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  1. Sulfur fumigation reducing systemic exposure of ginsenosides and weakening immunomodulatory activity of ginseng.

    PubMed

    Ma, Bin; Kan, Winnie Lai Ting; Zhu, He; Li, Song-Lin; Lin, Ge

    2017-01-04

    Ginseng (Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma) is used worldwide for its miracle tonic effects, especially for its immunomodulatory activities. Sulfur fumigation, a fast and convenient method to prevent pesticidal and bacterial contamination in the food industry, has been recently employed during post-harvest processing of ginseng. Our previous studies demonstrated that sulfur fumigation significantly altered the chemical profile of the bioactive ingredients in ginseng. However, the effects of sulfur fumigation on the pharmacokinetics and bioactivities of ginseng remain unknown. To examine the effects of sulfur fumigation on the pharmacokinetics and immunomodulatory activities of ginseng. For pharmacokinetic studies, male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to single/multiple dosages of non-fumigated ginseng (NFG) and sulfur fumigated ginseng (SFG) were investigated using HPLC-MS/MS analysis. For bioactivity studies, male ICR mice were used to compare the immunomodulatory effects of NFG or SFG under both normal and cyclophosphamide (CY)-induced immunocompromised conditions using white blood cell counts, serum cytokine levels, and spleen and thymus weight indices. Sulfur fumigation significantly reduced the contents of the bioactive ginsenosides in ginseng, which resulted in drastically low systemic exposure of ginsenosides in SFG-treatment group compared to NFG-treatment group. This observation was consistent with the bioactivities obtained in NFG- and SFG-treatment groups. The bioactivity studies also demonstrated the immunomodulatory effects of NFG but not SFG in the CY-induced immunosuppressed mice. Sulfur fumigation significantly reduced contents of bioactive ginsenosides in ginseng, leading to dramatic decrease in the systemic exposure of these ginsenosides in the body and detrimental reduction of immunomodulatory effects of ginseng. Our results provided scientific evidences and laid a solid foundation for the needs of thorough evaluation of the significant impact of sulfur

  2. Efficacy comparison of Korean ginseng and American ginseng on body temperature and metabolic parameters.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Young; Kim, Mi-Hwi; Kim, Eung-Hwi; Lee, Eun-Kyu; Park, In-Sun; Yang, Duck-Choon; Jun, Hee-Sook

    2014-01-01

    Ginseng has beneficial effects in cancer, diabetes and aging. There are two main varieties of ginseng: Panax ginseng (Korean ginseng) and Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng). There are anecdotal reports that American ginseng helps reduce body temperature, whereas Korean ginseng improves blood circulation and increases body temperature; however, their respective effects on body temperature and metabolic parameters have not been studied. We investigated body temperature and metabolic parameters in mice using a metabolic cage. After administering ginseng extracts acutely (single dose of 1000 mg/kg) or chronically (200 mg/kg/day for four weeks), core body temperature, food intake, oxygen consumption and activity were measured, as well as serum levels of pyrogen-related factors and mRNA expression of metabolic genes. Acute treatment with American ginseng reduced body temperature compared with PBS-treated mice during the night; however, there was no significant effect of ginseng treatment on body temperature after four weeks of treatment. VO 2, VCO 2, food intake, activity and energy expenditure were unchanged after both acute and chronic ginseng treatment compared with PBS treatment. In acutely treated mice, serum thyroxin levels were reduced by red and American ginseng, and the serum prostaglandin E2 level was reduced by American ginseng. In chronically treated mice, red and white ginseng reduced thyroxin levels. We conclude that Korean ginseng does not stimulate metabolism in mice, whereas a high dose of American ginseng may reduce night-time body temperature and pyrogen-related factors.

  3. Enhancement of Seed Dehiscence by Seed Treatment with Talaromyces flavus GG01 and GG04 in Ginseng (Panax ginseng)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Jeong; Shim, Chang-Ki; Kim, Yong-Ki; Hong, Sung-Jun; Park, Jong-Ho; Han, Eun-Jung; Kim, Seok-Cheol

    2017-01-01

    Seed dehiscence of ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Mayer) is affected by moisture, temperature, storage conditions and microbes. Several microbes were isolated from completely dehisced seed coat of ginseng cultivars, Chunpoong and Younpoong at Gumsan, Korea. We investigated the potential of five Talaromyces flavus isolates from the dehiscence of ginseng seed in four traditional stratification facilities. The isolates showed antagonistic activities against fungal plant pathogens, such as Cylindrocarpon destructans, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia nivalis, Botrytis cinerea, and Phytophthora capsici. The dehiscence ratios of ginseng seed increased more than 33% by treatment of T. flavus GG01, GG02, GG04, GG12, and GG23 in comparison to control (28%). Among the treatments, the reformulating treatment of T. flavus isolates GG01 and GG04 showed the highest of stratification ratio of ginseng seed. After 16 weeks, the reformulating treatment of T. flavus isolates GG01 and GG04 significantly enhanced dehiscence of ginseng seed by about 81% compared to the untreated control. The candidate’s treatment of T. flavus GG01 and GG04 showed the highest decreasing rate of 93% in seed coat hardness for 112 days in dehiscence period. The results suggested that the pre-inoculation of T. flavus GG01 and GG04 found to be very effective applications in improving dehiscence and germination of ginseng seed. PMID:28167883

  4. Therapeutic potential of Panax ginseng and ginsenosides in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Shergis, J L; Di, Y M; Zhang, A L; Vlahos, R; Helliwell, R; Ye, J M; Xue, C C

    2014-10-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major global health burden and will become the third largest cause of death in the world by 2030. It is currently believed that an exaggerated inflammatory response to inhaled irritants, in particular cigarette smoke, cause progressive airflow limitation. This inflammation, where macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes are prominent, leads to oxidative stress, emphysema, airways fibrosis and mucus hypersecretion. COPD responds poorly to current anti-inflammatory treatments including corticosteroids, which produce little or no benefit. Panax ginseng has a long history of use in Chinese medicine for respiratory conditions, including asthma and COPD. In this perspective we consider the therapeutic potential of Panax ginseng for the treatment of COPD. Panax ginseng and its compounds, ginsenosides, have reported effects through multiple mechanisms but primarily have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects. Ginsenosides are functional ligands of glucocorticoid receptors and appear to inhibit kinase phosphorylation including MAPK and ERK1/2, NF-κB transcription factor induction/translocation, and DNA binding. They also inhibit pro-inflammatory mediators, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, ROS, and proteases such as MMP-9. Panax ginseng protects against oxidative stress by increasing anti-oxidative enzymes and reducing the production of oxidants. Given that Panax ginseng and ginsenosides appear to inhibit processes related to COPD pathogenesis, they represent an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of COPD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ginseng saponins and the treatment of osteoporosis: mini literature review

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqi, Muhammad Hanif; Siddiqi, Muhammad Zubair; Ahn, Sungeun; Kang, Sera; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Sathishkumar, Natarajan; Yang, Dong-Uk; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2013-01-01

    The ginseng plant (Panax ginseng Meyer) has a large number of active ingredients including steroidal saponins with a dammarane skeleton as well as protopanaxadiol and protopanaxatriol, commonly known as ginsenosides, which have antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-adipocyte, and sexual enhancing effects. Though several discoveries have demonstrated that ginseng saponins (ginsenosides) as the most important therapeutic agent for the treatment of osteoporosis, yet the molecular mechanism of its active metabolites is unknown. In this review, we summarize the evidence supporting the therapeutic properties of ginsenosides both in vivo and in vitro, with an emphasis on the different molecular agents comprising receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B, and matrix metallopeptidase-9, as well as the bone morphogenetic protein-2 and Smad signaling pathways. PMID:24198650

  6. Treatment with Panax Ginseng Antagonizes the Estrogen Decline in Ovariectomized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ying; Ding, Jie; Ma, Xiao-Ping; Ma, Ying-Hui; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Lin, Na

    2014-01-01

    Ginseng is a popular herb for alleviating menopausal symptoms; however, no conclusive scientific data has shown ginseng as being efficient in such therapies. The present study was designed to evaluate the estrogenic efficacy of ginseng on reproductive target tissues of ovariectomized (OVX) mice. The OVX mice were treated with ginseng at doses of 12.0, 18.0 and 24.0 g/kg per day for four weeks. Ginseng treatments restored the estrus cycle and demonstrated significant estrogenic activity, as indicated by the reversal of the atrophy of the uterus and vagina, upregulation of estrogen receptor (ER) α and ER β expression at the protein and mRNA level in the reproductive tissues, where ER α upregulation was stronger than that of ER β. Meanwhile, treatment with ginseng significantly increased adrenal gland weight and serum estradiol and clearly decreased follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in circulation. Notably, the largest changes in these parameters were found at the highest dose of 24.0 g/kg. Moreover, ginseng at 18.0 g/kg resulted in the greatest decrease in weight gain caused by ovariectomy. The data suggest that ginseng estrogenic responses show tissue variation that reflects different affinities of ERs for ginseng components. This study demonstrates that ginseng activity is mediated through estrogenic components and provides further evidence for ginseng treatment of postmenopausal symptoms. PMID:24806341

  7. Treatment of the cardiac hypertrophic response and heart failure with ginseng, ginsenosides, and ginseng-related products.

    PubMed

    Karmazyn, Morris; Gan, Xiaohong Tracey

    2017-10-01

    Heart failure is a major medical and economic burden throughout the world. Although various treatment options are available to treat heart failure, death rates in both men and women remain high. Potential adjunctive therapies may lie with use of herbal medications, many of which possess potent pharmacological properties. Among the most widely studied is ginseng, a member of the genus Panax that is grown in many parts of the world and that has been used as a medical treatment for a variety of conditions for thousands of years, particularly in Asian societies. There are a number of ginseng species, each possessing distinct pharmacological effects due primarily to differences in their bioactive components including saponin ginsenosides and polysaccharides. While experimental evidence for salutary effects of ginseng on heart failure is robust, clinical evidence is less so, primarily due to a paucity of large-scale well-controlled clinical trials. However, there is evidence from small trials that ginseng-containing Chinese medications such as Shenmai can offer benefit when administered as adjunctive therapy to heart failure patients. Substantial additional studies are required, particularly in the clinical arena, to provide evidence for a favourable effect of ginseng in heart failure patients.

  8. Alcohol extract of North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) reduces fatty liver, dyslipidemia, and other complications of metabolic syndrome in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ratnesh K; Lui, Edmund; Wright, David; Taylor, Adrian; Bakovic, Marica

    2017-09-01

    We investigated whether North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) could reduce development of the metabolic syndrome phenotype in a mouse model (ETKO) of the disease. Young ETKO mice have no disease but similar to humans start to develop the fatty liver, hypertriglyceridemia, obesity, and insulin resistance at 25-30 weeks of age, and the disease continues to progress with ageing. ETKO mice were orally given an ethanol extract of ginseng roots at 4 and 32 weeks of age. Treatments with ginseng eliminated the ETKO fatty liver, reduced hepatic and intestinal lipoprotein secretion, and reduced the level of circulating lipids. Improvements by ginseng treatments were manifested as a reduction in the expression of genes involved in the regulation of fatty acid and triglyceride (fat) synthesis and secretion by the lipoproteins on one hand, and the stimulation of fatty acid oxidation and triglyceride degradation by lipolysis on the other hand. These processes altogether improved glucose, fatty acid, and triglyceride metabolism, reduced liver fat load, and reversed the progression of metabolic syndrome. These data confirm that treatments with North American ginseng could alleviate metabolic syndrome through the maintenance of a better balance between glucose and fatty acid metabolism, lipoprotein secretion, and energy homeostasis in disease-prone states.

  9. Effects of Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng) on obesity and adipose inflammation in ovariectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunghee; Choi, Jeonghyun; Shin, Soon Shik; Yoon, Michung

    2016-02-03

    Korean red ginseng (ginseng, Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) is a famous traditional drug used in Korea for the treatment and prevention of obesity, type 2 diabetes, cancer, and liver and cardiovascular diseases. Menopause is strongly associated with many of the aforementioned metabolic diseases and increased visceral obesity. The aims of this study were to investigate whether ginseng inhibits obesity and related disorders in ovariectomized (OVX) C57BL/6J mice, which is a mouse model of postmenopausal women, and to determine the mechanism of action involved in this process. After OVX mice were treated with 5% (w/w) ginseng for 15 weeks, we determined the effects of ginseng on obesity and adipose inflammation, angiogenesis, metalloproteinase (MMP) activity and metabolic parameters. OVX mice had higher body weight, adipose tissue mass and adipocyte size when fed a high fat diet (HFD) compared with HFD-fed sham-operated mice. All of these parameters were significantly reduced in OVX mice fed a HFD supplemented with ginseng. Ginseng treatment also decreased blood vessel density, MMP activity, and mRNA levels of angiogenic factors (e.g., VEGF-A and FGF-2) and MMPs (e.g., MMP-2 and MMP-9) in adipose tissues of OVX mice. Infiltrating inflammatory cells and expression of inflammatory cytokines (e.g., CD68, TNFα and MCP-1) in adipose tissue were reduced by ginseng. Ginseng not only reduced the circulating levels of free fatty acids and triglycerides, but also normalized hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia in OVX mice. Hepatic lipid droplets were almost completely abolished by ginseng. These results suggest that ginseng inhibited ovariectomy-induced obesity, adiposity, and adipocyte hypertrophy by modulating angiogenesis and MMP activity. Ginseng also suppressed adipose inflammation, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis in OVX mice. Thus, it is likely that ginseng may be a promising drug for the prevention and treatment of obesity and related disorders in obese postmenopausal

  10. Single doses of Panax ginseng (G115) reduce blood glucose levels and improve cognitive performance during sustained mental activity.

    PubMed

    Reay, Jonathon L; Kennedy, David O; Scholey, Andrew B

    2005-07-01

    Single doses of the traditional herbal treatment Panax ginseng have recently been shown to elicit cognitive improvements in healthy young volunteers. The mechanisms by which ginseng improves cognitive performance are not known. However, they may be related to the glycaemic properties of some Panax species. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced crossover design, 30 healthy young adults completed a 10 min test battery at baseline, and then six times in immediate succession commencing 60 min after the day's treatment (placebo, 200mg G115 or 400mg G115). The 10 min battery comprised a Serial Threes subtraction task (2 min); a Serial Sevens task (2 min); a Rapid Visual Information Processing task (5 min); then a 'mental fatigue' visual analogue scale. Blood glucose was measured prior to each day's treatment, and before, during and after the post-dose completions of the battery. Both the 200mg and 400mg treatments led to significant reductions in blood glucose levels at all three post-treatment measurements (p 0.005 in all cases). The most notable behavioural effects were associated with 200mg of ginseng and included significantly improved Serial Sevens subtraction task performance and significantly reduced subjective mental fatigue throughout all (with the exception of one time point in each case) of the post-dose completions of the 10 min battery (p 0.05). Overall these data suggest that Panax ginseng can improve performance and subjective feelings of mental fatigue during sustained mental activity. This effect may be related to the acute gluco-regulatory properties of the extract.

  11. Comparative Effects of Gamma Irradiation and Ozone Treatment on Hygienic Quality of Korean Red Ginseng Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Myung-Woo; Yook, Hong-Sun; Kang, Il-Jun; Chung, Cha-Kwon; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Choi, Kang-Ju

    1998-06-01

    For the purpose of improving hygienic quality of Korean red ginseng powder, the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and ozone treatment on the microbial and physicochemical properties were investigated. Gamma irradiation at 7.5 kGy resulted in sterilization of total aerobic bacteria, molds and coliforms below detective levels, while ozone treatment for 8 hours up to 18 ppm did not sufficiently eliminate the microorganisms of the red ginseng powder. Physicochemical properties including compositions of the red ginseng saponin (ginsenosides) and fatty acids, pH and hydrogen doanting activity were not significantly changed by gamma irradiation, whereas, ozone treatment caused significant changes in fatty acid compositions, TBA value, pH, acidity and hydrogen donating activity. The results from this study led us to conclude that gamma irradiation was more effective than ozone treatment both for the improvement of hygienic quality and for the maintenance of physicochemical quality of red ginseng powder.

  12. First preliminary results of an observation of Panax ginseng treatment in patients with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Niederhofer, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder, with impairments in reciprocal social interaction and verbal and nonverbal communication. There is often the need of psychopharmacological intervention in addition to psychobehavioral therapies, but benefits are limited by adverse side effects. For that reason, Panax ginseng, which is comparable with Piracetam, a substance effective in the treatment of autism, was investigated for possible improvement of autistic symptoms. There was some improvement, which suggests some benefits of Panax ginseng, at least as an add-on therapy.

  13. The Long-Term Consumption of Ginseng Extract Reduces the Susceptibility of Intermediate-Aged Hearts to Acute Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Pei; Dong, Gengting; Liu, Liang; Zhou, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Background A large number of experimental studies using young adult subjects have shown that ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) protects against ischemia heart disease. However, ginseng has not been explored for its anti-I/R effect and mechanism of action in the aged myocardium. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of the long-term consumption of ginseng extract on myocardial I/R in an in vivo rat model and explore the potential underlying mechanism. Methods and Results Young (6-mo-old) and intermediate-aged (18-mo-old) rats were gavaged with either standardized ginseng extract (RSE) at 80 mg/kg or vehicle for 90 days. The rats were sacrificed after LAD coronary artery ligation was performed to induce 30 min of ischemia, followed by 90 min of reperfusion. The myocardial infarct size was measured. Left ventricular function was evaluated using pressure-volume loops. The levels of survival, apoptotic and longevity protein expression were assessed through Western blot analysis. Myocardial pathology was detected through H&E or Masson’s trichrome staining. We observed higher infarct expansion with impairment in the LV functional parameters, such as LVSP and LVEDP, in aged rats compared with young rats. Enhanced Akt phosphorylation and eNOS expression in RSE-treated aged hearts were accompanied with reduced infarct size, improved cardiac performance, and inducted survival signals. In contrast, p-Erk and caspase 7 were significantly downregulated in aged rats, suggesting that cardiomyocyte apoptosis was suppressed after RSE treatment. RSE also inhibited caspase-3/7 activation and decreased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Consistent with the results of apoptosis, Sirt1 and Sirt3 were significantly increased in the RSE-treated aged heart compared with vehicle-treated I/R, suggesting that the anti-aging effect was correlated with the anti-apoptotic activity of RSE. Conclusion These findings suggest that the long-term consumption of ginseng extract reduced the

  14. Is ginseng an ergogenic aid?

    PubMed

    Bahrke, Michael S; Morgan, William P; Stegner, Aaron

    2009-06-01

    Ginseng is one of the most popular herbal supplements in the world. Although it is used for the treatment and prevention of many ailments, it is also used to increase work efficiency and is purported to increase energy and physical stamina. Athletes use ginseng for its alleged performance-enhancing attributes. However, many studies examining the pharmacological effects of ginseng on physical performance have not employed sound scientific design and methodology. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on published empirical research focusing primarily on the efficacy of ginseng with respect to physical and athletic performance. Despite attempts in recent investigations to improve on the scientific rigor used in examining the ergogenic properties of ginseng, the authors conclude that many of the same methodological shortcomings observed in earlier studies persist. Enhanced physical performance after ginseng administration in well-designed investigations remains to be demonstrated.

  15. In vitro effects of Panax ginseng in aristolochic acid-mediated renal tubulotoxicity: apoptosis versus regeneration.

    PubMed

    Bunel, Valérian; Antoine, Marie-Hélène; Nortier, Joëlle; Duez, Pierre; Stévigny, Caroline

    2015-03-01

    This in vitro study aimed to determine the effects of a Panax ginseng extract on aristolochic acid-mediated toxicity in HK-2 cells. A methanolic extract of ginseng (50 µg/mL) was able to reduce cell survival after treatment with 50 µM aristolochic acid for 24, 48, and 72 h, as evidenced by a resazurin reduction assay. This result was confirmed by a flow cytometric evaluation of apoptosis using annexin V-PI staining, and indicated higher apoptosis rates in cells treated with aristolochic acid and P. ginseng extract compared with aristolochic acid alone. However, P. ginseng extract by itself (5 and 50 µg/mL) increased the Ki-67 index, indicating an enhancement in cellular proliferation. Cell cycle analysis excluded a P. ginseng extract-mediated induction of G2/M cell cycle arrest such as the one typically observed with aristolochic acid. Finally, β-catenin acquisition was found to be accelerated when cells were treated with both doses of ginseng, suggesting that the epithelial phenotype of renal proximal tubular epithelial cells was maintained. Also, ginseng treatment (5 and 50 µg/mL) reduced the oxidative stress activity induced by aristolochic acid after 24 and 48 h. These results indicate that the ginseng extract has a protective activity towards the generation of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species induced by aristolochic acid. However, the ginseng-mediated alleviation of oxidative stress did not correlate with a decrease but rather with an increase in aristolochic acid-induced apoptosis and death. This deleterious herb-herb interaction could worsen aristolochic acid tubulotoxicity and reinforce the severity and duration of the injury. Nevertheless, increased cellular proliferation and migration, along with the improvement in the epithelial phenotype maintenance, indicate that ginseng could be useful for improving tubular regeneration and the recovery following drug-induced kidney injury. Such dual activities of ginseng certainly warrant further in vivo

  16. Effects of ionizing energy treatment on the quality of ginseng products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Joong-Ho; Bélanger, Jacqueline M. R.; Paré, J. R. Jocelyn

    Pre-established doses were applied to Panax ginseng powders for determining the effects of γ-irradiation on the quality of samples from the microbiological, some physico-chemical and organoleptic points of view. Irradiation at 5 kGy was sufficient not only to reduce total bacterial counts (1.28 × 10 5/g) by about 3 orders of magnitude but to eliminate coliforms, yeast and molds during three months of storage at 30°C and 50-60% RH. An established dose of 5 kGy caused little change in pH, acidity, TBA number, pigments, color, and overall acceptability of the sample, however there was a significant change in color and appearance of the irradiated sample at 10 kGy where all microorganisms were destroyed.

  17. Siberian Ginseng

    MedlinePlus

    Siberian ginseng is a plant. People use the root of the plant to make medicine. Siberian ginseng is often called an "adaptogen." This is a ... diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, ...

  18. American Ginseng

    MedlinePlus

    ... ginseng extract called CVT-E002 (Cold-FX, Afexa Life Sciences, Canada) 200-400 mg twice daily for 3- ... evidence that a specific product (AD-fX, Afexa Life Sciences, Canada) containing American ginseng extract in combination with ...

  19. Dietary supplementation of chinese ginseng prevents obesity and metabolic syndrome in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoxiao; Luo, Jing; Anandh Babu, Pon Velayutham; Zhang, Wei; Gilbert, Elizabeth; Cline, Mark; McMillan, Ryan; Hulver, Matthew; Alkhalidy, Hana; Zhen, Wei; Zhang, Haiyan; Liu, Dongmin

    2014-12-01

    Obesity and diabetes are growing health problems worldwide. In this study, dietary provision of Chinese ginseng (0.5 g/kg diet) prevented body weight gain in high-fat (HF) diet-fed mice. Dietary ginseng supplementation reduced body fat mass gain, improved glucose tolerance and whole body insulin sensitivity, and prevented hypertension in HF diet-induced obese mice. Ginseng consumption led to reduced concentrations of plasma insulin and leptin, but had no effect on plasma adiponectin levels in HF diet-fed mice. Body temperature was higher in mice fed the ginseng-supplemented diet but energy expenditure, respiration rate, and locomotive activity were not significantly altered. Dietary intake of ginseng increased fatty acid oxidation in the liver but not in skeletal muscle. Expression of several transcription factors associated with adipogenesis (C/EBPα and PPARγ) were decreased in the adipose tissue of HF diet-fed mice, effects that were mitigated in mice that consumed the HF diet supplemented with ginseng. Abundance of fatty acid synthase (FASN) mRNA was greater in the adipose tissue of mice that consumed the ginseng-supplemented HF diet as compared with control or un-supplemented HF diet-fed mice. Ginseng treatment had no effect on the expression of genes involved in the regulation of food intake in the hypothalamus. These data suggest that Chinese ginseng can potently prevent the development of obesity and insulin resistance in HF diet-fed mice.

  20. Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) Reduces Cell Growth, Lipid Acquisition and Increases Adiponectin Expression in 3T3-L1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Chia-Rou; Lee, Sea-Ming; Popovich, David G.

    2011-01-01

    An American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) extract (GE) that contained a quantifiable amount of ginsenosides was investigated for the potential to inhibit proliferation, affect the cell cycle, influence lipid acquisition and adiponectin expression in 3T3-L1 cells. Six fingerprint ginsenosides were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography and the respective molecular weights were confirmed by LC-ESI-MS analysis. The extract contained Rg1 (347.3 ± 99.7 μg g−1, dry weight), Re (8280.4 ± 792.3 μg g−1), Rb1 (1585.8 ± 86.8 μg g−1), Rc (32.9 ± 8 μg g−1), Rb2 (62.6 ± 10.6 μg g−1) and Rd (90.4 ± 3.2 μg g−1). The GE had a dose-dependent effect on 3T3-L1 cell growth, the LC50 value was determined to be 40.3 ± 5 μg ml−1. Cell cycle analysis showed modest changes in the cell cycle. No significant changes observed in both G1 and G2/M phases, however there was a significant decrease (P < .05) in the S phase after 24 and 48 h treatment. Apoptotic cells were modest but significantly (P < .05) increased after 48 h (3.2 ± 1.0%) compared to untreated control cells (1.5 ± 0.1%). Lipid acquisition was significantly reduced (P < .05) by 13 and 22% when treated at concentrations of 20.2 and 40.3 μg ml−1 compared to untreated control cells. In relation to adiponectin activation, western blot analysis showed that the protein expression was significantly (P < .05) increased at concentrations tested. A quantified GE reduced the growth of 3T3-L1 cells, down-regulated the accumulation of lipid and up-regulated the expression of adiponectin in the 3T3-L1 adipocyte cell model. PMID:21799682

  1. Oral Administration of Ginseng Ameliorates Cyclosporine-Induced Pancreatic Injury in an Experimental Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sun Woo; Doh, Kyoung Chan; Jin, Long; Piao, Shang Guo; Heo, Seong Beom; Zheng, Yu Fen; Bae, Soo Kyung; Chung, Byung Ha; Yang, Chul Woo

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was performed to investigate whether ginseng has a protective effect in an experimental mouse model of cyclosporine-induced pancreatic injury. Methods Mice were treated with cyclosporine (30 mg/kg/day, subcutaneously) and Korean red ginseng extract (0.2 or 0.4 g/kg/day, oral gavage) for 4 weeks while on a 0.01% salt diet. The effect of ginseng on cyclosporine-induced pancreatic islet dysfunction was investigated by an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and measurements of serum insulin level, β cell area, macrophage infiltration, and apoptosis. Using an in vitro model, we further examined the effect of ginseng on a cyclosporine-treated insulin-secreting cell line. Oxidative stress was measured by the concentration of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine in serum, tissue sections, and culture media. Results Four weeks of cyclosporine treatment increased blood glucose levels and decreased insulin levels, but cotreatment with ginseng ameliorated the cyclosporine-induced glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Pancreatic β cell area was also greater with ginseng cotreatment compared with cyclosporine monotherapy. The production of proinflammatory molecules, such as induced nitric oxide synthase and cytokines, and the level of apoptotic cell death also decreased in pancreatic β cell with ginseng treatment. Consistent with the in vivo results, the in vitro study showed that the addition of ginseng protected against cyclosporine-induced cytotoxicity, inflammation, and apoptotic cell death. These in vivo and in vitro changes were accompanied by decreases in the levels of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine in pancreatic β cell in tissue section, serum, and culture media during cotreatment of ginseng with cyclosporine. Conclusions The results of our in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrate that ginseng has a protective effect against cyclosporine-induced pancreatic β cell injury via reducing oxidative stress. PMID:24009697

  2. Effects of American Ginseng on Preimplantation Development and Pregnancy in Mice.

    PubMed

    Belanger, Danyka; Calder, Michele D; Gianetto-Berruti, Alessandra; Lui, Edmund M; Watson, Andrew J; Feyles, Valter

    2016-01-01

    In North America, a high proportion of pregnant women use herbal medications including North American ginseng. This medicinal plant contains high amounts of triterpene saponins (ginsenosides), which are the main bioactive compounds. It is important to assess ginseng's impact on all reproductive functions to ensure the safety of pregnant women and fetuses. In this study, we defined the concentration-responsive effects of North American alcoholic and aqueous ginseng extracts on preimplantation development in vitro and on pregnancy and post-partum development in the mouse. Two-cell mouse embryos were cultured with 5 different concentrations of whole ginseng root extracts, or ginsenosides Rb1, Rg1 and Re alone, a combinatorial ginsenoside solution and a crude polysaccharide fraction solution. Embryonic development and recovery from each treatment was assessed. To investigate the in vivo effects of ginseng extracts, female mice were gavaged with 50[Formula: see text]mg/kg/day, 500[Formula: see text]mg/kg/day or 2000[Formula: see text]mg/kg/day of either extract (treatment) or water (sham) for 2 weeks prior to mating and throughout gestation. Gestation period, litter size, pup growth and pup sex ratio were evaluated. Oral ginseng consumption did not significantly affect fertility or pregnancy in the mouse. High doses of ginseng (2000[Formula: see text]mg/kg/day) decreased maternal weight gain. Direct treatment of preimplantation embryos in vitro demonstrated that ALC and AQ extract treatment reduced development in a concentration responsive manner, while only ALC extract effects were largely reversible. Treatments with individual or combinatorial ginsenosides, or the polysaccharide fraction solution alone did not impair preimplantation development, in vitro. In conclusion, maternal oral consumption of ginseng has little negative impact on pregnancy in the mouse, however, direct exposure to ginseng extract during mouse preimplantation development in vitro is detrimental.

  3. Panax red ginseng extract regulates energy expenditures by modulating PKA dependent lipid mobilization in adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hae-Mi; Kang, Young-Ho; Yoo, Hanju; Yoon, Seung-Yong; Kang, Sang-Wook; Chang, Eun-Ju; Song, Youngsup

    2014-05-16

    Regulation of balance between lipid accumulation and energy consumption is a critical step for the maintenance of energy homeostasis. Here, we show that Panax red ginseng extract treatments increased energy expenditures and prevented mice from diet induced obesity. Panax red ginseng extracts strongly activated Hormone Specific Lipase (HSL) via Protein Kinase A (PKA). Since activation of HSL induces lipolysis in WAT and fatty acid oxidation in brown adipose tissue (BAT), these results suggest that Panax red ginseng extracts reduce HFD induced obesity by regulating lipid mobilization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Korean Red Ginseng treatment on the gene expression profile of diabetic rat retina

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hana; Son, Gun Woo; Park, Hye Rim; Lee, Seung Eun; Park, Yong Seek

    2015-01-01

    Background Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) is a herbal medicine used in Asian countries and is very popular for its beneficial biological properties. Diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications are rapidly becoming a global public health concern. The literature on transcriptional changes induced by KRG in rat models of diabetic retinopathy is limited. Considering these facts, we designed this study to determine whether retinopathy-associated genes are altered in retinas of rats with DM and whether the induced changes are reversed by KRG. Methods Male Sprague–Dawley rats were intravenously injected with streptozotocin (50 mg/kg body weight) to induce DM, following which, KRG powder (200 mg/kg body weight) was orally administered to the KRG-treated DM rat group for 10 wks. The rats were then sacrificed, and their retinas were harvested for total RNA extraction. Microarray gene expression profiling was performed on the extracted RNA samples. Results From among > 31,000 genes investigated, the expression of 268 genes was observed to be upregulated and that of 58 genes was downregulated, with twofold altered expression levels in the DM group compared with those in the control group. Moreover, 39 genes were upregulated more than twofold and 84 genes were downregulated in the KRG-treated group compared to the DM group. The expression of the genes was significantly reversed by KRG treatment; some of these genes were analyzed further to verify the results of the microarray experiments. Conclusion Taken together, our data suggest that reversed changes in the gene expression may mediate alleviating activities of KRG in rats with diabetic retinopathy. PMID:26843816

  5. Effect of azoxystrobin fungicide on the physiological and biochemical indices and ginsenoside contents of ginseng leaves.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shuang; Xu, Xuanwei; Lu, Zhongbin

    2018-04-01

    The impact of fungicide azoxystrobin, applied as foliar spray, on the physiological and biochemical indices and ginsenoside contents of ginseng was studied in ginseng ( Panax ginseng Mey. cv. "Ermaya") under natural environmental conditions. Different concentrations of 25% azoxystrobin SC (150 g a.i./ha and 225 g a.i./ha) on ginseng plants were sprayed three times, and the changes in physiological and biochemical indices and ginsenoside contents of ginseng leaves were tested. Physiological and biochemical indices were measured using a spectrophotometer (Shimadzu UV-2450). Every index was determined three times per replication. Extracts of ginsenosides were analyzed by HPLC (Shimadzu LC20-AB) utilizing a GL-Wondasil C 18 column. Chlorophyll and soluble protein contents were significantly ( p  = 0.05) increased compared with the control by the application of azoxystrobin. Additionally, activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, peroxidase, and ginsenoside contents in azoxystrobin-treated plants were improved, and malondialdehyde content and O 2 - contents were reduced effectively. Azoxystrobin treatments to ginseng plants at all growth stages suggested that the azoxystrobin-induced delay of senescence was due to an enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity protecting the plants from harmful active oxygen species. When the dose of azoxystrobin was 225 g a.i./ha, the effect was more significant. This work suggested that azoxystrobin played a role in delaying senescence by changing physiological and biochemical indices and improving ginsenoside contents in ginseng leaves.

  6. Distinct urine metabolome after Asian ginseng and American ginseng intervention based on GC-MS metabolomics approach

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liu; Yu, Qing-Tao; Ge, Ya-Zhong; Zhang, Wen-Song; Fan, Yong; Ma, Chung-Wah; Liu, Qun; Qi, Lian-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Ginseng occupies a prominent position in the list of best-selling natural products worldwide. Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) and American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) show different properties and medicinal applications in pharmacology, even though the main active constituents of them are both thought to be ginsenosides. Metabolomics is a promising method to profile entire endogenous metabolites and monitor their fluctuations related to exogenous stimulus. Herein, an untargeted metabolomics approach was applied to study the overall urine metabolic differences between Asian ginseng and American ginseng in mice. Metabolomics analyses were performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) together with multivariate statistical data analysis. A total of 21 metabolites related to D-glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism, glutathione metabolism, TCA cycle and glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, differed significantly under the Asian ginseng treatment; 34 metabolites mainly associated with glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, TCA cycle and taurine and hypotaurine metabolism, were significantly altered after American ginseng treatment. Urinary metabolomics reveal that Asian ginseng and American ginseng can benefit organism physiological and biological functions via regulating multiple metabolic pathways. The important pathways identified from Asian ginseng and American ginseng can also help to explore new therapeutic effects or action targets so as to broad application of these two ginsengs. PMID:27991533

  7. DNA protective effect of ginseng and the antagonistic effect of Chinese turnip: A supplementation study.

    PubMed

    Szeto, Yim Tong; Wong, Kam Shing; Han, Andrea; Pak, Sok Cheon; Kalle, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this clinical study is to provide scientific evidence for supporting traditional Chinese application and usage to the patients. For this purpose, we tested the ability if Panax ginseng extract to lower oxidative damage to nuclear DNA in human lymphocytes by comparing the effect of cooked Chinese turnip on this effect. Seven healthy subjects (4 males and 3 females from 37 to 60 years) participated two occasions which were at least 2 weeks apart. About 2 mL of fasting blood sample for baseline measurement was taken on arrival. They were requested to ingest the content of 5 ginseng capsules in 200 mL water. The subject remained fasting for 2 h until the second blood sample taken. In the other occasion, the experiment was repeated except a piece of cooked turnip (10 g) was taken with the ginseng extract. The two occasions could be interchanged. Comet assay was performed on two specimens on the same day for the evaluation of lymphocytic DNA damage with or without oxidative stress. For the group with ginseng supplementation, there was a significant decrease in comet score for hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) treatment over the 2-h period while no change in DNA damage for unstressed sample. For the group with ginseng together with turnip supplementation, there was no significant difference in comet score for both H 2 O 2 treatment and phosphate-buffered saline treatment. Ginseng extract could reduce DNA damage mediated by H 2 O 2 effectively, but this protection effect was antagonized by the ingestion of cooked turnip at the same time. In the current study, commercial ginseng extract was used for supplementing volunteers. Ginseng extract could protect DNA from oxidative stress in vivo while turnip diminished the protection.

  8. DNA protective effect of ginseng and the antagonistic effect of Chinese turnip: A supplementation study

    PubMed Central

    Szeto, Yim Tong; Wong, Kam Shing; Han, Andrea; Pak, Sok Cheon; Kalle, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this clinical study is to provide scientific evidence for supporting traditional Chinese application and usage to the patients. For this purpose, we tested the ability if Panax ginseng extract to lower oxidative damage to nuclear DNA in human lymphocytes by comparing the effect of cooked Chinese turnip on this effect. Materials and Methods: Seven healthy subjects (4 males and 3 females from 37 to 60 years) participated two occasions which were at least 2 weeks apart. About 2 mL of fasting blood sample for baseline measurement was taken on arrival. They were requested to ingest the content of 5 ginseng capsules in 200 mL water. The subject remained fasting for 2 h until the second blood sample taken. In the other occasion, the experiment was repeated except a piece of cooked turnip (10 g) was taken with the ginseng extract. The two occasions could be interchanged. Comet assay was performed on two specimens on the same day for the evaluation of lymphocytic DNA damage with or without oxidative stress. Results: For the group with ginseng supplementation, there was a significant decrease in comet score for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment over the 2-h period while no change in DNA damage for unstressed sample. For the group with ginseng together with turnip supplementation, there was no significant difference in comet score for both H2O2 treatment and phosphate-buffered saline treatment. Ginseng extract could reduce DNA damage mediated by H2O2 effectively, but this protection effect was antagonized by the ingestion of cooked turnip at the same time. Conclusion: In the current study, commercial ginseng extract was used for supplementing volunteers. Ginseng extract could protect DNA from oxidative stress in vivo while turnip diminished the protection. PMID:27757261

  9. Ginseng administration protects skeletal muscle from oxidative stress induced by acute exercise in rats.

    PubMed

    Voces, J; Cabral de Oliveira, A C; Prieto, J G; Vila, L; Perez, A C; Duarte, I D G; Alvarez, A I

    2004-12-01

    Enzymatic activity was analyzed in the soleus, gastrocnemius (red and white) and plantaris muscles of acutely exercised rats after long-term administration of Panax ginseng extract in order to evaluate the protective role of ginseng against skeletal muscle oxidation. Ginseng extract (3, 10, 100, or 500 mg/kg) was administered orally for three months to male Wistar rats weighing 200 +/- 50 g before exercise and to non-exercised rats (N = 8/group). The results showed a membrane stabilizing capacity of the extract since mitochondrial function measured on the basis of citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities was reduced, on average, by 20% (P < 0.05) after exercise but the activities remained unchanged in animals treated with a ginseng dose of 100 mg/kg. Glutathione status did not show significant changes after exercise or treatment. Lipid peroxidation, measured on the basis of malondialdehyde levels, was significantly higher in all muscles after exercise, and again was reduced by about 74% (P < 0.05) by the use of ginseng extract. The administration of ginseng extract was able to protect muscle from exercise-induced oxidative stress irrespective of fiber type.

  10. Endophytic Bacteria Isolated from Panax ginseng Improves Ginsenoside Accumulation in Adventitious Ginseng Root Culture.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaolin; Wu, Hao; Yin, Zhenhao; Lian, Meilan; Yin, Chengri

    2017-05-23

    Ginsenoside is the most important secondary metabolite of ginseng. Natural sources of wild ginseng have been overexploited. Although root culture could reduce the length of the growth cycle of ginseng, the number of ginsenosides is fewer and their contents are lower in adventitious roots of ginseng than that in ginseng cultivated in the field. In this study, we investigated the effects of endophytic bacterial elicitors on biomass and ginsenoside production in adventitious roots cultures of Panax ginseng . Endophyte LB 5-3 as an elicitor could increase biomass and ginsenoside accumulation in ginseng adventitious root culture. After 6 days elicitation with a 10.0 mL of strain LB 5-3, the content of total ginsenoside was 2.026 mg g -1 which was four times more than that in unchallenged roots. The combination of methyl jasmonate and strain LB 5-3 had a negative effect on ginseng adventitious root growth and ginsenoside production. The genomic DNA of strain LB 5-3 was sequenced, and was found to be most closely related to Bacillus altitudinis (KX230132.1). The challenged ginseng adventitious root extracts exerted inhibitory effect against the HepG2 cells, which IC 50 value was 0.94 mg mL -1 .

  11. Therapeutic Effects of Fermented Red Ginseng in Allergic Rhinitis: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jae-Woo; Ji, Geun-Eog; Park, Myeong-Soo; Song, Woo-Jung; Kim, Min-Hye; Kwon, Jae-Woo; Kim, Tae-Whan; Park, Heung-Woo; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Allergic rhinitis is clinically defined as a disorder of the nose induced by IgE mediated inflammation after allergen exposure of the nasal mucosa. Many reports have stated that Panax ginseng and fermented red ginseng have anti-inflammatory effects, especially against Th2-type inflammation. This study was conducted to evaluate the therapeutic effects of fermented red ginseng in allergic rhinitis. Methods In this 4-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 59 patients with persistent perennial allergic rhinitis were randomly divided into two groups: those receiving fermented red ginseng tablets (experimental group) and those receiving placebo (control group). The primary efficacy variable was the total nasal symptom score (TNSS; rhinorrhea, sneezing, itchy nose, and nasal congestion). Secondary efficacy variables were the Rhinitis Quality of Life (RQoL) score and skin reactivity to inhalant allergens, as determined by the skin prick test. Results There was no significant difference in the TNSS score and TNSS duration score between the experimental and placebo groups in weeks 1, 2, 3, or 4. For nasal congestion, fermented red ginseng was significantly effective (P<0.005), while placebo caused no change. The activity and emotion of RQoL improved markedly secondary to treatment with fermented red ginseng (P<0.05), while placebo caused no change. Additionally, fermented red ginseng reduced skin reactivity to sensitized perennial allergens (P<0.05). Fermented red ginseng was well tolerated. Conclusions Fermented red ginseng improved nasal congestion symptoms and RQoL in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis. PMID:21461249

  12. A randomized controlled crossover trial of the effect of ginseng consumption on the immune response to moderate exercise in healthy sedentary men.

    PubMed

    Biondo, Patricia D; Robbins, Sarah J; Walsh, Jennifer D; McCargar, Linda J; Harber, Vicki J; Field, Catherine J

    2008-10-01

    Ginseng is a popular herbal remedy that is reputed to increase resistance to stress and improve immune function. Regular exercise results in acute physiologic stress that affects the immune response. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of daily consumption of a standardized ginsenoside-containing North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) extract on immune function before, during, and after a moderate-exercise protocol in healthy sedentary men. Ten healthy males were randomized to receive either ginseng (1125 mg.d-1) or placebo for 35 days. After a 3 month washout period, subjects received the opposite treatment for another 35 days. An exercise test and blood collection were performed at the end of each treatment period. Immune parameters and blood hormone levels were measured before, during, and after the exercise stress protocol. Ginseng treatment reduced the peripheral blood concentration of CD8+ T cells and increased mitogen-stimulated T cell production of interleukin-2 ex vivo. Ginseng had no effect on total white blood cell counts; on concentrations of neutrophils, monocytes, or lymphocytes (CD3+, CD4+, CD16+, CD20+); on lymphocyte proliferation; or on neutrophil oxidative burst. Ginseng did not significantly affect exercise-induced changes in plasma concentrations of lactate, insulin, cortisol, or growth hormone. The consumption of ginseng for 5 weeks had a limited effect on the immune response to an acute exercise protocol.

  13. 7 CFR 65.145 - Ginseng.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ginseng. 65.145 Section 65.145 Agriculture Regulations..., AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.145 Ginseng. Ginseng means ginseng root of the genus Panax. ...

  14. 7 CFR 65.145 - Ginseng.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ginseng. 65.145 Section 65.145 Agriculture Regulations..., AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.145 Ginseng. Ginseng means ginseng root of the genus Panax. ...

  15. 7 CFR 65.145 - Ginseng.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ginseng. 65.145 Section 65.145 Agriculture Regulations..., AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.145 Ginseng. Ginseng means ginseng root of the genus Panax. ...

  16. Ginseng Genome Database: an open-access platform for genomics of Panax ginseng.

    PubMed

    Jayakodi, Murukarthick; Choi, Beom-Soon; Lee, Sang-Choon; Kim, Nam-Hoon; Park, Jee Young; Jang, Woojong; Lakshmanan, Meiyappan; Mohan, Shobhana V G; Lee, Dong-Yup; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2018-04-12

    The ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) is a perennial herbaceous plant that has been used in traditional oriental medicine for thousands of years. Ginsenosides, which have significant pharmacological effects on human health, are the foremost bioactive constituents in this plant. Having realized the importance of this plant to humans, an integrated omics resource becomes indispensable to facilitate genomic research, molecular breeding and pharmacological study of this herb. The first draft genome sequences of P. ginseng cultivar "Chunpoong" were reported recently. Here, using the draft genome, transcriptome, and functional annotation datasets of P. ginseng, we have constructed the Ginseng Genome Database http://ginsengdb.snu.ac.kr /, the first open-access platform to provide comprehensive genomic resources of P. ginseng. The current version of this database provides the most up-to-date draft genome sequence (of approximately 3000 Mbp of scaffold sequences) along with the structural and functional annotations for 59,352 genes and digital expression of genes based on transcriptome data from different tissues, growth stages and treatments. In addition, tools for visualization and the genomic data from various analyses are provided. All data in the database were manually curated and integrated within a user-friendly query page. This database provides valuable resources for a range of research fields related to P. ginseng and other species belonging to the Apiales order as well as for plant research communities in general. Ginseng genome database can be accessed at http://ginsengdb.snu.ac.kr /.

  17. [Active constituents reducing side-effects of prednisone acetate in leaves of Panax ginseng C.A.Mey].

    PubMed

    Dou, D; Wen, Y; Pei, Y; Chen, Y; Ma, Z

    1997-03-01

    The rise of total lipid, triglyceride and total cholesterol, and the drop of cortisol in serum induced by PA can be significantly inhibited by total ginsenosides in the leaves of Panax ginseng [GSL, 60 mg/(kg.d)]. From GSL ten compounds have been isolated and identified as ginsenoside-Rb2, -Rc, -Rd, -Re, -Rg1 -F3, F2, -Rg2, 20(R)-Rg2 and -Rh1, respectively. Pharmacological study has proved ginsenoside-Re to be the chief active constituent of GSL.

  18. Red ginseng and vitamin C increase immune cell activity and decrease lung inflammation induced by influenza A virus/H1N1 infection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyemin; Jang, Mirim; Kim, Yejin; Choi, Jiyea; Jeon, Jane; Kim, Jihoon; Hwang, Young-Il; Kang, Jae Seung; Lee, Wang Jae

    2016-03-01

    Because red ginseng and vitamin C have immunomodulatory function and anti-viral effect, we investigated whether red ginseng and vitamin C synergistically regulate immune cell function and suppress viral infection. Red ginseng and vitamin C were treated to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) or sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-infected BCBL-1, and administrated to Gulo(-/-) mice, which are incapable of synthesizing vitamin C, with or without influenza A virus/H1N1 infection. Red ginseng and vitamin C increased the expression of CD25 and CD69 of PBMCs and natural killer (NK) cells. Co-treatment of them decreased cell viability and lytic gene expression in BCBL-1. In Gulo(-/-) mice, red ginseng and vitamin C increased the expression of NKp46, a natural cytotoxic receptor of NK cells and interferon (IFN)-γ production. Influenza infection decreased the survival rate, and increased inflammation and viral plaque accumulation in the lungs of vitamin C-depleted Gulo(-/-) mice, which were remarkably reduced by red ginseng and vitamin C supplementation. Administration of red ginseng and vitamin C enhanced the activation of immune cells like T and NK cells, and repressed the progress of viral lytic cycle. It also reduced lung inflammation caused by viral infection, which consequently increased the survival rate. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society, Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology.

  19. Panax ginseng extract attenuates neuronal injury and cognitive deficits in rats with vascular dementia induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jun-De; Wang, Jun-Jie; Zhang, Xian-Hu; Yu, Yan; Kang, Zhao-Sheng

    2018-04-01

    Panax ginseng is a slow-growing perennial plant. Panax ginseng extract has numerous biological activities, including antitumor, anti-inflammatory and antistress activities. Panax ginseng extract also has a cognition-enhancing effect in rats with alcohol-induced memory impairment. In this study, we partially occluded the bilateral carotid arteries in the rat to induce chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, a well-known model of vascular dementia. The rats were then intragastrically administered 50 or 100 mg/kg Panax ginseng extract. Morris water maze and balance beam tests were used to evaluate memory deficits and motor function, respectively. Protein quantity was used to evaluate cholinergic neurons. Immunofluorescence staining was used to assess the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells. Western blot assay was used to evaluate protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, Bcl-2 and Bax. Treatment with Panax ginseng extract for 8 weeks significantly improved behavioral function and increased neuronal density and VEGF and bFGF protein expression in the hippocampal CA3 area. Furthermore, Panax ginseng extract reduced the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein-immunoreactive cells, and it decreased apoptosis by upregulating Bcl-2 and downregulating Bax protein expression. The effect of Panax ginseng extract was dose-dependent and similar to that of nimodipine, a commonly used drug for the treatment of vascular dementia. These findings suggest that Panax ginseng extract is neuroprotective against vascular dementia induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, and therefore might have therapeutic potential for preventing and treating the disease.

  20. Chemoprevention of chemical-induced skin cancer by Panax ginseng root extract.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Jyoti; Goyal, Pradeep K

    2015-07-01

    Cancer has emerged as a major health problem globally as a consequence to the increased longevity of the population, changing the environment and life style. Chemoprevention is a new and promising strategy for reducing cancer burden. Recently, some natural products have been identified for their chemopreventive activity to reduce the cancer incidence. Ginseng is known for its potential to treat various ailments in human beings. The present study was designed to explore the anticancer and antioxidative potential of Panax ginseng against chemical-induced skin carcinogenesis in mammals. Skin tumors were induced in Swiss albino mice by a single topical application of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (100 μg/100 μL acetone) and, 2 wks later, promoted by repeated applications of croton oil (thrice in a wk in 1% acetone) till the end of the experiment (i.e., 16 wk). Hydroalcoholic ginseng root extract at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight/d was orally administered at the peri-initiation, postinitiation, and peri-post-initiation stages. Ginseng root extract treatment caused a significant reduction in tumor incidence, cumulative number of tumors, tumor yield, and tumor burden, as compared to the 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-croton oil-treated control group. Further, biochemical assays revealed a significant enhancement in the levels of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, vitamin C, and total proteins but a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation levels in both the liver and skin with ginseng root extract treatment, as compared to carcinogen-treated control group. These results suggest that P. ginseng has the potential to become a pivotal chemopreventive agent that can reduce cancer in mammals.

  1. Oriental mystery: ginseng

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, T.K.; Cho, H.O.; Yun, Y.S.

    1985-01-01

    As a mysterious cure-all medicine Korea ginseng has been, since four or five thousand years ago, used as a tonic in the orient. Ginseng has been known to have a tonic effect and it is the general opinion of many investigators that ginseng has the effect of normalization of physical conditions, that is; maintaining individual homeostasis. On the other hand, the authors have found that ginseng extract inhibits the incidence and also the proliferation of tumors induced by carcinogens such as urethane, DMBA and aflatoxin B. The anticarcinogenic effect of ginseng was due to its ability to enhance the naturalmore » killer activity of the host. Korea ginseng is highly effective in preventing or curing various disease such as diabetes, cancer, high blood pressure, etc.« less

  2. Effects of Complementary Combination Therapy of Korean Red Ginseng and Antiviral Agents in Chronic Hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung-Hwa; Yang, Keum-Jin; Lee, Dong-Soo

    2016-12-01

    Chronic hepatitis B management is commonly targeted at reducing viral replication. However, the currently available antiviral therapies are associated with some problems, including resistance and numerous adverse effects. Ginseng has been reported to be effective for treating viral infections such as influenza and human immunodeficiency virus. However, there are currently few studies on the effects of ginseng in chronic hepatitis B. Thus, this study investigated the effects of ginseng together with antiviral agents in chronic hepatitis B. This was a prospective, single-blinded, randomized controlled trial, and single-center study. Thirty-eight patients were enrolled. The control group (n = 19) was administered antiviral agents alone. The experimental group (n = 19) was administered antiviral agents along with Korean Red Ginseng powder capsules (each dose is 1 gram (two capsules), a one-day dose is 3 grams). The baseline characteristics did not differ between the two groups. Differences in several non-invasive fibrosis serologic markers (type IV collagen, hyaluronic acid, transforming growth factor-β) and in the hepatitis B virus DNA levels were compared between the groups. The non-invasive fibrosis serologic markers were further decreased in the experimental group, with significant differences after treatment observed for hyaluronic acid (p = 0.032) and transforming growth factor-β (p = 0.008), but not for type IV collagen (p = 0.174). This study suggests the possibility of Korean Red Ginseng as a complementary therapy for chronic hepatitis B.

  3. Protective Effects of Processed Ginseng and Its Active Ginsenosides on Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity: In Vitro and in Vivo Studies.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun Yeon; Choi, Pilju; Kim, Taejung; Ko, Hyeonseok; Kim, Ho-kyong; Kang, Ki Sung; Ham, Jungyeob

    2015-07-01

    Although cisplatin can dramatically improve the survival rate in cancer patients, its use is limited by its nephrotoxicity. Previous investigations showed that Panax ginseng contains components that exhibit protective activity against cisplatin-induced nephropathy. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of microwave-assisted processing on the protective effect of ginseng and identify ginsenosides that are active against cisplatin-induced kidney damage to evaluate the potential of using ginseng in the management of nephrotoxicity. The LLC-PK1 cell damage by cisplatin was significantly decreased by treatment with microwave-processed ginseng (MG) and ginsenosides Rg3, Rg5, and Rk1. Reduced expression of p53 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase proteins by cisplatin in LLC-PK1 cells was markedly ameliorated after Rg3 and Rg5/Rk1 treatment. Additionally, elevated expression of cleaved caspase-3 was significantly reduced by ginsenosides Rg5, Rk1, and with even greater potency, Rg3. Moreover, MG and its fraction containing active ginsenosides showed protective effects against cisplatin-induced nephropathy in mice. We found that ginsenosides Rg3, Rg5, and Rk1 generated during the heat treatment of ginseng ameliorate renal damage by regulating inflammation and apoptosis. Results of current experiments provide evidence of the renoprotective effects and therapeutic potential of MG and its active ginsenosides, both in vitro and in vivo.

  4. Ginseng in Traditional Herbal Prescriptions

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ho Jae; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Jong Min; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Panax ginseng Meyer has been widely used as a tonic in traditional Korean, Chinese, and Japanese herbal medicines and in Western herbal preparations for thousands of years. In the past, ginseng was very rare and was considered to have mysterious powers. Today, the efficacy of drugs must be tested through well-designed clinical trials or meta-analyses, and ginseng is no exception. In the present review, we discuss the functions of ginseng described in historical documents and describe how these functions are taken into account in herbal prescriptions. We also discuss the findings of experimental pharmacological research on the functions of ginseng in ginseng-containing prescriptions and how these prescriptions have been applied in modern therapeutic interventions. The present review on the functions of ginseng in traditional prescriptions helps to demystify ginseng and, as a result, may contribute to expanding the use of ginseng or ginseng-containing prescriptions. PMID:23717123

  5. Active compounds and distinctive sensory features provided by American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) extract in a new functional milk beverage.

    PubMed

    Tárrega, A; Salvador, A; Meyer, M; Feuillère, N; Ibarra, A; Roller, M; Terroba, D; Madera, C; Iglesias, J R; Echevarría, J; Fiszman, S

    2012-08-01

    American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) has recognized neurocognitive effects, and a ginsenoside-rich extract of the root of the plant has been shown to improve cognitive functions in young adults. This study aimed at assessing the chemical and sensory profiles of a UHT-treated, low-lactose functional milk containing American ginseng. Individual ginsenosides in the milk were analyzed by HPLC. Descriptive sensory analysis was performed by a trained panel to quantitatively document sensory changes resulting from the addition of ginseng and the UHT process on flavored and unflavored milks. Consumer acceptance of the product was also investigated. Total ginsenoside content in the UHT-treated milk enriched with the ginseng extract after UHT process treatment was 7.52 mg/100 g of milk, corresponding to a recovery of 67.6% compared with the content in the unprocessed extract. The intake of 150 to 300 mL of this ginseng-enriched milk provides the amount of total ginsenosides (11.5 to 23 mg) necessary to improve cognitive function after its consumption. Both the presence of ginsenosides and their thermal treatment affected some sensory properties of the milk, most notably an increase in bitterness and metallic taste, the appearance of a brownish color, and a decrease in milky flavor. Levels of brown color, bitterness, and metallic taste were highest in the industrially processed ginseng-enriched milk. The bitterness attributable to ginseng extract was reduced by addition of vanilla flavor and sucralose. A consumer exploratory study revealed that a niche of consumers exists who are willing to consume this type of product. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Effects of lead stress on net photosynthetic rate, SPAD value and ginsenoside production in Ginseng (Panax ginseng)].

    PubMed

    Liang, Yao; Jiang, Xiao-Li; Yang, Fen-Tuan; Cao, Qing-Jun; Li, Gang

    2014-08-01

    The paper aimed to evaluate the effects of lead stress on photosynthetic performance and ginsenoside content in ginseng (Panax ginseng). To accomplish this, three years old ginseng were cultivated in pot and in phytotron with different concentrations of lead, ranging from 0 to 1000 mg x kg(-1) soil for a whole growth period (about 150 days). The photosynthetic parameters in leaves and ginsenoside content in roots of ginseng were determined in green fruit stage and before withering stage, respectively. In comparison with the control, net photosynthetic rate and SPAD value in ginseng leaves cultivated with 100 and 250 mg x kg(-1) of lead changed insignificantly, however, ginseng supplied with 500 and 1 000 mg x kg(-1) of lead showed a noticeably decline in the net rate of photosynthesis and SPAD value (P < 0.05), the lowest net photosynthetic rate and SPAD value showed in the treatment supplied with 1 000 mg x kg(-1) of lead, with decline of 57.8%,11.0%, respectively. Total content of ginsenoside in ginseng roots cultivated with 100 mg x kg(-1) of lead showed insignificantly change compared to the control, but the content increased remarkably in treatments supplied with 250, 500, 1 000 mg x kg(-1) of lead (P < 0.05), and highest content appeared in these ginsengs exposed to 1000 mg x kg(-1) of lead. The net photosynthetic rate and SPAD value in leaves of ginseng both showed significantly negative linear correlations with lead stress level (P < 0.01), and significant positive linear correlations between total content of ginsenoside and lead concentration was also observed (P < 0.05). These results strongly indicate that exposing to high level of lead negatively affects photosynthetic performance in ginseng leaves, but benefits for accumulation of secondary metabolism (total content of ginsenoside) in ginseng root.

  7. The Difference between White and Red Ginseng: Variations in Ginsenosides and Immunomodulation.

    PubMed

    He, Min; Huang, Xin; Liu, Shuying; Guo, Chunsheng; Xie, Yufei; Meijer, Annemarie H; Wang, Mei

    2018-06-20

    Ginseng Radix ( Panax ginseng ) is one of the most commonly used herbs worldwide for the treatment of inflammation-related diseases among others, supported by ancient historical records. Throughout this long history, the large-scale cultivation of ginseng created an increasing demand for long-term storage of the harvested plant material, accelerating the development of post-harvesting procedures. Dried white ginseng and processed (steamed) red ginseng are the products of the two most common traditional post-harvest processes. Although there are a significant number of reports on practice-based therapeutic applications of ginseng, science-based evidence is needed to support these uses. Using a reverse pharmacology approach in conjunction with high-throughput techniques and animal models may offer clear, simple paths for the elucidation of the mechanisms of activity of herbal medicines. Moreover, it could provide a new and more efficient method for the discovery of potential drug candidates. From this perspective, the different chemical compositions of white ginseng and red ginseng could very likely result in different interactions with signaling pathways of diverse biological responses. This paper provides an overview of white ginseng and red ginseng, mainly focusing on their chemical profile and immunomodulation activities. Synergistic effects of ginseng herbal drugs with combinations of other traditional herbal drugs or with synthetic drugs were reviewed. The use of the zebrafish model for bioactivity testing greatly improves the prospects for future ginseng research. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Recent Methodology in Ginseng Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Seung-Hoon; Bae, Ok-Nam; Park, Jeong Hill

    2012-01-01

    As much as the popularity of ginseng in herbal prescriptions or remedies, ginseng has become the focus of research in many scientific fields. Analytical methodologies for ginseng, referred to as ginseng analysis hereafter, have been developed for bioactive component discovery, phytochemical profiling, quality control, and pharmacokinetic studies. This review summarizes the most recent advances in ginseng analysis in the past half-decade including emerging techniques and analytical trends. Ginseng analysis includes all of the leading analytical tools and serves as a representative model for the analytical research of herbal medicines. PMID:23717112

  9. The effect of ginseng (genus Panax) on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Komishon, A M; Shishtar, E; Ha, V; Sievenpiper, J L; de Souza, R J; Jovanovski, E; Ho, H V T; Duvnjak, L S; Vuksan, V

    2016-10-01

    Pre-clinical evidence indicates the potential for ginseng to reduce cardiovascular disease risk and acutely aid in blood pressure (BP) control. Clinical evidence evaluating repeated ginseng exposure, however, is controversial, triggering consumer and clinician concern. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to assess whether ginseng has an effect on BP. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane and CINAHL were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials ⩾4 weeks that compared the effect of ginseng on systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and/or mean arterial (MAP) BPs to control. Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed methodological quality and risk of bias. Data were pooled using random-effects models and expressed as mean differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Heterogeneity was assessed and quantified. Seventeen studies satisfied eligibility criteria (n=1381). No significant effect of ginseng on SBP, DBP and MAP was found. Stratified analysis, although not significant, appears to favour systolic BP improvement in diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity (MD=-2.76 mm Hg (95% CI=-6.40, 0.87); P=0.14). A priori subgroup analyses revealed significant association between body mass index and treatment differences (β=-0.95 mm Hg (95% CI=-1.56, -0.34); P=0.007). Ginseng appears to have neutral vascular affects; therefore, should not be discouraged for concern of increased BP. More high-quality, randomized, controlled trials assessing BP as a primary end point, and use of standardized ginseng root or extracts are warranted to limit evidence of heterogeneity in ginseng research and to better understand its cardiovascular health potential.

  10. Ginseng in Dermatology: A Review.

    PubMed

    Sabouri-Rad, Sarvenaz; Sabouri-Rad, Sara; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    Ginseng has gained fame as one of the most popular herbs originating from Eastern countries. Among different species which are known as ginseng, Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. (Korean or Asian ginseng) is the most frequently used one. Ginsenosides have been proposed to account for most of the biological activities of ginseng. The widely appreciated health-promoting effect of ginseng pertains to the beneficial effects of this plant against immune, cardiovascular and sexual diseases and cancer. In addition, there are some new aspects of the pharmacological activity of this plant which justify its use in dermatologic diseases. In dermatology, ginseng has been investigated mechanistically for its therapeutic effects in photoaging, wound and injury, skin cancer, dermatitis, hair loss, alopecia and cold hypersensitivity. Here, we reviewed experimental and clinical studies exploring the therapeutic efficacy of ginseng and ginsenosides in the field of dermatology. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Ginseng and obesity: observations and understanding in cultured cells, animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Longyun; Virgous, Carlos; Si, Hongwei

    2017-06-01

    Ginseng, a traditional medical herb, has been reported having beneficial effects in fatigue, heart diseases, diabetes, immune function and erectile dysfunction. In recent years, increasing investigations have been conducted on ginseng in preventing and treating of obesity, one of the major worldwide escalating public health concerns. However, the effect and the relevant mechanisms behind how ginseng works as an antiobesity treatment are still controversial. In this review, we briefly discussed the chemical structures, metabolism and pharmacokinetics of ginseng and its major bioactive components ginsenosides. The major focus is on the antiobesity effects and the physiological, cellular and molecular mechanisms of ginseng and its ginsenosides in cultured cells, animal models and humans. We particularly compared the ginsenosides profiles, the antiobesity effects and the mechanisms between Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) and American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius), the two major ginseng species having opposite medical effects in traditional Chinese medicine. Our unpublished data on the ginseng antiobesity in cultured cells and mice were also included. We further addressed the current problems and future directions of the ginseng antiobesity research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Decreases Isoproterenol-Induced Cardiac Injury via Antioxidant Properties in Porcine

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Kyu Hee; Cho, Jae Youl; Kim, Bumseok; Bae, Bong-Seuk

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Red ginseng (RG, Panax ginseng) has been shown to possess various ginsenosides. These ginsenosides are widely used for treating cardiovascular diseases in Asian communities. The present study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective potential of RG against isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI), by assessing electrocardiographic, hemodynamic, and biochemical parameters. Male porcines were orally administered with RG (250 and 500 mg/kg) or with vehicle for 9 days, with concurrent intraperitoneal injections of ISO (20 mg/kg) on the 8th and 9th day. RG significantly attenuated ISO-induced cardiac dysfunctions as evidenced by improved ventricular hemodynamic functions and reduced ST segment and QRS complex intervals. Also, RG significantly ameliorated myocardial injury parameters such as antioxidants. Malonaldialdehyde formation was also inhibited by RG. Based on the results, it is concluded that RG possesses significant cardioprotective potential through the inhibition of oxidative stress and may serve as an adjunct in the treatment and prophylaxis of MI. PMID:24456361

  13. Use of Gold Nanoparticle Fertilizer Enhances the Ginsenoside Contents and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Red Ginseng.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hee; Hwang, Yun-Gu; Lee, Taek-Guen; Jin, Cheng-Ri; Cho, Chi Heung; Jeong, Hee-Yeong; Kim, Dae-Ok

    2016-10-28

    Red ginseng, a steamed and sun-dried ginseng, is a popular health-promoting food in Korea and other Asian countries. We introduced nanofertilizer technology using gold nanoparticles in an effort to develop red ginseng with an elevated level of ginsenosides, the main active compounds of ginseng. Shoots of 6-year-old ginseng plants were fertilized three times with colloidal gold nanoparticle sprays. Red ginseng extract was prepared from the main roots. The concentrations of gold and ginsenosides were measured following gold nanoparticle treatment. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects, mouse peritoneal macrophages of male BALB/c mouse were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide plus interferon-γ in the presence of extracts from red ginseng with or without gold nanoparticle treatment. The content of ginsenosides, such as Rg1, Re, Rf, and Rb1, increased in ginseng treated with gold nanofertilizer whereas the steaming process increased only the levels of Rd and Rg3. The levels of nitric oxide, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and interleukin-6, but not tumor necrosis factor-α, were more suppressed in macrophages treated with extract from gold nanoparticle-treated red ginseng. Our results show that the use of a colloidal gold nanoparticle fertilizer improved the synthesis of ginsenosides in ginseng and enhanced the anti-inflammatory effects of red ginseng. Further research is required to elucidate the causal factors for the gold-induced change in ginsenoside synthesis and to determine the in vivo effect of gold nanoparticle-treated ginseng.

  14. 7 CFR 65.145 - Ginseng.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ginseng. 65.145 Section 65.145 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections..., AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.145 Ginseng. Ginseng means ginseng root of the genus...

  15. 7 CFR 65.145 - Ginseng.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ginseng. 65.145 Section 65.145 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections..., AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.145 Ginseng. Ginseng means ginseng root of the genus...

  16. Effects of compound K, an enteric microbiome metabolite of ginseng, in the treatment of inflammation associated colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Yao, Haiqiang; Wan, Jin-Yi; Zeng, Jinxiang; Huang, Wei-Hua; Sava-Segal, Clara; Li, Lingru; Niu, Xin; Wang, Qi; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2018-06-01

    Ginsenoside Rb1, a major component of different ginseng species, can be bioconverted into compound K by gut microbiota, and the latter possess much stronger cancer chemopreventive potential. However, while the initiation and progression of colorectal cancer is closely associated with gut inflammation, to date, the effects of compound K on inflammation-linked cancer chemoprevention have not been reported. In the present study, liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis was applied to evaluate the biotransformation of Rb1 in American ginseng by human enteric microflora. The in vitro inhibitory effects of Rb1 and compound K were compared using the HCT-116 and HT-19 human colorectal cancer cell lines by a MTS assay. Cell cycle and cell apoptosis were assayed using flow cytometry. Using ELISA, the anti-inflammatory effects of Rb1 and compound K were compared for their inhibition of interleukin-8 secretion in HT-29 cells, induced by lipopolysaccharide. The results revealed that compound K is the major intestinal microbiome metabolite of Rb1. When compared with Rb1, compound K had significantly stronger anti-proliferative effects in HCT-116 and HT-29 cell lines (P<0.01). Compound K significantly arrested HCT-116 and HT-29 cells in the G1 phase, and induced cell apoptosis (P<0.01). By contrast, Rb1 did not markedly influence the cell cycle or apoptosis. Furthermore, compound K exerted significant anti-inflammatory effects even at low concentrations (P<0.05), while Rb1 did not have any distinct effects. The data obtained from the present study demonstrated that compound K, an intestinal microbiome metabolite of Rb1, may have a potential clinical value in the prevention of inflammatory-associated colorectal cancer.

  17. [Effects of red ginseng on the congestive heart failure and its mechanism].

    PubMed

    Ding, D Z; Shen, T K; Cui, Y Z

    1995-06-01

    Forty-five patients with class IV cardiac function were divided into three groups: group I (digoxin group), group II (Red Ginseng group) and group III (Red Ginseng plus digoxin group). Each group consisted of 15 cases. After treatment, the improvement of the hemodynamical and biochemical indexes of group II and group III were greater than those of group I, and group III was the most significant amongst all. The results suggested that Red Ginseng and digoxin had synergism for treatment of congestive heart failure, and Red Ginseng was an effective and safe adjuvant without any side effects.

  18. Sun Ginseng Protects Endothelial Progenitor Cells From Senescence Associated Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Im, Wooseok; Chung, Jin-Young; Bhan, Jaejun; Lim, Jiyeon; Lee, Soon-Tae; Chu, Kon; Kim, Manho

    2012-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are a population of cells that circulate in the blood stream. They play a role in angiogenesis and, therefore, can be prognostic markers of vascular repair. Ginsenoside Rg3 prevents endothelial cell apoptosis through the inhibition of the mitochondrial caspase pathway. It also affects estrogen activity, which reduces EPC senescence. Sun ginseng (SG), which is heat-processed ginseng, has a high content of ginsenosides. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of SG on senescence-associated apoptosis in EPCs. In order to isolate EPCs, mononuclear cells of human blood buffy coats were cultured and characterized by their uptake of acetylated low-density lipoprotein (acLDL) and their binding of Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (ulex-lectin). Flow cytometry with annexin-V staining was performed in order to assess early and late apoptosis. Senescence was determined by β-galactosidase (β-gal) staining. Staining with 4′-6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole verified that most adherent cells (93±2.7%) were acLDL-positive and ulex-lectin-positive. The percentage of β-gal-positive EPCs was decreased from 93.8±2.0% to 62.5±3.6% by SG treatment. A fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis showed that 4.9% of EPCs were late apoptotic in controls. Sun ginseng decreased the apoptotic cell population by 39% in the late stage of apoptosis from control baseline levels. In conclusion, these results show antisenescent and antiapoptotic effects of SG in human-derived EPCs, indicating that SG can enhance EPC-mediated repair mechanisms. PMID:23717107

  19. Modulation of ethanol toxicity by Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) in Japanese ricefish (Oryzias latipes) embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Haron, M H; Avula, B; Khan, I A; Mathur, S K; Dasmahapatra, A K

    2013-04-01

    Alcohol consumption by women during pregnancy often induces fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) in children who have serious central nervous system (CNS), cardiovascular, and craniofacial defects. Prevention of FASD, other than women abstaining from alcohol drinking during pregnancy, is not known. A limitation of the use of synthetic anti-alcoholic drugs during pregnancy led us to investigate herbal products. In particular, many plants including Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) have therapeutic potential for the treatment of alcoholism. We used Japanese ricefish (medaka) (Oryzias latipes), an animal model of FASD, for identifying herbal medicines that can attenuate ethanol toxicity. Fertilized eggs in standard laboratory conditions were exposed to ginseng (PG) root extract (0-2 mg/mL) either 0-2 (group A) or 1-3 (group B) day post fertilization (dpf) followed by maintenance in a clean hatching solution. The calculated IC50 as determined 10 dpf in A and B groups were 355.3±1.12 and 679.7±1.6 μg/mL, respectively. Simultaneous exposure of embryos in sub-lethal concentrations of PG (50-200 μg/mL) and ethanol (300 mM) for 48 h disrupted vessel circulation and enhanced mortality. However, PG (100 μg/mL) may partially protect trabecular cartilage (TC) deformities in the neurocranium in B group embryos induced by ethanol (300 mM). To understand the mechanism, embryonic ethanol concentration was measured at 2 dpf and adh5, adh8, aldh2, aldh9a, catalase, GST, and GR mRNAs were analyzed at 6 dpf. It was observed that although ethanol is able to reduce adh8 and GST mRNA contents, the simultaneous addition of PG was unable to alter ethanol level as well as mRNA contents in these embryos. Therefore, antagonistic effects of PG on ethanol toxicity are mediated by a mechanism which is different from those regulating ethanol metabolism and oxidative stress. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. American ginseng acutely regulates contractile function of rat heart.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mao; Murias, Juan M; Chrones, Tom; Sims, Stephen M; Lui, Edmund; Noble, Earl G

    2014-01-01

    Chronic ginseng treatments have been purported to improve cardiac performance. However reports of acute administration of ginseng on cardiovascular function remain controversial and potential mechanisms are not clear. In this study, we examined the effects of acute North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) administration on rat cardiac contractile function by using electrocardiogram (ECG), non-invasive blood pressure (BP) measurement, and Langendorff isolated, spontaneously beating, perfused heart measurements (LP). Eight-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 8 per group) were gavaged with a single dose of water-soluble American ginseng at 300 mg/kg body weight. Heart rate (HR) and BP were measured prior to and at 1 and 24 h after gavaging (ECG and BP). Additional groups were used for each time point for Langendorff measurements. HR was significantly decreased (ECG: 1 h: 6 ± 0.2%, 24 h: 8 ± 0.3%; BP: 1 h: 8.8 ± 0.2%, 24 h: 13 ± 0.4% and LP: 1 h: 22 ± 0.4%, 24 h: 19 ± 0.4%) in rats treated with water-soluble ginseng compared with pre or control measures. An initial marked decrease in left ventricular developed pressure was observed in LP hearts but BP changes were not observed in BP group. A direct inhibitory effect of North American ginseng was observed on cardiac contractile function in LP rats and on fluorescence measurement of intracellular calcium transient in freshly isolated cardiac myocytes when exposed to ginseng (1 and 10 μg/ml). Collectively these data present evidence of depressed cardiac contractile function by acute administration of North American ginseng in rat. This acute reduction in cardiac contractile function appears to be intrinsic to the myocardium.

