are divided into four parts and include specialized techniques in the areas of light, electron, and scanning probe microscopy, as well as methodologies employing combinatorial and complementary imaging approaches.

  13. PIGE technique implementation at ININ

    SciTech Connect

    Policroniades, R. Martínez-Quiroz, E.; Méndez-Garrido, B.; Murillo, G.; Moreno, E.; Villaseñor, P.

    2015-07-23

    In this work, we present a general overview about the implementation at ININ of a Particle Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE) analysis technique, based on the bombardment of samples by protons and deuterons at different energies within our tandem accelerator facility. As it is well known, this technique is based on the detection of γ-rays emitted by nuclei in a target following a charged particle irradiation. The main feature of this technique, apart from being non-destructive and low time consuming, is that it allows a multi-elemental analysis of a sample, permitting an isotopic identification of many nuclides. Advances and some preliminary results are presented.

  14. PIGE technique implementation at ININ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Policroniades, R.; Martínez-Quiroz, E.; Méndez-Garrido, B.; Murillo, G.; Moreno, E.; Villaseñor, P.

    2015-07-01

    In this work, we present a general overview about the implementation at ININ of a Particle Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE) analysis technique, based on the bombardment of samples by protons and deuterons at different energies within our tandem accelerator facility. As it is well known, this technique is based on the detection of γ-rays emitted by nuclei in a target following a charged particle irradiation. The main feature of this technique, apart from being non-destructive and low time consuming, is that it allows a multi-elemental analysis of a sample, permitting an isotopic identification of many nuclides. Advances and some preliminary results are presented.

  15. Videogrammetric Model Deformation Measurement Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, A. W.; Liu, Tian-Shu

    2001-01-01

    The theory, methods, and applications of the videogrammetric model deformation (VMD) measurement technique used at NASA for wind tunnel testing are presented. The VMD technique, based on non-topographic photogrammetry, can determine static and dynamic aeroelastic deformation and attitude of a wind-tunnel model. Hardware of the system includes a video-rate CCD camera, a computer with an image acquisition frame grabber board, illumination lights, and retroreflective or painted targets on a wind tunnel model. Custom software includes routines for image acquisition, target-tracking/identification, target centroid calculation, camera calibration, and deformation calculations. Applications of the VMD technique at five large NASA wind tunnels are discussed.

  16. Multigrid techniques for unstructured meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavriplis, D. J.

    1995-01-01

    An overview of current multigrid techniques for unstructured meshes is given. The basic principles of the multigrid approach are first outlined. Application of these principles to unstructured mesh problems is then described, illustrating various different approaches, and giving examples of practical applications. Advanced multigrid topics, such as the use of algebraic multigrid methods, and the combination of multigrid techniques with adaptive meshing strategies are dealt with in subsequent sections. These represent current areas of research, and the unresolved issues are discussed. The presentation is organized in an educational manner, for readers familiar with computational fluid dynamics, wishing to learn more about current unstructured mesh techniques.

  17. Supercooling Water: A Simple Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geer, Ira W.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a technique for the supercooling of water, for use in the science classroom, involving adding common salt to a mixture of ice and water. Several investigations are included for use during (and after) the process of supercooling. (DS)

  18. Radio frequency baseband recording technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckman, D. C.

    1970-01-01

    Technique uses a helical-scan video recorder with auxiliary signal-conditioning equipment to provide an inexpensive, high-capacity magnetic tape recording of a 112 channel, phase-locked, multiplexed, baseband signal.

  19. Behavioral Techniques in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Theodore J.; Gambrill, Eileen D.

    1976-01-01

    Behavioral modification techniques are used with families of children in foster care as a way of helping them achieve long-range goals for their children. Case examples illustrate the goals, intervention plans, and the outcomes. (Author)

  20. Monitoring by Control Technique - Cyclone

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Stationary source emissions monitoring is required to demonstrate that a source is meeting the requirements in Federal or state rules. This page is about cyclone control techniques used to reduce pollutant emissions.

  1. Modern Observational Techniques for Comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, J. C. (Editor); Greenberg, J. M. (Editor); Donn, B. (Editor); Rahe, J. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Techniques are discussed in the following areas: astrometry, photometry, infrared observations, radio observations, spectroscopy, imaging of coma and tail, image processing of observation. The determination of the chemical composition and physical structure of comets is highlighted.

  2. Acoustic techniques for localizing holdup

    SciTech Connect

    Vnuk, D.

    1996-09-01

    Material that does not come out of a process as product or waste is called holdup. When this is fissile material, its location and quantity must be determined to improve safeguards and security as well as safety at the facility. The most common method for detecting and measuring holdup is with radiation based techniques. When using them, one must consider equipment geometry, geometry of holdup, and effects of background radiation when converting the radiation measurement into a fissile material quantity. We are developing complementary techniques that use tiny acoustic transducers, which are unaffected by background radiation, to improve holdup measurements by aiding in determining the above conversion factors for holdup measurements. Thus far, we have applied three techniques, Acoustic Interferometry, Pulse Echo, and bending Wave Propagation, of which the latter appears most effective. This paper will describe each of these techniques and show how they may ultimately reduce costs and personnel radiation exposure while increasing confidence I and accuracy of holdup measurements.

  3. Submucosal tunneling techniques: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kobara, Hideki; Mori, Hirohito; Rafiq, Kazi; Fujihara, Shintaro; Nishiyama, Noriko; Ayaki, Maki; Yachida, Tatsuo; Matsunaga, Tae; Tani, Johji; Miyoshi, Hisaaki; Yoneyama, Hirohito; Morishita, Asahiro; Oryu, Makoto; Iwama, Hisakazu; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Advances in endoscopic submucosal dissection include a submucosal tunneling technique, involving the introduction of tunnels into the submucosa. These tunnels permit safer offset entry into the peritoneal cavity for natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery. Technical advantages include the visual identification of the layers of the gut, blood vessels, and subepithelial tumors. The creation of a mucosal flap that minimizes air and fluid leakage into the extraluminal cavity can enhance the safety and efficacy of surgery. This submucosal tunneling technique was adapted for esophageal myotomy, culminating in its application to patients with achalasia. This method, known as per oral endoscopic myotomy, has opened up the new discipline of submucosal endoscopic surgery. Other clinical applications of the submucosal tunneling technique include its use in the removal of gastrointestinal subepithelial tumors and endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of functional and motility disorders. This review suggests that the submucosal tunneling technique, involving a mucosal safety flap, can have potential values for future endoscopic developments.

  4. Experimental techniques and measurement accuracies

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, E.F.; Yule, T.J.; DiIorio, G.; Nakamura, T.; Maekawa, H.

    1985-02-01

    A brief description of the experimental tools available for fusion neutronics experiments is given. Attention is paid to error estimates mainly for the measurement of tritium breeding ratio in simulated blankets using various techniques.

  5. Supercooling Water: A Simple Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geer, Ira W.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a technique for the supercooling of water, for use in the science classroom, involving adding common salt to a mixture of ice and water. Several investigations are included for use during (and after) the process of supercooling. (DS)

  6. Digital Techniques for Laboratory Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dart, S. Leonard

    1975-01-01

    Describes techniques and equipment intended to both improve laboratory measurements and also form a background for more advanced work by introducing the concepts of electronic and digital circuits. (GS)

  7. Monitoring by Control Technique - Condensers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Stationary source emissions monitoring is required to demonstrate that a source is meeting the requirements in Federal or state rules. This page is about condenser control techniques used to reduce pollutant emissions.

  8. Testing methods and techniques: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Mechanical testing techniques, electrical and electronics testing techniques, thermal testing techniques, and optical testing techniques are the subject of the compilation which provides technical information and illustrations of advanced testing devices. Patent information is included where applicable.

  9. Trends in breast reduction technique.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Omer; Westreich, Melvyn; Shalom, Avshalom

    2012-05-01

    There are two main approaches to breast reduction surgery today: the traditional long scar ("Wise-pattern") technique and the more recent short ("vertical") scar technique, which is becoming more popular. During the last two decades there has been a gradual shift between the two techniques, including at our institute. To evaluate the evidence behind this obvious trend. We retrospectively collected data fromarchived hospital charts of all patients who underwent breast reduction surgery during the period 1995-2007. Epidemicological, clinical and postoperative data were analyzed and compared between patients in whom the short scar vs. the long scar techniques was used. During the study period 91 patients underwent breast reduction surgery in our department: 34 with the Wise-pattern breast reduction technique and 57 with the short-scar procedure. There was no significant difference in operative and postoperative data, including length of hospital stay. In some of the categories there was even a slight advantage (but not statistically significant) to the former. The only significant difference was the size of reduction, with a tendencyto prefer the long scar technique for larger reductions; however, with experience gained the limit for short scar reductions was gradually extended to a maximum of 1470 g. We noticed a sharp increase in the safe and uneventful practice of the short scar technique in breast reduction of < or = 1400 g--especially in young women without extreme ptosis. This observation, together with other advantages, namely, reduced scar length, prolonged shape preservation and better breast projection, support the use of this technique.

  10. Immunodiagnostic Techniques for Bacterial Infections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    IMMUNODIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES FOR BACTERIAL INFECTIONS I E. A. EDWARDS M. W. RYTEL R. L. HILDERBRAND Lo REPORT NO. 77-39 4 .91 :::> NAVAL HEALTH...IMMUNODIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES FOR BACTERIAL INFECTIONS - ttEarl A. Edwards, M.S.t Michael W. Rytel, M. D.tt Richard L. Hilderbrand, Ph.D.t Naval Health...Hausler, Jr. (eds), Diagnostic Procedures for BacteriaZ, Mycotic, and Parasitic Infections , 6th Ed. Wash- ington, DC: American Public Health Assn

  11. Comparing techniques for pterygium surgery

    PubMed Central

    Alpay, Atilla; Uğurbaş, Suat Hayri; Erdoğan, Berktuğ

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To compare various techniques of pterygium surgery including bare sclera, intraoperative mitomycin C application, conjunctival flap reconstruction, and conjunctival autografting technique. Methods: This study is designed to compare 4 currently used techniques in order to determine the complication and recurrence rates after pterygium exision. Included in the study were 77 eyes from 60 patients. Bare sclera technique was used to treat 21 primary pterygia;mitomycin C was used to treat 20 (16 primary, 4 recurrent) pterygia;18 (17 primary, 1 recurrent) pterygia were treated by conjuntival flap reconstruction;and 18 (9 primary, 9 recurrent) pterygia were treated by conjunctival autografting technique. All patients who underwent surgery were followed up for between 6 months and 2 years. Results: Eight recurrences (38.09%) were observed in the bare sclera group whereas there were 5 (25%) recurrences in the mitomycin C group. In the conjunctival flap reconstruction group, 6 (33.33%) recurrences were detected. In the conjunctival autografting group, 3 recurrences were observed. There were no major complications threatening visual ability in the surgical patients. Conclusion: A comparison of the groups demonstrated that the recurrence rate was highest in the bare sclera group, and lowest in conjunctival autografting and mitomycin C treatment groups respectively. Although the conjunctival autografting technique is a more difficult and time consuming technique than the others, cosmetic and surgical results were found to be superior. We advise conjunctival autografting for the treatment of pterygium in view of the high recurrence rates of other techniques, and the possible complications of mitomycin C treatment for benign disease. PMID:19668546

  12. Comparing techniques for pterygium surgery.

    PubMed

    Alpay, Atilla; Uğurbaş, Suat Hayri; Erdoğan, Berktuğ

    2009-01-01

    To compare various techniques of pterygium surgery including bare sclera, intraoperative mitomycin C application, conjunctival flap reconstruction, and conjunctival autografting technique. This study is designed to compare 4 currently used techniques in order to determine the complication and recurrence rates after pterygium exision. Included in the study were 77 eyes from 60 patients. Bare sclera technique was used to treat 21 primary pterygia;mitomycin C was used to treat 20 (16 primary, 4 recurrent) pterygia;18 (17 primary, 1 recurrent) pterygia were treated by conjuntival flap reconstruction;and 18 (9 primary, 9 recurrent) pterygia were treated by conjunctival autografting technique. All patients who underwent surgery were followed up for between 6 months and 2 years. Eight recurrences (38.09%) were observed in the bare sclera group whereas there were 5 (25%) recurrences in the mitomycin C group. In the conjunctival flap reconstruction group, 6 (33.33%) recurrences were detected. In the conjunctival autografting group, 3 recurrences were observed. There were no major complications threatening visual ability in the surgical patients. A comparison of the groups demonstrated that the recurrence rate was highest in the bare sclera group, and lowest in conjunctival autografting and mitomycin C treatment groups respectively. Although the conjunctival autografting technique is a more difficult and time consuming technique than the others, cosmetic and surgical results were found to be superior. We advise conjunctival autografting for the treatment of pterygium in view of the high recurrence rates of other techniques, and the possible complications of mitomycin C treatment for benign disease.

  13. EMP and HPM Suppression Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Previous Results design procedure for quantum tunnelling devices. The first step is to give an accurate derivation of the fundamental tunnelling...number of techniques are presently used. In- cluded are the use of special device and circuit design techniques. Although of definite advantage...TEST SAMPLE PREPARATION Sections: IV-1 Material Fabrication rV-2 Test Cell Design PartV: LABORATORY MEASUREMENTS Sections: V-1 Test

  14. Surgical techniques of olecranon fractures.

    PubMed

    Wilkerson, James A; Rosenwasser, Melvin P

    2014-08-01

    Olecranon fractures are common upper extremity injuries. The vast majority are treated with operative fixation. Many treatment techniques have been described including tension band and plating. This review covers the most commonly used fixation techniques in detail, including pearls and pitfalls with case examples of both successful treatments and potential complications. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Data compression techniques and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benelli, G.; Cappellini, V.; Lotti, F.

    1980-02-01

    The paper reviews several data compression methods for signal and image digital processing and transmission, including both established and more recent techniques. Attention is also given to methods of prediction-interpolation, differential pulse code modulation, delta modulation and transformations. The processing of two dimensional data is also considered, and the results of the application of these techniques to space telemetry and biomedical digital signal processing and telemetry systems are presented.

  16. Complete arch implant impression technique.

    PubMed

    Ma, Junping; Rubenstein, Jeffrey E

    2012-06-01

    When making a definitive impression for an arch containing multiple implants, there are many reported techniques for splinting impression copings. This article introduces a splint technique that uses the shim method, which has been demonstrated to reduce laboratory and patient chair time, the number of impression copings and laboratory analogs needed, and the ultimate cost. Copyright © 2012 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Discovering the Botnet Detection Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahim, Aneel; Bin Muhaya, Fahad T.

    Botnet is a network of compromised computers. It just fellow the master slave concept. Bots are comprised computers and do the tasks what ever their master orders them. Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is used for the communication between the master and bots. Information is also encrypted to avoid the effect of third party. In this paper we discuss the Botnets detection techniques and comparative analysis of these techniques on the basis of DNS query, History data and group activity.

  18. Microscopy techniques in flavivirus research.

    PubMed

    Chong, Mun Keat; Chua, Anthony Jin Shun; Tan, Terence Tze Tong; Tan, Suat Hoon; Ng, Mah Lee

    2014-04-01

    The Flavivirus genus is composed of many medically important viruses that cause high morbidity and mortality, which include Dengue and West Nile viruses. Various molecular and biochemical techniques have been developed in the endeavour to study flaviviruses. However, microscopy techniques still have irreplaceable roles in the identification of novel virus pathogens and characterization of morphological changes in virus-infected cells. Fluorescence microscopy contributes greatly in understanding the fundamental viral protein localizations and virus-host protein interactions during infection. Electron microscopy remains the gold standard for visualizing ultra-structural features of virus particles and infected cells. New imaging techniques and combinatory applications are continuously being developed to push the limit of resolution and extract more quantitative data. Currently, correlative live cell imaging and high resolution three-dimensional imaging have already been achieved through the tandem use of optical and electron microscopy in analyzing biological specimens. Microscopy techniques are also used to measure protein binding affinities and determine the mobility pattern of proteins in cells. This chapter will consolidate on the applications of various well-established microscopy techniques in flavivirus research, and discuss how recently developed microscopy techniques can potentially help advance our understanding in these membrane viruses.

  19. Measurement techniques for liquid metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratajczak, M.; Hernández, D.; Richter, T.; Otte, D.; Buchenau, D.; Krauter, N.; Wondrak, T.

    2017-07-01

    The measurement of flow properties of liquid metals, such as flow rate, flow structure and gas distribution, is a challenging task due to the opaqueness, the high temperatures (e. g. 1500 °C for liquid steel or liquid silicon) and the corrosiveness of those fluids. In this paper, a short review about the recent developments of measurement techniques in the framework of the Helmholtz Alliance Liquid Metal Technologies (LIMTECH) is presented. It focuses on the development of contactless inductive measurement techniques exploiting the high electrical conductivity of those melts. These measurement techniques include the contactless inductive flow tomography (CIFT), which is able to reconstruct the mean three-dimensional velocity structure in liquid melts, local Lorentz force velocimetry (local LFV), which enables the local assessment of flows close to the wall, and inductive methods for bubble detection, which are based on mutual inductance tomography (MIT). Additionally, a short overview of contactless inductive flow rate measurement techniques is given. Furthermore, an ultrasound technique called ultrasound transit-time technique (UTTT) will be presented which enables the measurement of position and size of bubbles in large vessels.

  20. [Current techniques in tonsil surgery].

    PubMed

    Coromina Isern, Jordi; Esteller Moré, Eduard

    2010-12-01

    In recent years, consolidation of tonsillar hypertrophy as the principal surgical procedure has led to the emergence of new techniques. Most aim to reduce volume (tonsillectomy or tonsil reduction). These techniques have considerably decreased intra- and postoperative hemorrhages and pain intensity. The present article describes the mechanisms and the advantages and disadvantages of the various techniques, including electro-dissection using electrical scalpels, reduction using a microdebrider, ultrasonic scalpel, radiofrequency (with its different variations) and CO(2) laser. When techniques that reduce tonsil volume are used, the possibility of recurrence of the tonsillar hypertrophy is high if less than 85% of the tonsil is removed. There is also a considerable possibility of infection of the remaining tonsils, whichever technique is used, and therefore these techniques are not valid in the case of repetitive tonsillitis. Recently, alternatives to classical adenoidectomy using adenoid curette have also appeared. Bleeding can be minimized by using a microdebrider, radiofrequency or a blood coagulator. We also discuss the concept of partial adenoidectomy, which is preferred in patients at risk of velopharyngeal insufficiency.

  1. [Current standards of abdominal wall closure techniques : Conventional suture techniques].

    PubMed

    Heger, P; Pianka, F; Diener, M K; Mihaljevic, A L

    2016-09-01

    The most frequent complications following midline abdominal laparotomy include incisional hernias, which develop in 10-15 % of patients and surgical site infections in 15-25 % of cases; however, the risk of these complications can be reduced by the surgical technique and the use of special suture materials. In 2010, the INLINE meta-analysis performed by the Study Centre of the German Society of Surgery (SDGC) revealed that a continuous suture technique using slowly absorbable suture material resulted in the lowest risk of developing postoperative incisional hernia after elective midline laparotomy. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic literature search to identify all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have been published since 2010 concerning conventional abdominal wall closure in order to update the 2010 INLINE meta-analysis and summarize current evidence. On 28 January 2016, a systematic literature search was performed in MEDLINE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL). All RCTs dealing with abdominal wall closure after midline laparotomy were identified and included for further analysis. Since 2010 a total of 9 RCTs comparing different techniques of abdominal wall closure have been published. Three monocentric RCTs comparing different suture materials, showed no significant differences to the INLINE meta-analysis regarding incisional hernia development; therefore, slowly absorbable sutures using a continuous suture technique are still recommended for abdominal wall closure in elective cases. Furthermore, six RCTs were identified which investigated antimicrobial suture materials but failed to show an overall advantage for Triclosan-coated suture material with respect to surgical site infections. Current evidence shows that slowly absorbable monofilament suture material using a continuous suture technique provides the best results with regard to incisional hernia rates after elective midline laparotomy. Triclosan

  2. Landing techniques in beach volleyball.

    PubMed

    Tilp, Markus; Rindler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings) in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ(2)(2) = 18.19, p < 0.01) but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ(2)(2) = 161.4, p < 0.01) and women (χ(2)(2) = 84.91, p < 0.01). Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball. Key PointsAbout 1/3 of all jumping actions in beach volleyball result in a landing on one foot.Especially following block situations men land on one foot more often than women.Landing techniques are related to different techniques and positions.Landings on one foot are less common in beach volleyball than indoor volleyball. This could be a reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions.

  3. Landing Techniques in Beach Volleyball

    PubMed Central

    Tilp, Markus; Rindler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings) in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ2(2) = 18.19, p < 0.01) but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ2(2) = 161.4, p < 0.01) and women (χ2(2) = 84.91, p < 0.01). Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball. Key Points About 1/3 of all jumping actions in beach volleyball result in a landing on one foot. Especially following block situations men land on one foot more often than women. Landing techniques are related to different techniques and positions. Landings on one foot are less common in beach volleyball than indoor volleyball. This could be a reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions. PMID:24149150

  4. Applications of Electromigration Techniques: Electromigration Techniques in Detection of Microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziubakiewicz, Ewelina; Buszewski, Bogusław

    The detection and identification of microbes is a challenge and an important aspect in many fields of our lives from medicine to bioterrorism defense. However, the analysis of such complex molecules brings a lot of questions mainly about their behavior. Bacteria are biocolloid, whose surface charge originates from the ionization of carboxyl, phosphate, or amino groups and the adsorption of ions from solution. Consequently, the charged cell wall groups determine the spontaneous formation of the electrical double layer. In this chapter application of electromigration techniques for microorganism's identification and separation are described. This approach represents the possibility to apply electromigration techniques in medical diagnosis, detection of food contamination, and sterility testing.

  5. The imbrication technique: an alternative to the sliding leaflet technique.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Peter W; Assi, Roland; Hashim, Sabet W

    2014-09-01

    Systolic anterior motion (SAM) represents a common and troublesome complication of mitral valve repair. The prevention of SAM has traditionally been based on the sliding leaflet technique, which involves resection of posterior leaflet tissue. However, this approach has not been universally adopted owing to its technical difficulty and inconsistent efficacy. We present an imbrication technique that avoids additional leaflet resection and achieves a reliable prevention of SAM. The approach has been successfully implemented in the treatment of 124 consecutive patients at high risk for SAM. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Authentication techniques for smart cards

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.A.

    1994-02-01

    Smart card systems are most cost efficient when implemented as a distributed system, which is a system without central host interaction or a local database of card numbers for verifying transaction approval. A distributed system, as such, presents special card and user authentication problems. Fortunately, smart cards offer processing capabilities that provide solutions to authentication problems, provided the system is designed with proper data integrity measures. Smart card systems maintain data integrity through a security design that controls data sources and limits data changes. A good security design is usually a result of a system analysis that provides a thorough understanding of the application needs. Once designers understand the application, they may specify authentication techniques that mitigate the risk of system compromise or failure. Current authentication techniques include cryptography, passwords, challenge/response protocols, and biometrics. The security design includes these techniques to help prevent counterfeit cards, unauthorized use, or information compromise. This paper discusses card authentication and user identity techniques that enhance security for microprocessor card systems. It also describes the analysis process used for determining proper authentication techniques for a system.

  7. Review of uranium bioassay techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Bogard, J.S.

    1996-04-01

    A variety of analytical techniques is available for evaluating uranium in excreta and tissues at levels appropriate for occupational exposure control and evaluation. A few (fluorometry, kinetic phosphorescence analysis, {alpha}-particle spectrometry, neutron irradiation techniques, and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry) have also been demonstrated as capable of determining uranium in these materials at levels comparable to those which occur naturally. Sample preparation requirements and isotopic sensitivities vary widely among these techniques and should be considered carefully when choosing a method. This report discusses analytical techniques used for evaluating uranium in biological matrices (primarily urine) and limits of detection reported in the literature. No cost comparison is attempted, although references are cited which address cost. Techniques discussed include: {alpha}-particle spectrometry; liquid scintillation spectrometry, fluorometry, phosphorometry, neutron activation analysis, fission-track counting, UV-visible absorption spectrophotometry, resonance ionization mass spectrometry, and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. A summary table of reported limits of detection and of the more important experimental conditions associated with these reported limits is also provided.

  8. Cane Technique: Modifying the Touch Technique for Full Path Coverage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uslan, Mark M.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements of height of cane hand, cane length, step size, and forearm length of 17 cane using blind (14-21 years old) Ss were taken for the purpose of testing the hypothesis that the touch technique does not provide 100 percent path coverage. (Author)

  9. Aseptic technique for cell culture.

    PubMed

    Coté, R J

    2001-05-01

    This unit describes some of the ways that a laboratory can deal with the constant threat of microbial contamination in cell cultures. A protocol on aseptic technique is described first. This catch-all term universally appears in any set of instructions pertaining to procedures in which noncontaminating conditions must be maintained. In reality, aseptic technique encompasses all aspects of environmental control, personal hygiene, equipment and media sterilization, and associated quality control procedures needed to ensure that a procedure is, indeed, performed with aseptic, noncontaminating technique. Although cell culture can theoretically be carried out on an open bench in a low-traffic area, most cell culture work is carried out using a horizontal laminar-flow clean bench or a vertical laminar-flow biosafety cabinet. Both are described here.

  10. NASA standard: Trend analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Descriptive and analytical techniques for NASA trend analysis applications are presented in this standard. Trend analysis is applicable in all organizational elements of NASA connected with, or supporting, developmental/operational programs. This document should be consulted for any data analysis activity requiring the identification or interpretation of trends. Trend analysis is neither a precise term nor a circumscribed methodology: it generally connotes quantitative analysis of time-series data. For NASA activities, the appropriate and applicable techniques include descriptive and graphical statistics, and the fitting or modeling of data by linear, quadratic, and exponential models. Usually, but not always, the data is time-series in nature. Concepts such as autocorrelation and techniques such as Box-Jenkins time-series analysis would only rarely apply and are not included in this document. The basic ideas needed for qualitative and quantitative assessment of trends along with relevant examples are presented.

