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Sample records for ginsenoside rg1 promotes

  1. Chronic treatment with ginsenoside Rg1 promotes memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation in middle-aged mice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, G; Wang, Y; Li, J; Wang, J

    2015-04-30

    Ginseng serves as a potential candidate for the treatment of aging-related memory decline or memory loss. However, the related mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we applied an intraperitoneal injection of ginsenoside Rg1, an active compound from ginseng in middle-aged mice and detected memory improvement and the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that a period of 30-day administration of ginsenoside Rg1 enhanced long-term memory in the middle-aged animals. Consistent with the memory improvement, ginsenoside Rg1 administration facilitated weak theta-burst stimulation (TBS)-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) in acute hippocampal slices from middle-aged animals. Ginsenoside Rg1 administration increased the dendritic apical spine numbers and area in the CA1 region. In addition, ginsenoside Rg1 administration up-regulated the expression of hippocampal p-AKT, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), proBDNF and glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1), but not p-ERK. Interestingly, the phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) inhibitor (bpV) mimicked the ginsenoside Rg1 effects, including increasing p-AKT expression, promoting hippocampal basal synaptic transmission, LTP and memory. Taken together, our data suggest that ginsenoside Rg1 treatment improves memory in middle-aged mice possibly through regulating the PI3K/AKT pathway, altering apical spines and facilitating hippocampal LTP. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ginsenoside Rg1 and Aluminum Hydroxide Synergistically Promote Immune Responses to Ovalbumin in BALB/c Mice▿

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jianhua; Song, Xiaoming; Hu, Songhua

    2008-01-01

    The combined adjuvant effect of ginsenoside Rg1 and aluminum hydroxide (alum) on immune responses to ovalbumin (OVA) in mice was investigated. BALB/c mice were subcutaneously (s.c.) inoculated twice with OVA alone or in combination with Rg1, alum, or Rg1 plus alum. Samples were collected 2 weeks after the boosting for the measurement of anti-OVA immunoglobulin G (IgG) isotypes in sera and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin-5 (IL-5) produced in singular splenocyte cultures. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses were measured in mice immunized as described above. After 10 days, the mice were injected s.c. with OVA at the footpads. Thereafter, the thickness of the footpads was measured once daily for 5 days. The results indicated that alum enhanced mainly Th2 (IgG1 and IL-5) responses (P < 0.05), while Rg1 enhanced both Th1 (IgG1 and IL-5) and Th2 (IgG2a, IFN-γ, and DTH) responses (P < 0.05). The highest immune responses were found in the mice injected with OVA solution containing both alum and Rg1. In addition, the hemolytic activity of Rg1 was much lower than that of Quil A. Therefore, Rg1 deserves further studies in order to tailor desired immune responses when a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response is needed. PMID:18094107

  3. Long-term ginsenoside Rg1 supplementation improves age-related cognitive decline by promoting synaptic plasticity associated protein expression in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lumeng; Zhang, Jing; Zheng, Kunmu; Shen, Hui; Chen, Xiaochun

    2014-03-01

    In aging individuals, age-related cognitive decline is the most common cause of memory impairment. Among the remedies, ginsenoside Rg1, a major active component of ginseng, is often recommended for its antiaging effects. However, its role in improving cognitive decline during normal aging remains unknown and its molecular mechanism partially understood. This study employed a scheme of Rg1 supplementation for female C57BL/6J mice, which started at the age of 12 months and ended at 24 months, to investigate the effects of Rg1 supplementation on the cognitive performance. We found that Rg1 supplementation improved the performance of aged mice in behavior test and significantly upregulated the expression of synaptic plasticity-associated proteins in hippocampus, including synaptophysin, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 1, postsynaptic density-95, and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha, via promoting mammalian target of rapamycin pathway activation. These data provide further support for Rg1 treatment of cognitive degeneration during aging.

  4. Ginsenoside Rg1 from Panax ginseng enhances myoblast differentiation and myotube growth.

    PubMed

    Go, Ga-Yeon; Lee, Sang-Jin; Jo, Ayoung; Lee, Jaecheol; Seo, Dong-Wan; Kang, Jong-Sun; Kim, Si-Kwan; Kim, Su-Nam; Kim, Yong Kee; Bae, Gyu-Un

    2017-10-01

    Ginsenoside Rg1 belongs to protopanaxatriol-type ginsenosides and has diverse pharmacological activities. In this report, we investigated whether Rg1 could upregulate muscular stem cell differentiation and muscle growth. C2C12 myoblasts, MyoD-transfected 10T1/2 embryonic fibroblasts, and HEK293T cells were treated with Rg1 and differentiated for 2 d, subjected to immunoblotting, immunocytochemistry, or immunoprecipitation. Rg1 activated promyogenic kinases, p38MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) and Akt signaling, that in turn promote the heterodimerization with MyoD and E proteins, resulting in enhancing myogenic differentiation. Through the activation of Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, Rg1 induced myotube growth and prevented dexamethasone-induced myotube atrophy. Furthermore, Rg1 increased MyoD-dependent myogenic conversion of fibroblast. Rg1 upregulates promyogenic kinases, especially Akt, resulting in improvement of myoblast differentiation and myotube growth.

  5. Ginsenoside Rg1 protects starving H9c2 cells by dissociation of Bcl-2-Beclin1 complex.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Wang, Jun; Hou, Jincai; Fu, Jianhua; Chang, Dennis; Bensoussan, Alan; Liu, Jianxun

    2016-05-26

    Autophagy can result in cellular adaptation, as well as cell survival or cell death. We investigated how ginsenoside Rg1(G-Rg1) regulates the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis induced by continuous starvation. H9c2 cells under continuous starvation were treated with or without ginsenoside Rg1, and autophagy and apoptosis related proteins were assessed over a continuous time course by Western blot. Dynamic fluorescence intensity of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-LC3 was used to assess autophagosome formation by live cell imaging. Cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) -Beclin1(BECN1) and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) -Bcl-2 were co-transfected into cells to observe ginsenoside Rg1 regulation of BECN1/Bcl-2 interaction using Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET). Immunoprecipitation was also used to assess BECN1/Bcl-2 interaction over a continuous time course. In H9c2 cells, starvation induced both apoptosis and autophagy. Cell apoptosis was significantly attenuated in ginsenoside Rg1-treated conditions, while autophagy was promoted. Ginsenoside Rg1 weakened the interaction between Beclin1 and Bcl-2, inhibiting apoptosis while promoting autophagy. Our results suggest that autophagy is beneficial to starved cardiac cells over a period of time. Furthermore, we describe the effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis during starvation. Our findings provide valuable evidence for employing ginsenoside Rg1 as a specific promoter of autophagy and inhibitor of apoptosis.

  6. Ginsenoside Rg1 promotes osteogenic differentiation of rBMSCs and healing of rat tibial fractures through regulation of GR-dependent BMP-2/SMAD signaling.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yanqing; Zhou, Jinchun; Wang, Qin; Fan, Weimin; Yin, Guoyong

    2016-05-04

    Fracture healing is closely related to the number and activity of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) near the fracture site. The present study was to investigate the effect of Rg1 on osteogenic differentiation of cultured BMSCs and related mechanisms and on the fracture healing in a fracture model. In vitro experiments showed that Rg1 promoted the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Western blot analyses demonstrated that Rg1 promoted osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs through the glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-dependent BMP-2/Smad signaling pathway. In vivo, X-ray examination showed that callus growth in rats treated with Rg1 was substantially faster than that in control rats after fracture. The results of H&E and Safranin-O/Fast Green staining revealed that, compared with controls, rats in the Rg1 treatment group had a significantly higher proportion of trabecular bone but a much lower proportion of fibers and cartilage components inside the callus. Micro-CT suggested that bone mineral density (BMD), percent bone volume (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N), and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) were significantly increased in the treatment group, whereas trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) was significantly reduced. Thus, Rg1 promotes osteogenic differentiation by activating the GR/BMP-2 signaling pathway, enhances bone calcification, and ultimately accelerates the fracture healing in rats.

  7. Protective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 against colistin sulfate-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guo-Zheng; Li, Ji-Chang

    2014-03-01

    The present study aimed to examine the protective effect of ginsenoside Rg1 against colistin-induced neurotoxicity in cultured rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Ginsenoside Rg1 was shown to elevate cell viability, decrease levels of malondialdehyde and intracellular reactive oxygen species, enhance activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione, and decrease the release of cytochrome-c, formation of DNA fragmentation in colistin-treated PC12 cells. Ginsenoside Rg1 also reversed the increased caspase-9 and -3 mRNA levels caused by colistin in PC12 cells. These results suggest that ginsenoside Rg1 exerts a neuroprotective effect on colistin-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells, at least in part, via the inhibition of oxidative stress, prevention of apoptosis mediated via mitochondria pathway. Co-administration of ginsenoside Rg1 highlights the potential to increase the therapeutic index of colistin.

  8. Protective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 against hydrogen peroxide-induced injury in human neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhi-gao; Chen, Li-ping; Wang, Fa-wei; Xu, Cheng-yong; Geng, Miao

    2016-01-01

    The active ingredient of ginseng, ginsenosides Rg1, has been shown to scavenge free radicals and improve antioxidant capacity. This study hypothesized that ginsenosides Rg1 has a protective role in human neuroblastoma cells injured by H2O2. Ginsenosides Rg1 at different concentrations (50 and 100 μM) was used to treat H2O2 (150 μM)-injured SH-SY5Y cells. Results demonstrated that ginsenoside Rg1 elevated the survival rate of SH-SY5Y cells injured by H2O2, diminished the amount of leaked lactate dehydrogenase, and increased superoxide dismutase activity. Ginsenoside Rg1 effectively suppressed caspase-3 immunoreactivity, and contributed to heat shock protein 70 gene expression, in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that ginsenoside Rg1 has protective effects on SH-SY5Y cells injured by H2O2 and that its mechanism of action is associated with anti-oxidation and the inhibition of apoptosis. PMID:27630703

  9. Ameliorative Effect of Ginsenoside Rg1 on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Cognitive Impairment: Role of Cholinergic System.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yang; Peng, Jian; Wang, Xiaona; Zhang, Dong; Wang, Tianyin

    2017-01-11

    Bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can induce systemic inflammation, and therefore disrupt learning and memory processes. Ginsenoside Rg1, a major bioactive component of ginseng, is shown to greatly improve cognitive function. The present study was designed to further investigate whether administration of ginsenoside Rg1 can ameliorate LPS-induced cognitive impairment in the Y-maze and Morris water maze (MWM) task, and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Results showed that exposure to LPS (500 μg/kg) significantly impaired working and spatial memory and that repeated treatment with ginsenoside Rg1 (200 mg/kg/day, for 30 days) could effectively alleviate the LPS-induced cognitive decline as indicated by increased working and spatial memory in the Y-maze and MWM tests. Furthermore, ginsenoside Rg1 treatment prevented LPS-induced decrease of acetylcholine (ACh) levels and increase of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Ginsenoside Rg1 treatment also reverted the decrease of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) protein expression in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus of LPS-treated rats. These findings suggest that ginsenoside Rg1 has protective effect against LPS-induced cognitive deficit and that prevention of LPS-induced changes in cholinergic system is crucial to this ameliorating effect.

  10. Ginsenoside Rg1 attenuates ultraviolet B-induced glucocortisides resistance in keratinocytes via Nrf2/HDAC2 signalling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Liu, Dong; Wu, Jinfeng; Zhang, Daniel; Cheng, Binbin; Zhang, Yani; Yin, Zifei; Wang, Yuan; Du, Juan; Ling, Changquan

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress, which occurs after ultraviolet (UV) radiation, usually results in Glucocorticoid (GC) resistance and the subsequent development of skin inflammation. One approach to protecting the skin against UV radiation is the use of antioxidants. The ginsenoside Rg1 is a novel natural antioxidant isolated from the medicinal plant Panax ginseng C.A. Mey. We demonstrated that UVB exposure exacerbated inflammation and reduced both the level of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the efficacy of dexamethasone (Dex) in human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells). Pretreatment with Rg1 increased the expression of GR and restored Dex responsiveness to inflammation in UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells. Mechanistically, Rg1 rescued UVB-induced HDAC2 degradation. HDAC2 knockdown partially abolished the Rg1-induced up-regulation of GR and the enhancement of GC sensitivity. In addition, Rg1 reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which preceded the up-regulation of HDAC2, and consequent sensitization of cells to Dex. Moreover, Rg1 treatment promoted the translocation and activation of Nrf2. Nrf2 knockdown partially abolished the Rg1-induced decrease of ROS production and increase of HDAC2. Rg1 also potentiated the anti-inflammatory effects of Dex in UVB-irradiated mouse skin. In conclusion, we demonstrated that Rg1 attenuated UVB-induced GC insensitivity. Notably, these effects were partially mediated by the Nrf2/HDAC2 pathway. PMID:27982079

  11. Ginsenoside Rg1 Prevents Cognitive Impairment and Hippocampus Senescence in a Rat Model of D-Galactose-Induced Aging

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jin; Xu, Chunyan; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Mengsi; Li, Chengpeng; Chen, Jie; Li, Tinyu; Wang, Yaping

    2014-01-01

    Neurogenesis continues throughout the lifetime in the hippocampus, while the rate declines with brain aging. It has been hypothesized that reduced neurogenesis may contribute to age-related cognitive impairment. Ginsenoside Rg1 is an active ingredient of Panax ginseng in traditional Chinese medicine, which exerts anti-oxidative and anti-aging effects. This study explores the neuroprotective effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on the hippocampus of the D-gal (D-galactose) induced aging rat model. Sub-acute aging was induced in male SD rats by subcutaneous injection of D-gal (120 mg/kg·d) for 42 days, and the rats were treated with ginsenoside Rg1 (20 mg/kg·d, intraperitoneally) or normal saline for 28 days after 14 days of D-gal injection. In another group, normal male SD rats were treated with ginsenoside Rg1 alone (20 mg/kg·d, intraperitoneally) for 28 days. It showed that administration of ginsenoside Rg1 significantly attenuated all the D-gal-induced changes in the hippocampus, including cognitive capacity, senescence-related markers and hippocampal neurogenesis, compared with the D-gal-treated rats. Further investigation showed that ginsenoside Rg1 protected NSCs/NPCs (neural stem cells/progenitor cells) shown by increased level of SOX-2 expression; reduced astrocytes activation shown by decrease level of Aeg-1 expression; increased the hippocampal cell proliferation; enhanced the activity of the antioxidant enzymes GSH-Px (glutathione peroxidase) and SOD (Superoxide Dismutase); decreased the levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, which are the proinflammatory cytokines; increased the telomere lengths and telomerase activity; and down-regulated the mRNA expression of cellular senescence associated genes p53, p21Cip1/Waf1 and p19Arf in the hippocampus of aged rats. Our data provides evidence that ginsenoside Rg1 can improve cognitive ability, protect NSCs/NPCs and promote neurogenesis by enhancing the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacity in the hippocampus. PMID

  12. Ginsenoside Rg1 prevents cognitive impairment and hippocampus senescence in a rat model of D-galactose-induced aging.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiahong; Mu, Xinyi; Zeng, Jin; Xu, Chunyan; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Mengsi; Li, Chengpeng; Chen, Jie; Li, Tinyu; Wang, Yaping

    2014-01-01

    Neurogenesis continues throughout the lifetime in the hippocampus, while the rate declines with brain aging. It has been hypothesized that reduced neurogenesis may contribute to age-related cognitive impairment. Ginsenoside Rg1 is an active ingredient of Panax ginseng in traditional Chinese medicine, which exerts anti-oxidative and anti-aging effects. This study explores the neuroprotective effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on the hippocampus of the D-gal (D-galactose) induced aging rat model. Sub-acute aging was induced in male SD rats by subcutaneous injection of D-gal (120 mg/kg·d) for 42 days, and the rats were treated with ginsenoside Rg1 (20 mg/kg·d, intraperitoneally) or normal saline for 28 days after 14 days of D-gal injection. In another group, normal male SD rats were treated with ginsenoside Rg1 alone (20 mg/kg·d, intraperitoneally) for 28 days. It showed that administration of ginsenoside Rg1 significantly attenuated all the D-gal-induced changes in the hippocampus, including cognitive capacity, senescence-related markers and hippocampal neurogenesis, compared with the D-gal-treated rats. Further investigation showed that ginsenoside Rg1 protected NSCs/NPCs (neural stem cells/progenitor cells) shown by increased level of SOX-2 expression; reduced astrocytes activation shown by decrease level of Aeg-1 expression; increased the hippocampal cell proliferation; enhanced the activity of the antioxidant enzymes GSH-Px (glutathione peroxidase) and SOD (Superoxide Dismutase); decreased the levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, which are the proinflammatory cytokines; increased the telomere lengths and telomerase activity; and down-regulated the mRNA expression of cellular senescence associated genes p53, p21Cip1/Waf1 and p19Arf in the hippocampus of aged rats. Our data provides evidence that ginsenoside Rg1 can improve cognitive ability, protect NSCs/NPCs and promote neurogenesis by enhancing the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacity in the hippocampus.

  13. Role of microRNA-214 in ginsenoside-Rg1-induced angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chan, Lai-Sheung; Yue, Patrick Ying-Kit; Mak, Nai-Ki; Wong, Ricky Ngok-Shun

    2009-11-05

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that act as post-transcriptional gene modulators. Ginsenoside-Rg1, one of the active components of ginseng, has been confirmed as an angiogenesis inducer. Using miRNA microarray analysis, a total of 17 (including miR-214) and 5 miRNAs were found to be down- or up-regulated by Rg1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), respectively. Since miR-214 is closely related to endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and hence angiogenesis, its expression was further validated by qRT-PCR. We also investigated the role of miR-214 on eNOS expression and in tubulogenesis and motility of HUVEC by transfection of specific miRNA inhibitor or precursor. Our results suggested that Rg1 can down-regulate miR-214 expression in HUVEC, leading to an increase in eNOS expression, and in vitro cell migration and tube formation which can possibly promote angiogenesis. These results signify a new understanding towards how a simple natural compound can affect physiological changes through modulation of miRNA expression.

  14. Ginsenoside Rg1 of Panax ginseng stimulates the proliferation, odontogenic/osteogenic differentiation and gene expression profiles of human dental pulp stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Wei, Xi; Zhang, Fujun; Yang, Kai; Qu, Chen; Luo, Huiqiong; He, Longzhu

    2014-01-15

    Ginsenoside Rg1 is one of the major active components of Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. Human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) play an important role in the dentin formation, reparation and tooth tissue engineering. This study investigated the effects of ginsenoside Rg1 on the proliferation, odontogenic differentiation of hDPSCs and revealed the underlying molecular mechanisms. [³H]-thymidine incorporation assay and cell cycle analysis were applied to investigate the proliferation of hDPSCs after the treatment of ginsenoside Rg1. Immunocytochemistry analysis and fluorescent quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR) were performed to evaluate the odontogenic differentiation of hDPSCs. Gene and protein expressions of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) were detected by FQ-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The Roche Nimblegen Whole Human Genome Expression profile microarray was used to detected representative gene expression profiles of hDPSCs by ginsenoside Rg1. The results indicated that ginsenoside Rg1 significantly increased hDPSCs proliferation (p<0.05). Gene expressions of DSPP, ALP, OCN, BMP-2, FGF2 and protein expressions of BMP-2 and FGF2 were increased compared with the untreated group (p<0.05). Gene expression profile analysis revealed that 2059 differentially expressed genes were detected by ginsenoside Rg1. Ginsenoside Rg1 promoted the proliferation and differentiation of hDPSCs through alteration of gene expression profiles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Protective effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on lidocaine-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    LI, HUI; XU, JUNMEI; WANG, XIN; YUAN, GUIXIU

    2014-01-01

    Lidocaine, as an anesthetic substance, is often used for surface and spinal anesthesia. However, studies have shown that lidocaine may induce transient neurological symptoms and cauda equina syndrome. In the present study the effects of the ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) on lidocaine-induced apoptosis were assessed in Jurkat cells using flow cytometry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). The data showed that incubation with Rg1 provides protection against lidocaine-induced apoptosis in cultured Jurkat cells. In order to investigate the effect of Rg1 on the apoptosis pathway, caspase 3 gene expression was determined. The results suggested that the protective effect of Rg1 on lidocaine-induced apoptosis is mediated by altering the level of B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) family proteins and downregulating caspase-3 expression. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that incubation with Rg1 provides protection against lidocaine-induced apoptosis in cultured Jurkat cells. In addition, the study demonstrated that Rg1 is a notable antiapoptotic molecule that is capable of blocking the caspase-dependent signaling cascade in Jurkat cells, and that the protective effect of Rg1 on lidocaine-induced apoptosis is mediated by altering levels of BCL-2 family proteins and downregulating caspase-3 expression. The present study provides the basis for understanding and evaluating the effect of Rg1 in the in vivo treatment of lidocaine-induced transient neurological symptoms and cauda equina syndrome by lidocaine. PMID:24270314

  16. Vaccine adjuvant ginsenoside Rg1 enhances immune responses against hepatitis B surface antigen in mice.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ding; Yuan, Qin; Cui, Qianqian; Liu, Chaoqi; Zhou, Zhiyong; Zhao, Haixia; Dun, Yaoyan; Wang, Ting; Zhang, Changcheng

    2016-06-01

    The adjuvant effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on immune responses against hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in mice was investigated. Female BALB/c mice were subcutaneously injected with saline or HBsAg antigen with or without Rg1 on days 7 and 21. Samples were collected 2 weeks after the boosting for the detection of anti-HBsAg immunoglobulin G (IgG) isotypes in sera and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) produced in splenocytes. The innate and adaptive immune responses were measured in mice immunized as described above. The results showed that ginsenoside Rg1 had adjuvant properties in stimulating IgG, splenocyte proliferation, and mRNA expression of cytokines IFN-γ and IL-4, as well as the expression of cell surface marker TLR4 in the HBsAg-immunized mice. These results indicate that Rg1 enhances both Th1 (IgG2b and IFN-γ) and Th2 (IgG1 and IL-4) responses. In addition, the TLR4 signaling pathway is involved in the adjuvant activities of ginsenoside Rg1.

  17. Neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside-Rg1 in primary nigral neurons against rotenone toxicity.

    PubMed

    Leung, K W; Yung, K K L; Mak, N K; Chan, Y S; Fan, T P; Wong, R N S

    2007-03-01

    Ginsenoside-Rg1, the pharmacologically active component isolated from ginseng, demonstrated neuroprotective effects on primary cultured rat nigral neurons against rotenone toxicity. Rotenone, a common household pesticide known for its specific and irreversible mitochondria complex I inhibition, has been suggested to be the causal agent of Parkinson's disease (PD) by inducing degeneration of cells in the substantial nigra. The present study demonstrated that co-treatment of rotenone and Rg1 could reduce rotenone-induced cell death by 58% (SEM=+/-5.60; N=3). Rotenone-induced mitochondria membrane potential (MMP, DeltaPsim) depletion was restored and elevated by at least 38% (SEM=+/-2.15; N=3) by Rg1. In addition, Rg1 prevented cytochrome c release from the mitochrondrial membrane and increased the phosphorylation inhibition of the pro-apoptotic protein Bad through activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. The protective effects of Rg1 was blocked by glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU486, indicating that the action of Rg1 is mediated through glucocorticoid receptor (GR). In conclusion, Rg1 inhibits the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and increases the survival chance of the primary cultured nigral neurons against rotenone toxicity. Thus, Rg1 and its related compounds may be developed as protective agents against neurodegenerative diseases induced by mitochondrial toxins.

  18. Antioxidant activities of ginsenoside Rg1 against cisplatin-induced hepatic injury through Nrf2 signaling pathway in mice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan; Chu, Shifeng; Shao, Qianhang; Zhang, Meijin; Xia, Congyuan; Wang, Yingying; Li, Yueting; Lou, Yuxia; Huang, Huiyong; Chen, Naihong

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress is mainly caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS). The damage causes a net stress on normal organs, leading to a gradual loss of vital physiological function. ROS, such as free radicals, represent a class of molecules which are derived from the metabolism of oxygen and exist inherently. However, excessive produced ROS can damage all aerobic organisms. Ginseng is one of the most commonly used alternative herbal medicines, also as a traditional Chinese medicine. The aim of this study is to investigate the antioxidant potential function of ginsenoside Rg1 against cisplatin-caused hepatic damage. Male mice were treated with cisplatin to induce oxidative stress to mimic the side effect of anti-cancer drug cisplatin. Ginsenoside Rg1 effectively prevented against cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity, alleviating histological lesions. Antioxidant functions of Rg1 were restrained by the activation of p62-Keap1-Nrf2 signaling pathway, simultaneously accompanied with expression of protein products. Accumulative p62 and increased activation of JNK in hepatocytes promoted the activation of Nrf2. For the other, degradation of Nrf2 was guided by tyrosine phosphorylation, ubiquitin, and Keap1. In summary, Rg1 prevents hepatotoxicity mainly by inhibiting the binding of Keap1 and Nrf2, partly by p62 accumulation, and more importantly by increasing the production of antioxidative proteins associated to Nrf2. Pharmacological activation of Nrf2 is an effective way in combating against liver injury.

  19. [Study on anti-aging effect of ginsenoside Rg1 in serial transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue; Wang, Jian-Wei; Jiang, Rong; Yao, Xin; Yang, Bing; Cai, Shi-Zhong; Liu, Jun; Liu, Dian-Feng; Wang, Ya-Ping

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the anti-aging effect of ginsenoside R1 in serial transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells. HSC/HPC aging model in vivo was established through the Sca-1 (+) HSC/HPC serial transplantation of male donor mice that had been separated and purified by the magnetic-activated cell sorting method. The female recipient mice that had been radiated with lethal dose of 60Co gamma ray were divided into four groups: the control group, the aging group, the Rg1-treated aging group and the Rg1 anti-aging group. The expression of Sry genes in bone marrow cells of recipient mice was analyzed by fluorescence quantitative PCR, in order to determine the source of hematopoietic reconstruction cells, observe the survival time and the recovery of the hematology of peripheral blood, and study the reconstruction of the hematopoietic function of recipient mice, the hematopoietic recovery promoted by Rg1, the culture of CFU-Mix of hemopoietic progenitor cells, the cell cycle analysis and aging-related SA-beta-Gal staining analysis on biological characteristics of Sca-1 (+) HSC/HPC aging, and the effect of Rg1 in vivo regulation on Sca-1 + HSC/HPC aging. The hematopoietic reconstruction cells of female recipient mice were derived from male donor mice. With the serial transplantation, the 30-day survival rate and the hematology in peripheral blood of recipient mice decreased. Sca-1 (+) HSC/HPC showed aging characteristics: the ratio of cells in G0/G1 phase and the positive rate of SA-beta-gal staining increased, whereas the number of CFU-Mix decreased. Compared with the aging group of the same generation, Rg1 -treated aging group and Rg1 anti-aging group showed higher 30-day survival rate and WBC, HCT, PLT and CFU-Mix, and lower cell ratio in Sca-1 (+) HSC/HPC G0/G1 stage and positive rate of SA-beta-gal staining. The Rg1 anti-aging group showed more significant changes than the Rg1 -treated aging group. Ginsenoside Rg1 has the effect of delaying and

  20. The Safety Evaluation of Salvianolic Acid B and Ginsenoside Rg1 Combination on Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qun; Yang, Min; Deng, Yanping; Yu, Haitao; Wang, Linlin; Teng, Fukang; Cho, Kenka; Ma, Hongmei; Wu, Peng; Li, Xue; Wu, Wanying; Liu, Xuan; Xu, Feng; Jiang, Baohong; Guo, De-An

    2015-01-01

    Our previous study indicated that the combination of salvianolic acid B (SalB) and ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), the main components of Salvia miltiorrhizae and Panax notoginseng, improves myocardium structure and ventricular function in rats with ischemia/reperfusion injury. The present study aimed to determine the safety of the combined SalB and Rg1 (SalB-Rg1) in mice. The safety of SalB-Rg1 was evaluated through acute toxicity and repeated-dose toxicity. In the acute toxicity study, the up and down procedure was carried out firstly, and then, the Bliss method was applied. In the toxicity study for seven-day repeated treatment of SalB-Rg1, forty Kunming mice were randomly divided into four groups. The intravenous median lethal dose (LD50) of the SalB-Rg1 combination was 1747 mg/kg using the Bliss method. For both the acute toxicity study and the seven-day repeated toxicity study, SalB-Rg1 did not induce significant abnormality on brain, heart, kidney, liver and lung structure at any dose based on H&E stain. There were no significant changes related to the SalB-Rg1 toxicity detected on biochemical parameters for two kinds of toxicity studies. The LD50 in mice was 1747 mg/kg, which was more than one hundred times higher than the effective dose. Both studies of acute toxicity and seven-day repeated dose toxicity indicated the safety of the SalB-Rg1 combination. PMID:26690140

  1. The Safety Evaluation of Salvianolic Acid B and Ginsenoside Rg1 Combination on Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qun; Yang, Min; Deng, Yanping; Yu, Haitao; Wang, Linlin; Teng, Fukang; Cho, Kenka; Ma, Hongmei; Wu, Peng; Li, Xue; Wu, Wanying; Liu, Xuan; Xu, Feng; Jiang, Baohong; Guo, De-An

    2015-12-09

    Our previous study indicated that the combination of salvianolic acid B (SalB) and ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), the main components of Salvia miltiorrhizae and Panax notoginseng, improves myocardium structure and ventricular function in rats with ischemia/reperfusion injury. The present study aimed to determine the safety of the combined SalB and Rg1 (SalB-Rg1) in mice. The safety of SalB-Rg1 was evaluated through acute toxicity and repeated-dose toxicity. In the acute toxicity study, the up and down procedure was carried out firstly, and then, the Bliss method was applied. In the toxicity study for seven-day repeated treatment of SalB-Rg1, forty Kunming mice were randomly divided into four groups. The intravenous median lethal dose (LD50) of the SalB-Rg1 combination was 1747 mg/kg using the Bliss method. For both the acute toxicity study and the seven-day repeated toxicity study, SalB-Rg1 did not induce significant abnormality on brain, heart, kidney, liver and lung structure at any dose based on H&E stain. There were no significant changes related to the SalB-Rg1 toxicity detected on biochemical parameters for two kinds of toxicity studies. The LD50 in mice was 1747 mg/kg, which was more than one hundred times higher than the effective dose. Both studies of acute toxicity and seven-day repeated dose toxicity indicated the safety of the SalB-Rg1 combination.

  2. [Research of anti-aging mechanism of ginsenoside Rg1 on brain].

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng-peng; Zhang, Meng-si; Liu, Jun; Geng, Shan; Li, Jing; Zhu, Jia-hong; Zhang, Yan-yan; Jia, Yan-yan; Wang, Lu; Wang, Shun-he; Wang, Ya-ping

    2014-11-01

    Neurodegenerative disease is common and frequently occurs in elderly patients. Previous studies have shown that ginsenoside Rg1 was able to inhibit senescent of brain, but the mechanism on the brain during the treatment remains elucidated. To study the mechanism of ginsenoside Rg1 in the process of anti-aging of brain, forty male SD rats were randomly divided into normal group, Rg1 normal group, brain aging model group and Rg1 brain aging model group, each group with 10 rats (brain aging model group: subcutaneous injection of D-galactose (120 mg kg(-1)), qd for 42 consecutive days; Rg1 brain aging model group: while copying the same test as that of brain aging model group, begin intraperitoneal injection of ginsenosides Rg1 (20 mg x kg(-1)) qd for 27 d from 16 d. Rg1 normal group: subcutaneous injection of the same amount of saline; begin intraperitoneal injection of ginsenosides Rg1 (20 mg x kg(-1)) qd for 27 d from 16 d. Normal: injected with an equal volume of saline within the same time. Perform the related experiment on the second day after finishing copying the model or the completion of the first two days of drug injections). Learning and memory abilities were measured by Morris water maze. The number of senescent cells was detected by SA-beta-Gal staining while the level of IL-1 and IL-6 proinflammatory cytokines in hippocampus were detected by ELISA. The activities of SOD, contents of GSH in hippo- campus were quantified by chromatometry. The change of telomerase activities and telomerase length were performed by TRAP-PCR and southern blotting assay, respectively. It is pointed that, in brain aging model group, the spatial learning and memory capacities were weaken, SA-beta-Gal positive granules increased in section of brain tissue, the activity of antioxidant enzyme SOD and the contents of GSH decreased in hippocampus, the level of IL-1 and IL-6 increased in hippocampus, while the length of telomere and the activity of telomerase decreased in hippocampus

  3. Characterization of oxygenated metabolites of ginsenoside Rg1 in plasma and urine of rat.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Rong; Tong, Tian-Tian; Yau, Lee-Fong; Chen, Cheng-Yu; Bai, Li-Ping; Ma, Jing; Hu, Ming; Liu, Liang; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2016-07-15

    This study describes the characterization of oxygenated metabolites of ginsenoside Rg1 in rat urine and plasma. These in vivo metabolites were profiled by using UHPLC-QTOF MS-based method. On the basis of high-resolution MS/MS data, and comparison with chemically synthesized authentic compounds, nine oxygenated metabolites of Rg1 were characterized as vinaginsenosides 21 and 22 (M1 and M2), vinaginsenoside R15 (M3), 6-O-(β-d-glucopyranosyl)-20-O-(β-d-glucopyranosyl) 3β, 6α, 12β, 20(S)-tetrahydroxy-24ξ-hydroxydammar-25-ene (M4 and M5), floralginsenoside A (M7 and M8), floralginsenoside B (M9) and epoxyginsenoside Rg1 (M13), respectively. Among these metabolites, M4, M5 and M13 are new ginsenosides and others were detected as in vivo metabolites of Rg1 for the first time. In addition, a series of oxygenated metabolites of Rh1 and deglycosylated metabolite of Rg1, were observed and characterized by comparing with compounds synthesized by us, which revealed an association between C-20 configuration and the extent of oxidation metabolism. Appearance of all these metabolites in blood stream and urine after i.v. dosing and oral administration of Rg1 was further examined, which clearly showed that mono-oxygenated metabolites of Rg1 were major circulating metabolites at the early stage after dosing. Characterization of exact chemical structures of these circulating metabolites contribute greatly to our understanding of chemical exposure after consumption of ginseng products, and provide valuable information for explaining multiple bioactivities of ginseng products.

  4. Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for rapid determination of ginsenoside Rg1 and Re in Chinese patent medicine Naosaitong pill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Qu, Zhengyi; Wang, Yingping; Yao, Chunlin; Bai, Xueyuan; Bian, Shuai; Zhao, Bing

    2015-03-01

    Ginsenosides in plant samples have been extensively studied because protopanaxadiol saponins are ubiquitous in Chinese patent medicines, in which they can be used in promoting human health as the main active ingredients. A method for rapid determination of two ginsenosides (Rg1 and Re) in Naosaitong (NST) samples using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) is studied to determine the contents of ginsenoside Rg1 and Re in this work. Partial least square (PLS) regression was used for building the calibration models, and the effects of spectral preprocessing and variable selection on the models are investigated for optimization of the models. A total of 93 samples were scanned by NIRS, and also by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector to determine the contents of ginsenoside Rg1 and Re. The calibration models for Rg1 and Re had high values of the coefficient of determination (R2) (0.9766 and 0.9764) and low root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) (0.0136 and 0.0104), and the values of the standard error of prediction set (SEP) are 0.00764 and 0.0103, which indicate a good correlation between reference values and NIRS predicted values. The overall results show that NIRS could be applied for the rapid determination of the contents of ginsenosides in Ginseng byproducts for pharmaceuticals that develop high-quality Chinese patent medicines.

  5. A Preclinical Systematic Review of Ginsenoside-Rg1 in Experimental Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Song, Liang; Xu, Meng-Bei; Zhou, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Dao-pei

    2017-01-01

    To date, no drug has been proven to be neuroprotective or disease-modifying for Parkinson's disease (PD) in clinical trials. Here, we aimed to assess preclinical evidence of Ginsenosides-Rg1 (G-Rg1), a potential neuroprotectant, for experimental PD and its possible mechanisms. Eligible studies were identified by searching six electronic databases from their inception to August 2016. Twenty-five eligible studies involving 516 animals were identified. The quality score of these studies ranged from 3 to 7. Compared with the control group, two out of the 12 studies of MPTP-induced PD showed significant effects of G-Rg1 for improving the rotarod test (P < 0.01), two studies for improving the swim-score values (P < 0.01), six studies for improving the level of TH protein expression (P < 0.01), and two studies for increasing the expression of TH mRNA in the substantia nigra of mice (P < 0.01). The studies reported that G-Rg1 exerted potential neuroprotective effects on PD model through different mechanisms as antineuroinflammatory activities (n = 10), antioxidant stress (n = 3), and antiapoptosis (n = 11). In conclusion, G-Rg1 exerted potential neuroprotective functions against PD largely by antineuroinflammatory, antioxidative, and antiapoptotic effects. G-Rg1 as a promising neuroprotectant for PD needs further confirmation by clinical trials. PMID:28386306

  6. Multi-faced neuroprotective effects of Ginsenoside Rg1 in an Alzheimer mouse model.

    PubMed

    Fang, Fang; Chen, Xiaochun; Huang, Tianwen; Lue, Lih-Fen; Luddy, John S; Yan, Shirley Shidu

    2012-02-01

    There has been no extensive characterization of the effects of Ginsenoside Rg1, a pharmacological active component purified from the nature product ginseng, in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model. The well-characterized transgenic Alzheimer disease (AD) mice over expressing amyloid precursor protein (APP)/Aβ (Tg mAPP) and nontransgenic (nonTg) littermates at age of 6 and 9 months were treated with Rg 1 for three months via intraperitoneal injection. Mice were then evaluated for changes in amyloid pathology, neuropathology and behavior. Tg mAPP treated with Rg1 showed a significant reduction of cerebral Aβ levels, reversal of certain neuropathological changes, and preservation of spatial learning and memory, as compared to vehicle-treated mice. Rg1 treatment inhibited activity of γ-secretase in both Tg mAPP mice and B103-APP cells, indicating the involvement of Rg1 in APP regulation pathway. Furthermore, administration of Rg1 enhanced PKA/CREB pathway activation in mAPP mice and in cultured cortical neurons exposed to Aβ or glutamate-mediated synaptic stress. Most importantly, the beneficial effects on attenuation of cerebral Aβ accumulation, improvement in neuropathological and behavioral changes can be extended to the aged mAPP mice, even to 12-13 months old mice that had extensive amyloid pathology and severe neuropathological and cognitive malfunction. These studies indicate that Rg1 has profound multi-faced and neuroprotective effects in an AD mouse model. Rg1 induces neuroprotection through ameliorating amyloid pathology, modulating APP process, improving cognition, and activating PKA/CREB signaling. These findings provide a new perspective for the treatment of AD and demonstrate potential for a new class of drugs for AD treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Chondroprotective Effects of Ginsenoside Rg1 in Human Osteoarthritis Chondrocytes and a Rat Model of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Transection

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Wendan; Jing, Juehua; Wang, Zhen; Wu, Dongying; Huang, Yumin

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess whether Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) inhibits inflammatory responses in human chondrocytes and reduces articular cartilage damage in a rat model of osteoarthritis (OA). Gene expression and protein levels of type II collagen, aggrecan, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were determined in vitro by quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) amounts in the culture medium were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). For in vivo assessment, a rat model of OA was generated by anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT). Four weeks after ACLT, Rg1 (30 or 60 mg/kg) or saline was administered by gavage once a day for eight consecutive weeks. Joint damage was analyzed by histology and immunohistochemistry. Ginsenoside Rg1 inhibited Interleukin (IL)-1β-induced chondrocyte gene and protein expressions of MMP-13, COX-2 and PGE2, and prevented type II collagen and aggrecan degradation, in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of Ginsenoside Rg1 to OA rats attenuated cartilage degeneration, and reduced type II collagen loss and MMP-13 levels. These findings demonstrated that Ginsenoside Rg1 can inhibit inflammatory responses in human chondrocytes in vitro and reduce articular cartilage damage in vivo, confirming the potential therapeutic value of Ginsenoside Rg1 in OA. PMID:28287423

  8. Induction of cytochrome P450 1A1 expression by ginsenoside Rg1 and Rb1 in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuguang; Ye, Xuan; Ma, Zengchun; Liang, Qiande; Lu, Beibei; Tan, Hongling; Xiao, Chengrong; Zhang, Boli; Gao, Yue

    2008-12-28

    Transcriptional activation of the human CYP1A1 gene (coding for cytochrome P450 1A1) is mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. In the present study we have examined interaction of the ginsenoside Rg1 and Rb1 with the carcinogen activation pathway mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in HepG2 cells. RT-PCR was used to determine the CYP1A1 mRNA levels. The results showed that in HepG2 cells CYP1A1 mRNA expression was significantly increased in a concentration- and time- dependent manner by ginsenoside Rg1 and Rb1. Ginsenoside Rg1 and Rb1 activated the DNA-binding capacity of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor for the xenobiotic responsive element of CYP1A1 as measured by the electrophoretic-mobility shift assay (EMSA). Rg1 and Rb1 were able to activate the ability of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor to bind to an oligonucleotide containing the xenobiotic-responsive element (XRE) of the cyp1a1 promoter. These results indicate that Rg1 and Rb1's effects on CYP1A1 induction are mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Since CYP1A1 and aryl hydrocarbon receptor play important roles in carcinogenesis, development, differentiation and many other essential physiological functions, these results suggest that the chemopreventive effect of Panax ginseng may be due, in part, to ginsenoside Rg1 and Rb1's ability to compete with aryl hydrocarbons for both the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and CYP1A1. Rg1 and Rb1 may thus be natural ligands and substrates of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor or have relationship with aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway. These properties might be of help for future studies in P. ginseng and chemoprevention in chemical-induced cancer.

  9. Improvement of memory in mice and increase of hippocampal excitability in rats by ginsenoside Rg1's metabolites ginsenoside Rh1 and protopanaxatriol.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Zhu; Chen, Ji; Chu, Shi-Feng; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Ying; Chen, Nai-Hong; Zhang, Jun-Tian

    2009-04-01

    Ginsenoside Rg1 has been reported to improve cognitive function in many memory-impaired animal models. However, little is known about the bioactivity of its metabolites in the central nervous system in vivo. In the present study, we employed the step through test and electrophysiological approach to investigate the effects of ginsenoside Rg1's primary metabolite ginsenoside Rh1 and end metabolite protopanaxatriol (Ppt) on learning and memory as well as hippocampal excitability. The behavioral study showed that both ginsenoside Rh1 and Ppt significantly ameliorated memory-impaired models induced by scopolamine in mice. Consistently, the electrophysiological work revealed that ginsenoside Rh1 and Ppt as well as their precursor ginsenoside Rg1 all increased hippocampal excitability in the dentate gyrus of anesthetized rats. These results demonstrated that both ginsenoside Rh1 and Ppt had similar but more potent actions than ginsenoside Rg1 in improving memory and hippocampal excitability, suggesting the role of ginsenoside's sugar moieties in biological activities is not as necessary as traditionally considered.

  10. Ginsenoside Rg1 alleviates corticosterone-induced dysfunction of gap junctions in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Xia, Cong-Yuan; Chu, Shi-Feng; Zhang, Shuai; Gao, Yan; Ren, Qian; Lou, Yu-Xia; Luo, Piao; Tian, Man-Tong; Wang, Zhi-Qi; Du, Guo-Hua; Tomioka, Yoshihisa; Yamakuni, Tohru; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Zhen-Zhen; Chen, Nai-Hong

    2017-08-17

    Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), one of the major bioactive ingredients of Panax ginseng C. A. Mey, has neuroprotective effects in animal models of depression, but the mechanism underlying these effects is still largely unknown AIM OF THE STUDY: Gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) dysfunction is a potentially novel pathogenic mechanism for depression. Thus, we investigated that whether antidepressant-like effects of Rg1 were related to GJIC. Primary rat prefrontal cortical and hippocampal astrocytes cultures were treated with 50μM CORT for 24h to induce gap junction damage. Rg1 (0.1, 1, or 10μM) or fluoxetine (1μM) was added 1h prior to CORT treatment. A scrape loading and dye transfer assay was performed to identify the functional capacity of gap junctions. Western blot was used to detect the expression and phosphorylation of connexin43 (Cx43), the major component of gap junctions. Treatment of primary astrocytes with CORT for 24h inhibited GJIC, decreased total Cx43 expression, and increased the phosphorylation of Cx43 at serine368 in a dose-dependent manner. Pre-treatment with 1μM and 10μM Rg1 significantly improved GJIC in CORT-treated astrocytes from the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, respectively, and this was accompanied by upregulation of Cx43 expression and downregulation of Cx43 phosphorylation. These findings provide the first evidence indicating that Rg1 can alleviate CORT-induced gap junction dysfunction, which may have clinical significance in the treatment of depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Purity assessment of ginsenoside Rg1 using quantitative (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bao-Ming; Xiao, Sheng-Yuan; Chen, Ting-Bo; Xie, Ying; Luo, Pei; Liu, Liang; Zhou, Hua

    2017-05-30

    Ginseng herbs comprise a group of the most popular herbs, including Panax ginseng, P. notoginseng and P. quinquefolius (Family Araliaceae), which are used as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and are some of the best-selling natural products in the world. The accurate quantification of ginsenoside Rg1 is one of the major aspects of its quality control. However, the purity of the commercial Rg1 chemical reference substance (CRS) is often measured with high-performance chromatography coupled with an ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UV), which is a selective detector with unequal responses to different compounds; thus, this detector introduces probable error to purity assessments. In the present study, quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR), due to its absolute quantification ability, was applied to accurately assess the purity of Rg1 CRS. Phenylmethyl phthalate was used as the internal standard (IS) to calibrate the purity of Rg1 CRS. The proton signal of Rg1 CRS in methanol-d4 at 4.37ppm was selected to avoid interfering signals, enabling accurate quantitative analysis. The relaxation delay, number of scans, and NMR windowing were optimized for data acquisition. For post-processing, the Lorentz/Gauss deconvolution method was employed to increase the signal accuracy by separating the impurities and noise in the integrated region of the quantitative proton. The method validation showed that the developed method has acceptable sensitivity, linearity, precision, and accuracy. The purity of the commercial Rg1 CRS examined with the method developed in this research was 90.34±0.21%, which was obviously lower than that reported by the manufacturer (>98.0%, HPLC-UV). The cross-method validation shows that the commonly used HPLC-UV, HPLC-ELSD (evaporative light scattering detector) and even LC-MS (mass spectrometry) methods provide significantly higher purity values of Rg1 CRS compared with the qNMR method, and the accuracy of these LC-based methods largely depend on the

  12. Ginsenoside Rg1 and platelet-rich fibrin enhance human breast adipose-derived stem cell function for soft tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fang-Tian; Liang, Zhi-Jie; Li, Hong-Mian; Peng, Qi-Liu; Huang, Min-Hong; Li, De Quan; Liang, Yi-Dan; Chi, Gang-Yi; Li, De Hui; Yu, Bing-Chao; Huang, Ji-Rong

    2016-06-07

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) can be used to repair soft tissue defects, wounds, burns, and scars and to regenerate various damaged tissues. The cell differentiation capacity of ASCs is crucial for engineered adipose tissue regeneration in reconstructive and plastic surgery. We previously reported that ginsenoside Rg1 (G-Rg1 or Rg1) promotes proliferation and differentiation of ASCs in vitro and in vivio. Here we show that both G-Rg1 and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) improve the proliferation, differentiation, and soft tissue regeneration capacity of human breast adipose-derived stem cells (HBASCs) on collagen type I sponge scaffolds in vitro and in vivo. Three months after transplantation, tissue wet weight, adipocyte number, intracellular lipid, microvessel density, and gene and protein expression of VEGF, HIF-1α, and PPARγ were higher in both G-Rg1- and PRF-treated HBASCs than in control grafts. More extensive new adipose tissue formation was evident after treatment with G-Rg1 or PRF. In summary, G-Rg1 and/or PRF co-administration improves the function of HBASCs for soft tissue regeneration engineering.

  13. Ginsenoside Rg1 and platelet-rich fibrin enhance human breast adipose-derived stem cells function for soft tissue regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong-Mian; Peng, Qi-Liu; Huang, Min-Hong; Li, De-Quan; Liang, Yi-Dan; Chi, Gang-Yi; Li, De-Hui; Yu, Bing-Chao; Huang, Ji-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) can be used to repair soft tissue defects, wounds, burns, and scars and to regenerate various damaged tissues. The cell differentiation capacity of ASCs is crucial for engineered adipose tissue regeneration in reconstructive and plastic surgery. We previously reported that ginsenoside Rg1 (G-Rg1 or Rg1) promotes proliferation and differentiation of ASCs in vitro and in vivio. Here we show that both G-Rg1 and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) improve the proliferation, differentiation, and soft tissue regeneration capacity of human breast adipose-derived stem cells (HBASCs) on collagen type I sponge scaffolds in vitro and in vivo. Three months after transplantation, tissue wet weight, adipocyte number, intracellular lipid, microvessel density, and gene and protein expression of VEGF, HIF-1α, and PPARγ were higher in both G-Rg1- and PRF-treated HBASCs than in control grafts. More extensive new adipose tissue formation was evident after treatment with G-Rg1 or PRF. In summary, G-Rg1 and/or PRF co-administration improves the function of HBASCs for soft tissue regeneration engineering. PMID:27191987

  14. Bioconversion of major ginsenosides Rg1 to minor ginsenoside F1 using novel recombinant ginsenoside hydrolyzing glycosidase cloned from Sanguibacter keddieii and enzyme characterization.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Kwang; Cui, Chang-Hao; Yoon, Min-Ho; Kim, Sun-Chang; Im, Wan-Taek

    2012-10-31

    This study focuses on the cloning, expression, and characterization of recombinant ginsenoside hydrolyzing glycosidase from Sanguibacter keddieii in order to biotransform ginsenosides efficiently. The gene, termed bglSk, consists of 1857 bp and revealed significant homology to that of glycoside hydrolase family 3. The enzyme was over-expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) using a GST-fused pGEX 4T-1 vector system. The over-expressed recombinant enzymes could convert six major ginsenosides Rb(1), Rb(2), Rc, Rd, Re and Rg(1) into more pharmacologically active rare ginsenosides such as C-Y, C-Mc, C-K, Rg(2)(S), and F(1). Especially, BglSk could completely convert the Rg(1) into F(1). The GST-fused BglSk was purified with GST·bind agarose resin and then characterized. The kinetic parameters for β-glucosidase had apparent K(m) values of 0.456±0.009 and 0.167±0.003 mM and V(max) values of 30.2±0.7 and 4.1±0.1 μmol min(-1) mg of protein(-1) against p-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside and Rb(1), respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Ginsenoside Rg1 regulates the proliferation and migration of human periodontal ligament cells via Akt/eNOS signaling under nicotine stress].

    PubMed

    Liu, Cai-Hong; DU, Li

    2017-02-01

    To explore the effects and molecular mechanisms of ginsenoside Rg1 on the proliferation and migration of human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLCs) under nicotine stress. HPDLCs were isolated and cultured by method of explant cell culture. The cells were cultured under nicotine stress for 7 days, and treated respectively with ginsenoside Rg1 (0.01 μmol/L), ginsenoside Rg1 and LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor, 0.5 μmol/L), ginsenoside Rg1 and Tricirbine (Akt inhibitor, 5 μmol/L), ginsenoside Rg1 and L-NAME (Akt inhibitor, 1 mmol/L) from 3rd day after nicotine stress to 7th day. MTT assay and Transwell assay were used to evaluate the proliferation and migration of HPDLCs in each group. Western blot and quantitative real-time PCR methods were used for testing the changes of PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling expression. SPSS 20.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. The proliferation and migration were significantly inhibited by nicotine treatment. PI3K levels were upregulated, but Akt1/2 and eNOS levels were remarkedly reduced by nicotine. Ginsenoside Rg1 attenuated the effects of nicotine on proliferation, migration and Akt/eNOS signaling. Tricirbine and L-NAME could reduce the inhibitory effects of ginsenoside Rg1 toward nicotine. Ginsenoside Rg1 regulates the proliferation and migration of HPDLCs under nicotine stress via Akt/eNOS signaling.

  16. Ginsenoside Rg1 nanoparticle penetrating the blood-brain barrier to improve the cerebral function of diabetic rats complicated with cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Shen, Junyi; Zhao, Zhiming; Shang, Wei; Liu, Chunli; Zhang, Beibei; Zhao, Lingjie; Cai, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic cerebral infarction is with poorer prognosis and high rates of mortality. Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) has a wide variety of therapeutic values for central nervous system (CNS) diseases for the neuron protective effects. However, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) restricts Rg1 in reaching the CNS. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of Rg1 nanoparticle (PHRO, fabricated with γ-PGA, L-PAE (H), Rg1, and OX26 antibody), targeting transferrin receptor, on the diabetes rats complicated with diabetic cerebral infarction in vitro and in vivo. Dynamic light scattering analysis shows the average particle size of PHRO was 79±18 nm and the polydispersity index =0.18. The transmission electron microscope images showed that all NPs were spherical in shape with diameters of 89±23 nm. PHRO released Rg1 with sustained release manner and could promote the migration of cerebrovascular endothelial cells and tube formation and even penetrated the BBB in vitro. PHRO could penetrate the BBB with high concentration in brain tissue to reduce the cerebral infarction volume and promote neuronal recovery in vivo. PHRO was promising to be a clinical treatment of diabetes mellitus with cerebral infarction.

  17. The protective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 against hypertension target-organ damage in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Yin, Jun; Deng, Yanpin; Yang, Min; Xu, Lingling; Teng, Fukang; Li, Defang; Cheng, Yufan; Liu, Sha; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Tingting; Wu, Wanying; Liu, Xuan; Guan, Shuhong; Jiang, Baohong; Guo, Dean

    2012-04-25

    Although a number of medicines are available for the management of hypertension, the organ damage induced by hypertension is not resolved. The aim of this study was to investigate the protection of ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) against vascular remodeling and organ damage in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Male SHR were treated with 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg Rg1 through intraperitoneal injection per day for 1 month. SHR or Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) receiving vehicle (saline) was used as control. Blood pressure detection and pathological stain, transmission electron microscope, immunohistochemical assay were used to elucidate the protection of Rg1. Blood pressures were not different between control SHR rats and Rg1 treated SHR rats, but Rg1 improved the aortic outward remodeling by lowering the lumen diameter and reducing the media thickness according the histopathological and ultrastructural detections. Rg1 also protected the retinal vessels against inward remodeling detected by immunohistochemical assay. Furthermore, Rg1 attenuated the target heart and kidney damage with improvement on cardiac and glomerular structure. These results suggested that Rg1 held beneficial effects on vascular structure and further protected against the organ-damage induced by hypertension. These findings also paved a novel and promising approach to the treatment of hypertensive complications.

  18. Ginsenoside Rg1-induced antidepressant effects involve the protection of astrocyte gap junctions within the prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Jin, Can; Wang, Zhen-Zhen; Zhou, Heng; Lou, Yu-Xia; Chen, Jiao; Zuo, Wei; Tian, Man-Tong; Wang, Zhi-Qi; Du, Guo-Hua; Kawahata, Ichiro; Yamakuni, Tohru; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Nai-Hong; Zhang, Dan-Shen

    2017-04-03

    Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) exhibits antidepressant-like activity by increasing neurogenesis and dendritic spine density without discernible side effects. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying Rg1 antidepressant activity remain poorly understood. As the dysfunction of gap junctions between astrocytes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is implicated in major depression disorder, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Rg1 on astrocyte gap junctions in the PFC. Rats exposed to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) were administered Rg1 (5, 10, and 20mg/kg) for 28days and analyzed for depressive symptoms using the sucrose preference and forced swimming tests. Functional and morphological changes of gap junction channels in the PFC were evaluated using dye transfer and electron microscopy, respectively. The expression of connexin 43 (Cx43) was analyzed by western blotting. Rg1 markedly alleviated depression-like behavior in rats. Long-term Rg1 treatment of CUS-exposed rats also significantly prevented the decrease in dye diffusion and improved the ultrastructure of astrocyte gap junctions in the PFC, indicating beneficial effects on the functional activity of gap junction channels in the brain. In addition, Rg1 upregulated Cx43 expression in the PFC reduced by CUS exposure, which significantly correlated with its antidepressant-like effects. The results demonstrate that Rg1-induced antidepressant effects are might be mediated, in part, by protecting astrocyte gap junctions within the prefrontal cortex.

  19. Ginsenoside Rg1 and Rb1, in combination with salvianolic acid B, play different roles in myocardial infarction in rats.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yanping; Zhang, Tingting; Teng, Fukang; Li, Defang; Xu, Feng; Cho, Kenka; Xu, Jinghua; Yin, Jun; Zhang, Li; Liu, Qian; Yang, Ming; Wu, Wanying; Liu, Xuan; Guo, De-An; Jiang, Baohong

    2015-02-01

    The herb pair of Salvia miltiorrhiza and Panax notoginseng has widely been used for improving coronary and cerebral circulation in China. However, the exact contribution of the major active components of S. miltiorrhiza and P. notoginseng to cardioprotection is far from clear. In the present study, three representative ingredients, salvianolic acid B (SalB) from S. miltiorrhiza and ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) and ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1) from P. notoginseng, were selected to elucidate the mechanism of the herb pair at the ingredient level. The purity of SalB, Rg1, and Rb1 was >99%, as detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. Acute myocardial infarction was introduced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery near the main pulmonary artery. Cardiac contractility was detected through a Mikro-tipped catheter, and cardiac infarct size was determined using triphenyltetrazolium chloride stain. The combination of SalB and Rg1, and not the combination of SalB and Rb1, improved heart contractility in rats with myocardial infarction. The different contributions of Rg1 and Rb1, in combination with SalB, to cardioprotection provides further direction to optimize and modernize the herbal medicines containing S. miltiorrhiza and P. notoginseng. The combination of SalB and Rg1 may provide potential protection against myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  20. Ginsenoside Rg-1 protects retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells from cobalt chloride (CoCl2) and hypoxia assaults.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke-Ran; Zhang, Zhi-Qing; Yao, Jin; Zhao, Yu-Xia; Duan, Jing; Cao, Cong; Jiang, Qin

    2013-01-01

    Severe retinal ischemia causes persistent visual impairments in eye diseases. Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells are located near the choroidal capillaries, and are easily affected by ischemic or hypoxia. Ginsenoside Rg-1 has shown significant neuroprotective effects. This study was performed to test the cytoprotective effect of ginsenoside Rg-1 in RPE cells against hypoxia and cobalt chloride (CoCl2) assaults, and to understand the underlying mechanisms. We found that Rg-1 pre-administration significantly inhibited CoCl2- and hypoxia-induced RPE cell death and apoptosis. Reactive oxygen specisis (ROS)-dependent p38 and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinases (JNK) MAPK activation was required for CoCl2-induced RPE cell death, and Rg-1 pre-treatment significantly inhibited ROS production and following p38/JNK activation. Further, CoCl2 suppressed pro-survival mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) activation in RPE cells through activating of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), while Rg-1 restored mTORC1 activity through inhibiting AMPK activation. CoCl2-induced AMPK activation was also dependent on ROS production, and anti-oxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) prevented AMPK activation and RPE cell death by CoCl2. Our results indicated that Rg-1 could be further investigated as a novel cell-protective agent for retinal ischemia.

  1. Combined Salvianolic Acid B and Ginsenoside Rg1 Exerts Cardioprotection against Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yanping; Yang, Min; Xu, Feng; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Qun; Yu, Haitao; Li, Defang; Zhang, Ge; Lu, Aiping; Cho, Kenka; Teng, Fukang; Wu, Peng; Wang, Linlin; Wu, Wanying; Liu, Xuan; Guo, De-An; Jiang, Baohong

    2015-01-01

    Lack of pharmacological strategies in clinics restricts the patient prognosis with myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cardioprotection of combined salvianolic acid B (SalB) and ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) against myocardial I/R injury and further investigate the underlying mechanism. I/R injury was induced by coronary artery ligation for Wistar male rats and hypoxia/reoxygenation injury was induced on H9c2 cells. Firstly, the best ratio between SalB and Rg1was set as 2:5 based on their effects on heart function detected by hemodynamic measurement. Then SalB-Rg1 (2:5) was found to maintain mitochondrial membrane potential and resist apoptosis and necrosis in H9c2 cell with hypoxia/reoxygenation injury. Companying with same dose of SalB or Rg1 only, SalB-Rg1 showed more significant effects on down-regulation of myocardial infarct size, maintenance of myocardium structure, improvement on cardiac function, decrease of cytokine secretion including TNF-α, IL-1β, RANTES and sVCAM-1. Finally, the SalB-Rg1 improved the viability of cardiac myocytes other than cardiac fibroblasts in rats with I/R injury using flow cytometry. Our results revealed that SalB-Rg1 was a promising strategy to prevent myocardial I/R injury.

  2. Combined Salvianolic Acid B and Ginsenoside Rg1 Exerts Cardioprotection against Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yanping; Yang, Min; Xu, Feng; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Qun; Yu, Haitao; Li, Defang; Zhang, Ge; Lu, Aiping; Cho, Kenka; Teng, Fukang; Wu, Peng; Wang, Linlin; Wu, Wanying; Liu, Xuan; Guo, De-an; Jiang, Baohong

    2015-01-01

    Lack of pharmacological strategies in clinics restricts the patient prognosis with myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cardioprotection of combined salvianolic acid B (SalB) and ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) against myocardial I/R injury and further investigate the underlying mechanism. I/R injury was induced by coronary artery ligation for Wistar male rats and hypoxia/reoxygenation injury was induced on H9c2 cells. Firstly, the best ratio between SalB and Rg1was set as 2:5 based on their effects on heart function detected by hemodynamic measurement. Then SalB-Rg1 (2:5) was found to maintain mitochondrial membrane potential and resist apoptosis and necrosis in H9c2 cell with hypoxia/reoxygenation injury. Companying with same dose of SalB or Rg1 only, SalB-Rg1 showed more significant effects on down-regulation of myocardial infarct size, maintenance of myocardium structure, improvement on cardiac function, decrease of cytokine secretion including TNF-α, IL-1β, RANTES and sVCAM-1. Finally, the SalB-Rg1 improved the viability of cardiac myocytes other than cardiac fibroblasts in rats with I/R injury using flow cytometry. Our results revealed that SalB-Rg1 was a promising strategy to prevent myocardial I/R injury. PMID:26280455

  3. Nrf2 pathway activation contributes to anti-fibrosis effects of ginsenoside Rg1 in a rat model of alcohol- and CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian-ping; Gao, Yan; Chu, Shi-feng; Zhang, Zhao; Xia, Cong-yuan; Mou, Zheng; Song, Xiu-yun; He, Wen-bin; Guo, Xiao-feng; Chen, Nai-hong

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the anti-fibrosis effects of ginsenoside Rg1 on alcohol- and CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats and to explore the mechanisms of the effects. Methods: Rats were given 6% alcohol in water and injected with CCl4 (2 mL/kg, sc) twice a week for 8 weeks. Rg1 (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg per day, po) was administered in the last 2 weeks. Hepatic fibrosis was determined by measuring serum biochemical parameters, HE staining, Masson's trichromic staining, and hydroxyproline and α-SMA immunohistochemical staining of liver tissues. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and Nrf2 signaling pathway-related proteins (Nrf2, Ho-1 and Nqo1) in liver tissues were analyzed. Cultured hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) of rats were prepared for in vitro studies. Results: In the alcohol- and CCl4-treated rats, Rg1 administration dose-dependently suppressed the marked increases of serum ALT, AST, LDH and ALP levels, inhibited liver inflammation and HSC activation and reduced liver fibrosis scores. Rg1 significantly increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GSH-Px and CAT) and reduced MDA levels in liver tissues. Furthermore, Rg1 significantly increased the expression and nuclear translocation of Nrf2 that regulated the expression of many antioxidant enzymes. Treatment of the cultured HSCs with Rg1 (1 μmol/L) induced Nrf2 translocation, and suppressed CCl4-induced cell proliferation, reversed CCl4- induced changes in MDA, GPX, PCIII and HA contents in the supernatant fluid and α-SMA expression in the cells. Knockdown of Nrf2 gene diminished these actions of Rg1 in CCl4-treated HSCs in vitro. Conclusion: Rg1 exerts protective effects in a rat model of alcohol- and CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis via promoting the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and expression of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:24976156

  4. Ginsenoside Rg1 Protects against Oxidative Stress-induced Neuronal Apoptosis through Myosin IIA-actin Related Cytoskeletal Reorganization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Liu, Qian; Xu, Yingqiong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Lv, Yanni; Tan, Yisha; Jiang, Nan; Cao, Guosheng; Ma, Xiaonan; Wang, Jingrong; Cao, Zhengyu; Yu, Boyang; Kou, Junping

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress-induced cytoskeletal dysfunction of neurons has been implicated as a crucial cause of cell apoptosis or death in the central nervous system (CNS) diseases, such as neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. The application of neuroprotectants rescuing the neurons from cytoskeletal damage and apoptosis can be a potential treatment for these CNS diseases. Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), one of the major active components of ginseng, has been reported possessing notable neuroprotective activities. However, there is rare report about its effect on cytoskeleton and its undergoing mechanism. The current study is to reveal the regulatory effects of Rg1 on cytoskeletal and morphological lesion in oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis. The results demonstrated that pre-treatment with Rg1 (0.1-10 μM) attenuated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced neuronal apoptosis and oxidative stress through reducing the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) level. The Rg1 treatment also abolished H2O2-induced morphological changes, including cell rounding, membrane blebbing, neurite retraction and nuclei condensation, which were generated by myosin IIA-actin interaction. These effects were mediated via the down-regulation of caspase-3, ROCK1 (Rho-associated kinase1) activation and myosin light chain (MLC, Ser-19) phosphorylation. Furthermore, inhibiting myosin II activity with blebbistatin partly blocked the neuroprotective effects of Rg1. The computer-aided homology modelling revealed that Rg1 preferentially positioned in the actin binding cleft of myosin IIA and might block the binding of myosin IIA to actin filaments. Accordingly, the neuroprotective mechanism of Rg1 is related to the activity that inhibits myosin IIA-actin interaction and the caspase-3/ROCK1/MLC signaling pathway. These findings put some insights into the unique neuroprotective properties of Rg1 associated with the regulation of myosin IIA

  5. Protective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 on chronic restraint stress induced learning and memory impairments in male mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuchan; Kan, Hongwei; Yin, Yanyan; Wu, Wangyang; Hu, Wen; Wang, Mingming; Li, Weiping; Li, Weizu

    2014-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the major neurological diseases of the elderly. Chronic stress, which can induce atrophy and functional impairments in several key brain areas such as the frontal cortex and hippocampus, plays an important role in the generation and progression of AD. Currently, there are no effective drug treatment options for preventing chronic stress induced learning and memory impairments and neuronal damage. Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) is a steroidal saponin abundantly contained in ginseng. This study explored the neuroprotective effects of Rg1 on chronic restraint stress (CRS) induced learning and memory impairments in a mouse model. Our results showed that Rg1 (5mg/kg) significantly protected against learning and memory impairments induced by CRS in a Morris water maze. Besides, Rg1 (2, 5mg/kg) was able to decrease ROS generation and attenuate the neuronal oxidative damage in the frontal cortex and hippocampus CA1 in mice. Additionally, the inhibition of NOX2, p47phox and RAC1 expression is also involved in the action mechanisms of Rg1 in this experimental model. This study provided an experimental basis for the clinical application of Rg1 in chronic stress induced neuronal oxidative damage.

  6. Ginsenoside Rg1 prevents cerebral and cerebellar injury induced by obstructive jaundice in rats via inducing expression of TIPE-2.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tingting; Zu, Guo; Zhou, Lu; Che, Ningwei; Guo, Jing; Liang, Zhanhua

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the effect of Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) on cerebral and cerebellar injury in experimental obstructive jaundice (OJ). OJ was done by ligature and section of extrahepatic biliary duct. Rg1 was injected intraperitoneally (10 mg kg(-1)d(-1) or 20 mg kg(-1) d(-1)). Comparison of serum total bile salts (TBA), total bilirubin (TBil), direct bilirubin (DBil), TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β among groups. Malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were determined, also apoptosis and mRNA and protein levels of TIPE2 (TNF-α-inducible protein 8-like 2) were tested in cerebrum and cerebellum. Our results showed that Rg1 reduced MDA and apoptosis in cerebrum and cerebellum induced by OJ, also GSH and antioxidant enzyme activity were raised obviously in rats treated with Rg1. Moreover, decreased mRNA and protein levels of TIPE2 in OJ rats and Rg1 could improve the decreased mRNA and protein levels of TIPE2 in OJ rats. In conclusion, Rg1 decreased oxidative stress and apoptosis, also recovered the antioxidant status and mRNA and protein levels of TIPE2 in the cerebrum and cerebellum of OJ rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Drug-eluting coating of ginsenoside Rg1 and Re incorporated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) on stainless steel 316L: Physicochemical and drug release analyses.

    PubMed

    Miswan, Zulaika; Lukman, Siti Khadijah; Abd Majid, Fadzilah Adibah; Loke, Mun Fai; Saidin, Syafiqah; Hermawan, Hendra

    2016-12-30

    Active ingredients of ginsenoside, Rg1 and Re, are able to inhibit the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and promote the growth of vascular endothelial cells. These capabilities are of interest for developing a novel drug-eluting stent to potentially solve the current problem of late-stent thrombosis and poor endotheliazation. Therefore, this study was aimed to incorporate ginsenoside into degradable coating of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). Drug mixture composed of ginseng extract and 10% to 50% of PLGA (xPLGA/g) was coated on electropolished stainless steel 316L substrate by using a dip coating technique. The coating was characterized principally by using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and contact angle analysis, while the drug release profile of ginsenosides Rg1 and Re was determined by using mass spectrometry at a one month immersion period. Full and homogenous coating coverage with acceptable wettability was found on the 30PLGA/g specimen. All specimens underwent initial burst release dependent on their composition. The 30PLGA/g and 50PLGA/g specimens demonstrated a controlled drug release profile having a combination of diffusion- and swelling-controlled mechanisms of PLGA. The study suggests that the 30PLGA/g coated specimen expresses an optimum composition which is seen as practicable for developing a controlled release drug-eluting stent.

  8. Comparative analysis of the neuroprotective effects of ginsenosides Rg1 and Rb1 extracted from Panax notoginseng against cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xian-Si; Zhou, Xiao-Shuang; Luo, Fu-Cheng; Jia, Jin-Jing; Qi, Lei; Yang, Zhao-Xiang; Zhang, Wei; Bai, Jie

    2014-02-01

    Panax notoginseng, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been used for thousands of years to treat ischemic patients. More than 20 saponin components have been isolated from P. notoginseng root and identified chemically. However, these different chemical components have different roles. In this study we compared the neuroprotective mechanisms of ginsenosides Rg1, Rb1, Rg1/Rb1, and panax notoginsenoside (PNS) against injuries caused by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). Our results show that all of these treatments significantly reduced infarction volume and alleviated neurological deficits caused by cerebral I/R. The increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was inhibited by these treatments in the hippocampus. The decreased expressions of thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1), copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD-1), protein kinase B (PKB/Akt), and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) caused by cerebral I/R were restored by these treatments. The expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was enhanced in the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) group, as well as in all of the treatment groups. These results suggest that Rg1 and Rb1 have similar roles in protecting the brain from ischemic damage; however, neither Rg1/Rb1 nor PNS have synergistic effects, thus either Rg1 or the Rb1 monomer should be considered as a pharmacological neuroprotective strategy for use in the case of ischemic stroke.

  9. Enhancement of ginsenoside Rg(1) in Panax ginseng hairy root by overexpressing the α-L-rhamnosidase gene from Bifidobacterium breve.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ru; Zhang, Bian-Ling; Li, Gu-Cai; Xie, Tao; Hu, Teng; Luo, Zhi-Yong

    2015-10-01

    To improve the production of ginsenoside Rg1 in Panax ginseng. The α-L-rhamnosidase gene from Bifidobacterium breve (BbRha) was overexpressed into hairy root culture system using Agrobacterium rhizogenes A4. Ginsenoside Rg1 in hairy roots was obtained following transformation via overexpressed gene representing 2.2-fold higher than those of control lines. Several overexpression transgenic hairy root lines were obtained exhibiting markedly increased levels of the corresponding α-L-rhamnosidase enzymatic activity relative to control. Ginsenoside Rg1 levels in the transgenic lines were higher (2.2-fold) than those of control after following 30 days culturing, while ginsenoside Re contents in tested transgenic lines were found to be lower. The transgenic hairy roots harboring α-L-rhamnosidase gene improved the accumulation of ginsenoside Rg1 up to 3.6 mg g(-1) dry weight. BbRha gene selectively enhances the production of ginsenoside Rg1 in P. ginseng hairy roots.

  10. Characterizing a full spectrum of physico-chemical properties of ginsenosides rb1 and rg1 to be proposed as standard reference materials.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Woung; Hong, Hee-Do; Choi, Sang Yoon; Hwang, Da-Hye; Her, Youl; Kim, Si-Kwan

    2011-11-01

    Good manufacturing practice (GMP)-based quality control is an integral component of the common technical document, a formal documentation process for applying a marketing authorization holder to those countries where ginseng is classified as a medicine. In addition, authentication of the physico-chemical properties of ginsenoside reference materials, and qualitative and quantitative batch analytical data based on validated analytical procedures are prerequisites for certifying GMP. Therefore, the aim of this study was to propose an authentication process for isolated ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 as reference materials (RM) and for these compounds to be designated as RMs for ginseng preparations throughout the world. Ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg1 were isolated by Diaion HP-20 adsorption chromatography, silica gel flash chromatography, recrystallization, and preparative HPLC. HPLC fractions corresponding to those two ginsenosides were recrystallized in appropriate solvents for the analysis of physico-chemical properties. Documentation of the isolated ginsenosides was made according to the method proposed by Gaedcke and Steinhoff. The ginsenosides were subjected to analyses of their general characteristics, identification, purity, content quantitation, and mass balance tests. The isolated ginsenosides were proven to be a single compound when analyzed by three different HPLC systems. Also, the water content was found to be 0.940% for Rb1 and 0.485% for Rg1, meaning that the net mass balance for ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg1 were 99.060% and 99.515%, respectively. From these results, we could assess and propose a full spectrum of physicochemical properties for the ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 as standard reference materials for GMP-based quality control.

  11. Comparison of ginsenosides Rg1 and Rb1 for their effects on improving scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairment in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiong; Sun, Li-Hua; Jia, William; Liu, Xin-Min; Dang, Hai-Xia; Mai, Wen-Li; Wang, Ning; Steinmetz, Andre; Wang, Yu-Qin; Xu, Chang-Jiang

    2010-12-01

    Rg1 and Rb1 are two major active compounds of ginseng that facilitate learning and memory. The present study aimed to compare the nootropic effects of Rg1 and Rb1 in a scopolamine induced dementia mice model. After 6 and 12 mg/kg of Rg1 and Rb1 intraperitoneal administration to mice for 7 days, their effects were assessed using the step-down passive avoidance (SD) and the Morris water maze (MWM) tests, the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, acetylcholine (ACh) content and serotonin (5-HT) level in the hippocampus were analysed after SD and MWM tests. The results showed that Rg1 and Rb1 ameliorated cognition-deficiency in mice with dementia. Rg1 showed stronger effects than Rb1 on escape acquisition in MWM. Both Rg1 and Rb1 increased ACh levels in the hippocampus, but Rg1 inhibited AChE activity while Rb1 had no effect on AChE activity. Both Rg1 and Rb1 inhibited the decrease of 5-HT induced by scopolamine, but Rb1 was more active than the same dose of Rg1. These results demonstrate that multiple administrations of Rg1 and Rb1 are effective in improving memory deficiency induced by scopolamine. Rg1 appears to be more potent than Rb1 in improving acquisition impairment, and the two ginsenosides may act through different mechanisms.

  12. Optimization of combinations of ginsenoside-Rg1, ginsenoside-Rb1, evodiamine and rutaecarpine for effective therapy of mouse migraine.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanchuan; Pan, Xueqiang; Xu, Yongsong; Lu, Xuran; He, Shida; He, Rui; Gong, Muxin

    2016-04-01

    Wuzhuyu decoction (WZYD) is a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula. It has been extensively used for treating migraine for thousands of years in TCM. Four potential active ingredients from WZYD, ginsenoside-Rg1 (Rg1), ginsenoside-Rb1 (Rb1), evodiamine (Ev) and rutaecarpine (Ru), were found to have positive correlations with pharmacodynamic indicators involving mouse migraine in our previous study. To find a better therapeutic effect on migraine, this research was carried out to optimize the combinations of Rg1, Rb1, Ev and Ru using the uniform design method. The results showed that Rb1 and Ev played key roles in improving the therapeutic effect on mouse migraine by strongly ameliorating pharmacodynamic indicators associated with migraine. They significantly increased the contents of 5-hydroxytryptamine, noradrenaline and dopamine in brain tissues, and reduced the content of nitric oxide in brain tissues and the activities of nitric oxide synthase in both brain tissues and blood serum. The optimal concentrations of Rb1 and Ev were 1057.4 mg/L and 312.5 mg/L, respectively. Rg1 and Ru contributed less to the overall desirability, suggesting that they had reverse effects on some pharmacodynamic indicators of this type of migraine. The verification test demonstrated by the immunohistochemical method that the optimal combination inhibited the expression of c-fos and c-jun in periaqueductal gray of mice, and strongly ameliorated pharmacodynamic indicators. These results suggested that the therapeutic effect of the optimal combination of the four ingredients was strong, and the optimal results were proven to be reliable and accurate.