  1. American ginseng acutely regulates contractile function of rat heart

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Mao; Murias, Juan M.; Chrones, Tom; Sims, Stephen M.; Lui, Edmund; Noble, Earl G.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic ginseng treatments have been purported to improve cardiac performance. However reports of acute administration of ginseng on cardiovascular function remain controversial and potential mechanisms are not clear. In this study, we examined the effects of acute North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) administration on rat cardiac contractile function by using electrocardiogram (ECG), non-invasive blood pressure (BP) measurement, and Langendorff isolated, spontaneously beating, perfused heart measurements (LP). Eight-week old male Sprague–Dawley rats (n = 8 per group) were gavaged with a single dose of water-soluble American ginseng at 300 mg/kg body weight. Heart rate (HR) and BP were measured prior to and at 1 and 24 h after gavaging (ECG and BP). Additional groups were used for each time point for Langendorff measurements. HR was significantly decreased (ECG: 1 h: 6 ± 0.2%, 24 h: 8 ± 0.3%; BP: 1 h: 8.8 ± 0.2%, 24 h: 13 ± 0.4% and LP: 1 h: 22 ± 0.4%, 24 h: 19 ± 0.4%) in rats treated with water-soluble ginseng compared with pre or control measures. An initial marked decrease in left ventricular developed pressure was observed in LP hearts but BP changes were not observed in BP group. A direct inhibitory effect of North American ginseng was observed on cardiac contractile function in LP rats and on fluorescence measurement of intracellular calcium transient in freshly isolated cardiac myocytes when exposed to ginseng (1 and 10 μg/ml). Collectively these data present evidence of depressed cardiac contractile function by acute administration of North American ginseng in rat. This acute reduction in cardiac contractile function appears to be intrinsic to the myocardium. PMID:24672484

  2. [Mitigative effect of micribial degradation on autotoxicity of Panax ginseng].

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Long, Qi-Liang; Ding, Wan-Long; Zhao, Dong-Yue

    2014-08-01

    Continuously cropping obstacle restricts ginseng production and rational use of land resource severely, and autotoxicity is one of the most important factors. In our previous work, ginseng autotoxin degrading bacteria were isolated, in the present re- search, plate culturing method and traditional physiological and biochemical method were used to analyze biological indices and protective enzyme activities, in order to elucidate the mitigative effect of autotoxin degrading bacteria on autotoxicity of P. ginseng. Results indicated that, except for palmitic acid, autotoxicity of benzonic acid, diisobutyl phthalate, diisobutyl succinate, and 2,2-bis (4- hydroxyphenyl) propane on the growth of ginseng seeds was significantly alleviated after autotoxins degrading bacteria was inoculated, and which have no evident difference with control. Except for benzoic acid, enzyme activity of SOD, POD and CAT in other autotoxin degrading treatments decreased significantly. The present research showed that, microbial degradation could alleviate the autotoxicity of autotoxins on ginseng seeds effectively, and which will be helpful for the resolution of ginseng continuously cropping obstacle problem.

  3. A comparison between high hydrostatic pressure extraction and heat extraction of ginsenosides from ginseng (Panax ginseng CA Meyer).

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Sun; Lee, Hyun Jung; Yu, Hyung Jo; Ju, Do Weon; Kim, Yoonsook; Kim, Chong-Tai; Kim, Chul-Jin; Cho, Yong-Jin; Kim, Namsoo; Choi, Sin-Yang; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2011-06-01

    To determine biomaterial components, the components must first be transferred into solution; thus extraction is the first step in biomaterial analysis. High hydrostatic pressure technology was used for ginsenoside extraction from ginseng roots. In the extraction of fresh and red ginseng, high hydrostatic pressure extraction (HHPE) was found to be more effective than heat extraction (HE). In fresh ginseng extraction under HHPE, total ginsenosides (1602.2 µg mL⁻¹) and ginsenoside metabolite (132.6 µg mL⁻¹) levels were slightly higher than those under HE (1259.0 and 78.7 µg mL⁻¹), respectively. In red ginseng, similar results indicated total ginsenoside and ginsenoside metabolite amounts according to the extraction methods. Most volatile compounds by HHPE were higher than by HE treatment. HHPE of red ginseng was conducted under four pressures: 0.1 MPa (1 atm), 30, 50, and 80 MPa. Total sugar, uronic acid, and polyphenol amounts increased until 30 MPa of pressure and then showed decreasing tendencies. Total ginsenoside and ginsenoside metabolite contents linearly increased with increasing pressure, and a maximum was reached at 80 MPa for the metabolites. HHPE used for red ginseng processing contributes to enhanced extraction efficiencies of functional materials such as ginsenosides through cell structure modification. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. THE USE OF PANAX GINSENG AND ITS ANALOGUES AMONG PHARMACY CUSTOMERS IN ESTONIA: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY.

    PubMed

    Volmer, Dasy; Raal, Ain; Kalle, Raivo; Sõukand, Renata

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the cross-sectional study was to evaluate the pattern of complementary self-treatment with P. ginseng and its analogues amongst pharmacy customers in Estonia. The study instrument consisted of multiple-choice items related to personal knowledge about and experience with the use of P. ginseng and its analogues. In total, 1233 customers participated in the study. Of study participants, 18.1% reported the use of P. ginseng and its analogues in their lives. P. ginseng preparations were used mostly according to the well- known indications (tiredness, weakness and decreased mental and physical capacity). Of P. ginseng users 44.3% reported positive treatment effects and 12.0% had experienced different side effects. With increase of age (p < 0.01) and at lower levels of education (p = 0.04), the use of ginseng or its analogues decreased. The better the users evaluated their health, the better they perceived the effect of P. ginseng preparations (p < 0.01). This study reported rather frequent use of P. ginseng and its analogues. P. ginseng could be seen in the treatment of conditions, where the use of local medicinal plants has not been established. Further research is needed to learn more about public knowledge and experiences about efficacy and safety of P. ginseng and its analogues.

  5. Protective effect of Panax ginseng in cisplatin-induced cachexia in rats.

    PubMed

    Lobina, Carla; Carai, Mauro A M; Loi, Barbara; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Riva, Antonella; Cabri, Walter; Petrangolini, Giovanna; Morazzoni, Paolo; Colombo, Giancarlo

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the protective effect of a standardized extract of Panax ginseng on multiple cisplatin-induced 'sickness behaviors' (model of cancer-induced cachexia) in rats. Cisplatin was administered twice weekly (1-2 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) for 5 consecutive weeks. Panax ginseng extract (0, 25 and 50 mg/kg, intragastric) was administered daily over the 5-week period of cisplatin exposure. Malaise, bodyweight and temperature, pain sensitivity, and endurance running were recorded at baseline and at 5 weekly intervals. Treatment with cisplatin produced severe signs of malaise, marked loss of bodyweight, hypothermia, hyperalgesia and reduction in running time. Treatment with Panax ginseng extract completely prevented all cisplatin-induced alterations. These data indicate that treatment with Panax ginseng extract exerted a protective effect in a rat model of cachexia and suggest that Panax ginseng extract may be a therapeutic promising tool for supportive care in oncology.

  6. Ginseng ameliorates chronic histopathologic changes in a murine model of asthma.

    PubMed

    Babayigit, Arzu; Olmez, Duygu; Karaman, Ozkan; Bagriyanik, H Alper; Yilmaz, Osman; Kivcak, Bijen; Erbil, Guven; Uzuner, Nevin

    2008-01-01

    Currently, asthma therapies are effective in reducing inflammation but airway remodeling is poorly responsive to these agents. New therapeutic options that have fewer side effects and reverse chronic changes in the lungs are essential. This study aimed to determine the efficacy of oral administration of ginseng on lung histopathology in a murine model of chronic asthma. BALB/c mice were divided into four groups: control, placebo, ginseng, and dexamethasone. All mice except those in the control group were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin. Then, mice in the ginseng group were given 2 gr/kg per day of ginseng and mice in the dexamethasone group received 1 mg/kg per day of dexamethasone via orogastic gavage once daily for 1 week. Lung histopathology was evaluated by using light and electron microscopy in all groups. All of the chronic changes of airways in the ginseng group were significantly ameliorated when compared with the placebo group. When compared with the dexamethasone group, the ginseng group had significantly lower numbers of mast cell count. Thicknesses of basement membrane, epithelium, and subepithelial smooth muscle were not statistically different between the ginseng and dexamethasone groups. Goblet cell numbers were much more reduced in the dexamethasone group. Ginseng is effective in resolving the established chronic histopathological changes of the lungs in the murine model of asthma.

  7. Effects of Panax ginseng extract on human dermal fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Geum-Young; Park, Kang-Gyun; Namgoong, Sik; Han, Seung-Kyu; Jeong, Seong-Ho; Dhong, Eun-Sang; Kim, Woo-Kyung

    2016-03-01

    Current studies of Panax ginseng (or Korean ginseng) have demonstrated that it has various biological effects, including angiogenesis, immunostimulation, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, we hypothesised that P. ginseng may also play an important role in wound healing. However, few studies have been conducted on the wound-healing effects of P. ginseng. Thus, the purpose of this in vitro pilot study was to determine the effects of P. ginseng on the activities of fibroblasts, which are key wound-healing cells. Cultured human dermal fibroblasts were treated with one of six concentrations of P. ginseng: 0, 1, 10 and 100 ng/ml and 1 and 10 µg/ml. Cell proliferation was determined 3 days post-treatment using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay, and collagen synthesis was evaluated by the collagen type I carboxy-terminal propeptide method. Cell proliferation levels and collagen synthesis were compared among the groups. The 10 ng/ml to 1 µg/ml P. ginseng treatments significantly increased cell proliferation, and the 1 ng/ml to 1 µg/ml concentrations significantly increased collagen synthesis. The maximum effects for both parameters were observed at 10 ng/ml. P. ginseng stimulated human dermal fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis at an optimal concentration of 10 ng/ml. © 2015 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Asian and Siberian ginseng as a potential modulator of immune function: an in vitro cytokine study using mouse macrophages.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huamin; Actor, Jeffrey K; Indrigo, Jessica; Olsen, Margaret; Dasgupta, Amitava

    2003-01-01

    Ginseng is a widely used herbal product in China, other Asian countries, and in the Unites States. There is a traditional belief that ginseng stimulates immune functions. In this study, the innate effects of Asian and Siberian ginsengs on cytokines and chemokines produced by cultured macrophages were examined. The effects of Asian and Siberian ginseng on cytokines and chemokines produced by cultured macrophages were examined. Mouse macrophages (J774A.1) were incubated with Asian or Siberian ginseng at varying concentrations (1, 10, 100, and 1000 microg/ml) for 24 h and then harvested for RNA isolation. The expression levels of IL-1beta, IL-12, TNF-alpha, MIP-1 alpha, and MIP-2 mRNA were measured by quantitative PCR. Our data showed that Asian ginseng induced a statistically significant increase in IL-12 expression at both mRNA and protein levels. However, the minor twofold increase is probably biologically insignificant. No significant increase of IL-12 by Siberian ginseng was observed at any dose level studied. No significant change in IL-1beta, IL-15, TNF-alpha, or MIP-1alpha mRNA was observed by either Asian or Siberian ginseng treatment. Our data showed statistically significant differential regulation of IL-12 by Asian ginseng. Siberian ginseng did not show a statistically significant increase. We conclude that both Asian ginseng and Siberian ginseng cannot significantly stimulate innate macrophage immune functions that influence cellular immune responses. Therefore, contrary to the popular belief, Asian and Siberian ginseng may not stimulate immune function.

  9. Suppression of TNF-α and free radicals reduces systematic inflammatory and metabolic disorders: Radioprotective effects of ginseng oligopeptides on intestinal barrier function and antioxidant defense.

    PubMed

    He, Li-Xia; Wang, Jun-Bo; Sun, Bin; Zhao, Jian; Li, Lin; Xu, Teng; Li, Hui; Sun, Jing-Qin; Ren, Jinwei; Liu, Rui; Chen, Qi-He; Zhang, Zhao-Feng; Li, Yong

    2017-02-01

    Irradiation therapy is markedly associated with intestinal injure and oxidant stress. This study aimed to investigate the effects of ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey.) oligopeptides (GOP) on irradiation-induced intestinal injury and antioxidant defense in mice. BALB/c mice (8 weeks old) were randomly divided into six groups: vehicle control, irradiation control (IR), IR+whey protein [0.30 g/kg body weight (BW)], IR+GOP 0.15 g/kg BW, IR+GOP 0.30 g/kg BW and IR+GOP 0.60 g/kg BW. Postirradiation 30-day survival trial, white blood cells count and bone marrow hematopoietic system damage were performed to identify the injury degree induced by irradiation. Then, histopathology analysis was observed and intestinal permeability in vivo was quantified with fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine antioxidant ability, plasma inflammatory cytokines, diamine oxidase (DAO) and endotoxin (LPS) levels. The immunohistochemistry assay was used to analyze the expression levels of tight junction proteins. We found that GOP-treated mice exhibited lower concentrations of plasma LPS and DAO and decreased instructors of inflammatory and oxidative stress which were linked to the lower intestinal permeability and higher tight junction proteins expression. The blockage of GOP was linked with the reduction of TNF-α and free radicals. The 15-day pretreatment of GOP could exhibit radioprotective effects, and another 15-day posttreatment benefited the quick repair of irradiation-induced injury. We confirm that GOP would exhibit effective therapeutic value on attenuating irradiation-induced hematopoietic, gastrointestinal and oxidative injury in cancer patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Consumer acceptance of ginseng food products.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hee Sook; Lee, Young-Chul; Rhee, Young Kyung; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2011-01-01

    Ginseng has been utilized less in food products than in dietary supplements in the United States. Sensory acceptance of ginseng food products by U.S. consumers has not been reported. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine the sensory acceptance of commercial ginseng food products and (2) assess influence of the addition of sweeteners to ginseng tea and ginseng extract to chocolate on consumer acceptance. Total of 126 consumers participated in 3 sessions for (1) 7 commercial red ginseng food products, (2) 10 ginseng teas varying in levels of sugar or honey, and (3) 10 ginseng milk or dark chocolates varying in levels of ginseng extract. Ginseng candy with vitamin C and ginseng crunchy white chocolate were the most highly accepted, while sliced ginseng root product was the least accepted among the seven commercial products. Sensory acceptance increased in proportion to the content of sugar and honey in ginseng tea, whereas acceptance decreased with increasing content of ginseng extract in milk and dark chocolates. Findings demonstrate that ginseng food product types with which consumers have been already familiar, such as candy and chocolate, will have potential for success in the U.S. market. Chocolate could be suggested as a food matrix into which ginseng can be incorporated, as containing more bioactive compounds than ginseng tea at a similar acceptance level. Future research may include a descriptive analysis with ginseng-based products to identify the key drivers of liking and disliking for successful new product development. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Ethanol extraction preparation of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L) and Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer): differential effects on postprandial insulinemia in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Leanne R; Jenkins, Alexandra L; Jovanovski, Elena; Rahelić, Dario; Vuksan, Vladimir

    2015-01-15

    Ginsenosides are the proposed bioactive constituent of ginseng, especially for the attenuation of postprandial glycemia (PPG). The efficacious proportion of total and specific ginsenosides, remains unknown. Alcohol extraction of whole ginseng root can be used to selectively manipulate the ginsenoside profile with increasing alcohol concentrations producing high yields of total ginsenosides and varying their individual proportions. We aimed to compare the acute efficacy of different ethanol-extraction preparations of American ginseng (AG) and Korean red ginseng (KRG), with their whole-root origins, on PPG and insulin parameters in healthy adults. Following an overnight fast, 13 healthy individuals (Gender: 5M:8F, with mean ± SD, age: 28.9 ± 9.2 years, BMI: 26.3 ± 2.7 kg/m(2) and fasting plasma glucose: 4.21 ± 0.04 mmol/L) randomly received 3g of each of the following 10 different ginseng treatments on separate visits: whole root KRG and AG; 30%, 50% or 70% ethanol extracts of KRG and AG and 2 cornstarch placebos. Treatments were consumed 40 min prior to a 50 g oral glucose challenge test with capillary blood samples collected at baseline, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min. Insulin samples were collected at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min. There was no difference in attenuation of PPG among the tested ginseng preparations. Measures of Insulin Sensitivity Index (ISI) showed increased insulin sensitivity (IS) with KRG-30% and AG-50% extracts compared to placebo (p<0.05). The insulin sensitizing effects of KRG-30% and AG-50% extracts suggest that other root parts, including other ginsenosides not typically measured, may influence PPG and insulin parameters. There is potential for AG and KRG extracts to modulate IS, an independent predictor of type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 7 CFR 1437.308 - Ginseng.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... allowed in this section. Ginseng is eligible only if: (1) The ginseng includes stratified seeds for use as... used or put into place during the crop year; and (5) Possess a valid food processing license issued by...

  13. 7 CFR 1437.308 - Ginseng.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... allowed in this section. Ginseng is eligible only if: (1) The ginseng includes stratified seeds for use as... used or put into place during the crop year; and (5) Possess a valid food processing licence issued by...

  14. Extraction of ginsenosides from fresh ginseng roots (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) using commercial enzymes and high hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Sunwoo, Hoon H; Kim, Chong-Tai; Kim, Do-Yeon; Maeng, Jin-Soo; Cho, Chang-Won; Lee, Soo-Jeong

    2013-07-01

    A combination of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and enzymatic hydrolysis (HHP-EH) was applied for the extraction of ginsenosides from fresh ginseng roots (Panax ginseng C.A. Myer). The highest yield of ginsenosides was obtained by using a mixture of three enzymes (Celluclast + Termamyl + Viscozyme) along with HHP (100 MPa, at 50 °C for 12 h) in comparison to control samples (no enzymes, atmosphere pressure, P < 0.05). Total ginsenosides increased by 184% while Rg1 + Rb1 increased by 273%. Application of these conditions significantly increased total ginsenosides by 49% and Rg1 + Rb1 by 103% compared to HHP treatment alone (P < 0.05). The effect of HHP on increased yield of ginsenosides is likely due in part, to acceleration of enzyme activity. Thus HHP-EH significantly improves the extraction of ginsenosides from fresh ginseng roots.

  15. [Ginseng prescription rules and molecular mechanism in treating coronary heart disease based on data mining and integrative pharmacology].

    PubMed

    Li, Sen; Tang, Shi-Huan; Liu, Jin-Ling; Su, Jin; He, Fu-Yuan

    2018-04-01

    The ancient dragon Materia Medica, Compendium of Materia Medica and other works recorded that the main effect of ginseng is tonifying qi. It is reported that the main active ingredient of ginseng is ginsenoside. Modern studies have found that ginseng mono saponins are effective for cardiovascular related diseases. This paper preliminary clarified the efficacy of traditional ginseng-nourishing qi and cardiovascular disease through the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) inheritance auxiliary platform and integration platform of association of pharmacology. With the help of TCM inheritance auxiliary platform-analysis of "Chinese medicine database", Chinese medicine treatment of modern diseases that ginseng rules, so the traditional effect associated with modern medicine and pharmacology; application integration platform enrichment analysis on the target of drug and gene function, metabolic pathway, to further explore the molecular mechanism of ginseng in the treatment of coronary heart disease, aimed at mining the molecular mechanism of ginseng in the treatment of coronary heart disease. Chinese medicine containing ginseng 307 prescriptions, 87 kinds of disease indications, western medicine disease Chinese medicine therapy for ginseng main coronary heart disease; analysis of molecular mechanism of ginseng pharmacology integration platform for the treatment of coronary heart disease. Ginsenosides(Ra₁, Ra₂, Rb₁, Rb₂, Rg₁, Ro) bind these targets, PRKAA1, PRKAA2, NDUFA4, COX5B, UQCRC1, affect chemokines, non-alcoholic fatty liver, gonadotropin, carbon metabolism, glucose metabolism and other pathways to treat coronary heart disease indirectly. The molecular mechanism of Panax ginseng's multi-component, multi-target and synergistic action is preliminarily elucidated in this paper. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  16. Quantification of maltol in Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng) products by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hyun Cheol; Hong, Hee-Do; Kim, Young-Chan; Rhee, Young Kyoung; Choi, Sang Yoon; Kim, Kyung-Tack; Kim, Sung Soo; Lee, Young-Chul; Cho, Chang-Won

    2015-01-01

    Background: Maltol, as a type of phenolic compounds, is produced by the browning reaction during the high-temperature treatment of ginseng. Thus, maltol can be used as a marker for the quality control of various ginseng products manufactured by high-temperature treatment including red ginseng. For the quantification of maltol in Korean ginseng products, an effective high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method was developed. Materials and Methods: The HPLC-DAD method for maltol quantification coupled with a liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method was developed and validated in terms of linearity, precision, and accuracy. An HPLC separation was performed on a C18 column. Results: The LLE methods and HPLC running conditions for maltol quantification were optimized. The calibration curve of the maltol exhibited good linearity (R2 = 1.00). The limit of detection value of maltol was 0.26 μg/mL, and the limit of quantification value was 0.79 μg/mL. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the data of the intra- and inter-day experiments were <1.27% and 0.61%, respectively. The results of the recovery test were 101.35–101.75% with an RSD value of 0.21–1.65%. The developed method was applied successfully to quantify the maltol in three ginseng products manufactured by different methods. Conclusion: The results of validation demonstrated that the proposed HPLC-DAD method was useful for the quantification of maltol in various ginseng products. PMID:26246746

  17. Effects of Pfaffia paniculata (Brazilian ginseng) extract on macrophage activity.

    PubMed

    Pinello, Kátia Cristina; Fonseca, Evelise de S M; Akisue, Gokithi; Silva, Ana Paula; Salgado Oloris, Silvia Catarina; Sakai, Mônica; Matsuzaki, Patrícia; Nagamine, Márcia Kazumi; Palermo Neto, João; Dagli, Maria Lúcia Zaidan

    2006-02-16

    The roots of Pfaffia paniculata (Brazilian ginseng) have been indicated for the treatment of several diseases and as an analgesic and antiinflamatory drug. Treatment of mice with 200 mg/kg of the powdered root of P. paniculata reduced the Ehrlich ascitic volume [Matsuzaki, P., Akisue, G., Salgado Oloris, S.C., Gorniak, S.L., Zaidan Dagli, M.L., 2003. Effect of Pffafia paniculata (Brazilian ginseng) on the Ehrlich tumor on its ascitic form. Life Sciences, Dec 19; 74 (5), 573-579.]. One of the putative means to control the Ehrlich tumor growth is by increasing macrophage activity [Kleeb, S.R., Xavier, J.G., Frussa-Filho, R., Dagli, M.L.Z., 1997. Effect of haloperidol on the development of the solid Ehrlich tumor in mice. Life Sciences, 60 (4/5), 69-742.]. The aim of this study was to investigate experimentally the effects of the methanolic extract of P. paniculata roots on macrophage activity. Male mice received, by gavage, once a day, different doses (100, 250, or 500 mg/kg) of the methanolic extract of P. paniculata or filtered water, as control, for 10 days. Macrophage activity was evaluated through the phagocytosis index (PI), spreading index (SI), production of peroxide oxigen and nitric oxide. The peritoneal cells were activated with ip inoculation of Ehrlich ascitic cells, 24 h before the macrophage harvesting. The methanolic extract raised significantly the SI of mice from group of 500 mg/kg in comparison with the control group and group of 100 mg/kg. This raise of SI possibly induced the higher phagocytic activity observed in the experimental situation. Increased macrophage activity may be one of the effects contributing to inhibition of the Ehrlich ascitic tumor growth in mice.

  18. Traditional Chinese Medicine in Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jun; Zhang, Hanjie; Ye, Jianping

    2008-01-01

    In management of metabolic syndrome, the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an excellent representative in alternative and complementary medicines with a complete theory system and substantial herb remedies. In this article, basic principle of TCM is introduced and 22 traditional Chinese herbs are reviewed for their potential activities in the treatment of metabolic syndrome. Three herbs, ginseng, rhizoma coptidis (berberine, the major active compound) and bitter melon, were discussed in detail on their therapeutic potentials. Ginseng extracts made from root, rootlet, berry and leaf of Panax quinquefolium (American ginseng) and Panax ginseng (Asian ginseng), are proved for anti-hyperglycemia, insulin sensitization, islet protection, anti-obesity and anti-oxidation in many model systems. Energy expenditure is enhanced by ginseng through thermogenesis. Ginseng-specific saponins (ginsenosides) are considered as the major bioactive compounds for the metabolic activities of ginseng. Berberine from rhizoma coptidis is an oral hypoglycemic agent. It also has anti-obesity and anti-dyslipidemia activities. The action mechanism is related to inhibition of mitochondrial function, stimulation of glycolysis, activation of AMPK pathway, suppression of adipogenesis and induction of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor expression. Bitter melon or bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is able to reduce blood glucose and lipids in both normal and diabetic animals. It may also protect β cells, enhance insulin sensitivity and reduce oxidative stress. Although evidence from animals and humans consistently supports the therapeutic activities of ginseng, berberine and bitter melon, multi-center large-scale clinical trials have not been conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these herbal medicines. PMID:18537696

  19. Menometrorrhagia and tachyarrhythmia after using oral and topical ginseng.

    PubMed

    Kabalak, Ayla A; Soyal, Ozlem B; Urfalioglu, Aykut; Saracoglu, Ferit; Gogus, Nermin

    2004-09-01

    Widespread and uncontrolled use of ginseng has raised the question of its side effects and drug interactions. A 39-year-old female patient experienced menometrorrhagia. Her complaints had started 5 months earlier. The laboratory tests revealed follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol levels to be 10 mIU and 90 mIU, respectively. Endometrial biopsy was planned for the diagnosis of abnormal uterine bleeding. During the preoperative evaluation, the patient stated that she had been using both oral and topical ginseng for cosmetic reasons. The ECG revealed sinus tachycardia with occasional atrial premature beats. The procedure was postponed for 2 weeks so that the patient would stop taking ginseng, smoking, and drinking coffee. Arrhythmia stopped 10 days later. Tachycardia continued during the procedure but did not require treatment, as it did not cause any hemodynamic instability. An endometrial biopsy specimen showed a disordered proliferative pattern. The patient was advised to stop using oral and topical ginseng. During a follow-up visit, she had no sign of menometrorrhagia or tachyarrhythmia and her hemoglobin levels were in the normal range. Smoking and coffee consumption, along with ginseng use, can be responsible for arrhythmogenic effects. Abnormal uterine bleeding can cause tachycardia secondary to anemia. The clinical progress of this patient is consistent with our hypothesis that ginseng is responsible for menometrorrhagia, although this could be coincidental. Patients should always be asked prior to surgery if they use herbal medications, food supplements, or cosmetics as well as prescription drugs. This is of great importance for both diagnosis and avoidance of drug interactions and side effects during anesthesia.

  20. In situ analysis of chemical components induced by steaming between fresh ginseng, steamed ginseng, and red ginseng.

    PubMed

    In, Gyo; Ahn, Nam-Geun; Bae, Bong-Seok; Lee, Myoung-Woo; Park, Hee-Won; Jang, Kyoung Hwa; Cho, Byung-Goo; Han, Chang Kyun; Park, Chae Kyu; Kwak, Yi-Seong

    2017-07-01

    The chemical constituents of Panax ginseng are changed by processing methods such as steaming or sun drying. In the present study, the chemical change of Panax ginseng induced by steaming was monitored in situ . Samples were separated from the same ginseng root by incision during the steaming process, for in situ monitoring. Sampling was sequentially performed in three stages; FG (fresh ginseng) → SG (steamed ginseng) → RG (red ginseng) and 60 samples were prepared and freeze dried. The samples were then analyzed to determine 43 constituents among three stages of P. ginseng . The results showed that six malonyl-ginsenoside (Rg1, Rb1, Rb3, Rc, Rd, Rb2) and 15 amino acids were decreased in concentration during the steaming process. In contrast, ginsenoside-Rh1, 20( S )-Rg2, 20( S, R )-Rg3 and Maillard reaction product such as AF (arginine-fructose), AFG (arginine-fructose-glucose), and maltol were newly generated or their concentrations were increased. This study elucidates the dynamic changes in the chemical components of P. ginseng when the steaming process was induced. These results are thought to be helpful for quality control and standardization of herbal drugs using P. ginseng and they also provide a scientific basis for pharmacological research of processed ginseng (Red ginseng).

  1. Ginseng alleviates cyclophosphamide-induced hepatotoxicity via reversing disordered homeostasis of glutathione and bile acid.

    PubMed

    Zhu, He; Long, Min-Hui; Wu, Jie; Wang, Meng-Meng; Li, Xiu-Yang; Shen, Hong; Xu, Jin-Di; Zhou, Li; Fang, Zhi-Jun; Luo, Yi; Li, Song-Lin

    2015-12-02

    Cyclophosphamide (CP), a chemotherapeutic agent, is restricted due to its side effects, especially hepatotoxicity. Ginseng has often been clinically used with CP in China, but whether and how ginseng reduces the hepatotoxicity is unknown. In this study, the hepatoprotective effects and mechanisms under the combined usage were investigated. It was found that ginseng could ameliorate CP-induced elevations of ALP, ALT, ALS, MDA and hepatic deterioration, enhance antioxidant enzymes' activities and GSH's level. Metabolomics study revealed that 33 endogenous metabolites were changed by CP, 19 of which were reversed when ginseng was co-administrated via two main pathways, i.e., GSH metabolism and primary bile acids synthesis. Furthermore, ginseng could induce expression of GCLC, GCLM, GS and GST, which associate with the disposition of GSH, and expression of FXR, CYP7A1, NTCP and MRP 3, which play important roles in the synthesis and transport of bile acids. In addition, NRF 2, one of regulatory elements on the expression of GCLC, GCLM, GS, GST, NTCP and MRP3, was up-regulated when ginseng was co-administrated. In conclusion, ginseng could alleviate CP-induced hepatotoxicity via modulating the disordered homeostasis of GSH and bile acid, which might be mediated by inducing the expression of NRF 2 in liver.

  2. The Effects of a Korean Ginseng, GINST15, on Perceptual Effort, Psychomotor Performance, and Physical Performance in Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Lydia K; DuPont, William H; Beeler, Matthew K; Post, Emily M; Barnhart, Emily C; Hardesty, Vincent H; Anders, John P; Borden, Emily C; Volek, Jeff S; Kraemer, William J

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation was to examine the effects of a Korean Ginseng (GINST15) on measures of perception and physical performance following an acute bout of resistance exercise. Ten women (age: 38.7 ± 7.8 years; height: 1.64 ± 0.05 m; body mass: 76.0 ± 11.6 kg) and nine men (age: 41.2. ± 9.7 years; height: 1.77 ± 0.05 m; body mass: 88.5 ± 5.0 kg) completed the investigation. Participants were randomized to a three-cycle testing scheme consisting of high dose ginseng (HIGH: 960 mg/day), low dose ginseng (LOW: 160 mg/day) and placebo (PBO: 0 mg/day). After 14 days of supplementation participants returned to the laboratory for an acute resistance exercise trial (5 sets of 12 repetitions of the leg press at 70% of one-repetition-maximum [1RM]). Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were assessed after each set. Muscle pain/soreness was assessed before exercise and 24 hours post exercise. Psychomotor performance and peak power were measured before exercise, immediately post exercise and 24 hours after exercise. Each treatment cycle was separated by a minimum one-week washout period. HIGH significantly reduced perceived exertion during exercise. HIGH and LOW significantly reduced change in muscle soreness at 24 hours post exercise. Analysis of peak power demonstrated the presence of responders (n = 13) and non-responders (n = 6). Responders showed a significant effect of HIGH GINST15 on maintenance of neuromuscular function. The appearance of responders and non-responders, could explain the mixed literature base on the ergogenic properties of ginseng.

  3. Ginseng essence, a medicinal and edible herbal formulation, ameliorates carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress and liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kuan-Hung; Weng, Ching-Yi; Chen, Wei-Cheng; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2017-07-01

    Ginseng essence (GE) is a formulation comprising four medicinal and edible herbs including ginseng ( Panax ginseng ), American ginseng ( Panax quinquefolius ), lotus seed ( Nelumbo nucifera ), and lily bulb ( Lilium longiflorum ). This study was aimed at investigating the hepatoprotective effect of GE against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced liver injury in rats. We treated Wistar rats daily with low, medium, and high [0.625 g/kg body weight (bw), 1.25 g/kg bw, and 3.125 g/kg bw, respectively] doses of GE for 9 wk. After the 1 st wk of treatment, rats were administered 20% CCl 4 (1.5 mL/kg bw) two times a week to induce liver damage until the treatment ended. Serum biochemical analysis indicated that GE ameliorated the elevation of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase and albumin decline in CCl 4 -treated rats. Moreover, CCl 4 -induced accumulation of hepatic total cholesterol and triglyceride was inhibited. The hepatoprotective effects of GE involved enhancing the hepatic antioxidant defense system including glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S -transferase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. In addition, histological analysis using hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining showed that GE inhibited CCl 4 -induced hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining of alpha-smooth muscle actin indicated that CCl 4 -triggered activation of hepatic stellate cells was reduced. These findings demonstrate that GE improves CCl 4 -induced liver inflammation and fibrosis by attenuating oxidative stress. Therefore, GE could be a promising hepatoprotective herbal formulation for future development of phytotherapy.

  4. Oral administration of red ginseng powder fermented with probiotic alleviates the severity of dextran-sulfate sodium-induced colitis in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sun-Hee; Park, Jisang; Kim, Sae-Hae; Choi, Kyung-Min; Ko, Eun-Sil; Cha, Jeong-Dan; Lee, Young-Ran; Jang, Hyonseok; Jang, Yong-Suk

    2017-03-01

    Red ginseng is a well-known alternative medicine with anti-inflammatory activity. It exerts pharmacological effects through the transformation of saponin into metabolites by intestinal microbiota. Given that intestinal microflora vary among individuals, the pharmacological effects of red ginseng likely vary among individuals. In order to produce homogeneously effective red ginseng, we prepared probiotic-fermented red ginseng and evaluated its activity using a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model in mice. Initial analysis of intestinal damage indicated that the administration of probiotic-fermented red ginseng significantly decreased the severity of colitis, compared with the control and the activity was higher than that induced by oral administration of ginseng powder or probiotics only. Subsequent analysis of the levels of serum IL-6 and TNF-α, inflammatory biomarkers that are increased at the initiation stage of colitis, were significantly decreased in probiotic-fermented red ginseng-treated groups in comparison to the control group. The levels of inflammatory cytokines and mRNAs for inflammatory factors in colorectal tissues were also significantly decreased in probiotic-fermented red ginseng-treated groups. Collectively, oral administration of probiotic-fermented red ginseng reduced the severity of colitis in a mouse model, suggesting that it can be used as a uniformly effective red ginseng product. Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of ginseng saponins from ginseng roots and cultured ginseng cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, J; Lin, L; Chau, F T

    2001-10-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction was evaluated as a simpler and more effective alternative to conventional extraction methods for the isolation of ginsenosides (saponins) from various types of ginseng. The ginseng samples were extracted with different solvents, under either direct sonication by an ultrasound probe horn or indirect sonication in an ultrasound cleaning bath. The ultrasonic extraction was compared with the conventional method of refluxing boiling solvents in a soxhlet extractor, on the yields of both the total saponin isolated by thin-layer chromatography and the individual ginsenosides by high performance liquid chromatography. It was found that the sonication-assisted extraction of ginseng saponins was about three times faster than the traditional extraction method. The ultrasonic extraction was not only more efficient but also convenient for the recovery and purification of the active ingredients of plant materials. In addition, the sonication-assisted extraction can be carried out at lower temperatures which are favorable for the thermally unstable compounds.

  6. Cytological analysis of ginseng carpel development.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jeniffer; Kim, Yu-Jin; Xiao, Dexin; Sukweenadhi, Johan; Hu, Tingting; Kwon, Woo-Saeng; Hu, Jianping; Yang, Deok-Chun; Zhang, Dabing

    2017-09-01

    Panax ginseng Meyer, commonly known as ginseng, is considered one of the most important herbs with pharmaceutical values due to the presence of ginsenosides and is cultivated for its highly valued root for medicinal purposes. Recently, it has been recognized that ginseng fruit contains high contents of triterpene such as ginsenoside Re as pharmaceutical compounds. However, it is unclear how carpel, the female reproductive tissue of flowers, is formed during the three-year-old growth before fruit is formed in ginseng plants. Here, we report P. ginseng carpel development at the cytological level, starting from the initial stage of ovule development to seed development. The carpel of P. ginseng is composed of two free stigmas, two free styles, and one epigynous bilocular ovary containing one ovule in each locule. Based on our cytological study, we propose that the female reproductive development in P. ginseng can be classified into seven stages: early phase of ovule development, megasporogenesis, megagametogenesis, pre-fertilization, fertilization, post-fertilization, and seed development. We also describe the correlation of the female and male gametophyte development and compare morphological differences in carpel development between ginseng and other higher plants. One unique feature for ginseng seed development is that it takes 40 days for the embryo to develop to the early torpedo stage and that the embryo is small relative to the seed size, which could be a feature of taxonomic importance. This study will provide an integral tool for the study of the reproductive development and breeding of P. ginseng.

  7. Influence of Panax ginseng on Cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A and P-glycoprotein (Pgp) Activity in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Malati, Christine Y.; Robertson, Sarah M.; Hunt, Jennifer D.; Chairez, Cheryl; Alfaro, Raul M.; Kovacs, Joseph A.; Penzak, Scott R.

    2012-01-01

    A number of herbal preparations have been shown to interact with prescription medications secondary to modulation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) and/or P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of Panax ginseng on CYP3A and P-gp function using the probe substrates midazolam and fexofenadine, respectively. Twelve healthy subjects (8 males) completed this open label, single sequence pharmacokinetic study. Healthy volunteers received single oral doses of midazolam 8 mg and fexofenadine 120 mg, before and after 28 days of P. ginseng 500 mg twice daily. Midazolam and fexofenadine pharmacokinetic parameter values were calculated and compared pre-and post P. ginseng administration. Geometric mean ratios (post-ginseng/pre-ginseng) for midazolam area under the concentration vs. time curve from zero to infinity (AUC0-∞), half life (T1/2), and maximum concentration (Cmax) were significantly reduced at 0.66 (0.55 – 0.78), 0.71 (0.53 – 0.90), and 0.74 (0.56 – 0.93), respectively. Conversely, fexofenadine pharmacokinetics were unaltered by P. ginseng administration. Based on these results, Panax ginseng appeared to induce CYP3A activity in the liver and possibly the gastrointestinal tract. Patients taking Panax ginseng in combination with CYP3A substrates with narrow therapeutic ranges should be monitored closely for adequate therapeutic response to the substrate medication. PMID:21646440

  8. North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) suppresses β-adrenergic-dependent signalling, hypertrophy, and cardiac dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xilan; Gan, Xiaohong Tracey; Rajapurohitam, Venkatesh; Huang, Cathy Xiaoling; Xue, Jenny; Lui, Edmund M K; Karmazyn, Morris

    2016-12-01

    There is increasing evidence for a beneficial effect of ginseng on cardiac pathology. Here, we determined whether North American ginseng can modulate the deleterious effects of the β-adrenoceptor agonist isoproterenol on cardiac hypertrophy and function using in vitro and in vivo approaches. Isoproterenol was administered for 2 weeks at either 25 mg/kg per day or 50 mg/kg per day (ISO25 or ISO50) via a subcutaneously implanted osmotic mini-pump to either control rats or those receiving ginseng (0.9 g/L in the drinking water ad libitum). Isoproterenol produced time- and dose-dependent left ventricular dysfunction, although these effects were attenuated by ginseng. Improved cardiac functions were associated with reduced heart masses, as well as prevention in the upregulation of the hypertrophy-related fetal gene expression. Lung masses were similarly attenuated, suggesting reduced pulmonary congestion. In in vitro studies, ginseng (10 μg/mL) completely suppressed the hypertrophic response to 1 μmol/L isoproterenol in terms of myocyte surface area, as well as reduction in the upregulation of fetal gene expression. These effects were associated with attenuation in both protein kinase A and cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation. Ginseng attenuates adverse cardiac adrenergic responses and, therefore, may be an effective therapy to reduce hypertrophy and heart failure associated with excessive catecholamine production.

  9. Ultrahigh Pressure Processing Produces Alterations in the Metabolite Profiles of Panax ginseng.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mee Youn; Singh, Digar; Kim, Sung Han; Lee, Sang Jun; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2016-06-22

    Ultrahigh pressure (UHP) treatments are non-thermal processing methods that have customarily been employed to enhance the quality and productivity of plant consumables. We aimed to evaluate the effects of UHP treatments on ginseng samples (white ginseng: WG; UHP-treated WG: UWG; red ginseng: RG; UHP-treated RG: URG; ginseng berries: GB; and UHP-treated GB: UGB) using metabolite profiling based on ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-linear trap quadrupole-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-IT-MS/MS) and gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS). Multivariate data analyses revealed a clear demarcation among the GB and UGB samples, and the phenotypic evaluations correlated the highest antioxidant activities and the total phenolic and flavonoid compositions with the UGB samples. Overall, eight amino acids, seven organic acids, seven sugars and sugar derivatives, two fatty acids, three notoginsenosides, three malonylginsenosides, and three ginsenosides, were identified as significantly discriminant metabolites between the GB and UGB samples, with relatively higher proportions in the latter. Ideally, these metabolites can be used as quality biomarkers for the assessment of ginseng products and our results indicate that UHP treatment likely led to an elevation in the proportions of total extractable metabolites in ginseng samples.

  10. Effects of tissue-cultured mountain ginseng (Panax ginseng CA Meyer) extract on male patients with erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Hwan; Jeon, Seung Hyun; Hahn, Eun-Joo; Paek, Kee-Yoeup; Park, Jong Kwan; Youn, Nae Young; Lee, Hyung-Lae

    2009-01-01

    Korean ginseng and mountain ginseng (Panax ginseng CA Meyer) are important traditional herbal plants whose ginsenosides are generally accepted as serving to improve sexual functions, such as penile erection. We investigated the effects of tissue-cultured mountain ginseng extract (TMGE) on male patients with erectile dysfunction (ED). A double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted with 143 patients experiencing ED. Over the course of 8 weeks, one group took 1 000 mg of TMGE twice a day, and the other group took 1 000 mg of placebo twice a day. The effects of the TMGE and the placebo were analyzed using the Korean version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire. A total of 86 patients completed 8 weeks of treatment. The scores on the five domains of the IIEF after medication were significantly higher than the baseline scores in the group treated with TMGE (P < 0.05), whereas no significant improvement was observed in the placebo group (P > 0.05). Erectile function and overall satisfaction scores after medication were significantly higher in the TMGE group than in the placebo group (P < 0.05). Erectile function of patients in the TMGE-treated group significantly improved, suggesting that TMGE could be utilized for improving erectile function in male patients. PMID:19234482

  11. Comparative study of Korean White Ginseng and Korean Red Ginseng on efficacies of OVA-induced asthma model in mice.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chi-Yeon; Moon, Jeong-Min; Kim, Bu-Yeo; Lim, Se-Hyun; Lee, Guem-San; Yu, Hak-Sun; Cho, Su-In

    2015-01-01

    Korean ginseng is a well-known medicinal herb that has been widely used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases, including asthma. Ginseng can be classified as white ginseng (WG) or red ginseng (RG), according to processing conditions. In this study, the authors compared the efficacies of these two ginseng types in a mouse model of acute asthma. To produce the acute asthma model, BALB/c mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) and aluminum hydroxide, and then challenged with OVA. WG and RG extracts were administered to mice orally. The influences of WG and RG on airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), immune cell distributions in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE), IgG1, and IgG2a in serum were investigated. Cytokine production by lymphocytes isolated from peribronchial lymph nodes and histopathological changes was also examined. In OVA-sensitized mice, both WG and RG reduced AHR and suppressed immune cell infiltration in bronchoalveolar regions. BALF OVA-specific IgE levels were significantly lower in RG-treated OVA-sensitized mice than in the OVA-sensitized control group. WG and RG also suppressed inflammatory cytokine production by peribronchial lymphocytes. Histopathological findings showed reduced inflammatory cell infiltration and airway remodeling (e.g., epithelial hyperplasia) in WG- and RG-treated OVA mice compared with OVA controls. In this study, WG and RG showed antiasthmatic effects in an OVA-sensitized mouse model, and the efficacies of RG were found to be better than those of WG.

  12. Multiple Effects of Ginseng Berry Polysaccharides: Plasma Cholesterol Level Reduction and Enteric Neoplasm Prevention.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jin-Yi; Huang, Wei-Hua; Zheng, Wei; Park, Chan Woong; Kim, Su Hwan; Seo, Dae Bang; Shin, Kwang-Soon; Zeng, Jinxiang; Yao, Haiqiang; Sava-Segal, Clara; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2017-01-01

    The root of Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) has been used for centuries in Oriental medicine to improve general well-being and to relieve various medical conditions. It is commonly understood that ginsenosides are responsible for the pharmacological activities of ginseng. Compared to the root of ginseng, studies on the berry are considerably limited. In this study, we evaluated the effects of polysaccharides from Asian ginseng berries on plasma lipid levels, chemically-induced enteric inflammation and neoplasm, and cancer chemoprevention in different experimental models. We tested two polysaccharide preparations: regular ginseng berry polysaccharide extract (GBPE) and ginseng berry polysaccharide portion (GBPP, removed MV [Formula: see text]). We first observed that both oral GBPE and oral GBPP significantly reduced plasma cholesterol and triglycerides levels in a dose-related manner in ob/ob mice, without obvious body weight changes. Then, in AOM/DSS-induced acute colitis mice, GBPE and GBPP significantly ameliorated the increased gut disease activity index and inhibited the reduction of the colon length. Further, the berry polysaccharides significantly suppressed chemically-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. This is consistent with the observation that GBPE and GBPP attenuated tumorigenesis in mice by significantly and dose-dependently reducing tumor load. Finally, in vitro HCT-116 and HT-29 human colon cancer cells were used. While these berry preparations had better antiproliferation effects on the HCT-116 than the HT-29 cells, the GBPE had significantly stronger inhibitory effects than GBPP. The observed in vitro GBPE's effect could contribute to the actions of its small-molecule non-polysaccharide compounds due to their direct antiproliferative activities. Results obtained from the present study suggest that ginseng berry polysaccharides may have a therapeutic role in the management of high lipid levels, enteric inflammation, and colon

  13. Korea red ginseng on Helicobacter pylori-induced halitosis: newer therapeutic strategy and a plausible mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Sang; Kwon, Kwang An; Jung, Hyeon Sik; Kim, Joo Hyeon; Hahm, Ki-Baik

    2009-01-01

    Gas chromatographic documentation of volatile sulfur compounds in Helicobacter pylori cultures and the amelioration of halitosis after eradication suggested a causal link between H. pylori infection and halitosis. We hypothesized that Korea red ginseng can relieve H. pylori-associated halitosis based on their anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective actions in H. pylori-associated gastritis. Eighty-eight functional dyspepsia patients presenting with either subjective halitosis or objective halimeter levels >100 ppb were recruited, on whom tests were repeated after 10 weeks of red ginseng administration. The expressions of cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE), cystathionine beta-synthetase (CBS), IL-6, IL-8 and IL-1beta mRNA were compared in H. pylori-infected or NaHS-treated gastric epithelial cells according to red ginseng treatment. After 10 weeks of red ginseng administration, 38 patients out of 68 H. pylori-positive cases became 'free of halitosis' accompanied with halimeter levels <50 ppb accordant with the subjective resolution of halitosis. Among the remaining 30 patients, 15 cases administered with both eradication regimen and red ginseng supplement showed either higher eradication rates (93.3%) or were found to be completely free of halitosis in comparison to the other 15 patients who were only administered the eradication regimen. Among 20 H. pylori-negative patients, 13 patients became 'free of halitosis' with 10 weeks of red ginseng treatment alone. Red ginseng extracts significantly decreased H. pylori- or NaHS-induced CSE expressions concomitant with attenuated levels of IL-6, IL-8 and IL-1beta mRNA. The strategy consisting of Korea red ginseng supplementation after the successful eradication of H. pylori could be an effective way to fight troublesome halitosis. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Panax ginseng exerts antiproliferative effects on rat hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyemee; Lee, Hae-Jeung; Kim, Dae Joong; Kim, Tae Myoung; Moon, Hyun-Seuk; Choi, Haymie

    2013-09-01

    It has been proposed that ginseng has chemopreventive effects against several types of cancer in animals and humans. However, the mechanisms underlying the chemopreventive activities of fresh ginseng against hepatocarcinogenesis have not yet been elucidated. Therefore, we hypothesized that these ginseng species may prevent hepatocarcinogenesis but that the chemopreventive mechanisms may differ by species. To determine the chemopreventive and therapeutic potential of 3 different types of fresh ginseng on hepatocarcinogenesis, Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with diethylnitrosamine and fed diets containing 2% Panax japonicus CA Meyer (JN), P. quinquefolius L (QQ), or P. ginseng CA Meyer (GS) for 10 weeks. Glutathione S-transferase P form (GST-P)-positive foci, a stable marker for rat hepatocarcinogenesis, were shown in all carcinogen-injected rats; but only the GS diet significantly reduced the area and number (62% and 68%, respectively; P < .05) of GST-P-positive foci compared with the diethylnitrosamine control group. In addition, the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive hepatocytes in the GST-P-positive area was significantly decreased in the GS group but not in the JN or QQ groups. Using cDNA microarray analyses to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms, we observed that the p53 signaling pathway was altered by the GS diet and that the expression of Cyclin D1, Cyclin G1, Cdc2a, and Igf-1, which are involved in the p53 signaling pathway, was downregulated by the GS diet. Our data demonstrate, for the first time, that GS, but not JN or QQ, induces cell cycle arrest in hepatocarcinogenesis. This study suggests that fresh GS has potential chemopreventive effects and may prove to be a therapeutic agent against hepatocarcinogenesis. © 2013.

  15. The aphrodisiac and adaptogenic properties of ginseng.

    PubMed

    Nocerino, E; Amato, M; Izzo, A A

    2000-08-01

    Ginseng is the root of the perennial herbs of Panax quinquefolium and Panax ginseng which contain a series of tetracyclic triterpenoid saponins (ginsenosides) as active ingredients. It is considered a tonic or adaptogenic that enhances physical performance (including sexual), promotes vitality and increases resistance to stress and ageing. The adaptogenic properties of ginseng are believed to be due to its effects on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, resulting in elevated plasma corticotropin and corticosteroids levels. When used appropriately, ginseng appears to be safe. Nevertheless, documented side effects include hypertension, diarrhoea, restlessness, mastalgia and vaginal bleeding.

  16. The nootropic properties of ginseng saponin Rb1 are linked to effects on anxiety.

    PubMed

    Churchill, James D; Gerson, Jennifer L; Hinton, Kendra A; Mifek, Jennifer L; Walter, Michael J; Winslow, Cynthia L; Deyo, Richard A

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that crude ginseng extracts enhance performance on shock-motivated tasks. Whether such performance enhancements are due to memory-enhancing (nootropic) properties of ginseng, or to other non-specific effects such as an influence on anxiety has not been determined. In the present study, we evaluated both the nootropic and anxiolytic effects of the ginseng saponin Rb1. In the first experiment, 80 five-day-old male chicks received intraperitoneal injections of 0, 0.25, 2.5 or 5.0 mg/kg Rb1. Performance on a visual discrimination task was evaluated 15 minutes, 24 and 72 hours later. Acquisition of a visual discrimination task was unaffected by drug treatment, but the number of errors was significantly reduced in the 0.25 mg/kg group during retention trials completed 24 and 72 hours after injection. Animals receiving higher dosages showed trends towards enhancement initially, but demonstrated impaired performance when tested 72 hours later. Rb1 had no effect on response rates or body weight. In the second experiment, 64 five-day-old male chicks received similar injections of Rb1 (0, 0.25, 2.5 or 5.0 mg/kg) and separation distress was evaluated 15 minutes, 24 and 72 hours later. Rb1 produced a change in separation distress that depended on the dose and environmental condition under which distress was recorded. These data suggest that Rb1 can improve memory for a visual discrimination task and that the nootropic effect may be related to changes in anxiety.

  17. Acclimation of hydrogen peroxide enhances salt tolerance by activating defense-related proteins in Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer.

    PubMed

    Sathiyaraj, Gayathri; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Kim, Yu-Jin; Lee, Ok Ran; Parvin, Shonana; Balusamy, Sri Renuka Devi; Khorolragchaa, Atlanzul; Yang, Deok Chun

    2014-06-01

    The effect of exogenously applied hydrogen peroxide on salt stress tolerance was investigated in Panax ginseng. Pretreatment of ginseng seedlings with 100 μM H2O2 increased the physiological salt tolerance of the ginseng plant and was used as the optimum concentration to induce salt tolerance capacity. Treatment with exogenous H2O2 for 2 days significantly enhanced salt stress tolerance in ginseng seedlings by increasing the activities of ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and guaiacol peroxidase and by decreasing the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and endogenous H2O2 as well as the production rate of superoxide radical (O2(-)). There was a positive physiological effect on the growth and development of salt-stressed seedlings by exogenous H2O2 as measured by ginseng dry weight and both chlorophyll and carotenoid contents. Exogenous H2O2 induced changes in MDA, O2(-), antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant compounds, which are responsible for increases in salt stress tolerance. Salt treatment caused drastic declines in ginseng growth and antioxidants levels; whereas, acclimation treatment with H2O2 allowed the ginseng seedlings to recover from salt stress by up-regulation of defense-related proteins such as antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant compounds.

  18. Probability of identification: adulteration of American Ginseng with Asian Ginseng.

    PubMed

    Harnly, James; Chen, Pei; Harrington, Peter De B

    2013-01-01

    The AOAC INTERNATIONAL guidelines for validation of botanical identification methods were applied to the detection of Asian Ginseng [Panax ginseng (PG)] as an adulterant for American Ginseng [P. quinquefolius (PQ)] using spectral fingerprints obtained by flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS). Samples of 100% PQ and 100% PG were physically mixed to provide 90, 80, and 50% PQ. The multivariate FIMS fingerprint data were analyzed using soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) based on 100% PQ. The Q statistic, a measure of the degree of non-fit of the test samples with the calibration model, was used as the analytical parameter. FIMS was able to discriminate between 100% PQ and 100% PG, and between 100% PQ and 90, 80, and 50% PQ. The probability of identification (POI) curve was estimated based on the SD of 90% PQ. A digital model of adulteration, obtained by mathematically summing the experimentally acquired spectra of 100% PQ and 100% PG in the desired ratios, agreed well with the physical data and provided an easy and more accurate method for constructing the POI curve. Two chemometric modeling methods, SIMCA and fuzzy optimal associative memories, and two classification methods, partial least squares-discriminant analysis and fuzzy rule-building expert systems, were applied to the data. The modeling methods correctly identified the adulterated samples; the classification methods did not.

  19. Physicochemical Characteristics and Antioxidant Capacity in Yogurt Fortified with Red Ginseng Extract.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jieun; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Yoon, Hyun Joo; Jang, Hye Ji; Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Jee, Hee-Sook; Li, Xiang; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Lee, Si-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate characteristics and functionality of yogurt applied red ginseng extract. Yogurts added with red ginseng extract (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2%) were produced using Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus and stored at refrigerated temperature. During fermentation, pH was decreased whereas titratable aicidity and viable cell counts of L. acidophilus and S. thermophilus were increased. The composition of yogurt samples was measured on day 1, an increase of red ginseng extract content in yogurt resulted in an increase in lactose, protein, total solids, and ash content, whereas fat and moisture content decreased. The pH value and cell counts of L. acidophilus and S. thermophilus were declined, however titratable acidity was increased during storage period. The antioxidant capacity was measured as diverse methods. During refrigerated storage time, the value of antioxidant effect was decreased, however, yogurt fortified with red ginseng extract had higher capacity than plain yogurt. The antioxidant effect was improved in proportion to concentration of red ginseng extract. These data suggests that red ginseng extract could affect to reduce fermentation time of yogurt and enhance antioxidant capacity.

  20. Efficacy of Ginseng Supplements on Fatigue and Physical Performance: a Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the efficacy of ginseng supplements on fatigue reduction and physical performance enhancement as reported by randomized controlled trials (RCTs). RCTs that investigated the efficacy of ginseng supplements on fatigue reduction and physical performance enhancement compared with placebos were included. The main outcome measures were fatigue reduction and physical performance enhancement. Out of 155 articles meeting initial criteria, 12 RCTs involving 630 participants (311 participants in the intervention group and 319 participants in the placebo group) were included in the final analysis. In the fixed-effect meta-analysis of four RCTs, there was a statistically significant efficacy of ginseng supplements on fatigue reduction (standardized mean difference, SMD = 0.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.16 to 0.52). However, ginseng supplements were not associated with physical performance enhancement in the fixed-effect meta-analysis of eight RCTs (SMD = −0.01; 95% CI = −0.29 to 0.27). We found that there was insufficient clinical evidence to support the use of ginseng supplements on reducing fatigue and enhancing physical performance because only few RCTs with a small sample size have been published so far. Further lager RCTs are required to confirm the efficacy of ginseng supplements on fatigue reduction. PMID:27822924

  1. Physicochemical Characteristics and Antioxidant Capacity in Yogurt Fortified with Red Ginseng Extract

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jieun; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Yoon, Hyun Joo; Jang, Hye Ji; Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Jee, Hee-Sook; Lee, Na-Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate characteristics and functionality of yogurt applied red ginseng extract. Yogurts added with red ginseng extract (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2%) were produced using Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus and stored at refrigerated temperature. During fermentation, pH was decreased whereas titratable aicidity and viable cell counts of L. acidophilus and S. thermophilus were increased. The composition of yogurt samples was measured on day 1, an increase of red ginseng extract content in yogurt resulted in an increase in lactose, protein, total solids, and ash content, whereas fat and moisture content decreased. The pH value and cell counts of L. acidophilus and S. thermophilus were declined, however titratable acidity was increased during storage period. The antioxidant capacity was measured as diverse methods. During refrigerated storage time, the value of antioxidant effect was decreased, however, yogurt fortified with red ginseng extract had higher capacity than plain yogurt. The antioxidant effect was improved in proportion to concentration of red ginseng extract. These data suggests that red ginseng extract could affect to reduce fermentation time of yogurt and enhance antioxidant capacity. PMID:27433113

  2. Should fertilization treatment start with reducing stress?

    PubMed

    Campagne, Daniel M

    2006-07-01

    In the past few decades, new and more efficient techniques to help solve fertility problems have become widely available throughout the developed world. These techniques include hormonal stimulation, ICSI, gamete intra-Fallopian transfer (GIFT) and IVF, and their cost is, on average, considerable. There is substantial initial evidence that the psychological disposition of the parents-to-be influences their fertility and thus the outcome of fertilization techniques. Many fertility treatments include consultation with a psychologist and do try to keep the stress produced by the treatment itself to a minimum, using concurrent therapy. However, the accumulating evidence points to the need to program medical fertility treatment, bearing in mind both chronic and acute stress levels, and to treat for their reduction before commencing the (actual) fertility treatment. There is ample evidence that lower stress levels mean better female and male natural fertility, though there is as yet no conclusive experimental evidence that lower stress levels result in better fertility treatment outcome. However, first reducing stress may diminish the number of treatment cycles needed before pregnancy is obtained, may prepare the couple for an initial failure of treatment or even make the more invasive techniques unnecessary. Primary psychological treatment for trait and state stress, being a less invasive method than IVF, ICSI or GIFT, is to be applied whenever indicated. Also, treatment and therapy to reduce stress, and in so doing enhance fertility, do not provoke the ethical and religious objections raised by infertility treatments.

  3. Growing American Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) in Forestlands

    Treesearch

    R.C. Vaughan; J.L. Chamberlain; J.F. Munsell

    2011-01-01

    Farming alternative crops, like American ginseng, is becoming more popular among forestland owners. Ginseng is a native medicinal herb and can be deliberately cultivated under a forest canopy. In recent surveys, over 40 percent of landowners in the Southeastern United States indicated a desire for more information on forest farming (Workman et al. 2003), and over half...

  4. Genetic and Epigenetic Diversities Shed Light on Domestication of Cultivated Ginseng (Panax ginseng).

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Rui; Shi, Feng-Xue; Zhou, Yu-Xin; Li, Ya-Ling; Wang, Xin-Feng; Zhang, Cui; Wang, Xu-Tong; Liu, Bao; Xiao, Hong-Xing; Li, Lin-Feng

    2015-11-02

    Chinese ginseng (Panax ginseng) is a medically important herb within Panax and has crucial cultural values in East Asia. As the symbol of traditional Chinese medicine, Chinese ginseng has been used as a herbal remedy to restore stamina and capacity in East Asia for thousands of years. To address the evolutionary origin and domestication history of cultivated ginseng, we employed multiple molecular approaches to investigate the genetic structures of cultivated and wild ginseng across their distribution ranges in northeastern Asia. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses revealed that the four cultivated ginseng landraces, COMMON, BIANTIAO, SHIZHU, and GAOLI (also known as Korean ginseng), were not domesticated independently and Fusong Town is likely one of the primary domestication centers. In addition, our results from population genetic and epigenetic analyses demonstrated that cultivated ginseng maintained high levels of genetic and epigenetic diversity, but showed distinct cytosine methylation patterns compared with wild ginseng. The patterns of genetic and epigenetic variation revealed by this study have shed light on the domestication history of cultivated ginseng, which may serve as a framework for future genetic improvements. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Genome-Wide Variation Patterns Uncover the Origin and Selection in Cultivated Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming-Rui; Shi, Feng-Xue; Li, Ya-Ling; Jiang, Peng; Jiao, Lili

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Chinese ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is a medicinally important herb and plays crucial roles in traditional Chinese medicine. Pharmacological analyses identified diverse bioactive components from Chinese ginseng. However, basic biological attributes including domestication and selection of the ginseng plant remain under-investigated. Here, we presented a genome-wide view of the domestication and selection of cultivated ginseng based on the whole genome data. A total of 8,660 protein-coding genes were selected for genome-wide scanning of the 30 wild and cultivated ginseng accessions. In complement, the 45s rDNA, chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes were included to perform phylogenetic and population genetic analyses. The observed spatial genetic structure between northern cultivated ginseng (NCG) and southern cultivated ginseng (SCG) accessions suggested multiple independent origins of cultivated ginseng. Genome-wide scanning further demonstrated that NCG and SCG have undergone distinct selection pressures during the domestication process, with more genes identified in the NCG (97 genes) than in the SCG group (5 genes). Functional analyses revealed that these genes are involved in diverse pathways, including DNA methylation, lignin biosynthesis, and cell differentiation. These findings suggested that the SCG and NCG groups have distinct demographic histories. Candidate genes identified are useful for future molecular breeding of cultivated ginseng. PMID:28922794

  6. Genome-Wide Variation Patterns Uncover the Origin and Selection in Cultivated Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer).

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Rui; Shi, Feng-Xue; Li, Ya-Ling; Jiang, Peng; Jiao, Lili; Liu, Bao; Li, Lin-Feng

    2017-09-01

    Chinese ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is a medicinally important herb and plays crucial roles in traditional Chinese medicine. Pharmacological analyses identified diverse bioactive components from Chinese ginseng. However, basic biological attributes including domestication and selection of the ginseng plant remain under-investigated. Here, we presented a genome-wide view of the domestication and selection of cultivated ginseng based on the whole genome data. A total of 8,660 protein-coding genes were selected for genome-wide scanning of the 30 wild and cultivated ginseng accessions. In complement, the 45s rDNA, chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes were included to perform phylogenetic and population genetic analyses. The observed spatial genetic structure between northern cultivated ginseng (NCG) and southern cultivated ginseng (SCG) accessions suggested multiple independent origins of cultivated ginseng. Genome-wide scanning further demonstrated that NCG and SCG have undergone distinct selection pressures during the domestication process, with more genes identified in the NCG (97 genes) than in the SCG group (5 genes). Functional analyses revealed that these genes are involved in diverse pathways, including DNA methylation, lignin biosynthesis, and cell differentiation. These findings suggested that the SCG and NCG groups have distinct demographic histories. Candidate genes identified are useful for future molecular breeding of cultivated ginseng. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  7. Korean red ginseng extract exhibits neuroprotective effects through inhibition of apoptotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunyoung; Lee, Youngmoon; Cho, Jungsook

    2014-01-01

    Red ginseng has long been used as a traditional medicine in many East Asian countries including Korea. It is known to exhibit various pharmacological effects, including anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-stress and anti-diabetes activities. To further explore its actions, the present study evaluated effects of Korean red ginseng (KRG) extract on neuronal injury induced by various types of insults using primary cultured rat cortical cells. KRG extract inhibited neuronal damage and generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by excitatory amino acids, such as glutamate and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), or by Aβ(25-35). To elucidate possible mechanism(s) by which KRG extract exerts neuroprotective action, its effects on apoptosis and apoptosis-related signaling molecules in neurons were assessed. KRG extract markedly increased phosphorylation of Bad at Ser 112 and inhibited Bax expression and caspase 3 activity. It also inhibited DNA fragmentation induced by NMDA or Aβ(25-35). These results indicate that KRG extract protects cultured neurons from excitotoxicity and Aβ(25-35)-induced toxicity through inhibition of ROS generation and apoptotic cell death. In addition, KRG extract inhibited β-secretase activity, implying that it may reduce Aβ peptide formation. Taken together, these findings suggest that KRG extract may be beneficial for the prevention and/or treatment of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease.

  8. Significant difference in active metabolite levels of ginseng in humans consuming Asian or Western diet: The link with enteric microbiota.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jin-Yi; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Zhang, Qi-Hui; Liu, Zhi; Musch, Mark W; Bissonnette, Marc; Chang, Eugene B; Li, Ping; Qi, Lian-Wen; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2017-04-01

    After ingestion of ginseng, the bioavailability of its parent compounds is low and enteric microbiota plays an important role in parent compound biotransformation to their metabolites. Diet type can influence the enteric microbiota profile. When human subjects on different diets ingest ginseng, their different gut microbiota profiles may influence the metabolism of ginseng parent compounds. In this study, the effects of different diet type on gut microbiota metabolism of American ginseng saponins were investigated. We recruited six healthy adults who regularly consumed different diet types. These subjects received 7 days' oral American ginseng, and their biological samples were collected for LC-Q-TOF-MS analysis. We observed significant ginsenoside Rb 1 (a major parent compound) and compound K (a major active metabolite) level differences in the samples from the subjects consuming different diets. Subjects on an Asian diet had much higher Rb 1 levels but much lower compound K levels compared with those on a Western diet. Since compound K possesses much better cancer chemoprevention potential, our data suggested that consumers on a Western diet should obtain better cancer prevention effects with American ginseng intake compared with those on an Asian diet. Ginseng compound levels could be enhanced or reduced via gut microbiota manipulation for clinical utility. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Stimulation of nitric oxide synthesis by the aqueous extract of Panax ginseng root in RAW 264.7 cells

    PubMed Central

    Friedl, Roswitha; Moeslinger, Thomas; Kopp, Brigitte; Spieckermann, Paul Gerhard

    2001-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of Panax ginseng root aqueous extracts upon inducible nitric oxide synthesis in RAW 264.7 cells. Panax ginseng root extract has been used in the Asian world for centuries as a traditional herb to enhance physical strength and resistance and is becoming more and more popular in Europe and North America. Incubation of murine macrophages (RAW 264.7 cells) with increasing amounts of aqueous extracts of Panax ginseng (0.05 – 0.8 μg μl−1) showed a dose dependent stimulation of inducible nitric oxide synthesis. Polysaccharides isolated from Panax ginseng showed strong stimulation of inducible nitric oxide synthesis, whereas a triterpene-enriched fraction from an aqueous extract of Panax ginseng did not show any stimulation. Inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression was enhanced in a dose dependent manner as revealed by immunoblotting when cells were incubated with increasing amounts of Panax ginseng extract. This was associated with an incline in inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA-levels as determined by semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction and electromobility shift assay studies indicated enhanced nuclear factor-κB DNA binding activity. As nitric oxide plays an important role in immune function, Panax ginseng treatment could modulate several aspects of host defense mechanisms due to stimulation of the inducible nitric oxide synthase. PMID:11739242

  10. Trends in Ginseng Research in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Si-Kwan; Park, Jeong Hill

    2011-01-01

    A total of 470 papers directly related to research on the Panax species were retrieved by performing internet searches with the keywords Panax and ginseng as the search terms. The publications were categorized as follows: 399 research articles, 30 reviews, 30 meeting abstracts, 7 proceedings, and 4 letters. The majority of these publications were published by scientists from Korea (35.7%), China (32.3%), and the USA (11.3%). Scientists from a total of 29 nations were actively involved in conducting ginseng research. A total of 43.6% of the publications were categorized as pharmacodynamic studies. The effects of ginseng on cerebrovascular function and cancer were the two most common topics considered in the pharmacodynamic studies. More than half of the ginseng studies assessed the use of P. ginseng. A total of 23 countries participated in studies specifically related to P. ginseng, and more than 80% of these studies originated from Korea and China. A total of 50 topics within the pharmacodynamics category were examined in association with the use of P. ginseng. PMID:23717084

  11. Pharmacokinetic Drug Interactions with Panax ginseng.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Meenakshi R; Penzak, Scott R

    2017-08-01

    Panax ginseng is widely used as an adaptogen throughout the world. The major active constituents of P. ginseng are ginsenosides. Most naturally occurring ginsenosides are deglycosylated by colonic bacteria to intestinal metabolites. Ginsenosides along with these metabolites are widely accepted as being responsible for the pharmacologic activity and drug interaction potential of ginseng. Numerous preclinical studies have assessed the influence of various ginseng components on cytochrome P450 (CYP), glucuronidation, and drug transport activity. Results from these investigations have been largely inconclusive due to the use of different ginseng products and variations in methodology between studies. Drug interaction studies in humans have been conflicting and have largely yielded negative results or results that suggest only a weak interaction. One study using a midazolam probe found weak CYP3A induction and another using a fexofenadine probe found weak P-gp inhibition. Despite several case reports indicating a drug interaction between warfarin and P. ginseng, pharmacokinetic studies involving these agents in combination have failed to find significant pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions. To this end, drug interactions involving P. ginseng appear to be rare; however, close clinical monitoring is still suggested for patients taking warfarin or CYP3A or P-gp substrates with narrow therapeutic indices.