  11. Evaluation of standard watermarking techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marini, Enrico; Autrusseau, Florent; Le Callet, Patrick; Campisi, Patrizio

    2007-02-01

    In the last decade digital watermarking techniques have been devised to answer the ever-growing need to protect the intellectual property of digital still images, video sequences or audio from piracy attacks. Because of the proliferation of watermarking algorithms and their applications some benchmarks have been created in order to help watermarkers comparing their algorithms in terms of robustness against various attacks (i.e. Stirmark, Checkmark). However, no equal attention has been devoted to the proposition of benchmarks tailored to assess the watermark perceptual transparency. In this work, we study several watermarking techniques in terms of the mark invisibility through subjective experiments. Moreover, we test the ability of several objective metrics, used in the literature mainly to evaluate distortions due to the coding process, to be correlated with subjective scores. The conclusions drawn in the paper are supported by extensive experimentations using both several watermarking techniques and objective metrics.

  12. Post removal techniques part 1.

    PubMed

    Dickie, Jamie; McCrosson, John

    2014-01-01

    Dismantling restorations from teeth which require endodontic re-treatment can be difficult. Many dentists are reluctant to remove posts through fear of weakening, perforating or fracturing the remaining root structure. A variety of techniques have been described and developed for post removal. This is the first in a series of two papers which provide an overview of these techniques.The rationale for endodontic re-treatment, pre-operative assessment and factors affecting post removal are discussed. Techniques are illustrated with clinical case reports. The second paper describes the use of specific post removal devices and the removal of fibre posts. Endodontic re-treatment has a more successful long-term outcome than surgical treatment for failed root canal treatment. This may involve the removal of existing post restorations or portions thereof.

  13. A computational hyperspectral imaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi, Nasim; Azari, Mohammad; Abolbashari, Mehrdad; Farahi, Faramarz

    2016-03-01

    A novel spectral imaging technique is introduced based on a highly dispersive imaging lens system. The chromatic aberration of the lens system is utilized to spread the spectral content of the object over a focal distance. Two three-dimensional surface reconstruction algorithms, depth from focus and depth from defocus, are applied to images captured by dispersive lens system. Using these algorithms, the spectral imager is able to relate either the location of focused image or the amount of defocus at the imaging detector to the spectral content of the object. A spectral imager with ~5 nm spectral resolution is designed based on this technique. The spectral and spatial resolutions of the introduced technique are independent and can be improved simultaneously. Simulation and experimental results are presented.

  14. Resolution enhancement techniques in microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremer, Christoph; Masters, Barry R.

    2013-05-01

    We survey the history of resolution enhancement techniques in microscopy and their impact on current research in biomedicine. Often these techniques are labeled superresolution, or enhanced resolution microscopy, or light-optical nanoscopy. First, we introduce the development of diffraction theory in its relation to enhanced resolution; then we explore the foundations of resolution as expounded by the astronomers and the physicists and describe the conditions for which they apply. Then we elucidate Ernst Abbe's theory of optical formation in the microscope, and its experimental verification and dissemination to the world wide microscope communities. Second, we describe and compare the early techniques that can enhance the resolution of the microscope. Third, we present the historical development of various techniques that substantially enhance the optical resolution of the light microscope. These enhanced resolution techniques in their modern form constitute an active area of research with seminal applications in biology and medicine. Our historical survey of the field of resolution enhancement uncovers many examples of reinvention, rediscovery, and independent invention and development of similar proposals, concepts, techniques, and instruments. Attribution of credit is therefore confounded by the fact that for understandable reasons authors stress the achievements from their own research groups and sometimes obfuscate their contributions and the prior art of others. In some cases, attribution of credit is also made more complex by the fact that long term developments are difficult to allocate to a specific individual because of the many mutual connections often existing between sometimes fiercely competing, sometimes strongly collaborating groups. Since applications in biology and medicine have been a major driving force in the development of resolution enhancing approaches, we focus on the contribution of enhanced resolution to these fields.

  15. Ultrasonic techniques for monitoring texture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, R. B.; Li, Yan

    Ultrasonic techniques are discussed for monitoring the texture (preferred crystallographic orientation) of polycrystalline aggregates. The basic principles, involving the measurement of velocity anisotropies and the relationship of these to the coefficients appearing in an expansion of the crystallite orientation distribution function, are first presented. This is followed by a discussion of three applications, including the prediction of sheet metal formability parameters in cubic metals, the characterization of hexagonal metals and the study of deformation induced textures in heavily-deformed, metal-metal composites. Included is a discussion of the role of ultrasonic techniques with respect to X-ray diffraction.

  16. Environmental monitoring using optical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svanberg, Sune

    2003-11-01

    An overview of optical techniques for environmental monitoring is presented. Range-resolved measurements of atmospheric pollutants can be performed using the differential absorption lidar technique. Fluorescence lidar allows assessment of vegetation status and also the conditions of the facades of historical buildings. Diode lasers provide particularly realistic schemes for atmospheric gas analysis, where certain wavelength ranges, which are not easily directly assessed, can be reached by sum- and difference frequency generation. Finally, the gas correlation principle can be used for real-time imaging of hydrocarbons. Several types of such optical environmental monitoring are illustrated with examples from research at the Lund Institute of Technology, Sweden.

  17. Techniques and indications in radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Lange, S.

    1987-01-01

    The stated purpose of this book is to review modern radiologic diagnostic techniques as applied to the study of the kidney and urinary tract, and their pertinent indications. This goal is partially accomplished in the first two segments of the book, which consist of about 100 pages. These include a synoptic description of various techniques - including classic uroradiologic studies such as excretory urography and retrograde pyelography, plus sonography, computed tomography, angiography, and nuclear medicine. The diagnostic signs and the differential diagnoses are fairly well described, aided by a profusion of tables and diagrams. The overall quality of the reproduction of the illustrations is good.

  18. Selected photographic techniques, a compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A selection has been made of methods, devices, and techniques developed in the field of photography during implementation of space and nuclear research projects. These items include many adaptations, variations, and modifications to standard hardware and practice, and should prove interesting to both amateur and professional photographers and photographic technicians. This compilation is divided into two sections. The first section presents techniques and devices that have been found useful in making photolab work simpler, more productive, and higher in quality. Section two deals with modifications to and special applications for existing photographic equipment.

  19. Urologic imaging and interventional techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    This book provides an overview of all imaging modalities and invasive techniques of the genitourinary system. Three general chapters discuss ionic and nonionic contrast media, the management of reactions to contrast media, and radiation doses from various uroradiologic procedures. Chapters are devoted to intravenous pyelography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, nuclear medicine, lymphography, arteriography, and venography. Two chapters discuss the pediatric applications of uroradiology and ultrasound. Two chapters integrate the various imaging techniques of the upper and lower genitourinary systems into an algorithmic approach for various pathologic entities.

  20. Endoscopic ultrasonography: equipment and technique.

    PubMed

    Röesch, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    By definition, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) combines endoscopy and high-frequency ultrasound, incorporating a small ultrasonic transducer into the tip of endoscopes. For the upper gastrointestinal tract, mostly oblique-viewing endoscopes are used, although recently, forward viewing instruments have become available. For colorectal EUS, rigid probes for the rectum and a flexible forward-viewing echocolonoscope are available. EUS generates ultrasound either mechanically or electronically, depending on the type of instrument used. The electronic technique potentially allows the incorporation of (color) Doppler ultrasound, which allows for additional processing and postprocessing functions. This generally is considered the EUS technique of the future.

  1. Grid flexibility and patching techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, T. G.; Smith, L. W.; Yung, C. N.; Barthelson, S. H.; Dewitt, K. J.

    1984-01-01

    The numerical determination of combustor flowfields is of great value to the combustor designer. An a priori knowledge of the flow behavior can speed the combustor design process and reduce the number of experimental test rigs required to arrive at an optimal design. Even 2-D steady incompressible isothermal flow predictions are of use; many codes of this kind are available, each employing different techniques to surmount the difficulties arising from the nonlinearity of the governing equations and from typically irregular combustor geometries. Mapping techniques (algebraic and elliptic PDE), and adaptive grid methods (both multi-grid and grid embedding) as applied to axisymmetric combustors are discussed.

  2. Current techniques in laparoscopic appendectomy.

    PubMed

    Nowzaradan, Y; Barnes, J P

    1993-12-01

    An improved technique for laparoscopic appendectomy based on an experience of > 120 cases is presented. This method includes numerous additions to and modifications of previously described techniques and is effective for gangrenous and perforated appendicitis as well as for less severe cases. The most important elements are that (a) it is a safer procedure for attaining insertion of the Veress needle and the primary trocar; (b) it employs electrocautery to separate the appendix from the mesoappendix; (c) an Endosac can be used for removal of the appendix from the abdomen without contamination of the abdominal wall; (d) no laser is necessary; and (e) staples are rarely necessary.

  3. Radiotherapy technique for thyroid cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Thambi, V.; Pedapatti, P.J.; Murthy, A.; Kartha, P.K.

    1980-02-01

    A treatment technique for treating patients with cancer of the thyroid is presented. This is a modification of the bar-arc technique that uses a centrally blocked moving field. We have introduced wedges and partial midline block to achieve uniform dose within the treatment volume. This enables the desired dose to be delivered to the primary, the lymph nodes and the cervical soft tissues at risk, yet keeping the dose to the spinal cord to a minimum in the cervical region and to acceptable levels in the superior mediastinum.

  4. Techniques in Endovascular Aneurysm Repair

    PubMed Central

    Phade, Sachin V.; Garcia-Toca, Manuel; Kibbe, Melina R.

    2011-01-01

    Endovascular repair of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVARs) has revolutionized the treatment of aortic aneurysms, with over half of elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repairs performed endoluminally each year. Since the first endografts were placed two decades ago, many changes have been made in graft design, operative technique, and management of complications. This paper summarizes modern endovascular grafts, considerations in preoperative planning, and EVAR techniques. Specific areas that are addressed include endograft selection, arterial access, sheath delivery, aortic branch management, graft deployment, intravascular ultrasonography, pressure sensors, management of endoleaks and compressed limbs, and exit strategies. PMID:22121487

  5. Mass spectrometry. [review of techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlingame, A. L.; Kimble, B. J.; Derrick, P. J.

    1976-01-01

    Advances in mass spectrometry (MS) and its applications over the past decade are reviewed in depth, with annotated literature references. New instrumentation and techniques surveyed include: modulated-beam MS, chromatographic MS on-line computer techniques, digital computer-compatible quadrupole MS, selected ion monitoring (mass fragmentography), and computer-aided management of MS data and interpretation. Areas of application surveyed include: organic MS and electron impact MS, field ionization kinetics, appearance potentials, translational energy release, studies of metastable species, photoionization, calculations of molecular orbitals, chemical kinetics, field desorption MS, high pressure MS, ion cyclotron resonance, biochemistry, medical/clinical chemistry, pharmacology, and environmental chemistry and pollution studies.

  6. Techniques for Interfacing Multiplex Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    Study 6 1.2. 3 Selection of Techniques 7 1.3 RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUMMARY 7 1.3.1 ARINC and H009 (F-15) Interfaces 7 1. 3. 2 Basic Signal...Override Transmitter Shutdown 72 3.4.8 Selected Transmitter Shutdown 72 viii TABLE OF CONTENTS (cont t d) Page I 3.4.9 Override Selected Transmitter...Common Mode Rejection 90 4.0 SELECTION OF TECHNIQUES 91 4.1 BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE 91 4.1.1 Ease of Retrofit 91 4. 1. 2 Future Implementation 92 4

  7. Mass spectrometry. [review of techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlingame, A. L.; Kimble, B. J.; Derrick, P. J.

    1976-01-01

    Advances in mass spectrometry (MS) and its applications over the past decade are reviewed in depth, with annotated literature references. New instrumentation and techniques surveyed include: modulated-beam MS, chromatographic MS on-line computer techniques, digital computer-compatible quadrupole MS, selected ion monitoring (mass fragmentography), and computer-aided management of MS data and interpretation. Areas of application surveyed include: organic MS and electron impact MS, field ionization kinetics, appearance potentials, translational energy release, studies of metastable species, photoionization, calculations of molecular orbitals, chemical kinetics, field desorption MS, high pressure MS, ion cyclotron resonance, biochemistry, medical/clinical chemistry, pharmacology, and environmental chemistry and pollution studies.

  8. Selenium incorporation using recombinant techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Walden, Helen

    2010-04-01

    An overview of techniques for recombinant incorporation of selenium and subsequent purification and crystallization of the resulting labelled protein. Using selenomethionine to phase macromolecular structures is common practice in structure determination, along with the use of selenocysteine. Selenium is consequently the most commonly used heavy atom for MAD. In addition to the well established recombinant techniques for the incorporation of selenium in prokaryal expression systems, there have been recent advances in selenium labelling in eukaryal expression, which will be discussed. Tips and things to consider for the purification and crystallization of seleno-labelled proteins are also included.

  9. Drilling techniques for osteochondritis dissecans.

    PubMed

    Heyworth, Benton E; Edmonds, Eric W; Murnaghan, M Lucas; Kocher, Mininder S

    2014-04-01

    Although the advanced stages of osteochondritis dissecans remain challenging to treat, most early-stage lesions in skeletally immature patients, if managed appropriately, can be stimulated to heal. For stable lesions that do not demonstrate adequate healing with nonoperative measures, such as activity modification, weight-bearing protection, or bracing, drilling of the subchondral bone has emerged as the gold standard of management. Several techniques of drilling exist, including transarticular drilling, retroarticular drilling, and notch drilling. Although each technique has been shown to be effective in small retrospective studies, higher-powered prospective comparative studies are needed to better elucidate their relative advantages and disadvantages.

  10. Computerized proof techniques for undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Christopher J.; Tefera, Akalu; Zeleke, Aklilu

    2012-12-01

    The use of computer algebra systems such as Maple and Mathematica is becoming increasingly important and widespread in mathematics learning, teaching and research. In this article, we present computerized proof techniques of Gosper, Wilf-Zeilberger and Zeilberger that can be used for enhancing the teaching and learning of topics in discrete mathematics. We demonstrate by examples how one can use these computerized proof techniques to raise students' interests in the discovery and proof of mathematical identities and enhance their problem-solving skills.

  11. EDITORIAL: Imaging Systems and Techniques Imaging Systems and Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giakos, George; Yang, Wuqiang; Petrou, M.; Nikita, K. S.; Pastorino, M.; Amanatiadis, A.; Zentai, G.

    2011-10-01

    This special feature on Imaging Systems and Techniques comprises 27 technical papers, covering essential facets in imaging systems and techniques both in theory and applications, from research groups spanning three different continents. It mainly contains peer-reviewed articles from the IEEE International Conference on Imaging Systems and Techniques (IST 2011), held in Thessaloniki, Greece, as well a number of articles relevant to the scope of this issue. The multifaceted field of imaging requires drastic adaptation to the rapid changes in our society, economy, environment, and the technological revolution; there is an urgent need to address and propose dynamic and innovative solutions to problems that tend to be either complex and static or rapidly evolving with a lot of unknowns. For instance, exploration of the engineering and physical principles of new imaging systems and techniques for medical applications, remote sensing, monitoring of space resources and enhanced awareness, exploration and management of natural resources, and environmental monitoring, are some of the areas that need to be addressed with urgency. Similarly, the development of efficient medical imaging techniques capable of providing physiological information at the molecular level is another important area of research. Advanced metabolic and functional imaging techniques, operating on multiple physical principles, using high resolution and high selectivity nanoimaging techniques, can play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, as well as provide efficient drug-delivery imaging solutions for disease treatment with increased sensitivity and specificity. On the other hand, technical advances in the development of efficient digital imaging systems and techniques and tomographic devices operating on electric impedance tomography, computed tomography, single-photon emission and positron emission tomography detection principles are anticipated to have a significant impact on a

  12. Spatial interpolation techniques using R

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interpolation techniques are used to predict the cell values of a raster based on sample data points. For example, interpolation can be used to predict the distribution of sediment particle size throughout an estuary based on discrete sediment samples. We demonstrate some inter...

  13. Spatial interpolation techniques using R

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interpolation techniques are used to predict the cell values of a raster based on sample data points. For example, interpolation can be used to predict the distribution of sediment particle size throughout an estuary based on discrete sediment samples. We demonstrate some inter...

  14. Single-Donor Leukophoretic Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, R. N.

    1977-01-01

    Leukocyte separation-and-retrieval device utilizes granulocyte and monocyte property of leukoadhesion to glass surfaces as basis of their separation from whole blood. Device is used with single donor technique and has application in biological and chemical processing, veterinary research and clinical care.

  15. Techniques Class: September 12, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    More, William; Corsetti, Patricia L.; Endleman, Orna; Julian, Sarah; Lindemann, Evie; Spinelli, Laura

    2002-01-01

    On September 12, 2001, the Techniques in Art Therapy class in the art therapy program at Albertus Magnus College met at its normal Wednesday evening time. This article describes the class session through the words and images of several class members who found the class useful in their own process of beginning to deal with the attacks and their…

  16. Probabilistic Techniques for Phrase Extraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Fangfang; Croft, W. Bruce

    2001-01-01

    This study proposes a probabilistic model for automatically extracting English noun phrases for indexing or information retrieval. The technique is based on a Markov model, whose initial parameters are estimated by a phrase lookup program with a phrase dictionary, then optimized by a set of maximum entropy parameters. (Author/LRW)

  17. Objective techniques for psychological assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wortz, E.; Hendrickson, W.; Ross, T.

    1973-01-01

    A literature review and a pilot study are used to develop psychological assessment techniques for determining objectively the major aspects of the psychological state of an astronaut. Relationships between various performance and psychophysiological variables and between those aspects of attention necessary to engage successfully in various functions are considered in developing a paradigm to be used for collecting data in manned isolation chamber experiments.

  18. Counselling Techniques for Outdoor Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Michelle; Chase, Robert

    1992-01-01

    Outdoor leaders need counseling skills to deal with interpersonal conflicts that arise within a group and to facilitate participant growth and change. Person-centered counseling, reality therapy counseling, and behavioral counseling are discussed, as well as how various techniques from each can be used to the benefit of the leader and the group.…

  19. Techniques for hot structures testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deangelis, V. Michael; Fields, Roger A.

    1990-01-01

    Hot structures testing have been going on since the early 1960's beginning with the Mach 6, X-15 airplane. Early hot structures test programs at NASA-Ames-Dryden focused on operational testing required to support the X-15 flight test program, and early hot structures research projects focused on developing lab test techniques to simulate flight thermal profiles. More recent efforts involved numerous large and small hot structures test programs that served to develop test methods and measurement techniques to provide data that promoted the correlation of test data with results from analytical codes. In Nov. 1988 a workshop was sponsored that focused on the correlation of hot structures test data with analysis. Limited material is drawn from the workshop and a more formal documentation is provided of topics that focus on hot structures test techniques used at NASA-Ames-Dryden. Topics covered include the data acquisition and control of testing, the quartz lamp heater systems, current strain and temperature sensors, and hot structures test techniques used to simulate the flight thermal environment in the lab.

  20. Techniques for assessing extramarket values

    Treesearch

    Donald F. Dennis

    1995-01-01

    Central to effective policy development and management of natural resources is an understanding of the trade-offs stakeholders are willing to accept and the values they hold. Although market prices reflect society's preferences to some degree, they clearly do not encompass all values or costs. Conjoint techniques offer a means to estimate and analyze stakeholder...

  1. Caudal septum surgery techniques reviewed.

    PubMed

    Cobo, Roxana; Caldas, Angie

    2017-02-01

    The caudal septum has important functional and aesthetic implications. Deviations in this area can result in important nasal obstruction due not only to blockage of the nasal passage but also to compromise of the internal nasal valve. Cosmetically, alterations in the caudal septum can result in a twisted nasal tip, loss of projection, rotation, and imbalance in the ala-columellar relationship. Contemporary surgical options will be discussed showing how to preserve, reshape, and reinforce the caudal septum to obtain a final looking nose that is not only functional but also aesthetically pleasing. Recent publications have shown that cartilage preservation and remodeling techniques can be efficient in the treatment of the caudal septum. Adequate preoperative diagnosis must be made to be able to create a step-wise approach evolving from simple suturing techniques to more complex ones that require the use of grafts to reposition and keep the caudal septum in the midline with an adequate functional and cosmetic outcome. Adequate management of the caudal portion of the nasal septum is a challenge because of its importance in nasal function and cosmetic final results. There are many surgical options that can be used to correct and align this structure and there is no one single surgical technique that can be used in all cases. A step-wise approach is presented covering the different techniques used today evolving from simple to more complicated ones. The final surgical objective should be cosmetically pleasing noses that function appropriately.

  2. The ancient technique of "gastrorrhaphy".

    PubMed

    Papavramidou, Niki; Christopoulou-Aletra, Helen

    2009-07-01

    The paper describes "gastrorrhaphy," deriving from the Greek words "gastir" meaning "abdomen" and "rhaphy" meaning "suturing," which was a technique used for the treatment of abdominal wounds. The technique is described in detail in the texts of Celsus (first century A.D.) and in those of Galen (second century A.D.). Furthermore, references were found in Oribasius' texts (fourth century A.D.) and in the writings of two veterinarian doctors of the same period. We provide our drawings in order to elucidate the different techniques of suturing. Celsus described one method of "gastrorrhaphy" while Galen presented two different methods for this procedure. All three methods agree on the processes required: replacement of the prolapsed viscera, cleaning of the wound, and suturing. The difference in methods is in the way of suturing the wound; Celsus suggests stitches in layers. While Galen's first method refers to stitching of the peritoneum with the abdominal wall, his second method refers to stitching of similar structures, meaning peritoneum to peritoneum and abdominal wall to abdominal wall. Celsus' method strongly resembles stitching in layers with cross-sutures, while both of the Galenic techniques of gastrorrhaphy are versions of the full-thickness sutures used nowadays. It should be stressed out that Galen's methods of "gastrorrhaphy" were used by Andreas Vesalius and Ambroise Paré many centuries later.

  3. Teaching Techniques in Clinical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Diane

    This master's thesis presents several instructional methods and techniques developed for each of eleven topics or subject areas in clinical chemistry: carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, diagnostic enzymology, endocrinology, toxicology, quality control, electrolytes, acid base balance, hepatic function, nonprotein nitrogenous compounds, and…

  4. The Split-Stem Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Roy A.

    1972-01-01

    Describes a procedure useful for investigating the effects of substances on plant growth and development. A bean seedling's stem is partially split, and each half is placed in a different nutrient solution. Suggestions for the instructional use of the technique are made. (AL)

  5. Generalized fast automatic differentiation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evtushenko, Yu. G.; Zubov, V. I.

    2016-11-01

    A new efficient technique intended for the numerical solution of a broad class of optimal control problems for complicated dynamical systems described by ordinary and/or partial differential equations is investigated. In this approach, canonical formulas are derived to precisely calculate the objective function gradient for a chosen finite-dimensional approximation of the objective functional.

  6. Museum Techniques in Fundamental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    Some museum techniques and methods can be used in fundamental educational programs without elaborate buildings or equipment; exhibitions should be based on valid presumptions and should take into account the "common sense" beliefs of people for whom the exhibit is designed. They can be used profitably in the economic development of local…

  7. Biopsy techniques for intraocular tumors

    PubMed Central

    Rishi, Pukhraj; Dhami, Abhinav; Biswas, Jyotirmay

    2016-01-01

    Biopsy involves the surgical removal of a tissue specimen for histopathologic evaluation. Most intraocular tumors are reliably diagnosed based on the clinical evaluation or with noninvasive diagnostic techniques. However, accurately diagnosing a small percentage of tumors can be challenging. A tissue biopsy is thus needed to establish a definitive diagnosis and plan the requisite treatment. From fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) to surgical excision, all tissue collection techniques have been studied in the literature. Each technique has its indications and limitations. FNAB has been reported to provide for 88–95% reliable and safe ophthalmic tumor diagnosis and has gained popularity for prognostic purposes and providing eye conserving treatment surgeries. The technique and instrumentation for biopsy vary depending upon the tissue involved (retina, choroid, subretinal space, vitreous, and aqueous), suspected diagnosis, size, location, associated retinal detachment, and clarity of the media. The cytopathologist confers a very important role in diagnosis and their assistance plays a key role in managing and planning the treatment for malignancies. PMID:27488148

  8. Optical multiple object tracking techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    1989-02-01

    Two multichannel multiple-object tracking techniques are reviewed. In the diffraction grating technique, the input scene is picked up by a TV camera and imaged onto a liquid-crystal light valve (LCLV), and the output side of the light valve is illuminated with a suitably polarized and collimated coherent laser beam to yield a reflected beam with polarization modulated according to the intensity of the incoherent input. This reflected beam passes through a beam splitter cube and an analyzer, resulting in an intensity modulated coherent image. An array of spectrum islands containing the information of the input appears after crossing a contact screen/lens combination. In the multiple-focus hololens technique, the scene of moving objects is sent into the LCTVSLM through a camera; a collimated laser beam is incident upon the LCTV screen; a low-pass filter is inserted between the LCTVSLM and the hololens for the removal of the high order diffractions due to the grid structure of the LCTV. The feasibility of the LCTVSLM and multiple-focus hololens technique is demonstrated.

  9. Optical multiple object tracking techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    1989-01-01

    Two multichannel multiple-object tracking techniques are reviewed. In the diffraction grating technique, the input scene is picked up by a TV camera and imaged onto a liquid-crystal light valve (LCLV), and the output side of the light valve is illuminated with a suitably polarized and collimated coherent laser beam to yield a reflected beam with polarization modulated according to the intensity of the incoherent input. This reflected beam passes through a beam splitter cube and an analyzer, resulting in an intensity modulated coherent image. An array of spectrum islands containing the information of the input appears after crossing a contact screen/lens combination. In the multiple-focus hololens technique, the scene of moving objects is sent into the LCTVSLM through a camera; a collimated laser beam is incident upon the LCTV screen; a low-pass filter is inserted between the LCTVSLM and the hololens for the removal of the high order diffractions due to the grid structure of the LCTV. The feasibility of the LCTVSLM and multiple-focus hololens technique is demonstrated.

  10. A measurement technique for hydroxyacetone

    SciTech Connect

    Klotz, P.J.