  13. Ginsenoside Rg1 attenuates hypoxia and hypercapnia-induced vasoconstriction in isolated rat pulmonary arterial rings by reducing the expression of p38

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Mengxiao; Zhao, Meiping; Tang, Lanlan; Zhang, Congcong; Song, Longsheng

    2016-01-01

    Background Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a fatal disease characterized by increased pulmonary arteriolar resistance. Pulmonary vasoconstriction has been proved to play a significant role in PAH. We previously reported that Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) might attenuate hypoxia and hypercapnia-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction (HHPV). Methods In the present study, our specific objective was to investigate the role of ginsenoside Rg1, a major component of PNS, in this process and the possible underlying mechanism. The second order pulmonary rings isolated from the Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with different dosage of ginsenoside Rg1 at 8, 40, or 100 mg/L respectively, both before and during the conditions of hypoxia and hypercapnia. Contractile force changes of the rings were detected. Furthermore, SB203580, the selective inhibitor for p38 activation was applied to the rings. Pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) were cultured under hypoxic and hypercapnic conditions, and ginsenoside Rg1 was administered to detect the changes induced by p38. Results Under the hypoxic and hypercapnic conditions, we observed a biphasic pulmonary artery contractile response to the second pulmonary artery rings. It is hypothesized that the observed attenuation of vasoconstriction and the production of vasodilation could have been induced by ginsenoside Rg1. This effect was significantly reinforced by SB203580 (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The expression of p38 in the PASMCs under hypoxic and hypercapnic conditions was significantly activated (P<0.05 or P<0.01) and the observed activation was attenuated by ginsenoside Rg1 (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusions Our findings strongly support the significant role of ginsenoside Rg1 in the inhibition of hypoxia and hypercapnia-induced vasoconstriction by the p38 pathway. PMID:27499938

  14. The Beneficial Effect of Ginsenoside Rg1 on Schwann Cells Subjected to Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Oxidative Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Junxiong; Liu, Jun; Wang, Qi; Yu, Hailong; Chen, Yu; Xiang, Liangbi

    2013-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rg1 (GRg1) has been considered to have therapeutic potential in promoting peripheral nerve regeneration and functional recovery after sciatic nerve injuries. However, the mechanism underlying the beneficial effect of GRg1 on peripheral nerve regeneration is currently unclear. The possible effect of GRg1 on Schwann cells (SCs), which were subjected to oxidative injury after nerve injury, might contribute to the beneficial effect of GRg1 on nerve regeneration. The present study was designed to investigate the potential beneficial effect of GRg1 on SCs exposed to oxidative injury. The oxidative injury to SCs was induced by hydrogen peroxide. The effect of GRg1 (50 μM) on SCs exposed to oxidative injury was measured by the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) in SCs. The cell number and cell viability of SCs were evaluated through fluorescence observation and MTT assay. The apoptosis of SCs induced by oxidative injury was evaluated by an apoptosis assay. The expression and secretion of nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were evaluated using RT-PCR, Western blotting, and an ELISA method. We found that GRg1 significantly up-regulated the level of SOD, GSH and CAT, and decreased the level of MDA in SCs treated with hydrogen peroxide. In addition, GRg1 has been shown to be able to inhibit the proapoptotic effect of hydrogen peroxide, as well as inhibit the detrimental effect of hydrogen peroxide on cell number and cell viability. Furthermore, GRg1 also increased the mRNA levels, protein levels and secretion of NGF and BDNF in SCs after incubation of hydrogen peroxide. Further study showed that preincubation with H89 (a PKA inhibitor) significantly inhibited the effects induced by hydrogen peroxide, indicating that the PKA pathway might be involved in the antioxidant effect and neurotrophic factors (NTFs) promoting effect of GRg1. In addition, a short-term in vivo

  15. Protective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 on intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis via activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zu, Guo; Guo, Jing; Che, Ningwei; Zhou, Tingting; Zhang, Xiangwen

    2016-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) is one of the major bioactive ingredients in Panax ginseng, and it attenuates inflammation and apoptosis. The aims of our study were to explore the potential of Rg1 for the treatment of intestinal I/R injury and to determine whether the protective effects of Rg1 were exerted through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. In this study, Rg1 treatment ameliorated inflammatory factors, ROS and apoptosis that were induced by intestinal I/R injury. Cell viability was increased and cell apoptosis was decreased with Rg1 pretreatment following hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) in the in vitro study. Rg1 activated the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in both the in vivo and in vitro models, and in the in vitro study, the activation was blocked by DKK1. Our study provides evidence that pretreatment with Rg1 significantly reduces ROS and apoptosis induced by intestinal I/R injury via activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Taken together, our results suggest that Rg1 could exert its therapeutic effects on intestinal I/R injury through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and provide a novel treatment modality for intestinal I/R injury. PMID:27910952

  16. Glucocorticoid receptor is involved in the neuroprotective effect of ginsenoside Rg1 against inflammation-induced dopaminergic neuronal degeneration in substantia nigra.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xian-Chang; Ren, Xiao-Fan; Chen, Lei; Gao, Xian-Qi; Xie, Jun-Xia; Chen, Wen-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating clinical and experimental evidence suggests that chronic neuroinflammation is associated with dopaminergic neuronal death in Parkinson's disease (PD). Ginsenoside Rg1, the most active components of ginseng, possesses a variety of biological effects on the central nervous system, cardiovascular system and immune system. The present study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglia activation and dopaminergic neuronal degeneration in rat substantia nigra (SN) and its potential mechanisms. Treatment with Rg1 could ameliorate the apomorphine-induced rotational behavior in LPS-lesioned rats. GR antagonist RU486 partly abolished the protective effect of Rg1. Rg1 treatment significantly attenuated LPS-induced loss of tyrosin hydroxlase (TH) positive neurons in substantial nigra par compacta (SNpc) and decreased content of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites in striatum of the lesioned side. Meanwhile, Rg1 significantly inhibited LPS-induced microglial activation and production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and nitric oxide (NO). These effects were abolished by co-treatment with RU486. In addition, Rg1 treatment significantly inhibited the LPS-induced phosphorylation of IκB, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) in the lesioned side of substantial nigra. These effect could be also partly blocked by RU486. Taken together, these data indicate that Rg1 has protective effects on mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons from LPS-induced microglia inflammation. GR signaling pathway might be involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of Rg1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Protective Effect of Ginsenosides Rg1 and Re on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Sepsis by Competitive Binding to Toll-Like Receptor 4

    PubMed Central

    Su, Fei; Xue, Yin; Wang, Yuemin; Zhang, Lili; Chen, Wangxue

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that ginsenosides Rg1 and Re enhanced the immune response in C3H/HeB mice but not in C3H/HeJ mice carrying a mutation in the Tlr4 gene. The results of the present study showed that both Rg1 and Re inhibited mRNA expression and production of proinflammatory mediators that included tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, cyclooxygenase-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. Rg1 was found to be distributed both extracellularly and intracellularly but Re was located only extracellularly to compete with LPS for binding to Toll-like receptor 4. Preinjection of Rg1 and Re into rats suppressed LPS-induced increases in body temperature, white blood cell counts, and levels of serum proinflammatory mediators. Preinjection of Rg1 and Re into mice prevented the LPS-induced decreases in total white blood cell counts and neutrophil counts, inhibited excessive expression of multiple proinflammatory mediators, and successfully rescued 100% of the mice from sepsis-associated death. More significantly, when administered after lethal LPS inoculation, Rg1, but not Re, still showed a potent antisepsis effect and protected 90% of the mice from death. The better protection efficacy of Rg1 could result from its intracellular distribution, suggesting that Rg1 may be an ideal antisepsis agent. PMID:26149990

  18. Protective effect of ginsenosides Rg1 and Re on lipopolysaccharide-induced sepsis by competitive binding to Toll-like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Su, Fei; Xue, Yin; Wang, Yuemin; Zhang, Lili; Chen, Wangxue; Hu, Songhua

    2015-09-01

    We previously demonstrated that ginsenosides Rg1 and Re enhanced the immune response in C3H/HeB mice but not in C3H/HeJ mice carrying a mutation in the Tlr4 gene. The results of the present study showed that both Rg1 and Re inhibited mRNA expression and production of proinflammatory mediators that included tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, cyclooxygenase-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. Rg1 was found to be distributed both extracellularly and intracellularly but Re was located only extracellularly to compete with LPS for binding to Toll-like receptor 4. Preinjection of Rg1 and Re into rats suppressed LPS-induced increases in body temperature, white blood cell counts, and levels of serum proinflammatory mediators. Preinjection of Rg1 and Re into mice prevented the LPS-induced decreases in total white blood cell counts and neutrophil counts, inhibited excessive expression of multiple proinflammatory mediators, and successfully rescued 100% of the mice from sepsis-associated death. More significantly, when administered after lethal LPS inoculation, Rg1, but not Re, still showed a potent antisepsis effect and protected 90% of the mice from death. The better protection efficacy of Rg1 could result from its intracellular distribution, suggesting that Rg1 may be an ideal antisepsis agent. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Evaluation of the adaptogenic potential exerted by ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 against oxidative stress-mediated neurotoxicity in an in vitro neuronal model.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Moriano, Carlos; González-Burgos, Elena; Iglesias, Irene; Lozano, Rafael; Gómez-Serranillos, M Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Ginseng (Panax sp.) is a drug with multiple pharmacological actions that has been largely used in traditional medicines for the treatment of many health problems. In the therapy of neurodegenerative disorders, it has been employed due to its capacity to strengthen mental processes by enhancing cognitive performance and psychological function. Current work aimed at evaluating the adaptogenic potential of Rb1 and Rg1 against oxidative-stress mediated degeneration in a model of nervous cells. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction were achieved by exposing SH-SY5Y cells to the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone. The cytoprotective activity of pre-treatments with ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 against rotenone was assessed by determining biochemical markers regarding oxidative stress (ROS scavenging, glutathione and lipid peroxidation levels, SOD activity and Nrf2 activation) and apoptosis-related alterations (mitochondrial membrane potential, calcium levels, aconitase activity and pro/antiapoptotic proteins). Their capacity to cross the blood brain barrier was also estimated. At their optimal doses, ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 significantly ameliorated redox status within the cells; they reduced ROS and TBARS levels and improved the glutathione system, as well as they enhanced SOD activity and Nrf2 pathway activation. They protected neuronal cells against MMP loss, calcium homeostasis disruption and aconitase inhibition. Consequently, apoptotic cell death was attenuated by the pre-treatment with ginsenosides, as evidenced by the reduction in caspase-3 and Bax, and the increase in Bcl-2 expressions; also, lower levels of cytochrome C were found in the cytosol. Poor BBB permeation was demonstrated for both ginsenosides. In conclusion, ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 exhibit neuroprotective potential which is achieved, at least in part, via mitochondrial protection and the plausible involvement of Nrf2 pathway activation. Our results contribute to validate the

  20. Mechanism of ginsenoside Rg1 renal protection in a mouse model of d-galactose-induced subacute damage.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yanling; Xia, Jieyu; Jia, Daoyong; Zhang, Mengsi; Zhang, Yanyan; Huang, Guoning; Wang, Yaping

    2016-09-01

    Context Ginseng is a widely used herbal medicine in China but its mechanism of action remains unclear. Objective The objectives of this work were to study the protective effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on subacute murine renal damage induced by d-galactose and its mechanism. Materials and methods C57BL/6J mice were injected with 120 mg/kg/d (sc) d-galactose for 1 week, followed by a combined treatment of Rg1 20 mg/kg/d (ip) and 120 mg/kg/d d-galactose (sc) for 5 weeks. Mice were injected with the 0.9% saline 0.2 mL/d (sc) and 120 mg/kg/d d-galactose (sc) for 6 weeks in the control group and the d-galactose group, respectively. After 6 weeks, urea, creatinine, uric acid, cystatin (Cys-C), senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) staining positive kidney cells, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), malondialdehyde (MDA), glycation end products (AGEs) and 8-hydroxy-2 deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) were measured. Results Treatment with Rg1 ameliorated kidney function and aging state (urea from 17.19 ± 1.09 to 15.77 ± 1.22 mmol·L (-) (1), creatinine from 29.40 ± 5.72 to 22.60 ± 3.97 μmol·L (-) (1), uric acid from 86.80 ± 5.97 to 72.80 ± 10.61 μmol·L (-) (1), Cys-C from 0.23 ± 0.03 to 0.18 ± 0.05 mg·L (-) (1), ROD of SA-β-gal from 56.32 ± 10.48 to 26.78 ± 7.34, SOD from 150.22 ± 19.07 to 190.56 ± 15.83 U·(mg·prot) (-1), MDA from 9.28 ± 1.59 to 3.17 ± 0.82 nmol·(mg·prot) (-1), GSH-PX from 15.68 ± 2.11 to 20.32 ± 2.96 U·(mg·prot) (-1) as well as regulated glomerulus morphology (glomerulus diameter from 775.77 ± 18.41 to 695.04 ± 14.61 μm, renal capsule width from 39.56 ± 3.51 to 31.42 ± 2.70 μm, glomerulus basement membrane from 206.03 ± 16.22 to 157.27 ± 15.70 nm, podocyte slit from 55.21 ± 8.55 to 37.63 ± 6.65 nm). Conclusions Ginsenoside Rg1 can antagonise d

  1. Ginsenoside Rg1 Decreases Aβ1–42 Level by Upregulating PPARγ and IDE Expression in the Hippocampus of a Rat Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Quan, QianKun; Wang, Jue; Li, Xi; Wang, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose The present study was designed to examine the effects of ginsenoside Rg1 on expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) in the hippocampus of rat model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to determine how ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) decreases Aβ levels in AD. Experimental Approach Experimental AD was induced in rats by a bilateral injection of 10 µg soluble beta-amyloid peptide 1–42 (Aβ1–42) into the CA1 region of the hippocampus, and the rats were treated with Rg1 (10 mg·kg−1, intraperitoneally) for 28 days. The Morris water maze was used to test spatial learning and memory performance. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was performed to analyze the hippocampal histopathological damage. Immunohistochemistry, western blotting, and real-time PCR were used to detect Aβ1–42, PPARγ, and insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) expression in the hippocampus. Key Results Injection of soluble Aβ1–42 into the hippocampus led to significant dysfunction of learning and memory, hippocampal histopathological abnormalities and increased Aβ1–42 levels in the hippocampus. Rg1 treatment significantly improved learning and memory function, attenuated hippocampal histopathological abnormalities, reduced Aβ1–42 levels and increased PPARγ and IDE expression in the hippocampus; these effects of Rg1 could be effectively inhibited by GW9662, a PPARγ antagonist. Conclusions and Implications Given that PPARγ can upregulate IDE expression and IDE can degrade Aβ1–42, these results indicate that Rg1 can increase IDE expression in the hippocampus by upregulating PPARγ, leading to decreased Aβ levels, attenuated hippocampal histopathological abnormalities and improved learning and memory in a rat model of AD. PMID:23520555

  2. Neuroprotective effect of ginsenoside-Rg1 on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats by downregulating protease-activated receptor-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Xie, Cheng-Long; Li, Ji-Huang; Wang, Wen-Wen; Zheng, Guo-Qing; Wang, Liang-Xing

    2015-01-15

    Ginsenoside-Rg1 (G-Rg1), a saponin that is a primary component of ginseng, is very useful and important in traditional Chinese medicine for stroke. The objective of this study was to explore the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effect of G-Rg1 on focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion. Neurological examinations were performed by using Longa's 5-point scale. The brain infarct volume was determined by the 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. The permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) was evaluated by Evans blue dye. Western blot and quantitative RT-PCR were used to assess protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) expression. After G-Rg1 treatment, there was a significant decrease in the neurobehavioral function score compared with normal saline (NS) treatment after ischemia/reperfusion (P<0.05). G-Rg1 significantly reduced the infarct volume compared with NS treatment after ischemia/reperfusion (P<0.001). The permeability of the BBB was significantly decreased in the G-Rg1 group compared with the NS group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Western blot and quantitative real time RT-PCR indicated that G-Rg1 administration down-regulated the expression of PAR-1 in the ischemic hemisphere compared with NS administration (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively). The level of PAR-1 expression strongly correlated with BBB permeability in both the G-Rg1- and NS-treated rats (r=0.856 and r=0.908, respectively, P<0.01). G-Rg1 may ameliorate the neurological injury, the brain infarct volume and the BBB permeability induced by focal cerebral ischemia in rats and its neuroprotective mechanism is related to the down-regulation of PAR-1 expression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Ginsenoside Rg1 on Learning and Memory in a Reward-directed Instrumental Conditioning Task in Chronic Restraint Stressed Rats.

    PubMed

    Kezhu, Wang; Pan, Xu; Cong, Lu; Liming, Dong; Beiyue, Zhang; Jingwei, Lu; Yanyan, Yang; Xinmin, Liu

    2017-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rg1 is one of the major active ingredients of Panax ginseng and has showed notable improving learning and memory effects in several behavioral tasks, such as water maze, shuttle-box, and step-through, based on avoidance. However, there was no report about the role of Rg1 on the performance of reward-directed instrumental conditioning, which could reflect the adaptive capacity to ever-changing environments. Thus, in this study, the reward devaluation test and conditional visual discrimination task were conducted to study the ameliorating effects of Rg1 on cognitive deficits, especially the loss of adaptation capacity in chronic restraint stress (CRS) rat model. Our results showed that rat subjected to CRS became insensitive to the changes in outcome value, and it significantly harmed the rat's performance in conditional visual discrimination task. Moreover, the levels of BDNF, TrkB, and Erk phosphorylation were decreased in the prefrontal cortex of CRS rats. However, these changes were effectively reversed by Rg1 (5 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.). Therefore, it demonstrated that Rg1 has a good ability to improve learning and memory and also ameliorate impaired adaptive capacity induced by CRS. This amelioration effect of Rg1 might be mediated partially by BDNF/TrkB/Erk pathway in prefrontal cortex. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Carbon nanotubes as carriers of Panax ginseng metabolites and enhancers of ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 anti-cancer activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahiani, Mohamed H.; Eassa, Souzan; Parnell, Charlette; Nima, Zeid; Ghosh, Anindya; Biris, Alexandru S.; Khodakovskaya, Mariya V.

    2017-01-01

    A major benefit to nanomaterial based-medicine is the ability to provide nanosized vehicles for sporadic metabolites. Here, we describe how the conjugation of valuable ginseng secondary metabolites (ginsenoside Rb1 or Rg1) with carbon nanotubes (CNT) can enhance their anti-proliferative and anti-cancer effects. Ginsenoside-CNT conjugate (Rb-CNT or Rg-CNT) permitted the ginsenosides to be used at a low dose, yet achieve a higher incidence of cancer killing. We were able to demonstrate that the ginsenoside-CNT conjugate can decrease cell viability up to 62% in breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and enhance antiproliferation of drug-resistant pancreatic cancer cells (PANC-1) by 61%. The interaction of the ginsenoside-CNT conjugate with breast cancer cells was studied using Raman Spectroscopy mapping. Total transcriptome profiling (Affymetrix platform) of MCF-7 cells treated with the ginsenoside-CNT conjugate shows that a number of cellular, apoptotic and response to stimulus processes were affected. Therefore, our data confirmed the potential use of CNT as a drug delivery system.

  5. Neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in both in vivo and in vitro models of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tingting; Zu, Guo; Zhang, Xiaogang; Wang, Xi; Li, Shao; Gong, Xiaoyang; Liang, Zhanhua; Zhao, Jie

    2016-02-01

    Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) is a major bioactive ingredient in Panax ginseng that has low toxicity and has been shown to have neuroprotective effects. The objectives of the present study were to explore the potential of the application of Rg1 for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) and to determine whether its neuroprotective effects are exerted through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by using in vivo and in vitro models of PD. In the in vivo study, Rg1 treatment ameliorated the behavioral deficits of "Pole test", and reduced dopaminergic cell loss that were induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine(MPTP) in a dose-dependent manner in an in vivo model of PD. In the in vitro study, cell viability was increased and cell apoptosis induced by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium(MPP+) was decreased by Rg1 pretreatment. Rg1 induced protective effects on the protein and mRNA expression levels of markers of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in both the in vivo and the in vitro studies, and these neuroprotective effects were blocked by DKK1 in the in vitro study. Our results provide evidence that Rg1 has neuroprotective effects in both in vivo and in vitro PD models, and these effects act through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Taken together, these results indicate that Rg1 may exert therapeutic effects on PD via the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and may therefore provide a novel approach for the treatment of PD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Synergistic Use of Geniposide and Ginsenoside Rg1 Balance Microglial TNF-α and TGF-β1 following Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation In Vitro: A Genome-Wide Survey

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Hou, Jincai; Zhao, Hui; Liu, Jianxun

    2015-01-01

    Ischemia-activated microglia are like a double-edged sword, characterized by both neurotoxic and neuroprotective effects. The aim of this study was to reveal the synergistic effect of geniposide and ginsenoside Rg1 based on tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α and transforming growth factor- (TGF-) β1 balance of microglia. BV2 microglial cells were divided into 5 groups: control, model (oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)), geniposide-treated, ginsenoside-Rg1-treated, and combination-treated. A series of assays were used to detect on (i) cell viability; (ii) NO content; (iii) expression (content) of TNF-α and TGF-β1; and (iv) gene expression profiles. The results showed that integrated use of geniposide and ginsenoside Rg1 significantly inhibited NO level and protected cell viability, improved the content and expression of TGF-β1, and reduced the content and expression of TNF-α. Separated use of geniposide or ginsenoside Rg1 showed different effects at different emphases. Next-generation sequencing showed that Fcγ-receptor-mediated phagocytosis pathway played a key regulatory role in the balance of TNF-α and TGF-β1 when cotreated with geniposide and ginsenoside Rg1. These findings suggest that synergistic drug combination of geniposide and ginsenoside Rg1 in the treatment of stroke is a feasible avenue for the application. PMID:26693244

  7. Evaluation of the adaptogenic potential exerted by ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 against oxidative stress-mediated neurotoxicity in an in vitro neuronal model

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias, Irene; Lozano, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Background Ginseng (Panax sp.) is a drug with multiple pharmacological actions that has been largely used in traditional medicines for the treatment of many health problems. In the therapy of neurodegenerative disorders, it has been employed due to its capacity to strengthen mental processes by enhancing cognitive performance and psychological function. Current work aimed at evaluating the adaptogenic potential of Rb1 and Rg1 against oxidative-stress mediated degeneration in a model of nervous cells. Methods Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction were achieved by exposing SH-SY5Y cells to the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone. The cytoprotective activity of pre-treatments with ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 against rotenone was assessed by determining biochemical markers regarding oxidative stress (ROS scavenging, glutathione and lipid peroxidation levels, SOD activity and Nrf2 activation) and apoptosis-related alterations (mitochondrial membrane potential, calcium levels, aconitase activity and pro/antiapoptotic proteins). Their capacity to cross the blood brain barrier was also estimated. Results At their optimal doses, ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 significantly ameliorated redox status within the cells; they reduced ROS and TBARS levels and improved the glutathione system, as well as they enhanced SOD activity and Nrf2 pathway activation. They protected neuronal cells against MMP loss, calcium homeostasis disruption and aconitase inhibition. Consequently, apoptotic cell death was attenuated by the pre-treatment with ginsenosides, as evidenced by the reduction in caspase-3 and Bax, and the increase in Bcl-2 expressions; also, lower levels of cytochrome C were found in the cytosol. Poor BBB permeation was demonstrated for both ginsenosides. Conclusions In conclusion, ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 exhibit neuroprotective potential which is achieved, at least in part, via mitochondrial protection and the plausible involvement of Nrf2 pathway activation. Our

  8. Protective Effect of Ginsenoside Rg1 on Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Rats: Involvement of Caveolin-1 and TGF-β1 Signal Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Heqin; Huang, Feng; Ma, Wenzhuo; Zhao, Zhenghang; Zhang, Haifang; Zhang, Chong

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive disease with poor prognosis and high mortality rate. Panax Notoginseng Saponins (PNS), extracted from Panax Notoginseng as a traditional Asian medicine, displayed a significant anti-fibrosis effect in liver and lung. However, whether Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), an important and active ingredient of PNS, exerts anti-fibrotic activity on IPF still remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of Rg1 on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Bleomycin (5 mg/kg body weight) was intratracheally administrated to male rats. Rg1 (18, 36 and 72 mg/kg) was orally administered on the next day after bleomycin. Lungs were harvested at day 7 and 28 for the further experiments. Histological analysis revealed that bleomycin successfully induced pulmonary fibrosis, and that Rg1 restored the histological alteration of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis (PF), significantly decreased lung coefficient, scores of alveolitis, scores of PF as well as contents of alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and hydroxyproline (Hyp) in a dose-dependent manner in PF rats. Moreover, Rg1 increased the expression levels of Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) mRNA and protein, lowered the expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) mRNA and protein in the lung tissues of PF rats. These data suggest that Rg1 exhibits protective effect against bleomycin-induced PF in rats, which is potentially associated with the down-regulation of TGF-β1 and up-regulation of Cav-1.

  9. Determination of ginsenoside-Rg(1) in human plasma and its application to pharmacokinetic studies following intravenous administration of 'Shenmai' injection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liu; Xu, Shun-Jun; Wu, Zhi-Feng; Liu, Yi-Ming; Zeng, Xing

    2009-01-01

    'Shenmai' injection is derived from traditional Chinese medicine 'Shenmaisan' and made from Radix ginseng Rubra and Radix Ophiopogonis. Ginsenoside-Rg(1), as a major constituent of Radix ginseng Rubra, is considered responsible for the efficacy of this injection. A rapid, simple and accurate method has been established for determination of ginsenoside-Rg(1) in Shenmai injection and human plasma using LC-ESI-MS/MS, and to study the pharmacokinetics of Rg(1) in ten healthy volunteers after intravenous single dosing of 60 mL of Shenmai injection. Following solid-phase extraction (SPE), samples were separated on a C(18) column coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The protonated analyte was quantified by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with a quadruple mass spectrometer in positive mode. Linearity was confirmed in the concentration range of 1 to 1000 ng/mL for Rg(1), and the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ, S/N > 10) was 1 ng/mL. The intraday and interday RSDs were within 15% and mean extraction recoveries ranged from 98.6% to 104.9%. The pharmacokinetics of Rg(1) in healthy volunteers conforms to the two-compartment open model. The main pharmacokinetics parameters were as follows: t(1/2beta), 2.09 +/- 1.89 h; CL, 0.03 +/- 0.01 L kg(-1) h(-1); AUC (0 approximately infinity), 124.4 +/- 35.9 2 ng mL(-1) h and AUC (0 approximately infinity), 127.9 +/- 37.2 ng mL(-1) h, respectively. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Simultaneous determination of tanshinol, protocatechuic aldehyde, protocatechuic acid, notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rg1 and Rb1 in rat plasma by LC-MS/MS and its application.

    PubMed

    Li, Tingyang; Chu, Yang; Yan, Kaijing; Li, Shuming; Wang, Xiangyang; Wang, Ying; Li, Wei; Ma, Xiaohui; Yang, Jin; Liu, Changxiao

    2017-06-01

    Dantonic pill, consisting of Salviae miltiorrhize, Panax notoginseng and Borneol, is a widely used compound Chinese medicine for preventing and treating ischemic cardiovascular diseases in China. In the present study, an original and sensitive method for simultaneous determination of tanshinol (i.e. danshensu), protocatechuic aldehyde, protocatechuic acid, notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rg1 and Rb1 in rat plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry operated in positive/negative ion switching mode was established and validated. The lower limits of quantification for tanshinol, protocatechuic aldehyde, protocatechuic acid, notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rg1 and Rb1 were 5, 0.5, 1, 0.5, 0.5 and 2 ng/mL, respectively. All of the calibration curves showed good linearity over the investigated concentration range (r > 0.99). Validation results demonstrated that the above compounds were accurately, precisely and robustly quantified in rat plasma. The method was successfully applied to characterize the pharmacokinetic profiles of all six compounds in rats following a single oral administration of Dantonic pill. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Ginsenoside Rg1 suppresses early stage of adipocyte development via activation of C/EBP homologous protein-10 in 3T3-L1 and attenuates fat accumulation in high fat diet-induced obese zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Koh, Eun-Jeong; Kim, Kui-Jin; Choi, Jia; Jeon, Hui Jeon; Seo, Min-Jung; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rg1 is a class of steroid glycoside and triterpene saponin in Panax ginseng. Many studies suggest that Rg1 suppresses adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1. However, the detail molecular mechanism of Rg1 on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 is still not fully understood. 3T3-L1 preadipocyte was used to evaluate the effect of Rg1 on adipocyte development in the differentiation in a stage-dependent manner in vitro. Oil Red O staining and Nile red staining were conducted to measure intracellular lipid accumulation and superoxide production, respectively. We analyzed the protein expression using Western blot in vitro. The zebrafish model was used to investigate whether Rg1 suppresses the early stage of fat accumulation in vivo. Rg1 decreased lipid accumulation in early-stage differentiation of 3T3-L1 compared with intermediate and later stages of adipocyte differentiation. Rg1 dramatically increased CAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein-10 (CHOP10) and subsequently reduced the C/EBPβ transcriptional activity that prohibited the initiation of adipogenic marker expression as well as triglyceride synthase. Rg1 decreased the expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and glycogen synthase kinase 3β, which are also essential for stimulating the expression of CEBPβ. Rg1 also reduced reactive oxygen species production because of the downregulated protein level of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogen (NADPH) oxidase 4 (NOX4). While Rg1 increased the endogenous antioxidant enzymes, it also dramatically decreased the accumulation of lipid and triglyceride in high fat diet-induced obese zebrafish. We demonstrated that Rg1 suppresses early-stage differentiation via the activation of CHOP10 and attenuates fat accumulation in vivo. These results indicate that Rg1 might have the potential to reduce body fat accumulation in the early stage of obesity.

  12. Effects of ginsenoside Rg1 on the expression of toll-like receptor 3, 4 and their signalling transduction factors in the NG108-15 murine neuroglial cell line.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bao-Sheng; Liu, Yang; Gao, Xiao-Yan; Zhai, Hua-Qiang; Guo, Jian-You; Wang, Xue-Yong

    2014-10-22

    As one of the most important components of Panax ginseng, ginsenoside Rg1 has certain anti-aging effects, improving the activity of learning and memory. Studies have showed that ginsenoside Rg1 improves the memory impairment associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, the effects of ginsenoside Rg1 were investigated through the activity of toll-like receptor (TLR) 3, TLR4 and their signaling transduction pathways in amyloid β peptide 25-35 (Aβ25-35) induced AD cell model. Thus we investigated several critical components of the TLR pathway. The neuroglial cell line NG108-15 was stimulated with or without Aβ25-35, while different concentrations of ginsenoside Rg1 were administered. After 24 h, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-β (IFN-β) in cell supernatant and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in cell lysate supernatant were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). The mRNA and protein expression of TLR3, TLR4, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor-6 (TRAF-6) were detected by real-time PCR and western blot methods, respectively. The experimental results showed that Aβ25-35 could markedly raise the level of TNF-α, IFN-β and iNOS, and increase the expressions of mRNA and TLR3, TLR4, NF-κB and TRAF-6 protein in the NG108-15 cells. At the same time, the ginsenoside Rg1 significantly reduced the expressions of proteins and mRNA of TLR3, TLR4, NF-κB and TRAF-6, and down-regulated the levels of TNF-α, IFN-β of cell supernatant and iNOS of cell lysate supernatant in a concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, ginsenoside Rg1 has good activity for suppressing the signaling transduction pathway of TLR3 and TLR4, and decreasing the inflammation factors induced by Aβ25-35 in NG108-15 cells, and this may be the mechanism of ginsenoside Rg1 action in AD treatment, but more studies are needed to identify its specificity.

  13. Protective Effect of Ginsenoside Rg1 on Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells through Attenuating Oxidative Stress and the Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway in a Mouse Model of d-Galactose-induced Aging.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Cai, Dachuan; Yao, Xin; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Linbo; Jing, Pengwei; Wang, Lu; Wang, Yaping

    2016-06-09

    Stem cell senescence is an important and current hypothesis accounting for organismal aging, especially the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC). Ginsenoside Rg1 is the main active pharmaceutical ingredient of ginseng, which is a traditional Chinese medicine. This study explored the protective effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on Sca-1⁺ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSC/HPCs) in a mouse model of d-galactose-induced aging. The mimetic aging mouse model was induced by continuous injection of d-gal for 42 days, and the C57BL/6 mice were respectively treated with ginsenoside Rg1, Vitamin E or normal saline after 7 days of d-gal injection. Compared with those in the d-gal administration alone group, ginsenoside Rg1 protected Sca-1⁺ HSC/HPCs by decreasing SA-β-Gal and enhancing the colony forming unit-mixture (CFU-Mix), and adjusting oxidative stress indices like reactive oxygen species (ROS), total anti-oxidant (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) and malondialdehyde (MDA). In addition, ginsenoside Rg1 decreased β-catenin and c-Myc mRNA expression and enhanced the phosphorylation of GSK-3β. Moreover, ginsenoside Rg1 down-regulated advanced glycation end products (AGEs), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), phospho-histone H2A.X (r-H2A.X), 8-OHdG, p16(Ink4a), Rb, p21(Cip1/Waf1) and p53 in senescent Sca-1⁺ HSC/HPCs. Our findings indicated that ginsenoside Rg1 can improve the resistance of Sca-1⁺ HSC/HPCs in a mouse model of d-galactose-induced aging through the suppression of oxidative stress and excessive activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, and reduction of DNA damage response, p16(Ink4a)-Rb and p53-p21(Cip1/Waf1) signaling.

  14. Simultaneous rapid quantification of ginsenoside Rg1 and its secondary glycoside Rh1 and aglycone protopanaxatriol in rat plasma by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry after solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianguo; Wang, Guangji; Haitang, Xie; Hao, Li; Guoyu, Pan; Tucker, Ian

    2005-06-01

    Ginseng saponins isolated from ginseng, have been regarded as the principal constituents responsible for the biological activities. The aim of this study was to set up a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method for simultaneously determine the concentration of Ginsenoside Rg1 and its secondary glycoside Rh1 and aglycone protopanaxatriol (PPT) in rat plasma so as to study the pharmacokinetics of Rg(1) after intraveneous (i.v.) and intragastric gavage (i.g.) administration. One hundred microliters or 1.0 ml of rat plasma samples from i.v. or i.g. treated rats were used respectively for analysis. After solid-phase extraction (SPE) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation, the chloride adduct anions [M+Cl]- of Rg1, Rh1 and PPT were analyzed by LC-MS in selected ions monitoring (SIM) mode. Rg(1) could be determined by this LC-MS method over the ranges of 1.56-250 ng/ml and 250-20,000 ng/ml with the correlation coefficients of 0.999 and 0.9998, respectively. The detection limits (LOD) of this method was 20 pg (S/N>3) for Rg1, 100 pg for Rh1 and 10 pg for PPT. Chromatographic separation was achieved in less than 8 mins. The method has been used for the pharmacokinetic study of Rg1 in rats.

  15. Analyses of mRNA Profiling through RNA Sequencing on a SAMP8 Mouse Model in Response to Ginsenoside Rg1 and Rb1 Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuai; Zhu, Dina; Li, Hong; Zhang, Haijing; Feng, Chengqiang; Zhang, Wensheng

    2017-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rg1 and Rb1 are the major ingredients in two medicines called QiShengLi (Z20027165) and QiShengJing (Z20027164) approved by China. These ingredients are believed to mitigate forgetfulness. Numerous studies have confirmed that GRg1 and GRb1 offer protection against Alzheimer's disease (AD), and our morris water maze (MWM) experiment also indicated that GRg1 and GRb1 may attenuate memory deficits in the 7-month-old SAMP8 mice; however, comprehensive understanding of their roles in AD remains limited. This study systematically explored the mechanism at the genome level of the anti-AD effects of GRg1 and GRb1 in a senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) model through deep RNA sequencing. A total of 74,885 mRNA transcripts were obtained. Expression analysis showed that 1,780 mRNA transcripts were differentially expressed in SAMP8 mice compared with the SAMP8+GRg1 mice. Moreover, 1,066 significantly dysregulated mRNA transcripts were identified between SAMP8 and SAMP8+GRb1 mice. Analyses according to gene ontology and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes revealed that oral administration of GRg1 and GRb1 improved the learning performance of the SAMP8 mouse model from various aspects, such as nervous system development and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. The most probable AD-related transcriptional responses after medication were predicted and discussed in detail. This study is the first to provide a systematic dissection of mRNA profiling in SAMP8 mouse brain in response to GRg1 and GRb1 treatment. We explained their efficacy thoroughly from the source (gene-level explanation). The findings serve as a theoretical basis for the exploration of GRg1 and GRb1 as functional drugs with anti-AD activity. PMID:28289387

  16. Korean Red Ginseng and Ginsenoside-Rb1/-Rg1 Alleviate Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Suppressing Th1 and Th17 Cells and Upregulating Regulatory T Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Jung; Jang, Minhee; Choi, Jonghee; Chang, Byung Soo; Kim, Do Young; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Kwak, Yi-Seong; Oh, Seikwan; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Chang, Byung-Joon; Nah, Seung-Yeol; Cho, Ik-Hyun

    2016-04-01

    The effects of Korean red ginseng extract (KRGE) on autoimmune disorders of the nervous system are not clear. We investigated whether KRGE has a beneficial effect on acute and chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Pretreatment (daily from 10 days before immunization with myelin basic protein peptide) with KRGE significantly attenuated clinical signs and loss of body weight and was associated with the suppression of spinal demyelination and glial activation in acute EAE rats, while onset treatment (daily after the appearance of clinical symptoms) did not. The suppressive effect of KRGE corresponded to the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α] and interleukin [IL]-1β), chemokines (RANTES, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 [MCP-1], and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α [MIP-1α]), adhesion molecules (intercellular adhesion molecule-1 [ICAM-1], vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 [VCAM-1], and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule [PECAM-1]), and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the spinal cord after immunization. Interestingly, in acute EAE rats, pretreatment with KRGE significantly reduced the population of CD4(+), CD4(+)/IFN-γ(+), and CD4(+)/IL-17(+) T cells in the spinal cord and lymph nodes, corresponding to the downregulation of mRNA expression of IFN-γ, IL-17, and IL-23 in the spinal cord. On the other hand, KRGE pretreatment increased the population of CD4(+)/Foxp3(+) T cells in the spinal cord and lymph nodes of these rats, corresponding to the upregulation of mRNA expression of Foxp3 in the spinal cord. Interestingly, intrathecal pretreatment of rats with ginsenosides (Rg1 and Rb1) significantly decreased behavioral impairment. These results strongly indicate that KRGE has a beneficial effect on the development and progression of EAE by suppressing T helper 1 (Th1) and Th17 T cells and upregulating regulatory T cells. Additionally, pre- and onset treatment with KRGE

  17. Preventive effects of ginsenoside Rg1 on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-like behavior in male C57/B6 mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongli; Zhu, Kexuan; Chen, Lin; Ou Yang, Liufeng; Huang, Yufang; Zhao, Yunan

    2015-09-25

    We investigated the preventive effects of Rg1 on a model of mouse post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) induced by electric shock combined with situation reminder and explored the underlying mechanism. In the experiment, before the PTSD animal model was developed, Rg1 (10, 5, and 2.5mg/kg) was orally administered for one week. After the animal model was established, PTSD-like behavior was observed using elevated plus maze, black and light box, and open field tests. One hour after the behavior test, all mice were sacrificed, and then serum corticosterone (CORT) and hypothalamus corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) assays were performed. Results showed that Rg1 (5mg/kg) treatments relieved PTSD-like behavior by altering elevated serum corticosterone and hypothalamus CRH levels. By contrast, fluoxetine (3mg/kg) treatment reversed the behavior changes and had no effect on increased CORT and CRH levels. These findings confirmed the preventive effect of Rg1 in PTSD model. Decreasing CORT and CRH levels may be one of the underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nuclear matrix protein, prohibitin, was down-regulated and translocated from nucleus to cytoplasm during the differentiation of osteosarcoma MG-63 cells induced by ginsenoside Rg1, cinnamic acid, and tanshinone IIA (RCT).

    PubMed

    Shi, Song-Lin; Li, Qi-Fu; Liu, Qing-Rong; Xu, Dong-Hui; Tang, Jian; Liang, Ying; Zhao, Zhen-Li; Yang, Li-Ming

    2009-11-01

    Ginsenoside Rg1, cinnamic acid, and tanshinone IIA (RCT) are effective anticancer and antioxidant constituents of traditional Chinese herbal medicines of Ginseng, Xuanseng, and Danseng. The molecular mechanisms of anticancer effects of those constituents and their targets are unknown. Prohibitin, an inner membrane-bound chaperone in mitochondrion involved in the regulation of cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, aging, and apoptosis, was chosen as a candidate molecular target because of its frequent up-regulation in various cancer cells. We demonstrated that prohibitin existed in the filaments of the nuclear matrix of the MG-63 cell and its expression was down-regulated by the treatment of RCT using proteomic methodologies and Western blot analysis. Immunogold electro-microscopy also found that prohibitin was localized on nuclear matrix intermediate filaments (NM-IF) that had undergone restorational changes after RCT treatment. Prohibitin may function as a molecular chaperone that might interact with multiple oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. We found that oncogenes c-myc and c-fos and tumor suppressor genes P53 and Rb were regulated by RCT as well and that these gene products co-localized with prohibitin. Our study identified prohibitin as a molecular target of the effective anticancer constituents of Ginseng, Xuanseng, and Danseng that down-regulated prohibitin in nuclear matrix, changed prohibtin trafficking from nucleolus to cytoplasm, and regulated several oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Prohibitin downregulation and cellular trafficking from nucleolus to cytoplasm indicated RCT protective roles in cancer prevention and treatment. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. In vitro evaluation of Panax notoginseng Rg1 released from collagen/chitosan-gelatin microsphere scaffolds for angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yurong; Feng, Zhanzeng; You, Chuangang; Jin, Yunyun; Hu, Xinlei; Wang, Xingang; Han, Chunmao

    2013-12-31

    The emergence of skin substitutes provides a new approach for the treatment of wound repair and healing. The consistent and steady release of angiogenic factors is an important factor in the promotion of angiogenesis in skin substitutes, which usually lack, yet need, a vascular network. In this study, ginsenoside Rg1, a natural compound isolated from Panax notoginseng (PNS), was incorporated into a collagen/chitosan-gelatin microsphere (CC-GMS) scaffold. The cumulative release kinetics were evaluated, and the effects of the released Rg1 on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) behavior, including proliferation, migration, tube formation, cell-cycle progression, cell apoptosis, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion, were investigated. Additionally, HUVECs were cultured on the CC-GMS scaffold to test its biocompatibility. Standard Rg1 and VEGF were used as positive controls. The results indicated that the CC-GMS scaffold had good release kinetics. The Rg1 released from the CC-GMS scaffold did not lose its activity and had a significant effect on HUVEC proliferation. Both Rg1 and VEGF promoted HUVEC migration and tube formation. Rg1 did not induce HUVEC apoptosis but instead promoted HUVEC progression into the S and G2/M phases of the cell cycle. Rg1 significantly increased VEGF secretion compared with that in the control group. HUVEC culture on the CC-GMS scaffold indicated that this scaffold has good biocompatibility and that CC-GMS scaffolds containing different concentrations of Rg1 promote HUVEC attachment in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Rg1 may represent a new class of angiogenic agent that can be encapsulated in CC-GMS scaffolds to exert angiogenic effects in engineered tissue.

  20. Ginsenoside Rb1, Rg1 and three extracts of traditional Chinese medicine attenuate ultraviolet B-induced G1 growth arrest in HaCaT cells and dermal fibroblasts involve down-regulating the expression of p16, p21 and p53.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Yun-Gui; Wang, Yan-Fei

    2011-08-01

    The aims of this study were to confirm whether traditional Chinese medicine ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1), ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), polygonum multiflorum (PM), ginkgo extract (GE) and lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) can attenuate G1 growth arrest of HaCaT cells and dermal fibroblasts induced by 10 subcytotoxic ultraviolet B (UVB) exposures, and to explore the possible mechanism in terms of the expression of cell-cycle regulatory proteins p16, p21 and p53. Ten subcytotoxic exposures to UVB induced G1 growth arrest of HaCaT cells and dermal fibroblasts. Cell-cycle analysis was performed using flow cytometry, and mRNA levels of p16, p21 and p53 were detected by a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and protein levels were detected using Western blot analysis. Five types of traditional Chinese medicine attenuated UVB-induced G1 growth arrest. The mRNA and protein levels of p16, p21 and p53 in HaCaT cells and dermal fibroblasts increased after UVB irradiation, but pretreatment with five types of traditional Chinese medicine decreased the expression of p16, p21 and p53. These results indicated that five types of traditional Chinese medicine can attenuate G1 growth arrest of HaCaT cells and dermal fibroblasts induced by UVB exposures, which was caused by down-regulating the expression of cell-cycle regulatory proteins p16, p21 and p53. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Ginsenoside Rb1 promotes browning through regulation of PPARγ in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Mu, Qianqian; Fang, Xin; Li, Xiaoke; Zhao, Dandan; Mo, Fangfang; Jiang, Guangjian; Yu, Na; Zhang, Yi; Guo, Yubo; Fu, Min; Liu, Jun-Li; Zhang, Dongwei; Gao, Sihua

    2015-10-23

    Browning of white adipocyte tissue (WAT) has received considerable attention due to its potential implication in preventing obesity and related comorbidities. Ginsenoside Rb1 is reported to improve glycolipid metabolism and reduce body weight in obese animals. However whether the body reducing effect mediates by browning effect remains unclear. For this purpose, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were used to study the effect of ginsenoside Rb1 on browning adipocytes specific genes and oxygen consumptions. The results demonstrate that 10 μM of ginsenoside Rb1 increases basal glucose uptake and promoted browning evidenced by significant increases in mRNA expressions of UCP-1, PGC-1α and PRDM16 in 3T3-L1 mature adipocytes. Further, ginsenoside Rb1 also increases PPARγ activity. And the browning effect is abrogated by GW9692, a PPARγ antagonist. In addition, ginsenoside Rb1 increases basal respiration rate, ATP production and uncoupling capacity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Those effects are also blunted by GW9692. The results suggest that ginsenoside Rb1 promote browning of 3T3-L1 adipocytes through induction of PPARγ. Our finding offer a new source to discover browning agonists and also useful to understand and extend the applications of ginseng and its constituents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Enhancement of ginsenoside biosynthesis and secretion by Tween 80 in Panax ginseng hairy roots.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yanlong; Wu, Jianjun; Li, Yao; Li, Jian; Ouyang, Yong; He, Zhi; Zhao, Shoujing

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of Tween 80 permeabilization on ginsenoside secretion in Panax ginseng hairy roots. Tween 80 (1.2%, w/v) had no significant effect on hairy root vitality. After a 25-day treatment with Tween 80, approximately 76% of the total ginsenosides was released into the surrounding medium. In the case of control, the ginsenosides secreted into the medium were negligible. Furthermore, when compared with control, the level of total ginsenosides was enhanced by approximately threefold under Tween treatment. Additionally, secretion of the typical ginsenoside monomers including Rb1 , Rg1 , and Re was analyzed, indicating that the most of them were released into the medium. Moreover, it was observed that dammarenediol synthase, a key enzyme involved in ginsenoside biosynthesis, was upregulated at both gene expression and enzyme activity levels. The expression of genes CYP716A47 and CYP716A53v2 encoding Cyt P450 enzymes catalyzing the formation of protopanaxadiol from dammarenediol and protopanaxatriol from protopanaxadiol, respectively, was slightly upregulated. These results clearly demonstrated that Tween 80 could act not only as an efficient permeabilizer to enhance ginsenoside secretion from the hairy roots, but also as an elicitor to promote the biosynthesis of ginsenoside.

  3. Long-term administration of ginsenoside Rh1 enhances learning and memory by promoting cell survival in the mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jingang; Xue, Jianjie; Lee, Mira; Yu, Jiaojiao; Sung, Changkeun

    2014-01-01

    Ginsenosides, the secondary plant metabolites produced by Panax ginseng are responsible for the enhancing effects on learning observed following treatment with Panax ginseng. A number of studies have provided correlational evidence that cell proliferation and survival are closely associated with hippocampal-dependent learning tasks. In this study, to investigate the beneficial effects of ginsenoside Rh1 on hippocampal cells and learning, mice (6 months old) were administered ginsenoside Rh1 at a dose of 5 and 10 mg/kg/day for a period of 3 months. Saline-treated mice were used as controls. The enhancement of memory and learning in the mice was evaluated by hippocampal-dependent tasks (passive avoidance tests and Morris water maze tests) and the immunohistochemical marker of cell proliferation, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). In addition, the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were measured following treatment. Based on our data, the Rh1-treated group (5 and 10 mg/kg) showed a significantly improved learning and memory ability in the passive avoidance tests compared with the control group; however, only treatment with 10 mg/kg ginsenoside Rh1 significantly promoted spatial learning ability in the Morris water maze test. Ginsenoside Rh1 significantly enhanced cell survival in the dentate gyrus of mice, although it did not enhance hippocampal cell proliferation. In addition, ginsenoside Rh1 upregulated the expression of BDNF. These findings address the potential therapeutic significance of ginsenoside Rh1 as a nutritional supplement in memory loss and neurodegenerative diseases.

  4. Oral Rg1 supplementation strengthens antioxidant defense system against exercise-induced oxidative stress in rat skeletal muscles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies reported divergent results on nutraceutical actions and free radical scavenging capability of ginseng extracts. Variations in ginsenoside profile of ginseng due to different soil and cultivating season may contribute to the inconsistency. To circumvent this drawback, we assessed the effect of major ginsenoside-Rg1 (Rg1) on skeletal muscle antioxidant defense system against exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress. Methods Forty weight-matched rats were evenly divided into control (N = 20) and Rg1 (N = 20) groups. Rg1 was orally administered at the dose of 0.1 mg/kg bodyweight per day for 10-week. After this long-term Rg1 administration, ten rats from each group performed an exhaustive swimming, and remaining rats considered as non-exercise control. Tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were surgically collected immediately after exercise along with non-exercise rats. Results Exhaustive exercise significantly (p<0.05) increased the lipid peroxidation of control group, as evidenced by elevated malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. The increased oxidative stress after exercise was also confirmed by decreased reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG ratio) in control rats. However, these changes were completely eliminated in Rg1 group. Catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were significantly (p<0.05) increased by Rg1 in non-exercise rats, while no significant change after exercise. Nevertheless, glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were significantly increased after exercise in Rg1 group. Conclusions This study provide compelling evidences that Rg1 supplementation can strengthen antioxidant defense system in skeletal muscle and completely attenuate the membrane lipid peroxidation induced by exhaustive exercise. Our findings suggest that Rg1 can use as a nutraceutical supplement to buffer the exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress. PMID:22607394

  5. Ginsenoside Re Promotes Osteoblast Differentiation in Mouse Osteoblast Precursor MC3T3-E1 Cells and a Zebrafish Model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Min; Kim, Dong Hyun; Han, Ho-Jin; Park, Chan-Mi; Ganipisetti, Srinivas Rao; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Kim, Young Ock; Park, Chun Geun; Kim, Bo-Yeon; Soung, Nak-Kyun

    2016-12-29

    Bone homeostasis is tightly regulated to balance bone formation and bone resorption. Many anabolic drugs are used as bone-targeted therapeutic agents for the promotion of osteoblast-mediated bone formation or inhibition of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Previous studies showed that ginsenoside Re has the effect of the suppression of osteoclast differentiation in mouse bone-marrow derived macrophages and zebrafish. Herein, we investigated whether ginsenoside Re affects osteoblast differentiation and mineralization in in vitro and in vivo models. Mouse osteoblast precursor MC3T3-E1 cells were used to investigate cell viability, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and mineralization. In addition, we examined osteoblastic signaling pathways. Ginsenoside Re affected ALP activity without cytotoxicity, and we also observed the stimulation of osteoblast differentiation through the activation of osteoblast markers including runt-related transcription factor 2, type 1 collagen, ALP, and osteocalcin in MC3T3-E1 cells. Moreover, Alizarin red S staining indicated that ginsenoside Re increased osteoblast mineralization in MC3T3-E1 cells and zebrafish scales compared to controls. These results suggest that ginsenoside Re promotes osteoblast differentiation as well as inhibits osteoclast differentiation, and it could be a potential therapeutic agent for bone diseases.

  6. The study of mechanisms of protective effect of Rg1 against arthritis by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and maturation in CIA mice.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yanqing; Fan, Weimin; Yin, Guoyong

    2014-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rg1 is a natural product extracted from Panax ginseng C.A. Although Rg1 protects tissue structure and functions by inhibiting local inflammatory reaction, the mechanism remains poorly understood. In vitro, Rg1 dose-dependently inhibited TRAP activity in receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand- (RANKL-) induced osteoclasts and decreased the number of osteoclasts and osteoclast resorption area. Rg1 also significantly inhibited the RANK signaling pathway, including suppressing the expression of Trap, cathepsin K, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), and calcitonin receptor (CTR). In vivo, Rg1 dramatically decreased arthritis scores in CIA mice and effectively controlled symptoms of inflammatory arthritis. Pathologic analysis demonstrated that Rg1 significantly attenuated pathological changes in CIA mice. Pronounced reduction in synovial hyperplasia and inflammatory cell invasion were observed in CIA mice after Rg1 therapy. Alcian blue staining results illustrated that mice treated with Rg1 had significantly reduced destruction in the articular cartilage. TRAP and cathepsin K staining results demonstrated a significant reduction of numbers of OCs in the articular cartilage in proximal interphalangeal joints and ankle joints in Rg1-treated mice. In summary, this study revealed that Rg1 reduced the inflammatory destruction of periarticular bone by inhibiting differentiation and maturation of osteoclasts in CIA mice.

  7. The Study of Mechanisms of Protective Effect of Rg1 against Arthritis by Inhibiting Osteoclast Differentiation and Maturation in CIA Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Weimin; Yin, Guoyong

    2014-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rg1 is a natural product extracted from Panax ginseng C.A. Although Rg1 protects tissue structure and functions by inhibiting local inflammatory reaction, the mechanism remains poorly understood. In vitro, Rg1 dose-dependently inhibited TRAP activity in receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand- (RANKL-) induced osteoclasts and decreased the number of osteoclasts and osteoclast resorption area. Rg1 also significantly inhibited the RANK signaling pathway, including suppressing the expression of Trap, cathepsin K, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), and calcitonin receptor (CTR). In vivo, Rg1 dramatically decreased arthritis scores in CIA mice and effectively controlled symptoms of inflammatory arthritis. Pathologic analysis demonstrated that Rg1 significantly attenuated pathological changes in CIA mice. Pronounced reduction in synovial hyperplasia and inflammatory cell invasion were observed in CIA mice after Rg1 therapy. Alcian blue staining results illustrated that mice treated with Rg1 had significantly reduced destruction in the articular cartilage. TRAP and cathepsin K staining results demonstrated a significant reduction of numbers of OCs in the articular cartilage in proximal interphalangeal joints and ankle joints in Rg1-treated mice. In summary, this study revealed that Rg1 reduced the inflammatory destruction of periarticular bone by inhibiting differentiation and maturation of osteoclasts in CIA mice. PMID:25214714

  8. Promotion of hair growth by ginseng radix on cultured mouse vibrissal hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Hideaki; Yamazaki, Miho; Asanuma, Yusuke; Kubo, Michinori

    2003-08-01

    A 70% methanol extract from red ginseng (steamed and dried roots of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, a kind of Ginseng Radix) had superior activity to that of white ginseng (peeled and dried root of P. ginseng, another kind of Ginseng Radix) in a hair growth promoting assay using mouse vibrissal follicles in organ culture. Of the major constituents of P. ginseng, ginsenoside-Rb(1) (G-Rb(1)) exhibited activity, but ginsenoside-Rg(1) (G-Rg(1)) and -Ro (G-Ro) were ineffective. Additionally, 20(S)-ginsenoside-Rg(3) (20(S)-G-Rg(3)) formed by the processing of red ginseng from the crude root of P. ginseng also showed hair growth promoting activity. These results indicate that Ginseng Radix possesses hair growth promoting activity, and its bioactive components are partially attributable to the ginseng saponin components mentioned above.

  9. Angiogenic Rg1 /Sr-Doped TiO2 Nanowire/Poly(Propylene Fumarate) Bone Cement Composites.

    PubMed

    Salarian, Mehrnaz; Xu, William Z; Bohay, Richard; Lui, Edmund M K; Charpentier, Paul A

    2017-02-01

    A new approach is provided for preparing radiopaque and angiogenic poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) bone cements by integrating Sr-doped n-TiO2 nanowires and ginsenoside Rg1 suitable for treating osteonecrosis. High aspect ratio radiopaque TiO2 -nanowires are synthesized by strontium doping in supercritical CO2 for the first time, showing a new phase, SrTiO3 . PPF is synthesized using a transesterification method by reacting diethyl fumarate and propylene glycol, then functionalized using maleic anhydride to produce terminal carboxyl groups, which are subsequently linked to the nanowires. The strong interfacial adhesion between functionalized PPF and nanowires is examined by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermal analysis, and mechanical testing. An angiogenic modulator, ginsenoside Rg1 , is integrated into the bone cement formulation with the mechanical properties, radiopacity, drug release, and angiogenesis behavior of the formed composites explored. The results show superior radiopacity and excellent release of ginsenoside Rg1 in vitro, as well as a dose-dependent increase in the branching point numbers. The present study suggests this new methodology provides sufficient mechanical properties, radiopacity, and angiogenic activity to be suitable for cementation of necrotic bone.

  10. Use of Gold Nanoparticle Fertilizer Enhances the Ginsenoside Contents and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Red Ginseng.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hee; Hwang, Yun-Gu; Lee, Taek-Guen; Jin, Cheng-Ri; Cho, Chi Heung; Jeong, Hee-Yeong; Kim, Dae-Ok

    2016-10-28

    Red ginseng, a steamed and sun-dried ginseng, is a popular health-promoting food in Korea and other Asian countries. We introduced nanofertilizer technology using gold nanoparticles in an effort to develop red ginseng with an elevated level of ginsenosides, the main active compounds of ginseng. Shoots of 6-year-old ginseng plants were fertilized three times with colloidal gold nanoparticle sprays. Red ginseng extract was prepared from the main roots. The concentrations of gold and ginsenosides were measured following gold nanoparticle treatment. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects, mouse peritoneal macrophages of male BALB/c mouse were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide plus interferon-γ in the presence of extracts from red ginseng with or without gold nanoparticle treatment. The content of ginsenosides, such as Rg1, Re, Rf, and Rb1, increased in ginseng treated with gold nanofertilizer whereas the steaming process increased only the levels of Rd and Rg3. The levels of nitric oxide, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and interleukin-6, but not tumor necrosis factor-α, were more suppressed in macrophages treated with extract from gold nanoparticle-treated red ginseng. Our results show that the use of a colloidal gold nanoparticle fertilizer improved the synthesis of ginsenosides in ginseng and enhanced the anti-inflammatory effects of red ginseng. Further research is required to elucidate the causal factors for the gold-induced change in ginsenoside synthesis and to determine the in vivo effect of gold nanoparticle-treated ginseng.

  11. Pharmacogenomics and the Yin/Yang actions of ginseng: anti-tumor, angiomodulating and steroid-like activities of ginsenosides

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Patrick Ying Kit; Mak, Nai Ki; Cheng, Yuen Kit; Leung, Kar Wah; Ng, Tzi Bun; Fan, David Tai Ping; Yeung, Hin Wing; Wong, Ricky Ngok Shun

    2007-01-01

    In Chinese medicine, ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) has long been used as a general tonic or an adaptogen to promote longevity and enhance bodily functions. It has also been claimed to be effective in combating stress, fatigue, oxidants, cancer and diabetes mellitus. Most of the pharmacological actions of ginseng are attributed to one type of its constituents, namely the ginsenosides. In this review, we focus on the recent advances in the study of ginsenosides on angiogenesis which is related to many pathological conditions including tumor progression and cardiovascular dysfunctions. Angiogenesis in the human body is regulated by two sets of counteracting factors, angiogenic stimulators and inhibitors. The 'Yin and Yang' action of ginseng on angiomodulation was paralleled by the experimental data showing angiogenesis was indeed related to the compositional ratio between ginsenosides Rg1 and Rb1. Rg1 was later found to stimulate angiogenesis through augmenting the production of nitric oxide (NO) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Mechanistic studies revealed that such responses were mediated through the PI3K→Akt pathway. By means of DNA microarray, a group of genes related to cell adhesion, migration and cytoskeleton were found to be up-regulated in endothelial cells. These gene products may interact in a hierarchical cascade pattern to modulate cell architectural dynamics which is concomitant to the observed phenomena in angiogenesis. By contrast, the anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic effects of ginsenosides (e.g. Rg3 and Rh2) have been demonstrated in various models of tumor and endothelial cells, indicating that ginsenosides with opposing activities are present in ginseng. Ginsenosides and Panax ginseng extracts have been shown to exert protective effects on vascular dysfunctions, such as hypertension, atherosclerotic disorders and ischemic injury. Recent work has demonstrates the target molecules of ginsenosides to be a group of nuclear steroid

  12. Protopanaxatirol type ginsenoside Re promotes cyclic growth of hair follicles via inhibiting transforming growth factor β signaling cascades.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Ryu, Seung-Wook; Lee, Jungsul; Choi, Kyungsun; Kim, Sunchang; Choi, Chulhee

    2016-02-19

    Ginsenosides, the major bio-active ingredients included in Panax ginseng, have been known for the hair growth activity and used to treat patients who suffer from hair loss; however, the detailed mechanisms of this action are still largely unknown. This study was conducted to investigate the molecular and cellular mechanisms responsible for hair growth promoting effect of ginsenoside Re (GRe) in vitro and in vivo. Different doses of minoxidil and GRe were administered topically to the back regions of nude mice for up to 45 days, and hair shaft length and hair cycles were determined for hair promoting activities. Topical treatment of GRe significantly increased the hair shaft length and hair existent time, which was comparable to the action of minoxidil. We also demonstrated that GRe stimulated hair shaft elongation in the ex vivo cultures of vibrissa hair follicles isolated from C57BL/6 mouse. Systemic transcriptome analysis by next generation sequencing demonstrated that TGF-β-pathway related genes were selectively down-regulated by treatment of GRe in vivo, and the same treatment suppressed TGF-β-induced phosphorylation of ERK in HeLa cells. The results clearly indicated that GRe is the effective constituent in the ginseng on hair promotion via selective inhibition of the hair growth phase transition related signaling pathways, TGF-β signaling cascades.

  13. Remarkable Impact of Acidic Ginsenosides and Organic Acids on Ginsenoside Transformation from Fresh Ginseng to Red Ginseng.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi; Xia, Juan; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Zhang, Jin-Qiu; Ruan, Chang-Chun; Sun, Guang-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2016-07-06

    Panax ginseng contains many chemical components, including acidic ginsenosides and organic acids. However, whether these acidic substances play a role in ginsenoside transformation during steaming treatment has not yet been explored. In this paper, the content of neutral ginsenosides, acidic ginsenosides, and their degradation products in unsteamed and steamed P. ginseng were simultaneously quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. We observed that neutral ginsenosides were converted to rare ginsenosides during the root steaming but not during the individual ginsenoside steaming. In contrast, acidic malonyl ginsenosides released malonic acid and acetic acid through demalonylation, decarboxylation, deacetylation reactions during the steaming at 120 °C. These malonyl ginsenosides not only were converted to rare ginsenosides but also promoted the degradation of neutral ginsenosides. Further studies indicated that a low concentration of organic acid was the determining factor for the ginsenoside conversion. The related mechanisms were deduced to be mainly acidic hydrolysis and dehydration. In summary, acidic ginsenosides and organic acids remarkably affected ginsenoside transformation during the steaming process. Our results provide useful information for precisely understanding the ginsenoside conversion pathways and mechanisms underlying the steaming process.

  14. Effects of Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum Infection on the Metabolism of Ginsenosides in American Ginseng Roots.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Xiaolin; Lu, Xiaohong; Chen, Amanda Juan; Luo, Yi; Hao, Jianjun J; Gao, Weiwei

    2015-06-08

    American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) is a highly valuable herb widely used for medicinal treatments. Its pharmacologically important compounds are the ginsenosides, which are secondary metabolites in American ginseng root. The concentrations of ginsenoside in roots can be changed by fungal infection, but it is unclear what specific root tissues are impacted and whether the change is systemic. In this study, American ginseng roots were inoculated with two fungal pathogens (Fusarium solani or F. oxysporum) and the levels of six ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re, and Rg1) were then measured in the phloem and xylem around the discolored lesions and adjacent healthy areas of the root. Results indicated that the growth of Fusarium spp. was strictly limited to phloem, and correspondingly the ginsenoside concentration was only altered in this infected phloem. The concentration of Rg1, Rd, and Rc significantly changed in phloem tissues where F. solani was inoculated, while only Rg1 and Rd changed significantly after F. oxysporum inoculation. However, no changes of any ginsenoside occurred in either xylem or phloem tissue adjacent to the inoculation point. In addition, when two Fusarium spp. were grown on ginsenoside-amended Czapek medium, the majority of ginsenosides were depleted. Therefore, pathogenic Fusarium spp. may reduce ginsenoside levels by consuming them.

  15. Comparison of Ginsenoside Contents in Different Parts of Korean Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer)

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ok-Ju; Kim, Ji-Sang

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the ginsenoside profiles of the main root, root hair, and leaf of ginseng in order to demonstrate their possible application in medicine. The total ginsenoside content of the leaf was up to 12 times than that in the main root, and the content of protopanaxadiol groups was higher than that of protopanaxatriol groups in all the samples. The leaf was shown to contain high amounts of ginsenosides Rb3 and Rh1, whereas the main root contained large amounts of ginsenosides Rb1 and Rc. Moreover, Rb2, Rb3, and Rg1 were only detected in the root hair, leaf, and main root, respectively. The ginsenoside Re content of Panax ginseng leaf and root hair was 2.6~4 times higher than that of the main root. Therefore, the results indicate that the ginsenoside content of Panax ginseng is higher in the leaf and root hair, and lower in the main root. PMID:28078264

  16. Rg1 Attenuates alcoholic hepatic damage through regulating AMP-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 signal pathways.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan; Chu, Shi-Feng; Xia, Cong-Yuan; Zhang, Zhao; Zhang, Shuai; Chen, Nai-Hong

    2016-08-01

    Rg1 has shown multiple pharmacological activities and been considered to be evaluated for hepatic protective activity, as Rg1 could modulate different pathways in various diseases. Herein we assessed its effect and potential mechanism in a newly modified ethanol model. C57BL/6 mice were fed with Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet containing ethanol or isocaloric maltose dextrin as control diet with or without Rg1. Meanwhile, bicyclol was treated as positive drug to compare the efficacy of Rg1 against alcoholic hepatotoxicity. According to our data, Rg1 indeed improved the survival rate and lowered the abnormal high levels of serum parameters. H&E and Oil Red O staining indicated that the condition of liver damage was mitigated by Rg1 administration. Furthermore, AMPK and Nrf2 pathways were all modulated at both RNA and protein levels. In accordance with these findings, Rg1 effectively protected against alcoholic liver injury, possibly by modulating metabolism, suppressing oxidative stress, and enhancing oxidant defense systems of Nrf2 pathway. In vitro, Rg1 has no cell toxicity and promotes Nrf2 translocate into nuclear. In summary, we demonstrate that Rg1 is a potent activator of Nrf2 pathway, and could therefore be applied for prevention of hepatic damage.

  17. Autotoxic Ginsenosides in the Rhizosphere Contribute to the Replant Failure of Panax notoginseng

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min; Zhang, Xiaodan; Xu, Yanguo; Mei, Xinyue; Jiang, Bingbing; Liao, Jingjing; Yin, Zhaobo; Zheng, Jianfen; Zhao, Zhi; Fan, Liming; He, Xiahong; Zhu, Youyong; Zhu, Shusheng

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Sanqi ginseng (Panax notoginseng) growth is often hampered by replant failure. In this study, we aimed to examine the role of autotoxicity in Sanqi replant failures and assess the role of ginsenosides in autotoxicity. Methods The autotoxicities were measured using seedling emergence bioassays and root cell vigor staining. The ginsenosides in the roots, soils, and root exudates were identified with HPLC-MS. Results The seedling emergence and survival rate decreased significantly with the continuous number of planting years from one to three years. The root exudates, root extracts, and extracts from consecutively cultivated soils also showed significant autotoxicity against seedling emergence and growth. Ginsenosides, including R1, Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rb3, Rg2, and Rd, were identified in the roots and consecutively cultivated soil. The ginsenosides, Rg1, Re, Rg2, and Rd, were identified in the root exudates. Furthermore, the ginsenosides, R1, Rg1, Re, Rg2, and Rd, caused autotoxicity against seedling emergence and growth and root cell vigor at a concentration of 1.0 µg/mL. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that autotoxicity results in replant failure of Sanqi ginseng. While Sanqi ginseng consecutively cultivated, some ginsenosides can accumulate in rhizosphere soils through root exudates or root decomposition, which impedes seedling emergence and growth. PMID:25695831

  18. Ginsenoside-free molecules from steam-dried ginseng berry promote ethanol metabolism: an alternative choice for an alcohol hangover.

    PubMed

    Lee, Do Ik; Kim, Seung Tae; Lee, Dong Hoon; Yu, Jung Min; Jang, Su Kil; Joo, Seong Soo

    2014-07-01

    Ethanol metabolism produces harmful compounds that contribute to liver damage and cause an alcohol hangover. The intermediate metabolite acetaldehyde is responsible for alcohol hangover and CYP2E1-induced reactive oxygen species damage liver tissues. In this study, we examined whether ginsenoside-free molecules (GFMs) from steam-dried ginseng berries promote ethanol metabolism and scavenge free radicals by stimulating primary enzymes (alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, CYP2E1, and catalase) and antioxidant effects using in vitro and in vivo models. The results revealed that GFM effectively scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate radicals and hydroxyl radicals. Notably, GFM significantly enhanced the expression of primary enzymes within 2 h in HepG2 cells. GFM clearly removed the consumed ethanol and significantly reduced the level of acetaldehyde as well as enhancement of primary gene expression in BALB/c mice. Moreover, GFM successfully protected HepG2 cells from ethanol attack. Of the major components identified in GFM, it was believed that linoleic acid was the most active ingredient. Based on these findings, we conclude that GFM holds promise for use as a new candidate for ethanol metabolism and as an antihangover agent.

  19. [Ginsenoside Rh₂-induced inhibition of histone deacetylase 6 promotes K562 cells autophagy and apoptosis in vivo].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ze-Hong; Chen, Di-Long; Jiang, Rong; Chen, Yi; Xiong, Wei; Wang, Fen; Shi, Xue-Ping; Li, Hai-Xing; Li, Jing

    2016-02-01

    To study the in vivo inhibition effect of ginsenoside Rh₂ on humanleukemia cells, and explore its mechanism from autophagy and apoptosis aspects, human leukemia K562 cells allograft tumor models were applied, and after administration of ginsenosides Rh₂ by gavage, the tumor diameter, volume and inhibitory rate were measured, and the anti-tumor activity of ginsenosides Rh₂ was observed. The levels of HAT and HDAC in tumor tissues were detected by chemical colorimetry assay, and expressions of HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3, HDAC4, HDAC5 and HDAC6 were detected by Western blotting assay. The expression levels of vital genes closely associated with autophagy and mRNA expressions of HDAC6 and Hsp90 were detected by Real time-PCR. HE staining was used to observe apoptosis, and immunohistochemistry was used to detect the protein expressions of HDAC6, Hsp90 and activated caspases 3. The results showed that ginsenoside Rh₂ could inhibit the growth of k562 cells allograft tumor, with a tumor inhibition rate up to 53.10%. Ginsenoside Rh₂ could significantly decrease HDAC activity and decrease the expressions of HDAC1, HDAC2 and HDAC6, and inhibit the expressions of HDAC6 and HSP90, increase the expressions of vital autophagy genes (beclin-1, LC3A and LC3B). Histopathological results showed that ginsenosides Rh₂ could significantly increase the tumor apoptosis. Therefore, ginsenoside Rh₂ had good anti-tumor effect in vivo, and the mechanism maybe associated with regulating autophagy and apoptosis through HDAC6 and Hsp90 pathways and inhibiting the in vivo proliferation of tumor cells. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  20. Characterization of the ginsenoside-transforming recombinant β-glucosidase from Actinosynnema mirum and bioconversion of major ginsenosides into minor ginsenosides.

    PubMed

    Cui, Chang-Hao; Kim, Sun-Chang; Im, Wan-Taek

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on the cloning, expression, and characterization of ginsenoside-transforming recombinant β-glucosidase from Actinosynnema mirum KACC 20028(T) in order to biotransform ginsenosides efficiently. The gene, termed as bglAm, encoding a β-glucosidase (BglAm) belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 3 was cloned. bglAm consisted of 1,830 bp (609 amino acid residues) with a predicted molecular mass of 65,277 Da. This enzyme was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) using a GST-fused pGEX 4T-1 vector system. The recombinant BglAm was purified with a GST·bind agarose resin and characterized. The optimum conditions of the recombinant BglAm were pH 7.0 and 37 °C. BglAm could hydrolyze the outer and inner glucose moieties at the C3 and C20 of the protopanaxadiol-type ginsenosides (i.e., Rb(1) and Rd, gypenoside XVII) to produce protopanaxadiol via gypenoside LXXV, F(2), and Rh(2)(S) with various pathways. BglAm can effectively transform the ginsenoside Rb(1) to gypenoside XVII and Rd to F(2); the K (m) values of Rb(1) and Rd were 0.69 ± 0.06 and 0.45 ± 0.02 mM, respectively, and the V (max) values were 16.13 ± 0.29 and 51.56 ± 1.35 μmol min(-1) mg(-1) of protein, respectively. Furthermore, BglAm could convert the protopanaxatriol-type ginsenoside Re and Rg(1) into Rg(2)(S) and Rh(1)(S) hydrolyzing the attached glucose moiety at the C6 and C20 positions, respectively. These various ginsenoside-hydrolyzing pathways of BglAm may assist in producing the minor ginsenosides from abundant major ginsenosides.

  1. Differential effects of ginsenosides on NO and TNF-alpha production by LPS-activated N9 microglia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chun Fu; Bi, Xiu Li; Yang, Jing Yu; Zhan, Jia Yang; Dong, Ying Xu; Wang, Jin Hui; Wang, Ji Ming; Zhang, Ruiwen; Li, Xian

    2007-03-01

    Ginsenosides, the main active components of ginseng, have been reported to exert neuroprotective effects in the central nervous system. In this report, the effects of ginsenoside-Rd and -Rb2, two protopanaxadiols, and ginsenoside-Rg1 and -Re, two protopanaxatriols, on the production of nitric oxide (NO) and TNF-alpha (TNF-alpha) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated N9 microglial cells were studied. All ginsenosides studied potently suppressed TNF-alpha production in LPS-activated N9 cells. Ginsenoside-Rg1 and -Re, but not ginsenoside-Rb2 and -Rd, inhibited the production of NO in LPS-activated N9 cells. Ginsenosides inhibited the phosphorylation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), c-Jun and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), The findings herein show that the inhibition of LPS-induced ERK1/2 and JNK activation may be a contributing factor to the main mechanisms by which ginsenosides inhibits RAW264.7. To clarify the mechanistic basis for its ability to inhibit TNF-alpha and NO induction, the effect of ginsenosides on transcription factor NF-kappaB protein level was also examined. These activities were associated with the down-regulation of inhibitor kappaB (IkappaB). These findings suggest that the inhibition of LPS-induced NO formation and TNF-alpha production in microglia by ginsenosides is due to its inhibition of NF-kappaB, which may be the mechanistic basis for the anti-inflammatory effects of ginsenosides. The significant suppressive effects of ginsenosides on proinflammatory responses of microglia implicate their therapeutic potential in neurodegenerative diseases accompanied by microglial activation.

