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Sample records for gillian ragsdell daune

  1. TRMM Flyby of Gillian on Mar. 23, 2014

    NASA Image and Video Library

    On March 23 when the TRMM satellite passed over Gillian, it was at hurricane-force. TRMM revealed intense storms in a well-defined eye wall producing rain at a rate of over 100mm/3.9 inches per hou...

  2. Back to Hegel? On Gillian Rose's critique of sociological reason.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Brian W

    2017-08-22

    Thirty-five years ago, Gillian Rose articulated a significant critique of classical sociological reason, emphasizing its relationship to its philosophical forebears. In a series of works, but most significantly in her Hegel contra Sociology, Rose worked to specify the implications of sociology's failure, both in its critical Marxist and its 'scientific' forms, to move beyond Kant and to fully come to terms with the thought of Hegel. In this article, I unpack and explain the substance of her criticisms, developing the necessary Hegelian philosophical background on which she founded them. I argue that Rose's attempted recuperation of 'speculative reason' for social theory remains little understood, despite its continued relevance to contemporary debates concerning the nature and scope of sociological reason. As an illustration, I employ Rose to critique Chernilo's recent call for a more philosophically sophisticated sociology. From the vantage point of Rose, this particular account of a 'philosophical sociology' remains abstract and rooted in the neo-Kantian contradictions that continue to characterize sociology. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  3. TRMM Flyby of Gillian Mar. 14

    NASA Image and Video Library

    On March 14, 2014 at 1 a.m. EDT this simulated 3-D flyby of the TRMM satellite showed rain falling at the rate of over 116 mm/4.5 inches per hour (red), and some storms were higher than 16.75 km/10...

  4. Decision Support Requirements in a Unified Life Cycle Engineering (ULCE) Environment. Volume 2. Conceptual Approaches to Optimization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    optimal solution itself. The reasons for performing a detailed sensitivity analysis are given by Reklaitis , Ravindray and Ragsdell [Ref. 101: 1. To...1970. 9. Kirsch, U., Optimum Structural Design, McGraw-Hill, N.Y., 1981. 10. Reklaitis , G. V., A. Ravindran, and K. M. Ragsdell, Engineering

  5. Detection and Evaluation of Early Breast Cancer via Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Studies of Mouse Models and Clinical Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    1. Sanaz A. Jansen, Tatjana Paunesku, GayleWoloschak, Stefan Vogt, Suzanne Conzen, Gillian M . Newstead and Gregory S. Karczmar. Why do Ductal...3. Sanaz A. Jansen, Xiaobing Fan, Gregory Karczmar, Maryellen Giger, Hiroyuki Abe and Gillian M . Newstead. Are Kinetic Parameters Diagnostically...4. Sanaz A. Jansen, Gregory Karczmar, Akiko Shimauchi, Hiroyuki Abe and Gillian M . Newstead. Are Kinetic Parameters Related to Prognostic

  6. Emergencies in children's and young people's nursing Emergencies in children's and young people's nursing Edward Alan Glasper , Gillian McEwing and Jim Richardson (Eds) Oxford University Press £21.95 456pp 9780199547197 019954719X [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    2011-09-01

    THIS IS an excellent book for anyone dealing with children and young adults in an emergency care environment. its subjects range from the principles of care and the management of critical events, to more common injuries and illnesses.

  7. Constraint Reasoning and Planning in Concurrent Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-28

    Fundamentals: A practical approach. John Wiley & Sons, 1983. [Mackworth 771 Mackwonth, A. K. Consistmncy in Network Relations. Artficial Intelligence 8:99...Artcial Intelligence 14(l):79-107, 1980. [Ragsdell and Philips 76] Ragsdel K.M and D.T. Philips. Optimal design of a class of welded structures using...Expressing Almost-Hierarchical Descriptions. Artificial Intelligence 14:1-39, 1980. 43 [Sutherland 83] Sutherland, I.E. Sketchpad - A Man-Machine Graphical

  8. On Convergence of the Nelder-Mead Simplex Algorithm for Unconstrained Stochastic Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-05-01

    the best point. Reklaitis , Ravindran, and Ragsdell (1983) further classify direct-search methods into two classes: heuristic techniques and...restricted conditions" ( Reklaitis et al., 1983, p. 75). The Nelder-Mead algorithm is a heuristic direct-search method. An example of a theoretically...Pressure Liquid Cliromatography. Analytica Clumica Ada, 93, 211-219. Reklaitis , G. V., Ravindran, A., & Ragsdell, K. M. (1983). Engineering

  9. An Interactive Artificial Cutting Plane Method for Bicriterion Integer Programming Problems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    finding a balance between cost and quality or compromising between conflicting interests of two decision makers. Although much research has been done in...Bicriterion Solution Method and Its Application to CPM Problems. M.S. Thesis, Mississippi State University. Reklaitis , G. V., A. Ravindran and K. M. Ragsdell

  10. Non-Linear Control Allocation Using Piecewise Linear Functions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-01

    within the same framework. A detailed dis- cussion can be found in Reklaitis , et.al.16 Without a loss of generality, we begin by consid- ering a...Engineers, Inc., 2003 . [16] Reklaitis , G., Ravindran, A., and Ragsdell, K., Engineering Optimization: Methods and Ap- plication, Wiley-Interscience, New

  11. Computer Graphics Research Laboratory Quarterly Progress Report Number 43

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    method and incorporates a gradient method [ Reklaitis 83]. By combining the two meth- ods, Levenberg-Marquardt method tries to improve the convergence...Trans. Pat- tern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 13(7):715-729, July 1991. [ Reklaitis 83] Reklaitis , G. V., A. Ravindran, and K. M. Ragsdell

  12. Trade-Off Analysis vs. Constrained Optimization with an Economic Control Chart Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    description of this technique can be found in Luenberger (1989) or Reklaitis et al. (1983). Similar to the economic statistical designs, the trade-off...15] Reklaitis , G. V.; Ravindran, A.; and Ragsdell, K. M., Engineering Optimization, Methods and Applications, John Wiley & Sons, New York (1983). [16

  13. Selective Listening in L2 Learners of French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Suzanne; Santos, Denise

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the issue raised in 2008 by Gillian Brown in her article "Selective listening" regarding whether nouns are "privileged" in memory over verbs during listening tasks, and whether attention to nouns, at least in the early stages of L2 learning, is a desirable strategy to be taught to learners, as Brown…

  14. Mining and Querying Multimedia Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-29

    international conference on Machine learning (ICML ’05), pages 792–799, 2005. [98] Jamie Shotton, John Winn, Carsten Rother, and Antonio Criminisi...Ashburner, Kathleen Falls, Paul Leyland, Peter McQuilton, Steven Marygold, Gillian Millburn, David Osumi-Sutherland, Andrew Schroeder, Ruth Seal, Haiyan

  15. Research About Nineteenth-Century Children and Books. Portrait Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Selma K., Ed.

    This collection of papers delivered at a symposium held in April 1979 explores the relationship between children and literature in the nineteenth century. The following titles are included: "The Researcher's Craft: Designs and Implements," and "Children's Books and Social History," by Gillian Avery; "Reflections on Histories of Childhood," by…

  16. Technology for Transition and Postsecondary Success: Supporting Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Gillian; Hosaflook, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This six-page (tri-fold) laminated reference guide by Gillian Hayes and Stephen Hosaflook focuses on readily available tools for augmenting and supporting the development of executive function skills, such as time and task management, organization, and self-regulation. These skills are crucial for accomplishing a variety of transition-related…

  17. The Language Testing Cycle: From Inception to Washback. Series S, Number 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigglesworth, Gillian, Ed.; Elder, Catherine, Ed.

    A selection of essays on language testing includes: "Perspectives on the Testing Cycle: Setting the Scene" (Catherine Elder, Gillian Wigglesworth); "The Politicisation of English: The Case of the STEP Test and the Chinese Students" (Lesleyanne Hawthorne); "Developing Language Tests for Specific Populations" (Rosemary…

  18. Making the Difference. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia Incorporated (22nd, Adelaide, South Australia, July 4-7, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truran, John M., Ed.; Truran, Kathleen M., Ed.

    Papers from the 22nd Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia Incorporated include the following: (1) "Making Sense of Primary Mathematics" (Gillian M. Boulton-Lewis); (2) "Seeking a Rationale for Particular Classroom Tasks and Activity" (Peter Sullivan); (3) "Research in Mathematics…

  19. Adult Learning: A Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Peter, Ed.

    This book on adult learning is divided into six sections. Section 1, Cognitive Processes, includes the following chapters: "Cognitive Processes: Contemporary Paradigms of Learning" (Jack Mezirow); "Information Processing, Memory, Age and Adult Learning" (Gillian Boulton-Lewis); "Adult Learners' Metacognitive Behaviour in Higher Education" (Barry…

  20. Bibliographic Instruction in Indiana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, H. Scott, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This issue contains nine articles written by Indiana librarians involved in bibliographic instruction: (1) "Information Management Education--Beyond BI (Bibliographic Instruction)" (Gillian S. Gremmels); (2) "Dealing with the New Technology: An Instructional Primer" (Patrick Max); (3) "Librarian/Teacher Partnerships for…

  1. Toka Boot/The Big Jam: Making Music in Rural East Timor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Gillian; Dunphy, Kim

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses a community music project in rural East Timor. Australian musician Gillian Howell lived for three months in the isolated town of Lospalos as an Asialink artist-in-residence, where she worked with local community members and visiting Australian musicians to share music and ideas, and to communicate across cultures. Three…

  2. Oxbridge Redivivus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainley, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    How the dominance of the two medieval universities, namely, (1) The University of Oxford; and (2) The University of Cambridge, was gained and maintained is the subject of the institutional histories by Gillian Evans. She has long been a thorn in the side of successive Cambridge Vice-Chancellors' aspirations to turn that institution--at which she…

  3. Focus on the Teacher. Communicative Approaches to Teacher Training. ELT Documents 110.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    A collection of papers on the training of English teachers includes: an introduction (Gillian Marsh); "The Use of Video in EFL Teacher Training" (Michael J. Wallace); "Designing a Micro-Teaching Programme in the Third World" (Donard Britten, Falla Sow); "Teacher Training at the Colchester English Study Centre" (Jonathan Seath); "The Training of…

  4. Making the Difference. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia Incorporated (22nd, Adelaide, South Australia, July 4-7, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truran, John M., Ed.; Truran, Kathleen M., Ed.