    1999-10-04

    Hydroxyacetone (HA) is mainly produced in the atmosphere from oxidation of hydrocarbons of the type, CH{sub 3}(R)C{double{underscore}bond}CH{sub 2}. Tuazon and Atkinson (1990) reported HA yield of 41% from the OH-initiated oxidation of methacrolein in the presence of NOx. Since methacrolein is a major product of isoprene oxidation (Carter and Atkinson, 1996), isoprene, a key biogenic hydrocarbon, is therefore expected to be an important source for HA. Consequently, knowledge of ambient concentration of HA would provide information needed to examine the applicability of isoprene reaction mechanisms developed in laboratory and to assess the contribution of isoprene to photooxidant production. The commonly used GC-FID technique involving cryo-focusing is unsuitable for HA owing to HA's thermal instability. When subjected to a temperature of 100 C for only a few seconds, HA was found to disappear completely. Since HA is highly soluble in water, the authors developed a wet chemical technique similar in principle to the one they reported earlier, namely, derivatization following liquid scrubbing. To increase the sensitivity, they adopted a fluorescence detection scheme based on o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) chemistry. The technique was deployed in the field during two measurement periods at a NARSTO site located on Long Island, New York. The authors report the principle and the operation of this technique and the results obtained from these field studies.

  11. Colonoscopic polypectomy and associated techniques

    PubMed Central

    Fyock, Christopher J; Draganov, Peter V

    2010-01-01

    Polypectomy of colonic polyps has been shown to reduce the risk of colon cancer development and is considered a fundamental skill for all endoscopists who perform colonoscopy. A variety of polypectomy techniques and devices are available, and their use can vary greatly based on local availability and preferences. In general, cold forceps and cold snare have been the polypectomy methods of choice for smaller polyps, and hot snare has been the method of choice for larger polyps. The use of hot forceps has mostly fallen out of favor. Polypectomy for difficult to remove polyps may require the use of special devices and advanced techniques and has continued to evolve. As a result, the vast majority of polyps today can be removed endoscopically. Since electrocautery is frequently used for polypectomy, endoscopists should be thoroughly familiar with the basic principles of electrosurgery as it pertains to polypectomy. Tattooing of a polypectomy site is an important adjunct to polypectomy and can greatly facilitate future surgery or endoscopic surveillance. The two most common post-polypectomy complications are bleeding and perforation. Their incidence can be decreased with the use of meticulous polypectomy techniques and the application of some prophylactic maneuvers. This review will examine the technique of polypectomy and its complications from the perspective of the practicing gastroenterologist. PMID:20677334

  12. Progress in Exosome Isolation Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pin; Kaslan, Melisa; Lee, Sze Han; Yao, Justin; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2017-01-01

    Exosomes are one type of membrane vesicles secreted into extracellular space by most types of cells. In addition to performing many biological functions particularly in cell-cell communication, cumulative evidence has suggested that several biological entities in exosomes like proteins and microRNAs are closely associated with the pathogenesis of most human malignancies and they may serve as invaluable biomarkers for disease diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy. This provides a commanding impetus and growing demands for simple, efficient, and affordable techniques to isolate exosomes. Capitalizing on the physicochemical and biochemical properties of exosomes, a number of techniques have been developed for the isolation of exosomes. This article summarizes the advances in exosome isolation techniques with an emphasis on their isolation mechanism, performance, challenges, and prospects. We hope that this article will provide an overview of exosome isolation techniques, opening up new perspectives towards the development more innovative strategies and devices for more time saving, cost effective, and efficient isolations of exosomes from a wide range of biological matrices. PMID:28255367

  13. Digital synchronization and communication techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, William C.

    1992-01-01

    Information on digital synchronization and communication techniques is given in viewgraph form. Topics covered include phase shift keying, modems, characteristics of open loop digital synchronizers, an open loop phase and frequency estimator, and a digital receiver structure using an open loop estimator in a decision directed architecture.

  14. Thumb ultrasound: Technique and pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jatinder P; Kumar, Shwetam; Kathiria, Atman V; Harjai, Rachit; Jawed, Akram; Gupta, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound is ideally suited for the assessment of complex anatomy and pathologies of the thumb. Focused and dynamic thumb ultrasound can provide a rapid real-time diagnosis and can be used for guided treatment in certain clinical situations. We present a simplified approach to scanning technique for thumb-related pathologies and illustrate a spectrum of common and uncommon pathologies encountered. PMID:27857468

  15. Computerized Proof Techniques for Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Christopher J.; Tefera, Akalu; Zeleke, Aklilu

    2012-01-01

    The use of computer algebra systems such as Maple and Mathematica is becoming increasingly important and widespread in mathematics learning, teaching and research. In this article, we present computerized proof techniques of Gosper, Wilf-Zeilberger and Zeilberger that can be used for enhancing the teaching and learning of topics in discrete…

  16. Uranium Detection - Technique Validation Report

    SciTech Connect

    Colletti, Lisa Michelle; Garduno, Katherine; Lujan, Elmer J.; Mechler-Hickson, Alexandra Marie; May, Iain; Reilly, Sean Douglas

    2016-04-14

    As a LANL activity for DOE/NNSA in support of SHINE Medical Technologies™ ‘Accelerator Technology’ we have been investigating the application of UV-vis spectroscopy for uranium analysis in solution. While the technique has been developed specifically for sulfate solutions, the proposed SHINE target solutions, it can be adapted to a range of different solution matrixes. The FY15 work scope incorporated technical development that would improve accuracy, specificity, linearity & range, precision & ruggedness, and comparative analysis. Significant progress was achieved throughout FY 15 addressing these technical challenges, as is summarized in this report. In addition, comparative analysis of unknown samples using the Davies-Gray titration technique highlighted the importance of controlling temperature during analysis (impacting both technique accuracy and linearity/range). To fully understand the impact of temperature, additional experimentation and data analyses were performed during FY16. The results from this FY15/FY16 work were presented in a detailed presentation, LA-UR-16-21310, and an update of this presentation is included with this short report summarizing the key findings. The technique is based on analysis of the most intense U(VI) absorbance band in the visible region of the uranium spectra in 1 M H2SO4, at λmax = 419.5 nm.

  17. New Techniques for Particle Acclerators

    SciTech Connect

    Sessler, Andrew M.

    1990-06-01

    A review is presented of the new techniques which have been proposed for use in particle accelerators. Attention is focused upon those areas where significant progress has been made in the last two years--in particular, upon two-beam accelerators, wakefield accelerators, and plasma focusers.

  18. Diagnostic cardiology: Noninvasive imaging techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Come, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 23 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The chest x-ray and cardiac series; Computed tomographic scanning of the heart, coronary arteries, and great vessels; Digital subtraction angiography in the assessment of cardiovascular disease; Magnetic resonance: technique and cardiac applications; Basics of radiation physics and instrumentation; and Nuclear imaging: the assessment of cardiac performance.

  19. Single-Donor Leukophoretic Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, R. N.

    1977-01-01

    Leukocyte separation-and-retrieval device utilizes granulocyte and monocyte property of leukoadhesion to glass surfaces as basis of their separation from whole blood. Device is used with single donor technique and has application in biological and chemical processing, veterinary research and clinical care.

  20. Teaching Techniques in Clinical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Diane

    This master's thesis presents several instructional methods and techniques developed for each of eleven topics or subject areas in clinical chemistry: carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, diagnostic enzymology, endocrinology, toxicology, quality control, electrolytes, acid base balance, hepatic function, nonprotein nitrogenous compounds, and…

  1. Developments in functional neuroimaging techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Aine, C.J.

    1995-03-01

    A recent review of neuroimaging techniques indicates that new developments have primarily occurred in the area of data acquisition hardware/software technology. For example, new pulse sequences on standard clinical imagers and high-powered, rapidly oscillating magnetic field gradients used in echo planar imaging (EPI) have advanced MRI into the functional imaging arena. Significant developments in tomograph design have also been achieved for monitoring the distribution of positron-emitting radioactive tracers in the body (PET). Detector sizes, which pose a limit on spatial resolution, have become smaller (e.g., 3--5 mm wide) and a new emphasis on volumetric imaging has emerged which affords greater sensitivity for determining locations of positron annihilations and permits smaller doses to be utilized. Electromagnetic techniques have also witnessed growth in the ability to acquire data from the whole head simultaneously. EEG techniques have increased their electrode coverage (e.g., 128 channels rather than 16 or 32) and new whole-head systems are now in use for MEG. But the real challenge now is in the design and implementation of more sophisticated analyses to effectively handle the tremendous amount of physiological/anatomical data that can be acquired. Furthermore, such analyses will be necessary for integrating data across techniques in order to provide a truly comprehensive understanding of the functional organization of the human brain.

  2. Management Techniques for School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, John J., Ed.

    This volume addresses five of the critical areas of school business management: planning, organizational management, personnel management, controlling, and directing. The various chapters describe a variety of techniques and processes for getting people to perform effectively in meeting organizational goals. The first section focuses on planning…

  3. Individualized Instruction Using Computer Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castleberry, S.; Lagowski, J. J.

    1970-01-01

    Explains how computer-based instructional techniques are being used to individualize general chemistry instruction. After describing the computer equipment and language used, author describes simulated experiments and computer programmed drill exercises. Outlines fifteen topics programmed for instruction. Comparisons were made between experimental…

  4. Brain Friendly Techniques: Mind Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Cristine

    2004-01-01

    Mind Mapping can be called the Swiss Army Knife for the brain, a total visual thinking tool or a multi-handed thought catcher. Invented by Tony Buzan in the early 1970s and used by millions around the world, it is a method that can be a part of a techniques repertoire when teaching information literacy, planning, presenting, thinking, and so…

  5. Rhinoplasty – indications and techniques

    PubMed Central

    Tasman, Abel-Jan

    2008-01-01

    Rhinoplasty is considered to be one of the most challenging procedures in otolaryngology head and neck surgery. Meticulous planning and excellent surgical skills are pre-requisites for reproducible good outcomes. More than 100 years after the first rhinoplasty, many controversies regarding indication and techniques remain unresolved. The aim of this article is to review current concepts and arguments. PMID:22073085

  6. Orthodontic palatal implants: clinical technique.

    PubMed

    Tinsley, D; O'Dwyer, J J; Benson, P E; Doyle, P T; Sandler, J

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to familiarize the readers with some of the clinical considerations necessary to ensure successful use of mid-palatal implants. Both surgical and technical aspects will be discussed along with a description of impression techniques used.

  7. New technique for sternal osteosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Roux, D; Fournial, G; Glock, Y; Nottin, R

    1995-10-01

    In our department, we have developed a new method for sternal osteosynthesis. This technique uses steel threads and a sternal retractor. The removable valves are removed and placed with a two-pulley device, which allows good osteosynthesis without assistance or effort.

  8. Compendium on Risk Analysis Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The evolution of risk analysis in the materiel acquisition process is traced from the Secretary Packard memorandum to current AMC guidance. Risk ... analysis is defined and many of the existing techniques are described in light of this definition and their specific role in program management and

  9. Survey of Biochemical Separation Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Melanie R.

    2007-01-01

    A simple laboratory exercise is illustrated that exposes students to wide range of separation techniques in one laboratory program and provides a nice complement to a project-oriented program. Students have learned the basic principles of syringe filtration, centricon, dialysis, gel filtration and solid-phase extraction methodologies and have got…

  10. Multimodal Revision Techniques in Webtexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Cheryl E.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how an online scholarly journal, "Kairos: Rhetoric, Technology, Pedagogy," mentors authors to revise their webtexts (interactive, digital media scholarship) for publication. Using an editorial pedagogy in which multimodal and rhetorical genre theories are merged with revision techniques found in process-based…

  11. Computerized Proof Techniques for Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Christopher J.; Tefera, Akalu; Zeleke, Aklilu

    2012-01-01

    The use of computer algebra systems such as Maple and Mathematica is becoming increasingly important and widespread in mathematics learning, teaching and research. In this article, we present computerized proof techniques of Gosper, Wilf-Zeilberger and Zeilberger that can be used for enhancing the teaching and learning of topics in discrete…

  12. The Split-Stem Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Roy A.

    1972-01-01

    Describes a procedure useful for investigating the effects of substances on plant growth and development. A bean seedling's stem is partially split, and each half is placed in a different nutrient solution. Suggestions for the instructional use of the technique are made. (AL)

  13. Time domain period determination techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stellingwerf, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    Two simple period determination schemes are discussed. They are well suited to problems involving non-sinusoidal periodic phenomena sampled at a few irregularly spaced points. Statistical properties are discussed. The techniques are applied to the double mode Cepheids BK Cen and TU Cas as test cases.

  14. Parallel pseudospectral domain decomposition techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottlieb, David; Hirsh, Richard S.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of interface boundary conditions on the ability to parallelize pseudospectral multidomain algorithms is investigated. Using the properties of spectral expansions, a novel parallel two domain procedure is generalized to an arbitrary number of domains each of which can be solved on a separate processor. This interface boundary condition considerably simplifies influence matrix techniques.

  15. Parallel pseudospectral domain decomposition techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottlieb, David; Hirsch, Richard S.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of interface boundary conditions on the ability to parallelize pseudospectral multidomain algorithms is investigated. Using the properties of spectral expansions, a novel parallel two domain procedure is generalized to an arbitrary number of domains each of which can be solved on a separate processor. This interface boundary condition considerably simplifies influence matrix techniques.

  16. Multimodal Revision Techniques in Webtexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Cheryl E.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how an online scholarly journal, "Kairos: Rhetoric, Technology, Pedagogy," mentors authors to revise their webtexts (interactive, digital media scholarship) for publication. Using an editorial pedagogy in which multimodal and rhetorical genre theories are merged with revision techniques found in process-based…

  17. Optical interconnection techniques for Hypercube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, A. R.; Bergman, L. A.; Wu, W. H.

    1988-01-01

    Direct free-space optical interconnection techniques are described for the Hypercube concurrent processor machine using a holographic optical element. Computational requirements and optical constraints on implementation are briefly summarized with regard to topology, power consumption, and available technologies. A hybrid lens/HOE approach is described that can support an eight-dimensional cube of 256 nodes.

  18. Techniques for Use in Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, Daniel R.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses an intervention technique that can be used in working with alcoholics and drug abusers who deny the need for help. The intervention focuses on the family, providing them with drug education and improved communication skills. Defusion, reframing, and positive data are used. The counselor's role is described. (JAC)

  19. Contrast-specific ultrasound techniques.

    PubMed

    Quaia, E

    2007-06-01

    The advent of microbubble contrast agents has determined an important evolution of ultrasound (US) technology due to the introduction of contrast-specific US techniques. This was due to the fact that neither colour or power Doppler are suitable for correct management of the signals produced by microbubble insonation, as they are limited by the heavy presence of artefacts. Microbubbles may be insonated by a characteristic frequency named resonance or fundamental frequency (f (0)) by using a high or low transmit power. If insonated by a high transmit power, microbubbles produce a wideband harmonic signal due to microbubble destruction. If insonated by a low transmit power, microbubbles produce harmonic frequencies (2f, 3f, 4f) due to their nonlinear physical behaviour. Contrast-specific US techniques have recently undergone an important technical development with the introduction of innovative algorithms able to register selectively the harmonic signals produced by microbubbles and to suppress the signal produced by stationary tissues. The different contrast-specific US techniques may be distinguished by their basic principle into pseudo-Doppler, harmonic, phase-modulation, amplitude-modulation and phase-and amplitude-modulation techniques.

  20. Theater As A Guidance Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolpert, William

    1973-01-01

    Guidance-drama activity provides (a) crisp definitions of selected issues; (b) potent modeling from the characters in the play, the students actively engaged in the play, and the students involved in the discussions that follow the play; and (c) a technique for peer-led discussions on sensitive issues. This article gives precise definition to the…

  1. Advanced Geophysical Environmental Simulation Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    cloud property retrieval algorithms for processing of large multiple-satellite data sets; development and application of improved cloud -phase and... cloud optical property retrieval algorithms; investigation of techniques potentially applicable for retrieval of cloud spatial properties from very...14. SUBJECT TERMS cirrus cloud retrieval satellite meteorology polar-orbiting geostationary 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY

  2. Microprocessor Simulation: A Training Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oscarson, David J.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the design and application of a microprocessor simulation using BASIC for formal training of technicians and managers and as a management tool. Illustrates the utility of the modular approach for the instruction and practice of decision-making techniques. (SK)

  3. Thematic Repetition as Rhetorical Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Jo

    1991-01-01

    Explores William Harvey's work, "On the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals." Highlights Harvey's fear of publication and his strategies for reducing resistance to his ideas. Underscores his use of circular references, metaphors, and organizational techniques that enhance and demonstrate his underlying thesis. (SG)

  4. Brain Friendly Techniques: Mind Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Cristine

    2004-01-01

    Mind Mapping can be called the Swiss Army Knife for the brain, a total visual thinking tool or a multi-handed thought catcher. Invented by Tony Buzan in the early 1970s and used by millions around the world, it is a method that can be a part of a techniques repertoire when teaching information literacy, planning, presenting, thinking, and so…

  5. Adhesiveless and grooveless sealing technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, J. W.; Elmendorf, H. M.

    1978-01-01

    Sealing technique eliminates groove or adhesive bonding and its attendant heating and curing need to finely finish at least one surface to be sealed. Seal could be mounted either inside or outside seal line, and could be installed in final assembly without exposing part to heat and pressure of curing.

  6. Techniques Class: September 12, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    More, William; Corsetti, Patricia L.; Endleman, Orna; Julian, Sarah; Lindemann, Evie; Spinelli, Laura

    2002-01-01

    On September 12, 2001, the Techniques in Art Therapy class in the art therapy program at Albertus Magnus College met at its normal Wednesday evening time. This article describes the class session through the words and images of several class members who found the class useful in their own process of beginning to deal with the attacks and their…

  7. [Evidence-based TEP technique].

    PubMed

    Köckerling, F

    2017-01-13

    The guidelines of all international hernia societies recommend as procedures of choice the laparoendoscopic techniques total extraperitoneal patch plasty (TEP) and transabdominal preperitoneal patch plasty (TAPP) as well as the open Lichtenstein operation for elective inguinal hernia repair. The learning curve associated with the laparoendoscopic techniques, in particular TEP, is longer than that for the open Lichtenstein technique due to the complexity of the procedures. Accordingly, for laparoendoscopic techniques it is particularly important that the operations are conducted in a standardized manner in compliance with the evidence-based recommendations given for the technical details. When procedures are carried out in strict compliance with the guidelines of the international hernia societies, low rates of perioperative complications, complication-related reoperations, recurrences and chronic pain can be expected for TEP. Compliance with the guidelines can also positively impact mastery of the learning curve for TEP. The technical guidelines on TEP are based on study results and on the experiences of numerous experts; therefore, it is imperative that they are implemented in routine surgical practice.

  8. TEACHING TECHNIQUES--SELECTED READINGS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Language Association of America, New York, NY.

    A DIVERSIFIED SELECTION OF ARTICLES CONTAINING DESCRIPTIONS AND EXPLANATIONS OF TEACHING TECHNIQUES, PUBLISHED FROM 1961 TO 1967, IS PROVIDED IN THIS PACKET. INCLUDED ARE--(1) "TOWARD BETTER CLASSROOM TEACHING" (GREW), (2) "GOOD TEACHING PRACTICES--A SURVEY OF HIGH SCHOOL FL CLASSES" (HAMLIN AND OTHERS), (3) "LISTENING COMPREHENSION" (RIVERS), (4)…

  9. Counselling Techniques for Outdoor Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Michelle; Chase, Robert

    1992-01-01

    Outdoor leaders need counseling skills to deal with interpersonal conflicts that arise within a group and to facilitate participant growth and change. Person-centered counseling, reality therapy counseling, and behavioral counseling are discussed, as well as how various techniques from each can be used to the benefit of the leader and the group.…

  10. Techniques of Assessing Mental Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cennamo, Katherine S.

    The search for techniques to increase the effort that learners invest in video-based instruction has been hindered by the limitations of the instruments used to assess the construct of mental effort. Several researchers have noted the confusion of terms in the field that refer to the cognitive resources devoted to processing the stimulus. In this…

  11. Thematic Repetition as Rhetorical Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Jo

    1991-01-01

    Explores William Harvey's work, "On the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals." Highlights Harvey's fear of publication and his strategies for reducing resistance to his ideas. Underscores his use of circular references, metaphors, and organizational techniques that enhance and demonstrate his underlying thesis. (SG)

  12. Low background techniques in CANDLES

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, K. E-mail: nkyohei@u-fukui.ac.jp; Iida, T.; Matsuoka, K.; Nomachi, M.; Umehara, S.; Kishimoto, T.; Chan, W. M.; Kakubata, H.; Li, X.; Maeda, T.; Ohata, T.; Temuge, B.; Tetsuno, K.; Trang, V. T. T.; Uehara, T.; Yoshida, S.; Morishita, K.; Ogawa, I.; Sakamoto, K.; Tamagawa, Y.; and others

    2015-08-17

    CANDLES is a double beta decay experiment using {sup 48}Ca in CaF{sub 2} crystals. The measurement is being performed with prototype detector (CANDLES III) for high sensitive measurement in the future. Recent status of detector improvements and background reduction techniques are described in this paper.

  13. Advanced Intellect-Augmentation Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelbart, D. C.

    This progress report covers a two-year project which is part of a program that is exploring the value of computer aids in augmenting human intellectual capability. The background and nature of the program, its resources, and the activities it has undertaken are outlined. User experience in applying augmentation tools and techniques to various…

  14. Bipulsating Technique for Silicon Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanjurjo, A.

    1982-01-01

    Method controls reaction temperature and rate of reaction of sodium and silicon tetrafluoride by alternately adding measured amounts of reactants. Technique used in large reactor, where heat dissipation becomes serious problem, to control reactor temperatures. Highly efficient method, which would utilize almost 100 percent of raw materials.

  15. Identifying Major Techniques of Persuasion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makosky, Vivian Parker

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this class exercise is to increase undergraduate psychology students' awareness of common persuasion techniques used in advertising, including the appeal to or creation of needs, social and prestige suggestion, and the use of emotionally loaded words and images. Television commercials and magazine advertisements are used as…

  16. Radioactive-gas separation technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haney, R.; King, K. J.; Nellis, D. O.; Nisson, R. S.; Robling, P.; Womack, W.

    1977-01-01

    Cryogenic technique recovers gases inexpensively. Method uses differences in vapor pressures, melting points, and boiling points of components in gaseous mixture. Series of temperature and pressure variations converts gases independently to solid and liquid states, thereby simplifying separation. Apparatus uses readily available cryogen and does not require expensive refrigeration equipment.

  17. Low background techniques in CANDLES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, K.; Iida, T.; Kishimoto, T.; Matsuoka, K.; Nomachi, M.; Umehara, S.; Chan, W. M.; Kakubata, H.; Li, X.; Maeda, T.; Ohata, T.; Temuge, B.; Tetsuno, K.; Trang, V. T. T.; Uehara, T.; Yoshida, S.; Morishita, K.; Ogawa, I.; Sakamoto, K.; Tamagawa, Y.; Yoshizawa, M.; Fushimi, K.; Hazama, R.; Naktani, N.; Suzuki, K.

    2015-08-01

    CANDLES is a double beta decay experiment using 48Ca in CaF2 crystals. The measurement is being performed with prototype detector (CANDLES III) for high sensitive measurement in the future. Recent status of detector improvements and background reduction techniques are described in this paper.

  18. Survey of Biochemical Separation Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Melanie R.

    2007-01-01

    A simple laboratory exercise is illustrated that exposes students to wide range of separation techniques in one laboratory program and provides a nice complement to a project-oriented program. Students have learned the basic principles of syringe filtration, centricon, dialysis, gel filtration and solid-phase extraction methodologies and have got…

  19. Cobbler's Technique for Iridodialysis Repair

    PubMed Central

    Pandav, Surinder Singh; Gupta, Parul Chawla; Singh, Rishi Raj; Das, Kalpita; Kaushik, Sushmita; Raj, Srishti; Ram, Jagat

    2016-01-01

    We describe a novel “Cobbler's technique” for iridodialysis repair in the right eye of a patient aged 18 years, with a traumatic iridodialysis secondary to open globe injury with an iron rod. Our technique is simple with easy surgical maneuvers, that is, effective for repairing iridodialysis. The “Cobbler's technique” allows a maximally functional and cosmetic result for iridodialysis. PMID:26957855

  20. Techniques in Advanced Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ager, D. E.

    1967-01-01

    For ease of presentation, advanced grammar teaching techniques are briefly considered under the headings of structuralism (belief in the effectiveness of presenting grammar rules) and contextualism (belief in the maximum use by students of what they know in the target language). The structuralist's problem of establishing a syllabus is discussed…

  1. Clustering Techniques in Speaker Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    Quantization ................................ 9 2.5 Fuzzy Clustering ................................... 13 2.5.1 The Fuzzy k- Means Algorithm...techniques, vector quantization, Fuzzy k- Means and Artificial Neural Networks applied to speech for speaker identification. 2 II. Literature Review...recognition. Ruspini provided one of the first applications of fuzzy logic in clustering, he extended the conventional k- means algorithm into the Fuzzy k

  2. Time domain period determination techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stellingwerf, R. F.

    1980-05-01

    Two simple period determination schemes are discussed. They are well suited to problems involving non-sinusoidal periodic phenomena sampled at a few irregularly spaced points. Statistical properties are discussed. The techniques are applied to the double mode Cepheids BK Cen and TU Cas as test cases.

  3. Quantitative Techniques in Volumetric Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, John; Jacobsen, Jerrold J.