  12. Beneficial effects of fermented black ginseng and its ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in LLC-PK1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Han, Myoung-Sik; Han, Im-Ho; Lee, Dahae; An, Jun Min; Kim, Su-Nam; Shin, Myoung-Sook; Yamabe, Noriko; Hwang, Gwi Seo; Yoo, Hye Hyun; Choi, Suk-Jung; Kang, Ki Sung; Jang, Hyuk-Jai

    2015-01-01

    Background Nephrotoxicity is a common side effect of medications. Panax ginseng is one of the best-known herbal medicines, and its individual constituents enhance renal function. Identification of its efficacy and mechanisms of action against drug-induced nephrotoxicity, as well as the specific constituents mediating this effect, have recently emerged as an interesting research area focusing on the kidney protective efficacy of P. ginseng. Methods The present study investigated the kidney protective effect of fermented black ginseng (FBG) and its active component ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 against cisplatin (chemotherapy drug)-induced damage in pig kidney (LLC-PK1) cells. It focused on assessing the role of mitogen-activated protein kinases as important mechanistic elements in kidney protection. Results The reduced cell viability induced by cisplatin was significantly recovered with FBG extract and ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 dose-dependently. The cisplatin-induced elevated protein levels of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p53, and cleaved caspase-3 were decreased after cotreatment with FBG extract or ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3. The elevated percentage of apoptotic LLC-PK1 cells induced by cisplatin treatment was significantly abrogated by cotreatment with FBG and the ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3. Conclusion FBG and its major ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3, ameliorated cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in LLC-PK1 cells by blocking the JNK–p53–caspase-3 signaling cascade. PMID:27158234

  13. Beneficial effects of fermented black ginseng and its ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in LLC-PK1 cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Myoung-Sik; Han, Im-Ho; Lee, Dahae; An, Jun Min; Kim, Su-Nam; Shin, Myoung-Sook; Yamabe, Noriko; Hwang, Gwi Seo; Yoo, Hye Hyun; Choi, Suk-Jung; Kang, Ki Sung; Jang, Hyuk-Jai

    2016-04-01

    Nephrotoxicity is a common side effect of medications. Panax ginseng is one of the best-known herbal medicines, and its individual constituents enhance renal function. Identification of its efficacy and mechanisms of action against drug-induced nephrotoxicity, as well as the specific constituents mediating this effect, have recently emerged as an interesting research area focusing on the kidney protective efficacy of P. ginseng. The present study investigated the kidney protective effect of fermented black ginseng (FBG) and its active component ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 against cisplatin (chemotherapy drug)-induced damage in pig kidney (LLC-PK1) cells. It focused on assessing the role of mitogen-activated protein kinases as important mechanistic elements in kidney protection. The reduced cell viability induced by cisplatin was significantly recovered with FBG extract and ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 dose-dependently. The cisplatin-induced elevated protein levels of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p53, and cleaved caspase-3 were decreased after cotreatment with FBG extract or ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3. The elevated percentage of apoptotic LLC-PK1 cells induced by cisplatin treatment was significantly abrogated by cotreatment with FBG and the ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3. FBG and its major ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3, ameliorated cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in LLC-PK1 cells by blocking the JNK-p53-caspase-3 signaling cascade.

  14. Ginseng for Liver Injury: Friend or Foe?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Panax sp., including Panax ginseng Meyer, Panax quiquifolius L., or Panax notoginseng (Burk.) FH Chen, have been used as functional foods or for traditional Chinese medicine for diabetes, inflammation, stress, aging, hepatic injury, and cancer. In recent decades, a number of both in vitro and in vivo experiments as well as human studies have been conducted to investigate the efficacy and safety of various types of ginseng samples and their components. Of these, the hepatoprotective and hepatotoxic effects of ginseng and their ginsenosides and polysaccharides are reviewed and summarized. PMID:28930143

  15. Functional regulation of ginsenoside biosynthesis by RNA interferences of a UDP-glycosyltransferase gene in Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chao; Zhao, Shoujing; Wei, Guanning; Zhao, Huijuan; Qu, Qingling

    2017-02-01

    Panax ginseng (Asian ginseng) and Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng) have been used as medicinal and functional herbal remedies worldwide. Different properties of P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius were confirmed not only in clinical findings, but also at cellular and molecular levels. The major pharmacological ingredients of P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius are the triterpene saponins known as ginsenosides. The P. ginseng roots contain a higher ratio of ginsenoside Rg1:Rb1 than that in P. quinquefolius. In ginseng plants, various ginsenosides are synthesized via three key reactions: cyclization, hydroxylation and glycosylation. To date, several genes including dammarenediol synthase (DS), protopanaxadiol synthase and protopanaxatriol synthase have been isolated in P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius. Although some glycosyltransferase genes have been isolated and identified association with ginsenoside synthesis in P. ginseng, little is known about the glycosylation mechanism in P. quinquefolius. In this paper, we cloned and identified a UDP-glycosyltransferase gene named Pq3-O-UGT2 from P. quinquefolius (GenBank accession No. KR106207). In vitro enzymatic activity experiments biochemically confirmed that Pq3-O-UGT2 catalyzed the glycosylation of Rh2 and F2 to produce Rg3 and Rd, and the chemical structure of the products were confirmed susing high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS). High sequence similarity between Pq3-O-UGT2 and PgUGT94Q2 indicated a close evolutionary relationship between P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius. Moreover, we established both P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius RNAi transgenic roots lines. RNA interference of Pq3-O-UGT2 and PgUGT94Q2 led to reduce levels of ginsenoside Rd, protopanaxadiol-type and total ginsenosides. Expression of key genes including protopanaxadiol and protopanaxatriol synthases was up-regulated in RNAi lines, while expression of dammarenediol synthase gene

  16. Investigation of the Antifatigue Effects of Korean Ginseng on Professional Athletes by Gas Chromatography-Time-of-Flight-Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Yan, Bei; Liu, Yao; Shi, Aixin; Wang, Zhihong; Aa, Jiye; Huang, Xiaoping; Liu, Yi

    2018-05-01

    Ginseng is usually used for alleviating fatigue. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the regulatory effect of Korean ginseng on the metabolic pattern in professional athletes, and, further, to explore the underlying mechanism of the antifatigue effect of Korean ginseng. GC-time-of-flight-MS was used to profile serum samples from professional athletes before training and after 15 and 30 day training, and professional athletes administered with Korean ginseng in the meanwhile. Biochemical parameters of all athletes were also analyzed. For the athlete control group, strength-endurance training resulted in an elevation of creatine kinase (CK) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and a reduction in blood hemoglobin, and a dynamic trajectory of the metabolomic profile which were related to fatigue. Korean ginseng treatment not only lead to a marked reduction in CK and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in serum, but also showed regulatory effects on the serum metabolic profile and restored scores plots close to normal, suggesting that the change in metabolic profiling could reflect the antifatigue effect of Korean ginseng. Furthermore, perturbed levels of 11 endogenous metabolites were regulated by Korean ginseng significantly, which might be primarily involved in lipid metabolism, energy balance, and chemical signaling. These findings suggest that metabolomics is a potential tool for the evaluation of the antifatigue effect of Korean ginseng and for the elucidation of its pharmacological mechanism.

  17. Effect of Red Ginseng on Genotoxicity and Health-Related Quality of Life after Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients with Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: A Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Seung; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Maria; Kwon, Byung-Su; Suh, Dong Hoon; Song, Yong Sang

    2017-07-19

    We evaluated the effect of red ginseng on toxicity, health-related quality of life (HRQL) and survival after adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). A total of 30 patients with EOC were randomly assigned to placebo ( n = 15) and red ginseng groups ( n = 15). All patients took placebo or red ginseng (3000 mg/day) for three months. Then, we compared changes of genotoxicity, HRQL and survival between the two groups. As a result, red ginseng reduced micronuclei yield in comparison with placebo despite no difference of binucleated cells index. Although red ginseng increased serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase significantly, they were within the normal value. Moreover, there were no differences in adverse events between placebo and red ginseng groups. In terms of HRQL, red ginseng was associated with improved emotional functioning and decreased symptoms of fatigue, nausea and vomiting, and dyspnea, reduced anxiety and interference affecting life and improved daytime somnolence. However, there was no effect of red ginseng on prognosis of EOC. Conclusively, red ginseng may be safe and effective to reduce genotoxicity and improve HRQL despite no benefit of survival in patients with EOC who received chemotherapy.

  18. Internet treatment for social phobia reduces comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Titov, Nickolai; Gibson, Matthew; Andrews, Gavin; McEvoy, Peter

    2009-08-01

    Social phobia can be treated by brief Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). Most people with social phobia, however, meet criteria for another mental disorder; this comorbidity is associated with significant disability, and cases of comorbidity may be more difficult to treat. The present study examined the impact of the Shyness programme, an Internet-based treatment programme for social phobia, on comorbid symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety disorder. Data from three randomized controlled trials using the Shyness programme to treat social phobia were reanalysed. The 211 subjects, all of whom met DSM-IV criteria for social phobia, were divided into four groups: (i) social phobia only; (ii) social phobia with elevated symptoms of depression; (iii) social phobia with elevated symptoms of generalized anxiety; and (iv) social phobia with elevated symptoms of both generalized anxiety and depression. The improvement in social phobia, depression and anxiety following Internet-based treatment for social phobia was measured. Improvement in social phobia was seen in all groups, whether comorbid or not. Significant improvements in comorbid symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety occurred even though the treatment was focused on the social phobia. Brief Internet-based CBT can reduce both the target disorder as well as comorbid symptoms. These findings are consistent with evidence that unified or transdiagnostic programmes may reduce the severity of comorbid disorders and symptoms, indicating an important direction for future research.

  19. Effect of white, red and black ginseng on physicochemical properties and ginsenosides.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yan; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Jeon, Ji-Na; Wang, Chao; Min, Jin-Woo; Noh, Hae-Yong; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2015-06-01

    A systematic comparison of the ginsenosides and physicochemical properties of white ginseng (WG), red ginseng (RG) and black ginseng (BG) was performed. The purpose of the present study was to identify the effects of the physicochemical properties by steaming process. During the steaming process, ginsenosides transform into specific ginsenosides by hydrolysis, dehydration and isomerization at C-3, C-6 or C-20. Steaming ginseng led to a significant increase in reducing sugar, acidic polysaccharide and phenolic compounds content. Antioxidative properties were investigated using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity, compared with BHA (Butylated hydroxyanisole). RG and BG exhibited higher antioxidant activity than WG. The maximum residue level for Benzo(a)pyrene was established to 5 μg/kg in food products. The levels of benzo(a)pyrene in WG and RG were not detected. Benzo(a)pyrene was detected in the BG, the content was 0.17 μg/kg. The scientific achievements of the present study could help consumers to choose different type of ginseng products available on the market.

  20. Extensive characterization of peptides from Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer using mass spectrometric approach.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xueting; Zhao, Nan; Yu, Xi; Han, Xiaoli; Gao, Huiyuan; Zhang, Xiaozhe

    2016-11-01

    Panax ginseng is an important herb that has clear effects on the treatment of diverse diseases. Until now, the natural peptide constitution of this herb remains unclear. Here, we conduct an extensive characterization of Ginseng peptidome using MS-based data mining and sequencing. The screen on the charge states of precursor ions indicated that Ginseng is a peptide-rich herb in comparison of a number of commonly used herbs. The Ginseng peptides were then extracted and submitted to nano-LC-MS/MS analysis using different fragmentation modes, including CID, high-energy collisional dissociation, and electron transfer dissociation. Further database search and de novo sequencing allowed the identification of total 308 peptides, some of which might have important biological activities. This study illustrates the abundance and sequences of endogenous Ginseng peptides, thus providing the information of more candidates for the screening of active compounds for future biological research and drug discovery studies. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Panax ginseng induces the expression of CatSper genes and sperm hyperactivation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun Hwa; Kim, Do Rim; Kim, Ha Young; Park, Seong Kyu; Chang, Mun Seog

    2014-01-01

    The cation channel of sperm (CatSper) protein family plays important roles in male reproduction and infertility. The four members of this family are expressed exclusively in the testis and are localized differently in sperm. To investigate the effects of Panax ginseng treatment on the expression of CatSper genes and sperm hyperactivation in male mice, sperm motility and CatSper gene expression were assessed using a computer-assisted semen analysis system, a Fluoroskan Ascent microplate fluorometer to assess Ca2+ influx, real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting and immunofluorescence. The results suggested that the Ca2+ levels of sperm cells treated with P. ginseng were increased significantly compared with the normal group. The P. ginseng-treated groups showed increased sperm motility parameters, such as the curvilinear velocity and amplitude of lateral head displacement. Taken together, the data suggest that CatSper messenger ribonucleic acid levels were increased significantly in mouse testes in the P. ginseng-treated group, as was the protein level, with the exception of CatSper2. In conclusion, P. ginseng plays an important role in improving sperm hyperactivation via CatSper gene expression. PMID:24969054

  2. Panax ginseng genome examination for ginsenoside biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiang; Chu, Yang; Liao, Baosheng; Xiao, Shuiming; Yin, Qinggang; Bai, Rui; Su, He; Dong, Linlin; Li, Xiwen; Qian, Jun; Zhang, Jingjing; Zhang, Yujun; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wu, Mingli; Zhang, Jie; Li, Guozheng; Zhang, Lei; Chang, Zhenzhan; Zhang, Yuebin; Jia, Zhengwei; Liu, Zhixiang; Afreh, Daniel; Nahurira, Ruth; Zhang, Lianjuan; Cheng, Ruiyang; Zhu, Yingjie; Zhu, Guangwei; Rao, Wei; Zhou, Chao; Qiao, Lirui; Huang, Zhihai; Cheng, Yung-Chi; Chen, Shilin

    2017-11-01

    Ginseng, which contains ginsenosides as bioactive compounds, has been regarded as an important traditional medicine for several millennia. However, the genetic background of ginseng remains poorly understood, partly because of the plant's large and complex genome composition. We report the entire genome sequence of Panax ginseng using next-generation sequencing. The 3.5-Gb nucleotide sequence contains more than 60% repeats and encodes 42 006 predicted genes. Twenty-two transcriptome datasets and mass spectrometry images of ginseng roots were adopted to precisely quantify the functional genes. Thirty-one genes were identified to be involved in the mevalonic acid pathway. Eight of these genes were annotated as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductases, which displayed diverse structures and expression characteristics. A total of 225 UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) were identified, and these UGTs accounted for one of the largest gene families of ginseng. Tandem repeats contributed to the duplication and divergence of UGTs. Molecular modeling of UGTs in the 71st, 74th, and 94th families revealed a regiospecific conserved motif located at the N-terminus. Molecular docking predicted that this motif captures ginsenoside precursors. The ginseng genome represents a valuable resource for understanding and improving the breeding, cultivation, and synthesis biology of this key herb. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. The Spatial and Temporal Transcriptomic Landscapes of Ginseng, Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kangyu; Jiang, Shicui; Sun, Chunyu; Lin, Yanping; Yin, Rui; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Meiping

    2015-12-11

    Ginseng, including Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) and American ginseng (P. quinquefolius L.), is one of the most important medicinal herbs in Asia and North America, but significantly understudied. This study sequenced and characterized the transcriptomes and expression profiles of genes expressed in 14 tissues and four different aged roots of Asian ginseng. A total of 265.2 million 100-bp clean reads were generated using the high-throughput sequencing platform HiSeq 2000, representing >8.3x of the 3.2-Gb ginseng genome. From the sequences, 248,993 unigenes were assembled for whole plant, 61,912-113,456 unigenes for each tissue and 54,444-65,412 unigenes for different year-old roots. We comprehensively analyzed the unigene sets and gene expression profiles. We found that the number of genes allocated to each functional category is stable across tissues or developmental stages, while the expression profiles of different genes of a gene family or involved in ginsenoside biosynthesis dramatically diversified spatially and temporally. These results provide an overall insight into the spatial and temporal transcriptome dynamics and landscapes of Asian ginseng, and comprehensive resources for advanced research and breeding of ginseng and related species.

  4. Phytochemical Characteristics of Coffee Bean Treated by Coating of Ginseng Extract

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sang Yoon; Hong, Hee-Do; Bae, Hye-Min; Choi, Changsun; Kim, Kyung-Tack

    2011-01-01

    The principal objective of this study was to assess the instrumental and sensory characteristics of ginseng coffee with different ratios of the ingredients: type of coffee bean (Colombia, Brazil, and Indonesia), type of ginseng extract (white ginseng, red ginseng, and America ginseng) and concentration of ginseng extract (3, 6, and 9 w/v %). The sensory optimal condition of white ginseng coffee, red ginseng coffee and America ginseng coffee were as follows: 3% Indonesian coffee bean coated with 3% white ginseng extract, Colombian coffee bean coated with 6% red ginseng extract and Colombian coffee bean coated with 3% American ginseng extract, respectively. In particular, the Colombian coffee bean coated with 6% red ginseng extract had significantly higher scores than other samples in terms of flavor, taste, and overall preference. Additionally, the contents of total ginsenoside and total sugar and total phenolic compounds were also highest in the Colombian coffee bean coated with 6% red ginseng extract. PMID:23717089

  5. [Cropping system and research strategies in Panax ginseng].

    PubMed

    Shen, Liang; Xu, Jiang; Dong, Lin-lin; Li, Xi-wen; Chen, Shi-lin

    2015-09-01

    Panax ginseng is the king of herbs and plays important roles in the traditional Chinese medicine industry. In this paper, we summarized the development of ginseng cultivation in China and other main countries, analyzed the effects of ecological factors of soil and climate on ginseng distribution, and investigated the characteristic of main cultivation patterns (conversion of forest to cultivate ginseng soils, cultivated ginseng in the farmland and wild nursery). Aimed at the serious issues in the cultivation, research strategies have been provided to guarantee the sustainable development of the ginseng industry. The patterns of cultivated ginseng in the farmland should be strive to develop; pollution-free cultivation and studies of continuous cropping obstacles should be carried out; ginseng varieties suited to ecological environment of farmland should be bred using modern biotechnology.

  6. Biogenic silver and gold nanoparticles synthesized using red ginseng root extract, and their applications.

    PubMed

    Singh, Priyanka; Kim, Yeon Ju; Wang, Chao; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; El-Agamy Farh, Mohamed; Yang, Deok Chun

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, we report a green methodology for the synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles, using the root extract of the herbal medicinal plant Korean red ginseng. The silver and gold nanoparticles were synthesized within 1 h and 10 min respectively. The nanoparticles generated were not aggregated, and remained stable for a long time, which suggests the nature of nanoparticles. The phytochemicals and ginsenosides present in the root extract assist in reducing and stabilizing the synthesized nanoparticles. The red ginseng root extract-generated silver nanoparticles exhibit antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms including Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Candida albicans. In addition, the silver nanoparticles exhibit biofilm degrading activity against S. aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Thus, the present study opens up a new possibility of synthesizing silver and gold nanoparticles in a green and rapid manner using Korean red ginseng root extract, and explores their biomedical applications.

  7. Effects of ginseng extract on various haematological parameters during aerobic exercise in the rat.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, A; Vila, L; Voces, J A; Cabral, A C; Alvarez, A I; Prieto, J G

    1999-04-01

    The effects of the Ginseng extract on various biochemical and haematological parameters in male Wistar rats subjected to a treadmill exercise protocol were studied for 12 weeks. The results showed increases in the haematological parameters, these increases being greatest for the animals treated with the extract during the third month of the study. The exercise also led to increases in these parameters, while the combination of both exercise and extract produced smaller increases. This study shows a clear physiological response due to the ginseng extract administration that reproduces many of the effects obtained after long-term exercise. The combination of exercise and treatments seems to support the theory that there is no clear synergic effect when the advantages associated with the ingestion of ginseng are compared with the performance of exercise.

  8. Effects of administration of the standardized Panax ginseng extract G115 on hepatic antioxidant function after exhaustive exercise.

    PubMed

    Voces, J; Alvarez, A I; Vila, L; Ferrando, A; Cabral de Oliveira, C; Prieto, J G

    1999-06-01

    The effect of prolonged treatment with the standardized Panax ginseng extract G115 on the antioxidant capacity of the liver was investigated. For this purpose, rats that had received G115 orally at different doses for 3 months and untreated control rats were subjected to exhaustive exercise on a treadmill. A bell-shaped dose response on running time was obtained. The results showed that the administration of G115 significantly increases the hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity (GPX) and the reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in the liver, with a dose-dependent reduction of the thiobarbituric acid reactant substances (TBARS). After the exercise, there is reduced hepatic lipid peroxidation, as evidenced by the TBARS levels in both the controls and the treated animals. The GPX (glutathione peroxidase) and SOD (superoxide dismutase) activity are also significantly increased in the groups receiving G115, compared with the controls. The hepatic transaminase levels, ALT (Alanine-amino-transferase) and AST (Aspartate-amino-transferase), in the recuperation phase 48 h after the exercise, indicate a clear hepatoprotective effect related to the administration of the standardized Panax ginseng extract G115. At hepatic level, G115 increases the antioxidant capacity, with a marked reduction of the effects of the oxidative stress induced by the exhaustive exercise.

  9. The secrets of Oriental panacea: Panax ginseng.

    PubMed

    Colzani, Mara; Altomare, Alessandra; Caliendo, Matteo; Aldini, Giancarlo; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Fasoli, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    The Panax ginseng root proteome has been investigated via capture with combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLL) at three different pH values. Proteomic characterization by SDS-PAGE and nLC–MS/MS analysis, via LTQ-Orbitrap XL, led to the identification of a total of 207 expressed proteins. This quite large number of identifications was achieved by consulting two different plant databases: P. ginseng and Arabidopsis thaliana. The major groups of identified proteins were associated to structural species (19.2%), oxidoreductase (19.5%), dehydrogenases (7.6%) and synthases (9.0%). For the first time, an exploration of protein–protein interactions was performed by merging all recognized proteins and building an interactomic map, characterized by 196 nodes and 1554 interactions. Finally a peptidomic analysis was developed combining different in-silico enzymatic digestions to simulate the human gastrointestinal process: from 661 generated peptides, 95 were identified as possible bioactives and in particular 6 of them were characterized by antimicrobial activity. The present report offers new insight for future investigations focused on elucidation of biological properties of P. ginseng proteome and peptidome. Ginseng is a traditional oriental herbal remedy whose use is very diffused in all the world for its numerous pharmacological effects. However, the exact mechanism of action of ginseng components, both ginsenosides and proteins, is still unidentified. So the common use of ginseng requires strict investigations to assess both its efficiency and its safety. Although many reports have been published regarding the pharmacological effects of ginseng, little is known about the biochemical pathways of root. Proteomics analysis could be useful to elucidate the physiological pathways. In this manuscript, an integrated approach to proteomics and peptidomics will usher in exploration of Panax ginseng proteins and proteolytic peptides, obtained by in

  10. Protective effects of Korean red ginseng against radiation-induced apoptosis in human HaCaT keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jae Won; Park, Keun Hyung; HWANG, Hye Sook; Shin, Yoo Seob; Oh, Young-Taek; Kim, Chul-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Radiation-induced oral mucositis is a dose-limiting toxic side effect for patients with head and neck cancer. Numerous attempts at improving radiation-induced oral mucositis have not produced a qualified treatment. Ginseng polysaccharide has multiple immunoprotective effects. Our aim was to investigate the effectiveness of Korean red ginseng (KRG) on radiation-induced damage in the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT and in an in vivo zebrafish model. Radiation inhibited HaCaT cell proliferation and migration in a cell viability assay and wound healing assay, respectively. KRG protected against these effects. KRG attenuated the radiation-induced embryotoxicity in the zebrafish model. Irradiation of HaCaT cells caused apoptosis and changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). KRG inhibited the radiation-induced apoptosis and intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and stabilized the radiation-induced loss of MMP. Western blots revealed KRG-mediated reduced expression of ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein (ATM), p53, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 and cleaved caspase-3, compared with their significant increase after radiation treatment. The collective results suggest that KRG protects HaCaT cells by blocking ROS generation, inhibiting changes in MMP, and inhibiting the caspase, ATM, p38 and JNK pathways. PMID:24078877

  11. Protective effects of Korean red ginseng against radiation-induced apoptosis in human HaCaT keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jae Won; Park, Keun Hyung; Hwang, Hye Sook; Shin, Yoo Seob; Oh, Young-Taek; Kim, Chul-Ho

    2014-03-01

    Radiation-induced oral mucositis is a dose-limiting toxic side effect for patients with head and neck cancer. Numerous attempts at improving radiation-induced oral mucositis have not produced a qualified treatment. Ginseng polysaccharide has multiple immunoprotective effects. Our aim was to investigate the effectiveness of Korean red ginseng (KRG) on radiation-induced damage in the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT and in an in vivo zebrafish model. Radiation inhibited HaCaT cell proliferation and migration in a cell viability assay and wound healing assay, respectively. KRG protected against these effects. KRG attenuated the radiation-induced embryotoxicity in the zebrafish model. Irradiation of HaCaT cells caused apoptosis and changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). KRG inhibited the radiation-induced apoptosis and intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and stabilized the radiation-induced loss of MMP. Western blots revealed KRG-mediated reduced expression of ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein (ATM), p53, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 and cleaved caspase-3, compared with their significant increase after radiation treatment. The collective results suggest that KRG protects HaCaT cells by blocking ROS generation, inhibiting changes in MMP, and inhibiting the caspase, ATM, p38 and JNK pathways.

  12. The risk-benefit profile of commonly used herbal therapies: Ginkgo, St. John's Wort, Ginseng, Echinacea, Saw Palmetto, and Kava.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Edzard

    2002-01-01

    Because use of herbal remedies is increasing, a risk-benefit profile of commonly used herbs is needed. This article provides a clinically oriented overview of the efficacy and safety of ginkgo, St. John's wort, ginseng, echinacea, saw palmetto, and kava. Wherever possible, assessments are based on systematic reviews of randomized clinical trials. Encouraging data support the efficacy of some of these popular herbal medicinal products, and the potential for doing good seems greater than that for doing harm. The published evidence suggests that ginkgo is of questionable use for memory loss and tinnitus but has some effect on dementia and intermittent claudication. St. John's wort is efficacious for mild to moderate depression, but serious concerns exist about its interactions with several conventional drugs. Well-conducted clinical trials do not support the efficacy of ginseng to treat any condition. Echinacea may be helpful in the treatment or prevention of upper respiratory tract infections, but trial data are not fully convincing. Saw palmetto has been shown in short-term trials to be efficacious in reducing the symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Kava is an efficacious short-term treatment for anxiety. None of these herbal medicines is free of adverse effects. Because the evidence is incomplete, risk-benefit assessments are not completely reliable, and much knowledge is still lacking.

  13. Taste threshold of Panax ginseng (C.A. Meyer)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ginseng has been used for centuries in Asian folk medicine. While made up of hundreds of compounds, it has long been regarded that ginseng saponins (gensenosides) are responsible for ginseng’s pharmacological properties. Most Americans find the taste of ginseng to be unappealing; therefore, the conc...

  14. Phylogenomics and barcoding of Panax: toward the identification of ginseng species.

    PubMed

    Manzanilla, V; Kool, A; Nguyen Nhat, L; Nong Van, H; Le Thi Thu, H; de Boer, H J

    2018-04-03

    The economic value of ginseng in the global medicinal plant trade is estimated to be in excess of US$2.1 billion. At the same time, the evolutionary placement of ginseng (Panax ginseng) and the complex evolutionary history of the genus is poorly understood despite several molecular phylogenetic studies. In this study, we use a full plastome phylogenomic framework to resolve relationships in Panax and to identify molecular markers for species discrimination. We used high-throughput sequencing of MBD2-Fc fractionated Panax DNA to supplement publicly available plastid genomes to create a phylogeny based on fully assembled and annotated plastid genomes from 60 accessions of 8 species. The plastome phylogeny based on a 163 kbp matrix resolves the sister relationship of Panax ginseng with P. quinquefolius. The closely related species P. vietnamensis is supported as sister of P. japonicus. The plastome matrix also shows that the markers trnC-rps16, trnS-trnG, and trnE-trnM could be used for unambiguous molecular identification of all the represented species in the genus. MBD2 depletion reduces the cost of plastome sequencing, which makes it a cost-effective alternative to Sanger sequencing based DNA barcoding for molecular identification. The plastome phylogeny provides a robust framework that can be used to study the evolution of morphological characters and biosynthesis pathways of ginsengosides for phylogenetic bioprospecting. Molecular identification of ginseng species is essential for authenticating ginseng in international trade and it provides an incentive for manufacturers to create authentic products with verified ingredients.

  15. Inhibitory Effects of Polyacetylene Compounds from Panax ginseng on Neurotrophin Receptor-Mediated Hair Growth.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Aoi; Matsuura, Daisuke; Kanatani, Hirotoshi; Yano, Shingo; Tsunakawa, Mitsuo; Matsuyama, Shigeru; Shigemori, Hideyuki

    2017-01-01

    Neurotrophins play an important role in the control of the hair growth cycle. Therefore, neurotrophin receptor antagonists have therapeutic potential for the treatment of hair growth disorders. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of Panax ginseng, a medicinal plant commonly used to treat alopecia, on the binding of neurotrophins to their receptors. In addition, we isolated and characterized the bioactive compounds of P. ginseng extracts. P. ginseng hexane extracts strongly inhibited brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-TrkB and β-nerve growth factor (β-NGF)-p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) binding. Furthermore, we identified the following 6 polyacetylene compounds as the bioactive components in P. ginseng hexane extract: panaxynol (1), panaxydol (2), panaxydol chlorohydrin (3), 1,8-heptadecadiene-4,6-diyne-3,10-diol (4), panaxytriol (5), and dihydropanaxacol (6). In particular, compounds 4, 5, and 6 significantly inhibited BDNF-TrkB binding in a dose-dependent manner. To identify the structural component mediating the inhibitory effect, we investigated the effects of the hydroxyl moiety in these compounds. We found that the inhibitory effect of panaxytriol (5) was strong, whereas the inhibitory effect of Ac-panaxytriol (7) was relatively weak. Our findings suggest that P. ginseng-derived polyacetylenes with a hydroxyl moiety might provide therapeutic benefits to patients with hair growth disorders such as alopecia by inhibiting the binding of neurotrophins to their receptors. Although saponins have been proposed to be the primary mediators of the effects of P. ginseng on hair growth, this study revealed that polyacetylene compounds exert similar effects.

  16. Grouping and characterization of putative glycosyltransferase genes from Panax ginseng Meyer.

    PubMed

    Khorolragchaa, Altanzul; Kim, Yu-Jin; Rahimi, Shadi; Sukweenadhi, Johan; Jang, Moon-Gi; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2014-02-15

    Glycosyltransferases are members of the multigene family of plants that can transfer single or multiple activated sugars to a range of plant molecules, resulting in the glycosylation of plant compounds. Although the activities of many glycosyltransferases and their products have been recognized for a long time, only in recent years were some glycosyltransferase genes identified and few have been functionally characterized in detail. Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer), belonging to Araliaceae, has been well known as a popular mysterious medicinal herb in East Asia for over 2,000 years. A total of 704 glycosyltransferase unique sequences have been found from a ginseng expressed sequence tag (EST) library, and these sequences encode enzymes responsible for the secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Finally, twelve UDP glycosyltransferases (UGTs) were selected as the candidates most likely to be involved in triterpenoid synthesis. In this study, we classified the candidate P. ginseng UGTs (PgUGTs) into proper families and groups, which resulted in eight UGT families and six UGT groups. We also investigated those gene candidates encoding for glycosyltransferases by analysis of gene expression in methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-treated ginseng adventitious roots and different tissues from four-year-old ginseng using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). For organ-specific expression, most of PgUGT transcription levels were higher in leaves and roots compared with flower buds and stems. The transcription of PgUGTs in adventitious roots treated with MeJA increased as compared with the control. PgUGT1 and PgUGT2, which belong to the UGT71 family genes expressed in MeJA-treated adventitious roots, were especially sensitive, showing 33.32 and 38.88-fold expression increases upon 24h post-treatments, respectively. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The mensuration of delayed luminescence on ginseng

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Fenghua; Bai, Hua; Tang, Guoqing

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, the delayed luminescence of ginseng produced from two different areas was determined with the self built bioluminescence detecting system. And the attenuation curve of bioluminescence of the experimental samples were studied, before and after the samples extracted by 58% alcohol. We primarily gave out the parameters describing emitting characteristic. Using the method of optic induced bioluminescence, we also determined the weak luminescence emitting from the ginseng tuber, and find the intensity and decay time having obvious difference from skin and core, with these data we can distinguish the producing area and feature of the ginseng. In the experiment, the light-induce luminescence of the sample was menstruated, which has been infused by water and 58% alcohol; the difference between two kinds of samples which were infused and not infused has been delivered. In order to investigate the effect of excitation-light spectrum component to delayed luminescence of ginseng, a light filter witch allow a wavelength scope of 225nm~420nm pass through was installed between the light source and sample, keeping other work condition unchanged, the bioluminescence was also determined. For investigating the effect of extracting to emitting, the absorption spectrum of above samples ware studied, and the time-sequence of absorption spectrum was obtained. Based on the data obtained from our experiment, we analyzed the radiation mechanism of ginseng slice and tuber.

  18. Characterization of Korean Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer): History, preparation method, and chemical composition

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Myung; Bae, Bong-Seok; Park, Hee-Weon; Ahn, Nam-Geun; Cho, Byung-Gu; Cho, Yong-Lae; Kwak, Yi-Seong

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported that Korean Red Ginseng has been manufactured for 1,123 y as described in the GoRyeoDoGyeong record. The Korean Red Ginseng manufactured by the traditional preparation method has its own chemical component characteristics. The ginsenoside content of the red ginseng is shown as Rg1: 3.3 mg/g, Re: 2.0 mg/g, Rb1: 5.8 mg/g, Rc:1.7 mg/g, Rb2: 2.3 mg/g, and Rd: 0.4 mg/g, respectively. It is known that Korean ginseng generally consists of the main root and the lateral or fine roots at a ratio of about 75:25. Therefore, the red ginseng extract is prepared by using this same ratio of the main root and lateral or fine roots and processed by the historical traditional medicine prescription. The red ginseng extract is prepared through a water extraction (90°C for 14–16 h) and concentration process (until its final concentration is 70–73 Brix at 50–60°C). The ginsenoside contents of the red ginseng extract are shown as Rg1: 1.3 mg/g, Re: 1.3 mg/g, Rb1: 6.4 mg/g, Rc:2.5 mg/g, Rb2: 2.3 mg/g, and Rd: 0.9 mg/g, respectively. Arginine-fructose-glucose (AFG) is a specific amino-sugar that can be produced by chemical reaction of the process when the fresh ginseng is converted to red ginseng. The content of AFG is 1.0–1.5% in red ginseng. Acidic polysaccharide, which has been known as an immune activator, is at levels of 4.5–7.5% in red ginseng. Therefore, we recommended that the chemical profiles of Korean Red Ginseng made through the defined traditional method should be well preserved and it has had its own chemical characteristics since its traditional development. PMID:26869832

  19. Antidepressant effects of ginseng total saponins in the forced swimming test and chronic mild stress models of depression.

    PubMed

    Dang, Haixia; Chen, Ying; Liu, Xinmin; Wang, Qiong; Wang, Liwei; Jia, William; Wang, Yuqing

    2009-11-13

    Ginseng total saponins (GTS) are the major active components of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, which has been used as a popular tonic herb for 2000 years in Far East countries. In the present study, two classic animal models: the forced swimming test (FST) and the chronic mild stress (CMS) model were used to evaluate the antidepressant-like activities of GTS. It was observed that GTS at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg significantly reduced the immobility time in the FST in mice after 7-day treatment. GTS also reversed the reduction in the sucrose preference index, decrease in locomotor activity as well as prolongation of latency of feeding in the novelty environment displayed by CMS rats. In addition, HPLC-ECD and immunohistochemical staining analysis indicated that the CMS-induced decrease in monoamine neurotransmitter concentration and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampus were almost completely reversed by GTS. In conclusion, GTS exerts antidepressant-like effects in two highly specific and predictive animal models of depression. The activity of GTS in antidepression may be mediated partly through enhancing the monoamine neurotransmitter concentration and BDNF expression in the hippocampus.

  20. Ginsenosides from American ginseng: Chemical and pharmacological diversity

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Lian-Wen; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2011-01-01

    Ginseng occupies a prominent position in the list of best-selling natural products in the world. Compared to the long history of use and widespread research on Asian ginseng, the study of American ginseng is relatively limited. In the past decade, some promising advances have been achieved in understanding the chemistry, pharmacology and structure-function relationship of American ginseng. To date, there is no systematic review of American ginseng. In this review, we present the different structures of the ginsenosides in American ginseng, including naturally occurring compounds and those resulting from steaming or biotransformation. Preclinical and clinical studies published in the past decade will also be discussed. We highlight the chemical and pharmacological diversity and potential structural-activity relationship of ginsenosides. Our hope is that this article is a useful reference to chemists and biologists researching American ginseng, and will open the door to novel agents in drug discovery. PMID:21396670

  1. Germanium in ginseng is low and causes no sodium and water retention or renal toxicity in the diuretic-resistant rats

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chunjiang; Xiao, Lu; Chen, Wenlie

    2015-01-01

    Ginseng preparations contain high concentrations of germanium (Ge), which was reported to contribute to diuretic resistance or renal failure. However, Ge content in ginseng and the influence on renal functions remain unclear. Forty rats were randomly divided into control group, low, moderate, and high Ge ginseng-treated group and observed for 25 days. Daily urine, renal functions, and serum and urine electrolytics were measured. Ge retention in the organs and renal histological changes were also evaluated. Ge content ranged from 0.007 to 0.450 µg/g in various ginseng samples. Four groups showed no difference in the daily urine output, glomerular filtration rate, urinary electrolytes excretions, 24 h-urine protein, as well as plasma and urine urea nitrogen, creatinine, osmotic pressure, and pH values. Ge did not cause any renal pathological effects in this study. No Na and water retention was detected in the ginseng-treated groups. Ge retention in various organs was found highest in spleen, followed by the kidney, liver, lung, stomach, heart, and pancreas. The total Ge contents in various ginsengs were low, and ginseng treatment did not affect renal functions or cause renal histological changes. PMID:25711879

  2. Intraconversion of Polar Ginsenosides, Their Transformation into Less-Polar Ginsenosides, and Ginsenoside Acetylation in Ginseng Flowers upon Baking and Steaming.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Yao, Fan; Fan, Hang; Li, Ke; Sun, Liwei; Liu, Yujun

    2018-03-26

    Heating is a traditional method used in ginseng root processing, however, there aren't reports on differences resulting from baking and steaming. Moreover, ginseng flowers, with 5.06 times more total saponins than ginseng root, are not fully taken advantage of for their ginsenosides. Transformation mechanisms of ginsenosides in ginseng flowers upon baking and steaming were thus explored. HPLC using authentic standards of 20 ginsenosides and UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS were used to quantify and identify ginsenosides, respectively, in ginseng flowers baked or steamed at different temperatures and durations. Results show that baking and steaming caused a 3.2-fold increase in ginsenoside species existed in unheated ginseng flowers (20/64 ginsenosides) and transformation of a certain amount of polar ginsenosides into numerous less polar ginsenosides. Among the 20 ginsenosides with standards, polar ginsenosides were abundant in ginseng flowers baked or steamed at lower temperatures, whereas less polar ginsenosides occurred and were enriched at higher temperatures. Furthermore, the two types of heating treatments could generate mostly similar ginsenosides, but steaming was much efficient than baking in transforming polar- into less polar ginsenosides, with steaming at 120 °C being comparably equivalent to baking at 150 °C. Moreover, both the two heating methods triggered ginsenoside acetylation and thus caused formation of 16 acetylginsenosides. Finally, a new transformation mechanism concerning acetyl-ginsenosides formation was proposed.

  3. Panax ginseng Improves Functional Recovery after Contusive Spinal Cord Injury by Regulating the Inflammatory Response in Rats: An In Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Ock; Kim, Youngkyung; Lee, Koeun; Na, Sae Won; Hong, Seon Pyo; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Yoon, Young Wook; Kim, Junesun

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in permanent loss of motor function below the injured site. Neuroinflammatory reaction following SCI can aggravate neural injury and functional impairment. Ginseng is well known to possess anti-inflammatory effects. The present study investigated the neuroprotective effects of Panax ginseng C.A. Mayer (P. ginseng) after SCI. A spinal contusion was made at the T11-12 spinal cord in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 47) using the NYU impactor. Motor function was assessed using the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) score in P. ginseng (0.1, 0.5, 1, 3, and 5 mg/kg) or vehicle (saline) treated after SCI. We also assessed the protein expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) at the lesion site by western blot and then measured the cavity area using luxol fast blue/cresyl violet staining. P. ginseng treated group in SCI showed a significant improvement in locomotor function after the injury. The protein expression of COX-2 and iNOS at the lesion site and the cavity area were decreased following SCI by P. ginseng treatment. These results suggest that P. ginseng may improve the recovery of motor function after SCI which provides neuroprotection by alleviating posttraumatic inflammatory responses. PMID:26451158

  4. POST-HARVEST EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT IN GINSENG SEEDS INCREASES DESICCATION SENSITIVITY AND NARROWS THE HYDRATION WINDOW FOR CRYOPRESERVATION.

    PubMed

    Han, E; Popova, E; Cho, G; Park, S; Lee, S; Pritchard, H W; Kim, H H

    Despite its self-pollinating characteristics, Korean ginseng germplasm is mainly maintained in clonal gene banks as there is no defined approach to the long-term conservation of its seed, including the most appropriate stage of embryo development for storage. The aim of this study was to reveal the effect of embryo development on desiccation tolerance and cryopreservation success in ginseng seeds. Seeds of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) at three post-harvest stages (immediately after harvesting and following treatments to enable internal growth of the embryo) were desiccated and cryopreserved. The hydration window for the >80% dehiscence and germination of cryopreserved ginseng seeds varied with embryo developmental stage: 3-9% moisture content (MC) for both unpulped and undehisced seeds when the embryo was 0.1 the length of the endosperm, 7-10% MC for dehisced seeds (0.5 embryo:endosperm) and 9-11% MC for seeds with fully developed embryos (0.9 embryo:endosperm). Whilst dried (4-8% moisture content) and undehisced seeds within fruits (unpulped seeds) lost more than half their viability during 1 year's storage at room temperature, cryopreservation enabled germination levels of c. 90%. Overall, 432 accessions of Korean ginseng landraces have been cryopreserved using undehisced seeds with or without fruits. Post-harvest treatment of Korean ginseng seeds to enable embryo development decreases tolerance of very low MCs, and thus narrows the hydration window for cryopreservation. Fresh-harvested and unpulped seeds that have been dried to c. 5% MC are recommended for long-term cryogenic storage.

  5. Inflammation, cancer, and targets of ginseng.

    PubMed

    Hofseth, Lorne J; Wargovich, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is associated with a high cancer risk. At the molecular level, free radicals and aldehydes, produced during chronic inflammation, can induce deleterious gene mutation and posttranslational modifications of key cancer-related proteins. Other products of inflammation, including cytokines, growth factors, and transcription factors such as nuclear factor kappaB, control the expression of cancer genes (e.g., suppressor genes and oncogenes) and key inflammatory enzymes such as inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2. These enzymes in turn directly influence reactive oxygen species and eicosanoid levels. The procancerous outcome of chronic inflammation is increased DNA damage, increased DNA synthesis, cellular proliferation, disruption of DNA repair pathways and cellular milieu, inhibition of apoptosis, and promotion of angiogenesis and invasion. Chronic inflammation is also associated with immunosuppression, which is a risk factor for cancer. Current treatment strategies for reactive species overload diseases are frequently aimed at treating or preventing the cause of inflammation. Although these strategies have led to some progress in combating reactive species overload diseases and associated cancers, exposure often occurs again after eradication, treatment to eradicate the cause fails, or the treatment has long-term side effects. Therefore, the identification of molecules and pathways involved in chronic inflammation and cancer is critical to the design of agents that may help in preventing the progression of reactive species overload disease and cancer associated with disease progression. Here, we use ginseng as an example of an antiinflammatory molecule that targets many of the key players in the inflammation-to-cancer sequence.

  6. Two new fatty acids esters were detected in ginseng stems by the application of azoxystrobin and the increasing of antioxidant enzyme activity and ginsenosides content.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shuang; Xu, Xuan-Wei; Zhao, Xiao-Feng; Hou, Zhi-Guang; Wang, Xin-Hong; Lu, Zhong-Bin

    2016-11-01

    Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer is a valuable herb in China that has also gained popularity in the West because of its pharmacological properties. The constituents isolated and characterized in ginseng stems include ginsenosides, fatty acids, amino acids, volatile oils, and polysaccharides. In this study, the effects of fungicide azoxystrobin applied on antioxidant enzyme activity and ginsenosides content in ginseng stems was studied by using Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. cv. (the cultivar of Ermaya) under natural environmental conditions. The azoxystrobin formulation (25% SC) was sprayed three times on ginseng plants at different doses (150ga.i./ha and 225ga.i./ha), respectively. Two new fatty acids esters (ethyl linoleate and methyl linolenate) were firstly detected in ginseng stems by the application of azoxystrobin as foliar spray. The results indicated that activities of enzymatic antioxidants, the content of ginsenosides and two new fatty acids esters in ginseng stems in azoxystrobin-treated plants were increased. Azoxystrobin treatments to ginseng plants at all growth stages suggest that the azoxystrobin-induced delay of senescence is due to an enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity protecting the plants from harmful active oxygen species (AOS). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in azoxystrobin-treated plants was about 1-3 times higher than that in untreated plants. And the effects was more significant (P=0.05) when azoxystrobin was applied at dose of 225ga.i./ha. This work suggests that azoxystrobin plays an important role in delaying of senescence by changing physiological and biochemical indicators and increasing ginsenosides content in ginseng stems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 76 FR 53875 - United States Standards for Grades of Cultivated Ginseng

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... external and internal defects, ginseng (Panax ginseng). Ginseng provide an introduction to what mold, rust.... Rust would be removed from the ``Defects'' means any mechanical, ``Defects'' means any mechanical...

  8. Ginseng leaf-stem: bioactive constituents and pharmacological functions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongwei; Peng, Dacheng; Xie, Jingtian

    2009-01-01

    Ginseng root is used more often than other parts such as leaf stem although extracts from ginseng leaf-stem also contain similar active ingredients with pharmacological functions. Ginseng's leaf-stems are more readily available at a lower cost than its root. This article reviews the pharmacological effects of ginseng leaf-stem on some diseases and adverse effects due to excessive consumption. Ginseng leaf-stem extract contains numerous active ingredients, such as ginsenosides, polysaccharides, triterpenoids, flavonoids, volatile oils, polyacetylenic alcohols, peptides, amino acids and fatty acids. The extract contains larger amounts of the same active ingredients than the root. These active ingredients produce multifaceted pharmacological effects on the central nervous system, as well as on the cardiovascular, reproductive and metabolic systems. Ginseng leaf-stem extract also has anti-fatigue, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-obesity, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant and anti-aging properties. In normal use, ginseng leaf-stem extract is quite safe; adverse effects occur only when it is over dosed or is of poor quality. Extracts from ginseng root and leaf-stem have similar multifaceted pharmacological activities (for example central nervous and cardiovascular systems). In terms of costs and source availability, however, ginseng leaf-stem has advantages over its root. Further research will facilitate a wider use of ginseng leaf-stem. PMID:19849852

  9. Efficacy of mechanical fuel treatments for reducing wildfire hazard

    Treesearch

    Robert J. Jr. Huggett; Karen L. Abt; Wayne Shepperd

    2008-01-01

    Mechanical fuel treatments are increasingly being used for wildfire hazard reduction in the western U.S. However, the efficacy of these treatments for reducing wildfire hazard at a landscape scale is difficult to quantify, especially when including growth following treatment. A set of uneven- and even-aged treatments designed to reduce fire hazard were simulated on 0.8...

  10. Panax Ginseng in combination with brewers' yeast (Gerivet) as a stimulant for geriatric dogs: a controlled-randomized blinded study.

    PubMed

    Hielm-Björkman, A; Reunanen, V; Meri, P; Tulamo, R-M

    2007-08-01

    The study was performed on two groups of dogs, one (n = 41) given Ginseng (Panax Ginseng) together with brewers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisae) and the other (n = 39) given only brewers' yeast (control group, but not a true placebo), for 8 weeks. Using a questionnaire and three visual analogue scales, the blinded owners evaluated the dogs before the trial, weekly for the 8 weeks of the trial and twice, at 12th and 16th weeks, after the trial (follow-up). At 8th, 12th and 16th weeks the owners also answered questions concerning what treatment their dogs likely had been getting, willingness to continue medication and the dogs' general status. The changes from baseline to the end of the treatment period in the variable scores were calculated for each dog and used in statistics. Panax Ginseng plus yeast significantly improved all evaluated variables within the group. Four of the seven primary (mentally) outcome measures were significant when comparing the changes in the Ginseng group with the control group, and six of the seven were significant when compared to an external group. As the secondary (physical) outcome measures were significantly better in both the Ginseng and the control group compared to the external group, it indicates that brewers' yeast is the ingredient that has impact on physical performance. No significant changes in blood- or urine analyses and no side effects were seen.

  11. Effects of Natural Bioactive Products on the Growth and Ginsenoside Contents of Panax ginseng Cultured in an Aeroponic System

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Geum-Soog; Lee, Seung-Eun; Noh, Hyung-Jun; Kwon, Hyuck; Lee, Sung-Woo; Kim, Seung-Yu; Kim, Yong-Bum

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of natural bioactive products such as Manda enzyme (T1), Yangmyeongwon (T2), effective microorganisms (T3), and Kelpak (T4) on the growth and ginsenoside contents of Panax ginseng cultured in an aeroponic system using a two-layer vertical type of nutrient bath under natural light conditions. The growth of ginseng plants showed specific characteristics according to the positions in which they were cultured due to the difference of light transmittance and temperature in the upper and lower layers during aeroponic culture in a two-layer vertical type of system. The growth of the aerial part of the leaves and stems of ginseng plants cultured in the lower layer (4,000 to 6,000 lx, 23℃ to 26℃) of the nutrient bath was observed to be superior to that of the ginseng plants cultured in the upper layer (12,000 to 15,000 lx, 25℃ to 28℃). The leaf area was significantly larger in the treatment of T2 and T4 (46.70 cm2) than with other treatments. Conversely, the values of the root weight and root diameter were higher in ginseng plants cultured in the upper layer of the nutrient bath. The root weight was significantly heavier in the treatment of T4 (6.46 g) and T3 (6.26 g) than with other treatments. The total ginsenoside content in the leaves and roots was highest in the ginseng plants cultured by the treatment of T1, at 16.20%, while the total ginsenoside content obtained by other treatments decreased in the order of T4, T5 (control), T2, and T3, at 13.21%, 12.30%, 14.84%, and 14.86%, respectively. The total ginsenoside content of the ginseng leaves was found to be significantly higher in the treatment of T1 in the lower layer of the nutrient bath, at 15.30%, while the content of the ginseng roots in the treatments of T3 and T4, at 1.27% and 1.23%, respectively, was significantly higher than in other treatments in the upper layer of the nutrient bath. PMID:23717147

  12. The quality of irradiated red ginseng powder following transport from Korea to the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, J. H.; Lee, J.; Waje, C.; Ahn, J. J.; Kim, G. R.; Chung, H. W.; Kim, D. H.; Lee, J. W.; Byun, M. W.; Kim, K. S.; Kim, K. S.; Park, S. H.; Lee, E. J.; Ahn, D. U.

    2009-07-01

    Irradiated red ginseng powder (2.4 kg) in commercial bottles was transported from Korea to Iowa State University (USA) via air- (10 days) and sea-cargos (50 days) to prove its qualities and identity. The microbial loads of transported samples by both methods after 5 kGy irradiation were reduced from 10 6 to 10 3 CFU/g in total aerobic bacteria and from 20 CFU/g (minimum detection level) to negative in coliforms, respectively, which are in accordance with Korean microbial standard for ginseng powders. Sea-transported irradiated samples showed the increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and Hunter's a (red) value, but sensory qualities of all the red ginseng samples were not significantly different depending on irradiation and transportation means. Irradiated samples could be identified from the non-irradiated ones by the analysis of photostimulated luminescence, thermoluminescence, and electron spin resonance. This trial proved the feasibility of inter-country transportation of irradiated red ginseng powder.

  13. [Effect of ginseng rare ginsenoside components combined with paclitaxel on A549 lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2018-04-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine combined with anticancer drugs is a new direction of clinical cancer therapy in recent years. In this study, the optimal ratio of ginseng rare ginsenoside components and paclitaxel was optimized by MTT method, and the proliferative, apoptotic and anti-tumor effects of lung cancer A549 cells were investigated. It was found that the inhibitory effect on the proliferation of lung cancer A549 cells was the same as that on paclitaxel when the ratio of rare ginseng rare ginsenoside components to paclitaxel was 4∶6. Further studies showed that the combined therapy significantly increased the inductive effect of apoptosis in A549 cells, and up-regulated the expression of caspase-3 protein and down-regulated the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax. The tumor-bearing mice model showed that the combination therapy of ginseng rare ginsenoside components and paclitaxel could significantly inhibit the growth of tumor and alleviate the toxic and side effects of paclitaxel on liver. A multi-component system of ginseng rare ginsenoside components-paclitaxel was established in this paper. The proliferation and growth of lung cancer A549 cells were inhibited by paclitaxel-induced apoptosis, the dosage of paclitaxel and the toxicity of paclitaxel were reduced, and the effect of anti-lung cancer was enhanced, which provided a theoretical basis for later studies and clinical application. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  14. Effect of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mucalo, Iva; Rahelić, Dario; Jovanovski, Elena; Bozikov, Velimir; Romić, Zeljko; Vuksan, Vladimir

    2012-12-01

    Since diabetes tends to progressively worsen over time, glycemic control often deteriorates in spite of taking regular therapy. Therefore, numerous research studies are by and large focused on finding more efficient therapy, both new medicines for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus, as well as supplements that could serve as an addition to conventional treatment modalities. A variety of herbal preparations have been shown to have modest short-term beneficial effects on glycemia, but of these, the best studied is American ginseng (AG). AG has been shown to be effective in improving glycemic control in type 2 diabetes through increasing post-prandial insulin levels and decreasing postprandial glycemic response. However, high variability in ginsenosides may result in just as high variability in antidiabetic efficacy of over-the-counter ginseng products. Therefore, the availability of standardized extracts of AG could assist greatly in advancing our knowledge on the role of this traditionally used herb and result in a wider application of ginseng product in diabetes management. The aim of this review is to outline the efficacy and safety of American ginseng for AG preparations on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes as well as to increase awareness of the evidence supporting the use of these therapies in diabetes care.

  15. Ginsenoside Rf, a component of ginseng, regulates lipoprotein metabolism through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyunghee; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Yoon, Michung

    We investigated whether ginseng regulates lipoprotein metabolism by altering peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} (PPAR{alpha})-mediated pathways, using a PPAR{alpha}-null mouse model. Administration of ginseng extract, ginsenosides, and ginsenoside Rf (Rf) to wild-type mice not only significantly increased basal levels of hepatic apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and C-III mRNA compared with wild-type controls, but also substantially reversed the reductions in mRNA levels of apo A-I and C-III expected following treatment with the potent PPAR{alpha} ligand Wy14,643. In contrast, no effect was detected in the PPAR{alpha}-null mice. Testing of eight main ginsenosides on PPAR{alpha} reporter gene expression indicated that Rf was responsible for themore » effects of ginseng on lipoprotein metabolism. Furthermore, the inhibition of PPAR{alpha}-dependent transactivation by Rf seems to occur at the level of DNA binding. These results demonstrate that ginseng component Rf regulates apo A-I and C-III mRNA and the actions of Rf on lipoprotein metabolism are mediated via interactions with PPAR{alpha}.« less

  16. 7 CFR 1437.308 - Ginseng.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ginseng. 1437.308 Section 1437.308 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONINSURED CROP DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining...

  17. 7 CFR 1437.308 - Ginseng.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ginseng. 1437.308 Section 1437.308 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONINSURED CROP DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining...

  18. 7 CFR 1437.308 - Ginseng.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ginseng. 1437.308 Section 1437.308 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONINSURED CROP DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining...

  19. [A crisis of ginseng capital and the countermeasures of the ginseng-cultivating people during Daehan empire].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jeong Pil

    2009-12-01

    This thesis examines a crisis of ginseng capital and the source of crisis during Daehan empire. After the China-Japan war of 1894, the Japanese merchants actively engaged in taking over the ginseng fields, so that ginseng-cultivating Koreans suffered substantial economic losses. After the Russo-Japanese war, the Japanese imperialists undertook the 'Currency Arranging Business'(CAB) in order to set a cornerstone for their invasion of Korea. The CAB eventually provoked a wide depression which in turn produced massive number of Korean merchants going bankrupt. The Kaesong merchants were no exception, since CAB stroke a severe blow on the ginseng industry, which relied heavily on the commercial capitals of the Kaesong merchants. Moreover, the Japanese imperialists broke the previous promise and bought ginseng at a dirt-cheap price, which put ginseng-cultivating Koreans in serious trouble. In order to combat such crisis, ginseng field-owners protested against such injustice by petitioning or stirring up Kaesong popular riot in vain, and consequently the number of ginseng field-owners decreased sharply. A few of the ginseng field-owners survived, and managed to maintain and even flourish more than before. These successful owners were characterized with their strong link with the official circle, utilizing their influence in ginseng industry. Their original background was not identical as some came from the influential families of Kaesong area for generations, while others made their own fortunes and continue to prosper through the difficult times of the late of the Daehan empire period.

  20. PgLOX6 encoding a lipoxygenase contributes to jasmonic acid biosynthesis and ginsenoside production in Panax ginseng

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Shadi; Kim, Yu-Jin; Sukweenadhi, Johan; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Ginsenosides, the valuable pharmaceutical compounds in Panax ginseng, are triterpene saponins that occur mainly in ginseng plants. It was shown that in vitro treatment with the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) is able to increase ginsenoside production in ginseng plants. To understand the molecular link between JA biosynthesis and ginsenoside biosynthesis, we identified a JA biosynthetic 13-lipoxygenase gene (PgLOX6) in P. ginseng that promotes ginsenoside production. The expression of PgLOX6 was high in vascular bundles, which corresponds with expression of ginsenoside biosynthetic genes. Consistent with the role of PgLOX6 in synthesizing JA and promoting ginsenoside synthesis, transgenic plants overexpressing PgLOX6 in Arabidopsis had increased amounts of JA and methyl jasmonate (MJ), increased expression of triterpene biosynthetic genes such as squalene synthase (AtSS1) and squalene epoxidase (AtSE1), and increased squalene content. Moreover, transgenic ginseng roots overexpressing PgLOX6 had around 1.4-fold increased ginsenoside content and upregulation of ginsenoside biosynthesis-related genes including PgSS1, PgSE1, and dammarenediol synthase (PgDDS), which is similar to that of treatment with MJ. However, MJ treatment of transgenic ginseng significantly enhanced JA and MJ, associated with a 2.8-fold increase of ginsenoside content compared with the non-treated, non-transgenic control plant, which was 1.4 times higher than the MJ treatment effect on non-transgenic plants. These results demonstrate that PgLOX6 is responsible for the biosynthesis of JA and promotion of the production of triterpenoid saponin through up-regulating the expression of ginsenoside biosynthetic genes. This work provides insight into the role of JA in biosynthesizing secondary metabolites and provides a molecular tool for increasing ginsenoside production. PMID:27811076

  1. PgLOX6 encoding a lipoxygenase contributes to jasmonic acid biosynthesis and ginsenoside production in Panax ginseng.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Shadi; Kim, Yu-Jin; Sukweenadhi, Johan; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2016-11-01

    Ginsenosides, the valuable pharmaceutical compounds in Panax ginseng, are triterpene saponins that occur mainly in ginseng plants. It was shown that in vitro treatment with the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) is able to increase ginsenoside production in ginseng plants. To understand the molecular link between JA biosynthesis and ginsenoside biosynthesis, we identified a JA biosynthetic 13-lipoxygenase gene (PgLOX6) in P. ginseng that promotes ginsenoside production. The expression of PgLOX6 was high in vascular bundles, which corresponds with expression of ginsenoside biosynthetic genes. Consistent with the role of PgLOX6 in synthesizing JA and promoting ginsenoside synthesis, transgenic plants overexpressing PgLOX6 in Arabidopsis had increased amounts of JA and methyl jasmonate (MJ), increased expression of triterpene biosynthetic genes such as squalene synthase (AtSS1) and squalene epoxidase (AtSE1), and increased squalene content. Moreover, transgenic ginseng roots overexpressing PgLOX6 had around 1.4-fold increased ginsenoside content and upregulation of ginsenoside biosynthesis-related genes including PgSS1, PgSE1, and dammarenediol synthase (PgDDS), which is similar to that of treatment with MJ. However, MJ treatment of transgenic ginseng significantly enhanced JA and MJ, associated with a 2.8-fold increase of ginsenoside content compared with the non-treated, non-transgenic control plant, which was 1.4 times higher than the MJ treatment effect on non-transgenic plants. These results demonstrate that PgLOX6 is responsible for the biosynthesis of JA and promotion of the production of triterpenoid saponin through up-regulating the expression of ginsenoside biosynthetic genes. This work provides insight into the role of JA in biosynthesizing secondary metabolites and provides a molecular tool for increasing ginsenoside production. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  2. De novo sequencing and analysis of the transcriptome of Panax ginseng in the leaf-expansion period.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shichao; Wang, Siming; Liu, Meichen; Yang, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Shiyang; Wang, Qun; Zhao, Yu

    2016-08-01

    Panax ginseng, a traditional Chinese medicine, is used worldwide for its variety of health benefits and its treatment efficacy. However, it is difficult to cultivate due to its vulnerability to environmental stresses. The present study provided the first report, to the best of our knowledge, of transcriptome analysis of ginseng at the leaf‑expansion stage. Using the Illumina sequencing platform, >40,000,000 high‑quality paired‑end reads were obtained and assembled into 100,533 unique sequences. When the sequences were searched against the publicly available National Center for Biotechnology Information protein database using The Basic Local Alignment Search Tool, 61,599 sequences exhibited similarity to known proteins. Functional annotation and classification, including use of the Gene Ontology, Clusters of Orthologous Groups, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases, revealed that the activated genes in ginseng were predominantly ribonuclease‑like storage genes, environmental stress genes, pathogenesis-related genes and other antioxidant genes. A number of candidate genes in environmental stress‑associated pathways were also identified. These novel data provide useful information on the growth and development stages of ginseng, and serve as an important public information platform for further understanding of the molecular mechanisms and functional genomics of ginseng.

  3. Anti-Fatigue Effects of Small Molecule Oligopeptides Isolated from Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer in Mice.

    PubMed

    Bao, Lei; Cai, Xiaxia; Wang, Junbo; Zhang, Yuan; Sun, Bin; Li, Yong

    2016-12-13

    Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (ginseng) is an edible and medicinal Chinese herb, which is often used in Asian countries for physical fitness. Ginseng is reported to have a wide range of biological activity and pharmaceutical properties. There were more studies on ginsenosides and polysaccharides, but fewer studies on ginseng oligopeptides (GOP), which are small molecule oligopeptides isolated from ginseng. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-fatigue effects of GOP in mice and explore the possible underlying mechanism. Mice were randomly divided into four experimental sets for the detection of different indicators. Each set of mice were then divided into four groups. The control group was administered distilled water, and three GOP intervention groups were administered 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg of body weight, respectively, of GOP by gavage each day. After 30 days of GOP treatment, it was observed that GOP could significantly increase the forced swimming time, enhance lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and hepatic glycogen levels, and retard the accumulation of serum urea nitrogen (SUN) and blood lactic acid (BLA) in mice. GOP also markedly ameliorated fatigue-induced alterations of inoxidative stress biomarkers and antioxidant enzymes. Notably, GOP increased the mRNA expression of mitochondrial biogenesis factors and mitochondrial DNA content in skeletal muscles of mice. These results suggest that GOP possess anti-fatigue effects, which may be attributed to the inhibition of oxidative stress and the improvement of mitochondrial function in skeletal muscles. GOP could be a novel natural agent for relieving exercise fatigue.

  4. Influence of Panax ginseng on the offspring of adult rats exposed to prenatal stress

    PubMed Central

    KIM, YOUNG OCK; LEE, HWA-YOUNG; WON, HANSOL; NAH, SEONG-SU; LEE, HWA-YOUNG; KIM, HYUNG-KI; KWON, JUN-TACK; KIM, HAK-JAE

    2015-01-01

    The exposure of pregnant females to stress during a critical period of fetal brain development is an environmental risk factor for the development of schizophrenia in adult offspring. Schizophrenia is a group of common mental disorders of unclear origin, affecting approximately 1% of the global population, showing a generally young age at onset. In the present study, a repeated variable stress paradigm was applied to pregnant rats during the final week of gestation. The effects of an extract of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (PG) on rats exposed to prenatal stress (PNS) were investigated in terms of behavioral activity and protein expression analyses. In the behavioral tests, grooming behavior in a social interaction test, line-crossing behavior in an open-field test and swimming activity in a forced-swim test were decreased in the rats exposed to PNS compared with the non-stressed offspring; the changes in behavioral activity were reversed upon oral treatment with PG (300 mg/kg). Subsequently, western blot analysis and immunohistochemical analyses of the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus revealed that the downregulation of several neurodevelopmental genes which occurred following exposure to PNS was reversed upon treatment with PG. The current findings demonstrate that the downregulation of several genes following exposure to PNS may affect subsequent behavioral changes, and that these phenomena are reversed following treatment with PG during pregnancy. Our results suggest that oral treatment with PG reduces the incidence of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. PMID:25394395

  5. Adulteration and cultivation region identification of American ginseng using HPLC coupled with multivariate analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chunhao; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Zhou, Chun-Jie; Wang, Bin; Han, Lide; Zhang, Chun-Feng; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2014-01-01

    American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) is originally grown in North America. Due to price difference and supply shortage, American ginseng recently has been cultivated in northern China. Further, in the market, some Asian ginsengs are labeled as American ginseng. In this study, forty-three American ginseng samples cultivated in the USA, Canada or China were collected and 14 ginseng saponins were determined using HPLC. HPLC coupled with hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis was developed to identify the species. Subsequently, an HPLC-linear discriminant analysis was established to discriminate cultivation regions of American ginseng. This method was successfully applied to identify the sources of 6 commercial American ginseng samples. Two of them were identified as Asian ginseng, while 4 others were identified as American ginseng, which were cultivated in the USA (3) and China (1). Our newly developed method can be used to identify American ginseng with different cultivation regions. PMID:25044150

  6. Ameliorative effect of ginseng extract on phthalate and bisphenol A reprotoxicity during pregnancy in rats.

    PubMed

    Saadeldin, Islam M; Hussein, Mohamed A; Suleiman, Aida Hamid; Abohassan, Mahmoud G; Ahmed, Mona M; Moustafa, Amr A; Moumen, Abdullah F; Abdel-Aziz Swelum, Ayman

    2018-05-18

    Phthalates (such as DEHP) and bisphenol A (BPA) are widely used chemicals in plastics manufacturing and exert public health concerns as endocrine disrupters. This study was designed to investigate the deleterious effect of DEHP and BPA on endocrine profile of pregnant female rats and the combined treatment with ginseng extract (Panax ginseng). Seventy-two pregnant rats were divided into six groups (control, ginseng, DEHP, BPA, Gin + DEHP, and Gin + BPA), 12 females per each group. The drugs were supplemented from pregnancy day 0 until day 20. Determination of serum sex hormones (testosterone, progesterone, and estradiol) were determined on days 4, 10, and 20 of pregnancy. mRNA transcripts of STAR, HSD17B3, CYP17, AKT1, and PTEN were relatively quantified against ACTB in the ovary and placenta of days 10 and 20 pregnant females by relative quantitative polymerase-chain reaction (RQ-PCR). DEHP and BPA significantly decreased the endocrine profile of testosterone, progesterone, and estradiol of days 10 and 20 of pregnant females. Combined administration of these chemicals along with ginseng extracts has returned the hormones to normal levels when compared with the control group. The ovarian and placental CYP17 and HSD17B3 mRNA transcripts showed variable expression pattern in both tissues and they were significantly affected by DEHP and BPA administration, concomitantly correlating to STAR, AKT1, PTEN, progesterone, and testosterone levels on pregnancy days 10 and 20. The results confirm the reprotoxicity of DEHP and BPA as endocrine disruptors and indicate that ginseng could be used to alleviate the toxic effects of these chemicals.

  7. [Research on ginseng trade competitiveness between China and Korea].

    PubMed

    Xin, Min-Tong; Yang, Guang; Tang, Xiao-Jing

    2017-05-01

    Ginseng is one of China's valuable Chinese herbal medicines, with a long using history. Ginseng has worldwide reputation, and widely used in food, medicine, health products, cosmetics and other production. China and South Korea have a big ginseng industrial, and sharing half of the export market. The ginseng export competitiveness analysis seems important and necessary between China and South Korea. In this paper, the data of customs and trade of ginseng in COMTRADE database were studied, and ginseng export competitiveness was analyzed between China and Korea. The results showed that the ginseng export competitiveness of Korean more competitive than China. Contrast with China, South Korea using only 15% total amount of ginseng exports and produced the same total export amount. This article has the reference value to the traditional Chinese medicine resources management and the economics research. On this basis, this paper further discusses the problems that should be paid attention to in the development of ginseng industry in China. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  8. Discrimination of ginseng cultivation regions using light stable isotope analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kiwook; Song, Joo-Hyun; Heo, Sang-Cheol; Lee, Jin-Hee; Jung, In-Woo; Min, Ji-Sook

    2015-10-01

    Korean ginseng is considered to be a precious health food in Asia. Today, thieves frequently compromise ginseng farms by pervasive theft. Thus, studies regarding the characteristics of ginseng according to growth region are required in order to deter ginseng thieves and prevent theft. In this study, 6 regions were selected on the basis of Korea regional criteria (si, gun, gu), and two ginseng-farms were randomly selected from each of the 6 regions. Then 4-6 samples of ginseng were acquired from each ginseng farm. The stable isotopic compositions of H, O, C, and N of the collected ginseng samples were analyzed. As a result, differences in the hydrogen isotope ratios could be used to distinguish regional differences, and differences in the nitrogen isotope ratios yielded characteristic information regarding the farms from which the samples were obtained. Thus, stable isotope values could be used to differentiate samples according to regional differences. Therefore, stable isotope analysis serves as a powerful tool to discriminate the regional origin of Korean ginseng samples from across Korea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Yin and Yang of ginseng pharmacology: ginsenosides vs gintonin

    PubMed Central

    Im, Dong-soon; Nah, Seung-yeol

    2013-01-01

    Ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng, has been used in traditional Chinese medicine as a tonic herb that provides many beneficial effects. Pharmacologic studies in the last decades have shown that ginsenosides (ginseng saponins) are primarily responsible for the actions of ginseng. However, the effects of ginseng are not fully explained by ginsenosides. Recently, another class of active ingredients called gintonin was identified. Gintonin is a complex of glycosylated ginseng proteins containing lysophosphatidic acids (LPAs) that are the intracellular lipid mitogenic mediator. Gintonin specifically and potently activates the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) for LPA. Thus, the actions of ginseng are now also linked to LPA and its GPCRs. This linkage opens new dimensions for ginseng pharmacology and LPA therapeutics. In the present review, we evaluate the pharmacology of ginseng with the traditional viewpoint of Yin and Yang components. Furthermore, we will compare ginsenoside and gintonin based on the modern view of molecular pharmacology in terms of ion channels and GPCRs. PMID:24122014

  10. Effect of Chinese medicines Chan Su, Asian ginseng, Siberian ginseng, and American ginseng on a new digoxin immunoassay based on luminescent oxygen channeling technology.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Amitava; Syklawer, Erica; Johnson, Myrtle; Hwang, Shen-An; Boyd, Sydney A; Actor, Jeffrey K

    2011-10-01

    Chan Su, Asian ginseng, Siberian ginseng, and American ginseng are known to interfere with various digoxin immunoassays. Recently, a homogeneous sequential chemiluminescent assay for digoxin based on the luminescent oxygen channeling technology (LOCI digoxin) for application on the Dimension and Vista platform has been introduced into the market. The effects of interference by Chan Su and various ginsengs on this new immunoassay have not yet been reported. Aliquots of a drug-free serum pool were supplemented with Chan Su, Asian ginseng, Siberian ginseng, and American ginseng representing the expected in vivo concentrations after normal usage and cases of overdose. Serum digoxin concentrations were measured using the LOCI digoxin assay on the Vista 1500 analyzer. We also prepared 3 digoxin pools from patients receiving digoxin. Two digoxin pools were supplemented with these traditional medicines to investigate their effect on serum digoxin measurements. Mice were fed Chan Su extract to determine the potential of in vivo derived interfering factors. The possibility of eliminating interference of Chan Su on serum digoxin measurement was also investigated, by measuring free digoxin concentration after supplementing aliquots of the third digoxin pool with various amounts of Chan Su extract. A clinically significant interference by Chan Su with serum digoxin measurement was observed using the LOCI digoxin assay. The various ginsengs demonstrated negligible effects. In addition, apparent digoxin concentrations were observed in sera of mice after feeding them with Chan Su; the half-life of digoxin-like immunoreactive components was approximately 1 hour. Moreover, serum digoxin concentrations were significantly elevated in the presence of Chan Su, whereas the various ginsengs exhibited no effect. Monitoring free digoxin can only partly eliminate the interference of Chan Su in serum digoxin measurement. Chan Su interferes with serum digoxin measurement using the LOCI Digoxin

  11. Pharmacologic overview of Withania somnifera, the Indian Ginseng.

    PubMed

    Dar, Nawab John; Hamid, Abid; Ahmad, Muzamil

    2015-12-01

    Withania somnifera, also called 'Indian ginseng', is an important medicinal plant of the Indian subcontinent. It is widely used, singly or in combination, with other herbs against many ailments in Indian Systems of Medicine since time immemorial. Withania somnifera contains a spectrum of diverse phytochemicals enabling it to have a broad range of biological implications. In preclinical studies, it has shown anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-stress, neuroprotective, cardioprotective, and anti-diabetic properties. Additionally, it has demonstrated the ability to reduce reactive oxygen species, modulate mitochondrial function, regulate apoptosis, and reduce inflammation and enhance endothelial function. In view of these pharmacologic properties, W. somnifera is a potential drug candidate to treat various clinical conditions, particularly related to the nervous system. In this review, we summarize the pharmacologic characteristics and discuss the mechanisms of action and potential therapeutic applications of the plant and its active constituents.