    Papers from the 22nd Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia Incorporated include the following: (1) "Making Sense of Primary Mathematics" (Gillian M. Boulton-Lewis); (2) "Seeking a Rationale for Particular Classroom Tasks and Activity" (Peter Sullivan); (3) "Research in Mathematics…

  5. Command Dysfunction: Minding the Cognitive War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-06-01

    succeed in coping with barely one-third of the enemy’s committed forces, implying that two-thirds were still in Britain. Von Rundstedt was dismissed on 2...by Gillian Potter et al., (Cairo: The American University in Cairo Press, 1993), 128-139; Hassan El Badri et al., The Ramadan War, 1973, 18- 20. 4

  6. Cataclysmic Variables from Sloan Digital Sky Survey. V. The Fifth Year (2004)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    John J. Bochanski,2 Gillian R. Knapp,6 Lee Mannikko,2 Anjum Mukadam,2 Nicole M. Silvestri,2 Gary D. Schmidt,7 Brian Stephanik,2 Todd K. Watson,8...1997) shows strong He ii in relation to H, but the SDSS spectrum in Figure 1 shows a much larger ratio between these two lines, with H barely

  7. France Without NATO

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-04-08

    Community nations since 1958, France falls well behind Germany and Italy, and just barely above the Netherlands. A more meaning- ful comparison, would be...1965, p. 40. (Information relative to the shifting of the logistical base of NATO from France to the Low Countries.) 39. King, Gillian , ed

  8. Very Low Frequency Signals and Whistler-Mode Amplification in the Magnetosphere and Limit-Cycle Behavior in the CECAF Infrared Free Electronic Laser

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    daughter, Gillian , for their patience, support, and assistance while writing this thesis. vii I. INTRODUCTION The study of "whistlers" began with the...this type of growth is called temporal. On the other hand, when the signals grew non-exponentially to some level barely out of the background noise

  9. United States Policy Toward Cuba in the Post-Cold War Era

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-28

    was an omen of the dark days to come. During a visit to Moscow by Secretary of State James Baker barely two weeks later, Gorbachev announced that... Gillian Gunn, "Will Castro Fall?," Foreign Policy, Summer 1990: 145. ii. Andrew Rosenthal, "Collision With Congress," The New York Times, 12 September

  10. Notes on Linguistics, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loos, Eugene, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This document consists of the four issues of "Notes on Linguistics" published during 1991. Articles in the four issues include: "Linguistics without Books: A Diary Entry" (John Verhaar); "Writing for Scholarly Publications" (Howard Law); "Will Kofi Understand the White Woman's Dictionary?" (Gillian Hansford); "Tips About 'WORD'" (Bryan Harmelink);…

  11. Research About Nineteenth-Century Children and Books. Portrait Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Selma K., Ed.

    This collection of papers delivered at a symposium held in April 1979 explores the relationship between children and literature in the nineteenth century. The following titles are included: "The Researcher's Craft: Designs and Implements," and "Children's Books and Social History," by Gillian Avery; "Reflections on Histories of Childhood," by…

  12. Toka Boot/The Big Jam: Making Music in Rural East Timor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Gillian; Dunphy, Kim

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses a community music project in rural East Timor. Australian musician Gillian Howell lived for three months in the isolated town of Lospalos as an Asialink artist-in-residence, where she worked with local community members and visiting Australian musicians to share music and ideas, and to communicate across cultures. Three…

  13. BIOMARKERS OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION AT THE MRNA LEVEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Denslow, Nancy D., Christopher J. Bowman, Gillian Robinson, H. Stephen Lee, Ronald J. Ferguson, Michael J. Hemmer and Leroy C. Folmar. 1999. Biomarkers of Endocrine Disruption at the mRNA Level. In: Environmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment: Standardization of Biomarkers for ...

  14. Medical reports and the law.

    PubMed

    Howard, G

    1991-11-01

    Over the past few months several serious and potentially disturbing cases have been raised by occupational health nurses concerning their employers' requests for access to or control over the medical records of their employees. In this, the first of two articles, Gillian Howard examines the legal and ethical issues surrounding the keeping, obtaining and disclosure of medical records and reports.

  15. Adult Learning: A Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Peter, Ed.

    This book on adult learning is divided into six sections. Section 1, Cognitive Processes, includes the following chapters: "Cognitive Processes: Contemporary Paradigms of Learning" (Jack Mezirow); "Information Processing, Memory, Age and Adult Learning" (Gillian Boulton-Lewis); "Adult Learners' Metacognitive Behaviour in Higher Education" (Barry…

  16. Oxbridge Redivivus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainley, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    How the dominance of the two medieval universities, namely, (1) The University of Oxford; and (2) The University of Cambridge, was gained and maintained is the subject of the institutional histories by Gillian Evans. She has long been a thorn in the side of successive Cambridge Vice-Chancellors' aspirations to turn that institution--at which she…

  17. Technology for Transition and Postsecondary Success: Supporting Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Gillian; Hosaflook, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This six-page (tri-fold) laminated reference guide by Gillian Hayes and Stephen Hosaflook focuses on readily available tools for augmenting and supporting the development of executive function skills, such as time and task management, organization, and self-regulation. These skills are crucial for accomplishing a variety of transition-related…

  18. Spoken Language. Papers from the Annual Meeting of the British Association for Applied Linguistics (Edinburgh, Scotland, September 1985). British Studies in Applied Linguistics 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meara, Paul, Ed.

    Selected papers from the annual meeting of the British Association for Applied Linguistics include the following: "The Scope of Applied Linguistics" (a brief introduction by Paul Meara); "Grading and Professionalism in ELT (English Language Teaching)" (Gillian Brown); "'The Arm of the Chair Is Where You Use For To Write': Developing Strategic…

  19. Focus on the Teacher. Communicative Approaches to Teacher Training. ELT Documents 110.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    A collection of papers on the training of English teachers includes: an introduction (Gillian Marsh); "The Use of Video in EFL Teacher Training" (Michael J. Wallace); "Designing a Micro-Teaching Programme in the Third World" (Donard Britten, Falla Sow); "Teacher Training at the Colchester English Study Centre" (Jonathan Seath); "The Training of…

  20. Difference, Power and Women in the Academy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raddon, Arwen

    2003-01-01

    Reviews two books, "Identity and Difference in Higher Education: Outsiders Within" (Pauline Anderson and Jenny Williams, Eds.) and "Gender, Teaching and Research in Higher Education: Challenges for the 21st Century" (Gillian Howie and Ashley Tauchert, Eds.). Both books explore a range of key issues faced by women in the academy…

  1. Change and Continuity in Applied Linguistics. Selected Papers from the Annual Meeting of the British Association for Applied Linguistics (Edinburgh, Scotland, September 1999). British Studies in Applied Linguistics 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trappes-Lomax, Hugh, Ed.

    The following articles appear in this issue: "Changing Views of Language in Applied Linguistics" (Gillian Brown); "Society, Education, and Language: The Last 2000 (and the next 20?) Years of Language Teaching" (Michael Stubbs); "The Secret Life of Grammar Translation" (Malcolm J. Bensen); "Changing Views of…

  2. Change and Continuity in Applied Linguistics. Selected Papers from the Annual Meeting of the British Association for Applied Linguistics (Edinburgh, Scotland, September 1999). British Studies in Applied Linguistics 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trappes-Lomax, Hugh, Ed.

    The following articles appear in this issue: "Changing Views of Language in Applied Linguistics" (Gillian Brown); "Society, Education, and Language: The Last 2000 (and the next 20?) Years of Language Teaching" (Michael Stubbs); "The Secret Life of Grammar Translation" (Malcolm J. Bensen); "Changing Views of…

  3. BIOMARKERS OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION AT THE MRNA LEVEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Denslow, Nancy D., Christopher J. Bowman, Gillian Robinson, H. Stephen Lee, Ronald J. Ferguson, Michael J. Hemmer and Leroy C. Folmar. 1999. Biomarkers of Endocrine Disruption at the mRNA Level. In: Environmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment: Standardization of Biomarkers for ...

  4. Development of Stratified Systems Theory for Possible Implementation in the U.S. Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    Jaques and Gillian Stamp Brunel University Brunel Institute of Organisation and Social Studies Uxbridge, Middlesex, England DTIC ELECTE - S E P 26 1990...Basic Research Michael Kaplan, Director July 1990 United States Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences Approved for public...release; distribution Is unlimited. ,, tC’ U.S. ARMY RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES A Field Operating Agency Under the

  5. A Collection of Technical Studies Completed for the Computer-Aided Acquisition and Logistic Support (CALS) Program Fiscal Year 1988. Volume 2. Graphics, CGM MIL SPEC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    for the CALS AP, details of the TOP profile, and the history and process of deriving the CALS AP and reconciling it with the TOP AP. The remainder of...application callable layer. The CGM Generator can be used to record device-independent picture descriptions. conceptually in parallel with the...contributors: I Organization Peter R. Bono Associates, Inc. Secretarial Support Susan Bonde , Diane Bono, E!aine Bono, Brenda Carson, Gillian Hall

  6. Role of orbitofrontal cortex neuronal ensembles in the expression of incubation of heroin craving

    PubMed Central

    Fanous, Sanya; Goldart, Evan M.; Theberge, Florence R.M.; Bossert, Jennifer M.; Shaham, Yavin; Hope, Bruce T.