    1996-12-01

    Quantitative Techniques in Volumetric Analysis is a visual library of techniques used in making volumetric measurements. This 40-minute VHS videotape is designed as a resource for introducing students to proper volumetric methods and procedures. The entire tape, or relevant segments of the tape, can also be used to review procedures used in subsequent experiments that rely on the traditional art of quantitative analysis laboratory practice. The techniques included are: Quantitative transfer of a solid with a weighing spoon Quantitative transfer of a solid with a finger held weighing bottle Quantitative transfer of a solid with a paper strap held bottle Quantitative transfer of a solid with a spatula Examples of common quantitative weighing errors Quantitative transfer of a solid from dish to beaker to volumetric flask Quantitative transfer of a solid from dish to volumetric flask Volumetric transfer pipet A complete acid-base titration Hand technique variations The conventional view of contemporary quantitative chemical measurement tends to focus on instrumental systems, computers, and robotics. In this view, the analyst is relegated to placing standards and samples on a tray. A robotic arm delivers a sample to the analysis center, while a computer controls the analysis conditions and records the results. In spite of this, it is rare to find an analysis process that does not rely on some aspect of more traditional quantitative analysis techniques, such as careful dilution to the mark of a volumetric flask. Figure 2. Transfer of a solid with a spatula. Clearly, errors in a classical step will affect the quality of the final analysis. Because of this, it is still important for students to master the key elements of the traditional art of quantitative chemical analysis laboratory practice. Some aspects of chemical analysis, like careful rinsing to insure quantitative transfer, are often an automated part of an instrumental process that must be understood by the

  4. Cerebrovascular hemodynamics during pranayama techniques

    PubMed Central

    Nivethitha, L.; Mooventhan, A.; Manjunath, N. K.; Bathala, Lokesh; Sharma, Vijay K.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pranayama techniques are known to produce variable physiological effects on the body. We evaluated the effect of the two commonly practiced Pranayama techniques on cerebral hemodynamics. Materials and Methods: Fifteen healthy male volunteers, trained in Yoga and Pranayama, were included in the study. Mean age was 24 years (range 22–32 years). Study participants performed 2 Pranayamas in 2 different orders. Order 1 (n = 7) performed Bhastrika (bellows breaths) followed by Kumbhaka (breath retention) while order 2 (n = 8) performed Kumbhaka followed by Bhastrika. Both breathing techniques were performed for 1 min each. Continuous transcranial Doppler (TCD) monitoring was performed during the breathing techniques. TCD parameters that were recorded included peak systolic velocity (PSV), end-diastolic velocity (EDV), mean flow velocity (MFV), and pulsatility index (PI) of the right middle cerebral artery at baseline, 15, 30, 45, and 60 s. Results: Significant reductions in EDV (3.67 ± 6.48; P < 0.001) and MFV (22.00 ± 7.30; P < 0.001) with a significant increase in PI (2.43 ± 0.76; P < 0.001) were observed during Bhastrika. On the contrary, a significant increase in PSV (65.27 ± 13.75; P < 0.001), EDV (28.67 ± 12.03; P < 0.001), and MFV (43.67 ± 12.85; P < 0.001) with a significant reduction in PI (0.89 ± 0.28; P < 0.01) was observed only during Kumbhaka. Conclusion: Bhastrika and Kumbhaka practices of Pranayama produce considerable and opposing effects on cerebral hemodynamic parameters. Our findings may play a potential role in designing the Pranayama techniques according to patients’ requirements. PMID:28149083

  5. The Use of Expressive Techniques in Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Loretta J.; Whiting, Peggy; Hendricks, Bret; Parr, Gerald; Jones, Eugene Gordon, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This manuscript explores and identifies the use of expressive techniques in counseling. Although verbal techniques are important, sometimes the best of verbal techniques are not sufficient. Creative, expressive techniques can add a new, important dimension to counseling. Such expressive techniques as cinema, art, and music are described to help…

  6. The Use of Expressive Techniques in Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Loretta J.; Whiting, Peggy; Hendricks, Bret; Parr, Gerald; Jones, Eugene Gordon, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This manuscript explores and identifies the use of expressive techniques in counseling. Although verbal techniques are important, sometimes the best of verbal techniques are not sufficient. Creative, expressive techniques can add a new, important dimension to counseling. Such expressive techniques as cinema, art, and music are described to help…

  7. Advanced Tools and Techniques for Formal Techniques in Aerospace Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, John C.

    2005-01-01

    This is the final technical report for grant number NAG-1-02101. The title of this grant was "Advanced Tools and Techniques for Formal Techniques In Aerospace Systems". The principal investigator on this grant was Dr. John C. Knight of the Computer Science Department, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904-4740. This report summarizes activities under the grant during the period 7/01/2002 to 9/30/2004. This report is organized as follows. In section 2, the technical background of the grant is summarized. Section 3 lists accomplishments and section 4 lists students funded under the grant. In section 5, we present a list of presentations given at various academic and research institutions about the research conducted. Finally, a list of publications generated under this grant is included in section 6.

  8. Ride quality research techniques: Section on scaling techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Scaling techniques appropriate for the measurement of ride quality subjective responses are evaluated. The major focal points of interest are summarized in succeeding paragraphs as follow: (1) scope of scaling, (2) goal of scaling, (3) category scales; including polarity, scalar points, and whether the scale is discrete or continuous in nature, (4) need and use of adjectives and/or adverbs, (5) role and use of magnitude estimation, (6) multiple response measures; and (7) related topics.

  9. Consolidative Technique Otoplasty: Comprehensive Approach in Combining Techniques.

    PubMed

    Temel, Metin

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to present the long-term results of the consolidative technique otoplasty (CTO). Patient age, sex, duration of follow-up, and how the deformity (bilateral-unilateral) occurred were determined. The kind of anesthesia, duration of surgery, surgical techniques used during the operation were reported, and the preoperative and postoperative distances between the ear and head were measured at four points (SUP: The highest point of the helix; SCA: the concha superior sticking points; ICA: stick point of Concha at the inferior; and lobular). Early- and late-term complications were recorded in the postoperative period. A total of 63 (21M-42FM) patients whose average age of 21:41 ± 8.96 (7-41), 119 ears (Right: 58/Left: 61) were operated on with this technique between 2013 and 2015. Mean follow-up was 18:22 ± 9:42 months. Anterior scoring was performed for three patients; concha resection was performed in 17 patients. Fifty-five patients were operated on as primary otoplasties and eight were secondary otoplasties. When the preoperative and postoperative SUP, SCA, ICA, and lobule measurements for both ears were compared, the postoperative values were found to be significantly decreased (p < 0.001). This technique may be an alternative in the repairs of prominent ears, and it provides an intervention opportunity for all the anatomical structures. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  10. Techniques for quantifying phytoplankton biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Zackary I; Martiny, Adam C

    2015-01-01

    The biodiversity of phytoplankton is a core measurement of the state and activity of marine ecosystems. In the context of historical approaches, we review recent major advances in the technologies that have enabled deeper characterization of the biodiversity of phytoplankton. In particular, high-throughput sequencing of single loci/genes, genomes, and communities (metagenomics) has revealed exceptional phylogenetic and genomic diversity whose breadth is not fully constrained. Other molecular tools-such as fingerprinting, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and fluorescence in situ hybridization-have provided additional insight into the dynamics of this diversity in the context of environmental variability. Techniques for characterizing the functional diversity of community structure through targeted or untargeted approaches based on RNA or protein have also greatly advanced. A wide range of techniques is now available for characterizing phytoplankton communities, and these tools will continue to advance through ongoing improvements in both technology and data interpretation.

  11. Historical Techniques of Lie Detection

    PubMed Central

    Vicianova, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Since time immemorial, lying has been a part of everyday life. For this reason, it has become a subject of interest in several disciplines, including psychology. The purpose of this article is to provide a general overview of the literature and thinking to date about the evolution of lie detection techniques. The first part explores ancient methods recorded circa 1000 B.C. (e.g., God’s judgment in Europe). The second part describes technical methods based on sciences such as phrenology, polygraph and graphology. This is followed by an outline of more modern-day approaches such as FACS (Facial Action Coding System), functional MRI, and Brain Fingerprinting. Finally, after the familiarization with the historical development of techniques for lie detection, we discuss the scope for new initiatives not only in the area of designing new methods, but also for the research into lie detection itself, such as its motives and regulatory issues related to deception. PMID:27247675

  12. LHC Olympics: Advanced Analysis Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armour, Kyle; Larkoski, Andrew; Gray, Amanda; Ventura, Dan; Walsh, Jon; Schabinger, Rob

    2006-05-01

    The LHC Olympics is a series of workshop aimed at encouraging theorists and experimentalists to prepare for the soon-to-be-online Large Hadron Collider in Geneva, Switzerland. One aspect of the LHC Olympics program consists of the study of simulated data sets which represent various possible new physics signals as they would be seen in LHC detectors. Through this exercise, LHC Olympians learn the phenomenology of possible new physics models and gain experience in analyzing LHC data. Additionally, the LHC Olympics encourages discussion between theorists and experimentalists, and through this collaboration new techniques could be developed. The University of Washington LHC Olympics group consists of several first-year graduate and senior undergraduate students, in both theoretical and experimental particle physics. Presented here is a discussion of some of the more advanced techniques used and the recent results of one such LHC Olympics study.

  13. Techniques for Quantifying Phytoplankton Biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Zackary I.; Martiny, Adam C.

    2015-01-01

    The biodiversity of phytoplankton is a core measurement of the state and activity of marine ecosystems. In the context of historical approaches, we review recent major advances in the technologies that have enabled deeper characterization of the biodiversity of phytoplankton. In particular, high-throughput sequencing of single loci/genes, genomes, and communities (metagenomics) has revealed exceptional phylogenetic and genomic diversity whose breadth is not fully constrained. Other molecular tools—such as fingerprinting, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and fluorescence in situ hybridization—have provided additional insight into the dynamics of this diversity in the context of environmental variability. Techniques for characterizing the functional diversity of community structure through targeted or untargeted approaches based on RNA or protein have also greatly advanced. A wide range of techniques is now available for characterizing phytoplankton communities, and these tools will continue to advance through ongoing improvements in both technology and data interpretation.

  14. Ultrasonic thermometry using pulse techniques.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnworth, L. C.; Carnevale, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Ultrasonic pulse techniques have been developed which, when applied to inert gases, provide temperature measurements up to 8000 K. The response time can be less than 1 msec. This is a significant feature in studying shock-heated or combusting gases. Using a momentary contact coupling technique, temperature has been measured inside steel from 300 to 1500 K. Thin-wire sensors have been used above 2000 K in nuclear and industrial applications where conditions preclude the use of thermocouples, resistance devices, or optical pyrometers. At 2500 K, temperature sensitivity of 0.1% is obtained in Re wire sensors 5 cm long by timing five round trips with an electronic instrument that resolves the time interval between selected echoes to 0.1 microsec. Sensors have been operated at rotational speeds over 2000 rpm and in noisy environments. Temperature profiling of up to ten regions using only a single guided path or beam has also been accomplished.

  15. Synchrotron radiation techniques for nanotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Feng; Zhao, Jiating; Qu, Ying; Gao, Yuxi; Guo, Zhenghang; Liu, Zuoliang; Zhao, Yuliang; Chen, Chunying

    2015-08-01

    Nanotoxicology studies the interactions of engineered nanomaterials with biological systems. Traditional in vitro and in vivo toxicological assays have been successfully employed. However, the toxicological mechanisms of nanoparticles might not be the same as those incurred in traditional molecular toxicology. Furthermore, how to realize in situ and real time measurements especially in the biological microenvironment is still a challenge. Synchrotron radiation, which is highly polarized and tunable, has been proved to play an indispensible role for nanotoxicology studies. In this review, the role of synchrotron radiation techniques is summarized in screening physicochemical characteristics, in vitro and in vivo behaviors, and ecotoxicological effects of engineered nanomaterials. The rapid gain in popularity of nanomaterials has also raised the concern of nanotoxicity, which needs to be assessed and addressed. In this comprehensive review, the authors outlined the underlying principles of using synchrotron radiation techniques for nanotoxicology studies and also in other scientific fields. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetics Techniques for Thermococcus kodakarensis

    PubMed Central

    Hileman, Travis H.; Santangelo, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Thermococcus kodakarensis (T. kodakarensis) has emerged as a premier model system for studies of archaeal biochemistry, genetics, and hyperthermophily. This prominence is derived largely from the natural competence of T. kodakarensis and the comprehensive, rapid, and facile techniques available for manipulation of the T. kodakarensis genome. These genetic capacities are complemented by robust planktonic growth, simple selections, and screens, defined in vitro transcription and translation systems, replicative expression plasmids, in vivo reporter constructs, and an ever-expanding knowledge of the regulatory mechanisms underlying T. kodakarensis metabolism. Here we review the existing techniques for genetic and biochemical manipulation of T. kodakarensis. We also introduce a universal platform to generate the first comprehensive deletion and epitope/affinity tagged archaeal strain libraries. PMID:22701112

  17. Clear air turbulence forecasting techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    A method to improve clear air turbulence (CAT) forecasting by more effectively using the currently operational rawinsonde (RW) system is discussed. The method is called the Diagnostic Richardson Number Tendency (DRT) technique. The technique does not attempt to use the RW as a direct detector of the turbulent motion or even of the CAT mechanism structure but rather senses the synoptic scale centers of action which provide the energy to the CAT mechanism at the mesoscale level. The DRT algorithm is deterministic rather than statistical in nature, using the hydrodynamic equations (equations of motion) relevant to the synoptic scale. However, interpretation, by necessity, is probabilistic. What is most important with respect to its operational implementation is that this method uses the same input data as currently used by the operational National Meteorological Center prognostic models.

  18. Technique and staining optimization leucoconcentration.

    PubMed

    Pierrez, J; Guerci, A; Guerci, O

    1987-09-01

    In cytometric clinical application, it is important to obtain cell suspensions rapidly with as little cytological alteration as possible. A procedure has been achieved to prepare cell suspensions for flow cytometric analysis. The leucoconcentration technique, first described by Herbeuval for cytologic analysis, has been modified to be applied in cytometry. This technique involves Saponin lysis of red cells of peripheral blood or bone marrow samples that have been previously fixed with picric acid alcohol solution. Cells in suspension are not shifted and tinctorial affinity is not modified. Then cells have been stained with Mithramycin. Each parameter defined by Crissman has been analyzed to define the best staining conditions. The availability of Leucoconcentration with Mithramycin-DNA-staining permits determination of cell cycle with a fine resolution.

  19. Hand lay-up techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittman, C.; Shook, G. D.

    The materials, processes, and techniques, as well as comparisons of various hand and spray-up FRP finished product manufacturing procedures are presented. The steps followed in producing a finished product are noted to nominally comprise coating a form with a gel, build-up of the structure with reinforcing fibers and catalyzed polyester resin, curing, and impaction to remove trapped air. The part emerges with a finished surface prepainted by the gel. Design choices for the percentages and orientation of the reinforcement, the types of fillers, and the types of resins are dictated by the types and intensity of stresses to be encountered by the part in actual use. Examples are provided of the manufacture of a machine cover, a pressure tank formerly made of metal. Techniques for assuring integrity of the laminate in changes of thickness, joints, openings, and severe contours are described.

  20. [Useful radiological techniques in orthodontics].

    PubMed

    Felizardo, Rufino; Thomas, Alexis; Foucart, Jean-Michel

    2012-03-01

    Specialists in dento-facial orthopedics have a large range of dental radiological techniques at their disposal to help them in their diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Peri-apical, occlusal, panoramic, and cephalometric X-Rays are two-dimensional techniques that orthodontists can complement, if necessary, with Multi slices CT scan or Cone Beam Computed Tomography. Orthodontists must apply and respect quality criteria for each type of film in order to derive the best information from every image and to avoid producing artifacts or false images that will reduce their diagnostic value and, accordingly, the service that they render to patients. Practitioners must be willing to spend the few moments it takes to position patients correctly in the radiological apparatus instead of taking multiple views to compensate for failing to scrupulously follow protocols of radiology.

  1. Techniques for integrating -omics data.

    PubMed

    Akula, Siva Prasad; Miriyala, Raghava Naidu; Thota, Hanuman; Rao, Allam Appa; Gedela, Srinubabu

    2009-01-01

    The challenge for -omics research is to tackle the problem of fragmentation of knowledge by integrating several sources of heterogeneous information into a coherent entity. It is widely recognized that successful data integration is one of the keys to improve productivity for stored data. Through proper data integration tools and algorithms, researchers may correlate relationships that enable them to make better and faster decisions. The need for data integration is essential for present -omics community, because -omics data is currently spread world wide in wide variety of formats. These formats can be integrated and migrated across platforms through different techniques and one of the important techniques often used is XML. XML is used to provide a document markup language that is easier to learn, retrieve, store and transmit. It is semantically richer than HTML. Here, we describe bio warehousing, database federation, controlled vocabularies and highlighting the XML application to store, migrate and validate -omics data.

  2. Clear air turbulence forecasting techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    A method to improve clear air turbulence (CAT) forecasting by more effectively using the currently operational rawinsonde (RW) system is discussed. The method is called the Diagnostic Richardson Number Tendency (DRT) technique. The technique does not attempt to use the RW as a direct detector of the turbulent motion or even of the CAT mechanism structure but rather senses the synoptic scale centers of action which provide the energy to the CAT mechanism at the mesoscale level. The DRT algorithm is deterministic rather than statistical in nature, using the hydrodynamic equations (equations of motion) relevant to the synoptic scale. However, interpretation, by necessity, is probabilistic. What is most important with respect to its operational implementation is that this method uses the same input data as currently used by the operational National Meteorological Center prognostic models.

  3. A new atrial septostomy technique.

    PubMed

    Park, S C; Zuberbuhler, J R; Neches, W H; Lenox, C C; Zoltun, R A

    1975-01-01

    Balloon atrial septostomy is usually ineffective if the atrial septum is thickened. A technique for incising the atrial septum is described. A no. 6 French catheter was modified to enclose a tiny surgical blade. The distal end of the blade was pivoted to the catheter tip, and the proximal end was attached to a guide wire in the catheter lumen. Advancing the guide wire protruded the blade through a slit in the long axis of the tip of the catheter. Atrial septostomy was performed in five newborn lambs in vivo and in adult dog hearts and human hearts in vitro by advancing the catheter tip across the atrial septum with the blade retracted and withdrawing it to the right atrium with the blade extended. Eight to 12 mm lacerations of the atrial septum were produced and could be extended by subsequent balloon septostomy. The technique may be useful when balloon septostomy has been ineffective.

  4. The Proxy+Matching Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz Arancibia, A. M.; Padilla, N. D.; Cora, S. A.; Gawiser, E.; Navarrete, F. P.; Orsi, A. A.; Guaita, L.; Kurczynski, P.; Ruiz, A. N.

    2017-07-01

    We introduce a novel technique for modeling luminosities at different wavelengths in large samples of galaxies, suitable for emission processes whose complexity requires many untested assumptions or the use of sophisticated algorithms: in the "Proxy+Matching" approach, a physical galaxy property from the model is chosen as a proxy for another property whose numerical value is unknown. Both proxy and unknown are assumed to follow a monotonic relationship, assigning that unknown to the simulated galaxies in such a way that some observational statistics for it are reproduced. By comparing the predictions for further galaxy properties with observations, a good proxy can be found. We present the prospects of this technique for probing the submillimeter and Lyman alpha emission from galaxies in a cosmological framework, using a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation and evolution.

  5. Historical Techniques of Lie Detection.

    PubMed

    Vicianova, Martina

    2015-08-01

    Since time immemorial, lying has been a part of everyday life. For this reason, it has become a subject of interest in several disciplines, including psychology. The purpose of this article is to provide a general overview of the literature and thinking to date about the evolution of lie detection techniques. The first part explores ancient methods recorded circa 1000 B.C. (e.g., God's judgment in Europe). The second part describes technical methods based on sciences such as phrenology, polygraph and graphology. This is followed by an outline of more modern-day approaches such as FACS (Facial Action Coding System), functional MRI, and Brain Fingerprinting. Finally, after the familiarization with the historical development of techniques for lie detection, we discuss the scope for new initiatives not only in the area of designing new methods, but also for the research into lie detection itself, such as its motives and regulatory issues related to deception.

  6. A tire contact solution technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tielking, J. T.

    1983-01-01

    An efficient method for calculating the contact boundary and interfacial pressure distribution was developed. This solution technique utilizes the discrete Fourier transform to establish an influence coefficient matrix for the portion of the pressurized tire surface that may be in the contact region. This matrix is used in a linear algebra algorithm to determine the contact boundary and the array of forces within the boundary that are necessary to hold the tire in equilibrium against a specified contact surface. The algorithm also determines the normal and tangential displacements of those points on the tire surface that are included in the influence coefficient matrix. Displacements within and outside the contact region are calculated. The solution technique is implemented with a finite-element tire model that is based on orthotropic, nonlinear shell of revolution elements which can respond to nonaxisymmetric loads. A sample contact solution is presented.

  7. Apoptosis Evaluation by Electrochemical Techniques.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jian; Miao, Peng

    2016-03-04

    Apoptosis has close relevance to pathology, pharmacology, and toxicology. Accurate and convenient detection of apoptosis would be beneficial for biological study, clinical diagnosis, and drug development. Based on distinct features of apoptotic cells, a diversity of analytical techniques have been exploited for sensitive analysis of apoptosis, such as surface plasmon resonance, electrochemical methods, flow cytometry, and some imaging assays. Among them, the features of simplicity, easy operation, low cost, and high sensitivity make electrochemical techniques powerful tools to investigate electron-transfer processes of in vitro biological systems. In this contribution, a general overview of current knowledge on various technical approaches for apoptosis evaluation is provided. Furthermore, recently developed electrochemical biosensors for detecting apoptotic cells and their advantages over traditional methods are summarized. One of the main considerations focuses on designing the recognition elements based on various biochemical events during apoptosis.

  8. Flip-chip and backside techniques.

    SciTech Connect

    Bernhard-Hofer, Karoline; Barton, Daniel Lee; Cole, Edward Isaac, Jr.

    2010-08-01

    State-of-the-art techniques for failure localization and design modification through bulk silicon are essential for multi-level metallization and new, flip chip packaging methods. The tutorial reviews the transmission of light through silicon, sample preparation, and backside defect localization techniques that are both currently available and under development. The techniques covered include emission microscopy, scanning laser microscope based techniques (electrooptic techniques, LIVA and its derivatives), and other non-IR based tools (FIB, e-beam techniques, etc.).

  9. Research in millimeter wave techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsythe, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    Subharmonically pumped mixers were ascended and tested. A computerized version of the automatic noise figure measurement system was developed. Impedance matching techniques suitable for these types of mixers were investigated. Narrow and broadband (one octave) matching networks for the subharmonic mixers were designed. The automatic mixer noise figure test facility was completed. Subharmonic mixers and the systems that use them at 183 and 220 GHz were evaluated and characterized.

  10. Radon assay and purification techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Simgen, Hardy

    2013-08-08

    Radon is a source of background in many astroparticle physics experiments searching for rare low energy events. In this paper an overview about radon in the field is given including radon detection techniques, radon sources and material screening with respect to radon emanation. Finally, also the problem of long-lived radioactive {sup 222}Rn-daughters and the question of gas purification from radon is addressed.

  11. Acoustic techniques in nuclear safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Olinger, C.T.; Sinha, D.N.

    1995-07-01

    Acoustic techniques can be employed to address many questions relevant to current nuclear technology needs. These include establishing and monitoring intrinsic tags and seals, locating holdup in areas where conventional radiation-based measurements have limited capability, process monitoring, monitoring containers for corrosion or changes in pressure, and facility design verification. These acoustics applications are in their infancy with respect to safeguards and nuclear material management, but proof-of-principle has been demonstrated in many of the areas listed.

  12. A MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUE FOR HYDROXYACETONE.

    SciTech Connect

    KLOTZ,P.J.

    1999-10-04

    Hydroxyacetone (HA) is mainly produced in the atmosphere from oxidation of hydrocarbons of the type, CH{sub 3}(R)C=CH{sub 2}. Tuazon and Atkinson (1990) reported HA yield of 41% from the OH-initiated oxidation of methacrolein in the presence of NO{sub x}. Since methacrolein is a major product of isoprene oxidation (Carter and Atkinson, 1996), isoprene, a key biogenic hydrocarbon, is therefore expected to be an important source for HA. Consequently, knowledge of ambient concentration of HA would provide information needed to examine the applicability of isoprene reaction mechanisms developed in laboratory and to assess the contribution of isoprene to photooxidant production. The commonly used GC-FID technique involving cryo-focusing is unsuitable for HA owing to HA's thermal instability. When subjected to a temperature of 100 C for only a few seconds, HA was found to disappear completely. Since HA is highly soluble in water (it's Henry's law constant being {approx}2 x 10{sup 4} M atm{sup -1} at 20 C, Zhou and Lee, unpublished data), we developed a wet chemical technique similar in principle to the one we reported earlier (Lee and Zhou, 1993), namely, based on derivatization following liquid scrubbing. To increase the sensitivity, we adopted a fluorescence detection scheme based on o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) chemistry. The technique was deployed in the field during two measurement periods at a NARSTO site located on Long Island (LI), New York. We report the principle and the operation of this technique and the results obtained from these field studies.

  13. Data mining and visualization techniques

    DOEpatents

    Wong, Pak Chung; Whitney, Paul; Thomas, Jim

    2004-03-23

    Disclosed are association rule identification and visualization methods, systems, and apparatus. An association rule in data mining is an implication of the form X.fwdarw.Y where X is a set of antecedent items and Y is the consequent item. A unique visualization technique that provides multiple antecedent, consequent, confidence, and support information is disclosed to facilitate better presentation of large quantities of complex association rules.

  14. Survey of Header Compression Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishac, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    This report provides a summary of several different header compression techniques. The different techniques included are: (1) Van Jacobson's header compression (RFC 1144); (2) SCPS (Space Communications Protocol Standards) header compression (SCPS-TP, SCPS-NP); (3) Robust header compression (ROHC); and (4) The header compression techniques in RFC2507 and RFC2508. The methodology for compression and error correction for these schemes are described in the remainder of this document. All of the header compression schemes support compression over simplex links, provided that the end receiver has some means of sending data back to the sender. However, if that return path does not exist, then neither Van Jacobson's nor SCPS can be used, since both rely on TCP (Transmission Control Protocol). In addition, under link conditions of low delay and low error, all of the schemes perform as expected. However, based on the methodology of the schemes, each scheme is likely to behave differently as conditions degrade. Van Jacobson's header compression relies heavily on the TCP retransmission timer and would suffer an increase in loss propagation should the link possess a high delay and/or bit error rate (BER). The SCPS header compression scheme protects against high delay environments by avoiding delta encoding between packets. Thus, loss propagation is avoided. However, SCPS is still affected by an increased BER (bit-error-rate) since the lack of delta encoding results in larger header sizes. Next, the schemes found in RFC2507 and RFC2508 perform well for non-TCP connections in poor conditions. RFC2507 performance with TCP connections is improved by various techniques over Van Jacobson's, but still suffers a performance hit with poor link properties. Also, RFC2507 offers the ability to send TCP data without delta encoding, similar to what SCPS offers. ROHC is similar to the previous two schemes, but adds additional CRCs (cyclic redundancy check) into headers and improves

  15. Selenium incorporation using recombinant techniques.

    PubMed

    Walden, Helen

    2010-04-01

    Using selenomethionine to phase macromolecular structures is common practice in structure determination, along with the use of selenocysteine. Selenium is consequently the most commonly used heavy atom for MAD. In addition to the well established recombinant techniques for the incorporation of selenium in prokaryal expression systems, there have been recent advances in selenium labelling in eukaryal expression, which will be discussed. Tips and things to consider for the purification and crystallization of seleno-labelled proteins are also included.