  12. Korean Red Ginseng Improves Blood Pressure Stability in Patients with Intradialytic Hypotension

    PubMed Central

    Chen, I-Ju; Chang, Ming-Yang; Chiao, Sheng-Lin; Chen, Jiun-Liang; Yu, Chun-Chen; Yang, Sien-Hung; Liu, Ju-Mei; Hung, Cheng-Chieh; Yang, Rong-Chi; Chang, Hui-Chi; Hsu, Chung-Hua; Fang, Ji-Tseng

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Intradialytic hypotension (IDH) is a common complication during hemodialysis which may increase mortality risks. Low dose of Korean red ginseng (KRG) has been reported to increase blood pressure. Whether KRG can improve hemodynamic stability during hemodialysis has not been examined. Methods. The 8-week study consisted of two phases: observation phase and active treatment phase. According to prehemodialysis blood pressure (BP), 38 patients with IDH were divided into group A (BP ≥ 140/90 mmHg, n = 18) and group B (BP < 140/90 mmHg, n = 20). Patients were instructed to chew 3.5 gm KRG slices at each hemodialysis session during the 4-week treatment phase. Blood pressure changes, number of sessions disturbed by symptomatic IDH, plasma levels of vasoconstrictors, blood biochemistry, and adverse effects were recorded. Results. KRG significantly reduced the degree of blood pressure drop during hemodialysis (P < 0.05) and the frequency of symptomatic IDH (P < 0.05). More activation of vasoconstrictors (endothelin-1 and angiotensin II) during hemodialysis was found. The postdialytic levels of endothelin-1 and angiotensin II increased significantly (P < 0.01). Conclusion. Chewing KRG renders IDH patients better resistance to acute BP reduction during hemodialysis via activation of vasoconstrictors. Our results suggest that KRG could be an adjuvant treatment for IDH. PMID:22645630

  13. Red ginseng marc oil inhibits iNOS and COX-2 via NFκB and p38 pathways in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bak, Min-Ji; Hong, Soon-Gi; Lee, Jong-Won; Jeong, Woo-Sik

    2012-11-22

    In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of red ginseng marc oil (RMO) in the RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line. RMO was prepared by a supercritical CO(2) extraction of waste product generated after hot water extraction of red ginseng. RMO significantly inhibited the production of oxidative stress molecules such as nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 cells. Levels of inflammatory targets including prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 were also reduced after the treatment with RMO. In addition, RMO diminished the expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2 at both mRNA and protein levels. Blockade of nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of nuclear factor κB (NFκB) was also observed after the treatment of RMO. Furthermore, RMO decreased the phosphorylations of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and its upstream kinases including MAPK kinases 3/6 (MKK3/6) and TAK 1 (TGF-β activated kinase 1). Gas chromatographic analysis on RMO revealed that RMO contained about 10% phytosterols including sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol which may contribute to the anti-inflammatory properties of RMO. Taken together, these results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effect of RMO in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages could be associated with the inhibition of NFκB transcriptional activity, possibly via blocking the p38 MAPK pathway.

  14. Urinary metabonomic study of Panax ginseng in deficiency of vital energy rat using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lin, He; Pi, Zifeng; Men, Lihui; Chen, Weijia; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhongying

    2016-05-26

    Deficiency of vital energy (DE) is called Qi-deficiency, a traditional Chinese medicine syndrome. It is an indicator of a disease emerging though fuzzy, dynamic, complex, nonspecific and subjective. Ginseng is regarded as the king of herbs. It is famous for the function of replenishing qi in traditional Chinese medicine. It has treatment potential for DE caused by various reasons. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of ginseng treating symptom DE with the method of metabolomics. Thirty-five rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal control group, DE model group and ginseng treatment group. The DE model rats were administered daily with ginseng decoctiondecoctiondecoction intragastrically and others with water for 15 days. Urine was analyzed with ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). Principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection to latent structures squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were built to distinguish the three groups in this study and find potential biomarkers. The three groups are clearly separated and find out their metabolic distinction in PCA score plots. It showed that the metabolic profile of ginseng treatment group was changed to normal control group after administration of ginseng. Fifteen potential biomarkers are identified by OPLS-DA including Xanthurenic acid, kynurenic acid, Pantothenic acid, which are chiefly involved in tryptophan metabolism, taurine and hypotaurine metabolism, citric acid cycle, bile acid biosynthesis, alpha linolenic acid and linoleic acid metabolism. These biomarkers and the networks of their corresponding pathways will help to explain the mechanism of DE and ginseng treatment. The results of blood biochemical indicators routine and urinary metabonomic reveal that ginseng have good abilities to regulate the energy metabolism, immune function and antioxidant activities. And UPLC-Q-TOF-MS-based metabolomics can

  15. Differentiation of the root of Cultivated Ginseng, Mountain Cultivated Ginseng and Mountain Wild Ginseng using FT-IR and two-dimensional correlation IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dan; Li, Yong-Guo; Xu, Hong; Sun, Su-Qin; Wang, Zheng-Tao

    2008-07-01

    Ginseng is one of the most widely used herbal medicines. Based on the grown environments and the cultivate method, three kinds of ginseng, Cultivated Ginseng (CG), Mountain Cultivated Ginseng (MCG) and Mountain Wild Ginseng (MWG) are classified. A novel and scientific-oriented method was developed and established to discriminate and identify three kinds of ginseng using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), secondary derivative IR spectra and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2D-IR). The findings indicated that the relative contents of starch in the CG were more than that in MCG and MWG, while the relative contents of calcium oxalate and lipids in MWG were more than that in CG and MCG, and the relative contents of fatty acid in MCG were more than that in CG and MWG. The hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to data analysis of MWG, CG and MWG, which could be classified successfully. The results demonstrated the macroscopic IR fingerprint method, including FT-IR, secondary derivative IR and 2D-IR, can be applied to discriminate different ginsengs rapidly, effectively and non-destructively.

  16. Genome sequence of a distinct watermelon mosaic virus identified from ginseng (Panax ginseng) transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Park, D; Kim, H; Hahn, Y

    Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) is a member of the genus Potyvirus, which is the largest genus of plant viruses. WMV is a significant pathogen of crop plants, including Cucurbitaceae species. A WMV strain, designated as WMV-Pg, was identified in transcriptome data collected from ginseng (Panax ginseng) root. WMV-Pg showed 84% nucleotide sequence identity and 91% amino acid sequence identity with its closest related virus, WMV-Fr. A phylogenetic analysis of WMV-Pg with other WMVs and soybean mosaic viruses (SMVs) indicated that WMV-Pg is a distinct subtype of the WMV/SMV group of the genus Potyvirus in the family Potyviridae.

  17. Anti-inflammatory potential of total saponins derived from the roots of Panax ginseng in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages

    PubMed Central

    JANG, KYUNG-JUN; CHOI, SANG HOON; YU, GYEONG JIN; HONG, SU HYUN; CHUNG, YOON HO; KIM, CHEOL-HONG; YOON, HYUN-MIN; KIM, GI-YOUNG; KIM, BYUNG WOO; CHOI, YUNG HYUN

    2016-01-01

    Ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Araliaceae), is a widely known traditional medicine that has been utilized throughout Asia for several thousand years. Ginseng saponins exert various important pharmacological effects regarding the control of a number of diseases. The aim of the present study was to identify the anti-inflammatory effects of total saponins extracted from ginseng (TSG) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages. The inhibitory effects of TSG on LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production and LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) protein expression were determined by measuring the levels of nitrite and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, respectively. Furthermore, the effects of TSG on the mRNA expression levels and localizations of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), IL-1β and TNF-α, and their upstream signaling proteins, including nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), were investigated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. Following stimulation with LPS, elevated levels of NO production were detected in RAW 264.7 cells; however, TSG pretreatment significantly inhibited the production of NO (P<0.05), by suppressing the expression of iNOS. In addition, LPS-stimulated TNF-α and IL-1β production was significantly reduced by TSG (P<0.05). In the LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, NF-κB was translocated from the cytosol to the nucleus, whilst TSG pretreatment induced the sequestration of NF-κB in the cytosol by inhibiting inhibitor of κB degradation. TSG also contributed to downregulation of MAPKs in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. These results suggested that TSG may exert anti-inflammatory activity, and that TSG may be considered a potential therapeutic for the treatment of inflammatory diseases associated with macrophage activation. PMID:26998045

  18. Time-Course Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Resistance Genes of Panax ginseng Induced by Cylindrocarpon destructans Infection Using RNA-Seq.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; He, Xiaoli; Wu, Bin; Long, Qiliang; Shao, Tianwei; Wang, Zi; Wei, Jianhe; Li, Yong; Ding, Wanlong

    2016-01-01

    Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer is a highly valued medicinal plant. Cylindrocarpon destructans is a destructive pathogen that causes root rot and significantly reduces the quality and yield of P. ginseng. However, an efficient method to control root rot remains unavailable because of insufficient understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying C. destructans-P. ginseng interaction. In this study, C. destructans-induced transcriptomes at different time points were investigated using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). De novo assembly produced 73,335 unigenes for the P. ginseng transcriptome after C. destructans infection, in which 3,839 unigenes were up-regulated. Notably, the abundance of the up-regulated unigenes sharply increased at 0.5 d postinoculation to provide effector-triggered immunity. In total, 24 of 26 randomly selected unigenes can be validated using quantitative reverse transcription (qRT)-PCR. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of these unigenes showed that "defense response to fungus", "defense response" and "response to stress" were enriched. In addition, differentially expressed transcription factors involved in the hormone signaling pathways after C. destructans infection were identified. Finally, differentially expressed unigenes involved in reactive oxygen species and ginsenoside biosynthetic pathway during C. destructans infection were indentified. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report on the dynamic transcriptome triggered by C. destructans. These results improve our understanding of disease resistance in P. ginseng and provide a useful resource for quick detection of induced markers in P. ginseng before the comprehensive outbreak of this disease caused by C. destructans.

  19. Cytological characterization of anther development in Panax ginseng Meyer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu-Jin; Jang, Moon-Gi; Zhu, Lu; Silva, Jeniffer; Zhu, Xiaolei; Sukweenadhi, Johan; Kwon, Woo-Saeng; Yang, Deok-Chun; Zhang, Dabing

    2016-07-01

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng), a valued medicinal herb, is a slow-growing plant that flowers after 3 years of growth with the formation of a solitary terminal umbel inflorescence. However, little is known about cytological events during ginseng reproduction, such as the development of the male organ, the stamen. To better understand the mechanism controlling ginseng male reproductive development, here, we investigated the inflorescence and flower structure of ginseng. Moreover, we performed cytological analysis of anther morphogenesis and showed the common and specialized cytological events including the formation of four concentric cell layers surrounding male reproductive cells followed by subsequent cell differentiation and degeneration of tapetal cells, as well as the formation of mature pollen grains via meiosis and mitosis during ginseng anther development. Particularly, our transverse section and microscopic observations showed that the ginseng tapetal layer exhibits obvious nonsynchronous cell division evidenced by the observation of one or two tapetal layers frequently observed in one anther lobe, suggesting the unique control of cell division. To facilitate the future study on ginseng male reproduction, we grouped the anther development into 10 developmental stages according to the characterized cytological events.

  20. Identification of ginseng root using quantitative X-ray microtomography.

    PubMed

    Ye, Linlin; Xue, Yanling; Wang, Yudan; Qi, Juncheng; Xiao, Tiqiao

    2017-07-01

    The use of X-ray phase-contrast microtomography for the investigation of Chinese medicinal materials is advantageous for its nondestructive, in situ , and three-dimensional quantitative imaging properties. The X-ray phase-contrast microtomography quantitative imaging method was used to investigate the microstructure of ginseng, and the phase-retrieval method is also employed to process the experimental data. Four different ginseng samples were collected and investigated; these were classified according to their species, production area, and sample growth pattern. The quantitative internal characteristic microstructures of ginseng were extracted successfully. The size and position distributions of the calcium oxalate cluster crystals (COCCs), important secondary metabolites that accumulate in ginseng, are revealed by the three-dimensional quantitative imaging method. The volume and amount of the COCCs in different species of the ginseng are obtained by a quantitative analysis of the three-dimensional microstructures, which shows obvious difference among the four species of ginseng. This study is the first to provide evidence of the distribution characteristics of COCCs to identify four types of ginseng, with regard to species authentication and age identification, by X-ray phase-contrast microtomography quantitative imaging. This method is also expected to reveal important relationships between COCCs and the occurrence of the effective medicinal components of ginseng.

  1. Relationships between harvest of American ginseng and hardwood timber production

    Treesearch

    Stephen P. Prisley; James Chamberlain; Michael McGuffin

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this research was to quantify the relationship between American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) and timber inventory and harvest. This was done through compilation and analysis of county-level data from public datasets: ginseng harvest data from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, US Forest Service (USFS) forest inventory and analysis (FIA)...

  2. Chemical constituents of Panax ginseng exposed to. gamma. irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Joongho; Belanger, J.M.R.; Sigouin, M.

    1990-03-01

    Chemical constituents were monitored to assess the biochemical and nutritional safety of Panax ginseng powders that were irradiated at doses of 1-10 kGy. Quantitative analysis has shown that the main effective components - saponins - are not altered by {sup 60}Co {gamma} irradiation. Ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} was not affected by the treatment. Negligible changes were observed in the free carbohydrate contents. Doses of more than 5 kGy caused significant decreases in sulfur-containing amino acids and in tyrosine. At doses of 10 kGy, free amino acids, such as proline and lysine, showed an appreciable increase. The composition in minerals was not alteredmore » irrespective of the applied doses.« less

  3. Ginseng Berry Extract Attenuates Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Acute and Chronic Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Xu, Li; Cho, Si-Young; Min, Kyung-Jin; Oda, Tatsuya; Zhang, LiJun; Yu, Qing; Jin, Jun-O

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the in vivo functions of ginseng berry extract (GB) as a therapy for dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. C57BL/6 mice were given drinking water containing DSS (3%) for eight days to induce acute colitis. At the same time, the mice received an oral dose of GB (50 mg/kg) once daily. The GB-treated mice were less susceptible to the development of acute colitis than were control mice treated with saline, as determined by weight loss, disease activity, and colon histology. The administration of GB to DSS-treated mice also reduced the numbers and inhibited the activation of colon-infiltrating T cells, neutrophils, intestinal CD103−CD11c+ dendritic cells (cDCs), and macrophages. In addition, GB treatment promoted the migration of CD103+CD11c+ cDCs and expansion of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in the colons of DSS-treated mice. Similarly, in the DSS-induced chronic colitis model, GB treatment improved the macroscopic and histological appearance of the colon wall when compared to untreated control mice, as indicated by longer colon length and lower histological scores. This is the first report to show that oral administration of GB suppresses immune activation and protects against experimentally induced colitis. PMID:27058552

  4. Enhanced thermogenesis in rats by Panax ginseng, multivitamins and minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ratan; Grover, S. K.; Divekar, H. M.; Gupta, A. K.; Shyam, Radhey; Srivastava, K. K.

    1996-12-01

    Substances which enhance endurance for physical and mental work and increase non-specific resistance to stress during a prolonged stay in physiologically adverse habitats are called ‘adaptogens’. Panax ginseng is well known for its anti-stress and adaptogenic properties. In the present study, adaptogenic activity by the intake of a herbo-vitamin-mineral preparation (HVMP) containing P. ginseng and multivitamin-mineral preparation (MVMP) was evaluated using the cold-hypoxia-restrained (C-H-R) animal model. The aim was to determine whether the cold tolerance and recovery from acute hypothermia mediated by P. ginseng was modified by simultaneous intake of additional vitamins and minerals. Results suggest that the adaptogenic effect of HVMP was more or less the sum total of its two components P. ginseng and MVMP. In HVMP, P. ginseng was found to be effective for developing resistance to cooling and MVMP helped in stimulating faster recovery from acute hypothermia.

  5. Antifatigue Effects of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Sa-Ra; Lee, Jin-Seok; Han, Jong-Min; Lee, Nam-Hun; Ahn, Yo-Chan; Son, Chang-Gue

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the antifatigue effects of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer in 90 subjects (21 men and 69 women) with idiopathic chronic fatigue (ICF) in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled and parallel designed trial. A bespoke 20% ethanol extract of P. ginseng (1 g or 2 g day–1) or a placebo was administered to each group for 4 weeks, and then fatigue severity was monitored using a self-rating numeric scale (NRS) and a visual analogue scale (VAS) as a primary endpoint. Serum levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), total glutathione (GSH) contents and glutathione reductase (GSH-Rd) activity were determined. After 4-week, P. ginseng administration decreased the total NRS score, but they were not statistically significant compared with placebo (P>0.05). Mental NRS score was significantly improved by P. ginseng administrations as 20.4±5.0 to 15.1±6.5 [95% CI 2.3∼8.2] for 1 g and 20.7±6.3 to 13.8±6.2 [95% CI −0.1∼4.2] for 2 g compared with placebo 20.9±4.5 to 18.8±2.9 [95% CI 4.1∼9.9, P<0.01]. Only 2 g P. ginseng significantly reduced the VAS score from 7.3±1.3 to 4.4±1.8 [95% CI 0.7∼1.8] compared with the placebo 7.1±1.0 to 5.8±1.3 [95% CI 2.2 ∼3.7, P<0.01]. ROS and MDA levels were lowered by P. ginseng compared to placebo. P. ginseng 1 g increased GSH concentration and GSH-Rd activity. Our results provide the first evidence of the antifatigue effects of P. ginseng in patients with ICF, and we submit that these changes in antioxidant properties contribute in part to its mechanism. Trial Registration Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS) KCT0000048 PMID:23613825

  6. Converting Panax ginseng DNA and chemical fingerprints into two-dimensional barcode.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yong; Li, Peng; Li, Xi-Wen; Zhao, Jing; Chen, Hai; Yang, Qing; Hu, Hao

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we investigated how to convert the Panax ginseng DNA sequence code and chemical fingerprints into a two-dimensional code. In order to improve the compression efficiency, GATC2Bytes and digital merger compression algorithms are proposed. HPLC chemical fingerprint data of 10 groups of P. ginseng from Northeast China and the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequence code as the DNA sequence code were ready for conversion. In order to convert such data into a two-dimensional code, the following six steps were performed: First, the chemical fingerprint characteristic data sets were obtained through the inflection filtering algorithm. Second, precompression processing of such data sets is undertaken. Third, precompression processing was undertaken with the P. ginseng DNA (ITS2) sequence codes. Fourth, the precompressed chemical fingerprint data and the DNA (ITS2) sequence code were combined in accordance with the set data format. Such combined data can be compressed by Zlib, an open source data compression algorithm. Finally, the compressed data generated a two-dimensional code called a quick response code (QR code). Through the abovementioned converting process, it can be found that the number of bytes needed for storing P. ginseng chemical fingerprints and its DNA (ITS2) sequence code can be greatly reduced. After GTCA2Bytes algorithm processing, the ITS2 compression rate reaches 75% and the chemical fingerprint compression rate exceeds 99.65% via filtration and digital merger compression algorithm processing. Therefore, the overall compression ratio even exceeds 99.36%. The capacity of the formed QR code is around 0.5k, which can easily and successfully be read and identified by any smartphone. P. ginseng chemical fingerprints and its DNA (ITS2) sequence code can form a QR code after data processing, and therefore the QR code can be a perfect carrier of the authenticity and quality of P. ginseng information. This study provides a theoretical

  7. Pectic polysaccharides from Panax ginseng as the antirotavirus principals in ginseng.

    PubMed

    Baek, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Jin Gyun; Park, Seo Young; Bae, Ok Nam; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Park, Jeong Hill

    2010-08-09

    To evaluate the antidiarrheal effect of ginseng, the active principals of ginseng were studied in vitro model of rotavirus infection, the leading cause of severe diarrhea. Two pectic polysaccharides, named as GP50-dHR (56.0 kDa) and GP50-eHR (77.0 kDa), were purified from hot water extract of ginseng by bioassay-linked fractionation. Both polysaccharides rescued cell viability from rotavirus infection dose-dependently (IC50 are 15 and 10 microg/mL, respectively). Both polysaccharides had common structural features of homogalacturonan backbone with hairy regions of rhamnogalacturonan type I. Arabinose-rich side chains with abundant branch points were unique in GP50-eHR and may contribute to a greater antirotavirus effect of GP50-eHR than GP50-dHR. Because homogalacturonan itself did not show an antirotavirus effect, hairy regions might be functional sites. Of note, the antirotavirus effect of both polysaccharides resulted from inhibiting rotavirus attachment to cells. Together with a wide range of noncytotoxicity, these findings suggest that ginseng polysaccharides are viable therapeutic options for rotavirus diarrhea.

  8. Ginsenoside Rc from Korean Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) Attenuates Inflammatory Symptoms of Gastritis, Hepatitis and Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tao; Rhee, Man Hee; Lee, Jongsung; Kim, Seung Hyung; Yang, Yanyan; Kim, Han Gyung; Kim, Yong; Kim, Chaekyun; Kwak, Yi-Seong; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Cho, Jae Youl

    2016-01-01

    Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) is an herbal medicine prescribed worldwide that is prepared from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Araliaceae). Out of ginseng's various components, ginsenosides are regarded as the major ingredients, exhibiting anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. Although recent studies have focused on understanding the anti-inflammatory activities of KRG, compounds that are major anti-inflammatory components, precisely how these can suppress various inflammatory processes has not been fully elucidated yet. In this study, we aimed to identify inhibitory saponins, to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of the saponins, and to understand the inhibitory mechanisms. To do this, we employed in vitro lipopolysaccharide-treated macrophages and in vivo inflammatory mouse conditions, such as collagen (type II)-induced arthritis (CIA), EtOH/HCl-induced gastritis, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-triggered hepatitis. Molecular mechanisms were also verified by real-time PCR, immunoblotting analysis, and reporter gene assays. Out of all the ginsenosides, ginsenoside Rc (G-Rc) showed the highest inhibitory activity against the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-[Formula: see text], interleukin (IL)-1[Formula: see text], and interferons (IFNs). Similarly, this compound attenuated inflammatory symptoms in CIA, EtOH/HCl-mediated gastritis, and LPS/D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-triggered hepatitis without altering toxicological parameters, and without inducing gastric irritation. These anti-inflammatory effects were accompanied by the suppression of TNF-[Formula: see text] and IL-6 production and the induction of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in mice with CIA. G-Rc also attenuated the increased levels of luciferase activity by IRF-3 and AP-1 but not NF-[Formula: see text]B. In support of this phenomenon, G-Rc reduced TBK1, IRF-3, and ATF2 phosphorylation in the joint and liver tissues of mice with hepatitis. Therefore, our results strongly suggest that

  9. Anti-tumour and immunomodulatory activities of oligosaccharides isolated from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Lili; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Li, Bo; Liu, Zhen; Wang, Mingzhu; Liu, Shuying

    2014-04-01

    Water-soluble ginseng oligosaccharides (WGOS) composed of D-glucose with a degree of polymerisation ranging from 2 to 14 were obtained from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer. In this study, the anti-tumour and immunoregulatory effects of WGOS were evaluated in Hepatoma-22 (H22)-bearing mice. Treatment with WGOS inhibited tumour growth in vivo and significantly increased relative spleen and thymus weight, serum tumour necrosis factor-α level, spleen lymphocyte proliferation, natural killer cell activity, phagocytic function and nitric oxide production secreted by macrophage in H22-bearing mice. However, no direct cytotoxicity was detected. Therefore, the anti-tumour activity of WGOS may be related to their immunomodulatory effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. High-Dose Asian Ginseng (Panax Ginseng) for Cancer-Related Fatigue: A Preliminary Report.

    PubMed

    Yennurajalingam, Sriram; Reddy, Akhila; Tannir, Nizar M; Chisholm, Gary B; Lee, Richard Tsong; Lopez, Gabriel; Escalante, Carmen P; Manzullo, Ellen F; Frisbee Hume, Susan; Williams, Janet L; Cohen, Lorenzo; Bruera, Eduardo

    2015-09-01

    Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is the most common and severe symptom in patients with cancer. The number and efficacy of available treatments for CRF are limited. The objective of this preliminary study was to assess the safety of high-dose Panax ginseng (PG) for CRF. In this prospective, open-label study, 30 patients with CRF (≥4/10) received high-dose PG at 800 mg orally daily for 29 days. Frequency and type of side effects were determined by the National Cancer Institute's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. Scores on the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F) scale, Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were assessed at baseline, day 15, and day 29. Global Symptom Evaluation (GSE) was assessed at day 29. Of the 30 patients enrolled, 24 (80%) were evaluable. The median age was 58 years; 50% were females, and 84% were white. No severe (≥grade 3) adverse events related to the study drug were reported. Of the 24 evaluable patients, 21 (87%) had an improved (by ≥3 points) FACIT-F score by day 15. The mean ESAS score (standard deviation) for well-being improved from 4.67 (2.04) to 3.50 (2.34) (P = .01374), and mean score for appetite improved from 4.29 (2.79) to 2.96 (2.46) (P = .0097). GSE score of PG for fatigue was ≥3 in 15/24 patients (63%) with median improvement of 5. PG is safe and improves CRF fatigue as well as overall quality of life, appetite, and sleep at night. Randomized controlled trials of PG for CRF are justified. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Pharmacokinetic and metabolic effects of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) in healthy volunteers receiving the HIV protease inhibitor indinavir

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Adriana SA; Hendrix, Craig; Parsons, Teresa L; Caballero, Benjamin; Yuan, Chun-Su; Flexner, Charles W; Dobs, Adrian S; Brown, Todd T

    2008-01-01

    Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use is prevalent among HIV-infected patients to reduce the toxicity of antiretroviral therapy. Ginseng has been used for treatment of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, a common side effect of some HIV-1 protease inhibitors (PI). However, it is unknown whether American ginseng (AG) can reverse insulin resistance induced by the PI indinavir (IDV), and whether these two agents interact pharmacologically. We evaluated potential pharmacokinetic interactions between IDV and AG, and assessed whether AG improves IDV-induced insulin resistance. Methods After baseline assessment of insulin sensitivity using the insulin clamp technique, healthy volunteers received IDV 800 mg q8 h for 3 days and then IDV and AG 1g q8h for 14 days. IDV pharmacokinetics and insulin sensitivity were assessed before and after AG co-administration. Results There was no difference in the area-under the plasma-concentration-time curve after the co-administration of AG, compared to IDV alone (n = 13). Although insulin-stimulated glucose disposal per unit of insulin (M/I) decreased by an average of 14.8 ± 5.9% after 3 days of IDV (from 0.113 ± 0.012 to 0.096 ± 0.014 mg/kgFFM/min per μU/ml of insulin, p = 0.03, n = 11), M/I remained unchanged after co-administration of IDV and AG. Conclusion IDV decreases insulin sensitivity, which is unaltered by AG co-administration. AG does not significantly affect IDV pharmacokinetics. PMID:18713456

  12. Antioxidant effects of cultured wild ginseng root extracts on the male reproductive function of boars and guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Yun, Suk Jun; Bae, Gui-Seck; Park, Jae Hawn; Song, Tae Ho; Choi, Ahreum; Ryu, Buom-Yong; Pang, Myung-Geol; Kim, Eun Joong; Yoon, Minjung; Chang, Moon Baek

    2016-07-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cultured wild ginseng root extracts (cWGRE) on the sperm of boars and the reproductive system of guinea pigs. Firstly, semen collected from boars (n=10) were incubated in 38°C for 1h with xanthine and xanthine oxidase to generate ROS. The cWGRE was added to the sperm culture system to test its antioxidant effect on the boar sperm. The amount of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) was measured by a chemiluminescence assay using luminol. The results indicated that the addition of cWGRE to boar sperm culture inhibited xanthine and xanthine oxidase-induced ROS concentrations. Treatment with cWGRE also had a positive effect on maintaining sperm motility. Effects of cWGRE administration on vitamin C-deficient guinea pigs were further investigated. Hartley guinea pigs (n=25) at 8 weeks of age were randomly divided into five groups. With the exception of the positive control group, each group was fed vitamin C-deficient feed for 21days (d). Respective groups were also orally administered cWGRE, ginseng extract, or mixed ginsenosides for 21 days. In comparison to the control group, oral administration of cWGRE reduced (P<0.05) amount of lipid peroxidation and increased (P<0.05) both glutathione peroxidase concentrations and the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity. In addition, administration of cWGRE induced increases (P<0.05) in body weight, testosterone concentrations, and spermatid populations. The results of the present study support our hypothesis that cWGRE has positive effects on male reproductive functions via suppression of ROS production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Pharmacokinetic and metabolic effects of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) in healthy volunteers receiving the HIV protease inhibitor indinavir.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Adriana S A; Hendrix, Craig; Parsons, Teresa L; Caballero, Benjamin; Yuan, Chun-Su; Flexner, Charles W; Dobs, Adrian S; Brown, Todd T

    2008-08-19

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use is prevalent among HIV-infected patients to reduce the toxicity of antiretroviral therapy. Ginseng has been used for treatment of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, a common side effect of some HIV-1 protease inhibitors (PI). However, it is unknown whether American ginseng (AG) can reverse insulin resistance induced by the PI indinavir (IDV), and whether these two agents interact pharmacologically. We evaluated potential pharmacokinetic interactions between IDV and AG, and assessed whether AG improves IDV-induced insulin resistance. After baseline assessment of insulin sensitivity using the insulin clamp technique, healthy volunteers received IDV 800 mg q8 h for 3 days and then IDV and AG 1g q8h for 14 days. IDV pharmacokinetics and insulin sensitivity were assessed before and after AG co-administration. There was no difference in the area-under the plasma-concentration-time curve after the co-administration of AG, compared to IDV alone (n = 13). Although insulin-stimulated glucose disposal per unit of insulin (M/I) decreased by an average of 14.8 +/- 5.9% after 3 days of IDV (from 0.113 +/- 0.012 to 0.096 +/- 0.014 mg/kgFFM/min per muU/ml of insulin, p = 0.03, n = 11), M/I remained unchanged after co-administration of IDV and AG. IDV decreases insulin sensitivity, which is unaltered by AG co-administration. AG does not significantly affect IDV pharmacokinetics.

  14. Assessment of microclimate conditions under artificial shades in a ginseng field

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyu Jong; Lee, Byun-Woo; Kang, Je Yong; Lee, Dong Yun; Jang, Soo Won; Kim, Kwang Soo

    2015-01-01

    Background Knowledge on microclimate conditions under artificial shades in a ginseng field would facilitate climate-aware management of ginseng production. Methods Weather data were measured under the shade and outside the shade at two fields located in Gochang-gun and Jeongeup-si, Korea, in 2011 and 2012 seasons to assess temperature and humidity conditions under the shade. An empirical approach was developed and validated for the estimation of leaf wetness duration (LWD) using weather measurements outside the shade as inputs to the model. Results Air temperature and relative humidity were similar between under the shade and outside the shade. For example, temperature conditions favorable for ginseng growth, e.g., between 8°C and 27°C, occurred slightly less frequently in hours during night times under the shade (91%) than outside (92%). Humidity conditions favorable for development of a foliar disease, e.g., relative humidity > 70%, occurred slightly more frequently under the shade (84%) than outside (82%). Effectiveness of correction schemes to an empirical LWD model differed by rainfall conditions for the estimation of LWD under the shade using weather measurements outside the shade as inputs to the model. During dew eligible days, a correction scheme to an empirical LWD model was slightly effective (10%) in reducing estimation errors under the shade. However, another correction approach during rainfall eligible days reduced errors of LWD estimation by 17%. Conclusion Weather measurements outside the shade and LWD estimates derived from these measurements would be useful as inputs for decision support systems to predict ginseng growth and disease development. PMID:26843827

  15. Assessment of microclimate conditions under artificial shades in a ginseng field.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyu Jong; Lee, Byun-Woo; Kang, Je Yong; Lee, Dong Yun; Jang, Soo Won; Kim, Kwang Soo

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge on microclimate conditions under artificial shades in a ginseng field would facilitate climate-aware management of ginseng production. Weather data were measured under the shade and outside the shade at two fields located in Gochang-gun and Jeongeup-si, Korea, in 2011 and 2012 seasons to assess temperature and humidity conditions under the shade. An empirical approach was developed and validated for the estimation of leaf wetness duration (LWD) using weather measurements outside the shade as inputs to the model. Air temperature and relative humidity were similar between under the shade and outside the shade. For example, temperature conditions favorable for ginseng growth, e.g., between 8°C and 27°C, occurred slightly less frequently in hours during night times under the shade (91%) than outside (92%). Humidity conditions favorable for development of a foliar disease, e.g., relative humidity > 70%, occurred slightly more frequently under the shade (84%) than outside (82%). Effectiveness of correction schemes to an empirical LWD model differed by rainfall conditions for the estimation of LWD under the shade using weather measurements outside the shade as inputs to the model. During dew eligible days, a correction scheme to an empirical LWD model was slightly effective (10%) in reducing estimation errors under the shade. However, another correction approach during rainfall eligible days reduced errors of LWD estimation by 17%. Weather measurements outside the shade and LWD estimates derived from these measurements would be useful as inputs for decision support systems to predict ginseng growth and disease development.

  16. Insilico profiling of microRNAs in Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer)

    PubMed Central

    Mathiyalagan, Ramya; Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Natarajan, Sathishkumar; Kim, Yeon Ju; Sun, Myung Suk; Kim, Se Young; Kim, Yu-Jin; Yang, Deok Chun

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of recently discovered non-coding small RNA molecules, on average approximately 21 nucleotides in length, which underlie numerous important biological roles in gene regulation in various organisms. The miRNA database (release 18) has 18,226 miRNAs, which have been deposited from different species. Although miRNAs have been identified and validated in many plant species, no studies have been reported on discovering miRNAs in Panax ginseng Meyer, which is a traditionally known medicinal plant in oriental medicine, also known as Korean ginseng. It has triterpene ginseng saponins called ginsenosides, which are responsible for its various pharmacological activities. Predicting conserved miRNAs by homology-based analysis with available expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences can be powerful, if the species lacks whole genome sequence information. In this study by using the EST based computational approach, 69 conserved miRNAs belonging to 44 miRNA families were identified in Korean ginseng. The digital gene expression patterns of predicted conserved miRNAs were analyzed by deep sequencing using small RNA sequences of flower buds, leaves, and lateral roots. We have found that many of the identified miRNAs showed tissue specific expressions. Using the insilico method, 346 potential targets were identified for the predicted 69 conserved miRNAs by searching the ginseng EST database, and the predicted targets were mainly involved in secondary metabolic processes, responses to biotic and abiotic stress, and transcription regulator activities, as well as a variety of other metabolic processes. PMID:23717176

  17. The skin protective effects of compound K, a metabolite of ginsenoside Rb1 from Panax ginseng.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunji; Kim, Donghyun; Yoo, Sulgi; Hong, Yo Han; Han, Sang Yun; Jeong, Seonggu; Jeong, Deok; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Cho, Jae Youl; Park, Junseong

    2018-04-01

    Compound K (CK) is a ginsenoside, a metabolite of Panax ginseng . There is interest both in increasing skin health and antiaging using natural skin care products. In this study, we explored the possibility of using CK as a cosmetic ingredient. To assess the antiaging effect of CK, RT-PCR was performed, and expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-1, cyclooxygenase-2, and type I collagen were measured under UVB irradiation conditions. The skin hydrating effect of CK was tested by RT-PCR, and its regulation was explored through immunoblotting. Melanin content, melanin secretion, and tyrosinase activity assays were performed. CK treatment reduced the production of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 in UVB irradiated NIH3T3 cells and recovered type I collagen expression level. Expression of skin hydrating factors-filaggrin, transglutaminase, and hyaluronic acid synthases-1 and -2-were augmented by CK and were modulated through the inhibitor of κBα, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, or extracellular signal-regulated kinases pathway. In the melanogenic response, CK did not regulate tyrosinase activity and melanin secretion, but increased melanin content in B16F10 cells was observed. Our data showed that CK has antiaging and hydrating effects. We suggest that CK could be used in cosmetic products to protect the skin from UVB rays and increase skin moisture level.

  18. Effects of Korean Red Ginseng extract on busulfan-induced dysfunction of the male reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Jung, Seok-Won; Kim, Hyeon-Joong; Lee, Byung-Hwan; Choi, Sun-Hye; Kim, Hyun-Sook; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Kim, Joon Yong; Kim, Eun-Soo; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Lim, Kwang Yong; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Jang, Minhee; Park, Seong Kyu; Cho, Ik-Hyun; Nah, Seung-Yeol

    2015-07-01

    Anticancer agents induce a variety of adverse effects when administered to cancer patients. Busulfan is a known antileukemia agent. When administered for treatment of leukemia in young patients, busulfan could cause damage to the male reproductive system as one of its adverse effects, resulting in sterility. We investigated the effects of Korean Red Ginseng extract (KRGE) on busulfan-induced damage and/or dysfunction of the male reproductive system. We found that administration of busulfan to mice: decreased testis weight; caused testicular histological damage; reduced the total number of sperm, sperm motility, serum testosterone concentration; and eventually, litter size. Preadministration of KRGE partially attenuated various busulfan-induced damages to the male reproductive system. These results indicate that KRGE has a protective effect against busulfan-induced damage to the male reproduction system. The present study shows a possibility that KRGE could be applied as a useful agent to prevent or protect the male reproductive system from the adverse side effects induced by administration of anticancer agents such as busulfan.

  19. Reducing Aversion to Side Effects in Preventive Medical Treatment Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Erika A.; Weinstein, Neil D.; Colditz, Graham A.; Emmons, Karen M.

    2007-01-01

    Laypeople tend to be overly sensitive to side effects of treatments that prevent illness, possibly leading them to refuse beneficial therapies. This Internet-based study attempted to reduce such side effect aversion by adding graphic displays to the numerical risk probabilities. It also explored whether graphics reduce side effect aversion by…

  20. Chemical Diversity of Panax ginseng, Panax quinquifolium, and Panax notoginseng

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    The major commercial ginsengs are Panax ginseng Meyer (Korean ginseng), P. quinquifolium L. (American ginseng), and P. notoginseng (Burk.) FH Chen (Notoginseng). P. ginseng is the most commonly used as an adaptogenic agent and has been shown to enhance physical performance, promote vitality, increase resistance to stress and aging, and have immunomodulatory activity. These ginsengs contain saponins, which can be classified as dammarane-type, ocotillol-type and oleanane-type oligoglycosides, and polysaccharides as main constituents. Dammarane ginsenosides are transformed into compounds such as the ginsenosides Rg3, Rg5, and Rk1 by steaming and heating and are metabolized into metabolites such as compound K, ginsenoside Rh1, protoand panaxatriol by intestinal microflora. These metabolites are nonpolar, pharmacologically active and easily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. However, the activities metabolizing these constituents into bioactive compounds differ significantly among individuals because all individuals possess characteristic indigenous strains of intestinal bacteria. To overcome this difference, ginsengs fermented with enzymes or microbes have been developed. PMID:23717099

  1. Ginseng Is Useful to Enhance Cardiac Contractility in Animals

    PubMed Central

    Cherng, Yih-Giun; Chen, Li-Jen; Niu, Ho-Shan; Chang, Chen Kuei; Niu, Chiang-Shan

    2014-01-01

    Ginseng has been shown to be effective on cardiac dysfunction. Recent evidence has highlighted the mediation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in cardiac function. Thus, we are interested to investigate the role of PPARδ in ginseng-induced modification of cardiac contractility. The isolated hearts in Langendorff apparatus and hemodynamic analysis in catheterized rats were applied to measure the actions of ginseng ex vivo and in vivo. In normal rats, ginseng enhanced cardiac contractility and hemodynamic dP/dt max significantly. Both actions were diminished by GSK0660 at a dose enough to block PPARδ. However, ginseng failed to modify heart rate at the same dose, although it did produce a mild increase in blood pressure. Data of intracellular calcium level and Western blotting analysis showed that both the PPARδ expression and troponin I phosphorylation were raised by ginseng in neonatal rat cardiomyocyte. Thus, we suggest that ginseng could enhance cardiac contractility through increased PPARδ expression in cardiac cells. PMID:24689053

  2. Passive Porous Treatment for Reducing Flap Side-Edge Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhari, Meelan M.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.

    2008-01-01

    A passive porous treatment has been proposed as a means of suppressing noise generated by the airflow around the side edges of partial-span flaps on airplane wings when the flaps are extended in a high-lift configuration. The treatment proposed here does not incur any aerodynamic penalties and could easily be retrofit to existing airplanes. The treatment could also be applied to reduce noise generated by turbomachinery, including wind turbines. Innovative aspects of the proposed treatment include a minimum treatment area and physics-based procedure for treatment design. The efficacy of the treatment was confirmed during wind-tunnel experiments at NASA Ames, wherein the porous treatment was applied to a minute surface area in the vicinity of a flap edge on a 26-percent model of Boeing 777-200 wing.

  3. [Comparative analysis on industrial standardization degree of Chinese and Korean ginseng].

    PubMed

    Chu, Qiao; Xi, Xing-Jun; Wang, He-Yan; Si, Ding-Hua; Tang, Fei; Lan, Tao

    2017-05-01

    Panax ginseng is a well-known medicinal plant all over the world. It has high nutritional value and medicinal value. China and South Korea are the major countries in the world for ginseng cultivation, production and exportation. China's ginseng production accounts for more than half of the world, but the output value is less than that of Korea. The standardization process of ginseng industry plays an important role. This paper makes a detailed analysis of the Chinese and Korean ginseng national standards and the standardization process, and makes a detailed comparative analysis of the categories, standard contents, index selection, age, implementation and promotion status of the Chinese and Korean ginseng standards. The development disadvantages of ginseng industry standardization were displayed. And we give our advises on the standard revision, implementation of China's ginseng industry standardization, hoping to enhance the competitiveness of China's ginseng industry. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  4. Changes in the Ginsenoside Content During Fermentation Using an Appliance for the Preparation of Red Ginseng.

    PubMed

    Lee, So Jin; Ha, Na; Kim, Yunjeong; Kim, Min-Gul

    2016-01-01

    The total amount of ginsenoside in fermented red ginseng (FRG) is increased by microbial fermentation. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether fermentation time and temperature affect the ginsenoside content during fermentation using an appliance for the preparation of red ginseng. The FRG and fermented red ginseng extracts (FRG-e) were prepared using an appliance for the preparation of red ginseng. The temperature was recorded and time points for sampling were scheduled at pre-fermentation (0[Formula: see text]h) and 18, 36, 48, 60 and 72[Formula: see text]h after the addition of the microbial strains. Samples of FRG and FRG-e were collected to identify changes in the ginsenoside contents at each time point during the fermentation process. The ginsenoside content was analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The levels of ginsenoside Rh1, Rg3, and compound Y, which are known to have effective pharmacological properties, increased more than three-fold in the final products of FRG relative to samples prior to fermentation. Although the ginsenoside constituents of FRG-e decreased or increased and then decreased during fermentation, the total amount of ginsenoside in FRG-e was even higher than those in FRG; the total amounts of ginsenoside in FRG-e and FRG were 8282.8 and 738.0[Formula: see text]mg, respectively. This study examined the changes in composition of ginsenosides and suggests a method to manufacture high-content total ginsenosides according to the fermentation temperature and process time. Reducing the extraction time is expected to improve the decrease of ginsenosides in FRG-e as a function of the fermentation time.

  5. Ninjin'yoeito and ginseng extract prevent oxaliplatin-induced neurodegeneration in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Ayano; Ohsawa, Masahiro; Motoo, Yoshiharu; Mizukami, Hajime; Makino, Toshiaki

    2015-10-01

    Ninjin'yoeito (NYT) is a formula of Japanese traditional kampo medicine composed of 12 crude drugs, and is designed to improve the decline in constitution after recovery from disease, fatigue, anemia, anorexia, perspiration during sleep, cold limbs, slight fever, chills, persistent cough, malaise, mental disequilibrium, insomnia, and constipation. Oxaliplatin (L-OHP) is a platinum-based anticancer drug used to treat colorectal, pancreatic, and stomach cancers. However, it often causes acute and chronic peripheral neuropathies including cold allodynia and mechanical hyperalgesia. In this study, we investigated the preventive effects of NYT on neuronal degeneration caused by L-OHP using PC12 cells, which are derived from the rat adrenal medulla and differentiate into nerve-like cells after exposure to nerve growth factor. L-OHP treatment decreased the elongation of neurite-like projection outgrowths in differentiated PC12 cells. When PC12 cells were treated with NYT hot water extract, neurodegeneration caused by L-OHP was significantly prevented in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the 12 crude drugs composing NYT, the extract of Ginseng (the root of Panax ginseng) exhibited the strongest preventive effects on neurodegeneration in differentiated PC12 cells. By activity-guided fractionation, we found that the fraction containing ginsenosides displayed preventive activity and, among several ginsenosides, ginsenoside F2 exhibited significant preventive effects on L-OHP-induced decreases in neurite-like outgrowths in differentiated PC12 cells. These results suggest that NYT and ginseng are promising agents for preventing L-OHP-induced neuropathies and present ginsenoside F2 as one of the active ingredients in ginseng.

  6. Consequences of harvesting for genetic diversity in American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.): A simulation study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cruse-Sanders, J. M.; Hamrick, J.L.; Ahumada, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    American ginseng, Panax quinquefolius L., is one of the most heavily traded medicinal plants in North America. The effect of harvest on genetic diversity in ginseng was measured with a single generation culling simulation program. Culling scenarios included random harvest at varying levels, legal limit random harvest and legal limit mature plant harvest. The legal limit was determined by the proportion of legally harvestable plants per population (% mature plants per population). Random harvest at varying levels resulted in significant loss of genetic diversity, especially allelic richness. Relative to initial levels, average within-population genetic diversity (H e) was significantly lower when plants were culled randomly at the legal limit (Mann-Whitney U = 430, p < 0.001) or when only mature plants were culled (Mann-Whitney U = 394, p < 0.01). Within-population genetic diversity was significantly higher with legal limit mature plant harvest (H e = 0.068) than when plants were culled randomly at the legal limit (H e = 0.064; U = 202, p < 0.01). Based on these simulations of harvest over one generation, we recommend that harvesting fewer than the proportion of mature plants could reduce the negative genetic effects of harvest on ginseng populations. ?? Springer 2005.

  7. Ginseng, green tea or fibrate: valid options for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis prevention?

    PubMed

    Miranda-Henriques, Mônica Souza de; Diniz, Margareth de Fátima Formiga de Melo; Araújo, Maria Salete Trigueiro de

    2014-01-01

    Panax ginseng, Camellia sinensis and bezafibrate were compared for their lipid-lowering, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as potential agents to prevent nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and its progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Fifty Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: G1 (feed with standard diet); G2 (feed with high-fat diet with 58% of energy from fat); G3 (high-fat diet + standardized Panax ginseng extract at 100 mg/kg/day); G4 (high-fat diet + standardized Camellia sinensis extract at 100 mg/kg/day); and G5 (high-fat diet + bezafibrate at 100 mg/kg/day), given by gavage. The animals were sacrificed eight weeks later and blood was collected for glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, AST, ALT, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase determinations. The score system for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease was used to analyse the liver samples. High-fat diet resulted in a significant increase in animal body weight, biochemical changes and enzymatic elevations. Steatosis, inflammation and hepatocellular ballooning scores were significant high in this group. The biochemical and histological variables were statistically similar in the bezafibrate group and control group. Treatment with Panax ginseng extract prevented obesity and histological features of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (steatosis and inflammation) compared to high-fat diet. Camellia sinensis showed a less effective biochemical response, with small reduction in steatosis and inflammation but lower ballooning scores.

  8. Stimulation of Innate Immune Function by Panax ginseng after Heat Processing.

    PubMed

    Shin, Myoung-Sook; Song, Ji Hoon; Choi, Pilju; Lee, Jong Hun; Kim, Song-Yi; Shin, Kwang-Soon; Ham, Jungyeob; Kang, Ki Sung

    2018-05-09

    Panax ginseng Meyer has been used for the treatment of immune diseases and for strengthening the immune function. In this study, we evaluated the innate immune-stimulating functions and action mechanisms of white ginseng (WG) and heat-processed ginseng (HPG) in RAW264.7 cells. According to LC-MS analysis results, WG contained typical ginsenosides, such as Rb1, Rc, Rb2, Rd, and Rg1, whereas HPG contained Rg3, Rk1, and Rg5 as well as typical ginsenosides. HPG, not WG, enhanced NF-κB transcriptional activity, cytokine production (IL-6 and TNF-α), and MHC class I and II expression in RAW264.7 cells. In addition, HPG phosphorylated MAPKs and NF-kB pathways. In experiments with inhibitors, the ERK inhibitor completely suppressed the effect of HPG on IL-6 and TNF-α production. HPG-induced c-Jun activation was suppressed by an ERK inhibitor and partially suppressed by JNK, p38, and IκBα inhibitors. Collectively, these results suggested that HPG containing Rg3, Rg5, and Rk1 increased macrophage activation which was regulated by the ERK/c-Jun pathway in RAW264.7 cells.

  9. Isolation and analysis of ginseng: advances and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chong-Zhi

    2011-01-01

    Ginseng occupies a prominent position in the list of best-selling natural products in the world. Because of its complex constituents, multidisciplinary techniques are needed to validate the analytical methods that support ginseng’s use worldwide. In the past decade, rapid development of technology has advanced many aspects of ginseng research. The aim of this review is to illustrate the recent advances in the isolation and analysis of ginseng, and to highlight their new applications and challenges. Emphasis is placed on recent trends and emerging techniques. The current article reviews the literature between January 2000 and September 2010. PMID:21258738

  10. Inhibitory Effect of Ginseng on Breast Cancer Cell Line Growth Via Up-Regulation of Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitor, p21 and p53

    PubMed

    AL Shabanah, Othman A; Alotaibi, Moureq rashed; Al Rejaie, Salim S; Alhoshani, Ali R; Almutairi, Mashal M; Alshammari, Musaad A; Hafez, Mohamed M

    2016-11-01

    Objective: Breast cancer is global female health problem worldwide. Most of the currently used agents for breast cancer treatment have toxic side-effects. Ginseng root, an oriental medicine, has many health benefits and may exhibit direct anti-cancer properties. This study was performed to assess the effects of ginseng on breast cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: Cytotoxicity of ginseng extract was measured by MTT assay after exposure of MDA-MB-231, MCF-10A and MCF-7 breast cancer cells to concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 and 2.5 mg/well. Expression levels of p21WAF, p16INK4A, Bcl-2, Bax and P53 genes were analyzed by quantitative real time PCR. Results: The treatment resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation in a dose-and time-dependent manner. p53, p21WAF1and p16INK4A expression levels were up-regulated in ginseng treated MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cancer cells compared to untreated controls and in MCF-10A cells. The expression levels of Bcl2 in the MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells were down-regulated. In contrast, that of Bax was significantly up-regulated. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that ginseng may inhibit breast cancer cell growth by activation of the apoptotic pathway. Creative Commons Attribution License

  11. Molecular differentiation of Russian wild ginseng using mitochondrial nad7 intron 3 region.

    PubMed

    Li, Guisheng; Cui, Yan; Wang, Hongtao; Kwon, Woo-Saeng; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2017-07-01

    Cultivated ginseng is often introduced as a substitute and adulterant of Russian wild ginseng due to its lower cost or misidentification caused by similarity in appearance with wild ginseng. The aim of this study is to develop a simple and reliable method to differentiate Russian wild ginseng from cultivated ginseng. The mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 7 ( nad 7) intron 3 regions of Russian wild ginseng and Chinese cultivated ginseng were analyzed. Based on the multiple sequence alignment result, a specific primer for Russian wild ginseng was designed by introducing additional mismatch and allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed for identification of wild ginseng. Real-time allele-specific PCR with endpoint analysis was used for validation of the developed Russian wild ginseng single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker. An SNP site specific to Russian wild ginseng was exploited by multiple alignments of mitochondrial nad 7 intron 3 regions of different ginseng samples. With the SNP-based specific primer, Russian wild ginseng was successfully discriminated from Chinese and Korean cultivated ginseng samples by allele-specific PCR. The reliability and specificity of the SNP marker was validated by checking 20 individuals of Russian wild ginseng samples with real-time allele-specific PCR assay. An effective DNA method for molecular discrimination of Russian wild ginseng from Chinese and Korean cultivated ginseng was developed. The established real-time allele-specific PCR was simple and reliable, and the present method should be a crucial complement of chemical analysis for authentication of Russian wild ginseng.

  12. Effects of Panax ginseng, consumed with and without glucose, on blood glucose levels and cognitive performance during sustained 'mentally demanding' tasks.

    PubMed

    Reay, Jonathon L; Kennedy, David O; Scholey, Andrew B

    2006-11-01

    Single doses of the traditional herbal treatment Panax ginseng have recently been shown to lower blood glucose levels and elicit cognitive improvements in healthy, overnight-fasted volunteers. The specific mechanisms responsible for these effects are not known. However, cognitive improvements may be related to the glycaemic properties of Panax ginseng. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced-crossover design, 27 healthy young adults completed a 10 minute "cognitive demand" test battery at baseline. They then consumed capsules containing either ginseng (extract G115) or a placebo and 30 minutes later a drink containing glucose or placebo. A further 30 minutes later (i.e. 60 minutes post-baseline/capsules) they completed the "cognitive demand" battery six times in immediate succession. Depending on the condition to which the participant was allocated on that particular day, the combination of capsules/drink treatments corresponded to a dose of: 0mg G115/0 mg glucose (placebo); 200mg G115/0 mg glucose (ginseng); 0 mg G115/25 g glucose (glucose) or 200 mg G115/25 g glucose (ginseng/glucose combination). The 10 minute "cognitive demand" battery comprised a Serial Threes subtraction task (2 min); a Serial Sevens subtraction task (2 min); a Rapid Visual Information Processing task (5 min); and a "mental fatigue" visual analogue scale. Blood glucose levels were measured prior to the day's treatment, and before and after the post-dose completions of the battery. The results showed that both Panax ginseng and glucose enhanced performance of a mental arithmetic task and ameliorated the increase in subjective feelings of mental fatigue experienced by participants during the later stages of the sustained, cognitively demanding task performance. Accuracy of performing the Rapid Visual Information Processing task (RVIP) was also improved following the glucose load. There was no evidence of a synergistic relationship between Panax ginseng and exogenous glucose ingestion

  13. Effects of soil type and organic fertilizers on fatty acids and vitamin E in Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer).

    PubMed

    Chung, Ill-Min; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Yang, Jin-Hee; Lee, Ji-Hee; Park, Sung-Kyu; Son, Na-Young; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2017-12-01

    This study examined the effects of soil type and fertilizer regimes on variations in fatty acids (FAs) and vitamin E (Vit-E) in 6-year-old ginseng roots. We observed significant variation in both FA and Vit-E contents owing to the type and quantity of organic fertilizer used in each soil type during cultivation. Unsaturated FAs were approximately 2.7-fold higher in ginseng than in saturated FAs. Linoleic, palmitic, and oleic acids were the most abundant FAs detected in ginseng roots. Additionally, α-tocopherol was the major Vit-E detected. In particular, the increased application of rice straw compost or food waste fertilizer elevated the quantity of nutritionally desirable FAs and bioactive Vit-E in ginseng root. Partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) score plots showed that soil type might be the main cause of differences in FA and Vit-E levels in ginseng. Specifically, the PLS-DA model indicated that palmitic acid is a suitable FA marker in determining whether ginseng plants were grown in a paddy-converted field or an upland field. Moreover, linoleic acid levels were highly correlated with α-linolenic acid (r=0.8374; p<0.0001) according to Pearson's correlations and hierarchical clustering analysis. Hence, these preliminary results should prove useful for the reliable production of ginseng containing high phytonutrient quantities according to cultivation conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pectinase-treated Panax ginseng protects heat stress-induced testicular damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Kyoung; Cha, Kyu-Min; Hwang, Seock-Yeon; Park, Un-Kyu; Seo, Seok Kyo; Lee, Sang-Ho; Jeong, Min-Sik; Cho, SiHyun; Kopalli, Spandana Rajendra; Kim, Si-Kwan

    2017-06-01

    Testicular hyperthermia is well studied to cause impaired spermatogenesis. In the present study, the protective effect of enzymatically modified (pectinase-treated) Panax ginseng (GINST) against intermittent sub-chronic heat stress-induced testicular damage in rats was investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: normal control (NC), heat-stressed control (HC), heat-stressed plus GINST-100 mg/kg/day (HG100) and heat-stressed plus GINST-200 mg/kg/day (HG200) treatment groups. GINST (100 and 200 mg/kg/day) was mixed separately with a regular pellet diet and was administered orally for 8 weeks starting from 1 week before heat exposure. Parameters such as organ weight, blood chemistry, sperm kinetic values, expression of antioxidant enzymes, spermatogenesis molecules and sex hormone receptors levels were measured. Data revealed that kidney and epididymis weight were significantly ( P  < 0.05) decreased with heat stress and recovered by GINST treatment. Further, the altered levels of blood chemistry panels and sperm kinetic values in heat stress-induced rats were attenuated when GINST was administered ( P  < 0.05). Furthermore, the expression levels of antioxidant-related enzymes (GSTM5 and GPX4), spermatogenesis-related proteins (CREB1 and INHA) and sex hormone receptors (androgen receptor, luteinizing hormone receptor and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor) were reduced by heat stress; however, GINST treatment effectively ameliorated these changes. In conclusion, GINST was effective in reducing heat-induced damage in various male fertility factors in vivo and has considerable potential to be developed as a useful supplement in improving male fertility. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  15. Periodontal disease with treatment reduces subsequent cancer risks.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ing-Ming; Sun, Li-Min; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lee, Chun-Feng; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2014-10-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between routine treatment of periodontal disease (PD) and the subsequent risks for cancers in Taiwan. Study participants were selected from the Taiwan National Health Insurance (NHI) system database. The PD with a routine treatment cohort contained 38 902 patients. For each treatment cohort participant, two age- and sex-matched comparison (control) cohort participants were randomly selected. Cox's proportional hazards regression analysis was used to estimate the effects of PD with treatment on the subsequent risk of cancer. The overall risk of developing cancer was significantly lower in the treatment cohort than in the patients without treatment (adjusted Hazard ratio = 0.72, 95% confidence interval = 0.68-0.76). The risks of developing most gastrointestinal tract, lung, gynecological and brain malignancies were significantly lower in the treatment cohort than in the comparison cohort. In contrast, the risks of prostate and thyroid cancers were significantly higher in the treatment cohort than in the comparison cohort. Our findings suggest that PD with treatment is associated with a significantly reduced overall risk of cancer and reduced risks of certain types of cancers. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Actoprotective effect of ginseng: improving mental and physical performance

    PubMed Central

    Oliynyk, Sergiy; Oh, Seikwan

    2013-01-01

    Actoprotectors are preparations that increase the mental performance and enhance body stability against physical loads without increasing oxygen consumption. Actoprotectors are regarded as a subclass of adaptogens that hold a significant capacity to increase physical performance. The focus of this article is studying adaptogen herbs of genus Panax (P. ginseng in particular) and their capabilities as actoprotectors. Some animal experiments and human studies about actoprotective properties of genus Panax attest that P. ginseng (administered as an extract) significantly increased the physical and intellectual work capacities, and the data provided suggests that ginseng is a natural source of actoprotectors. Preparations of ginseng can be regarded as potential actoprotectors which give way to further research of its influence on physical and mental work capacity, endurance and restoration after exhaustive physical loads while compared with reference actoprotectors. PMID:23717168

  17. Changbai Mountain Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey) Extract Supplementation Improves Exercise Performance and Energy Utilization and Decreases Fatigue-Associated Parameters in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Guo-Dong; Chiu, Chun-Hui; Hsu, Yi-Ju; Hou, Chien-Wen; Chen, Yi-Ming; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2017-02-05

    Changbai Mountain Ginseng (CMG, Panax ginseng C.A. Mey) is a traditional medicine commonly found in Northeast China and grows at elevations of 2000 m or higher in the Changbai Mountain Range. CMG, considered to be a "buried treasure medicine", is priced higher than other types of ginseng. However, few studies have demonstrated the effects of CMG supplementation on exercise performance, physical fatigue, and the biochemical profile. The major compound of CMG extract was characterized by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Male ICR mice were divided into 3 groups, the vehicle, CMG-1X and CMG-5X groups ( n = 8 per group), and respectively administered 0, 5, or 25 mg/kg/day of CMG extract orally for four weeks. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS results showed that the major compound in CMG extract is ginsenoside Ro. CMG extract significantly increased muscle weight and relative muscle weight (%). CMG extract supplementation dose-dependently increased grip strength ( p < 0.0001) and endurance swimming time, decreased levels of serum lactate ( p < 0.0001), ammonia ( p < 0.0001), creatine kinase (CK, p = 0.0002), and blood urea nitrogen ( p < 0.0001), and economized glucose levels ( p < 0.0001) after acute exercise challenge. The glycogen in the gastrocnemius muscle was significantly increased with CMG extract treatment. Biochemical profile results showed that creatinine and triacylglycerol significantly decreased and total protein and glucose increased with CMG treatment. This is the first report that CMG extract supplementation increases muscle mass, improves exercise performance and energy utilization, and decreases fatigue-associated parameters in vivo. The major component of CMG extract is ginsenoside Ro, which could be a potential bioactive compound for use as an ergogenic aid ingredient by the food industry.

  18. Effects of Korean red ginseng extracts on neural tube defects and impairment of social interaction induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid.

    PubMed

    Kim, Pitna; Park, Jin Hee; Kwon, Kyoung Ja; Kim, Ki Chan; Kim, Hee Jin; Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Hahn Young; Han, Seol-Heui; Shin, Chan Young

    2013-01-01

    Ginseng is one of the most widely used medicinal plants, which belongs to the genus Panax. Compared to uncured white ginseng, red ginseng has been generally regarded to produce superior pharmacological effects with lesser side/adverse effects, which made it popular in a variety of formulation from tea to oriental medicine. Using the prenatal valproic acid (VPA)-injection model of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in rats, which produces social impairrment and altered seizure susceptibility as in human ASD patients as well as mild neural tube defects like crooked tail phenotype, we examined whether chronic administration of red ginseng extract may rescue the social impairment and crooked tail phenotype in prenatally VPA-exposed rat offspring. VPA-induced impairment in social interactions tested using sociability and social preference paradigms as well as crooked tail phenotypes were significantly improved by administration of Korean red ginseng (KRG) in a dose dependent manner. Rat offspring prenatally exposed to VPA showed higher sensitivity to electric shock seizure and increased locomotor activity in open-field test. KRG treatment reversed abnormal locomotor activity and sensitivity to electric shock to control level. These results suggest that KRG may modulate neurobehavioral and structural organization of nervous system adversely affected by prenatal exposure to VPA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Protective effects of total saponins from stem and leaf of Panax ginseng against cyclophosphamide-induced genotoxicity and apoptosis in mouse bone marrow cells and peripheral lymphocyte cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiu Hua; Wu, Chun Fu; Duan, Lian; Yang, Jing Yu

    2008-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CP), commonly used anti-cancer, induces oxidative stress and is cytotoxic to normal cells. It is very important to choice the protective agent combined CP to reduce the side effects in cancer treatment. Ginsenosides are biological active constituents of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer that acts as the tonic agent for the cancer patients to reduce the side effects in the clinic application. Because CP is a pro-oxidant agent and induces oxidative stress by the generation of free radicals to decrease the activities of anti-oxidant enzymes, the protective effects of the total saponins from stem and leaf of P. ginseng C.A. Meyer (TSPG) act as an anti-oxidant agent against the decreased anti-oxidant enzymes, the genotoxicity and apoptosis induced by CP was carried out. The alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis was employed to detect DNA damage; flow cytometry assay and AO/EB staining assay were employed to measure cell apoptosis; the enzymatic anti-oxidants (T-SOD, CAT and GPx) and non-enzymatic anti-oxidant (GSH) were measured by the various colorimetric methods. CP induced the significant DNA damage in mouse peripheral lymphocytes in time- and dose-dependent manners, inhibited the activities of T-SOD, GPx and CAT, and decreased the contents of GSH in mouse blood, triggered bone marrow cell apoptosis at 6 and 12h. TSPG significantly reduced CP-induced DNA damages in bone marrow cells and peripheral lymphocyte cells, antagonized CP-induced reduction of T-SOD, GPx, CAT activities and the GSH contents, decreased the bone marrow cell apoptosis induced by CP. TSPG, significantly reduced the genotoxicity of CP in bone marrow cells and peripheral lymphocyte cells, and decreased the apoptotic cell number induced by CP in bone marrow cells. The effects of TSPG on T-SOD, GPx, CAT activities and GSH contents might partially contribute to its protective effects on CP-induced cell toxicities.

  20. Effect of ginseng extract on the TGF-β1 signaling pathway in CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Hafez, Mohamed M; Hamed, Sherifa S; El-Khadragy, Manal F; Hassan, Zeinab K; Al Rejaie, Salim S; Sayed-Ahmed, Mohamed M; Al-Harbi, Naif O; Al-Hosaini, Khalid A; Al-Harbi, Mohamed M; Alhoshani, Ali R; Al-Shabanah, Othman A; Alsharari, Shakir Dekhal

    2017-01-13

    Liver diseases are major global health problems. Ginseng extract has antioxidant, immune-modulatory and anti-inflammatory activities. This study investigated the effect of ginseng extract on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control group, ginseng group, CCl 4 group and CCl 4  + ginseng group. Liver injury was induced by the intraperitoneal (I.P) injection of 3 ml/kg CCl 4 (30% in olive oil) weekly for 8 weeks. The control group was I.P injected with olive oil. The expression of genes encoding transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), type I TGF-β receptor (TβR-1), type II TGF-β receptor (TβR-II), mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 2 (Smad2), Smad3, Smad4, matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), MMP9, tissue inhibitor matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), Collagen 1a2 (Col1a2), Collagen 3a1 (Col3a1), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and interleukin -10 (IL-10) were measured by real-time PCR. Treatment with ginseng extract decreased hepatic fat deposition and lowered hepatic reticular fiber accumulation compared with the CCl 4 group. The CCl 4 group showed a significant increase in hepatotoxicity biomarkers and up-regulation of the expression of genes encoding TGF-β, TβR-I, TβR-II, MMP2, MMP9, Smad-2,-3, -4, and IL-8 compared with the control group. However, CCl 4 administration resulted in the significant down-regulation of IL-10 mRNA expression compared with the control group. Interestingly, ginseng extract supplementation completely reversed the biochemical markers of hepatotoxicity and the gene expression alterations induced by CCl 4 . ginseng extract had an anti-fibrosis effect via the regulation of the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway in the CCl 4 -induced liver fibrosis model. The major target was the inhibition of the expression of TGF-β1, Smad2, and Smad3.

  1. Sensitivity of ginseng to ozone and sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, J.T.A.; Ormrod, D.P.

    1981-10-01

    American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.), was injured by exposure to 20 pphm ozone and/or 50 pphm (v/v) sulfur dioxide for 6 hr daily for 4 days. Ozone induced upper surface leaflet stippling along the veins and interveinally, and sulfur dioxide induced mild chlorosis to irregular necrotic areas. Ginseng was less sensitive to ozone and as sensitive to sulfur dioxide as 'Cherry Belle' radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and 'Bel W-3' tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.).

  2. Taste characteristics based quantitative and qualitative evaluation of ginseng adulteration.

    PubMed

    Cui, Shaoqing; Yang, Liangcheng; Wang, Jun; Wang, Xinlei

    2015-05-01

    Adulteration of American ginseng with Asian ginseng is common and has caused much damage to customers. Panel evaluation is commonly used to determine their differences, but it is subjective. Chemical instruments are used to identify critical compounds but they are time-consuming and expensive. Therefore, a fast, accurate and convenient method is required. A taste sensing system, combining both advantages of the above two technologies, provides a novel potential technology for determining ginseng adulteration. The aim is to build appropriate models to distinguish and predict ginseng adulteration by using taste characteristics. It was found that ginsenoside contents decreased linearly (R(2) = 0.92) with mixed ratios. A bioplot of principal component analysis showed a good performance in classing samples with the first two principal components reaching 89.7%, and it was noted that it was the bitterness, astringency, aftertaste of bitterness and astringency, and saltiness leading the successful determination. After factor screening, bitterness, astringency, aftertaste of bitterness and saltiness were employed to build latent models. Tastes of bitterness, astringency and aftertaste bitterness were demonstrated to be most effective in predicting adulteration ratio, mean while, bitterness and aftertaste bitterness turned out to be most effective in ginsenoside content prediction. Taste characteristics of adulterated ginsengs, considered as taste fingerprint, can provide novel guidance for determining the adulteration of American and Asian ginseng. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Special treatment reduces helium permeation of glass in vacuum systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, P. J.; Gosselin, C. M.

    1966-01-01

    Internal surfaces of the glass component of a vacuum system are exposed to cesium in gaseous form to reduce helium permeation. The cesium gas is derived from decomposition of cesium nitrate through heating. Several minutes of exposure of the internal surfaces of the glass vessel are sufficient to complete the treatment.

  4. Mine Waste Technology Program. Passive Treatment for Reducing Metal Loading

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 48, Passive Treatment Technology Evaluation for Reducing Metal Loading, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S. Departmen...

  5. Chemical treatment costs reduced with in-pond raceway systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Production systems such as in-pond raceway systems (IPRS) and split ponds are providing an alternative to traditional pond culture for raising catfish in several southeastern states. One advantage noted by farmers utilizing these systems is the reduced cost associated with the chemical treatment of ...

  6. Vitamin C treatment reduces elevated C-reactive protein

    PubMed Central

    Block, Gladys; Jensen, Christopher D.; Dalvi, Tapashi B.; Norkus, Edward P.; Hudes, Mark; Crawford, Patricia B.; Holland, Nina; Fung, Ellen B.; Schumacher, Laurie; Harmatz, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) is an inflammatory biomarker that predicts cardiovascular disease. We investigated whether vitamins C or E could reduce CRP. Healthy nonsmokers (n=396) were randomized to three groups:1000 mg/day vitamin C, 800 IU/day vitamin E, or placebo, for two months. Median baseline CRP was low, 0.85 mg/L. No treatment effect was seen when all participants are included. However, significant interaction was found, indicating that treatment effect depends on baseline CRP concentration. Among participants with CRP indicative of elevated cardiovascular risk (≥1.0 mg/L), vitamin C reduced median CRP by 25.3% vs. Placebo (p=0.02), (median reduction in the vitamin C group, 0.25 mg/L, 16.7%). These effects are similar to those of statins. The vitamin E effect was not significant. In summary, treatment with vitamin C but not E significantly reduced CRP among individuals with CRP ≥ 1.0 mg/L. Among the obese, 75% had CRP ≥ 1.0 mg/L. These data extend previous results in smokers, and identify CRP levels susceptible to reductions. Research is needed to determine whether reducing this inflammatory biomarker with vitamin C could reduce diseases associated with obesity. But research on clinical benefits of antioxidants should limit participants to persons with elevations in the target biomarkers. PMID:18952164

  7. Ginseng Purified Dry Extract, BST204, Improved Cancer Chemotherapy-Related Fatigue and Toxicity in Mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun-Jung; Shim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Jeom Yong; Kim, Joo Young; Park, Sun Kyu; Shim, Insop

    2015-01-01

    Cancer related fatigue (CRF) is one of the most common side effects of cancer and its treatments. A large proportion of cancer patients experience cancer-related physical and central fatigue so new strategies are needed for treatment and improved survival of these patients. BST204 was prepared by incubating crude ginseng extract with ginsenoside-β-glucosidase. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of BST204, mixture of ginsenosides on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced CRF, the glycogen synthesis, and biochemical parameters in mice. The mice were randomly divided into the following groups: the naïve normal (normal), the HT-29 cell inoculated (xenograft), xenograft and 5-FU treated (control), xenograft + 5-FU + BST204-treated (100 and 200 mg/kg) (BST204), and xenograft + 5-FU + modafinil (13 mg/kg) treated group (modafinil). Running wheel activity and forced swimming test were used for evaluation of CRF. Muscle glycogen, serum inflammatory cytokines, aspartic aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine (CRE), white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil (NEUT), red blood cell (RBC), and hemoglobin (HGB) were measured. Treatment with BST204 significantly increased the running wheel activity and forced swimming time compared to the control group. Consistent with the behavioral data, BST204 markedly increased muscle glycogen activity and concentrations of WBC, NEUT, RBC, and HGB. Also, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), AST, ALT, and CRE levels in the serum were significantly reduced in the BST204-treated group compared to the control group. This result suggests that BST204 may improve chemotherapy-related fatigue and adverse toxic side effects.

  8. [Correlation of gene expression related to amount of ginseng saponin in 15 tissues and 6 kinds of ginseng saponin biosynthesis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Kang-yu; Zhang, Mei-ping; Li, Chuang; Jiang, Shi-cui; Yin, Rui; Sun, Chun-yu; Wang, Yi

    2015-08-01

    Fifteen tissues of 4-year-old fruit repining stage Jilin ginseng were chosen as materials, six kinds of monomer saponins (ginsenosides Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, Rb2 and Rd) content in 15 tissues was measured by HPLC and vanillin-sulfuric acid method. The relative expression of FPS, SQS, SQE, OSC, β-AS and P450 genes in 15 tissues was analyzed by real-time PCR. The correlations between ginseng saponin content in 15 tissues of Jilin ginseng and biosynthetic pathway -related genes were obtained. The results showed that was a synergistic increase and decrease trend of positive linear correlation among six kinds of monomer saponin content, and there was a significantly (P < 0.01) positive correlation between monomer saponin content and total saponins content. Monomer saponin content and 6 kinds of enzyme gene correlation were different. Biosynthesis of ginseng total saponins and monomer saponin were regulated by six kinds of participation ginsenoside biosynthesis enzyme genes, the expression of these six kinds of genes in different tissues of ginseng showed collaborative increase and decrease trend, and regulated biosynthesis of ginseng ginsenoside by group coordinative manner.