    2012-01-01

    In humans, exposure to cues previously associated with heroin use often provokes relapse after prolonged withdrawal periods. In rats, cue-induced heroin-seeking progressively increases after withdrawal (incubation of heroin craving). Here, we examined the role of orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) neuronal ensembles in the enhanced response to heroin cues after prolonged withdrawal or the expression of incubation of heroin craving. We trained rats to self-administer heroin (6-h/d for 10 d) and assessed cue-induced heroin-seeking in extinction tests after 1 or 14 withdrawal days. Cue-induced heroin-seeking increased from 1 day to 14 days and was accompanied by increased Fos expression in ~12% of OFC neurons. Non-selective inactivation of OFC neurons with the GABA agonists baclofen+muscimol decreased cue-induced heroin-seeking on withdrawal day 14 but not day 1. We then used the Daun02 inactivation procedure to assess a causal role of the minority of selectively activated Fos-expressing OFC neurons (that presumably form cue-encoding neuronal ensembles) in cue-induced heroin-seeking after 14 withdrawal days. We trained cfos-lacZ transgenic rats to self-administer heroin and 11 days later re-exposed them to heroin-associated cues or novel cues for 15 min (induction day) followed by OFC Daun02 or vehicle injections 90 min later; we then tested the rats in extinction tests 3 days later. Daun02 selectively decreased cue-induced heroin-seeking in rats previously re-exposed to the heroin-associated cues on induction day, but not in rats previously exposed to novel cues. Results suggest that heroin-cue-activated OFC neuronal ensembles contribute to the expression of incubation of heroin craving. PMID:22915104

  7. Selective Lesioning of Nuclear Factor kB Activated Cells in the Nucleus Accumbens Shell Attenuates Alcohol Place Preference.

    PubMed

    Nennig, S E; Fulenwider, H D; Chimberoff, S H; Smith, B M; Eskew, J E; Sequeira, M K; Karlsson, C; Liang, C; Chen, J; Heilig, M; Schank, J R

    2017-09-13

    Nuclear factor κ light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NFkB) is a transcription factor commonly associated with innate immunity, and is activated by infection and inflammation. NFkB has recently gained attention as a mediator of complex psychiatric phenomena like stress and addiction. In regards to alcohol, most research on NFkB has focused on neurotoxicity, and few studies have explored the role of NFkB in alcohol reward, reinforcement, or consumption. In these studies, we used conditioned place preference to assess the activity of NFkB in response to rewarding doses of alcohol. To measure NFkB activity we used a line of transgenic mice that express the LacZ gene under the control of an NFkB regulated promoter. In these animals, staining for β-galactosidase (β-gal) identifies cells in which NFkB has been activated. We then used the Daun02 inactivation method to specifically silence NFkB expressing cells during place preference conditioning. Daun02 is an inactive prodrug that is converted to the inhibitory molecule daunorubicin by β-gal. After alcohol place conditioning, we observed increased β-gal staining in the nucleus accumbens (NAC) shell and dorsal raphe nucleus (DR), and found that disruption of NFkB expressing cells using Daun02 attenuated the development of alcohol place preference when infused into the NAC shell following conditioning sessions. We found this effect to be regionally and temporally specific. These results suggest that, in addition to its role in alcohol-induced neurotoxicity, NFkB mediates the development of alcohol place preference via its actions in the NAC shell.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 13 September 2017. doi:10.1038/npp.2017.214.

  8. Automated classification of tropical shrub species: a hybrid of leaf shape and machine learning approach.

    PubMed

    Murat, Miraemiliana; Chang, Siow-Wee; Abu, Arpah; Yap, Hwa Jen; Yong, Kien-Thai

    2017-01-01

    Plants play a crucial role in foodstuff, medicine, industry, and environmental protection. The skill of recognising plants is very important in some applications, including conservation of endangered species and rehabilitation of lands after mining activities. However, it is a difficult task to identify plant species because it requires specialized knowledge. Developing an automated classification system for plant species is necessary and valuable since it can help specialists as well as the public in identifying plant species easily. Shape descriptors were applied on the myDAUN dataset that contains 45 tropical shrub species collected from the University of Malaya (UM), Malaysia. Based on literature review, this is the first study in the development of tropical shrub species image dataset and classification using a hybrid of leaf shape and machine learning approach. Four types of shape descriptors were used in this study namely morphological shape descriptors (MSD), Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG), Hu invariant moments (Hu) and Zernike moments (ZM). Single descriptor, as well as the combination of hybrid descriptors were tested and compared. The tropical shrub species are classified using six different classifiers, which are artificial neural network (ANN), random forest (RF), support vector machine (SVM), k-nearest neighbour (k-NN), linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and directed acyclic graph multiclass least squares twin support vector machine (DAG MLSTSVM). In addition, three types of feature selection methods were tested in the myDAUN dataset, Relief, Correlation-based feature selection (CFS) and Pearson's coefficient correlation (PCC). The well-known Flavia dataset and Swedish Leaf dataset were used as the validation dataset on the proposed methods. The results showed that the hybrid of all descriptors of ANN outperformed the other classifiers with an average classification accuracy of 98.23% for the myDAUN dataset, 95.25% for the Flavia dataset and 99

  9. Pit and Fissure Sealants in Young Adults: An Evaluation of Placement Time and Retention Rate Using Two Isolation Techniques.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    L AD-A139 429 PI AND FSSJR SEAANTS IN YOUNG ADULTS AN EVAUAON I7 D-AUN L OFPLACEMENT ME.U) AIR FORCE INST OF TECHWRIOHT-PATTERSON AFB OH B A MATIS...I ll l l ....1 , , .. .. . ... i TABLE XIV Sealant retention by tooth surface at twelve months ........................ 44 TABLE XV Sealant...cotton - 12- roll isolation and the placement time of an occIusal amalgam restoration using rubber dam isolation in contralater.. l teeth. Fifty-five

  10. International Program and Local Organizing Committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-12-01

    International Program Committee Dionisio Bermejo (Spain) Roman Ciurylo (Poland) Elisabeth Dalimier (France) Alexander Devdariani (Russia) Milan S Dimitrijevic (Serbia) Robert Gamache (USA) Marco A Gigosos (Spain) Motoshi Goto (Japan) Magnus Gustafsson (Sweden) Jean-Michel Hartmann (France) Carlos Iglesias (USA) John Kielkopf (USA) John C Lewis (Canada) Valery Lisitsa (Russia) Eugene Oks (USA) Christian G Parigger (USA) Gillian Peach (UK) Adriana Predoi-Cross (Canada) Roland Stamm (Germany) Local Organizing Committee Nikolay G Skvortsov (Chair, St Petersburg State University) Evgenii B Aleksandrov (Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, St Petersburg) Vadim A Alekseev (Scientific Secretary, St Petersburg State University) Sergey F Boureiko (St.Petersburg State University) Yury N Gnedin (Pulkovo Observatory, St Petersburg) Alexander Z Devdariani (Deputy Chair, St Petersburg State University) Alexander P Kouzov (Deputy Chair, St Petersburg State University) Nikolay A Timofeev (St Petersburg State University)

  11. Automated classification of tropical shrub species: a hybrid of leaf shape and machine learning approach

    PubMed Central

    Murat, Miraemiliana; Abu, Arpah; Yap, Hwa Jen; Yong, Kien-Thai

    2017-01-01

    Plants play a crucial role in foodstuff, medicine, industry, and environmental protection. The skill of recognising plants is very important in some applications, including conservation of endangered species and rehabilitation of lands after mining activities. However, it is a difficult task to identify plant species because it requires specialized knowledge. Developing an automated classification system for plant species is necessary and valuable since it can help specialists as well as the public in identifying plant species easily. Shape descriptors were applied on the myDAUN dataset that contains 45 tropical shrub species collected from the University of Malaya (UM), Malaysia. Based on literature review, this is the first study in the development of tropical shrub species image dataset and classification using a hybrid of leaf shape and machine learning approach. Four types of shape descriptors were used in this study namely morphological shape descriptors (MSD), Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG), Hu invariant moments (Hu) and Zernike moments (ZM). Single descriptor, as well as the combination of hybrid descriptors were tested and compared. The tropical shrub species are classified using six different classifiers, which are artificial neural network (ANN), random forest (RF), support vector machine (SVM), k-nearest neighbour (k-NN), linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and directed acyclic graph multiclass least squares twin support vector machine (DAG MLSTSVM). In addition, three types of feature selection methods were tested in the myDAUN dataset, Relief, Correlation-based feature selection (CFS) and Pearson’s coefficient correlation (PCC). The well-known Flavia dataset and Swedish Leaf dataset were used as the validation dataset on the proposed methods. The results showed that the hybrid of all descriptors of ANN outperformed the other classifiers with an average classification accuracy of 98.23% for the myDAUN dataset, 95.25% for the Flavia dataset and

  12. Qualitative Evaluation of a Practice-based Experience Pilot Program for Master of Pharmacy Students in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Hendry, Gillian; Winn, Philip; Wiggins, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine the views of pharmacists in central Scotland regarding experiential education for MPharm students. Methods. A thematic analysis was completed by Ms. Gillian Hendry and Dr. Sally Wiggins of interviews conducted with ten practicing pharmacists paired with first-year master of pharmacy (MPharm) students during the 2011-2012 academic year. Relevant comments from the interviews were manually sorted in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet to bring similarly themed material together to facilitate the identification and naming of recurring themes and subthemes. Results. The pharmacists were unanimous in their opinion that experiential education was valuable for MPharm students and, in particular, that it helped students to develop self-confidence. The pharmacists derived personal satisfaction in developing mentor/mentee relationships with students. They also recognized the value that students provided to the workforce as well as the educational value to themselves in supervising students. The participants’ primary dissatisfaction was that the pharmacy workflow limited the time they could spend mentoring students. Conclusion. The results provide guidance to the academic community and the pharmacy practice community in the United Kingdom (UK) regarding the design and integration of experiential education courses in MPharm degree programs. PMID:28179714

  13. Qualitative Evaluation of a Practice-based Experience Pilot Program for Master of Pharmacy Students in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Hendry, Gillian; Winn, Philip; Wiggins, Sally; Turner, Christopher J

    2016-12-25

    Objective. To determine the views of pharmacists in central Scotland regarding experiential education for MPharm students. Methods. A thematic analysis was completed by Ms. Gillian Hendry and Dr. Sally Wiggins of interviews conducted with ten practicing pharmacists paired with first-year master of pharmacy (MPharm) students during the 2011-2012 academic year. Relevant comments from the interviews were manually sorted in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet to bring similarly themed material together to facilitate the identification and naming of recurring themes and subthemes. Results. The pharmacists were unanimous in their opinion that experiential education was valuable for MPharm students and, in particular, that it helped students to develop self-confidence. The pharmacists derived personal satisfaction in developing mentor/mentee relationships with students. They also recognized the value that students provided to the workforce as well as the educational value to themselves in supervising students. The participants' primary dissatisfaction was that the pharmacy workflow limited the time they could spend mentoring students. Conclusion. The results provide guidance to the academic community and the pharmacy practice community in the United Kingdom (UK) regarding the design and integration of experiential education courses in MPharm degree programs.