  16. Advanced intellect-augmentation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelbart, D. C.

    1972-01-01

    User experience in applying our augmentation tools and techniques to various normal working tasks within our center is described so as to convey a subjective impression of what it is like to work in an augmented environment. It is concluded that working-support, computer-aid systems for augmenting individuals and teams, are undoubtedly going to be widely developed and used. A very special role in this development is seen for multi-access computer networks.

  17. Characterization Techniques for Amorphous Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carow-Watamura, U.; Louzguine, D. V.; Takeuchi, A.

    This document is part of Part 2 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/9getType="URL"/> 'Systems from B-Be-Fe to Co-W-Zr' of Subvolume B 'Physical Properties of Ternary Amorphous Alloys' of Volume 37 'Phase Diagrams and Physical Properties of Nonequilibrium Alloys' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains the Chapter '2 Characterization Techniques for Amorphous Alloys' with the content:

  18. AC electrothermal technique in microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salari, Alinaghi; Navi, Maryam; Dalton, Colin

    2017-02-01

    Electrokinetic techniques have a wide range of applications in droplet, particle, and fluid manipulation systems. In general, they can be categorized into different subgroups including electroosmosis, electrothermal, electrophoresis, dielectrophoresis, etc. The AC electrothermal (ACET) technique has been shown to be very effective in applications which involve high conductivity fluids, such as blood, which are typically used in biomedical applications. In the past few years, the ACET effect has received considerable attention. Unlike AC electroosmosis (ACEO), the ACET effect shows plateaus in force in a wide frequency range. In other words, with electrothermal force, velocity is more steady and predictable at different frequencies, compared to ACEO and dielectrophoresis (DEP). Although electrothermal microflows form as a result of Joule heating in the fluid, due to high conduction of heat to the ambience, the temperature rise in the fluid is not so high as to threaten the nature of the biofluids. The average temperature rise resulting from the ACET effect is below 5 °K. In order to generate high strength AC electric fields, microfabricated electrode arrays are commonly used in microchannels. For pumping applications, it is essential to create asymmetry in the electric field, typically by having asymmetrical electrode pairs. There is no defined border between many electrokinetic techniques, and as such the point where electrothermal processes interferes with other electrokinetic techniques is not clear in the literature. In addition, there have been comprehensive reviews on micropumps, electrokinetics, and their subcategories, but the literature lacks a detailed up-to-date review on electrothermal microdevices. In this paper, a brief review is made specifically on electric fields in ACET devices, in order to provide an insight for the reader about the importance of this aspect of ACET devices and the improvements made to date.

  19. Instrumental Techniques in Archeological Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    instantaneously, and as a result archeomagnetic studies have become more numerous and effective. P. C. Hammond, " Archaeometry and Time: A Review," Journal of...Trapped Electron Dating," Journal of Geophysical Research , Vol 76 (1971), pp 7875-7887. 25 keya, M. and Miki, T., "Electron Spin Resonance Dating of...1974, " Archaeometry and Time: A Review," Journal of Field Archae- ology 1, pp 329-335. Excellent brief summary of history of technique and its

  20. Lightning Simulation Test Technique Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    Example Resistive Response Measurement 94 43 Example dI/dt Response Measurement 95 44 Statistical Distribution of Swept CW Extrapolated Values - Nose...Aircraft 2 2 Prior Research and Development Tests on Full-Scale Air Vehicles 10 3 Summary of Simulation Technique Capabilities 14 4 Test Bed Resistance ...second L Inductance henrys R Resistance ohms V Potential difference volts STANDARD UNITS A amperes dB, dBm decibels Hz hertz kA kiloamps kV kilovolts

  1. Enteral Feeding Set Handling Techniques.

    PubMed

    Lyman, Beth; Williams, Maria; Sollazzo, Janet; Hayden, Ashley; Hensley, Pam; Dai, Hongying; Roberts, Cristine

    2017-04-01

    Enteral nutrition therapy is common practice in pediatric clinical settings. Often patients will receive a pump-assisted bolus feeding over 30 minutes several times per day using the same enteral feeding set (EFS). This study aims to determine the safest and most efficacious way to handle the EFS between feedings. Three EFS handling techniques were compared through simulation for bacterial growth, nursing time, and supply costs: (1) rinsing the EFS with sterile water after each feeding, (2) refrigerating the EFS between feedings, and (3) using a ready-to-hang (RTH) product maintained at room temperature. Cultures were obtained at baseline, hour 12, and hour 21 of the 24-hour cycle. A time-in-motion analysis was conducted and reported in average number of seconds to complete each procedure. Supply costs were inventoried for 1 month comparing the actual usage to our estimated usage. Of 1080 cultures obtained, the overall bacterial growth rate was 8.7%. The rinse and refrigeration techniques displayed similar bacterial growth (11.4% vs 10.3%, P = .63). The RTH technique displayed the least bacterial growth of any method (4.4%, P = .002). The time analysis in minutes showed the rinse method was the most time-consuming (44.8 ± 2.7) vs refrigeration (35.8 ± 2.6) and RTH (31.08 ± 0.6) ( P < .0001). All 3 EFS handling techniques displayed low bacterial growth. RTH was superior in bacterial growth, nursing time, and supply costs. Since not all pediatric formulas are available in RTH, we conclude that refrigerating the EFS between uses is the next most efficacious method for handling the EFS between bolus feeds.

  2. Monolithic microcircuit techniques and processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, B. W.

    1972-01-01

    Brief discussions of the techniques used to make dielectric and metal thin film depositions for monolithic circuits are presented. Silicon nitride deposition and the properties of silicon nitride films are discussed. Deposition of dichlorosilane and thermally grown silicon dioxide are reported. The deposition and thermal densification of borosilicate, aluminosilicate, and phosphosilicate glasses are discussed. Metallization for monolithic circuits and the characteristics of thin films are also included.

  3. Chest physiotherapy techniques in bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Flude, Lizzie J; Agent, Penny; Bilton, Diana

    2012-06-01

    Bronchiectasis is a persistent and progressive condition characterized by inflammation and infection causing damage that potentiates impaired mucociliary clearance. The rationale for promoting airway clearance is so that purulent secretions are removed from the airways, ameliorating the inflammation and improving control of symptoms such as cough and sputum plugging. Physiotherapists aim to teach patients one of a variety of airway clearance techniques to regularly perform as part of their daily management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Climbing techniques for bridge inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaslan, Erol C.

    1998-03-01

    California has about 24,000 publicly owned bridges that require routine structural evaluations to comply with National Bridge Inspection Standard (NBIS) mandates. Of these, about 800 are identified as possessing fatigue prone or fracture critical details requiring thorough tactile investigations. Gaining access to bridge elements to perform these investigations has become increasingly difficult and costly. The traditional uses of under bridge inspection trucks, lift equipment and rigging are economically and practically limited by bridge size, structure type, traffic demands and support costs. In some cases, bridges that have become damaged by earthquakes cannot safely support the loads of heavy personnel lift equipment. The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans)'s Office of Structural Materials and Office of Structure Maintenance and Investigations evaluated the use of rock climbing and mountaineering techniques as an alternative means of gaining access for bridge inspections. Under a small research grant, a bridge climbing training course was developed through a local University of California outdoor recreation group and 7 engineers and technicians were initially trained. A comprehensive Code of Safe Practices was created and standards of training, procedures and equipment required for bridge inspections were established. A successful climb investigation on a large, previously inaccessible arch bridge was completed at the end of the training that proved the techniques safe, economical and effective. Within one year, 20 bridge maintenance engineers were trained, and a formal program was established to organize, schedule, equip and certify engineers and technicians for bridge climbing. Several other offices within Caltrans as well as the California Department of Water Resources have since adopted these techniques for specialized structural inspection tasks. Climbing techniques are now used routinely in California as an alterative means of gaining access

  5. Guide to molecular cloning techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, S.L.; Kimmel, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    This book includes the following selections: requirements for a molecular biology laboratory; general methods for isolating and characterizing nucleic acids; enzymatic techniques and recombinant DNA technology; restriction enzymes; growth and maintenance of bacteria; genetic cloning, preparation and characterization of RNA; preparation of cDNA and the generation of cDNA libraries; selections of clones from libraries; and identification and characterization of specific clones.

  6. Surface Characterization Techniques: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    2002-01-01

    To understand the benefits that surface modifications provide, and ultimately to devise better ones, it is necessary to study the physical, mechanical, and chemical changes they cause. This chapter surveys classical and leading-edge developments in surface structure and property characterization methodologies. The primary emphases are on the use of these techniques as they relate to surface modifications, thin films and coatings, and tribological engineering surfaces and on the implications rather than the instrumentation.

  7. Computational intelligence techniques in bioinformatics.

    PubMed

    Hassanien, Aboul Ella; Al-Shammari, Eiman Tamah; Ghali, Neveen I

    2013-12-01

    Computational intelligence (CI) is a well-established paradigm with current systems having many of the characteristics of biological computers and capable of performing a variety of tasks that are difficult to do using conventional techniques. It is a methodology involving adaptive mechanisms and/or an ability to learn that facilitate intelligent behavior in complex and changing environments, such that the system is perceived to possess one or more attributes of reason, such as generalization, discovery, association and abstraction. The objective of this article is to present to the CI and bioinformatics research communities some of the state-of-the-art in CI applications to bioinformatics and motivate research in new trend-setting directions. In this article, we present an overview of the CI techniques in bioinformatics. We will show how CI techniques including neural networks, restricted Boltzmann machine, deep belief network, fuzzy logic, rough sets, evolutionary algorithms (EA), genetic algorithms (GA), swarm intelligence, artificial immune systems and support vector machines, could be successfully employed to tackle various problems such as gene expression clustering and classification, protein sequence classification, gene selection, DNA fragment assembly, multiple sequence alignment, and protein function prediction and its structure. We discuss some representative methods to provide inspiring examples to illustrate how CI can be utilized to address these problems and how bioinformatics data can be characterized by CI. Challenges to be addressed and future directions of research are also presented and an extensive bibliography is included. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Control technique for planetary rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakatani, Ichiro; Kubota, Takashi; Adachi, Tadashi; Saitou, Hiroaki; Okamoto, Sinya

    1994-01-01

    Beginning next century, several schemes for sending a planetary rover to the moon or Mars are being planned. As part of the development program, autonomous navigation technology is being studied to allow the rover the ability to move autonomously over a long range of unknown planetary surface. In the previous study, we ran the autonomous navigation experiment on an outdoor test terrain by using a rover test-bed that was controlled by a conventional sense-plan-act method. In some cases during the experiment, a problem occurred with the rover moving into untraversable areas. To improve this situation, a new control technique has been developed that gives the rover the ability of reacting to the outputs of the proximity sensors, a reaction behavior if you will. We have developed a new rover test-bed system on which an autonomous navigation experiment was performed using the newly developed control technique. In this outdoor experiment, the new control technique effectively produced the control command for the rover to avoid obstacles and be guided to the goal point safely.

  9. Techniques to accelerate dynamic psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Fosha, D; Slowiaczek, M L

    1997-01-01

    The techniques described above outline specific ways to deepen the patient's affective experience within an emotionally close therapeutic relationship. When effective, they all enhance the patient/therapist bond, raise self-esteem, reduce defensiveness and anxiety, and facilitate emotional healing. Psychodynamic treatment, long or short, is a complex process uniquely constructed by each therapist/patient pair. AEDP strategies are not intended as recipes for treatment. Good dynamic work depends on the therapist's ability to grasp the patient's capacities and limitations, understand relational dynamics, and interact with the patient in an empathically attuned, emotionally receptive, and flexible way. In that context, these strategies can be helpful tools to facilitate and accelerate the process. The choices made by AEDP--privileging adaptive strivings over defensive reactions, the stance of emotional engagement rather than neutrality and abstinence, the focus on health and change over pathology and stasis--are informed by traditional STDP aims to maximize depth, effectiveness, and efficiency. AEDP's contribution is a set of techniques relying on a response repertoire that is available to a wide range of therapists. Therapists can use these techniques to be more effective while simultaneously retaining the experience of speaking with patients in an authentic voice.

  10. Techniques for Specifying Bug Patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, D J; Vuduc, R W; Misherghi, G

    2007-04-30

    We present our on-going work to develop techniques for specifying source code signatures of bug patterns. Specifically, we discuss two approaches. The first approach directly analyzes a program in the intermediate representation (IR) of the ROSE compiler infrastructure using ROSE's API. The second analyzes the program using the bddbddb system of Lam, Whaley, et al.. In this approach, we store the IR produced by ROSE as a relational database, express patterns as declarative inference rules on relations in the language Datalog, and bddbddb implements the Datalog programs using binary decision diagram (BDD) techniques. Both approaches readily apply to large-scale applications, since ROSE provides full type analysis, control flow, and other available analysis information. In this paper, we primarily consider bug patterns expressed with respect to the structure of the source code or the control flow, or both. More complex techniques to specify patterns that are functions of data flow properties may be addressed by either of the above approaches, but are not directly treated here. Our Datalog-based work includes explicit support for expressing patterns on the use of the Message Passing Interface (MPI) in parallel distributed memory programs. We show examples of this on-going work as well.

  11. Moho Modeling Using FFT Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wenjin; Tenzer, Robert

    2017-04-01

    To improve the numerical efficiency, the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) technique was facilitated in Parker-Oldenburg's method for a regional gravimetric Moho recovery, which assumes the Earth's planar approximation. In this study, we extend this definition for global applications while assuming a spherical approximation of the Earth. In particular, we utilize the FFT technique for a global Moho recovery, which is practically realized in two numerical steps. The gravimetric forward modeling is first applied, based on methods for a spherical harmonic analysis and synthesis of the global gravity and lithospheric structure models, to compute the refined gravity field, which comprises mainly the gravitational signature of the Moho geometry. The gravimetric inverse problem is then solved iteratively in order to determine the Moho depth. The application of FFT technique to both numerical steps reduces the computation time to a fraction of that required without applying this fast algorithm. The developed numerical producers are used to estimate the Moho depth globally, and the gravimetric result is validated using the global (CRUST1.0) and regional (ESC) seismic Moho models. The comparison reveals a relatively good agreement between the gravimetric and seismic models, with the RMS of differences (of 4-5 km) at the level of expected uncertainties of used input datasets, while without the presence of significant systematic bias.

  12. Techniques of interventional tumor therapy.

    PubMed

    Mahnken, Andreas H; Bruners, Philipp; Günther, Rolf W

    2008-09-01

    The last few years have seen the rapid development of new image-guided interventions for the local treatment of malignant tumors. The goal of this article is to provide an overview of the techniques that are most commonly used today in interventional oncology. Selective literature review on the current state of image-guided interventional techniques for local tumor therapy. While surgery, radiation oncology, and systemic chemotherapy are still the three main pillars of tumor therapy, a broad range of minimally invasive, image-guided techniques for local tumor treatment is now available. These may be categorized as percutaneous injection of a toxic substance, transarterial embolization, thermal ablation, and internal radiotherapy. The choice of treatment depends on the type, location, and size of tumor. The greatest amount of clinical experience to date has been gathered in the treatment of primary and secondary hepatic malignancy, but there are interventional treatment options for virtually all regions of the body. At present, the utility of this form of treatment is limited for very large or multiple tumors; novel therapeutic options for these situations are now being studied. The outcome of treatment depends on a judicious determination of the indication for it. The indication should be established by interdisciplinary consensus after all treatment options have been considered.

  13. Imaging techniques for myocardial inflammation

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, J.B.; Henkin, R.E.; Robinson, J.A.

    1986-03-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DC) represents a heterogeneous group of disorders which results in morbidity and mortality in young individuals. Recent evidence suggests that a subset of these patients have histologic evidence of myocarditis which is potentially treatable with immunosuppression. The identification of myocardial inflammation may therefore lead to development of therapeutic regimens designed to treat the cause rather than the effect of the myocardial disease. Ultimately, this may result in improvement in the abysmal prognosis of DC. The currently accepted technique for identification of active myocardial inflammation is endomyocardial biopsy. This technique is not perfect, however, since pathologic standards for the diagnosis of myocarditis have not been established. Furthermore, focal inflammation may give rise to sampling error. The inflammation-avid radioisotope gallium-67 citrate has been used as an adjunct to biopsy improving the yield of myocarditis from 7 percent to 36 percent. Serial imaging correlates well to biopsy results. Future studies are designed to study the applicability of lymphocyte labelling techniques to myocardial inflammatory disease.

  14. Simultaneous multislice (SMS) imaging techniques

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Markus; Breuer, Felix; Koopmans, Peter J.; Poser, Benedikt A.

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous multislice imaging (SMS) using parallel image reconstruction has rapidly advanced to become a major imaging technique. The primary benefit is an acceleration in data acquisition that is equal to the number of simultaneously excited slices. Unlike in‐plane parallel imaging this can have only a marginal intrinsic signal‐to‐noise ratio penalty, and the full acceleration is attainable at fixed echo time, as is required for many echo planar imaging applications. Furthermore, for some implementations SMS techniques can reduce radiofrequency (RF) power deposition. In this review the current state of the art of SMS imaging is presented. In the Introduction, a historical overview is given of the history of SMS excitation in MRI. The following section on RF pulses gives both the theoretical background and practical application. The section on encoding and reconstruction shows how the collapsed multislice images can be disentangled by means of the transmitter pulse phase, gradient pulses, and most importantly using multichannel receiver coils. The relationship between classic parallel imaging techniques and SMS reconstruction methods is explored. The subsequent section describes the practical implementation, including the acquisition of reference data, and slice cross‐talk. Published applications of SMS imaging are then reviewed, and the article concludes with an outlook and perspective of SMS imaging. Magn Reson Med 75:63–81, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society of Medicine in Resonance. PMID:26308571

  15. Fluid Manipulation Utilizing Electrowetting Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Laura; Pyrak-Nolte, Laura

    2014-03-01

    The fraction of the pore space in rock occupied by a given fluid is called saturation. The relationship between saturation and capillary pressure for porous media is hysteretic between imbibition and drainage cycles. If the wetting phase saturation increases, the capillary pressure follows an imbibition curve, and, if the wetting phase saturation decreases, the capillary pressure follows the drainage curve. Due to this hysteresis, researchers have suggested that there is a third variable that should be considered called interfacial area per volume that removes the ambiguity in the capillary pressure - saturation relationship. Before the relationship can be explored in more detail, we first must be able to manipulate the saturation internally rather than externally. We used electrowetting techniques to manipulate the contact angle of a salt water drop. This technique affects the interfacial energy and, therefore, enables manipulation of the contact angles and saturation. Once mastered, the technique could be used to explore the effect of interfacial area per volume on micromodel systems. NSF REU

  16. Simultaneous multislice (SMS) imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Barth, Markus; Breuer, Felix; Koopmans, Peter J; Norris, David G; Poser, Benedikt A

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous multislice imaging (SMS) using parallel image reconstruction has rapidly advanced to become a major imaging technique. The primary benefit is an acceleration in data acquisition that is equal to the number of simultaneously excited slices. Unlike in-plane parallel imaging this can have only a marginal intrinsic signal-to-noise ratio penalty, and the full acceleration is attainable at fixed echo time, as is required for many echo planar imaging applications. Furthermore, for some implementations SMS techniques can reduce radiofrequency (RF) power deposition. In this review the current state of the art of SMS imaging is presented. In the Introduction, a historical overview is given of the history of SMS excitation in MRI. The following section on RF pulses gives both the theoretical background and practical application. The section on encoding and reconstruction shows how the collapsed multislice images can be disentangled by means of the transmitter pulse phase, gradient pulses, and most importantly using multichannel receiver coils. The relationship between classic parallel imaging techniques and SMS reconstruction methods is explored. The subsequent section describes the practical implementation, including the acquisition of reference data, and slice cross-talk. Published applications of SMS imaging are then reviewed, and the article concludes with an outlook and perspective of SMS imaging. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Layout techniques for integrated circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Tsay, C.Y.

    1986-01-01

    Several techniques are presented for solving circuit-layout problems. In particular, a channel-placement algorithm is first introduced to reduce the channel density (d) so that a channel router can complete the routing requirements in fewer tracks. A 4-layer channel-routing model is then formulated so that a general channel routing problem (CRP) with cyclic conflicts and long critical paths can be completed with d/2. Finally, the 4-layer, 2-dimensional switchbox routing problem needed to enhance the channel routing in general circuit layout is investigated from the graph-theoretical viewpoint. The channel-placement technique consists of two phases. Using the principle of decomposition, the initial placement phase effectively reduces the complexity of the problem and, therefore, improves the efficiency of the second phase, which is called the iterative improvement placement. The main feature of this phase is its hill-climbing ability to avoid being trapped at local minima. The combination of these two phases leads to an efficient technique for standard cell placement. To utilize multi-layer technology, a new 4-layer channel routing model is introduced to minimize the channel width of more-generalized CRP's. The 2-dimensional switchbox routing problem is transformed to an equivalent graph-theoretical problem.

  18. Cross spread pupil tracking technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolski, Krzysztof; Mantiuk, Radosław

    2016-11-01

    We present a fast and minimum delay algorithm for detecting the pupil center, called the "cross spread" tracking technique. This algorithm is meant for video eye trackers that estimate gaze direction from the position of the pupil center in the captured images. Contrary to other solutions, we do not try to make this technique robust to distractors such as reflections, distortions caused by glasses, or eyelids covering the pupil, but rather we assume eye tracking in stable light conditions. We argue that this approach is useful in many eye tracking applications, such as gaze tracking during psychophysical experiments in stable laboratory conditions, and that this approach can significantly reduce the eye tracker's complexity while maintaining its accuracy and performance. The proposed cross spread technique estimates pupil by tracing rays in horizontal and vertical directions in the image, starting from a point in the pupil region and continuing to the pupil boundary. The found boundary points determine the next starting point and the procedure is iteratively repeated. Parallel processing can be efficiently used enabling accurate pupil center detection in <2 ms on typical laptops. We compare the proposed algorithm to other pupil detection algorithms.

  19. Moho Modeling Using FFT Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wenjin; Tenzer, Robert

    2017-03-01

    To improve the numerical efficiency, the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) technique was facilitated in Parker-Oldenburg's method for a regional gravimetric Moho recovery, which assumes the Earth's planar approximation. In this study, we extend this definition for global applications while assuming a spherical approximation of the Earth. In particular, we utilize the FFT technique for a global Moho recovery, which is practically realized in two numerical steps. The gravimetric forward modeling is first applied, based on methods for a spherical harmonic analysis and synthesis of the global gravity and lithospheric structure models, to compute the refined gravity field, which comprises mainly the gravitational signature of the Moho geometry. The gravimetric inverse problem is then solved iteratively in order to determine the Moho depth. The application of FFT technique to both numerical steps reduces the computation time to a fraction of that required without applying this fast algorithm. The developed numerical producers are used to estimate the Moho depth globally, and the gravimetric result is validated using the global (CRUST1.0) and regional (ESC) seismic Moho models. The comparison reveals a relatively good agreement between the gravimetric and seismic models, with the RMS of differences (of 4-5 km) at the level of expected uncertainties of used input datasets, while without the presence of significant systematic bias.

  20. NASA standard: Trend analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This Standard presents descriptive and analytical techniques for NASA trend analysis applications. Trend analysis is applicable in all organizational elements of NASA connected with, or supporting, developmental/operational programs. Use of this Standard is not mandatory; however, it should be consulted for any data analysis activity requiring the identification or interpretation of trends. Trend Analysis is neither a precise term nor a circumscribed methodology, but rather connotes, generally, quantitative analysis of time-series data. For NASA activities, the appropriate and applicable techniques include descriptive and graphical statistics, and the fitting or modeling of data by linear, quadratic, and exponential models. Usually, but not always, the data is time-series in nature. Concepts such as autocorrelation and techniques such as Box-Jenkins time-series analysis would only rarely apply and are not included in this Standard. The document presents the basic ideas needed for qualitative and quantitative assessment of trends, together with relevant examples. A list of references provides additional sources of information.

  1. Perioperative Acupuncture and Related Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Chernyak, Grigory V.; Sessler, Daniel I.

    2005-01-01

    Acupuncture and related techniques are increasingly practiced in conventional medical settings, and the number of patients willing to use these techniques is increasing. Despite more than 30 years of research, the exact mechanism of action and efficacy of acupuncture have not been established. Furthermore, most aspects of acupuncture have yet to be adequately tested. There thus remains considerable controversy about the role of acupuncture in clinical medicine. Acupuncture apparently does not reduce volatile anesthetic requirement by a clinically important amount. However, preoperative sedation seems to be a promising application of acupuncture in perioperative settings. Acupuncture may be effective for postoperative pain relief but requires a high level of expertise by the acupuncture practitioner. Acupuncture and related techniques can be used for treatment and prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting in routine clinical practice in combination with, or as an alternative to, conventional antiemetics when administered before induction of general anesthesia. Summary Statement: The use of acupuncture for perioperative analgesia, nausea and vomiting, sedation, anesthesia, and complications is reviewed. PMID:15851892

  2. Short counseling techniques for busy family doctors.

    PubMed

    Poon, V H

    1997-04-01

    To introduce two short counseling skills for busy family doctors: the BATHE technique and the DIG technique. The BATHE technique indicates five areas for questioning patients who require counseling: background, affect, trouble, handling, and empathy. No research on use of the technique has been published. The DIG technique is the author's modification of the BATHE technique. While the efficacy of counseling in general was validated, more research on the effectiveness on these two techniques needs to be done. Since counseling is an integral part of family practice, family doctors will find these techniques useful. Each is easy to learn and takes less than 15 minutes to complete.

