Science.gov

Sample records for gingival enlargement biofilm

  1. Unusual Gingival Enlargement: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Ashutosh; Dixit, Seema; Kumar, Pravin

    2014-01-01

    This is an atypical case report of a 20-year-old male patient who suffered from unusual unilateral, gingival enlargement together with rapidly progressive alveolar bone loss. The enlarged gingiva completely covered his left posterior teeth in both arches. The patient was diagnosed with gingival fibromatosis and aggressive periodontitis based on the clinical, histological, and radiographic findings. The gingival enlargement was treated by conventional gingivectomy under local anaesthesia. The postoperative result was uneventful. PMID:24715997

  2. Drug-induced gingival enlargement: biofilm control and surgical therapy with gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs) diode laser-A 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Guaré, Renata; Costa, Soraya Carvalho; Baeder, Fernando; de Souza Merli, Luiz Antonio; Dos Santos, Maria Teresa Botti Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Drug-induced gingival enlargement has been reported in patients treated with various types of anticonvulsant drugs, and is generally associated with the presence of plaque, gingival inflammation, and a genetic predisposition. Effective treatment includes daily oral hygiene and periodic professional prophylaxis. However, in some patients, surgical removal of the gingival tissue overgrowth becomes necessary. The patient in this case report was mentally impaired and had severe drug-induced gingival enlargement. This report describes the initial protocol, the gingivectomy, and a 2-year follow-up. A diode laser was used as an effective and safe method to remove the patient's overgrown gingival tissue.

  3. An unusual case of generalized severe gingival enlargement during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Crystal L; Kolhatkar, Shilpa; Winkler, James R; Ojha, Junu; Bhola, Monish

    2010-01-01

    Increased hormone levels that are present during puberty and pregnancy are associated with localized or generalized gingival enlargement. This article reviews the gingival alterations that can occur during pregnancy and describes a case of generalized severe gingival enlargement associated with pregnancy and its management. A 36-year-old woman had severe bilateral gingival enlargement of short duration. The patient denied taking any medications. The laboratory report revealed no systemic abnormalities; however, the report disclosed that she was pregnant. Surgical therapy for the gingival enlargement included gingivectomy and gingivoplasty of all quadrants, which reduced the size of the enlarged gingiva. Postoperative visits demonstrated uneventful healing, with no recurrence seen at the one-year follow-up appointment. It appears that the English literature includes only one other case report that discusses generalized gingival enlargement during pregnancy. Pregnancy-related gingival enlargement should be included as a differential diagnosis in women who have non-drug-induced generalized gingival enlargement.

  4. Severe gingival enlargement associated with aggressive periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Padmanabhan, Shyam; Dwarakanath, C. D.

    2013-01-01

    Enlargement of the gingiva can be due to various causes. Most prevalent are the inflammatory type and drug-induced type of gingival hyperplasia. However, sever enlargement associated with an aggressive type of periodontitis is an infrequent finding. Reported here is a case of a female patient aged 18 years who presented with severe enlargement of the maxillary and mandibular gingiva. Examination revealed enlargement extending up to the incisal edge of all the teeth and also an associated generalized loss of attachment with radiographic evidence of reduced bone height resembling an aggressive type of periodontitis. There were no associated systemic signs and symptoms or any family history except that there was generalized vitiligo of the skin and oral mucous membrane. The case was treated by gross electrosection of the gingiva. PMID:23633785

  5. Treatment modalities for drug-induced gingival enlargement.

    PubMed

    Moffitt, Michelle; Bencivenni, Davide; Cohen, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This paper identifies 3 specific classifications of commonly prescribed medications that are known to cause gingival enlargement and describes surgical and non-surgical treatment therapies. Primary risks associated with drug-induced gingival enlargement, including increased dental decay and periodontal disease are also discussed. The precise bacterial etiology in gingival enlargement remains unclear, although sufficient evidence exists to support the role of good oral hygiene in decreasing the incidence and severity of gingival enlargement and improving overall gingival health. Etiology, treatment planning and coordination of care between physician, dentist or dental hygienist when indicated are important factors determining whether a surgical or non-surgical course of treatment should be considered.

  6. Management of phenytoin-induced gingival enlargement: a case report.

    PubMed

    Parwani, Rajkumar N; Parwani, Simran R

    2013-01-01

    Gingival enlargements may adversely affect speech, mastication, tooth eruption, and esthetics. These enlargements can occur as a result of the administration of certain anticonvulsants, immunosuppressants, and calcium channel blockers. The present case report describes the treatment of a patient with a phenytoin-induced gingival enlargement. A case of gingival enlargement should be treated in a step-wise manner, including consultation with the patient's physician, substitution of the drug, nonsurgical therapy, surgical therapy (if needed), and supportive periodontal therapy after every 3 months. In this case, healing was uneventful, and no recurrences occurred 3 months postoperatively.

  7. Gingival enlargements: Differential diagnosis and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Amit Arvind

    2015-01-01

    Gingival enlargement is one of the frequent features of gingival diseases. However due to their varied presentations, the diagnosis of these entities becomes challenging for the clinician. They can be categorized based on their etiopathogenesis, location, size, extent, etc. Based on the existing knowledge and clinical experience, a differential diagnosis can be formulated. Subsequently, after detailed investigation, clinician makes a final diagnosis or diagnosis of exclusion. A perfect diagnosis is critically important, since the management of these lesions and prevention of their recurrence is completely dependent on it. Furthermore, in some cases where gingival enlargement could be the primary sign of potentially lethal systemic diseases, a correct diagnosis of these enlargements could prove life saving for the patient or at least initiate early treatment and improve the quality of life. The purpose of this review article is to highlight significant findings of different types of gingival enlargement which would help clinician to differentiate between them. A detailed decision tree is also designed for the practitioners, which will help them arrive at a diagnosis in a systematic manner. There still could be some lesions which may present in an unusual manner and make the diagnosis challenging. By knowing the existence of common and rare presentations of gingival enlargement, one can keep a broad view when formulating a differential diagnosis of localized (isolated, discrete, regional) or generalized gingival enlargement. PMID:26380825

  8. Severe phenytoin-induced gingival enlargement associated with periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Lucchesi, Juliana Antico; Cortelli, Shelia Cavalka; Rodrigues, Jose Augusto; Duarte, Poliana Mendes

    2008-01-01

    The potential of phenytoin to induce gingival hyperplasia has been well-established. High levels of dental plaque and calculus have been reported as a critical co-factor for the development and severity of phenytoin-induced gingival hyperplasia. This article documents a severe gingival enlargement associated with periodontitis (in a patient under combined anti-epileptic therapy) and provides a rational model for its clinical management. Initially, full-mouth scaling and root planing, oral hygiene instructions, and phenytoin withdrawal were performed; however, clinical results demonstrated partial resolution of maxillary gingival hyperplasia. Subsequently, surgical therapy was indicated for the maxillary teeth. Complete reduction of gingival enlargement and improvement of clinical periodontal parameters were observed after the surgical therapy. This case report clearly describes the challenges that oral and medical health practitioners face when developing appropriate prevention and treatment programs for epileptic patients, particularly those with periodontal disease.

  9. Idiopathic gingival enlargement associated with generalized aggressive periodontitis in a 19-year-old female

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Arvind; Gupta, Neha; Shetty, Devanand; Kadakia, Rukshit

    2014-01-01

    Gingival enlargement, one of the manifestations of gingival and periodontal disease, is also known as gingival overgrowth. Idiopathic gingival enlargement is a rare gingival overgrowth, which is of an undetermined cause. This unknown etiology has now been linked to specific genes and idiopathic gingival enlargement is at times referred to as hereditary gingival enlargement. This condition is a benign, slow growing proliferation of gingival tissues. Aggressive periodontitis is the rapid form of periodontal disease which is characterized by extensive periodontal tissue destruction, increased host-susceptibility toward periodontal disease progress and a genetic predilection toward disease occurrence. We present a rare case of idiopathic gingival fibromatosis associated with generalized aggressive periodontitis in a young female. The patient presented with classic clinical and radiographic presentation associated with gingival enlargement and aggressive periodontitis. The diagnosis was then confirmed by histopathological and neutrophil functions tests. PMID:24872638

  10. Sodium valproate induced gingival enlargement with pre-existing chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Joshipura, Vaibhavi

    2012-01-01

    Gingival enlargement is a common clinical feature of gingival and periodontal diseases. Currently, more than 20 prescription medications are associated with gingival enlargement. Although the mechanisms of action may be different, the clinical and microscopic appearance of drug-induced gingival enlargement is similar with any drug. Gingival enlargement produces esthetic changes, and clinical symptoms including pain, tenderness, bleeding, speech disturbances, abnormal tooth movement, dental occlusion problems, enhancement of caries development and periodontal disorders. Sodium valproate is considered to produce gingival enlargement, but very rarely. This case report features sodium valproate induced gingival enlargement in a patient with pre-existing chronic periodontitis, who came to the Dental Department, Chinmaya Mission Hospital, Bangalore. The case is special as the patient did not develop the enlargement in spite of taking phenytoin for 1 year and developed enlargement with sodium valproate within 6 months. PMID:23055600

  11. Association between gingivitis and anterior gingival enlargement in subjects undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zanatta, Fabricio Batistin; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado; Antoniazzi, Raquel Pippi; Pinto, Tatiana Militz Perrone; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the association among gingival enlargement (GE), periodontal conditions and socio-demographic characteristics in subjects undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Methods A sample of 330 patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment for at least 6 months were examined by a single calibrated examiner for plaque and gingival indexes, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment loss and gingival enlargement. Socio-economic background, orthodontic treatment duration and use of dental floss were assessed by oral interviews. Associations were assessed by means of unadjusted and adjusted Poisson's regression models. Results The presence of gingival bleeding (RR 1.01; 95% CI 1.00-1.01) and excess resin around brackets (RR 1.02; 95% CI 1.02-1.03) were associated with an increase in GE. No associations were found between socio-demographic characteristics and GE. Conclusion Proximal anterior gingival bleeding and excess resin around brackets are associated with higher levels of anterior gingival enlargement in subjects under orthodontic treatment. PMID:25162567

  12. Low dose amlodipine-induced gingival enlargement: A clinical case series

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Amitandra Kumar; Mukherjee, Sudarshana; Saimbi, Charanjit Singh; Kumar, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Gingival enlargement sometimes has an adverse effect of certain systemic drugs such as the use of anticonvulsants, phenytoin, antihypertensive, calcium channel blockers and immunosuppressant, cyclosporine. Amlodipine, a relatively newer calcium channel blocker drugs, exhibit adverse effect of gingival enlargement in middle to older aged adults. There are very few reports of amlodipine-induced gingival enlargement at a lower dose (5 mg). In this article, three cases of amlodipine-induced gingival enlargement in the age range of 50-65 years old hypertensive patient with a lower dose of amlodipine (5 mg). PMID:25684923

  13. Gingival Enlargement in a Case of Variant Jones Syndrome: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    DA, Roopa; Singh, Shinkhala; Gupta, Ira; Gopal, Saumiya

    2016-01-01

    Gingival enlargement can be caused by a variety of etiological factors like inflammation, drugs, and systemic diseases or can be presented as a part of a syndrome. One such syndrome is Jones Syndrome, which is associated with gingival enlargement and progressive hearing loss. We present here a case of fifteen-year-old boy with gingival enlargement, hearing loss, and generalized alveolar bone loss and diagnosed as Jones syndrome. The diagnosis was made based on history, clinical, radiographic, and histopathological findings. Gingival enlargement was surgically managed using gingivectomy and no recurrence was observed. The patient showed remarkable esthetical and functional improvement. PMID:26966711

  14. Gingival enlargement in orthodontic patients: Effect of treatment duration.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Alice Souza; Alves, Luana Severo; Zenkner, Júlio Eduardo do Amaral; Zanatta, Fabrício Batistin; Maltz, Marisa

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we aimed to assess the effect of the duration of fixed orthodontic treatment on gingival enlargement (GE) in adolescents and young adults. The sample consisted of 260 subjects (ages, 10-30 years) divided into 4 groups: patients with no fixed orthodontic appliances (G0) and patients undergoing orthodontic treatment for 1 year (G1), 2 years (G2), or 3 years (G3). Participants completed a structured questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics and oral hygiene habits. Clinical examinations were conducted by a calibrated examiner and included the plaque index, the gingival index, and the Seymour index. Poisson regression models were used to assess the association between group and GE. We observed increasing means of plaque, gingivitis, and GE in G0, G1, and G2. No significant differences were observed between G2 and G3. Adjusted Poisson regression analysis showed that patients undergoing orthodontic treatment had a 20 to 28-fold increased risk for GE than did those without orthodontic appliances (G1, rate ratio [RR] = 20.2, 95% CI = 9.0-45.3; G2, RR = 27.0, 95% CI = 12.1-60.3; G3 = 28.1; 95% CI = 12.6-62.5). The duration of orthodontic treatment significantly influenced the occurrence of GE. Oral hygiene instructions and motivational activities should target adolescents and young adults undergoing orthodontic treatment. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Successful management of phenytoin and phenobarbitone induced gingival enlargement: A multimodal approach

    PubMed Central

    Priyadharshini, V.; Belure, Vinita V.; Triveni, M. G.; Tarun Kumar, A. B.; Mehta, D. S.

    2014-01-01

    Medication-related gingival enlargement is a common reactionary phenomenon that occurs with the use of several types of therapeutic agents, including antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). This disorder has been documented since 1939, shortly after the introduction of phenytoin. In the present case, a concise review of literature concerning the etiopathogenesis and management of AEDs (phenobarbitone and phenytoin) induced gingival enlargement has been described. It is vital that not only the periodontist, but also dental surgeons and medical practitioners should become aware of the potential etiologic agents, characteristic features, and the differential diagnosis of drug induced gingival enlargement in order to be able to prevent, diagnose and successfully manage the condition. PMID:24963262

  16. Unusual presentation of localized gingival enlargement associated with a slow-growing odontogenic myxoma

    PubMed Central

    Miranda Rius, Jaume; Nadal, Alfons; Lahor, Eduard; Mtui, Beatus; Brunet, Lluís

    2013-01-01

    Unusual presentation of localized gingival enlargement associated with a subjacent tumoural pathology is reported. The patient was a 55-year-old black male, whose chief complaint was a progressive gingival overgrowth for more than ten years, in the buccal area of the anterior left mandible. According to the clinical features and the radiological diagnosis of odontogenic keratocyst, a conservative surgery with enucleation and curettage was performed. Tissue submitted for histopathological analysis rendered the diagnosis of odontogenic myxoma. After 12-month of follow-up, no evidence of recurrence was found. Clinicians should be cautious when facing any gingival enlargement to avoid diagnostic pitfalls and to indicate the appropriate treatment. PMID:23722914

  17. Histological and immunohistochemical features of gingival enlargement in a patient with AML.

    PubMed

    Sonoi, Norihiro; Soga, Yoshihiko; Maeda, Hiroshi; Ichimura, Koichi; Yoshino, Tadashi; Aoyama, Kazutoshi; Fujii, Nobuharu; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Logan, Richard; Raber-Durlacher, Judith; Takashiba, Shogo

    2012-07-01

    Here, we discuss the pathophysiology of leukemia-associated gingival enlargement based on a case of acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AML-M4) with typical gingival enlargement. Uniquely, this patient was well enough to allow full periodontal examination and incisional gingival biopsy to be performed both before and after chemotherapy. The patient was a 39-year-old Japanese woman with AML-M4 showing gingival enlargement. Histological and immunohistochemical features of gingiva and bacterial counts in the periodontal pockets were examined before and after chemotherapy. The results were as follows: (1) infiltration of myelomonocytic blasts in enlarged gingiva; (2) resolution of gingival enlargement with complete remission of AML by anticancer chemotherapy; and (3) the numbers of bacteria in the periodontal pockets were not high and were not altered before or after chemotherapy. In patients with AML-M4, remarkable mucosal enlargement is not generally observed in the body except in the gingiva. We hypothesized that antigens derived from periodontal bacteria, even if they are not present in large numbers, could act as chemoattractants for myelomonocytic leukemic cells.

  18. Sarcoidosis presenting as isolated gingival enlargement: a rare case entity.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Pragya; Aggarwal, Jaihans; Chopra, Deepak; Bagga, Sukhchain; Sethi, Kanika

    2014-11-01

    Sarcoidosis is a non-caseating granulomatous disease . It is a multiorgan inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology. Conditions affecting skin or other organs frequently involve oral cavity and rarely manifest as gingival disease. Here we are reporting a rare case in which gingival hyperplasia was the initial symptom which finally led to the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Oral mucous membrane needs to be examined carefully as it may constitute in presenting first sign of systemic sarcoidosis.

  19. Gingival enlargement and mesiodens associated with generalized aggressive periodontitis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ramachandra, Srinivas Sulugodu; Hegde, Manjunath; Prasad, Umesh Chandra

    2012-06-01

    This case report describes the management of an 18-year-old female who presented with generalized aggressive periodontitis, gingival enlargement and a mesiodens. Diagnosis for aggressive periodontitis was determined based on history, clinical findings and radiographic examination. Treatment included oral prophylaxis, extraction of the mesiodens and elimination of infectious microorganisms, using a combination of surgical intervention and antimicrobial therapy with long-term maintenance. Presence of gingival enlargement in cases of aggressive periodontitis may be clinically confusing; hence, the diagnosis should always be based on the patient's history as well as the clinical and radiographic findings.

  20. Multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphism in amlodipine-induced gingival enlargement

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Kumaraswamy Naik Lambani Rama; Jhajharia, Kapil; Chaudhary, Roopam; Tatikonda, Aravind; Dhaliwal, Aprinderpal Singh; Kaur, Rose Kanwaljeet

    2015-01-01

    Gingival enlargement comprises any clinical condition in which an increase in the size of the gingiva is observed. It is a side effect associated with some distinct classes of drugs, such as anticonvulsants, immunosuppressant, and calcium channel blockers. Among calcium channel blockers, nifedipine causes gingival enlargement in about 10% of patients, whereas the incidence of amlodipine, a third-generation calcium channel blocker, induced gingival enlargement is very limited. Because the calcium antagonists, albeit to a variable degree, act as inhibitors of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the gene product of multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1), and inflammation may modify P-gp expression. We hereby, report a case of amlodipine-induced gingival enlargement with MDR1 3435C/T polymorphism, associated with inflammatory changes due to plaque accumulation, in a 50-year-old hypertensive male patient. The genotype obtained for the polymorphism was a heteromutant genotype, thus supporting the contention that the MDR1 polymorphism may alter the inflammatory response to the drug. PMID:26015682

  1. Gingival enlargement in a pregnant woman with acute monocytic leukaemia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fu, Y-W; Xu, H-Z

    2017-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to report the case of a pregnant woman with severe gingival enlargement for 3 months with undiagnosed acute leukaemia. The pregnant woman presented with anaemia and generalized gingival enlargement. A provisional diagnosis of gingival enlargement in pregnancy was made. Twelve days after the initial treatment, the patient was referred and admitted to the haematology department of a local hospital with clinical signs of anaemia and thrombocytopenia. Blood count showed a white blood cell count of 9.68 × 10(9) /L, with a haemoglobin count of 64.0 g/L and a platelet count of 17 × 10(9) /L. Bone marrow aspiration showed 94.5% monoblasts, and the morphological diagnosis was acute monocytic leukaemia. One day after admission, the patient delivered a male infant by Caesarean section. Ten days after the Caesarean section, the patient was started on a course of chemotherapy. Pulmonary infection, hypokalaemia, and respiratory failure developed, and the patient died 23 days after the Caesarean section. The present case shows the importance of awareness of severe gingival enlargement as an initial oral sign of acute leukaemia. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  2. Plasma cell mucositis with gingival enlargement and severe periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shalini R.; Gupta, Rajiva; Saran, Ravindra K.; Krishnan, Sriram

    2014-01-01

    Plasma cell mucositis (PCM) is a very rare, chronic, multifocal, idiopathic, non-neoplastic plasma cell proliferative disorder of the upper aerodigestive tract. The classic clinical presentation is an intensely erythematous mucosa with surface changes described variously as papillomatous, cobblestone, nodular or velvety. It is a very rare condition <50 cases reported in literature. A 72-year-old male patient complained of sore throat, stomatodynia, dysphagia, multiple oral ulcers, enlarged swollen bleeding gums and mobile teeth. There was chronic inflammatory enlargement of the gingiva and palate with severe periodontitis. Histopathological examination revealed a hyperplastic epithelium with a dense infiltrate of mature polyclonal plasma cells in the superficial layer of the lamina propria. PCM is a diagnosis of exclusion, to be differentiated from other infective, reactive, autoimmune, allergic and neoplastic disorders with plasma cell infiltrates. Management with surgical and immunosuppressive therapy is mostly ineffective with short remissions and frequent relapses. PMID:25024555

  3. Localized gingival enlargement associated with alveolar process expansion: peripheral ossifying fibroma coincident with central odontogenic fibroma.

    PubMed

    Silva, Cléverson O; Sallum, Antônio Wilson; do Couto-Filho, Carlos Eduardo Gomes; Costa Pereira, Alessandro Antônio; Hanemann, João Adolfo Costa; Tatakis, Dimitris N

    2007-07-01

    Despite the common occurrence of localized gingival enlargements, which often represent reactive lesions, the temporal and spatial association of such a lesion with a central jaw lesion has not been reported. The purpose of this case report is to present the exceptional combination of a peripheral ossifying fibroma and a central odontogenic fibroma. The differential diagnosis and management of each lesion is reviewed. A 45-year-old black female presented with a chief complaint of a painless protuberance in the left mandible of 1-year duration. Clinical and radiographic examination revealed a gingival enlargement localized between teeth #21 and #23 and a multilocular radiolucent lesion with radiopaque foci in the same area. Excisional biopsy of the gingival lesion and incisional biopsy of the central lesion were performed, and specimens were submitted for histopathological analysis. Biopsy of the gingival lesion revealed stratified squamous epithelium and highly cellular fibroblastic component presenting central areas of calcification, features consistent with a diagnosis of peripheral ossifying fibroma. The central lesion was characterized by cellular fibrous tissue admixed with rests of odontogenic epithelium and few calcification areas, features consistent with a diagnosis of central odontogenic fibroma/World Health Organization type. Subsequently, the central lesion was enucleated. After 1-year follow-up, no recurrence has been observed. The combination of a rare central lesion with a common gingival lesion may present unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Clinician awareness regarding the possibility of such a combined presentation and its implications will help to ensure optimal treatment outcomes.

  4. Long term follow up of idiopathic gingival enlargement associated with chronic periodontitis: A case report and review

    PubMed Central

    Nagarale, Girish P.; Ravindra, S.; Thakur, Srinath; Setty, Swati

    2013-01-01

    Background: Idiopathic gingival enlargement is a rare condition characterized by massive enlargement of the gingiva. It may be associated with other diseases/conditions characterizing a syndrome, but rarely associated with periodontitis. Case Description: This case report describes an unusual clinical form of gingival enlargement associated with chronic periodontitis. Clinical examination revealed diffuse gingival enlargement. The lesion was asymptomatic, firm, and pinkish red. Generalized periodontal pockets were observed. Radiographic evaluation revealed generalized severe alveolar bone loss. Histopathological investigations revealed atrophic epithelium with dense fibrocollagenous tissue. Lesions healed successfully following extraction and surgical excision, and no recurrence was observed after 1 year follow-up but recurrence was observed at 3 and 5-years follow-up. Clinical Implications: Successful treatment of idiopathic gingival enlargement depends on proper identification of etiologic factors and improving esthetics and function through surgical excision of the over growth. However, there may be recurrence. PMID:23869135

  5. Influence of sex hormone levels on gingival enlargement in adolescent patients undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Hosadurga, Rajesh; Nabeel Althaf, M. S.; Hegde, Shashikanth; Rajesh, Kashyap S.; Arun Kumar, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sex hormones may be a modifying factor in the periodontal disease pathogenesis. Aim: The association between gingival enlargement and sex hormone levels in adolescent patients undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy needs to be determined. Settings and Design: This study was conducted in the Department of Periodontology in association with the Department of Orthodontics, Yenepoya Dental College, Yenepoya University, Mangaluru. Materials and Methods: A pilot study was conducted on 21 adolescent patients between the age group of 13–19 years, who had undergone fixed orthodontic therapy for at least 3 months. Apicocoronally, the gingival enlargement was assessed by the index described by Miller and Damm. Miranda and Brunet index was used to assess gingival overgrowth in the buccal–lingual direction in the interdental papilla. Furthermore, the patients were assigned to two groups - Group 1-GE and Group 2-non-GE. Sex hormones assessed were estradiol and progesterone in females and testosterone in males in both groups. Results: 57.1% of the study population had enlargement of the gingiva. The mean plaque score was 0.59 and 0.56, respectively, in both groups. A statistically significant relationship was found between estradiol and testosterone levels with gingival enlargement. However, a significant relationship was not obtained for progesterone levels with the gingival enlargement. Conclusion: Direct correlation between estradiol, testosterone, and gingival enlargement was seen. PMID:27994419

  6. Surgical treatment of cyclosporine A- and nifedipine-induced gingival enlargement: gingivectomy versus periodontal flap.

    PubMed

    Pilloni, A; Camargo, P M; Carere, M; Carranza, F A

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare probing depth resolution achieved by gingivectomy and periodontal flap techniques in the treatment of cyclosporine A- and nifedipine-induced gingival enlargement. Ten kidney transplant patients who were receiving cyclosporine A and nifedipine for at least 6 months participated in the study. Five patients were randomly assigned to the gingivectomy group and 5 patients to the periodontal flap group. Only anterior segments of the oral cavity (canine to canine) were surgically treated. Clinical measurements, including probing depths, plaque index, and gingival sulcus index, were taken at baseline, 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year. Results showed that probing depths, while similar for both groups in the first 6 weeks of the study, were significantly shallower for the periodontal flap group when compared to the gingivectomy group at 6 months (2.48 +/- 0.34 mm versus 4.87 +/- 0.79 mm, respectively) and 1 year (322 +/- 0.65 mm versus 6.40 +/- 1.02 mm, respectively). Within its limitations, this study suggests that the pocket reduction achieved by the periodontal flap may be sustained for longer periods of time than by the gingivectomy technique in the treatment of cyclosporine A- and nifedipine-induced gingival enlargement.

  7. Gingival Enlargement

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Vision Leadership Executive Committee Board of Trustees Governance Past Presidents Staff/Contact History Awards Our Partners ... to be less of an issue than having good oral hygiene (less plaque present on your teeth). ...

  8. The Effect of MMP-13, MMP-12, and AMBN on Gingival Enlargement and Root Deformation In a New Type of Gingival Fibromatosis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chung-Min; Lee, Jae-Ho; Jeon, Mijeong; Song, Je Seon; Kim, Seong-Oh

    2017-09-22

    This case compared gene-expression between a new type of idiopathic gingival fibromatosis (IGF) and normal gingiva, to clarify the nature of the gingival overgrowth and dental anomaly. A 6-year-old girl with generalized gingival overgrowth and root deformations was diagnosed with IGF. Gene expression profiles were compared between normal gingiva (N=9) and one IGF gingiva using cDNA microarray. Genes related to regulation of cell proliferation and proteolytic degradation were expressed strongly in IGF. MMP-13 and MMP-12 expression were 120 times and 96 times lower in IGF, respectively, whereas AMBN expression was 79 times higher. RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining supported the microarray results. Reduced proteolytic activity due to low MMP-13 and MMP-12 expression appears to be a potential mechanism for gingival overgrowth. Genetic investigations, such as expression levels of MMP-13, MMP-12, and AMBN, may enable classification of a new syndrome characterized by gingival enlargement with abnormal root development.

  9. Ipsilateral idiopathic gingival enlargement and it's management using conventional gingivectomy and diode laser: A recurrent case after 15 years.

    PubMed

    Devi, Potharaju Kamala; Kumar, Gudi Pavan; Bai, Yendluri Durga; Ammaji, Annamdevula Durga

    2013-05-01

    Idiopathic gingival fibromatosis is a relatively rare condition characterized by the proliferation of the gingival tissues resulting in masticatory, esthetics, phonetics and psychological disturbances. The severity of the overgrowth can range from a solitary isolated mass to a more generalized and diffused enlargement. The etiopathogenesis of this bizarre condition is poorly understood and has been attributed to various factors. It can present as a single disorder or may manifest as part of a syndrome. This case reports an ipsilateral diffused idiopathic gingival enlargement in a middle aged adult recurring after a gap of 15 years. External bevel gingivectomy on the buccal aspects of maxillary and mandibular gingiva and diode laser for excision of the enlarged tissue on the lingual/palatal aspect was carried out to eliminate the excessive tissue. Periodic recalls showed maintenance of good oral hygiene and 1 year follow-up revealed no recurrence.

  10. The expression of gingival epithelial junctions in response to subgingival biofilms.

    PubMed

    Belibasakis, Georgios N; Kast, Jeannette I; Thurnheer, Thomas; Akdis, Cezmi A; Bostanci, Nagihan

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is an infectious inflammatory disease that destroys the tooth-supporting tissues. It is caused by the formation of subgingival biofilms on the surface of the tooth. Characteristic bacteria associated with subgingival biofilms are the Gram-negative anaerobes Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola, collectively known as the "red complex" species. Inter-epithelial junctions ensure the barrier integrity of the gingival epithelium. This may however be disrupted by the biofilm challenge. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of subgingival biofilms on the expression of inter-epithelial junctions by gingival epithelia, and evaluate the relative role of the red complex. Multi-layered human gingival epithelial cultures were challenged with a 10-species in vitro subgingival biofilm model, or its variant without the red complex, for 3 h and 24 h. A low-density array microfluidic card platform was then used for analyzing the expression of 62 genes encoding for tight junctions, gap junctions, adherens junctions, and desmosomes. Although there was a limited effect of the biofilms on the expression of tight, adherens and gap junctions, the expression of a number of desmosomal components was affected. In particular, Desmoglein-1 displayed a limited and transient up-regulation in response to the biofilm. In contrast, Desmocollin-2, Desmoplakin and Plakoglobin were down-regulated equally by both biofilm variants, after 24 h. In conclusion, this subgingival biofilm model may down-regulate selected desmosomal junctions in the gingival epithelium, irrespective of the presence of the "red complex." In turn, this could compromise the structural integrity of the gingival tissue, favoring bacterial invasion and chronic infection.

  11. The expression of gingival epithelial junctions in response to subgingival biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Belibasakis, Georgios N; Kast, Jeannette I; Thurnheer, Thomas; Akdis, Cezmi A; Bostanci, Nagihan

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is an infectious inflammatory disease that destroys the tooth-supporting tissues. It is caused by the formation of subgingival biofilms on the surface of the tooth. Characteristic bacteria associated with subgingival biofilms are the Gram-negative anaerobes Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola, collectively known as the “red complex” species. Inter-epithelial junctions ensure the barrier integrity of the gingival epithelium. This may however be disrupted by the biofilm challenge. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of subgingival biofilms on the expression of inter-epithelial junctions by gingival epithelia, and evaluate the relative role of the red complex. Multi-layered human gingival epithelial cultures were challenged with a 10-species in vitro subgingival biofilm model, or its variant without the red complex, for 3 h and 24 h. A low-density array microfluidic card platform was then used for analyzing the expression of 62 genes encoding for tight junctions, gap junctions, adherens junctions, and desmosomes. Although there was a limited effect of the biofilms on the expression of tight, adherens and gap junctions, the expression of a number of desmosomal components was affected. In particular, Desmoglein-1 displayed a limited and transient up-regulation in response to the biofilm. In contrast, Desmocollin-2, Desmoplakin and Plakoglobin were down-regulated equally by both biofilm variants, after 24 h. In conclusion, this subgingival biofilm model may down-regulate selected desmosomal junctions in the gingival epithelium, irrespective of the presence of the “red complex.” In turn, this could compromise the structural integrity of the gingival tissue, favoring bacterial invasion and chronic infection. PMID:26305580

  12. [Cyclosporine-induced gingival hyperplasia: report of one case].

    PubMed

    Bahamondes, Carlos; Godoy, Jorge

    2007-03-01

    Gingival enlargement can be an adverse effect of cyclosporine A and nifedipine use. It has a high relapse rate if the drugs are not discontinued. There is a genetic predisposition to the development of this condition and dental biofilm can also play a role. We report a 64 years old male who received a renal allograft and was treated with cyclosporine and nifedipine. He required six surgical interventions for generalized gingival enlargement. After the sixth relapse, the patient was subjected to a periodontal treatment to eliminate the dental biofilm, which decreased the rate of recurrence of gingival enlargement.

  13. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Schinus terebinthifolius Mouthwash to Treat Biofilm-Induced Gingivitis

    PubMed Central

    Freires, Irlan de Almeida; Alves, Livia Araújo; Ferreira, Gabriela Lacet Silva; Jovito, Vanessa de Carvalho; de Castro, Ricardo Dias; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of a Schinus terebinthifolius (ST) mouthwash in reducing gingival inflammation levels (GI) and biofilm accumulation (BA) in children with gingivitis. Methods. This was a randomized, controlled, triple blind, and phase II clinical trial, with children aged 9–13 years (n = 27) presenting with biofilm-induced gingivitis. The sample was randomized into experimental (0.3125% ST, n = 14) and control (0.12% chlorhexidine/CHX, n = 13) groups. Products were masked as regards color, flavor and aroma. Intervention protocol consisted in supervised rinsing of 10 mL/day for 01 minute for 10 days. Gingival bleeding and simplified oral hygiene indexes were used to assess the efficacy variables, measured at baseline and after intervention by calibrated examiners. Data were statistically treated with paired t-test, unpaired t-test, and Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests (α = .05). Results. It was found that both ST and CHX were able to significantly reduce GI levels after 10 days (P < 0.001) and there was no significant difference between them (P > 0.05). CHX was the only product able to significantly reduce BA after 10 days when compared to baseline (P < 0.05). Conclusion. ST mouthwash showed significant anti-inflammatory activity (equivalent to CHX), but it was not able to reduce biofilm accumulation. PMID:23843886

  14. Gingivitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... lead to much more serious gum disease called periodontitis and tooth loss. The most common cause of ... damage from gingivitis and preventing its progression to periodontitis. Causes The most common cause of gingivitis is ...

  15. Gingivitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... gums to determine if you have gingivitis or periodontitis. Periodontitis is a serious infection in the gums. Most ... These complications can occur: Gingivitis returns Periodontitis Infection or abscess of the gums or the jaw bones Trench mouth

  16. A Papilloma-like Atypical Gingival Enlargement Treated Using Nd:YAG Laser Surgery: Report of a Case

    PubMed Central

    Develioglu, H; Bakar, O; Goze, F

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gingival overgrowths can occur due to various factors, such as inflammation, or rarely without a reason and are significant in periodontology. Here, we describe the diagnosis and treatment of a 33-year old female with a papilloma-like atypical enlargement of the gingiva attached to the molar vestibular region of her lower jaw. After the patient’s medical history was taken and the clinical examination done, the enlargement was surgically removed with a Nd:YAG laser and evaluated histopathologically. There was an inflamed, oedematous and vascularized stroma with a thick spongy squamous epithelium layer. After six months, there were no problems at the surgical area and recurrence was not observed. PMID:25803386

  17. Leukemic gingival enlargement: Report of a rare case with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Shamimul; Khan, Nabeel Ishrat; Reddy, L Bhaskar

    2015-01-01

    Oral cavity functions as an early indicator for a variety of systemic diseases. Early and accurate diagnosis of these underlying systemic disorders entails thorough examination of the oral mucosa, gingiva, teeth, tongue and other oral tissues. Although gingival changes may be related to local factors in the oral cavity, it can also be an expression of systemic conditions such as blood dyscrasias, endocrinal imbalance, and nutritional deficiencies. Leukemia, a malignancy of white blood cells is a dreadful disease, which, if not diagnosed properly and treated early may result in significant morbidity and mortality. Oral changes may be the first and only presenting signs in leukemic patients. This paper aims to throw light on an interesting case of acute leukemia diagnosed on the basis of oral signs and emphasizes the importance of thorough oral examination to identify the threatening condition. PMID:25664273

  18. Leukemic gingival enlargement: Report of a rare case with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Shamimul; Khan, Nabeel Ishrat; Reddy, L Bhaskar

    2015-01-01

    Oral cavity functions as an early indicator for a variety of systemic diseases. Early and accurate diagnosis of these underlying systemic disorders entails thorough examination of the oral mucosa, gingiva, teeth, tongue and other oral tissues. Although gingival changes may be related to local factors in the oral cavity, it can also be an expression of systemic conditions such as blood dyscrasias, endocrinal imbalance, and nutritional deficiencies. Leukemia, a malignancy of white blood cells is a dreadful disease, which, if not diagnosed properly and treated early may result in significant morbidity and mortality. Oral changes may be the first and only presenting signs in leukemic patients. This paper aims to throw light on an interesting case of acute leukemia diagnosed on the basis of oral signs and emphasizes the importance of thorough oral examination to identify the threatening condition.

  19. Amelogenesis imperfecta associated with dental follicular-like hamartomas and generalised gingival enlargement.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, S; Davies, J; Smallridge, J; Vaidyanathan, M

    2014-10-01

    Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is an inherited disorder characterised by generalised defects of dental enamel, but has been associated with other dental and medical conditions. It affects the appearance and structure of teeth, both in the primary and secondary dentition. AI in the presence of dental follicular hamartomas and gingival hyperplasia is rare and the management presents several challenges to the clinician. This article describes a case of a girl who presented to the paediatric department at the age of 7 years complaining of discomfort when eating and that she was unhappy with the appearance of her anterior teeth. The patient was born in the UK but she and her family were African and of Kenyan origin. She was otherwise fit and well. Investigations included clinical, radiographic and pathological examination as well as cone beam computed tomography imaging and X-ray Microtomography of extracted primary teeth. A diagnosis of AI in the presence of dental follicular hamartomas and generalised gingival hyperplasia was made, which had resulted in the delayed eruption of permanent teeth and an associated anterior open bite. There was no family history of dental defects. Initial treatment included preventative advice and the application of preformed metal crowns on all primary molars. Extraction of all remaining primary incisors was carried out followed by gingivectomy around the maxillary permanent incisors, mandibular central incisors and maxillary left second primary molar. Composite resin reconstruction of all permanent incisors and mandibular primary canines was complicated by the poor quality of enamel. Orthodontic extrusion of the anterior incisors was carried out to improve surface area for bonding with some success. A multidisciplinary team managed this case and decided that no surgical intervention of the dental follicular hamartomas was warranted. The patient coped well with treatment and attended for regular review over an 8-year period. She was

  20. Bifunctional bioceramics stimulating osteogenic differentiation of a gingival fibroblast and inhibiting plaque biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ya; Wang, Zhejun; Wang, Jiao; Zhou, Yinghong; Chen, Hui; Wu, Chengtie; Haapasalo, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Gingival recession is a common clinical problem that results in esthetic deficiencies and poor plaque control and predominantly occurs in aged patients. In order to restore the cervical region, ideal biomaterials should possess the ability to stimulate proliferation and osteogenesis/cementogenesis of human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) and have a strong antibiofilm effect. The aim of the present study was to investigate the interactions of HGF and oral multispecies biofilms with Ca, Mg and Si-containing bredigite (BRT, Ca7MgSi4O16) bioceramics. BRT extract induced osteogenic/cementogenic differentiation of HGF and its inhibition of plaque biofilm formation were systematically studied. BRT extract in concentrations lower than <200 mg mL(-1) presented high biocompatibility to HGF cells in 3 days. Ion extracts from BRT also stimulated a series of bone-related gene and protein expressions in HGF cells. Furthermore, BRT extract significantly inhibited oral multispecies plaque biofilm growth on its surface and contributed to over 30% bacterial cell death without additional antibacterial agents in two weeks. A planktonic killing test showed that BRT suppressed 98% plaque bacterial growth compared to blank control in 3 days. The results also revealed that BRT extract has an osteostimulation effect on HGF. The suppression effect on plaque biofilms suggested that BRT might be used as a bioactive material for cervical restoration and that the synergistic effect of bioactive ions, such as Ca, Mg and Si ions, played an important role in the design and construction of bifunctional biomaterials in combination with tissue regeneration and antibiofilm activity.

  1. Mouthwashes for the control of supragingival biofilm and gingivitis in orthodontic patients: evidence-based recommendations for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Haas, Alex Nogueira; Pannuti, Claudio Mendes; Andrade, Ana Karina Pinto de; Escobar, Elaine Cristina; Almeida, Eliete Rodrigues de; Costa, Fernando Oliveira; Cortelli, José Roberto; Cortelli, Sheila Cavalca; Rode, Sigmar de Melo; Pedrazzi, Vinicius; Oppermann, Rui Vicente

    2014-07-11

    Properly performed daily mechanical biofilm control is the most important prevention strategy for periodontal diseases. However, proper mechanical biofilm control is not performed effectively by the majority of the population, mainly due to lack of motivation and of manual dexterity. Local biofilm retention factors may aggravate home oral hygiene quality. For this reason, patients wearing fixed orthodontic appliances comprise a group that may benefit from the daily use of mouthwashes. The purpose of this review was to perform a systematic search in the literature on antiseptics used to control supragingival biofilm and gingivitis in orthodontic patients. Six studies investigating the effect of chlorhexidine and 5 studies evaluating the effect of the daily use of antiseptics were found. Chlorhexidine showed better results in reducing plaque and gingivitis. However, because of its adverse effects after continuous use, it should not be indicated for long-term periods. Among the agents considered for daily use, the fixed combination of essential oils was the only one evaluated in a clinical trial, in which a comparative group presented a statistically significant clinical impact. There is no direct evidence supporting the indication of antiseptic agents for orthodontic patients other than chlorhexidine and essential oils. It can be concluded that, for patients undergoing orthodontic treatment, chlorhexidine should be considered for treating acute gingival inflammation, whereas essential oils should be indicated for long-term daily use in controlling supragingival biofilm.

  2. Idiopathic Gingival Fibromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Ullal Anand; Khandelwal, Vishal; Ninave, Nupur

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Idiopathic gingival fibromatosis is a rare heriditary condition characterized by slowly progressive, nonhemorrhagic, fibrous enlargement of maxillary and mandibular keratinized gingiva caused by increase in submucosal connective tissue elements. This case report gives an overview of gingival fibromatosis in a 11-year-old female patient who presented with generalized gingival enlargement. Based on the history and clinical examination, the diagnosis was made and the enlarged tissue was surgically removed. The patient was being regularly monitored clinically for improvement in her periodontal condition as well as for any recurrence of gingival overgrowth. PMID:27616864

  3. Idiopathic gingival fibromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Dani, Nitin Hemchandra; Khanna, Dinkar Parveen; Bhatt, Vaibhavi Hitesh; Joshi, Chaitanya Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic gingival fibromatosis (IGF) is a rare hereditary condition characterized by slowly progressive, nonhemorrhagic, fibrous enlargement of maxillary and mandibular keratinized gingiva caused by increase in submucosal connective tissue elements, mostly associated with some syndrome. This case report describes a case of nonsyndromic generalized IGF in an 18-year-old male patient who presented with generalized gingival enlargement. The enlarged tissue was surgically removed by internal bevel gingivectomy and ledge and wedge procedure. The patient was regularly monitored clinically for improvement in his periodontal condition as well as for any recurrence of gingival overgrowth. PMID:26941525

  4. [THE CHARACTERISTICS OF MORPHOLOGY OF BIOFILM OF PERIODONTIUM UNDER INFLAMMATORY DISEASES OF GUMS (CHRONIC CATARRHAL GINGIVITIS, CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS, CANDIDA-ASSOCIATED PERIODONTITIS) ACCORDING RESULTS OF ELECTRONIC MICROSCOPY].

    PubMed

    Ippolitov, E V; Didenko, L V; Tzarev, V N

    2015-12-01

    The study was carried out to analyze morphology of biofilm of periodontium and to develop electronic microscopic criteria of differentiated diagnostic of inflammatory diseases of gums. The scanning electronic microscopy was applied to analyze samples of bioflm of periodont from 70 patients. Including ten patients with every nosologic form of groups with chronic catarrhal periodontitis. of light, mean and severe degree, chronic catarrhal gingivitis, Candida-associated paroperiodontitis and 20 healthy persons with intact periodontium. The analysis was implemented using dual-beam scanning electronic microscope Quanta 200 3D (FEI company, USA) and walk-through electronic micJEM 100B (JEOL, Japan). To detect marker DNA of periodont pathogenic bacteria in analyzed samples the kit of reagentsfor polymerase chain reaction "MultiDent-5" ("GenLab", Russia). The scanning electronic microscopy in combination with transmission electronic microscopy and polymerase chain reaction permits analyzing structure, composition and degree of development of biofilm of periodontium and to apply differentiated diagnostic of different nosologic forms of inflammatory diseases of periodontium, including light form of chronic periodontitis and gingivitis. The electronic microscopical indications of diseases ofperiodontium of inflammatory character are established: catarrhal gingivitis, (coccal morphological alternate), chronic periodontitis (bacillary morphological alternate), Candida-associated periodontitis (Candida morphological alternate of biofilm ofperiodontium).

  5. Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevin, N. C.

    1971-01-01

    Case studies of two siblings suffering from a gum disorder in which enlargement of the gingival mucosa is caused by a fibrosis. The disorder in the two children was felt to be an hereditary recessive trait. (CD)

  6. Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevin, N. C.

    1971-01-01

    Case studies of two siblings suffering from a gum disorder in which enlargement of the gingival mucosa is caused by a fibrosis. The disorder in the two children was felt to be an hereditary recessive trait. (CD)

  7. Fusobacterium nucleatum biofilm induces epithelial migration in an organotypic model of dento-gingival junction.

    PubMed

    Pöllänen, Marja T; Gursoy, Ulvi K; Könönen, Eija; Uitto, Veli-Jukka

    2012-10-01

    Effects of Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum) biofilm on epithelial cell proliferation, apoptotic cell death, and basement membrane constituent collagen IV production were examined in an organotypic dento-epithelial (OD-E) model. The OD-E model was constructed by seeding keratinocytes on fibroblast-containing collagen gels and by placing tooth pieces on top. A 3-day-old biofilm either a laboratory strain (American Type Culture Collection [ATCC] 25586) or a clinical strain (Anaerobe Helsinki Negative [AHN] 9508) of F. nucleatum was placed on the top of the model. The coculture was incubated ≤24 hours. The expression and localization of Ki-67, caspase-3, and collagen IV were examined by immunohistochemistry. Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed epithelial migration and lateral sprouting into the connective tissue matrix in F. nucleatum OD-E cocultures. The proliferation pattern of the in vitro dento-epithelial junction was changed. In controls without bacterial challenge, the Ki-67 expression was abundant in the cells attached to the tooth, whereas in F. nucleatum biofilm-treated cultures, the Ki-67-expressing cells were more often in the connective tissue-facing side of the epithelium. An apoptotic marker caspase-3 was expressed in controls and in F. nucleatum laboratory strain ATCC cocultures throughout the epithelium, in contrast to cultures treated with F. nucleatum clinical strain AHN, in which caspase-3 was absent. Collagen IV stainings were negative in both controls and F. nucleatum cocultures. F. nucleatum biofilm coculture with OD-E model causes lateral sprouting of the epithelium with an altered epithelial proliferation pattern, resembling the histologic changes seen in vivo in the early pathogenesis of periodontal disease.

  8. Disruption of the ECM33 gene in Candida albicans prevents biofilm formation, engineered human oral mucosa tissue damage and gingival cell necrosis/apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Semlali, Abdelhabib; Chandra, Jyotsna; Mukherjee, Pranab; Chmielewski, Witold; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A

    2012-01-01

    In this study we demonstrated that ΔCaecm33 double mutant showed reduced biofilm formation and causes less damage to gingival mucosa tissues. This was confirmed by the reduced level of necrotic cells and Bax/Bcl2 gene expression as apoptotic markers. In contrast, parental and Caecm33 mutant strains decreased basement membrane protein production (laminin 5 and type IV collagen). We thus propose that ECM33 gene/protein represents a novel target for the prevention and treatment of infections caused by Candida.

  9. Disruption of the ECM33 Gene in Candida albicans Prevents Biofilm Formation, Engineered Human Oral Mucosa Tissue Damage and Gingival Cell Necrosis/Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Semlali, Abdelhabib; Chandra, Jyotsna; Mukherjee, Pranab; Chmielewski, Witold; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we demonstrated that ΔCaecm33 double mutant showed reduced biofilm formation and causes less damage to gingival mucosa tissues. This was confirmed by the reduced level of necrotic cells and Bax/Bcl2 gene expression as apoptotic markers. In contrast, parental and Caecm33 mutant strains decreased basement membrane protein production (laminin 5 and type IV collagen). We thus propose that ECM33 gene/protein represents a novel target for the prevention and treatment of infections caused by Candida. PMID:22665950

  10. Occurrence of yeasts, enterococci and other enteric bacteria in subgingival biofilm of HIV-positive patients with chronic gingivitis and necrotizing periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Gaetti-Jardim Júnior, Elerson; Nakano, Viviane; Wahasugui, Thais C.; Cabral, Fátima C.; Gamba, Rosa; Avila-Campos, Mario Julio

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of enteric bacteria and yeasts in biofilm of 80 HIV-positive patients with plaque-associated gingivitis or necrotizing periodontitis. Patients were subjected to extra, intra oral and radiographic examinations. The oral hygiene, bleeding on probing, gingival conditions, and attachment loss were evaluated. Clinical specimens were collected from gingival crevices or periodontal pockets, transferred to VMGA III, diluted and transferred to Sabouraud Dextrose agar with 100 μg/ml of chloramphenicol, peptone water, EVA broth, EMB agar, SS agar, Bile esculin agar and Brilliant green agar. Isolation of yeasts was carried out at room temperature, for 3-7 days; and for the isolation of enteric microorganisms plates were incubated at 37°C, for 24-48 h. The yeasts identification was performed according to the carbon and nitrogen assimilation, fermentation of carbohydrates and germ tube formation. Bacteria were identified according to their colonial and cellular morphologies and biochemical tests. Yeasts were identified as Candida albicans and its occurrence was more common in patients with CD4+ below 200/mm3 and was affected by the extension of periodontal involvement (P = 0.0345). Enteric bacteria recovered from clinical specimens were identified as Enterobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia liquefaciens, Klebsiella oxytoca and Enterococcus sp. Enterobacteriaceae and enterococci were detected in 32.5% of clinical samples from patients with necrotizing periodontitis. In conclusion, non-oral pathogenic bacteria and C. albicans were more prevalent in periodontal sites of HIV-positive patients with necrotizing periodontitis and chronic gingivitis. PMID:24031212

  11. Occurrence of yeasts, enterococci and other enteric bacteria in subgingival biofilm of HIV-positive patients with chronic gingivitis and necrotizing periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Gaetti-Jardim Júnior, Elerson; Nakano, Viviane; Wahasugui, Thais C; Cabral, Fátima C; Gamba, Rosa; Avila-Campos, Mario Julio

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of enteric bacteria and yeasts in biofilm of 80 HIV-positive patients with plaque-associated gingivitis or necrotizing periodontitis. Patients were subjected to extra, intra oral and radiographic examinations. The oral hygiene, bleeding on probing, gingival conditions, and attachment loss were evaluated. Clinical specimens were collected from gingival crevices or periodontal pockets, transferred to VMGA III, diluted and transferred to Sabouraud Dextrose agar with 100 μg/ml of chloramphenicol, peptone water, EVA broth, EMB agar, SS agar, Bile esculin agar and Brilliant green agar. Isolation of yeasts was carried out at room temperature, for 3-7 days; and for the isolation of enteric microorganisms plates were incubated at 37°C, for 24-48 h. The yeasts identification was performed according to the carbon and nitrogen assimilation, fermentation of carbohydrates and germ tube formation. Bacteria were identified according to their colonial and cellular morphologies and biochemical tests. Yeasts were identified as Candida albicans and its occurrence was more common in patients with CD4+ below 200/mm(3) and was affected by the extension of periodontal involvement (P = 0.0345). Enteric bacteria recovered from clinical specimens were identified as Enterobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia liquefaciens, Klebsiella oxytoca and Enterococcus sp. Enterobacteriaceae and enterococci were detected in 32.5% of clinical samples from patients with necrotizing periodontitis. In conclusion, non-oral pathogenic bacteria and C. albicans were more prevalent in periodontal sites of HIV-positive patients with necrotizing periodontitis and chronic gingivitis.

  12. Amelogenesis Imperfecta and Generalized Gingival Overgrowth Resembling Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis in Siblings: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Yaprak, Emre; Subaşı, Meryem Gülce; Avunduk, Mustafa; Aykent, Filiz

    2012-01-01

    Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a group of hereditary disorders primarily characterized by developmental abnormalities in the quantity and/or quality of enamel. There are some reports suggesting an association between AI and generalized gingival enlargement. This paper describes the clinical findings and oral management of two siblings presenting both AI and hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF) like generalized gingival enlargements. The treatment of gingival enlargements by periodontal flap surgery was successful in the management of the physiologic gingival form for both patients in the 3-year follow-up period. Prosthetic treatment was also satisfactory for the older patient both aesthetically and functionally. PMID:23091740

  13. Fontanelles - enlarged

    MedlinePlus

    Soft spot - large; Newborn care - enlarged fontanelle; Neonatal care - enlarged fontanelle ... causes: Achondroplasia Apert syndrome Cleidocranial dysostosis Congenital rubella Neonatal hypothyroidism Osteogenesis imperfecta Rickets

  14. Conflation of gingival overgrowth and schwannoma

    PubMed Central

    Purwar, Parth; Dixit, Jaya; Bhartiya, Kishlay; Sareen, Sagar

    2014-01-01

    The authors describe a seminal case report of a 10-year-old boy with enlarged gingivae in relation to his maxillary anterior teeth. The lesion, provisionally diagnosed as idiopathic gingival enlargement, was completely excised and divided into two sections. The histological and immunohistochemical findings in one of the sections showed it to be characteristic of schwannoma while the other section showed indications of idiopathic gingival enlargement. The patient has been followed up carefully and no recurrence has been noted. PMID:25331149

  15. Amlodipine-induced gingival hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Lafzi, Ardeshir; Farahani, Ramin Mostofi Zadeh; Shoja, Mohammad Ali Mohajjel

    2006-11-01

    Drug-induced gingival hyperplasia is a serious concern both for the patient and the clinician. A 45 year-old Caucasian male patient with hypertension, who received amlodipine (10 mg/day, single dose orally) for two months, sought medical attention because of the new-onset gingival enlargement. On clinical examination a generalized and firm overgrowth of the gingival throughout the maxilla and the mandible were evident. The lack of gingival inflammation and purulent discharge were other features of the clinical scenario. Histological assessment of the biopsy specimen revealed the hyperplasia of connective tissue, epithelial acanthosis, and elongated rete ridges along with few inflammatory cells. The histological and the clinical evidences were consistent with amlodipine-induced gingival hyperplasia. We believe that the present report indicates the most rapidly developed case of amlodipine-induced gingival hyperplasia reported to date. The related literature is reviewed and the underlying pathogenic mechanisms of this rare side-effect are discussed here.

  16. Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Callow, J A; Callow, M E

    2006-01-01

    Biofilms of bacteria, frequently in association with algae, protozoa and fungi, are found on all submerged structures in the marine environment. Although it is likely that for the majority of organisms a biofilmed surface is not a pre-requisite for settlement, in practice, colonization by spores and larvae of fouling organisms almost always takes place via a biofilmed surface. Therefore, the properties of the latter may be expected to influence colonization, positively or negatively. Biofilms are responsible for a range of surface-associated and diffusible signals, which may moderate the settling behaviour of cells, spores and larvae. However, there is no consensus view regarding either cause and effect or the mechanism(s) by which biofilms moderate settlement. Studies with mixed biofilms, especially field experiments, are difficult to interpret because of the conflicting signals produced by different members of the biofilm community as well as their spatial organisation. Molecular techniques highlight the deficiencies of culture methods in identifying biofilm bacteria; hence, the strains with the most impact on settlement of spores and larvae may not yet have been isolated and cultured. Furthermore, secondary products isolated from cultured organisms may not reflect the situation that pertains in nature. The evidence that bacterial quorum sensing signal molecules stimulate settlement of spores of the green macroalga, Ulva, is discussed in some detail. New molecular and analytical tools should provide the opportunity to improve our fundamental understanding of the interactions between fouling organisms and biofilms, which in turn may inform novel strategies to control biofouling.

  17. Plasma and gingival crevicular fluid phenytoin concentrations as risk factors for gingival overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Güncü, Güliz N; Caglayan, Feriha; Dinçel, Aysun; Bozkurt, Atilla; Saygi, Serap; Karabulut, Erdem

    2006-12-01

    Gingival enlargement is one of the side effects associated with the administration of phenytoin. The mechanism by which phenytoin induces gingival enlargement is not well understood. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between plasma and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) phenytoin concentrations and the degree of gingival overgrowth in patients with similar gingival and plaque indices and also to determine the risk factors for gingival enlargement. Eighteen patients taking phenytoin in regular doses > or =6 months prior to the investigation participated in the study. Gingival enlargement was evaluated with two indices to score vertical and horizontal overgrowth. The gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI), gingival bleeding time index (GBTI), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were also evaluated. GCF and plasma phenytoin concentrations were determined by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). There was no significant difference between responders and non-responders for PD, CAL, PI, GI, and GBTI. Phenytoin was detected in all of the GCF and plasma samples using the HPLC analysis method. The mean concentration of phenytoin in GCF was significantly greater than the concentration of phenytoin in plasma. No significant difference was observed for the concentration of GCF phenytoin between responders and non-responders. However, the concentration of plasma phenytoin was significantly higher in responders than non-responders. This study showed that plasma phenytoin level appeared to be a risk factor for phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth.

  18. Wound biofilms: lessons learned from oral biofilms.

    PubMed

    Mancl, Kimberly A; Kirsner, Robert S; Ajdic, Dragana

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms play an important role in the development and pathogenesis of many chronic infections. Oral biofilms, more commonly known as dental plaque, are a primary cause of oral diseases including caries, gingivitis, and periodontitis. Oral biofilms are commonly studied as model biofilm systems as they are easily accessible; thus, biofilm research in oral diseases is advanced with details of biofilm formation and bacterial interactions being well elucidated. In contrast, wound research has relatively recently directed attention to the role biofilms have in chronic wounds. This review discusses the biofilms in periodontal disease and chronic wounds with comparisons focusing on biofilm detection, biofilm formation, the immune response to biofilms, bacterial interaction, and quorum sensing. Current treatment modalities used by both fields and future therapies are also discussed. © 2013 by the Wound Healing Society.

  19. Wound biofilms: lessons learned from oral biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Mancl, Kimberly A.; Kirsner, Robert S.; Ajdic, Dragana

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms play an important role in the development and pathogenesis of many chronic infections. Oral biofilms, more commonly known as dental plaque,are a primary cause of oral diseases including caries, gingivitis and periodontitis. Oral biofilms are commonly studied as model biofilm systems as they are easily accessible, thus biofilm research in oral diseases is advanced with details of biofilm formation and bacterial interactions being well-elucidated. In contrast, wound research has relatively recently directed attentionto the role biofilms have in chronic wounds. This review discusses the biofilms in periodontal disease and chronic wounds with comparisons focusing on biofilm detection, biofilm formation, the immune response to biofilms, bacterial interaction and quorum sensing. Current treatment modalities used by both fields as well as future therapies are also discussed. PMID:23551419

  20. Hereditary gingival fibromatosis with distinctive facies.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Sunkara Shree Ramalinga; Radharani, Chitturi; Sinha, Soumya; Kumar, Sv Kiran

    2012-11-01

    Hereditary gingival enlargement also known as gingivitis or familial elephantiasis is a rare type of gingival enlargement. It appears as an isolated autosomal dominant disorder or maybe associated with other conditions. Oral manifestations may vary from minimal involvement of only tuberosity area and the buccal gingiva around the lower molars to a generalized enlargement inhibiting eruption of the teeth. This paper discusses the case of a 13-year-old female patient with distinctive facial characteristics who presented to the department with a chief complaint of swollen gums since 1 year. She had severe diffuse gingival enlargement of the maxilla and mandible. Diagnosis was made based upon clinical examination and family history. Quadrant wise internal bevel gingivectomy procedure was done for the patient to restore her functional and esthetic needs.

  1. The phylum Synergistetes in gingivitis and necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Angelica; Thurnheer, Thomas; Lüthi-Schaller, Helga; Gmür, Rudolf; Belibasakis, Georgios N

    2012-11-01

    The clinical manifestation of necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (NUG) is distinct from that of common gingivitis in that it is characterized by local necrosis of the gingival tissues, rapid onset, pain and extensive bleeding. The phylum Synergistetes is a novel bacterial phylum consisting of Gram-negative anaerobes, with evidence of presence in biofilms associated with periodontal and endodontic infections. To date, the involvement of members of this phylum in NUG has not been investigated. This study aimed to evaluate the presence and levels of known human oral Synergistetes bacterial clusters in dental plaque from patients with NUG and compare them with those found in gingivitis. Marginal dental plaque samples from 21 NUG and 21 gingivitis patients were analysed quantitatively by fluorescent in situ hybridization and microscopy for members of two oral Synergistetes clusters (A and B) and for Jonquetella anthropi. Synergistetes cluster A bacteria were detected in all samples but at higher levels (9.4-fold) and proportions (2.5-fold) in NUG patients than in gingivitis patients. However, with regard to Synergistetes cluster B bacteria, there were no differences between NUG and gingivitis patients. J. anthropi was detected in only half of the samples and at lower levels than the other taxa. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that Synergistetes cluster A bacteria, but not cluster B bacteria or J. anthropi, are more strongly associated with NUG than with gingivitis.

  2. Gingival overgrowth: Part 1: aetiology and clinical diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Beaumont, J; Chesterman, J; Kellett, M; Durey, K

    2017-01-27

    Most commonly, gingival overgrowth is a plaque-induced inflammatory process, which can be modified by systemic disease or medications. However, rare genetic conditions can result in gingival overgrowth with non-plaque-induced aetiology. It is also important to appreciate the potential differential diagnoses of other presentations of enlarged gingival tissues; some may be secondary to localised trauma or non-plaque-induced inflammation and, albeit rarely, others may be manifestations of more sinister diseases or lesions. A definitive diagnosis will then enable an appropriate management strategy. This paper aims to discuss clinical features and diagnoses for conditions presenting with gingival overgrowth and other enlargements of gingival tissues.

  3. Enlarged adenoids

    MedlinePlus

    ... adenoids often breathe through the mouth because the nose is blocked. Mouth breathing occurs mostly at night, but may be present ... Call your provider if your child has trouble breathing through the nose or other symptoms of enlarged adenoids.

  4. Enlarged Adenoids

    MedlinePlus

    ... a teen. Symptoms of Enlarged Adenoids Because adenoids trap germs that enter the body, adenoid tissue sometimes ... Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart.com

  5. Enlarged Adenoids

    MedlinePlus

    ... until they become enlarged. Adenoids are like a sponge — they catch the germs that make you sick, ... ContentAllergy Shots: Could They Help Your Allergies?Read Article >>Allergy Shots: Could They Help Your Allergies?August ...

  6. Idiopathic gingival fibromatosis with asymmetrical presentation and electrosurgical management

    PubMed Central

    Pol, Dilip Ganpat; Lobo, Tanya Marguerite; Pol, Samruddhi Dilip

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic gingival fibromatosis is a rare genetically heterogeneous condition characterized by recurrent gingival enlargement without any identifiable cause. We report a case of 14-year-old female patient affected with sporadic, nonsyndromic, progressive gingival enlargement. It manifested more severely on the right side of the mouth with history of recurrence after prior conventional surgical excision. Electrosurgical resection of the enlargement was done, and overall patient management had a successful outcome along with achieving preservation of teeth with poor prognosis in the 2 years follow-up. PMID:27041849

  7. Gingivitis (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Inflammation of the gums is called gingivitis. Bacteria in plaque around the teeth release enzymes (collagenases) that can damage and erode the gum tissues. The infected gums swell, bleed easily, recede, and ...