  14. Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) relational matching: playing by their own (analogical) rules.

    PubMed

    Flemming, Timothy M; Kennedy, Erica Hoy

    2011-05-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have been known to exhibit rudimentary abilities in analogical reasoning (Flemming, Beran, Thompson, Kleider, & Washburn, 2008; Gillian, Premack, & Woodruff, 1981; Haun & Call, 2009; Thompson & Oden, 2000; Thompson, Oden, & Boysen, 1997). With a wide array of individual differences, little can be concluded about the species' capacity for analogies, much less their strategies employed for solving such problems. In this study, we examined analogical strategies in 3 chimpanzees using a 3-dimensional search task (e.g., Kennedy & Fragaszy, 2008). Food items were hidden under 1 of 2 or 3 plastic cups of varying sizes. Subsequently, chimpanzees searched for food under the cup of the same relative size in their own set of cups--reasoning by analogy. Two chimpanzees initially appeared to fail the first relational phase of the task. Meta-analyses revealed, however, that they were instead using a secondary strategy not rewarded by the contingencies of the task--choosing on the basis of the same relative position in the sample. Although this was not the intended strategy of the task, it was nonetheless analogical. In subsequent phases of the task, chimpanzees eventually learned to shift their analogical reasoning strategy to match the reward contingencies of the task and successfully choose on the basis of relative size. This evidence not only provides support for the analogical ape hypothesis (Thompson & Oden, 2000), but also exemplifies how foundational conceptually mediated analogical behavior may be for the chimpanzee. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  15. Electromagnet Design for an Experimental Search for CP Violation in Positronium Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersburg, Ryan; Henning, Reyco; Bartram, Chelsea

    2015-04-01

    The 3-photon decay of spin-aligned triplet positronium could be used to search for a charge conjugation and parity (CP) symmetry violation. This CP violation would manifest as a nonzero angular correlation (S-> .k1 -->) (S-> .k1 --> ×k2 -->) between the three decay photons' momentum vectors (|k1 --> | > |k2 --> | > |k3 --> |) and the triplet positronium spin (S->). Current limits on this correlation are at the ~10-3 level; therefore, we propose an experiment to improve this limit. In our experiment, the positronium is spin-polarized by a uniform magnetic field from a conventional electromagnet, and the photons are detected by a segmented NaI gamma detector array with large angular acceptance. This talk discusses the design of this unique electromagnet, which requires good field uniformity for the positronium source and a novel yoke design to minimize fringe field effects for the NaI array's PMTs. This project was supported by the Gillian T. Cell Senior Thesis Research Award in the College of Arts & Sciences, administered by Honors Carolina.

  16. ZIKA VIRUS INFECTION; VERTICAL TRANSMISSION AND FOETAL CONGENITAL ANOMALIES.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Aziz-un-Nisa

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus belonging to flaviviridae family that includes Dengue, West Nile, and Yellow Fever among others. Zika virus was first discovered in 1947 in Zika forest of Uganda. It is a vector borne disease, which has been sporadically reported mostly from Africa, Pacific islands and Southeast Asia since its discovery. ZIKV infection presents as a mild illness with symptoms lasting for several days to a week after the bite of an infected mosquito. Majority of the patients have low grade fever, rash, headaches, joints pain, myalgia, and flu like symptoms. Pregnant women are more vulnerable to ZIKV infection and serious congenital anomalies can occur in foetus through trans-placental transmission. The gestation at which infection is acquired is important. Zika virus infection acquired in early pregnancy poses greater risk. There is no evidence so far about transmission through breast milk. Foetal microcephaly, Gillian Barre syndrome and other neurological and autoimmune syndromes have been reported in areas where Zika outbreaks have occurred. As infection is usually very mild no specific treatment is required. Pregnant women may be advised to take rest, get plenty of fluids. For fever and pain they can take antipyretics like paracetamol. So far no specific drugs or vaccines are available against Zika Virus Infection so prevention is the mainstay against this diseases. As ZIKV infection is a vector borne disease, prevention can be a multi-pronged strategy. These entail vector control interventions, personal protection, environmental sanitation and health education among others.

  17. Composition and distribution of particulate matter (PM10) in a mechanically ventilated University building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Mohamed Yasreen Mohamed; Hanafiah, Marlia Mohd; Latif, Mohd Talib

    2016-11-01

    This study analyses the composition and distribution of particulate matter (PM10) in the Biology department building, in UKM. PM10 were collected using SENSIDYNE Gillian GilAir-5 Personal Air Sampling System, a low-volume sampler, whereas the concentration of heavy metals was determined using Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The concentration of PM10 recorded in the mechanically ventilated building ranges from 89 µgm-3 to 910 µgm-3. The composition of the selected heavy metals in PM10 were dominated by zinc, followed by copper, lead and cadmium. It was found that the present of indoor-related particulate matter were originated from the poorly maintained ventilation system, the activity of occupants and typical office equipments such as printers and photocopy machines. The haze event occured during sampling periods was also affected the PM10 concentration in the building. This results can serve as a starting point to assess the potential human health damage using the life cycle impact assessment, expressed in term of disability adjusted life year (DALY).

  18. Role of Central Amygdala Neuronal Ensembles in Incubation of Nicotine Craving

    PubMed Central

    Coen, Kathleen; Tamadon, Sahar; Hope, Bruce T.; Shaham, Yavin; Lê, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    The craving response to smoking-associated cues in humans or to intravenous nicotine-associated cues in adult rats progressively increases or incubates after withdrawal. Here, we further characterized incubation of nicotine craving in the rat model by determining whether this incubation is observed after adolescent-onset nicotine self-administration. We also used the neuronal activity marker Fos and the Daun02 chemogenetic inactivation procedure to identify cue-activated neuronal ensembles that mediate incubation of nicotine craving. We trained adolescent and adult male rats to self-administer nicotine (2 h/d for 12 d) and assessed cue-induced nicotine seeking in extinction tests (1 h) after 1, 7, 14, or 28 withdrawal days. In both adult and adolescent rats, nicotine seeking in the relapse tests followed an inverted U-shaped curve, with maximal responding on withdrawal day 14. Independent of the withdrawal day, nicotine seeking in the relapse tests was higher in adult than in adolescent rats. Analysis of Fos expression in different brain areas of adolescent and adult rats on withdrawal days 1 and 14 showed time-dependent increases in the number of Fos-positive neurons in central and basolateral amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, ventral and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, and nucleus accumbens core and shell. In adult Fos–lacZ transgenic rats, selective inactivation of nicotine-cue-activated Fos neurons in central amygdala, but not orbitofrontal cortex, decreased “incubated” nicotine seeking on withdrawal day 14. Our results demonstrate that incubation of nicotine craving occurs after adolescent-onset nicotine self-administration and that neuronal ensembles in central amygdala play a critical role in this incubation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The craving response to smoking-associated cues in humans or to intravenous nicotine-associated cues in adult rats progressively increases or incubates after withdrawal. It is currently unknown whether incubation of craving

  19. Recruitment of a Neuronal Ensemble in the Central Nucleus of the Amygdala Is Required for Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    de Guglielmo, Giordano; Crawford, Elena; Kim, Sarah; Vendruscolo, Leandro F.; Hope, Bruce T.; Brennan, Molly; Cole, Maury; Koob, George F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstinence from alcohol is associated with the recruitment of neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) in nondependent rats that binge drink alcohol and in alcohol-dependent rats. However, whether the recruitment of this neuronal ensemble in the CeA is causally related to excessive alcohol drinking or if it represents a consequence of excessive drinking remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the recruitment of a neuronal ensemble in the CeA during abstinence is required for excessive alcohol drinking in nondependent rats that binge drink alcohol and in alcohol-dependent rats. We found that inactivation of the CeA neuronal ensemble during abstinence significantly decreased alcohol drinking in both groups. In nondependent rats, the decrease in alcohol intake was transient and returned to normal the day after the injection. In dependent rats, inactivation of the neuronal ensemble with Daun02 produced a long-term decrease in alcohol drinking. Moreover, we observed a significant reduction of somatic withdrawal signs in dependent animals that were injected with Daun02 in the CeA. These results indicate that the recruitment of a neuronal ensemble in the CeA during abstinence from alcohol is causally related to excessive alcohol drinking in alcohol-dependent rats, whereas a similar neuronal ensemble only partially contributed to alcohol-binge-like drinking in nondependent rats. These results identify a critical neurobiological mechanism that may be required for the transition to alcohol dependence, suggesting that focusing on the neuronal ensemble in the CeA may lead to a better understanding of the etiology of alcohol use disorders and improve medication development. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Alcohol dependence recruits neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). Here, we found that inactivation of a specific dependence-induced neuronal ensemble in the CeA reversed excessive alcohol drinking and somatic signs of alcohol dependence in rats. These

  20. Role of Central Amygdala Neuronal Ensembles in Incubation of Nicotine Craving.

    PubMed

    Funk, Douglas; Coen, Kathleen; Tamadon, Sahar; Hope, Bruce T; Shaham, Yavin; Lê, A D

    2016-08-17

    The craving response to smoking-associated cues in humans or to intravenous nicotine-associated cues in adult rats progressively increases or incubates after withdrawal. Here, we further characterized incubation of nicotine craving in the rat model by determining whether this incubation is observed after adolescent-onset nicotine self-administration. We also used the neuronal activity marker Fos and the Daun02 chemogenetic inactivation procedure to identify cue-activated neuronal ensembles that mediate incubation of nicotine craving. We trained adolescent and adult male rats to self-administer nicotine (2 h/d for 12 d) and assessed cue-induced nicotine seeking in extinction tests (1 h) after 1, 7, 14, or 28 withdrawal days. In both adult and adolescent rats, nicotine seeking in the relapse tests followed an inverted U-shaped curve, with maximal responding on withdrawal day 14. Independent of the withdrawal day, nicotine seeking in the relapse tests was higher in adult than in adolescent rats. Analysis of Fos expression in different brain areas of adolescent and adult rats on withdrawal days 1 and 14 showed time-dependent increases in the number of Fos-positive neurons in central and basolateral amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, ventral and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, and nucleus accumbens core and shell. In adult Fos-lacZ transgenic rats, selective inactivation of nicotine-cue-activated Fos neurons in central amygdala, but not orbitofrontal cortex, decreased "incubated" nicotine seeking on withdrawal day 14. Our results demonstrate that incubation of nicotine craving occurs after adolescent-onset nicotine self-administration and that neuronal ensembles in central amygdala play a critical role in this incubation. The craving response to smoking-associated cues in humans or to intravenous nicotine-associated cues in adult rats progressively increases or incubates after withdrawal. It is currently unknown whether incubation of craving also occurs after adolescent