  3. EDITORIAL: Imaging systems and techniques Imaging systems and techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wuqiang; Giakos, George; Nikita, Konstantina; Pastorino, Matteo; Karras, Dimitrios

    2009-10-01

    The papers in this special issue focus on providing the state-of-the-art approaches and solutions to some of the most challenging imaging areas, such as the design, development, evaluation and applications of imaging systems, measuring techniques, image processing algorithms and instrumentation, with an ultimate aim of enhancing the measurement accuracy and image quality. This special issue explores the principles, engineering developments and applications of new imaging systems and techniques, and encourages broad discussion of imaging methodologies, shaping the future and identifying emerging trends. The multi-faceted field of imaging requires drastic adaptation to the rapid changes in our society, economy, environment and technological evolution. There is an urgent need to address new problems, which tend to be either static but complex, or dynamic, e.g. rapidly evolving with time, with many unknowns, and to propose innovative solutions. For instance, the battles against cancer and terror, monitoring of space resources and enhanced awareness, management of natural resources and environmental monitoring are some of the areas that need to be addressed. The complexity of the involved imaging scenarios and demanding design parameters, e.g. speed, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), specificity, contrast, spatial resolution, scatter rejection, complex background and harsh environments, necessitate the development of a multi-functional, scalable and efficient imaging suite of sensors, solutions driven by innovation, and operation on diverse detection and imaging principles. Efficient medical imaging techniques capable of providing physiological information at the molecular level present another important research area. Advanced metabolic and functional imaging techniques, operating on multiple physical principles, and using high-resolution, high-selectivity nano-imaging methods, quantum dots, nanoparticles, biomarkers, nanostructures, nanosensors, micro-array imaging chips

  4. Simulation verification techniques study. Subsystem simulation validation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, L. M.; Reddell, J. P.; Schoonmaker, P. B.

    1974-01-01

    Techniques for validation of software modules which simulate spacecraft onboard systems are discussed. An overview of the simulation software hierarchy for a shuttle mission simulator is provided. A set of guidelines for the identification of subsystem/module performance parameters and critical performance parameters are presented. Various sources of reference data to serve as standards of performance for simulation validation are identified. Environment, crew station, vehicle configuration, and vehicle dynamics simulation software are briefly discussed from the point of view of their interfaces with subsystem simulation modules. A detailed presentation of results in the area of vehicle subsystems simulation modules is included. A list of references, conclusions and recommendations are also given.

  5. Swept Impact Seismic Technique (SIST)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Park, C.B.; Miller, R.D.; Steeples, D.W.; Black, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    A coded seismic technique is developed that can result in a higher signal-to-noise ratio than a conventional single-pulse method does. The technique is cost-effective and time-efficient and therefore well suited for shallow-reflection surveys where high resolution and cost-effectiveness are critical. A low-power impact source transmits a few to several hundred high-frequency broad-band seismic pulses during several seconds of recording time according to a deterministic coding scheme. The coding scheme consists of a time-encoded impact sequence in which the rate of impact (cycles/s) changes linearly with time providing a broad range of impact rates. Impact times used during the decoding process are recorded on one channel of the seismograph. The coding concept combines the vibroseis swept-frequency and the Mini-Sosie random impact concepts. The swept-frequency concept greatly improves the suppression of correlation noise with much fewer impacts than normally used in the Mini-Sosie technique. The impact concept makes the technique simple and efficient in generating high-resolution seismic data especially in the presence of noise. The transfer function of the impact sequence simulates a low-cut filter with the cutoff frequency the same as the lowest impact rate. This property can be used to attenuate low-frequency ground-roll noise without using an analog low-cut filter or a spatial source (or receiver) array as is necessary with a conventional single-pulse method. Because of the discontinuous coding scheme, the decoding process is accomplished by a "shift-and-stacking" method that is much simpler and quicker than cross-correlation. The simplicity of the coding allows the mechanical design of the source to remain simple. Several different types of mechanical systems could be adapted to generate a linear impact sweep. In addition, the simplicity of the coding also allows the technique to be used with conventional acquisition systems, with only minor modifications.

  6. Research Techniques Made Simple: Skin Carcinogenesis Models: Xenotransplantation Techniques.

    PubMed

    Mollo, Maria Rosaria; Antonini, Dario; Cirillo, Luisa; Missero, Caterina

    2016-02-01

    Xenotransplantation is a widely used technique to test the tumorigenic potential of human cells in vivo using immunodeficient mice. Here we describe basic technologies and recent advances in xenotransplantation applied to study squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the skin. SCC cells isolated from tumors can either be cultured to generate a cell line or injected directly into mice. Several immunodeficient mouse models are available for selection based on the experimental design and the type of tumorigenicity assay. Subcutaneous injection is the most widely used technique for xenotransplantation because it involves a simple procedure allowing the use of a large number of cells, although it may not mimic the original tumor environment. SCC cell injections at the epidermal-to-dermal junction or grafting of organotypic cultures containing human stroma have also been used to more closely resemble the tumor environment. Mixing of SCC cells with cancer-associated fibroblasts can allow the study of their interaction and reciprocal influence, which can be followed in real time by intradermal ear injection using conventional fluorescent microscopy. In this article, we will review recent advances in xenotransplantation technologies applied to study behavior of SCC cells and their interaction with the tumor environment in vivo.

  7. Flexible time domain averaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ming; Lin, Jing; Lei, Yaguo; Wang, Xiufeng

    2013-09-01

    Time domain averaging(TDA) is essentially a comb filter, it cannot extract the specified harmonics which may be caused by some faults, such as gear eccentric. Meanwhile, TDA always suffers from period cutting error(PCE) to different extent. Several improved TDA methods have been proposed, however they cannot completely eliminate the waveform reconstruction error caused by PCE. In order to overcome the shortcomings of conventional methods, a flexible time domain averaging(FTDA) technique is established, which adapts to the analyzed signal through adjusting each harmonic of the comb filter. In this technique, the explicit form of FTDA is first constructed by frequency domain sampling. Subsequently, chirp Z-transform(CZT) is employed in the algorithm of FTDA, which can improve the calculating efficiency significantly. Since the signal is reconstructed in the continuous time domain, there is no PCE in the FTDA. To validate the effectiveness of FTDA in the signal de-noising, interpolation and harmonic reconstruction, a simulated multi-components periodic signal that corrupted by noise is processed by FTDA. The simulation results show that the FTDA is capable of recovering the periodic components from the background noise effectively. Moreover, it can improve the signal-to-noise ratio by 7.9 dB compared with conventional ones. Experiments are also carried out on gearbox test rigs with chipped tooth and eccentricity gear, respectively. It is shown that the FTDA can identify the direction and severity of the eccentricity gear, and further enhances the amplitudes of impulses by 35%. The proposed technique not only solves the problem of PCE, but also provides a useful tool for the fault symptom extraction of rotating machinery.

  8. Interference techniques in fluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, Mehmet

    We developed a set of interference-based optical microscopy techniques to study biological structures through nanometer-scale axial localization of fluorescent biomarkers. Spectral self-interference fluorescence microscopy (SSFM) utilizes interference of direct and reflected waves emitted from fluorescent molecules in the vicinity of planar reflectors to reveal the axial position of the molecules. A comprehensive calculation algorithm based on Green's function formalism is presented to verify the validity of approximations used in a far-field approach that describes the emission of fluorescent markers near interfaces. Using the validated model, theoretical limits of axial localization were determined with emphasis given to numerical aperture (NA) dependence of localization uncertainty. SSFM was experimentally demonstrated in conformational analysis of nucleoproteins. In particular, interaction between surface-tethered 75-mer double strand DNA and integration host factor (IHF) protein was probed on Si-SiO2 substrates by determining the axial position of fluorescent labels attached to the free ends of DNA molecules. Despite its sub-nanometer precision axial localization capability, SSFM lacks high lateral resolution due to the low-NA requirement for planar reflectors. We developed a second technique, 4Pi-SSFM, which improves the lateral resolution of a conventional SSFM system by an order of magnitude while achieving nanometer-scale axial localization precision. Using two opposing high-NA objectives, fluorescence signal is interferometrically collected and spectral interference pattern is recorded. Axial position of emitters is found from analysis of the spectra. The 4Pi-SSFM technique was experimentally demonstrated by determining the surface profiles of fabricated glass surfaces and outer membranes of Shigella, a type of Gram-negative bacteria. A further discussion is presented to localize surface O antigen, which is an important oligosaccharide structure in the

  9. Autokinetic word technique and personality.

    PubMed

    Frigon, J Y

    1977-12-01

    24 male subjects were divided into four groups on the basis of their scores on the Eysenck Personality Inventory and were administered the autokinetic word technique test as elaborated by Rechtschaffen and Mednick (1955), with numbers of words and letters reported constituting the response measures. Stable introverts reported significantly more words and letters than stable extraverts; there was no difference between neurotic introverts and neurotic extraverts. On the basis of the large inter-subject variability, the usefulness of the autokinetic-word situation in the investigation of projection is doubted.

  10. Automated medical image segmentation techniques

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Neeraj; Aggarwal, Lalit M.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate segmentation of medical images is a key step in contouring during radiotherapy planning. Computed topography (CT) and Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are the most widely used radiographic techniques in diagnosis, clinical studies and treatment planning. This review provides details of automated segmentation methods, specifically discussed in the context of CT and MR images. The motive is to discuss the problems encountered in segmentation of CT and MR images, and the relative merits and limitations of methods currently available for segmentation of medical images. PMID:20177565

  11. Mammalian Cell Tissue Culture Techniques.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Katy; May, Kristin M

    2016-06-01

    Cultured tissues and cells are used extensively in physiological and pharmacological studies. In vitro cultures provide a means of examining cells and tissues without the complex interactions that would be present if the whole organism were studied. A number of special skills are required in order to preserve the structure, function, behavior, and biology of cells in culture. This unit describes the basic skills required to maintain and preserve cell cultures: maintaining aseptic technique, preparing media with the appropriate characteristics, passaging, freezing and storage, recovering frozen stocks, and counting viable cells. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  12. Research in millimeter wave techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmillan, R. W.

    1987-01-01

    The areas of millimeter wave (MMW) research include atmospheric propagation and radiometry, advanced MMW component design with emphasis on quasi-optical techniques, and the development of MMW receivers, especially those using subharmonic mixers. Calculations of atmospheric attenuation and radiometric antenna temperature were made in the range 100 to 700 GHz, together with measurements of atmospheric antenna temperature near 95 and 183 GHz. Quasi-optical components designed include lenses, mirrors, and wire grid devices, as well as feedhorns for interference with waveguide components. Subharmonic mixers with state-of-the-art performance at 183 GHz were also developed. Each of these areas of research is summarized.

  13. Fuzzy mathematical techniques with applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kandel, A.

    1986-01-01

    This text presents the basic concepts of fuzzy set theory within a context of real-world applications. The book is self-contained and can be used as a starting point for people interested in this fast growing field as well as by researchers looking for new application techniques. The section on applications includes: Manipulation of knowledge in expert systems; relational database structures; pattern clustering; analysis of transient behavior in digital systems; modeling of uncertainty and search trees. Contents: Fuzzy sets; Possibility theory and fuzzy quantification; Fuzzy functions; Fuzzy events and fuzzy statistics; Fuzzy relations; Fuzzy logics; Some applications; Bibliography.

  14. Techniques for Automated Performance Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, Ryan C.

    2014-09-02

    The performance of a particular HPC code depends on a multitude of variables, including compiler selection, optimization flags, OpenMP pool size, file system load, memory usage, MPI configuration, etc. As a result of this complexity, current predictive models have limited applicability, especially at scale. We present a formulation of scientific codes, nodes, and clusters that reduces complex performance analysis to well-known mathematical techniques. Building accurate predictive models and enhancing our understanding of scientific codes at scale is an important step towards exascale computing.

  15. Surgical techniques and infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Story, R D

    1991-10-01

    Dentists are at risk of acquiring blood-borne infectious diseases by accidental inoculation whilst performing oral surgical procedures. These risks have been well discussed in the literature and by most assessments are considered to be minimal. They are, however, very real to those at risk. One response to these risks is to cease practice although many would see this as an extreme response. Another response is to modify surgical techniques in such a way that surgical procedures become safer without also becoming more complicated.

  16. EPR techniques for space biodosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Haskell, E.; Hayes, R.; Kenner, G.; Sholom, S.; Chumak, V.

    1996-12-31

    Retrospective dosimetry of tooth enamel has become an increasingly complex and difficult discipline to undertake while still attaining accuracy. The paper provides a review of the major obstacles, advances and pertinent phenomenon associated with low level retrospective dosimetry of human tooth enamel. Also covered is the many sources of error in EPR dosimetry, their potential solutions, as well as the different analysis and scanning techniques in use with their prospective pros and cons. Prospective directions for new approaches, methods, and instruments are also reviewed.

  17. Modified Technique For Chemisorption Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schryer, David R.; Brown, Kenneth G.; Schryer, Jacqueline

    1989-01-01

    In measurements of chemisorption of CO on Pt/SnO2 catalyst observed that if small numbers of relatively large volumes of adsorbate gas are passed through sample, very little removal of CO detected. In these cases little or no CO has been chemisorbed on Pt/SnO2. Technique of using large number of small volumes of adsorbate gas to measure chemisorption applicable to many gas/material combinations other than CO on Pt/SnO2. Volume used chosen so that at least 10 percent of adsorbate gas removed during each exposure.

  18. Modelling techniques for jet impingement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haviland, J. K.; Herling, W. W.

    1977-01-01

    A technique for testing scale models for the determination of fluctuating pressure loads due to jet impingement has been investigated using a quarter-scale model of a boilerplate test facility in which a JT-15D engine with a rectangular outer nozzle blows over a small curved airfoil representing the upper-surface of a wing. When model and full-scale spectra of fluctuating surface pressures are reduced to plots of pressure coefficient power-spectral density vs Strouhal number, moderate agreement is obtained, but a shift of spectral peaks is noted. However, when a correction for the ratio of average jet to ambient temperature is applied, the spectral peaks agree.

  19. Infrared techniques for comet observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanner, Martha S.; Tokunaga, Alan T.

    1991-01-01

    The infrared spectral region (1-1000 microns) is important for studies of both molecules and solid grains in comets. Infrared astronomy is in the midst of a technological revolution, with the development of sensitive 2D arrays leading to IR cameras and spectrometers with vastly improved sensitivity and resolution. The Halley campaign gave us tantalizing first glimpses of the comet science possible with this new technology, evidenced, for example, by the many new spectral features detected in the infrared. The techniques of photometry, imaging, and spectroscopy are reviewed in this chapter and their status at the time of the Halley observations is described.

  20. Pinch technique: Theory and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binosi, Daniele; Papavassiliou, Joannis

    2009-08-01

    We review the theoretical foundations and the most important physical applications of the Pinch Technique (PT). This general method allows the construction of off-shell Green’s functions in non-Abelian gauge theories that are independent of the gauge-fixing parameter and satisfy ghost-free Ward identities. We first present the diagrammatic formulation of the technique in QCD, deriving, at one loop, the gauge independent gluon self-energy, quark-gluon vertex, and three-gluon vertex, together with their Abelian Ward identities. The generalization of the PT to theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking is carried out in detail, and the profound connection with the optical theorem and the dispersion relations are explained within the electroweak sector of the Standard Model. The equivalence between the PT and the Feynman gauge of the Background Field Method (BFM) is elaborated, and the crucial differences between the two methods are critically scrutinized. A variety of field theoretic techniques needed for the generalization of the PT to all orders are introduced, with particular emphasis on the Batalin-Vilkovisky quantization method and the general formalism of algebraic renormalization. The main conceptual and technical issues related to the extension of the technique beyond one loop are described, using the two-loop construction as a concrete example. Then the all-order generalization is thoroughly examined, making extensive use of the field theoretic machinery previously introduced; of central importance in this analysis is the demonstration that the PT-BFM correspondence persists to all orders in perturbation theory. The extension of the PT to the non-perturbative domain of the QCD Schwinger-Dyson equations is presented systematically, and the main advantages of the resulting self-consistent truncation scheme are discussed. A plethora of physical applications relying on the PT are finally reviewed, with special emphasis on the definition of gauge

  1. Techniques for plotting shadow patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Bainbridge, D.A.

    1982-02-01

    Basic approaches for plotting shadow patterns (summer or winter) are discussed, illustrated, and compared. The solar simulator technique uses floodlights or a moveable table to mimic the sun's path over a model of the building being studied. The drawback is that, for large developments, very small models would have to be built. Graphic solutions (2 types) are described in which: (1) sun angles are used to calculate shadow patterns using trigonometry and (2) drawings are made and shadows are calculated. Examples are given for a house on level ground and on sloping ground. Calculations of shade density are also illustrated. 8 references. (MJJ)

  2. Injected radiotracer techniques in hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, S. M.

    1984-08-01

    Radioactive tracers which have several advantages over conventional tracers made significant contributions to the development of the injected tracer method in hydrology. A review of the nuclear and the physico-chemical characteristics of the possible radiotracer compounds leads us to conclude that the most effective groundwater tracers are tritiated water (HTO),82Br- and58Co or60Co as a hexacyanocobaltate complex. A discussion of the various case studies in India and abroad covering the three groups of applications mentioned helps us to conclude that well established radiotracer methods with associated interpretational techniques are available for many short range studies in surface and subsurface hydrology.

  3. Breakwire Technique for Hypervelocity Measurement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    R )ATORY DSTO - • ’, - , CCL!’ A ~t1 ror - NTSCRA&Ic ý, I rIC TA8 0 SU .,".o,;"ed...Boom,’ r , a large scale explohing’fl folhflii plat’ \\’einerator. Two techniques were tested, ta dual breakwire method and a single breakwire method. 7...E I ~0.8 U.0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 4 8 12 16 Time. ps 1.8 Boomer 1: 3 WV 14 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 o 12 1824 F ~ev position. mm (b) Figure 7: ( a ) Approximate

  4. Selenium incorporation using recombinant techniques

    PubMed Central

    Walden, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Using selenomethionine to phase macromolecular structures is common practice in structure determination, along with the use of selenocysteine. Selenium is consequently the most commonly used heavy atom for MAD. In addition to the well established recombinant techniques for the incorporation of selenium in pro­karyal expression systems, there have been recent advances in selenium labelling in eukaryal expression, which will be discussed. Tips and things to consider for the purification and crystallization of seleno-labelled proteins are also included. PMID:20382987

  5. Septoplasty: Basic and Advanced Techniques.

    PubMed

    Most, Sam P; Rudy, Shannon F

    2017-05-01

    Nasal septal deviation is a prevalent problem that can have significant quality of life ramifications. Septoplasty is commonly performed to provide qualitative and quantitative benefit to those with nasal obstruction owing to septal deviation. Although a standard, basic technique is often adequate for individuals with mild to moderate mid to posterior septal deviation, unique challenges arise with caudal septal deviation. Herein, multiple strategies that attempt to address anterior septal deviation are discussed. Anterior septal reconstruction has been shown to be a safe and effective means by which to address severe caudal septal deviation and long-term reduction in preoperative symptoms.

  6. Eye Redness Image Processing Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adnan, M. R. H. Mohd; Zain, Azlan Mohd; Haron, Habibollah; Alwee, Razana; Zulfaezal Che Azemin, Mohd; Osman Ibrahim, Ashraf

    2017-09-01

    The use of photographs for the assessment of ocular conditions has been suggested to further standardize clinical procedures. The selection of the photographs to be used as scale reference images was subjective. Numerous methods have been proposed to assign eye redness scores by computational methods. Image analysis techniques have been investigated over the last 20 years in an attempt to forgo subjective grading scales. Image segmentation is one of the most important and challenging problems in image processing. This paper briefly outlines the comprehensive of image processing and the implementation of image segmentation in eye redness.

  7. Automated medical image segmentation techniques.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Neeraj; Aggarwal, Lalit M

    2010-01-01

    Accurate segmentation of medical images is a key step in contouring during radiotherapy planning. Computed topography (CT) and Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are the most widely used radiographic techniques in diagnosis, clinical studies and treatment planning. This review provides details of automated segmentation methods, specifically discussed in the context of CT and MR images. The motive is to discuss the problems encountered in segmentation of CT and MR images, and the relative merits and limitations of methods currently available for segmentation of medical images.

  8. Stereotactic limbic leucotomy: surgical technique

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Alan

    1973-01-01

    The requirements for modern psychosurgery are safety and accuracy. Stereotactic techniques give the geometric accuracy and stimulation gives physiological information, which is important in determining lesion sites or at least lesion symmetry. The process whereby focal brain destruction is produced is ideally by a freezing probe, but equally effectively by coagulation. A number of small lesions is thus required. This at present is unavoidable if side effects are to be obviated. Careful continuing assessment of results is necessary to validate any surgical procedure. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:4618905

  9. Evaluation of Demand Prediction Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    Road Bethesda, Maryland 20817 5886 JiZ A q C64 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Robert Arnberg of LMI deserves credit for assembling many files cf D041 data for...the best techniques of those we studied. • Use of a Poisson or constant variance-to-mean ratio (VMR) leads to poor allocation of resources. Treating...the program element is not in the D041 record or is zero for some quarters with positive demand, or has apparent errors that lead to a less stable

  10. Measurement Techniques for Clock Jitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansdowne, Chatwin; Schlesinger, Adam

    2012-01-01

    NASA is in the process of modernizing its communications infrastructure to accompany the development of a Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to replace the shuttle. With this effort comes the opportunity to infuse more advanced coded modulation techniques, including low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes that offer greater coding gains than the current capability. However, in order to take full advantage of these codes, the ground segment receiver synchronization loops must be able to operate at a lower signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) than supported by equipment currently in use.

  11. 21 CFR 820.250 - Statistical techniques.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Statistical techniques. 820.250 Section 820.250...) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Statistical Techniques § 820.250 Statistical techniques. (a... statistical techniques required for establishing, controlling, and verifying the acceptability of...

  12. 21 CFR 820.250 - Statistical techniques.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Statistical techniques. 820.250 Section 820.250...) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Statistical Techniques § 820.250 Statistical techniques. (a... statistical techniques required for establishing, controlling, and verifying the acceptability of...

  13. 21 CFR 820.250 - Statistical techniques.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Statistical techniques. 820.250 Section 820.250...) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Statistical Techniques § 820.250 Statistical techniques. (a... statistical techniques required for establishing, controlling, and verifying the acceptability of...

  14. 21 CFR 820.250 - Statistical techniques.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Statistical techniques. 820.250 Section 820.250...) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Statistical Techniques § 820.250 Statistical techniques. (a... statistical techniques required for establishing, controlling, and verifying the acceptability of...

  15. Computerized technique for recording board defect data

    Treesearch

    R. Bruce Anderson; R. Edward Thomas; Charles J. Gatchell; Neal D. Bennett; Neal D. Bennett

    1993-01-01

    A computerized technique for recording board defect data has been developed that is faster and more accurate than manual techniques. The lumber database generated by this technique is a necessary input to computer simulation models that estimate potential cutting yields from various lumber breakdown sequences. The technique allows collection of detailed information...

  16. Assessment Techniques To Enhance Organizational Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Paul

    This paper addresses the need for group-based or team-based techniques to facilitate organizational learning. It identifies two process-oriented strategies: the role analysis technique (RAT) and the diagnostic window technique. These techniques can be used in meetings to model the intellectual tasks that need to occur in today's learning…

  17. A Comparative of business process modelling techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangkawarow, I. R. H. T.; Waworuntu, J.

    2016-04-01

    In this era, there is a lot of business process modeling techniques. This article is the research about differences of business process modeling techniques. For each technique will explain about the definition and the structure. This paper presents a comparative analysis of some popular business process modelling techniques. The comparative framework is based on 2 criteria: notation and how it works when implemented in Somerleyton Animal Park. Each technique will end with the advantages and disadvantages. The final conclusion will give recommend of business process modeling techniques that easy to use and serve the basis for evaluating further modelling techniques.

  18. Research Techniques Made Simple: Techniques to Assess Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Romar, George A; Kupper, Thomas S; Divito, Sherrie J

    2016-01-01

    Cell proliferation is commonly assayed in the laboratory for research purposes, but is increasingly used clinically to gauge tumor aggressiveness and potentially guide care. Therefore, both researchers and clinicians should have a basic understanding of techniques used to assess cell proliferation. Multiple cell proliferation assays exist, and the choice of method depends on the laboratory resources available, the types of cells/tissues to be studied, and the specific experimental goals. In this article, we identify four overarching categories of cell proliferation assays that signify various stages of the cell cycle: nucleoside-analog incorporation, cell cycle-associated protein detection, use of cytoplasmic proliferation dyes, and indirect measures of cell proliferation. Each method has strengths and limitations that should guide the dermatology investigator's choice of assay.

  19. Reconstitution technique for surveillance programs

    SciTech Connect

    Brumovsky, M.; Novosad, P.

    1996-09-01

    Surveillance programs of reactor pressure vessel materials play very important role in reactor pressure vessel lifetime assessment. Unfortunately, most of them were designed and manufactured many years ago when knowledge about radiation damage as well of fracture mechanics was substantially nonadequate to present requirements. Reconstitution techniques are very effective methods for obtaining necessary data from irradiated and previously tested surveillance specimens. Electron beam welding technique was chosen for reconstitution of irradiated surveillance specimens from WWER-440 reactor pressure vessels. This method was chosen as an effective one as practically no machining is necessary after welding as specimen dimensions and forms are fully maintained. Paper describes the reconstitution method and results obtained from its validation--time dependent temperature in the vicinity of the specimen notch to prove that this method does not affect irradiation damage in reconstituted specimens. Paper also gives results from first tests of re-assessed surveillance program of WWER-440 RPV: comparison of transition temperature shifts from original Charpy V-notch specimens with transition temperature shifts from reconstituted precracked Charpy specimens.

  20. SCADA communication techniques and standards

    SciTech Connect

    Gaushell, D.J. ); Block, W.R. )

    1993-07-01

    Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems consist generally of a master station (master) and a number of geographically dispersed remote terminal units (RTUs). RTUs are interconnected to the master via a variety of communication channels, including radio links, leased lines, and fiber optics. Due to the limited availability and high cost of communication channels, the design of master and TRUs is profoundly affected. Communication channels limit the speed at which data acquisition and control can be performed, thus affecting the master user interface and applications software design. In addition, noise occurring randomly on the communication channel requires additional master and RTU hardware and software design to guarantee that information is transferred correctly from master to RTU, and from RTU to master. Configurations of communication systems are dictated by: Number of RTUs, number of points at RTUs and required update rates, location of RTUs, communication facilities available, communication equipment and techniques available. This article provides an overview of SCADA communication techniques (modulation, multiplexing, message formats, information transfer) and an update on relevant standards activities.