  8. Non syndromic gingival fibromatosis in a mild mental retardation child

    PubMed Central

    Duddu, Mahesh K.; Muppa, Radhika; Reddy, G. S. Prasad; Reddy, P. Veerendra Nath

    2012-01-01

    Gingival fibromatosis is a benign oral condition characterized by enlargement of gingival tissues. It usually develops as an isolated disorder but can be one of the features of a syndrome. This case report is of a 5-year-old male with severe gingival hyperplasia and mild mental retardation which was complicated by open bite, abnormal occlusion, open lip posture, and disabilities associated with mastication and speech. Full mouth gingivectomy in single sitting under general anesthesia was done with electrocautery. PMID:23230365

  9. Gingival fibrous hamartoma associated with natal teeth.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Luciana Butini; Tamay, Tereza Keiko; Wanderley, Marcia Turolla; Rodrigues, Regina Martins Delgado; Barboza, Carlos Augusto Galvão; de Souza, Suzana Orsini Machado

    2005-01-01

    A variety of gingival enlargements can occur in children, but they are rarely observed in the infant. The aim of this study is to present a case of a ten-month old male patient, with an anterior mandibular hamartoma associated to natal teeth, and to describe the clinical and histological characteristics of this anomaly and the treatment performed.

  10. Plasma Cell Gingivitis: An Occasional Case Report.

    PubMed

    Mishra, M B; Sharma, Swati; Sharma, Alok

    2015-01-01

    Plasma cell gingivitis, an infrequently observed oral condition, has been clinically characterized by diffuse gingival enlargement, erythema and sometimes desquamation. These lesions are usually asymptomatic, but invariably the patient will complain of a burning sensation in the gingiva and bleeding from the mouth. The diagnosis requires hematological screening in addition to clinical and histopathological examinations. This case report outlines one such case of plasma cell gingivitis in a 15-year-old female caused by use of an herbal, homemade toothpowder. The case presented here highlights the adverse effects and irrational use of herbal agents in dentifrices. At the same time, it emphasizes the need for comprehensive history taking, careful clinical examination and appropriate diagnostic tests in order to arrive at a definitive diagnosis and treatment plan for gingival conditions that are refractory to conventional therapy and to exclude certain malignancies and oral manifestations of systemic diseases.

  11. A review of factors influencing the incidence and severity of plaque-induced gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Trombelli, L; Farina, R

    2013-06-01

    An individual variation in the gingival inflammatory response to the dental biofilm has been demonstrated. This variability can be observed between individuals with neither quantitative nor qualitative differences in plaque accumulation. The reported significant differences in gingival inflammatory response under quantitatively and/or qualitatively almost identical bacterial challenge suggest that the gingival response to plaque accumulation may be an individual trait, possibly genetic in origin. The most recent classification of periodontal diseases acknowledges that the clinical expression of plaque-induced gingival inflammation can be substantially modified by systemic factors, either inherent to the host or related to environmental influences. The aim of the present literature review is to describe (i) the factors influencing the development of plaque-induced gingivitis as well as (ii) those metabolic, environmental and systemic factors which have a direct impact on the etiopathogenetic pathway of plaque-induced gingivitis, thus altering the nature or course of the gingival inflammatory response to dental biofilm.

  12. [Gingival recessions and orthodontics].

    PubMed

    Renkema, A M; Padmos, J A D; de Quincey, G de

    2015-11-01

    Gingival recessions represent the most visible periodontal disease. The prevalence of gingival recessions is high. The root surface is literally exposed to negative influences such as erosion, abrasion, discoloration and decay. Moreover, gingival recessions can affect the quality of life by increased thermal sensitivity and reduced dento-gingival aesthetics. The aetiology of gingival recessions is complex and considered to be multifactorial. In order to prevent the development of gingival recessions during and after orthodontic treatment, several factors should be taken into account, among which maintenance of optimal oral hygiene and respect for the 'biological envelope' are decisive. Once gingival recessions have developed, orthodontic therapy can play a positive role in their treatment.

  13. Gingival fibromatosis: clinical, molecular and therapeutic issues.

    PubMed

    Gawron, Katarzyna; Łazarz-Bartyzel, Katarzyna; Potempa, Jan; Chomyszyn-Gajewska, Maria

    2016-01-27

    Gingival fibromatosis is a rare and heterogeneous group of disorders that develop as slowly progressive, local or diffuse enlargements within marginal and attached gingiva or interdental papilla. In severe cases, the excess tissue may cover the crowns of the teeth, thus causing functional, esthetic, and periodontal problems, such as bone loss and bleeding, due to the presence of pseudopockets and plaque accumulation. It affects both genders equally. Hereditary, drug-induced, and idiopathic gingival overgrowth have been reported. Hereditary gingival fibromatosis can occur as an isolated condition or as part of a genetic syndrome. The pathologic manifestation of gingival fibromatosis comprises excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins, of which collagen type I is the most prominent example. Mutation in the Son-of-Sevenless-1 gene has been suggested as one possible etiological cause of isolated (non-syndromic) hereditary gingival fibromatosis, but mutations in other genes are also likely to be involved, given the heterogeneity of this condition. The most attractive concept of mechanism for drug-induced gingival overgrowth is epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, a process in which interactions between gingival cells and the extracellular matrix are weakened as epithelial cells transdifferentiate into fibrogenic fibroblast-like cells. The diagnosis is mainly made on the basis of the patient's history and clinical features, and on histopathological evaluation of affected gingiva. Early diagnosis is important, mostly to exclude oral malignancy. Differential diagnosis comprises all pathologies in the mouth with excessive gingival overgrowth. Hereditary gingival fibromatosis may present as an autosomal-dominant or less commonly autosomal-recessive mode of inheritance. If a systemic disease or syndrome is suspected, the patient is directed to a geneticist for additional clinical examination and specialized diagnostic tests. Treatments vary according to the

  14. Familial gingival fibromatosis: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shweta; Goyal, Dhawal; Shah, Gaurav; Ray, Amit

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary gingival fibromatosis is a rare condition that can occur as an isolated disease or as part of a syndrome or chromosomal abnormality. In severe cases, the gingival enlargement may cover the crowns of teeth and cause severe functional and aesthetic concerns. Here, we present a case of an 8-year-old girl with severe enlargement of gums in maxilla and mandible. Both deciduous and permanent teeth were not erupted in the oral cavity at all. Mutation in the Son-of-Sevenless (SOS-1) gene has been associated with the disease. The diagnosis was made based on clinical examination and family history. Surgical removal of the hyperplastic tissue was performed under general anesthesia. PMID:22629070

  15. Diagnosis and management of nonsyndromic hereditary gingival fibromatosis in a 13 year old girl: Report of a rare case

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Lata; Bey, Afshan; Gupta, N. D.; Varshney, Amitabh

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary gingival fibromatosis is a rare condition characterized by various degree of gingival overgrowth. It usually develops as an isolated disorder but can manifest with multisystem syndrome. We are here presenting a case of a 13-year-old girl who presented with severe enlargement of gingiva covering all most the entire crown involving both maxillary and mandibular arches. Differential diagnosis includes drug-induced and idiopathic gingival enlargement. Excess gingival tissue was removed by full mouth gingivectomy and sent for histopathological examination. Postoperative course was uneventful and patient's esthetics improved significantly. A 12 month postoperative period shows no recurrence. PMID:23230366

  16. Red and Green Fluorescence from Oral Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Hoogenkamp, Michel A.; Krom, Bastiaan P.; Janus, Marleen M.; ten Cate, Jacob M.; de Soet, Johannes J.; Crielaard, Wim; van der Veen, Monique H.

    2016-01-01

    Red and green autofluorescence have been observed from dental plaque after excitation by blue light. It has been suggested that this red fluorescence is related to caries and the cariogenic potential of dental plaque. Recently, it was suggested that red fluorescence may be related to gingivitis. Little is known about green fluorescence from biofilms. Therefore, we assessed the dynamics of red and green fluorescence in real-time during biofilm formation. In addition, the fluorescence patterns of biofilm formed from saliva of eight different donors are described under simulated gingivitis and caries conditions. Biofilm formation was analysed for 12 hours under flow conditions in a microfluidic BioFlux flow system with high performance microscopy using a camera to allow live cell imaging. For fluorescence images dedicated excitation and emission filters were used. Both green and red fluorescence were linearly related with the total biomass of the biofilms. All biofilms displayed to some extent green and red fluorescence, with higher red and green fluorescence intensities from biofilms grown in the presence of serum (gingivitis simulation) as compared to the sucrose grown biofilms (cariogenic simulation). Remarkably, cocci with long chain lengths, presumably streptococci, were observed in the biofilms. Green and red fluorescence were not found homogeneously distributed within the biofilms: highly fluorescent spots (both green and red) were visible throughout the biomass. An increase in red fluorescence from the in vitro biofilms appeared to be related to the clinical inflammatory response of the respective saliva donors, which was previously assessed during an in vivo period of performing no-oral hygiene. The BioFlux model proved to be a reliable model to assess biofilm fluorescence. With this model, a prediction can be made whether a patient will be prone to the development of gingivitis or caries. PMID:27997567

  17. Red and Green Fluorescence from Oral Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Volgenant, Catherine M C; Hoogenkamp, Michel A; Krom, Bastiaan P; Janus, Marleen M; Ten Cate, Jacob M; de Soet, Johannes J; Crielaard, Wim; van der Veen, Monique H

    2016-01-01

    Red and green autofluorescence have been observed from dental plaque after excitation by blue light. It has been suggested that this red fluorescence is related to caries and the cariogenic potential of dental plaque. Recently, it was suggested that red fluorescence may be related to gingivitis. Little is known about green fluorescence from biofilms. Therefore, we assessed the dynamics of red and green fluorescence in real-time during biofilm formation. In addition, the fluorescence patterns of biofilm formed from saliva of eight different donors are described under simulated gingivitis and caries conditions. Biofilm formation was analysed for 12 hours under flow conditions in a microfluidic BioFlux flow system with high performance microscopy using a camera to allow live cell imaging. For fluorescence images dedicated excitation and emission filters were used. Both green and red fluorescence were linearly related with the total biomass of the biofilms. All biofilms displayed to some extent green and red fluorescence, with higher red and green fluorescence intensities from biofilms grown in the presence of serum (gingivitis simulation) as compared to the sucrose grown biofilms (cariogenic simulation). Remarkably, cocci with long chain lengths, presumably streptococci, were observed in the biofilms. Green and red fluorescence were not found homogeneously distributed within the biofilms: highly fluorescent spots (both green and red) were visible throughout the biomass. An increase in red fluorescence from the in vitro biofilms appeared to be related to the clinical inflammatory response of the respective saliva donors, which was previously assessed during an in vivo period of performing no-oral hygiene. The BioFlux model proved to be a reliable model to assess biofilm fluorescence. With this model, a prediction can be made whether a patient will be prone to the development of gingivitis or caries.

  18. Gingival tissue transcriptomes in experimental gingivitis

    PubMed Central

    Jönsson, Daniel; Ramberg, Per; Demmer, Ryan T.; Kebschull, Moritz; Dahlén, Gunnar; Papapanou, Panos N.

    2012-01-01

    Aims We investigated the sequential gene expression in the gingiva during the induction and resolution of experimental gingivitis. Methods Twenty periodontally and systemically healthy non-smoking volunteers participated in a 3-week experimental gingivitis protocol, followed by debridement and 2-week regular plaque control. We recorded clinical indices and harvested gingival tissue samples from 4 interproximal palatal sites in half of the participants at baseline, Day 7, 14 and 21 (‘induction phase’), and at day 21, 25, 30 and 35 in the other half (‘resolution phase’). RNA was extracted, amplified, reversed transcribed, amplified, labeled and hybridized with Affymetrix Human Genome U133Plus2.0 microarrays. Paired t-tests compared gene expression changes between consecutive time points. Gene ontology analyses summarized the expression patterns into biologically relevant categories. Results The median gingival index was 0 at baseline, 2 at Day 21 and 1 at Day 35. Differential gene regulation peaked during the third week of induction and the first four days of resolution. Leukocyte transmigration, cell adhesion and antigen processing/presentation were the top differentially regulated pathways. Conclusions Transcriptomic studies enhance our understanding of the pathobiology of the reversible inflammatory gingival lesion and provide a detailed account of the dynamic tissue responses during induction and resolution of experimental gingivitis. PMID:21501207

  19. Hereditary gingival fibromatosis and sensorineural hearing loss in a 42-year-old man with Jones syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kasaboğlu, O; Tümer, C; Balci, S

    2004-01-01

    Hereditary gingival fibromatosis and sensorineural hearing loss in a 42-year-old man with Jones syndrome: Gingival fibromatosis is a rare disease, which can be seen as an isolated condition or associated with some uncommon syndromes. This case report describes the evaluation and treatment of a 42-year-old male patient with hereditary gingival fibromatosis, sensorineural hearing loss, undescended testis and maxillary odontogenic cyst (Jones Syndrome). Six years follow up of the index patient after the surgery revealed no recurrence of the gingival fibromatosis. This report also describes the anamnestic data of the patient's family that showed progressive deafness and gingival enlargement in three generations.

  20. The Autosomal Recessive Inheritance of Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Vineet; Mukherjee, Malancha; Ghosh, Sujoy; Dey, Subrata Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF) is a rare condition which is marked by enlargement of gingival tissue that covers teeth to various extents leading to aesthetic disfigurement. This study presents a case of a 28-year-old female patient and 18-year-old male who belong to the same family suffering from HGF with chief complaint of overgrowing swelling gingiva. The presence of enlarged gingiva with the same eruption was found in their other family members with no concomitant drug or medical history, and the occurrence of HGF has been found in one generation of this family which may indicate the autosomal recessive inheritance pattern of HGF. Hereditary gingival fibromatosis is an idiopathic condition as its etiology is unknown and it was found to recur in some cases even after surgical treatment. Both patients underwent thorough oral prophylaxis and later surgical therapy to correct the deformity. PMID:24416600

  1. Enlarged prostate gland

    MedlinePlus

    ... enlarges in size in a process called benign hypertrophy, which means that the gland got larger without ... in several of the symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy, or BPH. Symptoms may include a slowed or ...

  2. Management of idiopathic gingival fibromatosis: report of a case and literature review.

    PubMed

    Ramnarayan, B K; Sowmya, Krishna; Rema, J

    2011-01-01

    Gingival hyperplasia is a rare condition and is of importance for cosmetic and mechanical reasons. Idiopathic gingival fibromatosis, a benign, slow-growing proliferation of the gingival tissues, is genetically heterogeneous. The enlargement is most intense during the eruption of the primary and permanent teeth, and minimal or nondetectable growth is observed in adults. The genetic aspect, clinical feature, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and treatment aspects are reviewed. The purpose of this paper was to report a case of idiopathic gingival fibromatosis in a 13-year-old female who had a negative family history for a similar type of gingival enlargement. The diagnosis was established through history, clinical examination, and histopathology using both hematoxylin and eosin and Van Giesen stain (a special stain for collagen). Surgical treatment, which included both gingivectomy and gingivoplasty, was carried out. The case showed remarkable esthetic and functional improvement. The patient returned after a year and showed no recurrence.

  3. Diagnosis and treatment of a hereditary gingival fibromatosis case.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Min; Xu, Li; Meng, Huan Xin

    2011-01-01

    Hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF) is a rare condition characterised by severe gingival hyperplasia, which could result in serious aesthetic and emotional problems and functional impairment. Here the present authors report a case of a 28-year-old female patient with generalised severe gingival enlargement covering almost all of the teeth and diagnosed as HGF. Her family history was of significance, since her father and 3-year-old daughter suffered from the same symptoms. Many studies have agreed that surgical removal should be used in the treatment of HGF, and gingivectomy is the most common method. This study tried both external and internal bevel incisions. The results suggest that the former is better for shaping gingival contour, if the attached gingiva is adequate. Correct physiological contour of the marginal gingiva, good oral hygiene and periodic recall can decrease recurrence risk. Post-surgical follow-up after 26 months demonstrated no recurrence and the patient was satisfied with her appearance.

  4. Gummy smile: could it be genetic? Hereditary gingival fibromatosis.

    PubMed

    Livada, Rania; Shiloah, Jacob

    2012-12-01

    Gingival enlargement is common among patients and can be caused by a variety of etiological factors. The most common reason is poor oral hygiene and high bacterial load that leads to gingival inflammation and enlargement. Other implicated factors include systemic drugs, such as Phenytoin (Dilantin) taken by epileptic patients, Calcium Channel Blockers such as Nifedipine (Procardia) and Verapamil (Calan) for the treatment of hypertension, arrhythmia and angina. Another class of medication associated with gingival enlargement is immunosuppressive agents given to organ-transplant patients to prevent rejection of the new element, such as Cyclosporine. Some enlargements could be associated with other conditions such as puberty, pregnancy or diabetes or be a symptom of a systemic disease (leukemia, Wegener's granulomatosis or sarcoidosis). In rare cases the cause for the enlargement is genetic and termed Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis (HGF). HGF is a genetic disorder characterized by a progressive enlargement of the gingiva. Histologically, the gingiva is characterized by an accumulation of dense fibrous connective tissue. This is believed to be due to an imbalance between synthesis and degradation of extracellular matrix composed mainly of collagen molecules or due to an alteration in fibroblast proliferation. Different pathogenic mechanisms have been proposed and examined over the years but no precise process has been identified. The main objective of this paper is to discuss this genetic anomaly and support it with clinical cases of a mother and her two children. It will focus on the clinical and histologic characteristics of HGF as well as known biologic and genetic features and treatment modalities.

  5. Biofilm in endodontics: A review

    PubMed Central

    Jhajharia, Kapil; Parolia, Abhishek; Shetty, K Vikram; Mehta, Lata Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Endodontic disease is a biofilm-mediated infection, and primary aim in the management of endodontic disease is the elimination of bacterial biofilm from the root canal system. The most common endodontic infection is caused by the surface-associated growth of microorganisms. It is important to apply the biofilm concept to endodontic microbiology to understand the pathogenic potential of the root canal microbiota as well as to form the basis for new approaches for disinfection. It is foremost to understand how the biofilm formed by root canal bacteria resists endodontic treatment measures. Bacterial etiology has been confirmed for common oral diseases such as caries and periodontal and endodontic infections. Bacteria causing these diseases are organized in biofilm structures, which are complex microbial communities composed of a great variety of bacteria with different ecological requirements and pathogenic potential. The biofilm community not only gives bacteria effective protection against the host's defense system but also makes them more resistant to a variety of disinfecting agents used as oral hygiene products or in the treatment of infections. Successful treatment of these diseases depends on biofilm removal as well as effective killing of biofilm bacteria. So, the fundamental to maintain oral health and prevent dental caries, gingivitis, and periodontitis is to control the oral biofilms. From these aspects, the formation of biofilms carries particular clinical significance because not only host defense mechanisms but also therapeutic efforts including chemical and mechanical antimicrobial treatment measures have the most difficult task of dealing with organisms that are gathered in a biofilm. The aim of this article was to review the mechanisms of biofilms’ formation, their roles in pulpal and periapical pathosis, the different types of biofilms, the factors influencing biofilm formation, the mechanisms of their antimicrobial resistance, techniques to

  6. Ovarian hormones and gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Zachariasen, R D

    1991-01-01

    Elevated plasma concentrations of the ovarian hormones--estrogen and progestins--during pregnancy, puberty, the menstrual cycle, and oral contraceptive (OC) use are associated with an increased incidence of gingival inflammation and exudate. Gingivitis is induced by the micro- organisms that compose subgingival plaque, particularly anaerobic organisms. The ovarian hormones both stimulate bacterial growth and promote the inflammatory process. In the presence of sex hormones, the metabolic breakdown of folate is increased, leading to a folate deficiency that enhances the inflammatory destruction of oral tissue. Gingivitis occurs in an estimated 60-75% of pregnancy women, but the numbers of gingivitis-producing bacteria decrease toward the end of pregnancy and the gingival tissues return to their previous state. In OC users, on the other hand, inflammation of the gingiva is chronic and may increase over time. If gingivitis is already present at the onset of pregnancy or OC use, the inflammation will become progressively more severe. Although these effects cannot be avoided, ovarian hormone- induced gingivitis can be substantially minimized of low plaque levels exist at the beginning of pregnancy or pill initiation.

  7. Management of Cyclosporine and Nifedipine-Induced Gingival Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Dilber, Erhan; Aral, Kübra; Sarica, Yagmur; Sivrikoz, Oya Nermin

    2015-01-01

    Gingival enlargements modified by medications are becoming more common because of the increased use of inducing drugs, and may create speech, mastication, tooth eruption, periodontal, and aesthetic problems. We hereby present a case of a 54-year-old man with 12-month history of generalized gingival enlargement in the keratinized gingiva was referred to our clinic. The patient had a history of kidney transplant and was under medication of cyclosporine and nifedipine. After medical consultation, cyclosporine was changed to tacrolimus and nifedipine was changed to captopril. Gingivectomy was performed using a diode laser, and scaling and root planning were performed. At five months postoperative, the gingival enlargements relapsed and diode laser-assisted surgery was repeated. The patient was followed-up on second postoperatively at 18 months and no relapse was seen. Diode laser-assisted gingivectomy was found to be useful for coagulation during surgery and decreased postoperative bleeding. Recurrence risk of cyclosporine and nifedipine-induced gingival overgrowth is high, thus, there is a great need for prolonged care of patients following treatment and prosthetic restoration. PMID:26812935

  8. Management of Cyclosporine and Nifedipine-Induced Gingival Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Aral, Cüneyt Asim; Dilber, Erhan; Aral, Kübra; Sarica, Yagmur; Sivrikoz, Oya Nermin

    2015-12-01

    Gingival enlargements modified by medications are becoming more common because of the increased use of inducing drugs, and may create speech, mastication, tooth eruption, periodontal, and aesthetic problems. We hereby present a case of a 54-year-old man with 12-month history of generalized gingival enlargement in the keratinized gingiva was referred to our clinic. The patient had a history of kidney transplant and was under medication of cyclosporine and nifedipine. After medical consultation, cyclosporine was changed to tacrolimus and nifedipine was changed to captopril. Gingivectomy was performed using a diode laser, and scaling and root planning were performed. At five months postoperative, the gingival enlargements relapsed and diode laser-assisted surgery was repeated. The patient was followed-up on second postoperatively at 18 months and no relapse was seen. Diode laser-assisted gingivectomy was found to be useful for coagulation during surgery and decreased postoperative bleeding. Recurrence risk of cyclosporine and nifedipine-induced gingival overgrowth is high, thus, there is a great need for prolonged care of patients following treatment and prosthetic restoration.

  9. Effects of triclosan on host response and microbial biomarkers during experimental gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Pancer, Brooke A; Kott, Diana; Sugai, James V; Panagakos, Fotinos S; Braun, Thomas M; Teles, Ricardo P; Giannobile, William V; Kinney, Janet S

    2016-05-01

    This exploratory randomized, controlled clinical trial sought to evaluate anti-inflammatory and -microbial effects of triclosan during experimental gingivitis as assessed by host response biomarkers and biofilm microbial pathogens. Thirty participants were randomized to triclosan or control dentifrice groups who ceased homecare for 21 days in an experimental gingivitis (EG) protocol. Plaque and gingival indices and saliva, plaque, and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) were assessed/collected at days 0, 14, 21 and 35. Levels and proportions of 40 bacterial species from plaque samples were determined using checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. Ten biomarkers associated with inflammation, matrix degradation, and host protection were measured from GCF and saliva and analysed using a multiplex array. Participants were stratified as "high" or "low" responders based on gingival index and GCF biomarkers and bacterial biofilm were combined to generate receiver operating characteristic curves and predict gingivitis susceptibility. No differences in mean PI and GI values were observed between groups and non-significant trends of reduction of host response biomarkers with triclosan treatment. Triclosan significantly reduced levels of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis during induction of gingivitis. Triclosan reduced microbial levels during gingivitis development (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01799226). © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Gingival Cyst of Newborn.

    PubMed

    Moda, Aman

    2011-01-01

    Gingival cyst of newborn is an oral mucosal lesion of transient nature. Although it is very common lesion within 3 to 6 weeks of birth, it is very rare to visualize the lesion thereafter. Presented here is a case report of gingival cyst, which was visible just after 15 days of birth. Clinical diagnoses of these conditions are important in order to avoid unnecessary therapeutic procedure and provide suitable information to parents about the nature of the lesion.

  11. Gingival Cyst of Newborn

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gingival cyst of newborn is an oral mucosal lesion of transient nature. Although it is very common lesion within 3 to 6 weeks of birth, it is very rare to visualize the lesion thereafter. Presented here is a case report of gingival cyst, which was visible just after 15 days of birth. Clinical diagnoses of these conditions are important in order to avoid unnecessary therapeutic procedure and provide suitable information to parents about the nature of the lesion. PMID:27616865

  12. Changes in Gingival Crevicular Fluid Inflammatory Mediator Levels during the Induction and Resolution of Experimental Gingivitis in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Offenbacher, Steven; Barros, Silvana; Mendoza, L; Mauriello, S; Preisser, J; Moss, K; de Jager, Marko; Aspiras, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    Aim The goal of this study is to characterize the changes in 33 biomarkers within the gingival crevicular fluid during the 3-week induction and 4-week resolution of stent-induced, biofilm overgrowth mediated, experimental gingivitis in humans. Methods Experimental gingivitis was induced in 25 subjects for 21 days followed by treatment with a sonic powered toothbrush for 28 days. Clinical indices and gingival crevicular fluids were collected weekly during induction and biweekly during resolution. Samples were analyzed using a bead-based multiplexing analysis for the simultaneous measurements of 33 biomarkers within each sample including cytokines, matrix-metalloproteinases and adipokines. Prostaglandin-E2 was measured by enzyme-linked immunoadsorbant assay. Statistical testing using general linear models with structured covariance matrices were performed to compare stent to contralateral (non-stent) changes in clinical signs and in biomarker levels over time. Results Gingivitis induction was associated with a significant 2.6-fold increase in interleukin 1-beta, a 3.1 fold increase in interleukin 1-alpha, and a significant decrease in multiple chemokines as well as matrixmetalloproteinases −1, −3 and 13. All changes in clinical signs and mediators rebounded to baseline in response to treatmentin the resolution phase. Conclusions Stent-induced gingivitis is associated with marked, but reversible increases in interleukins 1-alpha and 1-beta with suppression of multiple chemokines as well as selected matrixmetalloproteinases. PMID:20447255

  13. A novel gingival overgrowth mouse model induced by the combination of CsA and ligature-induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Okanobu, Ai; Matsuda, Shinji; Kajiya, Mikihito; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Kittaka, Mizuho; Shiba, Hideki; Kurihara, Hidemi

    2017-06-01

    Drug-induced gingival overgrowth (DIGO) is a side effect of the enlargement of gingival tissue by phenytoin, nifedipine, and cyclosporine A (CsA). Gingival inflammation has been identified as a key factor that initiates DIGO. However, a sufficient animal model for clarifying the role of inflammation in DIGO has not yet been generated. We herein describe a novel CsA-induced gingival overgrowth mouse model to evaluate the role of inflammation. A ligature was placed around the second molar in maxillae for 7days to induce gingival inflammation, and CsA (50mg/kg/day) was administered to mice during each experimental period. The severity of gingival overgrowth and mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines in gingiva were assessed by the gingival overgrowth degree, histological analyses, and RT-PCR. The administration of CsA for 28days in combination with ligation significantly increased the gingival overgrowth degree and expanded the connective tissue area. Increases in the gingival overgrowth degree continued in a time-dependent manner until 21days. Furthermore, the cessation of CsA reduced gingival overgrowth. Thin ligatures (7-0 size) induced weaker tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 mRNA expression and less gingival overgrowth than thick ligatures (5-0 ligature). Moreover, the administration of an antibiotic cocktail, which suppressed the expression of these inflammatory cytokines in gingiva, attenuated gingival overgrowth induced by ligatures and CsA. These results suggest that inflammation in gingival tissue plays a role in initiating CsA-induced gingival overgrowth. This gingival overgrowth mouse model has potential for elucidating the etiology of DIGO from the view point of gingival inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. An unusual clinical presentation of plasma cell gingivitis related to “Acacia” containing herbal toothpaste

    PubMed Central

    Makkar, Anjali; Tewari, Shikha; Kishor, Kamal; Kataria, Santprakash

    2013-01-01

    A 17-year-old female patient presented with unusual enlargement of the gingiva with generalized alveolar bone loss. In spite of periodontal therapy, including plaque control, scaling, root planning and surgical treatment, recurrence with the same degree of the gingival enlargement and further loss of attachment level occurred. Biopsy revealed dense infiltration of normal plasma cells separated by collagenous stroma. Discontinuation of herbal toothpaste resulted in remarkable remission of the gingival enlargement within 2 weeks. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of toothpaste components disclosed “Acacia” as an etiologic antigenic agent and confirmed the diagnosis of plasma cell gingivitis (PCG). Usually, PCG is not associated with the loss of attachment. This case report appears to be the first publication to document an atypical presentation of PCG with generalized aggressive periodontitis related to the use of herbal toothpaste containing “Acacia” extract from the tree “Acacia Arabica.” PMID:24174738

  15. An update on crown lengthening. Part 1: Gingival tissue excess.

    PubMed

    Kalsi, Harpoonam Jeet; Hussain, Zahra; Darbar, Ulpee

    2015-03-01

    This is the first article in a two-part series which aims to provide an overview of the different techniques used to increase clinical crown height. In the first paper, the focus will be on the management of patients who present with gingival tissue excess. The different aetiologies are discussed and illustrated with clinical cases, following which a range of procedures that may be employed in the management of these patients are presented. With an increasingly ageing population, more patients are taking regular medications prescribed from their general medical practitioner, and so having a working knowledge of the specific drugs that may cause gingival enlargement is essential. Clinical Relevance: When patients with gingival tissue excess present in primary or secondary care, a clinician must have a good knowledge of the possible causes of the condition, as well as an idea of how the patient may be managed.

  16. Phenytoin-induced severe gingival overgrowth in a child.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Singh, Rajeev Kumar; Verma, Nidhi; Verma, Umesh Pratap

    2014-07-21

    Gingival enlargement or overgrowth (GO) is a common complication of the anticonvulsant drug phenytoin (PHT). GO is evident in almost half of the patients receiving PHT therapy. PHT-induced gingival overgrowth (PGO) is more common in children than in adults and affects both males and females equally. PGO may vary from mild to severe and does not seem to be dose dependant. It is supposed that PHT and its metabolites cause a direct effect on the periodontal tissues; however, poor oral hygiene may contribute to the severity of gingival inflammation in patients with PGO. Management of PGO includes meticulous oral hygiene practice to reduce inflammation and surgical excision of the overgrown tissue, known as gingivectomy. We present a case of PHT-induced severe GO in a 10-year-old boy and discuss the clinical features, aetiology, pathogenesis and management of PGO.

  17. Phenytoin-induced severe gingival overgrowth in a child

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rakesh; Singh, Rajeev Kumar; Verma, Nidhi; Verma, Umesh Pratap

    2014-01-01

    Gingival enlargement or overgrowth (GO) is a common complication of the anticonvulsant drug phenytoin (PHT). GO is evident in almost half of the patients receiving PHT therapy. PHT-induced gingival overgrowth (PGO) is more common in children than in adults and affects both males and females equally. PGO may vary from mild to severe and does not seem to be dose dependant. It is supposed that PHT and its metabolites cause a direct effect on the periodontal tissues; however, poor oral hygiene may contribute to the severity of gingival inflammation in patients with PGO. Management of PGO includes meticulous oral hygiene practice to reduce inflammation and surgical excision of the overgrown tissue, known as gingivectomy. We present a case of PHT-induced severe GO in a 10-year-old boy and discuss the clinical features, aetiology, pathogenesis and management of PGO. PMID:25053668

  18. Therapy for nifedipine-induced gingival overgrowth by saireito in rats

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective A calcium antagonist, nifedipine, causes gingival overgrowth as a side effect. It has been confirmed that the Japanese traditional medicine, Saireito, inhibits the nifedipine-induced proliferation of gingival fibroblasts in vitro. We performed an in vivo experiment to determine whether Saireito has a therapeutic use in the treatment of nifedipine-induced gingival overgrowth. Methods The rats had significant gingival overgrowth induced by the administration of nifedipine. The space between the submandibular incisors and the width of buccal gingiva of maxillary left first molar were macroscopically measured. The buccal gingiva was microscopically examined. Results Eight weeks after Saireito was administrated together with nifedipine, Saireito decreased both the incisor space and the gingiva width which had been enlarged by nifedipine and furthermore, the area of connective tissue of nifedipine + Saireito group was significantly smaller than that of nifedipine alone. Conclusion In conclusion, Saireito may be clinically effective in therapy for calcium antagonist-induced gingival overgrowth. PMID:19948446

  19. Immunoexpression of interleukin-6 in drug-induced gingival overgrowth patients

    PubMed Central

    Ganesh, P. R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: To analyze the role of proinflammatory cytokines in drug-induced gingival enlargement in Indian population. Aim: To evaluate for the presence of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in drug-induced gingival enlargement and to compare it with healthy control in the absence of enlargement. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five patients selected for the study and divided into control group (10) and study group (25) consisting of phenytoin (10); cyclosporin (10) and nifedipine (5) induced gingival enlargement. Gingival overgrowth index of Seymour was used to assess overgrowth and allot groups. Under LA, incisional biopsy done, tissue sample fixed in 10% formalin and immunohistochemically evaluated for the presence of IL-6 using LAB-SA method, Labeled- Streptavidin-Biotin Method (LAB-SA kit from Zymed- 2nd generation LAB-SA detection system, Zymed Laboratories, CA). The results of immunohistochemistry were statistically analyzed using Kruskaal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney test. Results: The data obtained from immunohistochemistry assessment shows that drug-induced gingival overgrowth (DIGO) samples express more IL-6 than control group and cyclosporin expresses more IL-6 followed by phenytoin and nifedipine. Conclusion: Increased IL-6 expression was noticed in all three DIGO groups in comparison with control group. Among the study group, cyclosporin expressed maximum IL-6 expression followed by phenytoin and nifedipine. PMID:27307657

  20. Gingival overgrowth as secondary effect of calcium channel blockers administration. A case report.

    PubMed

    Mironiuc-Cureu, M; Dumitriu, A S; Gheorghiu, I M; Stoian, I M

    2014-06-15

    Gingival overgrowth is, among other things, a side effect of the administration of dihydropyridine antihypertensives, generally associated with irritant factors of marginal periodontium. This case refers to a patient, female, who developed a large gingival enlargement that has a combined etiology: the systemic medication with lercanidipina and the presence of dental bridges, which are incorrectly adjusted to the dental cervix. The treatment for this case, involved a complex local treatment (antimicrobial, surgical, endodontic and prosthetic) and the collaboration with a specialist cardiologist. Maintaining the normal gingival parameters in time depends on the possibility of changing the antihypertensive medication, the accuracy of the new dental bridges and the periodic monitoring of the patient.

  1. Improved pathologic teeth migration following gingivectomy in a case of idiopathic gingival fibromatosis.

    PubMed

    Seki, Keisuke; Sato, Shuichi; Asano, Yukhiro; Akutagawa, Hideyasu; Ito, Koichi

    2010-01-01

    A case is reported of a 20-year-old woman with generalized severe gingival overgrowth covering almost all of the teeth with diastemata, diagnosed as idiopathic gingival fibromatosis. After initial therapy, the patient underwent surgery consisting of a full-mouth internal beveled gingivectomy. Postoperatively, the maxillary anterior teeth spontaneously moved to almost optimal positions. Removing the cause by gingivectomy can lead to spontaneous correction of the pathologic tooth migration. With supportive periodontal treatment, the patient showed no recurrence of gingival enlargement or repositioning of the teeth at the 5-year follow-up.

  2. [Gingival hypertrophy during orthodontic treatment: contribution of external bevel gingivectomy. Case report].

    PubMed

    Benoist, H M; Ngom, P I; Seck-Diallo, A; Diallo, P D

    2007-12-01

    Gingival enlargement is a condition that commonly develops during orthodontic treatment. Orthodontic appliances are irritation and retention plaque factors holding up oral hygiene and control of gingival inflammation. Two cases of gingival hypertrophy in young Senegalese females undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances are described and treated by gingivectomy. This surgical procedure have led to morphological conditions of gingiva allowing better plaque control and the orthodontic treatment going on. Periodical controls in child and adolescent are required for healthy periodontium during orthodontic therapy. Collaboration between orthodontist and periodontist is one of the most important keys to successful treatment.

  3. Significance of biofilms in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Wróblewska, Marta; Strużycka, Izabela; Mierzwińska-Nastalska, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    In the past decades significant scientific progress has taken place in the knowledge about biofilms. They constitute multilayer conglomerates of bacteria and fungi, surrounded by carbohydrates which they produce, as well as substances derived from saliva and gingival fluid. Modern techniques showed significant diversity of the biofilm environment and a system of microbial communication (quorum sensing), enhancing their survival. At present it is believed that the majority of infections, particularly chronic with exacerbations, are a result of biofilm formation, particularly in the presence of biomaterials. It should be emphasised that penetration of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents into deeper layers of a biofilm is poor, causing therapeutic problems and necessitating sometimes removal of the implant or prosthesis. Biofilms play an increasing role in dentistry as a result of more and more broad use in dental practice of plastic and implantable materials. Biofilms are produced on the surfaces of teeth as dental plaque, in the para-nasal sinuses, on prostheses, dental implants, as well as in waterlines of a dental unit, constituting a particular risk for severely immunocompromised patients. New methods of therapy and prevention of infections linked to biofilms are under development.

  4. Effects of a Novel Dental Gel on Plaque and Gingivitis: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Dadkhah, M; Chung, NE; Ajdaharian, J; Wink, C; Klokkevold, P; Wilder-Smith, P

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The goal of this prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blinded study was to evaluate the effects of a novel dental gel on plaque and gingival health. The dental gel was designed to (1) break up and prevent re-accumulation of microbial biofilm, and (2) inhibit metal mediated inflammation. Materials and Methods Twenty-five subjects with moderate gingival inflammation (Löe and Silness Gingival Index ≥2) and pocket depths <4 were randomly assigned to brush twice daily for 21 days with the test or the control dental gel. On Days 0, 7, 14 and 21, plaque levels (Quigley-Hein, Turesky Modification Plaque Index), gingival inflammation (Löe and Silness Gingival Index) and gingival bleeding (modified Sulcus Bleeding Index) were determined by one blinded, investigator using a pressure sensitive probe. Results After 3 weeks, all 3 clinical indices were significantly improved in both groups (P<0.05) and significantly lower in the test group (P<0.05). Conclusion The novel dental gel formulation was provided effective plaque control and reduced gingival inflammation. Clinical Relevance A novel dentifrice formulation may be an effective tool for plaque removal and maintaining gingival health. PMID:26052472

  5. [Biofilms in otolaryngology].

    PubMed

    Mena Viveros, Nicolás

    2014-01-01

    According to the National Institute of Health of the USA, «more than 60% of all microbial infections are caused by biofilms».'This can surprise us, but it is enough to consider that common infections like those of the genito-urinary tract, infections produced by catheters, middle ear infections in children, the formation of dental plaque and gingivitis are caused by biofilms, for this statement to seem more realistic. At present this is one of the subjects of great interest within medicine, particularly in otolaryngology. Bacteria have traditionally been considered to be in a free state without evident organization, partly perhaps by the ease of studying them in this form. Nevertheless, the reality is that, in nature, the great majority of these germs form complex colonies adhered to surfaces, colonies that have received the name of biofilms. These biofilms are more common than previously thought and almost all of the people have been in contact with them in the form of infections in the teeth or humid, slippery areas. New treatments that can eradicate them are currently being investigated.

  6. [Non plaque-related gingivitis].

    PubMed

    van Steenberghe, D; Quirynen, M

    2002-11-01

    Gingivitis is a symptom revealing an underlying pathology, mostly due to a bacterial accumulation. This explains why for dentists gingivitis is often synonymous of a plaque-related gingivitis. This is a dangerous simplification since it can be due to very different etiologies, which evidently imply very different treatments. This paper illustrates the most frequent causes, not only encountered by the periodontologist, but also by the general practitioner, such as erosive lichen planus, herpes, Candida and radiotherapy.

  7. Gingival hyperplasia in renal allograft recipients receiving cyclosporin-A and calcium antagonists.

    PubMed

    King, G N; Fullinfaw, R; Higgins, T J; Walker, R G; Francis, D M; Wiesenfeld, D

    1993-04-01

    Although it is established that the immunosuppressant cyclosporin-A (CsA) and calcium antagonists [Nifedipine (Nif) and Diltiazem (Dz)] can independently induce gingival enlargement, little has been documented on the significance of the salivary CsA levels and the combined effect of CsA and a calcium antagonist upon gingival tissues. In the present cross-sectional investigation, clinical periodontal parameters and the pharmacologic profiles of CsA, Nif, and Dz were determined for 66 renal transplant recipients. Subjects were divided into the following groups: Group (Gp) 1: CsA [n = 18]; Gp 2: CsA + Nif [n = 15]; Gp 3: CsA + Dz [n = 12] and a negative Control Gp 4: azathioprine [n = 21]. A gingival enlargement score was assessed for each patient from study models using a hyperplastic index (HI). Pharmacologic profiles included CsA whole blood and whole saliva levels as measured by fluorescence polarization immunoassay. The HI scores between Gp 1, 2 and 3 were not significantly different. However, when compared with controls (Gp 4), there was a significant difference in HI and all individual groups (Gp 1, 2, 3) (p < 0.05). Gingival hyperplasia was only weakly related to plaque and calculus but was unrelated to CsA dose (mg/kg/day), duration of CsA therapy (months), CsA blood or saliva levels (ng/ml), or the concurrent administration of a Nif or Dz. Gingival enlargement was found to occur in 49% of subjects who were either on CsA or CsA and a calcium antagonist. It is concluded that CsA alone or in combination with a calcium antagonist caused a significant increase in gingival enlargement compared with controls.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Long-term management of an idiopathic gingival fibromatosis patient with the primary dentition.

    PubMed

    Kamolmatyakul, S; Kietthubthew, S; Anusaksathien, O

    2001-01-01

    Gingival fibromatosis is usually seen as an isolated finding or occasionally in association with other features as part of a syndrome. The combination of gingival enlargement, hypertrichosis, epilepsy and mental retardation is also a commonly reported syndrome that features gingival fibromatosis. The following report is about a mentally retarded patient who has shown no sign of hypertrichosis, but has been taking phenobarbital as a long-term therapy drug for anti-convulsion. Long-term management of this patient has been carried out from the age of one-and-a-half years to 14 years old. The patient's clinical features, treatment received, histopathologic presentation of gingival fibromatosis and proper management of the condition are discussed.

  9. Expression of antimicrobial peptides and interleukin-8 during early stages of inflammation: An experimental gingivitis study.

    PubMed

    Dommisch, H; Staufenbiel, I; Schulze, K; Stiesch, M; Winkel, A; Fimmers, R; Dommisch, J; Jepsen, S; Miosge, N; Adam, K; Eberhard, J

    2015-12-01

    In the oral cavity, the epithelial surface is constantly exposed to a number of different microorganisms that are organized in a well-structured biofilm. The aim of this study was to monitor gingival expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in an early gingivitis model. Experimental gingivitis was allowed to develop in healthy volunteers (n = 17). Bleeding on probing (BOP%) and gingival crevicular fluid volume (GCF) were assessed at baseline and day 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14. Expression of AMPs (human beta-defensin-2, hBD-2; CC-chemokine ligand 20, CCL20; psoriasin, pso/S100A7) and IL-8 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in gingival biopsies. In addition, hBD-2 and IL-8 protein expression was monitored in GCF using the ELISA technology. Experimental gingivitis gradually developed with an increase in BOP scores and GCF volume over time. In GCF, elevated concentrations of hBD-2 and IL-8 were monitored at day 1, 5 and 7 (p ≤ 0.0002). Immunohistochemical analysis of gingival sections demonstrated increased staining for hBD-2 at day 3, whereas the CCL20, pso/S100A7, and IL-8 expression was increased at later time points (p < 0.05). For the first time, this study showed the time-dependent regulation of AMPs, following clinical signs of experimentally induced gingival inflammation. Differential temporal expression for AMPs may ensure a constant antimicrobial activity against changes in the bacterial composition of the growing dental biofilm. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Gingival crevicular fluid as a source of biomarkers for periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Barros, Silvana P; Williams, Ray; Offenbacher, Steven; Morelli, Thiago

    2016-02-01

    In evaluating the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases, the diagnostic potential of gingival crevicular fluid has been extensively explored during the last twenty years, from initially just confirming health and disease states to more recently investigating it as a potential prognostic tool. As host susceptibility is a critical determinant in periodontal disease pathogenesis, the inflammatory mediator levels present in gingival crevicular fluid represent relevant risk indicators for disease activity. Considerable work has been carried out to identify the many different cytokine inflammatory pathways and microbial stimuli that are associated with periodontal disease pathogenesis. Now, 'omics' approaches aim to summarize how these pathways interact and probably converge to create critical inflammatory networks. More recently, gingival crevicular fluid metabolomics appears promising as an additional diagnostic method. Biofilm structure and the host inflammatory response to the microbial challenge may induce specific inflammatory signatures. Host genetics and epigenetics may also modulate microbial colonization, adding to the multiplicity of potential causal pathways. Omics analyses of gingival crevicular fluid, measuring microbial and host interactions in association with the onset and progression of periodontal diseases, still show the potential to expand the landscape for the discovery of diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic markers. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Alport syndrome: significance of gingival biopsy in the initial diagnosis and periodontal evaluation after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Toygar, Hilal Uslu; Toygar, Okan; Guzeldemir, Esra; Cilasun, Ulkem; Nacar, Ahmet; Bal, Nebil

    2009-01-01

    Alport Syndrome (AS) is an important hereditary disorder affecting the glomerular basement membrane. Diagnosis of AS is based on the presence of hematuric nephropathy, renal failure, hearing loss, ocular abnormalities and changes in the glomerular basement membrane of the lamina densa. The aims of this case report were to show the changes in the gingival tissues in a patient with AS under therapy with cyclosporin-A after renal transplantation and to discuss the possible role of type IV collagen in gingival basal lamina as an alternative approach for the diagnosis of AS. A 20-year-old male patient with AS underwent periodontal therapy including a series of gingivectomy surgeries. Gingival samples obtained during the second surgery were examined histopathologically and by transmission electron microscopy for further pathological examination. Gingivectomy procedures have been performed every 6 months over the last 4 years. The excessive and fibrous gingival enlargements resulted in migration of the anterior teeth, but no alveolar bone loss occurred. This is the first report to demonstrate the possible changes in the gingival tissues caused by AS. It is suggested that gingival biopsy can be an initial diagnostic tool instead of renal or skin biopsies. Proper dental and periodontal care and regular visits to the dentist could provide limited gingival hyperplasia to patients with AS.

  12. Genetic linkage of hereditary gingival fibromatosis to chromosome 2p21.

    PubMed Central

    Hart, T C; Pallos, D; Bowden, D W; Bolyard, J; Pettenati, M J; Cortelli, J R

    1998-01-01

    Gingival fibromatosis is characterized by a slowly progressive benign enlargement of the oral gingival tissues. The condition results in the teeth being partially or totally engulfed by keratinized gingiva, causing aesthetic and functional problems. Both genetic and pharmacologically induced forms of gingival fibromatosis are known. The most common genetic form, hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF), is usually transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait, although sporadic cases are common and autosomal recessive inheritance has been reported. The genetic basis of gingival fibromatosis is unknown. We identified an extended family (n=32) segregating an autosomal dominant form of isolated gingival fibromatosis. Using a genomewide search strategy, we identified genetic linkage (Zmax=5.05, straight theta=.00) for the HGF phenotype to polymorphic markers in the genetic region of chromosome 2p21 bounded by the loci D2S1788 and D2S441. This is the first report of linkage for isolated HGF, and the findings have implications for identification of the underlying genetic basis of gingival fibromatosis. PMID:9529355

  13. Free gingival grafting procedure after excisional biopsy, 12-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Keskiner, Ilker; Alkan, B. Arzu; Tasdemir, Zekeriya

    2016-01-01

    The total removal of a lesion via excisional biopsy causes gingival recession, resulting in dentin hypersensitivity and esthetical problems. In this case report, a gingival recession defect resulting from an excisional biopsy was treated with a free gingival grafting procedure performed during the same appointment, and its 12-year follow-up was presented. A 44-year-old female patient was presented to our clinic with a firm, pedunculated, red gingival enlargement located on the labial surface of lower incisors. The exposed root surface, after the excisional biopsy, was covered with a free gingival graft. The lesion was pathologically diagnosed as pyogenic granuloma, and in the early postoperative phase, no recurrence was observed, but partial root coverage was determined. At 6-month follow-up, root coverage resulting from “creeping attachment” was observed, and this situation was maintained throughout the 12-year follow-up period. Repetitious postoperative discomfort and emotional stress for the patient may be avoided with a timesaving single appointment performing excisional biopsy and free gingival graft. Free gingival grafting procedure was used for this purpose not only to cover exposed root surfaces but also to eliminate dentin hypersensitivity and make oral hygiene procedures more effective. PMID:27403067

  14. Job Enlargement: A Multidimensional Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Lex

    1975-01-01

    An evaluation study into the effects of a job enlargement exercise indicates that the expected increases in satisfaction associated with greater work variety, novelty, and felt use of abilities were achieved. (Author/MLF)

  15. Job Enlargement: A Multidimensional Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Lex

    1975-01-01

    An evaluation study into the effects of a job enlargement exercise indicates that the expected increases in satisfaction associated with greater work variety, novelty, and felt use of abilities were achieved. (Author/MLF)

  16. Lymphoplasmacytic gingivitis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Baird, Kristin

    2005-06-01

    A 12-year-old male neutered short haired cat was presented due to difficulty eating and pawing at the face. Examination revealed severe gingivitis and stomatitis throughout the oral cavity. Gingival biopsy provided a diagnosis of lymphoplasmacytic stomatitis. Extraction of all premolars and molars resulted in elimination of all clinical signs.

  17. Lymphoplasmacytic gingivitis in a cat

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract A 12-year-old male neutered short haired cat was presented due to difficulty eating and pawing at the face. Examination revealed severe gingivitis and stomatitis throughout the oral cavity. Gingival biopsy provided a diagnosis of lymphoplasmacytic stomatitis. Extraction of all premolars and molars resulted in elimination of all clinical signs. PMID:16048015

  18. Biofilm Lysine Decarboxylase, a New Therapeutic Target for Periodontal Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Lohinai, Zsolt; Keremi, Beata; Szöko, Eva; Tábi, Tamás; Szabo, Csaba; Tulassay, Zsolt; DiCesare, John C; Davis, Carole A; Collins, Lindsay M; Levine, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Lysine, a nutritionally essential amino acid, enters the oral cavity in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). During oral hygiene restriction (OHR), lysine decarboxylase (LDC) in dento-gingival biofilms converts lysine to cadaverine. Lysine depletion impairs the dental epithelial barrier to bacterial proinflammatory products. Antibodies to LDC from Eikenella corrodens (Ecor-LDC) inhibit LDC activity and retard gingival inflammation in beagle dogs. Whether E. corrodens is the major source of LDC in dental biofilms and whether the lysine analog tranexamic acid (TA) inhibits LDC activity, biofilm accumulation, and GCF exudation in a human gingivitis model were examined. Antibodies raised in goats to LDC-rich extracts from E. corrodens cell surfaces were used to inhibit Ecor-LDC and detect it in biofilm extracts using Western blots. Ecor-LDC activity was measured at pH 4.0 to 11.0 and its TA dissociation constant (Ki) at pH 7.0. Young adults used a 5% or 10% TA mouthwash three times daily during OHR for 1 week. Ecor-LDC antibodies and TA inhibited biofilm LDC. Ki of TA for Ecor-LDC was 940 μM. TA reduced plaque index (PI) by downshifting the PI correlation with biofilm lysine content after OHR without TA. GCF was correspondingly suppressed. However, greater TA retention in saliva partially relieved GCF suppression but not biofilm lysine depletion. TA slightly inhibits LDC but strongly reduces biofilm by inhibiting bacterial lysine uptake. Unfortunately, TA may impair dental epithelial attachments by also inhibiting lysine transporter uptake. Ecor-LDC inhibitors other than lysine analogs may maintain sufficient lysine levels and attachment integrity to prevent periodontal inflammation.

  19. Permeabilizing biofilms

    DOEpatents

    Soukos, Nikolaos S.; Lee, Shun; Doukas,; Apostolos G.

    2008-02-19

    Methods for permeabilizing biofilms using stress waves are described. The methods involve applying one or more stress waves to a biofilm, e.g., on a surface of a device or food item, or on a tissue surface in a patient, and then inducing stress waves to create transient increases in the permeability of the biofilm. The increased permeability facilitates delivery of compounds, such as antimicrobial or therapeutic agents into and through the biofilm.

  20. Permeabilizing biofilms

    DOEpatents

    Soukos, Nikolaos S [Revere, MA; Lee, Shun [Arlington, VA; Doukas, Apostolos G [Belmont, MA

    2008-02-19

    Methods for permeabilizing biofilms using stress waves are described. The methods involve applying one or more stress waves to a biofilm, e.g., on a surface of a device or food item, or on a tissue surface in a patient, and then inducing stress waves to create transient increases in the permeability of the biofilm. The increased permeability facilitates delivery of compounds, such as antimicrobial or therapeutic agents into and through the biofilm.

  1. Eugenia uniflora Dentifrice for Treating Gingivitis in Children: Antibacterial Assay and Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Jovito, Vanessa de Carvalho; Freires, Irlan Almeida; Ferreira, Danilo Augusto de Holanda; Paulo, Marçal de Queiroz; Castro, Ricardo Dias de

    2016-01-01

    School-age children are frequently at high risk for the onset of biofilm-dependent conditions, including dental caries and periodontal diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of a dentifrice containing Eugenia uniflora Linn. (Surinam cherry) extract versus a triclosan-based comparator in treating gingivitis in children aged 10-12 years. The in vitro antibacterial potential of the dentifrice was tested against oral pathogens (Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus oralis and Lactobacillus casei). Then a phase-II clinical trial was conducted with 50 subjects aged 10-12 years, with clinical signs of gingivitis. The subjects were randomly assigned to the experimental group (n=25) and control group (n=25), in which participants used the experimental dentifrice and a triclosan-based fluoridated dentifrice (Colgate Total 12(r)), respectively. Clinical examinations assessed the presence of gingivitis (primary outcome) and biofilm accumulation (secondary outcome) using the Gingival-Bleeding Index (GBI) and Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S), respectively, at baseline and after seven days of tooth brushing 3x/day. The data were analyzed using paired and unpaired t-test (GBI) and Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney (OHI-S), with p≤0.05. The experimental dentifrice showed efficient antibacterial activity in vitro. In the clinical trial, a significant reduction in gingival bleeding was observed in both experimental and control groups (p<0.0001), with no statistical difference between them (p=0.178), although a small size effect was observed. Biofilm accumulation was only reduced in the control group (p=0.0039). In conclusion, E. uniflora dentifrice showed anti-gingivitis properties in children aged 10-12 years. Thus, it may be a potentially efficient and safe product to be used alternatively in preventive dental practice.

  2. Management of Gingival Overgrowth in a Cardiac Transplant Patient Using Laser-Assisted Gingivectomy/Gingivoplasty.

    PubMed

    Maddi, Abhiram; Alluri, Leela Subhashini; Ciancio, Sebastian G

    2015-07-01

    Drug-induced gingival overgrowth (DIGO) is an oral clinical manifestation associated with certain medications such as immunosuppressants that are administered to organ transplant patients to prevent graft rejection. In patients with cardiac transplants, management of DIGO is critical. In such patients, plaque biofilm accumulation at the gingival interface might be detrimental as it may lead to transient bacteremia as well as systemic inflammation resulting in thromboembolic events. This case report describes the management of DIGO in a cardiac transplant recipient by change of immunosuppressant medication, non-surgical periodontal therapy and laser-assisted gingivectomy.

  3. On the Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Drug-Induced Gingival Overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Rámiz, Albert; Brunet-LLobet, Lluís; Lahor-Soler, Eduard; Miranda-Rius, Jaume

    2017-01-01

    Gingival overgrowth has been linked to multiple factors such as adverse drug effects, inflammation, neoplastic processes, and hereditary gingival fibromatosis. Drug-induced gingival overgrowth is a well-established adverse event. In early stages, this gingival enlargement is usually located in the area of the interdental papilla. Histologically, there is an increase in the different components of the extracellular matrix. The aim of this manuscript is to describe and analyze the different cellular and molecular agents involved in the pathogenesis of Drug-induced gingival overgrowth. A literature search of the MEDLINE/PubMed database was conducted to identify the mechanisms involved in the process of drug-induced gingival overgrowth, with the assistance of a research librarian. We present several causal hypotheses and discuss the advances in the understanding of the mechanisms that trigger this gingival alteration. In vitro studies have revealed phenotypic cellular changes in keratinocytes and fibroblasts and an increase of the extracellular matrix with collagen and glycosaminoglycans. Drug-induced gingival overgrowth confirms the key role of collagenase and integrins, membrane receptors present in the fibroblasts, due to their involvement in the catabolism of collagen. The three drug categories implicated: calcineuron inhibitors (immunosuppressant drugs), calcium channel blocking agents and anticonvulsant drugs appear to present a multifactorial pathogenesis with a common molecular action: the blockage of the cell membrane in the Ca2+/Na+ ion flow. The alteration of the uptake of cellular folic acid, which depends on the regulated channels of active cationic transport and on passive diffusion, results in a dysfunctional degradation of the connective tissue. Certain intermediate molecules such as cytokines and prostaglandins play a role in this pathological mechanism. The concomitant inflammatory factor encourages the appearance of fibroblasts, which leads to

  4. Effects of immunization with natural and recombinant lysine decarboxylase on canine gingivitis development.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jennifer L; DeMars, Paul L; Collins, Lindsay M; Stoner, Julie A; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Komori, Naoka; Singh, Anil; Feasley, Christa L; Haddock, James A; Levine, Martin

    2012-10-19

    Periodontal disease, gingival inflammation (gingivitis) and periodontal attachment loss (periodontitis), causes tooth loss and susceptibility to chronic inflammation. Professionally scaling and cleaning the teeth regularly controls the disease, but is expensive in companion animals. Eikenella corrodens is common in canine oral cavities where it is a source of lysine decarboxylase (LDC). In human dental biofilms (plaques), LDC converts lysine to cadaverine and impairs the gingival epithelial barrier to bacteria. LDC vaccination may therefore retard gingivitis development. Year-old beagle dogs provided blood samples, and had weight and clinical measurements (biofilm and gingivitis) recorded. After scaling and cleaning, two dogs were immunized subcutaneously with 0.2mg native LDC from E. corrodens and 2 sets of four dogs with 0.2mg recombinant LDC purified from Escherichia coli. A third set of 4 dogs was immunized intranasally. Rehydragel(®), Emulsigen(®), Polygen™ or Carbigen™ were used as adjuvant. Four additional pairs of dogs were sham-immunized with each adjuvant alone (controls). Immunizations were repeated twice, 3 weeks apart, and clinical measurements were obtained after another 2 weeks, when the teeth were scaled and cleaned again. Tooth brushing was then stopped and the diet was changed from hard to soft chow. Clinical measurements were repeated after 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 weeks. Compared with sham-immunized dogs, gingivitis was reduced over all 8 weeks of soft diet after subcutaneous immunization with native LDC, or after intranasal immunization with recombinant LDC in Carbigen™, but for only 6 of the 8 weeks after subcutaneous immunization with recombinant LDC in Emulsigen(®) (repeated measures ANOVA). Subcutaneous vaccination induced a strong serum IgG antibody response that decreased during the soft diet period, whereas intranasal immunization induced a weak serum IgA antibody response that did not decrease. Immunization with recombinant LDC may

  5. Medical Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    For more than two decades, Biotechnology and Bioengineering has documented research focused on natural and engineered microbial biofilms within aquatic and subterranean ecosystems, wastewater and waste-gas treatment systems, marine vessels and structures, and industrial bioprocesses. Compared to suspended culture systems, intentionally engineered biofilms are heterogeneous reaction systems that can increase reactor productivity, system stability, and provide inherent cell: product separation. Unwanted biofilms can create enormous increases in fluid frictional resistances, unacceptable reductions in heat transfer efficiency, product contamination, enhanced material deterioration, and accelerated corrosion. Missing from B&B has been an equivalent research dialogue regarding the basic molecular microbiology, immunology, and biotechnological aspects of medical biofilms. Presented here are the current problems related to medical biofilms; current concepts of biofilm formation, persistence, and interactions with the host immune system; and emerging technologies for controlling medical biofilms. PMID:18366134

  6. Role of Biofilm Roughness and Hydrodynamic Conditions in Legionella pneumophila Adhesion to and Detachment from Simulated Drinking Water Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yun; Monroy, Guillermo L.; Derlon, Nicolas; Janjaroen, Dao; Huang, Conghui; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Boppart, Stephen A.; Ashbolt, Nicholas J.; Liu, Wen-Tso; Nguyen, Thanh H.

    2015-01-01

    Biofilms in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) could exacerbate the persistence and associated risks of pathogenic Legionella pneumophila (L. pneumophila), thus raising human health concerns. However, mechanisms controlling adhesion and subsequent detachment of L. pneumophila associated with biofilms remain unclear. We determined the connection between L. pneumophila adhesion and subsequent detachment with biofilm physical structure characterization using optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging technique. Analysis of the OCT images of multispecies biofilms grown under low nutrient condition up to 34 weeks revealed the lack of biofilm deformation even when these biofilms were exposed to flow velocity of 0.7 m/s, typical flow for DWDS. L. pneumophila adhesion on these biofilm under low flow velocity (0.007 m/s) positively correlated with biofilm roughness due to enlarged biofilm surface area and local flow conditions created by roughness asperities. The preadhered L. pneumophila on selected rough and smooth biofilms were found to detach when these biofilms were subjected to higher flow velocity. At the flow velocity of 0.1 and 0.3 m/s, the ratio of detached cell from the smooth biofilm surface was from 1.3 to 1.4 times higher than that from the rough biofilm surface, presumably because of the low shear stress zones near roughness asperities. This study determined that physical structure and local hydrodynamics control adhesion and detachment from simulated drinking water biofilm, thus it is the first step toward reducing the risk of L. pneumophila exposure and subsequent infections. PMID:25699403

  7. Role of biofilm roughness and hydrodynamic conditions in Legionella pneumophila adhesion to and detachment from simulated drinking water biofilms.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yun; Monroy, Guillermo L; Derlon, Nicolas; Janjaroen, Dao; Huang, Conghui; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Boppart, Stephen A; Ashbolt, Nicholas J; Liu, Wen-Tso; Nguyen, Thanh H

    2015-04-07

    Biofilms in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) could exacerbate the persistence and associated risks of pathogenic Legionella pneumophila (L. pneumophila), thus raising human health concerns. However, mechanisms controlling adhesion and subsequent detachment of L. pneumophila associated with biofilms remain unclear. We determined the connection between L. pneumophila adhesion and subsequent detachment with biofilm physical structure characterization using optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging technique. Analysis of the OCT images of multispecies biofilms grown under low nutrient condition up to 34 weeks revealed the lack of biofilm deformation even when these biofilms were exposed to flow velocity of 0.7 m/s, typical flow for DWDS. L. pneumophila adhesion on these biofilm under low flow velocity (0.007 m/s) positively correlated with biofilm roughness due to enlarged biofilm surface area and local flow conditions created by roughness asperities. The preadhered L. pneumophila on selected rough and smooth biofilms were found to detach when these biofilms were subjected to higher flow velocity. At the flow velocity of 0.1 and 0.3 m/s, the ratio of detached cell from the smooth biofilm surface was from 1.3 to 1.4 times higher than that from the rough biofilm surface, presumably because of the low shear stress zones near roughness asperities. This study determined that physical structure and local hydrodynamics control L. pneumophila adhesion to and detachment from simulated drinking water biofilm, thus it is the first step toward reducing the risk of L. pneumophila exposure and subsequent infections.