  9. Metabolomic approach for discrimination of processed ginseng genus (Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius) using UPLC-QTOF MS

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hee-Won; In, Gyo; Kim, Jeong-Han; Cho, Byung-Goo; Han, Gyeong-Ho; Chang, Il-Moo

    2013-01-01

    Discriminating between two herbal medicines (Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius), with similar chemical and physical properties but different therapeutic effects, is a very serious and difficult problem. Differentiation between two processed ginseng genera is even more difficult because the characteristics of their appearance are very similar. An ultraperformance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF MS)-based metabolomic technique was applied for the metabolite profiling of 40 processed P. ginseng and processed P. quinquefolius. Currently known biomarkers such as ginsenoside Rf and F11 have been used for the analysis using the UPLC-photodiode array detector. However, this method was not able to fully discriminate between the two processed ginseng genera. Thus, an optimized UPLC-QTOF-based metabolic profiling method was adapted for the analysis and evaluation of two processed ginseng genera. As a result, all known biomarkers were identified by the proposed metabolomics, and additional potential biomarkers were extracted from the huge amounts of global analysis data. Therefore, it is expected that such metabolomics techniques would be widely applied to the ginseng research field. PMID:24558312

  10. Enhanced anticancer effects of a mixture of low-dose mushrooms and Panax ginseng root extracts in human colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi So; Kim, Mi-Sook; Yoo, Jae Kuk; Lee, Ji Young; Ju, Jae Eun; Jeong, Youn Kyoung

    2017-09-01

    Worldwide, colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in men and the second most common in women. As conventional colorectal cancer therapies result in various side effects, there is a need for adjuvant therapy that can enhance the conventional therapies without complications. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effects of combined mixture of the several medicinal mushrooms and Panax ginseng root extracts (also called Amex7) as an adjuvant compound in the treatment of human colorectal cancer. We observed the in vivo inhibitory effect of Amex7 (1.25, 6.25, and 12.5 ml/kg, oral administration, twice daily) on tumor growth in a mouse model xenografted with HT-29 human colorectal cancer cells. In vitro, at 6, 12, and 24 h after 4% Amex7 treatment, we analyzed cell cycle by flow cytometry and the expression levels of cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and DNA damage repair-related proteins using immunoblotting and immunofluorescence staining in HT-29 cell line. As a result, Amex7 significantly suppressed tumor growth in HT-29 human colorectal cancer cells and xenografts. In vitro, Amex7 induced G2/M arrest through the regulation of cell cycle proteins and cell death by apoptosis and autophagy. Additionally, Amex7 consistently induced DNA damage and delayed the repair of Amex7-induced DNA damage by reducing the level of HR repair proteins. In conclusion, Amex7 enhanced anticancer effects through the induction of G2/M arrest and cell death, including apoptosis and autophagy. Furthermore, Amex7 impaired DNA damage repair. The present study provides a scientific rationale for the clinical use of a combined mixture of medicinal mushrooms and P. ginseng root extracts as an adjuvant treatment in human colorectal cancer.

  11. Behavioral treatment of caffeinism: reducing excessive coffee drinking.

    PubMed Central

    Foxx, R M; Rubinoff, A

    1979-01-01

    Excessive coffee drinking can have deleterious effects because of the large amounts of caffeine that are ingested. Caffeine is thought to be addicting, and prolonged and excessive use can lead to caffeinism, a condition that has serious behavioral and physiological side effects. The present study developed and evaluated a treatment program to reduce excessive daily coffee drinking to moderate and presumably safer levels. Three habitual coffee drinkers received individualized changing criterion programs that systematically and gradually reduced their daily caffeine intake. The coffee drinkers were required to self-monitor and plot their daily intake of caffeine. They received monetary prizes for not exceeding the treatment phase criteria and forfeited a portion of their pretreatment deposit when they did. Their coffee drinking decreased from almost nine cups per day (over 1100 mg of caffeine) during baseline to less than three cups per day (less than 343 mg) at the end of treatment or a reduction of 69%. The treatment effect was maintained during a 10-month follow-up, averaging a 67% reduction from baseline. The program appears to be a reasonable method of reducing and then maintaining daily caffeine intake at less harmful levels. PMID:511802

  12. 50 CFR 23.68 - How can I trade internationally in roots of American ginseng?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of American ginseng? 23.68 Section 23.68 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... trade internationally in roots of American ginseng? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. Whole... as powders, pills, extracts, tonics, teas, and confectionery) of American ginseng (Panax...

  13. 50 CFR 23.68 - How can I trade internationally in roots of American ginseng?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of American ginseng? 23.68 Section 23.68 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... trade internationally in roots of American ginseng? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. Whole... as powders, pills, extracts, tonics, teas, and confectionery) of American ginseng (Panax...

  14. PROTEASOME INHIBITOR TREATMENT REDUCED FATTY ACID, TRIACYLGLYCEROL AND CHOLESTEROL SYNTHESIS

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, Joan; French, Samuel W.; Li, Jun; Bardag-Gorce, Fawzia

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the beneficial effects of proteasome inhibitor treatment in reducing ethanol-induced steatosis were investigated. A microarray analysis was performed on the liver of rats injected with PS-341 (Bortezomib, Velcade®), and the results showed that proteasome inhibitor treatment significantly reduced the mRNA expression of SREBP-1c, and the downstream lipogenic enzymes, such as fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), which catalyzes the carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA, the rate-limiting step in fatty acid synthesis. ELOVL6, which is responsible for fatty acids long chain elongation, was also significantly down regulated by proteasome inhibitor treatment. Moreover, PS-341 administration significantly reduced the expression of acyl-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (AGPAT), and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), enzyme involved in triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis. Finally, PS-341 was found to down regulate the enzymes 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoenzymeA synthase (HMG-CoA synthase) that is responsible for cholesterol synthesis. Proteasome inhibitor was also found to play a role in intestinal lipid adsorption because apolipoproteins A (apoA-I, apoAII, apoA-IV and ApoCIII) were down regulated by proteasome inhibitor treatment, especially ApoA-II that is known to be a marker of alcohol consumption. Proteasome inhibitor treatment also decreased apobec-1 complementation factor (ACF) leading to lower level of editing and production of ApoB protein. Moreover apolipoprotein C-III, a major component of chylomicrons was significantly down regulated. However, lipoprotein lipase (Lpl) and High density lipoprotein binding protein (Hdlbp) mRNA levels were increased by proteasome inhibitor treatment. These results suggested that proteasome inhibitor treatment could be used to reduce the alcohol-enhanced lipogenesis and alcohol-induced liver steatosis. A morphologic analysis, performed on the liver of rats fed ethanol for one

  15. Comparative phenolic compound profiles and antioxidative activity of the fruit, leaves, and roots of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) according to cultivation years

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Ill-Min; Lim, Ju-Jin; Ahn, Mun-Seob; Jeong, Haet-Nim; An, Tae-Jin; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background The study of phenolic compounds profiles and antioxidative activity in ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots with respect to cultivation years, and has been little reported to date. Hence, this study examined the phenolic compounds profiles and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical-scavenging activities in the fruit, leaves, and roots of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) as a function of cultivation year. Methods Profiling of 23 phenolic compounds in ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots was investigated using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with the external calibration method. Antioxidative activity of ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots were evaluated using the method of DPPH free-radical-scavenging activity. Results The total phenol content in ginseng fruit and leaves was higher than in ginseng roots (p < 0.05), and the phenol content in the ginseng samples was significantly correlated to the DPPH free-radical-scavenging activity (r = 0.928****). In particular, p-coumaric acid (r = 0.847****) and ferulic acid (r = 0.742****) greatly affected the DPPH activity. Among the 23 phenolic compounds studied, phenolic acids were more abundant in ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots than the flavonoids and other compounds (p < 0.05). In particular, chlorogenic acid, gentisic acid, p- and m-coumaric acid, and rutin were the major phenolic compounds in 3–6-yr-old ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots. Conclusion This study provides basic information about the antioxidative activity and phenolic compounds profiles in fruit, leaves, and roots of Korean ginseng with cultivation years. This information is potentially useful to ginseng growers and industries involved in the production of high-quality and nutritional ginseng products. PMID:26843824

  16. Estrogen receptor is activated by korean red ginseng in vitro but not in vivo.

    PubMed

    Shim, Myeong Kuk; Lee, Young Joo

    2012-04-01

    Ginseng has been used as a traditional medicine for treatment of many diseases and for general health maintenance in people of all ages. Ginseng is also used to ameliorate menopausal systems. We investigated the estrogenic activity of Korean red ginseng (KRG) in a transient transfection system, using estrogen receptor (ER) and estrogen-responsive luciferase plasmids in MCF-7 cells. The extract activated both ERα and ERβ. KRG modulated the mRNA levels of estrogen-responsive genes such as pS2 and ESR1 and decreased the protein level of ERα. In order to examine in vivo estrogenic activity of KRG, sixteen female Sprague-Dawley rats separated into four groups were studied for nine weeks: non-ovariectomized (OVX) rats treated with olive oil, OVX rats treated with olive oil, OVX rats treated with 17-β-estradiol (E2) in olive oil, and OVX rats treated with KRG extract in olive oil. The experiments were repeated for three times and the data of twelve rats were combined. Body weight of OVX rats was greater than that of sham-operated control rats and was decreased by E2 treatment. Uterine weight increased after E2 treatment compared to OVX rats. However, no difference in body or uterine weight was observed with KRG intake. KRG induced reductions in total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol/total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol/total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol/high density lipoprotein cholesterol, but not to the same degree as did E2 intake. These results show that KRG does contain estrogenic activity as manifested by in vitro study but the activity is not strong enough to elicit physiological responses.

  17. Estrogen Receptor Is Activated by Korean Red Ginseng In Vitro but Not In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Myeong Kuk; Lee, Young Joo

    2012-01-01

    Ginseng has been used as a traditional medicine for treatment of many diseases and for general health maintenance in people of all ages. Ginseng is also used to ameliorate menopausal systems. We investigated the estrogenic activity of Korean red ginseng (KRG) in a transient transfection system, using estrogen receptor (ER) and estrogen-responsive luciferase plasmids in MCF-7 cells. The extract activated both ERα and ERβ. KRG modulated the mRNA levels of estrogen-responsive genes such as pS2 and ESR1 and decreased the protein level of ERα. In order to examine in vivo estrogenic activity of KRG, sixteen female Sprague-Dawley rats separated into four groups were studied for nine weeks: non-ovariectomized (OVX) rats treated with olive oil, OVX rats treated with olive oil, OVX rats treated with 17-β-estradiol (E2) in olive oil, and OVX rats treated with KRG extract in olive oil. The experiments were repeated for three times and the data of twelve rats were combined. Body weight of OVX rats was greater than that of sham-operated control rats and was decreased by E2 treatment. Uterine weight increased after E2 treatment compared to OVX rats. However, no difference in body or uterine weight was observed with KRG intake. KRG induced reductions in total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol/total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol/total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol/high density lipoprotein cholesterol, but not to the same degree as did E2 intake. These results show that KRG does contain estrogenic activity as manifested by in vitro study but the activity is not strong enough to elicit physiological responses. PMID:23717117

  18. Anticancer activity of silver nanoparticles from Panax ginseng fresh leaves in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Castro-Aceituno, Verónica; Ahn, Sungeun; Simu, Shakina Yesmin; Singh, Priyanka; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; Lee, Hyun A; Yang, Deok Chun

    2016-12-01

    The pharmaceutical role of silver nanoparticles has been increased over the last decades, especially those synthesized through herbal medicinal plants, due to their variety of pharmacological importance. Panax ginseng Meyer (P. ginseng) has been widely used as a therapeutic herbal medicine for a long time in cancer treatment. In this study, the cytotoxic and oxidative effect of a novel silver nanoparticles synthesized from P. ginseng fresh leaves (P.g AgNPs) were evaluated in different human cancer cell lines. In addition, the effect of P.g AgNPs on cell migration, apoptosis and the determination of the mechanism involve was determinate by the use of A549 lung cancer cell line. It was found that P.g AgNPs treatment inhibited cell viability and induced oxidative stress in A549, MCF7 and HepG2 cancer cell lines. Likewise, P.g AgNPs treatment inhibited the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-enhanced migration, as well as decreased the mRNA levels and phosphorylation of EGF receptors in A549 cells. Moreover, P.g AgNPs modified the morphology of the cell nucleus and increase apoptosis percentage; this effect was linked to the stimulation of p38 MAPK/p53 pathway. Taken together, our results showed that P.g AgNPs exhibited anti-cancer activity in A549 and the regulation of EGFR/p38 MAPK/p53 pathway might be the possible mechanism of its anti-activity. Further experiments are suggested to determinate the mechanism by which P.g AgNPs induce cytotoxicity and ROS generation in MCF-7 and HepG2 cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Crushing virtual cigarettes reduces tobacco addiction and treatment discontinuation.

    PubMed

    Girard, Benoit; Turcotte, Vincent; Bouchard, Stéphane; Girard, Bruno

    2009-10-01

    Pilot studies revealed promising results regarding crushing virtual cigarettes to reduce tobacco addiction. In this study, 91 regular smokers were randomly assigned to two treatment conditions that differ only by the action performed in the virtual environment: crushing virtual cigarettes or grasping virtual balls. All participants also received minimal psychosocial support from nurses during each of 12 visits to the clinic. An affordable virtual reality system was used (eMagin HMD) with a virtual environment created by modifying a 3D game. Results revealed that crushing virtual cigarettes during 4 weekly sessions led to a statistically significant reduction in nicotine addiction (assessed with the Fagerström test), abstinence rate (confirmed with exhaled carbon monoxide), and drop-out rate from the 12-week psychosocial minimal-support treatment program. Increased retention in the program is discussed as a potential explanation for treatment success, and hypotheses are raised about self-efficacy, motivation, and learning.

  20. Panax ginseng extract antagonizes the effect of DKK-1-induced catagen-ike changes of hair follicles

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yonghee; Kim, Su Na; Hong, Yong Deog; Park, Byung Cheol; Na, Yongjoo

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that Panax ginseng (PG) has various pharmacological effects such as anti-aging and anti-inflammation. In a previous study, the authors identified that PG extract induced hair growth by means of a mechanism similar to that of minoxidil. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of PG extract on Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1)-induced catagen-like changes in hair follicles (HFs) was investigated in addition to the underlying mechanism of action. The effects of PG extract on cell proliferation, anti-apoptotic effect, and hair growth were observed using cultured outer root sheath (ORS) keratinocytes and human HFs with or without DKK-1 treatment. The PG extract significantly stimulated proliferation and inhibited apoptosis, respectively, in ORS keratinocytes. PG extract treatment affected the expression of apoptosis-related genes Bcl-2 and Bax. DKK-1 inhibited hair growth, and PG extract dramatically reversed the effect of DKK-1 on ex vivo human hair organ culture. PG extract antagonizes DKK-1-induced catagen-like changes, in part, through the regulation of apoptosis-related gene expression in HFs. These findings suggested that PG extract may reduce hair loss despite the presence of DKK-1, a strong catagen inducer via apoptosis. PMID:28849028

  1. Effect of Korean Red Ginseng on radiation-induced bone loss in C3H/HeN mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin-Hee; Lee, Hae-June; Yang, Miyoung; Moon, Changjong; Kim, Jong-Choon; Bae, Chun-Sik; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jang, Jong-Sik; Kim, Sung-Ho

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) on radiation-induced bone loss in C3H/HeN mice. C3H/HeN mice were divided into sham and irradiation (3 Gy, gamma-ray) groups. The irradiated mice were treated for 12 wk with vehicle, KRG (per os, p.o.) or KRG (intraperitoneal). Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, estradiol level, and biomechanical properties were measured. Tibiae were analyzed using micro-computed tomography. Treatment of KRG (p.o., 250 mg/kg of body weight/d) significantly preserved trabecular bone volume, trabecular number, structure model index, and bone mineral density of proximal tibia metaphysic, but did not alter the uterus weight of the mice. Serum ALP level was slightly reduced by KRG treatment. However, grip strength, mechanical property, and cortical bone architecture did not differ among the experimental groups. The results indicate that KRG can prevent radiation-induced bone loss in mice. PMID:24233384

  2. Reduced dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex in treatment resistant schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Zugman, André; Gadelha, Ary; Assunção, Idaiane; Sato, João; Ota, Vanessa K; Rocha, Deyvis L; Mari, Jair J; Belangero, Sintia I; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Brietzke, Elisa; Jackowski, Andrea P

    2013-08-01

    Treatment resistance affects up to one third of patients with schizophrenia (SCZ). A better understanding of its biological underlying processes could improve treatment. The aim of this study was to compare cortical thickness between non-resistant SCZ (NR-SCZ), treatment-resistant SCZ (TR-SCZ) patients and healthy controls (HC). Structural MRI scans were obtained from 3 groups of individuals: 61 treatment resistant SCZ individuals, 67 non-resistant SCZ and 80 healthy controls. Images were analyzed using cortical surface modelling (implemented in freesurfer package) to identify group differences in cortical thickness. Statistical significant differences were identified using Monte-Carlo simulation method with a corrected p-cluster<0.01. Patients in the TR-SCZ group showed a widespread reduction in cortical thickness in frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital regions bilaterally. NR-SCZ group had reduced cortex in two regions (left superior frontal cortex and left caudal middle frontal cortex). TR-SCZ group also showed decreased thickness in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) when compared with patients from NR-SCZ group. The reduction in cortical thickness in DLPFC indicates a more severe form of the disease or a specific finding for this group. Alterations in this region should be explored as a putative marker for treatment resistance. Prospective studies, with individuals being followed from first episode psychosis until refractoriness is diagnosed, are needed to clarify these hypotheses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. α-Amylase-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Panax ginseng.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lin; Wu, Di; Ning, Xin; Yang, Guang; Lin, Ziheng; Tian, Meihong; Zhou, Yifa

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, α-amylase-assisted extraction was used to isolate the polysaccharide that remained in hot water-extracted ginseng. The yield of the polysaccharide was 9.0%, almost equal to that of the hot water-extracted polysaccharide. Using anion exchange and gel permeation chromatography, the polysaccharide was fractionated into a neutral polysaccharide fraction and six pectic fractions. The neutral fraction accounted for 76% of the polysaccharide and contained both amylopectin and amylose. The pectic polysaccharide fractions were identified to be arabinogalactan, type-I rhamnogalacturonan and homogalacturonan-type pectin by high-performance liquid chromatography, Fourier transform-infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. Structural and lymphocyte proliferation activity results showed that these polysaccharides were different from those extracted by hot water, indicating that ginseng contains complex polysaccharides with diverse structures, which results in its diverse pharmacological activities. The α-amylase-assisted extraction is a novel method for preparing ginseng polysaccharides and could be applied toward the further study and exploration of ginseng. These findings provide technical and theoretical support for ginseng pharmacology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ginseng and the hypothalamic-pituitary control of stress.

    PubMed

    Fulder, S J

    1981-01-01

    There are a group of so-called tonic remedies in Far Eastern medicine which are traditionally viewed as harmonizing or adjustive. Ginseng and eleutherococcus are the best known, and there is evidence that they increase arousal, stamina and stress resistance. We have attempted to explore the relationship between the behavioral and the stress effects, and to relate this to traditional concepts. In one series of experiments mice were given ginseng throughout their lifespan. At intervals their behavior response to mild stress was examined and found to be exaggerated compared to controls without ginseng. However, normal ambulatory behavior in the absence of stress was unaffected. A second series of experiments indicated that the binding of corticosteroid to certain brain regions was increased in adrenalectomized rats given ginseng saponin, compared to saline treated controls. This can be interpreted as a result of an increase in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal sensitivity caused by ginseng saponin. This is in accord with traditional concepts of the use of these remedies.

  5. Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius: From pharmacology to toxicology.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Cesare; Santangelo, Rosaria

    2017-09-01

    The use of Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius in traditional Chinese medicine dates back to about 5000 years ago thanks to its several beneficial and healing properties. Over the past few years, extensive preclinical and clinical evidence in the scientific literature worldwide has supported the beneficial effects of P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius in significant central nervous system, metabolic, infectious and neoplastic diseases. There has been growing research on ginseng because of its favorable pharmacokinetics, including the intestinal biotransformation which is responsible for the processing of ginsenosides - contained in the roots or extracts of ginseng - into metabolites with high pharmacological activity and how such principles act on numerous cell targets. The aim of this review is to provide a simple and extensive overview of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius, focusing on the clinical evidence which has shown particular effectiveness in specific diseases, such as dementia, diabetes mellitus, respiratory infections, and cancer. Furthermore, the review will also provide data on toxicological factors to support the favorable safety profile of these medicinal plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Genital ulcer disease treatment for reducing sexual acquisition of HIV.

    PubMed

    Mutua, Florence M; M'imunya, James Machoki; Wiysonge, Charles Shey

    2012-08-15

    Genital ulcer disease by virtue of disruption of the mucosal surfaces may enhance HIV acquisition. Genital ulcer disease treatment with resolution of the ulcers may therefore contribute in reducing the sexual acquisition of HIV. To determine the effects of treatment of genital ulcer disease on sexual acquisition of HIV. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, EMBASE, LILACS, NLM Gateway, Web of Science, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, ClinicalTrials.gov, and reference lists of relevant publications for eligible studies published between 1980 and August 2011. Randomized controlled trials of any treatment intervention aimed at curing genital ulcer disease compared with an alternative treatment, placebo, or no treatment. We included only trials whose unit of randomization was the individual with confirmed genital ulcer. We independently selected studies and extracted data in duplicate; resolving discrepancies by discussion, consensus, and arbitration by third review author. We expressed study results as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). There were three randomized controlled trials that met our inclusion criteria recruited HIV-negative participants with chancroid (two trials with 143 participants) and primary syphilis (one trial with 30 participants). The syphilis study, carried out in the US between 1995 and 1997, randomized participants to receive a single 2.0 g oral dose of azithromycin (11 participants); two 2.0 g oral doses of azithromycin administered six to eight days apart (eight participants); or benzathine penicillin G administered as either 2.4 million units intramuscular injection once or twice seven days apart (11 participants). No participant in the trial seroconverted during 12 months of follow-up. The chancroid trials, conducted in Kenya by 1990, found no significant differences in HIV seroconversion rates during four to 12 weeks of follow-up between 400 and 200 mg single

  7. Septage treatments to reduce the numbers of bacteria and polioviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Stramer, S L; Cliver, D O

    1984-01-01

    Disposal of the pumped contents of septic tanks (septage) represents a possible means of dissemination of enteric pathogens including viruses, since persistence of enteroviruses in septic tank sludge for greater than 100 days has been demonstrated. The risk of exposure to potentially infectious agents can be reduced by disinfecting septages before their disposal. Of the septage disinfectants examined (technical and analytical grade glutaraldehyde, hydrogen peroxide, heat treatments, and a combination of heat and hydrogen peroxide), the treatment including hydrogen peroxide (5 mg, plus 0.33 mg of trichloroacetic acid, per ml of septage) and 55 degrees C killed virtually all the bacteria in septage within 1 h, whereas 55 degrees C alone inactivated inoculated polioviruses within 30 min. Virus was the most sensitive to heat, whereas fecal coliforms appeared to be the most sensitive to all chemical treatments. The responses of fecal streptococci and virus to both grades of glutaraldehyde (each at 1 mg/ml) were similar. Virus was more resistant than either fecal streptococci or total bacteria to low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (1 to 5 mg/ml); however, virus and fecal streptococci were more labile than total bacteria to the highest peroxide concentration (10 mg/ml) examined. It is possible that the treatment combining heat and hydrogen peroxide was the most effective in reducing the concentrations of all bacteria, because catalase and peroxidases as well as other enzymes were heat inactivated, although catalase seems the most likely cause of damage. However, this most effective treatment does not appear to be practical for on-site use as performed, so further work on septage disinfection is recommended. PMID:6093691

  8. Protective Effect of Korean Red Ginseng against Aflatoxin B1-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong-Seong; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Noh, Jung-Ran; Cho, Eun-Sang; Park, Jong-Ho; Son, Hwa-Young

    2011-01-01

    Korean red ginseng (KRG), the steamed root of Panax ginseng Meyer, has a variety of biological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer effects. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) produced by the Aspergillus spp. causes acute hepatotoxicity by lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage, and induces liver carcinoma in humans and laboratory animals. This study was performed to examine the protective effects of KRG against hepatotoxicity induced by AFB1 using liver-specific serum marker analysis, histopathology, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling. In addition, to elucidate the possible mechanism of hepatoprotective effects, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and malondialdehyde were analyzed. Rats were treated with 250 mg/kg of KRG (KRG group) or saline (AFB1 group) for 4 weeks and then received 150 μg/kg of AFB1 intraperitoneally for 3 days. Rats were sacrificed at 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, or 1 wk after AFB1 treatment. In the KRG pre-treatment group, serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and malondialdehyde levels were low, but superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities were high as compared to the AFB1 alone group. Histopathologically, AFB1 treatment induced necrosis and apoptosis in hepatocytes, and led to inflammatory cells infiltration in the liver. KRG pre-treatment ameliorated these changes. These results indicate that KRG may have protective effects against hepatotoxicity induced by AFB1 that involve the antioxidant properties of KRG. PMID:23717067

  9. [Research on quality changes in ginseng stems and leaves before and after frost].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Ma, Shuang; Cai, En-Bo; Liu, Shuang-Li; Yang, He; Zhang, Lian-Xue; Wang, Shi-Jie

    2014-08-01

    The present study is to investigate the quality changes of ginseng stems and leaves before and after frost. The contents changes of ginsenoside, free amino acid, and total phenolic compounds, as well as DPPH radical scavenging effect before and after frost were measured. The content of 9 ginsenoside monomer in ginseng stems was decreased except for Rg, and Re after frost, but in ginseng leaves was all decreased. The total content of amino acids was decreased in ginseng stems after frost, while increased in ginseng leaves. The content of phenolic compounds in ginseng stems and leaves were both decreased after frost while the ability of DPPH radical scavenging was improved. The factor of frost has great impact on the quality of ginseng stems and leaves.

  10. Reducing Fatal Opioid Overdose: Prevention, Treatment and Harm Reduction Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Hawk, Kathryn F.; Vaca, Federico E.; D’Onofrio, Gail

    2015-01-01

    The opioid overdose epidemic is a major threat to the public’s health, resulting in the development and implementation of a variety of strategies to reduce fatal overdose [1-3]. Many strategies are focused on primary prevention and increased access to effective treatment, although the past decade has seen an exponential increase in harm reduction initiatives. To maximize identification of opportunities for intervention, initiatives focusing on prevention, access to effective treatment, and harm reduction are examined independently, although considerable overlap exists. Particular attention is given to harm reduction approaches, as increased public and political will have facilitated widespread implementation of several initiatives, including increased distribution of naloxone and policy changes designed to increase bystander assistance during a witnessed overdose [4-7]. PMID:26339206

  11. Antitumor activity of ginseng sapogenins, 25-OH-PPD and 25-OCH3-PPD, on gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chen; Su, Guangyue; Wang, Xude; Zhang, Xiaoshu; Guo, Shuang; Zhao, Yuqing

    2016-01-01

    25-Hydroxyprotopanaxadiol (25-OH-PPD) and 25-methoxylprotopanaxadiol (25-OCH3-PPD), two ginseng sapogenins, have potent antitumor activity and their effects on gastric cancer (BGC-823, SGC-7901, MKN-28) cells and a gastric mucosa (GES-1) cell line are reported. Both compounds significantly inhibited the growth of gastric cancer cells, while having lesser inhibitory effects on GES-1 cells by MTT assay. A mechanistic study revealed that the two ginseng sapogenins could induce apoptosis in BGC-823 cells by morphological observation, DNA fragmentation, flow cytometry and western blot analysis. Besides, the apoptosis was inhibited by Ac-DEVD-CHO, a caspase 3 inhibitor, which was confirmed by cell viability analysis. These results indicate that 25-OH-PPD and 25-OCH3-PPD have potential to be promising agents for the treatment of gastric cancer.

  12. Korean red ginseng extract induces apoptosis and decreases telomerase activity in human leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Eun; Park, Cheol; Kim, Sun Hee; Hossain, Mohammad Akbar; Kim, Min Young; Chung, Hae Young; Son, Woo Sung; Kim, Gi-Young; Choi, Yung Hyun; Kim, Nam Deuk

    2009-01-21

    Korean red ginseng (KRG, Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer Radix rubra) has been used to treat various diseases including cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for KRG extract induced apoptosis and telomerase inhibition remain unclear. The hot water extract from KRG was used to evaluate the mechanism of induction of apoptosis in U937 human leukemia cells and its effects on cyclooxgenase-2 (COX-2) and telomerase activity. KRG extract treatment to U937 cells resulted in growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner as measured by hemacytometer counts, MTT assay, fluorescence microscopy, agarose gel electrophoresis and flow cytometry analysis. The increase in apoptosis was associated with the down-regulation of antiapoptotic Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L), and IAPs family members, and the activation of caspase-3. KRG extract treatment also decreased the expression levels of COX-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Furthermore, KRG extract treatment progressively down-regulated the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase, a main determinant of the telomerase enzymatic activity, with inhibiting the expression of c-Myc in a concentration-dependent manner. These results provide important new insights into the possible molecular mechanisms of the anticancer activity of KRG extract.

  13. In vitro grown thickened taproots, a new type of soil transplanting source in Panax ginseng.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Youn; Kim, Dong Hwi; Kim, Young Chang; Kim, Kee Hong; Han, Jung Yeon; Choi, Yong Eui

    2016-10-01

    The low survival rate of in vitro regenerated Panax ginseng plantlets after transfer to soil is the main obstacle for their successful micropropagation and molecular breeding. In most cases, young plantlets converted from somatic embryos are transferred to soil. In vitro thickened taproots, which were produced after prolonged culture of ginseng plantlets, were transferred to soil. Taproot thickening of plantlets occurred near hypocotyl and primary roots. Elevated concentration of sucrose in the medium stimulated the root thickening of plantlets. Senescence of shoots occurred following the prolonged culture of plantlets. Once the leaves of plantlets senesced, the buds on taproots developed a dormant tendency. Gibberellic acid treatment was required for dormancy breaking of the buds. Analysis of endogenous abscisic acid revealed that the content of abscisic acid in taproots with senescent shoots was comparatively higher than that of taproots with green shoots. Thickened taproots were transferred to soil, followed by exposure to gibberellic acid or a cold temperature of 2°C for 4 mo. Cold treatment of roots at 2°C for 4 mo resulted in bud sprouting in 84% of roots. Spraying of 100 mg/L gibberellic acid also induced the bud sprouting in 81% roots. Soil transfer of dormant taproots of P. ginseng has advantages since they do not require an acclimatization procedure, humidity control of plants, and photoautotrophic growth, and a high soil survival rate was attained.

  14. Red ginseng represses hypoxia-induced cyclooxygenase-2 through sirtuin1 activation.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wonchung; Shim, Myeong Kuk; Kim, Sikwan; Lee, YoungJoo

    2015-06-01

    Korean red ginseng (KRG) is a traditional herbal medicine made by steaming and drying the fresh ginseng, leading to chemical transformation of some components by heat. It ameliorates various inflammatory diseases and strengthens the endocrine, immune, and central nervous systems. The cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)/prostaglandin E2 pathway in hypoxic cancer cells has important implications for stimulation of inflammation and tumorigenesis. In this study we examined the effects and the mechanism underlying Korean red ginseng water extract (KRG-WE) inhibition of hypoxia-induced COX-2 in human distal lung epithelial A549 cells. The effect of the KRG on suppression of hypoxia-induced COX-2 in A549 cells were determined by Western blot and/or qRT-PCR. The anti-invasive effect of KRG-WE was evaluated on A549 cells using matrigel invasion assay. The activation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and sirtuin1 (Sirt1) was examined by using specific inhibitors. We first observed that hypoxia induced COX-2 protein and mRNA levels and promoter activity were suppressed by KRG-WE. Second, we observed that hypoxia-induced cell migration is dramatically reduced by KRG-WE. Third, we found that the effect of KRG-WE was not antagonized by the GR antagonist RU486 implying that the effect is mediated other than GR pathway. Finally, we demonstrated that inhibition of Sirt1 abolished the effect of KRG-WE on hypoxia-induced COX-2 suppression and cell-invasion indicating that the suppression is mediated by Sirt1. Taken together, KRG-WE inhibits the hypoxic induction of COX-2 expression and cell invasion through Sirt1 activation. Our results imply that KRG-WE could be effective for suppression of inflammation under hypoxia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) on arterial stiffness in subjects with type-2 diabetes and concomitant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Mucalo, Iva; Jovanovski, Elena; Rahelić, Dario; Božikov, Velimir; Romić, Zeljko; Vuksan, Vladimir

    2013-10-28

    Substantial pre-clinical and some clinical data are available showing that Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) varieties or its particular ginsenosides exert a vasodilatating effect, thus may modulate vascular function. However, the clinical evidence for American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) is scarce. Therefore, this study evaluates the effect of American ginseng (AG) on arterial stiffness, as measured by augmentation index (AI), and blood pressure (BP), in type 2 diabetes patients with concomitant hypertension. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel design, each participant was randomized to either the selected AG extract or placebo at daily dose of 3g for 12 weeks as an adjunct to their usual antihypertensive and anti-diabetic therapy (diet and/or medications). AI and BP were measured by applanation tonometry at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. A total of 64 individuals with well-controlled essential hypertension and type 2 diabetes (gender: 22 M:42 F, age:63 ± 9.3 years, BP: 145 ± 10.8/84 ± 8.0 mmHg, HbA1c: 7.0 ± 1.3%, fasting blood glucose (FBG): 8.1 ± 2.3 mmol/L) completed the study. Compared to placebo, 3g of AG significantly lowered radial AI by 5.3% (P=0.041) and systolic BP by 11.7% (P<0.001) at 12 weeks. No effect was observed with diastolic BP. Addition of AG extract to conventional therapy in diabetes with concomitant hypertension improved arterial stiffness and attenuated systolic BP, thus warrants further investigation on long-term endothelial parameters before recommended as an adjunct treatment. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Effect of salicylic acid on photosynthesis, physio-biochemistry and quality of Panax ginseng under full sun shine in spring].

    PubMed

    Cao, Wu-lin; Meng, Xiang-cai; Ma, Wei

    2015-09-01

    In order to search for a new pathway to improve the yield of ginseng through growing at the full sun shine accompanied by salicylic acid (SA), the net photosynthetic rate (P(n)), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), malondialdehyde (MDA) in Panax ginseng leaves, and the content of ginsenosides in roots were compared under various concentrations of SA and full sun shine with the traditional shade shed. Under the full sun shine, 0.05, 0.2 mmol x L(-1) SA increased net photosynthetic rate to a great extent. Under the cloudy day, the average net photosynthetic rate increased by 127.8% and 155.0% over the traditional shade shed, 13.9% and 27.5% over the treatment without SA respectively; under the clear day, 23.5% and 30.4% over the traditional shade shed, 8.6% and 14.6% over the treatment without SA, particularly obvious in the morning and late afternoon. With such concentration, SA increased activities of SOD, CAT, POD, and decreased the contents of the MDA. This difference resulted from different light intensity, rise of light saturation point, and fall of compensation point. Full sun shine decreased ginsenosides contents, but with SA, the ginsenosides regained, the content of Rg1 and Re, Rb1, total six types of ginsenosides in SA 0.2 mmol x L(-1) group were higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05) and other groups. The application of 0.2 mmol x L(-1) SA under full sun shine during a short time has little threat to the P. ginseng in spring, and could enhance the resistance to the adversity, which would improve the yield of ginseng heavily.

  17. Fermented Red Ginseng Potentiates Improvement of Metabolic Dysfunction in Metabolic Syndrome Rat Models

    PubMed Central

    Kho, Min Chul; Lee, Yun Jung; Park, Ji Hun; Kim, Hye Yoom; Yoon, Jung Joo; Ahn, You Mee; Tan, Rui; Park, Min Cheol; Cha, Jeong Dan; Choi, Kyung Min; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome including obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension is a cluster of risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Fermentation of medicinal herbs improves their pharmacological efficacy. Red ginseng (RG), a widely used traditional herbal medicine, was reported with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activity. Aim in the present study was to investigate that the effects of fermented red ginseng (FRG) on a high-fructose (HF) diet induced metabolic disorders, and those effects were compared to RG and losartan. Animals were divided into four groups: a control group fed a regular diet and tap water, and fructose groups that were fed a 60% high-fructose (HF) diet with/without RG 250 mg/kg/day or FRG 250 mg/kg/day for eight weeks, respectively. Treatment with FRG significantly suppressed the increments of body weight, liver weight, epididymal fat weight and adipocyte size. Moreover, FRG significantly prevented the development of metabolic disturbances such as hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Staining with Oil-red-o demonstrated a marked increase of hepatic accumulation of triglycerides, and this increase was prevented by FRG. FRG ameliorated endothelial dysfunction by downregulation of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and adhesion molecules in the aorta. In addition, FRG induced markedly upregulation of Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and glucose transporter type 4 (Glut4) in the muscle. These results indicate that FRG ameliorates obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and fatty liver in HF diet rats. More favorable pharmacological effects on HF diet induced metabolic disorders were observed with FRG, compared to an equal dose of RG. These results showed that the pharmacological activity of RG was enhanced by fermentation. Taken together, fermentated red ginseng might be a beneficial therapeutic approach for metabolic syndrome. PMID:27322312

  18. Reducing psychopathic violence: A review of the treatment literature✩

    PubMed Central

    Reidy, Dennis E.; Kearns, Megan C.; DeGue, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    Psychopathy reflects a pathological form of personality that predisposes individuals to risk for perpetration of chronic and severe violence across their lifespan. The violence attributable to psychopathic persons constitutes a substantial portion of the societal burden to the public health and criminal justice systems and thus necessitates significant attention by prevention experts. However, there is a relatively nascent literature that has examined psychopathic persons' response to treatment, especially considering violence as an outcome. Nevertheless, there have been repeated averments about the amenability (or lack thereof) of psychopathy to treatment. In the present paper, we attempt to provide a comprehensive review of studies assessing the relation of psychopathy to violence outcomes following intervention. Our review of studies suggests there is reason to suspect that specific and tailored interventions which take into consideration psychopathic persons' unique patterns of behavioral conditioning and predispositions may have the potential to reduce violence. However, equally important, certain interventions may potentially exacerbate these persons' violent behavior. The nature of the outcomes is likely highly dependent on the specific components of the intervention itself. We conclude that future research should increase methodological rigor by striving to include treatment control groups and increasing the transparency of the implemented interventions. PMID:29593447

  19. Tailoring properties of reduced graphene oxide by oxygen plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondratowicz, Izabela; Nadolska, Małgorzata; Şahin, Samet; Łapiński, Marcin; Prześniak-Welenc, Marta; Sawczak, Mirosław; Yu, Eileen H.; Sadowski, Wojciech; Żelechowska, Kamila

    2018-05-01

    We report an easily controllable, eco-friendly method for tailoring the properties of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) by means of oxygen plasma. The effect of oxygen plasma treatment time (1, 5 and 10 min) on the surface properties of rGO was evaluated. Physicochemical characterization using microscopic, spectroscopic and thermal techniques was performed. The results revealed that different oxygen-containing groups (e.g. carboxyl, hydroxyl) were introduced on the rGO surface enhancing its wettability. Furthermore, upon longer treatment time, other functionalities were created (e.g. quinones, lactones). Moreover, external surface of rGO was partially etched resulting in an increase of the material surface area and porosity. Finally, the oxygen plasma-treated rGO electrodes with bilirubin oxidase were tested for oxygen reduction reaction. The study showed that rGO treated for 10 min exhibited twofold higher current density than untreated rGO. The oxygen plasma treatment may improve the enzyme adsorption on rGO electrodes by introduction of oxygen moieties and increasing the porosity.

  20. Panax ginseng induces human Type I collagen synthesis through activation of Smad signaling.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongsung; Jung, Eunsun; Lee, Jiyoung; Huh, Sungran; Kim, Jieun; Park, Mijung; So, Jungwoon; Ham, Younggeun; Jung, Kwangseon; Hyun, Chang-Gu; Kim, Yeong Shik; Park, Deokhoon

    2007-01-03

    Skin aging appears to be principally related to a decrease in levels of Type I collagen, the primary component of the dermal layer of skin. It is important to introduce an efficient agent for effective management of skin aging; this agent should have the fewest possible side effects and the greatest wrinkle-reducing effect. In the course of screening collagen production-promoting agents, we obtained Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer. This study was designed to investigate the possible collagen production-promoting activities of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer root extract (PGRE) in human dermal fibroblast cells. As a first step to this end, human COL1A2 promoter luciferase assay was performed in human dermal fibroblast cells. In this assay, PGRE activated human COL1A2 promoter activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Human Type I procollagen synthesis was also induced by PGRE. These results suggest that PGRE promotes collagen production in human dermal fibroblast cells. Additionally, we have attempted to characterize the mechanism of action of PGRE in Type I procollagen synthesis. PGRE was found to induce the phosphorylation of Smad2, an important transcription factor in the production of Type I procollagen. When applied topically in a human skin primary irritation test, PGRE did not induce any adverse reactions. Therefore, based on these results, we suggest the possibility that PGRE may be considered as an attractive, wrinkle-reducing candidate for topical application.

  1. Panax ginseng Fraction F3 Extracted by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Protects against Oxidative Stress in ARPE-19 Cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao-Chin; Chen, Chiu-Yuan; Wu, Chun-Chi; Koo, Malcolm; Yu, Zer-Ran; Wang, Be-Jen

    2016-10-13

    In our previous work, the ethanolic extract of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer was successively partitioned using supercritical carbon dioxide at pressures in series to yield residue (R), F1, F2, and F3 fractions. Among them, F3 contained the highest deglycosylated ginsenosides and exerted the strongest antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of P. ginseng fractions against cellular oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂). Viability of adult retinal pigment epithelium-19 (ARPE-19) cells was examined after treatments of different concentrations of fractions followed by exposure to H₂O₂. Oxidative levels (malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and reactive oxygen species (ROS)) and levels of activity of antioxidant enzymes were assessed. Results showed that F3 could dose-dependently protected ARPE-19 cells against oxidative injury induced by H₂O₂. F3 at a level of 1 mg/mL could restore the cell death induced by H₂O₂ of up to 60% and could alleviate the increase in cellular oxidation (MDA, 8-OHdG, and ROS) induced by H₂O₂. Moreover, F3 could restore the activities of antioxidant enzymes suppressed by H₂O₂. In conclusion, F3 obtained using supercritical carbon dioxide fractionation could significantly increase the antioxidant capacity of P. ginseng extract. The antioxidant capacity was highly correlated with the concentration of F3.

  2. Cognitive effects of two nutraceuticals Ginseng and Bacopa benchmarked against modafinil: a review and comparison of effect sizes.

    PubMed

    Neale, Chris; Camfield, David; Reay, Jonathon; Stough, Con; Scholey, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    Over recent years there has been increasing research into both pharmaceutical and nutraceutical cognition enhancers. Here we aimed to calculate the effect sizes of positive cognitive effect of the pharmaceutical modafinil in order to benchmark the effect of two widely used nutraceuticals Ginseng and Bacopa (which have consistent acute and chronic cognitive effects, respectively). A search strategy was implemented to capture clinical studies into the neurocognitive effects of modafinil, Ginseng and Bacopa. Studies undertaken on healthy human subjects using a double-blind, placebo-controlled design were included. For each study where appropriate data were included, effect sizes (Cohen's d) were calculated for measures showing significant positive and negative effects of treatment over placebo. The highest effect sizes for cognitive outcomes were 0.77 for modafinil (visuospatial memory accuracy), 0.86 for Ginseng (simple reaction time) and 0.95 for Bacopa (delayed word recall). These data confirm that neurocognitive enhancement from well characterized nutraceuticals can produce cognition enhancing effects of similar magnitude to those from pharmaceutical interventions. Future research should compare these effects directly in clinical trials. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  3. Cognitive effects of two nutraceuticals Ginseng and Bacopa benchmarked against modafinil: a review and comparison of effect sizes

    PubMed Central

    Neale, Chris; Camfield, David; Reay, Jonathon; Stough, Con; Scholey, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Over recent years there has been increasing research into both pharmaceutical and nutraceutical cognition enhancers. Here we aimed to calculate the effect sizes of positive cognitive effect of the pharmaceutical modafinil in order to benchmark the effect of two widely used nutraceuticals Ginseng and Bacopa (which have consistent acute and chronic cognitive effects, respectively). A search strategy was implemented to capture clinical studies into the neurocognitive effects of modafinil, Ginseng and Bacopa. Studies undertaken on healthy human subjects using a double‐blind, placebo‐controlled design were included. For each study where appropriate data were included, effect sizes (Cohen's d) were calculated for measures showing significant positive and negative effects of treatment over placebo. The highest effect sizes for cognitive outcomes were 0.77 for modafinil (visuospatial memory accuracy), 0.86 for Ginseng (simple reaction time) and 0.95 for Bacopa (delayed word recall). These data confirm that neurocognitive enhancement from well characterized nutraceuticals can produce cognition enhancing effects of similar magnitude to those from pharmaceutical interventions. Future research should compare these effects directly in clinical trials. PMID:23043278

  4. Panax ginseng Fraction F3 Extracted by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Protects against Oxidative Stress in ARPE-19 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chao-Chin; Chen, Chiu-Yuan; Wu, Chun-Chi; Koo, Malcolm; Yu, Zer-Ran; Wang, Be-Jen

    2016-01-01

    In our previous work, the ethanolic extract of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer was successively partitioned using supercritical carbon dioxide at pressures in series to yield residue (R), F1, F2, and F3 fractions. Among them, F3 contained the highest deglycosylated ginsenosides and exerted the strongest antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of P. ginseng fractions against cellular oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Viability of adult retinal pigment epithelium-19 (ARPE-19) cells was examined after treatments of different concentrations of fractions followed by exposure to H2O2. Oxidative levels (malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and reactive oxygen species (ROS)) and levels of activity of antioxidant enzymes were assessed. Results showed that F3 could dose-dependently protected ARPE-19 cells against oxidative injury induced by H2O2. F3 at a level of 1 mg/mL could restore the cell death induced by H2O2 of up to 60% and could alleviate the increase in cellular oxidation (MDA, 8-OHdG, and ROS) induced by H2O2. Moreover, F3 could restore the activities of antioxidant enzymes suppressed by H2O2. In conclusion, F3 obtained using supercritical carbon dioxide fractionation could significantly increase the antioxidant capacity of P. ginseng extract. The antioxidant capacity was highly correlated with the concentration of F3. PMID:27754362

  5. Integrated evaluation of malonyl ginsenosides, amino acids and polysaccharides in fresh and processed ginseng.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jin-Yi; Fan, Yong; Yu, Qing-Tao; Ge, Ya-Zhong; Yan, Chen-Pu; Alolga, Raphael N; Li, Ping; Ma, Zhong-Hua; Qi, Lian-Wen

    2015-03-25

    Many analytical methods have been developed to characterize ginsenosides in ginseng. Relatively less attention has been paid to the malonyl ginsenosides, amino acids and polysaccharides in various processing ginsengs. In this study, malonyl ginsenosides were characterized by LC-Q-TOF/MS. In positive mode, the most abundant ions at m/z 425.38 were observed corresponding to the protopanoxadiol-type ginsenosides. A rich diagnostic ion at 835.48 was shown representing the malonyl ginsenosides with at least two glucosides. Twelve malonyl ginsenosides were rapidly screened using 835.48-835.49 to restructure ion chromatograms. In negative mode, besides the high deprotonated ion, a neutral loss of 44 Da (CO2) was found. High-energy collision-induced dissociation at 50 V produced the most abundant product ion [M-H-malonyl](-) by a neutral loss of 86 Da. Determination of 17 common amino acids was performed on an automatic amino acid analyzer. Arginine, glutamic acid, and aspartic acid were abundant. The contents of amino acids were 9.1% in fresh ginseng and 3.1% in black ginseng. Phenol-sulfuric acid method was applied to analysis of polysaccharides. The contents of polysaccharides were 29.1% in fresh ginseng and 11.1% in black ginseng. The optimal growth age for the accumulation of constituents was supposed to be 5-6 years. In conclusion, the contents of malonyl ginsenosides, amino acids, and polysaccharides, based on decreasing order, ranked as follows: fresh ginseng>frozen ginseng>white ginseng>stoved ginseng>red ginseng>black ginseng. Processing should be paid more attention for the quality control of ginseng products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Chronic Morphine Treatment Reduces Recovery from Opioid Desensitization

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Vu C.; Williams, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Tolerance and dependence result from long-term exposure to opioids, and there is growing evidence linking acute receptor desensitization to these more long-term processes. Receptor desensitization encompasses a series of events leading to the loss of receptor function and internalization. This study examines the onset and recovery from desensitization in locus ceruleus neurons recorded in brain slices taken from animals that have been chronically treated with morphine. After chronic morphine treatment, desensitization was altered as follows. First, the rate of desensitization was increased. Second, recovery from desensitization was always incomplete, even after a brief (1–2 min) exposure to agonist. This contrasts with experiments in controls in which recovery from desensitization, after a brief exposure to agonist, was complete within 25 min. Finally, morphine-6-β-D-glucuronide, a metabolite of morphine that was ineffective at causing desensitization in controls, induced significant desensitization in slices from morphine-treated animals. When brain slices from controls were treated with inhibitors of PKC or monensin, agents known to compromise G-protein-coupled receptor resensitization, desensitization was increased, and recovery was significantly reduced. These results indicate that receptor resensitization maintains signaling during periods of intense and sustained stimulation. After chronic morphine treatment, desensitization is potentiated, and receptor resensitization is compromised. PMID:15342737

  7. Chronic morphine treatment reduces recovery from opioid desensitization.

    PubMed

    Dang, Vu C; Williams, John T

    2004-09-01

    Tolerance and dependence result from long-term exposure to opioids, and there is growing evidence linking acute receptor desensitization to these more long-term processes. Receptor desensitization encompasses a series of events leading to the loss of receptor function and internalization. This study examines the onset and recovery from desensitization in locus ceruleus neurons recorded in brain slices taken from animals that have been chronically treated with morphine. After chronic morphine treatment, desensitization was altered as follows. First, the rate of desensitization was increased. Second, recovery from desensitization was always incomplete, even after a brief (1-2 min) exposure to agonist. This contrasts with experiments in controls in which recovery from desensitization, after a brief exposure to agonist, was complete within 25 min. Finally, morphine-6-beta-D-glucuronide, a metabolite of morphine that was ineffective at causing desensitization in controls, induced significant desensitization in slices from morphine-treated animals. When brain slices from controls were treated with inhibitors of PKC or monensin, agents known to compromise G-protein-coupled receptor resensitization, desensitization was increased, and recovery was significantly reduced. These results indicate that receptor resensitization maintains signaling during periods of intense and sustained stimulation. After chronic morphine treatment, desensitization is potentiated, and receptor resensitization is compromised.

  8. Structural characterization and immunostimulatory activity of a novel linear α-(1→6)-D-glucan isolated from Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lin; Peng, Xiaoxia; Sun, Pan; Shi, Jiahong; Yuan, Xiaowen; Zhu, Jingjing; Tai, Guihua; Zhou, Yifa

    2012-08-01

    Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer is a well-known plant medicine in the world. Ginseng polysaccharides mainly contain starch-like glucan and pectin. In this paper, a novel glucan WGPA-UH-N1 was purified from ginseng pectin by the treatment of de-esterification and endo-polygalacturonase, followed by the chromatographies on DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow and Sephadex G-50 column. WGPA-UH-N1 has molecular weight about 17 kDa. WGPA-UH-N1 was determined to be a linear α-(1→6)-D-glucan without side chains by FT-IR, (13)C-NMR, (1)H-NMR, HMQC and HMBC spectra. It is the first time to isolate a linear α-(1→6)-D-glucan from Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer. Immunological activity assays showed that WGPA-UH-N1, although not effective on the phagocytosis of macrophage, could significantly induce lymphocyte proliferation without mitogenic stimuli at 1.0 mg/mL or with LPS at 0.5 mg/mL, also significantly increase NO production at the range of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL in a dose-dependent manner. The immunological activities of WGPA-UH-N1 are different from those of the β-(1→6)-D-glucan (BIWP2) isolated from the fruit bodies of Bulgaria Inquinans (Fries).

  9. Improvement of Ginseng by In Vitro Culture: Challenges and Opportunities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genus Panax belongs to the taxonomic family Araliaceae and consists of many species that are commonly referred to as ginseng. The plants are perennial herbs that grow mostly in the wild and only a few are cultivated. Geographically, they are mainly distributed in North America and North East Asi...

  10. State of Panax ginseng Research: A Global Analysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wanqi; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Huang, Linfang

    2017-09-11

    This article aims to understand the global and longitudinal trends of research on Panax ginseng . We used bibliometrics to analyze 3974 papers collected from the Web of Science TM Core Collection database during 1959-2016. The number of publications showed a steady growth before 2000 and exponentially increased in stage III (2000-2016, about 86% of the papers were published). Research on P. ginseng was conducted in 64 countries, mainly in Asia; in particular, 41% and 28% of the publications were from South Korea and China, respectively. The institutions from South Korea and China had high publication output and close cooperation and provided the majority of financial support. All top 10 authors and four of the top 20 journals in terms of number of publications originated from South Korea. The leading research subjects were pharmacology (39%), plant science (26%), and integrative complementary medicine (19%). The hotspot of P. ginseng research transformed from basic science to application, and multidisciplinary sciences will play a substantial role in the future. This study provides a comprehensive analysis to elucidate the global distribution, collaboration patterns, and research trends in the P. ginseng domain.

  11. Analgesic effects of glycoproteins from Panax ginseng root in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Chen, Yinghong; Xu, Hong; Luo, Haoming; Jiang, Ruizhi

    2013-07-30

    The root of Panax ginseng C.A. Mey has various beneficial pharmacological effects. The present study aimed to evaluate the analgesic activities of glycoproteins from the root of Panax ginseng C.A. Mey in mice. Glycoproteins were isolated and purified from the root of Panax ginseng C.A. Mey. Physicochemical properties and molecular mass were determined by chemical assay and HPLC. Acetic acid-induced writhing and hot-plate tests were employed to study the analgesic effect of glycoproteins and compared with that of aspirin or morphine. The locomotor activity was tested in mice by using actophometer. Four glycoproteins were obtained. The glycoproteins which protein content was the highest (73.04%) displayed dose-dependent analgesic effect. In writhing test, the glycoproteins significantly inhibited writhes (P<0.001) at the dose of 20 mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection. In hot-plate test, only at the dose of 20 mg/kg prolong the hot-plate latency (P<0.05, at 30 min). In the locomotor activity test, the glycoproteins were significant decrease of motility counts at the dose of 20 and 40 mg/kg. These findings collectively indicate that the glycoproteins from the root of Panax ginseng C.A. Mey exhibited significant analgesic activities and the proteins were the active site, providing evidence for its pharmacal use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Chemopreventive effects of korean red ginseng extract on rat hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyemee; Hong, Mi-Kyung; Choi, Haymie; Moon, Hyun-Seuk; Lee, Hae-Jeung

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine a chemopreventive activity of Korean red ginseng extract (KRG) in diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats. After acclimatization for a week, Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into five groups (n = 15) and fed either KRG (0.5, 1 or 2%) or control diets for 10 weeks. After two weeks of starting of experimental diets, the rats were initiated hepatocarcinogenesis by injection of DEN and were then subjected to two-thirds partial hepatectomy at five-week for developing the medium-term bioassay system. Both 0.5 and 1% KRG diets suppressed the area (55 and 60%; p= 0.0251 and 0.0144) and number (39 and 59%; p= 0.0433 and 0.0012) of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive foci when compared to the DEN-control group. The production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was significantly reduced in 0.5 and 1% KRG-treated rats. The supplementation of 1% KRG diet significantly elevated the levels of total glutathione (tGSH) and glutathione-related enzymes including cytosolic glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. It was also observed in cDNA microarray that the gene expressions (Cyp2c6, Cyp2e1, Cyp3a9, and Mgst1) involved in the xenobiotics metabolism via cytochrome P450 signaling pathway were down-regulated in the 1% KRG diet-treated group when compared to the DEN-control. The chemopreventive effects of KRG could be affected by 1) the decrease of lipid peroxidation, 2) the increase of tGSH content and GSH-dependent enzyme activities, and 3) the decrease of the gene expression profile involved in cytochrome P450 signaling pathway. These results suggest that KRG may prove to be a therapeutic agent against hepatocarcinogenesis.

  13. Chemopreventive Effects of Korean Red Ginseng Extract on Rat Hepatocarcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyemee; Hong, Mi-Kyung; Choi, Haymie; Moon, Hyun-Seuk; Lee, Hae-Jeung

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine a chemopreventive activity of Korean red ginseng extract (KRG) in diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats. After acclimatization for a week, Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into five groups (n = 15) and fed either KRG (0.5, 1 or 2%) or control diets for 10 weeks. After two weeks of starting of experimental diets, the rats were initiated hepatocarcinogenesis by injection of DEN and were then subjected to two-thirds partial hepatectomy at five-week for developing the medium-term bioassay system. Both 0.5 and 1% KRG diets suppressed the area (55 and 60%; p= 0.0251 and 0.0144) and number (39 and 59%; p= 0.0433 and 0.0012) of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive foci when compared to the DEN-control group. The production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was significantly reduced in 0.5 and 1% KRG-treated rats. The supplementation of 1% KRG diet significantly elevated the levels of total glutathione (tGSH) and glutathione-related enzymes including cytosolic glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. It was also observed in cDNA microarray that the gene expressions (Cyp2c6, Cyp2e1, Cyp3a9, and Mgst1) involved in the xenobiotics metabolism via cytochrome P450 signaling pathway were down-regulated in the 1% KRG diet-treated group when compared to the DEN-control. The chemopreventive effects of KRG could be affected by 1) the decrease of lipid peroxidation, 2) the increase of tGSH content and GSH-dependent enzyme activities, and 3) the decrease of the gene expression profile involved in cytochrome P450 signaling pathway. These results suggest that KRG may prove to be a therapeutic agent against hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:25553083

  14. Protective effects of a gastrointestinal agent containing Korean red ginseng on gastric ulcer models in mice

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Korean red ginseng (KRG) is a ginseng that has been cultivated and aged for 4-6 years or more, and goes through an extensive cleaning, steaming and drying process. KRG contains more than 30 kinds of saponin components and has been reported as having various biological properties, such as anti-fatigue action, immune restoration, and neurovegetative effect. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a KRG-containing drug (KRGCD) on gastric ulcer models in mice. Methods Stomach ulcers were induced by oral ingestion of hydrochloride (HCl)/ethanol or indomethacin. Treatment with KRGCD (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) occurred 1 hr before the ulcer induction. Effect of KRGCD on anti-oxidant activity and gastric mucosal blood flow with a laser Doppler flowmeter in mice stomach tissue was evaluated. Results KRGCD (100 and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly decreased ethanol- and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer compared with the vehicle-treated (control) group. KRGCD (100 and 300 mg/kg) also decreased the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and increased gastric mucosal blood flow compared with the control group. Conclusions These results suggest that the gastroprotective effects of KRGCD on mice ulcer models can be attributed to its ameliorating effect on oxidative damage and improving effect of gastric mucosal blood flow. PMID:20718962

  15. Red-koji fermented red ginseng ameliorates high fat diet-induced metabolic disorders in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang Man; Yi, Seong Joon; Cho, Il Je; Ku, Sae Kwang

    2013-10-30

    Fermentation of medicinal herbs improves their pharmacological efficacy. In this study, we investigated the effects of red-koji fermented red ginseng (fRG) on high-fat diet (HFD)-mediated metabolic disorders, and those effects were compared to those of non-fermented red ginseng (RG). fRG (500, 250 or 125 mg/kg), RG (250 mg/kg), simvastatin (10 mg/kg), silymarin (100 mg/kg) and metformin (250 mg/kg) were orally administered from 1 week after initiation of HFD supply for 84 days. The diameter of adipocytes in periovarian and abdominal fat pads and the thickness of the abdominal fat were significantly decreased by fRG treatment, while HFD-mediated weight gain was partly alleviated by fRG in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, biochemical and histomorphometrical analyses clearly indicated that fRG significantly inhibited HFD-induced metabolic disorders such as hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hepatopathy and nephropathy in a dose-dependent manner. More favorable pharmacological effects on HFD-mediated metabolic disorders were also observed with fRG compared to an equal dose of RG. This finding provides direct evidence that the pharmacological activities of RG were enhanced by red-koji fermentation, and fRG could be a neutraceutical resource for the alleviation of obesity-mediated metabolic disorders.

  16. Comparative effects of gamma irradiation and phosphine fumigation on the quality of white ginseng

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, J.-H. J.-H.; Byun, M.-W. M.-W.; Kim, K.-S. K.-S.; Kang, I.-J. I.-J.

    2000-03-01

    The hygienic, physicochemical, and organoleptic qualities of white ginseng were monitored during 6 months under accelerated conditions (40°C, 90% r.h.) by observing its microbial populations, disinfestation, and some quality attributes following either gamma irradiation at 2.5-10 kGy or commercial phosphine (PH 3) fumigation. In a comparative study, both treatments were found to be effective for disinfecting the stored samples. Phosphine showed no appreciable decontaminating effects on microorganisms contaminated including coliforms, while 5 kGy irradiation was sufficient to control all microorganisms related to the quality of the packed samples. Irradiation at 5 kGy caused negligible changes in physicochemical attributes of the samples, such as ginsenosides, amino acids, fatty acids, and organoleptic properties, whereas phosphine fumigation was found detrimental to sensory flavor ( P<0.01). Quality deterioration occurred in the commercially-packed samples was in the following order: the control, 10 kGy-, phosphine-, and 2.5-5 kGy-treated samples. Accordingly, irradiation at <5 kGy was found to be an effective alternative to phosphine fumigation for white ginseng.

  17. Ginseng improves pulmonary functions and exercise capacity in patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Gross, D; Shenkman, Z; Bleiberg, B; Dayan, M; Gittelson, M; Efrat, R

    2002-01-01

    Ginseng is a root that has been used to treat patients with various illnesses for the last 2000 years. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Ginseng extract (G115) on Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs), Maximum Voluntary Ventilation (MVV), Maximum Inspiratory Pressure (MIP) and Maximal Oxygen Consumption (VO2max) in patients with moderately-severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Ninety-two adults were randomly divided into the experimental (n = 49, G115 100 mg bid for three months) and placebo-control (n = 43) groups. PFTs, MVV and MIP were studied before treatment and every two weeks for the 3-month-study period. Exercise test and VO2max measurements were performed before the beginning and after six weeks and three months. P lower than 0.05 was considered significant. Baseline demographics and pulmonary parameters were similar between the groups. In the experimental, but not in the control group, all parameters significantly increased above baseline and compared with the placebo group. Maximum increase, compared with baseline was FVC-32.5%, FEV1.0-27.0%, PEF-27.5%, FEF50-45.4%, FEF75-56.9%, MVV-40.4%, MIP-47.0% and VO2max-37.5%. No side effects were observed. G115 100 mg bid for three months, but not placebo, improved PFTs, MVV, MIP and VO2 max in patients with moderately-severe COPD with no side effects.

  18. Topical antibiotic treatment reduces tympanostomy tube biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Robert G; Ojano-Dirain, Carolyn; Antonelli, Patrick J

    2011-05-01

    Single doses of different ototopical antibiotic preparations (OAPs) have been shown to have an unequal reduction of post tympanostomy tube otorrhea (PTTO). Microbial biofilm formation on the tympanostomy tube (TT) has been implicated as one cause of PTTO. The goal of this study was to determine if TT exposure to a single dose of OAP reduces biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Prospective and controlled. Fluoroplastic TTs were briefly exposed to plasma, followed by one of three OAPs (ofloxacin, neomycin/polymyxin B/hydrocortisone, or ciprofloxacin/dexamethasone) or saline (20 TT per group). TTs were placed in growth media with P. aeruginosa and incubated for 4 days, during which total bacterial growth was monitored by media turbidity. At 4 days, planktonic organisms were killed and biofilm development was measured with microbial counts. Bacterial growth was significantly delayed by OAPs, with the least growth seen with ciprofloxacin/dexamethasone followed by ofloxacin and neomycin/polymyxin B/hydrocortisone (P ≤ .0001). At day 4, bacterial growth was less with ciprofloxacin/dexamethasone than ofloxacin and neomycin/polymyxin B/hydrocortisone (P < .05). After 4 days, biofilm counts were lower on OAP-treated than saline-treated TTs (P = .0015) with both ciprofloxacin/dexamethasone and ofloxacin significantly less than saline (P < .05). Biofilm counts were not significantly different between OAPs (P > .05). Treatment of TTs with ototopical antibiotic preparations reduces P. aeruginosa growth and biofilm formation in vitro. This may, in part, explain the reduction of PTTO rates observed with single doses of OAPs. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. Herbal products and serious side effects: a case of ginseng-induced manic episode.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, I; Agüera-Ortiz, L F

    2002-01-01

    Ginseng root extract is a widely used herbal product not devoid of side effects. This report describes the development of manic symptoms after ginseng consumption in a patient with affective disorder. Other potentially harmful side effects of ginseng are also reviewed. A single case report. A 56-year-old woman with previous affective disorder presented a manic episode during ginseng intake. Symptoms disappeared rapidly with low doses of neuroleptics and benzodiazepines after ginseng suppression. Ginseng may produce manic symptoms. A special risk situation seems to be affective patients under antidepressant medication. The case emphasizes the lack of harmlessness of herbal products. Patients should be routinely asked about the use of herbal products and diet supplements.

  20. Reducing Dropout in Treatment for Depression: Translating Dropout Predictors Into Individualized Treatment Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Zilcha-Mano, Sigal; Keefe, John R; Chui, Harold; Rubin, Avinadav; Barrett, Marna S; Barber, Jacques P

    2016-12-01

    Premature discontinuation of therapy is a widespread problem that hampers the delivery of mental health treatment. A high degree of variability has been found among rates of premature treatment discontinuation, suggesting that rates may differ depending on potential moderators. In the current study, our aim was to identify demographic and interpersonal variables that moderate the association between treatment assignment and dropout. Data from a randomized controlled trial conducted from November 2001 through June 2007 (N = 156) comparing supportive-expressive therapy, antidepressant medication, and placebo for the treatment of depression (based on DSM-IV criteria) were used. Twenty prerandomization variables were chosen based on previous literature. These variables were subjected to exploratory bootstrapped variable selection and included in the logistic regression models if they passed variable selection. Three variables were found to moderate the association between treatment assignment and dropout: age, pretreatment therapeutic alliance expectations, and the presence of vindictive tendencies in interpersonal relationships. When patients were divided into those randomly assigned to their optimal treatment and those assigned to their least optimal treatment, dropout rates in the optimal treatment group (24.4%) were significantly lower than those in the least optimal treatment group (47.4%; P = .03). Present findings suggest that a patient's age and pretreatment interpersonal characteristics predict the association between common depression treatments and dropout rate. If validated by further studies, these characteristics can assist in reducing dropout through targeted treatment assignment. Secondary analysis of data from ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00043550. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  1. [A study of global ecological adaptability and field selection practices of Panax ginseng].

    PubMed

    Shen, Liang; Wu, Jie; Li, Xi-Wen; Xu, Jiang; Dong, Lin-Lin; Sang, Ming-Chun; Sun, Xi-Wen; Naoki, Fujihara; Chen, Shi-Lin

    2016-09-01

    Through the development of ecological suitability analysis of producing area and the selection criteria of farmland cultivation in the global range of ginseng, we aim to provide scientific basis for rational planning, production layout and standardized planting of farmland. We analyze the data based on the ecological factors from 271 sample plots of Panax ginseng, including both the traditional producing regions recorded in past dynasties medicinal works and the popular production regions in the world, using global geographic information system for medicinal plant(GMPGIS) developed by ICMM (Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences). We concluded that the suitable producing areas in global for P. ginseng mainly included America, Canada, China, Russia, Japan, North Korea, France, Italy, Ukraine, and South Korea. In addition, the suitable producing areas in China mainly included Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Shanxi, Gansu, Hubei, Sichuan, Inner Mongolia, Shandong, and Shanxi. Besides, based on the references and the experience of ginseng-producing and our many years' work on the 1,000-hectare plantation of P. ginseng, we established a standard land selection protocol for cultivation of P. ginseng. The use of GMPGIS to select the most optimum ginseng production regions provides a new scientific basis for introduction, cultivation, tending, protection, cultivation normalization for P. ginseng and the standard land selection protocol would lay a solid foundation for the high quality P. ginseng production. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  2. Photoaging protective effects of BIOGF1K, a compound-K-rich fraction prepared from Panax ginseng.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yo Han; Kim, Donghyun; Nam, Gibaeg; Yoo, Sulgi; Han, Sang Yun; Jeong, Seong-Gu; Kim, Eunji; Jeong, Deok; Yoon, Keejung; Kim, Sunggyu; Park, Junseong; Cho, Jae Youl

    2018-01-01

    BIOGF1K, a compound-K-rich fraction, has been shown to display anti-inflammatory activity. Although Panax ginseng is widely used for the prevention of photoaging events induced by UVB irradiation, the effect of BIOGF1K on photoaging has not yet been examined. In this study, we investigated the effects of BIOGF1K on UVB-induced photoaging events. We analyzed the ability of BIOGF1K to prevent UVB-induced apoptosis, enhance matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression, upregulate anti-inflammatory activity, reduce sirtuin 1 expression, and melanin production using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, melanin content assay, tyrosinase assay, and flow cytometry. We also evaluated the effects of BIOGF1K on the activator protein-1 signaling pathway, which plays an important role in photoaging, by immunoblot analysis and luciferase reporter gene assays. Treatment of UVB-irradiated NIH3T3 fibroblasts with BIOGF1K prevented UVB-induced cell death, inhibited apoptosis, suppressed morphological changes, reduced melanin secretion, restored the levels of type I procollagen and sirtuin 1, and prevented mRNA upregulation of MMP-1, MMP-2, and cyclo-oxygenase-2; these effects all occurred in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, BIOGF1K markedly reduced activator-protein-1-mediated luciferase activity and decreased the activity of mitogen-activated protein kinases (extracellular response kinase, p38, and C-Jun N-terminal kinase). Our results strongly suggest that BIOGF1K has anti-photoaging activity and that BIOGF1K could be used in anti-aging cosmeceutical preparations.

  3. Modulation of nitrergic signalling pathway by American ginseng attenuates chronic unpredictable stress-induced cognitive impairment, neuroinflammation, and biochemical alterations.

    PubMed

    Rinwa, Puneet; Kumar, Anil

    2014-02-01

    Prolonged stress causes extensive loss of neurons leading to deficits in cognitive performance. Increasing evidence indicates that accumulation of intercellular messenger, nitric oxide (NO), plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of memory disorders. American ginseng (AG) is known to show protection in different animal models of neurological diseases; however, its exact mechanism of action is not clearly understood. Therefore, the current study was designed to investigate the interaction of AG against chronic unpredictable stress (CUS)-associated behavioral and biochemical alterations and the probable role of nitrergic pathway in this effect. Male Laca mice were exposed to a series of stressors along with drug/vehicle treatment daily for 28 days. CUS paradigm caused significant impairment in both acquisition and retention memory as measured in Morris water maze and elevated plus maze task. This was coupled with alterations in oxidative stress markers, mitochondrial enzyme complex activities, pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α), and acetylcholinesterase levels in the hippocampus as compared with naïve group. Besides, there was a marked increase in serum corticosterone levels. AG (100, 200 mg/kg; p.o.) treatment significantly improved cognitive impairment; reduced TNF-α, acetylcholinesterase, and corticosterone levels; and attenuated oxidative-nitrergic stress. Furthermore, pre-treatment of L-arginine (100 mg/kg; i.p.), a nitric oxide donor, with subeffective dose of AG (100 mg/kg; p.o.) reversed its protective effects. However, L-NAME (10 mg/kg, i.p.), a non-specific NO synthase inhibitor, potentiated the effects of AG. Our findings suggest that modulation of nitrergic signalling cascade is involved in the protective effects of AG against CUS-induced cognitive dysfunction, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation.

  4. Panax ginseng Adventitious Root Suspension Culture: Protocol for Biomass Production and Analysis of Ginsenosides by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Paek, Kee Yoeup

    2016-01-01

    Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Korean ginseng) is a popular herbal medicine. It has been used in Chinese and Oriental medicines since thousands of years. Ginseng products are generally used as a tonic and an adaptogen to resist the adverse influence of a wide range of physical, chemical and biological factors, and to restore homeostasis. Ginsenosides or ginseng saponins are the principal active ingredients of ginseng. Since ginseng cultivation process is very slow and needs specific environment for field cultivation, cell and tissue cultures are sought as alternatives for the production of ginseng biomass and bioactive compounds. In this chapter, we focus on methods of induction of adventitious roots from ginseng roots, establishment of adventitious root suspension cultures using bioreactors, procedures for processing of adventitious roots, and analysis of ginsenosides by high pressure liquid chromatography.