  1. Compensation Techniques in Accelerator Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Sayed, Hisham Kamal

    2011-05-01

    Accelerator physics is one of the most diverse multidisciplinary fields of physics, wherein the dynamics of particle beams is studied. It takes more than the understanding of basic electromagnetic interactions to be able to predict the beam dynamics, and to be able to develop new techniques to produce, maintain, and deliver high quality beams for different applications. In this work, some basic theory regarding particle beam dynamics in accelerators will be presented. This basic theory, along with applying state of the art techniques in beam dynamics will be used in this dissertation to study and solve accelerator physics problems. Two problems involving compensation are studied in the context of the MEIC (Medium Energy Electron Ion Collider) project at Jefferson Laboratory. Several chromaticity (the energy dependence of the particle tune) compensation methods are evaluated numerically and deployed in a figure eight ring designed for the electrons in the collider. Furthermore, transverse coupling optics have been developed to compensate the coupling introduced by the spin rotators in the MEIC electron ring design.

  2. Thumb Duplication: Concepts and Techniques

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Within the Oberg, Manske, Tonkin (OMT) classification, thumb duplications are a failure of formation and/or differentiation affecting the radial-ulnar axis of the hand plate. The Wassel description of seven types of thumb duplication provides a good structure from which an approach to management is based. The aim of surgical reconstruction is to obtain a stable, mobile thumb of adequate size and appropriate shape. The most common form of reconstruction is removal of the lesser digit and reconstruction of the dominant digit. Surgical techniques address the problems of deviation, instability and lack of size. The disadvantages of the Bilhaut-Cloquet procedure, these being joint stiffness and a nail ridge, may be lesser concerns when reconstruction of one digit will not create a satisfactory thumb of adequate mobility, stability, alignment and size. Complicated problems of triphalangism, triplication, ulnar dimelia and the rare circumstance in which neither of the duplicated thumbs may be adequately reconstructed present specific challenges which demand alternative techniques. PMID:22379552

  3. Neurophysiological imaging techniques in dementia.

    PubMed

    Comi, G; Leocani, L

    1999-01-01

    Neurophysiological methods, such as electroencephalography (EEG) and event-related potentials, are useful tools in the investigation of brain cognitive function in normal and pathological conditions, with an excellent time resolution when compared to that of other functional imaging techniques. Advanced techniques using a high number of EEG channels also enable a good spatial resolution to be achieved. This, together with the possibility of integration with other anatomical and functional images, may increase the ability to localize brain functions. Spectral analysis of the resting EEG, which gives information on the integrity of the cortical and subcortical networks involved in the generation of cortical rhythms, has the limitation of low sensitivity and specificity for the type of cognitive impairment. In almost all types of dementia, decreased power of the high frequencies is indeed observed in mild stages, accompanied by increased power of the slow rhythms in the more advanced phases. The sensitivity for the detection of spectral abnormalities is improved by studying centroid modifications. More specific information on the type of dementia can be provided by coherence analysis of the resting EEG, a measure of functional cortico-cortical connections, which has different abnormal patterns in Alzheimer's disease, cerebrovascular dementia and dementia associated with multiple sclerosis. Another tool for improving the assessment of demented patients is the study of EEG activity related to particular tasks, such as event-related potentials and event-related desynchronization/synchronization of the EEG, which allow the study of brain activation during cognitive and motor tasks.

  4. Review of Terahertz Tomography Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillet, J. P.; Recur, B.; Frederique, L.; Bousquet, B.; Canioni, L.; Manek-Hönninger, I.; Desbarats, P.; Mounaix, P.

    2014-04-01

    Terahertz and millimeter waves penetrate various dielectric materials, including plastics, ceramics, crystals, and concrete, allowing terahertz transmission and reflection images to be considered as a new imaging tool complementary to X-Ray or Infrared. Terahertz imaging is a well-established technique in various laboratory and industrial applications. However, these images are often two-dimensional. Three-dimensional, transmission-mode imaging is limited to thin samples, due to the absorption of the sample accumulated in the propagation direction. A tomographic imaging procedure can be used to acquire and to render three-dimensional images in the terahertz frequency range, as in the optical, infrared or X-ray regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. In this paper, after a brief introduction to two dimensional millimeter waves and terahertz imaging we establish the principles of tomography for Terahertz Computed tomography (CT), tomosynthesis (TS), synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and time-of-flight (TOF) terahertz tomography. For each technique, we present advantages, drawbacks and limitations for imaging the internal structure of an object.

  5. Mandibular reconstruction with different techniques.

    PubMed

    Torroni, Andrea; Marianetti, Tito Matteo; Romandini, Mario; Gasparini, Giulio; Cervelli, Daniele; Pelo, Sandro

    2015-05-01

    Traumas, malformative or dysplastic pathologies, atrophy, osteoradionecrosis, and benign or malignant neoplasm can cause bone deficits in the mandible. Consequent mandibular defects can determine aesthetic and functional problems; therefore, being able to perform a good reconstruction is of critical importance.Several techniques have been proposed for mandibular reconstruction over the years. In this article, we present and discuss the evolution during the time of the methods of mandible reconstruction as well as pros and cons of each procedure on the basis of experience of 10 years in the maxillofacial department of the Catholic University of Sacred Heart of Rome.Free flaps represent the gold standard method of reconstruction of large mandibular defects: the fibula bone flap represents the best choice for large defects involving the arch and the mandibular ramus, whereas the deep circumflex iliac artery represents a valid alternative for mandibular defects involving the posterior region.In cases where free flap reconstructions are contraindicated, the use of regional pedicle flap combined with autologous bone grafts still represents a valid choice. Patients who are not deemed suitable for long and demanding surgery can still be treated using alloplastic materials in association with regional pedicle flap or, when adjuvant radiation therapy is needed, by simple locoregional pedicle flap. Finally, in selected cases, the bone transporting technique should be considered as a valid alternative to the more "traditional" reconstructive methods because of the extraordinary potential and its favorable cost-benefit ratio.

  6. [Other techniques of arterial recanalization].

    PubMed

    Lablanche, J M; Bauters, C; Leroy, F; Bertrand, M E

    1990-11-11

    During the last few years several new instruments have been added to the armentarium of endovascular procedures. They are aimed at destroying atheromatous plaques and recalibrating the arteries. The plaque destruction techniques include atherectomy which may be directional (as with Simpson's Atherocath) and applicable only to very proximal vascular segments, or rotational, pulverizing the plaques with a bur. In this category are the flexible Auth's rotablator and Stack's transluminal extraction catheter (TEC) where planning is combined with extraction. To traverse complete occlusions, Kaltenbach's rotating guide increases the success rate, but its use must always be completed by conventional angioplasty. Vascular recalibration can be achieved by stents or heating balloons. Numerous types of stent are now available. The best known are the Medivent stent which is self-expansive and stents with expanding balloons, such as the Palmaz Schatz stent or the radio-opaque Wiktor stent made of tantalum. These stents require an important anticoagulant therapy. These technique have widened the limits of angioplasty by tackling stenoses that have long been regarded as inaccessible. They have also made it possible to treat a number of acute occlusions. On the other hand, none of them has yet proved effective in the prevention of restenosis.

  7. Generalization of the IDGS technique

    SciTech Connect

    Vo, Duc T.; Li, T. K.

    2004-01-01

    Isotope Dilution Gamma-ray Spectrometry (IDGS) is a method using gamma-ray spectrometry technique to measure plutonium in solutions. To measure the plutonium concentration, the unknown solutions are spiked with plutonium of accurately known plutonium mass and isotopic composition. The isotopic compositions of the unknown solution and the spiked solution are determined by high-resolution gamma-ray measurements. In the traditional IDGS method, the concentration of plutonium in the unknown solution is determined by calculating the differences among the {sup 239}Pu weight percent and isotopic {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratios of the spike, the spiked solution, and the unknown solution. To improve the measurement result, we are developing a generalization method for the IDGS technique. The generalized IDGS method utilizes all the plutonium isotopes (except {sup 242}Pu) and americium fractions. This would allow the calculations of the concentration of plutonium in the unknown solution using other plutonium isotopic ratios in addition to the isotopic {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratio.

  8. Immunological techniques in viral hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Rehermann, Barbara; Naoumov, Nikolai V

    2007-03-01

    The need to quantitate and monitor immune responses of large patient cohorts with standardized techniques is increasing due to the growing range of treatment options for hepatitis B and hepatitis C, the development of combination therapies, and candidate experimental vaccines for HCV. In addition, advances in immunological techniques have provided new tools for detailed phenotypic and functional analysis of cellular immune responses. At present, there is substantial variation in laboratory protocols, reagents, controls and analysis and presentation of results. Standardization of immunological assays would therefore allow better comparison of results amongst individual laboratories and patient cohorts. The EASL-sponsored and AASLD-endorsed Monothematic Conference on Clinical Immunology in Viral Hepatitis was held at the University College London, United Kingdom, Oct 7-8, 2006 to bring together investigators with research experience in clinical immunology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections for in-depth discussion, critical evaluation and standardization of immunological assays. This report summarizes the information presented and discussed at the conference, but is not intended to represent a consensus statement. Our aim is to highlight topics and issues that were supported by general agreement and those that were controversial, as well as to provide suggestions for future work.

  9. Model building techniques for analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Walther, Howard P.; McDaniel, Karen Lynn; Keener, Donald; Cordova, Theresa Elena; Henry, Ronald C.; Brooks, Sean; Martin, Wilbur D.

    2009-09-01

    The practice of mechanical engineering for product development has evolved into a complex activity that requires a team of specialists for success. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has product engineers, mechanical designers, design engineers, manufacturing engineers, mechanical analysts and experimentalists, qualification engineers, and others that contribute through product realization teams to develop new mechanical hardware. The goal of SNL's Design Group is to change product development by enabling design teams to collaborate within a virtual model-based environment whereby analysis is used to guide design decisions. Computer-aided design (CAD) models using PTC's Pro/ENGINEER software tools are heavily relied upon in the product definition stage of parts and assemblies at SNL. The three-dimensional CAD solid model acts as the design solid model that is filled with all of the detailed design definition needed to manufacture the parts. Analysis is an important part of the product development process. The CAD design solid model (DSM) is the foundation for the creation of the analysis solid model (ASM). Creating an ASM from the DSM currently is a time-consuming effort; the turnaround time for results of a design needs to be decreased to have an impact on the overall product development. This effort can be decreased immensely through simple Pro/ENGINEER modeling techniques that summarize to the method features are created in a part model. This document contains recommended modeling techniques that increase the efficiency of the creation of the ASM from the DSM.

  10. Varicocele: surgical techniques in 2005.

    PubMed

    Williams, Daniel H; Karpman, Edward; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2006-02-01

    Varicocele is the most common diagnosis in men presenting to fertility clinics. Traditional indications for correction of varicocele include scrotal pain, testicular atrophy, and infertility without other apparent causes. Adolescent varicocele correction is indicated if pain or testicular growth retardation is present. Following varicocelectomy most studies report improved semen parameters, increased serum testosterone, improvement in functional sperm defects, and the return of motile sperm in selected azoospermic men. However, conflicting data exists on pregnancy and fertility outcomes. Consistent data supporting the effectiveness of repairing subclinical varicoceles is sparse. Most authors generally agree that the primary effect of varicoceles is on testicular temperature. Varicoceles are diagnosed primarily by physical examination. Radiographic assessments are helpful when physical examination is inconclusive or when further objective documentation of a patient's condition is necessary. Several surgical approaches to varicocelectomy exist, each with its own advantages and drawbacks. We prefer the inguinal approach to varicocelectomy, except when there is a history of previous inguinal surgery. In such cases, the subinguinal technique is employed. Routine use of an operating microscope and a micro Doppler probe affords easier identification of vessels and lymphatics. Varicocele remains the most surgically treatable form of male infertility. Knowing the correct techniques of diagnosis and surgical correction ensures the best chance of successful outcomes in terms of post-operative morbidity, improved semen parameters, and pregnancy rates.

  11. Repositioning of Covered Stents: The Grip Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, John Martin; Guo Xiaofeng; Midia, Mehran

    2011-06-15

    Introduction: Retrieval and repositioning of a stent deployed beyond its intended target region may be a difficult technical challenge. Materials and Methods: A balloon-mounted snare technique, a variant of the coaxial loop snare technique, is described. Results: The technique is described for the repositioning of a covered transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt stent and a covered biliary stent. Conclusion: The balloon-mounted snare technique is a useful technique for retrieval of migrated stents.

  12. Balloon-based interferometric techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rees, David

    1985-01-01

    A balloon-borne triple-etalon Fabry-Perot Interferometer, observing the Doppler shifts of absorption lines caused by molecular oxygen and water vapor in the far red/near infrared spectrum of backscattered sunlight, has been used to evaluate a passive spaceborne remote sensing technique for measuring winds in the troposphere and stratosphere. There have been two successful high altitude balloon flights of the prototype UCL instrument from the National Scientific Balloon Facility at Palestine, TE (May 80, Oct. 83). The results from these flights have demonstrated that an interferometer with adequate resolution, stability and sensitivity can be built. The wind data are of comparable quality to those obtained from operational techniques (balloon and rocket sonde, cloud-top drift analysis, and from the gradient wind analysis of satellite radiance measurements). However, the interferometric data can provide a regular global grid, over a height range from 5 to 50 km in regions of clear air. Between the middle troposphere (5 km) and the upper stratosphere (40 to 50 km), an optimized instrument can make wind measurements over the daylit hemisphere with an accuracy of about 3 to 5 m/sec (2 sigma). It is possible to obtain full height profiles between altitudes of 5 and 50 km, with 4 km height resolution, and a spatial resolution of about 200 km, along the orbit track. Below an altitude of about 10 km, Fraunhofer lines of solar origin are possible targets of the Doppler wind analysis. Above an altitude of 50 km, the weakness of the backscattered solar spectrum (decreasing air density) is coupled with the low absorption crosssection of all atmospheric species in the spectral region up to 800 nm (where imaging photon detectors can be used), causing the along-the-track resolution (or error) to increase beyond values useful for operational purposes. Within the region of optimum performance (5 to 50 km), however, the technique is a valuable potential complement to existing wind

  13. Stereo vision techniques for telescience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewett, S.

    1990-02-01

    The Botanic Experiment is one of the pilot experiments in the Telescience Test Bed program at the ESTEC research and technology center of the European Space Agency. The aim of the Telescience Test Bed is to develop the techniques required by an experimenter using a ground based work station for remote control, monitoring, and modification of an experiment operating on a space platform. The purpose of the Botanic Experiment is to examine the growth of seedlings under various illumination conditions with a video camera from a number of viewpoints throughout the duration of the experiment. This paper describes the Botanic Experiment and the points addressed in developing a stereo vision software package to extract quantitative information about the seedlings from the recorded video images.

  14. Techniques for shuttle trajectory optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edge, E. R.; Shieh, C. J.; Powers, W. F.

    1973-01-01

    The application of recently developed function-space Davidon-type techniques to the shuttle ascent trajectory optimization problem is discussed along with an investigation of the recently developed PRAXIS algorithm for parameter optimization. At the outset of this analysis, the major deficiency of the function-space algorithms was their potential storage problems. Since most previous analyses of the methods were with relatively low-dimension problems, no storage problems were encountered. However, in shuttle trajectory optimization, storage is a problem, and this problem was handled efficiently. Topics discussed include: the shuttle ascent model and the development of the particular optimization equations; the function-space algorithms; the operation of the algorithm and typical simulations; variable final-time problem considerations; and a modification of Powell's algorithm.

  15. Kinetic activation-relaxation technique.

    PubMed

    Béland, Laurent Karim; Brommer, Peter; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Joly, Jean-François; Mousseau, Normand

    2011-10-01

    We present a detailed description of the kinetic activation-relaxation technique (k-ART), an off-lattice, self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) algorithm with on-the-fly event search. Combining a topological classification for local environments and event generation with ART nouveau, an efficient unbiased sampling method for finding transition states, k-ART can be applied to complex materials with atoms in off-lattice positions or with elastic deformations that cannot be handled with standard KMC approaches. In addition to presenting the various elements of the algorithm, we demonstrate the general character of k-ART by applying the algorithm to three challenging systems: self-defect annihilation in c-Si (crystalline silicon), self-interstitial diffusion in Fe, and structural relaxation in a-Si (amorphous silicon).

  16. [Surgical techniques of organ transplants].

    PubMed

    Froněk, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    The list of surgical procedures of solid organ transplantations appears very interesting and colorful, even with overlap among techniques. Liver transplantation is a life-saving procedure in a majority of cases, the liver can be transplanted as a full or partial graft. The liver graft can be split for two recipients; it can also be reduced for a small recipient if splitting is not indicated. Kidney transplantation is the most common solid organ transplant procedure, the majority of kidney grafts come from brain-dead donors whereas the number of live donor transplants is increasing, also thanks to paired donation and blood group incompatible transplantation methods. The small bowel and multivisceral transplantation are rare procedures; they serve selected patients with short bowel syndrome, some patients with retroperitoneal tumors or with extensive visceral thrombosis. Solid organ transplants are well established treatment methods with good and proven outcomes. A majority of patients can return to a normal life after their transplants.

  17. Ancient techniques for new materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    NASA is looking to biological techniques that are millions of years old to help it develop new materials and technologies for the 21st century. Sponsored by NASA, Jeffrey Brinker of the University of New Mexico is studying how multiple elements can assemble themselves into a composite material that is clear, tough, and impermeable. His research is based on the model of how an abalone builds the nacre, also called mother-of-pearl, inside its shell. The mollusk layers bricks of calcium carbonate (the main ingredient in classroom chalk) and mortar of biopolymer to form a new material (top and bottom left) that is twice as hard and 1,000 times as tough as either of the original building materials.

  18. SSME propulsion performance reconstruction techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temple, Enoch C.

    1988-01-01

    In view of the complex flight operation of the Space Shuttle propulsion system together with an expected launch rate increase, the flight performance reconstruction process needs to be performed by automated computer programs. These programs must have the capability to quickly and reliably determine the true behavior of the various components of the propulsion system. For the flight reconstruction, measured values from the solid rocket motors, liquid engines, and trajectory are appraised through the Kalman filter technique to identify the most likely flight propulsion performance. A more detailed data collection program for the single SSME engine captive test firing evaluation is scheduled for startup in September of 1988. Engine performance evaluation for the captive test firing requires a reconstruction process that is similar to the process that is used for the flight reconstruction. Analytical tools that may be used to reconstruct a propulsion system's true performance under flight and/or test conditions are described.

  19. Kinetic activation-relaxation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béland, Laurent Karim; Brommer, Peter; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Joly, Jean-François; Mousseau, Normand

    2011-10-01

    We present a detailed description of the kinetic activation-relaxation technique (k-ART), an off-lattice, self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) algorithm with on-the-fly event search. Combining a topological classification for local environments and event generation with ART nouveau, an efficient unbiased sampling method for finding transition states, k-ART can be applied to complex materials with atoms in off-lattice positions or with elastic deformations that cannot be handled with standard KMC approaches. In addition to presenting the various elements of the algorithm, we demonstrate the general character of k-ART by applying the algorithm to three challenging systems: self-defect annihilation in c-Si (crystalline silicon), self-interstitial diffusion in Fe, and structural relaxation in a-Si (amorphous silicon).

  20. Detailed fuel spray analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mularz, E. J.; Bosque, M. A.; Humenik, F. M.

    1983-01-01

    Detailed fuel spray analyses are a necessary input to the analytical modeling of the complex mixing and combustion processes which occur in advanced combustor systems. It is anticipated that by controlling fuel-air reaction conditions, combustor temperatures can be better controlled, leading to improved combustion system durability. Thus, a research program is underway to demonstrate the capability to measure liquid droplet size, velocity, and number density throughout a fuel spray and to utilize this measurement technique in laboratory benchmark experiments. The research activities from two contracts and one grant are described with results to data. The experiment to characterize fuel sprays is also described. These experiments and data should be useful for application to and validation of turbulent flow modeling to improve the design systems of future advanced technology engines.

  1. Computer enhancement through interpretive techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, G.; Spaanenburg, H. A. E.; Stumpf, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    The improvement in the usage of the digital computer through the use of the technique of interpretation rather than the compilation of higher ordered languages was investigated by studying the efficiency of coding and execution of programs written in FORTRAN, ALGOL, PL/I and COBOL. FORTRAN was selected as the high level language for examining programs which were compiled, and A Programming Language (APL) was chosen for the interpretive language. It is concluded that APL is competitive, not because it and the algorithms being executed are well written, but rather because the batch processing is less efficient than has been admitted. There is not a broad base of experience founded on trying different implementation strategies which have been targeted at open competition with traditional processing methods.

  2. Permeability enhancement using explosive techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, T.F.; Schmidt, S.C.; Carter, W.J.

    1980-01-01

    In situ recovery methods for many of our hydrocarbon and mineral resources depend on the ability to create or enhance permeability in the resource bed to allow uniform and predictable flow. To meet this need, a new branch of geomechanics devoted to computer prediction of explosive rock breakage and permeability enhancement has developed. The computer is used to solve the nonlinear equations of compressible flow, with the explosive behavior and constitutive properties of the medium providing the initial/boundary conditions and material response. Once the resulting computational tool has been verified and calibrated with appropriate large-scale field tests, it can be used to develop and optimize commercially useful explosive techniques for in situ resource recovery.

  3. NEST: Noble Element Simulation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szydagis, M.; Barry, N.; Kazkaz, K.; Mock, J.; Stolp, D.; Sweany, M.; Tripathi, M.; Uvarov, S.; Walsh, N.; Woods, M.

    2013-07-01

    NEST (Noble Element Simulation Technique) offers comprehensive, accurate, and precise simulation of the excitation, ionization, and corresponding scintillation and electroluminescence processes in liquid noble elements, useful for direct dark matter detectors, double beta decay searches, PET scans, and general radiation detection technology. Written in C++, NEST is an add-on module for the Geant4 simulation package that incorporates more detailed physics than is currently available into the simulation of scintillation. NEST is of particular use for low-energy nuclear recoils. All available liquid xenon data on nuclear recoils and electron recoils to date have been taken into consideration in arriving at the current models. NEST also handles the magnitude of the light and charge yields of nuclear recoils, including their electric field dependence, thereby shedding light on the possibility of detection or exclusion of a low-mass dark matter WIMP by liquid xenon detectors.

  4. Present challenges in hadrontherapy techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaldi, U.; Braccini, S.

    2011-07-01

    Hadrontherapy is a high-precision technique in cancer radiation therapy, which allows obtaining a superior conformal treatment with respect to photons used in conventional radiation therapy. To reach this ambitious goal without reducing the patient throughput needed in a hospital-based environment, the physical and radiobiological properties of charged hadrons, protons and carbon ions in particular, have to be exploited at best, making use of the most modern technologies issued from research in nuclear and particle physics. In the present days, we are assisting to a continuous technological challenge, leading to the conception and to the development of innovative methods and instruments. In this paper, the most relevant challenges in dose delivery systems, gantries, imaging, quality assurance and particle accelerators are reviewed.

  5. Advances in information extraction techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagy, G.

    1982-01-01

    Sundry recent developments are presented which show some potential for affecting the automatic extraction of information from remotely sensed data. Pattern representations more abstract than Euclidean vector spaces offer some hope of unifying structural and decision theoretical approaches. The estimation of expected classification error rates is becoming more sophisticated and rigorous, but useful finite-sample results for nonparametric distributions appear unobtainable. Focus on computational complexity allows comparison of algorithms, while software engineering techniques reduce the effort necessary to develop and maintain complex image processing systems. Advances in computer systems architecture, commercial database technology, and man-machine communications should be closely monitored by the remote sensing community. A NASA-sponsored recommendation for research directions in mathematical pattern recognition are offered.

  6. Ancient techniques for new materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    NASA is looking to biological techniques that are millions of years old to help it develop new materials and technologies for the 21st century. Sponsored by NASA, Jeffrey Brinker of the University of New Mexico is studying how multiple elements can assemble themselves into a composite material that is clear, tough, and impermeable. His research is based on the model of how an abalone builds the nacre, also called mother-of-pearl, inside its shell. Strong thin coatings, or lamellae, in Brinker's research are formed when objects are dip-coated. Evaporation drives the self-assembly of molecular aggregates (micelles) of surfactant, soluble silica, and organic monomers and their further self-organization into layered organic and inorganic assemblies.

  7. Pediatric DXA: technique and interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Henwood, Maria J.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) technique and interpretation with emphasis on the considerations unique to pediatrics. Specifically, the use of DXA in children requires the radiologist to be a “clinical pathologist” monitoring the technical aspects of the DXA acquisition, a “statistician” knowledgeable in the concepts of Z-scores and least significant changes, and a “bone specialist” providing the referring clinician a meaningful context for the numeric result generated by DXA. The patient factors that most significantly influence bone mineral density are discussed and are reviewed with respect to available normative databases. The effects the growing skeleton has on the DXA result are also presented. Most important, the need for the radiologist to be actively involved in the technical and interpretive aspects of DXA is stressed. Finally, the diagnosis of osteoporosis should not be made on DXA results alone but should take into account other patient factors. PMID:16715219

  8. Subranging technique using superconducting technology

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, Deepnarayan

    2003-01-01

    Subranging techniques using "digital SQUIDs" are used to design systems with large dynamic range, high resolution and large bandwidth. Analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) embodying the invention include a first SQUID based "coarse" resolution circuit and a second SQUID based "fine" resolution circuit to convert an analog input signal into "coarse" and "fine" digital signals for subsequent processing. In one embodiment, an ADC includes circuitry for supplying an analog input signal to an input coil having at least a first inductive section and a second inductive section. A first superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) is coupled to the first inductive section and a second SQUID is coupled to the second inductive section. The first SQUID is designed to produce "coarse" (large amplitude, low resolution) output signals and the second SQUID is designed to produce "fine" (low amplitude, high resolution) output signals in response to the analog input signals.