  8. Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis: A Review and a Report of a Rare Case

    PubMed Central

    Aghili, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF) is a rare condition which manifests itself by an enlarged gingival tissue covering teeth to various extents. The condition may occur isolated or as part of a syndrome. This paper presents a case of 9-year-old female patient suffering from HGF with chief complaint of mouth protrusion. Cephalometric findings showed severe mandibular deficiency and vertical maxillary excess. Patient exhibited perioral muscle contraction on mouth closing. After discussing the treatment possibilities with the patient and her parents, the decision was made to wait until growth potential decreases (following the adolescent growth spurt) and to correct the problem with orthognathic surgery. PMID:23533834

  9. Nifedipine-induced gingival hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    James, J A; Linden, G J

    1992-12-01

    This case study reports on the management of a woman suffering from thrombocytopenic purpura who was referred to the periodontal clinic with gingival swelling and bleeding. This condition was related to nifedipine therapy for hypertension.

  10. Amlodipine-induced gingival overgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Triveni, M. G.; Rudrakshi, C.; Mehta, D. S.

    2009-01-01

    Gingival overgrowth represents an over-exuberant response to a variety of local and systemic conditions. Certain anticonvulsants, immuno-suppressive drugs and a number of calcium channel blockers have been shown to produce similar gingival overgrowths in certain susceptible patients. Amlodipine is a comparatively new calcium channel blocker and has been used with increasing frequency in the management of hypertension and angina. Although amlodipine is considered as a safe drug, very rarely it may induce gingival overgrowth also. A rare case of amlodipine-induced gingival overgrowth has been reported herein in a 50-year-old female patient. The treatment aspect included Phase-1 therapy, substitution of the drug, the surgical excision and the maintenance and supportive therapy resulting in excellent clinical outcome. PMID:20379416

  11. Peripheral giant cell fibroma: A rare type of gingival overgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Monali; Rathod, Chaitali V.; Shah, Vandana

    2012-01-01

    This case report describes a rare benign tumor in a 21-year-old female was referred to the department of Periodontics, regarding areas of gingival enlargement affecting both the maxilla and mandible on the right side. She was not having any systemic and family history. Surgical excision of the lesions was carried out under local anesthetic. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of giant cell fibroma. The condition responded to surgical excision and appears to have limited growth potential. It may affect a wide spectrum of ages, but it is most commonly found in young people and can be alarming due to rapid enlargement and ulceration; so careful diagnosis is important to avoid unnecessary aggressive treatment. PMID:23055599

  12. Diode Laser Versus Scalpel in the Treatment of Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis in a 6-Year Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Aboujaoude, Samia; Cassia, Antoine; Moukarzel, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF) is a rare disease characterized by a benign enlargement of the gingiva involving both the mandible and the maxilla. This case is about a 6-year-old child with non syndromic HGF showing a severe gingival enlargement covering almost all surfaces of the teeth, in both arches, hence causing major aesthetic, phonetic and masticatory problems. The aim of the present article is to compare the outcomes of two therapeutical approaches: i) classical surgical removal with scalpel; and ii) diode laser resection. Compared to the surgical approach, the clinical results show that the main advantages of the diode laser technique are a better visibility during the intervention, minimal postoperative discomfort combined to a better gingival recontouring. However, the time consumption and the high cost of the laser equipment remain the main disadvantages of the systematic use of this technique. PMID:27994842

  13. [Dental biofilms].

    PubMed

    Simain, F; Rompen, E; Heinen, E

    2010-10-01

    Orodental pathologies are generally classified into two main groups: caries and parodontopathies. They result from polymicrobial infections based on the dental plaque's theory which has constantly evolved. Therefore, the concept of acquired biological pellicle or biofilm has been described and largely elaborated.A bacterial biofilm is a unit of bacterial microcolonies embedded within an exopolymeric matrix and adherent to an inert or living surface. The aim of this paper is to provide a review of the literature with regard to the formation, and composition of the biofilm, as well as to point out the close link that exists between biofilm and dental medicine.

  14. Enlarging NATO: The Russian Factor.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    Responses to Enlargement 104 Summary 107 Contents vii Chapter Five RESOURCES FORSTATISM 109 Russia’s Economy HO Defense Policy: Getting... Economy Will Bear 144 Procurement. Requirements 145 All-Volunteer Force 147 Summary 147 Combat Capability 148 Technology 148 Skills and Doctrine...absorb capitalism, re- cover lost wealth, and build a modern economy . Moreover, Russia will lack the military strength of the Soviet Union by a

  15. [Vectorcardiographic manifestations of atrial enlargements].

    PubMed

    de Micheli, A; Medrano, G A

    1990-01-01

    Rational interpretation of changes of the P loop due to atrial enlargements must to rely on the magnitude and spatial orientation of main resultant vectors of the activation sequence of the atria. Under normal conditions, these vectors give rise to a mean vector oriented to the left downward and discretely forward with respect to their point of origin. In the presence of right atrial enlargement, the manifestation of the first vector of atrial depolarization, oriented downward and forward, is increased. This one moves in the same direction as the mean vector of atrial depolarization, originating an elongated P loop of more than 100 mcv in the three planes. Nevertheless, in the horizontal plane, increase of the P loop voltage predominates when hypertrophy exists, while augmentation of its area predominates when dilatation exists. In left atrial enlargement, the manifestation of the second vector of atrial depolarization, oriented to the left and backward, is augmented, and it moves in the same direction as the mean vector of atrial depolarization. For this, the PF loop acquires a characteristic aspect of a boxing glove, an the PH loop becomes diphasic, with its posterior area more or less prominent, or with a typical figure-eight conformation. If a biatrial enlargement is present, the manifestation of both the main resultant vectors of atrial depolarization is accentuated. Therefore the voltage of the diphasic P loop increases. Moreover the Ps loop has a triangular configuration, with its base of 30 msc or more, located below its point of origin. Generally disturbances of interatrial and intraatrial conduction coexist owing to myocardial damage.

  16. Apoptosis in Gingival Overgrowth Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Kantarci, A.; Augustin, P.; Firatli, E.; Sheff, M.C.; Hasturk, H.; Graves, D.T.; Trackman, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    Variations in the balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis could contribute to the etiology of gingival overgrowth. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that, in fibrotic gingival lesions, fibroblast proliferation is stimulated and apoptosis is decreased. Apoptotic index, caspase 3 expression, the proliferative index, FOXO1 expression, and histological inflammation were measured in situ. Analysis of data showed that apoptosis decreased in all forms of gingival overgrowth examined (p < 0.05), and inflammation caused a small but significant increase compared with non-inflamed tissues (p < 0.05). The greatest decrease of apoptosis occurred in the most fibrotic tissues. Cell proliferation was elevated in all forms of gingival overgrowth tested, independent of inflammation (p < 0.05). To identify potential mechanisms of transcriptional regulation of apoptosis, we assessed FOXO1 and caspase 3 expression levels and found them to correlate well with diminished apoptosis. Analysis of data suggests that increased fibroblast proliferation and a simultaneous decrease in apoptosis contribute to gingival overgrowth. PMID:17720861

  17. Effect of Gingivitis on Azithromycin Concentrations in Gingival Crevicular Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Nidhi; Lai, Pin-Chuang; Walters, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Aim Macrolide antibiotics yield high concentrations in inflamed tissue, suggesting that their levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) could be increased at gingivitis sites. However, the increased volume of GCF associated with gingivitis could potentially dilute macrolides. To determine whether these assumptions are correct, the bioavailability of systemically-administered azithromycin was compared in GCF from healthy and gingivitis sites. Materials and methods Experimental gingivitis was induced in one maxillary posterior sextant in nine healthy subjects. Contralateral healthy sextants served as controls. Subjects ingested 500 mg of azithromycin followed by a 250 mg dose 24 hours later. Four hours after the second dose, plaque was removed from experimental sites. GCF was collected from 8 surfaces in both the experimental and control sextants and pooled separately. GCF samples were subsequently collected on the 2nd, 3rd, 8th and 15th days and azithromycin content was determined by agar diffusion bioassay. Results On days 2 and 3, the pooled GCF volume at experimental sites was significantly higher than at control sites (P <0.01) and the total azithromycin mass in 30 second GCF samples pooled from experimental sites was significantly higher than at control sites (P < 0.02). However, there were no significant differences in azithromycin concentration between the experimental and control pools at any point. Concentrations exceeded 7.3 μg/ml on day 2 and 2.5 μg/ml on day 15. Conclusions Azithromycin concentrations are similar in GCF from gingivitis sites and healthy sites, suggesting that the processes that regulate GCF azithromycin concentration can compensate for local inflammatory changes. PMID:22220766

  18. Bacterial and salivary biomarkers predict the gingival inflammatory profile.

    PubMed

    Lee, Angie; Ghaname, Carrie B; Braun, Thomas M; Sugai, James V; Teles, Ricardo P; Loesche, Walter J; Kornman, Kenneth S; Giannobile, William V; Kinney, Janet S

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this human investigation is to explore the relationship of gingivitis with salivary biomarkers, periodontal pathogens, and interleukin (IL)-1 polymorphism after a transient inflammatory burden. Thirty healthy human participants were randomized by IL-1 genotype status to control for potential influences of this particular single nucleotide polymorphism on the inflammatory profile. Oral hygiene practices ceased for 21 days to induce gingivitis (induction), after which home care was reinstated until 35 days (resolution). Clinical parameters included plaque (PI) and gingival (GI) indices and papillary bleeding score (PBS). Levels and proportions of 40 subgingival bacteria were determined using checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. Saliva was analyzed using a multiplex protein array for 30 biomarkers associated with host defense, inflammation, tissue destruction, and angiogenesis. Mean PI, GI, and PBS values were significantly increased during induction and decreased during resolution as measured at 35 days (P <0.01), although no differences were observed between IL-1 groups. Participants were stratified as either "high" or "low" responders based on inflammatory response (high: GI >1.5; low: GI ≤1.5). Baseline levels of salivary IL-6 and IL-8 demonstrated the highest ability to discriminate between high and low responders (area under the curve [AUC] of 0.81 and 0.72, respectively). Salivary biomarkers, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and bacterial biofilm were combined to generate receiver operating characteristic curves. High levels of IL-6 and MMP-1 at baseline demonstrated the strongest ability to predict high responders (AUC of 0.89; odds ratio of 17.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.7 to 171.7). In this proof-of-concept investigation, we identified specific biomarker and microbial signatures that are associated with gingival inflammation (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00980525).

  19. Combination of inflammatory and amlodipine induced gingival overgrowth in a patient with cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Pasupuleti, Mohan Kumar; Musalaiah, S.V.V.S.; Nagasree, M.; Kumar, P. Aravind

    2013-01-01

    Gingival overgrowth (GO) is among one of the most important clinical features of gingival pathology frequently seen in periodontal clinic. Amlodipine is a comparatively new calcium channel blocker and is being used with increasing frequency in the management of hypertension and angina. A 48-year-old Indian woman who was on amlodipine for 3 years for hypertension reported to the department of periodontics with the complaint of swollen, un esthetic gums. The patient developed GO 6 months before her first visit to dental hospital. She developed GO very rapidly due to the increase in amlodipine dose due to the severe angina attack 6 months before and due to the use of cholesterol (CHO) lowering drug. The main aim of the case report is to study the severity of amlodipine induced GO in a patient with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to identify the role of subgingival microorganisms on inflammatory gingival enlargement in the same patient. The severity and rapidity of gingival enlargement in this report could have been triggered by doubling the dose of amlodipine and concomitant use of CHO lowering drug. PMID:24251234

  20. Nifedipine induces periostin expression in gingival fibroblasts through TGF-beta.

    PubMed

    Kim, S S; Jackson-Boeters, L; Darling, M R; Rieder, M J; Hamilton, D W

    2013-11-01

    Gingival enlargement is a fibrotic condition that can arise from systemic administration of the dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker nifedipine. Periostin, a transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β)-inducible matricellular protein, has been associated with fibrosis in numerous tissues, but its expression has never been examined in nifedipine-influenced gingival enlargement (NIGE). The objective of this study was to assess if periostin up-regulation is associated with NIGE and whether nifedipine induces periostin expression in gingival fibroblasts. In NIGE tissue (n = 6), periostin is overexpressed in the gingival connective tissue compared with healthy control tissue (n = 6). The transcription factor p-SMAD2/3, which is associated with canonical TGF-β signaling, localizes to the nuclei in both HGFs and oral epithelial cells in NIGE tissues, but not in control healthy tissue. In vitro culture of HGFs with 30 and 100 ng/mL of nifedipine significantly increased periostin mRNA and protein levels, which correlated with increased levels of active TGF-β and increased phosphorylation and nuclear localization of SMAD3. Blocking of canonical TGF-β signaling through inhibition of the TGF-β receptor I with SB431542 significantly reduced nifedipine-induced SMAD3 phosphorylation and periostin expression. Our results demonstrate that nifedipine up-regulates periostin in HGFs in a TGF-β-dependent manner.

  1. The Slowly Enlarging Ventriculus Terminalis

    PubMed Central

    Woodley-Cook, Joel; Konieczny, Magdalena; Spears, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background A cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) cavity within the conus medullaris has been described by the term ventriculus terminalis (VT) or the fifth ventricle. The finding of a VT on MRI imaging of the lumbar spine is often incidental but may be found in patients with low back pain or neuromuscular deficits. These lesions, when identified, are thought to regress or remain stable in terms of size, although some have been described to enlarge in the presence of post-traumatic meningeal hemorrhages or deformities of the vertebral canal. Case Report We describe a case of a slowly growing VT in a patient with progressing lower limb weakness without any history or imaging findings of trauma or spinal canal abnormalities. Conclusions We present an intriguing case of a slowly growing VT in a woman with progressive neurological symptoms. Surgical fenestration provided complete symptomatic relief and follow-up imaging two years after surgery demonstrated no evidence of recurrence. This, to our knowledge, is the first described case of a slowly enlarging VT independent of any other imaging findings. PMID:27867442

  2. Multimodality Imaging of the Effects of a Novel Dentifrice on Oral Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Ajdaharian, Janet; Dadkhah, Mohammad; Sabokpey, Sara; Biren-Fetz, John; Chung, Na Eun; Wink, Cherie; Wilder-Smith, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Objective Oral biofilm formation and progression on the surface of the tooth can lead to advanced oral disease such as gingivitis. The purpose of this randomized, controlled, double-blinded study was to evaluate the effects of a novel dental gel on oral plaque biofilm using multimodal imaging techniques. Materials and Methods Twenty-five subjects with moderate gingival inflammation (Löe and Silness Gingival Index ≥ 2) and pocket depths <4 were randomly assigned to brush twice daily for 21 days with the test or the control dental gel. In vivo multimodality in situ imaging was performed over a 3-week period using in vivo Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Non-Linear Optical microscopy (NLOM). Plaque levels, gingival inflammation and gingival bleeding were also charted on days 0, 7, 14, and 21 using standard clinical indices. Results After 3 weeks, OCT and NLOM images showed a macroscopic break-up of the plaque layer and smaller, fragmented residual deposits in the test group with no apparent changes in the pellicle. Biofilm was also reduced in the control group, but to a lesser degree with regard to thickness, continuity and surface area. Paralleling these imaging results, clinical indices were significantly improved in both groups (P <0.05) and significantly lower in the test group (P <0.05). Conclusion Both dental gels reduced oral biofilm with the test gel showing greater efficacy (P <0.05) as determined by clinical and imaging parameters. PMID:24916419

  3. A rare clinical presentation of sarcoidosis; gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Güzel, Aygül; Köksal, Nurhan; Aydın, Davut; Aslan, Kerim; Gören, Fikret; Karagöz, Filiz

    2013-10-01

    Gingivitis due to sarcoidosis is a relatively rare condition. Gingivitis or isolated gingival involvement may be the first sign of systemic sarcoidosis. We report the case of a 37 year-old woman with isolated gingivitis due to sarcoidosis confirmed by biopsy. Following treatment with a systemic corticosteroid (prednisolone 40 mg/day), all clinical and radiologic findings were completely improved. In cases of chronic and intractable gingivitis, systemic sarcoidosis should be suspected. It should be confirmed with a biopsy, and the patient should be referred to a chest disease clinic to exclude other organ involvement.

  4. Unilateral adrenal enlargement due to Histoplasma capsulatum.

    PubMed

    Swartz, M A; Scofield, R H; Dickey, W D; Kirk, J L; Wilson, D A; Pitha, J V; Muchmore, H G

    1996-10-01

    Human infection with Histoplasma capsulatum runs the gamut from asymptomatic to disseminated disease. CT-directed fine-needle aspiration of bilaterally enlarged adrenal glands has been used in diagnosing serious infections with this ubiquitous organism. Three cases have previously been reported in which H. capsulatum infection caused unilateral adrenal enlargement; this enlargement was diagnosed post-mortem. We describe three patients with unilateral adrenal enlargement due to H. capsulatum whose conditions were diagnosed antemortem. We encourage clinicians to include infection with H. capsulatum as well as other granulomatous diseases and tumors in the differential diagnosis of unilateral adrenal enlargement.

  5. Gingival Fibromatosis with Significant De Novo Formation of Fibrotic Tissue and a High Rate of Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Gawron, Katarzyna; Łazarz-Bartyzel, Katarzyna; Fertala, Andrzej; Plakwicz, Paweł; Potempa, Jan; Chomyszyn-Gajewska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 11 Final Diagnosis: Hereditary gingival fibromatosis Symptoms: Gingival overgrowth Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Surgery Specialty: Dentistry Objective: Rare disease Background: Hereditary gingival fibromatosis is characterized by slowly progressive enlargement of the gingiva that can present as an isolated condition or a part of various syndromes. Case Report: An 11-year-old female reported with a gingival lesion that caused masticatory problems and poor oral hygiene. Periodontal examination revealed a dense tissue covering 30% of her teeth crowns within both jaws. Panoramic x-ray showed a normal bone height and teeth positioning. The patient did not use any medications, but a similar condition was also present in other family members. The patient was diagnosed with hereditary gingival fibromatosis. Surgery was carried out to remove excess of gingival tissue. Post-surgical healing was uneventful, but four weeks after the first surgery, the condition recurred amounting to 45% of the initial tissue volume presenting in the mandible, and 25% in the maxilla. Two months later, no significant growth was noted in the mandible, while in the maxilla, growth increased to 40% of the pre-operative state. Analysis by polarized microscope showed a significant increase of thin fibrotic fibrils that contributed 80% of the total pool of collagen fibrils in the patient’s gingiva, but only 25% in healthy gingiva. The patient was receiving outpatient care for follow-up every three months and surgical intervention had not been planned as long as her periodontal health would not be compromised. Conclusions: It is currently not clear whether the extent of the fibrosis had a mechanistic association with the ratio of gingival tissue re-growth in our case study. Further studies are needed to explain this association and improve the management of this condition. PMID:27609299

  6. Gingival involvement in oral paracoccidioidomycosis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Cléverson O; Almeida, Aroldo Dos Santos; Pereira, Alessandro Antônio Costa; Sallum, Antônio Wilson; Hanemann, João Adolfo Costa; Tatakis, Dimitris N

    2007-07-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis, a deep mycosis endemic in parts of Latin America, often presents with oral lesions involving the gingiva. Nevertheless, the periodontal literature is devoid of references to oral paracoccidioidomycosis. The purpose of this study was to characterize the gingival involvement in oral paracoccidioidomycosis and to contrast clinical and histopathologic diagnosis of the disease. Differential diagnosis and management of oral paracoccidioidomycosis were reviewed. From January 1995 to October 2006, the files of the Oral Pathology Laboratory, School of Dentistry, Alfenas Federal University, were reviewed to identify cases referred because of a clinical diagnosis of oral paracoccidioidomycosis. Data collected included patient demographics (age, gender, race, and occupation), clinical information (oral lesion location), and histopathologic diagnosis. Forty-six cases were identified, and 34 were histopathologically confirmed as paracoccidioidomycosis. Of the remaining 12 cases, one-half were diagnosed as either carcinoma or dysplastic leukoplakia. Of the 34 confirmed paracoccidioidomycosis cases, 45% presented with multiple site involvement, whereas the gingiva/alveolar process was the most prevalent site overall (52%). The gingiva/alveolar process was the most prevalent site in both multiple and single site cases. The majority of patients were men (88%), white (75%), and in their fourth decade of life (47%). Statistical analysis revealed that patients with gingival/alveolar process involvement were demographically indistinguishable from those without. Oral paracoccidioidomycosis has a strong predilection for the gingiva, whereas patients with gingival lesions do not differ from patients lacking such involvement. Early diagnosis of gingival/oral lesions may prevent life-threatening complications of this mycosis.

  7. Evaluation of efficacy of different gingival displacement materials on gingival sulcus width.

    PubMed

    Prasanna, G S Renuka; Reddy, Kesava; Kumar, R K Naveen; Shivaprakash, S

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the present in vivo study was to measure the efficacy of different gingival displacement materials in achieving gingival tissue displacement and to compare the efficacy of Expasyl displacement paste (Pierre Rolland, France) and gingival displacement cord for gingival displacement. Sixteen subjects were included in the study. Premolars were prepared to receive full veneer crown, gingival displacement was carried using gingival retraction cord and gingival displacement paste. Impression of the gingival sulcus was made. Sulcus width after displacement was measured under magnification. The mean displacement value of sulcus width was 0.21 ± 0.01 mm for the gingival retraction cord and 0.26 ± 0.02 mm for the gingival displacement paste. 'F' test was used for statistical analysis. Difference among the two test agents was statistically significant (p < 0.01). Gingival displacement paste showed better response in achieving horizontal displacement of the gingival sulcus than gingival retraction cord. Gingival displacement helps in recording the unprepared tooth surface adjacent to the finish line in the impression being made, thereby helping a better marginal adaptation and emergence profile in the extracoronal restoration.

  8. Detection of fusobacterium nucleatum and fadA adhesin gene in patients with orthodontic gingivitis and non-orthodontic periodontal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Liu, Yi; Wang, Jianning; Guo, Yang; Zhang, Yujie; Xiao, Shuiqing

    2014-01-01

    Fusobacterium nucleatum is one of the most abundant gram-negative bacilli colonizing the subgingival plaque and closely associated with periodontal disease. However it is unclear whether F. nucleatum is involved in gingival inflammation under orthodontic appliance. A novel adhesin, FadA, which is unique to oral Fusobacteria, is required for F. nucleatum binding and invasion to epithelial cells and thus may play an important role in colonization of Fusobacterium in the host. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of F. nucleatum and its virulence factor FadA adhesion gene (fadA) in 169 subgingival biofilm samples from 55 cases of gingivitis patients with orthodontic appliances, 49 cases of gingivitis patients without orthodontic treatment, 35 cases of periodontitis patients and 30 cases of periodontally healthy people via PCR. The correlations between the F. nucleatum/fadA and gingivitis index(GI)was also analyzed. The detection rate of F. nucleatum/fadA in periodontitis group and non-orthodontic gingivitis group was higher than the other two groups (p<0.01) while it was higher in orthodontic gingivitis group than in health people (p<0.05). An obviously positive correlation was observed between the prevalence of F. nucleatum/fadA and GI. F. nucleatum carrying fadA may be more closely related to the development of gingivitis and periodontal disease compared with orthodontic gingivitis.

  9. The Fungal Defensin Family Enlarged

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jiajia; Gao, Bin; Zhu, Shunyi

    2014-01-01

    Fungi are an emerging source of peptide antibiotics. With the availability of a large number of model fungal genome sequences, we can expect that more and more fungal defensin-like peptides (fDLPs) will be discovered by sequence similarity search. Here, we report a total of 69 new fDLPs encoded by 63 genes, in which a group of fDLPs derived from dermatophytes are defined as a new family (fDEF8) according to sequence and phylogenetic analyses. In the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpine, fDLPs have undergone extensive gene expansion. Our work further enlarges the fungal defensin family and will help characterize new peptide antibiotics with therapeutic potential. PMID:25230677

  10. 3-D Cavern Enlargement Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    EHGARTNER, BRIAN L.; SOBOLIK, STEVEN R.

    2002-03-01

    Three-dimensional finite element analyses simulate the mechanical response of enlarging existing caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The caverns are located in Gulf Coast salt domes and are enlarged by leaching during oil drawdowns as fresh water is injected to displace the crude oil from the caverns. The current criteria adopted by the SPR limits cavern usage to 5 drawdowns (leaches). As a base case, 5 leaches were modeled over a 25 year period to roughly double the volume of a 19 cavern field. Thirteen additional leaches where then simulated until caverns approached coalescence. The cavern field approximated the geometries and geologic properties found at the West Hackberry site. This enabled comparisons are data collected over nearly 20 years to analysis predictions. The analyses closely predicted the measured surface subsidence and cavern closure rates as inferred from historic well head pressures. This provided the necessary assurance that the model displacements, strains, and stresses are accurate. However, the cavern field has not yet experienced the large scale drawdowns being simulated. Should they occur in the future, code predictions should be validated with actual field behavior at that time. The simulations were performed using JAS3D, a three dimensional finite element analysis code for nonlinear quasi-static solids. The results examine the impacts of leaching and cavern workovers, where internal cavern pressures are reduced, on surface subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The results suggest that the current limit of 5 oil drawdowns may be extended with some mitigative action required on the wells and later on to surface structure due to subsidence strains. The predicted stress state in the salt shows damage to start occurring after 15 drawdowns with significant failure occurring at the 16th drawdown, well beyond the current limit of 5 drawdowns.

  11. Plant Biofilm Inhibitors to Discover Biofilm Genes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-08

    REPORT Final Report for Plant Biofilm Inhibitors to Discover Biofilm Genes 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: To control biofilms , we have...synthesized the natural biofilm inhibitor (5Z)-4-bromo-5-(bromomethylene) -3-butyl-2(5H)-furanone from the red alga Delisea pulchra and determined that...Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS biofilms , biofilm inhibitors Thomas K. Wood Texas Engineering

  12. Ameloblastic fibrodentinoma presenting as a false gingival enlargement in the maxillary anterior region.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Shiny; Priya, Lakshmi; Gopal, Dinesh; Devachen, Mary; Narayan, Ajay; Afnan, Muhammed

    2015-01-01

    Ameloblastic fibrodentinoma is a rare benign mixed odontogenic neoplasm usually occurring in the first two decades of life. It is more common in males and the most common site of occurrence is in the mandibular premolar molar area. This report presents a case of ameloblastic fibrodentinoma in a 12-year-old boy in the maxillary anterior region, a less common site for the occurrence of ameloblastic fibrodentinoma. A 12-year-old boy presented with a midline diastema in 11 and 21 region and a swelling in the palatal aspect of 11 and 12. Intraoral periapical radiograph showed the presence of rarefaction of bone on the mesial aspect of the cervical and middle third of the root of 11. Excision biopsy was done. The specimen was processed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Microscopic examination showed islands, chords and strands of odontogenic epithelium in a primitive ectomesenchyme resembling dental papilla. The odontogenic epithelium exhibited peripheral ameloblast-like and central stellate reticulum-like cells. The presence of dentinoid material was seen adjacent to the odontogenic epithelium in some foci. The lesion was diagnosed as ameloblastic fibrodentinoma.

  13. Ameloblastic Fibrodentinoma Presenting as a False Gingival Enlargement in the Maxillary Anterior Region

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Shiny; Priya, Lakshmi; Gopal, Dinesh; Devachen, Mary; Narayan, Ajay; Afnan, Muhammed

    2015-01-01

    Ameloblastic fibrodentinoma is a rare benign mixed odontogenic neoplasm usually occurring in the first two decades of life. It is more common in males and the most common site of occurrence is in the mandibular premolar molar area. This report presents a case of ameloblastic fibrodentinoma in a 12-year-old boy in the maxillary anterior region, a less common site for the occurrence of ameloblastic fibrodentinoma. A 12-year-old boy presented with a midline diastema in 11 and 21 region and a swelling in the palatal aspect of 11 and 12. Intraoral periapical radiograph showed the presence of rarefaction of bone on the mesial aspect of the cervical and middle third of the root of 11. Excision biopsy was done. The specimen was processed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Microscopic examination showed islands, chords and strands of odontogenic epithelium in a primitive ectomesenchyme resembling dental papilla. The odontogenic epithelium exhibited peripheral ameloblast-like and central stellate reticulum-like cells. The presence of dentinoid material was seen adjacent to the odontogenic epithelium in some foci. The lesion was diagnosed as ameloblastic fibrodentinoma. PMID:25709845

  14. Gingival Enlargement Induced by Felodipine Resolves with a Conventional Periodontal Treatment and Drug Modification

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, David; Yie, Helen S.

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a 47-year-old male who suffered from GE around his lower anterior teeth as soon as he started treatment with Felodipine 400 mg. We show that oral hygiene measures, antibiotics, and conventional periodontal treatment (scaling and root planing SRP) were all not sufficient to resolve the drug induced GE, which will persist and/or recur provided that systemic effect of the offending medication is still present. The condition immediately resolved after switching to a different medication. The mechanism of GE is complex and not fully understood yet. It is mainly due to overexpression of a number of growth factors due to high concentrations of calcium ions (Ca2+). This affects fibroblasts proliferation and DNA synthesis and leads to a heavy chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate. Our case was managed according to the suggested protocols in previous case studies. The unique features in our case were the immediate onset of the adverse effect after starting the medication and the absence of any underlying medical condition apart from high blood pressure. Improving the oral hygiene together with SRP and cessation of the medication resolves drug induced GE. PMID:27034854

  15. Chlorhexidine mouthrinse as an adjunctive treatment for gingival health.

    PubMed

    James, Patrice; Worthington, Helen V; Parnell, Carmel; Harding, Mairead; Lamont, Thomas; Cheung, Andrea; Whelton, Helen; Riley, Philip

    2017-03-31

    Dental plaque associated gingivitis is a reversible inflammatory condition caused by accumulation and persistence of microbial biofilms (dental plaque) on the teeth. It is characterised by redness and swelling of the gingivae (gums) and a tendency for the gingivae to bleed easily. In susceptible individuals, gingivitis may lead to periodontitis and loss of the soft tissue and bony support for the tooth. It is thought that chlorhexidine mouthrinse may reduce the build-up of plaque thereby reducing gingivitis. To assess the effectiveness of chlorhexidine mouthrinse used as an adjunct to mechanical oral hygiene procedures for the control of gingivitis and plaque compared to mechanical oral hygiene procedures alone or mechanical oral hygiene procedures plus placebo/control mouthrinse. Mechanical oral hygiene procedures were toothbrushing with/without the use of dental floss or interdental cleaning aids and could include professional tooth cleaning/periodontal treatment.To determine whether the effect of chlorhexidine mouthrinse is influenced by chlorhexidine concentration, or frequency of rinsing (once/day versus twice/day).To report and describe any adverse effects associated with chlorhexidine mouthrinse use from included trials. Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 28 September 2016); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 8) in the Cochrane Library (searched 28 September 2016); MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 28 September 2016); Embase Ovid (1980 to 28 September 2016); and CINAHL EBSCO (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; 1937 to 28 September 2016). We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. We included randomised controlled trials assessing

  16. Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak in Cochlear Implantation: Enlarged Cochlear versus Enlarged Vestibular Aqueduct (Common Cavity Excluded)

    PubMed Central

    Polizzi, Valeria; Formigoni, Patrizia; Russo, Carmela; Tribi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To share our experience of cerebrospinal fluid gusher in cochlear implantation in patients with enlarged cochlear or vestibular aqueduct. Study Design. Case series with comparison and a review of the literature. Methods. A retrospective study was performed. Demographic and radiological results of patients with enlarged cochlear aqueduct or enlarged vestibular aqueduct in 278 consecutive cochlear implant recipients, including children and adults, were evaluated between January 2000 and December 2015. Results. Six patients with enlarged cochlear aqueduct and eight patients with enlarged vestibular aqueduct were identified. Cerebrospinal fluid gusher occurs in five subjects with enlarged cochlear aqueduct and in only one case of enlarged vestibular aqueduct. Conclusion. Based on these findings, enlarged cochlear aqueduct may be the best risk predictor of cerebrospinal fluid gusher at cochleostomy during cochlear implant surgery despite enlarged vestibular aqueduct. PMID:27847516

  17. Distinguishing the Signals of Gingivitis and Periodontitis in Supragingival Plaque: a Cross-Sectional Cohort Study in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Harjunmaa, Ulla; Doyle, Ronan; Mulewa, Simeon; Charlie, Davie; Maleta, Ken; Callard, Robin; Walker, A. Sarah; Balloux, Francois; Ashorn, Per; Klein, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Periodontal disease ranges from gingival inflammation (gingivitis) to the inflammation and loss of tooth-supporting tissues (periodontitis). Previous research has focused mainly on subgingival plaque, but supragingival plaque composition is also known to be associated with disease. Quantitative modeling of bacterial abundances across the natural range of periodontal severities can distinguish which features of disease are associated with particular changes in composition. We assessed a cross-sectional cohort of 962 Malawian women for periodontal disease and used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing (V5 to V7 region) to characterize the bacterial compositions of supragingival plaque samples. Associations between bacterial relative abundances and gingivitis/periodontitis were investigated by using negative binomial models, adjusting for epidemiological factors. We also examined bacterial cooccurrence networks to assess community structure. The main differences in supragingival plaque compositions were associated more with gingivitis than periodontitis, including higher bacterial diversity and a greater abundance of particular species. However, even after controlling for gingivitis, the presence of subgingival periodontitis was associated with an altered supragingival plaque. A small number of species were associated with periodontitis but not gingivitis, including members of Prevotella, Treponema, and Selenomonas, supporting a more complex disease model than a linear progression following gingivitis. Cooccurrence networks of periodontitis-associated taxa clustered according to periodontitis across all gingivitis severities. Species including Filifactor alocis and Fusobacterium nucleatum were central to this network, which supports their role in the coaggregation of periodontal biofilms during disease progression. Our findings confirm that periodontitis cannot be considered simply an advanced stage of gingivitis even when only considering supragingival plaque

  18. Sonographic Features of Physiologic Neonatal Breast Enlargement

    PubMed Central

    Jawahar, Anugayathri; Vade, Aruna

    2014-01-01

    The varying presentations of neonatal breast enlargement on imaging have been underreported in the literature. Our case report profiles a 3-week-old female patient who presented with a history of left breast enlargement with redness and tenderness for 2 days, who was clinically diagnosed and managed for neonatal mastitis, which was actually a neonatal breast enlargement with adjacent cellulitis. Awareness that physiologic neonatal breast enlargement can be associated with adjacent cellulitis without mastitis can prevent unnecessary hospitalization and treatment with parenteral antibiotics. PMID:25024978

  19. Does gingival recession require surgical treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Hsun-Liang; Chun, Yong-Hee Patricia; MacEachern, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Gingival recession represents a clinical condition in adults frequently encountered in the general dental practice. It is estimated that 23% of adults in the US have one or more tooth surfaces with ≥ 3 mm gingival recession. Clinicians often time face dilemmas of whether or not to treat such a condition surgically. Therefore, we were charged by the editorial board to answer this critical question: “Does gingival recession require surgical treatment?” An initial condensed literature search was performed using a combination of gingival recession and surgery controlled terms and keywords. An analysis of the search results highlights our limited understanding of the factors that often guide the treatment of gingival recession. Understanding the etiology, prognosis and treatment of gingival recession continues to offer many unanswered questions and challenges in the field of periodontics as we strive to provide the best care possible for our patients. PMID:26427577

  20. Effectiveness of bromochlorophene on gingival health.

    PubMed

    Bercy, P; Flamand, Y; Defleur, P

    1994-01-01

    The effect of a commercial toothpaste containing 0.2% bromochlorophene (BCP) on established plaque and gingivitis was compared with placebo. The two toothpastes were similar in packaging, taste, consistency, and color. Thirty-two patients with chronic gingivitis were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind comparison and were asked to brush twice a day with the given toothpaste without changing their oral hygiene habits. Plaque index, gingival index, gingival crevicular fluid, and papillary bleeding index were recorded at baseline and after 3 weeks. Significant decreases in gingival and papillary bleeding indices were noted in the BCP group, as compared with the placebo group. Plaque index significantly decreased in both groups. No significant change was noted in the volume of gingival crevicular fluid.

  1. Nonsurgical gingival displacement in restorative dentistry.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Manuel S; Joseph, Robin Mathai; Parolia, Abhishek

    2011-06-01

    Gingival displacement is critical for obtaining accurate impressions for the fabrication of fixed restorations, especially when the finish line is at or just within the gingival sulcus. Displacement of the gingival tissue is also important when dealing with the restoration of cervical lesions due to their proximity to the periodontal tissue. The methods of gingival tissue displacement can be broadly classified as nonsurgical and surgical techniques, with nonsurgical being the more commonly practiced method. Dentists must alter their armamentarium and gingival displacement techniques to meet specific demands and obtain predictable results. Hence, the purpose of this article is to describe the different means by which nonsurgical gingival displacement can be achieved effectively under a variety of clinical situations.

  2. Treatment of the Enlarged Clitoris

    PubMed Central

    Kaefer, Martin; Rink, Richard C.

    2017-01-01

    Management of the enlarged clitoris, because of its import for sexual function, has been and remains one of the most controversial topics in pediatric urology. Early controversy surrounding clitoroplasty resulted from many factors including an incomplete understanding of clitoral anatomy and incorrect assumptions of the role of the clitoris in sexual function. With a better understanding of anatomy and function, procedures have evolved to preserve clitoral tissue, especially with respect to the neurovascular bundles. These changes have been made in an effort to preserve clitoral sensation and preserve orgasmic potential. It is the goal of this manuscript to describe the different procedures that have been developed for the surgical management of clitoromegally, with emphasis on the risks and benefits of each. Equally important to any discussion of such a sensitive topic is an understanding of long-term patient outcomes. As we will see, despite its importance, there has been a dearth of data in this regard. Future work in the arena of patient satisfaction will undoubtedly play a major role in directing our surgical approach. PMID:28894728

  3. [Gingival bleaching: teaching and ethnocentrism].

    PubMed

    Bolla, Edson Daruich; Goldenberg, Paulete

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify buccal/gingival cosmetic dentistry patterns subjacent to formation and professional practice of the dental surgeon from the ethnocentrism point of view. This is an exploratory study with a qualitative approach based on the thematic analysis. Initially a documental analysis was carried out. Thereafter, dental surgeons were interviewed and semi-structured questions were applied. In the Periodontal teaching field, this study showed that the presence of racial melanosis is omitted or treated as an alteration in the normality patterns and it is considered anti-aesthetic. All the interviewers learnt how to practice gingival bleaching in the post-graduation courses, they were all encouraged to offer this cosmetic dentistry procedure with the opportunity of obtaining a beautiful and healthy smile, thus assuring the belief of the Caucasian racial aesthetic superiority. This study make us think that the offer of gingival bleaching is oriented by the Caucasian pattern of beauty evidencing the ethnocentric character of this procedure.

  4. TRPA1 Channels Mediate Human Gingival Fibroblast Response to Phenytoin.

    PubMed

    López-González, M J; Luis, E; Fajardo, O; Meseguer, V; Gers-Barlag, K; Niñerola, S; Viana, F

    2017-07-01

    Drug-induced gingival enlargement (GE) is a frequent adverse effect observed in patients treated with anticonvulsant, immunosuppressant, and some antihypertensive medications-the antiepileptic phenytoin being the main drug associated with GE due to its high incidence (around 50%). The molecular mechanisms behind drug-induced gingival overgrowth are still unknown. By reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, we demonstrate that the calcium-permeable ion channels TRPA1, TRPV1, and its capsaicin-insensitive isoform TRPV1b are expressed in human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs), the most abundant cellular type in periodontal tissue. Cultured HGFs responded with intracellular calcium elevations to phenytoin and to the canonical TRPA1 agonist allyl isothiocyanate. Application of phenytoin activated a nonselective cationic current in HGFs with a typical signature for TRPA1 channels. Moreover, this activation was blocked by HC030031, a specific TRPA1 blocker. Similarly, the use of shRNAs against hTRPA1 in HGFs reduced TRPA1 expression and activation by phenytoin. In addition, we show that phenytoin increased intracellular calcium levels in cells transfected with mouse or human TRPA1 channels. Responses to phenytoin were not observed in untransfected cells or cells expressing TRPM8 or TRPV1. The activation of HGFs by phenytoin was markedly reduced in the presence of antioxidant vitamins: ascorbic acid, folic acid, and α-tocopherol. By performing cell proliferation assays, we found that phenytoin did not augment the proliferation rate of HGFs. In contrast, alcian blue and picrosirius red staining of long-term HGFs cultures indicated that phenytoin induces extracellular matrix accumulation of collagen. Collectively, these findings support an important role of TRPA1 channels in phenytoin-induced GE, provide insight into the pathophysiologic mechanism, and offer novel therapeutic opportunities for its treatment.

  5. Non-plaque-induced gingival lesions.

    PubMed

    Holmstrup, P

    1999-12-01

    The origin of gingival inflammation is occasionally different from that of routine plaque-associated gingivitis, and such non-plaque-associated types of gingivitis often present characteristic clinical features. Examples of such forms of gingivitis are specific bacterial, viral, and fungal infections. Specific bacterial infections of gingiva may be due to Neisseria gonorrhea, Treponema pallidum, streptococci, and other organisms. The most important viral infections of gingiva are herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 and varicella-zoster virus. Fungal infections may be caused by several fungi, the most important of these being Candida species including C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. guillermondii. Gingival histoplasmosis is a granulomatous disease caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum and, as for the other specific infections of gingiva, a confirmed diagnosis may require histopathologic examination and/or culture. Atypical gingivitis may also occur as gingival manifestations of dermatological diseases, the most relevant of these being lichen planus, pemphigoid, pemphigus vulgaris, erythema multiforme, and lupus erythematosus. Non-plaque induced gingival inflammation can be caused by allergic reactions to dental restorative materials, toothpastes, mouthwashes, and foods. In addition, gingival inflammation may result from toxic reactions, foreign body reactions, or mechanical and thermal trauma.

  6. Hereditary gingival fibromatosis associated with growth hormone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Oikarinen, K; Salo, T; Käär, M L; Lahtela, P; Altonen, M

    1990-10-01

    A case report of gingival fibromatosis in association with growth hormone (GH) deficiency due to a lack of growth hormone releasing factor (GRF) is presented. The girl is the youngest member of a family of eight children, five of whom lack the same hormone and have or have had similar gingival enlargements. After the growth hormone deficiency had been diagnosed and hormone substitute administered the dental age of the girl presented came closer to that of her age and sex-matched controls but did not reach the corresponding values even though the teeth were exposed by excising the overgrown gingiva. Test fibroblasts cultured from the overgrown gingiva proliferated at a slower rate than those cultured from age-matched controls. Total RNA was extracted from the test and three control fibroblasts and examined by Northern hybridisation using cDNAs for pro alpha 1(I) and pro alpha 1(III) chains. The amount of type I and III procollagen mRNAs were lower in the test fibroblasts as compared to the controls.

  7. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia causing massive breast enlargement.

    PubMed

    Bourke, Anita Geraldine; Tiang, Stephen; Harvey, Nathan; McClure, Robert

    2015-10-16

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) of the breast is a benign mesenchymal proliferative process, initially described by Vuitch et al. We report an unusual case of a 46-year-old woman who presented with a 6-week history of bilateral massive, asymmetrical, painful enlargement of her breasts, without a history of trauma. On clinical examination, both breasts were markedly enlarged and oedematous, but there were no discrete palpable masses. Preoperative image-guided core biopsies and surgery showed PASH. PASH is increasingly recognised as an incidental finding on image-guided core biopsy performed for screen detected lesions. There are a few reported cases of PASH presenting as rapid breast enlargement. In our case, the patient presented with painful, asymmetrical, massive breast enlargement. Awareness needs to be raised of this entity as a differential diagnosis in massive, painful breast enlargement.

  8. Removal of Dental Biofilms with an Ultrasonically Activated Water Stream.

    PubMed

    Howlin, R P; Fabbri, S; Offin, D G; Symonds, N; Kiang, K S; Knee, R J; Yoganantham, D C; Webb, J S; Birkin, P R; Leighton, T G; Stoodley, P

    2015-09-01

    Acidogenic bacteria within dental plaque biofilms are the causative agents of caries. Consequently, maintenance of a healthy oral environment with efficient biofilm removal strategies is important to limit caries, as well as halt progression to gingivitis and periodontitis. Recently, a novel cleaning device has been described using an ultrasonically activated stream (UAS) to generate a cavitation cloud of bubbles in a freely flowing water stream that has demonstrated the capacity to be effective at biofilm removal. In this study, UAS was evaluated for its ability to remove biofilms of the cariogenic pathogen Streptococcus mutans UA159, as well as Actinomyces naeslundii ATCC 12104 and Streptococcus oralis ATCC 9811, grown on machine-etched glass slides to generate a reproducible complex surface and artificial teeth from a typodont training model. Biofilm removal was assessed both visually and microscopically using high-speed videography, confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Analysis by CSLM demonstrated a statistically significant 99.9% removal of S. mutans biofilms exposed to the UAS for 10 s, relative to both untreated control biofilms and biofilms exposed to the water stream alone without ultrasonic activation (P < 0.05). The water stream alone showed no statistically significant difference in removal compared with the untreated control (P = 0.24). High-speed videography demonstrated a rapid rate (151 mm(2) in 1 s) of biofilm removal. The UAS was also highly effective at S. mutans, A. naeslundii, and S. oralis biofilm removal from machine-etched glass and S. mutans from typodont surfaces with complex topography. Consequently, UAS technology represents a potentially effective method for biofilm removal and improved oral hygiene.

  9. Assessment of Photodynamic Inactivation against Periodontal Bacteria Mediated by a Chitosan Hydrogel in a 3D Gingival Model.

    PubMed

    Peng, Po-Chun; Hsieh, Chien-Ming; Chen, Chueh-Pin; Tsai, Tsuimin; Chen, Chin-Tin

    2016-11-01

    Chitosan hydrogels containing hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and toluidine blue O were prepared and assessed for their mucoadhesive property and antimicrobial efficacy of photodynamic inactivation (PDI). Increased HPMC content in the hydrogels resulted in increased mucoadhesiveness. Furthermore, we developed a simple In Vitro 3D gingival model resembling the oral periodontal pocket to culture the biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans), and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis). The PDI efficacy of chitosan hydrogel was examined against periodontal biofilms cultured in this 3D gingival model. We found that the PDI effectiveness was limited due to leaving some of the innermost bacteria alive at the non-illuminated site. Using this 3D gingival model, we further optimized PDI procedures with various adjustments of light energy and irradiation sites. The PDI efficacy of the chitosan hydrogel against periodontal biofilms can significantly improve via four sides of irradiation. In conclusion, this study not only showed the clinical applicability of this chitosan hydrogel but also the importance of the light irradiation pattern in performing PDI for periodontal disease.

  10. Assessment of Photodynamic Inactivation against Periodontal Bacteria Mediated by a Chitosan Hydrogel in a 3D Gingival Model

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Po-Chun; Hsieh, Chien-Ming; Chen, Chueh-Pin; Tsai, Tsuimin; Chen, Chin-Tin

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan hydrogels containing hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and toluidine blue O were prepared and assessed for their mucoadhesive property and antimicrobial efficacy of photodynamic inactivation (PDI). Increased HPMC content in the hydrogels resulted in increased mucoadhesiveness. Furthermore, we developed a simple In Vitro 3D gingival model resembling the oral periodontal pocket to culture the biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans), and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis). The PDI efficacy of chitosan hydrogel was examined against periodontal biofilms cultured in this 3D gingival model. We found that the PDI effectiveness was limited due to leaving some of the innermost bacteria alive at the non-illuminated site. Using this 3D gingival model, we further optimized PDI procedures with various adjustments of light energy and irradiation sites. The PDI efficacy of the chitosan hydrogel against periodontal biofilms can significantly improve via four sides of irradiation. In conclusion, this study not only showed the clinical applicability of this chitosan hydrogel but also the importance of the light irradiation pattern in performing PDI for periodontal disease. PMID:27809278

  11. [Periodontology and esthetics: the gingival recession].

    PubMed

    Corba, N H

    1991-06-01

    Gingival recessions are regarded by many people as an esthetical problem. Successively the etiology, the significance and the indications for therapy are discussed. Different kinds of therapy such as oral hygiene instruction, the free gingival graft and various pedicle grafts are explained. Finally it is advocated that surgical kinds of therapy have to be applied with reservedness.

  12. [Gingival retraction methods. A literature review].

    PubMed

    Tosches, Nino A; Salvi, Giovanni E

    2009-01-01

    The exposure of the preparation margin and the control of the hemorrhage in the gingival sulcus are prerequisites for precise impressions and thereby improving the quality of indirectly fabricated restorations. The purpose of this review article is to summarize available evidence with respect to current methods of gingival retraction and to provide the clinician with practical tips.

  13. Urinary catecholamine levels and gingivitis in children.

    PubMed

    Vanderas, A P; Kavvadia, K; Papagiannoulis, L

    1998-05-01

    This study investigated the relationship between gingivitis and emotionally stressful states measured by the urinary catecholamines in children. Three-hundred and fourteen (314) children, boys and girls, aged 6 to 8 years were included in the study. Gingivitis was recorded by the gingival bleeding index and dental plaque by the plaque control record index. Proximal decayed surfaces, faulty restorations, and stainless steel crowns were diagnosed clinically and radiographically. Information concerning systemic and socioeconomic factors was collected by a questionnaire. A 24-hour urine sample was collected for each subject and analyzed by the HPLC technique to assay the catecholamine content. The multiple-regression analysis was carried out to test whether gingivitis was affected by the studied variables. The 95% probability was used. The results showed that epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine did not have a significant association with gingival index. Dental plaque and proximal decayed surfaces significantly affected gingivitis. Of the socioeconomic factors, mother's education had a significant association with gingivitis when all factors were included in the analysis. The data suggest that emotionally stressful states may not increase the probability of developing gingivitis in children of this age.

  14. Feline gingivitis-stomatitis-pharyngitis.

    PubMed

    Diehl, K; Rosychuk, R A

    1993-01-01

    Inflammatory conditions of the feline mouth are commonly encountered in small animal practice. Although the majority can be attributed to dental disease and a small percentage are due to autoimmune diseases, the eosinophilic granuloma complex, neoplasia, and other miscellaneous syndromes, many cases appear to be due to a gingivitis-stomatitis-pharyngitis complex, which is likely multifactorial in origin. Viruses, bacterial infection, diet, dental disease, oral conformation, genetic predisposition, hypersensitivities, immunoinsufficiencies, and other defects in oral defense mechanisms may all be contributory. The complexities of this syndrome have made it one of the most challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problems in feline medicine.

  15. Ovarian hormones and oral health: pregnancy gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Zachariasen, R D

    1989-09-01

    The most common oral manifestation of increased levels of ovarian hormones is an increase in gingival inflammation with an accompanying increase in gingival exudate. Although plaque has been identified as the major etiologic agent of gingivitis, there are a number of known situations that exacerbate the condition. It is well-documented that pregnancy, puberty, menstrual cycle, and oral contraceptives all have been coupled with transient, self-limiting periods of gingivitis. A common feature these conditions share is an elevation in the plasma concentration of estrogens and progestins. This article will review the basic physiology of the estrogens and progestins and discuss the possible role these hormones play in the gingivitis occurring during pregnancy or oral contraceptive usage.

  16. A randomized clinical evaluation of triclosan-containing dentifrice and mouthwash association in the control of plaque and gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Villalpando, Karina Teixeira; Casarin, Renato Correa Viana; Pimentel, Suzana Peres; Cirano, Fabiano Ribeiro; Casati, Marcio Zafallon

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this double-blind study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the association of triclosan-containing mouthrinse and dentifrice on biofilm and gingivitis reduction. Forty patients with a diagnosis of gingivitis were selected and randomly divided into four groups (n = 10): group TT-triclosan-containing mouthrinse and triclosan-containing dentifrice; group CT-control mouthrinse and triclosan-containing dentifrice; group TC-triclosan-containing mouthrinse and control dentifrice; group CC-control mouthrinse and control dentifrice. Patients were evaluated by a calibrated examiner using a quantitative Plaque Index and Gingivitis Index at 0, 15, and 30 days. Intragroup analysis was performed by Friedman test and intergroup analysis by Kruskal-Wallis. Intragroup evaluation revealed a statistically significant reduction in Plaque Index for groups that used triclosan, independently of the group (TT, CT, and TC) (P < .05). Intergroup analysis suggested that only the group that used the association of triclosan dentifrice and mouthrinse (group TT) demonstrated statistically reduced Plaque Index at 30 days, when compared to the control group (CC) (P < .05). With regard to gingivitis reduction, no difference was observed between groups, although the association presented a faster reduction in bleeding levels. Only the association of triclosan dentifrice and triclosan mouthrinse statistically reduced Plaque Index, when compared to the control group; however, regarding the additional benefits to gingivitis control, more studies should be done to confirm the results.

  17. Osteoblast integration of dental implant materials after challenge by sub-gingival pathogens: a co-culture study in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bingran; van der Mei, Henny C; Rustema-Abbing, Minie; Busscher, Henk J; Ren, Yijin

    2015-01-01

    Sub-gingival anaerobic pathogens can colonize an implant surface to compromise osseointegration of dental implants once the soft tissue seal around the neck of an implant is broken. In vitro evaluations of implant materials are usually done in monoculture studies involving either tissue integration or bacterial colonization. Co-culture models, in which tissue cells and bacteria battle simultaneously for estate on an implant surface, have been demonstrated to provide a better in vitro mimic of the clinical situation. Here we aim to compare the surface coverage by U2OS osteoblasts cells prior to and after challenge by two anaerobic sub-gingival pathogens in a co-culture model on differently modified titanium (Ti), titanium-zirconium (TiZr) alloys and zirconia surfaces. Monoculture studies with either U2OS osteoblasts or bacteria were also carried out and indicated significant differences in biofilm formation between the implant materials, but interactions with U2OS osteoblasts were favourable on all materials. Adhering U2OS osteoblasts cells, however, were significantly more displaced from differently modified Ti surfaces by challenging sub-gingival pathogens than from TiZr alloys and zirconia variants. Combined with previous work employing a co-culture model consisting of human gingival fibroblasts and supra-gingival oral bacteria, results point to a different material selection to stimulate the formation of a soft tissue seal as compared to preservation of osseointegration under the unsterile conditions of the oral cavity. PMID:26674427

  18. Osteoblast integration of dental implant materials after challenge by sub-gingival pathogens: a co-culture study in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bingran; van der Mei, Henny C; Rustema-Abbing, Minie; Busscher, Henk J; Ren, Yijin

    2015-12-18

    Sub-gingival anaerobic pathogens can colonize an implant surface to compromise osseointegration of dental implants once the soft tissue seal around the neck of an implant is broken. In vitro evaluations of implant materials are usually done in monoculture studies involving either tissue integration or bacterial colonization. Co-culture models, in which tissue cells and bacteria battle simultaneously for estate on an implant surface, have been demonstrated to provide a better in vitro mimic of the clinical situation. Here we aim to compare the surface coverage by U2OS osteoblasts cells prior to and after challenge by two anaerobic sub-gingival pathogens in a co-culture model on differently modified titanium (Ti), titanium-zirconium (TiZr) alloys and zirconia surfaces. Monoculture studies with either U2OS osteoblasts or bacteria were also carried out and indicated significant differences in biofilm formation between the implant materials, but interactions with U2OS osteoblasts were favourable on all materials. Adhering U2OS osteoblasts cells, however, were significantly more displaced from differently modified Ti surfaces by challenging sub-gingival pathogens than from TiZr alloys and zirconia variants. Combined with previous work employing a co-culture model consisting of human gingival fibroblasts and supra-gingival oral bacteria, results point to a different material selection to stimulate the formation of a soft tissue seal as compared to preservation of osseointegration under the unsterile conditions of the oral cavity.

  19. Genetics Home Reference: enlarged parietal foramina

    MedlinePlus

    ... parietal foramina is an inherited condition of impaired skull development. It is characterized by enlarged openings (foramina) ... that form the top and sides of the skull. This condition is due to incomplete bone formation ( ...

  20. Enlarged prostate - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... as men get older. This is called benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). An enlarged prostate may cause you problems ... nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23234640 . Roehrborn CG. Benign prostatic hyperplasia: Etiology, pathophysiology, epidemiology, and natural history. In: Wein ...

  1. Non-focal enlargement in pancreatic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wittenberg, J.; Simeone, J.F.; Ferrucci, J.T. Jr.; Mueller, P.R.; van Sonnenberg, E.; Neff, C.C.

    1982-07-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma can appear radiographically as enlargement of the major part of the pancreas. In this series, part or all of three or more pancreatic segments (head, neck, body, and tail) were involved in 27% of patients with adenocarcinoma who had computed tomography. Differentiation from pure pancreatitis may require additional radiographic studies. The varied tissue composition of a pancreas enlarged by adenocarcinoma will often require biopsy of multiple sites for confirmation.

  2. Bacterial community development in experimental gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Kistler, James O; Booth, Veronica; Bradshaw, David J; Wade, William G

    2013-01-01

    Current knowledge of the microbial composition of dental plaque in early gingivitis is based largely on microscopy and cultural methods, which do not provide a comprehensive description of oral microbial communities. This study used 454-pyrosequencing of the V1-V3 region of 16S rRNA genes (approximately 500 bp), and bacterial culture, to characterize the composition of plaque during the transition from periodontal health to gingivitis. A total of 20 healthy volunteers abstained from oral hygiene for two weeks, allowing plaque to accumulate and gingivitis to develop. Plaque samples were analyzed at baseline, and after one and two weeks. In addition, plaque samples from 20 chronic periodontitis patients were analyzed for cross-sectional comparison to the experimental gingivitis cohort. All of the healthy volunteers developed gingivitis after two weeks. Pyrosequencing yielded a final total of 344,267 sequences after filtering, with a mean length of 354 bases, that were clustered into an average of 299 species-level Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) per sample. Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) plots revealed significant shifts in the bacterial community structure of plaque as gingivitis was induced, and community diversity increased significantly after two weeks. Changes in the relative abundance of OTUs during the transition from health to gingivitis were correlated to bleeding on probing (BoP) scores and resulted in the identification of new health- and gingivitis-associated taxa. Comparison of the healthy volunteers to the periodontitis patients also confirmed the association of a number of putative periodontal pathogens with chronic periodontitis. Taxa associated with gingivitis included Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum, Lachnospiraceae [G-2] sp. HOT100, Lautropia sp. HOTA94, and Prevotella oulorum, whilst Rothia dentocariosa was associated with periodontal health. Further study of these taxa is warranted and may lead to new therapeutic approaches

  3. Bacterial Community Development in Experimental Gingivitis

    PubMed Central

    Kistler, James O.; Booth, Veronica; Bradshaw, David J.; Wade, William G.

    2013-01-01

    Current knowledge of the microbial composition of dental plaque in early gingivitis is based largely on microscopy and cultural methods, which do not provide a comprehensive description of oral microbial communities. This study used 454-pyrosequencing of the V1–V3 region of 16S rRNA genes (approximately 500 bp), and bacterial culture, to characterize the composition of plaque during the transition from periodontal health to gingivitis. A total of 20 healthy volunteers abstained from oral hygiene for two weeks, allowing plaque to accumulate and gingivitis to develop. Plaque samples were analyzed at baseline, and after one and two weeks. In addition, plaque samples from 20 chronic periodontitis patients were analyzed for cross-sectional comparison to the experimental gingivitis cohort. All of the healthy volunteers developed gingivitis after two weeks. Pyrosequencing yielded a final total of 344 267 sequences after filtering, with a mean length of 354 bases, that were clustered into an average of 299 species-level Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) per sample. Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) plots revealed significant shifts in the bacterial community structure of plaque as gingivitis was induced, and community diversity increased significantly after two weeks. Changes in the relative abundance of OTUs during the transition from health to gingivitis were correlated to bleeding on probing (BoP) scores and resulted in the identification of new health- and gingivitis-associated taxa. Comparison of the healthy volunteers to the periodontitis patients also confirmed the association of a number of putative periodontal pathogens with chronic periodontitis. Taxa associated with gingivitis included Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum, Lachnospiraceae [G-2] sp. HOT100, Lautropia sp. HOTA94, and Prevotella oulorum, whilst Rothia dentocariosa was associated with periodontal health. Further study of these taxa is warranted and may lead to new therapeutic approaches

  4. Salivary and crevicular fluid interleukins in gingivitis

    PubMed Central

    Boronat-Catalá, Montserrat; Bagán Sebastián, José V.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Gingivitis is a frequent inflammatory process of the gum tissue that is mainly caused by the accumulation of plaque. The immune response against inflammatory processes is regulated in part by cytokines. Aims: Given that a continuous inflammation exists in gingivitis, it would be logical to assume that the interleukins will be altered locally in those patients. Therefore, the aim of this review was to check whether there is evidence that the interleukins can be used as diagnostic markers of inflammation levels in patients with gingivitis. Materials and Methods: A bibliographical search was undertaken using the key words interleukin and gingivitis in Pubmed, Cochrane, Scopus and Embase. Only those articles published over the last 10 years that were systematic reviews, case-controls or cohort studies in which interleukins in saliva and/or crevicular fluid was investigated in patients with gingivitis were selected. Results: Finally 15 articles were selected, all of them being case-control studies. The interleukins analyzed in the reviewed articles were: IL-1β, IL-8, IL-18, IL-11, IL-12, TNFα, IL-4, IL-17, IL-1α and IL-6. The most commonly studied interleukin is IL-1β and most authors agree that it is higher in the saliva and/or crevicular fluid of patients with gingivitis. Therefore, it could be used as a diagnostic marker of the degree of inflammation in gingivitis. Moreover, as far as the other interleukins studied are concerned, there is no clear consensus among the authors. Conclusion: There is sufficient evidence to suggest that IL-1β in saliva and/or crevicular fluid can be used as a marker of the degree of inflammation in gingivitis. Key words:Interleukins, gingivitis, saliva, crevicular fluid. PMID:24790719

  5. Plasma cell gingivitis: treatment with chlorpheniramine maleate.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Aravindhan Thiruputkuzhi; Chandran, Chitraa R; Prabhakar, Priya; Lakshmiganthan, Mahalingam; Parthasaradhi, Thakkalapati

    2015-01-01

    Plasma cell gingivitis is a benign lesion of unknown etiology characterized by massive and diffuse infiltration of plasma cells into the gingival connective tissue. Clinically, it can be seen as a diffuse, erythematous, and edematous swelling involving the marginal gingiva and extending into the attached gingiva. Although usually painless, the lesion can be esthetically unappealing, especially when anterior gingiva is involved. Although the usual line of management is removal of the offending agent, this report describes the treatment of plasma cell gingivitis with the topical application of chlorpheniramine maleate (25 mg) for a period of 10 days.

  6. Cherubism Combined with Epilepsy, Mental Retardation and Gingival Fibromatosis (Ramon Syndrome): A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Suhanya, J.; Aggarwal, Chakshu; Mohideen, Khadijah; Jayachandran, S.