  1. Distinct Fos-Expressing Neuronal Ensembles in the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Mediate Food Reward and Extinction Memories

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Brandon L.; Mendoza, Michael P.; Cruz, Fabio C.; Leao, Rodrigo M.; Caprioli, Daniele; Rubio, F. Javier; Whitaker, Leslie R.; McPherson, Kylie B.; Bossert, Jennifer M.; Shaham, Yavin

    2016-01-01

    In operant learning, initial reward-associated memories are thought to be distinct from subsequent extinction-associated memories. Memories formed during operant learning are thought to be stored in “neuronal ensembles.” Thus, we hypothesize that different neuronal ensembles encode reward- and extinction-associated memories. Here, we examined prefrontal cortex neuronal ensembles involved in the recall of reward and extinction memories of food self-administration. We first trained rats to lever press for palatable food pellets for 7 d (1 h/d) and then exposed them to 0, 2, or 7 daily extinction sessions in which lever presses were not reinforced. Twenty-four hours after the last training or extinction session, we exposed the rats to either a short 15 min extinction test session or left them in their homecage (a control condition). We found maximal Fos (a neuronal activity marker) immunoreactivity in the ventral medial prefrontal cortex of rats that previously received 2 extinction sessions, suggesting that neuronal ensembles in this area encode extinction memories. We then used the Daun02 inactivation procedure to selectively disrupt ventral medial prefrontal cortex neuronal ensembles that were activated during the 15 min extinction session following 0 (no extinction) or 2 prior extinction sessions to determine the effects of inactivating the putative food reward and extinction ensembles, respectively, on subsequent nonreinforced food seeking 2 d later. Inactivation of the food reward ensembles decreased food seeking, whereas inactivation of the extinction ensembles increased food seeking. Our results indicate that distinct neuronal ensembles encoding operant reward and extinction memories intermingle within the same cortical area. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A current popular hypothesis is that neuronal ensembles in different prefrontal cortex areas control reward-associated versus extinction-associated memories: the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) promotes

  2. Bidirectional Modulation of Intrinsic Excitability in Rat Prelimbic Cortex Neuronal Ensembles and Non-Ensembles after Operant Learning.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Leslie R; Warren, Brandon L; Venniro, Marco; Harte, Tyler C; McPherson, Kylie B; Beidel, Jennifer; Bossert, Jennifer M; Shaham, Yavin; Bonci, Antonello; Hope, Bruce T

    2017-09-06

    Learned associations between environmental stimuli and rewards drive goal-directed learning and motivated behavior. These memories are thought to be encoded by alterations within specific patterns of sparsely distributed neurons called neuronal ensembles that are activated selectively by reward-predictive stimuli. Here, we use the Fos promoter to identify strongly activated neuronal ensembles in rat prelimbic cortex (PLC) and assess altered intrinsic excitability after 10 d of operant food self-administration training (1 h/d). First, we used the Daun02 inactivation procedure in male FosLacZ-transgenic rats to ablate selectively Fos-expressing PLC neurons that were active during operant food self-administration. Selective ablation of these neurons decreased food seeking. We then used male FosGFP-transgenic rats to assess selective alterations of intrinsic excitability in Fos-expressing neuronal ensembles (FosGFP(+)) that were activated during food self-administration and compared these with alterations in less activated non-ensemble neurons (FosGFP(-)). Using whole-cell recordings of layer V pyramidal neurons in an ex vivo brain slice preparation, we found that operant self-administration increased excitability of FosGFP(+) neurons and decreased excitability of FosGFP(-) neurons. Increased excitability of FosGFP(+) neurons was driven by increased steady-state input resistance. Decreased excitability of FosGFP(-) neurons was driven by increased contribution of small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels. Injections of the specific SK channel antagonist apamin into PLC increased Fos expression but had no effect on food seeking. Overall, operant learning increased intrinsic excitability of PLC Fos-expressing neuronal ensembles that play a role in food seeking but decreased intrinsic excitability of Fos(-) non-ensembles.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Prefrontal cortex activity plays a critical role in operant learning, but the underlying cellular mechanisms are

  3. Role of Dorsomedial Striatum Neuronal Ensembles in Incubation of Methamphetamine Craving after Voluntary Abstinence.

    PubMed

    Caprioli, Daniele; Venniro, Marco; Zhang, Michelle; Bossert, Jennifer M; Warren, Brandon L; Hope, Bruce T; Shaham, Yavin

    2017-01-25

    We recently developed a rat model of incubation of methamphetamine craving after choice-based voluntary abstinence. Here, we studied the role of dorsolateral striatum (DLS) and dorsomedial striatum (DMS) in this incubation. We trained rats to self-administer palatable food pellets (6 d, 6 h/d) and methamphetamine (12 d, 6 h/d). We then assessed relapse to methamphetamine seeking under extinction conditions after 1 and 21 abstinence days. Between tests, the rats underwent voluntary abstinence (using a discrete choice procedure between methamphetamine and food; 20 trials/d) for 19 d. We used in situ hybridization to measure the colabeling of the activity marker Fos with Drd1 and Drd2 in DMS and DLS after the tests. Based on the in situ hybridization colabeling results, we tested the causal role of DMS D1 and D2 family receptors, and DMS neuronal ensembles in "incubated" methamphetamine seeking, using selective dopamine receptor antagonists (SCH39166 or raclopride) and the Daun02 chemogenetic inactivation procedure, respectively. Methamphetamine seeking was higher after 21 d of voluntary abstinence than after 1 d (incubation of methamphetamine craving). The incubated response was associated with increased Fos expression in DMS but not in DLS; Fos was colabeled with both Drd1 and Drd2 DMS injections of SCH39166 or raclopride selectively decreased methamphetamine seeking after 21 abstinence days. In Fos-lacZ transgenic rats, selective inactivation of relapse test-activated Fos neurons in DMS on abstinence day 18 decreased incubated methamphetamine seeking on day 21. Results demonstrate a role of DMS dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the incubation of methamphetamine craving after voluntary abstinence and that DMS neuronal ensembles mediate this incubation. In human addicts, abstinence is often self-imposed and relapse can be triggered by exposure to drug-associated cues that induce drug craving. We recently developed a rat model of incubation of methamphetamine craving

  4. Role of Dorsomedial Striatum Neuronal Ensembles in Incubation of Methamphetamine Craving after Voluntary Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Venniro, Marco; Zhang, Michelle; Bossert, Jennifer M.; Warren, Brandon L.; Hope, Bruce T.

    2017-01-01

    We recently developed a rat model of incubation of methamphetamine craving after choice-based voluntary abstinence. Here, we studied the role of dorsolateral striatum (DLS) and dorsomedial striatum (DMS) in this incubation. We trained rats to self-administer palatable food pellets (6 d, 6 h/d) and methamphetamine (12 d, 6 h/d). We then assessed relapse to methamphetamine seeking under extinction conditions after 1 and 21 abstinence days. Between tests, the rats underwent voluntary abstinence (using a discrete choice procedure between methamphetamine and food; 20 trials/d) for 19 d. We used in situ hybridization to measure the colabeling of the activity marker Fos with Drd1 and Drd2 in DMS and DLS after the tests. Based on the in situ hybridization colabeling results, we tested the causal role of DMS D1 and D2 family receptors, and DMS neuronal ensembles in “incubated” methamphetamine seeking, using selective dopamine receptor antagonists (SCH39166 or raclopride) and the Daun02 chemogenetic inactivation procedure, respectively. Methamphetamine seeking was higher after 21 d of voluntary abstinence than after 1 d (incubation of methamphetamine craving). The incubated response was associated with increased Fos expression in DMS but not in DLS; Fos was colabeled with both Drd1 and Drd2. DMS injections of SCH39166 or raclopride selectively decreased methamphetamine seeking after 21 abstinence days. In Fos-lacZ transgenic rats, selective inactivation of relapse test-activated Fos neurons in DMS on abstinence day 18 decreased incubated methamphetamine seeking on day 21. Results demonstrate a role of DMS dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the incubation of methamphetamine craving after voluntary abstinence and that DMS neuronal ensembles mediate this incubation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In human addicts, abstinence is often self-imposed and relapse can be triggered by exposure to drug-associated cues that induce drug craving. We recently developed a rat model of incubation

  5. Distinct Fos-Expressing Neuronal Ensembles in the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Mediate Food Reward and Extinction Memories.

    PubMed

    Warren, Brandon L; Mendoza, Michael P; Cruz, Fabio C; Leao, Rodrigo M; Caprioli, Daniele; Rubio, F Javier; Whitaker, Leslie R; McPherson, Kylie B; Bossert, Jennifer M; Shaham, Yavin; Hope, Bruce T

    2016-06-22

    In operant learning, initial reward-associated memories are thought to be distinct from subsequent extinction-associated memories. Memories formed during operant learning are thought to be stored in "neuronal ensembles." Thus, we hypothesize that different neuronal ensembles encode reward- and extinction-associated memories. Here, we examined prefrontal cortex neuronal ensembles involved in the recall of reward and extinction memories of food self-administration. We first trained rats to lever press for palatable food pellets for 7 d (1 h/d) and then exposed them to 0, 2, or 7 daily extinction sessions in which lever presses were not reinforced. Twenty-four hours after the last training or extinction session, we exposed the rats to either a short 15 min extinction test session or left them in their homecage (a control condition). We found maximal Fos (a neuronal activity marker) immunoreactivity in the ventral medial prefrontal cortex of rats that previously received 2 extinction sessions, suggesting that neuronal ensembles in this area encode extinction memories. We then used the Daun02 inactivation procedure to selectively disrupt ventral medial prefrontal cortex neuronal ensembles that were activated during the 15 min extinction session following 0 (no extinction) or 2 prior extinction sessions to determine the effects of inactivating the putative food reward and extinction ensembles, respectively, on subsequent nonreinforced food seeking 2 d later. Inactivation of the food reward ensembles decreased food seeking, whereas inactivation of the extinction ensembles increased food seeking. Our results indicate that distinct neuronal ensembles encoding operant reward and extinction memories intermingle within the same cortical area. A current popular hypothesis is that neuronal ensembles in different prefrontal cortex areas control reward-associated versus extinction-associated memories: the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) promotes reward seeking, whereas the

  6. Comparison of volatile constituents of Persicaria odorata(Lour.) Soják (Polygonum odoratum Lour.) and Persicaria hydropiper L. Spach (Polygonum hydropiper L.).