  5. [Optimization of dissolution process for superfine grinding technology on total saponins of Panax ginseng fibrous root by response surface methodology].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ya; Lai, Xiao-Pin; Yao, Hai-Yan; Zhao, Ran; Wu, Yi-Na; Li, Geng

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the effects of superfine comminution extraction technology of ginseng total saponins from Panax ginseng fibrous root, and to make sure the optimal extraction condition. Optimal condition of ginseng total saponins from Panax ginseng fibrous root was based on single factor experiment to study the effects of crushing degree, extraction time, alcohol concentration and extraction temperature on extraction rate. Response surface method was used to investigate three main factors such as superfine comminution time, extraction time and alcohol concentration. The relationship between content of ginseng total saponins in Panax ginseng fibrous root and three factors fitted second degree polynomial models. The optimal extraction condition was 9 min of superfine comminution time, 70% of alcohol, 50 degrees C of extraction temperature and 70 min of extraction time. Under the optimal condition, ginseng total saponins from Panax ginseng fibrous root was average 94. 81%, which was consistent with the predicted value. The optimization of technology is rapid, efficient, simple and stable.

  6. [A multicenter, large-sample, randomized clinical trial on improving the median survival time of advanced non-small cell lung cancer by combination of Ginseng Rg3 and chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Wang, X Q; Liu, H; Liu, J; Hou, W; Lin, H S

    2018-04-23

    Objective: To observe the efficacy of the combination of chemotherapy and Ginseng Rg3 on advanced non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC). Methods: In the multi-center, large-sample, randomized, double blind trial, 414 patients with Ⅲ-Ⅳ NSCLC were enrolled.199 were in the experimental group and 215 the control group. The patients in the experimental group were treated with the standard first-line chemotherapy combined with Ginseng Rg3. The patients in the control group were treated with the same chemotherapy combined with placebo. Median overall survival (OS), Karnofsky performance scale (KPS), Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) symptoms score and side effects of two groups were observed as main indexes. Results: The median OS were 12.03 months in the experimental group, which was significantly better than that in the control group (8.46 months, P <0.05). Hemoglobin and white blood cells were decreased after the first and second cycle of treatment in both groups. Both adverse events were significantly milder in the treatment group ( P <0.05). In addition, after two courses of treatment, the KPS of patients was 78.95±9.14 in the experimental group and 76.77±9.15 in the control group, while the TCM symptoms score was 2.45±1.73 in the experimental group and 2.92±2.06 in the control group, with significant difference ( P <0.05). Conclusions: Combination of TCM with Western medicine such as chemotherapy could prolong the survival of patients with advanced NSCLC. The combined therapy improved patients' symptoms and reduced chemotherapy induced myelosuppression.

  7. HT1001, a proprietary North American ginseng extract, improves working memory in schizophrenia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Eric Y H; Hui, Christy L M

    2012-08-01

    Evidence suggests that HT1001™, a proprietary North American ginseng extract containing known levels of active ginsenosides, may improve cognitive function. Importantly, individuals with schizophrenia show marked deficits in working memory, which are believed to be predictive of functional outcome in this population. The present study aimed to characterize the effect of HT1001 on working memory in a group of stable individuals with schizophrenia. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study design, a total of 64 individuals satisfying DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia were randomly assigned to receive either HT100 or placebo for 4 weeks. Verbal working memory and visual working memory were assessed at baseline and again at the end of the treatment phase using the Letter-Number Span Test and Visual Pattern Test, respectively. Symptoms and medication side effects were also measured at baseline and post-treatment. Visual working memory was significantly improved in the HT1001 group, but not in the placebo group. Furthermore, extrapyramidal symptoms were significantly reduced after 4 weeks treatment with HT1001, whereas no difference in extrapyramidal effects was observed in the placebo group. These results provide a solid foundation for the further investigation of HT1001 as an adjunct therapy in schizophrenia, as an improvement in working memory and a reduction in medication-related side effects has considerable potential to improve functional outcome in this population. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Safety Analysis of Panax Ginseng in Randomized Clinical Trials: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Sook; Woo, Jung-Yoon; Han, Chang-Kyun; Chang, Il-Moo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer is one of the most frequently used herbs in the world. The roots of Panax ginseng have been used as a traditional tonic and medicine for thousands of years in Korea and China. Today, ginseng root is used as a dietary supplement and complementary medicine and for adjuvant therapeutics worldwide. The efficacy of ginseng has been studied in a wide range of basic research and clinical studies. However, it has been reported that the results from clinical studies are conflicting, and they depend on the parameters of the protocol design including the conditions of the participants and the types of ginseng used such as red ginseng, white ginseng, fermented ginseng and cultured ginseng. Meanwhile, in addition to clinical efficacy, the safety of ginseng is a highly important matter for customers. With globally increasing demand for Panax ginseng as a dietary supplement or complementary medicine, it is necessary to provide information on its safe use to customers to improve their health conditions. Although the safety of Panax ginseng in pre-clinical studies is well known, the evaluation of safety in clinical studies has so far been insufficient. This systematic review was conducted to assess the safety of ginseng in randomized controlled clinical trials (RCT) over the last 10 years. We chose the last 10 years because many clinical trials have been conducted in the past 10 years, and it will help to understand the recent trends in RCTs of ginseng. Methods: Articles on ginseng studies were searched with keywords in MEDLINE and four other Korean online database sites. Studies with ginseng as a monopreparation were selected while studies with single administration, preparations combined with other herbs or drug combinations were excluded from the selected studies. Data from the selected studies meeting the criteria were extracted and reviewed in terms of study design, condition and number of participants, type of ginseng, dosage, duration

  9. A simple real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay for authentication of the Chinese Panax ginseng cultivar Damaya from a local ginseng population.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Wang, J; Li, G

    2016-06-27

    Panax ginseng is one of the most important medicinal plants in the Orient. Owing to its increasing demand in the world market, cultivated ginseng has become the main source of medicinal material. Among the Chinese ginseng cultivars, Damaya commands higher prices and is grown in significant proportions among the local ginseng population. Due to the lack of rapid and accurate authentication methods, Damaya is distributed among different cultivars in the local ginseng population in China. Here, we identified a unique, Damaya-specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) site present in the second intron of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 (cox2). Based on this SNP, a Damaya cultivar-specific primer was designed and an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was optimized for the effective molecular authentication of Damaya. We designed a method by combining a simple DNA isolation method with real-time allele-specific PCR using SYBR Green I fluorescent dye, and proved its efficacy in clearly discriminated Damaya cultivar from other Chinese ginseng cultivars according to the allelic discrimination analysis. Hence, this study provides a simple and rapid assay for the differentiation and conservation of Damaya from the local Chinese ginseng population.

  10. Metabolomic Approach for Discrimination of Four- and Six-Year-Old Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Using UPLC-QToF-MS.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung-Sub; Park, Hee-Won; In, Gyo; Seo, Hyun Kyu; Won, Tae Hyung; Jang, Kyoung Hwa; Cho, Byung-Goo; Han, Chang Kyun; Shin, Jongheon

    2016-09-01

    Panax ginseng C.A. MEYER is one of the most popular medicinal herbs in Asia and the chemical constituents are changed by processing methods such as steaming or sun drying. Metabolomic analysis was performed to distinguish age discrimination of four- and six-year-old red ginseng using ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadruple time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QToF-MS) with multivariate statistical analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed clear discrimination between extracts of red ginseng of different ages and suggest totally six discrimination markers (two for four-year-old and four for six-year-old red ginseng). Among these, one marker was isolated and the structure determined by NMR spectroscopic analysis was 13-cis-docosenamide (marker 6-1) from six-year-old red ginseng. This is the first report of a metabolomic study regarding the age differentiation of red ginseng using UPLC-QToF-MS and determination of the structure of the marker. These results will contribute to the quality control and standardization as well as provide a scientific basis for pharmacological research on red ginseng.

  11. [Preparation of O/W ginseng saponins-based nanoemulsion and its amplified immune response].

    PubMed

    Cao, Fahao; Ouyang, Wuqing; Wang, Yanping

    2010-02-01

    To prepare an O/W ginseng saponins-based nanoemulsion and investigate its amplified immune response. The formulation of ginseng saponins-based nanoemulsion was optimized via the range of nanoemulsion zone in phase diagrams and the solubility of ginseng saponins. Its physicochemical properties were investigated, including morphology, particle size distribution, pH, viscosity and stability. Ginseng saponins-based nanoemulsion as adjuvant was co-administrated with a model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) in mice. Two weeks after the boosting, the serum levels of OVA-specific antibody and its isotypes were determined. The optimized ginseng saponins-based nanoemulsion formulation consisted of ginseng saponins, IPM, Cremophor RH 40, glycerol and water (with the weight ratio of 2 : 4 : 17.8 : 17.8 : 58.4), which was a light yellow fluid. The shape of droplets was spherical under transmission electron microscopy with an average diameter of 72.20 nm and a polydispersity index of 0.052. The viscosity and pH value of it were 4.20 s and 6.02, respectively. And it showed good stability. When co-administered with OVA, no obvious side effects were observed in the mice immunized with ginseng saponin-based nanoemulsion. The serum levels of IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a antibody in the group of ginseng saponin-based nanoemulsion immunized mice was significantly increased compared to the groups of OVA and the saline solution of ginseng saponin. Compared with the adjuvant aluminium hydroxide, the serum levels of IgG and IgG1 antibodys in the groups of ginseng saponins-based nanoemulsion had no significant difference, but the level of IgG2a was obviously higher. ginseng saponin-based nanoemulsion could amplify the Th1 and Th2 immune responses, and can be used as the vaccine adjuvant.

  12. Variation in the number of nucleoli and incomplete homogenization of 18S ribosomal DNA sequences in leaf cells of the cultivated Oriental ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer).

    PubMed

    Chelomina, Galina N; Rozhkovan, Konstantin V; Voronova, Anastasia N; Burundukova, Olga L; Muzarok, Tamara I; Zhuravlev, Yuri N

    2016-04-01

    Wild ginseng, Panax ginseng Meyer, is an endangered species of medicinal plants. In the present study, we analyzed variations within the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) cluster to gain insight into the genetic diversity of the Oriental ginseng, P. ginseng, at artificial plant cultivation. The roots of wild P. ginseng plants were sampled from a nonprotected natural population of the Russian Far East. The slides were prepared from leaf tissues using the squash technique for cytogenetic analysis. The 18S rDNA sequences were cloned and sequenced. The distribution of nucleotide diversity, recombination events, and interspecific phylogenies for the total 18S rDNA sequence data set was also examined. In mesophyll cells, mononucleolar nuclei were estimated to be dominant (75.7%), while the remaining nuclei contained two to four nucleoli. Among the analyzed 18S rDNA clones, 20% were identical to the 18S rDNA sequence of P. ginseng from Japan, and other clones differed in one to six substitutions. The nucleotide polymorphism was more expressed at the positions 440-640 bp, and distributed in variable regions, expansion segments, and conservative elements of core structure. The phylogenetic analysis confirmed conspecificity of ginseng plants cultivated in different regions, with two fixed mutations between P. ginseng and other species. This study identified the evidences of the intragenomic nucleotide polymorphism in the 18S rDNA sequences of P. ginseng. These data suggest that, in cultivated plants, the observed genome instability may influence the synthesis of biologically active compounds, which are widely used in traditional medicine.

  13. Variation in the number of nucleoli and incomplete homogenization of 18S ribosomal DNA sequences in leaf cells of the cultivated Oriental ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer)

    PubMed Central

    Chelomina, Galina N.; Rozhkovan, Konstantin V.; Voronova, Anastasia N.; Burundukova, Olga L.; Muzarok, Tamara I.; Zhuravlev, Yuri N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Wild ginseng, Panax ginseng Meyer, is an endangered species of medicinal plants. In the present study, we analyzed variations within the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) cluster to gain insight into the genetic diversity of the Oriental ginseng, P. ginseng, at artificial plant cultivation. Methods The roots of wild P. ginseng plants were sampled from a nonprotected natural population of the Russian Far East. The slides were prepared from leaf tissues using the squash technique for cytogenetic analysis. The 18S rDNA sequences were cloned and sequenced. The distribution of nucleotide diversity, recombination events, and interspecific phylogenies for the total 18S rDNA sequence data set was also examined. Results In mesophyll cells, mononucleolar nuclei were estimated to be dominant (75.7%), while the remaining nuclei contained two to four nucleoli. Among the analyzed 18S rDNA clones, 20% were identical to the 18S rDNA sequence of P. ginseng from Japan, and other clones differed in one to six substitutions. The nucleotide polymorphism was more expressed at the positions 440–640 bp, and distributed in variable regions, expansion segments, and conservative elements of core structure. The phylogenetic analysis confirmed conspecificity of ginseng plants cultivated in different regions, with two fixed mutations between P. ginseng and other species. Conclusion This study identified the evidences of the intragenomic nucleotide polymorphism in the 18S rDNA sequences of P. ginseng. These data suggest that, in cultivated plants, the observed genome instability may influence the synthesis of biologically active compounds, which are widely used in traditional medicine. PMID:27158239

  14. Functional differentiation and spatial-temporal co-expression networks of the NBS-encoding gene family in Jilin ginseng, Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer.

    PubMed

    Yin, Rui; Zhao, Mingzhu; Wang, Kangyu; Lin, Yanping; Wang, Yanfang; Sun, Chunyu; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Meiping

    2017-01-01

    Ginseng, Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, is one of the most important medicinal plants for human health and medicine. It has been documented that over 80% of genes conferring resistance to bacteria, viruses, fungi and nematodes are contributed by the nucleotide binding site (NBS)-encoding gene family. Therefore, identification and characterization of NBS genes expressed in ginseng are paramount to its genetic improvement and breeding. However, little is known about the NBS-encoding genes in ginseng. Here we report genome-wide identification and systems analysis of the NBS genes actively expressed in ginseng (PgNBS genes). Four hundred twelve PgNBS gene transcripts, derived from 284 gene models, were identified from the transcriptomes of 14 ginseng tissues. These genes were classified into eight types, including TNL, TN, CNL, CN, NL, N, RPW8-NL and RPW8-N. Seven conserved motifs were identified in both the Toll/interleukine-1 receptor (TIR) and coiled-coil (CC) typed genes whereas six were identified in the RPW8 typed genes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the PgNBS gene family is an ancient family, with a vast majority of its genes originated before ginseng originated. In spite of their belonging to a family, the PgNBS genes have functionally dramatically differentiated and been categorized into numerous functional categories. The expressions of the across tissues, different aged roots and the roots of different genotypes. However, they are coordinating in expression, forming a single co-expression network. These results provide a deeper understanding of the origin, evolution and functional differentiation and expression dynamics of the NBS-encoding gene family in plants in general and in ginseng particularly, and a NBS gene toolkit useful for isolation and characterization of disease resistance genes and for enhanced disease resistance breeding in ginseng and related species.

  15. Functional differentiation and spatial-temporal co-expression networks of the NBS-encoding gene family in Jilin ginseng, Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kangyu; Lin, Yanping; Wang, Yanfang; Sun, Chunyu; Wang, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Ginseng, Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, is one of the most important medicinal plants for human health and medicine. It has been documented that over 80% of genes conferring resistance to bacteria, viruses, fungi and nematodes are contributed by the nucleotide binding site (NBS)-encoding gene family. Therefore, identification and characterization of NBS genes expressed in ginseng are paramount to its genetic improvement and breeding. However, little is known about the NBS-encoding genes in ginseng. Here we report genome-wide identification and systems analysis of the NBS genes actively expressed in ginseng (PgNBS genes). Four hundred twelve PgNBS gene transcripts, derived from 284 gene models, were identified from the transcriptomes of 14 ginseng tissues. These genes were classified into eight types, including TNL, TN, CNL, CN, NL, N, RPW8-NL and RPW8-N. Seven conserved motifs were identified in both the Toll/interleukine-1 receptor (TIR) and coiled-coil (CC) typed genes whereas six were identified in the RPW8 typed genes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the PgNBS gene family is an ancient family, with a vast majority of its genes originated before ginseng originated. In spite of their belonging to a family, the PgNBS genes have functionally dramatically differentiated and been categorized into numerous functional categories. The expressions of the across tissues, different aged roots and the roots of different genotypes. However, they are coordinating in expression, forming a single co-expression network. These results provide a deeper understanding of the origin, evolution and functional differentiation and expression dynamics of the NBS-encoding gene family in plants in general and in ginseng particularly, and a NBS gene toolkit useful for isolation and characterization of disease resistance genes and for enhanced disease resistance breeding in ginseng and related species. PMID:28727829

  16. Isolation and characterization of bioactive polyacetylenes Panax ginseng Meyer roots.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Chia-Rou; Yong, Jin-Jie; Popovich, David G

    2017-05-30

    Panax ginseng has been studied for its chemo-preventive properties and pharmaceutical potential. Polyacetylenic compounds isolated from Panax ginseng root typically comprised of non-polar C 17 compound have been reported to exhibit bioactive properties. The objective of this project is to extract, isolate, and characterize bioactive polyacetylenes from Panax ginseng root using various extraction and separation methods Ginseng was extracted by reflux using methanol, ethanol, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanolic ultrasonication. The extracts were partitioned with hexane to obtain water-soluble portion and hexane-soluble portion. Hexane was subsequently removed under vacuum, and formed a crude polyacetylenes extract (crude PA). Silica gel chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC were utilized to prepare 5 fractions and the polyacetylenes were measure by HPLC and molecular weights confirm my APCI-MS and MNR. The bioactive effect was measured by MTT viability assay using murine 3T3-L1 cells. Extraction with methanol under reflux produced significantly larger amount of polyacetylenes (p<0.05). Liquid-liquid extraction and column chromatography were used to separate polyacetylenic compounds into five different fractions. Major polyacetylenes, panaxynol and panaxydol were found in fraction 1 and 2 respectively. Dose-response relationships were observed in 3T3-L1 cells and LC50 were 13.52±3.05μg/mL (fraction 1), 3.69±1.09μg/mL (fraction 2), 52.88±11.16μg/mL (fraction 3), 85.91±27.37μg/mL (fraction 4) and 135.52±32.91μg/mL (fraction 5). Fraction 2 containing panaxydol was found to have exhibited the greatest anti-proliferative effects on 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Extraction with methanol under reflux produced significantly more polyacetylenes. Fractions that contain panaxydol was the most cytotoxic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Saponin and non-saponin fractions of red ginseng ameliorate cisplatin-induced pica in rats.

    PubMed

    Sathyanath, Rekha; Hanumantha Rao, Balaji Raghavendran; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Cho, Jung-Hyo; Son, Chang-Gue

    2013-08-01

    Nausea and vomiting are considered as the foremost unpleasant side effects of chemotherapy experienced by 20-90% of cancer patients. In the present study, the effects of Korean Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Araliaceae) (RG), ginseng saponin (GS) and non-saponin (GNS) on cisplatin (CP)-induced pica and gastric damage in rats were investigated. Rats were treated with RG (25, 50, 100 mg/kg b.wt.), GS (5 and 10 mg/kg 100 mg/kg b.wt.) and GNS (50 and 100 mg/kg b.wt.) before or after a single intraperitoneal injection of CP (6 mg/kg b.wt.). Kaolin together with normal food intake, normal food alone, body weight, histological examination of stomach and small intestine were used as indices of CP-induced pica in rats. Pre-treatment with RG (50 and 100 mg/kg b.wt.) attenuated CP-induced kaolin intake at 24 h. CP-induced kaolin intake decreased upon post-treatment of rats with RG (50 and 100 mg/kg b.wt.) at 48 h. The incidence of body weight reduction at 48 and 72 h diminished in rats post-treated with RG (50 mg/kg b.wt.). Pre-treatment with GS (5 and 10 mg/kg b.wt.) and GNS (50 and 100 mg/kg b.wt.) attenuated CP-induced kaolin intake while normal food intake was not improved in 24 and 48 h. The gastro-protective effects of RG, GS and GNS were further confirmed by histopathological (damage in glandular portion and villi with dilated appearance) findings. The study indicates that both the red GS and GNS improve feeding behavior against CP-induced pica in rats.

  18. Changes in ginsenoside compositions and antioxidant activities of hydroponic-cultured ginseng roots and leaves with heating temperature

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Cho Rong; Lee, Sang Hoon; Jang, Gwi Yeong; Hwang, In Guk; Kim, Hyun Young; Woo, Koan Sik; Lee, Junsoo; Jeong, Heon Sang

    2014-01-01

    Background This study evaluated changes in ginsenoside compositions and antioxidant activities in hydroponic-cultured ginseng roots (HGR) and leaves (HGL) with heating temperature. Methods Heat treatment was performed at temperatures of 90°C, 110°C, 130°C, and 150°C for 2 hours. Results The ginsenoside content varied significantly with heating temperature. The levels of ginsenosides Rg1 and Re in HGR decreased with increasing heating temperature. Ginsenosides F2, F4, Rk3, Rh4, Rg3 (S form), Rg3 (R form), Rk1, and Rg5, which were absent in the raw ginseng, were formed after heat treatment. The levels of ginsenosides Rg1, Re, Rf, and Rb1 in HGL decreased with increasing heating temperature. Conversely, ginsenosides Rk3, Rh4, Rg3 (R form), Rk1, and Rg5 increased with increasing heating temperature. In addition, ginsenoside contents of heated HGL were slightly higher than those of HGR. The highest extraction yield was 14.39% at 130°C, whereas the lowest value was 10.30% at 150°C. After heating, polyphenol contents of HGR and HGL increased from 0.43 mg gallic acid equivalent/g (mg GAE eq/g) and 0.74 mg GAE eq/g to 6.16 mg GAE eq/g and 2.86 mg GAE eq/g, respectively. Conclusion Antioxidant activities of HGR and HGL, measured by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical scavenging ability, increased with increasing heating temperature. These results may aid in improving the biological activity and quality of ginseng subjected to heat treatments. PMID:25378992

  19. Applications of molecular markers in the discrimination of Panax species and Korean ginseng cultivars (Panax ginseng).

    PubMed

    Jo, Ick Hyun; Kim, Young Chang; Kim, Dong Hwi; Kim, Kee Hong; Hyun, Tae Kyung; Ryu, Hojin; Bang, Kyong Hwan

    2017-10-01

    The development of molecular markers is one of the most useful methods for molecular breeding and marker-based molecular associated selections. Even though there is less information on the reference genome, molecular markers are indispensable tools for determination of genetic variation and identification of species with high levels of accuracy and reproducibility. The demand for molecular approaches for marker-based breeding and genetic discriminations in Panax species has greatly increased in recent times and has been successfully applied for various purposes. However, owing to the existence of diverse molecular techniques and differences in their principles and applications, there should be careful consideration while selecting appropriate marker types. In this review, we outline the recent status of different molecular marker applications in ginseng research and industrial fields. In addition, we discuss the basic principles, requirements, and advantages and disadvantages of the most widely used molecular markers, including restriction fragment length polymorphism, random amplified polymorphic DNA, sequence tag sites, simple sequence repeats, and single nucleotide polymorphisms.

  20. Transcript expression profiling for adventitious roots of Panax ginseng Meyer.

    PubMed

    Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; Natarajan, Sathishkumar; Kim, Yu-Jin; Jang, Moon-Gi; Park, Jun-Hyung; Yang, Deok Chun

    2014-08-01

    Panax ginseng Meyer is one of the major medicinal plants in oriental countries belonging to the Araliaceae family which are the primary source for ginsenosides. However, very few genes were characterized for ginsenoside pathway, due to the limited genome information. Through this study, we obtained a comprehensive transcriptome from adventitious roots, which were treated with methyl jasmonic acids for different time points (control, 2h, 6h, 12h, and 24h) and sequenced by RNA 454 pyrosequencing technology. Reference transcriptome 39,304,529 (0.04GB) was obtained from 5,724,987,880 bases (5.7GB) of 22 libraries by de novo assembly and 35,266 (58.5%) transcripts were annotated with biological schemas (GO and KEGG). The digital gene expression patterns were obtained from in vitro grown adventitious root sequences which mapped to reference, from that, 3813 (6.3%) unique transcripts were involved in ≥2 fold up and downregulations. Finally, candidates for ginsenoside pathway genes were predicted from observed expression patterns. Among them, 30 transcription factors, 20 cytochromes, and 11 glycosyl transferases were predicted as ginsenoside candidates. These data can remarkably expand the existing transcriptome resources of Panax, especially to predict existence of gene networks in P. ginseng. The entity of the data provides a valuable platform to reveal more on secondary metabolism and abiotic stresses from P. ginseng in vitro grown adventitious roots. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ginseng phytochemicals as therapeutics in oncology: Recent perspectives.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Fatima; Malik, Fozia Zahur; Ahmed, Zaheer; Afreen, Asma; Afzal, Muhammad Naveed; Khalid, Nauman

    2018-04-01

    During the last few decades, cancer has mushroomed as a major health issue; and almost all drugs used for its therapy are very toxic with lethal side effects. Complementary and alternative medicines gain popularity among health professionals in recent era owing to its preventive mechanism against side effect chemotherapeutic drugs. Efforts are focused by scientists to isolate compounds from medicinal plant that have chemotherapeutic attributes; and ability to neutralize the side effects of chemotherapy. Ginseng is an oriental medicinal recipe from Araliceae family and Panax species. The chemotherapeutic effect of ginsenoside is resultant of its appetites, anti-proliferative, anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. The anticancer effect of ginseng is proven in various types of cancer, including; breast, lung, liver, colon and skin cancer. It increases the mitochondrial accumulation of apoptosis protein and downregulate the expression of anti-apoptotic protein. It also aids in the reduction of alopecia, fatigue and nausea, the known side effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. The aim of the present review is to provide the brief review of the recent researches related to mechanism of action of ginseng in different types of cancer as complementary and alternative medicine on different body organs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Drug Reduces Cancer Treatment-Related Joint Pain

    Cancer.gov

    A Cancer Currents blog post about a clinical trial demonstrating that duloxetine (Cymbalta®) may reduce joint pain caused by aromatase inhibitors in women being treated for early-stage breast cancer.

  3. Ultraviolet- and infrared-induced 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activating skin photoaging is inhibited by red ginseng extract containing high concentration of ginsenoside Rg3(S).

    PubMed

    Nam, Jin-Ju; Min, Ji-Eun; Son, Min-Ho; Oh, Jin-Hwan; Kang, Seunghyun

    2017-11-01

    Sun irradiation is one of major extrinsic stressors responsible for premature skin aging through activation and expression of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1), which converts inactive cortisone to active cortisol. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effects of red ginseng extract containing high concentrations of ginsenoside Rg3 (S) (GERg3) on 11β-HSD1-induced skin photoaging. To evaluate the inhibitory effects of GERg3 on ultraviolet- (UV) or infrared (IR)-induced skin photoaging, human dermal fibroblasts or a normal human 3D skin model was exposed to UV or an IR. RT-PCR, ELISA, Western blot, and H&E staining were used for evaluations. GERg3 was isolated from crude red ginseng. GERg3 inhibited the increased expressions of 11β-HSD1, interleukin (IL)-6, and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) in UVB- or IR-exposed Hs68 cells. Additionally, the increased cortisol, IL-6, and MMP-1 expressions were effectively reduced by GERg3 in UVA-exposed 3D skin models. The photoinduced decrease in type 1 procollagen also recovered as a result of GERg3 treatment in Hs68 cells and the 3D skin model. In addition, the UVA-exposed dermal thickness was decreased in comparison with the UVA-protected 3D skin model, recovered with GERg3 treatment. GERg3 had antiphotoaging effects in UV- or IR-exposed human dermal fibroblasts and normal human 3D skin model. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. [Induction of hairy roots of Panax ginseng and studies on suitable culture condition of ginseng hairy roots].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shou-Jing; Li, Chang-Yu; Qian, Yan-Chun; Luo, Xiao-Pei; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Xue-Song; Kang, Bo-Yu

    2004-03-01

    Ginseng is a valuable medicinal plant with ginsenosides as its mian effective components. Because ginseng is a perennial plant and has a very strict demand for soil conditions, the way of cultivating ginseng by cutting woods is still used in China at present and thus forest resources has been extremely destroyed. Increasing attention has been paid to the hairy roots induced by the infection of Agrobacterium rhizogenes in the production of plant secondary metabolic products for the hairy roots are characterized by rapid growth and stable hereditary and biochemical traits. That has opened a new way for the industrial production of ginseosides. However, there is little report for such studies from China. In this paper, hairy roots of ginseng were induced from the root explants of two-year-old ginseng by Agrobacterium rhizogenes A4 with directly inoculating. The transformed hairy roots could grow rapidly on MS medium and 1/2 MS medium without hormones. The cultured clones of the hairy roots were established on a solid 1/2 MS medium. After 4 - 5 subcultures the hairy roots still maintained a vigorous growth. A pair of primers were designed and synthesized according to the analytical results of RiA4TL-DNA sequence by Slightom et al . 0.8kb rolC was obtained by PCR using the genome DNA of hairy root of ginseng. Transformation was confirmed by PCR amplification of rolC genes from the hairy roots of P. ginseng. Growth rate of hairy roots on liquid medium increased by 2 times then that of the solid medium. The growth of the hairy roots can be divided into three stages: high speed in the first two weeks, middle speed in the 3 - 4 weeks and low speed hereafter. Changing the culture solution at 2 weeks regular intervals is conductive to maintaining the rapid growth of the hairy roots. By means of determination for specific growth rate and ginsenosides content, the high-yield hairy root clone R9923 was selected. The content of monomer gisenoside of Rg1, Re, Rf, Rbl, Rc, Rb2 and

  5. [Changes of diversity and composition of fungal communities in rhizosphere of Panax ginseng].

    PubMed

    Dong, Lin-Lin; Niu, Wei-Hao; Wang, Rui; Xu, Jiang; Zhang, Lian-Juan; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Shi-Lin

    2017-02-01

    Continuous cropping obstacles resulted in the yield losses of Panax ginseng, and affected the development of ginseng industry. Soil fungal communities participated in the key ecological process, and their changes of diversity and composition were related to the continuous cropping obstacles. We analyzed the changes of fungal diversity and composition in the rhizosphere of ginseng using the high-throughput sequencing method, stated the effects of ginseng cultivation on the micro-ecology, and provided effective strategies for overcoming continuous cropping obstacles. Compared to those of the forest soils, the fungal diversity of ginseng rhizosphere soils was increased, and the increasing trends were declined with an increasing years of ginseng cultivation; the relative abundance of Sordariomycetes, Alatospora, Eurotiomycetes, Leotiomycetes, Saccharomycetes, Mucorales and Pezizomycetes were increased in the rhizosphere of ginseng. Pearson's correlation index indicated that soil chemical perporties affected the relative abundance of fungal communities. pH was significantly related to the relative abundance of Dothideomycetes and Alatospora; the content of available potassium was markedly associated with the relative abundance of Dothideomycetes, Alatospora and Mucorales; the content of total nitrogen was significant correlation with the relative abundance of Sordariomycetes and Mucorales. These results indicated that fertilization was one of pivotal factors affecting the rhizosphere micro-ecology of ginseng, and optimization of fertilization system was an effective method to overcome continuous cropping obstacles. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  6. Large Scale Culture of Ginseng Adventitious Roots for Production of Ginsenosides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paek, Kee-Yoeup; Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Hahn, Eun-Joo; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) is one of the most famous oriental medicinal plants used as crude drugs in Asian countries, and now it is being used worldwide for preventive and therapeutic purposes. Among diverse constituents of ginseng, saponins (ginsenosides) have been found to be major components responsible for their biological and pharmacological actions. On the other hand, difficulties in the supply of pure ginsenosides in quantity prevent the development of ginseng for clinical medicines. Cultivation of ginseng in fields takes a long time, generally 5-7 years, and needs extensive effort regarding quality control since growth is susceptible to many environmental factors including soil, shade, climate, pathogens and pests. To solve the problems, cell and tissue cultures have been widely explored for more rapid and efficient production of ginseng biomass and ginsenosides. Recently, cell and adventitious root cultures of P. ginseng have been established in large scale bioreactors with a view to commercial application. Various physiological and engineering parameters affecting the biomass production and ginsenoside accumulation have been investigated. Advances in adventitious root cultures including factors for process scale-up are reviewed in this chapter. In addition, biosafety analyses of ginseng adventitious roots are also discussed for real application.

  7. Structural Characterization of Ginsenosides from Flower Buds of Panax ginseng by RRLC-Q-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Lu, Ziyan; Teng, Yaran; Guo, Yingying; Liu, Shuying

    2016-02-01

    Ginseng flower bud as a part of Panax ginseng has received much attention as a valuable functional food with medicinal potential. A few studies focused on systematic and comprehensive studies on its major ingredients. This study aims to rapidly characterize ginsenosides in ginseng flower buds and provide scientific basis for developing functional food, exploiting pharmaceutical effects and making full use of ginseng resources. A rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (RRLC-Q-TOF-MS) method was developed for rapid qualitative and quantitative analysis of ginsenosides in ginseng flower buds. The compounds were identified by comparing retention time of the reference standards, accurate mass measurement and the fragment ions obtained from RRLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS analyses. A total of 14 kinds of ginsenosides were identified and 5 kinds of malonyl-ginsenosides were first tentatively identified in ginseng flower buds. Ten kinds of main ginsenosides were quantitatively analyzed. The developed RRLC-Q-TOF-MS method was demonstrated as an effective analytical means for rapid characterization of the ginsenosides in flower buds of P. ginseng. The research result is valuable for quality control, assessment of authenticity and stability evaluation of ginseng flower buds. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Structural characterization of alkali-soluble polysaccharides from Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Li; Jie, Zhenjing; Ying, Xin; Yue, Qi; Zhou, Yifa

    2018-01-01

    Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (ginseng) has been widely used as a herb and functional food in the world. Polysaccharides are the main active components of ginseng. In this paper, the polysaccharides were sequentially extracted by 50 mM Na2CO3, 1 M KOH and 4 M KOH from ginseng roots treated sequentially with hot water, α-amylase and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid extraction. Na2CO3-soluble ginseng polysaccharide (NGP) was fractionated into one neutral and three acidic fractions by anion exchange and gel permeation chromatography. Fourier transform infrared, NMR and methylation analysis indicated acidic fractions in NGP were highly branched rhamnogalacturonan-I domains, with  → 4)-α-GalpA-(1 → 2)-α-Rhap-(1 → disaccharide repeating units as backbone and β-1,4-galactan, α-1,5/1,3,5-arabinan and type II arabinogalactan as side chains. 1-KGP (1 M KOH-soluble ginseng polysaccharide) and 4-KGP (4 M KOH-soluble ginseng polysaccharide) were mainly composed of hemicellulose besides starch-like polysaccharides and minor pectin. Antibody detection, enzymic hydrolysis, high performance anion exchange chromatography and methylation analysis demonstrated xylan was the major component in 1-KGP, while xyloglucan was predominant in 4-KGP. Comparing the polysaccharides obtained by different solvent extractions, we have a comprehensive understanding about total ginseng polysaccharides. PMID:29657770

  9. Synergistic effects of climate change and harvest on extinction risk of American ginseng.

    PubMed

    Souther, Sara; McGraw, James B

    Over the next century, the conservation of biodiversity will depend not only on our ability to understand the effect of climate change, but also on our capacity to predict how other factors interact with climate change to influence species viability. We used American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.), the United States' premier wild-harvested medicinal, as a model system to ask whether the effect of harvest on extinction risk depends on changing climatic conditions. We performed stochastic projections of viability response to an increase in maximum growing-season temperature of 1°C over the next 70 years by sampling matrices from long-term demographic studies of 12 populations (representing 75 population-years of data). In simulations that included harvest and climate change, extinction risk at the median population size (N = 140) was 65%, far exceeding the additive effects of the two factors (extinction risk = 8% and 6% for harvest and climate change, respectively; quasi-extinction threshold = 20). We performed a life table response experiment (LTRE) to determine underlying causes of the effect of warming and harvest on deterministic λ (λd). Together, these factors decreased λd values primarily by reducing growth of juvenile and small adult plants to the large-adult stage, as well as decreasing stasis of the juveniles and large adults. The interaction observed in stochastic model results followed from a nonlinear increase in extinction risk as the combined impact of harvest and warming consistently reduced λ values below the demographic tipping point of λ = 1. While further research is needed to create specific recommendations, these findings indicate that ginseng harvest regulations should be revised to account for changing climate. Given the possibility of nonlinear response like that reported here, pre-emptive adaptation of management strategies may increase efficacy of biodiversity conservation by allowing behavior modification prior to precipitous

  10. TREATMENT OF HEAVY METALS USING AN ORGANIC SULFATE REDUCING PRB

    EPA Science Inventory

    A mpilot-scale permeable reactive wall consisting of a leaf-rich compost-pea gravel mixture was installed at a site in the Vancouver area, Canada to evaluate its potential use for treatment of a large dissolved heavy metal plume. The compost based permeable reactive wall promote...

  11. Potential fire behavior is reduced following forest restoration treatments

    Treesearch

    Peter Z. Fule; Charles McHugh; Thomas A. Heinlein; W. Wallace Covington

    2001-01-01

    Potential fire behavior was compared under dry, windy weather conditions in 12 ponderosa pine stands treated with alternative thinning prescriptions in the wildland/urban interface of Flagstaff, Arizona. Prior to thinning, stands averaged 474 trees/ acre, 158 ft2/acre basal area, crown bulk density 0.0045 lb/ft3, and crown base height 19.2 ft. Three thinning treatments...

  12. Current Evaluation of the Millennium Phytomedicine- Ginseng (I): Etymology, Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Market and Regulations

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Lee; Zhao, Yuqing

    2009-01-01

    The dawning of this millennium broke new ground in life science and technology, presented us genomic and proteomic revolution, nanotechnology innovation, and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) used for separating and identifying new chemical entities at pico-, or even femto-concentrations. Applications of these high technologies to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) opened a new chapter in the ancient medicine, and prompted us to re-evaluate the thousand-year-old phytomedicine–ginseng from current perspectives. We, therefore, collected the latest information (mostly within 10 years) on ginseng, and condensed the information into two parts of this review serial. The present part covers etymology of ginseng, its pharmacognosy (natural origin, physical appearance, chemical properties, and specie identification), its cultivation and processing-related metabolic changes in active ingredients, standardized analytical methods used for quality control of various ginseng products, modern analytical methods used to identify and classify more than 100 chemical entities (many were recently unfolded) derived from ginseng species and their metabolites. The global markets and production of ginseng and relevant government regulations are herein updated to exchange information and understandings about current people’s uses and cultivation of ginseng. The second part of the review serial will classify all these 100 chemical entities separated from various ginseng species into different groups based on their structural similarities, and summarize bioactivities of these entities. The second part of the review serial will also focus on recent findings of ginseng pharmacology and its clinical trials for various diseases, and brief side effects of ginseng. PMID:19601793

  13. Current evaluation of the millennium phytomedicine--ginseng (I): etymology, pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, market and regulations.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lee; Zhao, Yuqing

    2009-01-01

    The dawning of this millennium broke new ground in life science and technology, presented us genomic and proteomic revolution, nanotechnology innovation, and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) used for separating and identifying new chemical entities at pico-, or even femto-concentrations. Applications of these high technologies to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) opened a new chapter in the ancient medicine, and prompted us to re-evaluate the thousand-year-old phytomedicine- ginseng from current perspectives. We, therefore, collected the latest information (mostly within 10 years) on ginseng, and condensed the information into two parts of this review serial. The present part covers etymology of ginseng, its pharmacognosy (natural origin, physical appearance, chemical properties, and specie identification), its cultivation and processing-related metabolic changes in active ingredients, standardized analytical methods used for quality control of various ginseng products, modern analytical methods used to identify and classify more than 100 chemical entities (many were recently unfolded) derived from ginseng species and their metabolites. The global markets and production of ginseng and relevant government regulations are herein updated to exchange information and understandings about current people's uses and cultivation of ginseng. The second part of the review serial will classify all these 100 chemical entities separated from various ginseng species into different groups based on their structural similarities, and summarize bioactivities of these entities. The second part of the review serial will also focus on recent findings of ginseng pharmacology and its clinical trials for various diseases, and brief side effects of ginseng.

  14. [Key techniques for precision cultivation of nitrogenous fertilizer of pollution-free ginseng].

    PubMed

    Guo, Li-Li; Guo, Shuai; Dong, Lin-Lin; Shen, Liang; Li, Xi-Wen; Xu, Jiang; Chen, Shi-Lin

    2018-04-01

    Planting pollution-free farmland is the main mode of industrialization of ginseng cultivation, fine management of nitrogen fertilizer ginseng pollution-free farmland cultivation technology system is one of the key factors. In order to investigate the effect of nitrogenous fertilizer on the accumulation of ginseng biomass and saponins synthesis in vegetative growth stage, two-years-old ginsengs were used as test materials in this study. The test materials were cultivated by Hoagland medium with different nitrogen concentration (0,10,20,40 mg·L⁻¹) for 40 days. During the cultivation, photosynthetic rate was measured four times. After 40 days cultivation, chlorophyll content, stem diameter and the spatiotemporal expression of saponin synthesis related genes PgHMGR and PgSQE were tested. The results showed that there were significant differences in the photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll content among different nitrogen concentrations. The relative expression level of PgHMGR gene and PgSQE gene in root, stem and leaves of ginseng were different. Ginseng seedlings cultivated by 20 mg·L⁻¹ nitrogen possess the highest photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll content, while PgHMGR and PgSE showed the highest gene expression level. The optimal nitrogen concentration for the growth of 2-years-old ginseng might be 20 mg·L⁻¹ with 57.14 g ammonium nitrate each plant or pure 20.00 mg nitrogen each plant. It is concluded that this concentration is the most suitable concentration for the ginsenoside synthesis. Pollution-free ginseng with fine nitrogen fertilizer cultivation is conducive to the production of high quality and efficient ginseng medicinal materials. It lays a theoretical foundation for the rational fertilization and environment-friendly sustainable ecological ginseng planting industry. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  15. Mass Spectrometry Based Profiling and Imaging of Various Ginsenosides from Panax ginseng Roots at Different Ages

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Won; Ji, Seung-Heon; Lee, Young-Seob; Choi, Doo Jin; Choi, Bo-Ram; Kim, Geum-Soog; Baek, Nam-In; Lee, Dae Young

    2017-01-01

    (1) Background: Panax ginseng root is one of the most important herbal products, and the profiling of ginsenosides is critical for the quality control of ginseng roots at different ages in the herbal markets. Furthermore, interest in assessing the contents as well as the localization of biological compounds has been growing. The objective of this study is to carry out the mass spectrometry (MS)-based profiling and imaging of ginsenosides to assess ginseng roots at different ages; (2) Methods: Optimal ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight/MS (UPLC-QTOF/MS) was used to profile various ginsenosides from P. ginseng roots. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI)-time of flight (TOF)/MS-based imaging was also optimized to visualize ginsenosides in ginseng roots; (3) Results: UPLC-QTOF/MS was used to profile 30 ginsenosides with high mass accuracy, with an in-house library constructed for the fast and exact identification of ginsenosides. Using this method, the levels of 14 ginsenosides were assessed in P. ginseng roots cultivated for 4, 5, and 6 years. The optimal MALDI-imaging MS (IMS) was also applied to visualize the 14 ginsenosides in ginseng roots. As a result, the MSI cross sections showed the localization of 4 ginsenoside ions ([M + K]+) in P. ginseng roots at different ages; (4) Conclusions: The contents and localization of various ginsenosides differ depending on the cultivation years of P. ginseng roots. Furthermore, this study demonstrated the utility of MS-based profiling and imaging of ginsenosides for the quality control of ginseng roots. PMID:28538661

  16. Mass Spectrometry Based Profiling and Imaging of Various Ginsenosides from Panax ginseng Roots at Different Ages.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Won; Ji, Seung-Heon; Lee, Young-Seob; Choi, Doo Jin; Choi, Bo-Ram; Kim, Geum-Soog; Baek, Nam-In; Lee, Dae Young

    2017-05-24

    (1) Background: Panax ginseng root is one of the most important herbal products, and the profiling of ginsenosides is critical for the quality control of ginseng roots at different ages in the herbal markets. Furthermore, interest in assessing the contents as well as the localization of biological compounds has been growing. The objective of this study is to carry out the mass spectrometry (MS)-based profiling and imaging of ginsenosides to assess ginseng roots at different ages; (2) Methods: Optimal ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight/MS (UPLC-QTOF/MS) was used to profile various ginsenosides from P. ginseng roots. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI)-time of flight (TOF)/MS-based imaging was also optimized to visualize ginsenosides in ginseng roots; (3) Results: UPLC-QTOF/MS was used to profile 30 ginsenosides with high mass accuracy, with an in-house library constructed for the fast and exact identification of ginsenosides. Using this method, the levels of 14 ginsenosides were assessed in P. ginseng roots cultivated for 4, 5, and 6 years. The optimal MALDI-imaging MS (IMS) was also applied to visualize the 14 ginsenosides in ginseng roots. As a result, the MSI cross sections showed the localization of 4 ginsenoside ions ([M + K]⁺) in P. ginseng roots at different ages; (4) Conclusions: The contents and localization of various ginsenosides differ depending on the cultivation years of P. ginseng roots. Furthermore, this study demonstrated the utility of MS-based profiling and imaging of ginsenosides for the quality control of ginseng roots.

  17. Reducing treatment of coppersmelting slag: Thermodynamic analysis of impurities behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komkov, Alexey; Kamkin, Rostislav

    2011-01-01

    A thermodynamic mathematical model, describing behavior of Pb, Zn, and As during reducing slag cleaning in the Vanyukov furnace has been developed. Using a developed model, the influence of different factors, such as temperature, oxygen partial pressure, the ratio of the formed phases on the behavior of impurities, was analyzed. It was found that arsenic can significantly move to the bottom phase, and zinc can be significantly vaporized under conditions in the Vanyukov furnace.

  18. Can treatment and disposal costs be reduced through metal recovery?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Figueroa, Linda; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a framework to conduct a “metal-recovery feasibility assessment” for mining influenced water (MIW) and associated treatment sludge. There are multiple considerations in such a determination, including the geologic/geochemical feasibility, market feasibility, technical feasibility, economic feasibility, and administrative feasibility. Each of these considerations needs to be evaluated to determine the practicality of metal recovery from a particular MIW.

  19. Effect of Asian and Siberian ginseng on serum digoxin measurement by five digoxin immunoassays. Significant variation in digoxin-like immunoreactivity among commercial ginsengs.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Amitava; Wu, Sang; Actor, Jeffrey; Olsen, Margaret; Wells, Alice; Datta, Pradip

    2003-02-01

    Asian and Siberian ginsengs contain glycosides with structural similarities to digoxin. We studied potential interference of ginseng in 5 digoxin immunoassays in 3 Asian (2 liquid extracts, 1 capsule) and 3 Siberian ginseng preparations (1 liquid extract, 2 capsules). With the fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA), we observed apparent digoxin activity in 1 Asian liquid preparation and in the liquid extract and 1 capsule form of Siberian ginseng. In mice fed ginseng, we observed digoxin activities in the serum (Asian, 0.48-0.68 ng/mL [0.6-0.9 nmol/L]; Siberian, 0.20-0.47 ng/mL [0.3-0.6 nmol/L]), indicating that such interferences also occur in vivo. Serum pools prepared from samples from patients receiving digoxin and then supplemented with Asian or Siberian ginseng showed falsely increased digoxin values using the FPIA (e.g., for Asian ginseng, 1.54 ng/mL [2.0 nmol/L] vs control value, 1.10 ng/mL [1.4 nmol/L]) and falsely decreased values using the microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA; 0.73 ng/mL [0.9 nmol/L] vs control value, 1.04 ng/mL [1.3 nmol/L]). Digoxin-like immunoreactive substances (DLISs) showed synergistic effects with ginsengs in interfering with the FPIA and MEIA for digoxin. No interference was observed with 3 other digoxin assays, even in the presence of elevated DLISs.

  20. Major repeat components covering one-third of the ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) genome and evidence for allotetraploidy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hong-Il; Waminal, Nomar E; Park, Hye Mi; Kim, Nam-Hoon; Choi, Beom Soon; Park, Minkyu; Choi, Doil; Lim, Yong Pyo; Kwon, Soo-Jin; Park, Beom-Seok; Kim, Hyun Hee; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2014-03-01

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng) is a famous medicinal herb, but the composition and structure of its genome are largely unknown. Here we characterized the major repeat components and inspected their distribution in the ginseng genome. By analyzing three repeat-rich bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequences from ginseng, we identified complex insertion patterns of 34 long terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) and 11 LTR-RT derivatives accounting for more than 80% of the BAC sequences. The LTR-RTs were classified into three Ty3/gypsy (PgDel, PgTat and PgAthila) and two Ty1/Copia (PgTork and PgOryco) families. Mapping of 30-Gbp Illumina whole-genome shotgun reads to the BAC sequences revealed that these five LTR-RT families occupy at least 34% of the ginseng genome. The Ty3/Gypsy families were predominant, comprising 74 and 33% of the BAC sequences and the genome, respectively. In particular, the PgDel family accounted for 29% of the genome and presumably played major roles in enlargement of the size of the ginseng genome. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that the PgDel1 elements are distributed throughout the chromosomes along dispersed heterochromatic regions except for ribosomal DNA blocks. The intensity of the PgDel2 FISH signals was biased toward 24 out of 48 chromosomes. Unique gene probes showed two pairs of signals with different locations, one pair in subtelomeric regions on PgDel2-rich chromosomes and the other in interstitial regions on PgDel2-poor chromosomes, demonstrating allotetraploidy in ginseng. Our findings promote understanding of the evolution of the ginseng genome and of that of related species in the Araliaceae. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Korean Red Ginseng Saponin Fraction Downregulates Proinflammatory Mediators in LPS Stimulated RAW264.7 Cells and Protects Mice against Endotoxic Shock.

    PubMed

    Yayeh, Taddessee; Jung, Kun-Ho; Jeong, Hye Yoon; Park, Ji-Hoon; Song, Yong-Bum; Kwak, Yi-Seong; Kang, Heun-Soo; Cho, Jae Youl; Oh, Jae-Wook; Kim, Sang-Keun; Rhee, Man Hee

    2012-07-01

    Korean red ginseng has shown therapeutic effects for a number of disease conditions. However, little is known about the antiinflammatory effect of Korean red ginseng saponin fraction (RGSF) in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, in this study, we showed that RGSF containing 20(S)-protopanaxadiol type saponins inhibited nitric oxide production and attenuated the release of tumor necrotic factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, granulocyte monocyte colony stimulating factor (GMCSF), and macrophage chemo-attractant protein-1 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, RGSF down-regulated the mRNA expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxyginase-2, IL-1β, TNF-α, GMCSF, and IL-6. Furthermore, RGSF reduced the level of TNF-α in the serum and protected mice against LPS mediated endotoxic shock. In conclusion, these results indicated that ginsenosides from RGSF and their metabolites could be potential sources of therapeutic agents against inflammation.

  2. Chinese medicine Ginseng and Astragalus granules ameliorate autoimmune diabetes by upregulating both CD4+FoxP3+ and CD8+CD122+PD1+ regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yeshu; Xie, Qingfeng; Liang, Chun-Ling; Zeng, Qiaohuang; Dai, Zhenhua

    2017-09-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease mainly mediated by effector T cells that are activated by autoantigen, thereby resulting in the destruction of pancreatic islets and deficiency of insulin. Cyclosporine is widely used as an immunosuppressant that suppresses autoimmunity in clinic. However, continuous treatments with conventional immunosuppressive drugs may cause severe side effects. Therefore it is important to seek alternative medicine. Chinese medicine Ginseng and Astragalus granule (GAG) was used to successfully treat type 2 diabetes mellitus in clinic in China. Here we found that GAG ameliorated T1DM in autoimmune NOD mice by increasing the level of insulin and reducing the level of blood glucose. Treatments with both GAG and CsA further decreased the blood glucose level. Moreover, GAG increased both CD4+FoxP3+ and CD8+CD122+PD-1+ Treg numbers in both spleens and lymph nodes of NOD mice. In particular, GAG could reverse a decline in CD4+FoxP3+ Tregs resulted from CsA treatments. The percentage of effector/memory CD8+ T cells (CD44 high CD62L low ) was significantly reduced by GAG, especially in the presence of low-doses of CsA. Histopathology also showed that GAG attenuated cellular infiltration and lowered CD3+ T cell numbers around and in islets. Thus, we demonstrated that GAG ameliorated autoimmune T1DM by upregulating both CD4+FoxP3+ and CD8+CD122+PD-1+ Tregs while GAG synergized with CsA to further suppress autoimmunity and T1DM by reversing the decline in CD4+FoxP3+ Tregs resulted from CsA treatments. This study may have important clinical implications for the treatment of T1DM using traditional Chinese medicine.

  3. Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) - treatment of the reduced host defense.

    PubMed

    Heslet, Lars; Bay, Christiane; Nepper-Christensen, Steen

    2012-01-01

    The current radiation threat from the Fukushima power plant accident has prompted rethinking of the contingency plan for prophylaxis and treatment of the acute radiation syndrome (ARS). The well-documented effect of the growth factors (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor [G-CSF] and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF]) in acute radiation injury has become standard treatment for ARS in the United States, based on the fact that growth factors increase number and functions of both macrophages and granulocytes. Review of the current literature. The lungs have their own host defense system, based on alveolar macrophages. After radiation exposure to the lungs, resting macrophages can no longer be transformed, not even during systemic administration of growth factors because G-CSF/GM-CSF does not penetrate the alveoli. Under normal circumstances, locally-produced GM-CSF receptors transform resting macrophages into fully immunocompetent dendritic cells in the sealed-off pulmonary compartment. However, GM-CSF is not expressed in radiation injured tissue due to defervescence of the macrophages. In order to maintain the macrophage's important role in host defense after radiation exposure, it is hypothesized that it is necessary to administer the drug exogenously in order to uphold the barrier against exogenous and endogenous infections and possibly prevent the potentially lethal systemic infection, which is the main cause of death in ARS. Preemptive treatment should be initiated after suspected exposure of a radiation dose of at least <2 Gy by prompt dosing of 250-400 μg GM-CSF/m(2) or 5 μg/kg G-CSF administered systemically and concomitant inhalation of GM-CSF < 300 mcg per day for at least 14-21 days. The present United States standard for prevention and treatment of ARS standard intervention should consequently be modified into the combined systemic administration of growth factors and inhaled GM-CSF to ensure the sustained systemic and pulmonary

  4. Evaluation of different grades of ginseng using Fourier-transform infrared and two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan-ling; Chen, Jian-bo; Lei, Yu; Zhou, Qun; Sun, Su-qin; Noda, Isao

    2010-06-01

    Ginseng is one of the most widely used herbal medicines which have many kinds of pharmaceutical values. The discrimination of grades of ginseng includes the cultivation types and the growth years herein. To evaluate the different grades of ginseng, the fibrous roots and rhizome roots of ginseng were analyzed by Fourier-transform infrared and two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy in this paper. The fibrous root and rhizome root of ginseng have different content of starch, calcium oxalate and other components. For the fibrous roots of ginseng, mountain cultivation ginseng (MCG), garden cultivation ginseng (GCG) and transplanted cultivation ginseng (TCG) have clear difference in the infrared spectra and second derivative spectra in the range of 1800-400 cm -1, and clearer difference was observed in the range of 1045-1160 and 1410-1730 cm -1 in 2D synchronous correlation spectra. Three kinds of ginseng can be clustered very well by using SIMCA analysis on the basis of PCA as well. For the rhizome roots, the content of calcium oxalate and starch change with growth years in the IR spectra, and some useful procedure can be obtained by the analysis of 2D IR synchronous spectra in the range of 1050-1415 cm -1. Also, ginsengs cultivated in different growth years were clustered perfectly by using SIMCA analysis. The results suggested that different grades of ginseng can be well recognized using the mid-infrared spectroscopy assisted by 2D IR correlation spectroscopy, which provide the macro-fingerprint characteristics of ginseng in different parts and supplied a rapid, effective approach for the evaluation of the quality of ginseng.

  5. [White ginseng commercialization and sales expansion activities of Gaesung merchants in the 1910s and 1920s].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jeongpil

    2011-06-30

    Ginseng has always been the typical export item in Korean history. Until the 18th century, exporting ginseng was wild ginseng from the mountains. Since the 19th century, exporting ginseng became red ginseng, which was red due to steaming and drying process. Red ginseng was produced by Gaesung merchants, so that these merchants were able to gain the control of the output. Gaesung merchants of the 19th century exported red ginseng to China and made huge economic success. However, when the Korean Empire and Japanese colonial government established red ginseng monopoly, it essentially blocked Gaesung traders from manufacturing and exporting any further of its prized commodity. Then, the traders turned to sun-dried white ginseng as a substitute to red ginseng. As a result, white ginseng production dramatically increased after 1914, which in turn made Gaesung merchants newly aware of the commercial value of white ginseng, which was previously ignored. The traders made good use of the traditional medicine herb market, which opened annually, to promote the expansion of white ginseng sales. Moreover, the merchants also adopted modern marketing techniques, as they founded companies to handle solely white ginseng sales, refreshed packaging to raise commodity values, and made an effort in advertising and mail order sales. Due to such endeavors, demand for white ginseng grew exponentially both in domestic and foreign markets, which generated steady growth of white ginseng prices despite the rapid increase of its supply. This phenomenon naturally brought about the rich economic accomplishments of Gaesung merchants. Through the white ginseng sales activities of Gaesung merchants in post-1910s era, two facts can be newly uncovered. First, the mass consumption of white ginseng today in Korean society took a full-scale step after the 1910s. Second, it was a widely-held view that during the Japanese rule, majority of Korean traditional merchants were economically ruined, while a

  6. Periodontal treatment reduces chronic systemic inflammation in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Siribamrungwong, Monchai; Yothasamutr, Kasemsuk; Puangpanngam, Kutchaporn

    2014-06-01

    Chronic systemic inflammation, a non traditional risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, is associated with increasing mortality in chronic kidney disease, especially peritoneal dialysis patients. Periodontitis is a potential treatable source of systemic inflammation in peritoneal dialysis patients. Clinical periodontal status was evaluated in 32 stable chronic peritoneal dialysis patients by plaque index and periodontal disease index. Hematologic, blood chemical, nutritional, and dialysis-related data as well as highly sensitive C-reactive protein were analyzed before and after periodontal treatment. At baseline, high sensitive C-reactive protein positively correlated with the clinical periodontal status (plaque index; r = 0.57, P < 0.01, periodontal disease index; r = 0.56, P < 0.01). After completion of periodontal therapy, clinical periodontal indexes were significantly lower and high sensitivity C-reactive protein significantly decreased from 2.93 to 2.21 mg/L. Moreover, blood urea nitrogen increased from 47.33 to 51.8 mg/dL, reflecting nutritional status improvement. Erythropoietin dosage requirement decreased from 8000 to 6000 units/week while hemoglobin level was stable. Periodontitis is an important source of chronic systemic inflammation in peritoneal dialysis patients. Treatment of periodontal diseases can improve systemic inflammation, nutritional status and erythropoietin responsiveness in peritoneal dialysis patients. © 2013 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2013 International Society for Apheresis.

  7. Ginseng supplementation does not change lactate threshold and physical performances in physically active Thai men.

    PubMed

    Kulaputana, Onanong; Thanakomsirichot, Siriwan; Anomasiri, Wilai

    2007-06-01

    Ginseng has been one of the most popular herbs said to improve human exercise performance. Unclear and anecdotal information is known about the effect of ginseng on lactate threshold and aerobic performance in humans. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of ginseng supplementation on lactate threshold in physically active young men. Sixty men from the Naval Medical Corps, Royal Thai Navy, aged 17- 22 years old, were randomized into either the ginseng (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) group. The ginseng group took 3 grams of 100% ginseng orally, while the placebo group took an equal amount of lactose powder each day, for 8 weeks. Blood lactic acid levels for determination of lactate threshold (LT) were measured during an incremental cycle ergometer work. LT exercise performance, and heart rate (HR) responses to exercise were determined at baseline and after 8 weeks of ginseng and placebo consumption. Substrate oxidation rates during steady state exercise were assessed upon study completion. Selected markers for liver and kidney functions, including serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine were monitored for possible side effects of ginseng. L T before and after 8 weeks of supplementation in the ginseng group (164.5 +/- 32.8 and 170.9 +/- 26.4 watts), and in the placebo group (163.7 + 25.1 and 163.7 + 17.3 watts) were not different (p = 0.448). Both groups had a similar pattern of exercise heart rate (p = 0.918), total exercise time (p = 0.241), and peak power output (p = 0.411). After 8 weeks, the magnitude of difference between ginseng and placebo groups on oxidation rates of fat (3.82 +/- 10.0 cal. kg(-1). min(-1), p = 0.704) or carbohydrate (4.36 +/- 12.6 cal. kg(-1). min(-1), p = 0.731) was not statistically significant. There were no abnormal changes of markers of liver and renal functions after ginseng administration. Daily administration of 3 g of ginseng for an 8-week period did not

  8. Total extract of Korean red ginseng facilitates human bone marrow hematopoietic colony formation in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Gyung; Bae, Sung Hwa; Kim, Seong-Mo; Lee, Ji-Hye; Kim, Min Ji; Jang, Hae-Bong

    2014-01-01

    Background The number of CD34+ cells in a peripheral blood stem cell collection is the key factor in predicting successful treatment of hematologic malignancies. Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) is the most popular medicinal herb in Korea. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of KRG on hematopoietic colony formation. Methods Bone marrow (BM) samples were obtained from 8 human donors after acquiring informed consent. BM mononuclear cells (MNCs) were isolated, and CD34+ cells were sorted using magnetic beads. The sorted CD34+ cells were incubated with or without total extract of KRG (50 µg/mL, 100 µg/mL) or Ginsenoside Rg1 (100 µg/mL), and the hematopoietic colony assay was performed using methylcellulose semisolid medium. The CD34+ cell counts were measured by a single platform assay using flow cytometry. Results The numbers of human BM-MNCs and CD34+ cells obtained after purification were variable among donors (5.6×107 and 1.3-48×107 and 8.9×104 and 1.8-80×104, respectively). The cells expanded 1,944 times after incubation for 12 d. Total extract of KRG added to the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-specific medium increased CD34+ cell counts 3.6 times compared to 2.6 times when using HSC medium alone. Total numbers of hematopoietic colonies in KRG medium were more than those observed in conventional medium, especially that of erythroid colonies such as burst forming unit-erythroid. Conclusion Total extract of KRG facilitated CD34+ cell expansion and hematopoietic colony formation, especially of the erythroid lineage. PMID:25325037

  9. ATF-2/CREB/IRF-3-targeted anti-inflammatory activity of Korean red ginseng water extract.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanyan; Yang, Woo Seok; Yu, Tao; Sung, Gi-Ho; Park, Kye Won; Yoon, Keejung; Son, Young-Jin; Hwang, Hyunsik; Kwak, Yi-Seong; Lee, Chang-Muk; Rhee, Man Hee; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Cho, Jae Youl

    2014-05-28

    Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) is one of the representative traditional herbal medicines prepared from Panax ginseng Meyer (Araliaceae) in Korea. It has been reported that KRG exhibits a lot of different biological actions such as anti-aging, anti-fatigue, anti-stress, anti-atherosclerosis, anti-diabetic, anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory activities. Although systematic studies have investigated how KRG is able to ameliorate various inflammatory diseases, its molecular inhibitory mechanisms had not been carried out prior to this study. In order to investigate these mechanisms, we evaluated the effects of a water extract of Korean Red Ginseng (KRG-WE) on the in vitro inflammatory responses of activated RAW264.7 cells, and on in vivo gastritis and peritonitis models by analyzing the activation events of inflammation-inducing transcription factors and their upstream kinases. KRG-WE reduced the production of nitric oxide (NO), protected cells against NO-induced apoptosis, suppressed mRNA levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and interferon (IFN)-β, ameliorated EtOH/HCl-induced gastritis, and downregulated peritoneal exudate-derived NO production from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-injected mice. The inhibition of these inflammatory responses by KRG-WE was regulated through the suppression of p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and by subsequent inhibition of activating transcription factor (ATF)-2, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and IRF-3 activation. Of ginsensides included in this extract, interestingly, G-Rc showed the highest inhibitory potency on IRF-3-mediated luciferase activity. These results strongly suggest that the anti-inflammatory activities of KRG-WE could be due to its inhibition of the p38/JNK/TBK1 activation pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Electrocardiographic and blood pressure effects of energy drinks and Panax ginseng in healthy volunteers: A randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sachin A; Occiano, Andrew; Nguyen, Tinh An; Chan, Amanda; Sky, Joseph C; Bhattacharyya, Mouchumi; O'Dell, Kate M; Shek, Allen; Nguyen, Nancy N

    2016-09-01

    Energy drink usage has been linked to emergency room visits and deaths. The objective of the study is to assess the electrocardiographic and blood pressure effects of energy drinks, Panax ginseng and placebo in healthy individuals. This was a randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled, crossover study. Young healthy volunteers with no comorbid conditions consumed 32oz of an energy drink, control drink with 800mg of Panax ginseng or matching placebo-control drink over 45min. Primary endpoints were QTc interval and systolic blood pressure. Secondary endpoints included QT interval, PR interval, QRS duration, heart rate, and diastolic blood pressure. All endpoints were assessed at baseline, 1, 2, 3.5, and 5.5h. A significant increase in QTc interval 2h post energy drink consumption was evident when compared to placebo (3.37±10.7ms and -3.19±11.8ms respectively; p=0.030). Similarly, systolic blood pressure 2h post energy drink consumption increased when compared to placebo (2.00±6.37mmHg and -2.67±5.83mmHg respectively; p=0.014). The PR interval significantly reduced over a 2h period post energy drink use in a clinically non-meaningful manner. Heart rate at 2h was not significantly higher in the energy drink group when compared to others. The QT interval, QRS interval and diastolic blood pressure were not impacted at any time point. Certain energy drinks consumed at a high volume significantly increase the QTc interval and systolic blood pressure by over 6ms and 4mmHg respectively. Panax ginseng does not have a significant impact on ECG or blood pressure parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Korean Red Ginseng inhibits apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells via estrogen receptor β-mediated phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Cuong Thach; Luong, Truc Thanh; Kim, Gyu-Lee; Pyo, Suhkneung; Rhee, Dong-Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Background Ginseng has been shown to exert antistress effects both in vitro and in vivo. However, the effects of ginseng on stress in brain cells are not well understood. This study investigated how Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) controls hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis via regulation of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt and estrogen receptor (ER)-β signaling. Methods Human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells were pretreated with KRG and subsequently exposed to H2O2. The ability of KRG to inhibit oxidative stress-induced apoptosis was assessed in MTT cytotoxicity assays. Apoptotic protein expression was examined by Western blot analysis. The roles of ER-β, PI3K, and p-Akt signaling in KRG regulation of apoptosis were studied using small interfering RNAs and/or target antagonists. Results Pretreating SK-N-SH cells with KRG decreased expression of the proapoptotic proteins p-p53 and caspase-3, but increased expression of the antiapoptotic protein BCL2. KRG pretreatment was also associated with increased ER-β, PI3K, and p-Akt expression. Conversely, ER-β inhibition with small interfering RNA or inhibitor treatment increased p-p53 and caspase-3 levels, but decreased BCL2, PI3K, and p-Akt expression. Moreover, inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling diminished p-p53 and caspase-3 levels, but increased BCL2 expression. Conclusion Collectively, the data indicate that KRG represses oxidative stress-induced apoptosis by enhancing PI3K/Akt signaling via upregulation of ER-β expression. PMID:25535479

  12. Evaluating the need for surface treatments to reduce crash frequency on horizontal curves.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-10-01

    The application of high-friction surface treatments at appropriate horizontal curve locations throughout the : state has the potential to improve driver performance and reduce the number of crashes experienced at : horizontal curves. These treatments...

  13. Sesquiterpenoids from the root of Panax Ginseng protect CCl4-induced acute liver injury by anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative capabilities in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weidong; Wang, Shijie; Liu, Jinping; Cai, Enbo; Zhu, Hongyan; He, Zhongmei; Gao, Yugang; Li, Pingya; Zhao, Yan

    2018-06-01

    The oxidative stress and inflammatory response play an important role in carbon tetracholoride (CCl 4 )-induced acute liver injury. In this work, sesquiterpenoids from the root of Panax Ginseng (SPG) were prepared, and then the hepatoprotective effects of SPG against CCl 4 -induced acute liver injury were investigated and the underlying mechanism was explored in mice. All mice were divided into four groups: the control, CCl 4 and SPG (2.5 and 10 mg/kg, dissolved in soybean oil, i.g.) groups. All mice were given continuous administration for 7 days, and injected with CCl 4 (0.1 mL/10 g body weight 0.2% CCl 4 solution in soybean oil, i.p.) 1 h after the end of the administration except the control group. Mice were sacrificed 24 h post-CCl 4 injection. The results indicated that SPG significantly reduced the increasement of serum AST and ALT levels induced by CCl 4 -treatment. And the histopathological analysis revealed that SPG treated mice had normal liver architecture and no necrosis. The decreased activities of SOD, GSH and CAT, and increased MDA level were inhibited by SPG treatment. At the same time, the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were significantly decreased by SPG treatment. SPG treatment also reduced the heptic protein expressions of NF-κB p65, COX-2, MAPK p38, ERK and JNK in the liver. These fingdings demonstrated that SPG exhibited strong hepatoprective effect on the CCl 4 -induced acute liver injury, which was related to anti-oxidantive and anti-inflammatory capabilities; and the anti-inflammatory effect of SPG might mediated by the NF-κB and MAPKs signaling pathways. Taken together, SPG might be a potential material for drug and functional food development against chemical hepatic injury. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. Acidic polysaccharide of Panax ginseng regulates the mitochondria/caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway in radiation-induced damage to the jejunum in mice.

    PubMed

    Bing, So Jin; Kim, Min Ju; Ahn, Ginnae; Im, Jaehak; Kim, Dae Seung; Ha, Danbee; Cho, Jinhee; Kim, Areum; Jee, Youngheun

    2014-04-01

    Owing to its susceptibility to radiation, the small intestine of mice is valuable for studying radioprotective effects. When exposed to radiation, intestinal crypt cells immediately go through apoptosis, which impairs swift differentiation necessary for the regeneration of intestinal villi. Our previous studies have elucidated that acidic polysaccharide of Panax ginseng (APG) protects the mouse small intestine from radiation-induced damage by lengthening villi with proliferation and repopulation of crypt cells. In the present study, we identified the molecular mechanism involved. C57BL/6 mice were irradiated with gamma-rays with or without APG and the expression levels of apoptosis-related molecules in the jejunum were investigated using immunohistochemistry. APG pretreatment strongly decreased the radiation-induced apoptosis in the jejunum. It increased the expression levels of anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl-2 and Bcl-XS/L) and dramatically reduced the expression levels of pro-apoptotic proteins (p53, BAX, cytochrome c and caspase-3). Therefore, APG attenuated the apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway, which is controlled by p53 and Bcl-2 family members. Results presented in this study suggest that APG protects the mouse small intestine from irradiation-induced apoptosis through inhibition of the p53-dependent pathway and the mitochondria/caspase pathway. Thus, APG may be a potential agent for preventing radiation induced injuries in intestinal cells during radio-therapy such as in cancer treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. What do most erectile dysfunction guidelines have in common? No evidence-based discussion or recommendation of heart-healthy lifestyle changes and/or Panax ginseng

    PubMed Central

    Moyad, Mark A; Park, Kwangsung

    2012-01-01

    Sexual health or erectile dysfunction (ED) state of the art guidelines provide a thorough overview of conventional prescription or other notable extrinsic treatment options. Yet, over the past 10–15 years, a plethora of international researchers have established that individual and comprehensive lifestyle changes can prevent and potentially improve ED. We review the lifestyle evidence that should equate to grade A or level 1 evidence recommendations for ED. We also review the evidence for Panax ginseng, an over-the-counter (OTC) dietary supplement with a 35-year history of laboratory investigations, multiple positive randomized trials over approximately 15 years and several independent meta-analyses and systematic reviews. Perhaps it is time to at least discuss and even emphasize lifestyle and other non-conventional interventions in ED guidelines so that patients can explore a diversity of potentially synergistic choices with their physicians and can improve their quality and quantity of life. Ignoring the consistent, positive data on lifestyle modifications in ED guidelines, for example, is tantamount to ignoring diet and lifestyle changes to reduce the risk of or ameliorate cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23001440

  16. [Comparative study of main components of ginseng on immune function of rats].

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhi-Ying; Xie, Xie; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Jia, Wei

    2014-09-01

    Ginseng and its effective components are famous for their influence to enhance human immunity, regulate endocrine and antioxidant action. However, the different effects of different components are not clear. In this study, Wistar rats were used to study the effects of main components of ginseng, including total ginsenoside, panaxadiol saponins, panaxtrol saponin and ginseng polysaccharide. The results showed that the effects of panaxadiol saponins and ginseng polysaccharide on improving animal immune organ weight, plasma interleukin 2 (IL-2), interleukin 6 (IL-6), plasma gamma-interferon (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were better than that of the other groups. Total ginsenoside and panaxtrol saponin can effectively increase the concentration of spleen NK cells (NKC) while panaxadiol saponins and ginseng polysaccharide can significantly increase the concentrations of rat plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone (CORT) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). As for the effect of increasing organization nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA), total ginsenoside is better than that of other groups. In brief, different components in ginseng possess different effects on enhancing immunity, regulating endocrine and resisting oxidation. Panaxadiol saponins and ginseng polysaccharide are better in enhancing immune, and total ginsenoside shows advantages in resisting oxidation and stress.