  2. Ginsenoside Rh2 enhances the antitumor immunological response of a melanoma mice model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Yan, Shi-Ju; Zhang, Hong-Tao; Li, Nan; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Ying-Long ; Li, Xiao-Xiang; Ma, Qiong; Qiu, Xiu-Chun; Fan, Qing-Yu; Ma, Bao-An

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of malignant tumors following surgery is important in preventing relapse. Among all the post-surgery treatments, immunomodulators have demonstrated satisfactory effects on preventing recurrence according to recent studies. Ginsenoside is a compound isolated from panax ginseng, which is a famous traditional Chinese medicine. Ginsenoside aids in killing tumor cells through numerous processes, including the antitumor processes of ginsenoside Rh2 and Rg1, and also affects the inflammatory processes of the immune system. However, the role that ginsenoside serves in antitumor immunological activity remains to be elucidated. Therefore, the present study aimed to analyze the effect of ginsenoside Rh2 on the antitumor immunological response. With a melanoma mice model, ginsenoside Rh2 was demonstrated to inhibit tumor growth and improved the survival time of the mice. Ginsenoside Rh2 enhanced T-lymphocyte infiltration in the tumor and triggered cytotoxicity in spleen lymphocytes. In addition, the immunological response triggered by ginsenoside Rh2 could be transferred to other mice. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence that ginsenoside Rh2 treatment enhanced the antitumor immunological response, which may be a potential therapy for melanoma. PMID:28356946

  3. Specific Activation of Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Receptor by Ginsenoside Rg5 Promotes Angiogenesis and Vasorelaxation*

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Young-Lai; Hur, Sung-Mo; Kim, Ji-Yoon; Kim, Ji-Hee; Lee, Dong-Keon; Choe, Jongeon; Won, Moo-Ho; Ha, Kwon-Soo; Jeoung, Dooil; Han, Sanghwa; Ryoo, Sungwoo; Lee, Hansoo; Min, Jeong-Ki; Kwon, Young-Guen; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Young-Myeong

    2015-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rg5 is a compound newly synthesized during the steaming process of ginseng; however, its biological activity has not been elucidated with regard to endothelial function. We found that Rg5 stimulated in vitro angiogenesis of human endothelial cells, consistent with increased neovascularization and blood perfusion in a mouse hind limb ischemia model. Rg5 also evoked vasorelaxation in aortic rings isolated from wild type and high cholesterol-fed ApoE−/− mice but not from endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) knock-out mice. Angiogenic activity of Rg5 was highly associated with a specific increase in insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) phosphorylation and subsequent activation of multiple angiogenic signals, including ERK, FAK, Akt/eNOS/NO, and Gi-mediated phospholipase C/Ca2+/eNOS dimerization pathways. The vasodilative activity of Rg5 was mediated by the eNOS/NO/cGMP axis. IGF-1R knockdown suppressed Rg5-induced angiogenesis and vasorelaxation by inhibiting key angiogenic signaling and NO/cGMP pathways. In silico docking analysis showed that Rg5 bound with high affinity to IGF-1R at the same binding site of IGF. Rg5 blocked binding of IGF-1 to its receptor with an IC50 of ∼90 nmol/liter. However, Rg5 did not induce vascular inflammation and permeability. These data suggest that Rg5 plays a novel role as an IGF-1R agonist, promoting therapeutic angiogenesis and improving hypertension without adverse effects in the vasculature. PMID:25391655

  4. Specific activation of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor by ginsenoside Rg5 promotes angiogenesis and vasorelaxation.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young-Lai; Hur, Sung-Mo; Kim, Ji-Yoon; Kim, Ji-Hee; Lee, Dong-Keon; Choe, Jongeon; Won, Moo-Ho; Ha, Kwon-Soo; Jeoung, Dooil; Han, Sanghwa; Ryoo, Sungwoo; Lee, Hansoo; Min, Jeong-Ki; Kwon, Young-Guen; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Young-Myeong

    2015-01-02

    Ginsenoside Rg5 is a compound newly synthesized during the steaming process of ginseng; however, its biological activity has not been elucidated with regard to endothelial function. We found that Rg5 stimulated in vitro angiogenesis of human endothelial cells, consistent with increased neovascularization and blood perfusion in a mouse hind limb ischemia model. Rg5 also evoked vasorelaxation in aortic rings isolated from wild type and high cholesterol-fed ApoE(-/-) mice but not from endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) knock-out mice. Angiogenic activity of Rg5 was highly associated with a specific increase in insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) phosphorylation and subsequent activation of multiple angiogenic signals, including ERK, FAK, Akt/eNOS/NO, and Gi-mediated phospholipase C/Ca(2+)/eNOS dimerization pathways. The vasodilative activity of Rg5 was mediated by the eNOS/NO/cGMP axis. IGF-1R knockdown suppressed Rg5-induced angiogenesis and vasorelaxation by inhibiting key angiogenic signaling and NO/cGMP pathways. In silico docking analysis showed that Rg5 bound with high affinity to IGF-1R at the same binding site of IGF. Rg5 blocked binding of IGF-1 to its receptor with an IC50 of ∼90 nmol/liter. However, Rg5 did not induce vascular inflammation and permeability. These data suggest that Rg5 plays a novel role as an IGF-1R agonist, promoting therapeutic angiogenesis and improving hypertension without adverse effects in the vasculature.

  5. Ginsenosides, ingredients of the root of Panax ginseng, are not substrates but inhibitors of sodium-glucose transporter 1.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shengli; Kushida, Hirotaka; Makino, Toshiaki

    2017-01-01

    Recent pharmacokinetic studies have revealed that ginsenosides, the major ingredients of ginseng (the roots of Panax ginseng), are present in the plasma collected from subjects receiving ginseng, and speculated that ginsenosides might be actively transported via glucose transporters. We evaluated whether ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1, and their metabolites from enteric bacteria act as substrates of sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 1, the major glucose transporter expressed on the apical side of intestinal epithelial cells. First, we evaluated the competing effects of ginseng extract and ginsenosides on the uptake of [(14)C]methyl-glucose, a substrate of SGLT1, by SGLT1-overexpressing HEK293 cells. A boiling water extract of ginseng inhibited SGLT1 in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 0.85 mg/ml. By activity-guided fractionation, we determined that the fraction containing ginsenosides displayed an inhibitory effect on SGLT1. Of the ginsenosides evaluated, protopanaxatriol-type ginsenosides were not found to inhibit SGLT1, whereas protopanaxadiol-type ginsenosides, including ginsenosides Rd, Rg3, Rh2, F2 and compound K, exhibited significant inhibitory effects on SGLT1, with ginsenoside F2 having the highest activity with an IC50 value of 23.0 µM. Next, we measured the uptake of ginsenoside F2 and compound K into Caco-2 cells, a cell line frequently used to evaluate the intestinal absorption of drugs. The uptake of ginsenoside F2 and compound K into Caco-2 cells was not competitively inhibited by glucose. Furthermore, the uptake of ginsenoside F2 and compound K into SGLT1-overexpressing HEK293 cells was not significantly higher than into mock cells. Ginsenoside F2 and compound K did not appear to be substrates of SGLT1, although these compounds could inhibit SGLT1. Ginsenosides might be absorbed by passive diffusion through the intestinal membrane or actively transported via unknown transporters other than SGLT1.

  6. Ginsenoside Re Inhibits Osteoclast Differentiation in Mouse Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages and Zebrafish Scale Model

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chan-Mi; Kim, Hye-Min; Kim, Dong Hyun; Han, Ho-Jin; Noh, Haneul; Jang, Jae-Hyuk; Park, Soo-Hyun; Chae, Han-Jung; Chae, Soo-Wan; Ryu, Eun Kyoung; Lee, Sangku; Liu, Kangdong; Liu, Haidan; Ahn, Jong-Seog; Kim, Young Ock; Kim, Bo-Yeon; Soung, Nak-Kyun

    2016-01-01

    Ginsenosides, which are the active materials of ginseng, have biological functions that include anti-osteoporotic effects. Aqueous ginseng extract inhibits osteoclast differentiation induced by receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). Aqueous ginseng extract produces chromatography peaks characteristic of ginsenosides. Among these peaks, ginsenoside Re is a major component. However, the preventive effects of ginsenoside Re against osteoclast differentiation are not known. We studied the effect of ginsenoside Re on osteoclast differentiation, RANKL-induced tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity, and formation of multinucleated osteoclasts in vitro. Ginsenoside Re hampered osteoclast differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. In an in vivo zebrafish model, aqueous ginseng extract and ginsenoside Re had anti-osteoclastogenesis effects. These findings suggest that both aqueous ginseng extract and ginsenoside Re prevent bone resorption by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation. Ginsenoside Re could be important for promoting bone health. PMID:27927007

  7. Ginsenoside Re Inhibits Osteoclast Differentiation in Mouse Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages and Zebrafish Scale Model.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan-Mi; Kim, Hye-Min; Kim, Dong Hyun; Han, Ho-Jin; Noh, Haneul; Jang, Jae-Hyuk; Park, Soo-Hyun; Chae, Han-Jung; Chae, Soo-Wan; Ryu, Eun Kyoung; Lee, Sangku; Liu, Kangdong; Liu, Haidan; Ahn, Jong-Seog; Kim, Young Ock; Kim, Bo-Yeon; Soung, Nak-Kyun

    2016-12-01

    Ginsenosides, which are the active materials of ginseng, have biological functions that include anti-osteoporotic effects. Aqueous ginseng extract inhibits osteoclast differentiation induced by receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). Aqueous ginseng extract produces chromatography peaks characteristic of ginsenosides. Among these peaks, ginsenoside Re is a major component. However, the preventive effects of ginsenoside Re against osteoclast differentiation are not known. We studied the effect of ginsenoside Re on osteoclast differentiation, RANKL-induced tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity, and formation of multinucleated osteoclasts in vitro. Ginsenoside Re hampered osteoclast differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. In an in vivo zebrafish model, aqueous ginseng extract and ginsenoside Re had anti-osteoclastogenesis effects. These findings suggest that both aqueous ginseng extract and ginsenoside Re prevent bone resorption by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation. Ginsenoside Re could be important for promoting bone health.

  8. Ginsenoside Metabolite Compound K Promotes Recovery of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis and Inhibits Inflammatory Responses by Suppressing NF-κB Activation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Juan; Zhong, Wei; Wang, Weiwei; Hu, Shaoping; Yuan, Jiahui; Zhang, Bing; Hu, Tianhui; Song, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Phytogenic compounds with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, such as ginsenoside metabolite compound K (CK) or berberine (BBR), are currently discussed as promising complementary agents in the prevention and treatment of cancer and inflammation. The latest study showed that ginsenoside Rb1 and its metabolites could inhibit TNBS-induced colitis injury. However, the functional mechanisms of anti-inflammation effects of ginsenoside, particularly its metabolite CK are still not clear. Here, using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice, clinical parameters, intestinal integrity, pro-inflammatory cytokines production, and signaling pathways in colonic tissues were determined. In mild and sever colitis mice, CK and BBR (as a positive agent) alleviated colitis histopathology injury, ameliorated myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines production, such as, IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, and increased anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 production in both mice colon tissues and blood. Nevertheless, the results revealed that CK and BBR inhibited NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation, downregulated p-IκBα and upregulated IκBα, indicating that CK, as well as BBR, suppressed the activation of the NF-κB pathway in the progression of colitis with immunofluorescence, immunohistochemical and western blotting analysis. Furthermore, CK inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokines production in LPS-activated macrophages via down-regulation of NF-κB signaling pathway. Taken together, our results not only reveal that CK promotes the recovery of the progression of colitis and inhibits the inflammatory responses by suppressing NF-κB activation, but also suggest that CK downregulates intestinal inflammation through regulating the activation of macrophages and pro-inflammatory cytokines production. PMID:24504372

  9. Changes in the ginsenoside content during the fermentation process using microbial strains.

    PubMed

    Lee, So Jin; Kim, Yunjeong; Kim, Min-Gul

    2015-10-01

    Red ginseng (RG) is processed from Panax ginseng via several methods including heat treatment, mild acid hydrolysis, and microbial conversion to transform the major ginsenosides into minor ginsenosides, which have greater pharmaceutical activities. During the fermentation process using microbial strains in a machine for making red ginseng, a change of composition occurs after heating. Therefore, we confirmed that fermentation had occurred using only microbial strains and evaluated the changes in the ginsenosides and their chemical composition. To confirm the fermentation by microbial strains, the fermented red ginseng was made with microbial strains (w-FRG) or without microbial strains (n-FRG), and the fermentation process was performed to tertiary fermentation. The changes in the ginsenoside composition of the self-manufactured FRG using the machine were evaluated using HPLC, and the 20 ginsenosides were analyzed. Additionally, we investigated changes of the reducing sugar and polyphenol contents during fermentation process. In the fermentation process, ginsenosides Re, Rg1, and Rb1 decreased but ginsenosides Rh1, F2, Rg3, and Compound Y (C.Y) increased in primary FRG more than in the raw ginseng and RG. The content of phenolic compounds was high in FRG and the highest in the tertiary w-FRG. Moreover, the reducing sugar content was approximately three times higher in the tertiary w-FRG than in the other n-FRG. As the results indicate, we confirmed the changes in the ginsenoside content and the role of microbial strains in the fermentation process.

  10. Ginsenoside-Rd Promotes Neurite Outgrowth of PC12 Cells through MAPK/ERK- and PI3K/AKT-Dependent Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Song-Di; Xia, Feng; Lin, Xue-Mei; Duan, Kang-Li; Wang, Fang; Lu, Qing-Li; Cao, Huan; Qian, Yi-Hua; Shi, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Panax ginseng is a famous herbal medicine widely used in Asia. Ginsenosides have been identified as the principle active ingredients for Panax ginseng’s biological activity, among which ginsenoside Rd (Rd) attracts extensive attention for its obvious neuroprotective activities. Here we investigated the effect of Rd on neurite outgrowth, a crucial process associated with neuronal repair. PC12 cells, which respond to nerve growth factor (NGF) and serve as a model for neuronal cells, were treated with different concentrations of Rd, and then their neurite outgrowth was evaluated. Our results showed that 10 μM Rd significantly increased the percentages of long neurite- and branching neurite-bearing cells, compared with respective controls. The length of the longest neurites and the total length of neurites in Rd-treated PC12 cells were much longer than that of respective controls. We also showed that Rd activated ERK1/2 and AKT but not PKC signalings, and inhibition of ERK1/2 by PD98059 or/and AKT by LY294002 effectively attenuated Rd-induced neurite outgrowth. Moreover, Rd upregulated the expression of GAP-43, a neuron-specific protein involved in neurite outgrowth, while PD98059 or/and LY294002 decreased Rd-induced increased GAP-43 expression. Taken together, our results provided the first evidence that Rd may promote the neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells by upregulating GAP-43 expression via ERK- and ARK-dependent signaling pathways. PMID:26840295

  11. Molecular mechanisms governing different pharmacokinetics of ginsenosides and potential for ginsenoside-perpetrated herb–drug interactions on OATP1B3

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Rongrong; Dong, Jiajia; Li, Xiuxue; Du, Feifei; Jia, Weiwei; Xu, Fang; Wang, Fengqing; Yang, Junling; Niu, Wei; Li, Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Ginsenosides are bioactive saponins derived from Panax notoginseng roots (Sanqi) and ginseng. Here, the molecular mechanisms governing differential pharmacokinetics of 20(S)-protopanaxatriol-type ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Re and notoginsenoside R1 and 20(S)-protopanaxadiol-type ginsenosides Rb1, Rc and Rd were elucidated. Experimental Approach Interactions of ginsenosides with human and rat hepatobiliary transporters were characterized at the cellular and vesicular levels. A rifampin-based inhibition study in rats evaluated the in vivo role of organic anion-transporting polypeptide (Oatp)1b2. Plasma protein binding was assessed by equilibrium dialysis. Drug–drug interaction indices were calculated to estimate potential for clinically relevant ginsenoside-mediated interactions due to inhibition of human OATP1Bs. Key Results All the ginsenosides were bound to human OATP1B3 and rat Oatp1b2 but only the 20(S)-protopanaxatriol-type ginsenosides were transported. Human multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP)2/breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP)/bile salt export pump (BSEP)/multidrug resistance protein-1 and rat Mrp2/Bcrp/Bsep also mediated the transport of the 20(S)-protopanaxatriol-type ginsenosides. Glomerular-filtration-based renal excretion of the 20(S)-protopanaxatriol-type ginsenosides was greater than that of the 20(S)-protopanaxadiol-type counterparts due to differences in plasma protein binding. Rifampin-impaired hepatobiliary excretion of the 20(S)-protopanaxatriol-type ginsenosides was effectively compensated by the renal excretion in rats. The 20(S)-protopanaxadiol-type ginsenosides were potent inhibitors of OATP1B3. Conclusion and Implications Differences in hepatobiliary and in renal excretory clearances caused markedly different systemic exposure and different elimination kinetics between the two types of ginsenosides. Caution should be exercised with the long-circulating 20(S)-protopanaxadiol-type ginsenosides as they

  12. Simplified extraction of ginsenosides from American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) for high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet analysis.

    PubMed

    Corbit, Rebecca M; Ferreira, Jorge F S; Ebbs, Stephen D; Murphy, Laura L

    2005-12-28

    Four methods were tested for extraction and recovery of six major ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re, and Rg1) found in roots of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius): method A, sonication in 100% methanol (MeOH) at room temperature (rt); method B, sonication in 70% aqueous MeOH at rt; method C, water extraction (90 degrees C) with gentle agitation; and method D, refluxing (60 degrees C) in 100% MeOH. After 0.5-1 h, the samples were filtered and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV. A second extraction by methods C and D was done, but 85-90% of ginsenosides were obtained during the first extraction. Lyophilization of extracts did not influence ginsenoside recovery. Method D resulted in the highest significant recoveries of all ginsenosides, except Rg1. Method C was the next most effective method, while method A resulted in the lowest ginsenoside recoveries. Method B led to similar recoveries as method C. All methods used one filtration step, omitted time-consuming cleanup, but maintained clear peak resolution by HPLC, and can be used for quantitative screening of ginsenosides from roots and commercial ginseng preparations.

  13. Biomass and content of ginsenosides and polyacetylenes in American ginseng roots can be increased without affecting the profile of bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Lars P; Jensen, Martin

    2009-04-01

    Fifty selected roots from a 7-year-old American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.) plant population grown in Denmark, with root weights varying from 191 to 490 g fresh weight (FW), were investigated for bioactive ginsenosides and polyacetylenes (PAs) in order to determine the correlation between the content of ginsenosides and PAs and root FW. PAs (falcarinol, panaxydol) and ginsenosides (Rb(1), Rb(2), Rb(3), Rc, Rd, Re, Rg(1)) were extracted from roots by sequential extraction with ethyl acetate and 80% methanol, respectively, and quantified in extracts by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using photodiode array detection. Total concentrations of PAs and ginsenosides varied between 150 and 780 mg/kg FW and 5,920 and 15,660 mg/kg FW, respectively. No correlation existed between the content of ginsenosides and PAs and root FW or between the total concentration of ginsenosides and PAs. Strong significant correlation was found between total content of ginsenosides and ginsenoside Rb(1) (r = 0.8190, P < 0.0001) and between total content of PAs and falcarinol (r = 0.9904, P < 0.0001). Based on the results of this study, it was concluded that it is possible to select large American ginseng roots for increased biomass production and concentration of bioactive ginsenosides and PAs without affecting the profile of bioactive compounds. Ginsenoside Rb(1) and falcarinol were found to be important selection parameters for identifying superior genotypes with the highest content of bioactive compounds.

  14. Korean Ginseng Berry Fermented by Mycotoxin Non-producing Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae: Ginsenoside Analyses and Anti-proliferative Activities.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhipeng; Ahn, Hyung Jin; Kim, Nam Yeon; Lee, Yu Na; Ji, Geun Eog

    2016-01-01

    To transform ginsenosides, Korean ginseng berry (KGB) was fermented by mycotoxin non-producing Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae. Changes of ginsenoside profile and anti-proliferative activities were observed. Results showed that A. niger tended to efficiently transform protopanaxadiol (PPD) type ginsenosides such as Rb1, Rb2, Rd to compound K while A. oryzae tended to efficiently transform protopanaxatriol (PPT) type ginsenoside Re to Rh1 via Rg1. Butanol extracts of fermented KGB showed high cytotoxicity on human adenocarcinoma HT-29 cell line and hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line while that of unfermented KGB showed little. The minimum effective concentration of niger-fermented KGB was less than 2.5 µg/mL while that of oryzae-fermented KGB was about 5 µg/mL. As A. niger is more inclined to transform PPD type ginsenosides, niger-fermented KGB showed stronger anti-proliferative activity than oryzae-fermented KGB.

  15. Simultaneous determination of 30 ginsenosides in Panax ginseng preparations using ultra performance liquid chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hee-Won; In, Gyo; Han, Sung-Tai; Lee, Myoung-Woo; Kim, So-Young; Kim, Kyung-Tack; Cho, Byung-Goo; Han, Gyeong-Ho; Chang, Il-Moo

    2013-01-01

    A quick and simple method for simultaneous determination of the 30 ginsenosides (ginsenoside Ro, Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re, Rf, Rg1, 20(S)-Rg2, 20(R)-Rg2, 20(S)-Rg3, 20(R)-Rg3, 20(S)-Rh1, 20(S)-Rh2, 20(R)-Rh2, F1, F2, F4, Ra1, Rg6, Rh4, Rk3, Rg5, Rk1, Rb3, Rk2, Rh3, compound Y, compound K, and notoginsenoside R1) in Panax ginseng preparations was developed and validated by an ultra performance liquid chromatography photo diode array detector. The separation of the 30 ginsenosides was efficiently undertaken on the Acquity BEH C-18 column with gradient elution with phosphoric acids. Especially the chromatogram of the ginsenoside Ro was dramatically enhanced by adding phosphoric acid. Under optimized conditions, the detection limits were 0.4 to 1.7 mg/L and the calibration curves of the peak areas for the 30 ginsenosides were linear over three orders of magnitude with a correlation coefficients greater than 0.999. The accuracy of the method was tested by a recovery measurement of the spiked samples which yielded good results of 89% to 118%. From these overall results, the proposed method may be helpful in the development and quality of P. ginseng preparations because of its wide range of applications due to the simultaneous analysis of many kinds of ginsenosides. PMID:24235860

  16. Preparation and characterization of mucoadhesive enteric-coating ginsenoside-loaded microparticles.

    PubMed

    Baek, Jong-Suep; Yeon, Won-Gi; Lee, Cho-A; Hwang, Sung-Joo; Park, Jeong-Sook; Kim, Dong-Chool; Cho, Cheong-Weon

    2015-01-01

    Ginsenoside saponins are phytochemically extracted from red ginseng and have been regarded as the principal components manifesting the pharmacologic activities. Saponins are very soluble in water but poorly absorbed when orally administrated. Moreover, they have some disadvantages including the decomposition in acid medium. The aim of this study was to develop oral formulation of ginsenosides composed of enteric-coating polymer and mucoadhesive polymer considering the low stability in acid medium and the low permeability of saponins. Ginsenoside-loaded microparticles were prepared by spray dryer. The influences of various parameters such as the ratio of saponin to polymer, feed concentration, feed rate, inlet/outlet temperature and additional excipients during spray-drying were investigated. In vitro release profile of ginsenoside-loaded microparticles using additional excipients, ginsenoside saponin Rg1 or Rb1 showed an 18 or 13% release in pH 1.2 when ethyl cellulose was added. Also, ginsenoside-loaded microparticles exhibited mucoadhesive properties in the presence of chitosan. The application of these polymers is being considered as the potential strategy for improvement of bioavailability in saponin delivery, orally.

  17. Simultaneous Determination of Multiple Ginsenosides in Panax ginseng Herbal Medicines with One Single Reference Standard

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chunwei; Guan, Qingxiao; Wang, Shumei; Rong, Yueying

    2017-01-01

    Background: Root of Panax ginseng C. A. Mey (Renseng in Chinese) is a famous Traditional Chinese Medicine. Ginsenosides are the major bioactive components. However, the shortage and high cost of some ginsenoside reference standards make it is difficult for quality control of P. ginseng. Objective: A method, single standard for determination of multicomponents (SSDMC), was developed for the simultaneous determination of nine ginsenosides in P. ginseng (ginsenoside Rg1, Re, Rf, Rg2, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, Rb3, Rd). Materials and Methods: The analytes were separated on Inertsil ODS-3 C18 (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) with gradient elution of acetonitrile and water. The flow rate was 1 mL/min and detection wavelength was set at 203 nm. The feasibility and accuracy of SSDMC were checked by the external standard method, and various high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) instruments and chromatographic conditions were investigated to verify its applicability. Using ginsenoside Rg1 as the internal reference substance, the contents of other eight ginsenosides were calculated according to conversion factors (F) by HPLC. Results: The method was validated with linearity (r2 ≥ 0.9990), precision (relative standard deviation [RSD] ≤2.9%), accuracy (97.5%–100.8%, RSD ≤ 1.6%), repeatability, and stability. There was no significant difference between the SSDMC method and the external standard method. Conclusion: New SSDMC method could be considered as an ideal mean to analyze the components for which reference standards are not readily available. SUMMARY A method, single standard for determination of multicomponents (SSDMC), was established by high-performance liquid chromatography for the simultaneous determination of nine ginsenosides in Panax ginseng (ginsenoside Rg1, Re, Rf, Rg2, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, Rb3, Rd)Various chromatographic conditions were investigated to verify applicability of FsThe feasibility and accuracy of SSDMC were checked by the external standard method

  18. Changes in the ginsenoside content during the fermentation process using microbial strains

    PubMed Central

    Lee, So Jin; Kim, Yunjeong; Kim, Min-Gul

    2015-01-01

    Background Red ginseng (RG) is processed from Panax ginseng via several methods including heat treatment, mild acid hydrolysis, and microbial conversion to transform the major ginsenosides into minor ginsenosides, which have greater pharmaceutical activities. During the fermentation process using microbial strains in a machine for making red ginseng, a change of composition occurs after heating. Therefore, we confirmed that fermentation had occurred using only microbial strains and evaluated the changes in the ginsenosides and their chemical composition. Methods To confirm the fermentation by microbial strains, the fermented red ginseng was made with microbial strains (w-FRG) or without microbial strains (n-FRG), and the fermentation process was performed to tertiary fermentation. The changes in the ginsenoside composition of the self-manufactured FRG using the machine were evaluated using HPLC, and the 20 ginsenosides were analyzed. Additionally, we investigated changes of the reducing sugar and polyphenol contents during fermentation process. Results In the fermentation process, ginsenosides Re, Rg1, and Rb1 decreased but ginsenosides Rh1, F2, Rg3, and Compound Y (C.Y) increased in primary FRG more than in the raw ginseng and RG. The content of phenolic compounds was high in FRG and the highest in the tertiary w-FRG. Moreover, the reducing sugar content was approximately three times higher in the tertiary w-FRG than in the other n-FRG. Conclusion As the results indicate, we confirmed the changes in the ginsenoside content and the role of microbial strains in the fermentation process. PMID:26869833

  19. Antiviral Effect of Korean Red Ginseng Extract and Ginsenosides on Murine Norovirus and Feline Calicivirus as Surrogates for Human Norovirus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min Hwa; Lee, Bog-Hieu; Jung, Ji-Youn; Cheon, Doo-Sung; Kim, Kyung-Tack; Choi, Changsun

    2011-01-01

    Korean red ginseng has been studied various biological activities such as immune, anti-oxidative, anti-microbial, and anticancer activities but antiviral mechanism needs further studies. In this study, we aimed to examine the antiviral effects of Korea red ginseng extract and ginsenosides on norovirus surrogate, including murine norovirus (MNV) and feline calicivirus (FCV). We evaluated the pre-, co-, and post-treatment effects of Korean red ginseng (KRG), ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1. To measure the antiviral effect and cytotoxicity of KRG extract, and ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1, we treated Crandell-Reese Feline Kidney for FCV or RAW264.7 cells for MNV with concentrations of 0, 5, 6.7, 10, 20 ug/mL total saponin. There was cytotoxic effect in the highest concentration 20 ug/mL of KRG extract so this concentration was excluded in this study. The FCV titer was significantly reduced to 0.23-0.83 log10 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50)/mL in groups pre-treated with red ginseng extract or ginsenosides. The titer of MNV was significantly reduced to 0.37-1.48 log10 TCID50/mL in groups pre-treated with red ginseng extract or ginsenosides. However, there was no observed antiviral effect in groups co-treated or post-treated with KRG and its constituents. Our data suggest that KRG extract has an antiviral effect against norovirus surrogates. The antiviral mechanisms of KRG and ginsenosides should be addressed in future studies. PMID:23717088

  20. Characterization of Panax ginseng UDP-Glycosyltransferases Catalyzing Protopanaxatriol and Biosyntheses of Bioactive Ginsenosides F1 and Rh1 in Metabolically Engineered Yeasts.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Wang, Pingping; Wei, Yongjun; Liu, Qunfang; Yang, Chengshuai; Zhao, Guoping; Yue, Jianmin; Yan, Xing; Zhou, Zhihua

    2015-09-01

    Ginsenosides, the main pharmacologically active natural compounds in ginseng (Panax ginseng), are mostly the glycosylated products of protopanaxadiol (PPD) and protopanaxatriol (PPT). No uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferase (UGT), which catalyzes PPT to produce PPT-type ginsenosides, has yet been reported. Here, we show that UGTPg1, which has been demonstrated to regio-specifically glycosylate the C20-OH of PPD, also specifically glycosylates the C20-OH of PPT to produce bioactive ginsenoside F1. We report the characterization of four novel UGT genes isolated from P. ginseng, sharing high deduced amino acid identity (>84%) with UGTPg1. We demonstrate that UGTPg100 specifically glycosylates the C6-OH of PPT to produce bioactive ginsenoside Rh1, and UGTPg101 catalyzes PPT to produce F1, followed by the generation of ginsenoside Rg1 from F1. However, UGTPg102 and UGTPg103 were found to have no detectable activity on PPT. Through structural modeling and site-directed mutagenesis, we identified several key amino acids of these UGTs that may play important roles in determining their activities and substrate regio-specificities. Moreover, we constructed yeast recombinants to biosynthesize F1 and Rh1 by introducing the genetically engineered PPT-producing pathway and UGTPg1 or UGTPg100. Our study reveals the possible biosynthetic pathways of PPT-type ginsenosides in Panax plants, and provides a sound manufacturing approach for bioactive PPT-type ginsenosides in yeast via synthetic biology strategies.

  1. Simultaneous determination of ginsenosides and polyacetylenes in American ginseng root (Panax quinquefolium L.) by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Lars P; Jensen, Martin; Kidmose, Ulla

    2006-11-29

    A method for simultaneous determination of ginsenosides and polyacetylenes in Panax quinquefolium L. (American ginseng) roots was developed. The ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re, Rg1, Ro, malonyl-Rb1, malonyl-Rc, and malonyl-Rd and the polyacetylenes falcarinol and panaxydol were extracted from fresh ginseng roots in a sequential extraction process with 100% methanol followed by 80% aqueous methanol and quantified simultaneously in extracts by high-performance liquid chromatography using diode array detection. Separations were achieved with a phosphate buffer-acetonitrile gradient system using an RP-C18 column. Except for Rd, the present extraction method resulted in similar or significantly higher concentrations of both ginsenosides and polyacetylenes in comparison to commonly used extraction methods for these compounds. The contents of polyacetylenes and ginsenosides were determined in the root hairs, lateral roots, and main roots of 6 year old ginseng plants. The total mean concentrations of ginsenosides and polyacetylenes in root hairs were 31.0 g/kg fresh weight (FW) and 2.6 g/kg FW, respectively, whereas the concentrations of these bioactive compounds in the main roots were significantly lower with total mean concentrations of 17.8 g/kg FW for ginsenosides and 0.6 g/kg FW for polyacetylenes. The concentration of individual and total ginsenosides and polyacetylenes did not differ significantly between main roots of different sizes. Consequently, it is possible to do quantitative screening for ginsenosides and polyacetylenes to breed ginseng roots with higher levels of bioactive compounds.

  2. Aqueous ionic liquid based ultrasonic assisted extraction of eight ginsenosides from ginseng root.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hongmei; Zhang, Yonggang; Han, Mei; Yang, Limin

    2013-03-01

    We developed an aqueous ionic liquid based ultrasonic assisted extraction (ILUAE) method for the extraction of the eight ginsenosides (ginsenoside-Rg1, -Re, -Rf, -Rb1, -Rc, -Rb2, -Rb3 and -Rd) from ginseng root. A series of l-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids differing in composition of anions and cations were evaluated for extraction efficiency. The results indicated that the ILUAE method has a remarkable ability to improve the extraction efficiency of ginsenosides. In addition, the ILUAE procedure was also optimized on some ultrasonic parameters, such as the IL concentration, solvent to solid ratio and extraction time. Under these optimal conditions (e.g., with 0.3M [C(3)MIM]Br, solvent to solid ratio of 10:1 and extraction time of 20min), this approach gained the highest extraction yields of total ginsenosides 17.81±0.47mg/g. Compared with the regular UAE, the proposed approach exhibited 3.16 times higher efficiency and 33% shorter extraction time, which indicated that ILUAE has a broad prospect for sample preparation of medicinal plants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Potential accumulation of protopanaxadiol-type ginsenosides in six-months toxicokinetic study of SHENMAI injection in dogs.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jian; Gu, Li-Qiang; Xin, Yan-Fei; Bai, Yun-Sheng; Zhang, Sheng; Gao, Hai-Yan; Xu, Pan-Sheng; Ma, Zhu-Feng; You, Zhen-Qiang; Wang, Zhi; Xuan, Yao-Xian

    2017-02-01

    SHENMAI injection (SMI), derived from famous Shen Mai San, is a herbal injection widely used in China. Ginsenosides are the major components of SMI. To monitor the exposure level of SMI during long-term treatment, a 6-month toxicokinetic experiment was performed. Twenty-four beagle dogs were dived into four groups (n = 6 in each group): a control group (0.9% NaCl solution) and three SMI groups (2, 6 or 3 mg/kg). The dogs were i.v. infused with vehicle or SMI daily for 180 d. Blood samples for analysis were collected at specific time points as follows: pre-dose (0 h); at 10, 30, and 60 min during infusion; and at 10, 30, 60, 90, 120, 240, and 300 min post-administration. Concentrations of ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re, Rf, and Rg1 in the plasma were determined simultaneously by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Non-compartmental parameters were further calculated and analyzed. Significant differences were found between the kinetic behavior of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol-type (PPD-type) and 20(S)-protopanaxatriol-type (PPT-type) ginsenosides. Increasing in the exposure level of PPD-type ginsenosides was observed in dogs during the experiment. Therefore, PPD-type ginsenosides are closely related to the immunity modulation effect of SMI. Increased PPD-type ginsenoside exposure level may present potential toxicity and induce drug-drug interaction risks during SMI administration. As such, PPD-type ginsenoside accumulation must be carefully monitored in future SMI research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. New Method for Simultaneous Quantification of 12 Ginsenosides in Red Ginseng Powder and Extract: In-house Method Validation.

    PubMed

    In, Gyo; Ahn, Nam-Geun; Bae, Bong-Seok; Han, Sung-Tai; Noh, Kil-Bong; Kim, Cheon-Suk

    2012-04-01

    For quality control of components in Korean red ginseng powder and extract, a new method for simultaneous quantification of 12 ginsenosides (Rg1, Re, Rf, Rh1, Rg2[S], Rg2[R], Rb1, Rc, Rb2, Rd, Rg3[S], and Rg3[R]) was studied. Compared to the official method for quantification of marker substances (ginsenosides Rg1 and Rb1), the proposed methods were guaranteed by in-house method validation. Several criteria such as linearity, specificity, precision and accuracy were evaluated. For red ginseng powder, recovery (averaging 95% to 105%) was calculated, and analysis of variance was carried out to estimate the relative standard deviation (0.20% to 2.12%). For red ginseng extract, the average recovery rate was 90% to 99% and the relative standard deviation was 0.39% to 2.40%. These results indicate that the proposed method could be used in the laboratory for determination of 12 ginsenosides in red ginseng powder and extract. In addition, this method was found to be suitable for quality control of ginseng products and potentially offer time and cost benefits.

  5. PgLOX6 encoding a lipoxygenase contributes to jasmonic acid biosynthesis and ginsenoside production in Panax ginseng

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Shadi; Kim, Yu-Jin; Sukweenadhi, Johan; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Ginsenosides, the valuable pharmaceutical compounds in Panax ginseng, are triterpene saponins that occur mainly in ginseng plants. It was shown that in vitro treatment with the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) is able to increase ginsenoside production in ginseng plants. To understand the molecular link between JA biosynthesis and ginsenoside biosynthesis, we identified a JA biosynthetic 13-lipoxygenase gene (PgLOX6) in P. ginseng that promotes ginsenoside production. The expression of PgLOX6 was high in vascular bundles, which corresponds with expression of ginsenoside biosynthetic genes. Consistent with the role of PgLOX6 in synthesizing JA and promoting ginsenoside synthesis, transgenic plants overexpressing PgLOX6 in Arabidopsis had increased amounts of JA and methyl jasmonate (MJ), increased expression of triterpene biosynthetic genes such as squalene synthase (AtSS1) and squalene epoxidase (AtSE1), and increased squalene content. Moreover, transgenic ginseng roots overexpressing PgLOX6 had around 1.4-fold increased ginsenoside content and upregulation of ginsenoside biosynthesis-related genes including PgSS1, PgSE1, and dammarenediol synthase (PgDDS), which is similar to that of treatment with MJ. However, MJ treatment of transgenic ginseng significantly enhanced JA and MJ, associated with a 2.8-fold increase of ginsenoside content compared with the non-treated, non-transgenic control plant, which was 1.4 times higher than the MJ treatment effect on non-transgenic plants. These results demonstrate that PgLOX6 is responsible for the biosynthesis of JA and promotion of the production of triterpenoid saponin through up-regulating the expression of ginsenoside biosynthetic genes. This work provides insight into the role of JA in biosynthesizing secondary metabolites and provides a molecular tool for increasing ginsenoside production. PMID:27811076

  6. PgLOX6 encoding a lipoxygenase contributes to jasmonic acid biosynthesis and ginsenoside production in Panax ginseng.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Shadi; Kim, Yu-Jin; Sukweenadhi, Johan; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2016-11-01

    Ginsenosides, the valuable pharmaceutical compounds in Panax ginseng, are triterpene saponins that occur mainly in ginseng plants. It was shown that in vitro treatment with the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) is able to increase ginsenoside production in ginseng plants. To understand the molecular link between JA biosynthesis and ginsenoside biosynthesis, we identified a JA biosynthetic 13-lipoxygenase gene (PgLOX6) in P. ginseng that promotes ginsenoside production. The expression of PgLOX6 was high in vascular bundles, which corresponds with expression of ginsenoside biosynthetic genes. Consistent with the role of PgLOX6 in synthesizing JA and promoting ginsenoside synthesis, transgenic plants overexpressing PgLOX6 in Arabidopsis had increased amounts of JA and methyl jasmonate (MJ), increased expression of triterpene biosynthetic genes such as squalene synthase (AtSS1) and squalene epoxidase (AtSE1), and increased squalene content. Moreover, transgenic ginseng roots overexpressing PgLOX6 had around 1.4-fold increased ginsenoside content and upregulation of ginsenoside biosynthesis-related genes including PgSS1, PgSE1, and dammarenediol synthase (PgDDS), which is similar to that of treatment with MJ. However, MJ treatment of transgenic ginseng significantly enhanced JA and MJ, associated with a 2.8-fold increase of ginsenoside content compared with the non-treated, non-transgenic control plant, which was 1.4 times higher than the MJ treatment effect on non-transgenic plants. These results demonstrate that PgLOX6 is responsible for the biosynthesis of JA and promotion of the production of triterpenoid saponin through up-regulating the expression of ginsenoside biosynthetic genes. This work provides insight into the role of JA in biosynthesizing secondary metabolites and provides a molecular tool for increasing ginsenoside production. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  7. Simplified ultrasonically- and microwave-assisted solvent extractions for the determination of ginsenosides in powdered Panax ginseng rhizomes using liquid chromatography with UV absorbance or electrospray mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    MacCrehan, William A; White, Christian M

    2013-05-01

    New approaches for the recovery of ginsenosides are presented that greatly simplify the liquid chromatographic (LC) determination of the total content of eight ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re, Rf, Rg1 and Rg2) in powdered Panax ginseng rhizomes. The extraction protocols not only recover the neutral ginsenosides, but also simultaneously incorporate base-catalyzed hydrolysis of the malonyl-ginsenosides using dilute potassium hydroxide added to the methanol-water extractant. This eliminates the need for an independent extraction step followed by acid- or base-catalyzed hydrolysis. Both ultrasonically-assisted and microwave-assisted extraction methods are developed. The optimization of these simplified methods to remove pendant malonate esters, while retaining the glycosidic linkages, was determined by LC through variation of the extraction/hydrolysis time, order of hydrolysis reagent addition, and evaluation of multiple extractions. A comparison of the ginsenoside profiles obtained with and without addition of base to the extractant solution was made using LCMS with positive-mode electrospray ionization (ESI(+)) detection. A number of malonyl-ginsenosides were tentatively identified by their mass spectral fragmentation spectra and indicating that they were converted to the free ginsenosides by the new extraction/hydrolysis procedure.

  8. Ruggedness/robustness evaluation and system suitability test on United States Pharmacopoeia XXVI assay ginsenosides in Asian and American ginseng by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-Guo; Chen, Ming; Chou, Gui-Xin; Wang, Zheng-Tao; Hu, Zhi-Bi

    2004-09-03

    The work of the ruggedness/robustness evaluation and system suitability tests was oriented to profound understand the practicability of using assay methods issued by United States Pharmacopoeia (USP XXVI and XXVII) for ginsenosides in Asian ginseng and American ginseng. The items chosen for the method validation included quantitative related items such as recovery of Rg(1) and Rb(1), respectively, and qualitative related items such as resolution, theoretical plate number, relative retention time of two critical-band-pairs, Rg(1)/Re and Rb(1) with its neighboring peak, respectively. Totally, 16 column types were used for comparison of different vendors, different packing materials, different size, etc. and five sets of LC systems and two laboratories were involved in comparing the data of both quantitative and qualitative items. The results showed that different packing materials of columns used might significantly alters separation. The column packing material Hypersil afforded the preferable separating for the ginsenosides. No significant difference was observed from the different instrumentations and inter-laboratories. Our results suggest a modification of the system suitability test as given in USP26-NF21 and the latest version of USP27-NF22, which was not suitable for most systems. Using resolutions of Rg(1)/Re and Rb(1) with its neighboring peak as critical parameters for the ginsenosides assay and omitting the relative retention time of both Rg(1)/Re and Rb(1) with its neighboring peak is our suggestion for a more reasonable, yet practicable system suitability. Six typical chromatograms gain from different columns were figured out as well.

  9. Improved high performance liquid chromatographic determination of ginsenosides in Panax ginseng-based pharmaceuticals using a diol column.

    PubMed

    Bonfill, Mercè; Casals, Isidre; Palazón, Javier; Mallol, Anna; Morales, Carmen

    2002-02-01

    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic assay for the simultaneous quantitative determination of seven ginsenosides, Rb(1), Rb(2), Rc, Rd, Rg(1), Re and Rf in pharmaceutical preparations is described. Chromatographic separation was achieved in less than 20 min using a 250 x 4 mm Lichrospher, 5 microm, 100 A diol column with detection at 203 nm. The method was validated over the range of 2.5-20 ng/microL using a 20 microL sample volume. The average accuracy at five concentrations was 90-100%, and the within-day and between-day precision ranged from 1 to 7% expressed as coefficient of variation. The detection limit and the quantitation limit of the method were 20 and 50 ng injected for each ginsenoside, respectively. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Effects of ginsenosides, lectins and Momordica charantia insulin-like peptide on corticosterone production by isolated rat adrenal cells.

    PubMed

    Ng, T B; Li, W W; Yeung, H W

    1987-01-01

    Ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, Rc and Rg1 inhibited steroidogenesis induced by a maximally active dose of corticotropin in isolated rat adrenal cells. The galactose-binding lectins from Momordica charantia seeds and Trichosanthes kirilowii tubers and mannose-binding concanavalin A did not affect basal corticosterone production. The lectins potentiated steroidogenesis induced by a submaximal dose of corticotropin but were without effect on steroidogenesis induced by a maximally active dose of corticotropin. Momordica charantia insulin-like peptide did not affect steroidogenesis.

  11. [Advances in the biosynthesis research of ginsenosides].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin-Ling; Gao, Li-Li; Zhu, Ping

    2013-02-01

    Ginsenosides are the main active components of medicinal herbs including Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolium, which have potent effects of anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and apoptosis inhibition. But the low content of ginsenosides limits its development and usage. At present, how to improve the production of ginsenosides by biological technology has been a new research focus. Some advances in the biosynthesis of ginsenosides by tissue culture and biotransformation have been made in recent years. So far at least twenty genes related to the biosynthesis of ginsenosides from Panax genus plants have been cloned and functionally identified, which has laid a good foundation for the study on the synthetic biology of ginsenosides. This review outlines recent advances in several aspects and is expected to provide a theoretical support to the thorough research of the pathway and regulation of ginsenosides biosynthesis.

  12. Inhibition of autophagy potentiates anticancer property of 20(S)-ginsenoside Rh2 by promoting mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in human acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yingnan; Wang, Yuanyuan; Cai, Jianye; Wang, Min; Chen, Qidan; Song, Jia; Yu, Ziqi; Huang, Wei; Fang, Jianpei

    2016-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is the most prevalent childhood malignancy. Although most children with ALL are cured, there is still a group of patients for which therapy fails owing to severe toxicities and drug resistance. Ginsenoside Rh2 (GRh2), a major bioactive component isolated from Panax ginseng, has been shown to have a therapeutic effect on some tumors. However, the molecular mechanisms of cell death induced by 20(S)-GRh2 in ALL cells remains unclear. In this study, we showed that 20(S)-GRh2 inhibited the cell growth and induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis and autophagy. But it has no cytotoxic effect on human normal blood cells. Furthermore, autophagy plays a protective role in 20(S)-GRh2-induced apoptosis in ALL cell lines and human primary ALL cells. We demonstrated that either genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of autophagy could be more effective in reducing viability and enhancing 20(S)-GRh2-induced toxicity than 20(S)-GRh2 treatment alone. In addition, inhibition of autophagy could aggravate mitochondrial ROS generation and mitochondrial damage, and then accelerate mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggest that inhibition of autophagy can sensitize ALL cells towards 20(S)-GRh2. The appropriate inhibition of autophagy could provide a powerful strategy to increase the potency of 20(S)-GRh2 as a novel anticancer agent for ALL therapy. PMID:27027340

  13. A dual purpose cell line of an Indian congener of ginseng--Panax sikkimensis with distinct ginsenoside and anthocyanin production profiles.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Tanya; Singh, Manju; Mathur, Ajay Kumar; Mathur, Archana

    2015-03-01

    The age-dependent production kinetics of ginsenosides and an anthocyanin pigment in a cell suspension line of Panax sikkimensis was followed in vitro. Highest total saponin content [7.37 mg/g dry weight (DW)] and biomass accumulation (% biomass increase = 209.67) in this line occurred after 3 and 5 weeks of culture, respectively. Accumulation of individual protopanaxatriol (Re, Rg1, and Rg2) and protopanaxadiol (Rb1, Rb2, and Rc) ginsenosides showed a variable pattern of accumulation independent of cell biomass buildup during the 7-week culture cycle. However, total content of triol ginsenosides was always significantly more than the diol group of ginsenosides, being 183.2-, 63.5-, and 72.1-folds at third, fourth, and fifth week stage of cell growth. Interestingly, in addition to these ginsenosides, the cell line also co-accumulated an anthocyanin pigment in vitro. The pigment content increased gradually from 8.66 to 14.29 mg/g DW after first to fifth week followed by a marginal fall to 12.79 and 10.95 mg/g DW during next 2 weeks. Therefore, in terms of total recovery of saponins (77.4 mg/l) and anthocyanin (199.16 mg/l), harvesting of cells after 3 and 5 weeks of growth was most profitable, respectively. The possible utility of this dual purpose cell line in nutraceutical industry is discussed.

  14. COL Application Content Guide for HTGRs: Revision to RG 1.206, Part 1 - Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Moe

    2012-08-01

    A combined license (COL) application is required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for all proposed nuclear plants. The information requirements for a COL application are set forth in 10 CFR 52.79, “Contents of Applications; Technical Information in Final Safety Analysis Report.” An applicant for a modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) must develop and submit for NRC review and approval a COL application which conforms to these requirements. The technical information necessary to allow NRC staff to evaluate a COL application and resolve all safety issues related to a proposed nuclear plant is detailed and comprehensive. To this, Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.206, “Combined License Applications for Nuclear Power Plants” (LWR Edition), was developed to assist light water reactor (LWR) applicants in incorporating and effectively formatting required information for COL application review (Ref. 1). However, the guidance prescribed in RG 1.206 presumes a LWR design proposal consistent with the systems and functions associated with large LWR power plants currently operating under NRC license.

  15. Determination of ginsenoside content in Asian and North American ginseng raw materials and finished products by high-performance liquid chromatography: single-laboratory validation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Paula N

    2011-01-01

    A single-laboratory validation study was conducted for the quantification of Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, and Rd in Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) and North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) raw materials and finished products by RP-HPLC. The extraction with aqueous methanol was optimized for whole root, powdered extract, and finished product (raw, tablet, and capsule matrixes) test articles. Root materials were treated with base to hydrolyze acidic malonyl ginsenosides to their neutral counterparts. Calibration curves for each ginsenoside were linear over the following ranges (microg/g): 5-394 for Rg1, 15-1188 for Re, 39-2981 for Rb1, 6-499 for Rc, 5-406 for Rb2, and 7-600 for Rd, all having a coefficient of determination (r2) of > or = 99.5%. The LOD for Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, and Rd was determined to be 1.06, 1.25, 2.19, 1.24, 1.27, and 1.70 microg/mL, respectively. Quantitative determinations performed with eight test materials by two analysts over 3 days (n = 12) resulted in RSDr values that ranged from 1.11 to 7.61%.

  16. Improved Inflammatory Balance of Human Skeletal Muscle during Exercise after Supplementations of the Ginseng-Based Steroid Rg1

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Chien-Wen; Lee, Shin-Da; Kao, Chung-Lan; Cheng, I-Shiung; Lin, Yu-Nan; Chuang, Sheng-Ju; Chen, Chung-Yu; Ivy, John L.; Huang, Chih-Yang; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of ginseng-based steroid Rg1 on TNF-alpha and IL-10 gene expression in human skeletal muscle against exercise challenge, as well as on its ergogenic outcomes. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trials were performed, separated by a 4-week washout. Healthy young men were randomized into two groups and received capsule containing either 5 mg of Rg1 or Placebo one night and one hour before exercise. Muscle biopsies were conducted at baseline, immediately and 3 h after a standardized 60-min cycle ergometer exercise. While treatment differences in glycogen depletion rate of biopsied quadriceps muscle during exercise did not reach statistical significance, Rg1 supplementations enhanced post-exercise glycogen replenishment and increased citrate synthase activity in the skeletal muscle 3 h after exercise, concurrent with improved meal tolerance during recovery (P<0.05). Rg1 suppressed the exercise-induced increases in thiobarbituric acids reactive substance (TBARS) and reversed the increased TNF-alpha and decreased IL-10 mRNA of quadriceps muscle against the exercise challenge. PGC-1 alpha and GLUT4 mRNAs of exercised muscle were not affected by Rg1. Maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was not changed by Rg1. However, cycling time to exhaustion at 80% VO2max increased significantly by ~20% (P<0.05). Conclusion: Our result suggests that Rg1 is an ergogenic component of ginseng, which can minimize unwanted lipid peroxidation of exercised human skeletal muscle, and attenuate pro-inflammatory shift under exercise challenge. PMID:25617625

  17. Improved inflammatory balance of human skeletal muscle during exercise after supplementations of the ginseng-based steroid Rg1.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chien-Wen; Lee, Shin-Da; Kao, Chung-Lan; Cheng, I-Shiung; Lin, Yu-Nan; Chuang, Sheng-Ju; Chen, Chung-Yu; Ivy, John L; Huang, Chih-Yang; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of ginseng-based steroid Rg1 on TNF-alpha and IL-10 gene expression in human skeletal muscle against exercise challenge, as well as on its ergogenic outcomes. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trials were performed, separated by a 4-week washout. Healthy young men were randomized into two groups and received capsule containing either 5 mg of Rg1 or Placebo one night and one hour before exercise. Muscle biopsies were conducted at baseline, immediately and 3 h after a standardized 60-min cycle ergometer exercise. While treatment differences in glycogen depletion rate of biopsied quadriceps muscle during exercise did not reach statistical significance, Rg1 supplementations enhanced post-exercise glycogen replenishment and increased citrate synthase activity in the skeletal muscle 3 h after exercise, concurrent with improved meal tolerance during recovery (P<0.05). Rg1 suppressed the exercise-induced increases in thiobarbituric acids reactive substance (TBARS) and reversed the increased TNF-alpha and decreased IL-10 mRNA of quadriceps muscle against the exercise challenge. PGC-1 alpha and GLUT4 mRNAs of exercised muscle were not affected by Rg1. Maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was not changed by Rg1. However, cycling time to exhaustion at 80% VO2max increased significantly by ~20% (P<0.05). Our result suggests that Rg1 is an ergogenic component of ginseng, which can minimize unwanted lipid peroxidation of exercised human skeletal muscle, and attenuate pro-inflammatory shift under exercise challenge.

  18. Effects of R type and S type ginsenoside Rg3 on DNA methylation in human hepatocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Teng, Siying; Wang, Yi; Li, Pingya; Liu, Jinhua; Wei, Anhui; Wang, Haotian; Meng, Xiangkun; Pan, Di; Zhang, Xinmin

    2017-04-01

    Ginsenoside Rg3, a bioactive constituent isolated from Panax ginseng, exhibits antitumorigenic, antioxidative, antiangiogenic, neuroprotective and other biological activities are associated with the regulation of multiple genes. DNA methylation patterns, particularly those in the promoter region, affect gene expression, and DNA methylation is catalyzed by DNA methylases. However, whether ginsenoside Rg3 affects DNA methylation is unknown. High performance liquid chromatography assay, MspI/HpaII polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR were performed to assess DNA methylation. It was demonstrated that 20(S)‑ginsenoside Rg3 treatment resulted in increased inhibition of cell growth, compared with treatment with 20(R)‑ginsenoside Rg3 in the human HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cell line. It was additionally revealed that treatment with 20(S)‑ginsenoside Rg3 reduced global genomic DNA methylation, altered cystosine methylation of the promoter regions of P53, B cell lymphoma 2 and vascular endothelial growth factor, and downregulated the expression of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 3a and DNMT3b more than treatment with 20(R)‑ginsenoside Rg3 in HepG2 cells. These results revealed that the modulation of DNA methylation may be important in the pharmaceutical activities of ginsenoside Rg3.

  19. Interaction of the ginsenosides with κ-casein and their effects on amyloid fibril formation by the protein: Multi-spectroscopic approaches.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fanbo; Wang, Yunhua; Yang, Miao; Yin, Jianyuan; Meng, Qin; Bu, Fengquan; Sun, Dandan; Liu, Jihua

    2016-07-01

    The interaction of the ginsenosides (GS) including ginsenoside Rg1, Rb1 and Re with κ-casein and the effects of GS inhibiting amyloid fibril formation by κ-casein have been investigated in vitro by fluorescence and ultraviolet spectra. Results showed that Rg1 and Rb1 had dose-dependent inhibitory effects on reduced and carboxymethylated κ-casein (RCMκ-CN) fibril formation, while Re resulted in an increase in the rate of fibril formation. The enhancement in RLS intensity was attributed to the formation of new complex between GS and RCMκ-CN, and the corresponding thermodynamic parameters (ΔH, ΔS and ΔG) were assayed. The steady-state ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra had also been tested to observe if the ground-state complex formed, and it showed the same result as RLS spectra. The binding constants and the number of binding sites between GS and RCMκ-CN at different temperatures had been evaluated from relevant fluorescence data. According to the Förster non-radiation energy transfer theory, the binding distance between RCMκ-CN and GS was calculated. The fluorescence lifetime of RCMκ-CN was longer in the presence of GS than in absence of GS, which was evident that the hydrophobic interaction plays a major role in the binding of GS to RCMκ-CN. From the results of synchronous fluorescence, it could be deduced that the polarity around RCMκ-CN Trp97 residue decreased and the hydrophobicity increased after addition of Rg1 or Rb1. Based on all the above results, it is explained that Rg1 and Rb1 inhibited amyloid fibril formation by κ-casein because the molecular spatial conformation and physical property of κ-casein changed causing by the complex formation between GS and κ-casein.

  20. Dissolution difference of ginsenosides from ultrafine granular powder and common powder traditional pieces of Panacis Quinquefolii Radix in vitro.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hao-qi; Chen, Sha; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Shi-lin; Cheng, Jin-le; Peng, Li-hua; Liu, An

    2015-07-01

    The dissolution of Panacis Quinquefolii Radix ultrafine granular powder and common powder, traditional pieces in water and simulated gastric juice in vitro was compared, and the effect of particles size of Panacis Quinquefolii Radix on the dissolution was studied. HPLC method was used for determination of five ginsenosides including Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc and Rd from ultrafine granular powder and common powder, traditional pieces of Panacis Quinquefolii Radix at different points in time, furthermore, the dissolution curves of Panacis Quinquefolii Radix ultrafine granular powder and common powder, traditional pieces were obtained. The dissolution characteristics of the three Panacis Quinquefolii Radix forms were also compared in this study. According to the results, the dissolution rates of ginsenosides from ultrafine granular powder exceeded 90% of the total content with 5 min, significantly higher than that of the other two forms in water in vitro. At the same time, the dissolved amount of the ultrafine granular powder was fourteen percent higher than that of the traditional pieces and eight percent higher than that of the common powder. Under the condition of simulated gastric juice in vitro, the dissolution rates of ginsenosides from ultrafine granular powder were little lower than that of the other two, but the maximum dissolved amount of the former was fourteen percent higher than that of the common powder and five percent higher than that of the extracts. Therefore the conclusion is that micronization of Panacis Quinquefolii Radix contributed to dissolution of effective components.

  1. Ginsenoside Re reduces Aβ production by activating PPARγ to inhibit BACE1 in N2a/APP695 cells.

    PubMed

    Cao, Guoqiong; Su, Ping; Zhang, Shuai; Guo, Limin; Zhang, Haijing; Liang, Yuexia; Qin, Chunxia; Zhang, Wensheng

    2016-12-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by β-amyloid protein (Aβ) deposition. Reducing the Aβ load may be a new perspective for AD treatment. Ginsenoside Re is an extract from Panax notoginseng, which is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine that has been used for the treatment of various diseases for years. Ginsenoside Re has been reported to decrease Aβ in Alzheimer's disease animal models, but the mechanism has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of ginsenoside Re. Our results showed that ginsenoside Re decreased the Aβ levels in N2a/APP695 cells. Aβ peptides are generated by β-secretase (β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1)) and γ-secretase. We found that ginsenoside Re decreased the BACE1 mRNA and protein levels and inhibited BACE1 activity in the N2a/APP695 cells. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) is a transcription factor that regulates the activity of the BACE1 promoter, and activating PPARγ can inhibit BACE1. The results also showed that ginsenoside Re significantly increased the PPARγ protein and mRNA levels. These effects of ginsenoside Re on BACE1 could be effectively inhibited by the PPARγ antagonist GW9662. These findings indicate that ginsenoside Re inhibits BACE1 through activation of PPARγ, which ultimately reduces the generation of Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42. Therefore, ginsenoside Re may be a promising agent for the modulation of Aβ-related pathology in AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Solvent-based extraction optimisation for efficient ultrasonication-assisted ginsenoside recovery from Panax quinquefolius and P. sikkimensis cell suspension lines.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Tanya; Ajayakumar, P V; Mathur, Ajay Kumar; Mathur, Archana

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims at developing an extraction protocol for efficient ginsenoside recovery from cell suspensions of Panax quinquefolius and P. sikkimensis. Methanol (100%, 70% and 30%), water (40°C, 90°C), water-saturated butanol and butanol-saturated water were compared for their ultrasonication-assisted ginsenoside retrieval efficacy. HPLC and HP-TLC analysis revealed 100% methanol as the best solvent for maximum retrieval of Rb (diol) and Rg (triol) ginsenosides (P. quinquefolius: Rb: 0.189, Rg: 3.163 mg/g DW; P. sikkimensis: Rb: 0.245, Rg: 4.073 mg/g DW), followed by water (90°C). Methanolic solutions, especially 70%, proved to be significant retrievers of Rg1 (1.812 and 1.327 mg/g DW in P. quinquefolius and P. sikkimensis), with poor Re recovery (0.328 and 0.342 mg/g DW). Water-saturated butanol also led to significant ginsenoside extraction (72.4% of content extracted by methanol), selectively in P. quinquefolius, with a less than 50% of total content extracted by methanol, in P. sikkimensis.

  3. Pharmacokinetic Compatibility of Ginsenosides and Schisandra Lignans in Shengmai-san: From the Perspective of P-Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yan; Zhou, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jingwei; Rao, Tai; Zhou, Lijun; Xing, Rong; Wang, Qian; Fu, Hanxu; Hao, Kun; Xie, Lin; Wang, Guangji

    2014-01-01

    Background Phytochemical-mediated alterations in P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity may result in herb-drug interactions by altering drug pharmacokinetics. Shengmai-san, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine composed by Panax Ginseng, Ophiopogon Japonicus, and Schisandra Chinensis, is routinely being used for treating various coronary heart diseases. In our previous studies, Schisandra Lignans Extract (SLE) was proved as a strong P-gp inhibitor, and herein, the compatibility of Shengmai-san was studied by investigating the influence of SLE on the pharmacokinetics of the ginsenosides from the perspective of P-gp. Methodology Pharmacokinetic experiments were firstly performed based on in vitro uptake, efflux and transport experiments in Caco-2, LLC-PK1 wild-type and MDR1-overexpressing L-MDR1 cells. During the whole experiment, digoxin, a classical P-gp substrate, was used as a positive control drug to verify the cells used are the valid models. Meanwhile, the effects of SLE on the pharmacokinetics of ginsenosides were further investigated in rats after single-dose and multi-dose of SLE. Results and Conclusions The efflux ratios of ginsenoside Rb2, Rc, Rg2, Rg3, Rd and Rb1 were found more than 3.5 in L-MDR1 cells and can be decreased significantly by verapamil (a classical P-gp inhibitor). Contrarily, the efflux ratios of other ginsenosides (Rh1, F1, Re, and Rg1) were lower than 2.0 and not affected by verapamil. Then, the effects of SLE on the uptake and transport of ginsenosides were investigated, and SLE was found can significantly enhance the uptake and inhibit the efflux ratio of ginsenoside Rb2, Rc, Rg2, Rg3, Rd and Rb1 in Caco-2 and L-MDR1 cells. Besides, In vivo experiments showed that single-dose and multi-dose of SLE at 500 mg/kg could increase the area under the plasma concentration time curve of Rb2, Rc and Rd significantly without affecting terminal elimination half-time. In conclusion, SLE could enhance the exposure of ginsenosides Rb2, Rc, Rg2, Rg3, Rd and

  4. [Research of chemotaxis response of Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria panax on total ginsenosides].

    PubMed

    Chi, Kun; Xu, Yong-hua; Lei, Feng-jie; Yin, Min-jing; Wang, Zhuang; Zhang, Ai-hua; Zhang, Lian-xue

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, three kinds of chemotactic parameters (concentration, temperature and pH) were determined by plate assay and spore germination method to research the chemotactic response of Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria panax, and their spores on total ginsenosides. The results showed that Botrytis cinerea had strong chemotactic response at the mid-concentration of total ginsenosides (cultivation temperature was 20 degrees C and pH value was 6), and the data of chemotactic migration index (CMI) was 1.293 0, chemotactic growth rate (CGR) was 0.476 0, spore germination rate (SGR) was 53%, and dry weight of mycelial (DWM) was 0.452 6 g x L(-1); however, Alternaria panax had strong chemotactic response at the low-concentration of total ginsenosides (cultivation temperature was 25 degrees C and pH value was 6), and the data of chemotactic migration index (CMI) was 1.235 4, chemotactic growth rate (CGR) was 0.537 0, spore germination rate (SGR) was 67%, and dry weight of mycelial (DWM) was 0.494 8 g x L(-1). The results indicated that the low and middle concentration (2, 20 mg x L(-1)) of total ginsenosides had significant promoting effect on chemotactic response of these two pathogens, and the spore germination, mycelial growth rate, dry weight of mycelial of them were also significantly improved by this chemotactic response, whereas it decreased as the increase of total ginsenosides concentration.

  5. Korean red ginseng extract prevents APAP-induced hepatotoxicity through metabolic enzyme regulation: the role of ginsenoside Rg3, a protopanaxadiol.

    PubMed

    Gum, Sang Il; Cho, Min Kyung

    2013-08-01

    Inappropriate use of acetaminophen (APAP) can lead to morbidity and mortality secondary to hepatic necrosis. We evaluated the beneficial effect and molecular mechanism of Korean red ginseng (KRG) on the APAP-mediated hepatotoxicity and identified a major component of KRG for hepatoprotection. Survival test, liver function test, histopathological study, APAP-metabolic profiling and gene expression were examined in mice. We determined the enzyme expression and upstream signalling in H4IIE cells analysed by RT-PCR, immunoblotting, siRNA gene knockdown and promoter-luciferase assay. High doses of KRG reduced mortality at the LD50 of APAP. APAP increased AST and ALT activities, which were abrogated by low doses of KRG. These protective effects were consistent with the results from histopathological examinations. KRG altered APAP metabolic profiles through inhibition of cytochrome P450 2E1 and induction of glutathione S-transferase A2 (GSTA2). Knockdown of GSTA2 catalyses the conjugation of glutathione reversed KRG-mediated protection against N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine in H4IIE cells. The nuclear Nrf2 and C/EBPβ, which are essential transcriptional factors for GSTA2 were increased by KRG. These effects were downstream of multiple signalling, including PI3K, JNK or PKA. Ginsenoside Rg3 but not Rb1, Rc and Rg1 significantly increased GSTA2 protein expression. Rg3 resulted in the transcriptional activation of GSTA2 downstream of the multiple cellular signalling. These results demonstrate that KRG is efficacious in protection against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity and mortality through metabolic regulation and that Rg3 is a major component of KRG for the GST induction, implying that Rg3 should be considered to be a potential hepatoprotective agent. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Functional regulation of ginsenoside biosynthesis by RNA interferences of a UDP-glycosyltransferase gene in Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chao; Zhao, Shoujing; Wei, Guanning; Zhao, Huijuan; Qu, Qingling

    2017-02-01

    Panax ginseng (Asian ginseng) and Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng) have been used as medicinal and functional herbal remedies worldwide. Different properties of P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius were confirmed not only in clinical findings, but also at cellular and molecular levels. The major pharmacological ingredients of P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius are the triterpene saponins known as ginsenosides. The P. ginseng roots contain a higher ratio of ginsenoside Rg1:Rb1 than that in P. quinquefolius. In ginseng plants, various ginsenosides are synthesized via three key reactions: cyclization, hydroxylation and glycosylation. To date, several genes including dammarenediol synthase (DS), protopanaxadiol synthase and protopanaxatriol synthase have been isolated in P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius. Although some glycosyltransferase genes have been isolated and identified association with ginsenoside synthesis in P. ginseng, little is known about the glycosylation mechanism in P. quinquefolius. In this paper, we cloned and identified a UDP-glycosyltransferase gene named Pq3-O-UGT2 from P. quinquefolius (GenBank accession No. KR106207). In vitro enzymatic activity experiments biochemically confirmed that Pq3-O-UGT2 catalyzed the glycosylation of Rh2 and F2 to produce Rg3 and Rd, and the chemical structure of the products were confirmed susing high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS). High sequence similarity between Pq3-O-UGT2 and PgUGT94Q2 indicated a close evolutionary relationship between P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius. Moreover, we established both P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius RNAi transgenic roots lines. RNA interference of Pq3-O-UGT2 and PgUGT94Q2 led to reduce levels of ginsenoside Rd, protopanaxadiol-type and total ginsenosides. Expression of key genes including protopanaxadiol and protopanaxatriol synthases was up-regulated in RNAi lines, while expression of dammarenediol synthase gene

  7. The Rg1 allele as a valuable tool for genetic transformation of the tomato 'Micro-Tom' model system

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The cultivar Micro-Tom (MT) is regarded as a model system for tomato genetics due to its short life cycle and miniature size. However, efforts to improve tomato genetic transformation have led to protocols dependent on the costly hormone zeatin, combined with an excessive number of steps. Results Here we report the development of a MT near-isogenic genotype harboring the allele Rg1 (MT-Rg1), which greatly improves tomato in vitro regeneration. Regeneration was further improved in MT by including a two-day incubation of cotyledonary explants onto medium containing 0.4 μM 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) before cytokinin treatment. Both strategies allowed the use of 5 μM 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), a cytokinin 100 times less expensive than zeatin. The use of MT-Rg1 and NAA pre-incubation, followed by BAP regeneration, resulted in high transformation frequencies (near 40%), in a shorter protocol with fewer steps, spanning approximately 40 days from Agrobacterium infection to transgenic plant acclimatization. Conclusions The genetic resource and the protocol presented here represent invaluable tools for routine gene expression manipulation and high throughput functional genomics by insertional mutagenesis in tomato. PMID:20929550

  8. Biosynthesis and biotechnological production of ginsenosides.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu-Jin; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2015-11-01

    Medicinal plants are essential for improving human health, and around 75% of the population in developing countries relies mainly on herb-based medicines for health care. As the king of herb plants, ginseng has been used for nearly 5,000 years in the oriental and recently in western medicines. Among the compounds studied in ginseng plants, ginsenosides have been shown to have multiple medical effects such as anti-oxidative, anti-aging, anti-cancer, adaptogenic and other health-improving activities. Ginsenosides belong to a group of triterpene saponins (also called ginseng saponins) that are found almost exclusively in Panax species and accumulated especially in the plant roots. In this review, we update the conserved and diversified pathway/enzyme biosynthesizing ginsenosides which have been presented. Particularly, we highlight recent milestone works on functional characterization of key genes dedicated to the production of ginsenosides, and their application in engineering plants and yeast cells for large-scale production of ginsenosides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ginsenoside Re: pharmacological effects on cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lu; Sun, Shi; Xie, Lai-Hua; Wicks, Sheila M; Xie, Jing-Tian

    2012-08-01

    Ginsenosides are the bioactive constituents of ginseng, a key herb in traditional Chinese medicine. As a single component of ginseng, ginsenoside Re (G-Re) belongs to the panaxatriol group. Many reports demonstrated that G-Re possesses the multifaceted beneficial pharmacological effects on cardiovascular system. G-Re has negative effect on cardiac contractility and autorhythmicity. It causes alternations in cardiac electrophysiological properties, which may account for its antiarrhythmic effect. In addition, G-Re also exerts antiischemic effect and induces angiogenic regeneration. In this review, we first outline the chemistry and the pharmacological effects of G-Re on the cardiovascular system. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Producing aglycons of ginsenosides in bakers' yeast

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zhubo; Wang, Beibei; Liu, Yi; Shi, Mingyu; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Xianan; Liu, Tao; Huang, Luqi; Zhang, Xueli

    2014-01-01

    Ginsenosides are the primary bioactive components of ginseng, which is a popular medicinal plant that exhibits diverse pharmacological activities. Protopanaxadiol, protopanaxatriol and oleanolic acid are three basic aglycons of ginsenosides. Producing aglycons of ginsenosides in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was realized in this work and provides an alternative route compared to traditional extraction methods. Synthetic pathways of these three aglycons were constructed in S. cerevisiae by introducing β-amyrin synthase, oleanolic acid synthase, dammarenediol-II synthase, protopanaxadiol synthase, protopanaxatriol synthase and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase from different plants. In addition, a truncated 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, squalene synthase and 2,3-oxidosqualene synthase genes were overexpressed to increase the precursor supply for improving aglycon production. Strain GY-1 was obtained, which produced 17.2 mg/L protopanaxadiol, 15.9 mg/L protopanaxatriol and 21.4 mg/L oleanolic acid. The yeast strains engineered in this work can serve as the basis for creating an alternative way for producing ginsenosides in place of extractions from plant sources. PMID:24424342

  11. Producing aglycons of ginsenosides in bakers' yeast.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhubo; Wang, Beibei; Liu, Yi; Shi, Mingyu; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Xianan; Liu, Tao; Huang, Luqi; Zhang, Xueli

    2014-01-15

    Ginsenosides are the primary bioactive components of ginseng, which is a popular medicinal plant that exhibits diverse pharmacological activities. Protopanaxadiol, protopanaxatriol and oleanolic acid are three basic aglycons of ginsenosides. Producing aglycons of ginsenosides in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was realized in this work and provides an alternative route compared to traditional extraction methods. Synthetic pathways of these three aglycons were constructed in S. cerevisiae by introducing β-amyrin synthase, oleanolic acid synthase, dammarenediol-II synthase, protopanaxadiol synthase, protopanaxatriol synthase and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase from different plants. In addition, a truncated 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, squalene synthase and 2,3-oxidosqualene synthase genes were overexpressed to increase the precursor supply for improving aglycon production. Strain GY-1 was obtained, which produced 17.2 mg/L protopanaxadiol, 15.9 mg/L protopanaxatriol and 21.4 mg/L oleanolic acid. The yeast strains engineered in this work can serve as the basis for creating an alternative way for producing ginsenosides in place of extractions from plant sources.

  12. Characterization of a novel arabinose-tolerant α-L-arabinofuranosidase with high ginsenoside Rc to ginsenoside Rd bioconversion productivity.

    PubMed

    Xie, J; Zhao, D; Zhao, L; Pei, J; Xiao, W; Ding, G; Wang, Z; Xu, J

    2016-03-01

    (i) To investigate the enzymatic characterization of α-L-arabinofuranosidase from Thermotoga thermarum DSM5069. (ii) To evaluate the performance of its excellent properties on converting ginsenoside Rc to ginsenoside Rd. The thermostable α-L-arabinofuranosidase (Tt-Afs) gene from T. thermarum DSM5069 was cloned and overexpressed. Recombinant Tt-Afs was purified, and its molecular weight was approx. 55 kDa. Its optimal activity was at pH 5·0 and 95°C. It has high selectivity for cleaving the outer arabinofuranosyl moieties at the C-20 carbon of ginsenoside Rc and its sugar-tolerance makes Tt-Afs a promising candidate for the production of ginsenoside Rd. In a reaction at 85°C and pH 5·0, 25 g l(-1) of ginsenoside Rc was transformed into 21·8 g l(-1) of Rd within 60 min, with a corresponding molar conversion of 99·4% and a high ginsenoside Rd productivity of 21800 mg l(-1) h(-1). We have successfully cloned and overexpressed the novel α-l-arabinofuranosidase from T. thermarum DSM5069. The high ginsenoside Rd productivity and detailed characterization of recombinant Tt-Afs was provided. The result shows a high productivity on the bioconversion from high concentration ginsenoside Rc to ginsenoside Rd, which also give rise to a potential commercial enzyme application. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Biotransformation of ginsenoside Rb1 to ginsenoside C-K by endophytic fungus Arthrinium sp. GE 17-18 isolated from Panax ginseng.

    PubMed

    Fu, Y; Yin, Z-H; Wu, L-P; Yin, C-R

    2016-09-01

    This research aimed to isolate β-glycosidase-producing endophytic fungus in Panax ginseng to achieve biotransformation of ginsenoside Rb1 to ginsenoside C-K. Of these 15 β-glucosidase-producing endophytic fungus isolated from ginseng roots, a β-glucosidase-producing endophytic fungi GE 17-18 could hydrolyse major ginsenosides Rb1 to minor ginsenoside C-K with metabolic pathways: ginsenoside Rb1→ginsenoside Rd→ginsenoside F2→ginsenoside C-K. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS gene sequences indicated that the strain GE 17-18 belongs to the genus Arthrinium and is most closely related to Arthrinium sp. HQ832803.1. This is the first study to provide information of cultivable β-glycosidase-producing Endophytic fungus in Panax ginseng. The strain GE 17-18 has potential to be applied on the preparation for minor ginsenoside C-K in pharmaceutical industry. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Cloning and Characterization of Ginsenoside-Hydrolyzing β-Glucosidase from Lactobacillus brevis That Transforms Ginsenosides Rb1 and F2 into Ginsenoside Rd and Compound K.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Fei-Liang; Ma, Rui; Jiang, Mingliang; Dong, Wei-Wei; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Songquan; Li, Donghao; Quan, Lin-Hu

    2016-10-28

    The ginsenoside-hydrolyzing β-glucosidase gene (bgy2) was cloned from Lactobacillus brevis. We expressed this gene in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3), isolated the resulting protein, and then utilized the enzyme for the biotransformation of ginsenosides. The bgy2 gene contains 2,223 bp, and encodes a protein of 741 amino acids that is a member of glycosyl hydrolase family 3. β-Glucosidase (Bgy2) cleaved the outer glucose moieties of ginsenosides at the C-20 position, and the inner glucose at the C-3 position. Under optimal conditions (pH 7.0, 30°C), we used 0.1 mg/ml Bgy2 in 20 mM sodium phosphate buffer (PBS) for enzymatic studies. In these conditions, 1.0 mg/ml ginsenoside Rb1 and ginsenoside F2 were converted into 0.59 mg/ml ginsenoside Rd and 0.72mg/ml compound K, with molar conversion productivities of 69% and 91%, respectively. In pharmaceutical and commercial industries, this recombinant Bgy2 would be suitable for producting ginsenoside Rd and compound K.

  15. Identification and Characterization of a Mucilaginibacter sp. Strain QM49 β-Glucosidase and Its Use in the Production of the Pharmaceutically Active Minor Ginsenosides (S)-Rh1 and (S)-Rg2

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Chang-Hao; Liu, Qing-Mei; Kim, Jin-Kwang; Sung, Bong-Hyun; Kim, Song-Gun

    2013-01-01

    Here, we isolated and characterized a new ginsenoside-transforming β-glucosidase (BglQM) from Mucilaginibacter sp. strain QM49 that shows biotransformation activity for various major ginsenosides. The gene responsible for this activity, bglQM, consists of 2,346 bp and is predicted to encode 781 amino acid residues. This enzyme has a molecular mass of 85.6 kDa. Sequence analysis of BglQM revealed that it could be classified into glycoside hydrolase family 3. The enzyme was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) using a maltose binding protein (MBP)-fused pMAL-c2x vector system containing the tobacco etch virus (TEV) proteolytic cleavage site. Overexpressed recombinant BglQM could efficiently transform the protopanaxatriol-type ginsenosides Re and Rg1 into (S)-Rg2 and (S)-Rh1, respectively, by hydrolyzing one glucose moiety attached to the C-20 position at pH 8.0 and 30°C. The Km values for p-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside, Re, and Rg1 were 37.0 ± 0.4 μM and 3.22 ± 0.15 and 1.48 ± 0.09 mM, respectively, and the Vmax values were 33.4 ± 0.6 μmol min−1 mg−1 of protein and 19.2 ± 0.2 and 28.8 ± 0.27 nmol min−1 mg−1 of protein, respectively. A crude protopanaxatriol-type ginsenoside mixture (PPTGM) was treated with BglQM, followed by silica column purification, to produce (S)-Rh1 and (S)-Rg2 at chromatographic purities of 98% ± 0.5% and 97% ± 1.2%, respectively. This is the first report of gram-scale production of (S)-Rh1 and (S)-Rg2 from PPTGM using a novel ginsenoside-transforming β-glucosidase of glycoside hydrolase family 3. PMID:23811513

  16. The Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum cv. Micro-Tom) Natural Genetic Variation Rg1 and the DELLA Mutant Procera Control the Competence Necessary to Form Adventitious Roots and Shoots

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Despite the wide use of plant regeneration for biotechnological purposes, the signals that allow cells to become competent to assume different fates remain largely unknown. Here, it is demonstrated that the Regeneration1 (Rg1) allele, a natural genetic variation from the tomato wild relative Solanum peruvianum, increases the capacity to form both roots and shoots in vitro; and that the gibberellin constitutive mutant procera (pro) presented the opposite phenotype, reducing organogenesis on either root-inducing medium (RIM) or shoot-inducing medium (SIM). Mutants showing alterations in the formation of specific organs in vitro were the auxin low-sensitivity diageotropica (dgt), the lateral suppresser (ls), and the KNOX-overexpressing Mouse ears (Me). dgt failed to form roots on RIM, Me increased shoot formation on SIM, and the high capacity for in vitro shoot formation of ls contrasted with its recalcitrance to form axillary meristems. Interestingly, Rg1 rescued the in vitro organ formation capacity in proRg1 and dgtRg1 double mutants and the ex vitro low lateral shoot formation in pro and ls. Such epistatic interactions were also confirmed in gene expression and histological analyses conducted in the single and double mutants. Although Me phenocopied the high shoot formation of Rg1 on SIM, it failed to increase rooting on RIM and to rescue the non-branching phenotype of ls. Taken together, these results suggest REGENERATION1 and the DELLA mutant PROCERA as controlling a common competence to assume distinct cell fates, rather than the specific induction of adventitious roots or shoots, which is controlled by DIAGEOTROPICA and MOUSE EARS, respectively. PMID:22915742

  17. Role of epidermal γδ T-cell-derived interleukin 13 in the skin-whitening effect of Ginsenoside F1.

    PubMed

    Han, Jiyeon; Lee, Eunkyung; Kim, EunJoo; Yeom, Myung Hun; Kwon, Ohsang; Yoon, Tae Hong; Lee, Tae Ryong; Kim, Kwangmi

    2014-11-01

    Ginsenoside F1 (GF1) is a metabolite of ginsenoside Rg1. Although GF1 has several benefits for skin physiology, the effect of GF1 on skin pigmentation has not been reported. We found that a cream containing 0.1% GF1 showed a significant whitening effect on artificially tanned human skin after 8 weeks of application. However, GF1 did not inhibit mRNA expression of tyrosinase or dopachrome tautomerase (DCT) in normal human epidermal melanocytes (NHEMs) or cocultured NHEMs/normal human epidermal keratinocytes. Interestingly, GF1 enhanced production of interleukin 13 (IL-13) from human epidermal γδ T cells. IL-13 significantly reduced the mRNA expression and protein amount of both tyrosinase and DCT and reduced melanin synthesis activities in NHEMs, resulting in visible brightening of NHEM pellet. These results suggest that enhancement of IL-13 production by GF1 from epidermal γδ T cells might play a role in the skin-whitening effect of GF1 via the suppression of tyrosinase and DCT. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Metabolism of ginsenoside Rb1 by human intestinal microflora and cloning of its metabolizing β-D-glucosidase from Bifidobacterium longum H-1.