  9. Ancient techniques for new materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    NASA is looking to biological techniques that are millions of years old to help it develop new materials and technologies for the 21st century. Sponsored by NASA, Jeffrey Brinker of the University of New Mexico is studying how multiple elements can assemble themselves into a composite material that is clear, tough, and impermeable. His research is based on the model of how an abalone builds the nacre, also called mother-of-pearl, inside its shell. Strong thin coatings, or lamellae, in Brinker's research are formed when objects are dip-coated. Evaporation drives the self-assembly of molecular aggregates (micelles) of surfactant, soluble silica, and organic monomers and their further self-organization into layered organic and inorganic assemblies.

  10. Remote tire pressure sensing technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Howard H. (Inventor); Mcginnis, Timothy A. (Inventor); Daugherty, Robert H. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A remote tire pressure sensing technique is provided which uses vibration frequency to determine tire pressure. A vibration frequency measuring device is attached to the external surface of a tire which is then struck with an object, causing the tire to vibrate. The frequency measuring device measures the vibrations and converts the vibrations into corresponding electrical impulses. The electrical impulses are then fed into the frequency analyzing system which uses the electrical impulses to determine the relative peaks of the vibration frequencies as detected by the frequency measuring device. The measured vibration frequency peaks are then compared to predetermined data describing the location of vibration frequency peaks for a given pressure, thereby determining the air pressure of the tire.

  11. [Tomodensitometry: current technique and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Bousquet, J C

    1994-10-01

    The inventors of computed tomography were rewarded by the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1979. This apparatus, now used routinely, is based on the physical principle of attenuation of x-rays combined with computerised calculation to generate a tomographic image of the human body. This article describes the components of computed tomography, the mode of acquisition, calculation and image reconstruction and the criteria of image quality and artefacts. Continuous rotation of the x-ray tube, now available on the latest machines, allows rapid 3D acquisition of raw data, largely eliminating movement artefacts, particularly those related to respiration. It is also possible to reconstitute images in a different plane from the plane of acquisition and to obtain 3D representations of the volume studied. The advantages and disadvantages of this recent technique are discussed.

  12. Dental Impression Materials and Techniques.

    PubMed

    Punj, Amit; Bompolaki, Despoina; Garaicoa, Jorge

    2017-10-01

    Dental impression making is the process of creating a negative form of the teeth and oral tissues, into which gypsum or other die materials can be processed to create working analogues. Contemporary dentistry generates new information every year and digital dentistry is becoming established and influential. Although dentists should stay abreast of new technologies, some of the conventional materials and time-tested techniques remain widely used. It is important to review the impression-making process to ensure that practitioners have up-to-date information about how to safely and effectively capture the exact form of the oral tissues to provide optimal patient management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Endoscopic septoplasty: technique and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Durr, Dory G

    2003-02-01

    Recent literature has already embraced the topic of endoscopic septoplasty, with several published articles on the subject. This approach provides a direct-targeted route to the anatomic deformity, improved visualization, and magnification of the surgical field. It allows improved evaluation of the posterior nasal septal deformities, identification of the degree of mucosal involvement of the posterior ends of the inferior turbinates, and concomitant assessment of the middle meatus. It permits objective documentation of the cause of nasal obstruction with possible use in outcome assessment. It is also an effective teaching method and a motivating approach for the nursing team. We present our experience in a series of 47 patients performed during a 1 1/2-year period and discuss the surgical technique and patients' outcomes. We systematically used the endoscope for all septal and turbinate surgery. We evaluated outcomes using a telephone survey along with a validated disease-specific health status measure and a global rating questionnaire.

  14. Data compression techniques for astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landau, R.; Ghigo, F. D.

    1984-01-01

    The photometric and astrometric accuracy of the Minnesota automated dual-plate scanner is summarized. The relation between magnitude and isophotometric image diameter is linear on Schmidt plates over a large useful range. Results of a study of centroid measurement accuracy and image classification ability of parameters derived from both densitometric and isophotometric scanning techniques are presented. The data analyzed for this purpose are synthesized ideal star and galaxy brightness distributions with appropriate random noise added to simulate plate grain and sky background effects. A preliminary study of image classification using real plates and single isophote data finds that a parameter describing the raggedness of the isophote may be useful in distinguising stars from galaxies.

  15. Ancient techniques for new materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    NASA is looking to biological techniques that are millions of years old to help it develop new materials and technologies for the 21st century. Sponsored by NASA, Viola Vogel, director of Washington University's Center for Nanotechnology and a principal investigator for the microgravity biotechnology program, is researching a monorail on a nanoscale to learn how to control translational motion of motor proteins in nonbiological environments in order to transport cargo between user-specified locations. Shear-deposition of Teflon on glass (top) is used in Viola Vogel's lab to create a nanogrooved surface. The topography controls the path that microtubules take as they shuttle nano-sized cargo between user-defined destinations.

  16. Pooling techniques for bioassay screening

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, L.C.; Baum, J.W.; Kaplan, E; Moorthy, A.R.

    1996-03-01

    Pooling techniques commonly are used to increase the throughput of samples used for screening purposes. While the advantages of such techniques are increased analytical efficiency and cost savings, the sensitivity of measurements decreases because it is inversely proportional to the number of samples in the pools. Consequently, uncertainties in estimates of dose and risk which are based on the results of pooled samples increase as the number of samples in the pools increases in all applications. However, sensitivities may not be seriously degraded, for example, in urinalysis, if the samples in the pools are of known time duration, or if the fraction of some attribute of the grab urine samples to that in a 24-hour composite is known (e.g., mass, specific gravity, creatinine, or volume, per 24-h interval). This paper presents square and cube pooling schemes that greatly increase throughput and can considerably reduce analytical costs (on a sample basis). The benefit-cost ratios for 5{times}5 square and 5{times}5{times}5 cube pooling schemes are 2.5 and 8.3, respectively. Three-dimensional and higher arrayed pooling schemes would result in even greater economies; however, significant improvements in analytical sensitivity are required to achieve these advantages. These are various other considerations for designing a pooling scheme, where the number of dimensions and of samples in the optimum array are influenced by: (1) the minimal detectable amount (MDA) of the analytical processes, (2) the screening dose-rate requirements, (3) the maximum masses or volumes of the composite samples that can be analyzed, (4) the information already available from results of composite analysis, and (5) the ability of an analytical system to guard against both false negative and false positive results. Many of these are beyond the scope of this paper but are being evaluated.

  17. Acoustic tomography. Laboratory technique Implementation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvis, Jorge; Carvajal, Jenny

    2010-05-01

    From geomechanical tests carried out on rocks it is possible to determine its physico-mechanical properties, which relate the strain and applied stress; even so, conventional tests do not allow to identify how stress is distributed and how it has affected porous media. Today, techniques like acoustic tomography widely used in medicine, geophysics and others sciences, generates images by sections of the interior of a body. Acoustic tomography allows inferring the stress state within porous media; since wave velocities are closely related to media density, if a stress is applied to a rock, it will generate grains compaction and this will be showed by an increase of wave velocity. Implementation was conducted on rock plugs under diverse stress fields, simultaneously recording P-wave velocities (Compressional) on perpendicular planes to sample vertical axis. Transmission and reception of acoustic waves through porous media were done by piezoelectric crystals (PZT) used as sensors. A transmitting crystal excited by a voltage pulse causes a mechanical vibration, which travels across media; this is known as inverse piezoelectric effect. This vibration is recorded by a receiving crystal in which the direct piezoelectric effect appears; which dictates that if a piezoelectric is disturbed mechanically, an electrical signal between its terminals will appear. This electrical signal is used to obtain the wave velocity. Nevertheless, acoustic tomography corresponds to one of those called inverse Problems that arise when from observed data the model parameters must be obtained; in this way, tomography involves iterative reconstruction techniques (ART or SIRT) which are projections of observed data and its later inversion. Obtained results are cross-sectional images of velocity within the rock. In these images it is possible to identify where stress has a greater concentration observing the color map generated; thus, a greater velocity density area corresponding to a greater

  18. Comparisons Between Different Interpolation Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnero, G.; Godone, D.

    2013-01-01

    Digital terrain models are key tools in land analysis and management as they are directly employable in GIS systems and other specific applications like hydraulic modelling, geotechnical analyses, road planning, telecommunication, and many others. TIN generation, from different kind of measurement techniques, is ruled by specific regulations. Interpolation techniques to compute a regular grid from a TIN, are, instead, still lacking in specific regulations: a unitary and shared methodology has not already been made compulsory in order to be used in cartographic production while generating digital models. Such ambiguity obviously involves non univocal results and can affect precision, which can lead to divergent analyses on the same territory. In the present study different algorithms will be analysed in order to spot an optimal interpolation methodology. The availability of the recent digital model produced by the Regione Piemonte with airborne LIDAR and the presence of sections of testing realized with higher resolutions and the presence of independent digital models on the same territory allow to set a series of analysis with consequent determination of the best methodologies of interpolation. The analysis of the residuals on the test sites allows to calculate the descriptive statistics of the computed values: all the algorithms have furnished interesting results; all the more interesting, notably for dense models, the IDW (Inverse Distance Weighing) algorithm results to give best results in this study case. Moreover, a comparative analysis was carried out by interpolating data at different input point density, with the purpose of highlighting thresholds in input density that may influence the quality reduction of the final output in the interpolation phase.

  19. [Predictable tip suture techniques in rhinoplasty].

    PubMed

    Papel, I D

    2010-09-01

    Recontouring the nasal tip in rhinoplastic procedures has generated a wide range of surgical techniques. These range from aggressive cartilage resection, division, grafting, or suture methods. Each of these categories contains many variations described in hundreds of publications. The goal of this communication is to describe a predictable, reproducible technique that can be used in a wide variety of rhinoplasty operations. Based on pre-existing anatomy variations of this technique can be adopted. The author described the basic technique in 2004 [1].The cornerstone of the technique is a predictable method of narrowing the interdomal space utilizing a suture technique. This procedure employs a pair of permanent sutures designed to minimize distortion, valve impingement and overcorrection. It can be performed through intranasal or external approaches. This paper will define the wide interdomal space, describe the technique, and demonstrate the efficacy of the technique in 250 rhinoplasty procedures. In addition, variations of the technique for specific goals will be shown.

  20. Radio techniques for probing the terrestrial ionosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunsucker, R. D.

    The subject of the book is a description of the basic principles of operation, plus the capabilities and limitations of all generic radio techniques employed to investigate the terrestrial ionosphere. The purpose of this book is to present to the reader a balanced treatment of each technique so they can understand how to interpret ionospheric data and decide which techniques are most effective for studying specific phenomena. The first two chapters outline the basic theory underlying the techniques, and each following chapter discusses a separate technique. This monograph is entirely devoted to techniques in aeronomy and space physics. The approach is unique in its presentation of the principles, capabilities and limitations of the most important presently used radio techniques. Typical examples of data are shown for the various techniques, and a brief historical account of the technique development is presented. An extended annotated bibliography of the salient papers in the field is included.

  1. Techniques of laparoscopic cholecystectomy: Nomenclature and selection.

    PubMed

    Haribhakti, Sanjiv P; Mistry, Jitendra H

    2015-01-01

    There are more than 50 different techniques of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) available in literature mainly due to modifications by surgeons in aim to improve postoperative outcome and cosmesis. These modifications include reduction in port size and/or number than what is used in standard LC. There is no uniform nomenclature to describe these different techniques so that it is not possible to compare the outcomes of different techniques. We brief the advantages and disadvantages of each of these techniques and suggest the situation where particular technique would be useful. We also propose a nomenclature which is easy to remember and apply, so that any future comparison will be possible between the techniques.

  2. [Review of effervescent technique in pharmaceutics research].

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiao-Jian; Xin, Hong-Liang; Rao, Xiao-Yong; Xiao, Zhi-Qiang; Gao, Li-Li; Sun, Ting-Ting; Guo, Qi-Li

    2008-04-01

    Effervescent technique, which can accelerate drug disintegration and dissolution, is usually applied in quick release preparations. Along with the development of pharmaceutical technique and theory, effervescent technique is used more and more extensively to adjust the behavior of drug release, such as in sustained and controlled release preparations, pulsatile drug delivery systems, and so on. This review demonstrated the new applying of effervescent technique in effervescent tablets, stomach floating forms, osmotic pump tablets and pulsatile drug delivery systems, adding to the critical common technique of effervescent forms in drug research. This will be benefit for the further research and development of effervescent technique.

  3. Equivalent beam modeling using numerical reduction techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, J. M.; Shaw, F. H.

    1987-01-01

    Numerical procedures that can accomplish model reductions for space trusses were developed. Three techniques are presented that can be implemented using current capabilities within NASTRAN. The proposed techniques accomplish their model reductions numerically through use of NASTRAN structural analyses and as such are termed numerical in contrast to the previously developed analytical techniques. Numerical procedures are developed that permit reductions of large truss models containing full modeling detail of the truss and its joints. Three techniques are presented that accomplish these model reductions with various levels of structural accuracy. These numerical techniques are designated as equivalent beam, truss element reduction, and post-assembly reduction methods. These techniques are discussed in detail.

  4. Plasma diagnostic techniques using particle beam probes

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, W C

    1980-07-01

    A brief overview is given of particle beam probing. The fundamental concepts common to all techniques are discussed as well as the design considerations for choosing a particular diagnostic technique. The capabilities of existing and proposed techniques, and the present status of the techniques in major magnetic confinement geometries is also presented. Techniques which involve the injection of a beam of neutral particles into the plasma are then considered. The techniques of beam attenuation, beam scattering, and active charge exchange using a beam of light particles such as hydrogen or helium are first presented. Optical measurements of the Zeeman splitting of the radiation from a neutral lithium beam is then discussed, including a new proposal for significantly improving this technique through the addition of a dye laser. Two techniques involving the injection of heavy neutral particles are then presented, and the section concludes with two proposed techniques for measuring the properties of the alpha particles produced from actual fusion reactions. The diagnostic techniques which are based upon the injection of a beam of charged particles into the plasma are next described. The advantages and limitations of these techniques in comparison with the neutral techniques are discussed, followed by a description of specific techniques.

  5. Pressure-Sensor Assembly Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pruzan, Daniel A.

    2003-01-01

    Nielsen Engineering & Research (NEAR) recently developed an ultrathin data acquisition system for use in turbomachinery testing at NASA Glenn Research Center. This system integrates a microelectromechanical- systems- (MEMS-) based absolute pressure sensor [0 to 50 psia (0 to 345 kPa)], temperature sensor, signal-conditioning application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC), microprocessor, and digital memory into a package which is roughly 2.8 in. (7.1 cm) long by 0.75 in. (1.9 cm) wide. Each of these components is flip-chip attached to a thin, flexible circuit board and subsequently ground and polished to achieve a total system thickness of 0.006 in. (0.15 mm). Because this instrument is so thin, it can be quickly adhered to any surface of interest where data can be collected without disrupting the flow being investigated. One issue in the development of the ultrathin data acquisition system was how to attach the MEMS pressure sensor to the circuit board in a manner which allowed the sensor s diaphragm to communicate with the ambient fluid while providing enough support for the chip to survive the grinding and polishing operations. The technique, developed by NEAR and Jabil Technology Services Group (San Jose, CA), is described below. In the approach developed, the sensor is attached to the specially designed circuit board, see Figure 1, using a modified flip-chip technique. The circular diaphragm on the left side of the sensor is used to actively measure the ambient pressure, while the diaphragm on the right is used to compensate for changes in output due to temperature variations. The circuit board is fabricated with an access hole through it so that when the completed system is installed onto a wind tunnel model (chip side down), the active diaphragm is exposed to the environment. After the sensor is flip-chip attached to the circuit board, the die is underfilled to support the chip during the subsequent grinding and polishing operations. To prevent this

  6. ARPEFS as an analytic technique

    SciTech Connect

    Schach von Wittenau, A.E.

    1991-04-01

    Two modifications to the ARPEFS technique are introduced. These are studied using p(2 {times} 2)S/Cu(001) as a model system. The first modification is the obtaining of ARPEFS {chi}(k) curves at temperatures as low as our equipment will permit. While adding to the difficulty of the experiment, this modification is shown to almost double the signal-to-noise ratio of normal emission p(2 {times} 2)S/Cu(001) {chi}(k) curves. This is shown by visual comparison of the raw data and by the improved precision of the extracted structural parameters. The second change is the replacement of manual fitting of the Fourier filtered {chi}(k) curves by the use of the simplex algorithm for parameter determination. Again using p(2 {times} 2)S/Cu(001) data, this is shown to result in better agreement between experimental {chi}(k) curves and curves calculated based on model structures. The improved ARPEFS is then applied to p(2 {times} 2)S/Ni(111) and ({radical}3 {times} {radical}3) R30{degree}S/Ni(111). For p(2 {times} 2)S/Cu(001) we find a S-Cu bond length of 2.26 {Angstrom}, with the S adatom 1.31 {Angstrom} above the fourfold hollow site. The second Cu layer appears to be corrugated. Analysis of the p(2 {times} 2)S/Ni(111) data indicates that the S adatom adatom adsorbs onto the FCC threefold hollow site 1.53 {Angstrom} above the Ni surface. The S-Ni bond length is determined to be 2.13 {Angstrom}, indicating an outwards shift of the first layer Ni atoms. We are unable to assign a unique structure to ({radical}3 {times} {radical}3)R30{degree}S/Ni(111). An analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of ARPEFS as an experimental and analytic technique is presented, along with a summary of problems still to be addressed.

  7. Photomontage technique for artists using stereograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Patrick K.

    1994-01-01

    With more and more holographers using Stereograms, existing photographic techniques can be employed for creative uses. Using stereograms gives the artist/holographer new increased creative possibilities with fewer restrictions in subject matter. Photomontage techniques increase these possibilities even more.

  8. A Comparison of FTNMR and FTIR Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Myong-Ku

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared are two spectroscopic methods that commonly use the Fourier transform technique. Discussed are the similarities and differences in the use of the Fourier transform in these two spectroscopic techniques. (CW)

  9. Success of Hall technique crowns questioned.

    PubMed

    Nainar, S M Hashim

    2012-01-01

    Hall technique is a method of providing stainless steel crowns for primary molars without tooth preparation and requires no local anesthesia. Literature review showed inconclusive evidence and therefore this technique should not be used in clinical practice.

  10. A Comparison of FTNMR and FTIR Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Myong-Ku

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared are two spectroscopic methods that commonly use the Fourier transform technique. Discussed are the similarities and differences in the use of the Fourier transform in these two spectroscopic techniques. (CW)

  11. Short counseling techniques for busy family doctors.

    PubMed Central

    Poon, V. H.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To introduce two short counseling skills for busy family doctors: the BATHE technique and the DIG technique. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: The BATHE technique indicates five areas for questioning patients who require counseling: background, affect, trouble, handling, and empathy. No research on use of the technique has been published. The DIG technique is the author's modification of the BATHE technique. MAIN FINDINGS: While the efficacy of counseling in general was validated, more research on the effectiveness on these two techniques needs to be done. CONCLUSIONS: Since counseling is an integral part of family practice, family doctors will find these techniques useful. Each is easy to learn and takes less than 15 minutes to complete. PMID:9111987

  12. Alchemy of the Oracle: The Delphi Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, William J.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the origins and foundations of the Delphi technique. Outlines procedures for using it in research to obtain the insights of experts. Addresses limitations of the technique. (Contains 44 references.) (SK)

  13. Alchemy of the Oracle: The Delphi Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, William J.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the origins and foundations of the Delphi technique. Outlines procedures for using it in research to obtain the insights of experts. Addresses limitations of the technique. (Contains 44 references.) (SK)

  14. Modern Experimental Techniques in Turbine Engine Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepicovsky, J.; Bruckner, R. J.; Bencic, T. J.; Braunscheidel, E. P.

    1996-01-01

    The paper describes application of two modern experimental techniques, thin-film thermocouples and pressure sensitive paint, to measurement in turbine engine components. A growing trend of using computational codes in turbomachinery design and development requires experimental techniques to refocus from overall performance testing to acquisition of detailed data on flow and heat transfer physics to validate these codes for design applications. The discussed experimental techniques satisfy this shift in focus. Both techniques are nonintrusive in practical terms. The thin-film thermocouple technique improves accuracy of surface temperature and heat transfer measurements. The pressure sensitive paint technique supplies areal surface pressure data rather than discrete point values only. The paper summarizes our experience with these techniques and suggests improvements to ease the application of these techniques for future turbomachinery research and code verifications.

  15. Buteyko technique use to control asthma symptoms.

    PubMed

    Austin, Gillian

    The Buteyko breathing technique is recommended in national guidance for control of asthma symptoms. This article explores the evidence base for the technique, outlines its main principles and includes two cases studies.

  16. Stereology techniques in radiation biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubinova, Lucie; Mao, XiaoWen; Janacek, Jiri; Archambeau, John O.; Nelson, G. A. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Clinicians involved in conventional radiation therapy are very concerned about the dose-response relationships of normal tissues. Before proceeding to new clinical protocols, radiation biologists involved with conformal proton therapy believe it is necessary to quantify the dose response and tolerance of the organs and tissues that will be irradiated. An important focus is on the vasculature. This presentation reviews the methodology and format of using confocal microscopy and stereological methods to quantify tissue parameters, cell number, tissue volume and surface area, and vessel length using the microvasculature as a model tissue. Stereological methods and their concepts are illustrated using an ongoing study of the dose response of the microvessels in proton-irradiated hemibrain. Methods for estimating the volume of the brain and the brain cortex, the total number of endothelial cells in cortical microvessels, the length of cortical microvessels, and the total surface area of cortical microvessel walls are presented step by step in a way understandable for readers with little mathematical background. It is shown that stereological techniques, based on a sound theoretical basis, are powerful and reliable and have been used successfully.

  17. Suprachoroidal Buckling: Technique and Indications

    PubMed Central

    El Rayes, Ehab N; Elborgy, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    The authors herein report the feasibility of suprachoroidal buckling (SCB) procedure as a new approach for treating different forms of retinal detachment (RD) by creating suprachoroidal indentation (buckling effect). With this technique, specially designed devices, i.e. a catheter or cannula, are guided in the suprachoroidal space to reach the target area. Then, a suprachoroidal filler (long lasting hyaluronic acid) is injected to indent the choroid creating SCB, thereby closing retinal tears and supporting the overlying retina. This procedure was performed to treat both myopic tractional maculopathy (MTM), including myopic macular holes, as well as peripheral retinal breaks. SCB may be used alone or in conjunction with vitrectomy. In myopic patients, restoration of retinal layers was achieved in all eyes with myopic foveoschisis. Most eyes with macular hole detachments demonstrated closure of the holes. All peripheral retinal breaks were adequately buckled and closed in a single procedure. The buckling effect was long enough in duration to seal the tears and promote adequate chorioretinal scarring. The procedure was safe and relatively simple in terms of reaching the treatment area and injecting the filler. SCB adds to our surgical options for treating selected cases of peripheral retinal tears and rhegmatogenous RD, and avoids potential problems of episcleral buckles. Moreover it may avoid vitrectomy in selected cases of rhegmatogenous RD. PMID:24653830

  18. Ultrasound Techniques for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rooney, James A.

    1985-01-01

    Ultrasound has proven to be a safe non-invasive technique for imaging organs and measuring cardiovascular function. It has unique advantages for application to problems with man in space including evaluation of cardiovascular function both in serial studies and during critical operations. In addition, specialized instrumentation may be capable of detecting the onset of decompression sickness during EVA activities. A spatial location and three-dimensional reconstruction system is being developed to improve the accuracy and reproducibility for serial comparative ultrasound studies of cardiovascular function. The three-dimensional method permits the acquisition of ultrasonic images from many views that can be recombined into a single reconstruction of the heart or vasculature. In addition to conventional imaging and monitoring systems, it is sometimes necessary or desirable to develop instrumentation for special purposes. One example of this type of development is the design of a pulsed-Doppler system to monitor cerebral blood flow during critical operations such as re-entry. A second example is the design of a swept-frequency ultrasound system for the detection of bubbles in the circulatory system and/or soft tissues as an early indication of the onset of decompression sickness during EVA activities. This system exploits the resonant properties of bubbles and can detect both fundamental and second harmonic emissions from the insonified region.

  19. Bayes Syndrome and Imaging Techniques.

    PubMed

    Betancor, Ivan Hernandez; Izquierdo-Gomez, Maria Manuela; Niebla, Javier Garcia; Laynez-Cerdeña, Ignacio; Garcia-Gonzalez, Martin Jesus; Barragan-Acea, Antonio; Iribarren-Sarriá, Jose Luis; Jimenez-Rivera, Juan Jose; Lacalzada-Almeida, Juan

    2017-07-13

    Interatrial block (IAB) is due to disruption in the Bachmann region (BR). According to whether interatrial electrical conduction is delayed or completely blocked through the BR, it can be classified as IAB of first, second or third degree. On the surface electrocardiogram, a P wave ≥ 120 ms (partial IAB) is observed or associated to the prolongation of the P wave with a biphasic (positive / negative) morphology in the inferior leads (advanced IAB). Bayes syndrome is defined as an advanced IAB associated with atrial arrhythmia, more specifically atrial fibrillation. The purpose of this review is to describe the latest evidence about an entity considered an anatomical and electrical substrate with its own name, which may be a predictor of supraventricular arrhythmia and cardioembolic cerebrovascular accidents, as well as the role of new imaging techniques, such as echocardiographic strain and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, in characterizing atrial alterations associated with this syndrome and generally in the study of anatomy and atrial function. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Noncausal telemetry data recovery techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsou, H.; Lee, R.; Mileant, A.; Hinedi, S.

    1995-01-01

    Cost efficiency is becoming a major driver in future space missions. Because of the constraints on total cost, including design, implementation, and operation, future spacecraft are limited in terms of their size power and complexity. Consequently, it is expected that future missions will operate on marginal space-to-ground communication links that, in turn, can pose an additional risk on the successful scientific data return of these missions. For low data-rate and low downlink-margin missions, the buffering of the telemetry signal for further signal processing to improve data return is a possible strategy; it has been adopted for the Galileo S-band mission. This article describes techniques used for postprocessing of buffered telemetry signal segments (called gaps) to recover data lost during acquisition and resynchronization. Two methods, one for a closed-loop and the other one for an open-loop configuration, are discussed in this article. Both of them can be used in either forward or backward processing of signal segments, depending on where a gap is specifically situated in a pass.