    2009-01-01

    Cherubism is an inherited, autosomal dominant disorder that characteristically affects the jaws of children. The disease typically manifest as a bilateral swelling with associated submandibular lymph node enlargements and usually regresses as age advances. The disease is microscopically indistinguishable from other giant cell lesions and is essentially a clinical diagnosis. The association of cherubism with gingival fibromatosis, epilepsy, mental retardation, stunted growth, and hypertrichosis is referred as Ramon syndrome. We report a case of Ramon syndrome in an 8 year old girl. PMID:20512637

  7. Is periodontal health a predictor of drug-induced gingival overgrowth? A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Banthia, Ruchi; Gupta, Santosh; Banthia, Priyank; Singh, Pallavi; Raje, Sapna; Kaur, Navkiran

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gingival overgrowth is a common side-effect of amlodipine regimen on the oral cavity. There is controversy regarding the cause and effect relationship of periodontal health and drug induced gingival overgrowth. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate and to assess the relationship between the periodontal health and the onset and severity of gingival overgrowth in hypertensive patients receiving amlodipine. Materials and Methods: A total of 99 known hypertensive patients on amlodipine regimen were included in this study. Probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) were noted on four sites of maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth. Gingival enlargement scores were assessed for each patient by employing the hyperplastic index. Oral hygiene status was evaluated using the calculus index (CI). Patients were divided into H, E and L groups based on their periodontal status and responders and non-responders based on their hyperplastic index scores. Differences in means of different periodontal variables in different groups were tested for significance by using ANOVA and unpaired Student t-test. Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated to assess the correlation between different variables. For all analyses, P < 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: All the periodontal parameters were statistically highly significant (P = 0.00) amongst H, E and L groups and between responders and non-responders. Statistically highly significant Pearson correlation coefficients were found between mean PPD and mean hyperplastic score, mean CAL and mean hyperplastic score and mean calculus and mean hyperplastic score. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated a definite association between periodontal health and development and severity of amlodipine-induced gingival overgrowth PMID:25426150

  8. Gingival Fibromatosis with Significant De Novo Formation of Fibrotic Tissue and a High Rate of Recurrence.

    PubMed

    Gawron, Katarzyna; Łazarz-Bartyzel, Katarzyna; Fertala, Andrzej; Plakwicz, Paweł; Potempa, Jan; Chomyszyn-Gajewska, Maria

    2016-09-09

    BACKGROUND Hereditary gingival fibromatosis is characterized by slowly progressive enlargement of the gingiva that can present as an isolated condition or present as part of various syndromes. CASE REPORT An 11-year-old female reported with a gingival lesion that caused masticatory problems and poor oral hygiene. Periodontal examination revealed a dense tissue covering 30% of her teeth crowns within both jaws. Panoramic x-ray showed a normal bone height and teeth positioning. The patient did not use any medications, but a similar condition was also present in other family members. The patient was diagnosed with hereditary gingival fibromatosis. Surgery was carried out to remove excess of gingival tissue. Post-surgical healing was uneventful, but four weeks after the first surgery, the condition recurred amounting to 45% of the initial tissue volume presenting in the mandible, and 25% in the maxilla. Two months later, no significant growth was noted in the mandible, while in the maxilla, growth increased to 40% of the preoperative state. Analysis by polarized microscope showed a significant increase of thin fibrotic fibrils that contributed 80% of the total pool of collagen fibrils in the patient's gingiva, but only 25% in healthy gingiva. The patient was receiving outpatient care for follow-up every three months and surgical intervention had not been planned as long as her periodontal health was not be compromised.  CONCLUSIONS It is currently not clear whether the extent of the fibrosis had a mechanistic association with the ratio of gingival tissue re-growth in our case study. Further studies are needed to explain this association and improve the management of this condition.

  9. Experimental Models of Oral Biofilms Developed on Inert Substrates: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Darrene, Lopez-Nguyen; Cecile, Badet

    2016-01-01

    The oral ecosystem is a very complex environment where more than 700 different bacterial species can be found. Most of them are organized in biofilm on dental and mucosal surfaces. Studying this community is important because a rupture in stability can lead to the preeminence of pathogenic microorganisms, causing dental decay, gingivitis, or periodontitis. The multitude of species complicates biofilm analysis so its reproduction, collection, and counting are very delicate. The development of experimental models of dental biofilms was therefore essential and multiple in vitro designs have emerged, each of them especially adapted to observing biofilm formation of specific bacteria within specific environments. The aim of this review is to analyze oral biofilm models.

  10. Experimental Models of Oral Biofilms Developed on Inert Substrates: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Darrene, Lopez-Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    The oral ecosystem is a very complex environment where more than 700 different bacterial species can be found. Most of them are organized in biofilm on dental and mucosal surfaces. Studying this community is important because a rupture in stability can lead to the preeminence of pathogenic microorganisms, causing dental decay, gingivitis, or periodontitis. The multitude of species complicates biofilm analysis so its reproduction, collection, and counting are very delicate. The development of experimental models of dental biofilms was therefore essential and multiple in vitro designs have emerged, each of them especially adapted to observing biofilm formation of specific bacteria within specific environments. The aim of this review is to analyze oral biofilm models. PMID:27699173

  11. Treatment of Desquamative Gingivitis with Free Gingival Graft: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Vatankhah, Mehdi; Taghi Chitsazi, Mohammad; Mehdipour, Masoumeh; Taghavi Zenouz, Ali; Estakhri, Rasoul

    2010-01-01

    Recalcitrant gingival erythematous lichen planus lesions comprise a considerable therapeutic problem. This case of chronic desquamative gingivitis in a 25-year-old woman with erosive oral lichen planus was treated with topical and systemic corti-costeroid administration, followed by placement of a free gingival graft on right upper quadrant. Although recurrence of the lesions was observed following both treatment modalities, free gingival graft despite being an aggressive therapy, proved more effective and with fewer side effects compared with topical or systemic steroid therapy, and seems to be a promising treatment modality with the benefit of more stable results, among others. PMID:22991593

  12. Hereditary gingival fibromatosis: Characteristics and treatment approach.

    PubMed

    Almiñana-Pastor, Pedro J; Buitrago-Vera, Pedro J; Alpiste-Illueca, Francisco M; Catalá-Pizarro, Montserrat

    2017-04-01

    Hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF) is a rare disorder characterized by a benign, non-hemorrhagic, fibrous gingival overgrowth that can appear in isolation or as part of a syndrome. Clinically, a pink gingiva with marked stippling can be seen to cover almost all the tooth, in many cases preventing eruption. HGF usually begins during the transition from primary to permanent teeth, giving rise to a condition that can have negative psychological effects at that age. As it does not resolve spontaneously, the treatment of choice is gingivectomy, which can be performed with an internal or external bevel incision, depending on each case and bearing in mind the changes that will take place at the dentogingival junction (DGJ). This paper describes clinical aspects and treatment in two eight-year-old boys with HGF, considering different facets of the surgical approach with conscious sedation in young children. Key words:Hereditary gingival fibromatosis, gingivectomy, internal bevel incision, external bevel incision, gingival overgrowth.

  13. The vaginal microflora in relation to gingivitis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Gingivitis has been linked to adverse pregnancy outcome (APO). Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been associated with APO. We assessed if bacterial counts in BV is associated with gingivitis suggesting a systemic infectious susceptibilty. Methods Vaginal samples were collected from 180 women (mean age 29.4 years, SD ± 6.8, range: 18 to 46), and at least six months after delivery, and assessed by semi-quantitative DNA-DNA checkerboard hybridization assay (74 bacterial species). BV was defined by Gram stain (Nugent criteria). Gingivitis was defined as bleeding on probing at ≥ 20% of tooth sites. Results A Nugent score of 0–3 (normal vaginal microflora) was found in 83 women (46.1%), and a score of > 7 (BV) in 49 women (27.2%). Gingivitis was diagnosed in 114 women (63.3%). Women with a diagnosis of BV were more likely to have gingivitis (p = 0.01). Independent of gingival conditions, vaginal bacterial counts were higher (p < 0.001) for 38/74 species in BV+ in comparison to BV- women. Counts of four lactobacilli species were higher in BV- women (p < 0.001). Independent of BV diagnosis, women with gingivitis had higher counts of Prevotella bivia (p < 0.001), and Prevotella disiens (p < 0.001). P. bivia, P. disiens, M. curtisii and M. mulieris (all at the p < 0.01 level) were found at higher levels in the BV+/G+ group than in the BV+/G- group. The sum of bacterial load (74 species) was higher in the BV+/G+ group than in the BV+/G- group (p < 0.05). The highest odds ratio for the presence of bacteria in vaginal samples (> 1.0 × 104 cells) and a diagnosis of gingivitis was 3.9 for P. bivia (95% CI 1.5–5.7, p < 0.001) and 3.6 for P. disiens (95%CI: 1.8–7.5, p < 0.001), and a diagnosis of BV for P. bivia (odds ratio: 5.3, 95%CI: 2.6 to 10.4, p < 0.001) and P. disiens (odds ratio: 4.4, 95% CI: 2.2 to 8.8, p < 0.001). Conclusion Higher vaginal bacterial counts can be found in women with BV and gingivitis in comparison to women with BV but not gingivitis. P

  14. Gender Based Comparison of Gingival Zenith Esthetics.

    PubMed

    Humagain, M; Rokaya, D; Srii, R; Dixit, S; Kafle, D

    2016-01-01

    Background The size, proportion and gingival zenith position of maxillary anterior teeth plays in the anterior teeth esthetics. Objective To compare the gingival zenith positions and levels between male and female in right and left side as an esthetic parameter. Method Impression of the maxillary arch was made in each participant with irreversible hydrocolloid, and dental cast was made with dental stone type IV. Two clinical parameters were evaluated: (1) the gingival zenith position (GZP) from the vertical bisected midline along the long axis of each individual maxillary anterior tooth; and (2) the gingival zenith level (GZL) of the lateral incisors in an apical-coronal direction relative to the gingival line joining the tangents of the GZP of the adjacent central incisor and canine teeth under healthy conditions. Statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS with the level of significance (α) = 0.05. Descriptive statistics was done and Independent t-test was used to compare the GZP and GZL between male and female. Result In male, the gingival zenith position for right side central, lateral and canine were 1.05 mm, 0.57 mm and 0.14 mm, and in left side were 1.02 mm, 0.53 mm, 0.15 mm. In female, the gingival zenith position for right side central, lateral and canine were 0.99 mm, 0.48 mm and 0.15 mm, and in left side were 0.94 mm, 0.44 mm and 0.14 mm. The gingival zenith position was significantly different between male and female for both lateral incisors. In addition, significantly different was found for the lateral incisor between right and left side. In male, the gingival zenith level of right and left lateral incisors 0.74 mm and 0.71 mm. In female, the gingival zenith level of right and left lateral incisors 0.76 mm and 0.72 mm. No significant difference was found between male and female for the gingival zenith level of right and left lateral incisors. Conclusion The GZP and GZL obtained from this study can be clinically applied to reestablish the GZP of

  15. Modified implant surface with slower and less initial biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    John, Gordon; Becker, Jürgen; Schwarz, Frank

    2015-06-01

    Peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis are a raising issue in dental implantology. Peri-implant infections are mainly caused by the formation of biofilm. Different surface textures exhibit various conditions for biofilm formation resulting in several speed of maturation and development. On three different titanium implant surfaces, machined-surface (M), sandblasted large grit, and acid-etched surface (SLA) and machined-modified acid-etched surface (mod MA) initial biofilms were collected. Plaque formation was investigated by erythrosine staining and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). For testing the biocompatibility of these plaque-settled surfaces, autoclaved specimens were settled with human gingival fibroblasts, and cell viability was tested. The mean initial plaque surface was detected in the following descending order: M > SLA > mod MA. The differences between these groups were significant. The highest cell viability was detected in the M groups, whereas mod MA and SLA showed comparable results. The results of initial biofilm formation were proved by EDX. Within the limitations of this study, conclusion can be made that mod MA surface shows significant slower initial biofilm formation which could be an advantage in initial transgingival healing process and also an easement for oral hygiene of patients because maturation of plaque is retarded, and immature biofilms are easier to remove. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Grooved Director Aids Fascial Enlargement and Closure

    PubMed Central

    Makar, Magdy

    1999-01-01

    Gallbladder retrieval following laparoscopic cholecystectomy through the umbilical or epigastric port site is at times tedious, may result in gallbladder perforation from excessive tearing forces applied to the gallbladder or from instrumental perforation while attempting to enlarge the fascia and is very “low tech” compared to the laparoscopic procedure. Port-site herniae develop when the fascia at either site is not closed adequately with sutures because of inadequate vision through the small incision and the concern for inadvertent injury to the tissues underlying the fascia. This study reports the use of a simple instrument, a spoon-shaped grooved director, to aid both the fascial enlargement and the fascial closure. The instrument has been used in more than 30 laparoscopic cholecystectomies and has been found to be simple, safe and effective for fascial enlargement and closure. This reusable instrument should be used routinely for laparoscopic cholecystectomy but offers significant advantages in the obese individual. PMID:10444019

  17. [Enlargement of keratinized peri-implant mucosa at the time of second stage surgery (re-entry)].

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Regula; Bassetti, Renzo; Mericske-Stern, Regina; Enkling, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    A tightly attached keratinized mucosa around endosseous dental implants is believed to be protective against peri-implant bone loss. Tension caused by buccal frena and mobile non keratinized mucosa is to avoid. This case report documents the optimization of peri-implant mucosal conditions in the upper and lower jaw. At the time of second stage surgery (re-entry) at submucosally osseointegrated dental implants an enlargement of keratinized mucosa and a thickening of soft tissue was obtained administrating a vestibuloplasty combined by a free gingival graft or a vestibuloplasty combined by an apically moved flap.

  18. Drug-Induced Gingival Overgrowth: The Genetic Dimension

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Noronha Shyam Curtis; Chavan, Rahul; Moon, Ninad Joshirao; Nalla, Srinivas; Mali, Jaydeepchandra; Prajapati, Anchal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Currently, the etiology of drug-induced gingival overgrowth is not entirely understood but is clearly multifactorial. Phenytoin, one of the common drugs implicated in gingival enlargement, is metabolized mainly by cytochrome P450 (CYP)2C9 and partly by CYP2C19. The CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 genes are polymorphically expressed and most of the variants result in decreased metabolism of the respective substrates. Aims: The present study was undertaken to investigate the influence of the CYP2C9*2 and *3 variant genotypes on phenytoin hydroxylation in subjects diagnosed with epilepsy from South India, thus establishing the genetic polymorphisms leading to its defective hydroxylation process. Materials and Methods: Fifteen epileptic subjects, age 9 to 60 years were included in the study. Among the study subjects, 8 were males and 7 were females. Genomic DNA was extracted from patients’ blood using Phenol-chloroform method and genotyping was done for CYP2C9 using customized TaqMan genotyping assays on a real time thermocycler, by allelic discrimination method. The genetic polymorphisms *1, *2 and *3 on CYP2C9 were selected based on their function and respective allele frequencies in Asian subcontinent among the Asian populations. Results: CYP2C9*1*2 and CYP2C9*3/*3 were identified with equal frequency in the study population. There were seven subjects with CYP2C9*1/*2 genotype (heterozygous mutant), one subject with CYP2C9*1/*1 (wild type) and seven study subjects with CYP2C9*3/*3 (homozygous mutant). Conclusion: The results obtained in the present study will be helpful in the medical prescription purposes of phenytoin, and a more personalized patient approach with its administration can be advocated. PMID:25317394

  19. Biophysics of Biofilm Infection

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Philip S.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines a likely basis of the tenacity of biofilm infections that has received relatively little attention: the resistance of biofilms to mechanical clearance. One way that a biofilm infection persists is by withstanding the flow of fluid or other mechanical forces that work to wash or sweep microorganisms out of the body. The fundamental criterion for mechanical persistence is that the biofilm failure strength exceeds the external applied stress. Mechanical failure of the biofilm and release of planktonic microbial cells is also important in vivo because it can result in dissemination of infection. The fundamental criterion for detachment and dissemination is that the applied stress exceeds the biofilm failure strength. The apparent contradiction for a biofilm to both persist and disseminate is resolved by recognizing that biofilm material properties are inherently heterogeneous. There are also mechanical aspects to the ways that infectious biofilms evade leukocyte phagocytosis. The possibility of alternative therapies for treating biofilm infections that work by reducing biofilm cohesion could: 1) allow prevailing hydrodynamic shear to remove biofilm, 2) increase the efficacy of designed interventions for removing biofilms, 3) enable phagocytic engulfment of softened biofilm aggregates, and 4) improve phagocyte mobility and access to biofilm. PMID:24376149

  20. A newborn with unilateral limb enlargement.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shanel; Maino, Anna P F; Husain, Shad M; Adams, Gill G W

    2012-03-01

    On routine neonatal examination, a newborn term male was noted to have unilateral enlargement of the right lower limb, loose thickened red skin over the palm and widening of all the fingers on the right hand. His body was pinker and warmer on the right side compared with the left and he had a right undescended testicle and hypoplastic scrotum. Radiological examination of the lower limbs demonstrated the enlargement of the soft tissue of the right lower limb compared to the left (Fig. 1). Therefore, the diagnosis was unclear from this constellation of findings and an ophthalmic assessment was requested.

  1. [Fungal invasion of connective tissue in patients with gingival-periodontal disease].

    PubMed

    Rubio, Nicolás Agustín; Puia, Sebastian; Toranzo, Silvia; Brusca, María Isabel

    2015-01-01

    In the last few years unusual microorganisms have been isolated from subgingival biofilm, as possible initiators or contributors to periodontal disease, especially in patients who show no improvement during treatment. To study the Candida invasion of the connective tissue in relation to subgingival biofilm presence. A total of 55 immunocompetent patients of both sexes, between 21 and 55 years of age, non-smokers, without previous antimicrobial treatment, suffering periodontal diseases, were studied. Soft tissues, supragingival and subgingival plaque samples, and periodontal pocket biopsies were taken. Microscopic studies, cultures, assimilation profiles, and DNA amplifications were performed. In 35% of the samples, different species of Candida were isolated in cultures, especially Candida albicans. Hyphae invasions in the connective tissue were observed, in association with anaerobic microorganisms (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans) in patients with periodontitis. Different species of Candida could be part of the periodontal plaque and could play an important role in the adherence to soft tissues, allowing deep invasion. They also could infect gingival pockets in patients with gingivitis, even in healthy locations, playing a commensal or opportunist role. Copyright © 2011 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Gingivitis/stomatitis in cats.

    PubMed

    Williams, C A; Aller, M S

    1992-11-01

    Any alteration in the balance of bacterial challenge versus the host's ability to resist and repair will result in oral lesions that are similar in appearance. The bacterial cause of gingivitis and periodontitis in humans and in all other animals in which it has been studied is firmly established, and specific species of predominantly gram-negative anaerobes have been implicated. Naturally occurring or acquired immunopathologies are likely to result in premature dental disease. When oral disease is associated with the accumulation of plaque, a positive response can be achieved by reducing the bacterial challenge to the host through the maintenance of oral hygiene by timely professional dental prophylaxis and home care. Disease that is the result of atypical immune responses, however, can be much more difficult to manage. Such oral disease can occur with either immune deficiencies or exaggerated immune responses, and it is likely that multiple mechanisms are active concurrently. In any case, gram-negative anaerobes present in plaque are likely to be a major contributing factor. Therefore patients with chronic refractory gingivitis-stomatitis must be considered to be plaque intolerant. Only with a frequent regimen of aggressive and thorough professional dental treatment plus meticulous oral home care on a daily basis can one expect to keep these cases in remission. Because this is often unrealistic, the only other way to keep these patients free of disease is by total dental extraction. The tissues that are colonized by the causative organisms must be eliminated. All root tips and bony sequestra must be removed and healing with intact epithelium accomplished before these cases will go into remission. Edentulous feline patients that continue to have signs of gingivostomatitis have been found to have an area of nonhealed bony sequestrum and chronic osteomyelitis. Once effective debridement has been accomplished and epithelial healing completed, nonresponsive cases can

  3. Penis-Enlargement Products: Do They Work?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and width of your penis. However, there's little scientific support for nonsurgical methods to enlarge the penis. And no reputable medical ... penis. Although this technique appears safer than other methods, there's no scientific proof it works, and it can lead to ...

  4. Enlarging Our Perspectives on Two American Revolutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branson, Margaret Stimmann

    1976-01-01

    Examines ways in which social studies teachers can help students identify and evaluate significant changes in the past and present and enlarge their perspectives on change. Information on the roles of women in the first American Revolution and insights on the present revolution are provided. (Author/DB)

  5. Enlarging Our Perspectives on Two American Revolutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branson, Margaret Stimmann

    1976-01-01

    Examines ways in which social studies teachers can help students identify and evaluate significant changes in the past and present and enlarge their perspectives on change. Information on the roles of women in the first American Revolution and insights on the present revolution are provided. (Author/DB)

  6. Hearts and Flowers: Learning To Enlarge Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalil, Judy

    2003-01-01

    Describes a lesson that teaches kindergarten students how to enlarge a smaller drawing onto a bigger piece of paper. Explains that the students create their heart-shape designs using tempera paint and pastels in the larger picture. Includes a list of materials. (CMK)

  7. Resection of Gingival Fibromatosis with High-power Laser.

    PubMed

    Camilotti, Renata Stifelman; Jasper, Juliana; Ferreira, Thaiana Barreto; Antonini, Fernando; Poli, Vladimir Dourado; Pagnoncelli, Rogério Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF), also known as hereditary gingival hyperplasia, idiopathic gingival fibromatosis, and hereditary gingival overgrowth, is a rare condition but the most common form of gingival hyperplasia. Overgrowth of gingival tissue is usually slow and progressive and may delay or prevent tooth eruption, resulting in cosmetic and functional impairments. Hypertrichosis, epilepsy, and intellectual disability may be associated with HGF, which can occur in isolation or as part of a syndrome. The purpose of this case report is to describe a diode laser resection of gingival hyperplasia in a seven-year-old patient with nonsyndromic HGF and hypertrichosis. The diode laser enabled efficient removal of hypertrophic gingival tissue with good healing and minimal postoperative discomfort.

  8. Biofilms of Clostridium species.

    PubMed

    Pantaléon, Véronique; Bouttier, Sylvie; Soavelomandroso, Anna Philibertine; Janoir, Claire; Candela, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    The biofilm is a microbial community embedded in a synthesized matrix and is the main bacterial way of life. A biofilm adheres on surfaces or is found on interfaces. It protects bacteria from the environment, toxic molecules and may have a role in virulence. Clostridium species are spread throughout both environments and hosts, but their biofilms have not been extensively described in comparison with other bacterial species. In this review we describe all biofilms formed by Clostridium species during both industrial processes and in mammals where biofilms may be formed either during infections or associated to microbiota in the gut. We have specifically focussed on Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens biofilms, which have been studied in vitro. Regulatory processes including sporulation and germination highlight how these Clostridium species live in biofilms. Furthermore, biofilms may have a role in the survival and spreading of Clostridium species.

  9. [Gingival fibromatosis (hereditary hyperplastic gingivitis) in a wild European red fox (Vulpes vulpes)].

    PubMed

    Schulze, C; Bensch, M; Winterhoff, N; Ansorge, H; Teifke, J P

    2008-12-01

    This report describes a case of gingival fibromatosis in an otherwise healthy and well nourished wild European red fox (Vulpes vulpes), which was shot by a hunter and submitted to the state laboratory in the context of the rabies monitoring program of the federal state of Brandenburg, Germany. At necropsy, a severe papillomatous proliferation of the complete gingival tissue of the upper and lower jaw was present. This gingival proliferation had already resulted in malocclusion, loosening and loss of several incisival, premolar and molar teeth. Histologically, the primary lesion was a massive increase in the amount of collagen rich and relatively avascular connective tissue within the gingival lamina propria mucosae. A papillomavirus infection was excluded by electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry and molecular biological methods. The gingival lesions in the red fox are identical to those seen in hereditary hyperplastic gingivitis in farmed silver foxes and hereditary gingival fibromatosis in man. It is presumed that, in analogy to the genetic diseases in silver foxes and man, a still unidentified genetic defect is responsible for the development of the disease in the red fox, too.

  10. Comparative Evaluation of Gingival Depigmentation using Tetrafluoroethane Cryosurgery and Gingival Abrasion Technique: Two Years Follow Up

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Santhosh; Bhat, G. Subraya; Bhat, K. Mahalinga

    2013-01-01

    Objective: A comparative evaluation of the gingival depigmentation by using Tetrafluoroethane cryosurgery and the gingival abrasion technique – 2 years of follow up. Material and Methods: Ten systemically healthy patients who were aged 18 to 36 years were selected for the study. Tetrafluoroethane was used for the cryosurgical depigmentation and the gingival abrasion technique used a coarse flame shaped bur. The presence or absence of pigmentation was tabulated, based on the GPI (Gingival Pigmentation Index). For the statistical analysis, Freidman’s test was used. Results: The keratinization was completed within a week after the application of the cryogen and about 10 days after the gingival abrasion technique was done. The statistical analysis which was done after 90th, 180th days and 2 years. The p-value which was obtained (p<.001) showed the superiority of cryosurgery over the gingival abrasion. During the follow up period, no side effects were seen for both the techniques and the improved aesthetics was maintained upto 2 years. Conclusion: The use of cryogen Tetrafluoroethane is easy, practical and inexpensive as compared to gingival abrasion, due to its high rate of recurrence. Hence, it is more acceptable to the patients and the operator. Further studies are needed to assess the long term effectiveness of the cryosurgical method of depigmentation. PMID:23543863

  11. Etiology and occurrence of gingival recession - An epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Mythri, Sarpangala; Arunkumar, Suryanarayan Maiya; Hegde, Shashikanth; Rajesh, Shanker Kashyap; Munaz, Mohamed; Ashwin, Devasya

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Gingival recession is the term used to characterize the apical shift of the marginal gingiva from its normal position on the crown of the tooth. It is frequently observed in adult subjects. The occurrence and severity of the gingival recession present considerable differences between populations. To prevent gingival recession from occurring, it is essential to detect the underlying etiology. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of gingival recession and to identify the most common factor associated with the cause of gingival recession. Methods: A total of 710 subjects aged between 15 years to 60 years were selected. Data were collected by an interview with the help of a proforma and then the dental examination was carried out. The presence of gingival recession was recorded using Miller's classification of gingival recession. The Silness and Loe Plaque Index, Loe and Silness gingival index, community periodontal index were recorded. The data thus obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using Chi-square test and Student's unpaired t-test. Results: Of 710 subjects examined, 291 (40.98%) subjects exhibited gingival recession. The frequency of gingival recession was found to increase with age. High frequency of gingival recession was seen in males (60.5%) compared to females (39.5%). Gingival recession was commonly seen in mandibular incisors (43.0%). Miller's class I gingival recession was more commonly seen. The most common cause for gingival recession was dental plaque accumulation (44.1%) followed by faulty toothbrushing (42.7%). Conclusion: Approximately half of the subjects examined exhibited gingival recession. The etiology of gingival recession is multifactorial, and its appearance is always the result of more than one factor acting together. PMID:26941519

  12. A Mutation in the SOS1 Gene Causes Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Thomas C.; Zhang, Yingze; Gorry, Michael C.; Hart, P. Suzanne; Cooper, Margaret; Marazita, Mary L.; Marks, Jared M.; Cortelli, Jose R.; Pallos, Debora

    2002-01-01

    Hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF) is a rare, autosomal dominant form of gingival overgrowth. Affected individuals have a benign, slowly progressive, nonhemorrhagic, fibrous enlargement of the oral masticatory mucosa. Genetic loci for autosomal dominant forms of HGF have been localized to chromosome 2p21-p22 (HGF1) and chromosome 5q13-q22 (HGF2). To identify the gene responsible for HGF1, we extended genetic linkage studies to refine the chromosome 2p21-p22 candidate interval to ∼2.3 Mb. Development of an integrated physical and genetic map of the interval identified 16 genes. Sequencing of these genes, in affected and unaffected HGF1 family members, identified a mutation in the Son of sevenless–1 (SOS1) gene in affected individuals. In this report, we describe the genomic structure of the SOS1 gene and present evidence that insertion of a cytosine between nucleotides 126,142 and 126,143 in codon 1083 of the SOS1 gene is responsible for HGF1. This insertion mutation, which segregates in a dominant manner over four generations, introduces a frameshift and creates a premature stop codon, abolishing four functionally important proline-rich SH3 binding domains normally present in the carboxyl-terminal region of the SOS1 protein. The resultant protein chimera contains the wild-type SOS1 protein for the N-terminal amino acids 1–1083 fused to a novel 22–amino acid carboxyl terminus. Similar SOS1 deletion constructs are functional in animal models, and a transgenic mouse construct with a comparable SOS1 chimera produces a phenotype with skin hypertrophy. Clarification of the functional role of this SOS1 mutant has implications for understanding other forms of gingival fibromatosis and corrective gingival-tissue management. PMID:11868160

  13. Response of chronic gingivitis to hygiene therapy and experimental gingivitis. Clinical, microbiological and metabonomic changes.

    PubMed

    Klukowska, Malgorzata; Goyal, C Ram; Khambe, Deepa; Cannon, Michael; Miner, Melanie; Gurich, Nataliya; Circello, Ben; Huggins, Tom; Barker, Matthew L; Furnish, Carrie; Conde, Erinn; Hoke, Phyllis; Haught, Chris; Xie, Sancai; White, Donald J

    2015-10-01

    To compare the clinical, microbiological and metabonomic profiles of subjects with high and low levels of chronic gingival bleeding during a controlled oral hygiene regimen intervention including sequential phases of rigorous therapeutic oral hygiene followed by experimental gingivitis (EG). Two cohorts of qualified study subjects with differences in gingival bleeding on probing levels at their baseline clinical examination were entered into the study. These two cohorts were followed through three separate study phases including a 1-week baseline phase, a 2-week phase of rigorous oral hygiene including dental prophylaxis, and a 3-week EG phase of no oral hygiene to encourage relapse of gingivitis. The 58 subjects were assessed during each phase of the study for clinical presentation of gingivitis and concurrently had plaque sampled for real-time polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) microbiological characterization and salivary lavage samples for 'systems biology' metabonomics assessment by 1H-NMR. Subjects presenting with different levels of gingival bleeding on probing when they entered the study responded differently to rigorous oral hygiene and EG. Specifically, the high bleeding cohort responded sluggishly to rigorous oral hygiene and exhibited markedly greater relapse to gingivitis during EG. RTPCR analysis showed changes in bacterial populations that were associated with study phases, particularly the increases in putative periodontal pathogens during EG. However, the microbiological profiles of high- and low-susceptibility gingival bleeding patients were largely similar. Metabonomic analysis likewise revealed significant changes in metabolite composition during study phases associated with differences in plaque toxicity, especially the short chain carboxylic acids propionate and n-butyrate, which tracked clinical changes in gingivitis severity. Systems analysis of metabonomic changes suggested differences between cohorts, although analysis to date has not

  14. Enlarged pancreas: not always a cancer.

    PubMed

    Calculli, Lucia; Festi, Davide; Pezzilli, Raffaele

    2015-02-01

    Pancreatic fat accumulation has been described with various terms including pancreatic lipomatosis, pancreatic steatosis, fatty replacement, fatty infiltration, fatty pancreas, lipomatous pseudohypertrophy and nonalcoholic fatty pancreas disease. It has been reported to be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, acute pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer and the formation of pancreatic fistula. The real incidence of this condition is still unknown. We report a case of pancreatic steatosis in a non-obese female patient initially diagnosed with a mass in the head of the pancreas. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was carried out to define the characteristics of the pancreatic mass. MRI confirmed the diagnosis of fat pancreas. Enlarged pancreas is not always a cancer, but pancreatic steatosis is characterized by pancreatic enlargement. MRI could give a definite diagnosis of pancreatic steatosis or cancer.

  15. Aortic Root Enlargement or Sutureless Valve Implantation?

    PubMed Central

    Baikoussis, Nikolaos G.; Dedeilias, Panagiotis; Argiriou, Michalis

    2016-01-01

    Aortic valve replacement (AVR) in patients with a small aortic annulus is a challenging issue. The importance of prosthesis–patient mismatch (PPM) post aortic valve replacement (AVR) is controversial but has to be avoided. Many studies support the fact that PPM has a negative impact on short and long term survival. In order to avoid PPM, aortic root enlargement may be performed. Alternatively and keeping in mind that often some comorbidities are present in old patients with small aortic root, the Perceval S suturelles valve implantation could be a perfect solution. The Perceval sutureless bioprosthesis provides reasonable hemodynamic performance avoiding the PPM and providing the maximum of aortic orifice area. We would like to see in the near future the role of the aortic root enlargement techniques in the era of surgical implantation of the sutureless valve (SAVR) and the transcatheter valve implantation (TAVI). PMID:28028424

  16. Ventricular enlargement after closed head injury.

    PubMed

    Levin, H S; Meyers, C A; Grossman, R G; Sarwar, M

    1981-10-01

    To study the relationship between enlargement of the cerebral ventricles and neuropsychological deficit after closed head injury (CHI), we measured the area of the lateral ventricles on computed tomographic scans obtained at least 30 days after severe CHI in 32 young adults and a control group of similar age. Enlargement of the lateral ventricles was demonstrated in 72% of the head-injured subjects, as defined by the ventricle-brain percent ratio (VBR). Ventricular dilation was related to the duration of coma after high-speed motor vehicle accidents and to intellectual and memory defects. The VBR may be a useful index of the severity of brain damage in certain categories of head-injured patients.

  17. Angiotensin II Levels in Gingival Tissues from Healthy Individuals, Patients with Nifedipine Induced Gingival Overgrowth and Non Responders on Nifedipine

    PubMed Central

    Balaji, Anitha; Balaji, Thodur Madapusi

    2015-01-01

    Context The Renin Angiotensin system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Drug Induced Gingival Overgrowth (DIGO), a fibrotic condition, caused by Phenytoin, Nifedipine and Cyclosporine. Aim This study quantified Angiotensin II levels in gingival tissue samples obtained from healthy individuals, patients on Nifedipine manifesting/not manifesting drug induced gingival overgrowth. Materials and Methods Gingival tissue samples were obtained from healthy individuals (n=24), patients on nifidipine manifesting gingival overgrowth (n= 18) and patients on nifidipine not manifesting gingival overgrowth (n=8). Angiotensin II levels were estimated in the samples using a commercially available ELISA kit. Results Angiotensin II levels were significantly elevated in patients on Nifedipine manifesting gingival overgrowth compared to the other 2 groups (p<0.01). Conclusion The results of the study give an insight into the role played by Angiotensin II in the pathogenesis of drug induced gingival overgrowth. PMID:26436057

  18. [Neutrophils and monocytes in gingival epithelium

    PubMed

    Meng, H X; Zheng, L P

    1994-06-01

    Neutrophils and monocytes of gingival epithellium in health gingiva(H),marginal gingivitis(MG),juvenile periodontitis(JP),adult periodontitis(AP) and subgingival bacteria were quantitated and analyzed,The results showed that the numbers of PMN within either pocket epithelium or oral gingival epithelium in JP were significantly lower than in AP and G.The amounts of PMN in AP were much larger than other three groups.Positive correlation between the number of PMN in sulcular pocket epitelium and the motile bacteri of subgingival plaque was demonstrated by correlation analysis.Monocytes mainly presented in deep pocket and junctional epithelum which were stained by NAE method,however very few Langhans cells were seen in these areas.

  19. Penile enlargement: from medication to surgery.

    PubMed

    Nugteren, Helena M; Balkema, G T; Pascal, A L; Schultz, W C M Weijmar; Nijman, J M; van Driel, M F

    2010-01-01

    Penis lengthening pills, stretch apparatus, vacuum pumps, silicone injections, and lengthening and thickening operations are available for men who worry about their penis size. Surgery is thus far the only proven scientific method for penile enlargement. In this article, we consider patient selection, outcome evaluation, and techniques applied. In our view, sexological counseling and detailed explanation of risks and complications are mandatory before any operative intervention.

  20. Biofilms: A microbial home

    PubMed Central

    Chandki, Rita; Banthia, Priyank; Banthia, Ruchi

    2011-01-01

    Microbial biofilms are mainly implicated in etiopathogenesis of caries and periodontal disease. Owing to its properties, these pose great challenges. Continuous and regular disruption of these biofilms is imperative for prevention and management of oral diseases. This essay provides a detailed insight into properties, mechanisms of etiopathogenesis, detection and removal of these microbial biofilms. PMID:21976832

  1. Quantitative characterization of airspace enlargement in emphysema.

    PubMed

    Parameswaran, Harikrishnan; Majumdar, Arnab; Ito, Satoru; Alencar, Adriano M; Suki, Béla

    2006-01-01

    The mean linear intercept (L(m)) can be used to estimate the surface area for gas exchange in the lung. However, in recent years, it is most commonly used as an index for characterizing the enlargement of airspaces in emphysema and the associated severity of structural destruction in the lung. Specifically, an increase in L(m) is thought to result from an increase in airspace sizes. In this paper, we examined how accurately L(m) measures the linear dimensions of airspaces from histological sections and a variety of computer-generated test images. To this end, we developed an automated method for measuring linear intercepts from digitized images of tissue sections and calculate L(m) as their mean. We examined how the shape of airspaces and the variability of their sizes influence L(m) as well as the distribution of linear intercepts. We found that, for a relatively homogeneous enlargement of airspaces, L(m) was a reliable index for detecting emphysema. However, in the presence of spatial heterogeneities with a large variability of airspace sizes, L(m) did not significantly increase and sometimes even decreased compared with its value in normal tissue. We also developed an automated method for measuring the area and computed an equivalent diameter of each individual airspace that is independent of shape. Finally, we introduced new indexes based on the moments of diameter that we found to be more reliable than L(m) to characterize airspace enlargement in the presence of heterogeneities.

  2. Effect of estradiol on planktonic growth, coaggregation, and biofilm formation of the Prevotella intermedia group bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fteita, Dareen; Könönen, Eija; Söderling, Eva; Gürsoy, Ulvi Kahraman

    2014-06-01

    Alterations in the quantity and quality of biofilms at gingival margin are considered to play a role in the initiation and development of pregnancy-related gingivitis. Prevotella intermedia sensu lato is able to consume estradiol, the major sex hormone secreted during pregnancy, in the absence of vitamin K. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of estradiol on the planktonic growth, coaggregation, polysaccharide production, and biofilm formation of the P. intermedia group bacteria, namely P. intermedia, Prevotella nigrescens, and Prevotella pallens. In all experiments, the type strain (ATCC) and a clinical strain (AHN) of P. intermedia, P. nigrescens, and P. pallens were incubated with the concentrations of 0, 30, 90, and 120 nmol/L of estradiol. Planktonic growth was assessed by means of the colony forming unit method, while coaggregation and biofilm formation were assessed by spectrophotometric methods. In the determination of protein and polysaccharide levels, the Bradford and phenol-sulfuric acid methods were used, respectively. P. pallens AHN 9283 and P. nigrescens ATCC 33563 increased their numbers at planktonic stage with increasing estradiol concentrations. In 48-h biofilm tests, elevated protein levels were found for both strains of P. intermedia, and the strains P. nigrescens ATCC 33563 and P. pallens AHN 9283 in the presence of estradiol. The P. intermedia strains also increased the levels of polysaccharide formation in the biofilm. Coaggregation of the P. intermedia group organisms with Fusobacterium nucleatum was enhanced only in P. intermedia AHN 8290. In conclusion, our in vitro experiments indicate that estradiol regulates planktonic growth, coaggregation, polysaccharide production, and biofilm formation characteristics of P. intermedia, P. nigrescens, and P. pallens differently. These results may, at least partly, explain the differences seen in their contribution to the pathogenesis of pregnancy-related gingivitis.

  3. Emergent gingival cyst of the adult.

    PubMed

    Brooks, John K; Kleinman, Justin W; Basile, John R

    2017-01-01

    The gingival cyst of the adult is a relatively rare, benign odontogenic cyst that maintains an insidious growth rate. This article describes a case of a diminutive fibrotic overgrowth arising on the labial interproximal gingiva between the mandibular right canine and first premolar in a 68-year-old woman. Within 1 year, the lesion had increased in size and appeared vesicular. The morphologic changes warranted surgical excision and histopathologic review. The lesion was diagnosed as a gingival cyst. At a 4.5-month recall appointment, there was no evidence of recurrence. Early lesional detection can potentially mitigate mucogingival defects and improve clinical outcomes.

  4. [Frenectomy associated with a triangular gingival graft].

    PubMed

    Borghetti, A; Guy, J P; Cesano, B

    1991-11-01

    In periodontal therapy, frenectomy is indicated when the frenum exerts tension on the gingival margin and interferes with proper oral hygiene. The procedure is also employed when the frenum prevents closure of a diastema during orthodontic therapy. Frenectomy should be done after the canines have erupted and before retention is started to prevent separation of the teeth. For an improved surgical and cosmetic result, the authors propose a triangular-shaped gingival graft after the frenum has been excised. The advantage of the procedure is to create an area of attached gingiva and enhance healing.

  5. [Gingival retraction paste versus gingival retraction cord for fixed prosthodontics: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Hong, Le-guan; Guo, Li-ping; Xue, Li-li

    2013-08-01

    To assess the efficacy of gingival retraction paste versus gingival retraction cord in fixed prosthodontics on gingiva protection, tooth preparation, clarity of the impression and plaster model, and aptness of the prosthesis. Chinese BioMedical Literature Database, VIP, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Wangfang database were searched on November 15th 2012 for eligible studies. Hand-searching included references of the included studies and Chinese dental journals. Risk of bias of the included studies was assessed by 2 reviewers independently using Cochrane Collaboration's tool, and data extraction was done by the 2 reviewers. Meta analysis was performed with Revman 5.1 software. Nine randomized controlled trials, involving 1153 participants, were included. All of them had moderate risk of bias. Meta analysis revealed that gingival retraction paste had better effect on gingival health [RR=1.05, 95%CI (1.00, 1.11), P=0.04], tooth preparation [RR=1.17, 95%CI (1.07, 1.28), P=0.0008] and clarity of the impression and plaster model [RR=1.08, 95%CI (1.03, 1.13), P=0.0009] than gingival retraction cord, and the aptness of the prosthesis was as good as the cord [RR=1.07, 95%CI (0.96, 1.19), P=0.21]. The gingival retraction paste has better effect on gingival health, tooth preparation and clarity of the impression and plaster model, while the aptness of the prosthesis is as good as the cord and can be considered as a good candidate of the gingival retraction cord, but more randomized controlled trials are needed.

  6. Comparison of gingival health and gingival crevicular fluid flow in children with and without diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ringelberg, M L; Dixon, D O; Francis, A O; Plummer, R W

    1977-02-01

    GCF flow measurements and a clinical scoring of gingival health were both recorded for a group of 56 children with diabetes and 41 children without diabets. The children with diabetes had significantly more gingival disease than the children without diabetes when compared with either measure. A small but significant correlation was found between the GCF flow and the clinical scores with the children with diabetes but not with the children without diabetes.

  7. Investigation of biofilms

    SciTech Connect

    Flemming, H.C.; Griebe, T.; Szewzyk, U.

    1999-07-01

    Drinking water systems, wastewater operations, and even groundwater and surface water, have in common the presence of cellular colonies called biofilms. Until now the means for studying biofilms have been limited. The present text provides the first in-depth assessment of current and experimental ways of studying biofilms, both in sample form and in situ. It shows how sensors, microscopy, lasers, and calorimetry, among other tools, can be used to obtain data on the morphology and metabolism of biofilms. In clarifying the way biofilms are studied, the book offers new insights into biofilms themselves. At the same time the text applies the techniques of inquiry to many problems confronting the environmental specialist, notably, the control of corrosion and biofouling, and the improvement of fixed-biofilm reactors in wastewater treatment.

  8. Treating Enlarged Prostate (BPH): Which Drugs Work Best

    MedlinePlus

    ... the prostate gets larger. This is called prostate enlargement, or BPH (benign prostatic hyperplasia). Why should I ... alpha-blocker doxazosin for a first treatment. Prostate enlargement affects millions of men, including about half of ...

  9. The relation of gingival thickness to dynamics of gingival margin position pre- and post-surgically

    PubMed Central

    Vandana, Kharidhi Laxman; Gupta, Ira

    2016-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the gingival margin position (GMP) before and after open flap debridement in different gingival thickness (GT). Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven healthy patients with moderate to advanced adult periodontitis were included in a randomized control clinical trial. A calibrated UNC-15 periodontal probe, an occlusal onlay stent was used for clinical measurements recorded at baseline, 3 month, 6 month, and 16 month. The changes in the GMP were studied at midbuccal (Mi-B), mesiobuccal (MB), and distobuccal sites. GT was measured presurgically, transgingivally at Mi-B and interdental sites, divided into 2 groups: Group 1 (thin) and Group 2 (thick). Results: In GT of ≤1 mm group, the statistically significant apical shift of GMP led to gingival recession at all study sites in the early postsurgical period of 1 and 3 months. During 6 and 16 months, the apical shift of GMP coincided with the Chernihiv Airport at Mi-B site (6 months), MB site (16 months). The gingival recession was obvious at Mi-B sites (16 months). In the GT of >1 mm, the statistically significant apical shift of GMP did not cause gingival recession at any sites throughout postsurgical (1, 3, 6, and 16 months) period. Conclusion: Thin gingiva showed apical shift of GMP leading to gingival recession as compared to thick gingiva postsurgically. PMID:27143829

  10. Novel carbocyle enlargement in aqueous medium

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C.J.; Chen, D.L.; Lu, Y.Q.; Haberman, J.X.; Mague, J.T.

    1996-05-01

    For two-atom ring expansions, the photochemical method of [2+2] cyclization-decyclization is the most successful. The [2+2] cycloaddition of an acetylenic ester to an enamine of a cyclic ketone and subsequent opening of the annulated cyclobutene moiety formed in another useful method for two-carbon ring expansion. We report here a novel two-atom carbocycle enlargement based on the indium-mediated Barbier-Grignard type reaction in water. 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  11. Mandibular Canal Enlargement: Clinical and Radiological Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Chong Jun; Jabar, Nazimi Abd; Lan, Tan Huann; Ramli, Roszalina

    2017-01-01

    Enlargement of the mandibular canal is a rare radiological finding. Clinically, it may or may not be associated with sensory deficits. We report four cases of widening of the mandibular canal observed with various methods of imaging with different clinical characteristics. We describe this unique radiological finding and elaborate the importance of quality assessment of the imaging that is vital for accurate diagnosis and treatment planning. Clinicians should be mindful when assessing the imaging whenever the size of the mandibular canal is implicated. The case ranged from a benign tumor to malignancy, radiological errors, and artifacts. A more superior imaging or treatment modality was necessary to ascertain the diagnosis. PMID:28781925

  12. USAREUR 2010: Harnessing the Potential of NATO Enlargement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    in The Challenge of NATO Enlargement, 20. 28 Jeffrey Simon, “NATO Enlargement: Crossing the Rubicon ,” in NATO after Fifty Years, ed. S. Victor...11_10_99Europe.htm>. Internet. Accessed 29 September 2002. Simon, Jeffrey. “NATO Enlargement: Crossing the Rubicon .” In NATO after Fifty Years, ed. S. Victor

  13. Aloe vera: It's effect on gingivitis

    PubMed Central

    Ajmera, Neha; Chatterjee, Anirban; Goyal, Vikas

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Aloe vera is the oldest medicinal plant that has maintained its popularity over the course of time. It is widely known for its medicinal uses in wound healing, as an analgesic, and for its anti-inflammatory properties. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory property of aloe vera mouthwash on plaque-induced gingivitis. Materials and Methods: Forty-five patients who were diagnosed with plaque-induced gingivitis were included in the study. They were divided into three groups with fifteen patients in each group. Group 1 was asked to rinse with 10 ml of aloe vera mouthwash twice daily for three months. Group 2 were treated with scaling only. Group 3 patients were asked to rinse with aloe vera mouthwash and scaling was done. The clinical changes were evaluated with Loe and Silness gingival index (1963) and Muhlemann and Son's Sulcus bleeding index (1971) at baseline, after one month and three months, respectively. Results: The data obtained was compared statistically. The paired ‘t’ test was done for intragroup comparison and one-way analysis of variance with a post hoc Tukey test was used for intergroup comparison. The data was obtained at the baseline, end of first month, and end of the third month. The result suggested reduction in gingival inflammation in all the three groups, but it was more in the aloe vera mouthwash and scaling group. Hence, it was concluded that aloe vera had a significant anti-inflammatory property. Thus, it can be used as an adjunct to mechanical therapy for treating plaque-induced gingivitis. PMID:24174720

  14. The sociobiology of biofilms.

    PubMed

    Nadell, Carey D; Xavier, Joao B; Foster, Kevin R

    2009-01-01

    Biofilms are densely packed communities of microbial cells that grow on surfaces and surround themselves with secreted polymers. Many bacterial species form biofilms, and their study has revealed them to be complex and diverse. The structural and physiological complexity of biofilms has led to the idea that they are coordinated and cooperative groups, analogous to multicellular organisms. We evaluate this idea by addressing the findings of microbiologists from the perspective of sociobiology, including theories of collective behavior (self-organization) and social evolution. This yields two main conclusions. First, the appearance of organization in biofilms can emerge without active coordination. That is, biofilm properties such as phenotypic differentiation, species stratification and channel formation do not necessarily require that cells communicate with one another using specialized signaling molecules. Second, while local cooperation among bacteria may often occur, the evolution of cooperation among all cells is unlikely for most biofilms. Strong conflict can arise among multiple species and strains in a biofilm, and spontaneous mutation can generate conflict even within biofilms initiated by genetically identical cells. Biofilms will typically result from a balance between competition and cooperation, and we argue that understanding this balance is central to building a complete and predictive model of biofilm formation.

  15. Antimicrobial Tolerance in Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Philip S.

    2015-01-01

    The tolerance of microorganisms in biofilms to antimicrobial agents is examined through a meta-analysis of literature data. A numerical tolerance factor comparing the rates of killing in the planktonic and biofilm states is defined to provide a quantitative basis for the analysis. Tolerance factors for biocides and antibiotics range over three orders of magnitude. This variation is not explained by taking into account the molecular weight of the agent, the chemistry of the agent, the substratum material, or the speciation of the microorganisms. Tolerance factors do depend on the areal cell density of the biofilm at the time of treatment and on the age of the biofilm as grown in a particular experimental system. This suggests that there is something that happens during biofilm maturation, either physical or physiological, that is essential for full biofilm tolerance. Experimental measurements of antimicrobial penetration times in biofilms range over orders of magnitude, with slower penetration (>12 min) observed for reactive oxidants and cationic molecules. These agents are retarded through the interaction of reaction, sorption, and diffusion. The specific physiological status of microbial cells in a biofilm contributes to antimicrobial tolerance. A conceptual framework for categorizing physiological cell states is discussed in the context of antimicrobial susceptibility. It is likely that biofilms harbor cells in multiple states simultaneously (e.g., growing, stress-adapted, dormant, inactive) and that this physiological heterogeneity is an important factor in the tolerance of the biofilm state. PMID:26185072

  16. Assessment of Krillase chewing gum for the reduction of gingivitis and dental plaque.

    PubMed

    Hellgren, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    biofilm and affecting adhesive properties of the oral bacteria, resulting in a numerical decrease of plaque formation and a significant reduction of gingival bleeding compared to a placebo chewing gum.

  17. Cytotoxic potential of vasoconstrictor experimental gingival retraction agents: in vitro study on primary human gingival fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Nowakowska, D; Saczko, J; Kulbacka, J; Choromanska, A; Raszewski, Z

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of the vasoconstrictor experimental gingival retraction agents (VEGRAs) in a dynamic setting. The strong cytotoxic effects of the astringent-based conventional gingival retraction agents (ACGRAs) on human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) in vitro was our motivation to evaluate the biocompatibility of the vasoconstrictor-based experimental gingival retraction agents (VEGRAs) for the selected minimally invasive chemical agent. These agents were used to create three self-made retraction gels. Human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) were treated with two groups of retraction agents: 1) three α- and β-adrenergic agents (VEGRA-αβ-s) based on 0.1%, 0.01% and 0.05% HCl-epinephrine, and 2) seven α-adrenergic agents (VEGRA-α-s), including two commercially available 0.05% HCl-tetrahydrozoline solutions, one 0.05% HCl-oxymetazoline solution, 10% HCl-phenylephrine solution, and three new self-made experimental 0.05% HCl-tetrahydro zoline-based gels. The methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) colorimetric assay was performed to determine the oxidoreductive mitochondrial function after 3, 5, 10 min and 24 h of incubation. The cytotoxic effect, measured by cell viability lower than the 50% threshold, was not observed at any time period, even 24 h after application of 0.05% HCl-tetrahydrozolinebased self-manufactured retraction gels. High cell viability values of human gingival fibroblasts after the treatment with the three self-made 0.05% HCl-tetrahydrozoline- based gels may serve as a basis for further studies aimed at selecting the best retraction agents biocompatible with gingival margin tissues.

  18. Photodynamic inactivation of biofilm: taking a lightly colored approach to stubborn infection

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, Wanessa CMA; Avci, Pinar; de Oliveira, Milene Nóbrega; Gupta, Asheesh; Vecchio, Daniela; Sadasivam, Magesh; Chandran, Rakkiyappan; Huang, Ying-Ying; Yin, Rui; Perussi, Livia R; Tegos, George P; Perussi, Janice R; Dai, Tianhong; Hamblin, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Microbial biofilms are responsible for a variety of microbial infections in different parts of the body, such as urinary tract infections, catheter infections, middle-ear infections, gingivitis, caries, periodontitis, orthopedic implants, and so on. The microbial biofilm cells have properties and gene expression patterns distinct from planktonic cells, including phenotypic variations in enzymic activity, cell wall composition and surface structure, which increase the resistance to antibiotics and other antimicrobial treatments. There is consequently an urgent need for new approaches to attack biofilm-associated microorganisms, and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) may be a promising candidate. aPDT involves the combination of a nontoxic dye and low-intensity visible light which, in the presence of oxygen, produces cytotoxic reactive oxygen species. It has been demonstrated that many biofilms are susceptible to aPDT, particularly in dental disease. This review will focus on aspects of aPDT that are designed to increase efficiency against biofilms modalities to enhance penetration of photosensitizer into biofilm, and a combination of aPDT with biofilm-disrupting agents. PMID:23879608

  19. Biofilm Formation by Drug Resistant Enterococci Isolates Obtained from Chronic Periodontitis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Manjula; Sood, Shaveta; Sharma, Jyoti

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Enterococci are an important cause of opportunistic nosocomial infections and several multidrug resistant strains have emerged. The severity of periodontal diseases is managed by reduction in the pathogenic bacteria. There is a need to assess the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of enterococci colonizing the periodontal pocket and correlate its biofilm formation ability because oral biofilms provide a protective environment and are a reservoir of bacterial colonization of the gingival crevice. Aim To investigate possible association between antibiotic susceptibility and biofilm formation in enterococci isolates from chronic periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods This retrospective study was conducted at Dr. Harvansh Singh Judge Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Punjab University, Chandigarh from January 2015 to October 2015. Sterile paper points were inserted in the periodontal pocket of 100 subjects and put in a transport media. Forty -six isolates were identified as enterococci. The isolates were further examined for their ability to form biofilm by microtitre plate assay and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by disc diffusion method for clinically relevant antibiotics. Results Significant relationship (p<0.001) was found between biofilm production with antibiotic resistance to Vancomycin, Erythromycin, Ciprofloxacin, Tiecoplanin, Amoxycillin and Gentamycin. Conclusion The study demonstrates a high propensity among the isolates of Enterococci to form biofilm and a significant association of biofilm with multiple drug resistance. PMID:28273964

  20. A quantitative proteomic analysis of biofilm adaptation by the periodontal pathogen Tannerella forsythia.

    PubMed

    Pham, Trong Khoa; Roy, Sumita; Noirel, Josselin; Douglas, Ian; Wright, Phillip C; Stafford, Graham P

    2010-09-01

    Tannerella forsythia is a Gram-negative anaerobe that is one of the most prominent inhabitants of the sub-gingival plaque biofilm, which is crucial for causing periodontitis. We have used iTRAQ proteomics to identify and quantify alterations in global protein expression of T. forsythia during growth in a biofilm. This is the first proteomic study concentrating on biofilm growth in this key periodontal pathogen, and this study has identified several changes in protein expression. Moreover, we introduce a rigorous statistical method utilising peptide-level intensities of iTRAQ reporters to determine which proteins are significantly regulated. In total, 348 proteins were identified and quantified with the expression of 44 proteins being significantly altered between biofilm and planktonic cells. We identified proteins from all cell compartments, and highlighted a marked upregulation in the relative abundances of predicted outer membrane proteins in biofilm cells. These included putative transport systems and the T. forsythia S-layer proteins. These data and our finding that the butyrate production pathway is markedly downregulated in biofilms indicate possible alterations in host interaction capability. We also identified upregulation of putative oxidative stress response proteins, and showed that biofilm cells are 10 to 20 fold more resistant to oxidative stress. This may represent an important adaptation of this organism to prolonged persistence and immune evasion in the oral cavity.

  1. Primary prevention of periodontitis: managing gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Chapple, Iain L C; Van der Weijden, Fridus; Doerfer, Christof; Herrera, David; Shapira, Lior; Polak, David; Madianos, Phoebus; Louropoulou, Anna; Machtei, Eli; Donos, Nikos; Greenwell, Henry; Van Winkelhoff, Ari J; Eren Kuru, Bahar; Arweiler, Nicole; Teughels, Wim; Aimetti, Mario; Molina, Ana; Montero, Eduardo; Graziani, Filippo

    2015-04-01

    Periodontitis is a ubiquitous and irreversible inflammatory condition and represents a significant public health burden. Severe periodontitis affects over 11% of adults, is a major cause of tooth loss impacting negatively upon speech, nutrition, quality of life and self-esteem, and has systemic inflammatory consequences. Periodontitis is preventable and treatment leads to reduced rates of tooth loss and improved quality of life. However, successful treatment necessitates behaviour change in patients to address lifestyle risk factors (e.g. smoking) and, most importantly, to attain and sustain high standards of daily plaque removal, lifelong. While mechanical plaque removal remains the bedrock of successful periodontal disease management, in high-risk patients it appears that the critical threshold for plaque accumulation to trigger periodontitis is low, and such patients may benefit from adjunctive agents for primary prevention of periodontitis. The aims of this working group were to systematically review the evidence for primary prevention of periodontitis by preventing gingivitis via four approaches: 1) the efficacy of mechanical self-administered plaque control regimes; 2) the efficacy of self-administered inter-dental mechanical plaque control; 3) the efficacy of adjunctive chemical plaque control; and 4) anti-inflammatory (sole or adjunctive) approaches. Two meta-reviews (mechanical plaque removal) and two traditional systematic reviews (chemical plaque control/anti-inflammatory agents) formed the basis of this consensus. Data support the belief that professionally administered plaque control significantly improves gingival inflammation and lowers plaque scores, with some evidence that reinforcement of oral hygiene provides further benefit. Re-chargeable power toothbrushes provide small but statistically significant additional reductions in gingival inflammation and plaque levels. Flossing cannot be recommended other than for sites of gingival and periodontal

  2. Staphylococcus aureus biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Nathan K; Mazaitis, Mark J; Costerton, J William; Leid, Jeff G; Powers, Mary Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Increasing attention has been focused on understanding bacterial biofilms and this growth modality's relation to human disease. In this review we explore the genetic regulation and molecular components involved in biofilm formation and maturation in the context of the Gram-positive cocci, Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, we discuss diseases and host immune responses, along with current therapies associated with S. aureus biofilm infections and prevention strategies. PMID:21921685

  3. The Biofilm Community-Rebels with a Cause

    PubMed Central

    Aruni, A. Wilson; Dou, Yuetan; Mishra, Arunima; Fletcher, Hansel M.

    2015-01-01

    Oral Biofilms are one of the most complex and diverse ecosystem developed by successive colonization of more than 600 bacterial taxa. Development starts with the attachment of early colonizers such as Actinomyces species and oral streptococci on the acquired pellicle and tooth enamel. These bacteria not only adhere to tooth surface but also interact with each other and lay foundation for attachment of bridging colonizer such as Fusobacterium nucleatum followed by late colonizers including the red complex species: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola-the founders of periodontal disease. As the biofilm progresses from supragingival sites to subgingival sites, the environment changes from aerobic to anaerobic thus favoring the growth of mainly Gram-negative obligate anaerobes while restricting the growth of the early Gram-positive facultative aerobes. Microbes present at supragingival level are mainly related to gingivitis and root-caries whereas subgingival species advance the destruction of teeth supporting tissues and thus causing periodontitis. This review summarizes our present understanding and recent developments on the characteristic features of supra- and subgingival biofilms, interaction between different genera and species of bacteria constituting these biofilms and draws our attention to the role of some of the recently discovered members of the oral community. PMID:26120510

  4. Synergy of brushing mode and antibacterial use on in vivo biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Jongsma, Marije A; van de Lagemaat, Marieke; Busscher, Henk J; Geertsema-Doornbusch, Gesinda I; Atema-Smit, Jelly; van der Mei, Henny C; Ren, Yijin

    2015-12-01

    Orthodontic, multi-strand retention-wires are used as a generalized model for oral retention sites to investigate whether biofilm left-behind after powered toothbrushing in-vivo enabled better penetration of antibacterials as compared with manual brushing. 2-cm multi-strand, stainless-steel retention-wires were placed in brackets bonded bilaterally in the upper arches of 10-volunteers. Volunteers used NaF-sodium-lauryl-sulphate-containing toothpaste and antibacterial, triclosan-containing toothpaste supplemented or not with an essential-oils containing mouthrinse. Opposite sides of the dentition including the retention-wires, were brushed manually or with a powered toothbrush. Health-care-regimens were maintained for 1-week, after which wires were removed and oral biofilm was collected. When powered toothbrushing was applied, slightly less bacteria were collected than after manual brushing, regardless whether an antibacterial-regimen was used or not. Powered-toothbrushing combined with antibacterial-regimens yielded lower biofilm viability than manual brushing, indicating better antibacterial penetration into biofilm left-behind after powered brushing. Major shifts in biofilm composition, with a decrease in prevalence of both cariogenic species and periodontopathogens, were induced after powered brushing using an antibacterial-regimen. Oral biofilm left-behind after powered brushing in-vivo enabled better penetration of antibacterials than after manual brushing. Mechanical removal of oral biofilm is important for prevention of dental pathologies, but biofilm is always left-behind, such as in fissures, buccal pits, interproximal areas and gingival margins and around orthodontic appliances. Use of antibacterial toothpastes or mouthrinses can contribute to removal or killing of biofilm bacteria, but biofilm structure hampers antibacterial penetration. A synergy between brushing mode and antibacterial-regimen applied exists with clinically demonstrable effects

  5. Distribution of smile line, gingival angle and tooth shape among the Saudi Arabian subpopulation and their association with gingival biotype

    PubMed Central

    AlQahtani, Nabeeh A.; Haralur, Satheesh B.; AlMaqbol, Mohammad; AlMufarrij, Ali Jubran; Al Dera, Ahmed Ali; Al-Qarni, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the occurrence of smile line and maxillary tooth shape in the Saudi Arabian subpopulation, and to estimate the association between these parameters with gingival biotype. Materials and Methods: On the fulfillment of selection criteria, total 315 patients belong to Saudi Arabian ethnic group were randomly selected. Two frontal photographs of the patients were acquired. The tooth morphology, gingival angle, and smile line classification were determined with ImageJ image analyzing software. The gingival biotype was assessed by probe transparency method. The obtained data were analyzed with SPSS 19 (IBM Corporation, New York, USA) software to determine the frequency and association between other parameters and gingival biotype. Results: Among the clinical parameters evaluated, the tapering tooth morphology (56.8%), thick gingival biotype (53%), and average smile line (57.5%) was more prevalent. The statistically significant association was found between thick gingival biotype and the square tooth, high smile line. The high gingival angle was associated with thin gingival biotype. Conclusions: The study results indicate the existence of an association between tooth shape, smile line, and gingival angle with gingival biotype. PMID:27195228

  6. Patient with bilateral breast enlargement and hypospadias.

    PubMed

    Ali, A A; Ahmed, T; Rashid, M M

    2009-01-01

    A 20 year old man was admitted in the surgical unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital on August 2007 presented with Hypospadias & underdeveloped penis from childhood, gradual enlargement of both breasts for the last 10 years, absence of axillary and pubic hair from puberty & painful swelling of both testes for the last 3 years. The patient was regarded as a female upto the age of 10 years. He has got no voice change since puberty. On examination he had average body built, there was bilateral gynaecomastia, hypospadias, rudimentary penis & absence of pubic and axillary hair. His testosterone level, serum prolactin level, serum progesterone level, serum estradiol level was done. Cytology on buccal smear done and ultrasonography revealed no ovary and uterus. Ultimately patient was diagnosed as a case of androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). The case is reported for clinical awareness & to share our experience.

  7. Conductance enlargement in picoscale electroburnt graphene nanojunctions

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Hatef; Mol, Jan A.; Lau, Chit Siong; Briggs, G. Andrew D.; Warner, Jamie; Lambert, Colin J.