    PubMed

    Jung, Il-Hoon; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Hyun, Yang-Jin; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    To understand the role of intestinal microflora in expressing the pharmacological effect of ginsenoside Rb1, the metabolic activity of ginsenoside Rb1 by 148 fecal specimens was measured and its metabolizing β-glucosidase was cloned. The average activities for p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside and ginsenoside Rb1 were 0.097±0.059 μmol/min/mg and 0.311±0.118 pmol/min/mg, respectively. These enzyme activities were not different between male and female, or between ages. A gene encoding β-D-glucosidase (BglX) was cloned from Bifidobacterium longum H-1, which transformed ginsenoside Rb1 to compound K. The probe for cloning was synthesized from the genes encoding a β-D-glucosidase of previously reported B. longum DJO10A. The sequences of the cloned gene revealed 2364 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein containing 787 amino acids (molecular weight of 95 kDa). The gene exhibited 99% homology (identities) to that of B. longum. The cloned gene was expressed under T7 promoter of the expression vector, pET-39b(+), in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3), and the expressed enzyme was purified by using HiTrap immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) HP. The enzyme potently biotransformed ginsenoside Rb1, loganin, arctiin and arbutin to ginsenoside Rd, loganetin, arctigenin and hydroquinone, respectively, but was not active in the case of hesperidin, and kakkalide. This is the first report on cloning and expression of β-D-glucosidase from B. longum. Based on these findings, ginsenoside Rb1 may be metabolized to bioactive compound(s) by exo-β-D-glucosidase(s) produced from the intestinal bacteria and its pharmacological effects may be dependent on intestinal bacterial exo-β-D-glucosidase(s) activity.

  19. Ginsenoside Rg5 Inhibits Succinate-Associated Lipolysis in Adipose Tissue and Prevents Muscle Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Na; Yang, Le-Le; Yang, Yi-Lin; Liu, Li-Wei; Li, Jia; Liu, Baolin; Liu, Kang; Qi, Lian-Wen; Li, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, inflammation, and lipolysis occur simultaneously in adipose dysfunction and contribute to insulin resistance. This study was designed to investigate whether ginsenoside Rg5 could ameliorate adipose dysfunction and prevent muscle insulin resistance. Short-term high-fat diet (HFD) feeding induced hypoxia with ER stress in adipose tissue, leading to succinate accumulation due to the reversal of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity. Rg5 treatment reduced cellular energy charge, suppressed ER stress and then prevented succinate accumulation in adipose tissue. Succinate promoted IL-1β production through NLRP3 inflammasome activation and then increased cAMP accumulation by impairing PDE3B expression, leading to increased lipolysis. Ginsenoside Rg5 treatment suppressed NLRP3 inflammasome activation, preserved PDE3B expression and then reduced cAMP accumulation, contributing to inhibition of lipolysis. Adipose lipolysis increased FFAs trafficking from adipose tissue to muscle. Rg5 reduced diacylglycerol (DAG) and ceramides accumulation, inhibited protein kinase Cθ translocation, and prevented insulin resistance in muscle. In conclusion, succinate accumulation in hypoxic adipose tissue acts as a metabolic signaling to link ER stress, inflammation and cAMP/PKA activation, contributing to lipolysis and insulin resistance. These findings establish a previously unrecognized role of ginsenosides in the regulation of lipid and glucose homeostasis and suggest that adipose succinate-associated NLRP3 inflammasome activation might be targeted therapeutically to prevent lipolysis and insulin resistance. PMID:28261091

  20. Increased glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion may be involved in antidiabetic effects of ginsenosides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Can; Zhang, Mian; Hu, Meng-Yue; Guo, Hai-Fang; Li, Jia; Yu, Yun-Li; Jin, Shi; Wang, Xin-Ting; Liu, Li; Liu, Xiao-Dong

    2013-05-01

    Panax ginseng is one of the most popular herbal remedies. Ginsenosides, major bioactive constituents in P. ginseng, have shown good antidiabetic action, but the precise mechanism was not fully understood. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) is considered to be an important incretin that can regulate glucose homeostasis in the gastrointestinal tract after meals. The aim of this study was to investigate whether ginseng total saponins (GTS) exerts its antidiabetic effects via modulating GLP1 release. Ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1), the most abundant constituent in GTS, was selected to further explore the underlying mechanisms in cultured NCI-H716 cells. Diabetic rats were developed by a combination of high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin injection. The diabetic rats orally received GTS (150 or 300 mg/kg) daily for 4 weeks. It was found that GTS treatment significantly ameliorated hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia, accompanied by a significant increase in glucose-induced GLP1 secretion and upregulation of proglucagon gene expression. Data from NCI-H716 cells showed that both GTS and Rb1 promoted GLP1 secretion. It was observed that Rb1 increased the ratio of intracellular ATP to ADP concentration and intracellular Ca2+ concentration. The metabolic inhibitor azide (3 mM), the KATP channel opener diazoxide (340 μM), and the Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine (20 μM) significantly reversed Rb1-mediated GLP1 secretion. All these results drew a conclusion that ginsenosides stimulated GLP1 secretion both in vivo and in vitro. The antidiabetic effects of ginsenosides may be a result of enhanced GLP1 secretion.

  1. Bioavailability of ginsenosides from white and red ginsengs in the simulated digestion model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Ok; Cha, Kwang Hyun; Lee, Eun Ha; Kim, Sang Min; Choi, Sang Won; Pan, Cheol-Ho; Um, Byung-Hun

    2014-10-15

    This study aims to investigate the bioavailability of ginsenosides during simulated digestion of white (WG) and red (RG) ginseng powders. Stability, bioaccessibility, and permeability of ginsenosides present in WG and RG were studied in a Caco-2 cell culture model coupled with oral, gastric, and small intestinal simulated digestion. Most ginsenosides in WG and RG were stable (>90%) during the simulated digestion. Bioaccessibilities of total ginsenosides during in vitro digestion of WG and RG were similar at approximately 85%. However, the bioaccessibility of protopanaxatriol type ginsenosides in the early food phase was greater than that of the protopanaxadiol type. The less polar RG ginsenosides were released later following the jejunum phase. Ginsenosides had low permeability (<1 × 10(-6) cm/s) through Caco-2 cell monolayers. These findings suggest that the WG and RG ginsenoside compositions affect bioaccessibility during digestion and that ginsenosides are poorly absorbed in humans.

  2. Determination of ginsenoside content in Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer and Panax quinquefolius L. root materials and finished products by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet absorbance detection: interlaboratory study.

    PubMed

    Brown, Paula N; Yu, Ronan; Cain, T; Huie, G; Jin, C D; Kababick, J N; Leong, G; LeVanseler, K; Lunetta, S; Ma, Y C; Reif, K; Schaneberg, B; Shevchuk, C; Smith, R; Sullivan, D; Wijewickreme, N; Windust, A

    2013-01-01

    An interlaboratory study was conducted on an HPLC method with UV absorbance detection, previously validated using AOAC single-laboratory validation guidelines, for the determination of the six major ginsenosides (Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, and Rd) in Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer and Panax quinquefolius L. root materials, extracts, and finished products. Fourteen participating laboratories analyzed five test materials (P. ginseng whole root, P. ginseng powdered extract, P. quinquefolius whole root, P. quinquefolius powdered extract, and P. ginseng powdered extract spiked in a matrix blank) as blind duplicates, and two test materials (P. ginseng powdered whole root tablet and P. quinquefolius powdered extract hard-filled capsule) as single samples. Due to the variability of the ginsenosides (low level concentration of Rb2 in P. quinquefolius raw materials and in P. ginseng spiked matrix blanks, and the possibility of incomplete hydrolysis of the finished products during processing), it was deemed more applicable to analyze total ginsenosides rather than individual ones. Outliers were evaluated and omitted using the Cochran's test and single and double Grubbs' tests. The reproducibility RSD (RSD(R)) for the blind duplicate samples ranged from 4.38 to 5.39%, with reproducibility Horwitz Ratio (HorRat(R)) values ranging from 1.5 to 1.9. For the single replicate samples, the data sets were evaluated solely by their repeatability HorRat (HorRat(r)), which were 2.9 and 3.5 for the capsule and tablet samples, respectively. Based on these results, the method is recommended for AOAC Official First Action for the determination of total ginsenosides in P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius root materials and powdered extracts.

  3. Development of new staining technology "eastern blotting" using monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Morinaga, Osamu; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2011-03-01

    Ginsenosides contained in Panax species were separated by silica gel TLC blotted to a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane which was dipped in a sodium periodide (NaIO(4)) solution and reacted with protein, preparing a ginsenoside-protein conjugate for binding a ginsenoside on a PVDF membrane. The blotted spots were stained by anti-ginsenoside-Rb1 monoclonal antibody (MAb) and anti-ginsenoside-Rg1MAb, respectively. The newly established immunostaining method, eastern blotting was applied for the determination of ginsenosides possessing protopanaxadiol and/or protopanaxatriol. Double staining of eastern blotting for ginsenosides using anti-ginsenoside-Rb1 MAb and anti-ginsenoside-Rg1 MAb promoted complete identification of ginsenosides in Panax species. This technique has been devised for the chromatographic separation and identification of ginsenosides using polyethersulfone (PES) membrane. It caused an acceptable separation of ginsenoside-Rb1, -Rc and -Rd in various ginseng extracts. Newly developed technique is quite simple and applies for immunoassay system. Ginsenosides separated using a PES membrane were directly treated with a NaIO(4) solution and then reacted with bovine serum albumin (BSA) for making a ginsenoside-protein conjugate. After the blocking, anti-ginsenoside-Rb1 MAb recognized a ginsenoside on a PES membrane and then a sec-ond antibody labeled with enzyme reacted to the first antibody. Finally a substrate was oxidized with the enzyme and de-veloped the staining of ginsenosides. The staining spots of ginsenosides on membrane were quantitatively evaluated by NIH Image indicating at least 62.5 ng of each ginsenoside-Rb1, -Rc and -Rd were detected with clarity. The determination range of three ginsenosides was from 0.125 to 2.0 µg of direct amount on PES membrane.

  4. A chimeric 18L1-45RG1 virus-like particle vaccine cross-protects against oncogenic alpha-7 human papillomavirus types.

    PubMed

    Huber, Bettina; Schellenbacher, Christina; Jindra, Christoph; Fink, Dieter; Shafti-Keramat, Saeed; Kirnbauer, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Persistent infection with oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV) types causes all cervical and a subset of other anogenital and oropharyngeal carcinomas. Four high-risk (hr) mucosal types HPV16, 18, 45, or 59 cause almost all cervical adenocarcinomas (AC), a subset of cervical cancer (CxC). Although the incidence of cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has dramatically decreased following introduction of Papanicolaou (PAP) screening, the proportion of AC has relatively increased. Cervical SCC arise mainly from the ectocervix, whereas AC originate primarily from the endocervical canal, which is less accessible to obtain viable PAP smears. Licensed (bivalent and quadrivalent) HPV vaccines comprise virus-like particles (VLP) of the most important hr HPV16 and 18, self-assembled from the major capsid protein L1. Due to mainly type-restricted efficacy, both vaccines do not target 13 additional hr mucosal types causing 30% of CxC. The papillomavirus genus alpha species 7 (α7) includes a group of hr types of which HPV18, 45, 59 are proportionally overrepresented in cervical AC and only partially (HPV18) targeted by current vaccines. To target these types, we generated a chimeric vaccine antigen that consists of a cross-neutralizing epitope (homologue of HPV16 RG1) of the L2 minor capsid protein of HPV45 genetically inserted into a surface loop of HPV18 L1 VLP (18L1-45RG1). Vaccination of NZW rabbits with 18L1-45RG1 VLP plus alum-MPL adjuvant induced high-titer neutralizing antibodies against homologous HPV18, that cross-neutralized non-cognate hr α7 types HPV39, 45, 68, but not HPV59, and low risk HPV70 in vitro, and induced a robust L1-specific cellular immune response. Passive immunization protected mice against experimental vaginal challenge with pseudovirions of HPV18, 39, 45 and 68, but not HPV59 or the distantly related α9 type HPV16. 18L1-45RG1 VLP might be combined with our previously described 16L1-16RG1 VLP to develop a second generation bivalent vaccine

  5. Ginsenoside Rd as a potential neuroprotective agent prevents trimethyltin injury

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jingang; Xue, Jianjie; Lee, Mira; Sung, Changkeun

    2017-01-01

    Trimethyltin (TMT) is a potent neurotoxicant that affects various regions within the central nervous system, including the neocortex, cerebellum, and hippocampus. In the present study, ginsenoside Rd was investigated as a candidate neuroprotective agent in a primary hippocampal neuron culture and mouse models. TMT induced neurotoxicity in a seven-day primary hippocampal neuron culture in a dose-dependent manner (2.5–10 µM). However, pre-treatment with 20 µg/ml ginsenoside Rd for 24 h reversed the toxic action. ICR mice were administered a single injection of 2 mg/kg body weight TMT. Apparent tremor seizure and impaired passive avoidance tests demonstrated significant differences when compared with a saline treated control group. Nissl staining was performed to evaluate the neuronal loss in the hippocampus. In addition, immunostaining of glial fibrillary acidic protein characterized the features of astroglial activation. These results demonstrated that TMT markedly induced Cornu Ammonis 1 subregion neuronal loss and reactive astrocytes in the hippocampus, indicating disrupted hippocampal function. Notably, ginsenoside Rd attenuated the tremor seizures and cognitive decline in behavioral tests. Additionally, significantly reduced neuronal loss (P=0.018) and active astroglials (P=0.003) were observed in the ginsenoside Rd treated group. Ginsenoside Rd prevented TMT-induced cell apoptosis via regulation of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), bcl-2-like protein 4 and caspase-3. These results demonstrate that ginsenoside may be developed as a neuroprotective agent to prevent TMT-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:28413642

  6. Ginsenoside Rd and ischemic stroke; a short review of literatures☆

    PubMed Central

    Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Sureda, Antoni; Habtemariam, Solomon; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Panax ginseng is a well-known economic medical plant that is widely used in Chinese traditional medicine. This species contains a unique class of natural products—ginsenosides. Recent clinical and experimental studies have presented numerous lines of evidence on the promising role of ginsenosides on different diseases including neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and certain types of cancer. Nowadays, most of the attention has focused on ginsenoside Rd as a neuroprotective agent to attenuate ischemic stroke damages. Some of the evidence showed that ginsenoside Rd ameliorates ischemic stroke-induced damages through the suppression of oxidative stress and inflammation. Ginsenoside Rd can prolong neural cells' survival through the upregulation of the endogenous antioxidant system, phosphoinositide-3-kinase/AKT and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 pathways, preservation of mitochondrial membrane potential, suppression of the nuclear factor-kappa B, transient receptor potential melastatin, acid sensing ion channels 1a, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1, protein tyrosine kinase activation, as well as reduction of cytochrome c-releasing and apoptosis-inducing factor. In the current work, we review the available reports on the promising role of ginsenoside Rd on ischemic stroke. We also discuss its chemistry, source, and the molecular mechanism underlying this effect. PMID:26869821

  7. Simultaneous determination of three alkaloids, four ginsenosides and limonin in the plasma of normal and headache rats after oral administration of Wu-Zhu-Yu decoction by a novel ultra fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method: application to a comparative pharmacokinetics and ethological study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huarong; Li, Qing; Yin, Yidi; Lv, Chunxiao; Sun, Wanyang; He, Bosai; Liu, Ran; Chen, Xiaohui; Bi, Kaishun

    2013-04-01

    A novel, sensitive and reliable ultra fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantitation of eight main active ingredients (evodiamine, rutaecarpine, dehydroevodiamine, limonin, ginsenoside Rb1, Rd, Re and Rg1) in rat plasma after oral administration of Wu-Zhu-Yu (WZY) decoction, which is a celebrated and widely used Traditional Chinese Medicine formula for the treatment of headache. The analytes and internal standard (IS) were separated on a SHIM-PACK XR-ODS II column, and the detection was performed on a UFLC-MS/MS system with turbo ion spray source. The lower limits of quantification were 1.5, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 2.0, 1.0, 0.5 and 0.2 ng ml(-1) for evodiamine, rutaecarpine, dehydroevodiamine, limonin, gensenoside Rb1, Rd, Re and Rg1, respectively. Linearity, accuracy, precision and absolute recoveries of the eight analytes were all within satisfaction. The IS-normalized matrix factor was adopted for assessing the matrix effect and accompanied with a satisfactory result. The validated method has been successfully applied to compare pharmacokinetic profiles of the eight active ingredients in rat plasma between normal and headache rats after administration. Exact pharmaceutical effect of WZY decoction on headache was demonstrated by the ethological response of headache rats induced by nitric oxide donor after administration. The results indicated that the absorption of evodiamine, rutaecarpine, gensenoside Rb1, Re and Rg1 in headache group were significantly higher than those in normal group with similar concentration-time curves while no significant differences existed in limonin and ginsenoside Rd between the two groups.

  8. Inhibition of influenza A virus infection by ginsenosides

    PubMed Central

    Leon, Alberto J.; Kelvin, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Influenza viruses cause mild to severe respiratory infections in humans. Due to efficient means of transmission, the viruses infect human population on a large scale. Apart from vaccines, antiviral drugs are used to control infection; neuraminidase inhibitors are thought to be the first choice of treatment, particularly for severe cases. Rapidly evolving and emerging influenza viruses with increased frequency of viral resistance to these drugs stress the need to explore novel antiviral compounds. In this study, we investigated antiviral activity of ginseng extract and ginsenosides, the ginseng-derived triterpene and saponin compounds, against 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus in vitro and in vivo. Our data showed that treatment of mice with ginsenosides protected the animals from lethal 2009 pandemic H1N1 infection and lowered viral titers in animal lungs. Mechanistic studies revealed that ginsenosides interact with viral hemagglutinin protein and prevent the attachment of virus with α 2–3’ sialic acid receptors present on host cell surfaces. The interference in the viral attachment process subsequently minimizes viral entry into the cells and decreases the severity of the viral infection. We also describe that sugar moieties present in ginsenosides are indispensible for their attachment with viral HA protein. On the basis of our observations, we can say that ginsenosides are promising candidates for the development of antiviral drugs for influenza viruses. PMID:28187149

  9. Selection of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR Studies in Tomato Fruit of the Genotype MT-Rg1

    PubMed Central

    González-Aguilera, Karla L.; Saad, Carolina F.; Chávez Montes, Ricardo A.; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; de Folter, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) has become one of the most widely used methods for accurate quantification of gene expression. Since there are no universal reference genes for normalization, the optimal strategy to normalize raw qRT-PCR data is to perform an initial comparison of a set of independent reference genes to assess the most stable ones in each biological model. Normalization of a qRT-PCR experiment helps to ensure that the results are both statistically significant and biologically meaningful. Tomato is the model of choice to study fleshy fruit development. The miniature tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivar Micro-Tom (MT) is considered a model system for tomato genetics and functional genomics. A new genotype, containing the Rg1 allele, improves tomato in vitro regeneration. In this work, we evaluated the expression stability of four tomato reference genes, namely CAC, SAND, Expressed, and ACTIN2. We showed that the genes CAC and Exp are the best reference genes of the four we tested during fruit development in the MT-Rg1 genotype. Furthermore, we validated the reference genes by showing that the expression profiles of the transcription factors FRUITFULL1 and APETALA2c during fruit development are comparable to previous reports using other tomato cultivars. PMID:27679646

  10. Selection of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR Studies in Tomato Fruit of the Genotype MT-Rg1.

    PubMed

    González-Aguilera, Karla L; Saad, Carolina F; Chávez Montes, Ricardo A; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; de Folter, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) has become one of the most widely used methods for accurate quantification of gene expression. Since there are no universal reference genes for normalization, the optimal strategy to normalize raw qRT-PCR data is to perform an initial comparison of a set of independent reference genes to assess the most stable ones in each biological model. Normalization of a qRT-PCR experiment helps to ensure that the results are both statistically significant and biologically meaningful. Tomato is the model of choice to study fleshy fruit development. The miniature tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivar Micro-Tom (MT) is considered a model system for tomato genetics and functional genomics. A new genotype, containing the Rg1 allele, improves tomato in vitro regeneration. In this work, we evaluated the expression stability of four tomato reference genes, namely CAC, SAND, Expressed, and ACTIN2. We showed that the genes CAC and Exp are the best reference genes of the four we tested during fruit development in the MT-Rg1 genotype. Furthermore, we validated the reference genes by showing that the expression profiles of the transcription factors FRUITFULL1 and APETALA2c during fruit development are comparable to previous reports using other tomato cultivars.

  11. Gut microbiota-involved mechanisms in enhancing systemic exposure of ginsenosides by coexisting polysaccharides in ginseng decoction.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shan-Shan; Xu, Jun; Zhu, He; Wu, Jie; Xu, Jin-Di; Yan, Ru; Li, Xiu-Yang; Liu, Huan-Huan; Duan, Su-Min; Wang, Zhuo; Chen, Hu-Biao; Shen, Hong; Li, Song-Lin

    2016-03-02

    Oral decoctions of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) serve for therapeutic and prophylactic management of diseases for centuries. Small molecules and polysaccharides are the dominant chemicals co-occurred in the TCM decoction. Small molecules are well-studied by multidisciplinary elaborations, whereas the role of polysaccharides remains largely elusive. Here we explore a gut microbiota-involved mechanism by which TCM polysaccharides restore the homeostasis of gut microbiota and consequently promote the systemic exposure of concomitant small molecules in the decoction. As a case study, ginseng polysaccharides and ginsenosides in Du-Shen-Tang, the decoction of ginseng, were investigated on an over-fatigue and acute cold stress model. The results indicated that ginseng polysaccharides improved intestinal metabolism and absorption of certain ginsenosides, meanwhile reinstated the perturbed holistic gut microbiota, and particularly enhanced the growth of Lactobacillus spp. and Bacteroides spp., two major metabolic bacteria of ginsenosides. By exploring the synergistic actions of polysaccharides with small molecules, these findings shed new light on scientization and rationalization of the classic TCM decoctions in human health care.

  12. Gut microbiota-involved mechanisms in enhancing systemic exposure of ginsenosides by coexisting polysaccharides in ginseng decoction

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shan-Shan; Xu, Jun; Zhu, He; Wu, Jie; Xu, Jin-Di; Yan, Ru; Li, Xiu-Yang; Liu, Huan-Huan; Duan, Su-Min; Wang, Zhuo; Chen, Hu-Biao; Shen, Hong; Li, Song-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Oral decoctions of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) serve for therapeutic and prophylactic management of diseases for centuries. Small molecules and polysaccharides are the dominant chemicals co-occurred in the TCM decoction. Small molecules are well-studied by multidisciplinary elaborations, whereas the role of polysaccharides remains largely elusive. Here we explore a gut microbiota-involved mechanism by which TCM polysaccharides restore the homeostasis of gut microbiota and consequently promote the systemic exposure of concomitant small molecules in the decoction. As a case study, ginseng polysaccharides and ginsenosides in Du-Shen-Tang, the decoction of ginseng, were investigated on an over-fatigue and acute cold stress model. The results indicated that ginseng polysaccharides improved intestinal metabolism and absorption of certain ginsenosides, meanwhile reinstated the perturbed holistic gut microbiota, and particularly enhanced the growth of Lactobacillus spp. and Bacteroides spp., two major metabolic bacteria of ginsenosides. By exploring the synergistic actions of polysaccharides with small molecules, these findings shed new light on scientization and rationalization of the classic TCM decoctions in human health care. PMID:26932472

  13. Gut microbiota-involved mechanisms in enhancing systemic exposure of ginsenosides by coexisting polysaccharides in ginseng decoction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shan-Shan; Xu, Jun; Zhu, He; Wu, Jie; Xu, Jin-Di; Yan, Ru; Li, Xiu-Yang; Liu, Huan-Huan; Duan, Su-Min; Wang, Zhuo; Chen, Hu-Biao; Shen, Hong; Li, Song-Lin

    2016-03-01

    Oral decoctions of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) serve for therapeutic and prophylactic management of diseases for centuries. Small molecules and polysaccharides are the dominant chemicals co-occurred in the TCM decoction. Small molecules are well-studied by multidisciplinary elaborations, whereas the role of polysaccharides remains largely elusive. Here we explore a gut microbiota-involved mechanism by which TCM polysaccharides restore the homeostasis of gut microbiota and consequently promote the systemic exposure of concomitant small molecules in the decoction. As a case study, ginseng polysaccharides and ginsenosides in Du-Shen-Tang, the decoction of ginseng, were investigated on an over-fatigue and acute cold stress model. The results indicated that ginseng polysaccharides improved intestinal metabolism and absorption of certain ginsenosides, meanwhile reinstated the perturbed holistic gut microbiota, and particularly enhanced the growth of Lactobacillus spp. and Bacteroides spp., two major metabolic bacteria of ginsenosides. By exploring the synergistic actions of polysaccharides with small molecules, these findings shed new light on scientization and rationalization of the classic TCM decoctions in human health care.

  14. Yin and Yang of ginseng pharmacology: ginsenosides vs gintonin.

    PubMed

    Im, Dong-soon; Nah, Seung-yeol

    2013-11-01

    Ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng, has been used in traditional Chinese medicine as a tonic herb that provides many beneficial effects. Pharmacologic studies in the last decades have shown that ginsenosides (ginseng saponins) are primarily responsible for the actions of ginseng. However, the effects of ginseng are not fully explained by ginsenosides. Recently, another class of active ingredients called gintonin was identified. Gintonin is a complex of glycosylated ginseng proteins containing lysophosphatidic acids (LPAs) that are the intracellular lipid mitogenic mediator. Gintonin specifically and potently activates the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) for LPA. Thus, the actions of ginseng are now also linked to LPA and its GPCRs. This linkage opens new dimensions for ginseng pharmacology and LPA therapeutics. In the present review, we evaluate the pharmacology of ginseng with the traditional viewpoint of Yin and Yang components. Furthermore, we will compare ginsenoside and gintonin based on the modern view of molecular pharmacology in terms of ion channels and GPCRs.

  15. Ginsenoside Rb1 directly scavenges hydroxyl radical and hypochlorous acid.

    PubMed

    Lü, Jian-Ming; Weakley, Sarah M; Yang, Zhen; Hu, Ming; Yao, Qizhi; Chen, Changyi

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in a variety of inflammatory diseases including cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, autism, cataracts and aging. When endogenous mechanisms for the maintenance of redox homeostasis are overwhelmed, dietary intake of antioxidants contributes substantially to balancing the body's oxidant/antioxidant status. Ginsenosides are thought to be primarily responsible for the pharmacological effect of P. ginseng root extracts on oxidative stress and inflammation. However, little is known about the underlying antioxidant mechanisms of individual ginsenoside; specifically, the reactivity of ginsenoside Rb1 with ROS has not been well studied. We found that Rb1 can significantly and selectively reduce hydroxyl radical (●OH) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl), two of the strongest ROS, with unique molecular mechanisms in a cell-free system. Rb1 directly scavenges the ●OH and protects plasmid DNA from damage induced by ●OH. ●OH likely attacks the double bond on the side chain of Rb1 as well as hydrogen atoms adjacent to the -OH groups, including those of sugar moieties. Rb1 also shows a high reactivity to HOCl and effectively inhibits HOCl-induced tyrosine chlorination in a cell free system. HOCl is added to the double bond of Rb1; the -Cl group and -OH group of HOCl possibly bond at C-24 and C-25 of Rb1 based on the regioselectivity of Markovnikov's Rule. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that ginsenoside Rb1 scavenges HOCl and protects tyrosine from HOCl-induced chlorination. Thus, this study reveals unique antioxidant mechanisms of individual ginsenoside Rb1, which may contribute to the pharmacological effect of P. ginseng and to the development of effective strategies for clinical applications of ginsenosides.

  16. Ginsenoside Rg3 Improves Cardiac Function after Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion via Attenuating Apoptosis and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li-ping; Jiang, Yi-chuan; Yu, Xiao-feng; Xu, Hua-li; Li, Min

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Ginsenoside Rg3 is one of the ginsenosides which are the main constituents isolated from Panax ginseng. Previous study demonstrated that ginsenoside Rg3 had a protective effect against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion- (I/R-) induced injury. Objective. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of ginsenoside Rg3 on cardiac function impairment induced by myocardial I/R in rats. Methods. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to myocardial I/R. Echocardiographic and hemodynamic parameters and histopathological examination were carried out. The expressions of P53, Bcl-2, Bax, and cleaved caspase-3 and the levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in the left ventricles were measured. Results. Ginsenoside Rg3 increased a left ventricular fractional shortening and left ventricular ejection fraction. Treatment with ginsenoside Rg3 also alleviated increases of left ventricular end diastolic pressure and decreases of left ventricular systolic pressure and ±dp/dt in myocardial I/R-rats. Ginsenoside Rg3 decreased apoptosis cells through inhibiting the activation of caspase-3. Ginsenoside Rg3 also caused significant reductions of the contents of TNF-α and IL-1β in left ventricles of myocardial I/R-rats. Conclusion. The findings suggested that ginsenoside Rg3 possessed the effect of improving myocardial I/R-induced cardiac function impairment and that the mechanism of pharmacological action of ginsenoside Rg3 was related to its properties of antiapoptosis and anti-inflammation. PMID:28105061

  17. Ginsenoside profiles and related gene expression during foliation in Panax ginseng Meyer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu-Jin; Jeon, Ji-Na; Jang, Moon-Gi; Oh, Ji Yeon; Kwon, Woo-Saeng; Jung, Seok-Kyu; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Panax ginseng is one of the most important medicinal plants in Asia. Triterpene saponins, known as ginsenosides, are the major pharmacological compounds in P. ginseng. The present study was conducted to evaluate the changes in ginsenoside composition according to the foliation stage of P. ginseng cultured in a hydroponic system. Among the three tested growth stages (closed, intermediate, and opened), the highest amount of total ginsenoside in the main and fine roots was in the intermediate stage. In the leaves, the highest amount of total ginsenoside was in the opened stage. The total ginsenoside content of the ginseng leaf was markedly increased in the transition from the closed to intermediate stage, and increased more slowly from the intermediate to opened leaf stage, suggesting active biosynthesis of ginsenosides in the leaf. Conversely, the total ginsenoside content of the main and fine roots decreased from the intermediate to opened leaf stage. This suggests movement of ginsenosides during foliation from the root to the leaf, or vice versa. The difference in the composition of ginsenosides between the leaf and root in each stage of foliation suggests that the ginsenoside profile is affected by foliation stage, and this profile differs in each organ of the plant. These results suggest that protopanaxadiol- and protopanaxatriol (PPT)-type ginsenosides are produced according to growth stage to meet different needs in the growth and defense of ginseng. The higher content of PPT-type ginsenosides in leaves could be related to the positive correlation between light and PPT-type ginsenosides. PMID:24558313

  18. Optimization of medium composition for keratinase production on feather by Bacillus licheniformis RG1 using statistical methods involving response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Ramnani, Priya; Gupta, Rani

    2004-10-01

    A 3.5-fold increase in keratinase production by Bacillus licheniformis RG1 was achieved by using statistical methods involving Plackett-Burman design and response surface methodology. Eight variables were screened using Plackett-Burman design. Of these, glucose, peptone and glutathione were found to affect the response signal positively, whereas CaCl(2) had a negative effect. Further interaction of these factors, along with phosphate and incubation time, was studied using response surface methodology. An optimum keratinase production of 1295 units/mg dry weight was obtained with the following medium composition: 1% glucose, 1% peptone, 1% phosphate, 0.05% glutathione, 0.5% feather and 2% inoculum under shaking at 250 rev./min with an incubation period of 72 h at 37 degrees C. Keratinase production was found to be a function of biomass and maximum production occurred during the stationary phase.

  19. [Effect of ginsenoside Rb1 in ameliorating insulin resistance and ectopic fat deposition in obese mice induced by high fat diet].

    PubMed

    Shang, Wen-Bin; Yu, Xi-Zhong; Wang, Guo-Qiang; Zhao, Juan

    2013-12-01

    Ginsenoside Rb1 is an active component in ginseng. Previous in vitro experiments showed that ginsenoside Rb1, could inhibit lipolysis and promote glucose transporter in adipocytes. This study focused on the effect of ginsenoside Rb1 in insulin resistance and ectopic fat deposit in obese mice induced by high fat diet and its molecular mechanism. Obese male C57/L mice induced by high fat diet were randomly divided into the diet-induced obesity group (DIO group), the ginsenoside Rb1 group (Rb1 group) and the rosiglitazone group (Rog group), and continuously fed with high fat diet. In addition, male C57/L mice fed with normal diet were selected as the normal group (NC group). Mice in Rb1 group and Rog groups were intraperitoneally injected with ginsenoside Rb1 and rosiglitazone with the dosage of 20 mg x kg(-1) and 10 mg x kg(-1), respectively. NC and DIO groups were intraperitoneally injected with the same amount of saline. Two weeks later, the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was performed. Three days later, the mice were killed, and their serum samples were collected to detect insulin and free fatty acid (FFA). Their livers were weighed to examine the triglyceride content, and a pathological detection was performed. Epididymal adipose tissues were weighed, and PDE3B, HSL and perilipin were detected by Western blotting. The results showed that the treatment with ginsenoside Rb1 for two weeks could improve the glucose tolerance of obese mice. Except for 0-120 min, the areas under the glucose tolerance curve (0-30 min, 0-60 min and 0-90 min) in the Rb1 group were less than that in the DIO group (P < 0.05, n = 5), with a much lower HOMA-IR (P < 0.05, n = 5). The fat level of obese mice was significantly reduced by Rbl (P < 0.05, n = 5), and so were liver weight/weight (P < 0.05, n = 8). The increased serum FFA of obese mice declined after the treatment of Rb1 (P < 0.05, n = 8). Rb1 could partially recover the expression of perilipin in adipose tissues, but

  20. Cellular stress response mechanisms as therapeutic targets of ginsenosides.

    PubMed

    Qi, Hong-Yi; Li, Li; Ma, Hui

    2017-06-06

    Ginseng, one of the most widely used traditional herbal medicines and dietary supplements, has historically been recognized as a tonic herb and adaptogen that can enhance the body's tolerance to various adversities. Ginsenosides are a diverse group of steroidal saponins that comprise the major secondary metabolites of ginseng and are responsible for its multiple pharmacological effects. Emerging evidence suggests that hormetic phytochemicals produced by environmentally stressed plants can activate the moderate cellular stress response mechanisms at a subtoxic level in humans, which may enhance tolerance against severe dysfunction or disease. In this review, we initially describe the role of ginsenosides in the chemical defense of plants from the genus Panax suffering from biotic and abiotic stress. Next, we summarize the diverse evolutionarily conserved cellular stress response pathways regulated by ginsenosides and the subsequent stress tolerance against various dysfunctions or diseases. Finally, the structure-activity relationship involved in the effect of ginsenosides is also analyzed. The evidence presented in this review implicates that ginseng as "the King of all herbs" could be regarded as a well-characterized example of the critical role of cellular stress response mechanisms in understanding the health benefits provided by herbal medicines from an evolutionary and ecological perspective. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Finding and Producing Probiotic Glycosylases for the Biocatalysis of Ginsenosides: A Mini Review.

    PubMed

    Ku, Seockmo

    2016-05-16

    Various microorganisms have been widely applied in nutraceutical industries for the processing of phytochemical conversion. Specifically, in the Asian food industry and academia, notable attention is paid to the biocatalytic process of ginsenosides (ginseng saponins) using probiotic bacteria that produce high levels of glycosyl-hydrolases. Multiple groups have conducted experiments in order to determine the best conditions to produce more active and stable enzymes, which can be applicable to produce diverse types of ginsenosides for commercial applications. In this sense, there are various reviews that cover the biofunctional effects of multiple types of ginsenosides and the pathways of ginsenoside deglycosylation. However, little work has been published on the production methods of probiotic enzymes, which is a critical component of ginsenoside processing. This review aims to investigate current preparation methods, results on the discovery of new glycosylases, the application potential of probiotic enzymes and their use for biocatalysis of ginsenosides in the nutraceutical industry.

  2. Transgenic modification of gai or rg/1 causes dwarfing and alters gibberellins, root growth, and metabolite profiles in Populus

    SciTech Connect

    Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Busov, V.; Meilan, R; Pearce, D; Rood, s; Ma, C; Strauss, S

    2006-01-01

    In Arabidopsis and other plants, gibberellin (GA)-regulated responses are mediated by proteins including GAI, RGA and RGL1-3 that contain a functional DELLA domain. Through transgenic modification, we found that DELLA-less versions of GAI (gai) and RGL1 (rgl1) in a Populus tree have profound, dominant effects on phenotype, producing pleiotropic changes in morphology and metabolic profiles. Shoots were dwarfed, likely via constitutive repression of GA-induced elongation, whereas root growth was promoted two- to threefold in vitro. Applied GA{sub 3} inhibited adventitious root production in wild-type poplar, but gai/rgl1 poplars were unaffected by the inhibition. The concentrations of bioactive GA{sub 1} and GA{sub 4} in leaves of gai- and rgl1-expressing plants increased 12- to 64-fold, while the C{sub 19} precursors of GA{sub 1} (GA{sub 53}, GA{sub 44} and GA{sub 19}) decreased three- to ninefold, consistent with feedback regulation of GA 20-oxidase in the transgenic plants. The transgenic modifications elicited significant metabolic changes. In roots, metabolic profiling suggested increased respiration as a possible mechanism of the increased root growth. In leaves, we found metabolite changes suggesting reduced carbon flux through the lignin biosynthetic pathway and a shift towards allocation of secondary storage and defense metabolites, including various phenols, phenolic glucosides, and phenolic acid conjugates.

  3. Integrated Transcriptomic and Metabolomic Analysis of Five Panax ginseng Cultivars Reveals the Dynamics of Ginsenoside Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun Sun; Park, Hyun-Seung; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Jayakodi, Murukarthick; Kim, Nam-Hoon; Koo, Hyun Jo; Lee, Sang-Choon; Kim, Yeon Jeong; Kwon, Sung Won; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer is a traditional medicinal herb that produces bioactive compounds such as ginsenosides. Here, we investigated the diversity of ginsenosides and related genes among five genetically fixed inbred ginseng cultivars (Chunpoong [CP], Cheongsun [CS], Gopoong [GO], Sunhyang [SH], and Sunun [SU]). To focus on the genetic diversity related to ginsenoside biosynthesis, we utilized in vitro cultured adventitious roots from the five cultivars grown under controlled environmental conditions. PCA loading plots based on secondary metabolite composition classified the five cultivars into three groups. We selected three cultivars (CS, SH, and SU) to represent the three groups and conducted further transcriptome and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses to identify genes and intermediates corresponding to the variation in ginsenosides among cultivars. We quantified ginsenoside contents from the three cultivars. SH had more than 12 times the total ginsenoside content of CS, with especially large differences in the levels of panaxadiol-type ginsenosides. The expression levels of genes encoding squalene epoxidase (SQE) and dammarenediol synthase (DDS) were also significantly lower in CS than SH and SU, which is consistent with the low levels of ginsenoside produced in this cultivar. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment increased the levels of panaxadiol-type ginsenosides up to 4-, 13-, and 31-fold in SH, SU, and CS, respectively. MeJA treatment also greatly increased the quantity of major intermediates and the expression of the underlying genes in the ginsenoside biosynthesis pathway; these intermediates included squalene, 2,3-oxidosqualene, and dammarenediol II, especially in CS, which had the lowest ginsenoside content under normal culture conditions. We conclude that SQE and DDS are the most important genetic factors for ginsenoside biosynthesis with diversity among ginseng cultivars. PMID:28674547

  4. Investigation of ginsenosides in different tissues after elicitor treatment in Panax ginseng

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Ji Yeon; Kim, Yu-Jin; Jang, Moon-Gi; Joo, Sung Chul; Kwon, Woo-Saeng; Kim, Se-Yeong; Jung, Seok-Kyu; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Background The effect of methyl jasmonate (MJ) on ginsenoside production in different organs of ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) was evaluated after the whole plant was dipped in an MJ-containing solution. MJ can induce the production of antioxidant defense genes and secondary metabolites in plants. In ginseng, MJ treatment in adventitious root resulted in the increase of dammarenediol synthase expression but a decrease of cycloartenol synthase expression, thereby enhancing ginsenoside biosynthesis. Although a previous study focused on the application of MJ to affect ginsenoside production in adventitious roots, we conducted our research on entire plants by evaluating the effect of exogenous MJ on ginsenoside production with the aim of obtaining new approaches to study ginsenoside biosynthesis response to MJ in vivo. Methods Different parts of MJ-treated ginseng plants were analyzed for ginsenoside contents (fine root, root body, epidermis, rhizome, stem, and leaf) by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results The total ginsenoside content of the ginseng root significantly increased after 2 d of MJ treatment compared with the control not subjected to MJ. Our results revealed that MJ treatment enhances ginsenoside production not in the epidermis but in the stele of the ginseng root, implying transportation of ginsenosides from the root vasculature to the epidermis. Application of MJ enhanced protopanaxadiol (PPD)-type ginsenosides, whereas chilling treatment induced protopanaxatriol (PPT)-type ginsenosides. Conclusion These findings indicate that the production of PPD-type and PPT-type ginsenosides is differently affected by abiotic and biotic stresses in the ginseng plant, and they might play different defense mechanism roles. PMID:25379007

  5. Antiviral activity of ginsenosides against coxsackievirus B3, enterovirus 71, and human rhinovirus 3

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jae-Hyoung; Choi, Hwa-Jung; Song, Hyuk-Hwan; Hong, Eun-Hye; Lee, Bo-Ra; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Choi, Kwangman; Yeo, Sang-Gu; Lee, Yong-Pyo; Cho, Sungchan; Ko, Hyun-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Background Ginsenosides are the major components responsible for the biochemical and pharmacological actions of ginseng, and have been shown to have various biological activities. In this study, we investigated the antiviral activities of seven ginsenosides [protopanaxatriol (PT) type: Re, Rf, and Rg2; protopanaxadiol (PD) type: Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd)] against coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), enterovirus 71 (EV71), and human rhinovirus 3 (HRV3). Methods Assays of antiviral activity and cytotoxicity were evaluated by the sulforhodamine B method using the cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction assay. Results The antiviral assays demonstrated that, of the seven ginsenosides, the PT-type ginsenosides (Re, Rf, and Rg2) possess significant antiviral activities against CVB3 and HRV3 at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. Among the PT-type ginsenosides, only ginsenoside Rg2 showed significant anti-EV71 activity with no cytotoxicity to cells at 100 μg/mL. The PD-type ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd), by contrast, did not show any significant antiviral activity against CVB3, EV71, and HRV3, and exhibited cytotoxic effects to virus-infected cells. Notably, the antiviral efficacies of PT-type ginsenosides were comparable to those of ribavirin, a commonly used antiviral drug. Conclusion Collectively, our findings suggest that the ginsenosides Re, Rf, and Rg2 have the potential to be effective in the treatment of CVB3, EV71, and HRV3 infection. PMID:25378991

  6. Mass Spectrometry Based Profiling and Imaging of Various Ginsenosides from Panax ginseng Roots at Different Ages

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Won; Ji, Seung-Heon; Lee, Young-Seob; Choi, Doo Jin; Choi, Bo-Ram; Kim, Geum-Soog; Baek, Nam-In; Lee, Dae Young

    2017-01-01

    (1) Background: Panax ginseng root is one of the most important herbal products, and the profiling of ginsenosides is critical for the quality control of ginseng roots at different ages in the herbal markets. Furthermore, interest in assessing the contents as well as the localization of biological compounds has been growing. The objective of this study is to carry out the mass spectrometry (MS)-based profiling and imaging of ginsenosides to assess ginseng roots at different ages; (2) Methods: Optimal ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight/MS (UPLC-QTOF/MS) was used to profile various ginsenosides from P. ginseng roots. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI)-time of flight (TOF)/MS-based imaging was also optimized to visualize ginsenosides in ginseng roots; (3) Results: UPLC-QTOF/MS was used to profile 30 ginsenosides with high mass accuracy, with an in-house library constructed for the fast and exact identification of ginsenosides. Using this method, the levels of 14 ginsenosides were assessed in P. ginseng roots cultivated for 4, 5, and 6 years. The optimal MALDI-imaging MS (IMS) was also applied to visualize the 14 ginsenosides in ginseng roots. As a result, the MSI cross sections showed the localization of 4 ginsenoside ions ([M + K]+) in P. ginseng roots at different ages; (4) Conclusions: The contents and localization of various ginsenosides differ depending on the cultivation years of P. ginseng roots. Furthermore, this study demonstrated the utility of MS-based profiling and imaging of ginsenosides for the quality control of ginseng roots. PMID:28538661

  7. Changes in the Ginsenoside Content During Fermentation Using an Appliance for the Preparation of Red Ginseng.

    PubMed

    Lee, So Jin; Ha, Na; Kim, Yunjeong; Kim, Min-Gul

    2016-01-01

    The total amount of ginsenoside in fermented red ginseng (FRG) is increased by microbial fermentation. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether fermentation time and temperature affect the ginsenoside content during fermentation using an appliance for the preparation of red ginseng. The FRG and fermented red ginseng extracts (FRG-e) were prepared using an appliance for the preparation of red ginseng. The temperature was recorded and time points for sampling were scheduled at pre-fermentation (0[Formula: see text]h) and 18, 36, 48, 60 and 72[Formula: see text]h after the addition of the microbial strains. Samples of FRG and FRG-e were collected to identify changes in the ginsenoside contents at each time point during the fermentation process. The ginsenoside content was analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The levels of ginsenoside Rh1, Rg3, and compound Y, which are known to have effective pharmacological properties, increased more than three-fold in the final products of FRG relative to samples prior to fermentation. Although the ginsenoside constituents of FRG-e decreased or increased and then decreased during fermentation, the total amount of ginsenoside in FRG-e was even higher than those in FRG; the total amounts of ginsenoside in FRG-e and FRG were 8282.8 and 738.0[Formula: see text]mg, respectively. This study examined the changes in composition of ginsenosides and suggests a method to manufacture high-content total ginsenosides according to the fermentation temperature and process time. Reducing the extraction time is expected to improve the decrease of ginsenosides in FRG-e as a function of the fermentation time.

  8. Safety studies on an adenovirus recombinant vaccine for rabies (AdRG1.3-ONRAB) in target and non-target species.

    PubMed

    Knowles, M Kimberly; Nadin-Davis, Susan A; Sheen, Mary; Rosatte, Rick; Mueller, Rudi; Beresford, Andrew

    2009-11-05

    A replication-competent human adenovirus vector in which the rabies virus glycoprotein gene was inserted (AdRG1.3-ONRAB) was given by direct instillation into the oral cavity to representatives of three wildlife vector species of concern in Ontario (red fox, raccoon and striped skunk) and to a variety of non-target wildlife species, domestic and laboratory species. Despite use of a relatively high dose of vaccine, no untoward clinical signs were observed. Subsequent to vaccine exposure, detection of vaccine virus in lung, spleen, intestine, liver, kidney and brain of each animal was attempted using an ONRAB-specific assay combining PCR with Southern blotting (PCR-SB). Of the 1280 tissue samples obtained from vaccinates or contact animals, 18 (1.4%) were found to be PCR-SB positive. Virus isolation attempts were performed utilizing cell culture for all PCR-SB positive tissues and a selection of PCR-SB negative tissues. Histological examination performed on all PCR-SB positive tissues failed to identify lesions attributed to the vaccine. A quantitative real-time PCR was used to determine the excretion of the vaccine in feces and in the oral cavity with 0.8% of oral swabs and 6.8% of fecal specimens found to be positive. The low rates of recovery of vaccine virus from tissues, feces and the oral cavity suggest that the likelihood of ONRAB causing a negative impact on wildlife species is unlikely.

  9. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of ginsenosides.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhubo; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Xianan; Shi, Mingyu; Wang, Beibei; Wang, Dong; Huang, Luqi; Zhang, Xueli

    2013-11-01

    Ginsenosides are the primary bioactive components of ginseng, which is a popular medicinal herb and exhibits diverse pharmacological activities. Protopanaxadiol is the aglycon of several dammarane-type ginsenosides, which also has anticancer activity. For microbial production of protopanaxadiol, dammarenediol-II synthase and protopanaxadiol synthase genes of Panax ginseng, together with a NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase gene of Arabidopsis thaliana, were introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae, resulting in production of 0.05 mg/g DCW protopanaxadiol. Increasing squalene and 2,3-oxidosqualene supplies through overexpressing truncated 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, farnesyl diphosphate synthase, squalene synthase and 2,3-oxidosqualene synthase genes, together with increasing protopanaxadiol synthase activity through codon optimization, led to 262-fold increase of protopanaxadiol production. Finally, using two-phase extractive fermentation resulted in production of 8.40 mg/g DCW protopanaxadiol (1189 mg/L), together with 10.94 mg/g DCW dammarenediol-II (1548 mg/L). The yeast strains engineered in this work can serve as the basis for creating an alternative way for production of ginsenosides in place of extraction from plant sources.

  10. Ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} induces angiogenesis by the inverse regulation of MET tyrosine kinase receptor expression through miR-23a

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, Hoi-Hin; Chan, Lai-Sheung; Poon, Po-Ying; Yue, Patrick Ying-Kit; Wong, Ricky Ngok-Shun

    2015-09-15

    Therapeutic angiogenesis has been implicated in ischemic diseases and wound healing. Ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} (Rg{sub 1}), one of the most abundant active components of ginseng, has been demonstrated as an angiogenesis-stimulating compound in different models. There is increasing evidence implicating microRNAs (miRNAs), a group of non-coding RNAs, as important regulators of angiogenesis, but the role of microRNAs in Rg{sub 1}-induced angiogenesis has not been fully explored. In this report, we found that stimulating endothelial cells with Rg{sub 1} could reduce miR-23a expression. In silico experiments predicted hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET), a well-established mediator of angiogenesis, as the target of miR-23a. Transfection of the miR-23a precursor or inhibitor oligonucleotides validated the inverse relationship of miR-23a and MET expression. Luciferase reporter assays further confirmed the interaction between miR-23a and the MET mRNA 3′-UTR. Intriguingly, ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} was found to increase MET protein expression in a time-dependent manner. We further demonstrated that ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1}-induced angiogenic activities were indeed mediated through the down-regulation of miR-23a and subsequent up-regulation of MET protein expression, as confirmed by gain- and loss-of-function angiogenic experiments. In summary, our results demonstrated that ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} could induce angiogenesis by the inverse regulation of MET tyrosine kinase receptor expression through miR-23a. This study has broadened our understanding of the non-genomic effects of ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1,} and provided molecular evidence that warrant further development of natural compound as novel angiogenesis-promoting therapy. - Highlights: • Therapeutic angiogenesis has been implicated in ischemic diseases and wound healing. • Ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} (Rg{sub 1}) has been demonstrated as an angiogenesis-stimulating compound. • We found that Rg{sub 1} induces angiogenesis by

  11. Fermentation of protopanaxadiol type ginsenosides (PD) with probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis and Lactobacillus rhamnosus.

    PubMed

    Tan, Joanne Sh; Yeo, Chia-Rou; Popovich, David G

    2017-07-01

    Ginsenosides are believed to be the principal components behind the pharmacological actions of ginseng, and their bioactive properties are closely related to the type, position, and number of sugar moieties attached to the aglycone; thus, modification of the sugar chains may markedly change their biological activities. In this study, major protopanaxadiol type ginsenosides (PD) Rb1, Rc, and Rb2 were isolated from Panax ginseng and were transformed using two probiotic strains namely Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 to obtain specific deglycosylated ginsenosides. It was demonstrated that B. lactis transformed ginsenosides Rb1, Rc, and Rb2 to Rd within 1 h of fermentation and rare ginsenoside F2 by the conversion of Rd after 12-h fermentation. The maximum Rd concentration was 147.52 ± 1.45 μg/mL after 48-h fermentation as compared to 45.85 ± 0.71 μg/mL before fermentation. In contrast, L. rhamnosus transformed Rb1, Rc, and Rb2 into Rd as the final metabolite after 72-h fermentation. B. lactis displayed significantly (p < 0.05) higher β-glucosidase activity against p-nitrophenyl-β-glucopyranoside than L. rhamnosus and higher bioconversion efficiency during fermentation. The present study suggests that the fermentation of major PD type ginsenosides with B. lactis Bi-07 may serve as an effective means to afford bioactive deglycosylated ginsenosides and to create novel ginsenoside extracts.

  12. Ginsenoside Rb1 is transformed into Rd and Rh2 by Microbacterium trichothecenolyticum.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hansoo; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Lee, Phil Young; Bae, Kwang-Hee; Cho, Sayeon; Park, Byoung Chul; Shin, Heungsop; Park, Sung Goo

    2013-12-01

    Ginsenosides are the most important ingredient of ginseng and are known to possess many pharmacological and biological effects. Rb1, a major protopanaxadiol ginsenoside, is the most abundant ginsenoside in Panax ginseng C.A Meyer and can be hydrolyzed into more pharmaceutically potent minor ginsenosides. To identify a microorganism that is capable of converting Rb1 into other ginsenosides, we screened 12 Microbacterium spp., and M. trichothecenolyticum was identified as a likely candidate. M. trichothecenolyticum converted Rb1 into Rd and then into Rh2 based on TLC and HPLC analyses of reaction products. This biotransformation method can be easily applied for mass production of Rd and Rh2 by using Rb1.

  13. [Effect of total ginsenosides on protective enzymes of Mythimna separata larvae].

    PubMed

    Tan, Shi-qiang; Zhang, Lian-xue; Ma, Lin; Zhang, Ai-hua

    2014-11-01

    Under indoors simulating natural growing condition, the 4th-instar Mythimna separata larvae were fed by using poi- son leaf disk method. The effect of total ginsenosides on the protective enzymes (PPO, T-SOD, CAT and POD) of M. separata larvae was studied. The total ginsenosides could influence the protective enzymes of 4th-instar M. separata larvae significantly. After treated by total ginsenosides, the PPO activities increased firstly then decreased, and tended to equilibrium, and reached the maximum after 48 h. Furthermore, the total ginsenosides disturbed the dynamic balance of SOD, CAT and POD of M. separata larvae, and the yield of O2-* speeded. The results suggest that the total ginsenosides influence the protective enzymes of 4th-instar M. separata larvae, and disturb the original dynamic balance of protective enzymes. Consequently the insect suffers from the harm of O2-*.

  14. Red Ginseng Extract Promotes the Hair Growth in Cultured Human Hair Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Park, Gyeong-Hun; Park, Ki-young; Cho, Hong-il; Lee, Sang-Min; Han, Ji Su; Chang, Sung Eun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan; Shin, Hyoseung; Kang, Yong Jung; Lee, Dong Hun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ginseng has been shown to promote hair growth in several recent studies. However, its effects on human hair follicles and its mechanisms of action have not been sufficiently elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the hair growth-promoting effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) and its ginsenosides. The proliferative activities of cultured human hair follicles treated with RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 were assessed using Ki-67 immunostaining. Their effects on isolated human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) were evaluated using cytotoxicity assays, immunoblot analysis of signaling proteins, and the determination of associated growth factors. We examined the ability of RGE and ginsenosides to protect hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation against dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced suppression and their effects on the expression of androgen receptor. The in vivo hair growth-promoting effect of RGE was also investigated in C57BL/6 mice. Both RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 enhanced the proliferation of hair matrix keratinocytes. hDPCs treated with RGE or ginsenoside-Rb1 exhibited substantial cell proliferation and the associated phosphorylation of ERK and AKT. Moreover, RGE, ginsenoside-Rb1, and ginsenoside-Rg3 abrogated the DHT-induced suppression of hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation and the DHT-induced upregulation of the mRNA expression of androgen receptor in hDPCs. Murine experiments revealed that the subcutaneous injection of 3% RGE resulted in more rapid hair growth than the negative control. In conclusion, RGE and its ginsenosides may enhance hDPC proliferation, activate ERK and AKT signaling pathways in hDPCs, upregulate hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation, and inhibit the DHT-induced androgen receptor transcription. These results suggest that red ginseng may promote hair growth in humans. PMID:25396716

  15. Red ginseng extract promotes the hair growth in cultured human hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Park, Gyeong-Hun; Park, Ki-young; Cho, Hong-il; Lee, Sang-Min; Han, Ji Su; Won, Chong Hyun; Chang, Sung Eun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan; Shin, Hyoseung; Kang, Yong Jung; Lee, Dong Hun

    2015-03-01

    Ginseng has been shown to promote hair growth in several recent studies. However, its effects on human hair follicles and its mechanisms of action have not been sufficiently elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the hair growth-promoting effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) and its ginsenosides. The proliferative activities of cultured human hair follicles treated with RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 were assessed using Ki-67 immunostaining. Their effects on isolated human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) were evaluated using cytotoxicity assays, immunoblot analysis of signaling proteins, and the determination of associated growth factors. We examined the ability of RGE and ginsenosides to protect hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation against dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced suppression and their effects on the expression of androgen receptor. The in vivo hair growth-promoting effect of RGE was also investigated in C57BL/6 mice. Both RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 enhanced the proliferation of hair matrix keratinocytes. hDPCs treated with RGE or ginsenoside-Rb1 exhibited substantial cell proliferation and the associated phosphorylation of ERK and AKT. Moreover, RGE, ginsenoside-Rb1, and ginsenoside-Rg3 abrogated the DHT-induced suppression of hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation and the DHT-induced upregulation of the mRNA expression of androgen receptor in hDPCs. Murine experiments revealed that the subcutaneous injection of 3% RGE resulted in more rapid hair growth than the negative control. In conclusion, RGE and its ginsenosides may enhance hDPC proliferation, activate ERK and AKT signaling pathways in hDPCs, upregulate hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation, and inhibit the DHT-induced androgen receptor transcription. These results suggest that red ginseng may promote hair growth in humans.

  16. Microbial transformation of ginsenoside Rb1 to compound K by Lactobacillus paralimentarius.

    PubMed

    Quan, Lin-Hu; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Li, Guan Hao; Choi, Kwang-Tea; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the major ginsenoside Rb1 was transformed into the more pharmacologically active minor compound K by food grade Lactobacillus paralimentarius LH4, which was isolated from kimchi, a traditional Korean fermented food. The enzymatic reaction was analyzed by TLC, HPLC, and NMR. Using the cell-free enzyme of Lactobacillus paralimentarius LH4 at optimal conditions for 30 °C at pH 6.0, 1.0 mg ml(-1) ginsenoside Rb1 was transformed into 0.52 mg ml(-1) compound K within 72 h, with a corresponding molar conversion yield of 88 %. The cell-free enzyme hydrolyzed the two glucose moieties attached to the C-3 position and the outer glucose moiety attached to the C-20 position of the ginsenoside Rb1. The cell-free enzyme hydrolyzed the ginsenoside Rb1 along the following pathway: ginsenoside Rb1 → gypenoside XVII and ginsenoside Rd → ginsenoside F2 → compound K. Our results indicate that Lactobacillus paralimentarius LH4 has the potential to be applied for the preparation of compound K in the food industry.

  17. Ginsenoside-Rg5 induces apoptosis and DNA damage in human cervical cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    LIANG, LI-DAN; HE, TAO; DU, TING-WEI; FAN, YONG-GANG; CHEN, DIAN-SEN; WANG, YAN

    2015-01-01

    Panax ginseng is traditionally used as a remedy for cancer, inflammation, stress and aging, and ginsenoside-Rg5 is a major bioactive constituent of steamed ginseng. The present study aimed to evaluate whether ginsenoside-Rg5 had any marked cytotoxic, apoptotic or DNA-damaging effects in human cervical cancer cells. Five human cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa, MS751, C33A, Me180 and HT-3) were used to investigate the cytotoxicity of ginsenoside-Rg5 using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Additionally, the effects of ginsenoside-Rg5 on the apoptosis of HeLa and MS751 cells were detected using DNA ladder assays and flow cytometry. DNA damage was assessed in the HeLa and MS751 cells using alkaline comet assays and by detection of γH2AX focus formation. The HeLa and MS751 cells were significantly more sensitive to ginsenoside-Rg5 treatment compared with the C-33A, HT-3 and Me180 cells. As expected, ginsenoside-Rg5 induced significant concentration- and time-dependent increases in apoptosis. In addition, ginsenoside-Rg5 induced significant concentration-dependent increases in the level of DNA damage compared with the negative control. Consistent with the comet assay data, the percentage of γH2AX-positive HeLa and MS751 cells also revealed that ginsenoside-Rg5 caused DNA double-strands to break in a concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, ginsenoside-Rg5 had marked genotoxic effects in the HeLa and MS751 cells and, thus, demonstrates potential as a genotoxic or cytotoxic drug for the treatment of cervical cancer. PMID:25355274

  18. Induction of CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene expression by baicalin, baicalein, chlorogenic acid, and ginsenoside Rf through constitutive androstane receptor- and pregnane X receptor-mediated pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue; Wang, Qi; Yao, Xiaomin; Li, Yan

    2010-08-25

    The herbal products baicalin, baicalein, chlorogenic acid, and ginsenoside Rf have multiple pharmacological effects and are extensively used in alternative and/or complementary therapies. The present study investigated whether baicalin, baicalein, chlorogenic acid, and ginsenoside Rf induced the expression of the cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and multi-drug resistance 1 (MDR1) genes through the pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor pathways. Real time PCR, western blotting, and a luminescent assay were used to assess the induction of gene expression and activity of CYP3A4 and MDR1 by the test compounds. The interactions of baicalein/chlorogenic acid/ginsenoside Rf with constitutive androstane receptor and pregnane X receptor were evaluated using luciferase reporter and gel shift assays. Baicalein induced the expression of CYP3A4 and MDR1 mRNA by activating pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor. Chlorogenic acid and ginsenoside Rf showed a relatively weak effect on CYP3A4 promoter activation only in HepG2 cells cotransfected with constitutive androstane receptor and demonstrated no effects on MDR1 via either the constitutive androstane receptor or pregnane X receptor pathway. Baicalin had no effect on either CYP3A4 or MDR1 gene expression. In conclusion, baicalein has the potential to up-regulate CYP3A4 and MDR1 through the direct activation of the constitutive androstane receptor and pregnane X receptor pathways. Chlorogenic acid and ginsenoside Rf only induced constitutive androstane receptor-mediated CYP3A4 expression.

  19. Effects and mechanisms of ginseng and ginsenosides on cognition.

    PubMed

    Smith, Imogen; Williamson, Elizabeth M; Putnam, Sophie; Farrimond, Jonathan; Whalley, Benjamin J

    2014-05-01

    Reviewed here is the existing evidence for the effects of ginseng extracts and isolated ginsenosides relevant to cognition in humans. Clinical studies in healthy volunteers and in patients with neurological disease or deficit, evidence from preclinical models of cognition, and pharmacokinetic data are considered. Conditions under which disease modification may indirectly benefit cognition but may not translate to cognitive benefits in healthy subjects are discussed. The number of chronic studies of ginseng effects in healthy individuals is limited, and the results from acute studies are inconsistent, making overall assessment of ginseng's efficacy as a cognitive enhancer premature. However, mechanistic results are encouraging; in particular, the ginsenosides Rg3 , Rh1 , Rh2 , Rb1 , Rd, Rg2 , and Rb3 , along with the aglycones protopanaxadiol and protopanaxatriol, warrant further attention. Compound K has a promising pharmacokinetic profile and can affect neurotransmission and neuroprotection. Properly conducted trials using standardized tests in healthy individuals reflecting the target population for ginseng supplementation are required to address inconsistencies in results from acute studies. The evidence summarized here suggests ginseng has potential, but unproven, benefits on cognition.

  20. Overexpression and characterization of a Ca(2+) activated thermostable β-glucosidase with high ginsenoside Rb1 to ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 bioconversion productivity.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jingcong; Zhao, Dongxia; Zhao, Linguo; Pei, Jianjun; Xiao, Wei; Ding, Gang; Wang, Zhenzhong

    2015-06-01

    The thermostable β-glucosidase gene from Thermotoga petrophila DSM 13995 was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The activity of the recombinant β-glucosidase was 21 U/mL in the LB medium. Recombinant β-glucosidase was purified, and its molecular weight was approximately 81 kDa. The optimal activity was at pH 5.0 and 90 °C, and the thermostability of the enzyme was improved by Ca(2+). The β-glucosidase had high selectivity for cleaving the outer and inner glucopyranosyl moieties at the C-20 carbon of ginsenoside Rb1, which produced the pharmacologically active minor ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3. In a reaction at 90 °C and pH 5.0, 10 g/L of ginsenoside Rb1 was transformed into 6.93 g/L of Rg3 within 90 min, with a corresponding molar conversion of 97.9%, and Rg3 productivity of 4620 mg/L/h. This study is the first report of a GH3-family enzyme that used Ca(2+) to improve its thermostability, and it is the first report on the high substrate concentration bioconversion of ginsenoside Rb1 to ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 by using thermostable β-glucosidase under high temperature.

  1. Effect of gamma irradiation on the conversion of ginsenoside Rb1 to Rg3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae-Hun; Kwon, Sun-Kyu; Sung, Nak-Yun; Jung, Pil-Mun; Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Sharma, Arun K.; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-08-01

    Ginsenosides, the most important secondary metabolites in ginseng, have various biological activities. Many studies have focused on the conversion of one of the major ginsenosides, Rb1, to the more active minor ginsenoside, Rg3. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the conversion of Rb1 to Rg3. Rb1 solutions were gamma-irradiated at doses of 10 and 30 kGy and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HPLC chromatograms showed a decreased content of Rb1 with increasing irradiation dose, but the content of Rg3 was increased. The highest content of Rg3 was present in the 30 kGy-irradiated Rb1 sample. The cytotoxic effects tested in cancer cell lines were increased in the gamma-irradiated group. Therefore, these results suggest that gamma irradiation can be an effective method for the conversion of the ginsenoside Rb1 to Rg3.

  2. Fast determination of total ginsenosides content in ginseng powder by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hua-cai; Chen, Xing-dan; Lu, Yong-jun; Cao, Zhi-qiang

    2006-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy was used to develop a fast determination method for total ginsenosides in Ginseng (Panax Ginseng) powder. The spectra were analyzed with multiplicative signal correction (MSC) correlation method. The best correlative spectra region with the total ginsenosides content was 1660 nm~1880 nm and 2230nm~2380 nm. The NIR calibration models of ginsenosides were built with multiple linear regression (MLR), principle component regression (PCR) and partial least squares (PLS) regression respectively. The results showed that the calibration model built with PLS combined with MSC and the optimal spectrum region was the best one. The correlation coefficient and the root mean square error of correction validation (RMSEC) of the best calibration model were 0.98 and 0.15% respectively. The optimal spectrum region for calibration was 1204nm~2014nm. The result suggested that using NIR to rapidly determinate the total ginsenosides content in ginseng powder were feasible.

  3. The Potential of Minor Ginsenosides Isolated from the Leaves of Panax ginseng as Inhibitors of Melanogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dae-Young; Cha, Byeong-Ju; Lee, Young-Seob; Kim, Geum-Soog; Noh, Hyung-Jun; Kim, Seung-Yu; Kang, Hee Cheol; Kim, Jin Hee; Baek, Nam-In

    2015-01-01

    Three minor ginsenosides, namely, ginsenoside Rh6 (1), vina-ginsenoside R4 (2) and vina-ginsenoside R13 (3), were isolated from the leaves of hydroponic Panax ginseng. The chemical structures were determined based on spectroscopic methods, including fast atom bombardment mass spectroscopy (FAB-MS), 1D-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 2D-NMR, and, infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The melanogenic inhibitory activity of compounds 1, 2 and 3 was 23.9%, 27.8% and 35.2%, respectively, at a concentration of 80 µM. Likewise, the three compounds showed inhibitory activity on body pigmentation on a zebrafish model, which is commonly used as a model for biomedical or cosmetic research. These results from in vitro and in vivo systems suggest that the three aforementioned compounds isolated from Panax ginseng may have potential as new skin whitening compounds. PMID:25590297

  4. Structural Characterization of Ginsenosides from Flower Buds of Panax ginseng by RRLC-Q-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Lu, Ziyan; Teng, Yaran; Guo, Yingying; Liu, Shuying

    2016-02-01

    Ginseng flower bud as a part of Panax ginseng has received much attention as a valuable functional food with medicinal potential. A few studies focused on systematic and comprehensive studies on its major ingredients. This study aims to rapidly characterize ginsenosides in ginseng flower buds and provide scientific basis for developing functional food, exploiting pharmaceutical effects and making full use of ginseng resources. A rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (RRLC-Q-TOF-MS) method was developed for rapid qualitative and quantitative analysis of ginsenosides in ginseng flower buds. The compounds were identified by comparing retention time of the reference standards, accurate mass measurement and the fragment ions obtained from RRLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS analyses. A total of 14 kinds of ginsenosides were identified and 5 kinds of malonyl-ginsenosides were first tentatively identified in ginseng flower buds. Ten kinds of main ginsenosides were quantitatively analyzed. The developed RRLC-Q-TOF-MS method was demonstrated as an effective analytical means for rapid characterization of the ginsenosides in flower buds of P. ginseng. The research result is valuable for quality control, assessment of authenticity and stability evaluation of ginseng flower buds.

  5. Renoprotective effects of Maillard reaction products generated during heat treatment of ginsenoside Re with leucine.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Hoon; Han, Im-Ho; Yamabe, Noriko; Kim, Young-Joo; Lee, Woojung; Eom, Dae-Woon; Choi, Pilju; Cheon, Gab Jin; Jang, Hyuk-Jai; Kim, Su-Nam; Ham, Jungyeob; Kang, Ki Sung

    2014-01-15

    The structural change of ginsenoside and the generation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) are important to the increase in the biological activities of Panax ginseng. This study was carried out to identify the renoprotective active component of P. ginseng using the Maillard reaction model experiment with ginsenoside Re and leucine. Ginsenoside Re was gradually converted into less-polar ginsenosides Rg2, Rg6 and F4 by heat-processing, followed by separation of the glucosyl moiety at carbon-20. The free radical-scavenging activity of the ginsenoside Re-leucine mixture was increased by heat-processing. The improved free radical-scavenging activity by heat-processing was mediated by the generation of MRPs from the reaction of glucose and leucine. The cisplatin-induced LLC-PK1 renal cell damage was also significantly reduced by treatment with MRPs. Moreover, the heat-processed glucose-leucine mixture (major MRPs from the ginsenoside Re-leucine mixture) showed protective effects against cisplatin-induced oxidative renal damage in rats through the inhibition of caspase-3 activation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The in vitro structure-related anti-cancer activity of ginsenosides and their derivatives.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hang; Bai, Li-Ping; Wong, Vincent Kam Wai; Zhou, Hua; Wang, Jing-Rong; Liu, Yan; Jiang, Zhi-Hong; Liu, Liang

    2011-12-19

    Panax ginseng has long been used in Asia as a herbal medicine for the prevention and treatment of various diseases, including cancer. The current study evaluated the cytotoxic potency against a variety of cancer cells by using ginseng ethanol extracts (RSE), protopanaxadiol (PPD)-type, protopanaxatriol (PPT)-type ginsenosides fractions, and their hydrolysates, which were prepared by stepwise hydrolysis of the sugar moieties of the ginsenosides. The results showed that the cytotoxic potency of the hydrolysates of RSE and total PPD-type or PPT-type ginsenoside fractions was much stronger than the original RSE and ginsenosides; especially the hydrolysate of PPD-type ginsenoside fractions. Subsequently, two derivatives of protopanaxadiol (1), compounds 2 and 3, were synthesized via hydrogenation and dehydration reactions of compound 1. Using those two derivatives and the original ginsenosides, a comparative study on various cancer cell lines was conducted; the results demonstrated that the cytotoxic potency was generally in the descending order of compound 3 > 20(S)-dihydroprotopanaxadiol (2) > PPD (1) > 20(S)-Rh2 > 20(R)-Rh2 ≈ 20(R)-Rg3 ≈ 20(S)-Rg3. The results clearly indicate the structure-related activities in which the compound with less polar chemical structures possesses higher cytotoxic activity towards cancer cells.

  7. Ethosomes and Transfersomes for Topical Delivery of Ginsenoside Rhl from Red Ginseng: Characterization and In Vitro Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae-Hwan; Cho, Sun-Hang; Yun, Je-Jung; Yu, Young-Beob; Cho, Cheong-Weon

    2015-08-01

    Red ginseng (the steamed root of Panax ginseng C. A. Mayer), which contains ginsenosides as its main constituents, is frequently used to treat tumor, inflammation, diabetes, stress and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Asian countries. Ginsenoside Rhl, a bacterial metabolite of ginsenoside Rgl, is a protopanaxatriol type of ginsenosides. Liposomes do not deeply penetrate the skin and remain confined to the stratum corneum.Thus, new vesicular colloidal carriers such as ethosomes and transfersomes have been developed as an enhanced type of liposomes, recently. The aim of this study was to improve the topical delivery of ginsenoside Rhl isolated from red ginseng employing new vesicular system of ethosomes and transfersomes compared to conventional liposome. Characterization of ginsenoside Rhl-loaded vesicles were prepared and evaluated for particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency (% EE), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. In addition, skin permeation profile was obtained using frantz diffusion cells and rat dorsal skin treated with ethosome and transfersome compared with conventional iposome. The size of vesicles range from 108.5 to 322.9 nm, and negatively charged from -20.95 to -31.37 mV. The % EE of ginsenoside Rh1 was obtained between 45.0 to 65.0%. Transfersomes provided a significantly higher skin permeation of ginsenoside Rhl compared to ethosome and conventional liposome. Therefore, based on the current study, ginsenoside Rhl-loaded transfersomes can act as a topical therapeutic effects potential.

  8. Comparative analysis of the expression level of recombinant ginsenoside-transforming β-glucosidase in GRAS hosts and mass production of the ginsenoside Rh2-Mix.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, Muhammad Zubair; Cui, Chang-Hao; Park, Seul-Ki; Han, Nam Soo; Kim, Sun-Chang; Im, Wan-Taek

    2017-01-01

    The ginsenoside Rh2, a pharmaceutically active component of ginseng, is known to have anticancer and antitumor effects. However, white ginseng and red ginseng have extremely low concentrations of Rh2 or Rh2-Mix [20(S)-Rh2, 20(R)-Rh2, Rk2, and Rh3]. To enhance the production of food-grade ginsenoside Rh2, an edible enzymatic bioconversion technique was developed adopting GRAS host strains. A β-glucosidase (BglPm), which has ginsenoside conversion ability, was expressed in three GRAS host strains (Corynebacterium glutamicum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactococus lactis) by using a different vector system. Enzyme activity in these three GRAS hosts were 75.4%, 11.5%, and 9.3%, respectively, compared to that in the E. coli pGEX 4T-1 expression system. The highly expressed BglPm_C in C. glutamicum can effectively transform the ginsenoside Rg3-Mix [20(S)-Rg3, 20(R)-Rg3, Rk1, Rg5] to Rh2-Mix [20(S)-Rh2, 20(R)-Rh2, Rk2, Rh3] using a scaled-up biotransformation reaction, which was performed in a 10-L jar fermenter at pH 6.5/7.0 and 37°C for 24 h. To our knowledge, this is the first report in which 50 g of PPD-Mix (Rb1, Rb2, Rb3, Rc, and Rd) as a starting substrate was converted to ginsenoside Rg3-Mix by acid heat treatment and then 24.5-g Rh2-Mix was obtained by enzymatic transformation of Rg3-Mix through by BglPm_C. Utilization of this enzymatic method adopting a GRAS host could be usefully exploited in the preparation of ginsenoside Rh2-Mix in cosmetics, functional food, and pharmaceutical industries, thereby replacing the E. coli expression system.