  17. Analysis of the age of Panax ginseng based on telomere length and telomerase activity.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jiabei; Jiang, Chao; Peng, Huasheng; Shi, Qinghua; Guo, Xiang; Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Luqi

    2015-01-23

    Ginseng, which is the root of Panax ginseng (Araliaceae), has been used in Oriental medicine as a stimulant and dietary supplement for more than 7,000 years. Older ginseng plants are substantially more medically potent, but ginseng age can be simulated using unscrupulous cultivation practices. Telomeres progressively shorten with each cell division until they reach a critical length, at which point cells enter replicative senescence. However, in some cells, telomerase maintains telomere length. In this study, to determine whether telomere length reflects ginseng age and which tissue is best for such an analysis, we examined telomerase activity in the main roots, leaves, stems, secondary roots and seeds of ginseng plants of known age. Telomere length in the main root (approximately 1 cm below the rhizome) was found to be the best indicator of age. Telomeric terminal restriction fragment (TRF) lengths, which are indicators of telomere length, were determined for the main roots of plants of different ages through Southern hybridization analysis. Telomere length was shown to be positively correlated with plant age, and a simple mathematical model was formulated to describe the relationship between telomere length and age for P. ginseng.

  18. Identification of a Panax ginseng fruit fingerprint by HPLC-ESI-MS.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H F; Xu, F F; Guo, Y T; Mi, H

    2016-03-11

    Over many years, parts of Panax ginseng (root and rhizome) have been identified and applied for medical purposes as traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Recently, research has indicated that ginseng fruit also contains similar compounds and is as rich as the other parts of the ginseng. This discovery may dramatically improve the efficient of outputs derived from ginseng products. Here, a new technique combining high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was employed to identify the fingerprint of P. ginseng fruit. Using HPLC, compounds that are important for medical purposes were extracted and purified. Combined with ESI-MS, the characteristic peaks (nine common peaks) of those compounds were identified, and the accuracy was confirmed by analysis using the Chromatographic Fingerprint Similarity Evaluation System (2004A edition). Overall, 15 batches of ginseng fruit had a similarity of more than 0.80, 13 batches of samples had a similarity between 0.97 and 0.99, and two batches had a similarity less than 0.90. The test solution and mobile phase selection was discussed. The HPLC-ESI-MS method can produce repeatable and reliable results and can be applied in the quality control of P. ginseng fruit.

  19. Porosity changes and retention of ginsenosides in North American ginseng root using different dehydration processes.

    PubMed

    Purnama, Monica; Yaghmaee, Parastoo; Durance, Tim D; Kitts, David D

    2010-09-01

    Air drying (AD), freeze-drying (FD), and vacuum-microwave drying (VMD) were applied to fresh North American ginseng roots to evaluate the effect of different drying techniques on pore characteristics and the subsequent recovery of ginsenoside content. FD ginseng root produced the lowest reductions in both total moisture content and water activity (P < 0.05), with no differences noted between Ontario or British Columbia ginseng. Ginseng roots from Ontario and British Columbia sources were therefore pooled to conduct the root porosity and ginsenoside measurements. Among samples, FD ginseng obtained the highest total porosity followed by VMD and AD, respectively (P < 0.05). All dehydrated samples had a porous structure with sizes that ranged from 0.002 μm to 172 μm, dominated by macropores (>1.5 μm). Pore characteristics of dried ginseng root were shown to affect recovery of ginsenosides, with the general trend being an increase in total porosity resulting in an increase in total ginsenoside recovered. High performance liquid chromatography results obtained on specific ginsenosides showed that AD of ginseng root resulted in the lowest recovery of total ginsenosides, most notably, Rg1 and Rb1, followed by VMD and FD, respectively. There was no specific difference in total ginsenoside recovery from roots dried at increasing power of VMD.

  20. Infrared authentication of ginseng species: the use of the 2-6PC rule.

    PubMed

    Yap, Kevin Yi-Lwern; Lai, Tommy Kok Heng; Chan, Sui Yung; Lim, Chu Sing

    2009-01-01

    The quality of herbal products is important for ensuring efficacy and consumer safety. Traditional methods of authenticating herbs like ginseng via their morphology are hardly reliable. Different chemical constituents in herbs like ginseng tend to exhibit characteristic IR fingerprints that enable their identification. We previously introduced an IR-based protocol known as the "2-6PC rule" to categorize and identify ginseng and its products, as well as distinguishing it from morphological fakes. Here, we describe the use of this rule as a rapid and effective means of analyzing the IR spectral fingerprints of the biologically active components of ginseng, as well as distinguishing among its species. Our results show that Panax ginseng, P. quinquefolius, and P. notoginseng can be differentiated from each other. Our results also indicate the presence of starch, carbohydrates, calcium oxalate, and ginsenosides Re and Rg1 in commercial ginseng roots sold in Singapore. This work effectively demonstrates the usefulness of the 2-6PC rule as a rapid screening tool in the authentication of ginseng species.

  1. [Analysis of parameters of serum concentration and pharmacokinetic of liposome and aqueous solution of toatal ginsenoside of ginseng stems and leaves in rats].

    PubMed

    Zha, Lin; Zhao, Yan; Zhu, Hong-Yan; Cai, En-Bo; Liu, Shuang-Li; Yang, He; Zhao, Ying; Gao, Yu-Gang; Zhang, Lian-Xue

    2017-05-01

    The experiment was aimed to investigate the difference of plasma concentration and pharmacokinetic parameters between liposome and aqueous solution of toatal ginsenoside of ginseng stems and leaves in rats, such as ginsenosides Rg₁, Re, Rf, Rb₁, Rg₂, Rc, Rb₂, Rb₃, Rd. After intravenous injection of liposome and aqueous solution in rats, the blood was taken from the femoral vein to detect the plasma concentration of the above 9 ginsenoside monomers in different time points by using HPLC. The concentration-time curve was obtained and 3p97 pharmacokinetic software was used to get the pharmacokinetic parameters. After the intravenous injection of ginsenosides to rats, nine ginsenosides were detected in plasma. In general, among these ginsenosides, the peak time of the aqueous solution was between 0.05 to 0.083 3 h, and the serum concentration peak of liposome usually appeared after 0.5 h. After software fitting, the aqueous solution of ginsenoside monomers Rg₁, Re, Rf, Rg₂, Rc, Rd, Rb₃ was two-compartment model, and the liposomes were one-compartment model; aqueous solution and liposome of ginsenoside monomers Rb₁ were three-compartment model; aqueous solution of ginsenoside monomers Rb₂ was three-compartment model, and its liposome was one-compartment model. Area under the drug time curve (AUC) of these 9 kinds of saponin liposomes was larger than that of aqueous solution, and the retention time of the liposomes was longer than that of the aqueous solution; the removal rate was slower than that of the aqueous solution, and the half-life was longer than that of the water solution. The results from the experiment showed that by intravenous administration, the pharmacokinetic parameters of two formulations were significantly different from each other; the liposomes could not only remain the drug for a longer time in vivo, but also reduce the elimination rate and increase the treatment efficacy. As compared with the traditional dosage forms, the total

  2. Modification of ginseng flavors by bitter compounds found in chocolate and coffee.

    PubMed

    Sook Chung, Hee; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2012-06-01

    Ginseng is not widely accepted by U.S. consumers due to its unfamiliar flavors, despite its numerous health benefits. Previous studies have suggested that the bitter compounds in chocolate and coffee may mask the off-flavors of ginseng. The objectives of this study were to: (1) profile sensory characteristics of ginseng extract solution, caffeine solution, cyclo (L-Pro-L-Val) solution, theobromine solution, and 2 model solutions simulating chocolate bitterness; and (2) determine the changes in the sensory characteristics of ginseng extract solution by the addition of the bitter compounds found in chocolate and coffee. Thirteen solutions were prepared in concentrations similar to the levels of the bitter compounds found in coffee and chocolate products. Twelve panelists participated in a descriptive analysis panel which included time-intensity ratings. Ginseng extract was characterized as sweeter, starchier, and more green tea than the other sample solutions. Those characteristics of ginseng extract were effectively modified by the addition of caffeine, cyclo (L-Pro-L-Val), and 2 model solutions. A model solution simulating dark chocolate bitterness was the least influenced in intensities of bitterness by the addition of ginseng extract. Results from time-intensity ratings show that the addition of ginseng extract increased duration time in certain bitterness of the 2 model solutions. Bitter compounds found in dark chocolate could be proposed to effectively mask the unique flavors of ginseng. Future studies blending aroma compounds of chocolate and coffee into such model solutions may be conducted to investigate the influence on the perception of the unique flavors through the congruent flavors. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. New Polyacetylenes, DGAT inhibitors from the roots of Panax ginseng.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Woong; Kim, Koanhoi; Rho, Mun-Chual; Chung, Mi Yeon; Kim, Young Ho; Lee, Sangku; Lee, Hyun Sun; Kim, Young Kook

    2004-03-01

    The petroleum ether extract of Panax ginseng showed a significant inhibition of the diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) enzyme from rat liver microsomes. Bioactivity-guided fractionation led to the isolation of two new polyacetylenic compounds, (9 R,10 S)-epoxyheptadecan-4,6-diyn-3-one ( 1) and 1-methoxy-(9 R,10 S)-epoxyheptadecan-4,6-diyn-3-one ( 2). Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and asymmetric synthesis. IC50 values of 9 microg/mL ( 1) and 32 microg/mL ( 2) were obtained.

  4. Korean Red Ginseng Up-regulates C21-Steroid Hormone Metabolism via Cyp11a1 Gene in Senescent Rat Testes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, In-Hye; Kim, Si-Kwan; Kim, Eun-Hye; Kim, Sung-Won; Sohn, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Soo Cheol; Choi, Sangdun; Pyo, Suhkneung; Rhee, Dong-Kwon

    2011-01-01

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) has been shown to have anti-aging effects in animal and clinical studies. However, the molecular mechanisms by which ginseng exerts these effects remain unknown. Here, the anti-aging effect of Korean red ginseng (KRG) in rat testes was examined by system biology analysis. KRG water extract prepared in feed pellets was administered orally into 12 month old rats for 4 months, and gene expression in testes was determined by microarray analysis. Microarray analysis identified 33 genes that significantly changed. Compared to the 2 month old young rats, 13 genes (Rps9, Cyp11a1, RT1-A2, LOC365778, Sv2b, RGD1565959, RGD1304748, etc.) were up-regulated and 20 genes (RT1-Db1, Cldn5, Svs5, Degs1, Vdac3, Hbb, LOC684355, Svs5, Tmem97, Orai1, Insl3, LOC497959, etc.) were down-regulated by KRG in the older rats. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis of untreated aged rats versus aged rats treated with KRG showed that the affected most was Cyp11a1, responsible for C21-steroid hormone metabolism, and the top molecular and cellular functions are organ morphology and reproductive system development and function. When genes in young rat were compared with those in the aged rat, sperm capacitation related genes were down-regulated in the old rat. However, when genes in the old rat were compared with those in the old rat treated with KRG, KRG treatment up-regulated C21-steroid hormone metabolism. Taken together, Cyp11a1 expression is decreased in the aged rat, however, it is up-regulated by KRG suggesting that KRG seems enhance testes function via Cyp11a1. PMID:23717070

  5. Identification of mRNA-like non-coding RNAs and validation of a mighty one named MAR in Panax ginseng.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meizhen; Wu, Bin; Chen, Chao; Lu, Shanfa

    2015-03-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play significant roles in plants. However, little is known about lncRNAs in Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, an economically significant medicinal plant species. A total of 3,688 mRNA-like non-coding RNAs (mlncRNAs), a class of lncRNAs, were identified in P. ginseng. Approximately 40% of the identified mlncRNAs were processed into small RNAs, implying their regulatory roles via small RNA-mediated mechanisms. Eleven miRNA-generating mlncRNAs also produced siRNAs, suggesting the coordinated production of miRNAs and siRNAs in P. ginseng. The mlncRNA-derived small RNAs might be 21-, 22-, or 24-nt phased and could be generated from both or only one strand of mlncRNAs, or from super long hairpin structures. A full-length mlncRNA, termed MAR (multiple-function-associated mlncRNA), was cloned. It generated the most abundant siRNAs. The MAR siRNAs were predominantly 24-nt and some of them were distributed in a phased pattern. A total of 228 targets were predicted for 71 MAR siRNAs. Degradome sequencing validated 68 predicted targets involved in diverse metabolic pathways, suggesting the significance of MAR in P. ginseng. Consistently, MAR was detected in all tissues analyzed and responded to methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment. It sheds light on the function of mlncRNAs in plants. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  6. The development of a green approach for the biosynthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles by using Panax ginseng root extract, and their biological applications.

    PubMed

    Singh, Priyanka; Kim, Yeon Ju; Wang, Chao; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; Yang, Deok Chun

    2016-06-01

    The biosynthesis of nanoparticles has received attention because of the development of economic and environmentally friendly technology for the synthesis of nanoparticles. The study develops a convenient method for the green synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles by utilizing fresh root extract of the four-year old Panax ginseng plant, and evaluated the antimicrobial applications of silver nanoparticles against pathogenic microorganisms. P. ginseng is a well-known herbal medicinal plant, and its active ingredients are mainly ginsenosides. The fresh root of the 4 year old P. ginseng plant has been explored for the synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles without the use of any additional reducing and capping agents. The reduction of silver nitrate led to the formation of silver nanoparticles within 2 h of reaction at 80°C. The gold nanoparticles were also successfully synthesized by the reduction of auric acid at 80°C, within 5 min of reaction. The biosynthesized gold and silver nanoparticles were characterized by techniques using various instruments, viz. ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis spectroscopy), field emission transmission electron microscopy (FE-TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), elemental mapping, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In addition, the silver nanoparticles have shown antimicrobial potential against Bacillus anthracis, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus cereus.

  7. Effectiveness of Panax ginseng on Acute Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion Injury Was Abolished by Flutamide via Endogenous Testosterone-Mediated Akt Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Luo; Shaozhen, Hou; Gengting, Dong; Tingbo, Chen; Liang, Liu; Hua, Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Mechanisms for Panax ginseng's cardioprotective effect against ischemia reperfusion injury involve the estrogen-mediated pathway, but little is known about the role of androgen. A standardized Panax ginseng extract (RSE) was orally given with or without flutamide in a left anterior descending coronary artery ligation rat model. Infarct size, CK and LDH activities were measured. Time-related changes of NO, PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling, and testosterone concentration were also investigated. RSE (80 mg/kg) significantly inhibited myocardial infarction and CK and LDH activities, while coadministration of flutamide abolished this effect of RSE. NO was increased by RSE and reached a peak after 15 min of ischemia; however, flutamide cotreatment suppressed this elevation. Western blot analysis showed that RSE significantly reversed the decreases of expression and activation of PI3K, Akt, and eNOS evoked by ischemia, whereas flutamide attenuated the effects of these protective mechanisms induced by RSE. RSE completely reversed the dropping of endogenous testosterone level induced by I/R injury. Flutamide plus RSE treatment not only abolished RSE's effect but also produced a dramatic change on endogenous testosterone level after pretreatment and ischemia. Our results for the first time indicate that blocking androgen receptor abolishes the ability of Panax ginseng to protect the heart from myocardial I/R injury. PMID:24282438

  8. Production of herbicide-resistant transgenic Panax ginseng through the introduction of the phosphinothricin acetyl transferase gene and successful soil transfer.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y E; Jeong, J H; In, J K; Yang, D C

    2003-02-01

    Herbicide-resistant transgenic Panax ginseng plants were produced by introducing the phosphinothricin acetyl transferase (PAT) gene that confers resistance to the herbicide Basta (bialaphos) through Agrobacterium tumefaciens co-cultivation. Embryogenic callus gathered from cotyledon explants of P. ginseng were pre-treated with 0.5 M sucrose or 0.05 M MgSO(4 )before Agrobacterium infection. This pre-treatment process markedly enhanced the transient expression of the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene. Embryogenic callus was initially cultured on MS medium supplemented with 400 mg/l cefotaxime for 3 weeks and subsequently subcultured five times to a medium containing 25 mg/l kanamycin and 300 mg/l cefotaxime. Somatic embryos formed on the surfaces of kanamycin-resistant callus. Upon development into the cotyledonary stage, these somatic embryos were transferred to a medium containing 50 mg/l kanamycin and 5 mg/l gibberellic acid to induce germination and strong selection. Integration of the transgene into the plants was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and Southern analyses. Transfer of the transgenic ginseng plantlets to soil was successfully accomplished via acclimatization in autoclaved perlite. Not all of the plantlets survived in soil that had not been autoclaved because of fungal infection, particularly in the region between the roots and leaves. Transgenic plants growing in soil were observed to be strongly resistant to Basta application.

  9. Assessing the effectiveness of seeding and fertilization treatments for reducing erosion potential following severe wildfires

    Treesearch

    David W. Peterson; Erich Kyle Dodson; Richy J. Harrod

    2007-01-01

    Postfire slope stabilization treatments are often prescribed following high‑severity wildfires on public lands to reduce erosion, maintain soil productivity, protect water quality, and reduce risks to human life and property. However, the effectiveness of slope stabilization treatments remains in question. For this study, tests were on effectiveness of...

  10. Indian Ginseng (Withania somnifera) supplementation ameliorates oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunctions in experimental model of stroke.

    PubMed

    Sood, Abhilasha; Mehrotra, Arpit; Dhawan, Devinder K; Sandhir, Rajat

    2018-04-18

    Stroke is an increasingly prevalent clinical condition and second leading cause of death globally. The present study evaluated the therapeutic potential of Indian Ginseng, also known as Withania somnifera (WS), supplementation on middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) induced mitochondrial dysfunctions in experimental model of ischemic stroke. Stroke was induced in animals by occluding the middle cerebral artery, followed by reperfusion injury. Ischemia reperfusion injury resulted in increased oxidative stress indicated by increased reactive oxygen species and protein carbonyl levels; compromised antioxidant system; in terms of reduced superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, along with reduction in GSH levels and the redox ratio, impaired mitochondrial functions and enhanced expression of apoptosis markers. Ischemia reperfusion injury induced mitochondrial dysfunctions in terms of (i) reduced activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes, (ii) reduced histochemical staining of complex-II and IV, (iii) reduced in-gel activity of mitochondrial complex-I to V, (iv) mitochondrial structural changes in terms of increased mitochondrial swelling, reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and ultrastructural changes. Additionally, an increase in the activity of caspase-3 and caspase-9 was also observed, along with altered expression of apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bax in MCAO animals. MCAO animals also showed significant impairment in cognitive functions assessed using Y maze test. WS pre-supplementation, on the other hand ameliorated MCAO induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunctions, apoptosis and cognitive impairments. The results show protective effect of WS pre-supplementation in ischemic stroke and are suggestive of its potential application in stroke management.

  11. Fuel treatment effectiveness in reducing fire intensity and spread rate - An experimental overview

    Treesearch

    Eric Mueller; Nicholas Skowronski; Albert Simeoni; Kenneth Clark; Robert Kremens; William Mell; Michael Gallagher; Jan Thomas; Alexander Filkov; Mohamad El Houssami; John Hom; Bret Butler

    2014-01-01

    Fuel treatments represent a significant component of the wildfire mitigation strategy in the United States. However, the lack of research aimed at quantifying the explicit effectiveness of fuel treatments in reducing wildfire intensity and spread rate limits our ability to make educated decisions about the type and placement of these treatments. As part of a larger...

  12. Reducing Therapist Contact in Parenting Programs: Evaluation of Internet-Based Treatments for Child Conduct Problems

    PubMed Central

    Rabbitt, Sarah M.; Carrubba, Erin; Lecza, Bernadette; McWhinney, Emily; Pope, Jennifer; Kazdin, Alan E.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated two Internet-based versions of Parent Management Training (PMT) and the effects of greatly reducing the contact required of a mental health professional on treatment of children referred for conduct problems. We were interested whether reduced contact with a therapist influenced treatment outcome, therapeutic alliance, parent adherence to treatment prescriptions, and parent reactions to and evaluations of the treatment procedures. Sixty children and their caregivers were assigned to receive either Full Contact PMT (with the amount of weekly contact similar to traditional PMT; approximately 50 minutes of direct therapist contact each week) or Reduced Contact PMT (with most information provided through recordings; approximately 10 minutes of therapist contact each week). Children in both groups showed significant and similar reductions in antisocial behaviors specifically, internalizing and externalizing symptoms more generally, and improvements in overall adaptive functioning. Therapeutic alliance also was similar across the two treatment groups. However, parents rated Full Contact treatment as more acceptable than the reduced version. Both treatments were similar in outcomes to in-person treatment as evaluated by a nonrandomized matched sample used as a benchmark in supplementary analyses. Overall, the findings indicate that therapist contact can be reduced while positive treatment outcomes are maintained but that interventions that reduce direct time with a therapist may be viewed less positively by clients. PMID:27453678

  13. Effect of Korean red ginseng on cold hypersensitivity in the hands and feet: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cold hypersensitivity in the hands and feet (CHHF) is one of the most common complaints among Asians, especially in women. Korean red ginseng (KRG), which is a steamed form of Panax ginseng, has vasodilating action in the peripheral vessels and increases blood flow under cold stress. However, few studies have evaluated the effect of KRG on cold hypersensitivity. Methods/Design This trial is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 80 CHHF patients. The trial will be implemented at Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong in Seoul, Korea. The participants will take KRG or a placebo for eight weeks, after which they will be followed-up for four weeks. During the administration period, six capsules of 500 mg KRG or placebo will be provided twice a day. The primary outcome is change of skin temperature in the hands between baseline and after treatment. The secondary outcomes include the visual analogue scale scores of cold hypersensitivity in the hands, change of skin temperature and the VAS scores of cold hypersensitivity in the feet, the recovery rate of the skin temperature by the cold stress test of the hands, the distal-dorsal difference of the hands, power variables of heart rate variability, and the 36-item short form health survey. Discussion This study is the first trial to evaluate the efficacy of KRG on CHHF by using infrared thermography. Our study will provide basic evidence regarding CHHF. Trial registration CliniacalTrials.gov NCT01664156 PMID:24354675

  14. Cytoprotective effect of American ginseng in a rat ethanol gastric ulcer model.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chi-Chang; Chen, Yi-Ming; Wang, Dean-Chuan; Chiu, Chien-Chao; Lin, Wan-Teng; Huang, Chih-Yang; Hsu, Mei-Chich

    2013-12-27

    Panax quinquefolium L. (American Ginseng, AG) is one of the most popular herbal medicines in the World. We aimed to investigate whether chronic (28-day) supplementation with AG could protect against ethanol-induced ulcer in gastric tissue. Furthermore, we investigated the possible molecular mechanisms leading to AG-mediated gastric mucosal protection. We randomized 32 male Wistar rats into four groups for treatment (n=8 per group): supplementation with water (vehicle) and low-dose (AG-1X), medium-dose (AG-2X) and high-dose (AG-5X) AG at 0, 250, 500, and 1250 mg/kg, respectively. In the first experiment, animals were fed vehicle or AG treatments for 4 weeks. At day 29, 75% ethanol was given orally to each animal at 10 mL/kg to induce gastric ulceration for 2 h. In a second experiment, animals were pretreated orally with each treatment for 1 hr before a single oral administration of ethanol (70%, 10 mL/kg). Trend analysis revealed that AG treatments inhibited ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage. AG supplementation dose-dependently decreased the pro-inflammatory levels of interleukin 1β and cyclooxygenase 2 and the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins tBid, cytochrome C, and caspases-9 and -3 and increased the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and p-Bad. AG could have pharmacological potential for treating gastric ulcer.

  15. Biotransformation of ginsenoside Rd in the ginseng extraction residue by fermentation with lingzhi (Ganoderma lucidum).

    PubMed

    Hsu, Bo Yang; Lu, Ting Jang; Chen, Chia Hui; Wang, Shing Jung; Hwang, Lucy Sun

    2013-12-15

    Ginseng and lingzhi (Ganoderma lucidum) both are valuable traditional Chinese medicines and have been extensively utilised in functional foods and traditional medicines in many Asian countries. However, massive quantity of ginseng residue is produced after extraction of ginseng which still contains a lot of bioactive compounds such as ginsenosides. The goal of this study was to reuse the American ginseng extraction residue as the fermentation medium of G. lucidum to produce bioactive ginsenoside enriched biotransformation products. The changes of ginsenosides in the fermentation products were analysed during fermentation. Our results showed that after 30 days of fermentation, ginsenoside Rg1, Rd, and compound K (CK) significantly increased, especially Rd, while other ginsenosides (Re, Rb1 and Rc) decreased during fermentation. Ginsenoside Rd is the major ginsenoside in the final fermentation product. Furthermore, the biotransformation of ginsenosides was the major reaction in this fermentation process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Classification of ginseng berry (Panax ginseng C.A. MEYER) extract using 1H NMR spectroscopy and its inhibition of lipid accumulation in 3 T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seung Ok; Park, Hae Ran; Sohn, Eun Suk; Lee, Sang Won; Kim, Hyung Don; Kim, Young Chang; Kim, Kee Hong; Na, Sae Won; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Kim, Young Ock

    2014-11-24

    Panax ginseng is a famous traditional medicine in Korea for its beneficial effect on obesity, cardiac and liver associated diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the metabolite in Panax ginseng (P. ginseng, Aralicaceae) berries depending on the ripen stages and evaluate its potential inhibition on adipocyte differentiation in 3 T3-L1 cells. Different ripening stage samples of P. ginseng berry were analyzed through global metabolite profiling by NMR spectroscopy. Lipid accumulation in the cells was analyzed by Oil Red O staining. The PLS-DA clearly distinguished P. ginseng berry extract (PGBE) according to the partial ripe (PR), ripe(R) and fully ripe (FR) stage. Lipid accumulation of PGBE was examined by measuring triglyceride content and Oil-Red O staining. These results suggested that the FR stage of PGBE decrease in lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation and the amount of threonine, asparagine, fumarate, tyraine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine increased with longer ripening of ginseng berries. Metabolite profiling of P. ginseng was identified by 1H NMR spectra. P. ginseng extract efficiently inhibits adipogenesis in 3 T3-L1 adipocytes concluded that the P. ginseng has the antiobesity properties.

  17. Systems-level mechanisms of action of Panax ginseng: a network pharmacological approach.

    PubMed

    Park, Sa-Yoon; Park, Ji-Hun; Kim, Hyo-Su; Lee, Choong-Yeol; Lee, Hae-Jeung; Kang, Ki Sung; Kim, Chang-Eop

    2018-01-01

    Panax ginseng has been used since ancient times based on the traditional Asian medicine theory and clinical experiences, and currently, is one of the most popular herbs in the world. To date, most of the studies concerning P. ginseng have focused on specific mechanisms of action of individual constituents. However, in spite of many studies on the molecular mechanisms of P. ginseng , it still remains unclear how multiple active ingredients of P. ginseng interact with multiple targets simultaneously, giving the multidimensional effects on various conditions and diseases. In order to decipher the systems-level mechanism of multiple ingredients of P. ginseng , a novel approach is needed beyond conventional reductive analysis. We aim to review the systems-level mechanism of P. ginseng by adopting novel analytical framework-network pharmacology. Here, we constructed a compound-target network of P. ginseng using experimentally validated and machine learning-based prediction results. The targets of the network were analyzed in terms of related biological process, pathways, and diseases. The majority of targets were found to be related with primary metabolic process, signal transduction, nitrogen compound metabolic process, blood circulation, immune system process, cell-cell signaling, biosynthetic process, and neurological system process. In pathway enrichment analysis of targets, mainly the terms related with neural activity showed significant enrichment and formed a cluster. Finally, relative degrees analysis for the target-disease association of P. ginseng revealed several categories of related diseases, including respiratory, psychiatric, and cardiovascular diseases.

  18. An Integrated Biochemical, Proteomics, and Metabolomics Approach for Supporting Medicinal Value of Panax ginseng Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So W.; Gupta, Ravi; Lee, Seo H.; Min, Cheol W.; Agrawal, Ganesh K.; Rakwal, Randeep; Kim, Jong B.; Jo, Ick H.; Park, Soo-Yun; Kim, Jae K.; Kim, Young-Chang; Bang, Kyong H.; Kim, Sun T.

    2016-01-01

    Panax ginseng roots are well known for their medicinal properties and have been used in Korean and Chinese traditional medicines for 1000s of years. However, the medicinal value of P. ginseng fruits remain poorly characterized. In this study, we used an integrated biochemical, proteomics, and metabolomics approach to look into the medicinal properties of ginseng fruits. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS [2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)] assays showed higher antioxidant activities in ginseng fruits than leaves or roots. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) profiling of ginseng fruit proteins (cv. Cheongsun) showed more than 400 spots wherein a total of 81 protein spots were identified by mass spectrometry using NCBInr, UniRef, and an in-house developed RNAseq (59,251 protein sequences)-based databases. Gene ontology analysis showed that most of the identified proteins were related to the hydrolase (18%), oxidoreductase (16%), and ATP binding (15%) activities. Further, a comparative proteome analysis of four cultivars of ginseng fruits (cvs. Yunpoong, Gumpoong, Chunpoong, and Cheongsun) led to the identification of 22 differentially modulated protein spots. Using gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS), 66 metabolites including amino acids, sugars, organic acids, phenolic acids, phytosterols, tocopherols, and policosanols were identified and quantified. Some of these are well known medicinal compounds and were not previously identified in ginseng. Interestingly, the concentration of almost all metabolites was higher in the Chunpoong and Gumpoong cultivars. Parallel comparison of the four cultivars also revealed higher amounts of the medicinal metabolites in Chunpoong and Gumpoong cultivars. Taken together, our results demonstrate that ginseng fruits are a rich source of medicinal compounds with potential beneficial health effects. PMID:27458475

  19. Isoform Sequencing Provides a More Comprehensive View of the Panax ginseng Transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Jo, Ick-Hyun; Lee, Jinsu; Hong, Chi Eun; Lee, Dong Jin; Bae, Wonsil; Park, Sin-Gi; Ahn, Yong Ju; Kim, Young Chang; Kim, Jang Uk; Lee, Jung Woo; Hyun, Dong Yun; Rhee, Sung-Keun; Hong, Chang Pyo; Bang, Kyong Hwan; Ryu, Hojin

    2017-09-15

    Korean ginseng ( Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) has been widely used for medicinal purposes and contains potent plant secondary metabolites, including ginsenosides. To obtain transcriptomic data that offers a more comprehensive view of functional genomics in P. ginseng , we generated genome-wide transcriptome data from four different P. ginseng tissues using PacBio isoform sequencing (Iso-Seq) technology. A total of 135,317 assembled transcripts were generated with an average length of 3.2 kb and high assembly completeness. Of those unigenes, 67.5% were predicted to be complete full-length (FL) open reading frames (ORFs) and exhibited a high gene annotation rate. Furthermore, we successfully identified unique full-length genes involved in triterpenoid saponin synthesis and plant hormonal signaling pathways, including auxin and cytokinin. Studies on the functional genomics of P. ginseng seedlings have confirmed the rapid upregulation of negative feed-back loops by auxin and cytokinin signaling cues. The conserved evolutionary mechanisms in the auxin and cytokinin canonical signaling pathways of P. ginseng are more complex than those in Arabidopsis thaliana . Our analysis also revealed a more detailed view of transcriptome-wide alternative isoforms for 88 genes. Finally, transposable elements (TEs) were also identified, suggesting transcriptional activity of TEs in P. ginseng . In conclusion, our results suggest that long-read, full-length or partial-unigene data with high-quality assemblies are invaluable resources as transcriptomic references in P. ginseng and can be used for comparative analyses in closely related medicinal plants.

  20. Oral Toxicity and Intestinal Transport Mechanism of Colloidal Gold Nanoparticle-Treated Red Ginseng

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Song-Hwa; Yu, Jin; Go, Mi-Ran; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Hwang, Yun-Gu; Choi, Soo-Jin

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: Application of nanotechnology or nanomaterials in agricultural food crops has attracted increasing attention with regard to improving crop production, quality, and nutrient utilization. Gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) have been reported to enhance seed yield, germination rate, and anti-oxidant potential in food crops, raising concerns about their toxicity potential. In this study, we evaluated the oral toxicity of red ginseng exposed to colloidal Au-NPs during cultivation (G-red ginseng) in rats and their intestinal transport mechanism. (2) Methods: 14-day repeated oral administration of G-red ginseng extract to rats was performed, and body weight, hematological, serum biochemical, and histopathological values were analyzed. An in vitro model of human intestinal follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) and an intestinal epithelial monolayer system were used for intestinal transport mechanistic study. (3) Results: No remarkable oral toxicity of G-red ginseng extract in rats was found, and Au-NPs did not accumulate in any organ, although Au-NP transfer to G-red ginseng and some increased saponin levels were confirmed. Au-NPs were transcytozed by microfold (M) cells, but not by a paracellular pathway in the intestinal epithelium. (4) Conclusion: These findings suggest great potential of Au-NPs for agricultural food crops at safe levels. Further study is required to elucidate the functional effects of Au-NPs on ginseng and long-term toxicity. PMID:28335336

  1. [Development of indel markers for molecular authentication of Panax ginseng and P. quinquefolius].

    PubMed

    Wang, Rong-Bo; Tian, Hui-Li; Wang, Hong-Tao; Li, Gui-Sheng

    2018-04-01

    Panax ginseng and P. quinquefolius are two kinds of important medicinal herbs. They are morphologically similar but have different pharmacological effects. Therefore, botanical origin authentication of these two ginsengs is of great importance for ensuring pharmaceutical efficacy and food safety. Based on the fact that intron position in orthologous genes is highly conserved across plant species, intron length polymorphisms were exploited from unigenes of ginseng. Specific primers were respectively designed for these two species based on their insertion/deletion sequences of cytochrome P450 and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and multiplex PCR was conducted for molecular authentication of P.ginseng and P. quinquefolius. The results showed that the developed multiplex PCR assay was effective for molecular authentication of P.ginseng and P. quinquefolius without strict PCR condition and the optimization of reaction system.This study provides a preferred ideal marker system for molecular authentication of ginseng,and the presented method can be employed in origin authentication of other herbal preparations. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  2. Interferon-γ-Mediated Natural Killer Cell Activation by an Aqueous Panax ginseng Extract

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Okumura, Ko

    2015-01-01

    Panax ginseng extracts are used in traditional herbal medicines, particularly in eastern Asia, but their effect on natural killer (NK) cell activity is not completely understood. This study aimed to examine the effects of P. ginseng extracts on the cytotoxic activity of NK cells. We orally administered P. ginseng extracts or ginsenosides to wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 (B6) and BALB/c mice and to B6 mice deficient in either recombination activating gene 2 (RAG-2) or interferon-γ (IFN-γ). We then tested the cytotoxic activity of NK cells (of spleen and liver mononuclear cells) against NK-sensitive YAC-1 cells. Oral administration of P. ginseng aqueous extract augmented the cytotoxicity of NK cells in WT B6 and BALB/c mice and in RAG-2-deficient B6 mice, but not in IFN-γ-deficient B6 mice. This effect was only observed with the aqueous extract of P. ginseng. Interestingly, the ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 did not augment NK cell cytotoxicity. These results demonstrated that the aqueous P. ginseng extract augmented NK cell activation in vivo via an IFN-γ-dependent pathway. PMID:26649061

  3. Cytohistological study of the leaf structures of Panax ginseng Meyer and Panax quinquefolius L.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ok Ran; Nguyen, Ngoc Quy; Lee, Kwang Ho; Kim, Young Chang; Seo, Jiho

    2017-10-01

    Both Panax ginseng Meyer and Panax quinquefolius are obligate shade-loving plants whose natural habitats are broadleaved forests of Eastern Asia and North America. Panax species are easily damaged by photoinhibition when they are exposed to high temperatures or insufficient shade. In this study, a cytohistological study of the leaf structures of two of the most well-known Panax species was performed to better understand the physiological processes that limit photosynthesis. Leaves of ginseng plants grown in soil and hydroponic culture were sectioned for analysis. Leaf structures of both Panax species were observed using a light microscope, scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope. The mesostructure of both P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius frequently had one layer of noncylindrical palisade cells and three or four layers of spongy parenchymal cells. P. quinquefolius contained a similar number of stomata in the abaxial leaf surface but more tightly appressed enlarged grana stacks than P. ginseng contained. The adaxial surface of the epidermis in P. quinquefolius showed cuticle ridges with a pattern similar to that of P. ginseng . The anatomical leaf structure of both P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius shows that they are typical shade-loving sciophytes. Slight differences in chloroplast structure suggests that the two different species can be authenticated using transmission electron microscopy images, and light-resistant cultivar breeding can be performed via controlling photosynthesis efficiency.

  4. Ginseng Compounds: An Update on Their Molecular Mechanisms and Medical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Jian-Ming; Yao, Qizhi; Chen, Changyi

    2010-01-01

    Ginseng is one of the most widely used herbal medicines and is reported to have a wide range of therapeutic and pharmacological applications. Ginsenosides, the major pharmacologically active ingredients of ginseng, appear to be responsible for most of the activities of ginseng including vasorelaxation, antioxidation, anti-inflammation and anti-cancer. Approximately 40 ginsenoside compounds have been identified. Researchers are now focused on using purified individual ginsenoside to reveal the specific mechanism of functions of ginseng instead of using whole ginseng root extracts. Each ginsenoside may have different effects in pharmacology and mechanisms due to their different chemical structures. Among them the most commonly studied ginsenosides are Rb1, Rg1, Rg3, Re, Rd and Rh1. The molecular mechanisms and medical applications of ginsenosides have attracted much attention and hundreds of papers have been published in the last few years. The general purpose of this update is to provide current information on recently described effects of ginsenosides on antioxidation, vascular system, signal transduction pathways and interaction with receptors. Their therapeutic applications in animal models and humans as well as the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of ginsenosides are also discussed in this review. This review concludes with some thoughts for future directions in the further development of ginseng compounds as effective therapeutic agents. PMID:19601854

  5. Influence of Panax ginseng on Alpha-Adrenergic Receptor of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Kang; Chung, Joo-Ho; Lee, Byung-Cheol; Lee, Sang Won; Lee, Kang Hyo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common prostate problem in older men. The present study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (P. ginseng) on a rat model of testosterone-induced BPH. Methods The rats were divided into 3 groups (each group, n=10): control, testosterone-induced BPH (20 mg/kg, subcutaneous injection), and P. ginseng (200 mg/kg, orally) groups. After 4 weeks, all animals were sacrificed to examine the blood biochemical profiles, prostate volume, weight, histopathological changes, alpha-1D adrenergic receptor (Adra1d) mRNA expression, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL2) protein expression. Results The group treated with P. ginseng showed significantly lesser prostate size and weight than the testosterone-induced BPH group. In addition, P. ginseng decreased the mRNA expression of Adra1d as well as the expression of EGFR and BCL2 in prostate tissue. Conclusions These results suggest that P. ginseng may inhibit the alpha-1-adrenergic receptor to suppress the development of BPH. PMID:25558416

  6. Improved penetration of wild ginseng extracts into the skin using low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Seoul Hee; Hae Choi, Jeong; Song, Yeon Suk; Lee, Hae-June; Hong, Jin-Woo; Kim, Gyoo Cheon

    2018-04-01

    Wild ginseng (WG) is a well-known traditional medicinal plant that grows in natural environments in deep mountains. WG has been thought to exert potent physiological and medicinal effects, and, recently, its use in skin care has attracted much interest. This study investigated the efficient penetration of WG extracts into the skin by means of low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasma (LTAPP), and its effects on the skin at the cellular and tissue levels. NIH3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts and HRM-2 hairless mice were used to confirm the improved absorption of WG extracts into the skin using LTAPP. The gene expression levels in NIH3T3 cells and morphological changes in skin tissues after WG treatment were monitored using both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Although WG extracts did not show any significant effects on proliferative activity and cytotoxicity, at a concentration of 1:800, it significantly increased the expression of fibronectin and vascular endothelial growth factor. In the in vivo study, the combinational treatment of LTAPP and WG markedly induced the expression of fibronectin and integrin α6, and it thickened. Our results showed that LTAPP treatment safely and effectively accelerated the penetration of the WG extracts into the skin, thereby increasing the effects of WG on the skin.

  7. Pre-Treatment with Metformin in Comparison with Post-Treatment Reduces Cerebral Ischemia Reperfusion Induced Injuries in Rats.

    PubMed

    Karimipour, Mojtaba; Shojaei Zarghani, Sara; Mohajer Milani, Majid; Soraya, Hamid

    2018-04-01

    To explore the effects of pre versus post ischemic treatment with metformin after global cerebral ischemia in rats. Male Wister rats underwent forebrain ischemia by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion for 17 min. Metformin (200 mg/kg) or vehicle was given orally by gavage for 7-14 days. Rats were divided into: control, metformin pre-treatment, metformin post-treatment and metformin pre and post continuous treatment groups. Cerebral infarct size, histopathology, myeloperoxidase and serum malondialdehyde were measured 7 days after ischemia. Histopathological analysis showed that metformin pre-treatment significantly decreased leukocyte infiltration, myeloperoxidase activity and also malondialdehyde level. Metformin pre-treatment and metformin post-treatment reduced infarct size compared with the control group, but it was not significant in the pre and post continuous treatment group. Our findings suggest that pre-treatment with metformin in comparison with post-treatment in experimental stroke can reduce the extent of brain damage and is more neuroprotective at least in part by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation.

  8. Effect of the combination of ginseng, oriental bezoar and glycyrrhiza on autonomic nervous activity and immune system under mental arithmetic stress.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Aisong; Moritani, Toshio

    2008-06-01

    Stress reduces physical and mental tolerances (immune potential) of humans and it induces progression of existing illness or causes latent disorders to become active. Thus, the control and suppression of stress plays an important role in the improvement of quality of life and prevention of diseases. Ginseng, oriental bezoar and glycyrrhiza have been used for Kampo (herbal treatment) for thousand years and a number of pharmacological and clinical studies have reported their effects. However, it has not been previously described how the combination of these most commonly used herbs affect mental stress. This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment to examine the effectiveness of reducing stress response by taking Kampo. Ten healthy males (mean age 27+/-1) participated in the study. The effectiveness of stress reduction was assessed by measuring ECG, salivary chromogranin A (CgA), blood glucose, WBC, granulocytes, lymphocytes, NK cell activity, etc. Salivary and blood measurement values of pre- and post-mental arithmetic stress were compared. In addition, ECG measurement values of pre- and mid-mental arithmetic stress were compared. we observed a higher HF power and a lower SNS index, HR, CgA, WBC and granulocytes in the Kampo trial than those in the placebo trial. The HR, HF power and SNS index were changed significantly (p<0.05) and CgA, WBC and granulocytes tended to show some differences between the two trials (p<0.1). However, blood glucose, lymphocytes, and NK cell activity showed no significant differences between the Kampo and placebo trials. The result suggests that the Kampo should be useful in reducing mental stress.

  9. Hair Regenerative Mechanisms of Red Ginseng Oil and Its Major Components in the Testosterone-Induced Delay of Anagen Entry in C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Truong, Van-Long; Bak, Min Ji; Lee, Changook; Jun, Mira; Jeong, Woo-Sik

    2017-09-08

    Hair loss (alopecia) is a universal problem for numerous people in the world. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of red ginseng oil (RGO) and its major components on hair re-growth using testosterone (TES)-induced delay of anagen entry in C57BL/6 mice and their mechanisms of action. Seven-week-old C57BL/6 mice were daily treated with TES for 1 h prior to topical application of 10% RGO, 1% linoleic acid (LA), 1% β-sitosterol (SITOS), or 1% bicyclo(10.1.0)tridec-1-ene (BICYCLO) once a day for 28 days. Hair regenerative capacity was significantly restored by treatment of RGO and its major compounds in the TES-treated mice. Histological analysis showed that RGO along with LA and SITOS but not BICYCLO promoted hair growth through early inducing anagen phase that was delayed by TES in mice. Treatment of mice with RGO, LA, or SITOS up-regulated Wnt/β-catenin and Shh/Gli pathways-mediated expression of genes such as β-catenin, Lef-1, Sonic hedgehog, Smoothened, Gli-1, Cyclin D1, and Cyclin E in the TES-treated mice. In addition, RGO and its major components reduced the protein level of TGF-β but enhanced the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. These results suggest that RGO is a potent novel therapeutic natural product for treatment of androgenic alopecia possibly through hair re-growth activity of its major components such as LA and SITOS.

  10. Orthodontic Treatment in Adult Patient with Reduced Periodontium: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Shintcovsk, Ricardo Lima; Knop, Luegya Amorim Henriques; Pinto, Ary Santos; Gandini, Luiz Gonzaga; Martins, Lídia Parsekian

    2015-01-01

    Patients presenting reduced periodontium represent a major concern for orthodontists. The purpose of this article is to present the clinical case of an adult patient who presented sequel of periodontal disease (diastemas) compromising her dental aesthetics. She was subjected to an orthodontic treatment with the application of light forces distant from the teeth with reduced periodontium. A periodontal support therapy was successfully implemented. The final stage of the treatment indicated satisfactory occlusal and periodontal characteristics.

  11. Panax ginseng aqueous extract prevents pneumococcal sepsis in vivo by potentiating cell survival and diminishing inflammation.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Cuong Thach; Luong, Truc Thanh; Lee, Seung Yeop; Kim, Gyu Lee; Kwon, Hyogyoung; Lee, Hong-Gyun; Park, Chae-Kyu; Rhee, Dong-Kwon

    2015-10-15

    More than 50% of sepsis cases are caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, and hospital mortality related to sepsis comprises 52% of all hospital deaths. Therefore, sepsis is a medical emergency, and any treatment against the agent that produces it, is welcome. The role of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Araliaceae) aqueous extract in bacterial infection in vivo is not well understood. Here, the protective effect of Korean red ginseng (KRG) extract against pneumococcal infection and sepsis was elucidated. In this study, mice were administrated KRG (25, 50, 100 mg/kg) for 15 days, and then infected with a lethal S. pneumoniae strain. Survival rate, body weight, and colonization were determined. The RAW 264.7 macrophage cells were infected with S. pneumoniae and cell viability was assessed using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Inflammation was examined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining while gene expression was determined using western blotting. KRG-pre-treated mice (100 mg/kg of KRG) had significantly higher survival rates and body weights than those of the non-treated controls; KRG-pre-treated mice had lower bacterial number and morbidity than those of the non-treated controls. 100 mg/kg of KRG administration decreased cytokine levels including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (897 and 623 pg/ml, control and KRG groups, respectively, P < 0.05) and interleukin (IL)-1β (175 and 127 pg/ml, control and KRG groups, respectively, P = 0.051), nitric oxide level (149 and 81 nM, control and KRG groups, respectively, P < 0.05), and neutrophil infiltration 48 h post-infection, in vivo. In pneumococcal infection, KRG pre-treatment downregulated toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and TNF-ɑ expressions in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells and increased cell survival by activating phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling. Taken together, 100 mg/kg of KRG appeared to protect host cells from lethal

  12. Immunotherapy Added to Antibiotic Treatment Reduces Relapse of Disease in a Mouse Model of Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Mourik, Bas C; Leenen, Pieter J M; de Knegt, Gerjo J; Huizinga, Ruth; van der Eerden, Bram C J; Wang, Jinshan; Krois, Charles R; Napoli, Joseph L; Bakker-Woudenberg, Irma A J M; de Steenwinkel, Jurriaan E M

    2017-02-01

    Immune-modulating drugs that target myeloid-derived suppressor cells or stimulate natural killer T cells have been shown to reduce mycobacterial loads in tuberculosis (TB). We aimed to determine if a combination of these drugs as adjunct immunotherapy to conventional antibiotic treatment could also increase therapeutic efficacy against TB. In our model of pulmonary TB in mice, we applied treatment with isoniazid, rifampicin, and pyrazinamide for 13 weeks alone or combined with immunotherapy consisting of all-trans retinoic acid, 1,25(OH) 2 -vitamin D3, and α-galactosylceramide. Outcome parameters were mycobacterial load during treatment (therapeutic activity) and 13 weeks after termination of treatment (therapeutic efficacy). Moreover, cellular changes were analyzed using flow cytometry and cytokine expression was assessed at the mRNA and protein levels. Addition of immunotherapy was associated with lower mycobacterial loads after 5 weeks of treatment and significantly reduced relapse of disease after a shortened 13-week treatment course compared with antibiotic treatment alone. This was accompanied by reduced accumulation of immature myeloid cells in the lungs at the end of treatment and increased TNF-α protein levels throughout the treatment period. We demonstrate, in a mouse model of pulmonary TB, that immunotherapy consisting of three clinically approved drugs can improve the therapeutic efficacy of standard antibiotic treatment.

  13. Effects of Ultrasound on Extraction of Saponin from Ginseng

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Ohdaira, Etsuzo; Ide, Masao

    1994-05-01

    We performed a study of the effects of ultrasound on the extraction of saponin from Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer. In this study, the extraction of saponin was examined as functions of irradiation time (0.5 to 6 h) and acoustic pressure (0 to 90 kPa). It has been observed that the yields of both total extract and saponin are larger with ultrasonic irradiation than those without ultrasonic irradiation; the increase in yield of total extract is approximately 15 wt%, and that of saponin is approximately 30 wt% at an acoustic pressure 67 kPa. In addition, the yield increases with the acoustic pressure. It is also demonstrated that saponin was not resolved in the acoustic intensity range of this experiment. The enhancement in liquid-solid extraction caused by ultrasound can be attributed to the phenomenon of cavitation.

  14. Mania and Psychosis Associated with St. John's Wort and Ginseng

    PubMed Central

    Faubion, Matthew D.

    2005-01-01

    The use of complimentary/alternative medicine has become popular as evidenced by grocery store aisles and “infomercials” devoted to herbal products. These products are often misconstrued as safe because of their natural origin. With an increase in the consumption of these products, physicians need to be aware of their potential adverse effects. There are several popular over-the-counter herbal products that can affect one's behavior, especially resulting in acute mania and/or psychosis. This article provides an overview of existing literature regarding the increased use of herbal agents, reviews several case reports describing a potential association between herbal products (St. John's Wort and ginseng) and the development of mania and psychosis, and discusses the limitations in determining the frequency of serious adverse effects due to herbal products. PMID:21120109

  15. The complete chloroplast genome of North American ginseng, Panax quinquefolius.

    PubMed

    Han, Zeng-Jie; Li, Wei; Liu, Yuan; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2016-09-01

    We report complete nucleotide sequence of the Panax quinquefolius chloroplast genome using next-generation sequencing technology. The genome size is 156 359 bp, including two inverted repeats (IRs) of 52 153 bp, separated by the large single-copy (LSC 86 184 bp) and small single-copy (SSC 18 081 bp) regions. This cp genome encodes 114 unigenes (80 protein-coding genes, four rRNA genes, and 30 tRNA genes), in which 18 are duplicated in the IR regions. Overall GC content of the genome is 38.08%. A phylogenomic analysis of the 10 complete chloroplast genomes from Araliaceae using Daucus carota from Apiaceae as outgroup showed that P. quinquefolius is closely related to the other two members of the genus Panax, P. ginseng and P. notoginseng.

  16. Cytotoxicity of natural ginseng glycosides and semisynthetic analogues.

    PubMed

    Atopkina, L N; Malinovskaya, G V; Elyakov, G B; Uvarova, N I; Woerdenbag, H J; Koulman, A; Pras, N; Potier, P

    1999-02-01

    The cytotoxicity of natural glycosides from Ginseng, semisynthetic analogues and related triterpenes of the dammarane series, isolated from the leaves of the Far-East species of the genus Betula was studied in order to elucidate structure-activity relationships. Some of the compounds studied were active against the human lung carcinoma GLC4 and adenocarcinoma COLO 320 cell lines. The natural glycosides displayed the lowest cytotoxicity. The triterpenes of the dammarane series used as starting aglycones for semisynthetic derivatives were moderately cytotoxic. The dammarane triterpenes possessing keto groups and their semisynthetic glucosides were the most active compounds tested. Cytotoxic effects of the dammarane glucosides were inversely proportional both to the number of sugars attached to the aglycones and to the number of hydroxy groups of the aglycones. The type of side chain and the configuration of the hydroxy group at C-3 in aglycones did not have a significant influence on the cytotoxicity.

  17. Solar treatments for reducing survival of mountain pine beetle in infested ponderosa and lodgepole pine logs

    Treesearch

    Jose F. Negron; Wayne A. Shepperd; Steve A. Mata; John B. Popp; Lance A. Asherin; Anna W. Schoettle; John M. Schmid; David A. Leatherman

    2001-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of solar radiation for reducing survival of mountain pine beetle populations in infested logs. Ponderosa pine logs were used in experiments 1 and 2 and lodgepole pine logs were used in experiment 3. Experiment 1 comprised three treatments: (1) one-layer solar treatment without plastic sheeting and logs rotated one-...

  18. Evaluating alternative fuel treatment strategies to reduce wildfire losses in a Mediterranean area

    Treesearch

    Michele Salis; Maurizio Laconi; Alan A. Ager; Fermin J. Alcasena; Bachisio Arca; Olga Lozano; Ana Fernandes de Oliveira; Donatella Spano

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this work is to evaluate by a modeling approach the effectiveness of alternative fuel treatment strategies to reduce potential losses from wildfires in Mediterranean areas. We compared strategic fuel treatments located near specific human values vs random locations, and treated 3, 9 and 15% of a 68,000 ha study area located in Sardinia, Italy. The...

  19. IN SITU SOIL TREATMENTS TO REDUCE THE PHYTO- AND BIOAVAILABILITY OF LEAD, ZINC, AND CADMIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was established in Joplin, MO near a former Pb smelter to test a range of treatments to reduce the avialability of Pb, Zn, and Cd in situ. Soil from the field was incubated in lab studies prior to amendment addition in the field. Treatments induded P added as triple sup...

  20. Beyond reducing fire hazard: fuel treatment impacts on overstory tree survival

    Treesearch

    Brandon M. Collins; Adrian J. Das; John J. Battles; Danny L. Fry; Kevin D. Krasnow; Scott L. Stephens

    2014-01-01

    Fuel treatment implementation in dry forest types throughout the western United States is likely to increase in pace and scale in response to increasing incidence of large wildfires. While it is clear that properly implemented fuel treatments are effective at reducing hazardous fire potential, there are ancillary ecological effects that can impact forest...

  1. An autoclave treatment reduces the solubility and antigenicity of an allergenic protein found in buckwheat flour.

    PubMed

    Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Yamazaki, Rikio; Yamato, Masayuki

    2012-06-01

    The effects of an autoclave treatment of buckwheat flour on a 24-kDa allergenic protein were investigated by measuring reduction in solubility and antibody binding. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis showed that the intensity of the major bands, including that of the 24-kDa allergen, was reduced by the autoclave treatment. The protein solubility in buckwheat flour was variably decreased by the autoclave treatment. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis using a monoclonal antibody specific for buckwheat 24-kDa protein showed that the reactivity of protein extracts (10 μg/ml) from buckwheat flour was lowered by the autoclave treatment. The autoclave treatment may reduce the major allergen content of buckwheat. Future studies will determine if autoclaving treatments affect the allergenicity of the 24-kDa buckwheat protein.

  2. Understanding the relationships between American ginseng harvest and hardwood forests inventory and timber harvest to improve co-management of the forests of eastern United States

    Treesearch

    James L. Chamberlain; Stephen Prisley; Michael McGuffin

    2013-01-01

    The roots of American ginseng have been harvested from the hardwood forests of eastern United States, along-side timber, since the mid-1700s. Very little is known about this non-timber commodity relative to timber, although significant volumes of ginseng root have been harvested from the same forests along with timber. The harvest of ginseng correlated positively and...

  3. Red ginseng powder fermented with probiotics exerts antidiabetic effects in the streptozotocin-induced mouse diabetes model.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sun-Hee; Park, Jisang; Kim, Sae-Hae; Choi, Kyung-Min; Ko, Eun-Sil; Cha, Jeong-Dan; Lee, Young-Ran; Jang, Hyonseok; Jang, Yong-Suk

    2017-12-01

    Red ginseng (heat-processed Panax ginseng) is a well-known alternative medicine with pharmacological antidiabetic activity. It exerts pharmacological effects through the transformation of saponin into metabolites by the intestinal microbiota. Given that intestinal conditions and intestinal microflora vary among individuals, the pharmacological effects of orally administered red ginseng likely may vary among individuals. To overcome this variation and produce homogeneously effective red ginseng, we evaluated the antidiabetic effects of probiotic-fermented red ginseng in a mouse model. The antidiabetic efficacy of orally administered probiotic-fermented red ginseng was assessed in ICR mice after induction of diabetes using streptozotocin (170 mg/kg body weight). Samples were given orally for 8 weeks, and indicators involved in diabetic disorders such as body weight change, water intake, blood glucose, glucose tolerance and various biochemical parameters were determined. Oral administration of probiotic-fermented red ginseng significantly decreased the level of blood glucose of about 62.5% in the fasting state and induced a significant increase in glucose tolerance of about 10.2% compared to the control diabetic mice. Additionally, various indicators of diabetes and biochemical data (e.g., blood glycosylated haemoglobin level, serum concentrations of insulin, and α-amylase activity) showed a significant improvement in the diabetic conditions of the mice treated with probiotic-fermented red ginseng in comparison with those of control diabetic mice. Our results demonstrate the antidiabetic effects of probiotic-fermented red ginseng in the streptozotocin-induced mouse diabetes model and suggest that probiotic-fermented red ginseng may be a uniformly effective red ginseng product.

  4. [Research on compatibility of prescriptions including Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Trogopterus Dung based on complex network analysis].

    PubMed

    Li, Meng-Wen; Fan, Xin-Sheng; Zhang, Ling-Shan; Wang, Cong-Jun

    2017-09-01

    The applications of prescriptions including Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Trogopterus Dung in contemporary literatures from 1949 to 2016 are compiled and the data mining techniques containing scale-free complex network method are utilized to explore its practical characteristics, with comparison between modern and ancient ones. The results indicate that malignant neoplasms, coronary heart disease which present Qi deficiency and blood stasis type are the main diseases treated by prescriptions including Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Trogopterus Dung according to the reports during 1949 to 2016. The complex network connection shows that Glycyrrhizae Radixet Rhizoma, Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Astragali Radix, Typhae Pollen, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma are the primary drugs related to Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Trogopterus Dung. The next are Paeoniae Radix Alba, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Persicae Semen, Foria, et al. Carthami Flos, Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Cyperi Rhizoma, Bupleuri Radix are the peripheral ones. Also, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Glycyrrhizae Radixet Rhizoma, Trogopterus Dung-Glycyrrhizae Radixet Rhizoma, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Trogopterus Dung-Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Astragali Radix, Trogopterus Dung-Astragali Radix are the main paired drugs. The paired drugs including Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Trogopterus Dung-Glycyrrhizae Radixet Rhizoma, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Trogopterus Dung-Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Trogopterus Dung-Astragali Radix, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Trogopterus Dung-Typhae Pollen have a higher support degree. The main compatible drugs are different in ancient and modern prescriptions including Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Trogopterus Dung. Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Typhae Pollen, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Astragali Radix are utilized frequently in modern prescriptions while less used in ancient ones. It is also shown

  5. Forward treatment planning techniques to reduce the normalization effect in Gamma Knife radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hao-Wen; Lo, Wei-Lun; Kuo, Chun-Yuan; Su, Yu-Kai; Tsai, Jo-Ting; Lin, Jia-Wei; Wang, Yu-Jen; Pan, David Hung-Chi

    2017-11-01

    In Gamma Knife forward treatment planning, normalization effect may be observed when multiple shots are used for treating large lesions. This effect can reduce the proportion of coverage of high-value isodose lines within targets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of forward treatment planning techniques using the Leksell Gamma Knife for the normalization effect reduction. We adjusted the shot positions and weightings to optimize the dose distribution and reduce the overlap of high-value isodose lines from each shot, thereby mitigating the normalization effect during treatment planning. The new collimation system, Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion, which contains eight movable sectors, provides an additional means to reduce the normalization effect by using composite shots. We propose different techniques in forward treatment planning that can reduce the normalization effect. Reducing the normalization effect increases the coverage proportion of higher isodose lines within targets, making the high-dose region within targets more uniform and increasing the mean dose to targets. Because of the increase in the mean dose to the target after reducing the normalization effect, we can set the prescribed marginal dose at a higher isodose level and reduce the maximum dose, thereby lowering the risk of complications. © 2017 Shuang Ho Hospital-Taipei Medical University. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  6. The Effects of a Korean Ginseng, GINST15, on Hypo-Pituitary-Adrenal and Oxidative Activity Induced by Intense Work Stress.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Shawn D; DuPont, William H; Caldwell, Lydia K; Hardesty, Vincent H; Barnhart, Emily C; Beeler, Matthew K; Post, Emily M; Volek, Jeff S; Kraemer, William J

    2018-01-01

    The effect of GINST15, an enzyme fermented ginseng supplement, on hormonal and inflammatory responses to physical stress in humans is unknown. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the constitutive and stress-induced effects of GINST15 supplement on hypo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and antioxidant activity in addition to muscle damage. Ten women (age: 38.7 ± 7.8 years; height: 163.81 ± 4.4 cm; body mass 76.0 ± 11.6 kg) and nine men (age: 41.2. ± 9.7 years; height: 177.4 ± 5.3 cm; body mass: 88.5 ± 5.0 kg) participated in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced within-group study. Participants completed three 14-day treatment cycles with different doses (high: 960 mg; low: 160 mg; placebo: 0 mg) separated by a 1-week washout period. At the end of treatment, physical stress was imposed with intense resistance exercise work stress. Participants provided blood at rest and various time points after exercise (immediately [IP], 30 min [30], 60 min [60], 24 h [+24HR]). Cortisol (CORT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total glutathione, nonspecific antioxidant activity, total antioxidant power (TAP), and creatine kinase were measured. GINST15 supplementation produced stress-inducible dose-dependent reductions in circulating cortisol and increased enzymatic and nonspecific antioxidant activity. Twenty-four hours after intense exercise, a high dose GINST15, a bioactive ginsenoside metabolite, significantly reduces muscle damage and HPA responses to physical stress in humans; these effects may result from increased antioxidant expression.

  7. American Ginseng Modifies 137Cs-Induced DNA Damage and Oxidative Stress in Human Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tung-Kwang; O’Brien, Kevin F.; Wang, Weidong; Sheng, Chao; Wang, Tao; Johnke, Roberta M.; Allison, Ron R.

    2009-01-01

    The multifold bioactive medicinal properties of ginseng have been closely linked to its antioxidative ability, which is related to its ginsenoside content. Since the key mechanism of radiation-induced cell death and tissue damage is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that attack cellular DNA, this study focuses on the impact of a standardized North American ginseng extract (NAGE) on 137Cs-induced oxidative stress in human peripheral lymphocytes (PBL) obtained from 10 healthy individuals (6M/4F), 42.7 ± 4.6 years of age. At two different time points (0 h and 24 h before irradiation), we applied NAGE (250 – 1000 µg ml−1) to mononuclear cell cultures for cytokinesis-block micronuclei (MN) assay and determination of the state of oxidative stress in PBL. We found that at both time points, NAGE significantly reduced the MN yields in PBL after irradiation (1 and 2 Gy) in a concentration-dependent manner (P<0.001). Compared with radiation alone, the maximum reduction rate of MN yield were 51.1% and 49.1% after 1 Gy and 2 Gy exposures, respectively. We also found that before irradiation the presence of NAGE in the culture medium resulted in a significant increased intracellular total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in PBL. At both time points, the increment of 137Cs-induced MN yields in PBL was positively correlated with the increment of intracellular ROS production (R = 0.6 – 0.7, P = 0.002), but negatively correlated with the reduction of TAC levels (R = −0.4 −0.5, P = 0.02 – 0.004). However, the presence of NAGE in the culture medium significantly increased the TAC levels, while concomitantly decreasing both ROS production and MN yields in PBL (P<0.001). Our findings that NAGE is effective in protecting human PBL against radiation-induced oxidative stress should encourage further in vivo study of dietary supplementation with NAGE as an effective natural radiation countermeasure. PMID:19946576

  8. Ginsenosides from stems and leaves of ginseng prevent ethanol-induced lipid accumulation in human L02 hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chao-Feng; Sun, Li-Ping; Yang, Qin-He; Lu, Da-Xiang; Luo, Sen

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the effect of ginsenosides from stems and leaves of ginseng on ethanol-induced lipid deposition in human L02 hepatocytes. L02 cells were exposed to ethanol for 36 h and treated with or without ginsenosides. The viability of L02 cells was evaluated by methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay and the triglyceride (TG) content was detected. Lipid droplets were determined by oil red O staining. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the mitochondrial membrane potential were tested by flow cytometry. The ATP level was measured by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. The expression of cytochrome p450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. Ethanol exposure resulted in the increase of TG level, lipid accumulation and ROS generation, and the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production in the cells. However, ginsenosides significantly reduced TG content (9.69±0.22 μg/mg protein vs. 4.93±0.49 μg/mg protein, P<0.01), and ROS formation (7254.8±385.7 vs. 5825.2±375.9, P<0.01). Meanwhile, improvements in mitochondrial membrane potential (10655.33±331.34 vs. 11129.52±262.35, P<0.05) and ATP level (1.20±0.18 nmol/mg protein vs. 2.53±0.25 nmol/mg protein, P<0.01) were observed by treatment with ginsenosides. Furthermore, ginsenosides could down-regulate CYP2E1 expression (P<0.01) and upregulate PPARα expression (P<0.01) in ethanol-treated cells. Ginsenosides could prevent ethanol-induced hepatocyte steatosis in vitro related to the inhibition of oxidative stress and the improvement of mitochondrial function. In addition, the modulation of CYP2E1 and PPARα expression may also play an important role in the protective effect of ginsenosides against lipid accumulation.

  9. Safety and Tolerability of Panax ginseng Root Extract: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Clinical Trial in Healthy Korean Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nam-Hun; Yoo, Sa-Ra; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Cho, Jung-Hyo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Panax ginseng has been extensively used as an adaptogen and is among the top 10 selling herbal supplements in the United States over the past decade. However, there have been few reports about the toxicity of P. ginseng in human studies. Given the lack of toxicological studies in human, this study investigated whether P. ginseng administration causes any noticeable toxic effects in healthy volunteers. Methods This study was designed as a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and parallel group trial in healthy volunteers. The subjects were required to be healthy, free from any significant disease, as assessed at screening by physical examination, medical history, and laboratory (hematological and biochemical) tests. Eligible subjects received P. ginseng extract (1 g/day or 2 g/day) or placebo over a 4-week period. Results Although mild adverse events, such as dyspepsia, hot flash, insomnia, and constipation, were reported in both P. ginseng and placebo group, no serious untoward reactions were reported following P. ginseng administration. Nonsignificant changes were observed in hematological and biochemical tests. Conclusions P. ginseng administration for 4 weeks was shown to be safe, tolerable, and free of any untoward toxic effect in healthy male and female volunteers. Future results from ongoing multicenter collaborative efforts to evaluate short- and long-term effects of P. ginseng may contribute to our current understanding of safety and tolerability of this herbal product. PMID:22909282

  10. Acidic polysaccharide of Panax ginseng as a defense against small intestinal damage by whole-body gamma irradiation of mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunjin; Hwang, Insun; Song, Jie-Young; Jee, Youngheun

    2011-01-01

    An acidic polysaccharide of Panax ginseng (APG), ginsan, has been reported to protect the hematopoietic system by increasing the number of bone marrow cells and spleen cells. Therefore, we evaluated the ability of APG to protect mice from radiation-induced damage of the small intestine. APG treatment caused the lengthening of villi and a numerical increase of crypt cells in the small intestine at 3.5 days after 7Gy irradiation compared to irradiated, non-treated controls. In addition, APG significantly inhibited irradiation-induced apoptosis by decreasing the amount of pro-apoptotic p53 and Bax as well as augmenting that of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 at 24h after irradiation. These results indicate that APG might be a useful adjunct to therapeutic irradiation as a protective agent for the gastrointestinal tract of cancer patients. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Korean red ginseng protects against neuronal damage induced by transient focal ischemia in rats

    PubMed Central

    BAN, JU YEON; KANG, SUNG WOOK; LEE, JONG SEOK; CHUNG, JOO-HO; KO, YOUNG GWAN; CHOI, HAN SUNG

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of Korean red ginseng (KRG) following focal brain ischemia/reperfusion injury, in relation to its antioxidant activities. The middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R) model in rats was employed. The KRG extract (100 mg/kg, perorally) was administered once daily for 7 days following MCAO/R. The elevated levels of lipid peroxidation in the MCAO/R group were attenuated significantly in the KRG-administered group. The significantly depleted activity of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase was prevented in the KRG-administered group. In the neurobehavioral evaluation expressed as the modified neurological severity score and corner-turn test, the daily intake of KRG showed consistent and significant improvement in the neurological deficits for 7 days following MCAO/R injury. These results indicate that KRG has a neuroprotective effect against ischemia/reperfusion brain injury by reducing the level of lipid peroxidation and increasing the endogenous antioxidant enzymatic activity. PMID:22969953

  12. T Cell Stimulatory Effects of Korean Red Ginseng through Modulation of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Chanoh; Kang, Soowon; Park, Seungbeom; Lim, Kyungtaek; Hwang, Kwang Woo; Min, Hyeyoung

    2011-11-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) actively suppress immune cells and have been considered as an impediment to successful cancer immunotherapy. Many approaches have been made to overcome such immunosuppressive factors and to exert effective anti-tumor effects, but the possibility of using medicinal plants for this purpose has been overlooked. Korean red ginseng (KRG) is widely known to possess a variety of pharmacological properties, including immunoboosting and anti-tumor activities. However, little has been done to assess the anti-tumor activity of KRG on MDSCs. Therefore, we examined the effects of KRG on MDSCs in tumor-bearing mice and evaluated immunostimulatory and anti-tumor activities of KRG through MDSC modulation. The data show that intraperitoneal administration of KRG compromises MDSC function and induces T cell proliferation and the secretion of IL-2 and IFN-γ, while it does not exhibit direct cytotoxicity on tumor cells and reduced MDSC accumulation. MDSCs isolated from KRG-treated mice also express significantly lower levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase and IL-10 accompanied by a decrease in nitric oxide production compared with control. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that KRG enhances T cell function by inhibiting the immunosuppressive activity of MDSCs and suggests that although KRG alone does not exhibit direct anti-tumor effects, the use of KRG together with conventional chemo- or immunotherapy may provide better outcomes to cancer patients through MDSC modulation.

  13. T Cell Stimulatory Effects of Korean Red Ginseng through Modulation of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Chanoh; Kang, Soowon; Park, Seungbeom; Lim, Kyungtaek; Hwang, Kwang Woo; Min, Hyeyoung

    2011-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) actively suppress immune cells and have been considered as an impediment to successful cancer immunotherapy. Many approaches have been made to overcome such immunosuppressive factors and to exert effective anti-tumor effects, but the possibility of using medicinal plants for this purpose has been overlooked. Korean red ginseng (KRG) is widely known to possess a variety of pharmacological properties, including immunoboosting and anti-tumor activities. However, little has been done to assess the anti-tumor activity of KRG on MDSCs. Therefore, we examined the effects of KRG on MDSCs in tumor-bearing mice and evaluated immunostimulatory and anti-tumor activities of KRG through MDSC modulation. The data show that intraperitoneal administration of KRG compromises MDSC function and induces T cell proliferation and the secretion of IL-2 and IFN-γ, while it does not exhibit direct cytotoxicity on tumor cells and reduced MDSC accumulation. MDSCs isolated from KRG-treated mice also express significantly lower levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase and IL-10 accompanied by a decrease in nitric oxide production compared with control. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that KRG enhances T cell function by inhibiting the immunosuppressive activity of MDSCs and suggests that although KRG alone does not exhibit direct anti-tumor effects, the use of KRG together with conventional chemo- or immunotherapy may provide better outcomes to cancer patients through MDSC modulation. PMID:23717093

  14. Transcriptomic analysis of Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) to discover genes involved in saponin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hwan-Su; Lee, Hyoshin; Choi, Yong Eui

    2015-03-14

    Eleutherococcus senticosus, Siberian ginseng, is a highly valued woody medicinal plant belonging to the family Araliaceae. E. senticosus produces a rich variety of saponins such as oleanane-type, noroleanane-type, 29-hydroxyoleanan-type, and lupane-type saponins. Genomic or transcriptomic approaches have not been used to investigate the saponin biosynthetic pathway in this plant. In this study, de novo sequencing was performed to select candidate genes involved in the saponin biosynthetic pathway. A half-plate 454 pyrosequencing run produced 627,923 high-quality reads with an average sequence length of 422 bases. De novo assembly generated 72,811 unique sequences, including 15,217 contigs and 57,594 singletons. Approximately 48,300 (66.3%) unique sequences were annotated using BLAST similarity searches. All of the mevalonate pathway genes for saponin biosynthesis starting from acetyl-CoA were isolated. Moreover, 206 reads of cytochrome P450 (CYP) and 145 reads of uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferase (UGT) sequences were isolated. Based on methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment and real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis, 3 CYPs and 3 UGTs were finally selected as candidate genes involved in the saponin biosynthetic pathway. The identified sequences associated with saponin biosynthesis will facilitate the study of the functional genomics of saponin biosynthesis and genetic engineering of E. senticosus.