    2015-01-01

    Provided the electrical properties of electroburnt graphene junctions can be understood and controlled, they have the potential to underpin the development of a wide range of future sub-10-nm electrical devices. We examine both theoretically and experimentally the electrical conductance of electroburnt graphene junctions at the last stages of nanogap formation. We account for the appearance of a counterintuitive increase in electrical conductance just before the gap forms. This is a manifestation of room-temperature quantum interference and arises from a combination of the semimetallic band structure of graphene and a cross-over from electrodes with multiple-path connectivity to single-path connectivity just before breaking. Therefore, our results suggest that conductance enlargement before junction rupture is a signal of the formation of electroburnt junctions, with a picoscale current path formed from a single sp2 bond. PMID:25730863

  8. Chronic inflammatory gingival overgrowths: laser gingivectomy & gingivoplasty.

    PubMed

    Shankar, B Shiva; T, Ramadevi; S, Neetha M; Reddy, P Sunil Kumar; Saritha, G; Reddy, J Muralinath

    2013-02-01

    It is quite common to note chronic inflammatory Gingival overgrowths during and/or post orthodontic treatment. Sometimes the overgrowths may even potentially complicate and/or interrupt orthodontic treatment. With the introduction of soft tissue lasers these problems can now be addressed more easily. Amongst many LASERS now available in Dentistry DIODE LASERS seem to be most ideal for orthodontic soft tissue applications. As newer treatments herald into minimally invasive techniques, DIODE LASERS are becoming more promising both in patient satisfaction and dentist satisfaction. How to cite this article: Shankar BS, Ramadevi T, Neetha M S, Reddy P S K, Saritha G, Reddy J M. Chronic Inflammatory Gingival Overgrowths: Laser Gingivectomy & Gingivoplasty. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):83-87.

  9. Gingival hypertrophy: a solitary manifestation of scurvy.

    PubMed

    Li, Ryan; Byers, Karin; Walvekar, Rohan R

    2008-01-01

    A 48-year-old woman presented with rapid onset hypertrophy of both the upper and lower gingiva. A detailed history and a diet nearly void of fruits and vegetables raised the suspicion of a possible deficiency of vitamin C. An estimation of the serum ascorbic acid level confirmed our suspicions (<0.12 mg/dL; normal range, 0.4-1.0 mg/dL) and a diagnosis of scurvy was confirmed. A course of 1000 mg/d of ascorbic acid was initiated that caused a dramatic resolution of the gingival lesions. Gingival hypertrophy has a large differential diagnosis; however, it is also known to be an extremely rare manifestation of scurvy. A high index of suspicion for scurvy is relevant given its low prevalence in developed nations and how easily remediable the disease can be, even when it presents in a severe form.

  10. Maintenance of gingival health post professional care.

    PubMed

    Bosma, Mary Lynn

    2011-08-01

    Oral hygiene habits are strongly associated with general health behaviours; good oral self care should result in good dental health. Clinical dental hygiene services have limited long range probability of success if the patient is not diligent in the daily procedures of personal care to remove and control dental plaque. Therefore, it is important to help make the individual aware of their own ability to control and maintain good oral health after a dental prophylaxis through oral care instruction and the use of select antimicrobials to maintain the gingival health. This paper reviews the evidence outlining the relative roles of prophylaxis and correct oral self-care in maintaining gingival health. © 2011 FDI World Dental Federation.

  11. Chronic Inflammatory Gingival Overgrowths: Laser Gingivectomy & Gingivoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, B Shiva; T, Ramadevi; S, Neetha M; Reddy, P Sunil Kumar; Saritha, G; Reddy, J Muralinath

    2013-01-01

    It is quite common to note chronic inflammatory Gingival overgrowths during and/or post orthodontic treatment. Sometimes the overgrowths may even potentially complicate and/or interrupt orthodontic treatment. With the introduction of soft tissue lasers these problems can now be addressed more easily. Amongst many LASERS now available in Dentistry DIODE LASERS seem to be most ideal for orthodontic soft tissue applications. As newer treatments herald into minimally invasive techniques, DIODE LASERS are becoming more promising both in patient satisfaction and dentist satisfaction. How to cite this article: Shankar BS, Ramadevi T, Neetha M S, Reddy P S K, Saritha G, Reddy J M. Chronic Inflammatory Gingival Overgrowths: Laser Gingivectomy & Gingivoplasty. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):83-87. PMID:24155582

  12. Comparative analysis of gingival crevicular fluid neopterin levels in health and periodontal disease: a biochemical study.

    PubMed

    Arjunkumar, Radhika; Sudhakar, Uma; Jayakumar, Puthur; Arunachalam, Lalitha; Suresh, Snophia; Virupapuram, Pramod

    2013-01-01

    Periodontitis involves intricate interactions of the biofilm with the host immunoinflammatory response and subsequent alterations in bone and connective tissue homeostasis. Neopterin is a marker, belonging to the class of pteridines, which is associated with cell-mediated immunity. It is produced by interferon-γ stimulated macrophages. The levels of neopterin in body fluids are elevated in infections, autoimmune diseases, malignancies and allograft rejections. This investigation was designed to estimate the levels of neopterin in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in health, chronic gingivitis and chronic periodontitis. Thirty subjects were divided into three groups of ten subjects each as with healthy periodontium (Group 1), chronic gingivitis (Group 2) and chronic periodontitis (Group 3). The GCF samples were obtained from the subjects by placing color-coded calibrated, volumetric, micro-capillary pipettes extracrevicularly. The samples were placed in plastic vials and stored at -70°C until the time of neopterin estimation using enzyme immunoassay. The mean neopterin level in Group 3 (126.28 ± 37.70 nmol/L) is significantly higher than the mean neopterin level in Group 1 (48.66 ± 18.82 nmol/L) and Group 2 (70.68 ± 18.26 nmol/L) (P < 0.05). However, there is no significant relationship between neopterin levels and various clinical parameters in each study group (P > 0.05). The results of our study indicate that the neopterin levels in GCF are positively associated with periodontal disease, which may provide a useful tool in monitoring its progression. Nevertheless, further longitudinal studies are required with larger sample sizes in which neopterin levels are progressively estimated and compared to baseline values.

  13. Gingival overgrowth: Part 2: management strategies.

    PubMed

    Chesterman, J; Beaumont, J; Kellett, M; Durey, K

    2017-02-10

    The effective and predictable management of gingival overgrowth requires correct diagnosis and consideration of aetiological factors, as discussed in Part 1 (BDJ 2017; 222: 85-91). Initial management should involve cause-related therapy, which may resolve or reduce the lesion. If functional, aesthetic and maintenance complications persist following this phase; further treatment may be required in the form of surgery. This paper discusses management strategies, including management of aetiological factors and surgical techniques.

  14. Quercitrin-nanocoated titanium surfaces favour gingival cells against oral bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Florit, Manuel; Pacha-Olivenza, Miguel A.; Fernández-Calderón, Maria C.; Córdoba, Alba; González-Martín, Maria L.; Monjo, Marta; Ramis, Joana M.

    2016-01-01

    Many dental implants fail due to the infection and inflammation that walk hand in hand with poor healing and soft tissue integration. Titanium surfaces were nanocoated with quercitrin, a natural flavonoid, with the aim to improve soft tissue integration and increase dental implants success. Streptococcus mutans attachment and biofilm formation was analysed. Then, the anti-inflammatory properties and the potential of quercitrin-nanocoated surfaces to boost soft tissue regeneration were tested using human gingival fibroblasts. An inflammatory situation was mimicked using interleulin-1-beta. We found that quercitrin-nanocoated surfaces decreased initial bacterial adhesion while increasing human gingival fibroblasts attachment. Furthermore, quercitrin-nanocoated Ti increased collagen mRNA levels and decreased matrix metalloproteinase-1/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinanse-1 mRNA ratio, which is related to a reduced metalloproteinase-mediated collagen degradation, while also decreasing the pro-inflammatory prostaglandin E2 release under basal and inflammatory conditions. These results suggest that quercitrin-nanocoated surfaces could enhance the soft tissue integration and increase dental implants success. PMID:26925553

  15. Characterization of the human immune cell network at the gingival barrier

    PubMed Central

    Greenwell-Wild, Teresa; Moutsopoulos, Niki M.

    2015-01-01

    The oral mucosa is a barrier site constantly exposed to rich and diverse commensal microbial communities, yet little is known of the immune cell network maintaining immune homeostasis at this interface. We have performed a detailed characterization of the immune cell subsets of the oral cavity in a large cohort of healthy subjects. We focused our characterization on the gingival interface, a particularly vulnerable mucosal site, with thin epithelial lining and constant exposure to the tooth adherent biofilm. In health, we find a predominance of T cells, minimal B cells, a large presence of granulocytes/neutrophils, a sophisticated network of professional antigen presenting cells (APC) and a small population of innate lymphoid cells (ILC) policing the gingival barrier. We further characterize cellular subtypes in health and interrogate shifts in immune cell populations in the common oral inflammatory disease periodontitis. In disease we document an increase in neutrophils and an up regulation of IL-17 responses. We identify the main source of IL-17 in health and periodontitis within the CD4+ T cell compartment. Collectively our studies provide a first view of the landscape of physiologic oral immunity and serve as a baseline for the characterization of local immunopathology. PMID:26732676

  16. Gingival Tissue Transcriptomes Identify Distinct Periodontitis Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Kebschull, M.; Demmer, R.T.; Grün, B.; Guarnieri, P.; Pavlidis, P.; Papapanou, P.N.

    2014-01-01

    The currently recognized principal forms of periodontitis—chronic and aggressive—lack an unequivocal, pathobiology-based foundation. We explored whether gingival tissue transcriptomes can serve as the basis for an alternative classification of periodontitis. We used cross-sectional whole-genome gene expression data from 241 gingival tissue biopsies obtained from sites with periodontal pathology in 120 systemically healthy nonsmokers with periodontitis, with available data on clinical periodontal status, subgingival microbial profiles, and serum IgG antibodies to periodontal microbiota. Adjusted model-based clustering of transcriptomic data using finite mixtures generated two distinct clusters of patients that did not align with the current classification of chronic and aggressive periodontitis. Differential expression profiles primarily related to cell proliferation in cluster 1 and to lymphocyte activation and unfolded protein responses in cluster 2. Patients in the two clusters did not differ with respect to age but presented with distinct phenotypes (statistically significantly different whole-mouth clinical measures of extent/severity, subgingival microbial burden by several species, and selected serum antibody responses). Patients in cluster 2 showed more extensive/severe disease and were more often male. The findings suggest that distinct gene expression signatures in pathologic gingival tissues translate into phenotypic differences and can provide a basis for a novel classification. PMID:24646639

  17. Treatment of gingival pigmentation: a case series.

    PubMed

    Deepak, Prasad; Sunil, S; Mishra, R; Sheshadri

    2005-01-01

    A smile expresses a feeling of joy, success, sensuality, affection and courtesy, and reveals self confidence and kindness. The harmony of the smile is determined not only by the shape, the position and the color of the teeth but also by the gingival tissues. Gingival health and appearance are essential components of an attractive smile. Gingival pigmentation results from melanin granules, which are produced by melanoblasts. The degree of pigmentation depends on melanoblastic activity. Although melanin pigmentation of the gingiva is completely benign and does not present a medical problem, complaints of 'black gums' are common particularly in patients having a very high smile line (gummy smile). For depigmentation of gingiva different treatment modalities have been reported like- Bur abrasion, scraping, partial thickness flap, cryotherapy, electrosurgery and laser. In the present case series bur abrasion, scraping, partial thickness flap (epithelial excision) cryotherapy and electrosurgery have been tried for depigmentation, which are simple, effective and yield good results, along with good patient satisfaction. The problems encountered with some of these techniques have also been discussed.

  18. Rare Gingival Metastasis by Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Li-Jun; Geng, Jian; Chen, Ya-Nan; Wang, Qian

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) uncommonly metastasizes to the gingiva, which always means a poor outcome. We reported a rare HCC case with multiple metastases to gingiva, lungs, and brain. A 60-year-old man was initially diagnosed as HCC with metastases to double lungs. He was subjected to a transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) (5-fluorouracil, 750 mg) and two cycles of intravenous chemotherapy (gemcitabine 1.8 g at days 1 and 8, oxaliplatin 200 mg at day 2, every 4 weeks). However, the volume of liver tumor still increased. A bean-size gingival nodule growing with occasional bleeding was also found. TACE (5-fluorouracil 750 mg, perarubicin 40 mg, cisplatin 20 mg) was performed again and an oral sorafenib therapy (400 mg, twice per day) was adopted. The disease maintained relatively stable for about 6 months until a second obvious progress. The gingival nodule was then palliatively excised and identified as a poorly differentiated metastatic HCC by histopathological examination. Best supportive treatments were made since the performance score was too bad. Finally, cerebral metastases occurred and the patient died of systemic failure. Upon review of previous reports, we discussed risk factors, clinical and pathological characteristics, treatments, and prognosis of gingival metastasis by HCC. PMID:28386283

  19. Salivary Biomarkers Associated With Gingivitis and Response to Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Syndergaard, Ben; Al-Sabbagh, Mohanad; Kryscio, Richard J.; Xi, Jing; Ding, Xiuhua; Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Miller, Craig S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Salivary biomarkers are potentially important for determining the presence, risk, and progression of periodontal disease. However, clinical translation of biomarker technology from lab to chairside requires studies that identify biomarkers associated with the transitional phase between health and periodontal disease (i.e., gingivitis). Methods Eighty participants (40 with gingivitis, 40 healthy) provided saliva at baseline and 7 to 30 days later. An additional sample was collected from gingivitis participants 10 to 30 days after dental prophylaxis. Clinical parameters of gingival disease were recorded at baseline and the final visit. Salivary concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were measured. Results Clinical features of health and gingivitis were stable at both baseline visits. Participants with gingivitis demonstrated significantly higher bleeding on probing (BOP), plaque index (PI), and gingival index (GI) (P ≤ 0.002) and a significant drop in BOP, PI, and GI post-treatment (P ≤ 0.001). Concentrations of MIP-1α and PGE2 were significantly higher (2.8 times) in the gingivitis group than the healthy group (P ≤ 0.02). After dental prophylaxis, mean biomarker concentrations did not decrease significantly from baseline in the gingivitis group, although concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, and MMP-8 approached healthy levels, whereas MIP-1α and PGE2 concentrations remained significantly higher than in the healthy group (P ≤ 0.04). Odds ratio analyses showed that PGE2 concentrations, alone and in combination with MIP-1α, readily discriminated gingivitis from health. Conclusions Salivary PGE2 and MIP-1α discriminate gingivitis from health, and patients with gingivitis who return to clinical health continue to produce inflammatory mediators for weeks after dental prophylaxis. PMID:24502627

  20. Salivary biomarkers associated with gingivitis and response to therapy.

    PubMed

    Syndergaard, Ben; Al-Sabbagh, Mohanad; Kryscio, Richard J; Xi, Jing; Ding, Xiuhua; Ebersole, Jeffrey L; Miller, Craig S

    2014-08-01

    Salivary biomarkers are potentially important for determining the presence, risk, and progression of periodontal disease. However, clinical translation of biomarker technology from lab to chairside requires studies that identify biomarkers associated with the transitional phase between health and periodontal disease (i.e., gingivitis). Eighty participants (40 with gingivitis, 40 healthy) provided saliva at baseline and 7 to 30 days later. An additional sample was collected from gingivitis participants 10 to 30 days after dental prophylaxis. Clinical parameters of gingival disease were recorded at baseline and the final visit. Salivary concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were measured. Clinical features of health and gingivitis were stable at both baseline visits. Participants with gingivitis demonstrated significantly higher bleeding on probing (BOP), plaque index (PI), and gingival index (GI) (P ≤0.002) and a significant drop in BOP, PI, and GI post-treatment (P ≤0.001). Concentrations of MIP-1α and PGE2 were significantly higher (2.8 times) in the gingivitis group than the healthy group (P ≤0.02). After dental prophylaxis, mean biomarker concentrations did not decrease significantly from baseline in the gingivitis group, although concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, and MMP-8 approached healthy levels, whereas MIP-1α and PGE2 concentrations remained significantly higher than in the healthy group (P ≤0.04). Odds ratio analyses showed that PGE2 concentrations, alone and in combination with MIP-1α, readily discriminated gingivitis from health. Salivary PGE2 and MIP-1α discriminate gingivitis from health, and patients with gingivitis who return to clinical health continue to produce inflammatory mediators for weeks after dental prophylaxis.

  1. Gingival Recession: Review and Strategies in Treatment of Recession

    PubMed Central

    Pradeep, Koppolu; Rajababu, Palaparthy; Satyanarayana, Durvasula; Sagar, Vidya

    2012-01-01

    One of the most common esthetic concerns associated with the periodontal tissues is gingival recession. Gingival recession is the exposure of root surfaces due to apical migration of the gingival tissue margins; gingival margin migrates apical to the cementoenamel junction. Although it rarely results in tooth loss, marginal tissue recession is associated with thermal and tactile sensitivity, esthetic complaints, and a tendency toward root caries. This paper reviews etiology, consequences, and the available surgical procedures for the coverage of exposed root surfaces, including three case reports. PMID:23082256

  2. [Clinical study on the effect of anti-gingivitis IgY toothpaste in control of gingivitis and dental plaque].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Feng, Xi-Ping; Tao, Dan-Ying; Chen, Jian-Fen

    2016-08-01

    To observe the effect of anti-gingivitis IgY toothpaste in control of gingivitis and plaque. The study was a double-blind, randomized, parallel-controlled clinical trail with a total of 100 subjects who were divided into two groups, experimental group and control group. The subjects in experimental group used anti-gingivitis IgY toothpaste to brush twice daily for 3 minutes, and the subjects in control group used none anti-gingivitis IgY toothpaste. The examiner recorded GI, PI and BOP index of all subjects at the baseline, 6-weeks and 12-weeks. SPSS21.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. Twelve weeks later, there were significant differences in GI and BOP between the two groups. Yet no significant difference was found in PI. Anti-gingivitis IgY toothpaste is effective in control of gingivitis.

  3. E-Cigarette Vapor Induces an Apoptotic Response in Human Gingival Epithelial Cells Through the Caspase-3 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Park, Hyun Jin; Semlali, Abdelhabib; Zakrzewski, Andrew; Chmielewski, Witold; Chakir, Jamila

    2017-06-01

    Electronic cigarettes represent an increasingly significant proportion of today's consumable tobacco products. E-cigarettes contain several chemicals which may promote oral diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of e-cigarette vapor on human gingival epithelial cells. Results show that e-cigarette vapor altered the morphology of cells from small cuboidal form to large undefined shapes. Both single and multiple exposures to e-cigarette vapor led to a bulky morphology with large faint nuclei and an enlarged cytoplasm. E-cigarette vapor also increased L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in the targeted cells. This activity was greater with repeated exposures. Furthermore, e-cigarette vapor increased apoptotic/necrotic epithelial cell percentages compared to that observed in the control. Epithelial cell apoptosis was confirmed by TUNEL assay showing that exposure to e-cigarette vapor increased apoptotic cell numbers, particularly after two and three exposures. This negative effect involved the caspase-3 pathway, the activity of which was greater with repeated exposure and which decreased following the use of caspase-3 inhibitor. The adverse effects of e-cigarette vapor on gingival epithelial cells may lead to dysregulated gingival cell function and result in oral disease. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1539-1547, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Immunohistochemical analysis of the gingiva with periodontitis of type I plasminogen deficiency compared to gingiva with gingivitis and periodontitis and healthy gingiva.

    PubMed

    Kurtulus Waschulewski, Idil; Gökbuget, Aslan Y; Christiansen, Nina M; Ziegler, Maike; Schuster, Volker; Wahl, Gerhard; Götz, Werner

    2016-12-01

    Type I plasminogen deficiency (Plgdef) is an uncommon chronic inflammation of mucous membranes. Gingival enlargements usually proceed with progressive periodontal destruction and tooth-loss. Plasmin(ogen)-independent enzymatic mechanisms for fibrin clearance have already been discussed in the literature. Our primary objective was to verify, immunohistochemically, the occurrence of different enzymatic factors involved in tissue breakdown of inflamed compared to healthy gingiva. Secondly, we tried to find out, if these patients have a similar microbiological profile to the patients with known gingivitis and periodontitis. Immunohistochemical analysis of enzymes elastase, plasminogen (plg), cathepsin G, matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 and MMP-7 and of glycoprotein fibrinogen were performed with gingival tissues from 3 healthy controls, 8 patients with Plgdef and 3 patients with gingivitis and periodontitis. Furthermore, plaque from 5 patients with plasminogen deficiency were also obtained to determine the microbiological profile. Significantly high numbers of elastase positive leukocytes were detected in all samples. Staining for MMP-3 and MMP-7 was seen in samples with gingivitis and periodontitis with a stronger staining in samples with periodontitis by Plgdef. Fibrinogen was detectable in all samples. Staining for plg was stronger in samples with periodontitis than in other samples. Staining for cathepsin G was weak in gingivitis and periodontitis. Subgingival microbial flora showed elevated colony forming units of Prevotella intermedia/nigrescens, Fusobacterium spp., Eikenella corrodens, Porphyromonas gingivalis and viridans streptococci. Strong staining of elastase, MMP-3 and MMP-7 and weak staining of plg in Plgdef samples supports the plasmin(ogen) - independent fibrin clearance. Similar subgingival microbiological flora was observed in periodontitis with Plgdef as in other periodontal diseases. Further investigations should determine the exact pathomechanism

  5. Chronic Wound Biofilm Model

    PubMed Central

    Ganesh, Kasturi; Sinha, Mithun; Mathew-Steiner, Shomita S.; Das, Amitava; Roy, Sashwati; Sen, Chandan K.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Multispecies microbial biofilms may contribute to wound chronicity by derailing the inherent reparative process of the host tissue. In the biofilm form, bacteria are encased within an extracellular polymeric substance and become recalcitrant to antimicrobials and host defenses. For biofilms of relevance to human health, there are two primary contributing factors: the microbial species involved and host response which, in turn, shapes microbial processes over time. This progressive interaction between microbial species and the host is an iterative process that helps evolve an acute-phase infection to a pathogenic chronic biofilm. Thus, long-term wound infection studies are needed to understand the longitudinal cascade of events that culminate into a pathogenic wound biofilm. Recent Advances: Our laboratory has recently published the first long-term (2 month) study of polymicrobial wound biofilm infection in a translationally valuable porcine wound model. Critical Issues: It is widely recognized that the porcine system represents the most translationally valuable approach to experimentally model human skin wounds. A meaningful experimental biofilm model must be in vivo, include mixed species of clinically relevant microbes, and be studied longitudinally long term. Cross-validation of such experimental findings with findings from biofilm-infected patient wounds is critically important. Future Directions: Additional value may be added to the experimental system described above by studying pigs with underlying health complications (e.g., metabolic syndrome), as is typically seen in patient populations. PMID:26155380

  6. Enlarged cerebrospinal fluid spaces in infants with subdural hematomas

    SciTech Connect

    Kapila, A.; Trice, J.; Spies, W.G.; Siegel, B.A.; Gado, M.H.

    1982-03-01

    Computed tomography in 16 infants with subdural hematomas showed enlarged basal cisterns, a wide interhemispheric fissure, prominent cortical sulci, and varying degrees of ventricular enlargement. Radionuclide cisternography in eight of the 16 patients showed findings consistent with enlargement of the subarachnoid space rather than those of communicating hydrocephalus. Clinical findings and brief follow-up showed no convincing evidence for cerebral atrophy in 13 patients. These findings suggest that the enlarged subarachnoid space, which is encountered in some infants and may be a developmental variant, predisposes such infants to subdural hematomas.

  7. Clinical efficacy of a 1% Matricaria chamomile L. mouthwash and 0.12% chlorhexidine for gingivitis control in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances.

    PubMed

    Goes, Paula; Dutra, Caio S; Lisboa, Mário R P; Gondim, Delane V; Leitão, Renata; Brito, Gerly A C; Rego, Rodrigo O

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated the clinical efficacy of a mouthwash containing 1% Matricaria chamomilla L. (MTC) extract in reducing gingival inflammation and plaque formation in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study enrolled a total of 30 males and females (age, 10-40 years) with fixed orthodontic appliances and a minimum of 20 natural teeth. The participants were allocated to three groups (n = 10 each) and asked to rinse with 15 mL of a placebo, 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX), or 1% MTC mouthwash, immediately after brushing for 1 min, in the morning and evening, for 15 days. Data (mean ± SD) on visible plaque index (VPI) and gingival bleeding index (GBI) were recorded on days 1 and 15. The placebo group exhibited increases in VPI and GBI (10.2% and 23.1%, respectively) from day 1 to day 15. As compared with placebo, VPI and GBI significantly decreased in the MTC group (-25.6% and -29.9%, respectively) and the CHX group (-39.9% and -32.0%, respectively). In summary, MTC reduced biofilm accumulation and gingival bleeding in patients with gingivitis, probably because of its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities.(J Oral Sci 58, 569-574, 2016).

  8. [Enlargement in managment of lumbar spinal stenosis].

    PubMed

    Steib, J P; Averous, C; Brinckert, D; Lang, G

    1996-05-01

    Lumbar stenosis has been well discussed recently, especially at the 64th French Orthopaedic Society (SOFCOT: July 1989). The results of different surgical treatments were considered as good, but the indications for surgical treatment were not clear cut. Laminectomy is not the only treatment of spinal stenosis. Laminectomy is an approach with its own rate of complications (dural tear, fibrosis, instability... ).Eight years ago, J. Sénégas described what he called the "recalibrage" (enlargement). His feeling was that, in the spinal canal, we can find two different AP diameters. The first one is a fixed constitutional AP diameter (FCAPD) at the cephalic part of the lamina. The second one is a mobile constitutional AP diameter (MCAPD) marked by the disc and the ligamentum flavum. This diameter is maximal in flexion, minimal in extension. The nerve root proceeds through the lateral part of the canal: first above, between the disc and the superior articular process, then below, in the lateral recess bordered by the pedicle, the vertebral body and the posterior articulation. With the degenerative change the disc space becomes shorter, the superior articular process is worn out with osteophytes. These degenerative events are complicated by inter vertebral instability increasing the stenosis. The idea of the "recalibrage" is to remove only the upper part of the lamina with the ligamentum flavum and to cut the hypertrophied anterior part of the articular process from inside. If needed the disc and other osteophytes are removed. The surgery is finished with a ligamentoplasty reducing the flexion and preventing the extension by a posterior wedge.Our experience in spine surgery especially in scoliosis surgery, showed us that it was possible to cure a radicular compression without opening the canal. The compression is then lifted by the 3D reduction and restoration of an anatomy as normal as possible. Lumbar stenosis is the consequence of a degenerative process. Indeed, hip

  9. Enlarged vestibular aqueduct in pediatric SNHL

    PubMed Central

    Dewan, Karuna; Wippold, Franz J.; Lieu, Judith E C

    2010-01-01

    Objective Comparison of the Cincinnati criteria (midpoint >0.9 mm or operculum >1.9 mm) to the Valvassori criterion (midpoint ≥ 1.5 mm) for enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) in pediatric cochlear implant patients. Study Design Cohort study Subjects 130 Pediatric cochlear implant recipients. Methods We reviewed temporal bone CT scans to measure the vestibular aqueduct midpoint and opercular width. Results The Cincinnati criteria identified 44% of patients with EVA versus 16% with the Valvassori criterion (P<0.01). Of those with EVA, 45% were unilateral and 55% were bilateral using Cincinnati criteria; 64% were unilateral and 36% bilateral using Valvassori criterion (P<0.01). The Cincinnati criteria diagnosed 70 ears with EVA classified as normal using the Valvassori criterion (P<0.01);59 lacked another medical explanation for their hearing loss. Conclusion The Cincinnati criteria identified a large percentage of pediatric cochlear implant patients with EVA who might otherwise have no known etiology for their deafness. PMID:19328346

  10. Cellular composition of long-standing gingivitis and periodontitis lesions.

    PubMed

    Thorbert-Mros, S; Larsson, L; Berglundh, T

    2015-08-01

    Insufficient information on the cellular composition of long-standing gingivitis lesions without signs of attachment loss makes an understanding of differences in cellular composition between "destructive" and "nondestructive" periodontal lesions difficult. The aim of the current study was to analyze differences in cell characteristics between lesions representing long-standing gingivitis and severe periodontitis. Two groups of patients were recruited. One group consisted of 36 patients, 33-67 years of age, with severe generalized periodontitis (periodontitis group). The second group consisted of 28 patients, 41-70 years of age, with overt signs of gingival inflammation but no attachment loss (gingivitis group). From each patient a gingival biopsy was obtained from one selected diseased site and prepared for immunohistochemical analysis. Periodontitis lesions were twice as large and contained significantly larger proportions, numbers and densities of cells positive for CD138 (plasma cells) and CD68 (macrophages) than did gingivitis lesions. The proportion of B cells that expressed the additional CD5 marker (B-1a cells) was significantly larger in periodontitis lesions than in gingivitis lesions. The densities of T cells and B cells did not differ between periodontitis lesions and gingivitis lesions. T cells were not the dominating cell type in gingivitis lesions, as B cells together with their subset plasma cells comprised a larger number and proportion than T cells. Periodontitis lesions at teeth with advanced attachment and bone loss exhibit quantitative and qualitative differences in relation to gingivitis lesions at teeth with no attachment and bone loss. It is suggested that the large number and high density of plasma cells are the hallmarks of advanced periodontitis lesions and the most conspicuous difference in relation to long-standing gingivitis lesions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Effect of chlorhexidine varnish on gingival growth in orthodontic patients: a randomized prospective split-mouth study

    PubMed Central

    Pretti, Henrique; Barbosa, Gabriella Lopes de Rezende; Lages, Elizabeth Maria Bastos; Gala-García, Alfonso; de Magalhães, Claudia Silami; Moreira, Allyson Nogueira

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Fixed orthodontic appliances patients suffer limitations on the effective control of biofilm by mechanical methods, bringing the need of a coadjutant in the control of inflammation and oral health improvement. Objective: The aim of this prospective split-mouth blind study was to analyze the effect of a 40% chlorhexidine (CHX) varnish on gingival growth of patients with orthodontic fixed appliances. Methods: Healthy teenage patients with fixed orthodontic appliances and increased gingival volume were recruited (n = 30). Each individual was his own control, having in the maxilla one control side and one treatment side. An application of varnishes occurred on the vestibular area of the upper premolars and first molar crowns, on the control side (placebo varnish) and on the experimental side (EC40(r) Biodentic CHX varnish). The varnishes and sides were randomly chosen and its identification and group was kept by a third party observer and it was not revealed to the researchers and participants until the end of study. In order to establish a baseline registration, digital photographs were taken by a trained photographer before varnish application at baseline (T0), as well as 14 days (T14) and 56 days (T56) after the application. The gingival volume was calculated indirectly using the vestibular areas (mm2) of the upper second premolars' clinical crowns by RapidSketch(r) software, at all study times. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and the Turkey-Krammer test. Results: It was observed, in the final sample of 30 individuals, that at T0, the control and treatment groups were similar. At T14 and T56, a progressive reduction of the clinical crown area was seen in the control group, and an increase in the average area was detected in the experimental group (p < 0,05). Conclusions: The use of 40% CHX varnish decreases the gingival overgrowth in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. Further studies are necessary to set the action time and frequency of

  12. Nanogrooves and keratin nanofibers on titanium surfaces aimed at driving gingival fibroblasts alignment and proliferation without increasing bacterial adhesion.

    PubMed

    Ferraris, S; Truffa Giachet, F; Miola, M; Bertone, E; Varesano, A; Vineis, C; Cochis, A; Sorrentino, R; Rimondini, L; Spriano, S

    2017-07-01

    Periimplantitis and epithelial downgrowth are nowadays the main conditions associated to transmucosal dental implants. Gingival fibroblasts can play an important role in periimplantitis because they are the promoters of the inflammatory process and eventual tissue homeostasis and destruction. Moreover, the related inflammatory state is commonly driven also to counteract bacteria implants colonization. In the present research, a new technology based on mechanically produced nanogrooves (0.1-0.2μm) and keratin nanofibers deposited by electrospinning has been proposed in order to obtain titanium surfaces able to drive gingival fibroblasts alignment and proliferation without increasing bacterial adhesion. The prepared surfaces have been characterized for their morphology (FESEM), chemical composition (FTIR, XPS), surface charge (zeta potential) and wettability (contact angle). Afterwards, their performances in terms of cells (human primary gingival fibroblasts) and bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) adhesion were compared to mirror-like polished titanium surfaces. Results revealed that gingival fibroblasts viability was not negatively affected by the applied surface roughness or by keratin nanofibers. On the opposite, cells adhesion and spread were strongly influenced by surface roughness revealing a significant cell orientation along the produced nanogrooves. However, the keratin influence was clearly predominant with respect to surface topography, thus leading to increased cells proliferation on the surfaces with nanofibers, disregarding the presence of the surfaces grooves. Moreover, nor nanogrooves nor keratin nanofibers increase bacterial biofilm adhesion in comparison with mirror polished surfaces. Thus, the present research represents a promising innovative strategy and technology for a surface modification finalized to match the main requirements for transmucosal dental implants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Effect of Age on the Gingival Crevicular Fluid Composition During Experimental Gingivitis. A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Tsalikis, Lazaros

    2010-01-01

    Background: Cytokines have been proposed as potentially useful diagnostic or prognostic markers of periodontal inflammation related alterations during the experimental gingivitis model. The role of ageing in periodontal disease needs further elucidation; therefore investigations of its influence on host response are needed. Objective: To study the effect of age on interleukins IL -6, IL-8 and TNF-a levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and their correlations to clinical parameters during experimental gingivitis. Materials and Methods: Five young subjects (20-22 years old) and five old subjects (61-65 years old), all periodontal healthy, participated in this clinical trial. A professional plaque control programme was undertaken to establish healthy gingival conditions at baseline. Plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI) were recorded at 60 sites at baseline, after 21 days of no oral hygiene and one week later after professional cleaning and reestablishment of oral hygiene procedures. A total of 180 samples were analyzed with ELISA for levels of IL -6, IL-8 and TNF-a in gingival crevicular fluid. The examination included the mesiobuccal sites of the Ramfjord teeth. Comparisons between and within groups were performed by non-parametric tests (Mann- Withney) and correlations were sought for with Wilcoxon test. Significance was set at p=0.05. Results: Results showed significant diferences between the two groups with regard to the plaque and bleeding scores and GCF volume, all of which proved to be more pronounced in old group. With respect to laboratory data, mean cytokine concentrations were in general lower in young group. TNF-a had a steady increase for the adults, which was found to be statistically significant between Days 0 and 21, IL-8 showed a statistically significant decrease at Day 28 in the young group and finally IL-6 showed a fluctuation, which was totally adverse for the two groups at each time point. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the present

  14. 21 CFR 872.1500 - Gingival fluid measurer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gingival fluid measurer. 872.1500 Section 872.1500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... sulcus (depression between the tooth and gums) to determine if there is a gingivitis condition. (b...

  15. Gingival overgrowth with valproic acid: a case report.

    PubMed

    Anderson, H H; Rapley, J W; Williams, D R

    1997-01-01

    A case of a nine-year-old epileptic girl with severe gingival overgrowth who had been taking valproic acid since two months of age is presented. A review of the literature and possible mechanisms for drug-induced gingival overgrowth is outlined.

  16. Gingivitis, Psychological Factors and Quality of Life in Children.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Priscila de Lima; Barbosa, Taís de Souza; Amato, Juliana Neide; Montes, Ana Bheatriz Marangoni; Gavião, Maria Beatriz Duarte

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the associations between gingivitis, emotional status and quality of life in children. Sixty-four Brazilian students (11 to 12 years old) were examined for clinical and self-reported gingivitis. The participants were divided into two groups: those with gingivitis (n = 21) and controls (n = 43). Quality of life, anxiety and depression were measured using self-administered questionnaires. Saliva was collected 30 min after waking and at bedtime to measure the diurnal decline in salivary cortisol. The results were analysed using bivariate and multivariate analyses. There were significantly more female participants in the control group. Approximately 90% of the children with gingivitis had good oral hygiene and 10.5% had satisfactory oral hygiene. There was a significant positive correlation between anxiety and depression in both clinical groups. Anxiety was negatively correlated with quality of life in the control group. Depression was negatively correlated with quality of life and cortisol concentrations in the group with gingivitis, and with quality of life in the control group. Children with gingivitis were more likely to be older and males. Older children are more likely to experience gingival bleeding. The presence of gingivitis in children may be associated with worse psychological well-being, possibly compromising the quality of life.

  17. 21 CFR 872.1500 - Gingival fluid measurer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gingival fluid measurer. 872.1500 Section 872.1500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... sulcus (depression between the tooth and gums) to determine if there is a gingivitis condition....

  18. 21 CFR 872.1500 - Gingival fluid measurer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gingival fluid measurer. 872.1500 Section 872.1500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... sulcus (depression between the tooth and gums) to determine if there is a gingivitis condition....

  19. 21 CFR 872.1500 - Gingival fluid measurer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gingival fluid measurer. 872.1500 Section 872.1500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... sulcus (depression between the tooth and gums) to determine if there is a gingivitis condition....

  20. 21 CFR 872.1500 - Gingival fluid measurer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gingival fluid measurer. 872.1500 Section 872.1500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... sulcus (depression between the tooth and gums) to determine if there is a gingivitis condition....

  1. Relationship of Stress, Leukocyte Functions and Acute Ulcerative Gingivitis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-22

    IONAL 1jjl (I Y AN[)AAU> I,)(, 4 •. . . . .i -AD (Report Number 3 , Lf) RELATIONSHIP OF STRESS, LEUKOCYTE FUNCTION AND ACUTE ULCERATIVE GINGIVITIS...AIk £It. KEY WORDS (C~mntm. a reers old. A *1acoa and Identit by block number) Acute Necrotic Ulcerative Gingivitis (ANUG)), Stress 4 Leukocyte

  2. Transcriptomes in Healthy and Diseased Gingival Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Demmer, Ryan; Behle, Jan H.; Wolf, Dana L.; Handfield, Martin; Kebschull, Moritz; Celenti, Romanita; Pavlidis, Paul; Papapanou, Panos N.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Clinical and radiographic measures are gold standards for diagnosing periodontitis but offer little information regarding the pathogenesis of the disease. We hypothesized that a comparison of gene expression signatures between healthy and diseased gingival tissues would provide novel insights in the pathobiology of periodontitis, and would inform the design of future studies. Methods Ninety systemically healthy non-smokers with moderate to advanced periodontitis (63 with chronic and 27 with aggressive periodontitis) each contributed with ≥2 “diseased” interproximal papillae [with bleeding on probing (BoP), pocket depth (PD) ≥4mm, and attachment loss (AL) ≥3mm)] and a “healthy” papilla, if available (no BoP, PD ≤4mm and AL ≤2mm). RNA was extracted, amplified, reverse-transcribed, labeled, and hybridized with AffymetrixU133Plus2.0 arrays. Differential expression was assayed in 247 individual tissue samples (183 from diseased and 64 from healthy sites) using a standard mixed-effects linear model approach, with patient effects considered random with a normal distribution, and gingival tissue status considered a two-level fixed effect. Gene ontology analysis summarized the expression patterns into biologically relevant categories. Results Transcriptome analysis revealed that a total of 12,744 probe sets were differentially expressed after adjusting for multiple comparisons (p<9.15×10-7). Of those, 5,295 were up-regulated and 7,449 down-regulated in disease when compared to health. Gene ontology analysis identified 61 differentially expressed groups (adjusted p<0.05) including apoptosis, antimicrobial humoral response, antigen presentation, regulation of metabolic processes, signal transduction, and angiogenesis. Conclusions Gingival tissue transcriptomes provide a valuable scientific tool for further hypothesis-driven studies of the pathobiology of periodontitis. PMID:18980520

  3. Transcriptomes in healthy and diseased gingival tissues.

    PubMed

    Demmer, Ryan T; Behle, Jan H; Wolf, Dana L; Handfield, Martin; Kebschull, Moritz; Celenti, Romanita; Pavlidis, Paul; Papapanou, Panos N

    2008-11-01

    Clinical and radiographic measures are gold standards for diagnosing periodontitis but offer little information regarding the pathogenesis of the disease. We hypothesized that a comparison of gene expression signatures between healthy and diseased gingival tissues would provide novel insights in the pathobiology of periodontitis and would inform the design of future studies. Ninety systemically healthy non-smokers with moderate to advanced periodontitis (63 with chronic periodontitis and 27 with aggressive periodontitis) each contributed at least two diseased interproximal papillae (with bleeding on probing [BOP], probing depth [PD] > or =4 mm, and attachment loss [AL] > or =3 mm) and a healthy papilla, if available (no BOP, PD < or =4 mm, and AL < or =2 mm). RNA was extracted, amplified, reverse-transcribed, labeled, and hybridized with whole genome microarrays. Differential expression was assayed in 247 individual tissue samples (183 from diseased sites and 64 from healthy sites) using a standard mixed-effects linear model approach, with patient effects considered random with a normal distribution and gingival tissue status considered a two-level fixed effect. Gene ontology analysis classified the expression patterns into biologically relevant categories. Transcriptome analysis revealed that 12,744 probe sets were differentially expressed after adjusting for multiple comparisons (P <9.15 x 10(7)). Of those, 5,295 were upregulated and 7,449 were downregulated in disease compared to health. Gene ontology analysis identified 61 differentially expressed groups (adjusted P <0.05), including apoptosis, antimicrobial humoral response, antigen presentation, regulation of metabolic processes, signal transduction, and angiogenesis. Gingival tissue transcriptomes provide a valuable scientific tool for further hypothesis-driven studies of the pathobiology of periodontitis.

  4. Enlarged View - Hypervelocity Impact - Lunar Surface Material - CA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-01-06

    S70-20416 (December 1969) --- Enlarged view show hypervelocity impact on iron particles of lunar surface material returned to Earth by the crew of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. This photograph, enlarged to 270 times the actual size, was taken by Dr. G. J. Wasserberg, J. DeVaney and K. Evans at the California Institute of Technology.

  5. Enlargement of the Baldone near-surface radioactive waste repository

    SciTech Connect

    Dreimanis, A.

    2007-07-01

    A unified analysis of the enlargement of the Baldone near-surface radioactive waste (RW) repository RADONS considers the interplay of the existing engineering, safety and infrastructure premises, with the foreseen newly socio-technical features. This enlargement consists in construction of two additional RW disposal vaults and in building a long-term storage facility for spent sealed sources at the RADONS territory. Our approach is based on consecutive analysis of following basic elements: - the origin of enlargement - the RADONS safety analysis and a set of optimal socio-technical solutions of Salaspils research reactor decommissioning waste management; - the enlargement - a keystone of the national RW management concept, including the long-term approach; - the enlargement concept - the result of international co-operation and obligations; - arrangement optimization of new disposal and storage space; - environmental impact assessment for the repository enlargement - the update of socio-technical studies. The study of the public opinion revealed: negative attitude to repository enlargement is caused mainly due to missing information on radiation level and on the RADONS previous operations. These results indicate: basic measures to improve the public attitude to repository enlargement: the safety upgrade, public education and compensation mechanisms. A detailed stakeholders engagement and public education plan is elaborated. (author)

  6. Neuro-ophthalmological complications of enlargement of the third ventricle.

    PubMed Central

    Osher, R. H.; Corbett, J. J.; Schatz, N. J.; Savino, P. J.; Orr, L. S.

    1978-01-01

    A wide variety of visual sensory and ocular motor problems may occur as a direct result of enlargement of the third ventricle. Four patients are described with optic nerve dysfunction, partial third nerve palsy, proptosis, and Sylvian aqueduct syndrome all resulting from an enlarged third ventricle. The pathogenetic mechanisms are discussed. Images PMID:687551

  7. Enlarged view of hypervelocity impact of lunar surface material

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-01-06

    S70-20417 (December 1969) --- Enlarged view shows hypervelocity impact of cosmic dust on broken glass particles, taken during the examination of Apollo 11 lunar material by Dr. G. J. Wasserberg, J. DeVaney and K. Evans at California Institute of Technology. The photograph is enlarged 4,850 times actual size.

  8. Enlarged view of hypervelocity impact of lunar surface material

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-01-06

    S70-20418 (December 1969) --- Enlarged view shows cosmic dust on broken glass particles, photographed by Dr. G. J. Wasserberg, J. DeVaney and K. Evans at California Institute of Technology during examination of the Apollo 11 lunar material. The photograph was enlarged to 1,700 time its actual size.

  9. Diagnosis of enlarged extraocular muscles: when and how to biopsy.

    PubMed

    Mombaerts, Ilse; Rose, Geoffrey E; Verity, David H

    2017-09-01

    To review current knowledge regarding diagnosis of nonthyroid orbital disorders with extraocular muscle enlargement. Recent publications have focused on immunoglobulin G4-related disease as a possible cause of enlarged extraocular muscles, on patterns of strabismus that raise a clinical suspicion of intramuscular lymphoma, and on surgical techniques to access the muscles for tissue biopsy. With enlarged extraocular muscles, features to distinguish between competing diagnostic possibilities are based on imaging in the context of history and clinical signs. Infraorbital nerve enlargement in the presence of muscle enlargement strongly favours a diagnosis of immunoglobulin G4-related disease and reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. As our understanding of minimally invasive orbital surgery evolves, the diagnostic focus is shifting toward earlier identification through muscle biopsy.

  10. Gingival recession: prevalence and risk indicators among young greek adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the current research was to assess the prevalence of gingival recession and to investigate possible associations among this condition, periodontal and epidemiological variables in a sample of young Greek adults in a general dental practice. Material and Methods: A total of 1,430 young adults was examined clinically and interviewed regarding several periodontal and epidemiological variables. Collected data included demographic variables, oral hygiene habits and smoking status. Clinical examination included the recording of dental plaque, supragingival calculus presence, gingival status and buccal gingival recession. Multivariate logistic regression analysis model was performed to access the possible association between gingival recession and several periodontal and epidemiological variables as potential risk factors. Results: The overall prevalence of gingival recession was 63.9%. The statistical analysis indicated that higher educational level [OR= 2.12, 95% CI= 0.53-8.51], cigarette smoking [OR= 1.97, 95% CI= 1.48-7.91], frequent tooth brushing [OR= 0.98, 95% CI= 0.56-1.96], presence of oral piercing [OR= 0.92, 95% CI= 0.38-1.58], presence of gingival inflammation [OR= 4.54, 95% CI= 1.68-7.16], presence of dental plaque [OR= 1.67, 95% CI= 0.68-2.83] and presence of supragingival calculus [OR=1.34, 95% CI= 0.59-1.88], were the most important associated factors of gingival recession. Conclusions: The observations of the current research supported the results from previous authors that several periodontal factors, educational level and smoking were significantly associated with the presence of gingival recession, while presence of oral piercing was a new factor that was found to be associated with gingival recession. Key words:Gingival recession, prevalence, risk factors, young adults. PMID:25136424

  11. Clinical efficacy of turmeric use in gingivitis: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Stoyell, Karissa A; Mappus, Jennifer L; Gandhi, Mona A

    2016-11-01

    Gingivitis affects an estimated 80% of the population, and is characterized as the world's most predominant inflammatory periodontal disease. Without intervention, gingivitis can advance to alveolar bone loss. Therefore, the primary goal in patients suffering with gingivitis is to control plaque buildup and soft tissue inflammation. Current guidelines consider chlorhexidine as the gold standard in the prevention and treatment of gingivitis. However, negative side effects of chlorhexidine, including oral mucosal erosion, discoloration of teeth, and bitter taste, provide an opportunity for alternative medications. Turmeric, a commonly used herb, possesses anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal properties. By virtue of these properties, multiple controlled trials have been performed to investigate the efficacy of turmeric in gingivitis. The aim of this comprehensive review is to summarize and evaluate the evidence on the efficacy of turmeric as compared to chlorhexidine in the prevention and treatment of gingivitis. PubMed, MedLine (Web of Science), and EBSCO (academic search complete) were utilized as primary literature search tools. The following search strategy was used: ((turmeric OR curcumin OR curcuma) AND (gingivitis OR "gum inflammation")). Five reviewed studies show that both turmeric and chlorhexidine significantly decrease plaque index (PI) and gingival index (GI), and can therefore be used in the prevention and treatment of gingivitis. Both chlorhexidine and turmeric can be used as an adjunct to mechanical means in preventing and treating gingivitis. However, trials longer than 21 days with a greater number of patients are necessary to further evaluate the comparison between turmeric and chlorhexidine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Drop in transforming growth factor-alpha and osteoprotegerin level in gingival crevicular fluid from patients with gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Otogoto, Junichi; Mogi, Makio

    2009-01-01

    Inflammatory mediators, especially cytokine, play a central role in the pathogenesis of gingivitis. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the various growth factors, and cytokines in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of patients with gingivitis, as compared with those of control subjects. The levels of cytokine in the samples were determined by their respective ELISAs. The transforming growth factor (TGF)-alpha and osteoprotegerin (OPG) level were significantly lower in patients with gingivitis than in the controls (p < 0.05). Also, there was a positive correlation between TGF-alpha and OPG levels (r = 0.761). These results suggest that the decrease in growth factor TGF-alpha is associated with the pathophysiology and/or the progress of gingivitis.

  13. Foreign body gingivitis: An iatrogenic disease

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, T.D.; Wysocki, G.P. )

    1990-06-01

    Gingival biopsy specimens from eight patients exhibiting a localized, erythematous, or mixed erythematous/leukoplakic gingivitis that was refractory to conventional periodontal therapy were examined histologically and by energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Histologic examination revealed variable numbers of small, usually subtle, sometimes equivocal, and occasionally obvious foci of granulomatous inflammation. Special stains for fungi and acid-fast bacilli were consistently negative. In all cases, the granulomatous foci contained particles of foreign material that were often inconspicuous and easily overlooked during routine histologic examination. Energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis of these foreign particles disclosed Ca, Al, Si, Ti, and P in most lesions. However, other elements such as Zr, V, Ag, and Ni were found only in specific biopsy specimens. By comparing the elemental analyses, clinical features, and history of the lesions, strong evidence for an iatrogenic source of the foreign material was found in one case, and good evidence in five cases. In the remaining two patients, the source of the foreign particles remains unresolved.

  14. Untypical Amlodipine-Induced Gingival Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Pavlic, Verica; Zubovic, Nina; Ilic, Sanja; Adamovic, Tijana

    2015-01-01

    Amlodipine is a third generation dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker that is frequently used in therapy of hypertension. Among many side effects, amlodipine has been found associated with gingival overgrowth (GO) which usually occurs within the first three months of starting therapy at a dose of 10 mg/day. However, there are very few reports on amlodipine-induced gingival overgrowth (AIGO) at a lower dose (5 mg/day) and only after short term administration. A 64-year-old male patient with hypertension, who received amlodipine (5 mg/day) for four years, sought medical attention at the Department of Periodontology and Oral Medicine, Institute of Dentistry, Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina. The patient complained of masticatory problems due to extensive maxillary GO along with pain, bleeding, and foul odor. The clinical and the histological evidences were consistent with AIGO. The first line treatment consisted of the amlodipine substitution (amlodipine was replaced with enalapril, 5 mg/day) and the scaling and root planning/SRP. At one-month follow-up, drug replacement and SRP resulted in some reduction of the inflammation and significant reduction of symptoms. Further, gingivectomy/gingivoplasty helped overcome the effect of these drugs. The possibility of AIGO should be considered for a lower dose, as well as a late presentation. PMID:25692048

  15. Gingival Diseases in Childhood – A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ilango, Paavai; Subbareddy, Venkat; Katamreddy, Vineela; Parthasarthy, Harinath

    2014-01-01

    Children and adolescents are subject to a wide variety of gingival infections. Epidemiological studies indicate that gingivitis of varying severity is nearly a universal finding in children and adolescents. The shorter life span of the primary dentition may be the reason why in general little attention is given to periodontitis in children. Since early diagnosis is important for successful treatment, it is imperative that children receive a periodontal examination as part of their routine dental visit. Furthermore destructive periodontal disease occurs in children with certain systemic diseases. Indeed the presence of severe periodontitis may be an early sign of systemic disease. A general medical evaluation to determine if systemic diseases are present should be considered in children who exhibit severe periodontitis, especially if the disease appears resistant to therapy. Though periodontal health awareness and therapy are increasing day by day in our country compared to earlier days, it is much restricted to adults rather than children. Oral cavity examination in children is much oriented in hard tissue evaluation than soft tissue health. Hence, this article enlightens about the prevalence of various soft tissue diseases and importance of long term overall oral health maintenance in childhood. PMID:25478471

  16. Untypical amlodipine-induced gingival hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Pavlic, Verica; Zubovic, Nina; Ilic, Sanja; Adamovic, Tijana

    2015-01-01

    Amlodipine is a third generation dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker that is frequently used in therapy of hypertension. Among many side effects, amlodipine has been found associated with gingival overgrowth (GO) which usually occurs within the first three months of starting therapy at a dose of 10 mg/day. However, there are very few reports on amlodipine-induced gingival overgrowth (AIGO) at a lower dose (5 mg/day) and only after short term administration. A 64-year-old male patient with hypertension, who received amlodipine (5 mg/day) for four years, sought medical attention at the Department of Periodontology and Oral Medicine, Institute of Dentistry, Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina. The patient complained of masticatory problems due to extensive maxillary GO along with pain, bleeding, and foul odor. The clinical and the histological evidences were consistent with AIGO. The first line treatment consisted of the amlodipine substitution (amlodipine was replaced with enalapril, 5 mg/day) and the scaling and root planning/SRP. At one-month follow-up, drug replacement and SRP resulted in some reduction of the inflammation and significant reduction of symptoms. Further, gingivectomy/gingivoplasty helped overcome the effect of these drugs. The possibility of AIGO should be considered for a lower dose, as well as a late presentation.

  17. [Precision and accuracy of a dental spectrophotometer in gingival color measurement of maxillary anterior gingival].

    PubMed

    Du, Yang; Tan, Jian-guo; Chen, Li; Wang, Fang-ping; Tan, Yao; Zhou, Jian-feng

    2012-08-18

    To explore a gingival shade matching method and to evaluate the precision and accuracy of a dental spectrophotometer modified to be used in gingival color measurement. Crystaleye, a dental spectrophotometer (Olympus, Tokyo, Japan) with a custom shading cover was tested. For precision assessment, two experienced experimenters measured anterior maxillary incisors five times for each tooth. A total of 20 healthy gingival sites (attached gingiva, free gingiva and medial gingival papilla in anterior maxillary region) were measured,the Commission Internationale de I' Eclairage (CIE) color parameters (CIE L*a*b*) of which were analyzed using the supporting software. For accuracy assessment, a rectangular area of approximately 3 mm×3 mm was chosen in the attached gingival portion for spectral analysis. PR715 (SpectraScan;Photo Research Inc.,California, USA), a spectroradiometer, was utilized as standard control. Average color differences (ΔE) between the values from PR715 and Crystaleye were calculated. In precision assessment,ΔL* between the values in all the test sites and average values were from(0.28±0.16)to(0.78±0.57), with Δa*and Δb* from(0.28±0.15)to (0.87±0.65),from(0.19±0.09)to( 0.58±0.78), respectively. Average ΔE between values in all test sites and average values were from (0.62 ± 0.17) to (1.25 ± 0.98) CIELAB units, with a total average ΔE(0.90 ± 0.18). In accuracy assessment, ΔL* with control device were from(0.58±0.50)to(2.22±1.89),with Δa*and Δb* from(1.03±0.67)to(2.99±1.32),from(0.68±0.78)to(1.26±0.83), respectively. Average ΔE with the control device were from (2.44±0.82) to (3.51±1.03) CIELAB units, with a total average ΔE (2.96 ± 1.08). With appropriate modification, Crystaleye, the spectrophotometer, has demonstrated relative minor color variations that can be useful in gingival color measurement.

  18. Interleukin-1β is internalised by viable Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans biofilm and locates to the outer edges of nucleoids.

    PubMed

    Paino, Annamari; Lohermaa, Elina; Sormunen, Raija; Tuominen, Heidi; Korhonen, Jari; Pöllänen, Marja T; Ihalin, Riikka

    2012-11-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans causes periodontitis, which is a biofilm infection that destroys tooth-supportive tissues. Interleukin (IL)-1β, a central proinflammatory cytokine of periodontitis, is an essential first line cytokine for local inflammation that modulates the cell proliferation and anti-pathogen response of human gingival keratinocytes. Previously, we demonstrated that A. actinomycetemcomitans biofilms bind IL-1β; however, whether this binding is an active process is not known. In this study, we showed for the first time with immuno-electron microscopy that viable bacterial biofilm cells internalised IL-1β when co-cultured with an organotypic mucosa. Decreased biofilm viability hindered the ability of biofilm to sequester IL-1β and caused IL-1β leakage into the culture medium. In some A. actinomycetemcomitans cells, intracellular IL-1β localized to the outer edges of the nucleoids. We identified the DNA-binding protein HU as an IL-1β interacting protein with mass spectroscopy and showed the interaction of recombinant HU and IL-1βin vitro using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Close contact with a viable A. actinomycetemcomitans biofilm decreased the proliferation and apoptosis of human gingival keratinocytes as demonstrated using Ki-67 and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) staining, respectively. Our results suggest that viable A. actinomycetemcomitans biofilms may disturb the critical first steps of local inflammation in periodontitis by binding and internalising IL-1β. The interaction of IL-1β with conserved HU provides a potential mechanism for shaping bacterial gene expression.

  19. Bacteriophages and Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Harper, David R.; Parracho, Helena M. R. T.; Walker, James; Sharp, Richard; Hughes, Gavin; Werthén, Maria; Lehman, Susan; Morales, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Biofilms are an extremely common adaptation, allowing bacteria to colonize hostile environments. They present unique problems for antibiotics and biocides, both due to the nature of the extracellular matrix and to the presence within the biofilm of metabolically inactive persister cells. Such chemicals can be highly effective against planktonic bacterial cells, while being essentially ineffective against biofilms. By contrast, bacteriophages seem to have a greater ability to target this common form of bacterial growth. The high numbers of bacteria present within biofilms actually facilitate the action of bacteriophages by allowing rapid and efficient infection of the host and consequent amplification of the bacteriophage. Bacteriophages also have a number of properties that make biofilms susceptible to their action. They are known to produce (or to be able to induce) enzymes that degrade the extracellular matrix. They are also able to infect persister cells, remaining dormant within them, but re-activating when they become metabolically active. Some cultured biofilms also seem better able to support the replication of bacteriophages than comparable planktonic systems. It is perhaps unsurprising that bacteriophages, as the natural predators of bacteria, have the ability to target this common form of bacterial life.

  20. Biofilms in chronic wounds.

    PubMed

    James, Garth A; Swogger, Ellen; Wolcott, Randall; Pulcini, Elinor deLancey; Secor, Patrick; Sestrich, Jennifer; Costerton, John W; Stewart, Philip S

    2008-01-01

    Chronic wounds including diabetic foot ulcers, pressure ulcers, and venous leg ulcers are a worldwide health problem. It has been speculated that bacteria colonizing chronic wounds exist as highly persistent biofilm communities. This research examined chronic and acute wounds for biofilms and characterized microorganisms inhabiting these wounds. Chronic wound specimens were obtained from 77 subjects and acute wound specimens were obtained from 16 subjects. Culture data were collected using standard clinical techniques. Light and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to analyze 50 of the chronic wound specimens and the 16 acute wound specimens. Molecular analyses were performed on the remaining 27 chronic wound specimens using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequence analysis. Of the 50 chronic wound specimens evaluated by microscopy, 30 were characterized as containing biofilm (60%), whereas only one of the 16 acute wound specimens was characterized as containing biofilm (6%). This was a statistically significant difference (p<0.001). Molecular analyses of chronic wound specimens revealed diverse polymicrobial communities and the presence of bacteria, including strictly anaerobic bacteria, not revealed by culture. Bacterial biofilm prevalence in specimens from chronic wounds relative to acute wounds observed in this study provides evidence that biofilms may be abundant in chronic wounds.

  1. In vivo biofilm formation on stainless steel bonded retainers during different oral health-care regimens

    PubMed Central

    Jongsma, Marije A; van der Mei, Henny C; Atema-Smit, Jelly; Busscher, Henk J; Ren, Yijin

    2015-01-01

    Retention wires permanently bonded to the anterior teeth are used after orthodontic treatment to prevent the teeth from relapsing to pre-treatment positions. A disadvantage of bonded retainers is biofilm accumulation on the wires, which produces a higher incidence of gingival recession, increased pocket depth and bleeding on probing. This study compares in vivo biofilm formation on single-strand and multi-strand retention wires with different oral health-care regimens. Two-centimetre wires were placed in brackets that were bonded to the buccal side of the first molars and second premolars in the upper arches of 22 volunteers. Volunteers used a selected toothpaste with or without the additional use of a mouthrinse containing essential oils. Brushing was performed manually. Regimens were maintained for 1 week, after which the wires were removed and the oral biofilm was collected to quantify the number of organisms and their viability, determine the microbial composition and visualize the bacteria by electron microscopy. A 6-week washout period was employed between regimens. Biofilm formation was reduced on single-strand wires compared with multi-strand wires; bacteria were observed to adhere between the strands. The use of antibacterial toothpastes marginally reduced the amount of biofilm on both wire types, but significantly reduced the viability of the biofilm organisms. Additional use of the mouthrinse did not result in significant changes in biofilm amount or viability. However, major shifts in biofilm composition were induced by combining a stannous fluoride- or triclosan-containing toothpaste with the mouthrinse. These shifts can be tentatively attributed to small changes in bacterial cell surface hydrophobicity after the adsorption of the toothpaste components, which stimulate bacterial adhesion to the hydrophobic oil, as illustrated for a Streptococcus mutans strain. PMID:25572920

  2. Chronic gingivitis: the prevalence of periodontopathogens and therapy efficiency.

    PubMed

    Igic, M; Kesic, L; Lekovic, V; Apostolovic, M; Mihailovic, D; Kostadinovic, L; Milasin, J

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the level of gingival inflammation and the prevalence of periodontopathogenic microorganisms in adolescents with chronic gingivitis, as well as to compare the effectiveness of two approaches in gingivitis treatment-basic therapy alone and basic therapy + adjunctive low-level laser therapy (LLLT). After periodontal evaluation, the content of gingival pockets of 140 adolescents with gingivitis was analyzed by multiplex PCR for the presence of P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemcomitans, T. forsythensis and P. intermedia. Subsequent to bacteria detection, the examinees were divided into two groups with homogenous clinical and microbiological characteristics. Group A was subjected to basic gingivitis therapy, and group B underwent basic therapy along with adjunctive LLLT. A statistically significant difference between the values of plaque-index (PI) and sulcus bleeding index (SBI) before and after therapy was confirmed in both groups (p<0.001), though more pronounced in group B. Following therapy, the incidence of periodontopathogenic microorganisms decreased considerably. The best result was obtained in P. gingivalis eradication by combined therapy (p=0.003). The presence of periodontopathogens in adolescents with gingivitis should be regarded as a sign for dentists to foster more effective oral health programs. LLLT appears to be beneficial as adjuvant to basic therapy.

  3. Gingival Biotype Assessment in a Healthy Periodontium: Transgingival Probing Method

    PubMed Central

    Manjunath, R. G. Shiva; Sarkar, Arijit

    2015-01-01

    Background Gingival biotype is the thickness of the gingiva in the faciopalatal dimension. It has a significant impact on the outcome of the restorative, regenerative and implant therapy. It has been suggested that a direct co-relation exists with the susceptibility of gingival recession followed by any surgical procedure. So, the study was aimed to assess gingival biotype in different age groups of males and females using transgingival probing method. Materials and Methods Gingival thickness (GT) was evaluated in 336 patients including males and females of different age groups. The latter was based on the transparency of the periodontal probe through the gingival margin while probing the buccal sulcus. Final data collected was then used for statistical analysis. Results A significant difference was found between males and females with males showing thick biotype. Out of the total samples 76.9% of males showed thick biotype compared to 13.3 % of females which was statistically significant. Conclusion This was probably one of the few attempts to correlate gingival biotype with different age groups in males and females. A clear thick gingiva was found in more than two-third of the male subjects whereas majority of female subjects showed thin biotype. Also, it was seen that in females, the gingival biotype varies with age unlike in male. PMID:26155566

  4. Comparison of two different gingivectomy techniques for gingival cleft treatment.

    PubMed

    Malkoc, Siddik; Buyukyilmaz, Tamer; Gelgor, Ibrahim; Gursel, Mihtikar

    2004-06-01

    Interdental clefts or invaginations contribute to orthodontic relapse and poor periodontal health in extraction cases. These clefts or invaginations can be removed both by electrosurgical or conventional surgical gingivectomy techniques. This study investigates and compares the efficacy of two different techniques to remove gingival clefts with respect to periodontal health and patient tolerance. Twenty-two patients (mean age, 15.7 years) with bilateral gingival clefts participated in this study. In each patient, the gingival invaginations were removed by gingivectomy using electrosurgery on one side and conventional surgery on the contralateral side. The length and depth of the invaginations, the gingival index of the adjacent teeth, and the changes in visual analogue scale scores were recorded before and after the operation for both groups. Mann-Whitney U-test and Wilcoxon tests were used to analyze the data statistically. The results showed significant improvement in invagination depth and length and gingival index scores for both techniques. There were no statistical differences between the two gingivectomy techniques with respect to gingival health and patient tolerance. Both techniques can be used to remove the gingival invaginations efficiently.