  9. Comparative analysis of the expression level of recombinant ginsenoside-transforming β-glucosidase in GRAS hosts and mass production of the ginsenoside Rh2-Mix

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqi, Muhammad Zubair; Cui, Chang-Hao; Park, Seul-Ki; Han, Nam Soo; Kim, Sun-Chang

    2017-01-01

    The ginsenoside Rh2, a pharmaceutically active component of ginseng, is known to have anticancer and antitumor effects. However, white ginseng and red ginseng have extremely low concentrations of Rh2 or Rh2-Mix [20(S)-Rh2, 20(R)-Rh2, Rk2, and Rh3]. To enhance the production of food-grade ginsenoside Rh2, an edible enzymatic bioconversion technique was developed adopting GRAS host strains. A β-glucosidase (BglPm), which has ginsenoside conversion ability, was expressed in three GRAS host strains (Corynebacterium glutamicum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactococus lactis) by using a different vector system. Enzyme activity in these three GRAS hosts were 75.4%, 11.5%, and 9.3%, respectively, compared to that in the E. coli pGEX 4T-1 expression system. The highly expressed BglPm_C in C. glutamicum can effectively transform the ginsenoside Rg3-Mix [20(S)-Rg3, 20(R)-Rg3, Rk1, Rg5] to Rh2-Mix [20(S)-Rh2, 20(R)-Rh2, Rk2, Rh3] using a scaled-up biotransformation reaction, which was performed in a 10-L jar fermenter at pH 6.5/7.0 and 37°C for 24 h. To our knowledge, this is the first report in which 50 g of PPD-Mix (Rb1, Rb2, Rb3, Rc, and Rd) as a starting substrate was converted to ginsenoside Rg3-Mix by acid heat treatment and then 24.5-g Rh2-Mix was obtained by enzymatic transformation of Rg3-Mix through by BglPm_C. Utilization of this enzymatic method adopting a GRAS host could be usefully exploited in the preparation of ginsenoside Rh2-Mix in cosmetics, functional food, and pharmaceutical industries, thereby replacing the E. coli expression system. PMID:28423055

  10. Therapeutic effect of ginsenoside Rd in rats with TNBS-induced recurrent ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Lai; Guo, Tian-Kang; Wang, Yan-Hong; Gao, Ming-Tang; Qin, Hong; Wu, Yong-Jie

    2012-07-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is characterized by oxidative and nitrosative stress and neutrophil infiltration. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of ginsenoside Rd (GRd) in rats with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced recurrent UC. After UC was twice-induced by intracolonic injection of TNBS, rats were intragastrically administered different doses of GRd per day for 7 days. The colonic lesions and inflammation were evaluated both histologically and biochemically. Compared with the TNBS group, GRd treatment facilitated recovery of pathologic changes in the colon after induction of recurrent UC, as evidenced by a significant reduction of colonic weight/length ratio and macroscopic and microscopic damage scores (p < 0.01). The myeloperoxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase activities with malonyldialdehyde and nitric oxide levels in colonic tissues were significantly decreased in the GRd group compared with those in the TNBS group (p < 0.01). GRd treatment was associated with remarkably increased superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Results showed a valuable effect of GRd against TNBS-induced recurrent UC by inhibiting neutrophil infiltration and promoting the antioxidant capacity of the damaged colonic tissue.

  11. Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Hasan B.

    2013-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the promotion process in an academic medical center. A description of different promotional tracks, tenure and endowed chairs, and the process of submitting an application is provided. Finally, some practical advice about developing skills and attributes that can help with academic growth and promotion is dispensed. PMID:24436683

  12. Ginsenoside Rh2 inhibits osteoclastogenesis through down-regulation of NF-κB, NFATc1 and c-Fos.

    PubMed

    He, Long; Lee, Junwon; Jang, Jae Hyuk; Lee, Sung-Hoon; Nan, Mei Hua; Oh, Byung-Chul; Lee, Sang Gu; Kim, Hong Hee; Soung, Nak Kyun; Ahn, Jong Seog; Kim, Bo Yeon

    2012-06-01

    Ginsenoside Rh2 is one of the most active components of red ginseng, controlling cancer and other metabolic diseases including osteoclast differentiation. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the inhibition of osteoclast differentiation by ginsenoside Rh2 remains poorly understood. In the present study, it was found that ginsenoside Rh2 suppressed osteoclast differentiation from bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) treated with receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) without any cytotoxicity. Ginsenoside Rh2 significantly reduced RANKL-induced expression of transcription factors, c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFATc1), as well as osteoclast markers, TRAP and OSCAR. In defining the signaling pathways, ginsenoside Rh2 was shown to moderately inhibit NF-κB activation and ERK phosphorylation in response to RANKL stimulation in BMM cells without any effect on p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Finally, ginsenoside Rh2 blocked osteoporosis in vivo as confirmed by restored bone mineral density (BMD) and other markers associated osteoclast differentiation. Hence, it is suggested that ginsenoside Rh2 could suppress RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in vitro and in vivo through the regulation of c-Fos and NFATc1 expressions, not excluding the involvement of NF-κB and ERK. Ginsenoside Rh2 is also suggested to be developed as a therapeutic drug for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Identification and Characterization of a Ginsenoside-Transforming β-Glucosidase from Pseudonocardia sp. Gsoil 1536 and Its Application for Enhanced Production of Minor Ginsenoside Rg2(S)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Chul; Kim, Jin-Kwang; Yu, Hong-Shan; Jin, Feng-Xie; Sun, Changkai; Kim, Sun-Chang; Im, Wan-Taek

    2014-01-01

    The ginsenoside Rg2(S), which is one of the pharmaceutical components of ginseng, is known to have neuroprotective, anti-inflammation, and anti-diabetic effects. However, the usage of ginsenoside Rg2(S) is restricted owing to the small amounts found in white and red ginseng. To enhance the production of ginsenoside Rg2(S) as a 100 gram unit with high specificity, yield, and purity, an enzymatic bioconversion method was developed to adopt the recombinant glycoside hydrolase (BglPC28), which is a ginsenoside-transforming recombinant β-glucosidase from Pseudonocardia sp. strain Gsoil 1536. The gene, termed bglPC28, encoding β-glucosidase (BglPC28) belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 3 was cloned. bglPC28 consists of 2,232 bp (743 amino acid residues) with a predicted molecular mass of 78,975 Da. This enzyme was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) using a GST-fused pGEX 4T-1 vector system. The optimum conditions of the recombinant BglPC28 were pH 7.0 and 37°C. BglPC28 can effectively transform the ginsenoside Re to Rg2(S); the Km values of PNPG and Re were 6.36±1.10 and 1.42±0.13 mM, respectively, and the Vmax values were 40.0±2.55 and 5.62±0.21 µmol min−1 mg−1 of protein, respectively. A scaled-up biotransformation reaction was performed in a 10 L jar fermenter at pH 7.0 and 30°C for 12 hours with a concentration of 20 mg/ml of ginsenoside Re from American ginseng roots. Finally, 113 g of Rg2(S) was produced from 150 g of Re with 84.0±1.1% chromatographic purity. These results suggest that this enzymatic method could be usefully exploited in the preparation of ginsenoside Rg2(S) in the cosmetics, functional food, and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:24911166

  14. Structure–inhibition relationship of ginsenosides towards UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs)

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Zhong-Ze; Cao, Yun-Feng; Hu, Cui-Min; Hong, Mo; Sun, Xiao-Yu; Ge, Guang-Bo; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Yan-Yan; Yang, Ling; Sun, Hong-Zhi

    2013-03-01

    The wide utilization of ginseng provides the high risk of herb–drug interaction (HDI) with many clinical drugs. The inhibition of ginsenosides towards drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) has been regarded as an important reason for herb–drug interaction (HDI). Compared with the deep studies on the ginsenosides' inhibition towards cytochrome P450 (CYP), the inhibition of ginsenosides towards the important phase II enzymes UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) remains to be unclear. The present study aims to evaluate the inhibition behavior of ginsenosides towards important UGT isoforms located in the liver and intestine using in vitro methods. The recombinant UGT isoform-catalyzed 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) glucuronidation reaction was employed as in vitro probe reaction. The results showed that structure-dependent inhibition existed for the inhibition of ginsenosides towards UGT isoforms. To clarify the possibility of in vivo herb–drug interaction induced by this kind of inhibition, the ginsenoside Rg{sub 3} was selected as an example, and the inhibition kinetic type and parameters (K{sub i}) were determined. Rg{sub 3} competitively inhibited UGT1A7, 2B7 and 2B15-catalyzed 4-MU glucuronidation reaction, and exerted noncompetitive inhibition towards UGT1A8-catalyzed 4-MU glucuronidation. The inhibition parameters (K{sub i} values) were calculated to be 22.6, 7.9, 1.9, and 2.0 μM for UGT1A7, 1A8, 2B7 and 2B15. Using human maximum plasma concentration of Rg{sub 3} (400 ng/ml (0.5 μM)) after intramuscular injection of 60 mg Rg{sub 3}, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) was extrapolated to increase by 2.2%, 6.3%, 26.3%, and 25% for the co-administered drugs completely undergoing the metabolism catalyzed by UGT1A7, 1A8, 2B7 and 2B15, respectively. All these results indicated that the ginsenosides' inhibition towards UGT isoforms might be an important reason for ginseng–drug interaction. - Highlights: ► Structure-dependent inhibition of

  15. Quality Characteristics and Ginsenosides Composition of Ginseng-Yakju According to the Particle Size of Ginseng Powder

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Je-Hyuk; Choi, Kang Hyun; Sohn, Eun-Hwa; Jang, Ki-Hyo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop rice wine (Yakju) containing various amounts and particle sizes of ginseng powder and to analyze the physicochemical characteristics and content of ginsenosides in ginseng-Yakju. Soluble solid content, pH, ethanol concentration, acidity, amino acid content, and evaluation of preference showed no difference between four kinds of Yakju groups, regardless of ginseng supplementation and particle size of the ginseng powder. During fermentation of Yakju containing ginseng, the contents of ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, Rb3, and Rc were decreased. Otherwise, the content of ginsenoside Rh1 was increased highly by brewing microorganisms in Yakju. Recovery ratios of ginsenosides in ginseng-Yakju were approximately 25.4% (coarse ginseng power) and 23.8% (fine ginseng powder), which were superior to the recovery ratio of ginsenosides in Yakju containing ginseng slices (5%). PMID:24551824

  16. Ginsenoside compound K induces apoptosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells via activation of apoptosis-inducing factor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has a high incidence rate in Southern China. Although there are conventional therapies, the side effects and toxicities are not always tolerable for patients. Recently, the tumoricidal effect of ginsenosides on different cancer cells has been studied. This study aims to investigate the anti-cancer effect of ginsenosides on NPC cells and their underlying mechanism. Methods The cytotoxicity of ginsenosides on NPC cell line HK-1 was measured by MTT assay. Apoptosis was detected by propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometry. A xenograft tumor model was established by injecting nude mice with HK-1 cells. The activation of caspases and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) were evaluated by Western blot analysis. Nuclear translocation of AIF was also studied by immunofluorescence staining. Mitochondrial membrane potential was measured by JC-1 dye using flow cytometry. Results Four ginsenosides, 20 (S)-Rh2, compound K (CK), panaxadiol (PD) and protopanaxadiol (PPD), induced apoptotic cell death in HK-1 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. CK inhibited HK-1 xenograft tumor growth most extensively and depleted mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization and induced translocation of AIF from cytoplasm to nucleus in HK-1 cells. In addition, depletion of AIF by siRNA abolished CK-induced HK-1 cell death. Conclusion Ginsenoside CK-induced apoptosis of HK-1 cells was mediated by the mitochondrial pathway and could significantly inhibit tumor growth in vivo. PMID:24690317

  17. Determination of 22 ginsenosides in ginseng products using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jaeho; Shim, You-Shin; Seo, Dongwon; Kim, Kijin; Ito, Masahito; Nakagawa, Hiroaki

    2013-04-01

    A reverse-phase ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (u-HPLC) method was developed for the rapid quantification of 22 ginsenosides in ginseng products. The proposed method for the analysis of ginsenosides is based on a heating-block method without further treatment. The u-HPLC separation was performed on a reversed C18 column (100 × 2 mm id, particle size 2 µm) followed by ultraviolet detection at 203 nm. Aqueous 50% methanol was used as the extraction solvent. The optimum amount of extraction solvent and the optimum extraction time were 20 mL and 20 min (extracted twice with 10 mL), respectively. The method validation parameters yielded good results for linearity, precision, accuracy and recovery. The recovery of ginsenosides from ginseng powder was greater than 98.1% and the limits of detection and quantification of the u-HPLC analysis were >0.6 and >1.8 mg/kg for ginsenosides. The calibration graphs for ginsenosides were linear from approximately 2.6 to 40.4 mg/kg for u-HPLC. The inter-day and intra-day precisions (relative standard deviation values) were <14.6 and 14.7%, except for Rg2(R) + Rh1(R).

  18. Mass production of the ginsenoside Rg3(S) through the combinative use of two glycoside hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Kwang; Cui, Chang-Hao; Liu, Qingmei; Yoon, Min-Ho; Kim, Sun-Chang; Im, Wan-Taek

    2013-11-15

    The ginsenoside Rg3(S), which is one of the exceptional components of Korean red ginseng extract, has been known to have anti-cancer, anti-metastatic, and anti-obesity effects. An enzymatic bioconversion method was developed to obtain the ginsenoside Rg3(S) with a high specificity, yield, and purity. Two glycoside hydrolases (BglBX10 and Abf22-3) were employed to produce Rg3(S) as a 100g unit. The conversion reaction transformed ginsenoside Rc to Rd using Abf22-3, followed by Rb1 and Rd to Rg3(S), using BglBX10. It was performed in a 10L jar fermenter at pH 6.0 and 37°C for 24h, with a high concentration of 50mg/ml of purified ginsenoside mixture obtained from ginseng roots. Finally, 144g of Rg3(S) was produced from 250g of root extract with 78±1.2% chromatographic purity. These results suggest that this enzymatic method would be useful in the preparation of ginsenoside Rg3(S) for the functional food and pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of B-complex vitamins on the antifatigue activity and bioavailability of ginsenoside Re after oral administration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yin Bin; Wang, Yu Fang; Hou, Wei; Wang, Ying Ping; Xiao, Sheng Yuan; Fu, Yang Yang; Wang, Jia; Zheng, Si Wen; Zheng, Pei He

    2017-04-01

    Both ginsenoside Re and B-complex vitamins are widely used as nutritional supplements. They are often taken together so as to fully utilize their antifatigue and refreshing effects, respectively. Whether actually a drug-nutrient interaction exists between ginsenoside Re and B-complex vitamins is still unknown. The objective of this study was to simultaneously investigate the effect of B-complex vitamins on the antifatigue activity and bioavailability of ginsenoside Re after their oral administration. The study results will provide valuable theoretical guidance for the combined utilization of ginseng and B-complex vitamins. Ginsenoside Re with or without B-complex vitamins was orally administered to mice to evaluate its antifatigue effects and to rats to evaluate its bioavailability. The antifatigue activity was evaluated by the weight-loaded swimming test and biochemical parameters, including hepatic glycogen, plasma urea nitrogen, and blood lactic acid. The concentration of ginsenoside Re in plasma was determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. No antifatigue effect of ginsenoside Re was noted when ginsenoside Re in combination with B-complex vitamins was orally administered to mice. B-complex vitamins caused to a reduction in the bioavailability of ginsenoside Re with the area under the concentration-time curve from zero to infinity markedly decreasing from 11,830.85 ± 2,366.47 h·ng/mL to 890.55 ± 372.94 h·ng/mL. The results suggested that there were pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug-nutrient interactions between ginsenoside Re and B-complex vitamins. B-complex vitamins can significantly weaken the antifatigue effect and decrease the bioavailability of ginsenoside Re when simultaneously administered orally.

  20. Enzymatic formation of compound-K from ginsenoside Rb1 by enzyme preparation from cultured mycelia of Armillaria mellea

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyaya, Jitendra; Kim, Min-Ji; Kim, Young-Hoi; Ko, Sung-Ryong; Park, Hee-Won; Kim, Myung-Kon

    2015-01-01

    Background Minor saponins or human intestinal bacterial metabolites, such as ginsenosides Rg3, F2, Rh2, and compound K, are more pharmacologically active than major saponins, such as ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, and Rc. In this work, enzymatic hydrolysis of ginsenoside Rb1 was studied using enzyme preparations from cultured mycelia of mushrooms. Methods Mycelia of Armillaria mellea, Ganoderma lucidum, Phellinus linteus, Elfvingia applanata, and Pleurotus ostreatus were cultivated in liquid media at 25°C for 2 wk. Enzyme preparations from cultured mycelia of five mushrooms were obtained by mycelia separation from cultured broth, enzyme extraction, ammonium sulfate (30–80%) precipitation, dialysis, and freeze drying, respectively. The enzyme preparations were used for enzymatic hydrolysis of ginsenoside Rb1. Results Among the mushrooms used in this study, the enzyme preparation from cultured mycelia of A. mellea (AMMEP) was found to convert ginsenoside Rb1 into compound K with a high yield, while those from G. lucidum, P. linteus, E. applanata, and P. ostreatus produced remarkable amounts of ginsenoside Rd from ginsenoside Rb1. The enzymatic hydrolysis pathway of ginsenoside Rb1 by AMMEP was Rb1 → Rd → F2 → compound K. The optimum reaction conditions for compound K formation from ginsenoside Rb1 were as follows: reaction time 72–96 h, pH 4.0–4.5, and temperature 45–55°C. Conclusion AMMEP can be used to produce the human intestinal bacterial metabolite, compound K, from ginsenoside Rb1 with a high yield and without food safety issues. PMID:27158230

  1. Pharmacokinetic Comparison of 20(R)- and 20(S)-Ginsenoside Rh1 and 20(R)- and 20(S)-Ginsenoside Rg3 in Rat Plasma following Oral Administration of Radix Ginseng Rubra and Sheng-Mai-San Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan; Zhu, Danni

    2017-01-01

    Ginsenosides Rh1 and Rg3, as the main bioactive components from Ginseng, are effective for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Sheng-Mai-San (SMS), a classical complex prescription of traditional Chinese medicines, is composed of Radix Ginseng Rubra, Fructus Schisandrae, and Radix Ophiopogonis. In this research, a sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric method was developed and validated for stereoselective determination and pharmacokinetic studies of 20(R)- and 20(S)-ginsenoside Rh1 and 20(R)- and 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 epimers in rat plasma after oral administration of Radix Ginseng Rubra or SMS extracts. The main pharmacokinetic parameters including Tmax, Cmax, t1/2, and AUC were calculated by noncompartment model. Compared with Radix Ginseng Rubra, SMS could significantly increase the content of ginsenosides Rh1 and Rg3 in the decocting process. Ginsenosides Rh1 and Rg3 following SMS treatment displayed higher Cmax, AUC(0–t), and AUC(0–∞) and longer t1/2 and tmax except for 20(R)-Rh1 in rat plasma. The results indicated SMS compound compatibility could influence the dissolution in vitro and the pharmacokinetic behaviors in vivo of ginsenosides Rh1 and Rg3, suggesting pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions between ginsenosides Rh1 and Rg3 and other ingredients from Fructus Schisandrae and Radix Ophiopogonis. This study would provide valuable information for drug development and clinical application of SMS. PMID:28620420

  2. Pharmacokinetic Comparison of 20(R)- and 20(S)-Ginsenoside Rh1 and 20(R)- and 20(S)-Ginsenoside Rg3 in Rat Plasma following Oral Administration of Radix Ginseng Rubra and Sheng-Mai-San Extracts.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiaomei; Xu, Yan; Zhu, Danni; Ji, Yibing

    2017-01-01

    Ginsenosides Rh1 and Rg3, as the main bioactive components from Ginseng, are effective for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Sheng-Mai-San (SMS), a classical complex prescription of traditional Chinese medicines, is composed of Radix Ginseng Rubra, Fructus Schisandrae, and Radix Ophiopogonis. In this research, a sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric method was developed and validated for stereoselective determination and pharmacokinetic studies of 20(R)- and 20(S)-ginsenoside Rh1 and 20(R)- and 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 epimers in rat plasma after oral administration of Radix Ginseng Rubra or SMS extracts. The main pharmacokinetic parameters including Tmax, Cmax, t1/2, and AUC were calculated by noncompartment model. Compared with Radix Ginseng Rubra, SMS could significantly increase the content of ginsenosides Rh1 and Rg3 in the decocting process. Ginsenosides Rh1 and Rg3 following SMS treatment displayed higher Cmax, AUC(0-t), and AUC(0-∞) and longer t1/2 and tmax except for 20(R)-Rh1 in rat plasma. The results indicated SMS compound compatibility could influence the dissolution in vitro and the pharmacokinetic behaviors in vivo of ginsenosides Rh1 and Rg3, suggesting pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions between ginsenosides Rh1 and Rg3 and other ingredients from Fructus Schisandrae and Radix Ophiopogonis. This study would provide valuable information for drug development and clinical application of SMS.

  3. Morphological and Ginsenoside Differences among North American Ginseng Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Proctor, John T. A.; Sullivan, Alan J.; Rupasinghe, Vasantha P. V.; Jackson, Chung-Ja C.

    2011-01-01

    Leaf characteristics of mature 2, 3 and 4-year-old North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) leaves on fruiting and non-fruiting (NF) plants were studied. Leaflets of the 2-year-old plants had the lowest fresh and dry weight, area, volume and internal gas volume. Inflorescence removal in 3-year-old plants did not affect leaf characteristics or ginsenoside concentration but in 4-yearold plants it increased leaf fresh (38.6%) and dry (43.9%) weight, leaf area (29.1%), specific leaf mass (11.4%), leaf volume (43.1%), and leaf thickness (12.1%), and decreased leaf water content (6.2%). Cultivated ginseng, although an understorey plant, had the specific leaf mass, 35.6 g m-2 (range, 36 to 39 g m-2) and a chlorophyll a/b ratio of 2.40 to 2.61, both suggesting the ability to perform like a sunny habitat plant. Also, specific leaf mass of 35.6 g m-2 is similar to that reported for perennial plants, 36.8 g m-2, rather than that for annuals, 30.9 g m-2. PMID:23717057

  4. Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 by ginsenoside Rd via activation of CCAAT-enhancer binding proteins and cyclic AMP response binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Hye Gwang; Pokharel, Yuba Raj; Han, Eun Hee; Kang, Keon Wook . E-mail: kwkang@chosun.ac.kr

    2007-07-20

    Panax ginseng is a widely used herbal medicine in East Asia and is reported to have a variety of pharmacological effects against cardiovascular diseases and cancers. Here we show a unique effect of ginsenoside Rd (Rd) on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in RAW264.7 macrophages. Rd (100 {mu}g/ml), but not other ginsenosides induced COX-2 and increased prostaglandin E{sub 2} production. Gel shift and Western blot analyses using nuclear fractions revealed that Rd increased both the DNA binding of and the nuclear levels of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP){alpha}/{beta} and cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB), but not of p65, in RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, Rd increased the luciferase reporter gene activity in cells transfected with a 574-bp mouse COX-2 promoter construct. Site-specific mutation analyses confirmed that Rd-mediated transcriptional activation of COX-2 gene was regulated by C/EBP and CREB. These results provide evidence that Rd activated C/EBP and CREB, and that the activation of C/EBP and CREB appears to be essential for induction of COX-2 in RAW264.7 cells.

  5. Induction of apoptosis and reversal of permeability glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance of MCF-7/ADM by ginsenoside Rh2

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Gong, Jian; Zhang, Huilai; Kong, Di

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance is a phenomenon that cancer cells develop a cross-resistant phenotype against several unrelated drugs, and permeability glycoprotein derived from the overexpression of multidrug resistance gene 1 has been taken as the most significant cause of multidrug resistance. In the present study, ginsenoside Rh2 was used to reverse permeability glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance of MCF-7/ADM cell line. Effects of ginsenoside Rh2 on the apoptotic process and caspase-3 activity of MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADM cell lines were determined using flow cytometry and microplate reader. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium test was conducted to assess the IC50 values of ginsenoside Rh2 and adriamycin on MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADM cultures; Rhodamin 123 assay was used to assess the retention of permeability glycoprotein after ginsenoside Rh2 treatment; flow cytometry and real time polymerase chain reaction were used to determine the expression levels of permeability glycoprotein and multidrug resistance gene 1 in drug-resistant cells and their parental cells after exposure to ginsenoside Rh2. The results showed that ginsenoside Rh2, except for inducing apoptosis, had the ability to reverse multidrug resistance in MCF-7/ADM cell line without changing the expression levels of permeability glycoprotein and multidrug resistance gene 1. Our findings provided some valuable information for the application of ginsenoside Rh2 in cancer therapy, especially for multidrug resistance reversal in clinic. PMID:26191135

  6. Induction of apoptosis and reversal of permeability glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance of MCF-7/ADM by ginsenoside Rh2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Gong, Jian; Zhang, Huilai; Kong, Di

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance is a phenomenon that cancer cells develop a cross-resistant phenotype against several unrelated drugs, and permeability glycoprotein derived from the overexpression of multidrug resistance gene 1 has been taken as the most significant cause of multidrug resistance. In the present study, ginsenoside Rh2 was used to reverse permeability glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance of MCF-7/ADM cell line. Effects of ginsenoside Rh2 on the apoptotic process and caspase-3 activity of MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADM cell lines were determined using flow cytometry and microplate reader. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium test was conducted to assess the IC50 values of ginsenoside Rh2 and adriamycin on MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADM cultures; Rhodamin 123 assay was used to assess the retention of permeability glycoprotein after ginsenoside Rh2 treatment; flow cytometry and real time polymerase chain reaction were used to determine the expression levels of permeability glycoprotein and multidrug resistance gene 1 in drug-resistant cells and their parental cells after exposure to ginsenoside Rh2. The results showed that ginsenoside Rh2, except for inducing apoptosis, had the ability to reverse multidrug resistance in MCF-7/ADM cell line without changing the expression levels of permeability glycoprotein and multidrug resistance gene 1. Our findings provided some valuable information for the application of ginsenoside Rh2 in cancer therapy, especially for multidrug resistance reversal in clinic.

  7. Effects of Total Ginsenosides on the Feeding Behavior and Two Enzymes Activities of Mythimna separata (Walker) Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ai-Hua; Tan, Shi-Qiang; Zhao, Yan; Lei, Feng-Jie; Zhang, Lian-Xue

    2015-01-01

    Ginsenosides, the main effective components of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer and Panax quinquefolius L., are important allelochemicals of ginseng. Although many studies have targeted the pharmacological, chemical, and clinical properties of ginsenosides, little is known about their ecological role in ginseng population adaptation and evolution. Pests rarely feed on ginseng, and it is not known why. This study investigated the effects of total ginsenosides on feeding behavior and activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glutathione s-transferase (GST) in Mythimna separata (Walker) larvae. The results showed that the total ginsenosides had significant antifeeding activity against M. separata larvae, determined by nonselective and selective antifeeding bioassays. In addition, the total ginsenosides had inhibitory effects on the activities of GST and AChE. The antifeeding ratio was the highest at 8 h, then decreased, and was the lowest at 16 h. Both GST and AChE activities decreased from 0 h to 48 h in all total ginsenosides treatments but increased at 72 h. Total ginsenosides had antifeeding activity against M. separata larvae and inhibitory effects on the activities of GST and AChE. PMID:26074991

  8. Daikenchuto (TU-100) shapes gut microbiota architecture and increases the production of ginsenoside metabolite compound K.

    PubMed

    Hasebe, Takumu; Ueno, Nobuhiro; Musch, Mark W; Nadimpalli, Anuradha; Kaneko, Atsushi; Kaifuchi, Noriko; Watanabe, Junko; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Kono, Toru; Inaba, Yuhei; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Kohgo, Yutaka; Chang, Eugene B

    2016-02-01

    Many pharmaceutical agents not only require microbial metabolism for increased bioavailability and bioactivity, but also have direct effects on gut microbial assemblage and function. We examined the possibility that these actions are not mutually exclusive and may be mutually reinforcing in ways that enhance long-term of these agents. Daikenchuto, TU-100, is a traditional Japanese medicine containing ginseng. Conversion of the ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1) to bioactive compound K (CK) requires bacterial metabolism. Diet-incorporated TU-100 was administered to mice over a period of several weeks. T-RFLP and 454 pyrosequencing were performed to analyze the time-dependent effects on fecal microbial membership. Fecal microbial capacity to metabolize Rb1 to CK was measured by adding TU-100 or ginseng to stool samples to assess the generation of bioactive metabolites. Levels of metabolized TU-100 components in plasma and in stool samples were measured by LC-MS/MS. Cecal and stool short-chain fatty acids were measured by GC-MS. Dietary administration of TU-100 for 28 days altered the gut microbiota, increasing several bacteria genera including members of Clostridia and Lactococcus lactis. Progressive capacity of microbiota to convert Rb1 to CK was observed over the 28 days administration of dietary TU-100. Concomitantly with these changes, increases in all SCFA were observed in cecal contents and in acetate and butyrate content of the stool. Chronic consumption of dietary TU-100 promotes changes in gut microbiota enhancing metabolic capacity of TU-100 and increased bioavailability. We believe these findings have broad implications in optimizing the efficacy of natural compounds that depend on microbial bioconversion in general.

  9. Anti-obesity effects of ginsenoside Rh2 are associated with the activation of AMPK signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocyte.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jin-Taek; Kim, Soon-Hee; Lee, Myoung-Su; Kim, Sung Hee; Yang, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Min-Jung; Kim, Hak-Soo; Ha, Joohun; Kim, Myung Sunny; Kwon, Dae Young

    2007-12-28

    Metabolic disorders such as obesity are major obstacles in improving the average life span. Therefore, a therapeutic approach using natural compounds has been proposed as a novel strategy for preventing metabolic disorders. Ginsenoside Rh2 is one of the ginsenosides that exert anti-diabetes, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer effects. However, the anti-obesity effects of Ginsenoside Rh2 remain unclear. Here, we investigated the anti-obesity ability of ginsenoside Rh2 using cell culture systems. Ginsenoside Rh2 effectively inhibited adipocyte differentiation via PPAR-gamma inhibition. Next, to find specific target molecules based on this result, we used cell culture systems to examine whether AMPK activation was involved in the anti-obesity ability of ginsenoside Rh2 since several published papers have indicated that AMPK signaling is involved in the regulation of metabolic disorders. Ginsenoside Rh2 significantly activated AMPK in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In addition, we also examined the effect of AMPK on lipolysis molecules such as CPT-1 and UCP-2 by using an AMPK inhibitor. Ginsenoside Rh2 effectively induced CPT-1 and UCP-2 and this induction was abolished by AMPK inhibitor treatment. Moreover, we observed that ROS is an important upstream signal for AMPK activation during ginsenoside Rh2 treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that ginsenoside Rh2 is the most effective candidate for preventing metabolic disorders such as obesity and that it acts via the AMPK signaling pathway. Thus, AMPK signaling might contribute toward improving human health.

  10. Large Scale Culture of Ginseng Adventitious Roots for Production of Ginsenosides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paek, Kee-Yoeup; Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Hahn, Eun-Joo; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) is one of the most famous oriental medicinal plants used as crude drugs in Asian countries, and now it is being used worldwide for preventive and therapeutic purposes. Among diverse constituents of ginseng, saponins (ginsenosides) have been found to be major components responsible for their biological and pharmacological actions. On the other hand, difficulties in the supply of pure ginsenosides in quantity prevent the development of ginseng for clinical medicines. Cultivation of ginseng in fields takes a long time, generally 5-7 years, and needs extensive effort regarding quality control since growth is susceptible to many environmental factors including soil, shade, climate, pathogens and pests. To solve the problems, cell and tissue cultures have been widely explored for more rapid and efficient production of ginseng biomass and ginsenosides. Recently, cell and adventitious root cultures of P. ginseng have been established in large scale bioreactors with a view to commercial application. Various physiological and engineering parameters affecting the biomass production and ginsenoside accumulation have been investigated. Advances in adventitious root cultures including factors for process scale-up are reviewed in this chapter. In addition, biosafety analyses of ginseng adventitious roots are also discussed for real application.

  11. Antiobesity and Antihyperglycemic Effects of Ginsenoside Rb1 in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Ye; Shen, Ling; Liu, Kristina J.; Tso, Patrick; Xiong, Yuqing; Wang, Guangji; Woods, Stephen C.; Liu, Min

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Obesity and type 2 diabetes are national and worldwide epidemics. Because currently available antiobesity and antidiabetic drugs have limited efficacy and/or safety concerns, identifying new medicinal agents, such as ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1) as reported here, offers exciting possibilities for future development of successful antiobesity and antidiabetic therapies. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Changes in feeding behavior after acute intraperitoneal administration of Rb1 and the effects of intraperitoneal Rb1 for 4 weeks on body weight, energy expenditure, and glucose tolerance in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats were assessed. We also examined the effects of Rb1 on signaling pathways and neuropeptides in the hypothalamus. RESULTS Acute intraperitoneal Rb1 dose-dependently suppressed food intake without eliciting signs of toxicity. This inhibitory effect on feeding may be mediated by central mechanisms because Rb1 stimulated c-Fos expression in brain areas involved in energy homeostasis. Consistent with this, Rb1 activated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway and inhibited NPY gene expression in the hypothalamus. Four-week administration of Rb1 significantly reduced food intake, body weight gain, and body fat content and increased energy expenditure in HFD-induced obese rats. Rb1 also significantly decreased fasting blood glucose and improved glucose tolerance, and these effects were greater than those observed in pair-fed rats, suggesting that although Rb1's antihyperglycemic effect is partially attributable to reduced food intake and body weight; there may be additional effects of Rb1 on glucose homeostasis. CONCLUSIONS These results identify Rb1 as an antiobesity and antihyperglycemic agent. PMID:20682695

  12. The antitumor activity study of ginsenosides and metabolites in lung cancer cell

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Feng-Yuan; Shang, Wen-Qing; Yu, Jia-Jun; Sun, Qian; Li, Ming-Qing; Sun, Jian-Song

    2016-01-01

    Ginseng and its components exert various biological effects, including antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-mutagenic, and antitumor activity. Ginsenosides are the main biological components of ginseng. Protopanaxadiol (PPD) and protopanaxatriol (PPT) are two metabolites of ginsenosides. However, the difference between these compounds in anti-lung cancer is unclear. The present study aimed to evaluate the antitumor activity of PPD, PPT, Ginsenosides-Rg3 (G-Rg3) and Ginsenosides-Rh2 (G-Rh2) in lung cancer cell. After treatment with cisplatin, PPD, PPT, G-Rg3 or G-Rh2, the viability, apoptosis level and invasiveness of lung cell lines (A549 cell, a lung adenocarcinoma cell line and SK-MES-1 cell, a lung squamous cell line) in vitro were analyzed by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8), Annexin V/PI apoptosis and Matrigel invasion assays, respectively. Here we found that all these compounds led to significant decreases of viability and invasiveness and an obvious increase of apoptosis of A549 and SK-MES-1 cells. Among these, the viability of SK-MES-1 cell treated with PPT was decreased to 66.8%, and this effect was closest to Cisplatin. G-Rg3 had the highest stimulatory effect on apoptosis, and PTT had the highest inhibitory effect on cell invasiveness in A549 and SK-MES-1 cells. These results indicate that both ginsenosides and two metabolites have antitumor activity on lung cancer cell in vitro. However, PPT is more powerful for inhibiting the viability and invasiveness of lung cancer cell, especially lung squamous cell. G-Rg3 has the best pro-apoptosis effects. This study provides a scientific basis for potential therapeutic strategies targeted to lung cancer by further structure modification. PMID:27186294

  13. Localization of ginsenosides in the rhizome and root of Panax ginseng by laser microdissection and liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time of flight-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhitao; Chen, Yujie; Xu, Liang; Qin, Minjian; Yi, Tao; Chen, Hubiao; Zhao, Zhongzhen

    2015-02-01

    The root and rhizome of Panax ginseng C.A. Mey, known as ginseng, is a commonly used medicinal plant. Ginsenosides are the major active components responsible for the tonic effects of this herb. Here, the combination of laser microdissection and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole/time of flight-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS) was applied to investigate the localization of ginsenosides in root and rhizome of P. ginseng. Five kinds of tissue cells were separated from the rhizome, main root and branch root of ginseng. Fifty-nine ginsenosides were identified and the results showed that the cork contained more kinds of ginsenosides than did the cortex, phloem, xylem and resin canals. It is interesting that the phloem, xylem and resin canals from branch root contained a greater number of ginsenosides than did from main root. This study provides solid evidence on the accumulation of ginsenosides in cork, cortex, phloem and xylem.

  14. A Strategy for Simultaneous Isolation of Less Polar Ginsenosides, Including a Pair of New 20-Methoxyl Isomers, from Flower Buds of Panax ginseng.

    PubMed

    Li, Sha-Sha; Li, Ke-Ke; Xu, Fei; Tao, Li; Yang, Li; Chen, Shu-Xiao; Gong, Xiao-Jie

    2017-03-10

    The present study was designed to simultaneously isolate the less polar ginsenosides from the flower buds of Panax ginseng (FBPG). Five ginsenosides, including a pair of new 20-methoxyl isomers, were extracted from FBPG and purified through a five-step integrated strategy, by combining ultrasonic extraction, Diaion Hp-20 macroporous resin column enrichment, solid phase extraction (SPE), reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) analysis and preparation, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. The quantification of the five ginsenosides was also discussed by a developed method with validations within acceptable limits. Ginsenoside Rg5 showed content of about 1% in FBPG. The results indicated that FBPG might have many different ginsenosides with diverse chemical structures, and the less polar ginsenosides were also important to the quality control and standardization of FBPG.

  15. [Ginsenoside Rg3 induces apoptosis of human lung squamous cell carcinoma SK-MES-1 cell line].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Zheng, Yu-ling; Li, Ke; Lin, Na; Fan, Qing-xia

    2009-09-01

    To investigate the effect of ginsenoside Rg3 on the apoptosis and survivin expression in human lung squamous cell carcinoma cell line SK-MES-1. SK-MES-1 cells were divided into Rg3 treatment group, blank control group and positive control (arsenic trioxide) group. The apoptotic rate of the cells in each group was determined using flow cytometry, and the expression of survivin protein and mRNA was detected by immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR, respectively. A 48-h treatment with Ginsenoside Rg3 induced increased apoptotic rate of SK-MES-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Ginsenoside Rg3 significantly downregulated the expressions of survivin protein and mRNA as compared with the expression levels in the blank control group (P<0.05). Ginsenoside Rg3 can induce the apoptosis of SK-MES-1 cells, the mechanism of which may involve inhibited survivin expression.

  16. Ginsenoside Rh2 inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in human leukemia cells via TNF-α signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jingjia; Peng, Kunjian; Wang, Linghao; Wen, Bin; Zhou, Lin; Luo, Tiao; Su, Min; Li, Jijia; Luo, Zhiyong

    2016-08-01

    Ginsenoside Rh2, a triterpene saponin extracted from Panax ginseng, exhibits pharmacological activity against multiple cancers. However, the anticancer mechanism of ginsenoside Rh2 is unclear. In this study, we found that ginsenoside Rh2 effectively inhibits growth and induces apoptosis of HL-60 cells. Using microarray technology, we found that tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is clearly up-regulated. Furthermore, anti-TNF-α antibody relieved the Rh2-induced HL-60 cell apoptosis via suppression of caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3 activation. In addition, TNF-α up-regulation was also observed in other Rh2-treated cancer cell lines. These results demonstrate that TNF-α plays a key role in ginsenoside Rh2-induced cell apoptosis.

  17. Mechanism of action of ginsenoside Rh2: uptake and metabolism of ginsenoside Rh2 by cultured B16 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ota, T; Maeda, M; Odashima, S

    1991-12-01

    The uptake and metabolism of ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2) by B16 melanoma cells were studied. In a medium containing 2% fetal calf serum, the uptake of Rh2 reached a maximum of 3 nmol/10(6) cells at 3-6 h after Rh2 (12.5 microM) was added, but gradually decreased to 0.8 nmol/10(6) cells. In these cells, protopanaxadiol (PPD), which is an aglycon of Rh2, increased inversely with the decrease in Rh2 as a result of deglycosylation by the cells. When PPD (8 microM) was added to the medium, the uptake reached a plateau of 2.4 nmol/10(6) cells, within 0.5 h. The association constant of Rh2 (1.74 +/- 1.08 x 10(6) M-1) for bovine serum albumin (BSA) was significantly higher than that of PPD (9.90 +/- 1.10 x 10(4) M-1). In a serum-free medium, both Rh2 and PPD were incorporated within 1.5 h. The uptake rate constant of Rh2 (1.20 +/- 0.20 h-1) was not significantly different from that of PPD (1.02 +/- 0.15 h-1), but the release rate constant of PPD (2.12 +/- 0.38 h-1) was significantly lower than that of Rh2 (3.03 +/- 0.57 h-1). These differences in affinity for BSA and the release rate constants were thought to be the cause of the difference in uptake kinetics between these drugs. The effects of Rh2 and PPD on the cells were identical, and there was no difference in the lag periods before the appearance of their effects, despite their differing rates of uptake.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Enhanced oral bioavailability and anti-tumour effect of paclitaxel by 20(s)-ginsenoside Rg3 in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei-Qiong; Wang, Bin; Gan, Hui; Fu, Shou-Ting; Zhu, Xiao-Xia; Wu, Zhuo-Na; Zhan, Da-Wei; Gu, Ruo-Lan; Dou, Gui-Fang; Meng, Zhi-Yun

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of paclitaxel in combination with 20(s)-ginsenoside Rg3 on its anti-tumour effect in nude mice. In the Caco-2 transport assay, the apparent permeability from the apical side to the basal side (P(app)) (A-B) and P(app) (B-A) of paclitaxel were measured when co-incubated with different concentrations of 20(s)-ginsenoside Rg3. The results indicated that the penetration of paclitaxel through the Caco-2 monolayer from the apical side to the basal side was facilitated by 20(s)-ginsenoside Rg3 in a concentration-dependent manner. Meanwhile, 20(s)-ginsenoside Rg3 inhibited P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and the maximum inhibition was achieved at 80 µM (p < 0.05). The pharmacokinetic parameters of paclitaxel after oral co-administration of paclitaxel (40 mg/kg) with various doses of 20(s)-ginsenoside Rg3 in rats were investigated by an in vivo pharmacokinetic experiment. The results showed that the AUC of paclitaxel co-administered with 20(s)-ginsenoside Rg3 was significantly higher (p < 0.001 at 10 mg/kg) compared with the control. The relative bioavailability (RB) % of paclitaxel with 20(s)-ginsenoside Rg3 was 3.4-fold (10 mg/kg) higher than that of the control. The effect of paclitaxel orally co-administered with 20(s)-ginsenoside Rg3 against human tumour MCF-7 xenografts in nude mice was also evaluated. Paclitaxel (20 mg/kg) co-administered with 20(s)-ginsenoside Rg3 (10 mg/kg) exhibited an effective anti-tumour activity with the relative tumor growth rate (T/C) values of 39.36% (p <0.05). The results showed that 20(s)-ginsenoside Rg3 enhanced the oral bioavailability of paclitaxel in rats and improved the anti-tumour activity in nude mice, indicating that oral co-administration of paclitaxel with 20(s)-ginsenoside Rg3 could provide an effective strategy in addition to the established i.v. route.

  19. Ginsenosides protect apical transporters of cultured proximal tubule cells from dysfunctions induced by h(2)o(2).

    PubMed

    Han, Ho Jae; Yoon, Byung Cheol; Park, Soo Hyun; Park, Ji Yeong; Oh, Young Joon; Lee, Yun Jung; Park, Kwon Moo

    2002-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated as a primary cause of renal failure in certain renal diseases. Indeed, renal proximal tubule is a very sensitive site to oxidative stress and retains functionally fully characterized transporters. It has been reported that ginsenosides have a beneficial effect on diverse diseases including oxidative stress. However, the protective effect of ginsenosides on oxidative stress has not been elucidated in renal proximal tubule cells. Thus, we examined the effect of ginsenosides on oxidative stress-induced alteration of apical transporters and its related mechanism in renal proximal tubule cells. In the present study, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) (>10(-5) M) inhibited alpha-methyl-D-glucopyranoside uptake in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05). It also inhibited Pi and Na(+) uptake. At a concentration of 20 microg/ml, total ginsenosides significantly reduced H(2)O(2)-induced inhibition of apical transporters. In contrast, protopanaxadiol (PD) and protopanaxatriol (PT) saponins exhibited a less preventive effect than total ginsenosides (p < 0.05). Furthermore, we examined its action mechanism. H(2)O(2) increased lipid peroxide formation, arachidonic acid (AA) release, and Ca(2+) uptake. These effects on H(2)O(2) were significantly prevented by total ginsenosides and PD or PT sanponins. However, total ginsenosides appear to be more protective than PD and PT saponins (p < 0.05). In conclusion, ginsenosides prevented H(2)O(2)-induced inhibition of apical transporters via a decrease in oxidative stress, AA release, and Ca(2+) uptake in primary cultured renal proximal tubule cells.

  20. Induction of G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by ginsenoside Rf in human osteosarcoma MG‑63 cells through the mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Shangguan, Wen-Ji; Li, He; Zhang, Yue-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Ginsenosides, extracted from the traditional Chinese herb ginseng, are a series of novel natural anticancer products known for their favorable safety and efficacy profiles. The present study aimed to investigate the cytotoxicity of ginsenoside Rf to human osteosarcoma cells and to explore the anticancer molecular mechanisms of ginsenoside Rf. Five human osteosarcoma cell lines (MG-63, OS732, U-2OS, HOS and SAOS-2) were employed to investigate the cytotoxicity of ginsenoside Rf by MTT and colony forming assays. After treatment with ginsenoside Rf, MG-63 cells which were the most sensitive to ginsenoside Rf, were subjected to flow cytometry to detect cell cycle distribution and apoptosis, and nuclear morphological changes were visualized by Hoechst 33258 staining. Caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities were also evaluated. The expression of cell cycle markers including cyclin B1 and Cdk1 was detected by RT-PCR and western blotting. The expression of apoptotic genes Bcl-2 and Bax and the release of cytochrome c were also examined by western blotting. Change in the mitochondrial membrane potential was observed by JC-1 staining in situ. Our results demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of ginsenoside Rf to these human osteosarcoma cell lines was dose-dependent, and the MG-63 cells were the most sensitive to exposure to ginsenoside Rf. Additionally, ginsenoside Rf induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in MG-63 cells. Furthermore, we observed upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2, Cdk1 and cyclin B1, the activation of caspase-3 and -9 and the release of cytochrome c in MG-63 cells following treatment with ginsenoside Rf. Our findings demonstrated that ginsenoside Rf induces G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human osteosarcoma MG-63 cells through the mitochondrial pathway, suggesting that ginsenoside Rf, as an effective natural product, may have a therapeutic effect on human osteosarcoma.

  1. Pharmacokinetics of ginsenoside Rb1 and its metabolite compound K after oral administration of Korean Red Ginseng extract.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung-Ki

    2013-10-01

    Compound K is a major metabolite of ginsenoside Rb1, which has various pharmacological activities in vivo and in vitro. However, previous studies have focused on the pharmacokinetics of a single metabolite or the parent compound and have not described the pharmacokinetics of both compounds in humans. To investigate the pharmacokinetics of ginsenoside Rb1 and compound K, we performed an open-label, single-oral dose pharmacokinetic study using Korean Red Ginseng extract. We enrolled 10 healthy Korean male volunteers in this study. Serial blood samples were collected during 36 h after Korean Red Ginseng extract administration to determine plasma concentrations of ginsenoside Rb1 and compound K. The mean maximum plasma concentration of compound K was 8.35±3.19 ng/mL, which was significantly higher than that of ginsenoside Rb1 (3.94±1.97 ng/mL). The half-life of compound K was 7 times shorter than that of ginsenoside Rb1. These results suggest that the pharmacokinetics, especially absorption, of compound K are not influenced by the pharmacokinetics of its parent compound, except the time to reach the maximum plasma concentration The delayed absorption of compound K support the evidence that the intestinal microflora play an important role in the transformation of ginsenoside Rb1 to compound K.

  2. Enzymatic transformation of ginsenosides in Korean Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) extract prepared by Spezyme and Optidex

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyeon-Son; Kim, Sun Young; Park, Yooheon; Jung, Eun Young; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2014-01-01

    Background In this study, we examined the effects of various enzymes on chemical conversions of ginsenosides in ginseng extract prepared by amylases. Methods Rapidase, Econase CE, Viscozyme, Ultraflo L, and Cytolase PCL5 were used for secondary enzymatic hydrolysis after amylase treatment of ginseng extract, and ginsenoside contents, skin permeability, and chemical compositions including total sugar, acidic polysaccharide, and polyphenols were determined on the hydrolyzed ginseng extract. Results Rapidase treatment significantly elevated total ginsenoside contents compared with the control (p < 0.05). In particular, deglycosylated ginsenosides including Rg3, which are known as bioactive compounds, were significantly increased after Rapidase treatment (p < 0.05). The Rapidase-treated group also increased the skin permeability of polyphenols compared with the control, showing the highest level of total sugar content among the enzyme treatment groups. Conclusion This result showed that Rapidase induced the conversion of ginsenoside glycosides to aglycones. Meanwhile, Cytolase PCL5 and Econase treatments led to a significant increase of uronic acid (acidic polysaccharide) level. Taken together, our data showed that the treatments of enzymes including Rapidase are useful for the conversion and increase of ginsenosides in ginseng extracts or products. PMID:25379006

  3. Morphine dependence is attenuated by red ginseng extract and ginsenosides Rh2, Rg3, and compound K.

    PubMed

    Yayeh, Taddesse; Yun, Kyunghwa; Jang, Soyong; Oh, Seikwan

    2016-10-01

    Red ginseng and ginsenosides have shown plethoric effects against various ailments. However, little is known regarding the effect of red ginseng on morphine-induced dependence and tolerance. We therefore investigated the effect of red ginseng extract (RGE) and biotransformed ginsenosides Rh2, Rg3, and compound K on morphine-induced dependence in mice and rats. While mice were pretreated with RGE and then morphine was injected intraperitoneally, rats were infused with ginsenosides and morphine intracranially for 7 days. Naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal syndrome was estimated and conditioned place preference test was performed for physical and psychological dependence, respectively. Western blotting was used to measure protein expressions. Whereas RGE inhibited the number of naloxone-precipitated jumps and reduced conditioned place preference score, it restored the level of glutathione in mice. Likewise, ginsenosides Rh2, Rg3, and compound K attenuated morphine-dependent behavioral patterns such as teeth chattering, grooming, wet-dog shake, and escape behavior in rats. Moreover, activated N-methyl-D-aspartate acid receptor subunit 1 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the frontal cortex of rats, and cultured cortical neurons from mice were downregulated by ginsenosides Rh2, Rg3, and compound K despite their differential effects. RGE and biotransformed ginsenosides could be considered as potential therapeutic agents against morphine-induced dependence.

  4. Ginsenoside Rb1, a novel activator of the TMEM16A chloride channel, augments the contraction of guinea pig ileum.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shuai; Chen, Yafei; Pang, Chunli; Wang, Xuzhao; Qi, Jinlong; Mo, Li; Zhang, Hailin; An, Hailong; Zhan, Yong

    2017-01-25

    Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) play important roles in many physiological processes, and the molecular basis of CaCCs has been identified as TMEM16A in many cell types. It is well established that TMEM16A is a drug target in many diseases, including cystic fibrosis, hypertension, asthma, and various tumors. Therefore, identifying potent and specific modulators of the TMEM16A channel is crucial. In this study, we identified the first natural activator of TMEM16A from traditional Chinese medicine and explored its mechanism. Our data showed that Ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1) can activate TMEM16A directly from the intracellular side in a dose-dependent manner at an EC50 of 38.4 ± 2.14 μM. GRb1 specifically activated TMEM16A/B, but not the other previously proposed CaCC mediators such as CFTR and bestrophin. Moreover, GRb1 promoted proliferation of CHO cells stably expressing TMEM16A, in a concentration-dependent manner. Finally, we showed that GRb1 increased the amplitude and frequency of contractions in an isolated guinea pig ileum assay in vivo. In summary, GRb1 can be considered a lead compound for the development of novel drugs for the treatment of diseases caused by TMEM16A dysfunction.

  5. Simultaneous enrichment of deglycosylated ginsenosides and monacolin K in red ginseng by fermentation with Monascus pilosus.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung-Yun; Oh, Jee-Hwan; Lee, Inhyung

    2011-01-01

    To improve its bioavailability and pharmacological effects in humans, red ginseng was fermented with a newly isolated fungus, Monascus pilosus KMU103. Most of the ginsenosides were converted to deglycosylated ginsenocides, such as Rh(1), Rh(2), and Rg(3). The total amount of ginsenosides Rh(1), Rh(2), and Rg(3) was 838.7 mg/kg in the red ginseng, and increased to 4,117 mg/kg after 50 L fermentation in 13% red ginseng and 2% glucose. In addition, the Monascus-fermented red ginseng contained 3,089 mg/kg of monacolin K, one of the metabolites produced by Monascus known to reduce cholesterol in the blood. This newly developed Monascus-fermented red ginseng should result in improved health effects, not only by biotransforming gisenosides to deglycosylated ones but also by creating additional bioactive compounds.

  6. Microbial ketonization of ginsenosides F1 and C-K by Lactobacillus brevis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yan; Jung, Sun Young; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Lee, Dae-Young; Min, Jin-Woo; Wang, Chao; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2014-12-01

    Ginsenosides are the major pharmacological components in ginseng. We isolated lactic acid bacteria from Kimchi to identify microbial modifications of ginsenosides. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the strain DCY65-1 belongs to the genus Lactobacillus and is most closely related to Lactobacillus brevis. On the basis of TLC and HPLC analysis, we found two metabolic pathways: F1 → 6α,12β-dihydroxydammar-3-one-20(S)-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and C-K → 12β-hydroxydammar-3-one-20(S)-O-β-D-glucopyranoside. These results suggest that strain DCY65-1 is capable of potent ketonic decarboxylation, ketonizing the hydroxyl group at C-3. The F1 metabolite had a more potent inhibitory effect on mushroom tyrosinase than did the substrate. Therefore, the F1 and C-K derivatives may be more pharmacologically active compounds, which should be further characterized.

  7. Ginsenoside Rg3 regulates S-nitrosylation of the NLRP3 inflammasome via suppression of iNOS

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Sung-Jin; Park, Jun-Young; Choi, Song; Lee, Jin-Bong; Jung, Haiyoung; Kim, Tae-Don; Yoon, Suk Ran; Choi, Inpyo; Shim, Sungbo; Park, Young-Jun

    2015-08-07

    Ginsenoside Rg3, a specific biological effector, is well-known as a major bioactive ingredient of Panax ginseng. However, its role in the inflammasome activation process remains unclear. In this report, we demonstrate that ginsenosides 20(R)-Rg3 and 20(S)-Rg3 are capable of suppressing both lethal endotoxic shock and the S-nitrosylation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by inhibiting nitric oxide (NO) production through the regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. In response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the reducing effect of 20(S)-Rg3 and 20(R)-Rg3 on nitric oxide led to an increase in the survival time of mice after lethal endotoxin-induced shock, and excess levels of NO inhibited IL-1β production via the S-nitrosylation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. In addition, ginsenosides 20(R)-Rg3 and 20(S)-Rg3 had suppressive effects on the LPS- or UV-irradiation-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in macrophage and HaCaT cells and thereby prevented apoptosis of spleen cells in mice. Altogether, these results demonstrate that ginsenoside 20(R)-Rg3 and 20(S)-Rg3, a naturally occurring compound, might act as a dual therapeutic regulator for the treatment of inflammatory and oxidative stress-related diseases. - Highlights: • Ginsenosides Rg3 inhibits NO production through the regulation of iNOS expression. • Ginsenosides Rg3 inhibits the S-nitrosylation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. • Ginsenosides Rg3 suppress on the LPS- or UV-irradiation-induced ROS levels in cells.

  8. Ginsenosides attenuate methylglyoxal-induced impairment of insulin signaling and subsequent apoptosis in primary astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Chu, John M T; Lee, Dicky K M; Wong, Daniella P K; Wong, Ricky N S; Yung, Ken K L; Cheng, Christopher H K; Yue, Kevin K M

    2014-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM), which is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, is known to increase the risk of neurodegeneration. In type 2 diabetes, hyperglycemia could cause insulin resistance and neurodegeneration in various cells including neurons and astrocytes. Hyperglycemia is also known to result in the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGE) Methylglyoxal (MG) is one of the most reactive AGE precursors in which its abnormal accumulation is usually found in diabetic patients and induces neuronal cell death in central nervous system. Ginseng is a herb that has been widely used to treat various diseases in traditional Chinese medicine. Ginsenosides, the pharmacologically active component isolated from ginseng, have been shown to have cryoprotective effects in different neural cells. In the present study we investigated the effects of MG in disturbing insulin signaling and leading to further cellular apoptosis in rat primary astrocytes. Furthermore, the protective effects of different subtypes of ginsenosides were studied. From the results, impairment of insulin signaling was found in astrocytes under MG treatment. Moreover, cleavage of caspase and Poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) was observed in line with insulin signaling disruption, showing the neurotoxic effects of MG towards astrocytes. The effects of ginsenosides in MG treated astrocytes were also investigated. After treatment, ginsenosides Rd and R-Rh2 were shown to ameliorate the cell viability of MG-treated astrocytes. In addition, Rd and R-Rh2 could improve insulin signaling and inhibit apoptosis, indicating that Rd, R-Rh2 and related compounds may have therapeutic potential in treating diabetes-induced neurodegeneration.

  9. Bioconversion of Ginsenosides from Red Ginseng Extract Using Candida allociferrii JNO301 Isolated from Meju

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sulhee; Lee, Yong-Hun; Park, Jung-Min; Bai, Dong-Hoon; Jang, Jae Kweon

    2014-01-01

    Red ginseng (Panax ginseng), a Korean traditional medicinal plant, contains a variety of ginsenosides as major functional components. It is necessary to remove sugar moieties from the major ginsenosides, which have a lower absorption rate into the intestine, to obtain the aglycone form. To screen for microorganisms showing bioconversion activity for ginsenosides from red ginseng, 50 yeast strains were isolated from Korean traditional meju (a starter culture made with soybean and wheat flour for the fermentation of soybean paste). Twenty strains in which a black zone formed around the colony on esculin-yeast malt agar plates were screened first, and among them 5 strains having high β-glucosidase activity on p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside as a substrate were then selected. Strain JNO301 was finally chosen as a bioconverting strain in this study on the basis of its high bioconversion activity for red ginseng extract as determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis. The selected bioconversion strain was identified as Candida allociferrii JNO301 based on the nucleotide sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene. The optimum temperature and pH for the cell growth were 20~30℃ and pH 5~8, respectively. TLC analysis confirmed that C. allociferrii JNO301 converted ginsenoside Rb1 into Rd and then into F2, Rb2 into compound O, Rc into compound Mc1, and Rf into Rh1. Quantitative analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography showed that bioconversion of red ginseng extract resulted in an increase of 2.73, 3.32, 33.87, 16, and 5.48 fold in the concentration of Rd, F2, compound O, compound Mc1, and Rh1, respectively. PMID:25606009

  10. Ginsenoside Rf, a component of ginseng, regulates lipoprotein metabolism through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyunghee; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Yoon, Michung . E-mail: yoon60@mokwon.ac.kr

    2006-01-06

    We investigated whether ginseng regulates lipoprotein metabolism by altering peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} (PPAR{alpha})-mediated pathways, using a PPAR{alpha}-null mouse model. Administration of ginseng extract, ginsenosides, and ginsenoside Rf (Rf) to wild-type mice not only significantly increased basal levels of hepatic apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and C-III mRNA compared with wild-type controls, but also substantially reversed the reductions in mRNA levels of apo A-I and C-III expected following treatment with the potent PPAR{alpha} ligand Wy14,643. In contrast, no effect was detected in the PPAR{alpha}-null mice. Testing of eight main ginsenosides on PPAR{alpha} reporter gene expression indicated that Rf was responsible for the effects of ginseng on lipoprotein metabolism. Furthermore, the inhibition of PPAR{alpha}-dependent transactivation by Rf seems to occur at the level of DNA binding. These results demonstrate that ginseng component Rf regulates apo A-I and C-III mRNA and the actions of Rf on lipoprotein metabolism are mediated via interactions with PPAR{alpha}.

  11. Whole-Cell Biocatalysis for Producing Ginsenoside Rd from Rb1 Using Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

    PubMed

    Ku, Seockmo; You, Hyun Ju; Park, Myeong Soo; Ji, Geun Eog

    2016-07-28

    Ginsenosides are the major active ingredients in ginseng used for human therapeutic plant medicines. One of the most well-known probiotic bacteria among the various strains on the functional food market is Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Biocatalytic methods using probiotic enzymes for producing deglycosylated ginsenosides such as Rd have a growing significance in the functional food industry. The addition of 2% cellobiose (w/v) to glucose-free de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broths notably induced β-glucosidase production from L. rhamnosus GG. Enzyme production and activity were optimized at a pH, temperature, and cellobiose concentration of 6.0, 40°C, and 2% (w/v), respectively. Under these controlled conditions, β-glucosidase production in L. rhamnosus GG was enhanced by 25-fold. Additionally, whole-cell homogenates showed the highest β-glucosidase activity when compared with disrupted cell suspensions; the cell disruption step significantly decreased the β-glucosidase activity. Based on the optimized enzyme conditions, whole-cell L. rhamnosus GG was successfully used to convert ginsenoside Rb1 into Rd.

  12. Therapeutic potential of Panax ginseng and ginsenosides in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Shergis, J L; Di, Y M; Zhang, A L; Vlahos, R; Helliwell, R; Ye, J M; Xue, C C

    2014-10-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major global health burden and will become the third largest cause of death in the world by 2030. It is currently believed that an exaggerated inflammatory response to inhaled irritants, in particular cigarette smoke, cause progressive airflow limitation. This inflammation, where macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes are prominent, leads to oxidative stress, emphysema, airways fibrosis and mucus hypersecretion. COPD responds poorly to current anti-inflammatory treatments including corticosteroids, which produce little or no benefit. Panax ginseng has a long history of use in Chinese medicine for respiratory conditions, including asthma and COPD. In this perspective we consider the therapeutic potential of Panax ginseng for the treatment of COPD. Panax ginseng and its compounds, ginsenosides, have reported effects through multiple mechanisms but primarily have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects. Ginsenosides are functional ligands of glucocorticoid receptors and appear to inhibit kinase phosphorylation including MAPK and ERK1/2, NF-κB transcription factor induction/translocation, and DNA binding. They also inhibit pro-inflammatory mediators, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, ROS, and proteases such as MMP-9. Panax ginseng protects against oxidative stress by increasing anti-oxidative enzymes and reducing the production of oxidants. Given that Panax ginseng and ginsenosides appear to inhibit processes related to COPD pathogenesis, they represent an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of COPD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of white, red and black ginseng on physicochemical properties and ginsenosides.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yan; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Jeon, Ji-Na; Wang, Chao; Min, Jin-Woo; Noh, Hae-Yong; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2015-06-01

    A systematic comparison of the ginsenosides and physicochemical properties of white ginseng (WG), red ginseng (RG) and black ginseng (BG) was performed. The purpose of the present study was to identify the effects of the physicochemical properties by steaming process. During the steaming process, ginsenosides transform into specific ginsenosides by hydrolysis, dehydration and isomerization at C-3, C-6 or C-20. Steaming ginseng led to a significant increase in reducing sugar, acidic polysaccharide and phenolic compounds content. Antioxidative properties were investigated using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity, compared with BHA (Butylated hydroxyanisole). RG and BG exhibited higher antioxidant activity than WG. The maximum residue level for Benzo(a)pyrene was established to 5 μg/kg in food products. The levels of benzo(a)pyrene in WG and RG were not detected. Benzo(a)pyrene was detected in the BG, the content was 0.17 μg/kg. The scientific achievements of the present study could help consumers to choose different type of ginseng products available on the market.

  14. Localization of ginsenosides in Panax ginseng with different age by matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry imaging.

    PubMed

    Bai, Hangrui; Wang, Shujuan; Liu, Jianjun; Gao, Dan; Jiang, Yuyang; Liu, Hongxia; Cai, Zongwei

    2016-07-15

    The root of Panax ginseng C.A. Mey. (P. ginseng) is one of the most popular traditional Chinese medicines, with ginsenosides as its main bioactive components. Because different ginsenosides have varied pharmacological effects, extraction and separation of ginsenosides are usually required for the investigation of pharmacological effects of different ginsenosides. However, the contents of ginsenosides vary with the ages and tissues of P. ginseng root. In this research, an efficient method to explore the distribution of ginsenosides and differentiate P. ginseng roots with different ages was developed based on matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-TOF-MSI). After a simple sample preparation, there were 18 peaks corresponding to 31 ginsenosides with distinct localization in the mass range of m/z 700-1400 identified by MALDI-TOF-MSI and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS. All the three types of ginsenosides were successfully detected and visualized in images, which could be correlated with anatomical features. The P. ginseng at the ages of 2, 4 and 6 could be differentiated finely through the principal component analysis of data collected from the cork based on the ion images but not data from the whole tissue. The experimental result implies that the established method for the direct analysis of metabolites in plant tissues has high potential for the rapid identification of metabolites and analysis of their localizations in medicinal herbs. Furthermore, this technique also provides valuable information for the component-specific extraction and pharmacological research of herbs.

  15. Effects of ginseng rhizome and ginsenoside Ro on testosterone 5α-reductase and hair re-growth in testosterone-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Murata, Kazuya; Takeshita, Fumiaki; Samukawa, Keiichi; Tani, Tadato; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2012-01-01

    This research program on the novel functions of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer focused on the effects of ginseng rhizome on hair re-growth in androgenetic alopecia. Extracts of red ginseng rhizome showed greater dose-dependent inhibitory effects against testosterone 5α-reductase (5αR) when compared with extracts of the main root. Ginsenoside Ro, the predominant ginsenoside in the rhizome, and ginsenoside Rg(3), a unique ginsenoside in red ginseng, showed inhibitory activity against 5αR with IC(50) values of 259.4 and 86.1 µm, respectively. The rhizome of P. japonicus, which contains larger amounts of ginsenoside Ro, also inhibited 5αR. Topical administration of extracts of red ginseng rhizomes (2 mg/mouse) and ginsenoside Ro (0.2 mg/mouse) to shaved skin inhibited hair re-growth suppression after shaving in the testosterone-treated C57BL/6 mice. These results suggest that red ginseng rhizomes containing both oleanane- and dammarane-type ginsenosides are a promising raw material for cosmetic use. This is the first report that ginsenoside Ro enhances in vivo hair re-growth based on their inhibitory activity against 5αR in the androgenetic alopecia model.

  16. Ginsenoside Re rescues methamphetamine-induced oxidative damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, microglial activation, and dopaminergic degeneration by inhibiting the protein kinase Cδ gene.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eun-Joo; Shin, Seung Woo; Nguyen, Thuy-Ty Lan; Park, Dae Hun; Wie, Myung-Bok; Jang, Choon-Gon; Nah, Seung-Yeol; Yang, Byung Wook; Ko, Sung Kwon; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2014-06-01

    Ginsenoside Re, one of the main constituents of Panax ginseng, possesses novel antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the pharmacological mechanism of ginsenoside Re in dopaminergic degeneration remains elusive. We suggested that protein kinase C (PKC) δ mediates methamphetamine (MA)-induced dopaminergic toxicity. Treatment with ginsenoside Re significantly attenuated methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic degeneration in vivo by inhibiting impaired enzymatic antioxidant systems, mitochondrial oxidative stress, mitochondrial translocation of protein kinase Cδ, mitochondrial dysfunction, pro-inflammatory microglial activation, and apoptosis. These protective effects were comparable to those observed with genetic inhibition of PKCδ in PKCδ knockout (-/-) mice and with PKCδ antisense oligonucleotides, and ginsenoside Re did not provide any additional protective effects in the presence of PKCδ inhibition. Our results suggest that PKCδ is a critical target for ginsenoside Re-mediated protective activity in response to dopaminergic degeneration induced by MA.

  17. Suppression of Hepatic Cyp1a2 by Total Ginsenosides in Lipopolysaccharide-Treated Mice and Primary Mouse Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haiyan; Yan, Yijing; Xu, Chenshu; Wan, Hongxia; Liu, Dong

    2016-03-23

    The roots of Panax ginseng (ginseng) have been extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine. However, herb-drug interactions between ginseng and other co-administered drugs are not fully understood concerning the effect of ginseng on drug metabolism and clearance. The current study aimed to elucidate the effect of total ginsenosides, a typical ginseng extract, on the regulation of Cyp1a2, a key enzyme to regulate drug metabolism under the normal and inflammatory conditions in mice. Female C57BL/6J mice treated with vehicle and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were intragastrically administered ginseng extract for 7 days before hepatic P450 expression was analyzed. Primary mouse hepatocytes were also employed to further explore the effects of total ginsenosides on Cyp1a2 expression. The results showed that total ginsenosides in P. ginseng extract exhibited a concentration-dependent suppression on Cyp1a2 mRNA and protein level in both mice and primary mouse hepatocytes. Notably, the inhibitory effects of total ginsenosides on Cyp1a2 mRNA and protein expression were further enhanced following LPS treatment. Therefore, future research is warranted to investigate the role of ginsenosides in the regulation of hepatic CYP450s. Moreover, consumption of ginseng as food or supplement should be monitored for patients on combinational therapy, especially those with inflammatory diseases.

  18. Based on SERS conformational studies of ginsenoside Rb1 and its metabolites before and after combined with human serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yingping; Bai, Xueyuan; Zhao, Bing

    2015-02-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and fluorescence spectroscopy were employed to probe the interaction of the pharmaceutical and natural product molecules, ginsenoside Rb1, Rd, Rg3 and compound K (CK), with human serum albumin (HSA). Normal Raman spectra of these four ginsenosides were obtained from solid powder on glass slide. Based on the unsplit peak at 1445 cm-1, the stacking modes of ginsenoside Rb1, Rd, Rg3 and CK were quite similar, when the deconvolution of alkyl chain was not occurred. SERS spectra of ginsenoside Rb1, Rd, Rg3 and CK were obtained from a colloidal silver surface on a self-assembled SERS substrate, the most enhanced modes were those with certain motions perpendicular to the metal surface, such as C24dbnd C25 stretch and Csbnd H out-of-plane bending from alkyl chain. The SERS spectra were used to predict similar perpendicular orientation of flexible alkyl chain and parallel orientation of carbocyclic rings on Ag colloid particles. Therefore, when combined with HSA, the transformations of four ginsenosides still exhibit similar, although in different binding cavities in subdomain IIA and IIIA by making the methyls at C26 and C27 perpendicular plugging into the hydrophobic site of HSA, while the aglycone and glucose nearby are perpendicularly exposed outside to fit other suitable active targeting sites.

  19. Transcriptome profiling shows gene regulation patterns in ginsenoside pathway in response to methyl jasmonate in Panax Quinquefolium adventitious root

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juan; Li, Jinxin; Li, Jianli; Liu, Shujie; Wu, Xiaolei; Li, Jing; Gao, Wenyuan

    2016-01-01

    Here, we combine elicitors and transcriptomics to investigate the inducible biosynthesis of the ginsenoside from the Panax quinquefolium. Treatment of P. quinquefolium adventitious root with methyl jasmonate (MJ) results in an increase in ginsenoside content (43.66 mg/g compared to 8.32 mg/g in control group). Therefore, we sequenced the transcriptome of native and MJ treated adventitious root in order to elucidate the key differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the ginsenoside biosynthetic pathway. Through DEG analysis, we found that 5,759 unigenes were up-regulated and 6,389 unigenes down-regulated in response to MJ treatment. Several defense-related genes (48) were identified, participating in salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), nitric oxide (NO) and abscisic acid (ABA) signal pathway. Additionally, we mapped 72 unigenes to the ginsenoside biosynthetic pathway. Four cytochrome P450s (CYP450) were likely to catalyze hydroxylation at C-16 (c15743_g1, c39772_g1, c55422_g1) and C-30 (c52011_g1) of the triterpene backbone. UDP-xylose synthases (c52571_g3) was selected as the candidate, which was likely to involve in ginsenoside Rb3 biosynthesis. PMID:27876840

  20. [Protective effect of ginsenoside Re on myocardial cells of neonatal SD rat subjected to hypoxia injury].

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-feng; Shi, Xiao-hua; Luo, Qi-zhi

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the protective effect of ginsenoside Re on myocardial cells of neonatal SD rat with hypoxia injury, and to explore its mechanism. The primary passage of myocardial cells collected from neonatal SD rats were divided into A group (with ordinary treatment), B group [exposed to hypoxia (1% O2, 5% CO2, 94% N(2)) for 12 hours after being cultured for 48 hours], C group (pretreated with 80 g/L ginsenoside Re for 30 minutes after 48 hours of ordinary culture, then exposed to hypoxia for 12 hours), D group (received the same treatment as used in C group except for using 40 g/L ginsenoside Re), E group (received the same treatment as used in C group except for using 20 g/L ginsenoside Re) according to the random number table, with 6 samples in each group. Myocardial cell supernatants were collected for determination of content of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching technique was used to detect gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC). Result was observed by laser scanning confocal microscope. Data were processed with paired t test. (1) Compared with that in B group [(403 ± 22) U/L], contents of LDH in E, D, and C groups were obviously decreased [(255 ± 16), (241 ± 13), (237 ± 24) U/L, with t value respectively 5.1, 5.2, 8.3, P values all below 0.05]. (2) The fluorescence recovery rate in A group was (74.8 ± 3.6)% 10 min after quenching, which was higher than that in B group [(13.2 ± 5.6)%, t = 15.2, P < 0.01]. The fluorescence recovery rate in C, D, and E groups was respectively (39.5 ± 2.9)%, (36.2 ± 3.1)%, and (34.3 ± 3.9)% 10 min after quenching, all higher than that in B group (with t value respectively -6.6, -41.9, 18.3, P values all below 0.05). Ginsenoside Re pretreatment, particularly with a dose of 20 g/L, can protect myocardial cells from hypoxia injury, and the effect may be attributable to inhibition of release of LDH and improvement of the GJIC function.

  1. Ginsenoside Reduces Cognitive Impairment During Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion Through Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Regulated by Epigenetic Modulation.

    PubMed

    Wan, Qun; Ma, Xue; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Sun, Ting; Xia, Feng; Zhao, Gang; Wu, Yu-Mei

    2016-03-28

    Increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been associated with memory-enhancing and neuroprotective properties of some drugs under chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) condition. Ginsenoside Rd (GSRd), one of the main active ingredients in Panax ginseng, is widely used for brain protection. However, it is poorly understood whether epigenetic mechanisms implied in the BDNF modulation after GSRd treatment for CCH remain elusive. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of GSRd and the involved mechanisms. We demonstrated that GSRd administration ameliorated CCH-induced impairment of learning and memory behaviors, evidenced by decreased escape latency and increased number of crossing the platform in Morris water maze test. This improvement was associated with promoted neuron survival and increased BDNF expression in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of CCH mice. GSRd improved neuron survival and decreased neuron apoptosis and the level of caspase-3 under oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) by upregulation of BDNF as well as in vitro. The levels of acetylated histone H3 (Ac-H3) and histone deacetylase (histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2)) were altered under OGD/R in a time-dependent manner, and GSRd reestablished the balance between Ac-H3 and HDAC2 which resulted in upregulation of BDNF and increased neuron survival. MS-275, an inhibitor of class I HDACs, abolished the levels of Ac-H3 at the bdnf promoters and enhanced upregulation of BDNF after GSRd administration, suggesting a synergistic effect between GSRd and MS-275. All the data suggested that GSRd provided neuroprotection by epigenetic modulation which accounted for the regulation of BDNF in CCH mice.

  2. Studies on the interactions between ginsenosides and liposome by equilibrium dialysis combined with ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hou, Guangyue; Niu, Jun; Song, Fengrui; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Shuying

    2013-04-01

    To study the interactions between components of Panax Ginseng and liposome biomembrane, we applied the equilibrium dialysis system combined with ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) approach to analyze and identify the bioactive components of ginseng. Moreover, the effect of pH value has also been investigated on their interactions between the ginsenosides of ginseng extract and biomembrane. The result shows that seven kinds of ginsenosides have obvious interactions with biomembrane in comparison with the standards in terms of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) data along with retention time, including four panaxadiol ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd) and three panaxatriol ginsenosides (Re, Rf, Rg2). The value of binding degree decreased with the increase of molecular weight. The sugar moieties which are attached to C-20 were the main factor affecting the binding degree of panaxadiol ginsenosides. The interactions between panaxadiol ginsenosides and biomembrane correlate to the type and number of sugar moieties in ginsenosides. The sugar moieties which are at C-6 and C-20 have been shown to influence the value of binding degree for panaxatriol ginsenosides. In addition, the pH value has been shown to have an impact on the interactions. Overall, ginsenoside Rd has a better absorption character among the seven ginsenosides. In the study, we have screened the potential bioactive components of ginseng in vitro using the equilibrium dialysis-UPLC-MS/MS method, and then predicted the potential bioactivities of ginseng, which contribute to the investigation of the efficacy of ginseng. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Systematic development of a group quantification method using evaporative light scattering detector for relative quantification of ginsenosides in ginseng products.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gwang Jin; Shin, Byong-Kyu; Yu, Yun-Hyun; Ahn, Jongsung; Kwon, Sung Won; Park, Jeong Hill

    2016-09-05

    The determination for the contents of multi-components in ginseng products has come to the fore by demands of in-depth information, but the associated industries confront the high cost of securing pure standards for the continuous quality evaluation of the products. This study aimed to develop a prospective high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD) method for relative quantification of ginsenosides in ginseng products without a considerable change from the conventional gradient analysis. We investigated the effects of mobile phase composition and elution bandwidth, which are potential variables affecting the ELSD response in the gradient analysis. Similar ELSD response curves of nine major ginsenosides were obtained under the identical flow injection conditions, and the response increased as the percentage of organic solvent increased. The nine ginsenosides were divided into three groups to confirm the effect of elution bandwidth. The ELSD response significantly decreased in case of the late eluted ginsenoside in the individual groups under the isocratic conditions. With the consideration of the two important effects, stepwise changes of the gradient condition were carried out to reach a group quantification method. The inconsistent responses of the nine ginsenosides were reconstituted to three normalized responses by the stepwise changes of the gradient condition, and this result actualized relative quantification in the individual groups. The availability was confirmed by comparing the ginsenoside contents in a base material of ginseng products determined by the direct and group quantification method. The largest difference in the determination results from the two methods was 8.26%, and the difference of total contents was only 0.91%.