    PubMed

    Starkenmann, Christian; Luca, Ludmila; Niclass, Yvan; Praz, Eric; Roguet, Didier

    2006-04-19

    Polygonum odoratum Lour. has been reclassified as Persicaria odorata (Lour.) Soják [Wilson, K. L. Polygonum sensu lato (Polygonaceae) in Australia. Telopea 1988, 3, 177-182]; other synonyms currently used are Vietnamese mint or Vietnamese coriander and, in Malaysia, Daun Laksa or Laksa plant. The aerial parts of Laksa plant are highly aromatic, and they contain many organic compounds such as (Z)-3-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenol, decanal, undecanal, and dodecanal that are typical for green, citrus, orange peel, and coriander odors. In addition to these aldehydes, 3-sulfanyl-hexanal and 3-sulfanyl-hexan-1-ol were discovered for the first time in this herb. The fresh leaves are pungent when they are chewed, although the active compound has never been identified. The pungency of Persicaria hydropiper (L.) Spach (formerly Polygonum hydropiper L., synonym water pepper) is produced by polygodial, a 1,4-dialdehyde derived from drimane terpenoids. We also identified polygodial as the active pungent compound in P. odorata (Lour.) Soják.

  7. Methamphetamine and Ovarian Steroid Responsive Cells in the Posteriodorsal Medial Amygdala are Required for Methamphetamine-enhanced Proceptive Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Katrina M.; Mong, Jessica A.

    2017-01-01

    Methamphetamine (Meth) is a psychomotor stimulant strongly associated with increases in sexual drive and impulse in both men and women. These changes in sexual motivation have a greater impact on women due to their likelihood of facing the greater burden of unplanned pregnancies, as well as increased risk for psychiatric co-morbidities such as depression. We have previously established a rodent model of Meth-induced increases in sexual motivation. Using this model, we have identified the posteriodorsal medial amygdala (MePD) via excitotoxic lesion studies as a necessary nucleus in Meth-facilitated female sexual motivation. While lesion studies give us insight into key nuclei that may be targets of Meth action, such an approach does not give insight into the identity of the specific MePD neurons or neural circuitry involved in Meth-induced increases in proceptive behaviors. Using the DAUN02 inactivation method, a recently established technique for removing behaviorally relevant cell populations, we present evidence that the ovarian steroid/Meth responsive cells in the MePD are necessary for Meth-induced facilitation of proceptive behaviors. These findings form the basis for future work that will allow for the classification of neuronal subtypes involved in the MePD’s modulation of proceptive behavior as well as a stronger understanding of the neurocircuitry of female sexual motivation. PMID:28045134

  8. Effectiveness of traditional Malaysian vegetables (ulam) in modulating blood glucose levels.

    PubMed

    Bachok, Mohd Faez; Yusof, Barakatun-Nisak Mohd; Ismail, Amin; Hamid, Azizah Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Ulam refers to a group of traditional Malaysian plants commonly consumed as a part of a meal, either in the raw form or after a short blanching process. Many types of ulam are thought to possess blood glucose-lowering properties, but relatively little is known on the effectiveness of ulam in modulating blood glucose levels in humans. This review aims to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of ulam in modulating blood glucose levels in humans. A literature review was conducted using multiple databases with no time restriction. Eleven studies were retrieved based on a priori inclusion and exclusion criteria. In these 11 studies, only Momordica charantia, locally known as "peria katak", was extensively studied, followed by Centella asiatica, locally known as "daun pegaga", and Alternanthera sessilis, locally known as "kermak putih". Of the 11 studies, 9 evaluated the effectiveness of M. charantia on blood glucose parameters, and 7 of which showed significant improvement in at least one parameter of blood glucose concentration. The remaining 2 studies reported nonsignificant improvements in blood glucose parameters, despite having high-quality study design according to Jadad scale. None of the studies related to C. asiatica and A. sessilis showed significant improvement in blood glucose-related parameters. Current clinical evidence does not support the popular claim that ulam has glucose-lowering effects, not even for M. charantia. Hence, further clinical investigation is needed to verify the glucose modulation effect of M. charantia, C. asiatica, and A. sessilis.

  9. Authenticity: is it real or is it marketing?

    PubMed

    Weinberger, David

    2008-03-01

    Marty Echt, the new head of marketing at Hunsk Engines, is determined to bring the motorcycle maker back to its roots. He says it's not enough to project authenticity to customers--employees must personally subscribe to the brand's values. Should the company's CEO support Marty's "real deal" vision? Five experts comment on this fictional case study. Bruce Weindruch, the founder and CEO of the History Factory, says that an authenticity-based campaign can be effective--but only if it's truly drawn from history. Marketers like Marty often remember their organization's past in a golden haze. Weindruch recommends exploring old engineering drawings, ads, and product photos in order to understand what customers and employees really valued back in the day. Gillian Arnold, a consultant to luxury fashion and fine jewelry brands, thinks Marty's approach is right: People in key marketing posts must be passionate about their products and know them inside and out. She argues that the CEO needs to commit more fully to the new campaign and address the significant gap between the staff and the brand. James H. Gilmore and B. Joseph Pine II, the cofounders of Strategic Horizons, point out that Hunsk needs to manage customers' perceptions rather than trying to be a "real company" or forming a management team whose personal interests match the brand. People purchase a product if it conforms to their self-image; that alone determines the brand's authenticity. Glenn Brackett of Sweetgrass Rods, a maker of bamboo fly-fishing rods, says Marty seems to be one of the few people who understand Hunsk motorcycles. If employees bring blood, sweat, heart, and soul to a product, it will manifest that spirit, and customers will line up for it.

  10. Artificial hydration and alimentation at the end of life: a reply to Craig.

    PubMed Central

    Ashby, M; Stoffell, B

    1995-01-01

    Dr Gillian Craig (1) has argued that palliative medicine services have tended to adopt a policy of sedation without hydration, which under certain circumstances may be medically inappropriate, causative of death and distressing to family and friends. We welcome this opportunity to defend, with an important modification, the approach we proposed without substantive background argument in our original article (2). We maintain that slowing and eventual cessation of oral intake is a normal part of a natural dying process, that artificial hydration and alimentation (AHA) are not justified unless thirst or hunger are present and cannot be relieved by other means, but food and fluids for (natural) oral consumption should never be 'withdrawn'. The intention of this practice is not to alter the timing of an inevitable death, and sedation is not used, as has been alleged, to mask the effects of dehydration or starvation. The artificial provision of hydration and alimentation is now widely accepted as medical treatment. We believe that arguments that it is not have led to confusion as to whether or not non-provision or withdrawal of AHA constitutes a cause of death in law. Arguments that it is such a cause appear to be tenuously based on an extraordinary/ordinary categorisation of treatments by Kelly (3) which has subsequently been interpreted as prescriptive in a way quite inconsistent with the Catholic moral theological tradition from which the distinction is derived. The focus of ethical discourse on decisions at the end of life should be shifted to an analysis of care, needs, proportionality of medical interventions, and processes of communication. PMID:7674277

  11. Artificial hydration and alimentation at the end of life: a reply to Craig.

    PubMed

    Ashby, M; Stoffell, B

    1995-06-01

    Dr Gillian Craig (1) has argued that palliative medicine services have tended to adopt a policy of sedation without hydration, which under certain circumstances may be medically inappropriate, causative of death and distressing to family and friends. We welcome this opportunity to defend, with an important modification, the approach we proposed without substantive background argument in our original article (2). We maintain that slowing and eventual cessation of oral intake is a normal part of a natural dying process, that artificial hydration and alimentation (AHA) are not justified unless thirst or hunger are present and cannot be relieved by other means, but food and fluids for (natural) oral consumption should never be 'withdrawn'. The intention of this practice is not to alter the timing of an inevitable death, and sedation is not used, as has been alleged, to mask the effects of dehydration or starvation. The artificial provision of hydration and alimentation is now widely accepted as medical treatment. We believe that arguments that it is not have led to confusion as to whether or not non-provision or withdrawal of AHA constitutes a cause of death in law. Arguments that it is such a cause appear to be tenuously based on an extraordinary/ordinary categorisation of treatments by Kelly (3) which has subsequently been interpreted as prescriptive in a way quite inconsistent with the Catholic moral theological tradition from which the distinction is derived. The focus of ethical discourse on decisions at the end of life should be shifted to an analysis of care, needs, proportionality of medical interventions, and processes of communication.