  5. Gingival displacement: Survey results of dentists' practice procedures.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sumitha N; Donovan, Terry E

    2015-07-01

    A high percentage of fixed prosthodontic restorations require a subgingival margin placement, which requires the practice of gingival displacement or a deflection procedure to replicate the margins in impression. The purpose of this study was to learn the different gingival displacement techniques that are currently used by dentists in their practice and to compare the current concepts of gingival displacement with previously published articles. A survey of questions pertaining to gingival deflection methods was distributed as part of continuing education (CE) course material to dentists attending CE meetings in 7 states in the U.S. and 1 Canadian province. Question topics included initial patient assessment procedures, gingival displacement methods, dentist's knowledge and assessment of systemic manifestations, and brand names of materials used. Ninety-four percent of the participants were general practitioners with 24.11 ± 12.5 years of experience. Ninety-two percent used gingival displacement cords, while 20.2% used a soft tissue laser and 32% used electrosurgery as an adjunct. Sixty percent of the dentists used displacement cords impregnated with a medicament. Of the preimpregnated cords, 29% were impregnated with epinephrine, 13% with aluminum chloride, and 18% with aluminum potassium sulfate. The study showed a steady decrease compared with results of previously published articles in the use of epinephrine as a gingival deflection medicament. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationship between orthodontic treatment and gingival health: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Boke, Fatma; Gazioglu, Cagri; Akkaya, Sevil; Akkaya, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the relationship between orthodontic treatment and gingival health. Materials and Methods: A total of 251 patients among whom 177 were girls and 74 were boys, recruited from the records pool of the Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Gazi, were included in the study. Patients’ treatments have been completed by postgraduate students during the period between 2006 and 2012. Patients’ folders were analyzed according to their age, treatment time, and the type of orthodontic treatment. Intra-oral photographs were analyzed, and the presence or absence of visible plaque, visible inflammation, and gingival recession were recorded, and incisor inclinations analyzed on lateral cephalometric films, before and after orthodontic treatment. Results: No statistically significant difference was found in patients treated with functional appliances before and after treatment. In patients treated with fixed orthodontic appliances, visible plaque, visible inflammation, and gingival recession showed significant increases after treatment, gingival biotype did not show any significant difference. Positive correlation was found between lower incisor position and gingival recession in patients treated with fixed appliance and extraction. And also cuspids were the teeth with the highest prevalence of gingival recession. Conclusion: Considering the relationship between orthodontic treatment and gingival health, cooperation among patients, orthodontists, and periodontists is important. PMID:25202219

  7. Sulfadiazines prevent plaque formation and gingivitis in beagles.

    PubMed

    Howell, T H; Reddy, M S; Weber, H P; Li, K L; Alfano, M C; Vogel, R; Tanner, A C; Williams, R C

    1990-07-01

    The effect of zinc sulfadiazine (ZnSD) and silver sulfadiazine (AgSD) on developing plaque formation and gingivitis was studied in 12 beagle dogs over a 14-week period. Plaque and gingival indices were used to measure plaque formation and gingivitis. During a 2-wk baseline period each dog was brought to optimal gingival health with prophylaxis and tooth brushing. Thereafter, 4 dogs were treated twice daily with topical application of 3.0% zinc sulfadiazine; 4 dogs were treated with 2.0% silver sulfadiazine while 4 dogs treated with placebo gel served as controls over a 12-wk treatment period. At wk 2 of treatment, all three groups of dogs showed an increase in plaque build-up on their teeth from baseline. By wk 6, plaque accumulation on the teeth was significantly less in dogs treated with either ZnSD or AgSD compared to control dogs. At wk 2 of treatment, gingival inflammation was increased from baseline in all three groups. Thereafter, over the course of the 12-wk treatment period, gingival inflammation in the ZnSD and the AgSD treated dogs was significantly less than the placebo treated dogs. The data indicate that both ZnSD and AgSD inhibit developing plaque formation in beagles. This significant inhibition of plaque formation was accompanied by a significant reduction in gingival inflammation.

  8. Nonneoplastic enlargement of the pituitary gland in children.

    PubMed

    Aquilina, Kristian; Boop, Frederick A

    2011-05-01

    Primary neoplasms of the pituitary gland are uncommon in children. Physiological enlargement of the gland, however, is universal and can sometimes be confused with a tumor. Due to widespread availability of MR imaging, the number of children referred to pediatric neurosurgeons with an enlarged pituitary associated with nonspecific symptoms, most commonly headache, is increasing. In this review, the authors illustrate two common causes of pituitary enlargement in children, namely physiological hypertrophy of puberty, more commonly seen in females, and secondary hyperplasia caused by hypothyroidism. The importance of early and accurate diagnosis, without recourse to extensive endocrine investigations or inappropriate surgery, is underscored.

  9. Microcirculation alterations in experimentally induced gingivitis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Masato; Okudera, Toshimitsu; Takahashi, Shun-Suke; Wada-Takahashi, Satoko; Maeda, Shingo; Iimura, Akira

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to morphologically examine the gingival microvascular network using a microvascular resin cast (MRC) technique, and to investigate how inflammatory disease functionally affects gingival microcirculation using laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). We used four beagle dogs with healthy periodontal tissue as experimental animals. To cause periodontal inflammation, dental floss was placed around the cervical neck portions of the right premolars. The unmanipulated left premolars served as controls, and received plaque control every 7 days. After 90 days, gingivitis was induced in the experimental side, while the control side maintained healthy gingiva. To perform morphological examinations, we used an MRC method involving the injection of low-viscosity synthetic resin into the blood vessels, leading to peripheral soft-tissue dissolution and permitting observation of the bone, teeth, and vascular cast. Gingival blood flow was estimated using an LDF meter. The control gingival vasculature showed hairpin-loop-like networks along the tooth surface. The blood vessels had diameters of 20-40 μm and were regularly arranged around the cervical portion. On the other hand, the vasculature in the experimental group was twisted and gathered into spiral forms, with blood vessels that had uneven surfaces and smaller diameters of 8-10 μm. LDF revealed reduced gingival blood flow in the group with experimentally induced gingivitis compared to controls. The actual measurements of gingival blood flow by LDF were in agreement with the alterations that would be expected based on the gingivitis-induced morphological alterations observed with the MRC technique.

  10. Effect of Sleep and Salivary Glucose on Gingivitis in Children.

    PubMed

    Alqaderi, H; Tavares, M; Hartman, M; Goodson, J M

    2016-11-01

    It has been shown that inadequate sleep has deleterious effects on health by suppressing immunity and promoting inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sleep and salivary glucose levels on the development of gingivitis in a prospective longitudinal study of Kuwaiti children. Data were collected from 10-y-old children ( N = 6,316) in 2012 and again in 2014. Children were approximately equally distributed from 138 elementary schools representing the 6 governorates of Kuwait. Calibrated examiners conducted oral examination, self-reported sleep evaluation interviews, anthropomorphic measurements, and unstimulated whole saliva sample collection. Salivary glucose levels were measured by a florescent glucose oxidase method; values of salivary glucose ≥1.13 mg/dL were defined as high glucose levels. A multilevel random intercept and slope analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between sleep duration and gingivitis on 3 levels: within schools, among children, and over time. The outcome was the progression of the extent of gingival inflammation in children over time. The main independent variables were the number of daily sleep hours and salivary glucose levels. Other explanatory variables and confounders assessed were governorate, dental caries and restorations, and obesity by waist circumference (adjusted for snacking and sex). Gingivitis increased over time in children who had shorter sleep duration ( P < 0.05). Salivary glucose levels >1.13 mg/dL predicted gingivitis ( P < 0.05). Children who had more decayed or filled teeth had more gingivitis ( P < 0.05). No significant association was found between gingivitis and obesity. The level of gingivitis was different among the 6 governorates of Kuwait. Additionally, there was a strong clustering effect of the observations within schools and among children across time. Longitudinal analysis of 6,316 Kuwaiti children revealed that shorter sleep duration and higher salivary glucose

  11. Keratinized Gingiva Determines a Homeostatic Behavior of Gingival Sulcus through Transudation of Gingival Crevice Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Lagos, Maria Luiza P.; Sant'Ana, Adriana Campos Passanezi; Greghi, Sebastião Luiz Aguiar; Passanezi, Euloir

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To shed light on the role of KG, its influence on periodontal behavior was investigated. Methods. Tissue fluid transudation was assessed in alveolar mucosa (P1A), outer gingival margin (P1B), at entrance of (P2) and within gingival sulcus (P3), before and after chewing of fibrous food in 16 patients portraying ≥2 mm KG at one tooth (group 1), and <2 mm at another homologous tooth (group 2). Results. There was a significant increase in GCF after chewing at P1B and P3 in group 1 and at P1A in group 2 (t-test, P < 0.05). Conclusions. The results suggest that KG plays a role in marginal periodontal homeostasis. PMID:22145005

  12. Gingival pigmentation index proposal of a new index with a brief review of current indices

    PubMed Central

    Peeran, Syed Wali; Ramalingam, Karthikeyan; Peeran, Syed Ali; Altaher, Omar Basheer; Alsaid, Fatma Mojtaba; Mugrabi, Marei Hamed

    2014-01-01

    Cosmetic expectations have increased with time and current trends speak volumes about gingival esthetics and smile designing. Gingival pigmentation especially on the labial aspect of anterior teeth has become an important component of general esthetics. Various physiologic and pathologic factors cause gingival pigmentation. The existing indices do not deal with the etiology, extent and severity of gingival pigmentation. Hence, we propose a new classification and index for gingival pigmentation to assess the treatment needs for the patient. PMID:24966785

  13. Biofilm formation on titanium implants counteracted by grafting gallium and silver ions.

    PubMed

    Cochis, Andrea; Azzimonti, Barbara; Della Valle, Cinzia; Chiesa, Roberto; Arciola, Carla Renata; Rimondini, Lia

    2015-03-01

    Biofilm-associated infections remain the leading cause of implant failure. Thanks to its established biocompatibility and biomechanical properties, titanium has become one of the most widely used materials for bone implants. Engineered surface modifications of titanium able to thwart biofilm formation while endowing a safe anchorage to eukaryotic cells are being progressively developed. Here surfaces of disks of commercial grade 2 titanium for bone implant were grafted with gallium and silver ions by anodic spark deposition. Scanning electron microscopy of the surface morphology and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used for characterization. Gallium-grafted titanium was evaluated in comparison with silver-grafted titanium for both in vivo and in vitro antibiofilm properties and for in vitro compatibility with human primary gingival fibroblasts. Surface-modified materials showed: (i) homogeneous porous morphology, with pores of micrometric size; (ii) absence of cytotoxic effects; (iii) ability to support in vitro the adhesion and spreading of gingival fibroblasts; and (iv) antibiofilm properties. Although both silver and gallium exhibited in vitro strong antibacterial properties, in vivo gallium was significantly more effective than silver in reducing number and viability of biofilm bacteria colonies. Gallium-based treatments represent promising titanium antibiofilm coatings to develop new bone implantable devices for oral, maxillofacial, and orthopedic applications. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A stab-and-roll biopsy technique to maintain gingival epithelium for desquamative gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Endo, Hiroyasu; Rees, Terry D; Allen, Edward P; Kuyama, Kayo; Aoki, Shinichiro; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu; Ito, Takanori

    2014-06-01

    Desquamative gingivitis (DG) is a clinical manifestation common to several diseases. It is known that most cases of DG are caused by mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP), oral lichen planus (OLP), or pemphigus vulgaris (PV). Early recognition and treatment of these diseases can improve the prognosis, but diagnostic delays are common in patients with DG because obtaining a diagnostic biopsy is technically challenging. A biopsy technique designed to maintain the gingival epithelium for patients with DG was developed. The usefulness of this technique is discussed. This study is based on a retrospective review of 27 DG cases. A stab-and-roll technique was used to obtain gingival tissue. This technique is designed to reduce lateral forces on the epithelium during the procedure and to thereby prevent the inadvertent removal of the epithelium from the biopsy specimen. A total of 52 biopsies comprising 27 for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained samples and 25 for direct immunofluorescence (DIF) testing were reviewed. Fifty-one of the 52 biopsies (98.1%) maintained the epithelium. Only one biopsy (1.9%) showed that the epithelium was totally absent. Therefore, H&E and DIF features of 51 biopsies were analyzed. Definitive diagnoses of the diseases causing DG included MMP (13 cases), PV (eight cases), and OLP (six cases). A diagnostic biopsy was obtained from the gingiva of patients with DG using the stab-and-roll technique. The gingival epithelium was well maintained, and the relationship with the underlying connective tissue was diagnostic. In the future, this stab-and-roll biopsy technique may facilitate early diagnosis and treatment of diseases causing DG.

  15. Parameter on plaque-induced gingivitis. American Academy of Periodontology.

    PubMed

    2000-05-01

    The American Academy of Periodontology has developed the following parameter on plaque-induced gingivitis in the absence of clinical attachment loss. Plaque-induced gingivitis is the most common form of the periodontal diseases, affecting a significant portion of the population in susceptible individuals. Patients should be informed of the disease process, therapeutic alternatives, potential complications, expected results, and their responsibility in treatment. Consequences of no treatment should be explained. No treatment may result in continuation of clinical signs of disease, with possible development of gingival defects and progression to periodontitis. Given this information, patients should then be able to make informed decisions regarding their periodontal therapy.

  16. Surgical management of gingival recession: A clinical update

    PubMed Central

    Alghamdi, Hamdan; Babay, Nadir; Sukumaran, Anil

    2009-01-01

    Gingival recession is defined as the apical migration of the junctional epithelium with exposure of root surfaces. It is a common condition seen in both dentally aware populations and those with limited access to dental care. The etiology of the condition is multifactorial but is commonly associated with underlying alveolar morphology, tooth brushing, mechanical trauma and periodontal disease. Given the high rate of gingival recession defects among the general population, it is imperative that dental practitioners have an understanding of the etiology, complications and the management of the condition. The following review describes the surgical techniques to treat gingival recession. PMID:23960465

  17. The relationships between malocclusion, gingival inflammation, plaque and calculus.

    PubMed

    Buckley, L A

    1981-01-01

    Certain features of malocclusion considered important in relation to periodontal health were analyzed in a study of 300 subjects. It was found that plaque and gingival inflammation were not related to vertical incisor overbite, horizontal incisor overjet or posterior cuspal interdigitation. Individual tooth irregularity measured as tilting, rotation, displacement and crowding had a low but statistically significant correlation with plaque, calculus and gingival inflammation. However, the study showed that these features of malocclusion are far less important than the extent of plaque and calculus deposits in the development of gingival inflammation.

  18. Mucosal biofilms of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Shantanu; Mitchell, Aaron P

    2011-08-01

    Biofilms are microbial communities that form on surfaces and are embedded in an extracellular matrix. C. albicans forms pathogenic mucosal biofilms that are evoked by changes in host immunity or mucosal ecology. Mucosal surfaces are inhabited by many microbial species; hence these biofilms are polymicrobial. Several recent studies have applied paradigms of biofilm analysis to study mucosal C. albicans infections. These studies reveal that the Bcr1 transcription factor is a master regulator of C. albicans biofilm formation under diverse conditions, though the most relevant Bcr1 target genes can vary with the biofilm niche. An important determinant of mucosal biofilm formation is the interaction with host defenses. Finally, studies of interactions between bacterial species and C. albicans provide insight into the communication mechanisms that endow polymicrobial biofilms with unique properties.

  19. Investigations into Monochloramine Biofilm Penetration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biofilm in drinking water systems is undesirable. Free chlorine and monochloramine are commonly used as secondary drinking water disinfectants, but monochloramine is perceived to penetrate biofilm better than free chlorine. However, this hypothesis remains unconfirmed by direct b...

  20. Investigations into Monochloramine Biofilm Penetration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biofilm in drinking water systems is undesirable. Free chlorine and monochloramine are commonly used as secondary drinking water disinfectants, but monochloramine is perceived to penetrate biofilm better than free chlorine. However, this hypothesis remains unconfirmed by direct b...

  1. Measurement of Reduced Gingival Melanosis after Smoking Cessation: A Novel Analysis of Gingival Pigmentation Using Clinical Oral Photographs

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Tomotaka; Takiuchi, Hiroya; Sugiyama, Seiichi; Makino, Michiko; Noguchi, Satoshi; Katayama-Ono, Tomoko; Hanioka, Takashi; Naito, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Background: Due to moisture and the anatomical complexity of the oral mucosa, it is difficult to measure the extent of gingival melanosis in an optical manner. Therefore, we developed a new quantitative method using clinical oral photographs and compared the extent of gingival melanosis before and after smoking cessation. Methods: A new analysis method, which we named the gingival melanosis record (GMR), is a quantitative analysis method using clinical oral photographs. We obtained 659 clinical photographs from 263 patients from 16 general dental offices in Japan. Standardized measuring sites were automatically spotted on the screen, and the presence of gingival melanosis was determined at the measuring sites. We assessed the validity of the GMR with the previously reported Hedin’s classification using Spearman’s rank correlation and intraclass correlation coefficients. Results: The GMR showed a significant association with Hedin’s classification (p < 0.01, correlation coefficient = 0.94). The GMR also showed excellent reproducibility of the substantial repeated agreement intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) (1,1) and ICC (2,1), p > 0.61). The longitudinal loss of gingival melanosis was confirmed by a change in the GMR among patients who successfully achieved smoking cessation for a mean of 4.5 years. Conclusion: The GMR is an effective method to assess gingival melanosis. The loss of gingival melanosis after smoking cessation can be objectively confirmed with the use of the GMR. PMID:27322294

  2. A proteomic investigation of Fusobacterium nucleatum alkaline-induced biofilms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Gram negative anaerobe Fusobacterium nucleatum has been implicated in the aetiology of periodontal diseases. Although frequently isolated from healthy dental plaque, its numbers and proportion increase in plaque associated with disease. One of the significant physico-chemical changes in the diseased gingival sulcus is increased environmental pH. When grown under controlled conditions in our laboratory, F. nucleatum subspecies polymorphum formed mono-culture biofilms when cultured at pH 8.2. Biofilm formation is a survival strategy for bacteria, often associated with altered physiology and increased virulence. A proteomic approach was used to understand the phenotypic changes in F. nucleatum cells associated with alkaline induced biofilms. The proteomic based identification of significantly altered proteins was verified where possible using additional methods including quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), enzyme assay, acidic end-product analysis, intracellular polyglucose assay and Western blotting. Results Of 421 proteins detected on two-dimensional electrophoresis gels, spot densities of 54 proteins varied significantly (p < 0.05) in F. nucleatum cultured at pH 8.2 compared to growth at pH 7.4. Proteins that were differentially produced in biofilm cells were associated with the functional classes; metabolic enzymes, transport, stress response and hypothetical proteins. Our results suggest that biofilm cells were more metabolically efficient than planktonic cells as changes to amino acid and glucose metabolism generated additional energy needed for survival in a sub-optimal environment. The intracellular concentration of stress response proteins including heat shock protein GroEL and recombinational protein RecA increased markedly in the alkaline environment. A significant finding was the increased abundance of an adhesin, Fusobacterial outer membrane protein A (FomA). This surface protein is known for its capacity to bind to a vast number of

  3. Inactivation of biofilm bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    LeChevallier, M W; Cawthon, C D; Lee, R G

    1988-01-01

    The current project was developed to examine inactivation of biofilm bacteria and to characterize the interaction of biocides with pipe surfaces. Unattached bacteria were quite susceptible to the variety of disinfectants tested. Viable bacterial counts were reduced 99% by exposure to 0.08 mg of hypochlorous acid (pH 7.0) per liter (1 to 2 degrees C) for 1 min. For monochloramine, 94 mg/liter was required to kill 99% of the bacteria within 1 min. These results were consistent with those found by other investigators. Biofilm bacteria grown on the surfaces of granular activated carbon particles, metal coupons, or glass microscope slides were 150 to more than 3,000 times more resistant to hypochlorous acid (free chlorine, pH 7.0) than were unattached cells. In contrast, resistance of biofilm bacteria to monochloramine disinfection ranged from 2- to 100-fold more than that of unattached cells. The results suggested that, relative to inactivation of unattached bacteria, monochloramine was better able to penetrate and kill biofilm bacteria than free chlorine. For free chlorine, the data indicated that transport of the disinfectant into the biofilm was a major rate-limiting factor. Because of this phenomenon, increasing the level of free chlorine did not increase disinfection efficiency. Experiments where equal weights of disinfectants were used suggested that the greater penetrating power of monochloramine compensated for its limited disinfection activity. These studies showed that monochloramine was as effective as free chlorine for inactivation of biofilm bacteria. The research provides important insights into strategies for control of biofilm bacteria. Images PMID:2849380

  4. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer, Enlarged ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer, Enlarged Photographed by Harold Bush-Brown Nov. 14, 1936 VIEW OF EASTERN SLAVE CABIN - Bass Place (Slave Cabins), Columbus, Muscogee County, GA

  5. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Enlarged ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Enlarged Photographed by Harold Bush-Brown Nov. 14, 1936 GENERAL VIEW OF SLAVE CABINS - Bass Place (Slave Cabins), Columbus, Muscogee County, GA

  6. How do plants enlarge? A balancing act; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, J.S.

    1996-12-31

    Cells of plants are surrounded by strong walls that prevent rupture from internal pressures that can be two or three times that of an automobile tire. In this way, the walls protect the cytoplasm. However, at the same time, the cells can enlarge as they grow. How this balancing act works and how it enlarges the plant were the subject of a recent conference at the University of Delaware in Lewes. The aim was to identify areas for future research that could explain the enlargement of whole plants. There is a large practical need to predict and modify plant enlargement but the additional processes that overlie the molecular ones need to be integrated with the molecular information before a picture will emerge. How best to accomplish this involved input from cross-disciplinary areas in biomechanics, physics and engineering as well as molecular biology, biochemistry and ultrastructure.

  7. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Enlarged ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Enlarged Photo From photo of Miss Edith Johnston, Savannah, Ga. 1936 VIEW OF FRONT AND RIGHT SIDE (Restoration 1936) - Wild Heron Plantation, Little Ogeechee River Vicinity, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  8. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Enlarged ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Enlarged Photo From Photo of Miss Edith Johnston's, Savannah, Ga. 1936 VIEW OF FRONT AND SIDE (Before Restoration, 1936). - Wild Heron Plantation, Little Ogeechee River Vicinity, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  9. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer (Enlarged ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer (Enlarged by) Aug. 6, 1936 Photographed by Harold Bush-Brown SIDE VIEW - Covered Bridge, Spanning Soap Creek, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  10. The universe, life, and intelligence (Sixth enlarged edition)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shklovskii, Iosif Samuilovich

    This classic work examines the possibility of the existence of life (including intelligent life) on other planetary systems. This enlarged edition includes essays on the search for extraterrestrial civilizations and the possibility of communication with intelligent beings on other planets.

  11. Virilization and Enlarged Ovaries in a Postmenopausal Woman.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Jessenia; Marcus, Jenna Z; Heller, Debra S

    2017-09-01

    A patient with postmenopausal bleeding and virilization was found to have bilaterally enlarged ovaries with a yellow cut surface. Histology revealed cortical stromal hyperplasia with stromal hyperthecosis. This hyperplastic condition should not be mistaken for an ovarian neoplasm.

  12. 9. (5 X 7 enlargement from 4 X 5 negative) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. (5 X 7 enlargement from 4 X 5 negative) FIRST FLOOR, WINDOW MOLDING ON SOUTH WALL LOOKING SOUTH - Sites Homestead, Monongahela National Forest (Tract 390) East of Route 28, Seneca Rocks, Pendleton County, WV

  13. Gingival squamous cell carcinoma: A diagnostic impediment

    PubMed Central

    Koduganti, Rekha Rani; Sehrawat, Sangeeta; Reddy, P. Veerendra Nath

    2012-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinomas represent 3% of cancers in men and 2% of cancers in women. More than 90% of oral cancer occurs in people older than 45 years Lesions of gingiva account for approximately 10% of the oral squamous cell carcinomas and may present clinically as an area of ulceration, exophytic mass, or red/white speckled patches. The proximity to the underlying periosteum may invite early bone invasion. Carcinoma of gingiva constitutes an extremely important group of neoplasms as the lesion frequently mimics the reactive and inflammatory conditions affecting the periodontium, delaying the diagnosis and making the prognosis of the patient poorer. A rare case of gingival squamous cell carcinoma has been reported here, in a 40 Year old male patient. Careful recording of the case history and results of clinical examination, radiographic, and laboratory investigations, along with a critical review of similar conditions led to the diagnosis, and treatment was initiated. PMID:22628973

  14. Pemphigus vulgaris: gingival involvement. A case report.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, M A; Abitbol, T E

    1995-01-01

    Pemphigus is an autoimmune disease in which intraepithelial vesicles and bullae of the skin and oral mucosa are produced by the action of autoantibodies against specific desmosomal proteins of squamous epithelium. Usually, oral lesions will appear before skin lesions, and in a majority of the cases only oral lesions are present. The dentist may then be the first to make and early diagnosis. The importance of this case report is to alert the dentist that subtle gingival lesions can be recognized and treated early in such a life-threatening disease. Diagnosis is based on the clinical presentation and confirmed by histologic study and direct immunofluorescence. This case describes the clinical signs, symptoms, histology, and immunofluorescence of pemphigus vulgaris of the gingiva.

  15. NATO Enlargement--Round Two; Prudence or Folly?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-04-01

    be nearly endless. Benjamin Schwarz, “NATO Enlargement and the Inevitable Costs of the American Empire,” in NATO Enlargement: Illusions and Reality...Barbara Conry (Washington, D.C.: Cato Institute, 1998), 197. 8 For a full discussion of the these mechanisms, see Jack Mendelsohn , “The NATO Russian...Primakov, see Mendelsohn , n.p. For Igor Sergeyev’s viewpoint, see Boris Vinogradov, “Russia Still Feels Uncomfortable In NATO,” Izvestia, 4 December

  16. Use of Macrolane VRF 30 in emicircumferential penis enlargement.

    PubMed

    Sito, Giuseppe; Marlino, Sergio; Santorelli, Adriano

    2013-02-01

    Penis enlargement is increasingly in demand. Methods for penis enlargement can be classified into surgical, nonsurgical (filling), and mechanical. Each method has shown only relatively successful results. A new formulation of injectable, stabilized, hyaluronic acid (HA)-based, nonanimal gel is available that may have applications for this use. The authors propose a new technique for emicircumferential-injection filling of the penis and assess the safety and efficacy of this procedure compared with lipofilling. The authors retrospectively reviewed the charts of 83 patients who underwent penis enlargement with either their HA-injection technique or lipofilling between December 2007 and July 2011. Safety, efficacy, and patient satisfaction were assessed. The circumferential enlargement obtained from both techniques ranged from 3.2 to 4.5 cm, with a decrement during erection. In all patients, the increase in penis length ranged from 1.8 to 3.6 cm. No complications were seen in patients treated with HA, whereas 8 patients treated with lipofilling developed granuloma, and another experienced fat necrosis. The vast majority (n = 72) of patients reported being "very satisfied" with the results. The ideal technique for penis enlargement should be nonsurgical, with a satisfactory and predictable result, a low rate of complications, and long-term stability. Emicircumferential enlargement with HA filler meets these requirements. However, results have been durable but not definitive, and repeated treatment (with associated costs) is necessary.

  17. Ubx Regulates Differential Enlargement and Diversification of Insect Hind Legs

    PubMed Central

    Mahfooz, Najmus; Turchyn, Nataliya; Mihajlovic, Michelle; Hrycaj, Steven; Popadić, Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    Differential enlargement of hind (T3) legs represents one of the hallmarks of insect evolution. However, the actual mechanism(s) responsible are yet to be determined. To address this issue, we have now studied the molecular basis of T3 leg enlargement in Oncopeltus fasciatus (milkweed bug) and Acheta domesticus (house cricket). In Oncopeltus, the T3 tibia displays a moderate increase in size, whereas in Acheta, the T3 femur, tibia, and tarsus are all greatly enlarged. Here, we show that the hox gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx) is expressed in the enlarged segments of hind legs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that depletion of Ubx during embryogenesis has a primary effect in T3 legs and causes shortening of leg segments that are enlarged in a wild type. This result shows that Ubx is regulating the differential growth and enlargement of T3 legs in both Oncopeltus and Acheta. The emerging view suggests that Ubx was co-opted for a novel role in regulating leg growth and that the transcriptional modification of its expression may be a universal mechanism for the evolutionary diversification of insect hind legs. PMID:17848997

  18. On the minimally invasive approach to the gingival recession

    PubMed Central

    Jargin, Sergei V.

    2013-01-01

    Some aspects of pathogenesis and therapeutic approach to the gingival recession are discussed in this short communication with the example of a typical case from Russia, where excessive socket curettage after a tooth extraction resulted in a marked gingival recession. Subgingival plaque and calculus can be secondary to recession. An argument about plaque as a source of microorganisms might be plausible in case of inflammation, although various microorganisms are normal for the oral cavity. From the viewpoint of general pathology, being an atrophic condition, recession can progress due to repeated damage. On the author's opinion, calculus removal is not indicated at least for aged patients with marked gingival recession, having modest esthetic demands. Socket curettage after exodontia should be gentle. Surgical treatment of the gingival recession is beyond the scope of this communication. PMID:24049345

  19. Distinct phenotype and therapeutic potential of gingival fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, Lari; Larjava, Hannu; Fournier, Benjamin P J

    2014-09-01

    Gingiva of the oral mucosa provides a practical source to isolate fibroblasts for therapeutic purposes because the tissue is easily accessible, tissue discards are common during routine clinical procedures and wound healing after biopsy is fast and results in complete wound regeneration with very little morbidity or scarring. In addition, gingival fibroblasts have unique traits, including neural crest origin, distinct gene expression and synthetic properties and potent immunomodulatory functions. These characteristics may provide advantages for certain therapeutic approaches over other more commonly used cells, including skin fibroblasts, both in intraoral and extra-oral sites. However, identity and phenotype of gingival fibroblasts, like other fibroblasts, are still not completely understood. Gingival fibroblasts are phenotypically heterogeneous, and these…fibroblast subpopulations may play different roles in tissue maintenance, regeneration and pathologies. The purpose of this review is to summarize what is currently known about gingival fibroblasts, their distinct potential for tissue regeneration and their potential therapeutic uses in the future.

  20. Microbial diversity and interactions in subgingival biofilm communities.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Patricia I

    2012-01-01

    The human subgingival environment is a complex environmental niche where microorganisms from the three domains of life meet to form diverse biofilm communities that exist in close proximity to the host. Bacteria constitute the most abundant, diverse and ultimately well-studied component of these communities with about 500 bacterial taxa reported to occur in this niche. Cultivation and molecular approaches are revealing the breadth and depth of subgingival biofilm diversity as part of an effort to understand the subgingival microbiome, the collection of microorganisms that inhabit the gingival crevices. Although these investigations are constructing a pretty detailed taxonomical census of subgingival microbial communities, including inter-subject and temporal variability in community structure, as well as differences according to periodontal health status, we are still at the front steps in terms of understanding community function. Clinical studies that evaluate community structure need to be coupled with biologically relevant models that allow evaluation of the ecological determinants of subgingival biofilm maturation. Functional characteristics of subgingival biofilm communities that still need to be clarified include main metabolic processes that support microbial communities, identification of keystone species, microbial interactions and signaling events that lead to community maturation and the relationship of different communities with the host. This manuscript presents a summary of our current understanding of subgingival microbial diversity and an overview of experimental models used to dissect the functional characteristics of subgingival communities. Future coupling of 'omics'-based approaches with such models will facilitate a better understanding of subgingival ecology opening opportunities for community manipulation. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis: Microbial and Immunologic Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    CATALOG NUMIDER 4. TITLE (And ,w*utlo) S. Type OP REPORT a PenRIOO coveno Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis : Annual Report Microbial and...etiology and immunopathology of acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG). Thirty one patients have been studied as of the date of this report...they are not financ:ially stable, they smoke and do not display normal living patterns. Subgingival plaque samples taken from the patients revealed the

  2. Experimental gingivitis, bacteremia and systemic biomarkers: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Kinane, D F; Zhang, P; Benakanakere, M; Singleton, J; Biesbrock, A; Nonnenmacher, C; He, T

    2015-12-01

    Bacteremia and systemic inflammatory markers are associated with periodontal and systemic diseases and may be linking mechanisms between these conditions. We hypothesized that in the development of gingival inflammation, systemic markers of inflammation and bacteremia would increase. To study the effect of bacteremia on systemic inflammatory markers, we recruited 80 subjects to participate in an experimental gingivitis study. Subjects were stratified based on gender, smoking and the number of bleeding sites and then randomized to one of two groups: control group (n = 40) or experimental gingivitis group (n = 40). Subjects in the control group conducted an oral hygiene regimen: brushing twice daily with a regular sodium fluoride cavity protection dentifrice and a standard manual toothbrush, flossing twice daily, and mouth rinsing with an anti-cavity fluoride rinse once daily. The experimental group stopped brushing and flossing, and used only the fluoride anti-cavity mouth rinse for 21 d. Seventy-nine of 80 subjects were evaluable. One subject in the control group was excluded from the results due to antibiotic use during the study. Our data showed the experimental gingivitis group exhibited a significant (p < 0.05) increase in dental plaque level and gingival inflammatory indices relative to baseline and the control group but a decrease in bacteremia and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels vs. baseline. Bacteremia was negatively correlated with gingival inflammatory indices and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels in the experimental gingivitis group, thus negating our hypothesis. We conclude that there are marked differences in systemic cytokine levels over the course of short-term experimentally induced gingivitis and further conclude that a long-term periodontitis study must be considered to address mechanisms whereby oral diseases may affect systemic diseases. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Risk factors for gingivitis in a group of Brazilian schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Chiapinotto, Fabiana Amaral; Vargas-Ferreira, Fabiana; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Corrêa, Fernanda Oliveira Bello; Masotti, Alexandre Severo

    2013-01-01

    Studies on gingivitis in children and adolescents are scarce and the results are inconclusive. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and extension of gingivitis and associated factors in Brazilian schoolchildren. Cross-sectional data from 1,211 schoolchildren 8 to 12 years old from Southern Brazil in 20 public and private schools were analyzed. Socioeconomic, demographic, and oral hygiene habits were assessed by questionnaires answered by parents and children. Buccal examination assessed presence of plaque, crowding, and gingivitis. Data were analyzed using Poisson regression [prevalence ratio (PR); 95% confidence interval (CI)]. Prevalence of visible plaque was 89.7% (95% CI 88.0-91.3) and gingival bleeding on probing was 78.4% (95% CI 76.1-81.0). The mean and median numbers of sites with gingival bleeding were 3.10 and 2 (SD ± 3.22), respectively. In multivariate adjusted analysis, the presence of a greater number of sites with plaque was significantly associated with gingivitis (PR 1.26; 95% CI 1.07-1.47) and its extension (PR 1.96; 95% CI 1.53-2.51). Lighter-skinned black children had a lower probability of having severe gingivitis (PR 0.69; 95% CI 0.48-0.98) compared with white children. This association was observed after adjusting for other variables. Gingivitis was associated with higher number of sites with plaque and with skin color, reflecting the influence of biological and demographic factors on this oral condition. © 2012 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  4. Predictive modeling of gingivitis severity and susceptibility via oral microbiota.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shi; Li, Rui; Zeng, Xiaowei; He, Tao; Zhao, Helen; Chang, Alice; Bo, Cunpei; Chen, Jie; Yang, Fang; Knight, Rob; Liu, Jiquan; Davis, Catherine; Xu, Jian

    2014-09-01

    Predictive modeling of human disease based on the microbiota holds great potential yet remains challenging. Here, 50 adults underwent controlled transitions from naturally occurring gingivitis, to healthy gingivae (baseline), and to experimental gingivitis (EG). In diseased plaque microbiota, 27 bacterial genera changed in relative abundance and functional genes including 33 flagellar biosynthesis-related groups were enriched. Plaque microbiota structure exhibited a continuous gradient along the first principal component, reflecting transition from healthy to diseased states, which correlated with Mazza Gingival Index. We identified two host types with distinct gingivitis sensitivity. Our proposed microbial indices of gingivitis classified host types with 74% reliability, and, when tested on another 41-member cohort, distinguished healthy from diseased individuals with 95% accuracy. Furthermore, the state of the microbiota in naturally occurring gingivitis predicted the microbiota state and severity of subsequent EG (but not the state of the microbiota during the healthy baseline period). Because the effect of disease is greater than interpersonal variation in plaque, in contrast to the gut, plaque microbiota may provide advantages in predictive modeling of oral diseases.

  5. Microbiota-based Signature of Gingivitis Treatments: A Randomized Study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shi; Li, Zhen; He, Tao; Bo, Cunpei; Chang, Jinlan; Li, Lin; He, Yanyan; Liu, Jiquan; Charbonneau, Duane; Li, Rui; Xu, Jian

    2016-04-20

    Plaque-induced gingivitis can be alleviated by various treatment regimens. To probe the impacts of various anti-gingivitis treatments on plaque microflora, here a double blinded, randomized controlled trial of 91 adults with moderate gingivitis was designed with two anti-gingivitis regimens: the brush-alone treatment and the brush-plus-rinse treatment. In the later group, more reduction in both Plaque Index (TMQHI) and Gingival Index (mean MGI) at Day 3, Day 11 and Day 27 was evident, and more dramatic changes were found between baseline and other time points for both supragingival plaque microbiota structure and salivary metabonomic profiles. A comparison of plaque microbiota changes was also performed between these two treatments and a third dataset where 50 subjects received regimen of dental scaling. Only Actinobaculum, TM7 and Leptotrichia were consistently reduced by all the three treatments, whereas the different microbial signatures of the three treatments during gingivitis relieve indicate distinct mechanisms of action. Our study suggests that microbiota based signatures can serve as a valuable approach for understanding and potentially comparing the modes of action for clinical treatments and oral-care products in the future.

  6. Severe gingival bleeding in a myelodysplastic patient: management and outcome.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Claudio M; Gasparetto, Patrícia F; Coracin, Fábio L; Marquês, José F; Lima, Carmen S P; Corrêa, Maria E P

    2004-03-01

    The myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of stem cell disorders characterized by a reduction in one or more elements of the peripheral blood. Oral manifestations of the disease and oral complications of medical management may result in significant symptoms and have an impact on the systemic condition of the patient. The removal of the infectious focus, such active teeth infection or severe periodontal disease, remains controversial in these patients, due to the increased risk of bleeding and systemic infection. This paper reports a case of MDS with spontaneous gingival hemorrhage and generalized gingival hyperplasia associated with periodontal disease. This patient underwent several platelet transfusions due to these oral complications. The patient received periodontal therapy, resulting in an improvement of the oral clinical situation and a decrease of gingival hyperplasia. The patient did not present any episode of gingival hemorrhage after the periodontal treatment. The results of this study suggest that periodontal therapy should be performed in MDS patients presenting thrombocytopenia, gingival hyperplasia, and gingival bleeding, with the intent of preventing further hemorrhagic episodes and possible systemic infection.

  7. [Unilateral idiopathic gingival fibromatosis--a case report].

    PubMed

    Łazarz-Bartyzel, Katarzyna; Gawron, Katarzyna; Darczuk, Dagmara; Chomyszyn-Gajewska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Gingival fibromatosis is a painless gingival overgrowth. It may result in difficulties with proper dental hygiene keeping, mastication and occlusion. Herein, a case of a 10-year-old patient was described. The patient reported to the Department of Periodontology and Oral Medicine of the Jagiellonian University Medical College in Krakow due to the problems with permanent teeth eruption (23-26), chewing and dental hygiene maintaining. Based on medical history, clinical examination, diagnostic tests and histopathological study of gingival tissue biopsies the patient was diagnosed with unilateral idiopathic gingival fibromatosis. After oral cavity hygienization, patient un- derwent dental surgery procedures by gingivectomy and gingivoplasty. The follow-up examination 2 and 6 months post operation showed un- eventful healing, proper tooth eruption, improved oral hygiene and chewing function. Twelve months post surgery no recurrence was noted. Due to the etiological diversity of gingival lesions occurring as an overgrowth, accurate medical history, clinical examination, laboratory tests and histopathological study are needed. Accurate diagnos- tics is crucial mainly to exclude he- matological and oncological diseases. Gingivectomy being the "gold method" of gingival fibromatosis treatment was effective and sufficient to cure the case presented in this article.

  8. Microbiota-based Signature of Gingivitis Treatments: A Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shi; Li, Zhen; He, Tao; Bo, Cunpei; Chang, Jinlan; Li, Lin; He, Yanyan; Liu, Jiquan; Charbonneau, Duane; Li, Rui; Xu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Plaque-induced gingivitis can be alleviated by various treatment regimens. To probe the impacts of various anti-gingivitis treatments on plaque microflora, here a double blinded, randomized controlled trial of 91 adults with moderate gingivitis was designed with two anti-gingivitis regimens: the brush-alone treatment and the brush-plus-rinse treatment. In the later group, more reduction in both Plaque Index (TMQHI) and Gingival Index (mean MGI) at Day 3, Day 11 and Day 27 was evident, and more dramatic changes were found between baseline and other time points for both supragingival plaque microbiota structure and salivary metabonomic profiles. A comparison of plaque microbiota changes was also performed between these two treatments and a third dataset where 50 subjects received regimen of dental scaling. Only Actinobaculum, TM7 and Leptotrichia were consistently reduced by all the three treatments, whereas the different microbial signatures of the three treatments during gingivitis relieve indicate distinct mechanisms of action. Our study suggests that microbiota based signatures can serve as a valuable approach for understanding and potentially comparing the modes of action for clinical treatments and oral-care products in the future. PMID:27094556

  9. Predictive modeling of gingivitis severity and susceptibility via oral microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shi; Li, Rui; Zeng, Xiaowei; He, Tao; Zhao, Helen; Chang, Alice; Bo, Cunpei; Chen, Jie; Yang, Fang; Knight, Rob; Liu, Jiquan; Davis, Catherine; Xu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Predictive modeling of human disease based on the microbiota holds great potential yet remains challenging. Here, 50 adults underwent controlled transitions from naturally occurring gingivitis, to healthy gingivae (baseline), and to experimental gingivitis (EG). In diseased plaque microbiota, 27 bacterial genera changed in relative abundance and functional genes including 33 flagellar biosynthesis-related groups were enriched. Plaque microbiota structure exhibited a continuous gradient along the first principal component, reflecting transition from healthy to diseased states, which correlated with Mazza Gingival Index. We identified two host types with distinct gingivitis sensitivity. Our proposed microbial indices of gingivitis classified host types with 74% reliability, and, when tested on another 41-member cohort, distinguished healthy from diseased individuals with 95% accuracy. Furthermore, the state of the microbiota in naturally occurring gingivitis predicted the microbiota state and severity of subsequent EG (but not the state of the microbiota during the healthy baseline period). Because the effect of disease is greater than interpersonal variation in plaque, in contrast to the gut, plaque microbiota may provide advantages in predictive modeling of oral diseases. PMID:24646694

  10. Endotoxemia and the host systemic response during experimental gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Wahaidi, Vivian Y; Kowolik, Michael J; Eckert, George J; Galli, Dominique M

    2011-05-01

    To assess endotoxemia episodes and subsequent changes in serum inflammatory biomarkers using the experimental gingivitis model. Data from 50 healthy black and white adult males and females were compared for serum concentrations of endotoxin, and serum biomarkers [neutrophil oxidative activity, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, C-reactive protein (CRP), and fibrinogen] at baseline, at 3 weeks of experimental gingivitis, and after 2 weeks of recovery. Means were compared using repeated measures analysis of variance. Endotoxemia was reported in 56% of the serum samples at 3 weeks of induced gingivitis. At 2 weeks of recovery, endotoxin levels decreased to levels similar to those reported at baseline. Neutrophil oxidative activity increased significantly following 3 weeks of gingivitis versus baseline (p<0.05). In the endotoxin-negative group this increase was associated with the black subjects whereas in the endotoxin-positive group change in neutrophil activity was driven by the female subpopulation. Serum cytokines, CRP, and fibrinogen levels did not change during the study. Experimental gingivitis was associated with endotoxemia and hyperactivity of circulating neutrophils, but not with changes in systemic levels of cytokines and acute-phase proteins. This may be attributed to the mild nature and the short duration of the induced gingivitis. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Endotoxemia and the host systemic response during experimental gingivitis

    PubMed Central

    Wahaidi, Vivian Y.; Kowolik, Michael J.; Eckert, George J.; Galli, Dominique M.

    2011-01-01

    Aim To assess endotoxemia episodes and subsequent changes in serum inflammatory biomarkers using the experimental gingivitis model Materials and Methods Data from 50 healthy black and white adult males and females were compared for serum concentrations of endotoxin, and serum biomarkers [neutrophil oxidative activity, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen] at baseline, at 3 weeks of experimental gingivitis, and after 2 weeks of recovery. Means were compared using repeated measures ANOVA. Results Endotoxemia was reported in 56% of the serum samples at three weeks of induced gingivitis. At two weeks of recovery, endotoxin levels decreased to levels similar to those reported at baseline. Neutrophil oxidative activity increased significantly following three weeks of gingivitis versus baseline (p<0.05). In the endotoxin-negative group this increase was associated with the black subjects whereas in the endotoxin-positive group change in neutrophil activity was driven by the female subpopulation. Serum cytokines, CRP, and fibrinogen levels did not change during the study. Conclusions Experimental gingivitis was associated with endotoxemia and hyperactivity of circulating neutrophils, but not with changes in systemic levels of cytokines and acute phase proteins. This may be attributed to the mild nature and the short duration of the induced gingivitis. PMID:21320151

  12. Orthodontic considerations for gingival health during pregnancy: a review.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, P M; Almas, K

    2010-02-01

    Gingivitis is caused by several known systemic and local factors. Among systemic factors, the role of hormonal changes during pregnancy is well established. While presence of fixed orthodontic appliances alone may not cause gingivitis, factors such as pregnancy and poor oral hygiene combined together could precipitate acute gingival inflammation that may progress to a periodontal condition in a patient receiving orthodontic therapy. There has been an increase in the number of adult patients who are receiving orthodontic treatment. Orthodontic appliances could act as a potential plaque retentive source and aggravate inflammatory reactions that are seen during pregnancy. There is a lack of awareness regarding oral healthcare issues among patients who are pregnant and choose to seek orthodontic treatment. In addition, there is a need in the literature to outline management guidelines for patients who want to receive orthodontic treatment during pregnancy, with or without pre-existing gingival conditions. This review focuses on the aetiology of pregnancy gingivitis and the management of orthodontic patients during pregnancy. Our emphasis is on patient education, oral hygiene maintenance, preventive and treatment strategies for the management of gingival health in orthodontic patients during pregnancy. We also highlight some of the possible complications of initiating orthodontic treatment during pregnancy.

  13. Oral health education and therapy reduces gingivitis during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Geisinger, Maria L; Geurs, Nicolaas C; Bain, Jennifer L; Kaur, Maninder; Vassilopoulos, Philip J; Cliver, Suzanne P; Hauth, John C; Reddy, Michael S

    2014-02-01

    Pregnant women demonstrate increases in gingivitis despite similar plaque levels to non-pregnant counterparts. To evaluate an intensive protocol aimed at reducing gingivitis in pregnant women and provide pilot data for large-scale randomized controlled trials investigating oral hygiene measures to reduce pregnancy gingivitis and alter maternity outcomes. One hundred and twenty participants between 16 and 24 weeks gestation with Gingival Index (GI) scores ≥2 at ≥50% of tooth sites were enrolled. Plaque index (PI), gingival inflammation (GI), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment levels (CAL) were recorded at baseline and 8 weeks. Dental prophylaxis was performed at baseline and oral hygiene instructions at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks. Pregnancy outcomes were recorded at parturition. Mixed-model analysis of variance was used to compare clinical measurements at baseline and 8 weeks. Statistically significant reductions in PI, GI, PD, and CAL occurred over the study period. Mean whole mouth PI and GI scores decreased approximately 50% and the percentage of sites with PI and GI ≥2 decreased from 40% to 17% and 53% to 21.8%, respectively. Mean decreases in whole mouth PD and CAL of 0.45 and 0.24 mm, respectively, were seen. Intensive oral hygiene regimen decreased gingivitis in pregnant patients. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Effects of iron-oxide nanoparticles and magnetic fields on oral biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alas, Gema; Pagano, Ronald E.; Nguyen, Jane Q.; Bandara, H. M. H. Nihal; Ivanov, Sergei A.; Smolyakov, Gennady A.; Huber, Dale L.; Smyth, Hugh D. C.; Osiński, Marek

    2017-02-01

    Human mouth is a host of a large gamut of bacteria species, with over 700 of different bacteria strains identified. Most of these bacterial species are harmless, some are beneficial (such as probiotics assisting in food digestion), but some are responsible for various diseases, primarily tooth decay and gum diseases such as gingivitis and periodontitis. For example, Streptococus mutans produces enamel-eroding acids, while Porphyromonas gingivalis is strongly linked to periodontitis. In this paper, we report on the effects of exposure of oral biofilms to iron oxide nanoparticles and static magnetic fields as possible bactericidal agent.

  15. Escherichia coli biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Beloin, Christophe; Roux, Agnès; Ghigo, Jean-Marc

    2008-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a predominant species among facultative anaerobic bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract. Both its frequent community lifestyle and the availability of a wide array of genetic tools contributed to establish E. coli as a relevant model organism for the study of surface colonization. Several key factors, including different extracellular appendages, are implicated in E. coli surface colonization and their expression and activity are finely regulated, both in space and time, to ensure productive events leading to mature biofilm formation. This chapter will present known molecular mechanisms underlying biofilm development in both commensal and pathogenic E. coli. PMID:18453280

  16. Characterization and application of a flow system for in vitro multispecies oral biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Blanc, V; Isabal, S; Sánchez, M C; Llama-Palacios, A; Herrera, D; Sanz, M; León, R

    2014-06-01

    Bacteria in the oral cavity grow in the form of biofilms; these structures are subject to constant saliva or gingival crevicular fluid flow conditions. The aims of this study were: (i) to develop and to characterize an in-vitro biofilm model with oral bacteria growing under flow and shear conditions; and (ii) to demonstrate the usefulness of the model for evaluating the activity of three antiplaque agents. We used a bioreactor to grow the oral bacteria Streptococcus oralis, Actinomyces naeslundii, Veillonella parvula, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis under planktonic conditions. Biofilms were established using a modified Robbins device on hydroxyapatite (HAP) discs. Three- to 7-d-old biofilms were analysed using culture methods, scanning electron microscopy, Live/Dead staining and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (confocal laser scanning microscopy). Finally, we assessed the antimicrobial activity of three mouthrinses [0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX), 0.12% chlorhexidine and sodium fluoride (CHX+NaF) and 0.12% chlorhexidine and 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride (CHX+CPC)] using a planktonic test (short interval-killing test) and in our 4-d biofilm model. The viable cell counts showed that each species was consistently found in the biofilms throughout the study. The architecture and cell distribution were similar to those described for biofilms in situ, with the exception of a thin layer of living cells that was found close to the HAP. The effectiveness test of the mouthwashes demonstrated that cells in biofilms showed more tolerance compared with planktonic cells. Moreover, it was observed that in 4-d biofilm formed in vitro, CHX+CPC caused significantly higher mortality compared with CHX (p = 0.003) and CHX+NaF (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that we have a highly reproducible system for multispecies oral biofilm formation and that it is a useful tool for assessing antibacterial molecules before their clinical

  17. Antifungal activity against Candida biofilms.

    PubMed

    Iñigo, Melania; Pemán, Javier; Del Pozo, Jose L

    2012-10-01

    Candida species have two distinct lifestyles: planktonic, and surface-attached communities called biofilms. Mature C. albicans biofilms show a complex three-dimensional architecture with extensive spatial heterogeneity, and consist of a dense network of yeast, hyphae, and pseudohyphae encased within a matrix of exopolymeric material. Several key processes are likely to play vital roles at the different stages of biofilm development, such as cell-substrate and cell-cell adherence, hyphal development, and quorum sensing. Biofilm formation is a survival strategy, since biofilm yeasts are more resistant to antifungals and environmental stress. Antifungal resistance is a multifactorial process that includes multidrug efflux pumps, target proteins of the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway. Most studies agree in presenting azoles as agents with poor activity against Candida spp. biofilms. However, recent studies have demonstrated that echinocandins and amphotericin B exhibit remarkable activity against C. albicans and Candida non-albicans biofilms. The association of Candida species with biofilm formation increases the therapeutic complexity of foreign body-related yeast infections. The traditional approach to the management of these infections has been to explant the affected device. There is a strong medical but also economical motivation for the development of novel anti-fungal biofilm strategies due to the constantly increasing resistance of Candida biofilms to conventional antifungals, and the high mortality caused by related infections. A better description of the extent and role of yeast in biofilms may be critical for developing novel therapeutic strategies in the clinical setting.

  18. Manipulation of Biofilm Microbial Ecology

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.C.; Palmer, R.J., Jr.; Zinn, M.; Smith, C.A.; Burkhalter, R.; Macnaughton, S.J.; Whitaker, K.W.; Kirkegaard, R.D.

    1998-08-15

    The biofilm mode of growth provides such significant advantages to the members of the consortium that most organisms in important habitats are found in biofilms. The study of factors that allow manipulation of biofilm microbes in the biofilm growth state requires that reproducible biofilms be generated. The most effective monitoring of biofilm formation, succession and desaturation is with on-line monitoring of microbial biofilms with flowcell for direct observation. The biofilm growth state incorporates a second important factor, the heterogeneity in distribution in time and space of the component members of the biofilm consortium. This heterogeneity is reflected not only in the cellular distribution but in the metabolic activity within a population of cells. Activity and cellular distribution can be mapped in four dimensions with confocal microscopy, and function can be ascertained by genetically manipulated reporter functions for specific genes or by vital stains. The methodology for understanding the microbial ecology of biofilms is now much more readily available and the capacity to manipulate biofilms is becoming an important feature of biotechnology.

  19. Manipulatiaon of Biofilm Microbial Ecology

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhalter, R.; Macnaughton, S.J.; Palmer, R.J.; Smith, C.A.; Whitaker, K.W.; White, D.C.; Zinn, M.; kirkegaard, R.

    1998-08-09

    The Biofilm mode of growth provides such significant advantages to the members of the consortium that most organisms in important habitats are found in biofilms. The study of factors that allow manipulation of biofilm microbes in the biofilm growth state requires that reproducible biofilms by generated. The most effective monitoring of biofilm formation, succession and desquamation is with on-line monitoring of microbial biofilms with flowcell for direct observation. The biofilm growth state incorporates a second important factor, the heterogeneity in the distribution in time and space of the component members of the biofilm consortium. This heterogeneity is reflected not only in the cellular distribution but in the metabolic activity within a population of cells. Activity and cellular distribution can be mapped in four dimensions with confocal microscopy, and function can be ascertained by genetically manipulated reporter functions for specific genes or by vital stains. The methodology for understanding the microbial ecology of biofilms is now much more readily available and the capacity to manipulate biofilms is becoming an important feature of biotechnology.

  20. A Five-Species Transcriptome Array for Oral Mixed-Biofilm Studies

    PubMed Central

    Podbielski, Andreas; Kreikemeyer, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    Background Oral polymicrobial interactions and biofilm formation are associated with initiation and progression of caries, gingivitis, and periodontitis. Transcriptome studies of such interactions, allowing a first mechanistic insight, are hampered by current single-species array designs. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we used 385 K NimbleGene™ technology for design and evaluation of an array covering the full genomes of 5 important physiological-, cariogenic-, and periodontitis-associated microorganisms (Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mutans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, and Porphyromonas gingivalis). Array hybridization was done with cDNA from cultures grown for 24 h anaerobically. Single species experiments identified cross-species hybridizing array probes. These probes could be neglected in a mixed-species experimental setting without the need to exclude the whole genes from the analysis. Between 69% and almost 99% of the genomes were actively transcribed under the mono-species planktonic, monolayer, and biofilm conditions. The influence of Streptococcus mitis (not represented on the array) on S. mutans gene transcription was determined as a test for a dual-species mixed biofilm setup. Phenotypically, under the influence of S. mitis an increase in S. mutans biofilm mass and a decrease in media pH-value were noticed, thereby confirming previously published data. Employing a stringent cut-off (2-fold, p<0.05), 19 S. mutans transcripts were identified with increased abundance, and 11 with decreased abundance compared to a S. mutans mono-species biofilm. Several of these genes have previously been found differentially regulated under general and acid stress, thereby confirming the value of this array. Conclusions/Significance This new array allows transcriptome studies on multi-species oral biofilm interactions. It may become an important asset in future oral biofilm and inhibitor/therapy studies. PMID

  1. Physicochemical regulation of biofilm formation

    PubMed Central

    Renner, Lars D.; Weibel, Douglas B.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the physical and chemical constraints of environments on biofilm formation. We provide a perspective on how materials science and engineering can address fundamental questions and unmet technological challenges in this area of microbiology, such as biofilm prevention. Specifically, we discuss three factors that impact the development and organization of bacterial communities. (1) Physical properties of surfaces regulate cell attachment and physiology and affect early stages of biofilm formation. (2) Chemical properties influence the adhesion of cells to surfaces and their development into biofilms and communities. (3) Chemical communication between cells attenuates growth and influences the organization of communities. Mechanisms of spatial and temporal confinement control the dimensions of communities and the diffusion path length for chemical communication between biofilms, which, in turn, influences biofilm phenotypes. Armed with a detailed understanding of biofilm formation, researchers are applying the tools and techniques of materials science and engineering to revolutionize the study and control of bacterial communities growing at interfaces. PMID:22125358

  2. Microbial Biofilms and Chronic Wounds.

    PubMed

    Omar, Amin; Wright, J Barry; Schultz, Gregory; Burrell, Robert; Nadworny, Patricia

    2017-03-07

    Background is provided on biofilms, including their formation, tolerance mechanisms, structure, and morphology within the context of chronic wounds. The features of biofilms in chronic wounds are discussed in detail, as is the impact of biofilm on wound chronicity. Difficulties associated with the use of standard susceptibility tests (minimum inhibitory concentrations or MICs) to determine appropriate treatment regimens for, or develop new treatments for use in, chronic wounds are discussed, with alternate test methods specific to biofilms being recommended. Animal models appropriate for evaluating biofilm treatments are also described. Current and potential future therapies for treatment of biofilm-containing chronic wounds, including probiotic therapy, virulence attenuation, biofilm phenotype expression attenuation, immune response suppression, and aggressive debridement combined with antimicrobial dressings, are described.

  3. Microbial Biofilms and Chronic Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Amin; Wright, J. Barry; Schultz, Gregory; Burrell, Robert; Nadworny, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Background is provided on biofilms, including their formation, tolerance mechanisms, structure, and morphology within the context of chronic wounds. The features of biofilms in chronic wounds are discussed in detail, as is the impact of biofilm on wound chronicity. Difficulties associated with the use of standard susceptibility tests (minimum inhibitory concentrations or MICs) to determine appropriate treatment regimens for, or develop new treatments for use in, chronic wounds are discussed, with alternate test methods specific to biofilms being recommended. Animal models appropriate for evaluating biofilm treatments are also described. Current and potential future therapies for treatment of biofilm-containing chronic wounds, including probiotic therapy, virulence attenuation, biofilm phenotype expression attenuation, immune response suppression, and aggressive debridement combined with antimicrobial dressings, are described. PMID:28272369

  4. Biofilms: Microbial Life on Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Microorganisms attach to surfaces and develop biofilms. Biofilm-associated cells can be differentiated from their suspended counterparts by generation of an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) matrix, reduced growth rates, and the up- and down- regulation of specific genes. Attachment is a complex process regulated by diverse characteristics of the growth medium, substratum, and cell surface. An established biofilm structure comprises microbial cells and EPS, has a defined architecture, and provides an optimal environment for the exchange of genetic material between cells. Cells may also communicate via quorum sensing, which may in turn affect biofilm processes such as detachment. Biofilms have great importance for public health because of their role in certain infectious diseases and importance in a variety of device-related infections. A greater understanding of biofilm processes should lead to novel, effective control strategies for biofilm control and a resulting improvement in patient management. PMID:12194761

  5. Critical review on biofilm methods.

    PubMed

    Azeredo, Joana; Azevedo, Nuno F; Briandet, Romain; Cerca, Nuno; Coenye, Tom; Costa, Ana Rita; Desvaux, Mickaël; Di Bonaventura, Giovanni; Hébraud, Michel; Jaglic, Zoran; Kačániová, Miroslava; Knøchel, Susanne; Lourenço, Anália; Mergulhão, Filipe; Meyer, Rikke Louise; Nychas, George; Simões, Manuel; Tresse, Odile; Sternberg, Claus

    2017-05-01

    Biofilms are widespread in nature and constitute an important strategy implemented by microorganisms to survive in sometimes harsh environmental conditions. They can be beneficial or have a negative impact particularly when formed in industrial settings or on medical devices. As such, research into the formation and elimination of biofilms is important for many disciplines. Several new methodologies have been recently developed for, or adapted to, biofilm studies that have contributed to deeper knowledge on biofilm physiology, structure and composition. In this review, traditional and cutting-edge methods to study biofilm biomass, viability, structure, composition and physiology are addressed. Moreover, as there is a lack of consensus among the diversity of techniques used to grow and study biofilms. This review intends to remedy this, by giving a critical perspective, highlighting the advantages and limitations of several methods. Accordingly, this review aims at helping scientists in finding the most appropriate and up-to-date methods to study their biofilms.

  6. Microbiological profile and calprotectin expression in naturally occurring and experimentally induced gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Farina, Roberto; Guarnelli, Maria Elena; Figuero, Elena; Herrera, David; Sanz, Mariano; Trombelli, Leonardo

    2012-10-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the microbiological profile and the calprotectin expression in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in spontaneous and experimentally induced gingival inflammation. Thirty-seven periodontally healthy subjects were evaluated in real life conditions (N-O gingivitis) as well as after 21 days of experimental gingivitis trial (E-I gingivitis). During the experimental gingivitis trial, in one maxillary quadrant (test quadrant), gingival inflammation was induced by oral hygiene abstention, while in the contralateral (control) quadrant, oral hygiene was routinely continued. The results of the study showed that (1) the microbiological profile of quadrants where gingival inflammation was experimentally induced (i.e., E-I test quadrants) differed significantly from that of either quadrants where gingival inflammation was controlled by proper plaque control (i.e., E-I control quadrants) or quadrants with N-O gingivitis, and (2) GCF calprotectin was significantly higher at E-I test quadrants compared to either E-I control quadrants or quadrants with N-O gingivitis. A positive intrasubject correlation was found between GCF concentration of calprotectin at sites presenting N-O and E-I gingivitis. N-O and E-I gingivitis showed a different microbiological profile of the subgingival environment. GCF calprotectin is a reliable marker of gingival inflammation, and its concentration in N-O gingivitis is correlated with its expression in E-I gingivitis. The modality of plaque accumulation seems to affect the subgingival microbiological profile associated with a gingivitis condition. Calprotectin levels in GCF may be regarded as a promising marker of the individual susceptibility to develop gingival inflammation in response to experimentally induced plaque accumulation.