  4. Facile reduction and stabilization of ginsenoside-functionalized gold nanoparticles: optimization, characterization, and in vitro cytotoxicity studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurh, Joon; Markus, Josua; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Ahn, Sungeun; Castro-Aceituno, Veronica; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; Kim, Yu Jin; Yang, Deok Chun

    2017-09-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are forecasted to provide an attractive platform in biomedicine and catalysis with their potentials of combining a variety of biophysicochemical properties into an integrated nanodevice with great therapeutic and optical functions. There are several reports of crude plant extracts mediating the conversion of metal ions into nanoparticles. However, we aimed to investigate the capability of single bioactive compounds, namely ginsenosides compound K (C-K) and Rh2, to accommodate a synergistic chemical reduction of gold salts by one-pot green chemistry. Ginsenosides C-K and Rh2 are unique triterpenoid saponins present in Panax ginseng Meyer, a perennial plant traditionally used as an oriental medicinal herbal with long history. C-K and Rh2 have demonstrated diverse pharmacological properties such as anticancer, anti-inflammation, anti-aging, and neuroprotective properties. The reduction of gold ions by these ginsenosides led to the production of nontoxic GNPs as tested in mouse macrophage (J774A.1) and human kidney epithelial (HEK-293) in vitro. The kinetics of the bioreduction and the influence of pH were examined by an ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometer. GNPs were characterized by field emission transmission electron microscopy (FE-TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Ginsenoside loading efficiency of C-K-GNPs and Rh2-GNPs was determined to be approximately 62.83% and 54.91%, respectively, by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). These results suggest that one-pot synthesis by ginsenosides C-K and Rh2 may be useful for producing ginsenoside-loaded gold nanocarriers. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Non-antibiotic agent ginsenoside 20(S)-Rh2 enhanced the antibacterial effects of ciprofloxacin in vitro and in vivo as a potential NorA inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingwei; Sun, Yuan; Wang, Yaoyao; Lu, Meng; He, Jichao; Liu, Jiali; Chen, Qianying; Zhang, Xiaoxuan; Zhou, Fang; Wang, Guangji; Sun, Xianqiang

    2014-10-05

    The aim of this study is to explore the potential enhancing effect of ginsenoside 20(S)-Rh2 (Rh2) towards ciprofloxacin (CIP) against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infection in vitro and in vivo, and analyze the possible mechanisms through NorA inhibition from a target cellular pharmacokinetic view. In combination with non-toxic dosage of Rh2, the susceptibilities of S. aureus strains to CIP were significantly augmented, and the antibacterial kinetics of CIP in the S. aureus strains were markedly promoted. This enhancing effect of Rh2 towards CIP was also observed in S. aureus infected peritonitis mice, with elevated survival rate and reduced bacteria counts in blood. However, Rh2 did not influence the plasma concentrations of CIP. Further analysis indicated that Rh2 significantly promoted the accumulations of CIP in S. aureus, and inhibited the NorA mediated efflux of pyronin Y. The expressions of NorA gene on S. aureus were positively correlated with the enhancing effect of Rh2 with CIP. This is the first report of the enhancing effect of Rh2 with CIP for S. aureus infection in vitro and in vivo, of which it is probably that Rh2 inhibited NorA-mediated efflux and promoted the accumulation of CIP in the bacteria.

  6. Suppression of MAPKs/NF-κB Activation Induces Intestinal Anti-Inflammatory Action of Ginsenoside Rf in HT-29 and RAW264.7 Cells.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sungeun; Siddiqi, Muhammad Hanif; Aceituno, Veronica Castro; Simu, Shakina Yesmin; Yang, Deok Chun

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the intestinal anti-inflammatory action of ginsenoside Rf in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). IBD is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the intestinal tract. It is associated with elevated levels of various inflammatory mediators, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO), and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Ginsenosides, the main active constituents of ginseng, have been reported to exert potent therapeutic effects against diverse diseases. However, ginsenoside Rf treatment for inflammation has not yet been examined. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of ginsenoside Rf on the inflammatory mediators downstream of p38/NF-kB activation on TNF-α-stimulated intestinal epithelial cells (HT-29) and mouse macrophage cells (RAW264.7). Our results showed that ginsenoside Rf significantly reduced the production of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, NO, and ROS, which are most highly activated in IBD. In addition, ginsenoside Rf significantly suppressed TNF-α/LPS-induced NF-κB transcriptional activity. These results suggest that ginsenoside Rf contains a compound that has potent intestinal anti-inflammatory effects that could be used to treat diseases such as IBD.

  7. Immunogenic Cell Death Induced by Ginsenoside Rg3: Significance in Dendritic Cell-based Anti-tumor Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Son, Keum-Joo; Choi, Ki Ryung; Lee, Seog Jae; Lee, Hyunah

    2016-02-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide; therefore there is a need to discover new therapeutic modules with improved efficacy and safety. Immune-(cell) therapy is a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of intractable cancers. The effectiveness of certain chemotherapeutics in inducing immunogenic tumor cell death thus promoting cancer eradication has been reported. Ginsenoside Rg3 is a ginseng saponin that has antitumor and immunomodulatory activity. In this study, we treated tumor cells with Rg3 to verify the significance of inducing immunogenic tumor cell death in antitumor therapy, especially in DC-based immunotherapy. Rg3 killed the both immunogenic (B16F10 melanoma cells) and non-immunogenic (LLC: Lewis Lung Carcinoma cells) tumor cells by inducing apoptosis. Surface expression of immunogenic death markers including calreticulin and heat shock proteins and the transcription of relevant genes were increased in the Rg3-dying tumor. Increased calreticulin expression was directly related to the uptake of dying tumor cells by dendritic cells (DCs): the proportion of CRT(+) CD11c(+) cells was increased in the Rg3-treated group. Interestingly, tumor cells dying by immunogenic cell death secreted IFN-γ, an effector molecule for antitumor activity in T cells. Along with the Rg3-induced suppression of pro-angiogenic (TNF-α) and immunosuppressive cytokine (TGF-β) secretion, IFN-γ production from the Rg3-treated tumor cells may also indicate Rg3 as an effective anticancer immunotherapeutic strategy. The data clearly suggests that Rg3-induced immunogenic tumor cell death due its cytotoxic effect and its ability to induce DC function. This indicates that Rg3 may be an effective immunotherapeutic strategy.

  8. Enhanced antitumor activity in A431 cells via encapsulation of 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg3 in PLGA nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaozhi; Liu, Jiwei; Ge, Baojian; Du, Meiling; Fu, Li; Fu, Yushan; Yan, Qiu

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the encapsulation of 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg3 (20(R)-Rg3) using polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) and promotion for its antitumor activity. Preparation and evaluation of the antitumor efficacy of 20(R)-Rg3-loaded PLGA nanoparticles were the first reported. The data will be helpful to apply 20(R)-Rg3 efficiently and broadly in new drug form development and clinical cancer treatment. The nanoparticles were prepared using emulsion and solvent evaporation methods. The uniform particle size and good dispersion were further confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was applied to detect cell proliferation after 20(R)-Rg3-loaded PLGA nanoparticles treatment. Western blotting and immunofluorescent staining were used for observation of key proteins related with proliferation and apoptosis. Cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometer technology. The results showed that the size of 20(R)-Rg3-loaded PLGA was 97.5 nm in diameter, and zeta potential was -28 mV detected by Malvern particle size analyzer. The encapsulation efficiency was 97.5%, and drug loading was 70.2% measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The in vitro study showed that the encapsulated 20(R)-Rg3 was consecutively released and the release ratio reached to the highest value (19.36%) at the time point of 96 h. The encapsulated 20(R)-Rg3 significantly inhibited the proliferation and induced apoptosis in A431 cancer cells compared with the unencapsulated 20(R)-Rg3, control and PLGA alone. 20(R)-Rg3-loaded PLGA nanoparticles was well prepared and characterized. The antitumor activity was increased after PLGA encapsulation. The data will be beneficial to the development of new dosage forms of 20(R)-Rg3 and extensive application.

  9. Role of microRNA-520h in 20(R)-ginsenoside-Rg3-mediated angiosuppression

    PubMed Central

    Keung, Man-Hong; Chan, Lai-Sheung; Kwok, Hoi-Hin; Wong, Ricky Ngok-Shun; Yue, Patrick Ying-Kit

    2015-01-01

    Background Ginsenoside-Rg3, the pharmacologically active component of red ginseng, has been found to inhibit tumor growth, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis in various cancer models. Previously, we found that 20(R)-ginsenoside-Rg3 (Rg3) could inhibit angiogenesis. Since microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to affect many biological processes, they might play an important role in ginsenoside-mediated angiomodulation. Methods In this study, we examined the underlying mechanisms of Rg3-induced angiosuppression through modulating the miRNA expression. In the miRNA-expression profiling analysis, six miRNAs and three miRNAs were found to be up- or down-regulated in vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-induced human-umbilical-vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) after Rg3 treatment, respectively. Results A computational prediction suggested that mature hsa-miR-520h (miR-520h) targets ephrin receptor (Eph) B2 and EphB4, and hence, affecting angiogenesis. The up-regulation of miR-520h after Rg3 treatment was validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, while the protein expressions of EphB2 and EphB4 were found to decrease, respectively. The mimics and inhibitors of miR-520h were transfected into HUVECs and injected into zebra-fish embryos. The results showed that overexpression of miR-520h could significantly suppress the EphB2 and EphB4 protein expression, proliferation, and tubulogenesis of HUVECs, and the subintestinal-vessel formation of the zebra fish. Conclusion These results might provide further information on the mechanism of Rg3-induced angiosuppression and the involvement of miRNAs in angiogenesis. PMID:27158236

  10. Ginsenoside compound K-bearing glycol chitosan conjugates: synthesis, physicochemical characterization, and in vitro biological studies.

    PubMed

    Mathiyalagan, Ramya; Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Kim, Yeon Ju; Kim, Youn-Chul; Yang, Deok Chun

    2014-11-04

    Ginsenosides are triterpenoids found in Panax ginseng and have a numerous structural, functional, and pharmacological properties. The purpose of this study was to develop hydrophilic polymer functionalized ginsenoside conjugates to enhance water solubility and targeted delivery. To this end, hydrophobic ginsenoside compound K (CK) was covalently conjugated to the backbone of hydrophilic glycol chitosan (GC) through an acid-labile linkage. The resulting GC-CK conjugates formed self-assembled spherical nanoparticles in an aqueous solution, and their particles sizes were (296 nm and 255 nm) dependent on the degree of CK substitution. The nanoparticles were stable in the physiological buffer (pH 7.4) over a period of 8 days, whereas they were readily degraded under acidic conditions (pH 5.0) mimicking the intracellular pH-conditions. From in vitro release experiment, it was found that CK released slowly from the self-assembled nanoparticles in the physiological buffer (pH 7.4). On the other hand, the release rate of CK was rapidly increased under the acidic condition (pH 5.0). In vitro cytotoxicity assays revealed that GC-CK conjugates exhibited higher cytotoxicity than CK in HT29, and similar cytotoxicity in HepG2, and HT22 cell lines. Moreover, RAW264.7 cells treated with GC-CK maintained good cell viability and exhibited decreased lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production. Taken together, these results suggest that the GC-CK conjugate may be potentially useful as a tumor-specific delivery vehicle.

  11. Extraction, isolation, and aromatase inhibitory evaluation of low-polar ginsenosides from Panax ginseng leaves.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuchi; Zhang, Jianxu; Liu, Chunming; Yu, Min; Li, Sainan

    2017-02-03

    A hyphenated accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) technique was elaborately coupled with centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC), ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC), and photo-diode array detector (PDA). This approach was applied to obtain low-polar ginsenoside fractions from the leaves of Panax ginseng. The CPC fractions were isolated and analyzed using the hyphenated technique, and followed by testing and evaluation of their aromatase inhibitory effects. Subsequently, the aromatase inhibition rates of the compositions in the CPC fractions were calculated using a multivariable linear regression model. A biphasic ethyl acetate/n-butanol/ethanol/water solvent system with respective volume ratios of 10:2:2:8 was used for the ASE and CPC separation of 200g of leaves of P. ginseng raw material. The (lower) aqueous phase of the abovementioned solvent system was used as the extraction solvent. The ginsenosides were subjected to ASE, and the extraction solution was pumped into the sample loop and then directly into the CPC column. The CPC fractions were collected and monitored by an online UHPLC/PDA system at 5-min intervals. The aromatase inhibitory activities of CPC fractions were analyzed by a fluorescence method, with mathematical calculations indicating that the inhibition rates of ginsenosides Rk1, Rg5, Rs5, 20R-Rg3, and Rs4 exceeded 50.00%; indicating that the aforementioned chemical compounds have potential for further development. The results were validated by comparison with authentic standards, indicating that the method used in this research was accurate and advantageous for matrix analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Long-term ginsenoside consumption prevents memory loss in aged SAMP8 mice by decreasing oxidative stress and up-regulating the plasticity-related proteins in hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haifeng; Li, Qiong; Zhang, Zhaofeng; Pei, Xinrong; Wang, Junbo; Li, Yong

    2009-02-23

    Ginsenoside, the effective component of ginseng, has been reported to have a neuron protective effect, but the preventive effect on Alzheimer's disease (AD) related memory loss and the underlying mechanisms have not been well determined. The senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) is a useful model of AD-related memory impairment. In the present study, SAMP8 mice aged 4 months were chronically treated with ginsenoside (3 dose groups were given ginsenoside in drinking water for 7 months). The three groups were treated with ginsenoside 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg per day, respectively. Placebo-treated aged mice and young ones (4 months old) were used as controls. In addition, SAMR1 mice were used as "normal aging" control. The beneficial role of ginsenoside was manifested in the prevention of memory loss in aged SAMP8 mice. The optimal dose of ginsenoside is 100 or 200 mg/kg per day. In ginsenoside treated groups, the Abeta level markedly decreased in hippocampus and antioxidase level significantly increased in serum. In addition, the plasticity-related proteins in hippocampus significantly increased in the two ginsenoside treated groups. The plasticity-related proteins were checked in the present study including postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95), phosphor-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1 (p-NMDAR1), phospho-calcium-calmodulin dependent kinase II (p-CaMKII), phospho-protein kinase A Catalyticbeta subunit (p-PKA Cbeta) and protein kinase Cgamma subunit (PKCgamma), phospho-CREB (p-CREB) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) etc. These findings suggest that the increase of antioxidation and up-regulation of plasticity-related proteins in hippocampus may be one of the mechanisms of ginsenoside on the memory loss prevention in aged SAMP8 mice.

  13. Influence of sulphur-fumigation on the quality of white ginseng: a quantitative evaluation of major ginsenosides by high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xin; Zhu, Ling-Ying; Shen, Hong; Xu, Jun; Li, Song-Lin; Jia, Xiao-Bin; Cai, Hao; Cai, Bao-Chang; Yan, Ru

    2012-12-01

    White ginseng was reported to be sulphur-fumigated during post-harvest handling. In the present study, the influence of sulphur-fumigation on the quality of white ginseng and its decoction were quantitatively evaluated through simultaneous quantification of 14 major ginsenosides by a validated high performance liquid chromatography. Poroshell 120 EC-C18 (100mm×3.0mm, 2.7μm) column was chosen for the separation of the major ginsenosides, which were eluted with gradient water and acetonitrile as mobile phase. The analytes were monitored by UV at 203nm. The method was validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy and stability. The sulphur-fumigated and non-fumigated white ginseng samples, as well as their respective decoctions, were comparatively analysed with the newly-validated method. It was found that the contents of nine ginsenosides detected in raw materials decreased by about 3-85%, respectively, and the total content of the nine ginsenosides detected in raw materials, decreased by almost 54% after sulphur-fumigation. On the other hand, the contents of 10 ginsenosides detected in decoctions of sulphur-fumigated white ginseng were decreased by about 33-83%, respectively, and the total content of ginsenosides was decreased by up to 64% when compared with that of non-fumigated white ginseng. In addition, ginsenoside Rh(2) and Rg(5) could be detected in the decoctions of sulphur-fumigated white ginseng but not in that of non-fumigated white ginseng. It is suggested that sulphur-fumigation can significantly influence not only the contents of original ginsenosides, but also the decocting-induced chemical transformation of ginsenosides in white ginseng.

  14. [Effect of ginsenoside Rg3 on hepatic fibrosis in murine schistosomiasis japonica].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jin; Wang, Hong; Jia, Xue-mei; Li, Cui-ying; Li, Fei

    2011-04-30

    To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of ginsenoside Rg3 on hepatic fibrosis in murine schistosomiasis japonica. 54 ICR-strain male mice were divided into 4 groups named as normal control group (A), infected control group (B), praziquantel+Rg3 treated group (C) and praziquantel treated group (D). There were 12 mice in each group, but 18 in group A. Mice in groups B, C, and D were infected with 20 +/- 2 cercariae of Schistosoma japonicum. At ten weeks post-infection, 10 mice of group A and 12 mice of group B were weighed and sacrificed. Specimens from left hepatic lobes were taken and fixed in 10% formaldehyde solution. Mice in groups C and D were treated intragastrically with praziquantel at a single dose of 300 mg/kg. At the second day after praziquantel treatment, each mouse in group C was given 3 mg/(kg x d) ginsenoside Rg3 for 8 weeks. The rest mice were sacrificed on 8 weeks after treatment, and liver tissue samples from left hepatic lobes were prepared. The histological changes and collagen fiber deposition in the liver tissue sections were observed with hematoxylin-eosin staining and van gieson staining. Liver fibrosis was graded according to semi-quantitative scoring system (SSS) method. In group B, many eggs deposited in the hepatic lobules and portal areas, and eosinophilic abscesses and pseudo-tubercles developed in the liver, especially common in portal areas. There were many fibre hyperplasia and deposit inside abbacy and liver flocculus. Pipestem fibrosis formed around the portal areas, and some cord-like fibres extended into hepatic lobules, and formed in the fibrous septa. After 8-week treatment with ginsenoside Rg3, in group C, the livers were initially enlarged, firm and dust-color; and the degree of hepatomegaly varied from mild to marked; but the degree of fibre hyperplasia and inflammatory infiltration were mitigated compared with that of group B. Mean percentage of collagen area in group C [(2.32 +/- 0.99)%] was lower than that of groups B

  15. Comparative study on intestinal metabolism and absorption in vivo of ginsenosides in sulphur-fumigated and non-fumigated ginseng by ultra performance liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry based chemical profiling approach.

    PubMed

    Zhu, He; Shen, Hong; Xu, Jun; Xu, Jin-Di; Zhu, Ling-Ying; Wu, Jie; Chen, Hu-Biao; Li, Song-Lin

    2015-04-01

    Our previous study indicated that sulphur-fumigation of ginseng in post-harvest handling processes could induce chemical transformation of ginsenosides to generate multiple ginsenoside sulphur derivatives. In this study, the influence of sulphur-fumigation on intestinal metabolism and absorption in vivo of ginsenosides in ginseng was sequentially studied. The intestinal metabolic and absorbed profiles of ginsenosides in rats after intra-gastric (i.g.) administration of sulphur-fumigated ginseng (SFG) and non-fumigated ginseng (NFG) were comparatively characterized by a newly established ultra performance liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization negative (ESI-) mode. A novel strategy based on the characteristic product ions and fragmentation pathways of different types of aglycones (saponin skeletons) and glycosyl moieties was proposed and successfully applied to rapid structural identification of ginsenoside sulphur derivatives and relevant metabolites. In total, 18 ginsenoside sulphur derivatives and 26 ginsenoside sulphur derivative metabolites in the faeces together with six ginsenoside sulphur derivatives in the plasma were identified in the SFG-administrated group but not in the NFG-administrated group. The results clearly demonstrated that the intestinal metabolic and absorbed profiles of ginsenosides in sulphur-fumigated and non-fumigated ginseng were quite different, which inspired that sulphur-fumigation of ginseng should not be recommended before the bioactivity and toxicity of the ginsenoside sulphur derivatives were systematically evaluated.

  16. Effects of ginsenosides, the active ingredients of Panax ginseng, on development, growth, and life span of Caenorhabditis elegans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ginsenosides, the active ingredients of Panax ginseng, are saponins derived from sterols. The free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a well-established model for biochemical and genetic studies in animals. Although cholesterol is an essential requirement for the growth and development of C. ...

  17. Effective purification of ginsenosides from cultured wild ginseng roots,red ginseng, and white ginseng with macroporous resins.

    PubMed

    Li, Huayue; Lee, Jae-Hwa; Ha, Jong-Myung

    2008-11-01

    This study was aimed (i) to develop an effective method for the purification of ginsenosides for industrial use and (ii) to compare the distribution of ginsenosides in cultured wild ginseng roots (adventitious root culture of Panax ginseng) with those of red ginseng (steamed ginseng) and white ginseng (air-dried ginseng). The crude extracts of cultured wild ginseng roots, red ginseng, and white ginseng were obtained by using a 75% ethanol extraction combined with ultrasonication. This was followed sequentially by AB-8 macroporous adsorption chromatography, Amberlite IRA 900 Cl anion-exchange chromatography, and Amberlite XAD16 adsorption chromatography for further purification. The contents of total ginsenosides were increased from 4.1%, 12.1%, and 11.3% in the crude extracts of cultured wild ginseng roots, red ginseng, and white ginseng to 79.4%, 71.7%, and 72.5% in the final products, respectively. HPLC analysis demonstrated that ginsenosides in cultured wild ginseng roots were distributed in a different ratio compared with red ginseng and white ginseng.

  18. [Study on the Effects of Ginsenoside Rb1 on DPPC Bilayers by Using Thermo-Raman Spectrum and DSC].

    PubMed

    Hui, Ge; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jing-zhou; Zhou, Tie-li; Wang, Si-ming; Zhao, Yu; Zhao, Bing

    2015-08-01

    The research on the interactions between Ginsenosides and biomembranes plays a crucial role in thorough understanding the pharmacological activity and biologyical effect of Chinese medicine Panax ginseng. With the bilayer structure, DPPC often serves as an simulation model of the cell membrane to study the role of drug molecules and cell membranes. Ginsenoside Rb1, one of the most important components of Panaxginseng, playing the significant roles of pharmacological effects and biological properties. Raman and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) are respectively a powerful tool for discussing the molecular interaction, and a kind of general technology by which researching the bilayer monomer structures and its interactions with drug molecules. However, rarely research reports on the interactions between drug molecules and biomembranes by means of both technologies above. In this paper, the influence of ginsenoside monomer Rb1 on DPPC membrane bilayers was investigated by thermo-Raman and DSC. In Raman spectra, the changes of DPPC molecule have been observed before and after interacted with ginsenoside Rb1, the data analysis indicates three aspects: the O-C-C-N+ polar head group skeleton, C-C stretching vibration area, and the C-H bond stretching vibrarion in terminated methyl group of alkyl chains. The results showed that ginsenoside Rb1 molecule with certain concentration has not changed the gauche conformation of the polar head backbone group in DPPC bilayers, the order of the internal molecular chain and the lateral chain-chain packing have been decreased as the temperature increased, the lateral disposed disorder has been increased. The changes of some thermodynamic constants obtained by DSC experiment such as phase transition temperature (Tm), the temperature at which the transition is half completed (ΔT1/2), and the transition enthalpy normalized per mol of DPPC (AH) have been showed further results of the thermo Raman experiments, with increasing the

  19. Ginsenoside 20(S)-Rh2 Induces Apoptosis and Differentiation of Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells: Role of Orphan Nuclear Receptor Nur77.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengqiang; He, Hui; Dou, Guojun; Li, Juan; Zhang, Xiaomei; Jiang, Mingdong; Li, Pan; Huang, Xiaobo; Chen, Hongxi; Li, Li; Yang, Dajian; Qi, Hongyi

    2017-09-06

    Ginsenoside 20(S)-Rh2 has been shown to induce apoptosis and differentiation of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. In our study, 20(S)-Rh2 induced the expression of orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 and death receptor proteins Fas, FasL, DR5, and TRAIL, as well as the cleavage of caspase 8 and caspase 3 in HL-60 cells. Importantly, shNur77 attenuated 20(S)-Rh2-induced apoptosis and Fas and DR5 expression. Meanwhile, 20(S)-Rh2 promoted Nur77 translocation from the nucleus to mitochondria and enhanced the interaction between Nur77 and Bcl-2, resulting in the exposure of the BH3 domain of Bcl-2 and activation of Bax. Furthermore, 20(S)-Rh2 promoted the differentiation of HL-60 cells as evidenced by Wright-Giemsa staining, NBT reduction assay, and detection of the myeloid differentiation marker CD11b by flow cytometry. Notably, shNur77 reversed 20(S)-Rh2-mediated HL-60 differentiation. Additionally, 20(S)-Rh2 also exhibited an antileukemic effect and induced Nur77 expression in NOD/SCID mice with the injection of HL-60 cells into the tail vein. Together, our studies suggest that the Nur77-mediated signaling pathway is highly involved in 20(S)-Rh2-induced apoptosis and differentiation of AML cells.

  20. The Octyl Ester of Ginsenoside Rh2 Induces Lysosomal Membrane Permeabilization via Bax Translocation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Zhang, Bing; Sun, Yong; Xiong, Zeng-Xing; Peng, Han; Deng, Ze-Yuan; Hu, Jiang-Ning

    2016-04-25

    Ginsenoside Rh2 is a potential pharmacologically active metabolite of ginseng. Previously, we have reported that an octyl ester derivative of ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2-O), has been confirmed to possess higher bioavailability and anticancer effect than Rh2 in vitro. In order to better assess the possibility that Rh2-O could be used as an anticancer compound, the underlying mechanism was investigated in this study. The present results revealed that lysosomal destabilization was involved in the early stage of cell apoptosis in HepG2 cells induced by Rh2-O. Rh2-O could induce an early lysosomal membrane permeabilization with the release of lysosomal protease cathepsins to the cytosol in HepG2 cells. The Cat B inhibitor (leu) and Cat D inhibitor (pepA) inhibited Rh2-O-induced HepG2 apoptosis as well as tBid production and Δφm depolarization, indicating that lysosomal permeabilization occurred upstream of mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, Rh2-O induced a significant increase in the protein levels of DRAM1 and Bax (p < 0.05) in lysosomes of HepG2 cells. Knockdown of Bax partially inhibited Rh2-O-induced Cat D release from lysosomes. Thus it was concluded that Rh2-O induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells through activation of the lysosomal-mitochondrial apoptotic pathway involving the translocation of Bax to the lysosome.

  1. [Ginsenoside-Rb1 as a suppressor in central modulation of feeding in the rat].

    PubMed

    Etou, H; Sakata, T; Fujimoto, K; Terada, K; Yoshimatsu, H; Ookuma, K; Hayashi, T; Arichi, S

    1988-01-01

    Ginsenosides, the main component of Panax ginseng root, have been reported to show several pharmacological actions on the peripheral metabolism of glucose and lipid and on endocrine secretion. The present study aimed to clarify the effects of ginsenoside-Rb1 on feeding behavior and endogenous chemical substances. Rb1 infusion into the rat third cerebroventricle was started at 1930 hr, and ingestive behavior was recorded in a soundproof room illuminated daily from 0800 to 2000 hr. Rb1 at doses of 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 mumol potently decreased food intake dose-dependently during the first dark period after infusion. Analysis of meal patterns revealed that the suppressive effect was due to decreasing meal size, but not to postprandial intermeal interval and eating speed. Drinking episodes decreased concomitantly with feeding suppression only at the highest dose of 0.20 mumol. Ambulatory activity was not affected in the doses tested. Infusion of Rb1 increased plasma glucose, leaving insulin unaffected. Microinjection of 0.01 mumol Rb1 into the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus (VMH) decreased food intake, but injection into the lateral hypothalamic area did not. Taking these data together, Rb1 was found to have a suppressive effect on feeding partly through the VMH.

  2. Anticancer Activities of Protopanaxadiol- and Protopanaxatriol-Type Ginsenosides and Their Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiao-Jia; Zhang, Xiao-Jing; Shui, Yan-Mei; Wan, Jian-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, most anticancer drugs are derived from natural resources such as marine, microbial, and botanical sources, but the low success rates of chemotherapies and the development of multidrug resistance emphasize the importance of discovering new compounds that are both safe and effective against cancer. Ginseng types, including Asian ginseng, American ginseng, and notoginseng, have been used traditionally to treat various diseases, due to their immunomodulatory, neuroprotective, antioxidative, and antitumor activities. Accumulating reports have shown that ginsenosides, the major active component of ginseng, were helpful for tumor treatment. 20(S)-Protopanaxadiol (PDS) and 20(S)-protopanaxatriol saponins (PTS) are two characteristic types of triterpenoid saponins in ginsenosides. PTS holds capacity to interfere with crucial metabolism, while PDS could affect cell cycle distribution and prodeath signaling. This review aims at providing an overview of PTS and PDS, as well as their metabolites, regarding their different anticancer effects with the proposal that these compounds might be potent additions to the current chemotherapeutic strategy against cancer. PMID:27446225

  3. Stereospecific effects of ginsenoside 20-Rg3 inhibits TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and suppresses lung cancer migration, invasion and anoikis resistance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Joo; Choi, Won-Il; Jeon, Bu-Nam; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Kim, Kunhong; Kim, Tae-Jin; Ham, Jungyeob; Jang, Hyuk Jai; Kang, Ki Sung; Ko, Hyeonseok

    2014-08-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a pivotal cellular process during which epithelial polarized cells become motile mesenchymal-appearing cells, which, in turn, promotes the metastatic potential of cancer. Ginseng is a perennial plant belonging to the genus Panax that exhibits a wide range of pharmacological and physiological activities. Ginsenosides 20-Rg3, which is the active component of ginseng, has various medical effects, such as anti-tumorigenic, anti-angiogenesis, and anti-fatiguing activities. In addition, ginsenosides 20(S)-Rg3 and 20(R)-Rg3 are epimers, and this epimerization is produced by steaming. However, the possible role of 20(S)-Rg3 and 20(R)-Rg3 in the EMT is unclear. We investigated the effect of 20(S)-Rg3 and 20(R)-Rg3 on the EMT. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) induces the EMT to promote lung adenocarcinoma migration, invasion, and anoikis resistance. To understand the repressive role of 20(S)-Rg3 and 20(R)-Rg3 in lung cancer migration, invasion, and anoikis resistance, we investigated the potential use of 20(S)-Rg3 and 20(R)-Rg3 as inhibitors of TGF-β1-induced EMT development in A549 lung cancer cells in vitro. Here, we show that 20(R)-Rg3, but not 20(S)-Rg3, markedly increased expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and repressed Snail upregulation and expression of the mesenchymal marker vimentin during initiation of the TGF-β1-induced EMT. 20(R)-Rg3 also inhibited the TGF-β1-induced increase in cell migration, invasion, and anoikis resistance of A549 lung cancer cells. Additionally, 20(R)-Rg3 markedly inhibited TGF-β1-regulated matrix metalloproteinase-2 and activation of Smad2 and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase. Taken together, our findings provide new evidence that 20(R)-Rg3 suppresses lung cancer migration, invasion, and anoikis resistance in vitro by inhibiting the TGF-β1-induced EMT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Effects of lead stress on net photosynthetic rate, SPAD value and ginsenoside production in Ginseng (Panax ginseng)].

    PubMed

    Liang, Yao; Jiang, Xiao-Li; Yang, Fen-Tuan; Cao, Qing-Jun; Li, Gang

    2014-08-01

    The paper aimed to evaluate the effects of lead stress on photosynthetic performance and ginsenoside content in ginseng (Panax ginseng). To accomplish this, three years old ginseng were cultivated in pot and in phytotron with different concentrations of lead, ranging from 0 to 1000 mg x kg(-1) soil for a whole growth period (about 150 days). The photosynthetic parameters in leaves and ginsenoside content in roots of ginseng were determined in green fruit stage and before withering stage, respectively. In comparison with the control, net photosynthetic rate and SPAD value in ginseng leaves cultivated with 100 and 250 mg x kg(-1) of lead changed insignificantly, however, ginseng supplied with 500 and 1 000 mg x kg(-1) of lead showed a noticeably decline in the net rate of photosynthesis and SPAD value (P < 0.05), the lowest net photosynthetic rate and SPAD value showed in the treatment supplied with 1 000 mg x kg(-1) of lead, with decline of 57.8%,11.0%, respectively. Total content of ginsenoside in ginseng roots cultivated with 100 mg x kg(-1) of lead showed insignificantly change compared to the control, but the content increased remarkably in treatments supplied with 250, 500, 1 000 mg x kg(-1) of lead (P < 0.05), and highest content appeared in these ginsengs exposed to 1000 mg x kg(-1) of lead. The net photosynthetic rate and SPAD value in leaves of ginseng both showed significantly negative linear correlations with lead stress level (P < 0.01), and significant positive linear correlations between total content of ginsenoside and lead concentration was also observed (P < 0.05). These results strongly indicate that exposing to high level of lead negatively affects photosynthetic performance in ginseng leaves, but benefits for accumulation of secondary metabolism (total content of ginsenoside) in ginseng root.

  5. Identification of ginsenoside markers from dry purified extract of Panax ginseng by a dereplication approach and UPLC-QTOF/MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Heejung; Lee, Dong Young; Kang, Kyo Bin; Kim, Jeom Yong; Kim, Sun Ok; Yoo, Young Hyo; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2015-05-10

    A dry purified extract of Panax ginseng (PEG) was prepared using a manufacturing process that includes column chromatography, acid hydrolysis, and an enzyme reaction. During the manufacturing process, the more polar ginsenosides were altered into less polar forms via cleavage of their sugar chains and structural modifications of the aglycones, such as hydroxylation and dehydroxylation. The structural changes of ginsenosides during the intermediate steps from dried ginseng extract (DGE) to PEG were monitored by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (UPLC-QTOF/MS). 22 ginsenosides isolated from PEG were used as the reference standards for determining of unknown ginsenosides and further suggesting of the metabolic markers. The elution order of 22 ginsenosides based on the type of aglycones, and the location and number of sugar chains can be used for the structural elucidation of unknown ginsenosides. This information could be used in a dereplication process for quick and efficient identification of ginsenoside derivatives in ginseng preparations. A dereplication approach helped the identification of the metabolic markers in the UPLC-QTOF/MS chromatograms during the conversion process with multivariate analyses, including principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) plots. These metabolic markers were identified by comparing with the dereplication information of the reference standards of 22 ginsenosides, or they were assigned using the pattern of the MS/MS fragmented ions. Consequently, the developed metabolic profiling approach using UPLC-QTOF/MS and multivariate analysis represents a new method for providing quality control as well as useful criteria for a similarity evaluation of the manufacturing process of ginseng preparations.

  6. Differential effect of bovine serum albumin on ginsenoside metabolite-induced inhibition of alpha3beta4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun-Ho; Jeong, Sang Min; Lee, Byung-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Kim, Jai-Il; Lee, Sang-Mok; Nah, Seung-Yeol

    2003-10-01

    Ginsenosides, major active ingredients of Panax ginseng, that exhibit various pharmacological and physiological actions are transformed into compound K (CK) or M4 by intestinal microorganisms. CK is a metabolite derived from protopanaxadiol (PD) ginsenosides, whereas M4 is a metabolite derived from protopanaxatriol (PT) ginsenosides. Recent reports shows that ginsenosides might play a role as pro-drugs for these metabolites. In present study, we investigated the effect of bovine serum albumin (BSA), which is one of major binding proteins on various neurotransmitters, hormones, and other pharmacological agents, on ginsenoside Rg2-, CK-, or M4-induced regulation of alpha3beta4 nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor channel activity expressed in Xenopus oocytes. In the absence of BSA, treatment of ACh elicited inward peak current (I(ACh)) in oocytes expressing alpha3beta4 nicotinic ACh receptor. Co-treatment of ginsenoside Rg2, CK, or M4 with ACh inhibited I(ACh) in oocytes expressing (alpha3beta4 nicotinic ACh receptor with reversible and dose-dependent manner. In the presence of 1% BSA, treatment of ACh still elicited I(ACh) in oocytes expressing alpha3beta4 nicotinic ACh receptor and co-treatment of ginsenoside Rg2 or M4 but not CK with ACh inhibited I(ACh) in oocytes expressing alpha3beta4 nicotinic ACh receptor with reversible and dose-dependent manner. These results show that BSA interferes the action of CK rather than M4 on the inhibitory effect of I(ACh) in oocytes expressing alpha3beta4 nicotinic ACh receptor and further suggest that BSA exhibits a differential interaction on ginsenoside metabolites.

  7. Ginsenosides Rd and Re co-treatments improve rotenone-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    González-Burgos, E; Fernández-Moriano, Carlos; Lozano, R; Iglesias, I; Gómez-Serranillos, M P

    2017-08-23

    Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play key roles in Parkinson's disease (PD) initiation and progression. Ginsenosides are major compounds of Ginseng species and they are responsible for pharmacological activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential neuroprotective effects and mechanism of the major ginsenosides Rd and Re in rotenone-induced oxidative stress model in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Co-treatments with both ginsenosides inhibited the increased intracellular ROS production and by-products lipid peroxidation accumulation caused by rotenone. Moreover, these ginsenosides upregulated SOD and aconitase enzymes activities, and glutathione system; these antioxidant properties are related to Nrf2 induction and radical scavenger effect. Additionally, the results showed that both Rd and Re attenuated the extent of depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and restored calcium levels. Furthermore, these compounds prevented apoptosis by modulating Bax and Bcl-2 proteins and inhibiting cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation. The ginsenoside Rd resulted to be more active than ginsenoside Re. These findings highlighted the efficacy of these compounds as neuroprotectant compounds for PD prevention and treatment through reducing oxidative stress, improving mitochondrial integrity and functions, and inhibiting apoptosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Production of the rare ginsenosides compound K, compound Y, and compound Mc by a thermostable beta-glycosidase from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.

    PubMed

    Noh, Kyeong-Hwan; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2009-11-01

    The rare ginsenosides compound K, compound Y, and compound Mc were produced from the major ginsenosides Rb(1), Rb(2), Rc, and Rd by a thermostable beta-glycosidase from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius via three pathways: Rb(1)-->Rd-->compound K, Rb(2)-->compound Y-->compound K, and Rc-->compound Mc. Each of the ginsenosides was identified by high-performance liquid chromatography using standards and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry based on their molecular weights. The catalytic efficiency of the enzyme for ginsenosides followed the order Rb(1) (4.8)>Rc (4.5)>Rd (1.0)>Rb(2) (0.77 mM(-1) min(-1)). The enzyme converted 1 mg/ml reagent-grade Rb(1), Rb(2), and Rc to 0.53 mg/ml compound K, 0.56 mg/ml compound Y, and 0.70 mg/ml compound Mc, respectively, at pH 5.5 and 85 degrees C after 180 min, corresponding to mole conversion yields of 94, 80, and 100% (mol/mol), respectively. The enzyme converted the major ginsenosides Rb(1), Rb(2), Rc, and Rd in 10% (w/v) ginseng root extract to the rare ginsenosides with a mole yield of 99% after 24 h. These results suggest that beta-glycosidase from S. acidocaldarius can be used to produce compound K, compound Y, and compound Mc.

  9. Photosynthesis rates, growth, and ginsenoside contents of 2-yr-old Panax ginseng grown at different light transmission rates in a greenhouse

    PubMed Central

    Jang, In-Bae; Lee, Dae-Young; Yu, Jin; Park, Hong-Woo; Mo, Hwang-Sung; Park, Kee-Choon; Hyun, Dong-Yun; Lee, Eung-Ho; Kim, Kee-Hong; Oh, Chang-Sik

    2015-01-01

    Background Ginseng is a semishade perennial plant cultivated in sloping, sun-shaded areas in Korea. Recently, owing to air-environmental stress and various fungal diseases, greenhouse cultivation has been suggested as an alternative. However, the optimal light transmission rate (LTR) in the greenhouse has not been established. Methods The effect of LTR on photosynthesis rate, growth, and ginsenoside content of ginseng was examined by growing ginseng at the greenhouse under 6%, 9%, 13%, and 17% of LTR. Results The light-saturated net photosynthesis rate (Asat) and stomatal conductance (gs) of ginseng increased until the LTR reached 17% in the early stage of growth, whereas they dropped sharply owing to excessive leaf chlorosis at 17% LTR during the hottest summer period in August. Overall, 6–17% of LTR had no effect on the aerial part of plant length or diameter, whereas 17% and 13% of LRT induced the largest leaf area and the highest root weight, respectively. The total ginsenoside content of the ginseng leaves increased as the LTR increased, and the overall content of protopanaxatriol line ginsenosides was higher than that of protopanaxadiol line ginsenosides. The ginsenoside content of the ginseng roots also increased as the LTR increased, and the total ginsenoside content of ginseng grown at 17% LTR increased by 49.7% and 68.3% more than the ginseng grown at 6% LTR in August and final harvest, respectively. Conclusion These results indicate that 13–17% of LTR should be recommended for greenhouse cultivation of ginseng. PMID:26869827

  10. Photosynthesis rates, growth, and ginsenoside contents of 2-yr-old Panax ginseng grown at different light transmission rates in a greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Jang, In-Bae; Lee, Dae-Young; Yu, Jin; Park, Hong-Woo; Mo, Hwang-Sung; Park, Kee-Choon; Hyun, Dong-Yun; Lee, Eung-Ho; Kim, Kee-Hong; Oh, Chang-Sik

    2015-10-01

    Ginseng is a semishade perennial plant cultivated in sloping, sun-shaded areas in Korea. Recently, owing to air-environmental stress and various fungal diseases, greenhouse cultivation has been suggested as an alternative. However, the optimal light transmission rate (LTR) in the greenhouse has not been established. The effect of LTR on photosynthesis rate, growth, and ginsenoside content of ginseng was examined by growing ginseng at the greenhouse under 6%, 9%, 13%, and 17% of LTR. The light-saturated net photosynthesis rate (A sat) and stomatal conductance (g s) of ginseng increased until the LTR reached 17% in the early stage of growth, whereas they dropped sharply owing to excessive leaf chlorosis at 17% LTR during the hottest summer period in August. Overall, 6-17% of LTR had no effect on the aerial part of plant length or diameter, whereas 17% and 13% of LRT induced the largest leaf area and the highest root weight, respectively. The total ginsenoside content of the ginseng leaves increased as the LTR increased, and the overall content of protopanaxatriol line ginsenosides was higher than that of protopanaxadiol line ginsenosides. The ginsenoside content of the ginseng roots also increased as the LTR increased, and the total ginsenoside content of ginseng grown at 17% LTR increased by 49.7% and 68.3% more than the ginseng grown at 6% LTR in August and final harvest, respectively. These results indicate that 13-17% of LTR should be recommended for greenhouse cultivation of ginseng.

  11. [Effect of ginsenoside Rb1 on cerebral infarction volume and IL-1 beta in the brain tissue and sera of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury model rats].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun-Wei; Ren, Ye-Long; Liu, Xu-Ling; Xia, Hong-Lian; Zhang, Hui-Ling; Jin, Shen-Hui; Dai, Qin-Xue; Wang, Jun-Lu

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the effect of ginsenoside Rb1 on cerebral infarction volume as well as IL-1 beta in the brain tissue and sera of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury model rats. The I/R rat model was established by using thread according to Zea-Longa. SD rats were randomly divided into five groups, i.e., the sham-operation group, the model group, the low dose ginsenoside Rb1 (20 mg/kg) group, the medium dose ginsenoside Rb1 group (40 mg/kg), and the high dose ginsenoside Rb1 group (80 mg/kg), 12 in each group. Rats in the sham-operation group only received middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) but without thread insertion. The MCAO model was prepared in the rest 4 groups, followed by MCAO2 h later. Ginsenoside Rb1 at each dose was peritoneally administrated to rats in corresponding groups immediately after cerebral ischemia. Equal volume of normal saline was administered to rats in the sham-operation group. Rats' cerebral infarction volume, integrals of neurologic defect degree, expression of IL-1 beta content in the brain tissue and sera were observed 24 h after 2-h cerebral I/R. In the model group, integrals of neurologic defect degree were improved (P < 0.01), IL-1 beta positive cells in the brain tissue increased and serum IL-1 beta content elevated (P < 0.05), when compared with the sham-operation group. In comparison of the model group, integrals of neurologic defect degree were lowered in the medium dose and high dose ginsenoside Rb1 groups (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). The cerebral infarction volume was all shrunken in each ginsenoside Rb1 group, IL-1 beta positive cells in the brain tissue decreased, and IL-1 beta content in serum reduced (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). Compared with the low dose ginsenoside Rb1 group, integrals of neurologic defect degree decreased, the cerebral infarction volume shrunken, and IL-1 beta content in serum reduced in the high dose ginsenoside Rb1 group (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). Ginsenoside Rb1 (20, 40, 80 mg/kg) might effectively

  12. Melanin Biosynthesis Inhibition Effects of Ginsenoside Rb2 Isolated from Panax ginseng Berry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae Young; Jeong, Yong Tae; Jeong, Sang Chul; Lee, Mi Kyoung; Min, Jin Woo; Lee, Jae Won; Kim, Geum Soog; Lee, Seung Eun; Ahn, Young Sup; Kang, Hee Cheol; Kim, Jin Hee

    2015-12-28

    Ginsenoside Rb2 (Gin-Rb2) was purified from the fruit extract of Panax ginseng. Its chemical structure was measured by spectroscopic analysis, including HR-FAB-MS, (1)H-NMR, and IR spectroscopy. Gin-Rb2 decreased potent melanogenesis in melan-a cells, with 23.4% at 80 μM without cytotoxicity. Gin-Rb2 also decreased tyrosinase and MITF protein expression in melan-a cells. Furthermore, Gin-Rb2 presented inhibition of the body pigmentation in the zebrafish in vivo system and reduced melanin contents and tyrosinase activity. These results show that Gin-Rb2 isolated from P. ginseng may be an effective skin-whitening agent via the in vitro and in vivo systems.

  13. Bioactivity Enhancement of Herbal Supplements by Intestinal Microbiota Focusing on the Ginsenosides

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huai-You; Qi, Lian-Wen; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Li, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal microbiota contributes to diverse mammalian processes including the metabolic function of drugs. It is a potential new territory for drug targeting, especially for dietary herbal products. Because most of herbal drugs are orally administered, the chemical profile and corresponding bioactivities of herbal medicines may be altered by intestinal microbiota. Ginseng is one of the most commonly used herb and it is always an attractive natural product to understand. In this review, after briefly introduce the interactions of herbal products and gut microbiota, we discussed the microbiota-mediated metabolism of ginsenosides in ginseng and red ginseng. In particular, the major metabolite Compound K and its pharmacological advances are commented including anticancer, antidiabetic and antiinflammatory effects. In summary, the intestinal microbiota may play an important role in mediating the metabolism and enhancement of bioactivity of herbal medicines. PMID:22083984

  14. [Ginsenoside Rh₂ induces apoptosis and autophagy of K562 cells by activating p38].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Xia; Xia, Jing; Tang, Jia-Feng; Zhou, Ming-Hua; Chen, Di-Long; Liu, Ze-Hong

    2017-01-01

    To study the effect of ginseng saponin Rh₂ in inducing apoptosis of human leukemia K562 cells, and explore its mechanism from the aspect of autophagy pathway. CCK-8 assay was used to examine the growth inhibition of human leukemia cell lines K562 treated with ginsenoside Rh₂; flow cytometry (FCM) was used to detect cell apoptosis; Hoechst staining was used to observe the changes of cell morphological apoptosis; Acridine and MDC staining were used to detect the effects of the Rh₂ on autophagy; Western blot and RT-PCR were used to detect the expression levels of the proteins closely associated with autophagy and apoptosis. In order to study the effect of autophagy in proliferation and apoptosis, we used the autophagy inhibitor (3-MA).CCK-8 indicated that Rh₂ at low concentration could effectively inhibit the proliferation of leukemia cellsin dose- and time-dependent manners in K562 cells; FCM indicated that Rh₂ induced apoptosis; Hoechest staining showed that K562 cells had typical apoptotic morphological changes by treated Rh₂; Acridine and MDC staining showed that Rh₂ enhanced the green fluorescence and a large number of acidic autophagy vesicles were present; Western blot and RT-PCR results showed that Rh₂ increased the expression levels of Beclin-1, LC3A, LC3B, activated Caspase-3 and p-p38 in K562 cells; application of autophagy inhibitors(3-MA) could weaken the inhibition effect of Rh₂ on proliferation and induction effect on apoptosis in K562 cells. Ginsenoside Rh₂ inhibited the proliferation and induced apoptosis probably through activating p-p38, and inducing cell autophagy signaling pathway in K562 cells. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  15. Antidepressant-like effects of ginsenosides: A comparison of ginsenoside Rb3 and its four deglycosylated derivatives, Rg3, Rh2, compound K, and 20(S)-protopanaxadiol in mice models of despair.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hualin; Li, Zhong; Zhou, Zhongliu; Yang, Hongyan; Zhong, Zhiyong; Lou, Caixia

    2016-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rb3 has been proved to have antidepressant-like effects, which possesses 1 xylose and 3 glucose moieties with 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD) as the aglycone. However, it is commonly accepted that orally ingested ginsenosides can be deglycosylated or partially deglycosylated into active derivatives by the intestinal bacteria. To identify potential antidepressant drug candidates, we compared the antidepressant-like activities between ginsenoside Rb3 and its four deglycosylated derivatives, Rg3, Rh2, compound K (C-K), and PPD. Effects of acute (1-day), short chronic (7-days), and longer chronic treatments (14-days) with these ginsenosides (50 and 100mg/kg, p.o.) on the behavioral changes in the forced swim test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and open field test were investigated. Serum corticosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels and mouse brain monoamine neurotransmitters 5-HT, NA and DA levels were measured using commercially available competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Interestingly, C-K showed antidepressant-like activities similar to that of Rb3, and Rg3 displayed antidepressant-like effects at lower dosage and faster time, indicating it has better effects than Rb3, whereas Rh2 and PPD failed to show any effect. Our results also showed, unlike the positive control fluoxetine, Rb3, Rg3 and C-K significantly increased the NA levels in the brain regions of mice exposed to FST but did not affect the 5-HT and DA levels. Moreover, treatment with Rg3 could reverse swim stress-induced increased levels of serum ACTH and corticosterone. These results suggest that C-K and Rg3 are the active deglycosylated derivatives, especially the latter compound, which is more potent than Rb3 and exerts antidepressant-like effects by regulating NA, ACTH and corticosterone levels.

  16. Metabolomic evaluation of ginsenosides distribution in Panax genus (Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius) using multivariate statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Pace, Roberto; Martinelli, Ernesto Marco; Sardone, Nicola; D E Combarieu, Eric

    2015-03-01

    Ginseng is any one of the eleven species belonging to the genus Panax of the family Araliaceae and is found in North America and in eastern Asia. Ginseng is characterized by the presence of ginsenosides. Principally Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius are the adaptogenic herbs and are commonly distributed as health food markets. In the present study high performance liquid chromatography has been used to identify and quantify ginsenosides in the two subject species and the different parts of the plant (roots, neck, leaves, flowers, fruits). The power of this chromatographic technique to evaluate the identity of botanical material and to distinguishing different part of the plants has been investigated with metabolomic technique such as principal component analysis. Metabolomics provide a good opportunity for mining useful chemical information from the chromatographic data set resulting an important tool for quality evaluation of medicinal plants in the authenticity, consistency and efficacy.

  17. Panax ginseng Adventitious Root Suspension Culture: Protocol for Biomass Production and Analysis of Ginsenosides by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Paek, Kee Yoeup

    2016-01-01

    Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Korean ginseng) is a popular herbal medicine. It has been used in Chinese and Oriental medicines since thousands of years. Ginseng products are generally used as a tonic and an adaptogen to resist the adverse influence of a wide range of physical, chemical and biological factors, and to restore homeostasis. Ginsenosides or ginseng saponins are the principal active ingredients of ginseng. Since ginseng cultivation process is very slow and needs specific environment for field cultivation, cell and tissue cultures are sought as alternatives for the production of ginseng biomass and bioactive compounds. In this chapter, we focus on methods of induction of adventitious roots from ginseng roots, establishment of adventitious root suspension cultures using bioreactors, procedures for processing of adventitious roots, and analysis of ginsenosides by high pressure liquid chromatography.

  18. Bioconversion of ginsenoside Rc into Rd by a novel α-L-arabinofuranosidase, Abf22-3 from Leuconostoc sp. 22-3: cloning, expression, and enzyme characterization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing-Mei; Jung, Hae-Min; Cui, Chang-Hao; Sung, Bong-Hyun; Kim, Jin-Kwang; Kim, Song-Gun; Lee, Sung-Taik; Kim, Sun-Chang; Im, Wan-Taek

    2013-04-01

    A novel α-L-arabinofuranosidase (Abf22-3) that could biotransform ginsenoside Rc into Rd was obtained from the ginsenoside converting Leuconostoc sp. strain 22-3, isolated from the Korean fermented food kimchi. The gene, termed abf22-3, consisting of 1,527 bp and encoding a protein with a predicted molecular mass of 58,486 Da was cloned into the pMAL-c2x (TEV) vector. A BLAST search using the Abf22-3's amino acid sequence revealed significant homology to that of family 51 glycoside hydrolases. The over-expressed recombinant Abf22-3 in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) catalyzed the hydrolysis of the arabinofuranoside moiety attached to the C-20 position of ginsenoside Rc under optimal conditions of pH 6.0 and 30 °C. This result indicated that Abf22-3 selectively converts ginsenoside Rc into Rd, but did not catalyze the hydrolysis of glucopyranosyl groups from Rc or other ginsenosides such as Rb1 and Rb2. Over-expressed recombinant enzymes were purified by two steps with amylose-affinity and DEAE-cellulose chromatography and then characterized. The kinetic parameters for α-L-arabinofuranosidase showed apparent Km and Vmax values of 0.95 ± 0.02 μM and 1.2 ± 0.1 μmol min(-1) mg of protein(-1) against p-nitrophenyl-α-L-arabinofuranoside, respectively. Using a purified MBP-Abf22-3 (10 μg/ml), 0.1 % of ginsenoside Rc was completely converted to ginsenoside Rd within 20 min.

  19. [Chemical constituents from roots and rhizomes of Panax ginseng cultivated in Jilin province].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Ping; Yang, Xin-Bao; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Liu, Jian-Xun; Wang, Ying-Ping; Zhang, Lian-Xue

    2013-09-01

    The chemical constituents of the roots and rhizomes of Panax ginseng were systematically investigated by various column chromatographic methods including Amberlite XAD-4 macroporous adsorptive resins and silica gel as well as high-performance liquid chromatography, and their chemical structures were identified by physico-chemical properties and spectral analyses. Twenty-eight compounds were isolated from the 70% ethanolic-aqueous extract and identified as koryoginsenoside R1 (1), ginsenoside Rg1 (2), ginsenoside Rf (3), notoginsenoside R2 (4), ginsenoside Rg2 (5), notoginsenoside Fe (6), ginsenjilinol (7), ginsenoside Re5 (8), noto-ginsenoside N (9), notoginsenoside R1 (10), ginsenoside Re2 (11), ginsenoside Re1 (12), ginsenoside Re (13), ginsenoside Rs2 (14), ginsenoside Ro methyl ester (15), ginsenoside Rd (16), ginsenoside Re3 (17), ginsenoside Re4 (18), 20-gluco-ginsenoside Rf (19), ginsenoside Ro (20), ginsenoside Rc (21), quinquenoside-R1 (22), ginsenoside Ra2 (23), ginsenoside Rb1 (24), ginsenoside Ra1 (25), ginsenoside Ra3 (26), ginsenoside Rb2 (27), and notoginsenoside R4 (28). All isolated compounds are 20 (S) -protopanaxadiol or protopanaxatriol type triterpenoid saponins. Compound 1 was isolated from the roots and rhizomes of P. ginseng cultivated in Jilin province for the first time and compound 6 was isolated from the roots and rhizomes of P. ginseng for the first time. The 1H-NMR data of compounds 6, 14 and 19 were assigned for the first time.

  20. A UHPLC-TOF/MS method based metabonomic study of total ginsenosides effects on Alzheimer disease mouse model.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yingge; Liu, Ying; Zhou, Ling; Di, Xin; Li, Wei; Li, Qing; Bi, Kaishun

    2015-11-10

    A metabonomic method was established to find potential biomarkers and study the metabolism disturbance in Alzheimer disease animal model. Total ginsenosides, as potential agent in neuroprotection and anti-inflammation, was also studied to learn the regulation mechanism to plasma metabolites in model animals. In experiment, amyloid beta 1-42 was occupied to form Alzheimer disease animal model. After drug administration, animals were evaluated by Morris water maze behavior test and sacrificed. Plasma samples were then analyzed using UHPLC-TOF/MS method to determine the endogenous metabolites. Behavior test results revealed that the spatial learning and memory abilities were deficit in model mice, and total ginsenosides could improve cognition abilities in dose-dependent manners. Principal component analysis showed that model and sham were divided into two groups, which means the metabolic network of mice was disturbed after modeling. Accordingly, 19 biomarkers were found and identified. In model group, the levels of proline, valine, tryptophan, LPC (14:0), LPC (15:0), LPC (15:1), LPC (17:0), LPC (18:2), LPC (18:3) and LPC (20:4) were up-regulated, while the levels of acetylcarnitine, palmitoylcarnitine, vaccenylcarnitine, phytosphingosine, N-eicosanoylethanolamine, hexadecenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid and octadecadienoic acid were down-regulated. The levels of these metabolites were recovered in different degrees after total ginsenosides administration. Combining with behavior study results, total ginsenosides could ameliorate both cognition symptoms and metabolic changes in model animals. This metabonomic approach provided a feasible way to understand the endogenous alterations of AD and to study the pharmacodynamic activity of novel agents.

  1. Ginsenoside Rg5 Ameliorates Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Mice through Inhibition of Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Yan, Meng-Han; Liu, Ying; Liu, Zhi; Wang, Zi; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Jing; Sun, Yin-Shi

    2016-09-13

    Although cisplatin is an effective anti-cancer agent that is widely used for treating various types of malignant solid tumors, the nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin severely limits its clinical application. The present study was designed to explore the potential protective effect of ginsenoside Rg5, a rare ginsenoside generated during steaming ginseng, on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in a mouse experimental model. The possible mechanisms underlying this nephroprotective effect were also investigated for the first time. Rg5 was given at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg for 10 consecutive days. On Day 7, a single nephrotoxic dose of cisplatin (25 mg/kg) was injected to mice. Cisplatin administration resulted in renal dysfunction as evidenced by increase in serum creatinine (CRE) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels. In addition, cisplatin increased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), the makers of lipid peroxidation, and depleted glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in renal tissues. These effects were associated with the significantly increased levels of cytochrome P450 E1 (CYP2E1), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in renal tissues. However, pretreatment with ginsenoside Rg5 significantly attenuated the renal dysfunction, oxidative stress and inflammation response induced by cisplatin. Furthermore, ginsenoside Rg5 supplementation inhibited activation of apoptotic pathways through increasing Bcl-2 and decreasing Bax expression levels. Histopathological examination further confirmed the nephroprotective effect of Rg5. Collectively, these results clearly suggest that Rg5-mediated alleviation of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity may be related to its anti-oxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects.

  2. Effects of acupuncturing Pishu combined with Ginsenoside Rg3 on the immune function of rats with chronic fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenjing; Zhang, Yue; Ma, Xiande; Chen, Yiguo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effects of acupuncturing Pishu combined with Ginsenoside Rg3 on the immune function of rats with chronic fatigue. Methods: Forty male SD rats were equally randomized into control group, chronic fatigue system group (CFS), Ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3) group, acupuncture group and acupuncture combined with Ginsenoside Rg3 (A+Rg3) group. Rats with chronic fatigue were established by bounding and forced swimming in cold water once daily for 21 days except control group, then the rats in the acupuncture and A+Rg3 group were treated by manual acupuncture stimulation of bilateral “Pishu” once daily for 7 days. Ginsenoside Rg3 was administered by intravenous to the rats of the A+Rg3 and Rg3 group for 7 days in dosages of 2 mg/kg body weight, and two markers of physical fatigue were evaluated: body weight and blood lactic acid (LA). The percentages of CD3+ lymphocytes, CD4+ lymphocytes, and CD8+ lymphocytes in the spleens of the rats were evaluated using flow cytometric analysis. Serum IFN-gamma (IFN-γ) and IL-4 contents were detected by ELISA. Results: Increased body weight and reduced blood LA concentrations were found in the rat of Rg3 group and A+Rg3 group than that in CFS group. The rat of Rg3 group and A+Rg3 group also showed a significant increase in the percentage of CD4+ lymphocytes and a significant decrease in the percentage of CD8+ lymphocytes and correct CD4+/CD8+ ratio. Compared with the CFS group, the level of IFN-γ in the Rg3, acupuncture and A+Rg3 groups was reduced and IL-4 was increased. Conclusions: Acupuncture and Rg3 can improve the immune system activity of CFS rats and acupuncturing Pishu combined with Rg3 was significantly superior compared with Rg3 and acupuncture, respectively. PMID:26770528

  3. Ginsenoside Rg5 Ameliorates Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Mice through Inhibition of Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Yan, Meng-Han; Liu, Ying; Liu, Zhi; Wang, Zi; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Jing; Sun, Yin-Shi

    2016-01-01

    Although cisplatin is an effective anti-cancer agent that is widely used for treating various types of malignant solid tumors, the nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin severely limits its clinical application. The present study was designed to explore the potential protective effect of ginsenoside Rg5, a rare ginsenoside generated during steaming ginseng, on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in a mouse experimental model. The possible mechanisms underlying this nephroprotective effect were also investigated for the first time. Rg5 was given at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg for 10 consecutive days. On Day 7, a single nephrotoxic dose of cisplatin (25 mg/kg) was injected to mice. Cisplatin administration resulted in renal dysfunction as evidenced by increase in serum creatinine (CRE) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels. In addition, cisplatin increased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), the makers of lipid peroxidation, and depleted glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in renal tissues. These effects were associated with the significantly increased levels of cytochrome P450 E1 (CYP2E1), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in renal tissues. However, pretreatment with ginsenoside Rg5 significantly attenuated the renal dysfunction, oxidative stress and inflammation response induced by cisplatin. Furthermore, ginsenoside Rg5 supplementation inhibited activation of apoptotic pathways through increasing Bcl-2 and decreasing Bax expression levels. Histopathological examination further confirmed the nephroprotective effect of Rg5. Collectively, these results clearly suggest that Rg5-mediated alleviation of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity may be related to its anti-oxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:27649238

  4. Isocratic separation of ginsenosides by high-performance liquid chromatography on a diol column at subambient temperatures.

    PubMed

    Lou, Da-Wei; Saito, Yoshihiro; Zarzycki, Paweł K; Ogawa, Mitsuhiro; Jinno, Kiyokatsu

    2006-05-01

    An improved high-performance liquid chromatographic method for separation of a number of ginsenosides has been developed. The influence of temperature (from 0 to 25 degrees C) on the retention and separation of the ginsenosides was studied by applying a binary mobile phase (acetonitrile/water, 82:18 v/v) and a diol column (LiChrospher 100 Diol). The column temperature is one of the more important parameters for the retention and separation of the components investigated. Selected thermodynamic parameters, including changes of enthalpy (deltaH degrees) and entropy (deltaS degrees), were estimated from linear van't Hoff plots, and possible retention mechanisms were discussed. Moreover, the best separation conditions were selected based on optimization criteria including maximum retention time (t(R max)), minimum resolution (R(s min)), and relative resolution product (r). Temperature regions close to 14 degrees C offered the highest selectivity and almost equal distribution of the ginsenosides peaks across the chromatogram. Under such isocratic conditions, excellent separation of chromatographic standards and selected ginseng samples was achieved in less than 16 min.

  5. Intracellular Trafficking Modulation by Ginsenoside Rg3 Inhibits Brucella abortus Uptake and Intracellular Survival within RAW 264.7 Cells.

    PubMed

    Huy, Tran Xuan Ngoc; Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo; Hop, Huynh Tan; Arayan, Lauren Togonon; Min, WonGi; Lee, Hu Jang; Rhee, Man Hee; Chang, Hong Hee; Kim, Suk

    2017-03-28

    Ginsenoside Rg3, a saponin extracted from ginseng, has various pharmacological and biological activities; however, its effects against Brucella infection are still unclear. Herein, the inhibitory effects of ginsenoside Rg3 against intracellular parasitic Brucella infection were evaluated through bacterial infection, adherence assays, and LAMP-1 colocalization, as well as immunoblotting and FACS for detecting MAPK signaling proteins and F-actin polymerization, respectively. The internalization, intracellular growth, and adherence of Brucella abortus in Rg3-treated RAW 264.7 cells were significantly decreased compared with the Rg3-untreated control. Furthermore, an apparent reduction of F-actin content and intensity of F-actin fluorescence in Rg3-treated cells was observed compared with B. abortus-infected cells without treatment by flow cytometry analysis and confocal microscopy, respectively. In addition, treating cells with Rg3 decreased the phosphorylation of MAPK signaling proteins such as ERK 1/2 and p38 compared with untreated cells. Moreover, the colocalization of B. abortus-containing phagosomes with LAMP-1 was markedly increased in Rg3-treated cells. These findings suggest that ginsenoside Rg3 inhibits B. abortus infection in mammalian cells and can be used as an alternative approach in the treatment of brucellosis.

  6. The ginsenoside derivative 20(S)-protopanaxadiol inhibits solar ultraviolet light-induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Han, Eungmin; Lim, Tae-Gyu; Kim, Jong-Eun; Yang, Hee; Oh, Deok-Kun; Yoon Park, Jung Han; Yoon Park, Dalius; Kim, Hee Jung; Rhee, Young Kyoung; Lee, Ki Won

    2017-04-05

    Ginsenosides are major pharmacologically active compounds present in ginseng (Panax ginseng). Among the ginsenosides, 20-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol (GPPD) and ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1) have previously been reported to exhibit anti-wrinkle effects. In this study, 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (20(S)-PPD), an aglycone derivative of the Rb1 metabolite was investigated for its anti-wrinkle benefit and compared to GPPD and Rb1. The anti-wrinkle effect of 20(S)-PPD during solar UV light was investigated using a human skin equivalent model and human keratinocytes. 20(S)-PPD attenuated solar UV-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 expression to a greater extent than GPPD and Rb1. 20(S)-PPD treatment modulated MMP-1 mRNA expression and the transcriptional activity of activator protein (AP)-1, a major transcription factor of MMP-1. Two upstream signaling pathways for AP-1, the MEK1/2-ERK1/2-p90(RSK) and MEK3/6-p38 pathways, were also suppressed. Taken together, these findings highlight the potential of 20(S)-PPD for further development as a preventative agent for sunlight-induced skin wrinkle. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Proteomic Analyses Provide Novel Insights into Plant Growth and Ginsenoside Biosynthesis in Forest Cultivated Panax ginseng (F. Ginseng)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Rui; Sun, Liwei; Chen, Xuenan; Mei, Bing; Chang, Guijuan; Wang, Manying; Zhao, Daqing

    2016-01-01

    F. Ginseng (Panax ginseng) is planted in the forest to enhance the natural ginseng resources, which have an immense medicinal and economic value. The morphology of the cultivated plants becomes similar to that of wild growing ginseng (W. Ginseng) over the years. So far, there have been no studies highlighting the physiological or functional changes in F. Ginseng and its wild counterparts. In the present study, we used proteomic technologies (2DE and iTRAQ) coupled to mass spectrometry to compare W. Ginseng and F. Ginseng at various growth stages. Hierarchical cluster analysis based on protein abundance revealed that the protein expression profile of 25-year-old F. Ginseng was more like W. Ginseng than less 20-year-old F. Ginseng. We identified 192 differentially expressed protein spots in F. Ginseng. These protein spots increased with increase in growth years of F. Ginseng and were associated with proteins involved in energy metabolism, ginsenosides biosynthesis, and stress response. The mRNA, physiological, and metabolic analysis showed that the external morphology, protein expression profile, and ginsenoside synthesis ability of the F. Ginseng increased just like that of W. Ginseng with the increase in age. Our study represents the first characterization of the proteome of F. Ginseng during development and provides new insights into the metabolism and accumulation of ginsenosides. PMID:26858731

  8. Chemistry and cancer preventing activities of ginseng saponins and some related triterpenoid compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, S

    2001-01-01

    More than 25 dammarane-type tetracyclic triterpenoid saponins have been isolated from ginseng, the root and rhizome of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Araliaceae). The genuine sapogenins of those saponins, 20(S)-protopanaxa-diol and -triol, were identified as 20(S) 12beta-hydroxy-and 20(S) 6alpha,12beta-dihydroxy-dammarenediol-II, respectively. There are two types of preparations from ginseng: white ginseng prepared by drying after peelling off and red ginseng prepared by steaming and drying. Some partly deglycosylated saponins such as ginsenoside Rh-1, Rh-2, and Rg-3 are obtained from red ginseng as artifacts produced during steaming. Several workers studied the metabolic transformation by human intestinal bacteria after oral administration of ginsenoside Rb-1 and Rb-2 and found that the stepwise deglyco-sylation yielded compound K and finally 20(S)-protopanaxadiol. Ginsenoside Rg-1 was converted into 20(S)-protopanaxatriol via ginsenoside Rh-1. Yun et al. in Korea conducted the epidemiological case-control studies of ginseng and suggested its cancer preventing activities. Kitagawa et al. demonstrated in vitro that ginsenosides, especially 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg-3, specifically inhibited cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Azuma et al. found that ginsenoside Rb-2 inhibited tumor angiogenesis, and Kikuchi et al. reported that ginsenoside Rh-2 inhibited the human ovarian cancer growth in nude mice. Recently, ginsenoside Rg-3 was produced as an anti-angiogenic anti-cancer drug in China. The aforementioned reports suggest that less glycosylated protopanaxadiol derivatives are effective in cancer prevention. Apart from Ginseng tetracyclic triterpenoid saponins, some oleanane-type pentacyclic triterpenoid compounds showed the anti-carcinogenic activity in the two-stage anti-cancer-promotion experiments in vitro and in vivo. PMID:11748374

  9. Ginsenosides compound K and Rh(2) inhibit tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced activation of the NF-kappaB and JNK pathways in human astroglial cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyungsun; Kim, Myungsun; Ryu, Jeonghee; Choi, Chulhee

    2007-06-21

    Ginsenosides, the main component of Panax ginseng, have been known for the anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of ginsenosides on activated astroglial cells. Among 13 different ginsenosides, intestinal bacterial metabolites Rh(2) and compound K (C-K) showed a significant inhibitory effect on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in human astroglial cells. Pretreatment with C-K or Rh(2) suppressed TNF-alpha-induced phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha kinase and the subsequent phosphorylation and degradation of IkappaBalpha. Additionally, the same treatment inhibited TNF-alpha-induced phosphorylation of MKK4 and the subsequent activation of the JNK-AP-1 pathway. The inhibitory effect of ginsenosides on TNF-alpha-induced activation of the NF-kappaB and JNK pathways was not observed in human monocytic U937 cells. These results collectively indicate that ginsenoside metabolites C-K and Rh(2) exert anti-inflammatory effects by the inhibition of both NF-kappaB and JNK pathways in a cell-specific manner.

  10. A universal quantitative ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) method for assessing the purity of dammarane-type ginsenosides.

    PubMed

    Li, Ze Yun; Welbeck, Edward; Wang, Ru Feng; Liu, Qing; Yang, Ying Bo; Chou, Gui Xin; Bi, Kai Shun; Wang, Zheng Tao

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative (1)H-NMR (qNMR) is a well-established method for quantitative analysis and purity tests. Applications have been reported in many areas, such as natural products, foods and beverages, metabolites, pharmaceuticals and agriculture. The characteristics of quantitative estimation without relying on special target reference substances make qNMR especially suitable for purity tests of chemical compounds and natural products. Ginsenosides are a special group of natural products drawing broad attention, and are considered to be the main bioactive principles behind the claims of ginsengs efficacy. The purity of ginsenosides is usually determined by conventional chromatographic methods, although these may not be ideal due to the response of detectors to discriminate between analytes and impurities and the long run times involved. To establish a qNMR method for purity tests of six dammarane-type ginsenoside standards. Several experimental parameters were optimised for the quantification, including relaxation delay (D1), the transmitter frequency offset (O1P) and power level for pre-saturation (PL9). The method was validated and the purity of the six ginsenoside standards was tested. Also, the results of the qNMR method were further validated by comparison with those of high performance liquid chromatography. The qNMR method was rapid, specific and accurate, thus providing a practical and reliable protocol for the purity analysis of ginsenoside standards. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Beneficial effects of fermented black ginseng and its ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in LLC-PK1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Han, Myoung-Sik; Han, Im-Ho; Lee, Dahae; An, Jun Min; Kim, Su-Nam; Shin, Myoung-Sook; Yamabe, Noriko; Hwang, Gwi Seo; Yoo, Hye Hyun; Choi, Suk-Jung; Kang, Ki Sung; Jang, Hyuk-Jai

    2015-01-01

    Background Nephrotoxicity is a common side effect of medications. Panax ginseng is one of the best-known herbal medicines, and its individual constituents enhance renal function. Identification of its efficacy and mechanisms of action against drug-induced nephrotoxicity, as well as the specific constituents mediating this effect, have recently emerged as an interesting research area focusing on the kidney protective efficacy of P. ginseng. Methods The present study investigated the kidney protective effect of fermented black ginseng (FBG) and its active component ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 against cisplatin (chemotherapy drug)-induced damage in pig kidney (LLC-PK1) cells. It focused on assessing the role of mitogen-activated protein kinases as important mechanistic elements in kidney protection. Results The reduced cell viability induced by cisplatin was significantly recovered with FBG extract and ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 dose-dependently. The cisplatin-induced elevated protein levels of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p53, and cleaved caspase-3 were decreased after cotreatment with FBG extract or ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3. The elevated percentage of apoptotic LLC-PK1 cells induced by cisplatin treatment was significantly abrogated by cotreatment with FBG and the ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3. Conclusion FBG and its major ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3, ameliorated cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in LLC-PK1 cells by blocking the JNK–p53–caspase-3 signaling cascade. PMID:27158234

  12. Post-exposure treatment with ginsenoside compound K ameliorates auditory functional injury associated with noise-induced hearing loss in mice.

    PubMed

    Hong, Bin Na; Kim, Se Young; Yi, Tae Hoo; Kang, Tong Ho

    2011-01-07

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is thought to primarily involve damage to the sensory hair cells of the cochlea via mechanical and metabolic mechanisms. Unfortunately, initial studies assessing the effectiveness of post-exposure treatment after hearing loss have yielded largely disappointing results. This study explored the effects of oral treatment with Korean red ginseng (RG) and with two bioavailable ginsenoside metabolites, ginsenoside Rh1 and ginsenoside compound K (GCK), in response to NIHL in a murine model. Pharmacological treatments began 24h after noise exposure and were continued once daily for 7 days. Central auditory function was evaluated using auditory middle latency responses, and cochlear function was determined based on transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. Additionally, cochlear hair cell morphology was investigated after noise exposure. Both Korean red ginseng and compound K reduced threshold shifts, central auditory function damage, and cochlear functional and morphological deficits. In contrast, treatment with ginsenoside Rh1 did not result in recovery of NIHL in mice. These results suggest that consumption of Korean red ginseng may facilitate recovery from noise-induced hearing loss. Furthermore, one of the active constituents in ginseng is likely ginsenoside compound K.

  13. Effects of ginsenoside on large-conductance K(Ca) channels in human corporal smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Sung, H H; Chae, M R; So, I; Jeon, J-H; Park, J K; Lee, S W

    2011-01-01

    Ginseng was known to be an effective natural product that enhances penile erection. However, the precise biological function and mechanisms of action of ginseng with regard to erectile function remain unknown. The principal objective of this study was to identify ginsenoside (principal molecular ingredients of ginseng)-induced activation of large-conductance K(Ca) channel in human corporal smooth muscle cells, and to determine ginseng's mechanism of action on penile erection. Electrophysiological studies using cultured human corporal smooth muscle cells were conducted. We evaluated the effects of total ginsenosides (TGS) and ginsenoside Rg3 on large-conductance K(Ca) channel by determining whole-cell currents and single-channel activities. There was an increase in outward current dependent on TGS concentration (at +60 mV, 1 μg ml(-1); 168.3±59.3%, n=6, P<0.05, 10 μg ml(-1); 173.2±36.8%, n=4, P<0.05, 50 μg ml(-1); 295.3±62.3%, n=19, P<0.001, 100 μg ml(-1); and 462.3±97.1%, n=5, P<0.001) and Rg3 concentration (at +60 mV, 1 μM (0.78 μg ml(-1)); 222.8±64.8%, n=11, P<0.0001, 10 μM; 672.6±137.1%, n=10, P<0.0001, 50 μM; and 1713.3±234.7%, n=15, P<0.001) in the solution that was blocked completely by tetraethylammonium (TEA). Channel opening in cell-attached mode and channel activity in the inside-out membrane patches was also increased significantly by 50 μg of TGS or 10 μM of Rg3. The results of this study suggested that the activation of large-conductance K(Ca) channels by ginsenoside could be one mechanism of ginsenoside-induced relaxation in corporal smooth muscle.