  12. Application of a combination of dating techniques to reconstruct the Lateglacial and early Holocene landscape history of the Albula region (eastern Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhlert, Ralph; Egli, Markus; Maisch, Max; Brandová, Dagmar; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Kubik, Peter W.; Haeberli, Wilfried

    2011-04-01

    Landforms in Val Mulix and the Albula region in eastern Switzerland offer a detailed insight into the period between the Oldest Dryas until the early Holocene. To better understand Lateglacial and Holocene climate change in the central Alps, glacial (moraines, polished bedrock) and periglacial (rock glacier) landforms were dated using a combined approach of numerical (cosmogenic 10Be) and relative (Schmidt-hammer, weathering rind thickness) dating techniques. At high-elevation sites near the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) trimline, 10Be exposure ages of glacially modified bedrock are between 11.2 ka and 13.5 ka. This suggests the persistence of long-lasting small local ice caps after the breakdown of the LGM ice domes or, alternatively, a reformation of ice perhaps during the Younger Dryas. In Val Mulix we obtained one of the first ages for the Daun-stadial (> 14.7 ka) moraines (14.9 ± 1.8 ka), supporting a pre-Bølling chronological position. The age is in excellent agreement with the age of a boulder from an Egesen I moraine located up-valley which we postulate may be a Daun moraine that was re-occupied during the Egesen stadial. A boulder from an Egesen II moraine gave an age of 10.7 ka, which is similar to ages of Egesen II moraines at other sites in the Alps. 10Be ages from boulders found on a relict rock glacier in Val Mulix indicate that the main active phase lasted from the Lateglacial until the early Holocene. The derived mean annual flow rate is of the order of decimetres, which is in accordance with values stated in the literature based on measuring active rock glaciers in the Alps. Exposure ages from a glacially polished rock barrier showed that this area was ice-free at the end of the Younger Dryas (9.0 ± 0.7 ka and 11.9 ± 0.9 ka). The polished bedrocks are located a few hundred meters down-valley from the Little Ice Age (LIA) moraines. This gives direct evidence of a fast ice retreat towards the end of the Younger Dryas, with glacier length variations

  13. Factors affecting commencement and cessation of smoking behaviour in Malaysian adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Tobacco consumption peak in developed countries has passed, however, it is on the increase in many developing countries. Apart from cigarettes, consumption of local hand-rolled cigarettes such as bidi and rokok daun are prevalent in specific communities. Although factors associated with smoking initiation and cessation has been investigated elsewhere, the only available data for Malaysia is on prevalence. This study aims to investigate factors associated with smoking initiation and cessation which is imperative in designing intervention programs. Methods Data were collected from 11,697 adults by trained recording clerks on sociodemographic characteristics, practice of other risk habit and details of smoking such as type, duration and frequency. Smoking commencement and cessation were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier estimates and log-rank tests. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate the hazard rate ratios. Results Males had a much higher prevalence of the habit (61.7%) as compared to females (5.8%). Cessation was found to be most common among the Chinese and those regularly consuming alcoholic beverages. Kaplan-Meier plot shows that although males are more likely to start smoking, females are found to be less likely to stop. History of betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption significantly increase the likelihood of commencement (p < 0.0001), while cessation was least likely among Indians, current quid chewers and kretek users (p < 0.01). Conclusions Gender, ethnicity, history of quid chewing and alcohol consumption have been found to be important factors in smoking commencement; while ethnicity, betel quid chewing and type of tobacco smoked influences cessation. PMID:22429627

  14. Community perceptions on diarrheal diseases: a case study in swampy lowland area of south Sumatra, Indonesia. The Diarrheal Diseases Research and Training Study Group.

    PubMed

    Ismail, R; Aulia, H; Susanto, T A; Roisuddin; Hamzah, M

    1991-01-01

    Four investigators conducted participative observation at 4 hamlets, representing 4 typical topography in the area, wet or dry near the river and wet or dry far from the river, in District Rambutan, South Sumatera Province, Indonesia from July 1988 up until February 1989 to study the community perception and practices on diarrheal diseases (DD). The observation was supported by focus group discussions and informal interviews. It was found that the causes of DD can be grouped into: dirty water; wrong (cold, hot, sting) food; part of the growth process; physical condition (extreme heat, cold wind and inner abnormality, inner heat, muscle strain), and supernatural. The type of DD can be grouped into: mild without vomiting named ngadi, negenteng-ngentengi, nambah kepacakan, etc which was linked to the growth process; more severe diarrhea, might be with fever (mising-mising, murus, mencret, etc); more severe diarrhea with severe vomiting (muntager, kolera); bloody/mucoid stool (disentri, mising tai angin, mising umbal). The community had also the concept of prolonged diarrhea named as menerus (literally meaning prolonged) Muntaber was more associated with bad water while the prolonged one was more associated with inner abnormality. The danger of diarrhea perceived was susut = shrinkage, lisut = emaciation. Pale and red hair with lisut were recognized as the dangers of prolonged diarrhea. The community did not associate these conditions with fluid loss. The management started by self medication using tapel (pasta of herb applied) to the stomach), decoct (daun jambu, akar teratai etc), solid oral preparation (cassava with raw sugar, rast rice, etc).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. A network model comprising 4 segmental, interconnected ganglia, and its application to simulate multi-legged locomotion in crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Grabowska, M; Toth, T I; Smarandache-Wellmann, C; Daun-Gruhn, S

    2015-06-01

    Inter-segmental coordination is crucial for the locomotion of animals. Arthropods show high variability of leg numbers, from 6 in insects up to 750 legs in millipedes. Despite this fact, the anatomical and functional organization of their nervous systems show basic similarities. The main similarities are the segmental organization, and the way the function of the segmental units is coordinated. We set out to construct a model that could describe locomotion (walking) in animals with more than 6 legs, as well as in 6-legged animals (insects). To this end, we extended a network model by Daun-Gruhn and Tóth (Journal of Computational Neuroscience, doi: 10.1007/s10827-010-0300-1 , 2011). This model describes inter-segmental coordination of the ipsilateral legs in the stick insect during walking. Including an additional segment (local network) into the original model, we could simulate coordination patterns that occur in animals walking on eight legs (e.g., crayfish). We could improve the model by modifying its original cyclic connection topology. In all model variants, the phase relations between the afferent segmental excitatory sensory signals and the oscillatory activity of the segmental networks played a crucial role. Our results stress the importance of this sensory input on the generation of different stable coordination patterns. The simulations confirmed that using the modified connection topology, the flexibility of the model behaviour increased, meaning that changing a single phase parameter, i.e., gating properties of just one afferent sensory signal was sufficient to reproduce all coordination patterns seen in the experiments.

  16. Factors affecting commencement and cessation of smoking behaviour in Malaysian adults.

    PubMed

    Ghani, Wan Maria Nabillah; Razak, Ishak Abdul; Yang, Yi Hsin; Talib, Norain Abu; Ikeda, Noriaki; Axell, Tony; Gupta, Prakash C; Handa, Yujiro; Abdullah, Norlida; Zain, Rosnah Binti

    2012-03-19

    Tobacco consumption peak in developed countries has passed, however, it is on the increase in many developing countries. Apart from cigarettes, consumption of local hand-rolled cigarettes such as bidi and rokok daun are prevalent in specific communities. Although factors associated with smoking initiation and cessation has been investigated elsewhere, the only available data for Malaysia is on prevalence. This study aims to investigate factors associated with smoking initiation and cessation which is imperative in designing intervention programs. Data were collected from 11,697 adults by trained recording clerks on sociodemographic characteristics, practice of other risk habit and details of smoking such as type, duration and frequency. Smoking commencement and cessation were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier estimates and log-rank tests. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate the hazard rate ratios. Males had a much higher prevalence of the habit (61.7%) as compared to females (5.8%). Cessation was found to be most common among the Chinese and those regularly consuming alcoholic beverages. Kaplan-Meier plot shows that although males are more likely to start smoking, females are found to be less likely to stop. History of betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption significantly increase the likelihood of commencement (p < 0.0001), while cessation was least likely among Indians, current quid chewers and kretek users (p < 0.01). Gender, ethnicity, history of quid chewing and alcohol consumption have been found to be important factors in smoking commencement; while ethnicity, betel quid chewing and type of tobacco smoked influences cessation.

  17. Piloted Well Clear Performance Evaluation of Detect and Avoid Systems with Suggestive Guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Eric; Santiago, Confesor; Watza, Spencer

    2016-01-01

    Regulations to establish operational and performance requirements for unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are being developed by a consortium of government, industry and academic institutions (RTCA, 2013). Those requirements will apply to the new detect-and-avoid (DAA) systems and other equipment necessary to integrate UAS with the United States (U.S) National Airspace System (NAS) and will be determined according to their contribution to the overall safety case. That safety case requires demonstration that DAA-equipped UAS collectively operating in the NAS meet an airspace safety threshold (AST). Several key gaps must be closed in order to link equipment requirements to an airspace safety case. Foremost among these is calculation of the systems risk ratio, the degree to which a particular system mitigates violation of an aircraft separation standard (FAA, 2013). The risk ratio of a DAA system, in combination with risk ratios of other collision mitigation mechanisms, will determine the overall safety of the airspace measured in terms of the number of collisions per flight hour. It is not known what the effectiveness is of a pilot-in-the-loop DAA system or even what parameters of the DAA system most improve the pilots ability to maintain separation. The relationship between the DAA system design and the overall effectiveness of the DAA system that includes the pilot, expressed as a risk ratio, must be determined before DAA operational and performance requirements can be finalized. Much research has been devoted to integrating UAS into non-segregated airspace (Dalamagkidis, 2009, Ostwald, 2007, Gillian, 2012, Hesselink, 2011, Santiago, 2015, Rorie 2015 and 2016). Several traffic displays intended for use as part of a DAA system have gone through human-in-the-loop simulation and flight-testing. Most of these evaluations were part of development programs to produce a deployable system, so it is unclear how to generalize particular aspects of those designs to general

  18. Engelhauptite, KCu3(V2O7)(OH)2Cl, a new mineral species from Eifel, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekov, Igor V.; Siidra, Oleg I.; Chukanov, Nikita V.; Yapaskurt, Vasiliy O.; Britvin, Sergey N.; Krivovichev, Sergey V.; Schüller, Willi; Ternes, Bernd