  7. Anti-biofilm and bactericidal effects of magnolia bark-derived magnolol and honokiol on Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Sakaue, Yuuki; Domon, Hisanori; Oda, Masataka; Takenaka, Shoji; Kubo, Miwa; Fukuyama, Yoshiyasu; Okiji, Takashi; Terao, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries affects people of all ages and is a worldwide health concern. Streptococcus mutans is a major cariogenic bacterium because of its ability to form biofilm and induce an acidic environment. In this study, the antibacterial activities of magnolol and honokiol, the main constituents of the bark of magnolia plants, toward planktonic cell and biofilm of S. mutans were examined and compared with those of chlorhexidine. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of magnolol, honokiol and chlorhexidine for S. mutans were 10, 10 and 0.25 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, each agent showed bactericidal activity against S. mutans planktonic cells and inhibited biofilm formation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Magnolol (50 µg/mL) had greater bactericidal activity against S. mutans biofilm than honokiol (50 µg/mL) and chlorhexidine (500 µg/mL) at 5 min after exposure, while all showed scant activity against biofilm at 30 s. Furthermore; chlorhexidine (0.5-500 µg/mL) exhibited high cellular toxicity for the gingival epithelial cell line Ca9-22 at 1 hr, whereas magnolol (50 µg/mL) and honokiol (50 µg/mL) did not. Thus; it was found that magnolol has antimicrobial activities against planktonic and biofilm cells of S. mutans. Magnolol may be a candidate for prevention and management of dental caries. © 2015 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Gingival changes during pregnancy: III. Impact of clinical, microbiological, immunological and socio-demographic factors on gingival inflammation.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-de-Albornoz, Ana; Figuero, Elena; Herrera, David; Cuesta, Pedro; Bascones-Martínez, Antonio

    2012-03-01

    To identify predictor variables involved in exacerbated gingival inflammation associated with pregnancy. In this cohort study, 48 pregnant and 28 non-pregnant women without periodontitis were included. The pregnant women were evaluated in the first, second and third trimester and at 3 months postpartum, whilst the non-pregnant women were evaluated twice, with a 6-month interval. At each visit, clinical [plaque index (PlI) and gingival index (GI)], hormonal (salivary progesterone and estradiol), immunological [gingival crevicular fluid interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and prostaglandin-E(2) ] and microbiological (periodontal pathogens culture) evaluations were performed. Statistical analysis was undertaken using exhaustive chi-square automatic interaction detection (exhaustive CHAID) to analyse the predictive value of the independent outcomes to develop pregnancy GI. PlI was the strongest predictor implicated in the GI throughout pregnancy and after delivery. During the second and third trimesters the presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis significantly contributed to the worsening of gingival inflammation. When compared with the non-pregnant group, significant differences were found in TNF-α amounts and concentrations and in the third trimester site-specific GI. Bacterial challenge to the gingival tissues, both quantitatively (PlI) and qualitatively (harbouring P. gingivalis) appears to affect the level of gingival inflammation observed during pregnancy. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Clinical parameters predictive of enlargement of melanocytic choroidal lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Augsburger, J J; Schroeder, R P; Territo, C; Gamel, J W; Shields, J A

    1989-01-01

    The authors followed up 197 melanotic choroidal lesions (62 categorised as benign naevi, 76 classified as suspicious naevi, 41 diagnosed as dormant melanomas, and 18 categorised as active melanomas) left untreated after their initial clinical documentation. Thirty-nine of these lesions enlarged during a five-year follow-up interval (cumulative proportion of lesions that enlarged = 26.2% by Kaplan-Meier method). Individual clinical parameters predictive of lesion enlargement (p less than 0.01) included larger size of the lesion, especially lesion thickness, presence of retinal detachment, location of the lesion's posterior margin within 2 disc diameters of the optic disc, presence of symptoms, and presence of orange pigment clumps on the lesion's surface. The best combination of these parameters for prediction of lesion enlargement, as identified by multivariate Cox regression analysis, consisted of thickness of the lesion, retinal detachment, and symptoms. The five-year incidence of lesion enlargement for patients with none of these prognostic parameters was 5.8%, while that for patients with all three unfavourable parameters simultaneously was 90.6%. Images PMID:2605146

  10. Orbital ultrasonography in the diagnosis of neoplastic extraocular muscle enlargement.

    PubMed

    Greaves, Giovanni H; Livingston, Kym; Liu, Grant T; Shindler, Kenneth S; Volpe, Nicholas J; Pistilli, Maxwell; Mehta, Sonul; Tamhankar, Madhura A

    2017-10-01

    Neoplastic infiltration of the extraocular muscle (EOM) is a rare condition which can pose a diagnostic dilemma due to its rarity and overlapping ultrasonographic features with orbital myositis. The ultrasonographic features of neoplastic enlargement of EOM have not been systematically studied and previously have been described in only a few case reports. Orbital ultrasonography, in conjunction with the pattern of ocular misalignment, was assessed for its potential role in identifying patients with neoplastic EOM enlargement. Retrospective chart review of patients with neoplasm and myositis. The clinical features of 8 patients with neoplastic infiltration of the EOM were compared to 15 patients with myositis. In the neoplastic group the width of the EOM was (10.5 mm) almost twice the normal width of the muscle with myositis (p < 0.001). All the muscles in the neoplastic category were low to medium reflective. Paretic deviation was seen in 4/8(50%), purely restrictive in 2/8 (25%) and combined pattern in 2/8 (25%) were noted. In the myositis group the average EOM enlargement was 5.8 mm and all muscles showed low reflectivity. Although ultrasonographic features overlapped between the 2 groups paretic deviations were more common in the neoplastic group versus the myositis group (50% versus 7%). Neoplastic muscle enlargement tends to be larger with paretic deviations of ocular motility seen clinically. These findings in a patient with EOM enlargement should raise the suspicion of neoplasm as the etiology and further work up should be considered.

  11. Biofilm roughness determines Cryptosporidium parvum retention in environmental biofilms.

    PubMed

    DiCesare, E A Wolyniak; Hargreaves, B R; Jellison, K L

    2012-06-01

    The genus Cryptosporidium is a group of waterborne protozoan parasites that have been implicated in significant outbreaks of gastrointestinal infections throughout the world. Biofilms trap these pathogens and can contaminate water supplies through subsequent release. Biofilm microbial assemblages were collected seasonally from three streams in eastern Pennsylvania and used to grow biofilms in laboratory microcosms. Daily oocyst counts in the influx and efflux flow allowed the calculation of daily oocyst retention in the biofilm. Following the removal of oocysts from the influx water, oocyst attachment to the biofilm declined to an equilibrium state within 5 days that was sustained for at least 25 days. Varying the oocyst loading rate for the system showed that biofilm retention could be saturated, suggesting that discrete binding sites determined the maximum number of oocysts retained. Oocyst retention varied seasonally but was consistent across all three sites; however, seasonal oocyst retention was not consistent across years at the same site. No correlation between oocyst attachment and any measured water quality parameter was found. However, oocyst retention was strongly correlated with biofilm surface roughness and roughness varied among seasons and across years. We hypothesize that biofilm roughness and oocyst retention are dependent on environmentally driven changes in the biofilm community rather than directly on water quality conditions. It is important to understand oocyst transport dynamics to reduce risks of human infection. Better understanding of factors controlling biofilm retention of oocysts should improve our understanding of oocyst transport at different scales.

  12. Soft tissue stability at the facial aspect of gingivally converging abutments in the esthetic zone: a pilot clinical study.

    PubMed

    Rompen, Eric; Raepsaet, Nicolas; Domken, Olivier; Touati, Bernard; Van Dooren, Eric

    2007-06-01

    The literature indicates that 0.5 to 1.5 mm of gingival recession most often occurs within the first months after implant placement or abutment connection. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effect of a concave transmucosal profile on the vertical stability of soft tissues at the facial aspect of dental implants. Fifty-four implants were placed in esthetically demanding sites in 41 patients (17 women, 24 men; age range of 23 to 62 years, mean 40.3 years; 5 smokers), primarily following a 1-stage approach. Twenty-five implants were placed immediately after extraction. Experimental concave titanium (n=49) and zirconia abutments (n=5) were used, and a provisional crown was placed at the same session. Digital photographs were made perpendicularly to the facial aspect of the teeth at abutment placement, and at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months, and enlarged views were subsequently analyzed by an independent examiner. Vertical changes in soft tissue levels were measured, and the definitive esthetic result was evaluated subjectively (poor to excellent). Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Twenty-four implants were evaluated at 24 months, 20 at 18 months, and 8 at 12 months. Vertical augmentation or no recession in soft tissue was observed in 87% of the situations, and in no situation was recession greater than 0.5 mm found. The gingival level remained stable at 12, 18, and 24 months. The average esthetic outcome was rated as 4.5 (very good to excellent) on a 0- to 5-point scale. The concave, gingivally converging abutments used in the study allowed for above-average soft tissue outcomes.

  13. Gingival crevicularfluid osteoprotegerin levels in Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Bandari, Purnima; Prasad, M. V. Ramachandra; Maradi, Arun; Pradeep, A. R.; Mallika, A.; Sharma, Dileep

    2012-01-01

    Background: Initial research indicated that higher concentration of osteoprotegerin (OPG) is associated with healthy periodontium (protective) and its concentration decreases as the periodontal disease progresses. However, till date, there are no studies to investigate the levels of OPG in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) after the treatment of periodontitis. Hence, the present study was carried out to assess its concentration in GCF to find out their association if any, and to explore its possible use as a ‘novel bone marker’ of the host modulation of periodontal disease. Materials and Methods: Sixty-four subjects were divided into 4 groups (16 each), based on clinical attachment loss (CAL) and radiological parameters (bone loss); healthy (group I), gingivitis (group II), slight periodontitis (group III), and moderate-to-severe periodontitis (group IV). Moderate-to-severe periodontitis subjects, after nonsurgical periodontal treatment, (SRP) constituted group V. GCF samples were collected to estimate the levels of OPG using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The Kruskal-Wallis, Man-Whitney U test, and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were carried out to compare OPG levels among groups. The Spearman rank correlation test was used to correlate OPG levels between the study groups and the clinical parameters; P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The highest mean OPG concentration in GCF was obtained for group I (162.47 ± 51.171 pg/ μL) and the least for group IV (10.92 ± 1.913 pg/μL), suggesting a negative correlation between OPG concentration and CAL. OPG concentrations in GCF after the treatment of group IV increased from 10.92 ± 1.913 pg/μL to 15.63 ± 4.679 pg/μL. Conclusion: OPG concentration in GCF was inversely proportional to CAL and not an active progression factor for periodontal disease. Further, after the treatment of moderate-to-severe periodontitis subjects (group IV), OPG concentrations increased. Hence, it can be concluded that OPG

  14. The closure of the gingival crevice following gingival retraction for impression making.

    PubMed

    Laufer, B Z; Baharav, H; Langer, Y; Cardash, H S

    1997-09-01

    Scant attention has been paid to the effectiveness of chemomechanical displacement of the gingiva prior to impression making for fixed partial dentures. The closure of the gingival crevice following removal of medicated retraction cord was observed using a miniature video camera. Sulcular widths were measured at time intervals at the midbuccal and transitional line angle areas. The closure rate of the transitional line angle area was significantly faster than that of the mid-buccal area during the first 90 s. An average sulcular width of 0.2 mm was reached at the transitional line angle after less than 30 s.

  15. Biofilm Cohesive Strength as a Basis for Biofilm Recalcitrance: Are Bacterial Biofilms Overdesigned?

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Srijan; Stewart, Philip S.; Hozalski, Raymond M.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are highly resistant to common antibacterial treatments, and several physiological explanations have been offered to explain the recalcitrant nature of bacterial biofilms. Herein, a biophysical aspect of biofilm recalcitrance is being reported on. While engineering structures are often overdesigned with a factor of safety (FOS) usually under 10, experimental measurements of biofilm cohesive strength suggest that the FOS is on the order of thousands. In other words, bacterial biofilms appear to be designed to withstand extreme forces rather than typical or average loads. In scenarios requiring the removal or control of unwanted biofilms, this emphasizes the importance of considering strategies for structurally weakening the biofilms in conjunction with bacterial inactivation. PMID:26819559

  16. [Urinary catheter biofilm infections].

    PubMed

    Holá, V; Růzicka, F

    2008-04-01

    Urinary tract infections, most of which are biofilm infections in catheterized patients, account for more than 40% of hospital infections. Bacterial colonization of the urinary tract and catheters causes not only infection but also other complications such as catheter blockage by bacterial encrustation, urolithiasis and pyelonephritis. About 50% of long-term catheterized patients face urinary flow obstruction due to catheter encrustation, but no measure is currently available to prevent it. Encrustation has been known either to result from metabolic dysfunction or to be of microbial origin, with urease positive bacterial species implicated most often. Infectious calculi account for about 15-20% of all cases of urolithiasis and are often associated with biofilm colonization of a long-term indwelling urinary catheter or urethral stent. The use of closed catheter systems is helpful in reducing such problems; nevertheless, such a system only delays the inevitable, with infections emerging a little later. Various coatings intended to prevent the bacterial adhesion to the surface of catheters and implants and thus also the emergence of biofilm infections, unfortunately, do not inhibit the microbial adhesion completely and permanently and the only reliable method for biofilm eradication remains the removal of the foreign body from the patient.

  17. PATHOGENICITY OF BIOFILM BACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a paucity of information concerning any link between the microorganisms commonly found in biofilms of drinking water systems and their impacts on human health. For bacteria, culture-based techniques detect only a limited number of the total microorganisms associated wit...

  18. Candida albicans stimulates Streptococcus mutans microcolony development via cross-kingdom biofilm-derived metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dongyeop; Sengupta, Arjun; Niepa, Tagbo H. R.; Lee, Byung-Hoo; Weljie, Aalim; Freitas-Blanco, Veronica S.; Murata, Ramiro M.; Stebe, Kathleen J.; Lee, Daeyeon; Koo, Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Candida albicans is frequently detected with heavy infection of Streptococcus mutans in plaque-biofilms from children affected with early-childhood caries, a prevalent and costly oral disease. The presence of C. albicans enhances S. mutans growth within biofilms, yet the chemical interactions associated with bacterial accumulation remain unclear. Thus, this study was conducted to investigate how microbial products from this cross-kingdom association modulate S. mutans build-up in biofilms. Our data revealed that bacterial-fungal derived conditioned medium (BF-CM) significantly increased the growth of S. mutans and altered biofilm 3D-architecture in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in enlarged and densely packed bacterial cell-clusters (microcolonies). Intriguingly, BF-CM induced S. mutans gtfBC expression (responsible for Gtf exoenzymes production), enhancing Gtf activity essential for microcolony development. Using a recently developed nanoculture system, the data demonstrated simultaneous microcolony growth and gtfB activation in situ by BF-CM. Further metabolites/chromatographic analyses of BF-CM revealed elevated amounts of formate and the presence of Candida-derived farnesol, which is commonly known to exhibit antibacterial activity. Unexpectedly, at the levels detected (25–50 μM), farnesol enhanced S. mutans-biofilm cell growth, microcolony development, and Gtf activity akin to BF-CM bioactivity. Altogether, the data provide new insights on how extracellular microbial products from cross-kingdom interactions stimulate the accumulation of a bacterial pathogen within biofilms. PMID:28134351

  19. A practical approach to enlargement of nerves, plexuses and roots.

    PubMed

    Khadilkar, Satish V; Yadav, Rakhil S; Soni, Girish

    2015-04-01

    Detecting enlargement of accessible nerves is very helpful in assessing patients with peripheral nerve disorders, as only a few types of neuropathy lead to nerve thickening. The three leading causes are leprosy, hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies (types 1 and 3) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathies. MRI, neurography and ultrasonography allow assessment of clinically inaccessible portions of deep-seated nerves, plexuses and roots. As a result, isolated proximal segment thickenings, as found in chronic inflammatory sensory polyradiculopathy, can now be better evaluated and managed. Similarly, focal nerve enlargements due to infection, inflammation, infiltration and neoplasm are being identified and treated effectively. We present a practical approach to the diagnosis and management of patients with enlarged peripheral nerves, plexuses and roots, including cranial nerves. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Neurovascular Compression Caused by Popliteus Muscle Enlargement Without Discrete Trauma

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Popliteal entrapment syndrome caused by isolated popliteus muscle enlargement is very rare, although its occurrence has been reported after discrete trauma. However, popliteal artery stenosis with combined peroneal and proximal tibial neuropathy caused by popliteus muscle enlargement without preceding trauma has not been reported. A 57-year-old man presented with a tingling sensation and pain in his left calf. He had no previous history of an injury. The symptoms were similar to those of lumbosacral radiculopathy. Calf pain became worse despite treatment, and the inability to flex his toes progressed. Computed tomography angiography and magnetic resonance imaging of the lower extremity showed popliteal artery stenosis caused by popliteus muscle enlargement and surrounding edema. An electrodiagnostic study confirmed combined peroneal and proximal tibial neuropathy at the popliteal fossa. Urgent surgical decompression was performed because of the progressive neurologic deficit and increasing neuropathic pain. The calf pain disappeared immediately after surgery, and he was discharged after the neurologic functions improved. PMID:27446794

  1. Biofilm Formation by Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, L. L.; Edwards, J. L.; Shao, J.; Rabinak, C.; Entz, D.; Apicella, M. A.

    2005-01-01

    Studies were performed in continuous-flow chambers to determine whether Neisseria gonorrhoeae could form a biofilm. Under these growth conditions, N. gonorrhoeae formed a biofilm with or without the addition of 10 μM sodium nitrite to the perfusion medium. Microscopic analysis of a 4-day growth of N. gonorrhoeae strain 1291 revealed evidence of a biofilm with organisms embedded in matrix, which was interlaced with water channels. N. gonorrhoeae strains MS11 and FA1090 were found to also form biofilms under the same growth conditions. Cryofield emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy confirmed that organisms were embedded in a continuous matrix with membranous structures spanning the biofilm. These studies also demonstrated that N. gonorrhoeae has the capability to form a matrix in the presence and absence of CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-Neu5Ac). Studies with monoclonal antibody 6B4 and the lectins soy bean agglutinin and Maackia amurensis indicated that the predominate terminal sugars in the biofilm matrix formed a lactosamine when the biofilm was grown in the absence of CMP-Neu5Ac and sialyllactosamine in the presence of CMP-Neu5Ac. N. gonorrhoeae strain 1291 formed a biofilm on primary urethral epithelial cells and cervical cells in culture without loss of viability of the epithelial cell layer. Our studies demonstrated that N. gonorrhoeae can form biofilms in continuous-flow chambers and on living cells. Studies of these biofilms may have implications for understanding asymptomatic gonococcal infection. PMID:15784536

  2. The frequency of lingual tonsil enlargement in obese children.

    PubMed

    Guimaraes, Carolina V A; Kalra, Maninder; Donnelly, Lane F; Shott, Sally R; Fitz, Kelly; Singla, Saroj; Amin, Raouf S

    2008-04-01

    Enlargement of the lingual tonsils is being increasingly recognized as a not uncommon and treatable cause of obstructive sleep apnea, particularly in patients with Down syndrome who have undergone palatine tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. We have recognized an increasing number of patients who are obese and have obstructive sleep apnea with enlarged lingual tonsils. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of enlarged lingual tonsils in obese children. Seventy-one obese children (mean body mass index = 41.6 kg/m(2)) underwent sagittal fast spin-echo inversion recovery imaging. Lingual tonsils were identified and measured in the greatest anteroposterior diameter. Lingual tonsils > 10 mm were considered markedly enlarged. The subgroup with absent palatine tonsils (previous tonsillectomy) (n = 41) were compared with those with palatine tonsils present (n = 30). Forty-four (62%) of the obese children had measurable lingual tonsils, which is greater than the frequency previously reported in normal subjects (0%), subjects with obstructive sleep apnea (33%), or subjects with Down syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea (50%). Ten (14%) had lingual tonsils > 10 mm. Obese subjects with absent palatine tonsils (previous tonsillectomy) had a higher prevalence of measurable lingual tonsils than those with palatine tonsils (78% vs 22%, respectively; p < 0.001) and a higher prevalence of lingual tonsils > 10 mm (90% vs 10%, p < 0.001). Obese children have a high frequency of enlargement of the lingual tonsils with a significantly higher prevalence in those with previous tonsillectomy. Enlarged lingual tonsils may play a role in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea in obese children.

  3. Enlarged Right Ventricle Without Shock in Acute Pulmonary Embolism: Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Paul D.; Beemath, Afzal; Matta, Fadi; Goodman, Lawrence R.; Weg, John G.; Hales, Charles A.; Hull, Russell D.; Leeper, Kenneth V.; Dirk Sostman, H; Woodard, Pamela K.

    2008-01-01

    Background An unsettled issue is use of thrombolytic agents in patients with acute pulmonary embolism who are hemodynamically stable, but have right ventricular enlargement. Purpose To assess in-hospital mortality of hemodynamically stable patients with pulmonary embolism and right ventricular enlargement. Methods Patients were enrolled in the Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis II (PIOPED II). Exclusions included shock, critically ill, ventilatory support, myocardial infarction within 1 month, or ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation within 24 hours. We evaluated the ratio of the right ventricular minor axis to the left ventricular minor axis measured on transverse images during computed tomographic angiography. Results Among 76 patients with right ventricular enlargement treated with anticoagulants and/or inferior vena cava filters, in–hospital deaths from pulmonary embolism were 0 of 76 (0%) and all-cause mortality was 2 of 76 (2.6%). No septal motion abnormality was observed in 49 (64%), septal flattening in 25 (33%) and septal deviation in 2 (3%). None required ventilatory support, vasopressor therapy, rescue thrombolytic therapy, or catheter embolectomy. There were no in-hospital deaths due to pulmonary embolism. There was no difference in all-cause mortality comparing patients with and without right ventricular enlargement (relative risk = 1.04) Conclusion In-hospital prognosis is good in patients with pulmonary embolism and right ventricular enlargement if not in shock, acutely ill, on ventilatory support, recent myocardial infarction or life threatening arrhythmia. Right ventricular enlargement alone in patients with pulmonary embolism, therefore, does not appear to indicate a poor prognosis or an indication for thrombolytic therapy. PMID:18187071

  4. Spleen and liver enlargement in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Bedoya, María Eugenia; Ceccato, Federico; Paira, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    We describe the case of a 51-year-old woman with a seropositive, erosive, and non-nodular rheumatoid arthritis of 15 year of evolution. The patient had poor compliance with medical visits and treatment. She came to the clinic with persistent pancytopenia and spleen and liver enlargement. Liver and bone marrow biopsies were carried out and amyloidosis, neoplasias and infections were ruled out. We discuss the differential diagnosis of pancytopenia and spleen and liver enlargement in a long-standing rheumatoid arthritis patient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Holographic display with LED sources illumination and enlarged viewing angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chlipała, Maksymilian; Kozacki, Tomasz

    2016-09-01

    In this work we present holographic display that uses LED sources illumination and have enlarged viewing angle. In this holographic display design we employ phase only SLM because it allows to obtain reconstructions of high quality. Our setup realizes complex coding scheme and allows to reconstruct complex holographic images. Thus reconstruction of inplane holograms is possible. Holograms displayed on SLM are computer generated. For enlargement of angular field of view we use three spatially separated illumination sources and time multiplexing technique. In experimental part, where we display computer generated holograms, we show that it is possible to obtain holographic reconstructions of 3D object with extended viewing angle.

  6. Image enlargement using biharmonic Said-Ball surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saaban, A.; Kherd, A.; Jameel, A. F.; Akhadkulov, H.; Alipiah, F. M.

    2017-09-01

    This paper discusses the use of biharmonic cubic Said-Ball surfaces in image enlargement area. Resizing an image through up sampling or down sampling is generally common for making smaller image fit a bigger screen in full screen mode or reducing a higher resolution image to a smaller resolution. However due to some limitation, this paper will focus on image enlargement based on scaling factor of two. We use biharmonic cubic Said-Ball subject to a given four boundary curves condition respectively. We implement and evaluate the performance of the proposed method based on peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) indicator using well-known gray-scale test images.

  7. Gingival recession in postmenopausal women with and without osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    DUNCEA, IOANA; POP, DAN; GEORGESCU, CARMEN

    2013-01-01

    Background The periodontal disease is a complex chronic progressive inflammatory and destructive process of the tooth attachment apparatus: gingiva, alveolar bone, desmodontium, cementum. Systemic osteoporosis has a potential influence on both the periodontal and gingival inflammation indices, on the gingival recession (GR) and teeth mobility. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible relationship between the menopause osteoporosis and gingival recession, by studying the correlations between osteoporosis and gingival recession, and between the bone mineral density (BMD) at the level of L1–L4, femur, hip, mandible and gum recession. Materials and methods The present study included a total of 97 postmenopausal patients. The diagnosis of osteoporosis was made based on the WHO definition. The results were expressed as absolute BMD values in g/cm2 and as T score form. We used dual x-ray absortiometry (DXA) measurements in assessing the lumbar column, proximal femur and mandible and we calculated the T scores. The gingival recession, which is an indicator of ligament tissue lysis and apical migration of the periodontal tissue, was measured as the distance between the anatomical tooth neck and the gumline. For the statistical analysis the Medcalc program version 12.3 was used. Results We found statistically significant differences between the two groups of women, with and without osteoporosis, in terms of the distribution of the cases of GR (p=0.003). The only parameter with statistical significance of the differences between the three categories of gingival recessions (absent, moderate, major), was p=0.034 for the femoral neck BMD. There were significant differences between the mean values of lumbar column L1–L4 BMD according to the presence or absence of recession signs. Conclusions 1) The prevalence of moderate and major gingival recession was statistically significantly higher in the group of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. 2) In postmenopausal

  8. Current concepts on gingival fibromatosis-related syndromes.

    PubMed

    Poulopoulos, Athanasios; Kittas, Dimitrios; Sarigelou, Asimina

    2011-08-01

    Gingival fibromatosis is a rare, benign, slowly-growing fibrous overgrowth of the gingiva, with great genetic and clinical heterogeneity. Gingival fibromatosis/overgrowth can be inherited as an isolated trait (hereditary gingival fibromatosis) and/or as a component of a syndrome, or it can be drug induced. As a clinical manifestation of a syndrome, gingival fibromatosis is usually associated with generalized hypertrichosis, mental retardation, or epilepsy. Gingival fibromatosis and its related syndromes are mainly inherited in an autosomal-dominant manner, but autosomal-recessive inheritance has also been reported. Clinical syndromic presentation includes Zimmermann-Laband syndrome, Ramon syndrome, Rutherford syndrome, Cowden syndrome, Cross syndrome, Göhlich-Ratmann syndrome, Avani syndrome, and I-cell disease. However, a phenotypic overlap has been suggested, as many combinations of their systemic manifestations have been reported. Treatment of choice is usually gingivectomy with gingivoplasty. Before any therapy, clinical practitioners must take into consideration the clinical course of a particular syndrome and every possible functional and esthetic disorder.

  9. The Effectiveness of Propolis on Gingivitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Paulino, Niraldo; Nör, Jacques E.; Moreira, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: A randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a propolis rinse on induced gingivitis by using the co-twin study design. Methods: Twenty-one twin pairs (n=42) were enrolled in a gingivitis study with oral hygiene promotion (14 days) and gingivitis induction (21 days). During the gingivitis induction phase, one member of the twin pair was randomly assigned to a 2% typified propolis rinse, and the other was assigned a color-matched 0.05% sodium fluoride plus 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride rinse (positive control). Patients rinsed twice daily with 20 mL for 30 seconds for 21 days. Gingivitis was measured on days −14 (baseline), 0 (after hygiene phase), and 21 (after no-hygiene phase) by using the Papillary Bleeding Score (PBS) and by standard digital imaging of the gum tissues (G-parameter). Results: The 38 persons who completed the study (age 13–22 years) were well balanced according to PBS at baseline and G-parameter after the initial hygiene phase. After 21 days without oral hygiene, the propolis rinse and positive control rinse groups did not differ significantly for average PBS measurements or G-parameter. Conclusions: Use of a 2% typified propolis rinse was equivalent to a positive control rinse during a 21-day no-hygiene period. PMID:25380344

  10. The influence of toothbrush age on plaque control and gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Pochapski, Márcia Thaís; Canever, Tatiana; Wambier, Denise Stadler; Pilatti, Gibson Luiz; Santos, Fábio André

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this single-blind randomised controlled clinical trial was to verify the impact of progressive toothbrush age on clinical variables of dental plaque and gingival conditions. A total of 110 undergraduates were randomly assigned to one of four groups according to toothbrush age, as measured at 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks. Clinical parameters (plaque and gingival indices) were assessed at 1 week (initial) and final periods. The wear of toothbrushes was evaluated by the wear index. Despite progressive toothbrush age, plaque and gingival indices were similar after the toothbrushing periods (p > 0.05, ANOVA). Significantly more plaque and gingivitis were present on lingual/palatal surfaces as compared with facial surfaces for all weeks, including the baseline (P < 0.001, paired t test.). The wear index increased from 4 weeks to 16 weeks. Plaque and gingival indices did not show statistical differences among 'lowest wear', 'moderate wear' and 'highest wear' (P > 0.05, ANOVA). Under the experimental conditions of this study, progressive toothbrush age did not lead to a decrease in plaque control. It was concluded that toothbrush age may not be critical in ensuring optimal plaque control.

  11. Effect of listerine on dental plaque and gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Fornell, J; Sundin, Y; Lindhe, J

    1975-01-01

    The present study was performed in 10 adults in order to evaluate the effect of an antiseptic mouthrinse (Listerine) on the rate of dental plaque formation and gingivitis development during a 2-week period when all efforts towards active mechanical oral hygiene were withdrawn. The study was performed as a crossover study and was carried out during four consecutive 2-week periods. During the first and third periods (preparatory periods) the participants were subjected to repeated professional tooth cleanings in order to establish plaque- and gingivitis-free dentitions. During the second and fourth periods (test and control periods) the participants were not allowed to brush their teeth but rinsed their mouths three times a day with Listerine or a placebo mouthwash. Plaque Index, Gingival Index, gingival fluid flow, and crevicular leukocytes were assessed on d 0, 2, 4, 7, and 14. On d 7 and 14, dental plaque was removed from the right and left jaws respectively and the wet weights determined. The chemotactic activity elaborated by the plaques was studied in Boyden chambers. During the Listerine test period, significantly lower Plaque and Gingival Index values were scored and lower amounts of plaque could be sampled in comparison to the control period.

  12. White-spot lesions and gingivitis microbiotas in orthodontic patients.

    PubMed

    Tanner, A C R; Sonis, A L; Lif Holgerson, P; Starr, J R; Nunez, Y; Kressirer, C A; Paster, B J; Johansson, I

    2012-09-01

    White-spot lesions (WSL) associated with orthodontic appliances are a cosmetic problem and increase risk for cavities. We characterized the microbiota of WSL, accounting for confounding due to gingivitis. Participants were 60 children with fixed appliances, aged between 10 and 19 yrs, half with WSL. Plaque samples were assayed by a 16S rRNA-based microarray (HOMIM) and by PCR. Mean gingival index was positively associated with WSL (p = 0.018). Taxa associated with WSL by microarray included Granulicatella elegans (p = 0.01), Veillonellaceae sp. HOT 155 (p < 0.01), and Bifidobacterium Cluster 1 (p = 0.11), and by qPCR, Streptococcus mutans (p = 0.008) and Scardovia wiggsiae (p = 0.04) Taxa associated with gingivitis by microarray included: Gemella sanguinis (p = 0.002), Actinomyces sp. HOT 448 (p = 0.003), Prevotella cluster IV (p = 0.021), and Streptococcus sp. HOT 071/070 (p = 0.023); and levels of S. mutans (p = 0.02) and Bifidobacteriaceae (p = 0.012) by qPCR. Species' associations with WSL were minimally changed with adjustment for gingivitis level. Partial least-squares discriminant analysis yielded good discrimination between children with and those without WSL. Granulicatella, Veillonellaceae and Bifidobacteriaceae, in addition to S. mutans and S. wiggsiae, were associated with the presence of WSL in adolescents undergoing orthodontic treatment. Many taxa showed a stronger association with gingivitis than with WSL.

  13. The effectiveness of propolis on gingivitis: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bretz, Walter A; Paulino, Niraldo; Nör, Jacques E; Moreira, Alexandre

    2014-12-01

    A randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a propolis rinse on induced gingivitis by using the co-twin study design. Twenty-one twin pairs (n=42) were enrolled in a gingivitis study with oral hygiene promotion (14 days) and gingivitis induction (21 days). During the gingivitis induction phase, one member of the twin pair was randomly assigned to a 2% typified propolis rinse, and the other was assigned a color-matched 0.05% sodium fluoride plus 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride rinse (positive control). Patients rinsed twice daily with 20 mL for 30 seconds for 21 days. Gingivitis was measured on days -14 (baseline), 0 (after hygiene phase), and 21 (after no-hygiene phase) by using the Papillary Bleeding Score (PBS) and by standard digital imaging of the gum tissues (G-parameter). The 38 persons who completed the study (age 13-22 years) were well balanced according to PBS at baseline and G-parameter after the initial hygiene phase. After 21 days without oral hygiene, the propolis rinse and positive control rinse groups did not differ significantly for average PBS measurements or G-parameter. Use of a 2% typified propolis rinse was equivalent to a positive control rinse during a 21-day no-hygiene period.

  14. White-spot Lesions and Gingivitis Microbiotas in Orthodontic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, A.C.R.; Sonis, A.L.; Lif Holgerson, P.; Starr, J.R.; Nunez, Y.; Kressirer, C.A.; Paster, B.J.; Johansson, I.

    2012-01-01

    White-spot lesions (WSL) associated with orthodontic appliances are a cosmetic problem and increase risk for cavities. We characterized the microbiota of WSL, accounting for confounding due to gingivitis. Participants were 60 children with fixed appliances, aged between 10 and 19 yrs, half with WSL. Plaque samples were assayed by a 16S rRNA-based microarray (HOMIM) and by PCR. Mean gingival index was positively associated with WSL (p = 0.018). Taxa associated with WSL by microarray included Granulicatella elegans (p = 0.01), Veillonellaceae sp. HOT 155 (p < 0.01), and Bifidobacterium Cluster 1 (p = 0.11), and by qPCR, Streptococcus mutans (p = 0.008) and Scardovia wiggsiae (p = 0.04) Taxa associated with gingivitis by microarray included: Gemella sanguinis (p = 0.002), Actinomyces sp. HOT 448 (p = 0.003), Prevotella cluster IV (p = 0.021), and Streptococcus sp. HOT 071/070 (p = 0.023); and levels of S. mutans (p = 0.02) and Bifidobacteriaceae (p = 0.012) by qPCR. Species’ associations with WSL were minimally changed with adjustment for gingivitis level. Partial least-squares discriminant analysis yielded good discrimination between children with and those without WSL. Granulicatella, Veillonellaceae and Bifidobacteriaceae, in addition to S. mutans and S. wiggsiae, were associated with the presence of WSL in adolescents undergoing orthodontic treatment. Many taxa showed a stronger association with gingivitis than with WSL. PMID:22837552

  15. Localized Juvenile Spongiotic Gingival Inflammation: A Report on 3 Cases

    PubMed Central

    PETRUŢIU, ŞTEFAN ADRIAN; ROMAN, ALEXANDRA; SOANCĂ, ANDRADA; SÂRBU, CIPRIAN; STRATUL, ŞTEFAN IOAN

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. A new pathological entity with distinct clinicopathological features has been recently described and termed as juvenile spongiotic gingivitis. Histopathological associated features are unique and characterized by prominent intercellular edema (spongiosis) and neutrophil infiltrate. The aims of this paper were to: introduce juvenile spongiotic gingivitis to the dental and pediatric communities, to report three cases based on clinical and histopathological findings, and to discuss the most common clinical differential diagnoses. The cases were documented at baseline and follow-ups. The clinical appearance of the lesions described in this paper correspond to the pattern described by the literature: 1) localized lesions as bright red slightly raised overgrowths, most often with a subtle papillary or finely granular surface; or 2) multifocal masses or raised papular lesions with a pebbly texture. The first intention treatment approach was personal and professional plaque control. Because of the lack of a good clinical response to conventional therapy, excisional biopsies were performed, which helped establish the diagnosis. The plaque control was reinforced and additional antiseptic local treatment was administered. A real improvement in the local gingival conditions was recorded for all the patients. However, because of the persistence of some bright reddish gingival masses in one of the patients these lesions were treated by surgical excision. The overall clinical outcome was good and stable after one year. Conclusions. The presented cases might raise awareness of this condition among orthodontic specialists because orthodontic treatment could not be applied until the gingival gum disease was resolved. PMID:26528024

  16. Comparative clinical efficacy evaluation of three gingival displacement systems

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Kirti Jajoo; Bhoyar, Anjali; Agarwal, Surendra; Shrivastava, Saurabh; Parlani, Swapnil; Murthy, Varsha

    2015-01-01

    Aim: We compared the clinical efficacy of three gingival displacement systems to accurately record intra-crevicular margins of tooth preparation. Materials and Methods: One mechanical (magic foam cord) and two chemico-mechanical (expasyl paste and retraction cord impregnated with 15% aluminum chloride) gingival displacement systems were used. This study was conducted on the maxillary central incisors of 20 patients (20-60 years old) requiring full coverage restoration. All the three gingival displacement systems were tested in three sessions at an interval of 14 days in same order. The casts were sectioned and viewed under an optical microscope, followed by quantitative measurements of the width of the pre and postretracted sulci. Results: All the three displacement systems produced highly significant horizontal gingival displacement. Retraction cord soaked in 15% aluminum chloride produced maximum displacement (0.74 mm), followed by expasyl paste (0.48 mm) whereas magic foam cord produced the least displacement (0.41 mm). Conclusions: Gingival displacement shown by each displacement system was found to be more than the accepted value necessary for elastomeric impression accuracy (0.2 mm) to record intra-crevicular margins of tooth preparation. PMID:26604620

  17. Electrochemical biofilm control: a review.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Sujala T; Babauta, Jerome T; Beyenal, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    One of the methods of controlling biofilms that has widely been discussed in the literature is to apply a potential or electrical current to a metal surface on which the biofilm is growing. Although electrochemical biofilm control has been studied for decades, the literature is often conflicting, as is detailed in this review. The goals of this review are: (1) to present the current status of knowledge regarding electrochemical biofilm control; (2) to establish a basis for a fundamental definition of electrochemical biofilm control and requirements for studying it; (3) to discuss current proposed mechanisms; and (4) to introduce future directions in the field. It is expected that the review will provide researchers with guidelines on comparing datasets across the literature and generating comparable datasets. The authors believe that, with the correct design, electrochemical biofilm control has great potential for industrial use.

  18. Biofilm and dental unit waterlines.

    PubMed

    Szymanska, Jolanta

    2003-01-01

    Aquatic biofilms, which are well-organized communities of microorganisms, are widespread in nature. They constitute a major problem in many environmental, industrial and medical settings. The use of advanced techniques has revealed biofilm structure, formation and ecology. Special attention was given to the build-up of biofilm in dental unit waterlines (DUWLs), which are small-bore flexible plastic tubing to bring water to different handpieces. They are coated with well-established biofilms. Active biofilm is a source of microbial contamination of DUWLs water. The safety of dental treatment requires a good quality of the water used. The knowledge of nature, formation and the ways to eliminate the biofilm is the first step towards reducing health risk, both for patients and dental personnel. The article reviews these issues.

  19. New Technologies for Studying Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Michael J; Chang, Connie; Akiyama, Tatsuya; Bothner, Brian

    2015-08-01

    Bacteria have traditionally been studied as single-cell organisms. In laboratory settings, aerobic bacteria are usually cultured in aerated flasks, where the cells are considered essentially homogenous. However, in many natural environments, bacteria and other microorganisms grow in mixed communities, often associated with surfaces. Biofilms are comprised of surface-associated microorganisms, their extracellular matrix material, and environmental chemicals that have adsorbed to the bacteria or their matrix material. While this definition of a biofilm is fairly simple, biofilms are complex and dynamic. Our understanding of the activities of individual biofilm cells and whole biofilm systems has developed rapidly, due in part to advances in molecular, analytical, and imaging tools and the miniaturization of tools designed to characterize biofilms at the enzyme level, cellular level, and systems level.

  20. New Technologies for Studying Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    FRANKLIN, MICHAEL J.; CHANG, CONNIE; AKIYAMA, TATSUYA; BOTHNER, BRIAN

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria have traditionally been studied as single-cell organisms. In laboratory settings, aerobic bacteria are usually cultured in aerated flasks, where the cells are considered essentially homogenous. However, in many natural environments, bacteria and other microorganisms grow in mixed communities, often associated with surfaces. Biofilms are comprised of surface-associated microorganisms, their extracellular matrix material, and environmental chemicals that have adsorbed to the bacteria or their matrix material. While this definition of a biofilm is fairly simple, biofilms are complex and dynamic. Our understanding of the activities of individual biofilm cells and whole biofilm systems has developed rapidly, due in part to advances in molecular, analytical, and imaging tools and the miniaturization of tools designed to characterize biofilms at the enzyme level, cellular level, and systems level. PMID:26350329

  1. Electrochemical biofilm control: A review

    PubMed Central

    Sultana, Sujala T; Babauta, Jerome T; Beyenal, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    One of the methods of controlling biofilms that has widely been discussed in the literature is to apply a potential or electrical current to a metal surface on which the biofilm is growing. Although electrochemical biofilm control has been studied for decades, the literature is often conflicting, as is detailed in this review. The goals of this review are to (1) present the current status of knowledge regarding electrochemical biofilm control, (2) establish a basis for a fundamental definition of electrochemical biofilm control and requirements for studying it, (3) discuss current proposed mechanisms, and (4) introduce future directions in the field. It is expected that the review will provide researchers with guidelines on comparing data sets across the literature and generating comparable data sets. The authors believe that, with the correct design, electrochemical biofilm control has great potential for industrial use. PMID:26592420

  2. Effects of titania nanotubes with or without bovine serum albumin loaded on human gingival fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiangning; Zhou, Xiaosong; Li, Shaobing; Lai, Renfa; Zhou, Zhiying; Zhang, Ye; Zhou, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Modifying the surface of the transmucosal area is a key research area because this process positively affects the three functions of implants: attachment to soft tissue, inhibiting bacterial biofilm adhesion, and the preservation of the crestal bone. To exploit the potential of titania nanotube arrays (TNTs) with or without using bovine serum albumin (BSA) to modify the surface of a dental implant in contact with the transmucosal area, BSA was loaded into TNTs that were fabricated by anodizing Ti sheets; the physical characteristics of these arrays, including their morphology, chemical composition, surface roughness, contact angle, and surface free energy (SFE), were assessed. The effect of Ti surfaces with TNTs or TNTs-BSA on human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) was determined by analyzing cell morphology, early adhesion, proliferation, type I collagen (COL-1) gene expression, and the extracellular secretion of COL-1. The results indicate that early HGF adhesion and spreading behavior is positively correlated with surface characteristics, including hydrophilicity, SFE, and surface roughness. Additionally, TNT surfaces not only promoted early HGF adhesion, but also promoted COL-1 secretion. BSA-loaded TNT surfaces promoted early HGF adhesion, while suppressing late proliferation and COL-1 secretion. Therefore, TNT-modified smooth surfaces are expected to be applicable for uses involving the transmucosal area. Further study is required to determine whether BSA-loaded TNT surfaces actually affect closed loop formation of connective tissue because BSA coating actions in vivo are very rapid. PMID:24623977

  3. Effects of titania nanotubes with or without bovine serum albumin loaded on human gingival fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangning; Zhou, Xiaosong; Li, Shaobing; Lai, Renfa; Zhou, Zhiying; Zhang, Ye; Zhou, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Modifying the surface of the transmucosal area is a key research area because this process positively affects the three functions of implants: attachment to soft tissue, inhibiting bacterial biofilm adhesion, and the preservation of the crestal bone. To exploit the potential of titania nanotube arrays (TNTs) with or without using bovine serum albumin (BSA) to modify the surface of a dental implant in contact with the transmucosal area, BSA was loaded into TNTs that were fabricated by anodizing Ti sheets; the physical characteristics of these arrays, including their morphology, chemical composition, surface roughness, contact angle, and surface free energy (SFE), were assessed. The effect of Ti surfaces with TNTs or TNTs-BSA on human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) was determined by analyzing cell morphology, early adhesion, proliferation, type I collagen (COL-1) gene expression, and the extracellular secretion of COL-1. The results indicate that early HGF adhesion and spreading behavior is positively correlated with surface characteristics, including hydrophilicity, SFE, and surface roughness. Additionally, TNT surfaces not only promoted early HGF adhesion, but also promoted COL-1 secretion. BSA-loaded TNT surfaces promoted early HGF adhesion, while suppressing late proliferation and COL-1 secretion. Therefore, TNT-modified smooth surfaces are expected to be applicable for uses involving the transmucosal area. Further study is required to determine whether BSA-loaded TNT surfaces actually affect closed loop formation of connective tissue because BSA coating actions in vivo are very rapid.

  4. Quorum sensing and microbial biofilms.

    PubMed

    Irie, Y; Parsek, M R

    2008-01-01

    Some bacterial species engage in two well-documented social behaviors: the formation of surface-associated communities known as biofilms, and intercellular signaling, or quorum sensing. Recent studies have begun to reveal how these two social behaviors are related in different species. This chapter will review the role quorum sensing plays in biofilm formation for different species. In addition, different aspects of quorum sensing in the context of multispecies biofilms will be discussed.

  5. Quick, painless, and atraumatic gingival retraction: An overview of advanced materials.

    PubMed

    Rajambigai, M Aarti; Raja, S Ramesh; Soundar, S I Joephin; Kandasamy, M

    2016-10-01

    The success of any fixed prosthesis depends on the accuracy of impressions. Finish line exposure has to be adequate during impression making. The goal of gingival retraction is to atraumatically displace gingival tissues to allow access for impression material to record the finish line and provide sufficient thickness of gingival sulcus so that the impression does not tear off during removal. Numerous advanced materials are available for gingival retraction. This article describes the different advanced materials available.

  6. Quick, painless, and atraumatic gingival retraction: An overview of advanced materials

    PubMed Central

    Rajambigai, M. Aarti; Raja, S. Ramesh; Soundar, S. I. Joephin; Kandasamy, M.

    2016-01-01

    The success of any fixed prosthesis depends on the accuracy of impressions. Finish line exposure has to be adequate during impression making. The goal of gingival retraction is to atraumatically displace gingival tissues to allow access for impression material to record the finish line and provide sufficient thickness of gingival sulcus so that the impression does not tear off during removal. Numerous advanced materials are available for gingival retraction. This article describes the different advanced materials available. PMID:27829736

  7. Income, Deprivation and Economic Stress in the Enlarged European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whelan, Christopher T.; Maitre, Bertrand

    2007-01-01

    At risk of poverty indicators based on relative income measures suggest that within the enlarged EU societies located at quite different points on a continuum of affluence have similar levels of poverty. Substantial differences in levels of income between societies do not in themselves invalidate this approach. However, the relative income…

  8. 24. Lake Hodges Flume conduit enlargement. April 1930. Courtesy of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Lake Hodges Flume conduit enlargement. April 1930. Courtesy of the Mandeville Department of Special Collections, Central Library, University of California, San Diego. - Lake Hodges Flume, Along San Dieguito River between Lake Hodges & San Dieguito Reservoir, Rancho Santa Fe, San Diego County, CA

  9. 23. Photocopy of photograph (4 x 5 inch enlargement of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Photocopy of photograph (4 x 5 inch enlargement of 1940 3-1/4 x 4-1/4 inch print by R. Nevan McCullough; in Cultural Resource files, Supervisor's Office, Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest) SOUTH FRONT - Suntop Lookout, Forest Road 510, Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest, Greenwater, Pierce County, WA

  10. Income, Deprivation and Economic Stress in the Enlarged European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whelan, Christopher T.; Maitre, Bertrand

    2007-01-01

    At risk of poverty indicators based on relative income measures suggest that within the enlarged EU societies located at quite different points on a continuum of affluence have similar levels of poverty. Substantial differences in levels of income between societies do not in themselves invalidate this approach. However, the relative income…

  11. Photographic Enlargement of Printed Music: Technique, Application, and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Pauline T.; Rich, A. Jeanette

    1982-01-01

    Addressed a need for enlargement of music when retirement home residents were deprived of a self-fulfillment opportunity from choir activities due to failing eyesight. A photographic process yielded the needed feasible large reproductions. Innovative application of this technique affords wide-ranging potential for positive benefit beyond music…

  12. 30. Photocopy from enlarged microfiche of 1896 drawing captioned: Part ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Photocopy from enlarged microfiche of 1896 drawing captioned: Part of Plan C/80 showing changes proposed in end doors of Storehouse, then under construction by the Penn Bridge Co. of Beaver Falls, Pa. - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Pattern Shop, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  13. 9. 8' X 10' Enlargement from 4' x 5' negative ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. 8' X 10' Enlargement from 4' x 5' negative Kevin Kriesel-Coons, Photographer PUMPS AFTER REMOVAL FROM PUMPHOUSE BEFORE EXCAVATION OF POND AREA IN 1989. PHOTOGRAPHED LYING ON GROUND NEAR CROSSCUT STEAM PLANT BUILDING. - Crosscut Steam Plant, Indian Bend Pond & Pump Ditch, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  14. Congenital enlargement of the suburethral diverticulum in a Holstein calf

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Susan R.; Doré, Elizabeth; Breteau, Gaëlle; Desrochers, André; Babkine, Marie; Nichols, Sylvain

    2011-01-01

    A 3-month-old, female Holstein calf was examined because of marked perineal swelling and tenesmus of 4-days duration. A congenitally enlarged urethral diverticulum was diagnosed using fluoroscopic and ultrasonographic imaging techniques. The urethral diverticulum was surgically resected and the perineal area was reconstructed. PMID:21532825

  15. Amygdala and Hippocampus Enlargement during Adolescence in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groen, Wouter; Teluij, Michelle; Buitelaar, Jan; Tendolkar, Indira

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The amygdala and hippocampus are key components of the neural system mediating emotion perception and regulation and are thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of autism. Although some studies in children with autism suggest that there is an enlargement of amygdala and hippocampal volume, findings in adolescence are sparse.…

  16. Construction and enlargement of traversable wormholes from Schwarzschild black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Hiroko; Hayward, Sean A.

    2004-10-01

    Analytic solutions are presented which describe the construction of a traversable wormhole from a Schwarzschild black hole, and the enlargement of such a wormhole, in Einstein gravity. The matter model is pure radiation which may have negative-energy density (phantom or ghost radiation) and the idealization of impulsive radiation (infinitesimally thin null shells) is employed.

  17. Construction and enlargement of traversable wormholes from Schwarzschild black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama, Hiroko; Hayward, Sean A.

    2004-10-15

    Analytic solutions are presented which describe the construction of a traversable wormhole from a Schwarzschild black hole, and the enlargement of such a wormhole, in Einstein gravity. The matter model is pure radiation which may have negative-energy density (phantom or ghost radiation) and the idealization of impulsive radiation (infinitesimally thin null shells) is employed.

  18. The Print and Computer Enlargement System--PACE. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morford, Ronald A.

    The Print and Computer Enlargement (PACE) System is being designed as a portable computerized reading and writing system that enables a low-vision person to read regular print and then create and edit text using large-print computerized output. The design goal was to develop a system that: weighed no more than 12 pounds so it could be easily…

  19. 17. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, 1943. ENLARGEMENT OF PORTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, 1943. ENLARGEMENT OF PORTION OF PHOTOGRAPH AZ-10-16, SHOWING WOOD TOWER BEFORE CONCRETE WAS ADDED. NOTE GUY CABLE CONNECTED TO TOP RIGHT OF TOWER. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  20. Photographic Enlargement of Printed Music: Technique, Application, and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Pauline T.; Rich, A. Jeanette

    1982-01-01

    Addressed a need for enlargement of music when retirement home residents were deprived of a self-fulfillment opportunity from choir activities due to failing eyesight. A photographic process yielded the needed feasible large reproductions. Innovative application of this technique affords wide-ranging potential for positive benefit beyond music…

  1. Amygdala and Hippocampus Enlargement during Adolescence in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groen, Wouter; Teluij, Michelle; Buitelaar, Jan; Tendolkar, Indira

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The amygdala and hippocampus are key components of the neural system mediating emotion perception and regulation and are thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of autism. Although some studies in children with autism suggest that there is an enlargement of amygdala and hippocampal volume, findings in adolescence are sparse.…

  2. 4. Photocopy of photograph (4 x 5 inch enlargement of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of photograph (4 x 5 inch enlargement of 1942 3-1/2 x 5-7/8 inch print by R. Fromme; in Recreation files, Supervisor's Office, Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest) EAST (MAIN) ELEVATION OF PROTECTION ASSISTANT'S RESIDENCE - Glacier Ranger Station, Protection Assistant's Residence, Washington State Route 542, Glacier, Whatcom County, WA

  3. Does Society Matter? Life Satisfaction in the Enlarged Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohnke, Petra

    2008-01-01

    Life satisfaction is quite heterogeneously distributed across countries of the enlarged European Union. Previous research has shown how living conditions within individual countries, such as access to material and emotional resources, are important for personal well-being, but it has been less successful in explaining differences between…

  4. View of ampower "lumotrace" projector used for enlarging slides 100 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of ampower "lumotrace" projector used for enlarging slides 100 times and projecting them on to a plate several stories below on the cutting floor. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Structural Assembly Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. The Optiscope Enlarger: A Report of Initial Field Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellinger, George O.; Berger, Arthur W.

    1972-01-01

    Thirty randomly selected, low vision patients were evaluated on their performance in viewing a standard near-point chart and selected materials without any vision aids, then with their customary low vision aid handheld, and finally, with their customary low vision aid viewed in an optiscope enlarger. (GW)

  6. 22. PHOTOGRAPHIC ENLARGEMENT OF UPPER PHOTOGRAPH ON PAGE 986 IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. PHOTOGRAPHIC ENLARGEMENT OF UPPER PHOTOGRAPH ON PAGE 986 IN Keystone Coal Buyers Catalog, 1922, VIEW SOUTH, COMMUNITY OF ETHEL; ETHEL COAL COMPANY MINE SUPPLY BUILDING IS LOCATED IN MID-GROUND LEFT OF CENTER PARTIALLY OBSCURED BY ROOF OF HOUSE IN FOREGROUND - Ethel Coal Company & Supply Building, Left fork of Dingess Run (Ethel Hollow), Ethel, Logan County, WV

  7. 23. PHOTOGRAPHIC ENLARGEMENT OF UPPER PHOTOGRAPH ON PAGE 986 IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. PHOTOGRAPHIC ENLARGEMENT OF UPPER PHOTOGRAPH ON PAGE 986 IN Keystone Coal Buyers Catalog, 1922, VIEW SOUTH, COMMUNITY OF ETHEL; ETHEL COAL COMPANY MINE SUPPLY BUILDING IS LOCATED IN MID-GROUND IN CENTER PARTIALLY OBSCURED BY ROOF OF HOUSE IN FOREGROUND - Ethel Coal Company & Supply Building, Left fork of Dingess Run (Ethel Hollow), Ethel, Logan County, WV

  8. Does Society Matter? Life Satisfaction in the Enlarged Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohnke, Petra

    2008-01-01

    Life satisfaction is quite heterogeneously distributed across countries of the enlarged European Union. Previous research has shown how living conditions within individual countries, such as access to material and emotional resources, are important for personal well-being, but it has been less successful in explaining differences between…

  9. Subinhibitory concentrations of triclosan promote Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation and adherence to oral epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bedran, Telma Blanca Lombardo; Grignon, Louis; Spolidorio, Denise Palomari; Grenier, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Triclosan is a general membrane-active agent with a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity that is commonly used in oral care products. In this study, we investigated the effect of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of triclosan on the capacity of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans to form biofilm and adhere to oral epithelial cells. As quantified by crystal violet staining, biofilm formation by two reference strains of S. mutans was dose-dependently promoted, in the range of 2.2- to 6.2-fold, by 1/2 and 1/4 MIC of triclosan. Observations by scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of a dense biofilm attached to the polystyrene surface. Growth of S. mutans in the presence of triclosan at sub-MICs also increased its capacity to adhere to a monolayer of gingival epithelial cells. The expression of several genes involved in adherence and biofilm formation in S. mutans was investigated by quantitative RT-PCR. It was found that sub-MICs of triclosan significantly increased the expression of comD, gtfC, and luxS, and to a lesser extent of gtfB and atlA genes. These findings stress the importance of maintaining effective bactericidal concentrations of therapeutic triclosan since sub-MICs may promote colonization of the oral cavity by S. mutans.

  10. Subinhibitory Concentrations of Triclosan Promote Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation and Adherence to Oral Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bedran, Telma Blanca Lombardo; Grignon, Louis; Spolidorio, Denise Palomari; Grenier, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Triclosan is a general membrane-active agent with a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity that is commonly used in oral care products. In this study, we investigated the effect of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of triclosan on the capacity of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans to form biofilm and adhere to oral epithelial cells. As quantified by crystal violet staining, biofilm formation by two reference strains of S. mutans was dose-dependently promoted, in the range of 2.2- to 6.2-fold, by 1/2 and 1/4 MIC of triclosan. Observations by scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of a dense biofilm attached to the polystyrene surface. Growth of S. mutans in the presence of triclosan at sub-MICs also increased its capacity to adhere to a monolayer of gingival epithelial cells. The expression of several genes involved in adherence and biofilm formation in S. mutans was investigated by quantitative RT-PCR. It was found that sub-MICs of triclosan significantly increased the expression of comD, gtfC, and luxS, and to a lesser extent of gtfB and atlA genes. These findings stress the importance of maintaining effective bactericidal concentrations of therapeutic triclosan since sub-MICs may promote colonization of the oral cavity by S. mutans. PMID:24551218

  11. Inhibition of biofilm formation and antibacterial properties of a silver nano-coating on human dentine.

    PubMed

    Besinis, Alexandros; De Peralta, Tracy; Handy, Richard D

    2014-11-01

    The survival of pathogenic bacteria in the oral cavity depends on their successful adhesion to dental surfaces and their ability to develop into biofilms, known as dental plaque. Bacteria from the dental plaque are responsible for the development of dental caries, gingivitis, periodontitis, stomatitis and peri-implantitis. Certain metal nanoparticles have been suggested for infection control and the management of the oral biofilm. Here, it is shown that application of a silver nano-coating directly on dentine can successfully prevent the biofilm formation on dentine surfaces as well as inhibit bacterial growth in the surrounding media. This silver nano-coating was found to be stable (>98.8%) and to maintain its integrity in biological fluids. Its antibacterial activity was compared to silver nitrate and the widely used clinical antiseptic, chlorhexidine. The bacterial growth and cell viability were quantitatively assessed by measuring the turbidity, proportion of live and dead cells and lactate production. All three bioassays showed that silver nanoparticles and silver nitrate dentine coatings were equally highly bactericidal (>99.5%), while inhibiting bacterial adhesion. However, the latter caused significant dentine discolouration (ΔE* = 50.3). The chlorhexidine coating showed no antibacterial effect. Thus, silver nanoparticles may be a viable alternative to both chlorhexidine and silver nitrate, protecting from dental plaque and secondary caries when applied as a dentine coating, while they may provide the platform for creating anti-biofilm surfaces in medical devices and other biomedical applications.

  12. Clinician perceptions of wound biofilm.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Daniel G; Bowler, Philip G

    2016-10-01

    In wound care today, biofilm is a subject area of great interest and debate. There is an increasing awareness that biofilm exists in the majority of non-healing wounds, and that it is implicated in both recalcitrance and infection. Together with the presence of devitalised host tissue, biofilm is recognised as a component of the wound environment that requires removal to enable wound progression. However, uncertainty exists among wound care practitioners regarding confirmation of the presence of biofilm, and how best to remove biofilm from a non-healing wound. While recent efforts have been taken to assist practitioners in signs and symptoms of wound biofilm, continuing research is required to characterise and confirm wound biofilm. This research was conducted as part of a market research process to better understand the knowledge levels, experiences, clinical awareness and impact of biofilm in wound care, which was undertaken across the USA and Europe. While knowledge levels and experiences vary from country to country, certain wound characteristics were consistently associated with the presence of biofilm.

  13. Antibiotic treatment of biofilm infections.

    PubMed

    Ciofu, Oana; Rojo-Molinero, Estrella; Macià, María D; Oliver, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Bacterial biofilms are associated with a wide range of infections, from those related to exogenous devices, such as catheters or prosthetic joints, to chronic tissue infections such as those occurring in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. Biofilms are recalcitrant to antibiotic treatment due to multiple tolerance mechanisms (phenotypic resistance). This causes persistence of biofilm infections in spite of antibiotic exposure which predisposes to antibiotic resistance development (genetic resistance). Understanding the interplay between phenotypic and genetic resistance mechanisms acting on biofilms, as well as appreciating the diversity of environmental conditions of biofilm infections which influence the effect of antibiotics are required in order to optimize the antibiotic treatment of biofilm infections. Here, we review the current knowledge on phenotypic and genetic resistance in biofilms and describe the potential strategies for the antibiotic treatment of biofilm infections. Of note is the optimization of PK/PD parameters in biofilms, high-dose topical treatments, combined and sequential/alternate therapies or the use antibiotic adjuvants. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Understanding Biofilms in Chronic Sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Tajudeen, Bobby A; Schwartz, Joseph S; Palmer, James N

    2016-02-01

    Chronic sinusitis is a burdensome disease that has substantial individual and societal impact. Although great advances in medical and surgical therapies have been made, some patients continue to have recalcitrant infections. Microbial biofilms have been implicated as a cause of recalcitrant chronic sinusitis, and recent studies have tried to better understand the pathogenesis of chronic sinusitis as it relates to microbial biofilms. Here, we provide an overview of biofilms in chronic sinusitis with emphasis on pathogenesis, treatment, and future directions. In addition, recent evidence is presented, elucidating the role of bitter taste receptors as a possible key factor leading to biofilm formation.

  15. Evaluation of Co-Q10 anti-gingivitis effect on plaque induced gingivitis: A randomized controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Anirban; Kandwal, Abhishek; Singh, Nidhi; Singh, Amit

    2012-01-01

    Background: Deficiency of Co-Q10 has been found to be responsible for periodontal destruction; therefore, this study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-gingivitis effect of Co-Q10 on plaque induced gingivitis. Materials and Methods: Thirty subjects with plaque induced gingivitis were enrolled in a split mouth randomized controlled trial. For each subject, scaling was randomly performed for any two quadrants, followed by the topical application of Co-Q10 randomly in a previously scaled and as an unscaled quadrant for a period of 28 days. Four treatment options were planned: option A: scaling only; option B: Co-Q10 along with scaling; option C: Co-Q10. Results: Marked reduction in gingival, bleeding, and plaque scores were recorded at the sites where C0-Q10 was applied. Mean±S.D of aforementioned periodontal parameters at 28th day showed significant reduction for option A, B, and C when compared with baseline. Conclusion: Promising results were obtained after the solitary application of Co-Q10 as well as when it was used as an adjunct to scaling and root planing for treatment of plaque induced gingivitis. PMID:23493408

  16. 8-Isoprostane: a lipid peroxidation product in gingival crevicular fluid in healthy, gingivitis and chronic periodontitis subjects.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, A R; Rao, Nishanth S; Bajaj, Pavan; Agarwal, Esha

    2013-05-01

    The idea that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are associated with the pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal diseases and have a role (direct or indirect) in tissue damage has become a major area of research over the last decade. The purpose of this study is to determine, presence of 8-isoprostane in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in healthy, gingivitis and chronic periodontitis (CP) subjects and to find an association, if any between GCF 8-isoprostane levels and clinical periodontal parameters. 78 subjects (40 males and 38 females) were selected based on their clinical parameters into three groups: Group 1 (26 healthy), Group 2 (26 gingivitis subjects) and Group 3 (26 CP subjects). GCF 8-isoprostane levels were estimated by ELISA. The 8-isoprostane concentration in GCF was highest in subjects with chronic periodontitis as compared to gingivitis and healthy subjects and a significant association was observed between GCF 8-isoprostane levels and all periodontal parameters. There was increase in 8-isoprostane levels in GCF as the disease process progressed from health to gingivitis and chronic periodontitis, suggesting a role for increased oxidative stress in CP. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Alternative method of conservative esthetic treatment for gingival recession.