  14. Bioconversion of ginsenosides Rb(1), Rb(2), Rc and Rd by novel β-glucosidase hydrolyzing outer 3-O glycoside from Sphingomonas sp. 2F2: cloning, expression, and enzyme characterization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Liu, Qing-Mei; Sung, Bong-Hyun; An, Dong-Shan; Lee, Hyung-Gwan; Kim, Song-Gun; Kim, Sun-Chang; Lee, Sung-Taik; Im, Wan-Taek

    2011-11-10

    A new β-glucosidase gene (bglSp) was cloned from the ginsenoside converting Sphingomonas sp. strain 2F2 isolated from the ginseng cultivating filed. The bglSp consisted of 1344 bp (447 amino acid residues) with a predicted molecular mass of 49,399 Da. A BLAST search using the bglSp sequence revealed significant homology to that of glycoside hydrolase superfamily 1. This enzyme was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) using a pET21-MBP (TEV) vector system. Overexpressed recombinant enzymes which could convert the ginsenosides Rb(1), Rb(2), Rc and Rd to the more pharmacological active rare ginsenosides gypenoside XVII, ginsenoside C-O, ginsenoside C-Mc(1) and ginsenoside F(2), respectively, were purified by two steps with Amylose-affinity and DEAE-Cellulose chromatography and characterized. The kinetic parameters for β-glucosidase showed the apparent K(m) and V(max) values of 2.9±0.3 mM and 515.4±38.3 μmol min(-1)mg of protein(-1) against p-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside. The enzyme could hydrolyze the outer C3 glucose moieties of ginsenosides Rb(1), Rb(2), Rc and Rd into the rare ginsenosides Gyp XVII, C-O, C-Mc(1) and F(2) quickly at optimal conditions of pH 5.0 and 37°C. A little ginsenoside F(2) production from ginsenosides Gyp XVII, C-O, and C-Mc(1) was observed for the lengthy enzyme reaction caused by the side ability of the enzyme. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Sphingobacterium jejuense sp. nov., with ginsenoside-converting activity, isolated from compost.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, Muhammad Zubair; Muhammad Shafi, Siddiqi; Choi, Kang Duk; Im, Wan-Taek; Aslam, Zubair

    2016-11-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, non-motile, light yellow, short-rod bacterium (designated GJ30-7T) isolated from compost, was characterized using a polyphasic approach, in order to clarify its taxonomic position. Strain GJ30-7T was observed to grow optimally at 30 °C and at pH 7.0 on R2A agar medium. Strain Gsoil GJ30-7T possessed β-glucosidase activity, which was responsible for its ability to transform ginsenosides Rb1 and Rc (the two main active components of ginseng) to ginsenoside F2. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, indicated that GJ30-7T belongs to the genus Sphingobacterium of the family Sphingobacteriaceae and was most closely related to Sphingobacterium yanglingense JCM 30166T (92.6 %), Sphingobacterium psychroaquaticum KACC 18188T (92.6 %), and Sphingobacterium thermophilum KCTC 23708T (92.0 %). The DNA G+C content was 43 mol% and MK-7 was the major isoprenoid quinone. The main polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified phospolipid and one unknown polar lipid. In contrast to standard and reference strains, unidentified sphingolipid was also present. The predominant fatty acids of strain GJ30-7T were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c (summed feature 3) and iso-C17 : 1ω9c and/or C16 : 0 10-methyl (summed feature 9), supporting the affiliation of strain GJ30-7T to the genus Sphingobacterium. However, strain GJ30-7T could be distinguished genotypically and phenotypically from species of the genus Sphingobacterium with validly published names. The novel isolate therefore represents a novel species, for which the name Sphingobacterium jejuense sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain GJ30-7T (=KACC 18625T=JCM 30948T).

  16. Daejeonia ginsenosidivorans gen. nov., sp. nov., a ginsenoside-transforming bacterium isolated from lake water.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, Muhammad Zubair; Choi, Gyu-Min; Kim, Mi-Sun; Im, Wan-Taek

    2017-08-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, oxidase- and catalase-positive, strictly aerobic, non-gliding bacterial strain, designated as NPT, was isolated from lake water and subjected to a taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach. Colonies of strain NP5T were light-yellow-coloured, circular with regular margins, and opaque. Cells were rods, 0.2-0.5 µm wide and 1.2-3.0 µm long. Strain NP5T possessed β-glycosidase activity, which was responsible for its ability to convert ginsenosides Rb1, Rc and Rd (three main active components of ginseng) to ginsenoside F2. Phylogenetic study based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence put strain NP5T in a distinct lineage in the family Flavobacteriaceae, sharing less than 96.0 % sequence similarity with members of the closely related genera Chryseobacterium, Bergeyella, Epilithonimonas and 'Candidatus Amoebinatus'. The novel isolate showed the highest sequence similarity with the genus Chryseobacterium. Strain NP5T contained MK-6 as predominant quinone, and iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, iso-C16 : 0 3-OH, C18 : 0 3-OH, anteiso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c (summed feature 3) as major fatty acids. The DNA G+C content was 44.8 mol%. The main polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. The physiological, biochemical and taxonomical characteristics allowed the phenotypic differentiation of strain NP5T from its closest phylogenetic neighbours. On the basis of the evidence of this polyphasic study, isolate NP5T represents a novel genus and species in the family Flavobacteriaceae for which the name Daejeonia ginsenosidivorans gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NP5T (=KACC 18626T=LMG 29198T).

  17. Effect of Fermented Red Ginseng Extract Enriched in Ginsenoside Rg3 on the Differentiation and Mineralization of Preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqi, Muhammad Zubair; Siddiqi, Muhammad Hanif; Jin, Yan; Huq, Md. Amdadul

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this study, red ginseng extract (RGE) was converted into high-content minor ginsenosides by fermenting with Bgp1 enzymes at 37°C for 5 days. Compared to the RGE, the minor ginsenoside contents were increased in fermented red ginseng extract (FRGE). Moreover, the amount of minor ginsenosides such as Rh1 (11%) and Rg2 (16%) was slightly augmented, while the level of Rg3 (33%) was significantly increased after bioconversion. Furthermore, we also examined and compared the effect of RGE and FRGE on the differentiation and mineralization of preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Similarly, the level of mRNA expression of intracellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, type-1 collagen (Col-I) was also increased. Based on the comparison, it is clear that the FRGE has improved effects on bone formation and differentiation of preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. PMID:25764149

  18. Ginsenoside Rg3 sensitizes human non-small cell lung cancer cells to γ-radiation by targeting the nuclear factor-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Li, Xiankui; Song, Yi-Min; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Fu-Rui; Yang, Rui; Wang, Hua-Qi; Zhang, Guo-Jun

    2015-07-01

    At present, it is elusive how non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) develops resistance to γ-radiation; however, the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and NF-κB-regulated gene products have been proposed as mediators. Ginsenoside Rg3 is a steroidal saponin, which was isolated from Panax ginseng. Ginsenoside Rg3 possesses high pharmacological activity and has previously been shown to suppress NF-κB activation in various types of tumor cell. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine whether Rg3 could suppress NF-κB activation in NSCLC cells and sensitize NSCLC to γ-radiation, using an NSCLC cell line and NSCLC xenograft. A clone formation assay and lung tumor xenograft experiment were used to assess the radiosensitizing effects of ginsenoside Rg3. NF-κB/inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) modulation was ascertained using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay and western blot analysis. NF-κB-regulated gene products were monitored by western blot analysis. The present study demonstrated that ginsenoside Rg3 was able to sensitize A549 and H1299 lung carcinoma cells to γ-radiation and significantly enhance the efficacy of radiation therapy in C57BL/6 mice bearing a Lewis lung carcinoma cell xenograft tumor. Furthermore, ginsenoside Rg3 suppressed NF-κB activation, phosphorylation of IκB protein and expression of NF-κB-regulated gene products (cyclin D1, c-myc, B-cell lymphoma 2, cyclooxygenase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and vascular endothelial growth factor), a number of which were induced by radiation therapy and mediate radioresistance. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that ginsenoside Rg3 may potentiate the antitumor effects of radiation therapy in NSCLC by suppressing NF-κB activity and NF-κB-regulated gene products, leading to the inhibition of tumor progression.

  19. Effect of mobile phase additives on qualitative and quantitative analysis of ginsenosides by liquid chromatography hybrid quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yan; Guan, Tianye; Zhou, Yuanyuan; Liu, Yanna; Xing, Lu; Zheng, Xiao; Dai, Chen; Du, Ping; Rao, Tai; Zhou, Lijun; Yu, Xiaoyi; Hao, Kun; Xie, Lin; Wang, Guangji

    2013-07-05

    This study was to systematically investigate the effect of mobile phase additives, including ammonia water, formic acid, acetic acid, ammonium chloride and water (as a control), on qualitative and quantitative analysis of fifteen representative ginsenosides based on liquid chromatography hybrid quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF/MS). To evaluate the influence of mobile phase additives on qualitative performance, the quality of the negative mode MS/MS spectra of ginsenosides produced by online LC-Q-TOF/MS analyses, particularly the numbers and intensities of fragment ions, were compared under different adduct ion states, and found to be strongly affected by the mobile phase additives. When 0.02% acetic acid was added in the mobile phase, the deprotonated ginsenosides ions produced the most abundant product ions, while almost no product ion was observed for the chlorinated ginsenoside ions when 0.1mM ammonium chloride was used as the mobile phase additive. On the other hand, sensitivity, linear range and precision were adopted to investigate the quantitative performance affected by different mobile phase additives. Validation results of the LC-Q-TOF/MS-based quantitative performance for ginsenosides showed that ammonium chloride not only provided the highest sensitivity for all the target analytes, but also dramatically improved the linear ranges, the intra-day and inter-day precisions comparing to the results obtained using other mobile phase additives. Importantly, the validated method, using 0.1mM ammonium chloride as the mobile phase additive, was successfully applied to the quantitative analysis of ginsenosides in rat plasma after intragastric administration of Ginsenoside Extract at 200mg/kg. In conclusion, 0.02% acetic acid was deemed to be the most suitable mobile phase additive for qualitative analysis of ginsenosides, and 0.1mM ammonium chloride in mobile phase could lead to the best quantitative performance. Our results reveal that

  20. Involvement of serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems in the antidepressant-like effect of ginsenoside Rb1, a major active ingredient of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Li; He, Zhong-Mei; Zhu, Hong-Yan; Gao, Yu-Gang; Zhao, Yan; Yang, He; Zhang, Lian-Xue

    2017-05-23

    Ginsenoside Rb1, a 20 (S)-protopanaxadiol, is a major active ingredient of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, which as the King of Chinese herbs, has been wildly used for the treatment of central nervous system diseases. Previous studies have shown that 20 (S)-protopanaxadiol possesses a novel antidepressant-like effect in the treatment of depression, whereas ginsenoside Rb1 in depression has been rarely reported. The present study was to investigate the antidepressant-like effect of ginsenoside Rb1 and its relevant mechanisms. The whole experiment was divided into two parts: one part we examined the antidepressant-like effect of ginsenoside Rb1 with open-field test (OFT), tail suspension test (TST), forced swim test (FST), 5-HTP induced head-twitch and reserpine response in mice, another part we used chronic unpredicted mild stress (CUMS) model to further explore the antidepressant-like effect of ginsenoside Rb1 with caffeine, fluoxetine and p-Chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) in rats. Furthermore, the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters of NE, 5-HT, DA and their metabolites 5-HIAA, DOPAC, HVA were all measured by ELISA kits after the CUMS protocol. Our data indicated that 7 days treatment with ginsenoside Rb1 (4, 8, 10mg/kg, p.o.) significantly decreased immobility time in the FST and TST in mice, and played important roles in mice which were induced by 5-HTP (200mg/kg, i.p.) and reserpine (4mg/kg, i.p.). On the basis of CUMS model, 21 days treatment with ginsenoside Rb1 not only had effective interactions with caffeine (5mg/kg, i.p.), fluoxetine (1mg/kg, i.p.) and PCPA (100mg/kg, i.p.), but also significantly up-regulated the 5-HT, 5-HIAA, NE and DA levels in CUMS rats' brain, whereas HVA and DOPAC had no significant difference. Moreover, there was no alteration in spontaneous locomotion in any experimental group. These results suggest that ginsenoside Rb1 exhibits significant antidepressant-like effect in behavioral tests, chronic animal model and drug interactions, its

  1. [Development of a lateral flow dipstick immunoassay for rapid detection of ginsenoside Re].

    PubMed

    Nan, Tie-Gui; Cao, Zhen; He, Li-Shan; Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Lu-Qi; Wang, Bao-Min

    2013-08-01

    A sensitive antibody-based lateral flow dipstick was developed for ginsenoside Re (GRe) detection. The stick consisted of a sample pad, a conjugate pad, membrane and an absorbent pad. The membrane was coated with two capture reagents, GRe-BSA conjugate and goat anti-mouse antibodies, forming a test line and a control line, respectively. The conjugate pad was saturated with colloidal gold particles coated with affinity purified monoclonal anti-GRe antibody. The visual detection limit was 200 microg x L(-1) of GRe and the reaction time was 10 min. The Panax ginseng roots were identified after these samples (10 mg) were extracted with 5 mL tap water for 30 min at room temperature, and the extracts were tested by the dipsticks and ELISA kit. The true and false P. ginseng could be distinguished with dipsticks. The dipstick could be used to detect the quality of the P. ginseng samples when the extract was diluted 100-folds. The results were compared with those obtained using an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA). The dipstick assay proved to be a sensitive and rapid tool for quality control of P. ginseng.

  2. The ginsenoside metabolite compound K inhibits growth, migration and stemness of glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sanghun; Kwon, Min Cheol; Jang, Jun-Pil; Sohng, Jae Kyung; Jung, Hye Jin

    2017-08-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive and malignant form of primary brain cancer. Despite recent advances in cancer treatment, it remains a substantially incurable disease. Accordingly, more effective GBM therapeutic options are urgently required. In the present study, we investigated the anticancer effect of a ginsenoside metabolite, compound K (CK), against GBM cells. CK significantly inhibited not only growth, but also metastatic ability of U87MG and U373MG cells. CK arrested cell cycle progression at the G0/G1 phase with a decrease in the expression levels of cyclin D1 and cyclin D3 in both cell types. CK also induced apoptosis in GBM cells through nuclear condensation, an increase in ROS generation, mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization, and activation of caspase-3, caspase-9 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Furthermore, CK inhibited phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, contributing to the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects. Moreover, CK suppressed the self-renewal capacity as well as the invasiveness of U87MG and U373MG GBM stem-like cells (GSCs) by inducing a reduction in the expression of GSC markers, such as CD133, Nanog, Oct4 and Sox2. Taken together, our findings suggest that CK may potentially be useful for GBM treatment.

  3. Apoptosis-inducing effect of ginsenoside Rg6 on human lymphocytoma JK cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2013-07-09

    In this communication our aim was to study the JK cell growth inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects of ginsenoside Rg6 (GRg6) from steamed notoginseng on human lymphocytoma. The CCK-8 method was used to observe the anti-proliferative effect of GRg6 on human lymphocytoma JK cells. Flow cytometry was performed to analyze the influence of GRg6 on cell cycle. The Annexin-V FITC/PI double-staining method was used to detect the ratio of apoptotic cells. JC-1 staining was undertaken to observe the influence of GRg6 on intracellular mitochondrial membrane potential. Finally, western blots were conducted to detect the expression level of apoptosis-related Bax and the Bcl-2 proteins. The results suggested that GRg6 can inhibit the proliferation of human lymphocytoma JK cells. GRg6 blocks an S arrest in the cell cycle. With the increase in GRg6 concentration, the potential in the cell decreased in a dose dependent manner, and Bax protein expression gradually increased, whereas Bcl-2 protein expression gradually decreased. In conclusion, GRg6 can inhibit JK cell proliferation in human lymphocytoma and induce its apoptosis. The mechanism of action may be related to mitochondrial dysfunction and an increase of Bax expression and decrease of Bcl-2 expression caused by GRg6.

  4. Ginsenoside Rd Improves Learning and Memory Ability in APP Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juanfang; Yan, Xiaodong; Li, Ling; Li, Yuan; Zhou, Linfu; Zhang, Xiaohui; Hu, Xinghua; Zhao, Gang

    2015-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complicated neurodegenerative disease which causes memory loss and dementia. Many researchers have revealed the vital roles of β-amyloid proteins (Aβ) in the proceeds of AD. Aβ deposition in AD patients' brains might function as immune stimulus, and inflammation is believed to play an important role in AD pathologically. We experimentally used amyloid β-protein precursor (APP) transgenic (Tg) mice in this study to further clarify the neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside Rd on AD and its possible mechanisms. It was found that Rd could improve learning and memory ability in APP Tg mice, probably through inhibiting the transcription activity of NFκB. With the activation of the NFκB pathway being suppressed, the reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the generation of protective factors had been increased ultimately. In conclusion, Rd had a neuroprotective effect on APP Tg mice, and it can be used as an alternative drug therapy in AD patients for their memory dysfunction.

  5. Ginsenoside Rb1 increases insulin sensitivity through suppressing 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type I

    PubMed Central

    Song, Bing; Ding, Li; Zhang, Haoqiang; Chu, Yafen; Chang, Zhaohui; Yu, Yali; Guo, Dandan; Zhang, Shuping; Liu, Xuezheng

    2017-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1) is a major component of ginseng, which has been shown to ameliorate hyperglycemia in rodents and in humans with undetermined mechanisms. Here, we analyzed the molecular mechanisms by which GRb1 reduces the insulin resistance in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced mouse model for type 2 diabetes (T2D). HFD was applied for 4 weeks to induce T2D in mice, after which GRb1 was administrated and the effects on the fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were analyzed. We found that HFD increased fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance and reduced insulin sensitivity, which were all ameliorated by GRb1. GRb1 seemed to reduce the levels of 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type I (11β-HSD1) in liver and adipose tissue, to exert its anti-diabetes effects. Overexpression of 11β-HSD1 completely abolished the effects of GRb1 on HFD-induced increases in fasting blood glucose and glucose tolerance, and decreases in insulin sensitivity. Together, our data suggest that GRb1 may increase insulin sensitivity through suppressing 11β-HSD1 in treatment of T2D. PMID:28386332

  6. Ginsenoside Rb1 protects rat retinal ganglion cells against hypoxia and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaochun; Chen, Juying; Huang, Wendong; Zeng, Zhi; Yang, Yongfei; Zhu, Banghao

    2013-11-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the effect of ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1) on apoptosis induced by hypoxia and oxidative stress in a retinal ganglion cell line (RGC-5). The underlying mechanism was also investigated. RGC-5 cells were pretreated with 10 µmol/l Rb1 for 24 h and exposed to 400 µmol/l cobalt chloride (CoCl2) for 48 h or 600 µmol/l H2O2 for 24 h. The percentage of cells actively undergoing apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry with Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) double staining. The expression of caspases was determined using western blot analysis. CoCl2 and H2O2 treatments significantly increased the apoptotic percentages to 24.5 and 21.63%, respectively. Pretreatment of Rb1 reduced the total apoptotic percentages to 15.12 and 12.03%, respectively. The expression of cleaved caspase-3, -9 and -8 was increased in the CoCl2-treated group, however, caspase-3 was not increased in the H2O2-treated group. Pretreatment of Rb1 reduced the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and -9 in the CoCl2-treated group, but reduced only cleaved caspase-9 in the H2O2-treated group. These results suggest that Rb1 may prevent RGC-5 cells from apoptosis against hypoxia and oxidative stress via the mitochondrial pathway.

  7. Anti-inflammatory activity of AP-SF, a ginsenoside-enriched fraction, from Korean ginseng

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Kwang-Soo; Hong, Yong Deog; Kim, Yong; Sung, Nak Yoon; Yang, Sungjae; Lee, Kyoung Min; Park, Joo Yong; Park, Jun Seong; Rho, Ho Sik; Shin, Song Seok; Cho, Jae Youl

    2014-01-01

    Background Korean ginseng is an ethnopharmacologically valuable herbal plant with various biological properties including anticancer, antiatherosclerosis, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Since there is currently no drug or therapeutic remedy derived from Korean ginseng, we developed a ginsenoside-enriched fraction (AP-SF) for prevention of various inflammatory symptoms. Methods The anti-inflammatory efficacy of AP-SF was tested under in vitro inflammatory conditions including nitric oxide (NO) production and inflammatory gene expression. The molecular events of inflammatory responses were explored by immunoblot analysis. Results AP-SF led to a significant suppression of NO production compared with a conventional Korean ginseng saponin fraction, induced by both lipopolysaccharide and zymosan A. Interestingly, AP-SF strongly downregulated the mRNA levels of genes for inducible NO synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α, and cyclooxygenase) without affecting cell viability. In agreement with these observations, AP-SF blocked the nuclear translocation of c-Jun at 2 h and also reduced phosphorylation of p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and TAK-1, all of which are important for c-Jun translocation. Conclusion Our results suggest that AP-SF inhibits activation of c-Jun-dependent inflammatory events. Thus, AP-SF may be useful as a novel anti-inflammatory remedy. PMID:26045689

  8. Solubilization of saikosaponin a by ginsenoside Ro biosurfactant in aqueous solution: mesoscopic simulation.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xingxing; Shi, Xinyuan; Wang, Yuguang; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2012-10-15

    Ginsenoside Ro (Ro), a natural anionic biosurfactant derived from ginseng, has been found to markedly increase the solubility of saikosaponin a (SSa), which is the active ingredient of Radix Bupleuri. SSa is minimally soluble in water. To determine the mechanism by which Ro solubilizes SSa, the self-assembly behavior of Ro and the phase behavior of blended Ro and SSa systems were studied by mesoscopic dynamics (MesoDyn) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations. The simulation results show that Ro can form vesicles via the closure of oblate membranes. At low concentrations, SSa molecules are solubilized in the palisade layer of the Ro vesicles. At high concentrations, they interact with Ro molecules to form mixed vesicles with Ro adsorbing on the surfaces of the vesicles. The evaluation of the SSa solubilization process reveals that, at low concentrations, Ro aggregates preferentially to form vesicles, which then absorb SSa into themselves. However, at high concentrations, SSa first self-aggregates and then dissolves. This is because the solubilization behavior of Ro shifts the precipitation-dissolution equilibrium in the direction of dissolution. These results of the simulations are consistent with those of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ginsenoside Rh2 induces ligand-independent Fas activation via lipid raft disruption

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Jae-Sung; Choo, Hyo-Jung; Cho, Bong-Rae; Kim, Hwan-Myung; Kim, Yong-Nyun; Ham, Young-Mi; Ko, Young-Gyu

    2009-07-24

    Lipid rafts are plasma membrane platforms mediating signal transduction pathways for cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Here, we show that membrane fluidity was increased in HeLa cells following treatment with ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2), as determined by cell staining with carboxy-laurdan (C-laurdan), a two-photon dye designed for measuring membrane hydrophobicity. In the presence of Rh2, caveolin-1 appeared in non-raft fractions after sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation. In addition, caveolin-1 and GM1, lipid raft landmarkers, were internalized within cells after exposure to Rh2, indicating that Rh2 might disrupt lipid rafts. Since cholesterol overloading, which fortifies lipid rafts, prevented an increase in Rh2-induced membrane fluidity, caveolin-1 internalization and apoptosis, lipid rafts appear to be essential for Rh2-induced apoptosis. Moreover, Rh2-induced Fas oligomerization was abolished following cholesterol overloading, and Rh2-induced apoptosis was inhibited following treatment with siRNA for Fas. This result suggests that Rh2 is a novel lipid raft disruptor leading to Fas oligomerization and apoptosis.

  10. Ginsenoside Rd mitigates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury via Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xiaofeng; Li, Juan; Li, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rd (GsRd) reportedly protects the heart against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Nrf2/HO-1 signaling plays a key role in attenuating oxidative stress. However, it remains unclear whether GsRd protects against myocardial I/R injury via Nrf2/HO-1 signaling. This study aimed to investigate the role of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling in the cardioprotective effect of GsRd. Rats received 30 min ischemia followed by 2 h reperfusion. Cardiac function, infarct size and serum CK, LDH, cTnI levels were detected. The expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 was detected by western blot. The results suggested that GsRd attenuated myocardial I/R injury as evidenced by improved cardiac function, decreased infarct size and decreased levels of serum CK, LDH and cTnI. In addition, GsRd administration enhanced the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1. In conclusion, the present study shows that GsRd protects against myocardial I/R injury via Nrf2/HO-1 signaling. PMID:26550440

  11. Rescue of PINK1 Protein Null-specific Mitochondrial Complex IV Deficits by Ginsenoside Re Activation of Nitric Oxide Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung-Hee; Song, Karen; Yoon, Seung-Hee; Shehzad, Omer; Kim, Yeong-Shik; Son, Jin H.

    2012-01-01

    PINK1, linked to familial Parkinson's disease, is known to affect mitochondrial function. Here we identified a novel regulatory role of PINK1 in the maintenance of complex IV activity and characterized a novel mechanism by which NO signaling restored complex IV deficiency in PINK1 null dopaminergic neuronal cells. In PINK1 null cells, levels of specific chaperones, including Hsp60, leucine-rich pentatricopeptide repeat-containing (LRPPRC), and Hsp90, were severely decreased. LRPPRC and Hsp90 were found to act upstream of Hsp60 to regulate complex IV activity. Specifically, knockdown of Hsp60 resulted in a decrease in complex IV activity, whereas antagonistic inhibition of Hsp90 by 17-(allylamino) geldanamycin decreased both Hsp60 and complex IV activity. In contrast, overexpression of the PINK1-interacting factor LRPPRC augmented complex IV activity by up-regulating Hsp60. A similar recovery of complex IV activity was also induced by coexpression of Hsp90 and Hsp60. Drug screening identified ginsenoside Re as a compound capable of reversing the deficit in complex IV activity in PINK1 null cells through specific increases of LRPPRC, Hsp90, and Hsp60 levels. The pharmacological effects of ginsenoside Re could be reversed by treatment of the pan-NOS inhibitor l-NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester (l-NAME) and could also be reproduced by low-level NO treatment. These results suggest that PINK1 regulates complex IV activity via interactions with upstream regulators of Hsp60, such as LRPPRC and Hsp90. Furthermore, they demonstrate that treatment with ginsenoside Re enhances functioning of the defective PINK1-Hsp90/LRPPRC-Hsp60-complex IV signaling axis in PINK1 null neurons by restoring NO levels, providing potential for new therapeutics targeting mitochondrial dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. PMID:23144451

  12. The integration of GC-MS and LC-MS to assay the metabolomics profiling in Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius reveals a tissue- and species-specific connectivity of primary metabolites and ginsenosides accumulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Yang; Wang, Yu; Abozeid, Ann; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Tang, Zhong-Hua

    2017-02-20

    The traditional medicine Ginseng mainly including Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius is the most widely consumed herbal product in the world. Despite the extensive investigation of biosynthetic pathway of the active compounds ginsenosides, our current understanding of the metabolic interlink between ginsenosides synthesis and primary metabolism at the whole-plant level. In this study, the tissue-specific profiling of primary and the secondary metabolites in two different species of ginseng were investigated by gas chromatography- and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. A complex continuous coordination of primary- and secondary-metabolic network was modulated by tissues and species factors during growth. The results showed that altogether 149 primary compounds and 10 ginsenosides were identified from main roots, lateral roots, stems, petioles and leaves in P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius. The partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) revealed obvious compounds distinction among tissue-specific districts relative to species. To survey the dedication of carbon and nitrogen metabolism in different tissues to the accumulation of ginsenosides, we inspected the tissue-specific metabolic changes. Our study testified that the ginsenosides content was dependent on main roots and lateral roots energy metabolism, whereas independent of leaves and petiole photosynthesis during ginsenosides accumulation. When tow species were compared, the results indicated that high rates of C assimilation to C accumulation are closely associated with ginsenosides accumulation in P. ginseng main roots and P. quinquefolius lateral roots, respectively. Taken together, our results suggest that tissue-specific metabolites profiling dynamically changed in process of ginsenosides biosynthesis, which may offer a new train of thoughts to the mechanisms of the ginsenosides biosynthesis at the metabolite level. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  13. Effects of Natural Bioactive Products on the Growth and Ginsenoside Contents of Panax ginseng Cultured in an Aeroponic System

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Geum-Soog; Lee, Seung-Eun; Noh, Hyung-Jun; Kwon, Hyuck; Lee, Sung-Woo; Kim, Seung-Yu; Kim, Yong-Bum

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of natural bioactive products such as Manda enzyme (T1), Yangmyeongwon (T2), effective microorganisms (T3), and Kelpak (T4) on the growth and ginsenoside contents of Panax ginseng cultured in an aeroponic system using a two-layer vertical type of nutrient bath under natural light conditions. The growth of ginseng plants showed specific characteristics according to the positions in which they were cultured due to the difference of light transmittance and temperature in the upper and lower layers during aeroponic culture in a two-layer vertical type of system. The growth of the aerial part of the leaves and stems of ginseng plants cultured in the lower layer (4,000 to 6,000 lx, 23℃ to 26℃) of the nutrient bath was observed to be superior to that of the ginseng plants cultured in the upper layer (12,000 to 15,000 lx, 25℃ to 28℃). The leaf area was significantly larger in the treatment of T2 and T4 (46.70 cm2) than with other treatments. Conversely, the values of the root weight and root diameter were higher in ginseng plants cultured in the upper layer of the nutrient bath. The root weight was significantly heavier in the treatment of T4 (6.46 g) and T3 (6.26 g) than with other treatments. The total ginsenoside content in the leaves and roots was highest in the ginseng plants cultured by the treatment of T1, at 16.20%, while the total ginsenoside content obtained by other treatments decreased in the order of T4, T5 (control), T2, and T3, at 13.21%, 12.30%, 14.84%, and 14.86%, respectively. The total ginsenoside content of the ginseng leaves was found to be significantly higher in the treatment of T1 in the lower layer of the nutrient bath, at 15.30%, while the content of the ginseng roots in the treatments of T3 and T4, at 1.27% and 1.23%, respectively, was significantly higher than in other treatments in the upper layer of the nutrient bath. PMID:23717147

  14. Simultaneous determination of baicalin, baicalein, wogonoside, wogonin, scutellarin, berberine, coptisine, ginsenoside Rb1 and ginsenoside Re of Banxia xiexin decoction in rat plasma by LC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Zhang, Yifan; Xiao, Juan; Xu, Ranchi; Wang, Qiangli; Wang, Xinhong

    2017-08-28

    A rapid and high sensitive liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method was developed for simultaneous determination of nine active constituents, baicalin, baicalein, wogonoside, wogonin, scutellarin, berberine, coptisine, ginsenoside Rb1 and ginsenoside Re in rat plasma after oral administration of Banxia xiexin decoction(BXD). Biological samples were processed wtih acetone-ethyl acetate (4:1, v/v). The mobile phase consisted of methanol and water (containing 0.1% formic acid) with gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. Detection was performed on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer using positive ion and negative ESI in the multiple reaction monitoring(MRM) mode. The calibration curves for all analytes had good linearity (r > 0.9933). The mean recovery of all the nine active ingredients was more than 75.2 %, and the intra- and inter-day precisions (RSD) were within 12.0%, the accuracy was between 87.4% and 110.4%. This method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study after administration of BXD. The results of pharmacokinetic study might be helpful for BXD clinical reasonable application and further studies on mechanism. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. SERS study of different configurations of pharmaceutical and natural product molecules ginsenoside Rg3 under the interaction with human serum albumin on simple self-assembled substrate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Bai, Xueyuan; Wang, Yingping; Zhao, Bing; Zhao, Yu; Hou, Wei; Jin, Yinping; Zhao, Daqing

    2014-01-03

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and fluorescence spectroscopy were employed to probe the interaction of the pharmaceutical and natural product molecules, 20(R) and 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3, with human serum albumin (HSA). Normal Raman spectra of 20(R) and 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 were obtained from solid powder on glass slide. Based on the splitting peaks near 1440 cm(-1), the stacking modes of 20(R) and 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 were quite different. SERS spectra of both R and S configurations were obtained from a colloidal silver surface on a self-assembled SERS substrate, the most enhanced modes of 20(R) and 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 were those with certain motions perpendicular to the metal surface. The SERS spectra were used to predict a common orientation geometry for the alkyl chain portion of the drugs on the colloidal surface with a minor difference in the carbocyclic rings. Nevertheless, once combined with HSA, the flexible portion of alkyl chains assumes a collectively similar conformation on the Ag surface with the glucose rings perpendicularly plugging into the hydrophobic site of HSA.

  16. Ginsenoside Rg3 enhances islet cell function and attenuates apoptosis in mouse islets.

    PubMed

    Kim, S S; Jang, H J; Oh, M Y; Eom, D W; Kang, K S; Kim, Y J; Lee, J H; Ham, J Y; Choi, S Y; Wee, Y M; Kim, Y H; Han, D J

    2014-05-01

    The transplantation of isolated islets is thought to be an attractive approach for curative treatment of diabetes mellitus. Panax ginseng has been used in oriental countries for its pharmacologic effects, such as antidiabetic and antiinflammatory activities. 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3), an active ingredient of ginseng saponins, has been reported to enhance insulin secretion-stimulating and antiapoptotic activities in pancreatic beta cells. We performed this study to examine the hypothesis that preoperative Rg3 administration can enhance islet cell function and antiapoptosis before islet transplantation. Balb/c mice were randomly divided into 2 groups according to the administration of Rg3 after islet isolation. Mouse islets were cultured in medium supplemented with or without Rg3. In vitro, islet viability and function were assessed. After treatment of islets with a cytokine cocktail (tumor necrosis factor α, interferon-γ, and interleukin-1β), cell viability, function, and apoptosis were assessed. Cell viability was similar between the 2 groups. Islets cultured in medium supplemented with Rg3 showed 2.3-fold higher glucose-induced insulin secretion than islets cultured in medium without Rg3. After treatment with a cytokine cocktail, glucose-induced insulin release, total insulin content of islets, and apoptosis were significantly improved in Rg3-treated islets compared with cytokine-treated islets. Cytokine-treated islets produced significantly higher levels of nitric oxide (NO) than islets treated with Rg3. These results suggest that preoperative Rg3 administration enhanced islet function before islet transplantation and attenuated both cytokine-induced damage associated with NO production and apoptosis. Rg3 administration might be a prospective management to enhanced islet function and ameliorate early inflammation after transplantation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Liposome-based delivery systems for ginsenoside Rh2: in vitro and in vivo comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Linqiang; Yu, Hua; Yin, Shaoping; Zhang, Ruixia; Zhou, Yudan; Li, Juan

    2015-10-01

    The Ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2) has been shown to possess anti-cancer properties both in vitro and in vivo. However, the poor bioavailability and fast plasma elimination limit the further clinical applications of Rh2 for cancer treatments. In the present study, three types of Rh2-loaded liposomes including Rh2-loaded normal liposome (Rh2-LP), Rh2-loaded cationic liposome (Rh2-CLP), and Rh2-loaded Methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactide) (mPEG-PLA) liposome (Rh2-PLP) have been optimized and prepared with mean particle size of 80-125 nm. Compared to Rh2-LP, surface modifications with mPEG or octadecylamine significantly improve the physicochemical and biological properties both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, PLP presented better tumor accumulation of the fluorescent cyanine dye, 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindotricarbocyanine iodide (DiR) in HepG2-xenografted nude mice than CLP (1.3-fold) or LP (1.6-fold) and prolong the resident time of DiR in tumor and organs (more than 24 h). The in vivo anti-cancer efficacy assessments indicate that Rh2-PLP presents the most activity on suppressing tumor growth in HepG2-xenografted mice than Rh2-LP and Rh2-CLP and without any significant toxicity. Our results indicate that mPEG-PLA modified liposome should be a potential and promising strategy to enhance the therapeutic index for anti-cancer agents.

  18. Effect of ginsenoside Rb1 on rat liver phosphoproteins induced by carbon tetrachloride.

    PubMed

    Park, H J; Park, K M; Rhee, M H; Song, Y B; Choi, K J; Lee, J H; Kim, S C; Park, K H

    1996-06-01

    We investigated the effects of ginsenoside Rb1 (G-Rb1), a major saponin from Panax ginseng C. A. MEYER, on rat liver protein phosphorylation after intraperitoneal administration of CCl4 alone or together with G-Rb1. We found that 118, 63, and 34kDa proteins were prominently phosphorylated in liver homogenates prepared from CCl4-administered rats, while these protein-phosphorylations were inhibited in the homogenate prepared from the G-Rb1 plus CCl4-administration group. When inhibitors of protein kinases were exogenously added to the homogenates from either the CCl4-administered group or the G-Rb1 plus CCl4-administered group, their phosphorylations were inhibited much more by W-7, an inhibitor of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM-PK), than by H-7, an inhibitor of protein kinase C (C-kinase). Interestingly, only 34kDa was phosphorylated in homogenates prepared from the corn oil-, G-Rb1-, and G-Rb1 plus CCl4-administered groups by the exogenous addition of sodium fluoride (NaF), an inhibitor of glycogen synthase. Additionally, G-Rb1 inhibited the Ca(2+)-accumulation induced by CCl4 both in liver homogenates and microsomes. The above results imply that G-Rb1 inhibits the CCl4-induced protein phosphorylations by modulating CaM-PK rather than C-kinase, and that 34kDa protein may play a different biological role in cellular environment from 118 and 63kDa proteins. Therefore, a study in which G-Rb1 is employed as a modulator of critical CCl4-induced phenomena ranging from the disturbance of Ca2+ concentration to protein phosphorylation may be successfully applicable to investigate the diverse physiological functions of liver.

  19. Flavisolibacter ginsenosidimutans sp. nov., with ginsenoside-converting activity isolated from soil used for cultivating ginseng.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Liu, Qingmei; Kang, Myung-Suk; Jin, Fengxie; Yu, Hongshan; Im, Wan-Taek

    2015-12-01

    A Gram-reaction-negative, aerobic, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterial strain designated Gsoil 636T was isolated from soil of a ginseng cultivation field in Pocheon Province, South Korea and its taxonomic position was investigated using a polyphasic approach. Gsoil 636T grew at 18-30 °C and at pH 6.0-8.0 on R2A medium. Gsoil 636T possessed β-glucosidase activity, which was responsible for its ability to transform ginsenoside Rb1 (ones of the dominant active components of ginseng) to F2. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, Gsoil 636T was shown to belong to the family Chitinophagaceae and to be related to Flavisolibacter ginsengiterrae Gsoil 492T (96.7 % sequence similarity), Flavisolibacter ginsengisoli Gsoil 643T (96.6 %) and Flavisolibacter rigui 02SUJ3T (96.6 %). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 48.9 %. The predominant respiratory quinone was MK-7 and the major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω6c and/or C16 : 1ω7c) and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. DNA and chemotaxonomic data supported the affiliation of Gsoil 636T to the genus Flavisolibacter. Gsoil 636T could be differentiated genotypically and phenotypically from the species of the genus Flavisolibacter with validly published names. The isolate therefore represents a novel species, for which the name Flavisolibacter ginsenosidimutans sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain Gsoil 636T (KCTC 22818T = JCM 18197T = KACC 14277T).

  20. Saponins (Ginsenosides) from the Leaves of Panax quinquefolius Ameliorated Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xing-Yue; Hu, Jun-Nan; Liu, Zhi; Zhang, Rui; He, Yu-Fang; Hou, Wei; Wang, Zhi-Qing; Yang, Ge; Li, Wei

    2017-05-10

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is one of the most common inducements of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in the world. The main purpose of this paper was to investigate the liver protection activity of saponins (ginsenosides) from the leaves of Panax quinquefolius (PQS) against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity, and the involved mechanisms were demonstrated for the first time. Mice were pretreated with PQS (150 and 300 mg/kg) by oral gavage for 7 days before being treated with 250 mg/kg APAP. Severe liver injury was exerted at 24 h post-APAP, and hepatotoxicity was assessed. Our results showed that pretreatment with PQS significantly decreased the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels in a dose-dependent manner as compared to the APAP administration. Meanwhile, compared with that in the APAP group, PQS decreased hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) expression and restored reduced glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in livers of mice. PQS inhibited the overexpression of pro-inflammatory factors cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the liver tissues. Furthermore, Western blotting analysis revealed that PQS pretreatment inhibited the activation of apoptotic signaling pathways via increase of Bcl-2 and decrease of Bax and caspase-3 protein expression levels. Liver histopathological observation provided further evidence that PQS pretreatment significantly inhibited APAP-induced hepatocyte necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, and congestion. Biological indicators of nitrative stress such as 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) were inhibited after PQS pretreatment, compared to the APAP group. The present study clearly demonstrates that PQS exerts a protective effect against APAP-induced hepatic injury because of its antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, and anti-inflammatory activities. The findings from

  1. Ginsenoside Rg3 improves cardiac mitochondrial population quality: Mimetic exercise training

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Mengwei; Huang, Chenglin; Wang, Cheng; Zheng, Jianheng; Zhang, Peng; Xu, Yangshu; Chen, Hong; Shen, Weili

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •Rg3 is an ergogenic aid. •Rg3 improves mitochondrial antioxidant capacity. •Rg3 regulates mitochondria dynamic remodeling. •Rg3 alone matches some the benefits of aerobic exercise. -- Abstract: Emerging evidence indicates exercise training could mediate mitochondrial quality control through the improvement of mitochondrial dynamics. Ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3), one of the active ingredients in Panax ginseng, is well known in herbal medicine as a tonic and restorative agent. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of Rg3 has been elusive. In the present study, we compared the effects of Rg3 administration with aerobic exercise on mitochondrial adaptation in cardiac muscle tissue of Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats. Three groups of SD rats were studied: (1) sedentary control, (2) Rg3-treated and (3) aerobic exercise trained. Both aerobic exercise training and Rg3 supplementation enhanced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) and nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein levels in cardiac muscle. The activation of PGC-1α led to increased mRNA levels of mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) and nuclear related factor 1(Nrf1), these changes were accompanied by increases in mitochondrial DNA copy number and complex protein levels, while activation of Nrf2 increased levels of phase II detoxifying enzymes, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate:quinone oxidoreductase 1(NQO1), superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and catalase. Aerobic exercise also enhanced mitochondrial autophagy pathway activity, including increased conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and greater expression of beclin1 and autophagy-related protein 7 (ATG7), these effects of aerobic exercise are comparable to that of Rg3. These results demonstrate that Rg3 mimics improved cardiac adaptations to exercise by regulating mitochondria dynamic remodeling and enhancing the quantity and quality of mitochondria.

  2. Engineering of mesoporous silica nanoparticles for release of ginsenoside CK and Rh2 to enhance their anticancer and anti-inflammatory efficacy: in vitro studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Priyanka; Singh, Hina; Castro-Aceituno, Verónica; Ahn, Sungeun; Kim, Yeon Ju; Farh, Mohamed El-Agamy; Yang, Deok Chun

    2017-07-01

    The current study highlights the fabrication of drug delivery system by utilizing 200 nm mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs) with 4-nm pore size, as a carrier system for delivery ginsenoside compound K (CK) and Rh2 to enhance their efficacy. The two pharmacologically imperative ginsenosides, CK and Rh2, were loaded to the MSNPs to prepare MSNPs-CK and MSNPs-Rh2, respectively. A fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) fluorescent dye was combined in the MSNPs carrier system, in order to trace the cellular uptake of ginsenoside-loaded nanoparticles for in vitro studies. Following purification, the so-prepared MSNPs-CK-FITC and MSNPs-Rh2-FITC were characterized by several analytical techniques, which includes, high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), 1H NMR, field emission transmission electron microscopy (FE-TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), x-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). In vitro cytotoxicity assay in HaCaT skin cells, A549 lung cancer cells, HepG2 liver carcinoma cells, and HT-29 colon cancer cell lines were tested for MSNPs-CK-FITC and MSNPs-Rh2-FITC. The results demonstrate the excellent biocompatibility of nanoparticles in normal cell lines (HaCaT skin cells) and anticancer efficacy in all the tested cancer cell lines at 10-μM concentration. Additionally, the in vitro anti-inflammatory behavior of MSNPs-CK-FITC and MSNPs-Rh2-FITC were checked in RAW264.7 (murine macrophage) cell lines. The outcomes showed higher anti-inflammatory efficacy of MSNPs-CK-FITC and MSNPs-Rh2-FITC as compared to standard ginsenosides CK and Rh2 in RAW264.7 cell lines. Thus, with 200 nm MSNPs carrier system for the delivery ginsenosides CK and Rh2, a high amount of loading and increasing in vitro pharmacological efficacies of ginsenosides were realized. This study may provide useful insights for designing and improving the applicability of MSNPs for ginsenoside delivery.

  3. Effect of ginsenoside Rh-2 via activation of caspase-3 and Bcl-2-insensitive pathway in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hee; Choi, Jae-Sun

    2016-12-13

    Ginsenoside has been reported to have therapeutic effects for some types of cancer, but its effect on ovarian cancer cells has not been evaluated. In this study, we monitored the effects of ginsenoside-Rh2 (Rh2) on the inhibition of cell proliferation and the apoptotic process in the ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3 using an MTT assay and TUNEL assay. We found that Rh2 inhibited cell proliferation and significantly induced apoptosis. We confirmed the apoptotic effects of Rh2 using western blot analysis of apoptosis-related proteins. Specifically, the levels of cleaved poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) and cleaved caspase-3 significantly increased in SKOV3 cells treated with Rh2. Therefore, Rh2 clearly suppressed the growth of SKOV3 cells in vitro, which was associated with induction of the apoptosis pathway. Moreover, the migration assay showed that Rh2 inhibited the invasive ability of SKOV3 cells. Taken together, our results suggest that Rh2 has anticancer effects in SKOV3 cells through inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Considering the therapeutic potential of Rh2, more studies should be carried out to facilitate the future application of this natural product as a potential anti-cancer agent.

  4. A chimera of green fluorescent protein with single chain variable fragment antibody against ginsenosides for fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Seiichi; Tanizaki, Yusuke; Pongkitwitoon, Benyakan; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi

    2011-05-01

    A chimera of green fluorescent protein extracted from Aequorea coerulescens (AcGFP), a mutant that has been codon optimized for mammalian expression, with single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody against ginsenoside Re (GRe-scFv), named fluobody, has been successfully expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) to develop simple, speedy, and sensitive fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay (FLISA). Two chimera proteins were constructed to contain GRe-scFv at the C-terminus of AcGFP (C-fluobody) and at the N-terminus of AcGFP (N-fluobody). These fluobodies were then purified by ion metal affinity chromatography and refolded by stepwise dialysis. The characterization of both fluobodies revealed that C-fluobody was found to be appropriate probe for FLISA as compare with N-fluobody. Furthermore, improvement of limit of detection (LOD) was observed in FLISA using C-fluobody (10 ng/mL) due to its strong fluorescence intensity of AcGFP compared with conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using parental monoclonal antibody against ginsenoside Re (G-Re), MAb-4G10 (100 ng/mL). Since some steps required in ELISA can be avoided in this present FLISA, speedy and sensitive immunoassay also could be performed using fluobody instead of monoclonal antibody and scFv.

  5. Exploring the Effect of Ginsenoside Rh1 in a Sleep Deprivation-Induced Mouse Memory Impairment Model.

    PubMed

    Lu, Cong; Shi, Zhe; Dong, Liming; Lv, Jingwei; Xu, Pan; Li, Yinghui; Qu, Lina; Liu, Xinmin

    2017-05-01

    Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Araliaceae) has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for enhancing cognition for thousands of years. Ginsenoside Rh1, a constituent of ginseng root, as with other constituents, has memory-improving effects in normal mice and scopolamine-induced amnesic mice. Sleep deprivation (SD) is associated with memory impairment through induction of oxidative stress. The present study investigated the effect of Rh1 against SD-induced cognitive impairment and attempted to define the possible mechanisms involved. Ginsenoside Rh1 (20 μmol/kg; 40 μmol/kg) and modafinil (0.42 g/kg) were administered to the mice intraperitoneally for 23 days. After 14-day SD, locomotor activity was examined using the open field test, and the object location recognition and Morris water maze tests were used to evaluate cognitive ability. The cortex and hippocampus were then dissected and homogenized, and levels and activities of antioxidant defense biomarkers were evaluated to determine the level of oxidative stress. The results revealed that Rh1 prevented cognitive impairment induced by SD, and its ability to reduce oxidative stress in cortex and hippocampus may contribute to the mechanism of action. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. An in vitro metabolic system of gut flora and the metabolism of ginsenoside Rg3 and cholic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunyan; Sun, Runbin; Cao, Bei; Gu, Shenghua; Zhao, Jieyu; Liu, Linsheng; Wang, Xinwen; Zha, Weibin; Yu, Xiaoyi; Xiao, Wenjing; Mao, Yong; Ge, Chun; Ju, Jiaqi; Aa, Lixiang; Fei, Fei; Ding, Yi; Aa, Jiye; Wang, Guangji

    2014-06-01

    For orally administered drugs, the metabolism of a drug by the gut flora plays an important role in the bioavailability, activation and disposition of the drug in vivo. However, no in vitro system is currently available to evaluate the metabolism of a drug by the gut flora before the drug is absorbed into the body. This paper presents an in vitro metabolic system in an anaerobic environment that could be used to evaluate the metabolism of an endogenous compound, cholic acid, and a xenobiotic compound, ginsenoside Rg3. We showed that the proliferation of the anaerobic bacteria of the gut content of hamsters produced a similar composition of gut flora in a culture medium for yeast to that in vivo. Incubation of ginsenoside Rg3 and cholic acid in the anaerobic in vitro system efficiently produced the metabolites Rh2 and deoxycholic acid, respectively, similar to those seen in the gut content in vivo. In comparison with in vivo analysis, this anaerobic in vitro metabolic system is convenient, reproducible, economic and animal saving, and can easily be applied to assess the transformation and disposition of a drug before it enters into the circulatory system.

  7. Highly Selective Bioconversion of Ginsenoside Rb1 to Compound K by the Mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis under Optimized Conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Nan; Yan, Bing-Xiong; Xu, Wen-Di; Qiu, Ye; Guo, Yun-Long; Qiu, Zhi-Dong

    2015-10-23

    Compound K (CK), a highly active and bioavailable derivative obtained from protopanaxadiol ginsenosides, displays a wide variety of pharmacological properties, especially antitumor activity. However, the inadequacy of natural sources limits its application in the pharmaceutical industry. In this study, we firstly discovered that Cordyceps sinensis was a potent biocatalyst for the biotransformation of ginsenoside Rb1 into CK. After a series of investigations on the biotransformation parameters, an optimal composition of the biotransformation culture was found to be lactose, soybean powder and MgSO₄ without controlling the pH. Also, an optimum temperature of 30 °C for the biotransformation process was suggested in a range of 25 °C-50 °C. Then, a biotransformation pathway of Rb1→Rd→F2→CK was established using high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q-TOF-MS). Our results demonstrated that the molar bioconversion rate of Rb1 to CK was more than 82% and the purity of CK produced by C. sinensis under the optimized conditions was more than 91%. In conclusion, the combination of C. sinensis and the optimized conditions is applicable for the industrial preparation of CK for medicinal purposes.

  8. Transcriptome Analysis of Methyl Jasmonate-Elicited Panax ginseng Adventitious Roots to Discover Putative Ginsenoside Biosynthesis and Transport Genes

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Hongzhe; Nuruzzaman, Mohammed; Xiu, Hao; Huang, Jingjia; Wu, Kunlu; Chen, Xianghui; Li, Jijia; Wang, Li; Jeong, Ji-Hak; Park, Sun-Jin; Yang, Fang; Luo, Junli; Luo, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    The Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer belonging to the Araliaceae has long been used as an herbal medicine. Although public databases are presently available for this family, no methyl jasmonate (MeJA) elicited transcriptomic information was previously reported on this species, with the exception of a few expressed sequence tags (ESTs) using the traditional Sanger method. Here, approximately 53 million clean reads of adventitious root transcriptome were separately filtered via Illumina HiSeq™2000 from two samples treated with MeJA (Pg-MeJA) and equal volumes of solvent, ethanol (Pg-Con). Jointly, a total of 71,095 all-unigenes from both samples were assembled and annotated, and based on sequence similarity search with known proteins, a total of 56,668 unigenes was obtained. Out of these annotated unigenes, 54,920 were assigned to the NCBI non-redundant protein (Nr) database, 35,448 to the Swiss-prot database, 43,051 to gene ontology (GO), and 19,986 to clusters of orthologous groups (COG). Searching in the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway database indicated that 32,200 unigenes were mapped to 128 KEGG pathways. Moreover, we obtained several genes showing a wide range of expression levels. We also identified a total of 749 ginsenoside biosynthetic enzyme genes and 12 promising pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) genes related to ginsenoside transport. PMID:25642758

  9. A comprehensive review of the therapeutic and pharmacological effects of ginseng and ginsenosides in central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Jin; Kim, Pitna; Shin, Chan Young

    2013-01-01

    Ginseng is one of the most widely used herbal medicines in human. Central nervous system (CNS) diseases are most widely investigated diseases among all others in respect to the ginseng’s therapeutic effects. These include Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, cerebral ischemia, depression, and many other neurological disorders including neurodevelopmental disorders. Not only the various types of diseases but also the diverse array of target pathways or molecules ginseng exerts its effect on. These range, for example, from neuroprotection to the regulation of synaptic plasticity and from regulation of neuroinflammatory processes to the regulation of neurotransmitter release, too many to mention. In general, ginseng and even a single compound of ginsenoside produce its effects on multiple sites of action, which make it an ideal candidate to develop multi-target drugs. This is most important in CNS diseases where multiple of etiological and pathological targets working together to regulate the final pathophysiology of diseases. In this review, we tried to provide comprehensive information on the pharmacological and therapeutic effects of ginseng and ginsenosides on neurodegenerative and other neurological diseases. Side by side comparison of the therapeutic effects in various neurological disorders may widen our understanding of the therapeutic potential of ginseng in CNS diseases and the possibility to develop not only symptomatic drugs but also disease modifying reagents based on ginseng. PMID:23717153

  10. Preparation and evaluation of self-microemulsions for improved bioavailability of ginsenoside-Rh1 and Rh2.

    PubMed

    Yang, Feifei; Zhou, Jing; Hu, Xiao; Yu, Stephanie Kyoungchun; Liu, Chunyu; Pan, Ruile; Chang, Qi; Liu, Xinmin; Liao, Yonghong

    2017-07-05

    Due to intestinal cytochrome P450 (CYP450)-mediated metabolism and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux, poor oral bioavailability hinders ginsenoside-Rh1 (Rh1) and ginsenoside-Rh2 (Rh2) from clinical application. In this study, Rh1 and Rh2 were incorporated into two self-microemulsions (SME-1 and SME-2) to improve oral bioavailability. SME-1 contained both CYP450 and P-gp inhibitory excipients while SME-2 only consisted of P-gp inhibitory excipients. Results for release, cellular uptake, transport, and lymph node distribution demonstrated no significant difference between either self-microemulsions in vivo, but were elevated significantly in comparison to the free drug. The pharmaceutical profiles in vivo showed that the bioavailability of Rh1 in SME-1 (33.25%) was significantly higher than that in either SME-2 (21.28%) or free drug (12.92%). There was no significant difference in bioavailability for Rh2 between SME-1 (48.69%) or SME-2 (41.73%), although they both had remarkable increase in comparison to free drug (15.02%). We confirmed that SME containing CYP450 and P-gp inhibitory excipient could distinctively improve the oral availabilities of Rh1 compared to free drug or SME containing P-gp inhibitory excipient. No notable increase was observed between either SME for Rh2, suggesting that Rh2 undergoes P-gp-mediated efflux, but may not undergo distinct CYP450-mediated metabolism.

  11. Structural investigation of ginsenoside Rf with PPARγ major transcriptional factor of adipogenesis and its impact on adipocyte

    PubMed Central

    Siraj, Fayeza Md; Natarajan, Sathishkumar; Huq, Md Amdadul; Kim, Yeon Ju; Yang, Deok Chun

    2014-01-01

    Background Adipocytes, which are the main cellular component of adipose tissue, are the building blocks of obesity. The nuclear hormone receptor PPARγ is a major regulator of adipocyte differentiation and development. Obesity, which is one of the most dangerous yet silent diseases of all time, is fast becoming a critical area of research focus. Methods In this study, we initially aimed to investigate whether the ginsenoside Rf, a compound that is only present in Panax ginseng Meyer, interacts with PPARγ by molecular docking simulations. After we performed the docking simulation the result has been analyzed with several different software programs, including Discovery Studio, Pymol, Chimera, Ligplus, and Pose View. All of the programs identified the same mechanism of interaction between PPARγ and Rf, at the same active site. To determine the drug-like and biological activities of Rf, we calculate its absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxic (ADMET) and prediction of activity spectra for substances (PASS) properties. Considering the results obtained from the computational investigations, the focus was on the in vitro experiments. Results Because the docking simulations predicted the formation of structural bonds between Rf and PPARγ, we also investigated whether any evidence for these bonds could be observed at the cellular level. These experiments revealed that Rf treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes downregulated the expression levels of PPARγ and perilipin, and also decreased the amount of lipid accumulated at different doses. Conclusion The ginsenoside Rf appears to be promising compound that could prove useful in antiobesity treatments. PMID:26045687

  12. Structural investigation of ginsenoside Rf with PPARγ major transcriptional factor of adipogenesis and its impact on adipocyte.

    PubMed

    Siraj, Fayeza Md; Natarajan, Sathishkumar; Huq, Md Amdadul; Kim, Yeon Ju; Yang, Deok Chun

    2015-04-01

    Adipocytes, which are the main cellular component of adipose tissue, are the building blocks of obesity. The nuclear hormone receptor PPARγ is a major regulator of adipocyte differentiation and development. Obesity, which is one of the most dangerous yet silent diseases of all time, is fast becoming a critical area of research focus. In this study, we initially aimed to investigate whether the ginsenoside Rf, a compound that is only present in Panax ginseng Meyer, interacts with PPARγ by molecular docking simulations. After we performed the docking simulation the result has been analyzed with several different software programs, including Discovery Studio, Pymol, Chimera, Ligplus, and Pose View. All of the programs identified the same mechanism of interaction between PPARγ and Rf, at the same active site. To determine the drug-like and biological activities of Rf, we calculate its absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxic (ADMET) and prediction of activity spectra for substances (PASS) properties. Considering the results obtained from the computational investigations, the focus was on the in vitro experiments. Because the docking simulations predicted the formation of structural bonds between Rf and PPARγ, we also investigated whether any evidence for these bonds could be observed at the cellular level. These experiments revealed that Rf treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes downregulated the expression levels of PPARγ and perilipin, and also decreased the amount of lipid accumulated at different doses. The ginsenoside Rf appears to be promising compound that could prove useful in antiobesity treatments.

  13. The involvement of β-amyrin 28-oxidase (CYP716A52v2) in oleanane-type ginsenoside biosynthesis in Panax ginseng.

    PubMed

    Han, Jung-Yeon; Kim, Min-Jun; Ban, Yong-Wook; Hwang, Hwan-Su; Choi, Yong-Eui

    2013-12-01

    Panax species are the most popular medicinal herbs. The root of these plants contains pharmacologically active triterpene saponins, also known as ginsenosides, compounds that are divided into dammarane- and oleanane-type triterpenes. Two CYP716A subfamily genes (CYP716A47 and CYP716A53v2) were recently characterized, encoding an enzyme catalyzing the hydroxylation of dammarane-type triterpenes in Panax ginseng. Herein, we report that one CYP716A subfamily gene (CYP716A52v2) isolated from P. ginseng encodes a β-amyrin 28-oxidase, which is suggested to modify β-amyrin into oleanolic acid, a precursor of an oleanane-type saponin (mainly ginsenoside Ro) in P. ginseng. The ectopic expression of both PNY1 and CYP716A52v2 in recombinant yeast resulted in erythrodiol and oleanolic acid production, respectively. In vitro enzymatic activity assays biochemically confirmed that CYP716A52v2 catalyzed the oxidation of β-amyrin to produce oleanolic acid, and the chemical structure of the oleanolic acid product was confirmed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Transgenic P. ginseng plants were generated via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation: the overexpression of CYP716A52v2 greatly increased the content of oleanane-type ginsenoside (ginsenoside Ro), whereas RNA interference against CYP716A52v2 markedly reduced it. Furthermore, the levels of other dammarene-type ginsenosides were not affected in these transgenic lines. These results indicate that CYP716A52v2 is a β-amyrin 28-oxidase that plays a key role in the biosynthesis of oleanane-type triterpenes in P. ginseng.

  14. Gut microbiota in the pharmacokinetics and colonic deglycosylation metabolism of ginsenoside Rb1 in rats: Contrary effects of antimicrobials treatment and restraint stress.

    PubMed

    Kang, An; Zhang, Shengjie; Zhu, Dong; Dong, Yu; Shan, Jinjun; Xie, Tong; Wen, Hongmei; Di, Liuqing

    2016-10-25

    Ginsenoside Rb1, an active ingredient in Panax ginseng, was widely used for its various biological activities. To clarify the role of the gut microbiota in pharmacokinetics and metabolism of Rb1, a comprehensive and comparative study of colonic deglycosylation metabolism and systemic exposure of ginsenoside Rb1 in normal rats, antimicrobials (ATMs) treated rats, and restraint stressed rats was conducted. ATMs treated rats received oral administration of non-absorbable antimicrobial mixtures for 7 consecutive days. Restraint stressed rats were subjected to repeated restraint stress for a period of 2 h once daily for 7 days. Plasma concentration dynamics, urine and fecal excretion of Rb1 and its deglycosylation metabolites (Rd, F2, and C-K) were studied. Moreover, the in vitro metabolism of Rb1 in fecal suspension and the fecal β-d-glucosidase activity were profiled. Systemic exposure of the deglycosylation metabolites of ginsenoside Rb1 (F2, C-K) were significantly higher in restraint stressed rats, but ATMs treated rats exhibited a decreased plasma levels of F2 and C-K, compared with normal rats. Further studies illustrated that altered systemic Rb1 and its deglycosylation metabolites exposure in restraint-stressed rats and ATMs treated rats may be partially attributed to alternations in cumulative fecal excretion. The distinguishing fecal β-d-glucosidase, in vitro elimination of Rb1, and formation of these deglycosylation metabolites afforded further evidence for the in vivo data. In conclusion, the dys-regulated fecal β-d-glucosidase activity and deglycosylation metabolism may contribute to the altered pharmacokinetic of ginsenoside Rb1 and its hydrolysis metabolites after ATMs treatment or restraint stress exposure. Our results may offer valuable insights into the pharmacological changes of bioactive ginsenosides in dys-regulated gut microbiota statue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ginsenosides Have a Suppressive Effect on c-Fos Expression in Brain and Reduce Cardiovascular Responses Increased by Noxious Stimulation to the Rat Tooth

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ji-Yeon; Seong, Kyung-Joo; Moon, In-Ohk; Cho, Jin-Hyoung; Kim, Sun-Hun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the antinociceptive effects of ginsenosides on toothache. c-Fos immunoreactive (IR) neurons were examined after noxious intrapulpal stimulation (NS) by intrapulpal injection of 2 M KCl into upper and lower incisor pulps exposed by bone cutter in Sprague Dawley rats. The number of Fos-IR neurons was increased in the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) and the transitional region between Vc and subnucleus interpolaris (Vi) by NS to tooth. The intradental NS raised arterial blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). The number of Fos-IR neurons was also enhanced in thalamic ventral posteromedial nucleus (VPMN) and centrolateral nucleus (CLN) by NS to tooth. The intradental NS increased the number of Fos-IR neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus (SON) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN), central cardiovascular regulation centers. Ginsenosides reduced the number of c-Fos-IR increased by NS to tooth in the trigeminal Vc and thalamic VPMN and CLN. Naloxone, an opioid antagonist, did not block the effect of ginsenoside on the number of Fos-IR neurons enhanced by NS to tooth in the trigeminal Vc and thalamic VPMN and CLN. Ginsenosides ameliorated arterial BP and HR raised by NS to tooth and reduced the number of Fos-IR neurons increased by NS to tooth in the NTS, RVLM, hypothalamic SON, and PVN. These results suggest that ginsenosides have an antinociceptive effect on toothache through non-opioid system and attenuates BP and HR increased by NS to tooth. PMID:23626473

  16. Ginsenoside-Rd exhibits anti-inflammatory activities through elevation of antioxidant enzyme activities and inhibition of JNK and ERK activation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun-Xin; Wang, Li; Xiao, Er-Long; Li, Si-Jia; Chen, Jia-Jia; Gao, Bei; Min, Guang-Ning; Wang, Zhi-Ping; Wu, Yong-Jie

    2013-12-01

    Our previous study has reported that ginsenoside-Rd significantly inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators in carrageenan (Carr)-induced rat paw edema, which might be due to its blocking of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway. The aim of the present study was to clarify the more detailed mechanisms of anti-inflammatory activity of ginsenoside-Rd in Carr-induced rat paw edema model. Rats were pretreated with dexamethasone or ginsenoside-Rd 1 h before the Carr injection. Six hours after Carr injection, the malondialdehyde (MDA) level and myeloperoxidase (MPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) activities in inflamed paw tissues were determined. The levels of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in serum were measured. The expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and NF-κB were detected by western blot. In addition, the extent of phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), p38 and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) was analyzed by western blot. The results showed that ginsenoside-Rd significantly attenuated MPO activity and MDA level, increased the activities of SOD, GPx and CAT, lowered the levels of NO and PGE2, down-regulated the expressions of iNOS, COX-2 and NF-κB, and suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK and JNK. Taken together, the possible mechanisms of anti-inflammatory activity of ginsenoside-Rd were: it could reduce the inflammatory cell infiltration into inflammatory sites, inhibit the tissue lipid peroxidation, increase the antioxidant enzyme activities, and suppress the proinflammatory enzyme expressions through the downregulation of NF-κB activation via suppression of ERK and JNK phosphorylation.

  17. Complete conversion of major protopanaxadiol ginsenosides to compound K by the combined use of α-L-arabinofuranosidase and β-galactosidase from Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and β-glucosidase from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kyung-Chul; Oh, Hye-Jin; Kim, Baek-Joong; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2013-08-10

    The ginsenoside compound K has pharmaceutical activities, including anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, and hepatoprotective effects. To increase the production of compound K, the α-L-arabinofuranoside-hydrolyzing α-L-arabinofuranosidase (CS-abf) and/or the α-L-arabinopyranoside-hydrolyzing β-galactosidase from Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus (CS-bgal) were mixed with the β-D-glucopyranoside-hydrolyzing β-glucosidase from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius (SA-bglu). The optimum conditions for the production of ginsenoside compound K from ginsenoside Rc or Rb₂, or from major protopanaxadiol ginsenosides in ginseng root extract were determined to be pH 6.0 and 75°C with 8 mg ml⁻¹ ginsenoside Rc, 8 mg ml⁻¹ Rb₂, or 10% (w/v) ginseng root extract; and 10.5 U ml⁻¹ CS-abf or CS-bgal supplemented with 4.5 U ml⁻¹ SA-bglu, or 10.5 U ml⁻¹ CS-abf and 10.5 U ml⁻¹ CS-bgal supplemented with 4.5 U ml⁻¹ SA-bglu, respectively. Under optimum conditions, ginsenosides Rc and Rb2, and major protopanaxadiol ginsenosides in ginseng root extract were completely converted to compound K after 12, 14, and 20 h, respectively, with the respective productivities of 388, 328, and 144 mg l⁻¹ h⁻¹. This is the first report of the complete conversion of major protopanaxadiol ginsenosides to compound K.

  18. Ginsenoside F2 reduces hair loss by controlling apoptosis through the sterol regulatory element-binding protein cleavage activating protein and transforming growth factor-β pathways in a dihydrotestosterone-induced mouse model.

    PubMed

    Shin, Heon-Sub; Park, Sang-Yong; Hwang, Eun-Son; Lee, Don-Gil; Mavlonov, Gafurjon Turdalievich; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to test whether ginsenoside F2 can reduce hair loss by influencing sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) and the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) pathway of apoptosis in dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-treated hair cells and in a DHT-induced hair loss model in mice. Results for ginsenoside F2 were compared with finasteride. DHT inhibits proliferation of hair cells and induces androgenetic alopecia and was shown to activate an apoptosis signal pathway both in vitro and in vivo. The cell-based 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay showed that the proliferation rates of DHT-treated human hair dermal papilla cells (HHDPCs) and HaCaTs increased by 48% in the ginsenoside F2-treated group and by 12% in the finasteride-treated group. Western blot analysis showed that ginsenoside F2 decreased expression of TGF-β2 related factors involved in hair loss. The present study suggested a hair loss related pathway by changing SCAP related apoptosis pathway, which has been known to control cholesterol metabolism. SCAP, sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) and caspase-12 expression in the ginsenoside F2-treated group were decreased compared to the DHT and finasteride-treated group. C57BL/6 mice were also prepared by injection with DHT and then treated with ginsenoside F2 or finasteride. Hair growth rate, density, thickness measurements and tissue histotological analysis in these groups suggested that ginsenoside F2 suppressed hair cell apoptosis and premature entry to catagen more effectively than finasteride. Our results indicated that ginsenoside F2 decreased the expression of TGF-β2 and SCAP proteins, which have been suggested to be involved in apoptosis and entry into catagen. This study provides evidence those factors in the SCAP pathway could be targets for hair loss prevention drugs.

  19. Ginsenoside Re protects methamphetamine-induced mitochondrial burdens and proapoptosis via genetic inhibition of protein kinase C δ in human neuroblastoma dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cell lines.

    PubMed

    Nam, Yunsung; Wie, Myung Bok; Shin, Eun-Joo; Nguyen, Thuy-Ty Lan; Nah, Seung-Yeol; Ko, Sung Kwon; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Jang, Choon-Gon; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2015-08-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated that ginsenoside Re protects methamphetamine (MA)-induced dopaminergic toxicity in mice via genetic inhibition of PKCδ and attenuation of mitochondrial stress. In addition, we have reported that induction of mitochondrial glutathione peroxidase (GPx) is also important for neuroprotection mediated by ginsenoside Re. To extend our knowledge, we examined the effects of ginsenoside Re against MA toxicity in vitro condition using SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Treatment with ginsenoside Re resulted in significant attenuations against a decrease in the activity of GPx and an increase in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the cytosolic and mitochondrial fraction. The changes in glutathione (GSH) paralleled those in GPx in the same experimental condition. Consistently, ginsenoside Re treatment exhibited significant protections against cytosolic and mitochondrial oxidative damage (i.e. lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation), mitochondrial translocation of PKCδ, mitochondrial dysfunction (mitochondrial transmembrane potential and intra-mitochondrial Ca(2+)), apoptotic events [i.e., cytochrome c release from mitochondria, cleavage of caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1, nuclear condensation, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive apoptotic cells], and a reduction in the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and TH activity induced by MA in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. These protective effects of ginsenoside Re were comparable to those of PKCδ antisense oligonucleotide (ASO). However, ginsenoside Re did not significantly provide additional protective effects mediated by genetic inhibition of PKCδ. Our results suggest that PKCδ is a specific target for ginsenoside Re-mediated protective activity against MA toxicity in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Molecular Basis of Altered hERG1 Channel Gating Induced by Ginsenoside Rg3.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Alison; Wu, Wei; Thomson, Steven; Zangerl-Plessl, Eva-Maria; Stary-Weinzinger, Anna; Sanguinetti, Michael C

    2017-10-01

    Outward current conducted by human ether-à-go-go-related gene type 1 (hERG1) channels is a major determinant of action potential repolarization in the human ventricle. Ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 [Rg3; (2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-2-[(2R,3R,4S,5S,6R)-4,5-dihydroxy-2-[[(3S,5R,8R,9R,10R,12R,13R,14R,17S)-12-hydroxy-17-[(2S)-2-hydroxy-6-methylhept-5-en-2-yl]-4,4,8,10,14-pentamethyl-2,3,5,6,7,9,11,12,13,15,16,17-dodecahydro-1H-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-3-yl]oxy]-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-3-yl]oxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-3,4,5-triol], an alkaloid isolated from the root of Panax ginseng, slows the rate of hERG1 deactivation, induces channels to open at more negative potentials than normal, and increases current magnitude. The onset of Rg3 action is extremely fast, suggesting that it binds to an extracellular accessible site on the channel to alter its gating. Here we used a scanning mutagenesis approach to identify residues in the extracellular loops and transmembrane segments of hERG1 that might interact with Rg3. Single or multiple residues of hERG1 were mutated to Ala or Cys and the resulting mutant channels were heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The effects of Rg3 on the voltage dependence of activation and the deactivation rate of mutant channel currents were characterized using the two-microelectrode voltage clamp technique. Mutation to Ala of specific residues in the S1 (Tyr420), S2 (Leu452, Phe463), and S4 (Ile521, Lys525) segments partially inhibited the effects of Rg3 on hERG1. The double mutant Y420A/L452A nearly eliminated the effects of Rg3 on voltage-dependent channel gating but did not prevent the increase in current magnitude. These findings together with molecular modeling suggest that Rg3 alters the gating of hERG1 channels by interacting with and stabilizing the voltage sensor domain in an activated state. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  1. Nocardioides panaciterrulae sp. nov., isolated from soil of a ginseng field, with ginsenoside converting activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Kwang; Liu, Qing-Mei; Park, Hye-Yoon; Kang, Myung-Suk; Kim, Sun-Chang; Im, Wan-Taek; Yoon, Min-Ho

    2013-06-01

    A Gram-positive, coccoid to rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterium, designated Gsoil 958(T), was isolated from soil of a ginseng field located in Pocheon province in South Korea. This bacterium was characterized in order to determine its taxonomic position by using a polyphasic approach. Strain Gsoil 958(T) was observed to grow well at 25-30 °C and at pH 7.0 on R2A and nutrient agar without NaCl supplementation. Strain Gsoil 958(T) was determined to have β-glucosidase activity and the ability to transform ginsenoside Rb1 (one of the dominant active components of ginseng) to F2 via gypenoside XVII and Rd. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain Gsoil 958(T) was shown to belong to the family Nocardioidaceae and related most closely to Nocardioides koreensis MSL-09(T) (97.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Nocardioides aquiterrae GW-9(T) (97.0 %), and Nocardioides sediminis MSL-01(T) (97.0 %). The sequence similarities with other validly named species within the genus Nocardioides were less than 96.8 %. Strain Gsoil 958(T) was characterized chemotaxonomically as having LL-2,6-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan, MK-8(H4) as the predominant menaquinone, and iso-C16:0, iso-C16:1 H, iso-C14:0, iso-C15:0 were identified as the major fatty acids. The G + C content of genomic DNA was determined to be 70.8 mol %. The chemotaxonomic properties and phenotypic characteristics supported the affiliation of strain Gsoil 958(T) to the genus Nocardioides. The results of both physiological and biochemical tests allowed for differentiation of strain Gsoil 958(T) from the recognized Nocardioides species. Therefore, strain Gsoil 958(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Nocardioides, for which the name Nocardioides panaciterrulae sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain Gsoil 958(T) (KACC 14271(T) = KCTC 19471(T) = DSM 21350(T)).