    2015-12-01

    A new mineral engelhauptite, KCu3(V2O7)(OH)2Cl, was found within cavities in nepheline basalts at the Auf'm Kopp quarry ("Schlackenkegel der Höhe 636 südöstlich Neroth" ), Daun, Eifel region, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany. Associated minerals are volborthite, allophane, malachite, tangeite and chrysocolla; earlier minerals belonging to the primary, high-temperature parageneses are augite, mica of the phlogopite-oxyphlogopite series, sanidine, nepheline, leucite, fluorapatite and magnetite. Engelhauptite occurs as spherulites (up to 0.2 mm in diameter) and bunches consisting of rough spindle-shaped crystals elongated parallel to [0001]. The crystals are up to 0.12 mm long and up to 0.04 mm thick. Individual grains of engelhauptite are transparent, whereas their aggregates are translucent. The mineral is yellow-brown to brown, typically with an olive green hue. The luster is vitreous. Engelhauptite is brittle, cleavage is not observed, fracture is uneven. D calc = 3.86 g cm-3. Engelhauptite is optically uniaxial (+), ω = 1.978(4), ɛ = 2.021(4). Chemical data (wt.%, electron-microprobe, H2O by difference) are as following: K2O 9.63, FeO 0.05, NiO 0.29, CuO 46.11, Al2O3 0.24, V2O5 34.92, SO3 0.79, Cl 5.94, H2Ocalc 3.37, O = Cl2 -1.34, total 100.00. The empirical formula, based on 10 (O + OH + Cl) apfu, is K1.05(Cu2.97Al0.02Ni0.02)Σ3.01(V1.97S0.05)Σ2.02O7.23(OH)1.91Cl0.86. Engelhauptite is hexagonal, P63/ mmc, a = 5.922(2), c = 14.513(5) Å, V = 440.78(3) Å3 and Z = 2. The eight strongest reflections of the powder X-ray diffraction pattern [ d,Å( I) ( hkl)] are: 7.32(98) (002), 4.224(17) (102), 2.979(100) (104, 110), 2.759(19) (112), 2.565(18) (200), 2.424(18) (202), 1.765(16) (206) and 1.481(14) (208, 220). The crystal structure of engelhauptite has been solved from the single-crystal X-ray diffraction data and refined to R = 0.090 on the basis of 135 unique observed reflections. The structure is based upon the [Cu2+ 3(V2O7)(OH)2]0 framework formed by the linkage

  19. Holocene flood stack from three Eifel maar lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunck, Heiko; Sirocko, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Lacustrine sediments are very sensitive to natural and anthropogenically enviromental changes. Thus, lake sediments are excellent climate archives and can be used for reconstructions of past precipitation and flood events. However, we extend our flood record for MIS 2/3 to the entire Holocene up to recent years to get a complete flood stack for the last 60 000 years. The present study reconstructs paleo floods from event layers in the sediment, of Schalkenmehren Maar (SM3), Ulmen Maar (UM1) and Holzmaar (HM1) combined with recent gauge time-series. All three maar lakes has an inflow by a local stream. Accordingly the sedimentation rate is directly linked to runoff activity and the bioturbation was low so that event layers become visible, but varves are only preserved in lake Holzmaar. The maar sites are situated in the Eifel near to the town of Daun and were drilled in the ELSA (Eifel Laminated Sediment archive) project. The Eifel area is well suited to approximate Central European weather, because modern water level gauge data from Eifel rivers correlate with respective data from the Rhine (Wernli and Pfahl, 2009). Combined sedimentological, paleobotanical and geochemical data received from SM3, UM1 and HM1 builds the foundation of the 14C based chronology. The synchronisation of the record is controlled by tephra time markers and pollen. Both are used to align the main cores of the ELSA project and construct an integrated age model for the last 220 000 years [b2k] (Förster and Sirocko, 2014). For the extension of our MIS 2/3 flood stack we used the Laacher See Tephra (10 900 BC) as marker for the correlation with the Holocene cores. To study the flood events in detail, 10 cm long thin sections were used to distinguish flood layers from distal turbidites. Turbidites have a continuous grain size gradation; the grains size profile of flood events is in contrast characterized by several grain size maxima over the entire layer thickness. A flood event over several

  20. Quality in university physics teaching: is it being achieved?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-11-01

    This was the title of a Physics Discipline Workshop held at the University of Leeds on 10 and 11 September 1998. Organizer Ashley Clarke of the university's Physics and Astronomy Department collected together an interesting variety of speakers polygonically targeting the topic, although as workshops go the audience didn't have to do much work except listen. There were representatives from 27 university physics departments who must have gone away with a lot to think about and possibly some new academic year resolutions to keep. But as a non-university no-longer teacher of (school) physics I was impressed with the general commitment to the idea that if you get the right quality of learning the teaching must be OK. I also learned (but have since forgotten) a lot of new acronyms. The keynote talk was by Gillian Hayes, Associate Director of the Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education (QAA). She explained the role and implementation of the Subject Reviews that QAA is making for all subjects in all institutions of higher education on a five- to seven-year cycle. Physics Education hopes to publish an article about all this from QAA shortly. In the meantime, suffice it to say that the review looks at six aspects of provision, essentially from the point of view of enhancing students' experiences and learning. No doubt all participants would agree with this (they'd better if they want to score well on the Review) but may have been more worried by the next QAA speaker, Norman Jackson, who drummed in the basic facts of life as HE moves from an elite provision system to a mass provision system. He had an interesting graph showing how in the last ten years or so more students were getting firsts and upper seconds and fewer getting thirds. It seems that all those A-level students getting better grades than they used to are carrying on their good luck to degree level. But they still can't do maths (allegedly) and I doubt whether Jon Ogborn (IoP Advancing Physics Project

  1. PREFACE: IUPAP C20 Conference on Computational Physics (CCP 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troparevsky, Claudia; Stocks, George Malcolm

    2012-12-01

    . We are grateful to the committees that helped put the conference together, especially the local organizing committee. Particular thanks are also due to a number of ORNL staff who spent long hours with the administrative details. We are pleased to express our thanks to the conference administrator Ann Strange (ORNL/CDP) for her responsive and efficient day-to-day handling of this event, Sherry Samples, Assistant Conference Administrator (ORNL), Angie Beach and the ORNL Conference Office, and Shirley Shugart (ORNL) and Fern Stooksbury (ORNL) who created and maintained the conference website. Editors: G Malcolm Stocks (ORNL) and M Claudia Troparevsky (UT) http://ccp2011.ornl.gov Chair: Dr Malcolm Stocks (ORNL) Vice Chairs: Adriana Moreo (ORNL/UT) James Guberrnatis (LANL) Local Program Committee: Don Batchelor (ORNL) Jack Dongarra (UTK/ORNL) James Hack (ORNL) Robert Harrison (ORNL) Paul Kent (ORNL) Anthony Mezzacappa (ORNL) Adriana Moreo (ORNL) Witold Nazarewicz (UT) Loukas Petridis (ORNL) David Schultz (ORNL) Bill Shelton (ORNL) Claudia Troparevsky (ORNL) Mina Yoon (ORNL) International Advisory Board Members: Joan Adler (Israel Institute of Technology, Israel) Constantia Alexandrou (University of Cyprus, Cyprus) Claudia Ambrosch-Draxl (University of Leoben, Austria) Amanda Barnard (CSIRO, Australia) Peter Borcherds (University of Birmingham, UK) Klaus Cappelle (UFABC, Brazil) Giovanni Ciccotti (Università degli Studi di Roma 'La Sapienza', Italy) Nithaya Chetty (University of Pretoria, South Africa) Charlotte Froese-Fischer (NIST, US) Giulia A. Galli (University of California, Davis, US) Gillian Gehring (University of Sheffield, UK) Guang-Yu Guo (National Taiwan University, Taiwan) Sharon Hammes-Schiffer (Penn State, US) Alex Hansen (Norweigan UST) Duane D. Johnson (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, US) David Landau (University of Georgia, US) Joaquin Marro (University of Granada, Spain) Richard Martin (UIUC, US) Todd Martinez (Stanford University, US) Bill

  2. PREFACE 12th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckman, Stephen; Sullivan, James; White, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    SLOPOS-12 included: Positron Interactions with Surfaces Positron Beam and Detector Technology Positron Interactions with Atoms and Molecules Positronium Science Defects and Vacancies in Materials Porosity and Open Volume in Materials Antimatter in Biomedical Science Anti-hydrogen Studies Positron Transport Annihilation On a sad note, delegates paid tribute to the contributions of one of our colleagues, Chris Beling, who tragically passed away shortly before the meeting. Chris' contributions to positron science and to the education of young scientists were noted in a number of the invited presentations. It is an honour for our community to begin these proceedings with a short tribute to Chris' life by Professor Paul Coleman. The Workshop could not have occurred without the generous support of our sponsors: The ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, The Australian National University, Flinders University, James Cook University, The Institute of Physics (UK) and the Australian Government's Department of Innovation, Industry, Science and Research. It would also not have been possible without the hard work of the Local and International Organising Committees and the friendly and efficient staff at the All Seasons Resort, Magnetic Island. We are most grateful for the on-site assistance of Gillian Drew, the CAMS student and postdoc team, the financial wizardry of Chris Kalos, and the post-Workshop editorial assistance of Julia Wee and Adam Edwards. Finally we would like to thank all of the attendees at SLOPOS12 for their scientific contributions to the Workshop, and for the warm spirit of engagement which characterised the scientific discussions and social occasions. SLOPOS13 will be held in Germany in 2013 and we all look forward to the occasion. Stephen Buckman, James Sullivan and Ronald White(Guest Editors) Local Organising CommitteeInternational Committee Stephen Buckman (Chair, ANU, Canberra)G Amarendra (India) James Sullivan (Secretary, ANU, Canberra)M-F Barthe (France

  3. Beitraege zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5 (Acta Historica Astronomiae Vol. 18)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Dick, W. R.; Hamel, J.

    2003-01-01

    spectra in 1836. The authors quote details from the observing book and present some sketches (whose reproduction is somewhat poor, and the reader is referred to Häfner's history of Munich Observatory, discussed elsewhere in this volume of JAD, to see a better colour reproduction of a spectral sketch of Lamont). The impact of these studies (or rather the lack of it) is also briefly reviewed. Manfred Strumpf (Gotha) describes the difficulties in finding suitable directors for the Gotha Observatory - when the funds became smaller and the post thus became less and less attractive. Only the wealthy Nikolaus von Konkoly, a serious amateur and pioneer of astrophysics, applied even twice, but the administration was reluctant to seriously consider his offer. The result was that the chosen candidates were mainstream astronomers who used Gotha only as a step to foster their career and to find a better position as soon as possible. Finally, Peter Brosche (Daun) and Endre Zsoldos (Budapest) trace the life of a hitherto elusive craftsman-scientist, Friedrich Schwab. He was chosen to be the mechanic of one of the Venus transit expeditions of the German Empire (1882 to Punta Arenas), became university mechanic in Klausenburg, and later teacher at the technical school in Ilmenau. He was an active observer of variable stars and also a specialist in endomological studies. The authors have located a grand-son and have put to light some valuable notes and photographs. As can be seen from the summaries given above, this collection of essays deals mainly with historical events that occurred in Germany and neighboring countries, and focuses mainly on events in the 17th to 19th centuries. All contributions are written in German. The editors have taken care that generally a high standard was kept, although topic and realization make some articles more pleasant to read than others.