  15. Purification, characterization and anticancer activity of a polysaccharide from Panax ginseng.

    PubMed

    Li, Cong; Cai, Jianping; Geng, Jingshu; Li, Yinghong; Wang, Zhenyu; Li, Rui

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we purified a homogeneous polysaccharide (PGPW1) from the root of Panax ginseng. Its molecular weight was estimated to be 3.5×10(5) Da by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Gas chromatography (GC) analysis identified that PGPW1 contained Glc, Gal, Man and Ara in the molar ratio of 3.3:1.2:0.5:1.1. Furthermore the antitumor potential of PGPW1 on human bladder T24 cells was evaluated in vitro by MTT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), wound scratch and transwell motility assays. PGPW1 dose-dependently displayed potent anti-proliferation and anti-metastatic activities. Moreover the modulating effect of PGPW1 on the binding of (3)H-NMS to M3 muscarinic receptors on the surface of T24 cells was evaluated. In muscarinic receptor binding assay, the attenuated expression of M3 muscarinic receptor on the surface of T24 cells by PGPW1 would contribute to its antitumor functions. All the data indicated the potential of its clinical application for the prevention and treatment of bladder cancer metastasis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Antitumor activities of ginseng polysaccharide in C57BL/6 mice with Lewis lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao; Shi, Huaiyin; Jiang, Gening; Zhou, Yongan; Xu, Jianfang

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, we prepared ginseng polysaccharide (GP) and evaluated its antitumor and immunomodulatory activities in C57BL/6 mice bearing with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC). Administration of GP (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) could not only significantly inhibit the growth of transplantable LLC tumor in C57BL/6 mice but also remarkably increase relative weight of spleen and thymus, splenocytes proliferation, and the ratio of CD4(+)/CD8(+) T lymphocyte in peripheral blood in LLC-bearing mice. Furthermore, the serum IL-2 and IFN-γ production and NK cytolytic activity were also prompted in LLC-bearing mice in response to GP treatment at three doses. Additionally, GP showed no side effects such as weight loss in body weight and internal organs (lung, liver, kidney, and heart) as well as inactivity during the experiment. Therefore, GP might be conveniently exploited to be good immune-stimulating modifiers and had the potential value for tumor therapy.

  17. Do depression treatments reduce suicidal ideation? The effects of CBT, IPT, pharmacotherapy, and placebo on suicidality.

    PubMed

    Weitz, Erica; Hollon, Steven D; Kerkhof, Ad; Cuijpers, Pim

    2014-01-01

    Many well-researched treatments for depression exist. However, there is not yet enough evidence on whether these therapies, designed for the treatment of depression, are also effective for reducing suicidal ideation. This research provides valuable information for researchers, clinicians, and suicide prevention policy makers. Analysis was conducted on the Treatment for Depression Research Collaborative (TDCRP) sample, which included CBT, IPT, medication, and placebo treatment groups. Participants were included in the analysis if they reported suicidal ideation on the HRSD or BDI (score of ≥1). Multivariate linear regression indicated that both IPT (b=.41, p<.05) and medication (b =.47, p<.05) yielded a significant reduction in suicide symptoms compared to placebo on the HRSD. Multivariate linear regression indicated that after adjustment for change in depression these treatment effects were no longer significant. Moderate Cohen׳s d effect sizes from baseline to post-test differences in suicide score by treatment group are reported. These analyses were completed on a single suicide item from each of the measures. Moreover, the TDCRP excluded participants with moderate to severe suicidal ideation. This study demonstrates the specific effectiveness of IPT and medications in reducing suicidal ideation (relative to placebo), albeit largely as a consequence of their more general effects on depression. This adds to the growing body of evidence that depression treatments, specifically IPT and medication, can also reduce suicidal ideation and serves to further our understanding of the complex relationship between depression and suicide. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of ginseng and ginsenosides on melanogenesis and their mechanism of action

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwangmi

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal changes in skin color induce significant cosmetic problems and affect quality of life. There are two groups of abnormal change in skin color; hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation. Hyperpigmentation, darkening skin color by excessive pigmentation, is a major concern for Asian people with yellow–brown skin. A variety of hypopigmenting agents have been used, but treating the hyperpigmented condition is still challenging and the results are often discouraging. Panax ginseng has been used traditionally in eastern Asia to treat various diseases, due to its immunomodulatory, neuroprotective, antioxidative, and antitumor activities. Recently, several reports have shown that extract, powder, or some constituents of ginseng could inhibit melanogenesis in vivo or in vitro. The underlying mechanisms of antimelanogenic properties in ginseng or its components include the direct inhibition of key enzymes of melanogenesis, inhibition of transcription factors or signaling pathways involved in melanogenesis, decreasing production of inducers of melanogenesis, and enhancing production of antimelanogenic factor. Although there still remain some controversial issues surrounding the antimelanogenic activity of ginseng, especially in its effect on production of proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide, these recent findings suggest that ginseng and its constituents might be potential candidates for novel skin whitening agents. PMID:25535470

  19. Ginseng and Ginkgo Biloba Effects on Cognition as Modulated by Cardiovascular Reactivity: A Randomised Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ong Lai Teik, Derek; Lee, Xiao Shiang; Lim, Chu Jian; Low, Chia Mei; Muslima, Mariyam; Aquili, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Background There is some evidence to suggest that ginseng and Ginkgo biloba can improve cognitive performance, however, very little is known about the mechanisms associated with such improvement. Here, we tested whether cardiovascular reactivity to a task is associated with cognitive improvement. Methodology/Principal findings Using a double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover design, participants (N = 24) received two doses of Panax Ginseng (500, 1000 mg) or Ginkgo Biloba (120, 240 mg) (N = 24), and underwent a series of cognitive tests while systolic, diastolic, and heart rate readings were taken. Ginkgo Biloba improved aspects of executive functioning (Stroop and Berg tasks) in females but not in males. Ginseng had no effect on cognition. Ginkgo biloba in females reversed the initial (i.e. placebo) increase in cardiovascular reactivity (systolic and diastolic readings increased compared to baseline) to cognitive tasks. This effect (reversal) was most notable after those tasks (Stroop and Iowa) that elicited the greatest cardiovascular reactivity during placebo. In males, although ginkgo also decreased cardiovascular readings, it did so from an initial (placebo) blunted response (i.e. decrease or no change from baseline) to cognitive tasks. Ginseng, on the contrary, increased cardiovascular readings compared to placebo. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that cardiovascular reactivity may be a mechanism by which ginkgo but not ginseng, in females is associated with certain forms of cognitive improvement. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02386852 PMID:26938637

  20. Bacterial Diversity and Community Structure in Korean Ginseng Field Soil Are Shifted by Cultivation Time.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ngoc-Lan; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Hoang, Van-An; Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Kang, Jong-Pyo; Kang, Chang Ho; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Traditional molecular methods have been used to examine bacterial communities in ginseng-cultivated soil samples in a time-dependent manner. Despite these efforts, our understanding of the bacterial community is still inadequate. Therefore, in this study, a high-throughput sequencing approach was employed to investigate bacterial diversity in various ginseng field soil samples over cultivation times of 2, 4, and 6 years in the first and second rounds of cultivation. We used non-cultivated soil samples to perform a comparative study. Moreover, this study assessed changes in the bacterial community associated with soil depth and the health state of the ginseng. Bacterial richness decreased through years of cultivation. This study detected differences in relative abundance of bacterial populations between the first and second rounds of cultivation, years of cultivation, and health states of ginseng. These bacterial populations were mainly distributed in the classes Acidobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Sphingobacteria. In addition, we found that pH, available phosphorus, and exchangeable Ca+ seemed to have high correlations with bacterial class in ginseng cultivated soil.

  1. Ginseng and Ginkgo Biloba Effects on Cognition as Modulated by Cardiovascular Reactivity: A Randomised Trial.

    PubMed

    Ong Lai Teik, Derek; Lee, Xiao Shiang; Lim, Chu Jian; Low, Chia Mei; Muslima, Mariyam; Aquili, Luca

    2016-01-01

    There is some evidence to suggest that ginseng and Ginkgo biloba can improve cognitive performance, however, very little is known about the mechanisms associated with such improvement. Here, we tested whether cardiovascular reactivity to a task is associated with cognitive improvement. Using a double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover design, participants (N = 24) received two doses of Panax Ginseng (500, 1000 mg) or Ginkgo Biloba (120, 240 mg) (N = 24), and underwent a series of cognitive tests while systolic, diastolic, and heart rate readings were taken. Ginkgo Biloba improved aspects of executive functioning (Stroop and Berg tasks) in females but not in males. Ginseng had no effect on cognition. Ginkgo biloba in females reversed the initial (i.e. placebo) increase in cardiovascular reactivity (systolic and diastolic readings increased compared to baseline) to cognitive tasks. This effect (reversal) was most notable after those tasks (Stroop and Iowa) that elicited the greatest cardiovascular reactivity during placebo. In males, although ginkgo also decreased cardiovascular readings, it did so from an initial (placebo) blunted response (i.e. decrease or no change from baseline) to cognitive tasks. Ginseng, on the contrary, increased cardiovascular readings compared to placebo. These results suggest that cardiovascular reactivity may be a mechanism by which ginkgo but not ginseng, in females is associated with certain forms of cognitive improvement. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02386852.

  2. Genome and evolution of the shade-requiring medicinal herb Panax ginseng.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam-Hoon; Jayakodi, Murukarthick; Lee, Sang-Choon; Choi, Beom-Soon; Jang, Woojong; Lee, Junki; Kim, Hyun Hee; Waminal, Nomar E; Lakshmanan, Meiyappan; van Nguyen, Binh; Lee, Yun Sun; Park, Hyun-Seung; Koo, Hyun Jo; Park, Jee Young; Perumal, Sampath; Joh, Ho Jun; Lee, Hana; Kim, Jinkyung; Kim, In Seo; Kim, Kyunghee; Koduru, Lokanand; Kang, Kyo Bin; Sung, Sang Hyun; Yu, Yeisoo; Park, Daniel S; Choi, Doil; Seo, Eunyoung; Kim, Seungill; Kim, Young-Chang; Hyun, Dong Yun; Park, Youn-Il; Kim, Changsoo; Lee, Tae-Ho; Kim, Hyun Uk; Soh, Moon Soo; Lee, Yi; In, Jun Gyo; Kim, Heui-Soo; Kim, Yong-Min; Yang, Deok-Chun; Wing, Rod A; Lee, Dong-Yup; Paterson, Andrew H; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2018-03-31

    Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, reputed as the king of medicinal herbs, has slow growth, long generation time, low seed production and complicated genome structure that hamper its study. Here, we unveil the genomic architecture of tetraploid P. ginseng by de novo genome assembly, representing 2.98 Gbp with 59 352 annotated genes. Resequencing data indicated that diploid Panax species diverged in association with global warming in Southern Asia, and two North American species evolved via two intercontinental migrations. Two whole genome duplications (WGD) occurred in the family Araliaceae (including Panax) after divergence with the Apiaceae, the more recent one contributing to the ability of P. ginseng to overwinter, enabling it to spread broadly through the Northern Hemisphere. Functional and evolutionary analyses suggest that production of pharmacologically important dammarane-type ginsenosides originated in Panax and are produced largely in shoot tissues and transported to roots; that newly evolved P. ginseng fatty acid desaturases increase freezing tolerance; and that unprecedented retention of chlorophyll a/b binding protein genes enables efficient photosynthesis under low light. A genome-scale metabolic network provides a holistic view of Panax ginsenoside biosynthesis. This study provides valuable resources for improving medicinal values of ginseng either through genomics-assisted breeding or metabolic engineering. © 2018 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Bacterial Diversity and Community Structure in Korean Ginseng Field Soil Are Shifted by Cultivation Time

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Van-An; Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Kang, Jong-Pyo; Kang, Chang Ho; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Traditional molecular methods have been used to examine bacterial communities in ginseng-cultivated soil samples in a time-dependent manner. Despite these efforts, our understanding of the bacterial community is still inadequate. Therefore, in this study, a high-throughput sequencing approach was employed to investigate bacterial diversity in various ginseng field soil samples over cultivation times of 2, 4, and 6 years in the first and second rounds of cultivation. We used non-cultivated soil samples to perform a comparative study. Moreover, this study assessed changes in the bacterial community associated with soil depth and the health state of the ginseng. Bacterial richness decreased through years of cultivation. This study detected differences in relative abundance of bacterial populations between the first and second rounds of cultivation, years of cultivation, and health states of ginseng. These bacterial populations were mainly distributed in the classes Acidobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Sphingobacteria. In addition, we found that pH, available phosphorus, and exchangeable Ca+ seemed to have high correlations with bacterial class in ginseng cultivated soil. PMID:27187071

  4. The relationship between genetic and chemotypic diversity in American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.).

    PubMed

    Schlag, Erin M; McIntosh, Marla S

    2013-09-01

    Ginseng is one of the world's most important herbals used as an adaptogen and a cure for an impressively large range of ailments. Differences in the medicinal properties of ginseng roots have been attributed to variation in ginsenoside composition. In this study, the association between genetic and chemotypic profiles of wild and cultivated American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) roots grown in Maryland was investigated. Ginseng roots were classified into chemotypes based on their relative composition of Re and Rg1. Genetic profiles of these roots were determined from the analysis of 38 polymorphic RAPD markers and used for a cluster analysis of genetic similarities. The close correspondence between chemotype and genetic cluster provides the first DNA-based evidence for the genetic basis of ginsenoside composition. Results of this research are significant for plant breeding and conservation, phytochemical research, and clinical and pharmacological studies. Also, the correlation between RAPD markers and chemotype indicates the potential to use RAPD markers as a reliable and practical method for identification and certification of ginseng roots. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Novel polyacetylene derivatives and their inhibitory activities on acetylcholinesterase obtained from Panax ginseng roots.

    PubMed

    Murata, Kazuya; Iida, Daiki; Ueno, Yoshihiro; Samukawa, Keiichi; Ishizaka, Toshihiko; Kotake, Takeshi; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2017-01-01

    In our research program to identify cholinesterase and β-secretase inhibitors, we investigated Ginseng (root of Panax ginseng), a crude drug described as a multifunctional drug in the ancient Chinese herbal book Shennong Ben Cao Jing. Results from hexane and methanol extracts showed moderate inhibitory activities. This suggests that ginseng roots may be effective for the prevention of and therapy for dementia. We then focused on hexane extracts of raw ginseng root and dried ginseng root since the determination of hexane extract constituents has not been studied extensively. Activity-guided fractionation and purification led to the isolation of 4 polyacetylene compounds; homopanaxynol, homopanaxydol, (9Z)-heptadeca-1, 9-diene-4,6-diyn-3-one, and (8E)-octadeca-1,8-diene-4,6-diyn-3,10-diol. The chemical structures of these compounds, including stereochemistry, were determined. This is the first study to identify the structure of homopanaxynol and homopanaxydol. Moreover, the modes of action of some compounds were characterized as competitive inhibitors. This study showed, for the first time, that polyacetylene compounds possess acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities.

  6. [Progress in improvement of continuous monoculture cropping problem in Panax ginseng by controlling soil-borne disease management].

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Dong, Lin-Lin; Xu, Jiang; Chen, Jun-Wen; Li, Xi-Wen; Chen, Shi-Lin

    2016-11-01

    The continuous monoculture cropping problem severely has hindered the land resource of Panax ginseng cultivation and threatened the sustainable development of ginseng industry. There are comprehensive factors causing the continuous monoculture cropping problem, such as deterioration of soil physical and chemical properties, accumulation of allelochemical, increase of pesticide residue and heavy metal, imbalance of rhizospheric micro-ecosystem, and increase of soil-borne diseases. Among soil-borne disease was one of the key factors. More than 40 soil-borne diseases have been reported in the ginseng cultivation, especially, the diseases were more serious in the ginseng replanting land. Here main soil-borne diseases and their prevention way have been summarized, and we try to provide the effective improvement strategy of continuous monoculture cropping problem focusing on the disease control and offer reference for overcoming the ginseng continuous monoculture cropping problem. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  7. Glycosyl glycerides from hydroponic Panax ginseng inhibited NO production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Byeong-Ju; Park, Ji-Hae; Shrestha, Sabina; Baek, Nam-In; Lee, Sang Min; Lee, Tae Hoon; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Geum-Soog; Kim, Seung-Yu; Lee, Dae-Young

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the aerial parts of hydroponic Panax ginseng are reported to contain higher contents of total ginsenosides than those of roots, the isolation and identification of active metabolites from the aerial parts of hydroponic P. ginseng have not been carried out so far. Methods The aerial parts of hydroponic P. ginseng were applied on repeated silica gel and octadecylsilane columns to yield four glycosyl glycerides (Compounds 1–4), which were identified based on nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared, fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry data. Compounds 1–4 were evaluated for inhibition activity on NO production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Results and conclusion The glycosyl glycerides were identified to be (2S)-1-O-7(Z),10(Z),13(Z)-hexadecatrienoyl-3-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (1), (2S)-1-O-linolenoyl-3-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (2), (2S)-1-O-linolenoyl-2-O-linolenoyl-3-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (3), and 2(S)-1-O-linoleoyl-2-O-linoleoyl-3-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (4). Compounds 1 and 2 showed moderate inhibition activity on NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells [half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50): 63.8 ± 6.4μM and 59.4 ± 6.8μM, respectively] without cytotoxicity at concentrations < 100μM, whereas Compounds 3 and 4 showed good inhibition effect (IC50: 7.7 ± 0.6μM and 8.0 ± 0.9μM, respectively) without cytotoxicity at concentrations < 20μM. All isolated compounds showed reduced messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α in LPS-induced macrophage cells with strong inhibition of mRNA activity observed for Compounds 3 and 4. PMID:26045690

  8. Effects of a standardized Panax ginseng extract on the skeletal muscle of the rat: a comparative study in animals at rest and under exercise.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, A; Vila, L; Voces, J A; Cabral, A C; Alvarez, A I; Prieto, J G

    1999-04-01

    The effect of standardized Panax ginseng extract G115 on enzymatic activities, myotypological composition, capillaries and mitochondrial content was studied in the skeletal muscle of male rats Wistar. Simultaneously to the G115 administration the rats performed exercise. The animals were divided into 4 groups. The dose of the ginseng extract G115 was 50 mg/kg. The length of the experimental period was 12 weeks. After 24 hours of inactivity the muscles of the hindlimb were extracted. With regard to the enzymatic activities of the citrate synthase (CS) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), CS increases with exercise, while the LDH undergoes no major variations, either due to the exercise or the treatment. Treatment with G115 increases the capillary density and the mitochondrial content of the red gastrocnemius muscle. The results suggest that prolonged treatment with G115 increases the capillary density and the oxidative capacity of the muscles with greater aerobic potential in a manner similar to the performance of physical exercise. When exercise and treatment are combined, the effects that are obtained separately are not potentiated.

  9. A retrospective study of long-term treatment outcomes for reduced vocal intensity in hypokinetic dysarthria.

    PubMed

    Watts, Christopher R

    2016-01-01

    Reduced vocal intensity is a core impairment of hypokinetic dysarthria in Parkinson's disease (PD). Speech treatments have been developed to rehabilitate the vocal subsystems underlying this impairment. Intensive treatment programs requiring high-intensity voice and speech exercises with clinician-guided prompting and feedback have been established as effective for improving vocal function. Less is known, however, regarding long-term outcomes of clinical benefit in speakers with PD who receive these treatments. A retrospective cohort design was utilized. Data from 78 patient files across a three year period were analyzed. All patients received a structured, intensive program of voice therapy focusing on speaking intent and loudness. The dependent variable for all analyses was vocal intensity in decibels (dBSPL). Vocal intensity during sustained vowel production, reading, and novel conversational speech was compared at pre-treatment, post-treatment, six month follow-up, and twelve month follow-up periods. Statistically significant increases in vocal intensity were found at post-treatment, 6 months, and 12 month follow-up periods with intensity gains ranging from 5 to 17 dB depending on speaking condition and measurement period. Significant treatment effects were found in all three speaking conditions. Effect sizes for all outcome measures were large, suggesting a strong degree of practical significance. Significant increases in vocal intensity measured at 6 and 12 moth follow-up periods suggested that the sample of patients maintained treatment benefit for up to a year. These findings are supported by outcome studies reporting treatment outcomes within a few months post-treatment, in addition to prior studies that have reported long-term outcome results. The positive treatment outcomes experienced by the PD cohort in this study are consistent with treatment responses subsequent to other treatment approaches which focus on high-intensity, clinician guided motor

  10. Ethyl acetate extract from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer and its main constituents inhibit α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-induced melanogenesis by suppressing oxidative stress in B16 mouse melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Rui; Xu, Xiao-Hao; Wang, Ke; Yang, Xin-Zhao; Bi, Ying-Fei; Yan, Yao; Liu, Jian-Zeng; Chen, Xue-Nan; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Guo, Xiao-Li; Zhao, Da-Qing; Sun, Li-Wei

    2017-08-17

    Hyperpigmentation disease involves darkening of the skin color due to melanin overproduction. Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine and has a long history of use as a skin lightener to inhibit melanin formation in China, Korea and some other Asian countries. However, the constituents and the molecular mechanisms by which they affect melanogenesis are not fully clear. The purpose of this study was to identify the active ingredient in Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer extract that inhibits mushroom tyrosinase activity and to investigate the antioxidative capacity and molecular mechanisms of the effective extract on melanogenesis in B16 mouse melanoma cells. Aqueous extracts of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer were successively fractionated with an equal volume of chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butyl alcohol to determine the effects by examining the activity of mushroom tyrosinase. The effective fraction was analyzed using HPLC and LC-MS. The antioxidative capacity and the inhibitory effects on melanin content, cell intracellular tyrosinase activity, and melanogenesis protein levels were determined in α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-treated B16 mouse melanoma cells. The ethyl acetate extract from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (PG-2) had the highest inhibiting effect on mushroom tyrosinase, mainly contained phenolic acids, including protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, salicylic acid, and caffeic acid, and exhibited apparent antioxidant activity in vitro. PG-2 and its main constituents significantly decreased melanin content, suppressed cellular tyrosinase activity, and reduced expression of tyrosinase protein to inhibit B16 cells melanogenesis induced by α-MSH, and no cytotoxic effects were observed. They also inhibited cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione (GSH) level in α-MSH-treated B16 cells effectively. And those activities of its main constituents

  11. Flavobacterium panacis sp. nov., isolated from rhizosphere of Panax ginseng.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Singh, Priyanka; Farh, Mohamed El-Agamy; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Nguyen, Ngoc-Lan; Lee, Hyun A; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2016-09-01

    A novel bacterial strain, designated DCY106(T), was isolated from soil collected from the rhizosphere of ginseng (Panax ginseng), in Gochang, Republic of Korea. Strain DCY106(T) is Gram-negative, yellow-pigmented, non-flagellate, motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, and strictly aerobic. The strain grows optimally at 25-30 °C and pH 6.5-7.5. Phylogenetically, strain DCY106(T) is closely related to Flavobacterium arsenitoxidans KCTC 22507(T) (98.41 %), followed by Flavobacterium cutihirudini LMG 26922(T) (97.67 %), Flavobacterium nitrogenifigens LMG 28694(T) (97.59 %), Flexibacter auranticus LMG 3987(T) (97.38 %), Flavobacterium defluvi KCTC 12612(T) (97.21 %) and Flavobacterium chilense LMG 26360(T) (97.05 %). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to all other Flavobacterium species were below 97 %. The DNA G+C content of strain DCY106(T) is 34.2 mol% and the DNA-DNA relatedness between strain DCY106(T) and F. cutihirudini LMG 26922(T), F. auranticus LMG 3987(T), F. defluvi KCTC 12612(T) and F. chilense LMG 26360(T) were below 40.0 %. The menaquinone of the type MK-6 was found to be the predominant respiratory quinone. The major polar lipids were identified as phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, two unidentified aminolipids (APL1, APL6) and one unidentified lipid L2. C15:0, iso-C15:0 and summed feature 3 (iso-C15:0 2OH/C16:1 ω7c) were identified as the major fatty acids present in DCY106(T). The results of physiological and biochemical tests allowed strain DCY106(T) to be differentiated phenotypically from other recognized species belonging to the genus Flavobacterium. Therefore, it is suggested that the newly isolated organism represents a novel species, for which the name Flavobacterium panacis sp. nov. is proposed with the type strain designated as DCY106(T) (= JCM 31468(T)= KCTC 42747(T)).

  12. Characterization of bromate-reducing bacterial isolates and their potential for drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Andrew N; Chee-Sanford, Joanne; Lai, Hoi Yi Mandy; Ho, Chi-hua; Klenzendorf, J Brandon; Kirisits, Mary Jo

    2011-11-15

    The objective of the current study was to isolate and characterize several bromate-reducing bacteria and to examine their potential for bioaugmentation to a drinking water treatment process. Fifteen bromate-reducing bacteria were isolated from three sources. According to 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the bromate-reducing bacteria are phylogenetically diverse, representing the Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and α-, β-, and γ-Proteobacteria. The broad diversity of bromate-reducing bacteria suggests the widespread capability for microbial bromate reduction. While the cometabolism of bromate via nitrate reductase and (per)chlorate reductase has been postulated, five of our bromate-reducing isolates were unable to reduce nitrate or perchlorate. This suggests that a bromate-specific reduction pathway might exist in some microorganisms. Bioaugmentation of activated carbon filters with eight of the bromate-reducing isolates did not significantly decrease start-up time or increase bromate removal as compared to control filters. To optimize bromate reduction in a biological drinking water treatment process, the predominant mechanism of bromate reduction (i.e., cometabolic or respiratory) needs to be assessed so that appropriate measures can be taken to improve bromate removal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evidence of effectiveness of preventive dental care in reducing dental treatment use and related expenditures.

    PubMed

    Pourat, Nadereh; Choi, Moonkyung Kate; Chen, Xiao

    2018-02-06

    Preventive dental health services are intended to reduce the likelihood of development of tooth decay and the need for more intensive treatment overtime. The evidence on the effectiveness of preventive dental care in reducing treatment services and expenditures is lagging for adults, particularly those with lower incomes and chronic conditions. We assessed the impact of preventive dental services on dental treatment service use and expenditures overall and by category of service. We calculated the annual numbers of preventive (periodic diagnostic and prophylactic procedures) and treatment (restorative, surgery, prosthodontic, endodontic, and periodontic) services per beneficiary using Medicaid enrollment and claims data for beneficiaries with three categories of conditions (diabetes, heart disease, and respiratory disease) from 10 largest California counties. We used Cragg hurdle exponential regression models controlling for past service use, demographics, length of enrollment, and county. We found that using preventive services in 2005-2007 was associated with higher likelihood and number of treatment dental services used, but associated with lower treatment expenditures in 2008. The reduction in expenditures was noted only in restorative, prosthodontics, and periodontic services. The findings provide much needed evidence of the contribution of preventive dental care in maintaining oral health of low-income adults with chronic conditions and potential for savings to the Medicaid program. Providing lower cost preventive dental care to the individuals with chronic conditions would achieve better oral health and lower treatment expenditures. © 2018 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  14. Periodontal Treatment Reduces Risk of Adverse Respiratory Events in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Te-Chun; Chang, Pei-Ying; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chen, Chia-Hung; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsia, Te-Chun; Shih, Chuen-Ming; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Treatment of periodontal diseases has been associated with benefit outcomes for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, no population-based cohort study has been conducted. We evaluated this relationship by retrospective cohort study using a large population data. Using the National Health Insurance claims data of Taiwan, we identified 5562 COPD patients with periodontal diseases who had received periodontal treatment as the treatment group. The comparison group was selected at a 1:1 ratio matched by the propensity score estimated with age, sex, date of COPD diagnosis and periodontal treatment, and comorbidities. Both groups were followed up for 5 years to compare risks of acute exacerbation, pneumonia, and acute respiratory failure. The incidence rates of adverse respiratory events were significantly lower in the treatment group than in the comparison group: 3.79 versus 4.21 per 100 person-years for emergency room visits, 2.75 versus 3.65 per 100 person-years for hospitalizations, and 0.66 versus 0.75 per 100 person-years for intensive care unit admissions. The treatment group also had a 37% reduced risk of deaths (1.81 vs 2.87 per 100 person-years), with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.57 (95% confidence interval 0.52–0.62). Periodontal treatment for COPD patients could reduce the risk of adverse respiratory events and mortality. The adequate periodontal health care is important for COPD patients with periodontal diseases. PMID:27196497

  15. Ginseng and Anticancer Drug Combination to Improve Cancer Chemotherapy: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shihong; Huang, Ying; O'Barr, Stephen A.; Wong, Rebecca A.; Chow, Moses Sing Sum

    2014-01-01

    Ginseng, a well-known herb, is often used in combination with anticancer drugs to enhance chemotherapy. Its wide usage as well as many documentations are often cited to support its clinical benefit of such combination therapy. However the literature based on objective evidence to make such recommendation is still lacking. The present review critically evaluated relevant studies reported in English and Chinese literature on such combination. Based on our review, we found good evidence from in vitro and in vivo animal studies showing enhanced antitumor effect when ginseng is used in combination with some anticancer drugs. However, there is insufficient clinical evidence of such benefit as very few clinical studies are available. Future research should focus on clinically relevant studies of such combination to validate the utility of ginseng in cancer. PMID:24876866

  16. Fast determination of total ginsenosides content in ginseng powder by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hua-cai; Chen, Xing-dan; Lu, Yong-jun; Cao, Zhi-qiang

    2006-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy was used to develop a fast determination method for total ginsenosides in Ginseng (Panax Ginseng) powder. The spectra were analyzed with multiplicative signal correction (MSC) correlation method. The best correlative spectra region with the total ginsenosides content was 1660 nm~1880 nm and 2230nm~2380 nm. The NIR calibration models of ginsenosides were built with multiple linear regression (MLR), principle component regression (PCR) and partial least squares (PLS) regression respectively. The results showed that the calibration model built with PLS combined with MSC and the optimal spectrum region was the best one. The correlation coefficient and the root mean square error of correction validation (RMSEC) of the best calibration model were 0.98 and 0.15% respectively. The optimal spectrum region for calibration was 1204nm~2014nm. The result suggested that using NIR to rapidly determinate the total ginsenosides content in ginseng powder were feasible.

  17. Evaluation of a Behavioral Treatment Package to Reduce Sleep Problems in Children with Angelman Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Keith D.; Kuhn, Brett R.; DeHaai, Kristi A.; Wallace, Dustin P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness of a behavioral treatment package to reduce chronic sleep problems in children with Angelman Syndrome. Participants were five children, 2-11 years-of-age. Parents maintained sleep diaries to record sleep and disruptive nighttime behaviors. Actigraphy was added to provide…

  18. Chemical treatment costs reduced with in-pond receway systems comopared to traditional pond aquaculture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Production systems such as in-pond raceway systems (IPRS) and split ponds are providing an alternative to traditional pond culture for raising catfish in several southeastern states. One advantage noted by farmers utilizing these systems is the reduced cost associated with the chemical treatment of...

  19. Treatment with a low pH processing aid to reduce campylobacter counts on broiler parts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    New regulations and performance standards for Campylobacter have been implemented by the USDA - Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS). The objective of this study was to evaluate treatment with a low pH processing aid (CMS PoultrypHreshTM), a formulated low pH processing aid, to reduce numbers...

  20. Technologies for reducing sludge production in wastewater treatment plants: State of the art.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qilin; Wei, Wei; Gong, Yanyan; Yu, Qiming; Li, Qin; Sun, Jing; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2017-06-01

    This review presents the state-of-the-art sludge reduction technologies applied in both wastewater and sludge treatment lines. They include chemical, mechanical, thermal, electrical treatment, addition of chemical un-coupler, and predation of protozoa/metazoa in wastewater treatment line, and physical, chemical and biological pretreatment in sludge treatment line. Emphasis was put on their effect on sludge reduction performance, with 10% sludge reduction to zero sludge production in wastewater treatment line and enhanced TS (total solids) or volatile solids removal of 5-40% in sludge treatment line. Free nitrous acid (FNA) technology seems good in wastewater treatment line but it is only under the lab-scale trial. In sludge treatment line, thermal, ultrasonic (<4400kJ/kg TS), FNA pretreatment and temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) are promising if pathogen inactivation is not a concern. However, thermal pretreatment and TPAD are superior to other pretreatment technologies when pathogen inactivation is required. The new wastewater treatment processes including SANI®, high-rate activated sludge coupled autotrophic nitrogen removal and anaerobic membrane bioreactor coupled autotrophic nitrogen removal also have a great potential to reduce sludge production. In the future, an effort should be put on the effect of sludge reduction technologies on the removal of organic micropollutants and heavy metals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of single-dose Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng on driving performance.

    PubMed

    LaSala, Gregory S; McKeever, Rita G; Patel, Urvi; Okaneku, Jolene; Vearrier, David; Greenberg, Michael I

    2015-02-01

    Panax ginseng and Gingko biloba are commonly used herbal supplements in the United States that have been reported to increase alertness and cognitive function. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of these specific herbals on driving performance. 30 volunteers were tested using the STISIM3® Driving Simulator (Systems Technology Inc., Hawthorne, CA, USA) in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The subjects were randomized into 3 groups of 10 subjects per group. After 10-min of simulated driving, subjects received either ginseng (1200 mg), Gingko (240 mg), or placebo administered orally. The test herbals and placebo were randomized and administered by a research assistant outside of the study to maintain blinding. One hour following administration of the herbals or placebo, the subjects completed an additional 10-min of simulated driving. Standard driving parameters were studied including reaction time, standard deviation of lateral positioning, and divided attention. Data collected for the divided attention parameter included time to response and number of correct responses. The data was analyzed with repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Kruskal-Wallis test using SPSS 22 (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). There was no difference in reaction time or standard deviation of lateral positioning for both the ginseng and Ginkgo arms. For the divided attention parameter, the response time in the Ginkgo arm decreased from 2.9 to 2.5 s. The ginseng arm also decreased from 3.2 to 2.4 s. None of these values were statistically significant when between group differences were analyzed. The data suggests there was no statistically significant difference between ginseng, Ginkgo or placebo on driving performance. We postulate this is due to the relatively small numbers in our study. Further study with a larger sample size may be needed in order to elucidate more fully the effects of Ginkgo and ginseng on driving ability.

  2. Subacute Oral Toxicity Study of Korean Red Ginseng Extract in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang-Jin; Lim, Kwang-Hyun; Noh, Jeong-Ho; Jeong, Eun Ju; Kim, Yong-Soon; Han, Byung-Cheol; Lee, Seung-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Ginseng is a well-known traditional medicine used in Asian countries for several thousand years, and it is currently applied to medicine, cosmetics, and nutritional supplements due to its many healing and energygiving properties. It is well demonstrated that ginsenosides, the main ingredient of ginseng, produce a variety of pharmacological and therapeutic effects on central nerve system (CNS) disorders, cardiovascular disease, endocrine secretions, aging, and immune function. Korean red ginseng extract is a dietary supplement containing ginsenoside Rb1 and ginsenoside Rg1 extracted from Panax ginseng. While the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of the extract have been well established, its toxicological properties remain obscure. Thus, four-week oral toxicity studies in rats were conducted to investigate whether Korean red ginseng extract could have a potential toxicity to humans. The test article was administered once daily by oral gavage to four groups of male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats at dose levels of 0, 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg/day for four weeks. Neither deaths nor clinical symptoms were observed in any group during the experiment. Furthermore, no abnormalities in body weight, food consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, gross findings, organ weights, or histopathology were revealed related to the administration of the test article in either sex of any dosed group. Therefore, a target organ was not determined in this study, and the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of Korean red ginseng extract was established to be 2,000 mg/kg/day. PMID:24578799

  3. Improved Inflammatory Balance of Human Skeletal Muscle during Exercise after Supplementations of the Ginseng-Based Steroid Rg1

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Chien-Wen; Lee, Shin-Da; Kao, Chung-Lan; Cheng, I-Shiung; Lin, Yu-Nan; Chuang, Sheng-Ju; Chen, Chung-Yu; Ivy, John L.; Huang, Chih-Yang; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of ginseng-based steroid Rg1 on TNF-alpha and IL-10 gene expression in human skeletal muscle against exercise challenge, as well as on its ergogenic outcomes. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trials were performed, separated by a 4-week washout. Healthy young men were randomized into two groups and received capsule containing either 5 mg of Rg1 or Placebo one night and one hour before exercise. Muscle biopsies were conducted at baseline, immediately and 3 h after a standardized 60-min cycle ergometer exercise. While treatment differences in glycogen depletion rate of biopsied quadriceps muscle during exercise did not reach statistical significance, Rg1 supplementations enhanced post-exercise glycogen replenishment and increased citrate synthase activity in the skeletal muscle 3 h after exercise, concurrent with improved meal tolerance during recovery (P<0.05). Rg1 suppressed the exercise-induced increases in thiobarbituric acids reactive substance (TBARS) and reversed the increased TNF-alpha and decreased IL-10 mRNA of quadriceps muscle against the exercise challenge. PGC-1 alpha and GLUT4 mRNAs of exercised muscle were not affected by Rg1. Maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was not changed by Rg1. However, cycling time to exhaustion at 80% VO2max increased significantly by ~20% (P<0.05). Conclusion: Our result suggests that Rg1 is an ergogenic component of ginseng, which can minimize unwanted lipid peroxidation of exercised human skeletal muscle, and attenuate pro-inflammatory shift under exercise challenge. PMID:25617625

  4. Improved inflammatory balance of human skeletal muscle during exercise after supplementations of the ginseng-based steroid Rg1.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chien-Wen; Lee, Shin-Da; Kao, Chung-Lan; Cheng, I-Shiung; Lin, Yu-Nan; Chuang, Sheng-Ju; Chen, Chung-Yu; Ivy, John L; Huang, Chih-Yang; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of ginseng-based steroid Rg1 on TNF-alpha and IL-10 gene expression in human skeletal muscle against exercise challenge, as well as on its ergogenic outcomes. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trials were performed, separated by a 4-week washout. Healthy young men were randomized into two groups and received capsule containing either 5 mg of Rg1 or Placebo one night and one hour before exercise. Muscle biopsies were conducted at baseline, immediately and 3 h after a standardized 60-min cycle ergometer exercise. While treatment differences in glycogen depletion rate of biopsied quadriceps muscle during exercise did not reach statistical significance, Rg1 supplementations enhanced post-exercise glycogen replenishment and increased citrate synthase activity in the skeletal muscle 3 h after exercise, concurrent with improved meal tolerance during recovery (P<0.05). Rg1 suppressed the exercise-induced increases in thiobarbituric acids reactive substance (TBARS) and reversed the increased TNF-alpha and decreased IL-10 mRNA of quadriceps muscle against the exercise challenge. PGC-1 alpha and GLUT4 mRNAs of exercised muscle were not affected by Rg1. Maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was not changed by Rg1. However, cycling time to exhaustion at 80% VO2max increased significantly by ~20% (P<0.05). Our result suggests that Rg1 is an ergogenic component of ginseng, which can minimize unwanted lipid peroxidation of exercised human skeletal muscle, and attenuate pro-inflammatory shift under exercise challenge.

  5. Quality Characteristics, Changes in Physiochemical Properties and Functional Properties of Camembert Cheese Containing Red Ginseng Powder

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jai-Sung; Bae, Inhyu

    2018-01-01

    Effects of quality, physicochemical properties and antioxidants in Camembert cheese added with red ginseng powder (RGP) were investigated. Cheese samples were prepared with 0.05%, 0.10%, 0.15% and 0.20% RGP. and then monitored during ripening at 14°C for 28 d. The pH of the RGP amended treatment groups increased during the ripening period relative to the control (p<0.05). Moreover, the 1,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyle (DPPH) was highest in the 0.15% RGP group from 21 d to 28 d. ABTS+ radical scavenging activity was increased just like DPPH as the ripening period passed, 0.10% treatment was highest at from 7 d to 21 d. 0.15% RGP was contents of ginsenosides : 10,999.7 ppm. The Free fatty acids (FFA), controls with 0.15% treatment, while the total fat (TF) and monounsaturated fat (MuSF) were higher in the control than the 0.15% RGP group (p<0.05). The total free amino acid (FAA) was increased in the control, and 0.15% RGP, and control was highest at then 0.15% RGP. The samples had average contents of fat and protein were 29% and 18-20% respectively. Additionally, the L* value decreased, while the a* and b* values increased as the amount of RGP added increased. Sensory evaluation revealed that texture and total acceptability were higher in the control group at 12 d. Although the addition of RGP did not exert a better effect on the ripening of the camembert cheese, but the ripening grade was similar to that of the common camembert cheese, and the additional function of the cheese was reinforced. Functional cheese could be developed. PMID:29725225

  6. Quality Characteristics, Changes in Physiochemical Properties and Functional Properties of Camembert Cheese Containing Red Ginseng Powder.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jai-Sung; Bae, Inhyu

    2018-02-01

    Effects of quality, physicochemical properties and antioxidants in Camembert cheese added with red ginseng powder (RGP) were investigated. Cheese samples were prepared with 0.05%, 0.10%, 0.15% and 0.20% RGP. and then monitored during ripening at 14°C for 28 d. The pH of the RGP amended treatment groups increased during the ripening period relative to the control ( p <0.05). Moreover, the 1,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyle (DPPH) was highest in the 0.15% RGP group from 21 d to 28 d. ABTS + radical scavenging activity was increased just like DPPH as the ripening period passed, 0.10% treatment was highest at from 7 d to 21 d. 0.15% RGP was contents of ginsenosides : 10,999.7 ppm. The Free fatty acids (FFA), controls with 0.15% treatment, while the total fat (TF) and monounsaturated fat (MuSF) were higher in the control than the 0.15% RGP group ( p <0.05). The total free amino acid (FAA) was increased in the control, and 0.15% RGP, and control was highest at then 0.15% RGP. The samples had average contents of fat and protein were 29% and 18-20% respectively. Additionally, the L* value decreased, while the a* and b* values increased as the amount of RGP added increased. Sensory evaluation revealed that texture and total acceptability were higher in the control group at 12 d. Although the addition of RGP did not exert a better effect on the ripening of the camembert cheese, but the ripening grade was similar to that of the common camembert cheese, and the additional function of the cheese was reinforced. Functional cheese could be developed.

  7. Dietary honey and ginseng protect against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatonephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    El Denshary, Ezzeldeen S; Al-Gahazali, Mohammad A; Mannaa, Fathia A; Salem, Hesham A; Hassan, Nabila S; Abdel-Wahhab, Mosaad A

    2012-11-01

    Liver diseases are amongst the most serious health problems in the world today and hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the world's deadliest cancers. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the protective effect of sider honey and/or Korean ginseng extract (KGE) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepato-nephrotoxicity in rat. Eighty male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were allocated into different groups and over a 4-week period, they orally received honey and/or KGE or were treated either with CCl(4) alone (100 mg/kg b.w) or with CCl(4) after a pretreatment period with honey, KGE or a combination of both. Clinical, clinico-pathological and histopathological evaluations were done and CCl(4)-treated groups were compared with rats receiving no treatment and with rats given honey, KGE or a combination of these substances. The results indicated that oral administration of CCl(4) induced severe hepatic and kidney injury associated with oxidative stress. The combined treatment with CCl(4) plus honey and/or KGE resulted in a significant improvement in all evaluated parameters. This improvement was prominent in the group receiving CCl(4) after combined pretreatment with honey and KGE. Animals receiving honey and/or KGE (without CCl(4)-treatment) were comparable to the control untreated group. It could be concluded that honey and KGE protect SD rats against the severe CCl(4)-induced hepatic and renal toxic effects. Our results suggest that the protective activity of honey and KGE may have been related to their antioxidant properties. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Inhibition of Hydrogen Sulfide-induced Angiogenesis and Inflammation in Vascular Endothelial Cells: Potential Mechanisms of Gastric Cancer Prevention by Korean Red Ginseng.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ki-Seok; Song, Heup; Kim, Eun-Hee; Choi, Jae Hyung; Hong, Hua; Han, Young-Min; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2012-04-01

    Previously, we reported that Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis and gastric cancer are closely associated with increased levels of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and that Korean red ginseng significantly reduced the severity of H. pylori-associated gastric diseases by attenuating H2S generation. Because the incubation of endothelial cells with H2S has been known to enhance their angiogenic activities, we hypothesized that the amelioration of H2S-induced gastric inflammation or angiogenesis in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) might explain the preventive effect of Korean red ginseng on H. pylori-associated carcinogenesis. The expression of inflammatory mediators, angiogenic growth factors, and angiogenic activities in the absence or presence of Korean red ginseng extracts (KRGE) were evaluated in HUVECs stimulated with the H2S generator sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS). KRGE efficiently decreased the expression of cystathionine β-synthase and cystathionine γ-lyase, enzymes that are essential for H2S synthesis. Concomitantly, a significant decrease in the expression of inflammatory mediators, including cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase, and several angiogenic factors, including interleukin (IL)-8, hypoxia inducible factor-1a, vascular endothelial growth factor, IL-6, and matrix metalloproteinases, was observed; all of these factors are normally induced after NaHS. An in vitro angiogenesis assay demonstrated that NaHS significantly increased tube formation in endothelial cells, whereas KRGE pretreatment significantly attenuated tube formation. NaHS activated p38 and Akt, increasing the expression of angiogenic factors and the proliferation of HUVECs, whereas KRGE effectively abrogated this H2S-activated angiogenesis and the increase in inflammatory mediators in vascular endothelial cells. In conclusion, KRGE was able to mitigate H2S-induced angiogenesis, implying that antagonistic action against H2S-induced angiogenesis may be the

  9. Effect of ginseng saponins on the recombinant serotonin type 3A receptor expressed in xenopus oocytes: implication of possible application as an antiemetic.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyeong T; Koo, Bon N; Kang, Jeong W; Bai, Sun Joon; Ko, Sung R; Cho, Zang-Hee

    2003-08-01

    Nausea and vomiting are the most frequently reported side-effects by patients who are given general anesthesia perioperatively and patients with cancer who undergo chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5HT) type 3A receptor (5HT(3A) receptor) is known to mediate nausea and vomiting and its antagonists have been used effectively to prevent and/or reduce the incidence and severity of nausea and vomiting. However, the adverse effects on cardiac function, such as QT interval prolongation, limit their routine use by these patients. This study was designed to elucidate the effect of ginseng saponins on the recombinant 5HT(3A) receptor expressed in the xenopus oocyte. After in vitro transcription of the recombinant human 5HT(3A) receptor in the Xenopus laevis oocyte, we examined Panax ginseng saponins (total saponin [TS], panaxadiol saponin [PD] fraction, panaxatriol saponin [PT] fraction, and ginsenoside-Rb1 and -Rg1) for their ability to inhibit current flow through the 5HT(3A) receptor using the voltage-clamp technique. All saponin fractions (TS, PD, PT fraction, as well as ginsenoside-Rb1 and -Rg1) inhibited the peak current induced by the agonist 5HT on the 5HT(3A) receptor in a concentration-dependent, reversible, and voltage-independent manner. The PT fraction inhibited 5HT-induced currents in 5HT(3A) receptor more than the PD fraction; meanwhile, there was a similar degree of inhibition between ginsenoside-Rg1 and -Rb1, the main substitutes of PT fraction and PD saponin fractions, respectively. These results indicate that ginseng saponins, especially PT fraction, have substantial inhibitory effects on the recombinant 5HT(3A) receptor, suggesting that some of the specific types of ginsenoside might have an antagonistic action against 5HT(3A) receptor related to nausea and vomiting.

  10. Korean Red Ginseng Saponin Fraction Rich in Ginsenoside-Rb1, Rc and Rb2 Attenuates the Severity of Mouse Collagen-Induced Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Endale, Mehari; Im, Eun Ju; Lee, Joo Young; Kim, Sung Dae; Song, Yong-Bum; Kwak, Yi-Seong; Kim, Chaekyun; Kim, Seung-Hyung; Roh, Seong-Soo; Rhee, Man Hee

    2014-01-01

    Despite a multitude of reports on anti-inflammatory properties of ginseng extracts or individual ginsenosides, data on antiarthritic effect of ginseng saponin preparation with mixed ginsenosides is limited. On the other hand, a combined therapy of safe and inexpensive plant-derived natural products such as ginsenosides can be considered as an alternative to treat arthritis. Our previous in vitro data displayed a strong anti-inflammatory action of red ginseng saponin fraction-A (RGSF-A). We, herein, report a marked antiarthritic property of RGSF-A rich in ginsenoside Rb1, Rc, and Rb2. Collagen-induced arthritic (CIA) mice were treated with RGSF-A or methotrexate (MTX) for 5 weeks. Joint pathology, serum antibody production and leukocye activation, cytokine production in the circulation, lymph nodes, and joints were examined. RGSF-A markedly reduced severity of arthritis, cellular infiltration, and cartilage damage. It suppressed CD3+/CD69+, CD4+/CD25+, CD8+ T-cell, CD19+, B220/CD23+ B-cell, MHCII+/CD11c+, and Gr-1+/CD11b+ cell activations. It further suppressed anti-CII- or anti-RF-IgG/IgM, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-17, and IL-6 secretions but stimulated IL-10 levels in the serum, joint, or splenocyte. RGSF-A attenuated arthritis severity, modified leukocyte activations, and restored cytokine imbalances, suggesting that it can be considered as an antiarthritic agent with the capacity to ameliorate the immune and inflammatory responses in CIA mice. PMID:24833816

  11. Reducing the pollution risk of pesticide using nano networks induced by irradiation and hydrothermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao; Liu, Zuojun; Zhang, Guilong; Qiu, Guannan; Zhong, Naiqin; Wu, Lifang; Cai, Dongqing; Wu, Zhengyan

    2015-01-01

    Traditional pesticides (TP) often do not adhere tightly to crop foliage. They can easily enter the surrounding environment through precipitation and volatilization. This can result in the pollution of the surrounding soil, water, and air. To reduce pesticide pollution, we developed a loss-control pesticide (LCP) by adding attapulgite with a nano networks structure fabricated using high energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation and hydrothermal treatment to TP. HEEB irradiation effectively dispersed originally aggregated attapulgite through modified thermal, charge, and physical effects. Hydrothermal treatment further enhanced the dispersion of attapulgite to form nano porous networks via thermal and wet expansion effects, which are beneficial for pesticide binding. An LCP has improved retention on crop leaf surfaces. It has a higher adhesion capacity, reduced leaching and volatilization, and extended residual activity compared with the TP formulation. The treatment increases the residual activity of pesticides on crop foliage and decreases environmental pollution.

  12. Aeromicrobium ginsengisoli sp. nov., isolated from a ginseng field.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myung Kyum; Park, Min-Ju; Im, Wan-Taek; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2008-09-01

    Strain Gsoil 098(T), a Gram-positive, non-spore-forming, non-motile coccus, was isolated from soil from a ginseng field in South Korea and characterized in order to determine its taxonomic position. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain Gsoil 098(T) belongs to the family Nocardioidaceae, and the highest degrees of sequence similarity were found with Aeromicrobium marinum T2(T) (99.0%), A. panaciterrae Gsoil 161(T) (98.9%), A. alkaliterrae KSL-107(T) (98.4%), A. fastidiosum KCTC 9576(T) (98.1%) and A. erythreum NRRL B-3381(T) (97.5%). Chemotaxonomic analysis revealed that strain Gsoil 098(T) possesses menaquinone MK-9(H(4)) and predominant fatty acids C(16 : 0), 10-methyl C(18:0) and C(18:0). DNA-DNA hybridization results and physiological and biochemical tests clearly demonstrated that strain Gsoil 098(T) represents a distinct species. Based on these data, Gsoil 098(T) (=KCTC 19207(T) =JCM 14732(T) =GBS 39(T)) should be classified as the type strain of a novel Aeromicrobium species, for which the name Aeromicrobium ginsengisoli sp. nov. is proposed.

  13. Ultraviolet-ozone treatment reduces levels of disease-associated prion protein and prion infectivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.J.; Gilbert, P.; McKenzie, D.; Pedersen, J.A.; Aiken, Judd M.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases caused by novel infectious agents referred to as prions. Prions appear to be composed primarily, if not exclusively, of a misfolded isoform of the cellular prion protein. TSE infectivity is remarkably stable and can resist many aggressive decontamination procedures, increasing human, livestock and wildlife exposure to TSEs. Findings. We tested the hypothesis that UV-ozone treatment reduces levels of the pathogenic prion protein and inactivates the infectious agent. We found that UV-ozone treatment decreased the carbon and prion protein content in infected brain homogenate to levels undetectable by dry-ashing carbon analysis or immunoblotting, respectively. After 8 weeks of ashing, UV-ozone treatment reduced the infectious titer of treated material by a factor of at least 105. A small amount of infectivity, however, persisted despite UV-ozone treatment. When bound to either montmorillonite clay or quartz surfaces, PrPTSE was still susceptible to degradation by UV-ozone. Conclusion. Our findings strongly suggest that UV-ozone treatment can degrade pathogenic prion protein and inactivate prions, even when the agent is associated with surfaces. Using larger UV-ozone doses or combining UV-ozone treatment with other decontaminant methods may allow the sterilization of TSE-contaminated materials. ?? 2009 Aiken et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  14. In situ treatment with activated carbon reduces bioaccumulation in aquatic food chains.

    PubMed

    Kupryianchyk, D; Rakowska, M I; Roessink, I; Reichman, E P; Grotenhuis, J T C; Koelmans, A A

    2013-05-07

    In situ activated carbon (AC) amendment is a new direction in contaminated sediment management, yet its effectiveness and safety have never been tested on the level of entire food chains including fish. Here we tested the effects of three different AC treatments on hydrophobic organic chemical (HOC) concentrations in pore water, benthic invertebrates, zooplankton, and fish (Leuciscus idus melanotus). AC treatments were mixing with powdered AC (PAC), mixing with granular AC (GAC), and addition-removal of GAC (sediment stripping). The AC treatments resulted in a significant decrease in HOC concentrations in pore water, benthic invertebrates, zooplankton, macrophytes, and fish. In 6 months, PAC treatment caused a reduction of accumulation of polychlorobiphenyls (PCB) in fish by a factor of 20, bringing pollutant levels below toxic thresholds. All AC treatments supported growth of fish, but growth was inhibited in the PAC treatment, which was likely explained by reduced nutrient concentrations, resulting in lower zooplankton (i.e., food) densities for the fish. PAC treatment may be advised for sites where immediate ecosystem protection is required. GAC treatment may be equally effective in the longer term and may be adequate for vulnerable ecosystems where longer-term protection suffices.

  15. Potential for beneficial application of sulfate reducing bacteria in sulfate containing domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    van den Brand, T P H; Roest, K; Chen, G H; Brdjanovic, D; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2015-11-01

    The activity of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in domestic wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) is often considered as a problem due to H2S formation and potential related odour and corrosion of materials. However, when controlled well, these bacteria can be effectively used in a positive manner for the treatment of wastewater. The main advantages of using SRB in wastewater treatment are: (1) minimal sludge production, (2) reduction of potential pathogens presence, (3) removal of heavy metals and (4) as pre-treatment of anaerobic digestion. These advantages are accessory to efficient and stable COD removal by SRB. Though only a few studies have been conducted on SRB treatment of domestic wastewater, the many studies performed on industrial wastewater provide information on the potential of SRB in domestic wastewater treatment. A key-parameter analyses literature study comprising pH, organic substrates, sulfate, salt, temperature and oxygen revealed that the conditions are well suited for the application of SRB in domestic wastewater treatment. Since the application of SRB in WWTP has environmental benefits its application is worth considering for wastewater treatment, when sulfate is present in the influent.

  16. Evaluation of focused ultrasound algorithms: Issues for reducing pre-focal heating and treatment time.

    PubMed

    Yiannakou, Marinos; Trimikliniotis, Michael; Yiallouras, Christos; Damianou, Christakis

    2016-02-01

    Due to the heating in the pre-focal field the delay between successive movements in high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) are sometimes as long as 60s, resulting to treatment time in the order of 2-3h. Because there is generally a requirement to reduce treatment time, we were motivated to explore alternative transducer motion algorithms in order to reduce pre-focal heating and treatment time. A 1 MHz single element transducer with 4 cm diameter and 10 cm focal length was used. A simulation model was developed that estimates the temperature, thermal dose and lesion development in the pre-focal field. The simulated temperature history that was combined with the motion algorithms produced thermal maps in the pre-focal region. Polyacrylimde gel phantom was used to evaluate the induced pre-focal heating for each motion algorithm used, and also was used to assess the accuracy of the simulation model. Three out of the six algorithms having successive steps close to each other, exhibited severe heating in the pre-focal field. Minimal heating was produced with the algorithms having successive steps apart from each other (square, square spiral and random). The last three algorithms were improved further (with small cost in time), thus eliminating completely the pre-focal heating and reducing substantially the treatment time as compared to traditional algorithms. Out of the six algorithms, 3 were successful in eliminating the pre-focal heating completely. Because these 3 algorithms required no delay between successive movements (except in the last part of the motion), the treatment time was reduced by 93%. Therefore, it will be possible in the future, to achieve treatment time of focused ultrasound therapies shorter than 30 min. The rate of ablated volume achieved with one of the proposed algorithms was 71 cm(3)/h. The intention of this pilot study was to demonstrate that the navigation algorithms play the most important role in reducing pre-focal heating. By evaluating in

  17. Reducing resistance and denial by exercising ambivalence during the treatment of addiction.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, H J; Simoneau, G

    2001-01-01

    Stage change models and motivational enhancement therapies have significantly influenced the therapeutic tactics clinicians employ in the treatment of addictive behaviors. While motivational enhancement strategies have addressed client ambivalence to increase motivation to change, this article suggests that focusing on ambivalence during treatment has even wider clinical utility than previously thought. Resistance reduction concentrates on exercising ambivalence without an investment in clients changing, thereby strengthening client tolerance for ambivalent thoughts and feelings. Exercising ambivalence reduces resistance to treatment and change by validating a wide array of possible outcomes through detailed exploration of how a behavior pattern works for a client. Since resistance reduction does not require clients to want to change for therapy to progress, exploring the decision-making process becomes paramount. A general discussion of the resistance reduction model, ambivalence, and how clients present for treatment precedes clinical case examples.

  18. Dissipation rates and residues of fungicide azoxystrobin in ginseng and soil at two different cultivated regions in China.

    PubMed

    Hou, Zhiguang; Wang, Xiumei; Zhao, Xiaofeng; Wang, Xinhong; Yuan, Xing; Lu, Zhongbin

    2016-07-01

    The maximum residue limit (MRL) for fungicide azoxystrobin in ginseng has not yet been established in China. This is partially due to the lack of its dissipation and residue data at China's main ginseng production areas. In this work, the dissipation rates and residue levels of azoxystrobin in ginseng roots, plant parts (stems and leaves), and soil in Beijing and Jilin Province, China were determined using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The mean half-life of azoxystrobin in ginseng plant parts was 1.6 days with a dissipation rate of 90 % over 21 days. The mean half-life in soil was 2.8 days with a dissipation rate of 90 % over 30 days. Dissipation rates from two geographically separated experimental fields differed, suggesting that these were affected by local soil characteristics and climate. Maximum final residues of azoxystrobin in ginseng roots, plant parts, and soil were determined to be 0.343, 9.40, and 0.726 mg kg(-1), respectively. Our results, particularly the high residues of azoxystrobin observed in ginseng plant parts, provide a quantitative basis for revising the application of this pesticide to ginseng.

  19. Development of EST Intron-Targeting SNP Markers for Panax ginseng and Their Application to Cultivar Authentication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongtao; Li, Guisheng; Kwon, Woo-Saeng; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2016-06-04

    Panax ginseng is one of the most valuable medicinal plants in the Orient. The low level of genetic variation has limited the application of molecular markers for cultivar authentication and marker-assisted selection in cultivated ginseng. To exploit DNA polymorphism within ginseng cultivars, ginseng expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were searched against the potential intron polymorphism (PIP) database to predict the positions of introns. Intron-flanking primers were then designed in conserved exon regions and used to amplify across the more variable introns. Sequencing results showed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), as well as indels, were detected in four EST-derived introns, and SNP markers specific to "Gopoong" and "K-1" were first reported in this study. Based on cultivar-specific SNP sites, allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted and proved to be effective for the authentication of ginseng cultivars. Additionally, the combination of a simple NaOH-Tris DNA isolation method and real-time allele-specific PCR assay enabled the high throughput selection of cultivars from ginseng fields. The established real-time allele-specific PCR assay should be applied to molecular authentication and marker assisted selection of P. ginseng cultivars, and the EST intron-targeting strategy will provide a potential approach for marker development in species without whole genomic DNA sequence information.

  20. Diagnostic ion filtering to characterize ginseng saponins by rapid liquid chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Qi, Lian-Wen; Wang, Huai-You; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Li, Ping; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2012-03-23

    As one of the most commonly used medicinal plants, ginseng has been an attractive model herb for study. A wide range of analytical methods has been used to characterize its constituents. However, less effort has been devoted to the rare ginseng saponins, especially their isomers and sugar linkages. In this study, we used segmental monitoring and diagnostic ion filtering to characterize ginseng saponins by rapid liquid chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS). By using selected diagnostic ions, specific groups of ginseng saponins were readily extracted from the complicated matrix. 20(R) and 20(S) stereo-saponins were differentiated using the peak abundance ratio of [M-H(2)O+H](+) to [M-2H(2)O+H](+). The fragmentation behavior of ginsenosides was first reported in negative ion mode by MS/MS with high-energy collision-induced dissociation, producing rules to determine sugar numbers, positions and linkages. Using the rules, we identified and compared the nontarget ginseng saponin profiling of raw and steamed American ginseng roots and berries. We characterized 70 saponins in the samples. Our strategy can be extended to screen and characterize other rare ginseng saponins and their metabolites. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of Reproducible EST-derived SSR Markers and Assessment of Genetic Diversity in Panax ginseng Cultivars and Related Species

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hong-Il; Kim, Nam Hoon; Kim, Jun Ha; Choi, Beom Soon; Ahn, In-Ok; Lee, Joon-Soo; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the genetics or genomics of Panax ginseng. In this study, we developed 70 expressed sequence tag-derived polymorphic simple sequence repeat markers by trials of 140 primer pairs. All of the 70 markers showed reproducible polymorphism among four Panax speciesand 19 of them were polymorphic in six P. ginseng cultivars. These markers segregated 1:2:1 manner of Mendelian inheritance in an F2 population of a cross between two P. ginseng cultivars, ‘Yunpoong’ and ‘Chunpoong’, indicating that these are reproducible and inheritable mappable markers. A phylogenetic analysis using the genotype data showed three distinctive groups: a P. ginseng-P. japonicus clade, P. notoginseng and P. quinquefolius, with similarity coefficients of 0.70. P. japonicus was intermingled with P. ginseng cultivars, indicating that both species have similar genetic backgrounds. P. ginseng cultivars were subdivided into three minor groups: an independent cultivar ‘Chunpoong’, a subgroup with three accessions including two cultivars, ‘Gumpoong’ and ‘Yunpoong’ and one landrace ‘Hwangsook’ and another subgroup with two accessions including one cultivar, ‘Gopoong’ and one landrace ‘Jakyung’. Each primer pair produced 1 to 4 bands, indicating that the ginseng genome has a highly replicated paleopolyploid genome structure. PMID:23717085

  2. NanoESI-MS-based lipidomics to discriminate between cultivars, cultivation ages, and parts of Panax ginseng.

    PubMed

    Kim, So-Hyun; Shin, Yoo-Soo; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon

    2016-03-01

    Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) is one of the most popular medicinal herbs used in Asia, including Korea and China. In the present study lipid profiling of two officially registered cultivars (P. ginseng 'Chunpoong' and P. ginseng 'Yunpoong') was performed at different cultivation ages (5 and 6 years) and on different parts (tap roots, lateral roots, and rhizomes) using nano-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (nanoESI-MS). In total, 30 compounds including galactolipids, phospholipids, triacylglycerols, and ginsenosides were identified. Among them, triacylglycerol 54:6 (18:2/18:2/18:2), phosphatidylglycerol 34:3 (16:0/18:3), monogalactosyldiacylglycerol 36:4 (18:2/18:2), phosphatidic acid species 36:4 (18:2/18:2), and 34:1 (16:0/18:1) were selected as biomarkers to discriminate cultivars, cultivation ages, and parts. In addition, an unknown P. ginseng sample was successfully predicted by applying validated partial least squares projection to latent structures regression models. This is the first study regarding the identification of intact lipid species from P. ginseng and to predict cultivars, cultivation ages, and parts of P. ginseng using nanoESI-MS-based lipidomic profiling with a multivariate statistical analysis.

  3. Development of EST Intron-Targeting SNP Markers for Panax ginseng and Their Application to Cultivar Authentication

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongtao; Li, Guisheng; Kwon, Woo-Saeng; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Panax ginseng is one of the most valuable medicinal plants in the Orient. The low level of genetic variation has limited the application of molecular markers for cultivar authentication and marker-assisted selection in cultivated ginseng. To exploit DNA polymorphism within ginseng cultivars, ginseng expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were searched against the potential intron polymorphism (PIP) database to predict the positions of introns. Intron-flanking primers were then designed in conserved exon regions and used to amplify across the more variable introns. Sequencing results showed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), as well as indels, were detected in four EST-derived introns, and SNP markers specific to “Gopoong” and “K-1” were first reported in this study. Based on cultivar-specific SNP sites, allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted and proved to be effective for the authentication of ginseng cultivars. Additionally, the combination of a simple NaOH-Tris DNA isolation method and real-time allele-specific PCR assay enabled the high throughput selection of cultivars from ginseng fields. The established real-time allele-specific PCR assay should be applied to molecular authentication and marker assisted selection of P. ginseng cultivars, and the EST intron-targeting strategy will provide a potential approach for marker development in species without whole genomic DNA sequence information. PMID:27271615

  4. A comprehensive review of the therapeutic and pharmacological effects of ginseng and ginsenosides in central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Jin; Kim, Pitna; Shin, Chan Young

    2013-03-01

    Ginseng is one of the most widely used herbal medicines in human. Central nervous system (CNS) diseases are most widely investigated diseases among all others in respect to the ginseng's therapeutic effects. These include Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, cerebral ischemia, depression, and many other neurological disorders including neurodevelopmental disorders. Not only the various types of diseases but also the diverse array of target pathways or molecules ginseng exerts its effect on. These range, for example, from neuroprotection to the regulation of synaptic plasticity and from regulation of neuroinflammatory processes to the regulation of neurotransmitter release, too many to mention. In general, ginseng and even a single compound of ginsenoside produce its effects on multiple sites of action, which make it an ideal candidate to develop multi-target drugs. This is most important in CNS diseases where multiple of etiological and pathological targets working together to regulate the final pathophysiology of diseases. In this review, we tried to provide comprehensive information on the pharmacological and therapeutic effects of ginseng and ginsenosides on neurodegenerative and other neurological diseases. Side by side comparison of the therapeutic effects in various neurological disorders may widen our understanding of the therapeutic potential of ginseng in CNS diseases and the possibility to develop not only symptomatic drugs but also disease modifying reagents based on ginseng.

  5. Increased Mindfulness Skills as Predictors of Reduced Trauma-Related Guilt in Treatment-Seeking Veterans.

    PubMed

    Held, Philip; Owens, Gina P; Monroe, J Richard; Chard, Kathleen M

    2017-08-01

    The present study examined the predictive role of increased self-reported mindfulness skills on reduced trauma-related guilt in a sample of veterans over the course of residential treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; N = 128). The residential treatment consisted of seven weeks of intensive cognitive processing therapy (CPT) for PTSD, as well as additional psychoeducational groups, including seven sessions on mindfulness skills. Increased mindfulness skills describing, acting with awareness, and accepting without judgment were significantly associated with reductions in trauma-related guilt over the course of treatment. Increases in the ability to act with awareness and accept without judgment were significantly associated with reductions in global guilt, R 2 = .26, guilt distress, R 2 = .23, guilt cognitions, R 2 = .23, and lack of justification, R 2 = .11. An increase in the ability to accept without judgment was the only self-reported mindfulness skill that was associated with reductions in hindsight bias, β = -.34 and wrongdoing, β = -.44. Increases in self-reported mindfulness skills explained 15.1 to 24.1% of the variance in reductions in trauma-related guilt, suggesting that mindfulness skills may play a key role in reducing the experience of trauma-related guilt during psychotherapy. Our results provide preliminary support for the use of mindfulness groups as an adjunct to traditional evidence-based treatments aimed at reducing trauma-related guilt, though this claim needs to be tested further using experimental designs. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  6. Algorithm-guided treatment of depression reduces treatment costs--results from the randomized controlled German Algorithm Project (GAPII).

    PubMed

    Ricken, Roland; Wiethoff, Katja; Reinhold, Thomas; Schietsch, Kathrin; Stamm, Thomas; Kiermeir, Julia; Neu, Peter; Heinz, Andreas; Bauer, Michael; Adli, Mazda

    2011-11-01

    The German Algorithm Project, Phase 2 (GAP2) revealed that a standardized stepwise treatment regimen (SSTR) results in better treatment outcomes than treatment as usual (TAU) in depressed inpatients. The objective of this study was a health economic evaluation of SSTR based on a cost effectiveness analysis (CEA). GAP2 was a randomized controlled study with 148 patients. In an intention to treat (ITT) analysis direct treatment costs for study duration (SD) and total time in hospital (TTH; enrolment to discharge) were calculated based on daily hospital charges followed by a CEA to calculate cost expenditure per remitted patient. Treatment costs in SSTR compared to TAU were significantly lower for SD (SSTR: 10 830 € ± 8 632 €, TAU: 15 202 € ± 12 483 €; p = 0.026) and did not differ significantly for TTH (SSTR: 21 561 € ± 16 162 €; TAU: 18 248 € ± 13 454; p = 0.208). CEA revealed that the costs per remission in SSTR were significantly lower for SD (SSTR: 20 035 € ± 15 970 €; SSTR: 38 793 € ± 31 853 €; p<0.0001) and TTH (SSTR: 31 285 € ± 23 451 €; TAU: 38 581 € ± 28 449 €, p = 0.041). Indirect costs were not assessed. Different dropout rates in TAU and SSTR complicated interpretation of data. An SSTR-based algorithm results in a superior cost effectiveness at no significant extra costs. Implementation of treatment algorithms in inpatient-care may help reduce treatment costs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The ginseng's fireness is associated with the lowering activity of liver Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xu; Dou, Deqiang

    2016-08-22

    Ginseng is an herbal medicine used worldwide that possesses a wide range of pharmacological activities. However, its side effects are rarely discussed. The experience of Chinese medicine has revealed that taking ginseng at a high dose chronically can cause fireness, i.e., the ginseng-abuse syndrome. Here, we explored the mechanism of ginseng's fireness by comparing the energy metabolism of mice affected by red ginseng (RG), ginseng (GS), ginseng leaves (GL) and American ginseng (AG), which exhibit different drug properties according to the theory of TCM. KM mice were randomly divided into five groups (n≥30 per group) and administered distilled water or drugs, respectively. Mice receiving RG, GS, or GL received 4.5g/(kgday), while the mice receiving AG received 3g/(kgday). Control mice received distilled water. The duration of exposure for all groups was 31 days. The mice's physical characteristics, such as eye condition, rectal temperature, saliva secretion, urine, stool weight, blood coagulation time and swimming time, were measured at different times after administration. Energy metabolism indexes were measured via TSE phenoMaster/LabMaster animal monitoring system, including the mice' 24h oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), heat production (H) and energy expenditure (EE). Biochemical indices were measured by ultraviolet spectrophotometer and microplate reader, including pyruvic acid content in serum and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and the content of glycogen in the liver tissue. After 31 days of drug administration, mice in the RG and GS groups exhibited obviously more eye secretions, less saliva secretion and less urine. Compared with the control group, the swimming times of mice in the GS, AG and GL groups were significantly prolonged; the clotting time of mice in the GL was extended significantly; VCO2, H and EE of mice in the GS group were obviously

  8. Korean red ginseng extract alleviates advanced glycation end product-mediated renal injury

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Hai Yan; Kim, Do Yeon; Chung, Sung Hyun

    2013-01-01

    The effect of Korean red ginseng (KRG) on diabetic renal damage was investigated using streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The diabetic rats showed loss of body weight gain, and increases in kidney weight and urine volume, whereas the oral administration of KRG at a dose of 100 or 250 mg/kg of body weight per day for 28 d prevented these diabetes-induced physiological abnormalities. Among the kidney function parameters, elevated plasma levels of urea nitrogen and creatinine in diabetic control rats tended to be lowered in KRG-treated rats. In addition, administration of KRG at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight in the diabetic rats showed significant decreases in serum glucose and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), implying that KRG might prevent the pathogenesis of diabetic complications caused by impaired glucose metabolism and oxidative stress. KRG also significantly reduced advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation and secretion from kidney of diabetic rats. Furthermore, KRG decreased the levels of N-(carboxymethyl) lysine and expression of AGE receptor. KRG also reduced the overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the kidney via deactivation of nuclear factor-kappa B. We also found that KRG prevented STZ-induced destruction of glomerular structure and significantly suppressed high glucose-induced fibronectin production. Taken together, KRG ameliorates abnormalities associated with diabetic nephropathy through suppression of inflammatory pathways activated by TNF-α and AGEs. These findings indicate that KRG has a beneficial effect on pathological conditions associated with diabetic nephropathy. PMID:23717171