  2. Ginsenoside Rc from Korean Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) Attenuates Inflammatory Symptoms of Gastritis, Hepatitis and Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tao; Rhee, Man Hee; Lee, Jongsung; Kim, Seung Hyung; Yang, Yanyan; Kim, Han Gyung; Kim, Yong; Kim, Chaekyun; Kwak, Yi-Seong; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Cho, Jae Youl

    2016-01-01

    Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) is an herbal medicine prescribed worldwide that is prepared from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Araliaceae). Out of ginseng's various components, ginsenosides are regarded as the major ingredients, exhibiting anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. Although recent studies have focused on understanding the anti-inflammatory activities of KRG, compounds that are major anti-inflammatory components, precisely how these can suppress various inflammatory processes has not been fully elucidated yet. In this study, we aimed to identify inhibitory saponins, to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of the saponins, and to understand the inhibitory mechanisms. To do this, we employed in vitro lipopolysaccharide-treated macrophages and in vivo inflammatory mouse conditions, such as collagen (type II)-induced arthritis (CIA), EtOH/HCl-induced gastritis, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-triggered hepatitis. Molecular mechanisms were also verified by real-time PCR, immunoblotting analysis, and reporter gene assays. Out of all the ginsenosides, ginsenoside Rc (G-Rc) showed the highest inhibitory activity against the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-[Formula: see text], interleukin (IL)-1[Formula: see text], and interferons (IFNs). Similarly, this compound attenuated inflammatory symptoms in CIA, EtOH/HCl-mediated gastritis, and LPS/D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-triggered hepatitis without altering toxicological parameters, and without inducing gastric irritation. These anti-inflammatory effects were accompanied by the suppression of TNF-[Formula: see text] and IL-6 production and the induction of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in mice with CIA. G-Rc also attenuated the increased levels of luciferase activity by IRF-3 and AP-1 but not NF-[Formula: see text]B. In support of this phenomenon, G-Rc reduced TBK1, IRF-3, and ATF2 phosphorylation in the joint and liver tissues of mice with hepatitis. Therefore, our results strongly suggest that

  3. Peripheral anti-inflammatory effects explain the ginsenosides paradox between poor brain distribution and anti-depression efficacy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of ginseng in preventing and treating various central nervous system (CNS) diseases has been widely confirmed. However, ginsenosides, the principal components of ginseng, are characterized by poor accessibility to the brain, and this pharmacokinetic-pharmacological paradox remains poorly explained. Anti-inflammatory approaches are becoming promising therapeutic strategies for depression and other CNS diseases; however, previous studies have focused largely on anti-inflammatory therapies directed at the central nervous system. It is thus of interest to determine whether ginsenosides, characterized by poor brain distribution, are also effective in treating lipopolysaccharide- (LPS) induced depression-like behavior and neuroinflammation. Methods In an LPS-induced depression-like behavior model, the antidepressant effects of ginseng total saponins (GTS) were assessed using a forced swimming test, a tail suspension test, and a sucrose preference test. The anti-inflammatory efficacies of GTS in brain, plasma, and LPS-challenged RAW264.7 cells were validated using ELISA and quantitative real-time PCR. Moreover, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activity in the periphery and brain were also determined by measuring levels of kynurenine/tryptophan. Results GTS significantly attenuated LPS-induced depression-like behavior. Moreover, LPS-induced increases in 5-HT and tryptophane turnover in the brain were significantly reduced by GTS. IDO activities in brain and periphery were also suppressed after pretreatment with GTS. Furthermore, GTS-associated recovery from LPS-induced depression-like behavior was paralleled with reduced mRNA levels for IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IDO in hippocampus. Poor brain distribution of ginsenosides was confirmed in LPS-challenged mice. GTS treatment significantly decreased production of various proinflammatory cytokines in both LPS-challenged mice and RAW264.7 cells. Conclusion This study suggests that the anti

  4. A strategy for efficient discovery of new natural compounds by integrating orthogonal column chromatography and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis: Its application in Panax ginseng, Panax quinquefolium and Panax notoginseng to characterize 437 potential new ginsenosides.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen-zhi; Ye, Min; Qiao, Xue; Liu, Chun-fang; Miao, Wen-juan; Bo, Tao; Tao, Hai-yan; Guo, De-an

    2012-08-20

    To discover new natural compounds from herbal medicines tends to be more and more difficult. In this paper, a strategy integrating orthogonal column chromatography and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis was proposed, and was applied for rapid discovery of new ginsenosides from Panax ginseng (PG), Panax quinquefolium (PQ), and Panax notoginseng (PN). The ginsenosides extracts were fractionated by MCI gel×silica gel orthogonal column chromatography. The fractions were then separated on a C(18) HPLC column, eluted with a three-component mobile phase (CH(3)CN/CH(3)OH/3mM CH(3)COONH(4)H(2)O), and detected by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The structures of unknown ginsenosides were elucidated by analyzing negative and positive ion mass spectra, which provided complementary information on the sapogenins and oligosaccharide chains, respectively. A total of 623 comprising 437 potential new ginsenosides were characterized from the ethanol extracts of PG, PQ and PN. New acylations, diversified saccharide chains and C-17 side chains constituted novelty of the newly identified ginsenosides. An interpretation guideline was proposed for structural characterization of unknown ginsenosides by LC/MS. To confirm reliability of this strategy, two targeted unknown trace ginsenosides were obtained in pure form by LC/MS-guided isolation. Based on extensive NMR spectroscopic analysis and other techniques, they were identified as 3-O-[6-O-(E)-butenoyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1,2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-20(S)-protopanaxadiol-20-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1,6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (named ginsenoside IV) and 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1,2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3β,12β,20(S),24(R)-tetra hydroxy-dammar-25-ene-20-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1,6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (ginsenoside V), respectively. The fully established structures were consistent with the MS-oriented structural elucidation. This study expanded our understanding on ginsenosides of Panax species, and the

  5. The apoptosis-inducing effect of ginsenoside F4 from steamed notoginseng on human lymphocytoma JK cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; Shen, Yu-Ping; Zhang, Dong-Feng; Cheng, Jie; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effect of ginsenoside F4 (GF4) from steamed notoginseng was investigated by using human lymphocytoma Jurkat (JK) cell. Cell Counting Kit-8 method was then used to assess the anti-proliferative effect of GF4, and Western blotting was run to detect the expression level of two apoptosis-related proteins including Bax and the Bcl-2. The results suggested that GF4 can effectively inhibit the proliferation of the cells, and Bax expression increased gradually, but Bcl-2 expression reduced with the increase of GF4 concentration. In conclusion, GF4 has inhibitory effect on human lymphocytoma JK cell by inducing its apoptosis. The mechanism of action could be related to the mitochondrial dysfunction and the increase of Bax expression and decrease of Bcl-2 expression by GF4.

  6. Anti-adipogenic Effects and Mechanisms of Ginsenoside Rg3 in Pre-adipocytes and Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Longyun; Zhang, Lijuan; Wang, Xiaoyong; Si, Hongwei

    2017-01-01

    Red or black ginseng has been reported more powerful than white/fresh ginseng in dealing with various diseases/conditions including obesity. The major reason is that heating/steaming, the process of making red or black ginseng, produces large amount of bioactive compounds including ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3), which are trace in fresh or white ginseng. In the present study, Rg3 was applied both in pre-adipocytes and obese mice to investigate the anti-adipogenic effects and relevant mechanisms. Our results show that Rg3 dose-dependently inhibited cell differentiation both in 3T3-L1 cells (30, 50, and 100 μM) and human primary pre-adipocytes (10, 20, and 30 μM). This inhibitory effect is accompanied by the attenuation of the expressions of adipogenic markers including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBP-α), fatty acid synthase (FAS), fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) and perilipin. Although dietary intake of Rg3 (0.1 mg Rg3/kg diet, 8 weeks) did not significantly affect body weight gain, fat pads and food intake as well as of PPAR-γ expression in fat tissues, we found that hepatic PPAR-γ and C/EBP-α protein expressions and hepatic glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase, two major antioxidants molecules were significantly reduced by Rg3. These results suggest that ginsenoside Rg3 may be a potential agent in reducing/preventing obesity. PMID:28337143

  7. Anti-adipogenic Effects and Mechanisms of Ginsenoside Rg3 in Pre-adipocytes and Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Longyun; Zhang, Lijuan; Wang, Xiaoyong; Si, Hongwei

    2017-01-01

    Red or black ginseng has been reported more powerful than white/fresh ginseng in dealing with various diseases/conditions including obesity. The major reason is that heating/steaming, the process of making red or black ginseng, produces large amount of bioactive compounds including ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3), which are trace in fresh or white ginseng. In the present study, Rg3 was applied both in pre-adipocytes and obese mice to investigate the anti-adipogenic effects and relevant mechanisms. Our results show that Rg3 dose-dependently inhibited cell differentiation both in 3T3-L1 cells (30, 50, and 100 μM) and human primary pre-adipocytes (10, 20, and 30 μM). This inhibitory effect is accompanied by the attenuation of the expressions of adipogenic markers including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBP-α), fatty acid synthase (FAS), fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) and perilipin. Although dietary intake of Rg3 (0.1 mg Rg3/kg diet, 8 weeks) did not significantly affect body weight gain, fat pads and food intake as well as of PPAR-γ expression in fat tissues, we found that hepatic PPAR-γ and C/EBP-α protein expressions and hepatic glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase, two major antioxidants molecules were significantly reduced by Rg3. These results suggest that ginsenoside Rg3 may be a potential agent in reducing/preventing obesity.

  8. Neuroprotective Effects of Ginsenoside Rb1 on High Glucose-Induced Neurotoxicity in Primary Cultured Rat Hippocampal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Di; Zhang, Hong; Gu, Wenjuan; Liu, Yuqin; Zhang, Mengren

    2013-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rb1 is one of the main active principles in traditional herb ginseng and has been reported to have a wide variety of neuroprotective effects. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, so the present study aimed to observe the effects of ginsenoside Rb1 on ER stress signaling pathways in high glucose-treated hippocampal neurons. The results from MTT, TUNEL labeling and Annexin V-FITC/PI/Hoechst assays showed that incubating neurons with 50 mM high glucose for 72h decreased cell viability and increased the number of apoptotic cells whereas treating neurons with 1 μM Rb1 for 72h protected the neurons against high glucose-induced cell damage. Further molecular mechanism study demonstrated that Rb1 suppressed the activation of ER stress-associated proteins including protein kinase RNA (PKR)-like ER kinase (PERK) and C/EBP homology protein (CHOP) and downregulation of Bcl-2 induced by high glucose. Moreover, Rb1 inhibited both the elevation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential induced by high glucose. In addition, the high glucose-induced cell apoptosis, activation of ER stress, ROS accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction can also be attenuated by the inhibitor of ER stress 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) and anti-oxidant N-acetylcysteine(NAC). In conclusion, these results suggest that Rb1 may protect neurons against high glucose-induced cell injury through inhibiting CHOP signaling pathway as well as oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:24223941

  9. Anticancer effect of 20(S)-ginsenoside Rh2 on HepG2 liver carcinoma cells: Activating GSK-3β and degrading β-catenin.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qingqiang; Shi, Xueping; Zuo, Gei; Xiong, Wei; Li, Haixing; Guo, Pei; Wang, Fen; Chen, Yi; Li, Jing; Chen, Di-Long

    2016-10-01

    20(S)-ginsenoside Rh2 [(S)Rh2] possesses potential to prevent cancer in vitro as well as in vivo, but the underlying mechanism is still unknown. First, we infected HepG2 cells with lentivirus which carries β‑catenin. We detected the pharmacological effects of (S)Rh2 on HepG2 and HepG2‑β‑catenin cells and found that the IC50 of (S)Rh2 exposure on HepG2-β-catenin cells was higher than HepG2 cells. Flow cytometry (FCM) indicated that (S)Rh2 could be arrested in G0/G1 phase and induce early apoptosis in HepG2 and HepG2‑β‑catenin cells. Second, ELISA kit was used to check the activity of glycogen synthase kinase‑3β (GSK‑3β), which was upregulated by (S)Rh2. GSK‑3β inhibitor BIO, was used to verify that (S)Rh2 activated GSK‑3β. PCR and western blotting results indicated that (S)Rh2 could degrade the expression of β‑catenin, which combined with TCF in the nucleus and activate transcription of Wnt target genes, such as Bax, Bcl‑2, cyclin D1, MMP3, which were checked by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), PCR and western blotting. The results showed that the expression of Bax mRNA and proteins increased, while the cyclin D1, Bcl‑2, MMP3 mRNA and proteins were downregulated in HepG2 and HepG2‑β‑catenin cells which was induced by (S)Rh2. By contrast, with the HepG2-β-catenin + (S)Rh2 group, the expression of other mRNA and proteins in HepG2 + (S)Rh2 group changed significantly. In vivo, experiments were performed using a nude mouse xenograft model to investigate the (S)Rh2 effect. So these results suggested that (S)Rh2 could suppress proliferation, promote apoptosis and inhibit metastasis of HepG2, decrease weight of tumor by downregulating β‑catenin through activating GSK‑3β and the pharmacological effect of (S)Rh2 on HepG2 cells might be weakened by overexpression of β‑catenin.

  10. Separation and purification of ginsenoside Re from ginseng bud by selective adsorption of active carbon and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Pengqun; Wang, Guan; Yuan, Qipeng; Liang, Hao

    2012-01-01

    Ginsenoside Re (G-Re) is a major ingredient of the ginseng bud. A novel and rapid method to isolate and purify G-Re from ginseng buds was established. The procedure involves solvent extraction of ginseng bud powder, then pre-purification with an active carbon column and purification by preparative HPLC (prep-HPLC). Active carbon, which can selectively adsorb other kinds of ginsenosides except G-Re, was used as a new media to pre-purify G-Re in this study. In addition, we describe the development and optimisation of prep-HPLC parameters for G-Re purification. Compared to other types of high-purity G-Re preparation methods, this method is efficient, economical, waste-conscious and has the potential to maximise.

  11. Re-evaluation of physicochemical and NMR data of triol ginsenosides Re, Rf, Rg2, and 20-gluco-Rf from Panax ginseng roots

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jin-Gyeong; In, Seo-Ji; Jung, Ye-Jin; Cha, Byeong-Ju; Lee, Dae-Young; Kim, Yong-Bum; Yeom, Myeonghun; Baek, Nam-In

    2013-01-01

    Ginseng roots were extracted with aqueous methanol, and extracts were suspended in water and extracted successively with ethyl acetate and n-butanol. Column chromatography using the n-butanol fraction yielded four purified triol ginseng saponins: the ginsenosides Re, Rf, Rg2, and 20-gluco-Rf. The physicochemical, spectroscopic, and chromatographic characteristics of the ginsenosides were measured and compared with reports from the literature. For spectroscopic analysis, two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods such as 1H-1H correlation spectroscopy, nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy, heteronuclear single quantum correlation, and heteronuclear multiple bond connectivity were employed to identify exact peak assignments. Some peak assignments for previously published 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra were found to be inaccurate. This study reports the complete NMR assignment of 20-gluco-Rf for the first time. PMID:24748835

  12. A green protocol for efficient discovery of novel natural compounds: characterization of new ginsenosides from the stems and leaves of Panax ginseng as a case study.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Shi; Yang, Wen-Zhi; Shi, Xiao-Jian; Yao, Chang-Liang; Yang, Min; Liu, Xuan; Jiang, Bao-Hong; Wu, Wan-Ying; Guo, De-An

    2015-09-17

    Exploration of new natural compounds is of vital significance for drug discovery and development. The conventional approaches by systematic phytochemical isolation are low-efficiency and consume masses of organic solvent. This study presents an integrated strategy that combines offline comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography, hybrid linear ion-trap/Orbitrap mass spectrometry, and NMR analysis (2D LC/LTQ-Orbitrap-MS/NMR), aimed to establish a green protocol for the efficient discovery of new natural molecules. A comprehensive chemical analysis of the total ginsenosides of stems and leaves of Panax ginseng (SLP), a cardiovascular disease medicine, was performed following this strategy. An offline 2D LC system was constructed with an orthogonality of 0.79 and a practical peak capacity of 11,000. The much greener UHPLC separation and LTQ-Orbitrap-MS detection by data-dependent high-energy C-trap dissociation (HCD)/dynamic exclusion were employed for separation and characterization of ginsenosides from thirteen fractionated SLP samples. Consequently, a total of 646 ginsenosides were characterized, and 427 have not been isolated from the genus of Panax L. The ginsenosides identified from SLP exhibited distinct sapogenin diversity and molecular isomerism. NMR analysis was finally employed to verify and offer complementary structural information to MS-oriented characterization. The established 2D LC/LTQ-Orbitrap-MS/NMR approach outperforms the conventional approaches in respect of significantly improved efficiency, much less use of drug materials and organic solvent. The integrated strategy enables a deep investigation on the therapeutic basis of an herbal medicine, and facilitates new compounds discovery in an efficient and environmentally friendly manner as well.

  13. Korean Red Ginseng Saponin Fraction Rich in Ginsenoside-Rb1, Rc and Rb2 Attenuates the Severity of Mouse Collagen-Induced Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Endale, Mehari; Im, Eun Ju; Lee, Joo Young; Kim, Sung Dae; Song, Yong-Bum; Kwak, Yi-Seong; Kim, Chaekyun; Kim, Seung-Hyung; Roh, Seong-Soo; Rhee, Man Hee

    2014-01-01

    Despite a multitude of reports on anti-inflammatory properties of ginseng extracts or individual ginsenosides, data on antiarthritic effect of ginseng saponin preparation with mixed ginsenosides is limited. On the other hand, a combined therapy of safe and inexpensive plant-derived natural products such as ginsenosides can be considered as an alternative to treat arthritis. Our previous in vitro data displayed a strong anti-inflammatory action of red ginseng saponin fraction-A (RGSF-A). We, herein, report a marked antiarthritic property of RGSF-A rich in ginsenoside Rb1, Rc, and Rb2. Collagen-induced arthritic (CIA) mice were treated with RGSF-A or methotrexate (MTX) for 5 weeks. Joint pathology, serum antibody production and leukocye activation, cytokine production in the circulation, lymph nodes, and joints were examined. RGSF-A markedly reduced severity of arthritis, cellular infiltration, and cartilage damage. It suppressed CD3+/CD69+, CD4+/CD25+, CD8+ T-cell, CD19+, B220/CD23+ B-cell, MHCII+/CD11c+, and Gr-1+/CD11b+ cell activations. It further suppressed anti-CII- or anti-RF-IgG/IgM, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-17, and IL-6 secretions but stimulated IL-10 levels in the serum, joint, or splenocyte. RGSF-A attenuated arthritis severity, modified leukocyte activations, and restored cytokine imbalances, suggesting that it can be considered as an antiarthritic agent with the capacity to ameliorate the immune and inflammatory responses in CIA mice. PMID:24833816

  14. Two new fatty acids esters were detected in ginseng stems by the application of azoxystrobin and the increasing of antioxidant enzyme activity and ginsenosides content.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shuang; Xu, Xuan-Wei; Zhao, Xiao-Feng; Hou, Zhi-Guang; Wang, Xin-Hong; Lu, Zhong-Bin

    2016-11-01

    Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer is a valuable herb in China that has also gained popularity in the West because of its pharmacological properties. The constituents isolated and characterized in ginseng stems include ginsenosides, fatty acids, amino acids, volatile oils, and polysaccharides. In this study, the effects of fungicide azoxystrobin applied on antioxidant enzyme activity and ginsenosides content in ginseng stems was studied by using Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. cv. (the cultivar of Ermaya) under natural environmental conditions. The azoxystrobin formulation (25% SC) was sprayed three times on ginseng plants at different doses (150ga.i./ha and 225ga.i./ha), respectively. Two new fatty acids esters (ethyl linoleate and methyl linolenate) were firstly detected in ginseng stems by the application of azoxystrobin as foliar spray. The results indicated that activities of enzymatic antioxidants, the content of ginsenosides and two new fatty acids esters in ginseng stems in azoxystrobin-treated plants were increased. Azoxystrobin treatments to ginseng plants at all growth stages suggest that the azoxystrobin-induced delay of senescence is due to an enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity protecting the plants from harmful active oxygen species (AOS). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in azoxystrobin-treated plants was about 1-3 times higher than that in untreated plants. And the effects was more significant (P=0.05) when azoxystrobin was applied at dose of 225ga.i./ha. This work suggests that azoxystrobin plays an important role in delaying of senescence by changing physiological and biochemical indicators and increasing ginsenosides content in ginseng stems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ginsenoside 20(S)-Protopanaxadiol Suppresses Viability of Human Glioblastoma Cells via Down-regulation of Cell Adhesion Proteins and Cell-cycle Arrest.

    PubMed

    Wanderi, Cheryl; Kim, Eunsoo; Chang, Soyoung; Choi, Chulhee; Choi, Kyungsun

    2016-03-01

    Pharmacologically active components of ginseng, particularly protopanaxadiol (PPD)-type ginsenosides, have potent anticancer effects, although their effects on highly malignant glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) have not been systemically evaluated. Identification of effective anticancer ginsenosides and further delineation of their mechanisms of action may provide valuable information that aids in the development of alternative or adjuvant therapy for malignant cancer. We examined the viability of human GBM U251-MG and U87-MG cells treated with structurally related PPD-type ginsenosides, including F2, Rh2, compound K (C-K), and PPD. Incubation with PPD, C-K, and Rh2 significantly reduced the viability of U251-MG and U87-MG cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The cytotoxic effect of PPD was accompanied by reduced expression of cell adhesion proteins, including N-cadherin and integrin β1, which led to reduced phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase. Furthermore, incubation with PPD reduced the expression of cyclin D1 and subsequently induced cell-cycle arrest at the G1 phase. These results collectively indicate that PPD might provide a new strategy for treating malignant GBM, which is quite resistant to conventional anticancer treatment. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  16. Tartaric acid induced conversion of protopanaxadiol to ginsenosides Rg3 and Rg5 and their in situ recoveries by integrated expanded bed adsorption chromatography.

    PubMed

    Huang, Dan; Li, Yang; Zhang, Min; Ruan, Shengli; Zhang, Hongyang; Wang, Yuerong; Hu, Ping

    2016-08-01

    Panax ginseng has been applied in traditional Chinese medicine for over 2000 years. It is still one of the most popular herbs in recent decades. The prescribed ginseng-containing medicines consist of protopanaxadiol and protopanaxatriol ginsenosides, which are the major constituents of the herb. Minor ginsenosides at low levels in the herb, such as Rg3 and Rg5 , have attracted more rising attention than the major ones. The existing approaches to prepare Rg3 and Rg5 usually rely on either steamed red ginseng as the source or chemical/enzymatic conversion of protopanaxadiol to the targets. It is still highly desirable to effectively achieve such minor components. In this paper, a method integrated extraction of protopanaxadiol and conversion of it to Rg3 and Rg5 has been proposed. Protopanaxadiol was extracted and simultaneously converted to Rg3 and Rg5 by d,l-tartaric acid. The targets were absorbed by resins on expanded bed adsorption chromatography and were then separated from other ginsenosides in different stages. Compared with conventional methods, the developed process has advantages in shortening time consumption and improving the conversion ratio of protopanaxadiol, which is promising in directly achieving Rg3 and Rg5 from P. ginseng. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. A Distinctive Pattern of Beauveria bassiana-biotransformed Ginsenoside Products Triggers Mitochondria/FasL-mediated Apoptosis in Colon Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Gum, Sang Il; Rahman, Md Khalilur; Won, Jong Soon; Cho, Min Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Ginseng is one of the most commonly used adaptogens. Transformation into the minor ginsenosides produces compounds with more effective action. Beauveria bassiana, a teleomorph of Cordyceps bassiana, is a highly efficient producer of mammalian steroids and produces large amounts of sugar-utilizing enzymes. However, the fermentation of steroid glycosides in ginseng with B. bassiana has never been studied. Thus, we evaluated the bioconversion of the major ginsenosides in white ginseng by B. bassiana. Interestingly, B. bassiana increased the total amount of protopanaxadiols and hydrolyzed Rb1 into minor ginsenosides, exhibiting high levels of Rd and Rg3, as well as moderate levels of Rb2 and Rc analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light-scattering detection. The β-glucosidase activity was highly increased, which led to the selective elimination of sugar moiety at the 20-C position of Rb1 to Rd, followed by Rg3. Rb2 and Rc accumulated because of the minimal activities of α-L-arabinopyranosidase and α-L-arabinofuranosidase, respectively. The fermentation product exerted dose-dependent cytotoxicity in HCT-15 cells, which are resistant to ginseng. The product, but not white ginseng, exhibited apoptotic effects via the Fas ligand and caspase 8/9. This study demonstrates for the first time that the B. bassiana-fermented metabolites have potent apoptotic activity in colon cancer cells, linking to a therapeutic use. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Ultrasonic-assisted liquid-liquid extraction and HILIC-ELSD analysis of ginsenoside Rb(1), astragaloside IV and dulcitol in sugar-free "Fufangfufangteng Heji".

    PubMed

    Qin, Jieping; Feng, Jun; Li, Yaohua; Mo, Kefeng; Lu, Shiying

    2011-12-05

    A simple method for the extraction and determination of ginsenoside Rb(1), astragaloside IV and dulcitol in sugar-free "Fufangfufangteng Heji" was developed using an ultrasonic-assisted liquid-liquid extraction (UALLE) coupled with Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Interface Chromatography and Evaporative Light Scattering Detector (HILIC-ELSD) analysis. Good chromatographic separation was achieved using a Phenomenex Luna HILIC column (250mm×4.6mm i.d., 5μm), and a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-water at a flow rate of 1.0ml/min with a gradient elution within 25min was also used. Compared to the conventional analysis method, the proposed method had the advantages of a longer column life, shorter analysis time, lower baseline noise, short sample pretreatment time and low consumption of organic solvent. The linear ranges for ginsenoside Rb(1), astragaloside IV and dulcitol were 0.0256-0.179, 0.110-0.770, 0.105-0.630mg/ml, respectively. The recoveries of ginsenoside Rb(1), astragaloside IV and dulcitol during the pharmaceutical preparation were within the range of 97.2-100.3%, and their relative standard deviations were 1.2-3.1%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ginsenoside 20S-protopanaxatriol (PPT) activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyu Lee; Jung, Myeong Ho; Sohn, Jong Hee; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2006-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), a member of the nuclear receptor of ligand-activated transcription factors, regulates the expression of key genes involved in lipid and glucose metabolism or adipocyte differentiation. Ligands for this receptor have emerged as potent insulin sensitizers used in the treatment of Type2 diabetes. Ginseng saponins or ginsenosides are reported to provide anti-diabetic activity as well as to modulate glucose metabolism, although the mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we examined the effect of ginsenosides on activation of PPARgamma and adipogenes in 3T3-L1. Using a GAL-4/PPARgamma transactivation assay, 20(S)-protopanaxatriol (PPT), one of the ginsenoside metabolites, was found to increase PPARgamma-transactivation activity dose-dependently with similar activity as troglitazone, a well-known PPARgamma agonist. PPT enhanced adipogenesis by increasing the expression of PPARgamma target genes such as aP2, LPL and PEPCK. Furthermore, PPT significantly increased expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4). These results indicate that PPT can be developed as a PPARgamma agonist for the improvement of insulin resistance associated with diabetes.

  20. Ginsenoside Rg3 inhibition of vasculogenic mimicry in pancreatic cancer through downregulation of VE‑cadherin/EphA2/MMP9/MMP2 expression.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing-Qiang; Zheng, Qing-Hui; Chen, Hui; Chen, Liang; Xu, Jin-Bo; Chen, Min-Yuan; Lu, Dian; Wang, Zhao-Hong; Tong, Hong-Fei; Lin, Shengzhang

    2014-09-01

    Ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3), a trace tetracyclic triterpenoid saponin, is extracted from ginseng and shown to have anticancer activity against several types of cancers. This study explored the effect of Rg3 on pancreatic cancer vasculogenic mimicry. Altered vasculogenic mimicry formation was assessed using immunohistochemistry and PAS staining and associated with the expression of vascular endothelial-cadherin (VE-cadherin), epithelial cell kinase (EphA2), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. The effect of Rg3 on the regulation of pancreatic cancer vasculogenic mimicry was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The data showed vasculogenic mimicry in pancreatic cancer tissues. In addition, the expression of VE-cadherin, EphA2, MMP-2 and MMP-9 proteins associated with formation of pancreatic cancer vasculogenic mimicry. Rg3 treatment reduced the levels of vasculogenic mimicry in nude mouse xenografts in vitro and in vivo, while the expression of VE-cadherin, EphA2, MMP-2 and MMP-9 mRNA and proteins was downregulated by Rg3 treatment in vitro and in tumor xenografts. In conclusion, ginsenoside Rg3 effectively inhibited the formation of pancreatic cancer vasculogenic mimicry by downregulating the expression of VE-cadherin, EphA2, MMP9 and MMP2. Further studies are required to evaluate ginsenoside Rg3 as an agent to control pancreatic cancer.

  1. Long-term ginsenoside administration prevents memory loss in aged female C57BL/6J mice by modulating the redox status and up-regulating the plasticity-related proteins in hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H F; Li, Q; Li, Y

    2011-06-02

    Memory impairment is considered to be one of the most prominent consequences of aging. Deterioration of memory begins in advance of old age in animals, including humans. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or free radicals-induced oxidative stress which is the major age-related changes, can lead to hippocampus damage and increase vulnerability to impaired learning and memory. Ginsenoside, the effective ingredient of ginseng, has been reported to have a neuron beneficial effect. In the present study, C57BL/6J mice aged 12 months were chronically treated with ginsenoside (three dose groups were given ginsenoside in drinking water for 8 months, the concentration of ginsenoside in drinking water was 0.028%, 0.056%, and 0.112% (w/v), respectively). Placebo-treated aged mice and young ones (4 months old) were used as controls. The efficacious effect of ginsenoside was manifested in the amelioration of memory impairment in aged mice by Morris water maze and step-down tests. Total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) have been used as the biomarkers of oxidative stress. In ginsenoside treated groups, the activities of T-SOD and GSH-Px markedly increased, and the levels of TBARS and the content of protein carbonyl decreased significantly in serum and in hippocampus. The activation of lipofuscin formation, disruption or loss of cristae in mitochondria, the irregular nucleus and condensed chromatin laid against the nuclear membrane in pyramidal cells of hippocampal CA1 region, which are all related to oxidative stress, were also reduced after ginsenoside treatment. Processes of memory formation and functional plasticity are associated with postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95), protein kinase Cγ subunit (PKCγ) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). In the present study, we found that long-term ginsenoside treatment prevented age-related reductions of PSD-95, PKCγ, and BDNF in

  2. Ionic liquid and aqueous two-phase extraction based on salting-out coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of seven rare ginsenosides in Xue-Sai-Tong injection.

    PubMed

    Li, Lan-Jie; Jin, Yong-Ri; Wang, Xiao-Zhong; Liu, Ying; Wu, Qian; Shi, Xiao-Lei; Li, Xu-Wen

    2015-09-01

    A method of ionic liquid salt aqueous two-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography has been developed for the analysis of seven rare ginsenosides including Rg6 , F4 , 20(S)-Rg3 , 20(R)-Rg3 , Rk3 , Rk1 , and Rg5 in Xue-Sai-Tong injection. The injection was mixed with ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide aqueous solution, and a mixture was obtained. With the addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate and dipotassium phosphate into the mixture, the aqueous two-phase mixture was formed after ultrasonic treatment and centrifuged. Rare ginsenosides were extracted into the upper phase. To obtain a high extraction factors, various influences were considered systematically, such as the volume of ionic liquid, the category and amount of salts, the amount of sodium dodecyl sulfate, the pH value of system, and the time of ultrasonic treatment. Under the optimal condition, rare ginsenosides in Xue-Sai-Tong injection were enriched and detected, the recoveries of seven rare ginsenosides ranged from 90.05 to 112.55%, while relative standard deviations were lower than 2.50%. The developed method was reliable, rapid and sensitive for the determination of seven rare ginsenosides in the injections. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Transcriptome analysis reveals ginsenosides biosynthetic genes, microRNAs and simple sequence repeats in Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer is one of the most widely used medicinal plants. Complete genome information for this species remains unavailable due to its large genome size. At present, analysis of expressed sequence tags is still the most powerful tool for large-scale gene discovery. The global expressed sequence tags from P. ginseng tissues, especially those isolated from stems, leaves and flowers, are still limited, hindering in-depth study of P. ginseng. Results Two 454 pyrosequencing runs generated a total of 2,423,076 reads from P. ginseng roots, stems, leaves and flowers. The high-quality reads from each of the tissues were independently assembled into separate and shared contigs. In the separately assembled database, 45,849, 6,172, 4,041 and 3,273 unigenes were only found in the roots, stems, leaves and flowers database, respectively. In the jointly assembled database, 178,145 unigenes were observed, including 86,609 contigs and 91,536 singletons. Among the 178,145 unigenes, 105,522 were identified for the first time, of which 65.6% were identified in the stem, leaf or flower cDNA libraries of P. ginseng. After annotation, we discovered 223 unigenes involved in ginsenoside backbone biosynthesis. Additionally, a total of 326 potential cytochrome P450 and 129 potential UDP-glycosyltransferase sequences were predicted based on the annotation results, some of which may encode enzymes responsible for ginsenoside backbone modification. A BLAST search of the obtained high-quality reads identified 14 potential microRNAs in P. ginseng, which were estimated to target 100 protein-coding genes, including transcription factors, transporters and DNA binding proteins, among others. In addition, a total of 13,044 simple sequence repeats were identified from the 178,145 unigenes. Conclusions This study provides global expressed sequence tags for P. ginseng, which will contribute significantly to further genome-wide research and analyses in this species. The novel

  4. Ginsenoside Rb1 improves energy metabolism in the skeletal muscle of an animal model of postoperative fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tan, Shan-Jun; Li, Ning; Zhou, Feng; Dong, Qian-Tong; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Bi-Cheng; Yu, Zhen

    2014-10-01

    Postoperative fatigue syndrome (POFS) is a common clinical complication followed by almost every major abdominal surgery. Ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1), a principle ginsenoside in ginseng, could exert a potent anti-fatigue effect on POFS. However, the mechanism is still unknown. Previous studies revealed that alterations in the energy metabolism in the skeletal muscle may play a vital role in the development and progression of fatigue. In the present study, we investigate the effect of GRb1 on energy metabolism in the skeletal muscle of a rat model of POFS induced by major small intestinal resection. GRb1 (10 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally administrated once daily for 1, 3, 7, and 10 d from the operation day, respectively. The locomotor activity was recorded every day, and total food intake was calculated starting from 24 h after surgery. After GRb1 treatment was completed, blood and skeletal muscle were sampled. The level of blood glucose was determined by an automatic biochemical analyzer. The content of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in skeletal muscle was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The activity of energy metabolic enzymes Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, pyruvate kinase, and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) was assessed by commercially available kits. The results revealed that GRb1 could increase locomotor activity of POFS rats and significantly increase their total food intake postoperatively (P < 0.05). Furthermore, GRb1 also significantly increased ATP content in the skeletal muscle of POFS rats (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the activity of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and SDH in the skeletal muscle of POFS rats was enhanced by GRb1 (P < 0.05). However, no significant differences in blood glucose and pyruvate kinase were found between the POFS and GRb1 treatment rats (P > 0.05). These results suggest that GRb1 may improve skeletal muscle energy metabolism in POFS, and the underlying mechanism may be associated with an increase in the content of ATP and an enhancement in the

  5. 20(S)-Ginsenoside Rg3 is a novel inhibitor of autophagy and sensitizes hepatocellular carcinoma to doxorubicin

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Gun; Jung, Kyung Hee; Lee, Da-Gyum; Yoon, Jung-Ho; Choi, Kyeong Sook; Kwon, Sung Won; Shen, Han-Ming; Morgan, Michael J.; Hong, Soon-Sun; Kim, You-Sun

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. High mortality from HCC is mainly due to widespread prevalence and the lack of effective treatment, since systemic chemotherapy is ineffective, while the targeted agent Sorafenib extends median survival only briefly. The steroidal saponin 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer is proposed to chemosensitize to various therapeutic drugs through an unknown mechanism. Since autophagy often serves as cell survival mechanism in cancer cells exposed to chemotherapeutic agents, we examined the ability of Rg3 to inhibit autophagy and chemosensitize HCC cell lines to doxorubicin in vitro. We show that Rg3 inhibits late stage autophagy, possibly through changes in gene expression. Doxorubicin-induced autophagy plays a protective role in HCC cells, and therefore Rg3 treatment synergizes with doxorubicin to kill HCC cell lines, but the combination is relatively nontoxic in normal liver cells. In addition, Rg3 was well-tolerated in mice and synergized with doxorubicin to inhibit tumor growth in HCC xenografts in vivo. Since novel in vivo inhibitors of autophagy are desirable for clinical use, we propose that Rg3 is such a compound, and that combination therapy with classical chemotherapeutic drugs may represent an effective therapeutic strategy for HCC treatment. PMID:24970805

  6. Autophagy flux induced by ginsenoside-Rg3 attenuates human prion protein-mediated neurotoxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Ji-Hong; Lee, Ju-Hee; Lee, You-Jin; Park, Sang-Youel

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial quality control is a process by which mitochondria undergo successive rounds of fusion and fission with dynamic exchange of components to segregate functional and damaged elements. Removal of mitochondrion that contains damaged components is accomplished via autophagy. In this study, we investigated whether ginsenoside Rg3, an active ingredient of the herbal medicine ginseng that is used as a tonic and restorative agent, could attenuate prion peptide, PrP (106-126)-induced neurotoxicity and mitochondrial damage. To this end, western blot and GFP-LC3B puncta assay were performed to monitor autophagy flux in neuronal cells; LC3B-II protein level was found to increase after Rg3 treatment. In addition, electron microscopy analysis showed that Rg3 enhanced autophagic vacuoles in neuronal cells. By using autophagy inhibitors wortmannin and 3-methyladenine (3MA) or autophagy protein 5 (Atg5) small interfering RNA (siRNA), we demonstrated that Rg3 could protect neurons against PrP (106-126)-induced cytotoxicity via autophagy flux. We found that Rg3 could also attenuate PrP (106-126)-induced mitochondrial damage via autophagy flux. Taken together, our results suggest that Rg3 is a possible therapeutic agent in neurodegenerative disorders, including prion diseases. PMID:27911875

  7. Esterification of Ginsenoside Rh2 Enhanced Its Cellular Uptake and Antitumor Activity in Human HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Deng, Ze-Yuan; Zhang, Bing; Xiong, Zeng-Xing; Zheng, Shi-Lian; Tan, Chao-Li; Hu, Jiang-Ning

    2016-01-13

    Our previous research had indicated that the octyl ester derivative of ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2-O) might have a higher bioavailability than Rh2 in the Caco-2 cell line. The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular uptake and antitumor effects of Rh2-O in human HepG2 cells as well as its underlying mechanism compared with Rh2. Results showed that Rh2-O exhibited a higher cellular uptake (63.24%) than Rh2 (36.76%) when incubated with HepG2 cells for 24 h. Rh2-O possessed a dose- and time-dependent inhibitory effect against the proliferation of HepG2 cells. The IC50 value of Rh2-O for inhibition of HepG2 cell proliferation was 20.15 μM, which was roughly half the value of Rh2. Rh2-O induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells through a mitochondrial-mediated intrinsic pathway. In addition, the accumulation of ROS was detected in Rh2-O-treated HepG2 cells, which participated in the apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Conclusively, the findings above all suggested that Rh2-O as well as Rh2 inducing HepG2 cells apoptosis might involve similar mechanisms; however, Rh2-O had better antitumor activities than Rh2, probably due to its higher cellular uptake.

  8. Direct and comprehensive analysis of ginsenosides and diterpene alkaloids in Shenfu injection by combinatory liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric techniques.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hua; Liu, Lei; Gao, Wen; Liu, Ke; Qi, Lian-Wen; Li, Ping

    2014-04-01

    Shenfu injection (SFI) is a widely used Chinese herbal formulation for cardiac diseases prepared from red ginseng and processed aconite root. Clinical observations and pharmacological effects on SFI have been well investigated. Chemical analysis and quality control studies of this formulation, however, are relatively limited, especially regarding toxic aconite alkaloids. In this work, a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-QTOF MS) method was applied to comprehensive analysis of constituents in SFI. Highly sensitive MS allows direct analysis of injections without additional sample pretreatment required. Using diagnostic ions and fragmentation rules, we identified 23 trace diterpene alkaloids, nineteen ginseng saponins, one panaxytriol, and one 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in SFI. A LC-MS method with selected ion monitoring was then used to quantify 24 major alkaloids and ginsenosides. The method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy and precision. Especially, the limits of quantification were low to 0.4-18ng/mL for diterpene alkaloids. The total concentrations of saponins and alkaloids were about 676-742μg/mL and 3-7μg/mL in five batches of SFI samples, respectively. Finally, cosine ratio and euclidean distance were introduced to evaluate the batch-to-batch reproducibility of SFI samples, and the results demonstrated high quality consistency. Global identification and quantification of complex constituents based on LC-MS promises wide applications in quality control and batch monitoring for herbal products.

  9. Serum and Brain Metabolomic Variations Reveal Perturbation of Sleep Deprivation on Rats and Ameliorate Effect of Total Ginsenoside Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Cen, Fang; Fan, Zi-quan; Shen, Hong-yi

    2017-01-01

    Sleep loss or sleep deprivation (SD) refers to shorter sleep than average baseline need, and SD has been a serious problem of modern societies which affects health and well-being. Panax ginseng is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Our previous study has demonstrated that total ginsenosides (GS), the extracts from Panax ginseng, could effectively improve cognition and behavior on SD rats. However, little is known about its metabolomic study. In this study, serum and brain metabolomic method based on gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was employed to evaluate the efficacy and study the mechanism of GS on a rat model of SD. With pattern recognition analysis of serum and brain tissue metabolite profile, a clear separation of the model group and control group was acquired for serum and brain tissue samples; the MGS (model + GS) group showed a tendency of recovering when compared to control group, which was consistent with behavioral and biochemical parameters. 39 and 40 potential biomarkers of brain tissues and serum samples, respectively, were identified and employed to explore the possible mechanism. Our work revealed that GS has significant protective effects on SD, and metabolomics is a useful tool for evaluating efficacy and elucidating mechanism in TCM. PMID:28900617

  10. Anti-fatigue effect of ginsenoside Rb1 on postoperative fatigue syndrome induced by major small intestinal resection in rat.

    PubMed

    Tan, Shanjun; Zhou, Feng; Li, Ning; Dong, Qiantong; Zhang, Xiaodong; Ye, Xingzhao; Guo, Jian; Chen, Bicheng; Yu, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1), one of the principle active ingredients of Panax ginseng, exerts multiple pharmacological activities to fight fatigue. In the present study, we investigate the anti-fatigue effect of GRb1 on postoperative fatigue syndrome (POFS) in a rat model induced by major small intestinal resection. GRb1 (10 mg/kg) was administrated intraperitoneally once daily for 1, 3, 7, and 10 d from the operation day. Anti-fatigue effect was assessed by grasping test and biochemical parameters in blood or skeletal muscle were determined by autoanalyzer or commercially available kits. Transmission electron microscope was applied to observe the ultra microstructure of skeletal muscles. The results revealed that GRb1 significantly enhanced rat maximum grip strength with POFS. Similarly, negative alterations in biochemical parameters (lactic acid, hepatic glycogen, muscle glycogen and malondialdehyde) of POFS rats were improved by GRb1. In addition, GRb1 also increased the activity of lactate dehydrogenase and superoxide dismutase in POFS. No significant differences of levels of blood urea nitrogen and ultra microstructure of skeletal muscles were found between the POFS and GRb1 treatment rats. The potent anti-fatigue effect of GRb1 on POFS might be achieved through improvement of energy metabolism and suppression of skeletal muscle oxidative stress.

  11. Determination of ginsenoside compound K in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry of lithium adducts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yunhui; Lu, Youming; Yang, Yong; Chen, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Liang; Zhong, Dafang

    2015-09-01

    Ginsenoside compound K (GCK), the main metabolite of protopanaxadiol constituents of Panax ginseng, easily produces alkali metal adduct ions during mass spectrometry particularly with lithium. Accordingly, we have developed a rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for analysis of GCK in human plasma based on formation of a lithium adduct. The analyte and paclitaxel (internal standard) were extracted from 50 µL human plasma using methyl tert-butyl ether. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Phenomenex Gemini C18 column (50 mm×2.0 mm; 5 μm) using stepwise gradient elution with acetonitrile-water and 0.2 mmol/L lithium carbonate at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Detection was performed in the positive ion mode using multiple reaction monitoring of the transitions at m/z 629→449 for the GCK-lithium adduct and m/z 860→292 for the adduct of paclitaxel. The assay was linear in the concentration range 1.00-1000 ng/mL (r (2)>0.9988) with intra- and inter-day precision of ±8.4% and accuracy in the range of -4.8% to 6.5%. Recovery, stability and matrix effects were all satisfactory. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study involving administration of a single GCK 50 mg tablet to healthy Chinese volunteers.

  12. Ginsenoside Rg3 inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion of lung cancer by down-regulating FUT4.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lili; Shen, Dachuan; Li, Xiaodong; Shan, Xiu; Wang, Xiaoqi; Yan, Qiu; Liu, Jiwei

    2016-01-12

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important factor in lung cancer metastasis, and targeting EMT is a potential therapeutic strategy. Fucosyltransferase IV (FUT4) and its synthetic cancer sugar antigen Lewis Y (LeY) was abnormally elevated in many cancers. In this study, a traditional Chinese medicine ginsenoside Rg3 was used to investigate whether its inhibition to EMT and invasion of lung cancer is by the glycobiology mechanism. We found that Rg3 treatment (25, 50, 100 μg/ml) inhibited cell migration and invasion by wound-healing and transwell assays. Rg3 could significantly alter EMT marker proteins with increased E-cadherin, but decreased Snail, N-cadherin and Vimentin expression. Rg3 also down-regulated FUT4 gene and protein expression in lung cancer cells by qPCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence. After FUT4 down-regulated with shFUT4, EMT was obviously inhibited. Furthermore, the activation of EGFR through decreased LeY biosynthesis was inhibited, which blocked the downstream MAPK and NF-κB signal pathways. In addition, Rg3 reduced tumor volume and weight in xenograft mouse model, and significantly decreased tumor metastasis nodules in lung tissues by tail vein injection. In conclusion, Rg3 inhibits EMT and invasion of lung cancer by down-regulating FUT4 mediated EGFR inactivation and blocking MAPK and NF-κB signal pathways. Rg3 may be a potentially effective agent for the treatment of lung cancer.

  13. Ameliorative effects of Compound K and ginsenoside Rh1 on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xu-Jia; Liu, Wen-Jing; Wen, Meng-Liang; Liang, Hong; Wu, Shao-Mei; Zhu, Yun-Zhen; Zhao, Jiang-Yuan; Dong, Xiang-Qian; Li, Ming-Gang; Bian, Li; Zou, Cheng-Gang; Ma, Lan-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common liver disease, which has no standard treatment available. Panax notoginseng saponines (PNS) have recently been reported to protect liver against hepatocyte injury induced by ethanol or high fat diet (HFD) in rats. Compound K and ginsenoside Rh1 are the main metabolites of PNS. In this study, we evaluated the effects of CK and Rh1 on NAFLD. Rats fed HFD showed significant elevations in liver function markers, lipids, glucose tolerance, and insulin resistance. Treatment with CK or Rh1 either alone or in combination dramatically ameliorated the liver function impairment induced by HFD. Histologically, CK and Rh1 significantly reversed HFD-induced hepatocyte injury and liver fibrosis. In vitro experiments demonstrated that treatment with CK or Rh1 alone or in combination markedly induced cell apoptosis, and inhibited cell proliferation and activation in HSC-T6 cells. Additionally, CK and Rh1, either alone or in combination, also repressed the expression of fibrotic factors TIMP-1, PC-I, and PC-III. Taken together, our results demonstrate that CK and Rh1 have positive effects on NAFLD via the anti-fibrotic and hepatoprotective activity. PMID:28106137

  14. Metabonomics approach to assessing the modulatory effects of St John's wort, ginsenosides, and clomipramine in experimental depression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Zeng, Chuiyu; Lin, Jingchao; Chen, Tianlu; Zhao, Tie; Jia, Zhiying; Xie, Xie; Qiu, Yunping; Su, Mingming; Jiang, Tao; Zhou, Mingmei; Zhao, Aihua; Jia, Wei

    2012-12-07

    The protective effects of St John's Wort extract (SJ), ginsenosides (GS), and clomipramine (CPM) on chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depression in rats were investigated by using a combination of behavioral assessments and metabonomics. Metabonomic analyses were performed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in conjunction with multivariate and univariate statistical analyses. During and at the end point of the chronic stress experiment, food consumption, body weight, adrenal gland, thymus and spleen indices, behavior scores, sucrose consumption, and stress hormone levels were measured. Changes in these parameters reflected characteristic phenotypes of depression in rats. Metabonomic analysis of serum, urine, and brain tissue revealed that CPM and SJ mainly attenuated the alteration of monoamine neurotransmitter metabolites, while GS affected both excitatory/inhibitory amino acids and monoamine neurotransmitter metabolites. GS also attenuated the stress-induced alterations in cerebrum and peripheral metabolites to a greater extent than CPM and SJ. These results provide important mechanistic insights into the protective effects of GS against CUMS-induced depression and metabolic dysfunction.

  15. Ginsenoside Rg3 inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion of lung cancer by down-regulating FUT4

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaodong; Shan, Xiu; Wang, Xiaoqi; Yan, Qiu; Liu, Jiwei

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important factor in lung cancer metastasis, and targeting EMT is a potential therapeutic strategy. Fucosyltransferase IV (FUT4) and its synthetic cancer sugar antigen Lewis Y (LeY) was abnormally elevated in many cancers. In this study, a traditional Chinese medicine ginsenoside Rg3 was used to investigate whether its inhibition to EMT and invasion of lung cancer is by the glycobiology mechanism. We found that Rg3 treatment (25, 50, 100 μg/ml) inhibited cell migration and invasion by wound-healing and transwell assays. Rg3 could significantly alter EMT marker proteins with increased E-cadherin, but decreased Snail, N-cadherin and Vimentin expression. Rg3 also down-regulated FUT4 gene and protein expression in lung cancer cells by qPCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence. After FUT4 down-regulated with shFUT4, EMT was obviously inhibited. Furthermore, the activation of EGFR through decreased LeY biosynthesis was inhibited, which blocked the downstream MAPK and NF-κB signal pathways. In addition, Rg3 reduced tumor volume and weight in xenograft mouse model, and significantly decreased tumor metastasis nodules in lung tissues by tail vein injection. In conclusion, Rg3 inhibits EMT and invasion of lung cancer by down-regulating FUT4 mediated EGFR inactivation and blocking MAPK and NF-κB signal pathways. Rg3 may be a potentially effective agent for the treatment of lung cancer. PMID:26636541

  16. Inhibition of inflammations and macrophage activation by ginsenoside-Re isolated from Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer).

    PubMed

    Paul, Souren; Shin, Heung Sop; Kang, Sun Chul

    2012-05-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of ginsenoside-Re (Gin-Re) isolated from roots of Panax ginseng on carrageenan-induced paw and TPA-induced skin inflammations in experimental mice. Moreover, to confirm further the anti-inflammatory activities of Gin-Re, LPS-induced macrophage activation model was also used. Exposure of TPA on the ear of BALB/c mice caused a marked increase in both ear thickness and skin water content. Gin-Re caused significant decrease in ear thickness and subsequently reduced the water content compared to only TPA treated group (p<0.05). Furthermore, histological analysis clearly confirmed that Gin-Re inhibited the inflammatory responses of skin inflammation in animal model. Gin-Re was responded well in inhibiting paw thickness, MDA level and also NO level in carrageenan induced paw edema model compared to only carrageenan treated group. Treatment with Gin-Re inhibited secretion levels of inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF α), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in LPS-stimulated murine macrophage Raw 264.7 cells. Despite the fact that Gin-Re has weaker anti-inflammatory potential than the positive controls, indomethacin and hydrocortisone, in the entire group tested, quite effective anti-inflammatory activity was shown by Gin-Re, which could be helpful to develop medicinal preparations for various inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ginsenoside Rb1 rescues anxiety-like responses in a rat model of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bombi; Sur, Bongjun; Cho, Seong-Guk; Yeom, Mijung; Shim, Insop; Lee, Hyejung; Hahm, Dae-Hyun

    2016-04-01

    Single prolonged stress (SPS), a rat model of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), induces alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Korean red ginseng, whose major active component is ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1), is one of the widely used traditional anxiolytics. However, the efficacy of GRb1 in alleviating PTSD-associated anxiety-like abnormalities has not been investigated. The present study used several behavioral tests to examine the effects of GRb1 on symptoms of anxiety in rats after SPS exposure and on the central noradrenergic system. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received GRb1 (10 or 30 mg/kg, i.p., once daily) during 14 days of SPS. Daily GRb1 (30 mg/kg) administration significantly increased the number and duration of open-arm visits in the elevated plus maze (EPM) test, reduced the anxiety index, increased the risk assessment, reduced grooming behaviors in the EPM test, and increased the total number of line crossings of an open field after SPS. The higher dose of GRb1 also blocked SPS-induced decreases in hypothalamic neuropeptide Y expression, increases in locus coeruleus tyrosine hydroxylase expression, and decreases in hippocampal mRNA expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. These findings suggest that GRb1 has anxiolytic-like effects on both behavioral and biochemical symptoms similar to those observed in patients with PTSD.

  18. Ginsenoside Rg3 Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Learning and Memory Impairments by Anti-Inflammatory Activity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bombi; Sur, Bongjun; Park, Jinhee; Kim, Sung-Hun; Kwon, Sunoh; Yeom, Mijung; Shim, Insop; Lee, Hyejung; Hahm, Dae-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether ginsenoside Rg3 (GRg3) could improve learning and memory impairments and inflammatory reactions induced by injecting lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the brains of rats. The effects of GRg3 on proinflammatory mediators in the hippocampus and the underlying mechanisms of these effects were also investigated. Injection of LPS into the lateral ventricle caused chronic inflammation and produced deficits in learning in a memory-impairment animal model. Daily administration of GRg3 (10, 20, and 50 mg/kg, i.p.) for 21 consecutive days markedly improved the LPS-induced learning and memory disabilities demonstrated on the step-through passive avoidance test and Morris water maze test. GRg3 administration significantly decreased expression of pro-inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and cyclooxygenase-2 in the hippocampus, as assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis and immunohistochemistry. Together, these findings suggest that GRg3 significantly attenuated LPS-induced cognitive impairment by inhibiting the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in the rat brain. These results suggest that GRg3 may be effective for preventing or slowing the development of neurological disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease, by improving cognitive and memory functions due to its anti-inflammatory activity in the brain. PMID:24244826

  19. [Effects of ginsenoside Rb1 on the oxidative stress in the skeletal muscles of rats with postoperative fatigue syndrome].

    PubMed

    Tan, Shan-Jun; Yu, Zhen; Dong, Qian-Tong

    2012-11-01

    To observe the effects of ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1) on the oxidative stress in the skeletal muscles of rats with postoperative fatigue syndrome (POFS) and to study its anti-fatigue mechanisms. The POFS model was established using resection of 70% of mid-small intestine. Ninety-six Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were screened using grasping test. The rats were randomly divided into the control group, the model group, and the GRb1 treated group (at 10 mg/kg) by the body weight. The maximum grip strength of rats was detected on the 1st, 3rd, 7th, and 10th day after operation, respectively. The contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) were detected. Compared with the model group, the maximum grip strength was obviously enhanced on the postoperative day 7 and 10 (P < 0. 05), the MDA content obviously decreased on the postoperative day 3 and 7 (P < 0.05), the SOD activity obviously increased in the GRb1 treated group (P < 0.05). There was no obvious change in the activities of CAT and GSH-PX among the three groups at each time point (P > 0.05). GRb1 could reduce the oxidative stress injury in the skeletal muscles, improve the activities of antioxidant enzymes, and enhance the functions of the skeletal muscles in POFS rats, which may be important reasons for fighting against POFS.

  20. Natural product ginsenoside 25-OCH3-PPD inhibits breast cancer growth and metastasis through down-regulating MDM2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Xu; Qin, Jiang-Jiang; Voruganti, Sukesh; Nag, Subhasree Ashok; Wang, Ming-Hai; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Ruiwen

    2012-01-01

    Although ginseng and related herbs have a long history of utility for various health benefits, their application in cancer therapy and underlying mechanisms of action are not fully understood. Our recent work has shown that 20(S)-25-methoxyl-dammarane-3β, 12β, 20-triol (25-OCH(3)-PPD), a newly identified ginsenoside from Panax notoginseng, exerts activities against a variety of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. This study was designed to investigate its anti-breast cancer activity and the underlying mechanisms of action. We observed that 25-OCH(3)-PPD decreased the survival of breast cancer cells by induction of apoptosis and G1 phase arrest and inhibited the growth of breast cancer xenografts in vivo. We further demonstrated that, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, 25-OCH(3)-PPD inhibited MDM2 expression at both transcriptional and post-translational levels in human breast cancer cells with various p53 statuses (wild type and mutant). Moreover, 25-OCH(3)-PPD inhibited in vitro cell migration, reduced the expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, and prevented in vivo metastasis of breast cancer. In summary, 25-OCH(3)-PPD is a potential therapeutic and anti-metastatic agent for human breast cancer through down-regulating MDM2. Further preclinical and clinical development of this agent is warranted.

  1. Ginsenoside metabolite compound K exerts joint-protective effect by interfering with synoviocyte function mediated by TNF-α and Tumor necrosis factor receptor type 2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Chen, Jingyu; Luo, Xuexia; Zhang, Ying; Si, Ming; Wu, Huaxun; Yan, Chang; Wei, Wei

    2016-01-15

    Ginsenoside metabolite compound K (CK), metabolite of the ginsenoside, is considered to exert numerous pharmacological efficacies of ginsenoside, including anti-inflammation and immunoregulatory effects. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a multi-systemic autoimmune disease characterized by hyperplastic synovial membrane and systemic inflammation, which ultimately lead to progressive destructive inflammatory arthropathy. To evaluate the potential joint-protective effects of CK and the underlying mechanism, adjuvant arthritis (AA) was induced by complete Freund's adjuvant in rats. After the onset of arthritis, The effect of CK on AA rats was evaluated by histopathology of the joint. The proliferation of fibroblast-like synoviocyte(FLS) was assayed by the Cell Counting Kit-8.The migration of FLS was assayed by transwell migration assay. Cytokines in the supernatant from FLS were measured by ELISA kit. Expression of Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Type 1(TNFR1) and Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Type 2(TNFR2) were detected by immunostaining analysis and western blot analysis. CK (80mg/kg) significantly ameliorated the histopathological change of joint in AA rats, balanced the RANKL/OPG ratio and attenuated the proliferation and migration of AA-FLS. CK suppressed the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and downregulated the expression of TNFR2 on AA-FLS. In vitro CK also significantly suppressed proliferation, migration and secretion of AA-FLS mediated by TNF-α. Further studies showed that the effects of CK on AA-FLS were reversed by using glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist (mifepristone). Our data suggest that CK exerts joint-protective effect by interfering with synoviocyte function mediated by TNF-α and TNFR2, and this effect may be mediated by GR.

  2. Simultaneous determination of 17 ginsenosides in rat urine by ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Tie; Gao, Xianfu; Dan, Mo; Zhou, Mingmei; Jia, Wei

    2007-07-02

    A rapid analytical method for quantifying 17 ginsenosides in rat urine by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) is described. All analytes were extracted by solid-phase extraction optimized to obtain good recovery and quantified using digoxin as an internal standard. ESI-MS was optimized for different cone voltages at positive ionization mode to allow simultaneous analysis of all analytes in a relatively short time. Qualitative methodological considerations, including the linear range, precision, limit of quantification, limit of detection, recovery and sensitivity are also provided.

  3. Core Bioactive Components Promoting Blood Circulation in the Traditional Chinese Medicine Compound Xueshuantong Capsule (CXC) Based on the Relevance Analysis between Chemical HPLC Fingerprint and In Vivo Biological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong; Liang, Jie-ping; Li, Pei-bo; Peng, Wei; Peng, Yao-yao; Zhang, Gao-min; Xie, Cheng-shi; Long, Chao-feng; Su, Wei-wei

    2014-01-01

    Compound xueshuantong capsule (CXC) is an oral traditional Chinese herbal formula (CHF) comprised of Panax notoginseng (PN), Radix astragali (RA), Salvia miltiorrhizae (SM), and Radix scrophulariaceae (RS). The present investigation was designed to explore the core bioactive components promoting blood circulation in CXC using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and animal studies. CXC samples were prepared with different proportions of the 4 herbs according to a four-factor, nine-level uniform design. CXC samples were assessed with HPLC, which identified 21 components. For the animal experiments, rats were soaked in ice water during the time interval between two adrenaline hydrochloride injections to reduce blood circulation. We assessed whole-blood viscosity (WBV), erythrocyte aggregation and red corpuscle electrophoresis indices (EAI and RCEI, respectively), plasma viscosity (PV), maximum platelet aggregation rate (MPAR), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and prothrombin time (PT). Based on the hypothesis that CXC sample effects varied with differences in components, we performed grey relational analysis (GRA), principal component analysis (PCA), ridge regression (RR), and radial basis function (RBF) to evaluate the contribution of each identified component. Our results indicate that panaxytriol, ginsenoside Rb1, angoroside C, protocatechualdehyde, ginsenoside Rd, and calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside are the core bioactive components, and that they might play different roles in the alleviation of circulation dysfunction. Panaxytriol and ginsenoside Rb1 had close relevance to red blood cell (RBC) aggregation, angoroside C was related to platelet aggregation, protocatechualdehyde was involved in intrinsic clotting activity, ginsenoside Rd affected RBC deformability and plasma proteins, and calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside influenced extrinsic clotting activity. This study indicates that angoroside C, calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, panaxytriol, and

  4. Core bioactive components promoting blood circulation in the traditional Chinese medicine compound xueshuantong capsule (CXC) based on the relevance analysis between chemical HPLC fingerprint and in vivo biological effects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Liang, Jie-ping; Li, Pei-bo; Peng, Wei; Peng, Yao-yao; Zhang, Gao-min; Xie, Cheng-shi; Long, Chao-feng; Su, Wei-wei

    2014-01-01

    Compound xueshuantong capsule (CXC) is an oral traditional Chinese herbal formula (CHF) comprised of Panax notoginseng (PN), Radix astragali (RA), Salvia miltiorrhizae (SM), and Radix scrophulariaceae (RS). The present investigation was designed to explore the core bioactive components promoting blood circulation in CXC using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and animal studies. CXC samples were prepared with different proportions of the 4 herbs according to a four-factor, nine-level uniform design. CXC samples were assessed with HPLC, which identified 21 components. For the animal experiments, rats were soaked in ice water during the time interval between two adrenaline hydrochloride injections to reduce blood circulation. We assessed whole-blood viscosity (WBV), erythrocyte aggregation and red corpuscle electrophoresis indices (EAI and RCEI, respectively), plasma viscosity (PV), maximum platelet aggregation rate (MPAR), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and prothrombin time (PT). Based on the hypothesis that CXC sample effects varied with differences in components, we performed grey relational analysis (GRA), principal component analysis (PCA), ridge regression (RR), and radial basis function (RBF) to evaluate the contribution of each identified component. Our results indicate that panaxytriol, ginsenoside Rb1, angoroside C, protocatechualdehyde, ginsenoside Rd, and calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside are the core bioactive components, and that they might play different roles in the alleviation of circulation dysfunction. Panaxytriol and ginsenoside Rb1 had close relevance to red blood cell (RBC) aggregation, angoroside C was related to platelet aggregation, protocatechualdehyde was involved in intrinsic clotting activity, ginsenoside Rd affected RBC deformability and plasma proteins, and calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside influenced extrinsic clotting activity. This study indicates that angoroside C, calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, panaxytriol, and

  5. Ginsenoside Rb1 Inhibits Doxorubicin-Triggered H9C2 Cell Apoptosis via Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yaxin; Wang, Yuguang; Ma, Zengchun; Liang, Qiande; Tang, Xianglin; Tan, Hongling; Xiao, Chengrong; Gao, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a highly effective chemotherapeutic agent; however, the dose-dependent cardiotoxicity associated with DOX significantly limits its clinical application. In the present study, we investigated whether Rb1 could prevent DOX-induced apoptosis in H9C2 cells via aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). H9C2 cells were treated with various concentrations (− μM) of Rb1. AhR, CYP1A protein and mRNA expression were quantified with Western blot and real-time PCR analyses. We also evaluated the expression levels of caspase-3 to assess the anti-apoptotic effects of Rb1. Our results showed that Rb1 attenuated DOX-induced cardiomyocytes injury and apoptosis and reduced caspase-3 and caspase-8, but not caspase-9 activity in DOX-treated H9C2 cells. Meanwhile, pre-treatment with Rb1 decreased the expression of caspase-3 and PARP in the protein levels, with no effects on cytochrome c, Bax, and Bcl-2 in DOX-stimulated cells. Rb1 markedly decreased the CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 expression induced by DOX. Furthermore, transfection with AhR siRNA or pre-treatment with AhR antagonist CH-223191 significantly inhibited the ability of Rb1 to decrease the induction of CYP1A, as well as caspase-3 protein levels following stimulation with DOX. In conclusion, these findings indicate that AhR plays an important role in the protection of Ginsenoside Rb1 against DOX-triggered apoptosis of H9C2 cells. PMID:27829271

  6. iTRAQ-Based Proteomic Analysis of Ginsenoside F2 on Human Gastric Carcinoma Cells SGC7901

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Qian; Zhang, Pin-Hu; Yang, Jie; Xu, Jin-Di; Kong, Ming; Shen, Hong; Zhu, He; Bai, Min; Zhou, Li; Li, Guang-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Ginsenoside F2 (F2), a protopanaxdiol type of saponin, was reported to inhibit human gastric cancer cells SGC7901. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of F2, an iTRAQ-based proteomics approach was applied to define protein expression profiles in SGC7901 cells in response to lower dose (20 μM) and shorter duration (12 hour) of F2 treatment, compared with previous study. 205 proteins were screened in terms of the change in their expression level which met our predefined criteria. Further bioinformatics and experiments demonstrated that F2 treatment downregulated PRR5 and RPS15 and upregulated RPL26, which are implicated in ribosomal protein-p53 signaling pathway. F2 also inhibited CISD2, Bcl-xl, and NLRX1, which are associated with autophagic pathway. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that F2 treatment increased Atg5, Atg7, Atg10, and PUMA, the critical downstream effectors of ribosomal protein-p53 signaling pathway, and Beclin-1, UVRAG, and AMBRA-1, the important molecules in Bcl-xl/Beclin-1 pathway. The 6 differentially abundant proteins, PRR5, CISD2, Bcl-xl, NLRX1, RPS15, and RPL26, were confirmed by western blot. Taken together, ribosomal protein-p53 signaling pathway and Bcl-xl/Beclin-1 pathway might be the most significantly regulated biological process by F2 treatment in SGC7901 cells, which provided valuable insights into the deep understanding of the molecular mechanisms of F2 for gastric cancer treatment. PMID:27829861

  7. Ginsenoside Rb1 ameliorates liver fat accumulation by upregulating perilipin expression in adipose tissue of db/db obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xizhong; Ye, Lifang; Zhang, Hao; Zhao, Juan; Wang, Guoqiang; Guo, Chao; Shang, Wenbin

    2014-01-01

    Background Ginsenoside Rb1 (G-Rb1), the major active constituent of ginseng, improves insulin sensitivity and exerts antidiabetic effects. We tested whether the insulin-sensitizing and antidiabetic effects of G-Rb1 results from a reduction in ectopic fat accumulation, mediated by inhibition of lipolysis in adipocytes. Methods Obese and diabetic db/db mice were treated with daily doses of 20 mg/kg G-Rb1 for 14 days. Hepatic fat accumulation was evaluated by measuring liver weight and triglyceride content. Levels of blood glucose and serum insulin were used to evaluate insulin sensitivity in db/db mice. Lipolysis in adipocytes was evaluated by measuring plasma-free fatty acids and glycerol release from 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with G-Rb1. The expression of relevant genes was analyzed by western blotting, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Results G-Rb1 increased insulin sensitivity and alleviated hepatic fat accumulation in obese diabetic db/db mice, and these effects were accompanied by reduced liver weight and hepatic triglyceride content. Furthermore, G-Rb1 lowered the levels of free fatty acids in obese mice, which may contribute to a decline in hepatic lipid accumulation. Corresponding to these results, G-Rb1 significantly suppressed lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and upregulated the perilipin expression in both 3T3-L1 adipocytes and mouse epididymal fat pads. Moreover, G-Rb1 increased the level of adiponectin and reduced that of tumor necrosis factor-α in obese mice, and these effects were confirmed in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Conclusion G-Rb1 may improve insulin sensitivity in obese and diabetic db/db mice by reducing hepatic fat accumulation and suppressing adipocyte lipolysis; these effects may be mediated via the upregulation of perilipin expression in adipocytes. PMID:26199550

  8. Determination of ginsenoside compound K in human plasma by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry of lithium adducts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yunhui; Lu, Youming; Yang, Yong; Chen, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Liang; Zhong, Dafang

    2015-01-01

    Ginsenoside compound K (GCK), the main metabolite of protopanaxadiol constituents of Panax ginseng, easily produces alkali metal adduct ions during mass spectrometry particularly with lithium. Accordingly, we have developed a rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometric method for analysis of GCK in human plasma based on formation of a lithium adduct. The analyte and paclitaxel (internal standard) were extracted from 50 µL human plasma using methyl tert-butyl ether. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Phenomenex Gemini C18 column (50 mm×2.0 mm; 5 μm) using stepwise gradient elution with acetonitrile–water and 0.2 mmol/L lithium carbonate at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Detection was performed in the positive ion mode using multiple reaction monitoring of the transitions at m/z 629→449 for the GCK-lithium adduct and m/z 860→292 for the adduct of paclitaxel. The assay was linear in the concentration range 1.00–1000 ng/mL (r2>0.9988) with intra- and inter-day precision of ±8.4% and accuracy in the range of −4.8% to 6.5%. Recovery, stability and matrix effects were all satisfactory. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study involving administration of a single GCK 50 mg tablet to healthy Chinese volunteers. PMID:26579476

  9. Ginsenoside Rh2 Improves Cardiac Fibrosis via PPARδ–STAT3 Signaling in Type 1-Like Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Shih-Hsiang; Hsu, Chao-Tien; Niu, Ho-Shan; Niu, Chiang-Shan; Cheng, Juei-Tang; Chen, Zhih-Cherng

    2017-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2) is an active principal ingredient contained in ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer), a medicinal herb used to enhance health worldwide. The present study is designed to investigate the effect of Rh2 on myocardial fibrosis in diabetic rats. In a streptozotocin-induced model of type-1 diabetic rats (STZ-diabetic rats), the increased fasting blood glucose levels and heart weight/body weight (HW/BW) ratio were substantially alleviated by Rh2. Moreover, Rh2 improved cardiac performance in STZ-diabetic rats. Histological results from Masson staining showed that Rh2 attenuated cardiac fibrosis in STZ-diabetic rats. The effects of Rh2 were reversed by GSK0660 at a dose sufficient to inhibit peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) in STZ-diabetic rats. The role of PPARδ was subsequently investigated in vitro. Rh2 restored the decreased PPARδ expression level in high glucose-cultured cardiomyocytes. Moreover, increased protein levels of fibrotic signals, including signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), connective tissue growth factor (CCN2) and fibronectin, were reduced by Rh2 in high glucose-cultured cardiomyocytes. These effects of Rh2 were reversed by GSK0660 or siRNA specific for PPARδ Taken together, PPARδ activation may inhibit STAT3 activation to reduce CCN2 and fibronectin expression in diabetic rats with cardiac fibrosis. Moreover, Rh2 improves cardiac function and fibrosis by increasing PPARδ signaling. Therefore, Rh2 is suitable to develop as an alternative remedy for cardiac fibrosis. PMID:28672855

  10. Transcript pattern of cytochrome P450, antioxidant and ginsenoside biosynthetic pathway genes under heavy metal stress in Panax ginseng Meyer.

    PubMed

    Balusamy, Sri Renuka Devi; Kim, Yu-Jin; Rahimi, Shadi; Senthil, Kalai Selvi; Lee, Ok Ran; Lee, Sungyoung; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2013-02-01

    The differential transcript patterns of five antioxidant genes, four genes related to the ginsenoside pathway and five P450 genes related to defense mechanism were investigated in in vitro adventitious roots of Panax ginseng after exposure to two different concentrations of heavy metals for 7 days. PgSOD-1 and PgCAT transcription increased in a dose-dependent manner during the exposure to CuCl(2), NiCl(2), and CdCl(2), while all other tested scavenging enzymes didn't show significant increase during heavy metal exposure. Conversely, the mRNA transcripts of PgSQE, PgDDS were highly responsive to CuCl(2) compared to NiCl(2) exposure. However, the transcript profile of Pgβ-AS was highly induced upon NiCl(2) treatment compared to CuCl(2) and CdCl(2) exposure. The expressions of PgCYP716A42, PgCYP71A50U, and PgCYP82C22 were regulated in similar manners, and all showed the highest transcript profile at 100 μM of CuCl(2), CdCl(2), and NiCl(2) except PgCYP71D184, which showed the highest transcript level when subjected to 10 μM CuCl(2) and NiCl(2). Thus it may suggest that in P. ginseng heavy metal interaction on cell membrane induced expression of various defense related genes via jasmonic acid pathway and also possesses cross talk networks with other defense related pathways.

  11. The ginsenoside metabolite compound K, a novel agonist of glucocorticoid receptor, induces tolerance to endotoxin-induced lethal shock.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chul-Su; Ko, Sung-Ryong; Cho, Byung-Goo; Shin, Dong-Min; Yuk, Jae-Min; Li, Shengjin; Kim, Jin-Man; Evans, Ronald M; Jung, Jun-Sub; Song, Dong-Keun; Jo, Eun-Kyeong

    2008-01-01

    Compound K (C-K), a protopanaxadiol ginsenoside metabolite, was previously shown to have immunomodulatory effects. Here, we describe a novel therapeutic role for C-K in the treatment of lethal sepsis through the modulation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4-associated signalling via glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binding. In mononuclear phagocytes, C-K significantly repressed the activation of TLR4/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NF-kappaB and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), as well as the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. However C-K did not affect the TLR3-mediated expression of interferon-beta or the nuclear translocation of IRF-3. C-K competed with the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone for binding to GR and activated glucocorticoid responsive element (GRE)-containing reporter plasmids in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the blockade of GR with either the GR antagonist RU486 or a siRNA against GR substantially reversed the anti-inflammatory effects of C-K. Furthermore, TLR4-dependent repression of inflammatory response genes by C-K was mediated through the disruption of p65/interferon regulatory factor complexes. Importantly, pre- or post-treatment with C-K significantly rescued mice from Gram-negative bacterial LPS-induced lethal shock by lowering their systemic inflammatory cytokine levels and by reversing the lethal sequelae of sepsis. Collectively, these results demonstrate that C-K, as a functional ligand of GR, regulates distinct TLR4-mediated inflammatory responses, and suggest a novel therapy for Gram-negative septic shock.

  12. Panacibacter ginsenosidivorans gen. nov., sp. nov., with ginsenoside converting activity isolated from soil of a ginseng field.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, Muhammad Zubair; Muhammad Shafi, Siddiqi; Choi, Kang Duk; Im, Wan-Taek

    2016-10-01

    A ginsenoside-transforming bacterium, designated Gsoil 1550T, was isolated from soil of a ginseng field and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic analysis. Colonies of strain Gsoil 1550T were yellow, of low convexity and with regular margin. Cells were long rods, 0.5-1.2 µm wide and 1.6-3 µm long. The isolate grew at 10-37 °C and at pH 5-9 on R2A agar medium; maximum growth occurred at 30 °C and pH 6-7. Phylogenetic study based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence positioned Gsoil 1550T in a distinct lineage in the family Chitinophagaceae, sharing 92.5-92.8 % sequence similarity with members of the closely related genera Terrimonas, Parafilimonas, Sediminibacterium and Parasegetibacter. Strain Gsoil 1550T contained menaquinone MK-7 as the predominant quinone, and iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, C16 : 0 and iso-C15 : 1 G as major fatty acids. The DNA G+C content was 44.6 mol%. Strain Gsoil 1550T could be distinguished from other members of the family Chitinophagaceae by a number of chemotaxonomic and phenotypic characteristics. The major polar lipid of strain Gsoil 1550T was phosphatidylethanolamine. Based on this polyphasic taxonomic analysis, strain Gsoil 1150T represents a novel species within a new genus, for which the name Panacibacter ginsenosidivorans gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Panacibacter ginsenosidivorans is Gsoil 1550T (=KCTC 12658T=JCM 31452T).

  13. Mucilaginibacter pocheonensis sp. nov., with ginsenoside-converting activity, isolated from soil of a ginseng-cultivating field.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Lee, Hyung-Gwan; Kim, Soo-Ki; Yu, Hongshan; Jin, Fengxie; Im, Wan-Taek

    2016-09-01

    A Gram-reaction-negative, aerobic, heterotrophic, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated Gsoil 032T, was isolated from soil of a ginseng field in Pocheon Province, South Korea, and its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. Strain Gsoil 032T grew at 10-42 °C and at pH 5.0-10.0 on R2A agar medium. Strain Gsoil 032T possessed β-glucosidase activity, which was responsible for its ability to transform ginsenoside Rb1 (one of the dominant active components of ginseng) to compound K. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain Gsoil 032T was shown to belong to the family Sphingobacteriaceae and to be related to Mucilaginibacter sabulilitoris SMS-12T (97.6 % sequence similarity) and Mucilaginibacter lappiensis ANJLI2T (97.1 %) The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 44.4 mol%. The predominant respiratory quinone was menaquinone MK-7 and the major fatty acids were summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω6c and/or C16 : 1ω7c), iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. The major polar lipid detected was phosphatidylethanolamine, while the minor polar lipids were various unidentified aminophospholipids, unidentified phospholipids and unidentified polar lipids. DNA and chemotaxonomic data supported the affiliation of strain Gsoil 032T to the genus Mucilaginibacter. Strain Gsoil 032T could be differentiated genotypically and phenotypically from recognized species of the genus Mucilaginibacter. The isolate therefore represents a novel species, for which the name Mucilaginibacter pocheonensis sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain Gsoil 032T (=KCTC 12641T=LMG 23495T).

  14. Metabolism of 20(S)-Ginsenoside Rg₂ by Rat Liver Microsomes: Bioactivation to SIRT1-Activating Metabolites.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li-Yuan; Zhou, Qi-Le; Yang, Xin-Bao; Wang, Hong-Ping; Yang, Xiu-Wei

    2016-06-10

    20(S)-Ginsenoside Rg₂ (1) has recently become a hot research topic due to its potent bioactivities and abundance in natural sources such as the roots, rhizomes and stems-leaves of Panax ginseng. However, due to the lack of studies on systematic metabolic profiles, the prospects for new drug development of 1 are still difficult to predict, which has become a huge obstacle for its safe clinical use. To solve this problem, investigation of the metabolic profiles of 1 in rat liver microsomes was first carried out. To identify metabolites, a strategy of combined analyses based on prepared metabolites by column chromatography and ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) was performed. As a result, four metabolites M1-M4, including a rare new compound named ginsenotransmetin A (M1), were isolated and the structures were confirmed by spectroscopic analyses. A series of metabolites of 1, MA-MG, were also tentatively identified by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS in rat liver microsomal incubate of 1. Partial metabolic pathways were proposed. Among them, 1 and its metabolites M1, M3 and M4 were discovered for the first time to be activators of SIRT1. The SIRT1 activating effects of the metabolite M1 was comparable to those of 1, while the most interesting SIRT1 activatory effects of M3 and M4 were higher than that of 1 and comparable with that of resveratrol, a positive SIRT1 activator. These results indicate that microsome-dependent metabolism may represent a bioactivation pathway for 1. This study is the first to report the metabolic profiles of 1 in vitro, and the results provide an experimental foundation to better understand the in vivo metabolic fate of 1.

  15. Diversity of cultivable β-glycosidase-producing micro-organisms isolated from the soil of a ginseng field and their ginsenosides-hydrolysing activity.

    PubMed

    Fu, Y; Yin, Z; Wu, L; Yin, C

    2014-02-01

    This research aimed to explore the diversity of cultivable β-glycosidase-producing micro-organisms in ginseng field soil. Fifty-three strains showing β-glucosidase activity were isolated from a ginseng field, using a newly designed Esculin-R2A agar. All the isolated strains belonged to the genus Agrobacterium, Arthrobacter, Burkholderia, Dyella, Edaphobacter, Luteibacter, Mucilaginibacter, Paenibacillus, Phenylobacterium, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas and Streptomyces. The main β-glucosidase-producing micro-organisms in the ginseng field soil were Sphingomonas, Burkholderia, Luteibacter and Strep