    PubMed

    Zalkind, M; Hochman, N

    1997-06-01

    The health and appearance of gingival tissue play an essential role in esthetics. The esthetic function of the tissue is enhanced when it frames the restoration. With gingival recession, the effect of natural gingiva is created with pink composites or ceramics on the cervical part of the crown, as described in this clinical report. This goal depends on the absence of adverse effects on the color, shape, and health of the surrounding tissue. The new composites are more color stable and wear resistant, and the latest generation of dental bonding agents allows the bonding of composites to dentin, various metals, and porcelain. The application of soft-tissue colored composite on dentin cementum, enamel, or porcelain is a good solution for correcting gingival recessions.

  18. Plaque formation and marginal gingivitis associated with restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Litonjua, Luis A; Cabanilla, Leyvee L; Abbott, Lawrence J

    2011-05-01

    The presence of restorative materials on tooth surfaces is perceived to be a contributing factor to periodontal disease. This observation is a result of the increased accumulation of plaque on restorations adjacent to the gingiva, which may lead to gingivitis. Plaque is believed to adhere better to restorations than to enamel. This may be due to the surface characteristics of restorative materials such as surface roughness and surface-free energy inherent in the materials. This article reviews the experimental studies of plaque formation on different restorative materials. In addition, clinical studies analyzing and comparing restorative materials and the consequent formation of gingivitis are reviewed. While in vitro and in vivo studies show variations in plaque formation among restorative materials and enamel, clinical studies demonstrate that the progression of gingivitis can be prevented if patients maintain adequate oral hygiene and home care. Therefore, instructing the patient to maintain proper oral hygiene and home care is more important than the choice of restorative material.

  19. Plaque formation and marginal gingivitis associated with restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Litonjua, Luis A; Cabanilla, Leyvee L; Abbott, Lawrence J

    2012-01-01

    The presence of restorative materials on tooth surfaces is perceived to be a contributing factor to periodontal disease. This observation is a result of the increased accumulation of plaque on restorations adjacent to the gingiva, which may lead to gingivitis. Plaque is believed to adhere better to restorations than to enamel. This may be due to the surface characteristics of restorative materials such as surface roughness and surface-free energy inherent in the materials. This article reviews the experimental studies of plaque formation on different restorative materials. In addition, clinical studies analyzing and comparing restorative materials and the consequent formation of gingivitis are reviewed. While in vitro and in vivo studies show variations in plaque formation among restorative materials and enamel, clinical studies demonstrate that the progression of gingivitis can be prevented if patients maintain adequate oral hygiene and home care. Therefore, instructing the patient to maintain proper oral hygiene and home care is more important than the choice of restorative material.

  20. [A case of gingival hyperplasia induced by nifedipine].

    PubMed

    Katayama, H; Kinoshita, Y; Kaneko, M; Suzuki, N; Kakami, K; Takai, Y

    1990-06-01

    Nifedipine is a new agent belonging to the calcium antagonist group of drugs, applied clinically to circulatory disorders, such as essential hypertension, renal hypertension and angina cordis and has been rapid in gaining popularity in Japan. On the other hand, as do all effective drugs, this drug has side effects, one of which is gingival hyperplasia. The clinical findings are extremely similar to the gingival hyperplasia induced by phenytoin used for the treatment of epilepsy. A 46-year-old man was referred to our hospital whose chief complaint was gingival swelling. He had been receiving nifedipine for his hypertension for about one year. He was diagnosed as having the side-effects of nifedipine due to being treated with 20 mg/day for a year. Nifedipine was discontinued and scaling and oral hygiene resulted in healing.

  1. Effect of topical application of phenylephrine hydrochloride on hyperplastic gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Pernsteiner, C L; Ash, M M

    1977-08-01

    A double blind study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of Phenodent Type A (brand of phenylephrine hydrochloride) on decongesting hyperplastic gingivitis. Three solutions were used: a 0.5% a placebo, and a 0.25% concentration of phenylephrine hydrochloride. The periodontal disease index was used to score variables which might have an effect on gingival response to local irritants. Impressions were taken and casts were made on 45 subjects at 0, 1, 3, and 6-week intervals. An instrument with accuracy of 0.001 inch was constructed to measure the changes in the interdental papillae of the stone casts. No significant reduction of gingival volume was established for any of the three solutions.

  2. Leucocyte function in rats with naturally occurring gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Ohura, K; Shinohara, M; Ogata, K; Nishiyama, A; Mori, M

    1990-01-01

    The severity of gingivitis in relation to abnormal macrophage chemotaxis and superoxide (O2-) production was investigated in rats with naturally occurring gingivitis (plaque-susceptible rats). Macrophage chemotaxis was measured by the membrane filter method; zymosan-activated serum was used as a chemo-attractant. O2- production was measured by the reduction of cytochrome c method. Opsonized zymosan, phorbol myristate acetate and calcium ionophore A23187 were used as stimulants. The macrophage chemotaxis and O2- production in the plaque-susceptible rats with deep pockets were significantly lower than those in the susceptible rats with shallow pockets or the normal group. In addition, there was a negative correlation between the severity of gingivitis in plaque-susceptible rats and macrophage chemotaxis or O2- production. These findings suggest that impairement of the host defence mechanisms due to the reduction in macrophage chemotaxis and O2- production is related to the progression of periodontal disease in plaque-susceptible rats.

  3. Gingival vascular damage in atherosclerotic rabbits: hydroxytyrosol and squalene benefits.

    PubMed

    Bullon, Pedro; Quiles, Jose L; Morillo, Juan M; Rubini, Corrado; Goteri, Gaia; Granados-Principal, Sergio; Battino, Maurizio; Ramirez-Tortosa, McArmen

    2009-09-01

    Cardiovascular alterations and periodontal disease have been associated, although cardiovascular disease treatments have not yet been tested against periodontal alterations. We investigated effects of squalene, hydroxytyrosol and coenzyme Q(10) on gingival tissues of rabbits fed on an atherosclerotic diet. Forty-eight rabbits were distributed in six groups. Control group was fed on standard chow for 80 days. The rest were fed with an atherogenic diet for 50 days. After that, a group was sacrificed and the rest were subjected for another extra 30 days on commercial chow alone or supplemented with coenzyme Q(10), squalene or hydroxytyrosol. Atherosclerotic rabbits had higher fibrosis and endothelial activation and lower cellularity in gingival mucosa than controls (P<0.05). Hydroxytyrosol reduced endothelial activation (P<0.05) and squalene additionally decreased fibrosis (P<0.05). Results suggest that gingival vascular changes after the atherosclerotic diet have been reversed by hydroxytyrosol and squalene, natural products from the minor fraction of virgin olive oil.

  4. Nonsurgical Management of Phenytoin-induced Gingival Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    AlJehani, Yousef A

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this report is to present a severe case of phenytoin (PHT)-induced gingival hyperplasia in a Saudi patient. A 12-year-old male epileptic patient, undergoing PHT therapy, was diagnosed clinically with severe gingival hyperplasia. His treatment consisted meticulous oral care and weekly professional prophylaxis. The patient was advised oral folic acid supplementation (0.5 mg/day) and was also recommended 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash twice daily. There was significant reduction in the hyperplastic tissue within 4 weeks of treatment. It is possible to treat PHT-induced gingival hyperplasia non-surgically with intensive dental care, correct oral hygiene and oral folic acid supplements.

  5. Review of periorbital nerve enlargement and biopsy techniques.

    PubMed

    Chen, Valerie H; Hayek, Brent R; Grossniklaus, Hans E; Wojno, Ted H; Kim, H Joon

    2017-10-01

    Periorbital nerve enlargement commonly indicates perineural invasion of malignancy or inflammatory conditions. This study reviews the role of supraorbital and infraorbital nerve biopsies in patients presenting with radiographic enlargement and to elucidate the surgical technique involved. A retrospective chart review (1997-2014) was performed at a single tertiary center. Patients with radiographic confirmation of enlarged supraorbital/infraorbital nerves that underwent biopsy were included. Charts were reviewed for: patient demographics and history, clinical symptoms and findings, radiographic findings, surgical method, and treatment. Five patients (4 female, 1 male) met inclusion criteria. Average age was 72.4 years (range 36-90). Four patients had history of cutaneous malignancy. All presented with diplopia and/or dysesthesias. Clinical examination confirmed decreased V1 and/or V2 sensation for 4 patients. Imaging revealed enlargement of V1, V2, and/or V3 in all patients. Infraorbital nerve biopsies were performed in 3 patients via transconjunctival fornix-based orbitotomy with subperiosteal dissection along orbital floor followed by unroofing of infraorbital canal. The remaining 2 underwent supraorbital nerve biopsy via sub-brow incision onto superior orbital rim with reflection of periosteum. Biopsies confirmed squamous cell carcinoma(3), mucoepidermoid carcinoma(1), and idiopathic orbital inflammation(1). Three patients initiated treatment in <1 month. One decided to follow-up closer to home, one was lost to follow-up. For patients presenting with enlarged supraorbital/infraorbital nerves, biopsy can rapidly confirm the underlying condition and facilitate early treatment. A sub-brow approach offers direct access to supraorbital nerve while transconjunctival fornix-based anterior orbitotomy with canal unroofing allows access to infraorbital nerve.

  6. Unilateral tonsillar enlargement and tonsillar lymphoma in children.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, R G; Mahadevan, M

    1999-09-01

    The clinical presentation and surgical and pathological findings of 46 children with unilateral tonsillar enlargement (UTE; age range 2 to 13 years, mean age 6.5) who underwent tonsillectomy for biopsy purposes between 1975 and 1995 were compared with those of 7 children who received treatment for tonsillar lymphoma (TL; age range 2 to 9 years, mean age 4.8) during the same period. There was no history of rapid tonsillar enlargement in children in the UTE group, and only 20 (43%) were symptomatic. Symptoms included recurrent sore throats in 10 patients (22%), snoring in 5 (11%), nasal obstruction in 4 (9%), and dysphagia in 1 (2%). No children had systemic symptoms or significant cervical lymphadenopathy. In contrast, tonsillar enlargement was observed to occur within a 6-week period in all children with TL, and 6 (86%) children had symptoms at presentation that included dysphagia in 5 (71%), snoring in 3 (43%), night sweats in 2 (29%), and fever and rigors in 2 (29%). Cervical lymphadenopathy greater than 3 cm was present in 6 (86%) children, while 1 child (14%) had hepatosplenomegaly. There was no histopathologic evidence of neoplasia in the UTE group, and a true discrepancy in size between the two tonsils was confirmed in only 21 of 44 (48%) cases. All 7 patients in the TL group had non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. All received chemotherapy, with 5 of the 7 cured and 2 dying of disease. The data suggest that tonsillectomy should be performed for biopsy purposes in UTE where there is a history of progressive enlargement, significant upper aerodigestive tract symptoms, systemic symptoms, suspicious appearance of the tonsil, cervical lymphadenopathy, or hepatosplenomegaly. The diagnosis of TL should also be considered when UTE is present in an immunocompromised child or one with a previous malignancy, when acute tonsillitis is asymmetric and unresponsive to medical treatment, or when rapid bilateral tonsil enlargement occurs. Observation is appropriate management for other

  7. Dynamic behavior of biofilms

    SciTech Connect

    Worden, R.M. ); Donaldson, T.L. )

    1986-01-01

    Biological fixed films, or biofilms, are composed of a dense cluster of cells bound to one another or a support surface by the glycocalyx, a cell-secreted carbohydrate matrix. A key advantage of fixed films over other types of immobilized-cell systems is that the immobilization occurs naturally, and hence does not require the additional materials and labor for cell entrapment within gels or covalent bonding to supports. Applications of microbial film fermenters have included animal-cell culture, bacterial leaching of ores, waste treatment, and the production of vinegar, ethanol, critic acid, and beer. Analysis of the unsteady-state behavior of biofilms can provide insight into basic scientific phenomena such as intracellular metabolic regulation patterns.

  8. Prevention of Phenytoin-Induced Gingival Overgrowth by Lovastatin in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Assaggaf, Mohammad A.; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Sume, Siddika S.; Trackman, Philip C.

    2016-01-01

    Drug-induced gingival overgrowth is caused by the antiseizure medication phenytoin, calcium channel blockers, and ciclosporin. Characteristics of these drug-induced gingival overgrowth lesions differ. We evaluate the ability of a mouse model to mimic human phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth and assess the ability of a drug to prevent its development. Lovastatin was chosen based on previous analyses of tissue-specific regulation of CCN2 production in human gingival fibroblasts and the known roles of CCN2 in promoting fibrosis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Data indicate that anterior gingival tissue overgrowth occurred in phenytoin-treated mice based on gross tissue observations and histomorphometry of tissue sections. Molecular markers of epithelial plasticity and fibrosis were regulated by phenytoin in gingival epithelial tissues and in connective tissues similar to that seen in humans. Lovastatin attenuated epithelial gingival tissue growth in phenytoin-treated mice and altered the expressions of markers for epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Data indicate that phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth in mice mimics molecular aspects of human gingival overgrowth and that lovastatin normalizes the tissue morphology and the expression of the molecular markers studied. Data are consistent with characterization of phenytoin-induced human gingival overgrowth in vivo and in vitro characteristics of cultured human gingival epithelial and connective tissue cells. Findings suggest that statins may serve to prevent or attenuate phenytoin-induced human gingival overgrowth, although specific human studies are required. PMID:25843680

  9. Idiopathic familial gingival fibromatosis associated with mental retardation, epilepsy and hypertrichosis.

    PubMed

    Anavi, Y; Lerman, P; Mintz, S; Kiviti, S

    1989-08-01

    Gingival fibromatosis, a rare but often familial condition, is described in two siblings, associated with mental retardation, epilepsy and hypertrichosis. In one child a maxillary giant-cell tumour was found and excised. It is important to distinguish idiopathic gingival fibromatosis from phenytoin-induced gingival hypertrophy.

  10. The impacts of gingivitis and calculus on Thai children's quality of life.

    PubMed

    Krisdapong, Sudaduang; Prasertsom, Piyada; Rattanarangsima, Khanit; Sheiham, Aubrey; Tsakos, Georgios

    2012-09-01

    To assess associations of socio-demographic, behavioural and the extent of gingivitis and calculus with oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in nationally representative samples of 12- and 15-year-old Thai children. In the Thailand National Oral Health Survey, 1,063 twelve-year olds and 811 fifteen-year olds were clinically examined and interviewed for OHRQoL using the Child-OIDP and OIDP indices, respectively, and completed a behavioural questionnaire. We assessed associations of condition-specific impacts (CS-impacts) with gingivitis and calculus, adjusted for socio-demographic and behavioural factors. Gingivitis and calculus were highly prevalent: 79.3% in 12-year and 81.5% in 15-year olds. CS-impacts relating to calculus and/or gingivitis were reported by 26.0% of 12-year and 29.6% of 15-year olds. Except for calculus without gingivitis, calculus and/or gingivitis in any form was significantly related to any level of CS-impacts. At a moderate or higher level of CS-impacts, there were significant relationships with extensive calculus and/or gingivitis in 12-year olds and for extensive gingivitis and gingivitis without calculus in 15-year olds. Gingivitis was generally associated with any level of CS-impacts attributed to calculus and/or gingivitis. CS-impacts were related more to gingivitis than to calculus. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Presence of gingivitis and periodontitis significantly increases hospital charges in patients undergoing heart valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Elangovan, Satheesh; Rampa, Sankeerth; Shin, Kyungsup; Nalliah, Romesh P; Allareddy, Veerajalandhar

    2015-01-01

    To examine the prevalence and impact of gingivitis and periodontitis in patients having heart valve surgical procedures. Nationwide Inpatient Sample for the years 2004-2010 was used. All patients who had heart valve surgical procedures were selected. Prevalence of gingivitis/periodontitis was examined in these patients. Impact of gingivitis/periodontitis on hospital charges, length of stay, and infectious complications was examined. 596,190 patients had heart valve surgical procedures. Gingivitis/periodontitis was present in 0.2 percent. Outcomes included: median hospital charges ($175,418 with gingivitis/ periodontitis versus $149,353 without gingivitis/periodontitis) and median length of stay (14 days with gingivitis/periodontitis versus 8 days without gingivitis/periodontitis). After adjusting for the effects of patient- and hospital-level confounding factors, hospital charges and length of stay were significantly higher (p < 0.001) in those with gingivitis/periodontitis compared to their counterparts. Further, patients with gingivitis/periodontitis had significantly higher odds for having bacterial infections (OR = 3.41, 95% CI = 2.33-4.98, p < 0.0001) when compared to those without gingivitis/periodontitis. Presence of gingivitis and periodontitis is associated with higher risk for bacterial infections and significant hospital resource utilization.

  12. Prevention of phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth by lovastatin in mice.

    PubMed

    Assaggaf, Mohammad A; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Sume, Siddika S; Trackman, Philip C

    2015-06-01

    Drug-induced gingival overgrowth is caused by the antiseizure medication phenytoin, calcium channel blockers, and ciclosporin. Characteristics of these drug-induced gingival overgrowth lesions differ. We evaluate the ability of a mouse model to mimic human phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth and assess the ability of a drug to prevent its development. Lovastatin was chosen based on previous analyses of tissue-specific regulation of CCN2 production in human gingival fibroblasts and the known roles of CCN2 in promoting fibrosis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Data indicate that anterior gingival tissue overgrowth occurred in phenytoin-treated mice based on gross tissue observations and histomorphometry of tissue sections. Molecular markers of epithelial plasticity and fibrosis were regulated by phenytoin in gingival epithelial tissues and in connective tissues similar to that seen in humans. Lovastatin attenuated epithelial gingival tissue growth in phenytoin-treated mice and altered the expressions of markers for epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Data indicate that phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth in mice mimics molecular aspects of human gingival overgrowth and that lovastatin normalizes the tissue morphology and the expression of the molecular markers studied. Data are consistent with characterization of phenytoin-induced human gingival overgrowth in vivo and in vitro characteristics of cultured human gingival epithelial and connective tissue cells. Findings suggest that statins may serve to prevent or attenuate phenytoin-induced human gingival overgrowth, although specific human studies are required. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Early Canine Plaque Biofilms: Characterization of Key Bacterial Interactions Involved in Initial Colonization of Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Holcombe, Lucy J.; Patel, Niran; Colyer, Alison; Deusch, Oliver; O’Flynn, Ciaran; Harris, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Periodontal disease (PD) is a significant problem in dogs affecting between 44% and 63.6% of the population. The main etiological agent for PD is plaque, a microbial biofilm that colonizes teeth and causes inflammation of the gingiva. Understanding how this biofilm initiates on the tooth surface is of central importance in developing interventions against PD. Although the stages of plaque development on human teeth have been well characterized little is known about how canine plaque develops. Recent studies of the canine oral microbiome have revealed distinct differences between the canine and human oral environments and the bacterial communities they support, particularly with respect to healthy plaque. These differences mean knowledge about the nature of plaque formation in humans may not be directly translatable to dogs. The aim of this study was to identify the bacterial species important in the early stages of canine plaque formation in vivo and then use isolates of these species in a laboratory biofilm model to develop an understanding of the sequential processes which take place during the initial colonization of enamel. Supra-gingival plaque samples were collected from 12 dogs at 24 and 48 hour time points following a full mouth descale and polish. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rDNA identified 134 operational taxonomic units after statistical analysis. The species with the highest relative abundance were Bergeyella zoohelcum, Neisseria shayeganii and a Moraxella species. Streptococcal species, which tend to dominate early human plaque biofilms, had very low relative abundance. In vitro testing of biofilm formation identified five primary colonizer species, three of which belonged to the genus Neisseria. Using these pioneer bacteria as a starting point, viable two and three species communities were developed. Combining in vivo and in vitro data has led us to construct novel models of how the early canine plaque biofilm develops. PMID:25463050

  14. Early canine plaque biofilms: characterization of key bacterial interactions involved in initial colonization of enamel.

    PubMed

    Holcombe, Lucy J; Patel, Niran; Colyer, Alison; Deusch, Oliver; O'Flynn, Ciaran; Harris, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Periodontal disease (PD) is a significant problem in dogs affecting between 44% and 63.6% of the population. The main etiological agent for PD is plaque, a microbial biofilm that colonizes teeth and causes inflammation of the gingiva. Understanding how this biofilm initiates on the tooth surface is of central importance in developing interventions against PD. Although the stages of plaque development on human teeth have been well characterized little is known about how canine plaque develops. Recent studies of the canine oral microbiome have revealed distinct differences between the canine and human oral environments and the bacterial communities they support, particularly with respect to healthy plaque. These differences mean knowledge about the nature of plaque formation in humans may not be directly translatable to dogs. The aim of this study was to identify the bacterial species important in the early stages of canine plaque formation in vivo and then use isolates of these species in a laboratory biofilm model to develop an understanding of the sequential processes which take place during the initial colonization of enamel. Supra-gingival plaque samples were collected from 12 dogs at 24 and 48 hour time points following a full mouth descale and polish. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rDNA identified 134 operational taxonomic units after statistical analysis. The species with the highest relative abundance were Bergeyella zoohelcum, Neisseria shayeganii and a Moraxella species. Streptococcal species, which tend to dominate early human plaque biofilms, had very low relative abundance. In vitro testing of biofilm formation identified five primary colonizer species, three of which belonged to the genus Neisseria. Using these pioneer bacteria as a starting point, viable two and three species communities were developed. Combining in vivo and in vitro data has led us to construct novel models of how the early canine plaque biofilm develops.

  15. Binding, uptake, and release of nicotine by human gingival fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Hanes, P.J.; Schuster, G.S.; Lubas, S. )

    1991-02-01

    Previous studies of the effects of nicotine on fibroblasts have reported an altered morphology and attachment of fibroblasts to substrates and disturbances in protein synthesis and secretion. This altered functional and attachment response may be associated with changes in the cell membrane resulting from binding of the nicotine, or to disturbances in cell metabolism as a result of high intracellular levels of nicotine. The purpose of the present study, therefore, was to (1) determine whether gingival fibroblasts bound nicotine and if any binding observed was specific or non-specific in nature; (2) determine whether gingival fibroblasts internalized nicotine, and if so, at what rate; (3) determine whether gingival fibroblasts also released nicotine back into the extracellular environment; and (4) if gingival fibroblasts release nicotine intact or as a metabolite. Cultures of gingival fibroblasts were prepared from gingival connective tissue biopsies. Binding was evaluated at 4{degree}C using a mixture of {sup 3}H-nicotine and unlabeled nicotine. Specific binding was calculated as the difference between {sup 3}H-nicotine bound in the presence and absence of unlabeled nicotine. The cells bound 1.44 (+/- 0.42) pmols/10(6) cells in the presence of unlabeled nicotine and 1.66 (+/- 0.55) pmols/10(6) cells in the absence of unlabeled nicotine. The difference was not significant. Uptake of nicotine was measured at 37{degree}C after treating cells with {sup 3}H-nicotine for time periods up to 4 hours. Uptake in pmols/10(6) cells was 4.90 (+/- 0.34) at 15 minutes, 8.30 (+/- 0.75) at 30 minutes, 12.28 (+/- 2.62) at 1 hour and 26.31 (+/- 1.15) at 4 hours.

  16. Prevalence of gingival biotype and its relationship to clinical parameters

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Rucha; Sowmya, N. K.; Mehta, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The dimensions of gingiva and different parts of the masticatory mucosa have a profound impact in periodontics as it governs the way; the gingival tissue reacts to various physical, chemical, or bacterial insults. The purpose of the following study was to assess the gingival thickness (GT) and correlate it to gender, presence of recession, and width of keratinized gingiva (WKG) in a subset of the Indian population. Methods: A total of 400 subjects in the age range of 20–35 years (200 males and 200 females) were included in the study. Clinical parameters such as probing depth, recession depth, WKG, and GT were recorded for all the patients. Results: The prevalence of thin biotype was 43.25%, and that of thick gingival biotype was 56.75%. The mean GT of central incisor, lateral incisor, and canine in Group I was 1.11 ± 0.17, 1.01 ± 0.16, and 0.82 ± 0.17 mm, respectively. No significant association was observed between the gender and the presence of gingival recession to GT. The mean WKG of central incisor, lateral incisor, and canine in Group I was 4.38 ± 1.18, 5.18 ± 1.25, 4.16 ± 1.16 mm, respectively. A positive correlation exists between WKG and the GT (P < 0.05). Conclusion: It was concluded that the prevalence of thick and thin gingival biotype is 56.75% versus 43.25%, respectively, and there is no significant relationship between age, gender, and the presence of recession to gingival biotype. A positive correlation exists between WKG and the GT. PMID:26604569

  17. Interproximal gingivitis and plaque reduction by four interdental products.

    PubMed

    Yost, Kevin G; Mallatt, Mark E; Liebman, Joanne

    2006-01-01

    The study was conducted to compare the performance of three interdental products to dental floss in the control and removal of plaque, and in the reduction of gingivitis. One-hundred and twenty subjects were screened for the presence of interproximal sites of a size suitable for a GUMO Go-Betweens cleaner, and for being in compliance with inclusion and exclusion criteria. They were then assessed with the Plaque, Gingivitis, and Eastman Interdental Bleeding Indices (EIBI) at baseline, given a prophylaxis, randomly assigned to one of four products (Glide dental floss, Butler flossers, GUM Go-Betweens cleaners, and GUM Soft-Picks cleaners), and given product use instructions. Subjects returned at three weeks for a compliance review and at six weeks for a final visit. Plaque was assessed at the final visit before and after using the assigned products. Plaque, gingivitis, and bleeding scores were evaluated by analysis of covariance using the baseline measurements as the covariate. All four interdental products significantly reduced interdental plaque from baseline to before-use at the final visit (after six weeks) employing baseline plaque as a covariate. Reductions were 16% to 24%. Similarly, use of the products at the final visit resulted in 26% to 31% reductions in plaque with the before-use plaque as a covariate. Interdental gingivitis scores showed a reduction both lingually and buccally, with reductions ranging from 27% to 36% for the former and 34% to 53% for the latter (baseline was the covariate). No statistical differences were found between the products on the lingual interdental sites. The Go-Betweens cleaners showed a statistically greater reduction in the Gingival Index score buccally than the other three products. No differences were noted among the products for the EIBI. In this study, dental floss, the recognized "gold standard" for gingivitis reduction, was matched in performance by flossers and an interdental cleaner with small elastomeric fingers

  18. An ex vivo assessment of gingivally offset lower premolar brackets.

    PubMed

    Thind, B S; Larmour, C J; Stirrups, D R; Lloyd, C H

    2004-03-01

    To compare the force to failure of standard premolar brackets to that of gingivally offset brackets and evaluate the site of bond failure between the two bracket types through the use of the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI). An ex vivo study. Dental Materials Science Laboratory, Dundee Dental School, Dundee. Forty extracted lower premolar teeth (caries free, extracted as part of orthodontic treatment, all donors living in a non-fluoridated area), divided into two equal size sample groups, as follows: Group 1: Victory Series (3M Unitek, Monrovia CA, USA) lower premolar brackets bonded to buccal surfaces with Transbond XT (3M Unitek, Monrovia CA). Group 2: Victory Series Gingivally Offset Bicuspid Brackets (3M Unitek, Monrovia CA) bonded to buccal surfaces with Transbond XT (3M Unitek, Monrovia CA). Force was applied in the occluso-gingival direction using an Instron Model 4469 Universal Testing Machine (Instron Ltd, High Wycombe, UK) operating at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min and its value at failure determined. Following debond, the site of bond failure and ARI were recorded. Force to failure, site of bond failure and adhesive remnant index. The Weibull analysis gave higher values for the force to failure at 5% level (200 v. 159 N) and at all other levels of probability of failure for the gingivally offset bracket. The non-parametric survival analysis using Gehan-Wilcoxon tests with Breslow's algorithm (p < 0.0001) showed significant difference in force to failure between bracket types. Chi-square tests showed no significant (p = 0.55) relationship between the site of bond failure and the bracket types. Ex vivo testing suggests that there is a significant difference in the force to failure between gingivally offset and standard lower premolar brackets when force application is from an occluso-gingival direction. The site of failure (as given by the ARI) is insensitive to bracket types and force to failure.

  19. Overview of microbial biofilms.

    PubMed

    Costerton, J W

    1995-09-01

    As the success of this two-issue special section of the Journal of Industrial Microbiology attests, the study of microbial biofilms is truly burgeoning as the uniqueness and the importance of this mode of growth is increasingly recognized. Because of its universality the biofilm concept impacts virtually all of the subdivisions of Microbiology (including Medical, Dental, Agricultural, Industrial and Environmental) and these two issues incorporate contributions from authors in all of these disciplines. Some time ago we reasoned that bacteria cannot possibly be aware (sic) of their precise location, in terms of this spectrum of anthrocentric subspecialties, and that their behavior must be dictated by a standard set of phenotypic responses to environmental conditions in what must seem to them (sic) to be a continuum of very similar aquatic ecosystems. In this overview I will, therefore, stress the common features of microbial biofilms that we should bear in mind as we use this simple universal concept to seek to understand bacterial behavior in literally hundreds of aquatic ecosystems traditionally studied by dozens of subspecies of microbiologists reared in sharply different scientific and academic conventions.

  20. Desquamative gingivitis: what's behind it? A case report.

    PubMed

    Parwani, Simran R; Parwani, Rajkumar N

    2014-01-01

    Desquamative gingivitis (DG) is a clinical term used to describe red, painful, glazed, friable gingiva. It may be a manifestation of a mucocutaneous condition, such as lichen planus or other vesiculobulous disorders. Dentists must be aware of this rare clinical entity in order to distinguish DG from the far more common plaque-induced gingivitis. This case is unique in that it involves oral lichen planus and chronic DG, which may be secondary to plaque or a manifestation of the oral lichen planus. Intraoral examination and biopsy reports revealed features of chronic DG and oral reticular lichen planus.

  1. Can Chemical Mouthwash Agents Achieve Plaque/Gingivitis Control?

    PubMed

    Van der Weijden, Fridus A; Van der Sluijs, Eveline; Ciancio, Sebastian G; Slot, Dagmar E

    2015-10-01

    Also note that structured abstracts are not allowed per journal style: What is the effect of a mouthwash containing various active chemical ingredients on plaque control and managing gingivitis in adults based on evidence gathered from existing systematic reviews? The summarized evidence suggests that mouthwashes containing chlorhexidine(CHX) and essential oils (EO) had a large effect supported by a strong body of evidence. Also there was strong evidence for a moderate effect of cetylpyridinium chloride(CPC). Evidence suggests that a CHX mouthwash is the first choice, the most reliable alternative is EO. No difference between CHX and EO with respect to gingivitis was observed.

  2. A rare case of isolated idiopathic gingival fibromatosis.

    PubMed

    Saini, Ashish; Singh, Meghna; Singh, Saimbi C

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic gingival fibromatosis (IGF) is a rare condition. It is genetically heterogeneous and is usually part of a syndrome or, rarely, an isolated disorder. This study presents a rare case of 13 year old boy who was diagnosed with isolated IGF. This diagnosis has been based on clinical examination and after ruling out family, drug, and medical histories. External bevel gingivectomy has been done to remove excess gingival tissues. Excised tissue has been examined histologically. The patient has been followed up for a period of two and half years. No recurrence has been observed.

  3. Gingival pain: an unusual side effect of ziprasidone

    PubMed Central

    Raghunath, Ashwati

    2013-01-01

    The patient is a 52-year-old man with schizophrenia who developed severe, unremitting gingival pain after his ziprasidone dosage was increased from 80 to 120 mg. His physical examination and laboratory findings were unremarkable. He did not have any extra-pyramidal side effects. His pain did not ameliorate after taking acetaminophen and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. As a last resort, the patient took benztropine and his pain subsided within half an hour. His ziprasidone dosage was decreased and the patient is currently doing well. He has not experienced gingival pain since his medication was adjusted. PMID:23283612

  4. [Parodontocid efficiency in complex treatment and prevention of gingivitis].

    PubMed

    Makeeva, I M; Turkina, A Iu; Poliakova, M A; Babina, K S

    2013-01-01

    Antiplaque/antigingivitis effect of an alcohol-free mouthrinse Parodontocid were evaluated by randomized parallel group clinical trial. Sixty patients with gingivitis were clinically examined to determine PHP, RMNPI and PMA indexes. After professional dental prophylaxis, subjects were randomly assigned in two groups to 10 days oral hygiene program. Group 1 patients used only toothbrush and prophylactic toothpaste while in group 2 persons used Parodontocid in conjunction with normal brushing and flossing.Parodontocid significantly reduced plaque and gingivitis compared to negative control.

  5. A practical clinical recording system for cases with desquamative gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Arduino, P G; Broccoletti, R; Sciannameo, V; Scully, C

    2016-09-17

    The most frequent autoimmune disorders that involve the oral mucosae are lichen planus, pemphigoid, pemphigus, epidermolysis bullosa acquisita, erythema multiforme, discoid lupus erythematosus and chronic ulcerative stomatitis, affected individuals presenting with variable oral lesions; mainly(1-3) hyperkeratosis, erythema, blisters, erosions and ulcerations. The gingival tissues are commonly involved, not least because of decreases in oral hygiene(4) but the gingiva can be the unique site of onset or the first manifestation of the disorder(5) often as "desquamative gingivitis" (DG).(3,6,7)(This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.)

  6. Cytotoxicity of halothane on human gingival fibroblast cultures in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chang, Y C; Chou, M Y

    2001-02-01

    Recently halothane has been reported to be the most suitable alternative to chloroform in dissolving gutta-percha. Periapical tissue toxicity of halothane is not completely known. In this study gutta-percha dissolved by halothane was evaluated with the almar blue dye assay using human gingival fibroblast cultures. The cytotoxic effects of halothane on human gingival fibroblasts depended on the exposure dose, frequency, and duration. A reduced concentration and smaller amount of gutta-percha solvents may minimize the cytotoxic effects on host tissues.

  7. Mandibular vestibuloplasty and gingival grafts using impacted posts.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, P; Montal, S; Gibert, P

    1997-01-01

    In the presence of an atrophic endentulous mandible, the stability of the mandibular denture is related to the quality of the osteomucosal support and the muscles surrounding it. A new procedure for vestibuloplasty is described that combines a periosteal flap and a gingival graft. Titanium impacted posts are used for fixation and the stabilization of the flap and graft. This clinical report presents the results for 12 patients. Clinical appraisal indicates that the technique appears to improve the anteroposterior stability of the mandibular denture, increasing the attached mucosa and offering better long-term results. The management of the gingival and muscular environment can improve the peri-implant area.

  8. Biofilm architecture in a novel pressurized biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Xia, Siqing; Duan, Liang; Hermanowicz, Slawomir W

    2015-01-01

    A novel pure-oxygen pressurized biofilm reactor was operated at different organic loading, mechanical shear and hydrodynamic conditions to understand the relationships between biofilm architecture and its operation. The ultimate goal was to improve the performance of the biofilm reactor. The biofilm was labeled with seven stains and observed with confocal laser scanning microscopy. Unusual biofilm architecture of a ribbon embedded between two surfaces with very few points of attachment was observed. As organic loading increased, the biofilm morphology changed from a moderately rough layer into a locally smoother biomass with significant bulging protuberances, although the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency remained unchanged at about 75%. At higher organic loadings, biofilms contained a larger fraction of active cells distributed uniformly within a proteinaceous matrix with decreasing polysaccharide content. Higher hydrodynamic shear in combination with high organic loading resulted in the collapse of biofilm structure and a substantial decrease in reactor performance (a COD removal of 16%). Moreover, the important role of proteins for the spatial distribution of active cells was demonstrated quantitatively.

  9. Staphylococcus aureus biofilms: recent developments in biofilm dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Lister, Jessica L.; Horswill, Alexander R.

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of nosocomial and community-acquired infections and represents a significant burden on the healthcare system. S. aureus attachment to medical implants and host tissue, and the establishment of a mature biofilm, play an important role in the persistence of chronic infections. The formation of a biofilm, and encasement of cells in a polymer-based matrix, decreases the susceptibility to antimicrobials and immune defenses, making these infections difficult to eradicate. During infection, dispersal of cells from the biofilm can result in spread to secondary sites and worsening of the infection. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of the pathways behind biofilm dispersal in S. aureus, with a focus on enzymatic and newly described broad-spectrum dispersal mechanisms. Additionally, we explore potential applications of dispersal in the treatment of biofilm-mediated infections. PMID:25566513

  10. Polymicrobial Biofilm Studies: From Basic Science to Biofilm Control

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Hubertine ME; Xu, Zhenbo; Peters, Brian M

    2016-01-01

    Microbes rarely exist as single species planktonic forms as they have been commonly studied in the laboratory. Instead, the vast majority exists as part of complex polymicrobial biofilm communities attached to host and environmental surfaces. The oral cavity represents one of the most diverse and well-studied polymicrobial consortia. Despite a burgeoning field of mechanistic biofilm research within the past decades, our understanding of interactions that occur between microbial members within oral biofilms is still limited. Thus, the primary objective of this review is to focus on polymicrobial biofilm formation, microbial interactions and signaling events that mediate oral biofilm development, consequences of oral hygiene on both local and systemic disease, and potential therapeutic strategies to limit oral dysbiosis. PMID:27134811

  11. Staphylococcus aureus biofilms: recent developments in biofilm dispersal.

    PubMed

    Lister, Jessica L; Horswill, Alexander R

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of nosocomial and community-acquired infections and represents a significant burden on the healthcare system. S. aureus attachment to medical implants and host tissue, and the establishment of a mature biofilm, play an important role in the persistence of chronic infections. The formation of a biofilm, and encasement of cells in a polymer-based matrix, decreases the susceptibility to antimicrobials and immune defenses, making these infections difficult to eradicate. During infection, dispersal of cells from the biofilm can result in spread to secondary sites and worsening of the infection. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of the pathways behind biofilm dispersal in S. aureus, with a focus on enzymatic and newly described broad-spectrum dispersal mechanisms. Additionally, we explore potential applications of dispersal in the treatment of biofilm-mediated infections.

  12. Effect of a chlorhexidine mouthrinse on plaque, gingival inflammation and staining in gingivitis patients: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Van Strydonck, Daniëlle A C; Slot, Dagmar E; Van der Velden, Ubele; Van der Weijden, Fridus

    2012-11-01

    To systematically evaluate the efficacy of chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthrinses on plaque, gingival inflammation and staining in gingivitis patients. Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched through April 2011. Randomized controlled clinical trials comparing CHX to placebo/control mouthrinses or oral hygiene (OH) ≥ 4 weeks were included. Among 1355 titles, 30 publications fulfilled the selection criteria. Meta-analysis (MA) showed significant weighted mean differences (WMD) favouring CHX. This was -0.39 [95% CI: -0.70; -0.08] for the Plaque Index Silness & Löe, -0.67 [95% CI: -0.82; -0.52] for the Plaque-Index Quigley & Hein (PIQH), -0.32 [95% CI: -0.42; -0.23] for the Gingival Index (GI), -0.08 [95% CI: -0.10; -0.05] for the bleeding aspect of the GI, -0.21 [95% CI: -0.37; -0.04] for the Papillary BIeeding Index, -0.16 [95% CI: -0.26; -0.07] for Bleeding on Marginal Probing and 0.91 [95% CI: 0.12;1.70] for the Lobene Stain Index. MA of studies with a low risk of author-estimated bias showed a WMD of -0.68 [95% CI: -0.85; -0.51] for the PIQH and -0.24 [95% CI: -0.29; -0.20] for the GI in favour of CHX. Relative to control, the reduction with CHX for plaque was 33% and for gingivitis 26%. CHX rinsing groups demonstrated significantly more staining. In gingivitis patients, CHX mouthrinses together with OH versus placebo- or control mouthrinse provide significant reductions in plaque and gingivitis scores, but a significant increase in staining score. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Gingival displacement for impression making in fixed prosthodontics: contemporary principles, materials, and techniques.

    PubMed

    Baba, Nadim Z; Goodacre, Charles J; Jekki, Rami; Won, John

    2014-01-01

    The clinical success and longevity of indirect restorations depend on the careful and accurate completion of several procedures. One of the challenging procedures is management of the gingival tissues and gingival esthetics. The goal for management of gingival tissues and gingival esthetics is to maintain the normal appearance of healthy gingival. Achieving this goal requires optimal health before treatment and minimal trauma during treatment. The best way of optimizing health and minimizing trauma is to avoid contacting the gingiva with restorative materials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. In situ biofilm coupon device

    DOEpatents

    Peyton, B.M.; Truex, M.J.

    1997-06-24

    An apparatus is disclosed for characterization of in-situ microbial biofilm populations in subsurface groundwater. The device permits biofilm-forming microorganisms to adhere to packing material while emplaced in a groundwater strata, so that the packing material can be later analyzed for quantity and type of microorganisms, growth rate, and nutrient requirements. 3 figs.

  15. In situ biofilm coupon device

    DOEpatents

    Peyton, Brent M.; Truex, Michael J.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus for characterization of in-situ microbial biofilm populations in subsurface groundwater. The device permits biofilm-forming microorganisms to adhere to packing material while emplaced in a groundwater strata, so that the packing material can be later analyzed for quantity and type of microorganisms, growth rate, and nutrient requirements.

  16. Experimental evolution in biofilm populations

    PubMed Central

    Steenackers, Hans P.; Parijs, Ilse; Foster, Kevin R.; Vanderleyden, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms are a major form of microbial life in which cells form dense surface associated communities that can persist for many generations. The long-life of biofilm communities means that they can be strongly shaped by evolutionary processes. Here, we review the experimental study of evolution in biofilm communities. We first provide an overview of the different experimental models used to study biofilm evolution and their associated advantages and disadvantages. We then illustrate the vast amount of diversification observed during biofilm evolution, and we discuss (i) potential ecological and evolutionary processes behind the observed diversification, (ii) recent insights into the genetics of adaptive diversification, (iii) the striking degree of parallelism between evolution experiments and real-life biofilms and (iv) potential consequences of diversification. In the second part, we discuss the insights provided by evolution experiments in how biofilm growth and structure can promote cooperative phenotypes. Overall, our analysis points to an important role of biofilm diversification and cooperation in bacterial survival and productivity. Deeper understanding of both processes is of key importance to design improved antimicrobial strategies and diagnostic techniques. PMID:26895713

  17. Antibiofilm peptides against oral biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhejun; Shen, Ya; Haapasalo, Markus

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The oral cavity is a major entry point for bacteria and other microorganisms. Oral biofilms are formed by mixed communities of microorganisms embedded in an exopolysaccharide matrix. Biofilms forming on dental hard or soft tissue are the major cause of caries and endodontic and periodontal disease. Human oral biofilms exhibit high resistance to antimicrobial agents. Antibiofilm peptides constitute a diverse class of host-defense molecules that act to combat invasion and infection with biofilms. Different in vitro and in vivo biofilm models with quantitative analysis have been established to provide predictable platforms for the evaluation of the antibiofilm effect of oral antibiofilm peptides. These peptides have engendered considerable interest in the past decades as potential alternatives to traditional disinfecting agents due to their ability to target bacterial biofilms specifically, leading to the prevention of biofilm formation and destruction of pre-existing biofilms by Gram-positive and -negative bacterial pathogens and fungi. At the same time, challenges associated with the application of these antibiofilm peptides in dental practice also exist. The production of effective, nontoxic, and stable antibiofilm peptides is desired in both academic and industrial fields. This review focuses on the antibiofilm properties of current synthetic peptides and their application in different areas of dentistry. PMID:28748031

  18. Interaction of Nanoparticles with Biofilms

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this work we have studied the interaction and adsorption of engineered nanoparticles such as TiO2, ZnO, CeO2 , and carbon nanotubes with biofilms. Biofilm is an extracellular polymeric substance coating comprised of living material and it is an aggregation of bacteria, algae, ...

  19. Biofilm formation in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Domenech, Mirian; García, Ernesto; Moscoso, Miriam

    2012-07-01

    Biofilm-grown bacteria are refractory to antimicrobial agents and show an increased capacity to evade the host immune system. In recent years, studies have begun on biofilm formation by Streptococcus pneumoniae, an important human pathogen, using a variety of in vitro model systems. The bacterial cells in these biofilms are held together by an extracellular matrix composed of DNA, proteins and, possibly, polysaccharide(s). Although neither the precise nature of these proteins nor the composition of the putative polysaccharide(s) is clear, it is known that choline-binding proteins are required for successful biofilm formation. Further, many genes appear to be involved, although the role of each appears to vary when biofilms are produced in batch or continuous culture. Prophylactic and therapeutic measures need to be developed to fight S. pneumoniae biofilm formation. However, much care needs to be taken when choosing strains for such studies because different S. pneumoniae isolates can show remarkable genomic differences. Multispecies and in vivo biofilm models must also be developed to provide a more complete understanding of biofilm formation and maintenance. © 2011 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. How Biofilms Evade Host Defenses.

    PubMed

    Roilides, Emmanuel; Simitsopoulou, Maria; Katragkou, Aspasia; Walsh, Thomas J

    2015-06-01

    The steps involved during the biofilm growth cycle include attachment to a substrate followed by more permanent adherence of the microorganisms, microcolony arrangement, and cell detachment required for the dissemination of single or clustered cells to other organ systems. Various methods have been developed for biofilm detection and quantitation. Biofilm-producing microorganisms can be detected in tissue culture plates, using silicone tubes and staining methods, and by visual assessment using scanning electron microscopy or confocal scanning laser microscopy. Quantitative measurement of biofilm growth is determined by using methods that include dry cell weight assays, colony-forming-unit counting, DNA quantification, or XTT 2,3-bis (2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-5-[(phenylamino) carbonyl]-2H-tetrazolium hydroxide reduction assay. Upon infection, innate immune defense strategies are able to establish an immediate response through effector mechanisms mediated by immune cells, receptors, and several humoral factors. We present an overview of the life cycle of biofilms and their diversity, detection methods for biofilm development, and host immune responses to pathogens. We then focus on current concepts in bacterial and fungal biofilm immune evasion mechanisms. This appears to be of particular importance because the use of host immune responses may represent a novel therapeutic approach against biofilms.

  1. Interaction of Nanoparticles with Biofilms

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this work we have studied the interaction and adsorption of engineered nanoparticles such as TiO2, ZnO, CeO2 , and carbon nanotubes with biofilms. Biofilm is an extracellular polymeric substance coating comprised of living material and it is an aggregation of bacteria, algae, ...

  2. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1, RANTES and macrophage migration inhibitory factor levels in gingival crevicular fluid of metabolic syndrome patients with gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Gürkan, Ali; Eren, Gülnihal; Çetinkalp, Şevki; Akçay, Yasemin Delen; Emingil, Gülnur; Atilla, Gül

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted protein (RANTES) and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in metabolic syndrome patients with gingivitis. Twenty metabolic syndrome patients with gingivitis (MSG), 20 MetS patients with clinically healthy periodontium (MSH), 20 systemically healthy subjects with gingivitis and 20 subjects who were both systemically and periodontally healthy were included. Periodontal and systemical parameters were recorded. GCF MCP-1, RANTES and MIF levels were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. MSG and MSH groups had elevated blood pressure, triglyceride, waist circumference and fasting glucose values in comparison to gingivitis and healthy groups (P<0.0001). Clinical periodontal parameters were higher in MSG and gingivitis groups when compared to those of the MSH and healthy groups (P<0.0001). MCP-1 and RANTES levels (ng/mg total protein) of MSG group were higher than those of the MSH groups (P=0.005, P=0.0001, respectively). Also gingivitis group had higher MCP-1, RANTES and MIF levels compared to the healthy group (P=0.011, P=0.0001, P=0.011 respectively). The RANTES level of MSG group was significantly higher than those of the gingivitis group (P=0.01), but MCP-1 and MIF levels were similar in the MSG and gingivitis groups (P>0.05). Elevated levels of GCF RANTES in MetS patients with gingivitis might associate with the presence of increased gingival inflammation by MetS. Low-grade systemic inflammation associated with MetS and adipose tissue-derived RANTES might lead to altered GCF RANTES levels in the presence of gingival inflammation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Hypoplastic uterus and clitoris enlargement in Swyer syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hétu, Valérie; Caron, Evelyne; Francoeur, Diane

    2010-02-01

    Swyer syndrome is associated with absent testicular differentiation in a 46XY phenotypic female. A 17-year-old female presented with primary amenorrhea and 46XY karyotype. Breast and pubic hair development were Tanner 2, and clitoral enlargement was noted. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a hypoplastic uterus and 2 "normal ovaries." Serum follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone were elevated. Testosterone and androstenedione were in the female range. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate was slightly elevated. Laparoscopic bilateral gonadectomy was performed. Pathology reports showed bilateral microscopic benign hilar cell tumors. The diagnosis was a real puzzle for the clinicians because of the association of clitoral hypertrophy without hirsutism, female internal genitalia, and a 46XY karyotype. Clitoral enlargement can be explained by transient androgen secretion by the hilar cells found in the resected gonads. Copyright 2010 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Performance of enlarged blood pump models with five different impellers.

    PubMed

    Chua, L P; Yu, S C; Leo, H L

    2000-01-01

    In earlier studies, a 5:1 enlarged pump model of the Kyoto-NTN Magnetically Suspended Centrifugal Blood Pump had been constructed and the flow characteristics investigated. Although the results obtained were satisfactory, the medium used was air. A 5:1 enlarged pump model using water as the medium thus was designed and constructed. Five different impeller blade profile designs were used in the present study. By varying (1) the blade profile design: forward, radial, and backward, (2) the number of blades used, and (3) the rotating speed, the flow characteristics of the pump were investigated. It was found that the impeller with the higher number of blades, used in the forward and straight blade profiles, have the best performance.

  5. Capsule of Cryptococcus neoformans grows by enlargement of polysaccharide molecules.

    PubMed

    Frases, Susana; Pontes, Bruno; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Viana, Nathan B; Rodrigues, Marcio L; Casadevall, Arturo

    2009-01-27

    The human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans has a distinctive polysaccharide (PS) capsule that enlarges during infection. The capsule is essential for virulence, but the mechanism for capsular growth is unknown. In the present study, we used dynamic light scattering (LS) analysis of capsular PS and optical tweezers (OT) to explore the architecture of the capsule. Analysis of capsular PS from cells with small and large capsules by dynamic LS revealed a linear correlation between PS effective diameter and microscopic capsular diameter. This result implied that capsule growth was achieved by the addition of molecules with larger effective diameter, such that some molecules can span the entire diameter of the capsule. Measurement of polystyrene bead penetration of C. neoformans capsules by using OT techniques revealed that the outer regions were penetrable, but not the inner regions. Our results provide a mechanism for capsular enlargement based on the axial lengthening of PS molecules and suggest a model for the architecture of a eukaryotic microbial capsule.

  6. Enlarging the big-bubble during deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    McKee, Hamish D; Jhanji, Vishal; Brahma, Arun K

    2013-04-01

    During big-bubble deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty, a bubble that is not large enough can be formed. Further air injection can result in the rupture of the posterior lamella, necessitating conversion to penetrating keratoplasty. We describe some techniques to safely enlarge the big-bubble in such a circumstance. In cases in which a white-margin bubble forms that has extended to the trephination margin, the bubble is collapsed and the margins are extended by blunt dissection. For cases of an undersized clear-margin bubble, the bubble is enlarged by gentle injection of a cohesive ophthalmic viscosurgical device into the bubble cavity. Using these techniques, big-bubbles were safely extended beyond the trephination margin for both white- and clear-margin bubbles. An undersized big-bubble can safely be extended using blunt dissection for white-margin bubbles and ophthalmic viscosurgical device injection for clear-margin bubbles.

  7. Biofilm models of polymicrobial infection

    PubMed Central

    Gabrilska, Rebecca A; Rumbaugh, Kendra P

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between microbes are complex and play an important role in the pathogenesis of infections. These interactions can range from fierce competition for nutrients and niches to highly evolved cooperative mechanisms between different species that support their mutual growth. An increasing appreciation for these interactions, and desire to uncover the mechanisms that govern them, has resulted in a shift from monomicrobial to polymicrobial biofilm studies in different disease models. Here we provide an overview of biofilm models used to study select polymicrobial infections and highlight the impact that the interactions between microbes within these biofilms have on disease progression. Notable recent advances in the development of polymicrobial biofilm-associated infection models and challenges facing the study of polymicrobial biofilms are addressed. PMID:26592098

  8. Biofilms in periprosthetic orthopedic infections

    PubMed Central

    McConoughey, Stephen J; Howlin, Rob; Granger, Jeff F; Manring, Maurice M; Calhoun, Jason H; Shirtlif, Mark; Kathju, Sandeep; Stoodley, Paul

    2015-01-01

    As the number of total joint arthroplasty and internal fixation procedures continues to rise, the threat of infection following surgery has significant clinical implications. These infections may have highly morbid consequences to patients, who often endure additional surgeries and lengthy exposures to systemic antibiotics, neither of which are guaranteed to resolve the infection. Of particular concern is the threat of bacterial biofilm development, since biofilm-mediated infections are difficult to diagnose and effective treatments are lacking. Developing therapeutic strategies have targeted mechanisms of biofilm formation and the means by which these bacteria communicate with each other to take on specialized roles such as persister cells within the biofilm. In addition, prevention of infection through novel coatings for prostheses and the local delivery of high concentrations of antibiotics by absorbable carriers has shown promise in laboratory and animal studies. Biofilm development, especially in an arthoplasty environment, and future diagnostic and treatment options are discussed. PMID:25302955

  9. Metal resistance in Candida biofilms.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Joe J; Rabiei, Maryam; Turner, Raymond J; Badry, Erin A; Sproule, Kimberley M; Ceri, Howard

    2006-03-01

    Yeasts are often successful in metal-polluted environments; therefore, the ability of biofilm and planktonic cell Candida tropicalis to endure metal toxicity was investigated. Fifteen water-soluble metal ions, chosen to represent groups 6A to 6B of the periodic table, were tested against this organism. With in vitro exposures as long as 24 h, biofilms were up to 65 times more tolerant to killing by metals than corresponding planktonic cultures. Of the most toxic heavy metals tested, only very high concentrations of Hg2+, CrO4 (2-) or Cu2+ killed surface-adherent Candida. Metal-chelator precipitates could be formed in biofilms following exposure to the heavy metals Cu2+ and Ni2+. This suggests that Candida biofilms may adsorb metal cations from their surroundings and that sequestration in the extracellular matrix may contribute to resistance. We concluded that biofilm formation may be a strategy for metal resistance and/or tolerance in yeasts.

  10. Bacterial biofilms: prokaryotic adventures in multicellularity.

    PubMed

    Webb, Jeremy S; Givskov, Michael; Kjelleberg, Staffan

    2003-12-01

    The development of bacterial biofilms includes both the initial social behavior of undifferentiated cells, as well as cell death and differentiation in the mature biofilm, and displays several striking similarities with higher organisms. Recent advances in the field provide new insight into differentiation and cell death events in bacterial biofilm development and propose that biofilms have an unexpected level of multicellularity.

  11. Breast enlargement after two reduction mastoplasties: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mottura, A Aldo

    2007-01-01

    In 1989, a bilateral breast reduction was performed for a large-breasted woman. She returned 1 year later with bilateral breast enlargement as severe as in the original case. The operation was repeated but in a more aggressive way. She became pregnant 2 years later, and both her small breasts began to grow again until they became gigantic. Hormonal tests showed results within the standard limits, and no medical treatment was effective. After the delivery, her breasts reduced in size spontaneously.

  12. European Enlargement and the Integration of the Western Balkans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-01

    levels of unemployment and other economic data should thus be interpreted cautiously. 28 region, and second, the economy of the Western Balkans...86 Copenhagen Criteria, 1993 and Croft, S., Redmond, J., Wyn Rees, G., and Webber , M., The Enlargement of Europe, p. 61-62, Manchester University...it is already too big93. On the other hand, the European Parliament will increase from 646 ( max 700) seats to 1,00094, and the Council of Ministers

  13. Abdominal cavity myolipoma presenting as an enlarging incisional hernia.

    PubMed

    Moore, Mark O; Richardson, Michael L; Rubin, Brian P; Baird, Geoffrey S

    2006-01-01

    We present a case of an abdominal cavity myolipoma which herniated through a low transverse abdominal (Pfannenstiel) incision, and presented as an enlarging abdominal wall mass. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prior to surgery demonstrated an encapsulated solid tumor mass demonstrating fat signal and and increased T2-weighted signal. Postsurgical histological tissue diagnosis was myolipoma. Recognition of the intra- and extraperitoneal location of this abdominal tumor was essential for accurate surgical planning.

  14. A new psoralen derivative with enlarged antiproliferative properties.

    PubMed

    Dalla Via, Lisa; González-Gómez, Jose Carlos; Pérez-Montoto, Lázaro Guillermo; Santana, Lourdes; Uriarte, Eugenio; Marciani Magno, Sebastiano; Gia, Ornella

    2009-05-15

    Following our results with benzopsoralens as potent photochemotherapeutic agents, we report the antiproliferative evaluation of nitrogenated isoster upon and without UVA irradiation. The evaluated pyridazinopsoralen showed a higher photochemotherapeutic activity with respect to the well-known drug, 8-MOP, and a significant cytotoxicity, also in the dark. This result enlarges the interest in this tetracyclic psoralen derivative skeleton in the search of new anticancer agents.

  15. Credit WCT. This view is an enlargement of an original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit WCT. This view is an enlargement of an original 2-A" x 2-Y4" color negative housed in the JPL Photography Laboratory, Pasadena, California. The doors of the conditioning chamber have been opened to reveal the arrangement of wrapped motors ready for treatment (JPL negative no. JPL-10281BC, 27 January 1989) - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Solid Propellant Conditioning Building, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  16. Asymmetric Meckel Cave Enlargement: A Potential Marker of PHACES Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wright, J N; Wycoco, V

    2017-06-01

    PHACES syndrome is a complex of morphologic abnormalities of unknown cause and includes posterior fossa abnormalities; head and neck infantile hemangiomas; arterial, cardiac, and eye anomalies; and sternal or abdominal wall defects. Accurate identification of the syndrome is important for optimal treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of asymmetric Meckel cave enlargement, a potential novel imaging marker, in a population of patients referred for evaluation of possible PHACES syndrome. Eighty-five patients referred for neuroimaging evaluation of possible PHACES syndrome were identified and stratified on the basis of their ultimate clinical PHACES diagnosis categorization into PHACES, possible PHACES, or not PHACES. MR imaging studies were subsequently reviewed for the presence or absence of unilateral Meckel cave enlargement, with the reviewer blinded to the ultimate PHACES syndrome categorization. Twenty-five of 85 patients (29%) were ultimately categorized as having PHACES or possible PHACES according to consensus guidelines. Asymmetric Meckel cave enlargement was present in 76% (19/25) of these patients and in 82% (19/23) of only those patients with definite PHACES. This finding was present in none of the 60 patients determined not to have PHACES syndrome. In 7/19 patients (37%) with this finding, subtle MR imaging abnormalities consistent with PHACES were missed on the initial MR imaging interpretation. Asymmetric Meckel cave enlargement was a common feature of patients with PHACES in our cohort and may serve as a novel imaging marker. Increased awareness of this imaging feature has the potential to increase the diagnostic accuracy of PHACES. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  17. Lasers in esthetic treatment of gingival melanin hyperpigmentation: a review article.

    PubMed

    Bakhshi, Mahin; Rahmani, Somayeh; Rahmani, Ali

    2015-11-01

    The health and suitability of mouth components play an important role towards defining facial attractiveness. An important component of the oral cavity is the color of the gingival tissue. Gingival melanin hyperpigmentation is caused by several reasons and affects people across ethnicity, race, age, and both gender. Lasers are presently being used for gingival melanin depigmentation. In this article, we reviewed studies on laser parameters, duration of gingival healing, pain perception during and after the operation, scores used for the evaluation of gingival melanin hyperpigmentation, follow-up period, treatment results, and recurrence reports. We conclude that laser ablation for gingival depigmentation is one of the most pleasant, reliable, acceptable, and impressive techniques available for treating gingival melanin hyperpigmentation.

  18. Soft tissue engineering with micronized-gingival connective tissues.

    PubMed

    Noda, Sawako; Sumita, Yoshinori; Ohba, Seigo; Yamamoto, Hideyuki; Asahina, Izumi

    2017-02-24

    The free gingival graft (FGG) and connective tissue graft (CTG) are currently considered to be the gold standards for keratinized gingival tissue reconstruction and augmentation. However, these procedures have some disadvantages in harvesting large grafts, such as donor-site morbidity as well as insufficient gingival width and thickness at the recipient site post-treatment. To solve these problems, we focused on an alternative strategy using micronized tissue transplantation (micro-graft). In this study, we first investigated whether transplantation of micronized gingival connective tissues (MGCTs) promotes skin wound healing. MGCTs (≤100 µm) were obtained by mincing a small piece (8 mm(3) ) of porcine keratinized gingiva using the RIGENERA system. The MGCTs were then transplanted to a full skin defect (5 mm in diameter) on the dorsal surface of immunodeficient mice after seeding to an atelocollagen matrix. Transplantations of atelocollagen matrixes with and without micronized dermis were employed as experimental controls. The results indicated that MGCTs markedly promote the vascularization and epithelialization of the defect area 14 days after transplantation compared to the experimental controls. After 21 days, complete wound closure with low contraction was obtained only in the MGCT grafts. Tracking analysis of transplanted MGCTs revealed that some mesenchymal cells derived from MGCTs can survive during healing and may function to assist in wound healing. We propose here that micro-grafting with MGCTs represents an alternative strategy for keratinized tissue reconstruction that is characterized by low morbidity and ready availability. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Proinflammatory cytokines induce amelotin transcription in human gingival fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Yohei; Takai, Hideki; Matsui, Sari; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Zhou, Liming; Kato, Ayako; Ganss, Bernhard; Ogata, Yorimasa

    2014-12-01

    Amelotin (AMTN) is a secreted protein transcribed predominantly during the maturation stage of enamel formation and localized in the junctional epithelium. We investigated differences in the levels of AMTN gene expression between non-inflamed gingiva and inflamed gingiva from patients with chronic periodontitis. Total RNAs were isolated from these tissues and their gene expression profiles were monitored by DNA microarray. The observed induction of AMTN mRNA in inflamed gingiva and cultured human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) was confirmed by real-time PCR. Transient transfection assays were performed using chimeric constructs of mouse AMTN gene promoter fragments linked to a luciferase reporter gene. Immunohistochemical localization of AMTN in inflamed and non-inflamed gingiva was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Among many differentially expressed genes, the level of AMTN mRNA was significantly increased in inflamed gingiva. Treatment of HGF with interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) induced the expression of AMTN mRNA, and increased the luciferase activities of the AMTN promoter constructs. AMTN protein was detected in inflamed gingival connective tissue and junctional epithelium. These findings demonstrate that proinflammatory cytokines induce AMTN gene expression in human gingival fibroblasts and suggest a role for AMTN in gingival inflammation.

  20. Local and Systemic Inflammatory Responses to Experimentally Induced Gingivitis

    PubMed Central

    Leishman, Shaneen J.; Seymour, Gregory J.; Ford, Pauline J.

    2013-01-01

    This study profiled the local and systemic inflammatory responses to experimentally induced gingivitis. Eight females participated in a 21-day experimental gingivitis model followed by a 14-day resolution phase. Bleeding on probing and plaque index scores were assessed before, during, and after resolution of gingival inflammation, and samples of saliva, GCF, and plasma were collected. Samples were assessed for biomarkers of inflammation using the BioPlex platform and ELISA. There were no significant changes in GCF levels of cytokines during the experimental phase; however, individual variability in cytokine profiles was noted. During resolution, mean GCF levels of IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α decreased and were significantly lower than baseline levels (P = 0.003, P = 0.025, and P = 0.007, resp.). Furthermore, changes in GCF levels of IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α during resolution correlated with changes in plaque index scores (r = 0.88, P = 0.004; r = 0.72, P = 0.042; r = 0.79, P = 0.019, resp.). Plasma levels of sICAM-1 increased significantly during the experimental phase (P = 0.002) and remained elevated and significantly higher than baseline levels during resolution (P < 0.001). These results support the concept that gingivitis adds to the systemic inflammatory burden of an individual. PMID:24227893